Definition: the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perf. sec.pl.and first and third pers.sing.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा etc.cf. अ प्रत्ययात् etc. (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 e.g. अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. e.g. भवति, तुदति etc.; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; e.g. द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperf. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् cf. P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड्, ण, etc. in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī; (9) tad. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ etc. in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच्, अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the ins. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.