u उ

Definition: labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation (तनादिगण) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;cf.P.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,e.g. कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, cf.P.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt. affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,e.g. चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; cf. P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ (उण्) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, etc.; cf. Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; e.g. कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; cf. also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.


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