rudra रुद्र

Definition: m. "Roarer or Howler", Name of the god of tempests and father and ruler of the rudra-s and marut-s (in the veda- he is closely connected with indra- and still more with agni-, the god of fire, which, as a destroying agent, rages and crackles like the roaring storm, and also with kāla- or Time the all-consumer, with whom he is afterwards identified;though generally represented as a destroying deity, whose terrible shafts bring death or disease on men and cattle, he has also the epithet śiva-,"benevolent"or"auspicious", and is even supposed to possess healing powers from his chasing away vapours and purifying the atmosphere;in the later mythology the word śiva-,which does not occur as a name in the veda-, was employed, first as an euphemistic epithet and then as a real name for rudra-, who lost his special connection with storms and developed into a form of the disintegrating and reintegrating principle;while a new class of beings, described as eleven [or thirty-three] in number, though still called rudra-s, took the place of the original rudra-s or marut-s: in , rudra- is said to have sprung from brahmā-'s forehead, and to have afterwards separated himself into a figure half male and half female, the former portion separating again into the 11 rudra-s, hence these later rudra-s are sometimes regarded as inferior manifestations of śiva-, and most of their names, which are variously given in the different purāṇa-s, are also names of śiva-;those of the are ajaikapād-, ahir-budhnya-, hara-, nirṛta-, īśvara-, bhuvana-, aṅgāraka-, ardha-ketu-, mṛtyu-, sarpa-, kapālin-; according to to others the rudra-s are represented as children of kaśyapa- and surabhi- or of brahmā- and surabhi- or of bhūta- and su-rūpā-; according to to , rudra- is one of the 8 forms of śiva-;elsewhere he is reckoned among the dik-pāla-s as regent of the north-east quarter) etc. (see )