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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
brahmavarcasam2.7.42NeuterSingularvṛttādhyayanardhiḥ
ekāgraḥ3.1.79MasculineSingularekatālaḥ, ananyavṛttiḥ, ekāyana, ekasargaḥ, ekāgryaḥ, ekāyanagataḥ
jayaḥ3.4.12MasculineSingularjayanam
karṇīrathaḥ2.8.52MasculineSingularḍayanam, pravahaṇam
locanam2.6.94NeuterSingulardṛṣṭiḥ, netram, īkṣaṇam, cakṣuḥ, akṣiḥ, dṛk, nayanam
nidrā1.7.36FeminineSingularśayanam, svāpaḥ, svapnaḥ, saṃveśaḥsleep
puram3.3.191NeuterSingularcāmaraḥdaṇḍaḥ, śayanam, āsanam
saṃvatsaraḥMasculineSingularsamāḥ, vatsaraḥ, abdaḥ, yana, śarata year
saṃvīkṣaṇam2.4.30NeuterSingularmṛgaṇā, mṛgaḥ, vicayanam, mārgaṇam
śayyā1.2.138FeminineSingularśayanīyam, śayanam
sūnā3.3.120FeminineSingularjavanam, āpyāyanam, pratīvāpaḥ
upahāraḥ2.8.28MasculineSingularupadā, upāyanam, upagrāhyam
viṭapaḥ3.3.138MasculineSingulardivyagāyana, antarābhavasattvaḥ
ayanamNeuterSingulara year
ayanam2.1.15NeuterSingularpadavī, mārgaḥ, vartanī, saraṇiḥ, panthāḥ, vartma, padyā, sṛtiḥ, adhvā, ekapadī, paddhatiḥ
vātāyanamNeuterSingulargavākṣaḥ
yana3.3.115MasculineSingularśakraḥ, ghātukaḥ, varṣukābdaḥ
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
kātyāyanīf. of yana- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariṇaya yana- etc. See under pari-ṇī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇaya yana- etc. See pra-ṇī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃlaya yana- See saṃ--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammaya yana- See sam-- 1. mi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ābhāsvaram. Name of a particular set of twelve subjects (ātmā jñātā damo dāntaḥ śāntir jñānaṃ śamas tapaḥ kāmaḥ krodho mado moho dvādaśābhāsvarā ime- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhayagirivāsinm. plural "dwelling on the mountain of safety", Name of a division of kātyāyana-'s pupils View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhidhī(perf. 1. sg. -dīdhayā-; parasmE-pada A1. -d/īdhyāna- ) to reflect upon, consider View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhijancl.4 A1. -jāyate- (Vedic or Veda infinitive mood abh/i-janitos- ) to be born for or to ; to claim as one's birthright ; to be born or produced ; to be reproduced or born again etc. ; to become: Causal -janayati- (with abhi-jñānam-) to reanimate, revivify View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhijitm. (t-) Name of a soma- sacrifice (part of the great sacrifice gavām-ayana-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhijñānan. equals abhijñāna-śakuntala- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhinavamf(ā-)n. modern (see -kālidāsa-and -śākaṭāyana-below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhinavaśākaṭāyanam. the modern śākaṭāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiplavam. Name of a religious ceremony (lasting six days and performed five times during the sacrifice gavām-ayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhipyai(perf. A1. parasmE-pada -p/īpyāna-) to swell, abound with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiśyātaand -śyāna- See abhi-śīta- and -śīna-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyātmavidyāf. equals -jñana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnipraṇayanan. equals -nayana- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnipraṇayanīyamfn. referring to the -praṇayana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnisaṃcayam. See -cayana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ajyānif. (ajyānayas-) Nominal verb plural Name of certain offerings , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākṣyat ([ ]) mfn. (fut p.) only Nominal verb plural anti- with /ahāni-, certain days for the completion of the ceremony ayana- (performed for the āditya-s and aṅgirasa-s). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālambāyanīyamfn. belonging to ālambāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālambim. Name of a pupil of vaiśampāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmīP. -mināti- () to destroy, neutralize, curtail ; to put aside or away, cause to disappear or vanish, displace ; to exchange ; to put or push out of place : A1. (imperfect tense minanta-) to vanish, disappear : Intensive (parasmE-pada -m/emyāna-) to change, alter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānayam. leading to a teacher (equals upanayana- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āṅgavidyamfn. familiar with chiromancy (aṅga-vidyā-, q.v), (gaRa ṛgayanādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anudhī(parasmE-pada A1. -d/īdhyāna-; imperfect tense P.3. pl. -dīdhiyuḥ-) to think of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anvavāyanan. See /an-anvavāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apāntaratamasm. Name of an ancient sage (who is identified with kṛṣṇa- dvaipāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpīnavatmfn. containing a form of ā-pyai- (as the verse ) (see āpyāna-vat-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpratinivṛttaguṇormicakramfn. (scilicet jñāna-,knowledge) through which the whole circle of wave-like qualities (of passion etc.) subside or cease completely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārcābhinm. plural Name of a school founded by ṛcābha- (a pupil of vaiśampāyana-), (gaRa kārtakaujapādi- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārgayana(fr. ṛgayana- ) or ārgayaṇa- (gaRa girinady-ādi- on ) contained in or explanatory of the book ṛgayana-
ārjunāyanakamfn. (gaRa rājanyādi- ) inhabited by the ārjunāyana-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārkṣyat([ ]) mfn. (fut p.) only Nominal verb plural anti- with /ahāni-, certain days for the completion of the ceremony ayana- (performed for the āditya-s and aṅgirasa-s). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arogāf. Name of dākṣāyaṇī- in vaidyanātha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āruṇinm. plural Name of a school derived from vaiśampāyana- āruṇi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asitākṣamf(ī-)n. equals asita-nayana- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astamanan. (a corruption of astam-/ayana- q.v), setting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṣṭāṅgayogam. the eightfold yoga- (consisting of yama-, niyama-, āsana-, prā- ṇā- yāma-, pratyāhāra-, dhyāna-, dhāraṇa-, and samādhi-, qq. vv.), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvalam. Name of the hotṛ--priest of janaka- king of vaideha- (see āśvalāyana-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvalāyanamf(ī-)n. relating or belonging to āśvalāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvalāyanam. the school of āśvalāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvalāyanaśākhāf. the school of āśvalāyana-. ( āśvalāyanaśākhin khin- mfn.belonging to the school of āśvalāyana-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātañcanan. equals ā-pyāyana- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atiśramasee śramā- panayana- (parasmE-pada 1096). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātivijñānyamfn. (fr. ati-vijñāna-), surpassing the understanding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātmahitāyanam. equals -bhavāyana- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
audayanamfn. relating to or coming from (the teacher) udayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
auḍāyanabhaktamfn. inhabited by auḍāyana-s (as a country) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
audyāvamf(ī-)n. (fr. udyāva- gaRa ṛgayanādi- ), treating of the art of mixing or joining (?). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupanāyanikamfn. (fr. upa-nāyana-), relating to or fit for the ceremony called upanayana- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupasaṃkhyānikamfn. (fr. upa-saṃkhyāna-), depending on the authority of any addition or supplement, mentioned or occurring in one View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
autpādamfn. (fr. ut-pāda- gaRa ṛgayanādi- ), knowing or studying a book on birth or production View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
autpātamfn. (fr. ut-pāta- gaRa ṛgayanādi- ), treating of or contained in a book which treats of portents View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avacaram. the dominion or sphere or department of (in compound See kāmāvacara-, dhyānāv-,etc.) (see tālāvacara-and yajñāvacar/a-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvijñānyamfn. (fr. a-vijñāna-), undistinguishable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayadīkṣitam. Name of an author (nephew of apyaya-dīkṣita- q.v) ayana-. See ay-, column 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanan. walking a road a path (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' see naimiṣāyana-, puruṣāyana-, prasamāyana-, samudrāyaṇa-, svedāyana-), (in astronomy) advancing, precession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanan. a treatise (śāstra- see jyotiṣām-ayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyanamfn. (fr. ayana-), belonging to the solstice commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyānan. the natural temperament or disposition (see ayāna-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanāṃśam. equals ayana-bhāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyurvedam. the science of health or medicine (it is classed among sacred sciences, and considered as a supplement of the atharva-- veda-;it contains eight departments: 1. śalya- or (removal of) any substance which has entered the body (as extraction of darts, of splinters, etc.);2. śālākya- or cure of diseases of the eye or ear etc. by śalākā-s or sharp instruments;3. kāya-cikitsā- or cure of diseases affecting the whole body;4. bhūtavidyā- or treatment of mental diseases supposed to be produced by demoniacal influence;5. kaumāra-bhṛtya- or treatment of children;6. agada-tantra- or doctrine of antidotes;7. rāsāyana-tantra- or doctrine of elixirs;8. vājīkaraṇa-tantra- or doctrine of aphrodisiacs etc.)
bāhyālayam. the abode of out-castes id est the country of the bāhīka-s (varia lectio vāhyanaya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālakrīḍanakan. (plural) Name of chapter of vātsyāyana-'s kāmasūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bandhum. of a ṛṣi- with the patronymic gaupāyana- or laupāyana- (author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baṭūkaraṇan. the act of making into a youth, initiation of a boy by upa-nayana- q.v
baudhāyanamf(ī-)n. relating to or composed by baudhāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baudhāyanīyamfn. relating or belonging to baudhāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrakanyāf. Name of the mother, of maudgalyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrayānīyam. plural his school (bhadrāyana-,prob. wrong reading) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhagamn. equals yatna-, prayatna-, kīrti-, yaśas-, vairāgya-, icchā-, jñāna-, mukti-, mokṣa-, dharma-, śrī- [ confer, compare Zend bagha= Old Persian baga; Greek ; Slavonic or Slavonian bogu8,bogatu8; Lithuanian bago4tas,na-ba4gas.], View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktif. attachment, devotion, fondness for, devotion to (with locative case, genitive case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'), trust, homage, worship, piety, faith or love or devotion (as a religious principle or means of salvation, together with karman-,"works", and jñāna-,"spiritual knowledge"; see ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktimārgam. "the way of devotion"(regarded as a means of salvation and opp. to karma--and jñāna-m-; see above ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāratamf(ī-)n. belonging or relating to the bharata-s (with yuddha- n. saṃgrāma- m. samara- m. samiti- f.the war or battle of the bharata-s;with or scilicet ākhyāna- n.with itihāsa- m.and kathā- f.the story of the bharata-s, the history or narrative of their war;with or scilicet maṇḍala- n.or varṣa- n."king bharata-s's realm" id est India) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṣikasūtran. Name of a sūtra- (on the manner of marking the accent in the ) attributed to kātyāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāskaram. often found at the end of names (exempli gratia, 'for example' jñāna-bh-, brahmaṇya-bh-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāskaranṛsiṃham. Name of a Scholiast or Commentator on vātsyāyana-'s kāma-sūtra- (he wrote in 1788) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāsmāyanyam. plural bhāsmāyanāḥ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhayānakamf(ā-)n. (prob. fr. bhayāna-for bhayamāna-) fearful, terrible, dreadful, formidable etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhīṣaṇam. (scilicet rasa-) the sentiment of horror (in poetry or poetic composition) (see bhayānaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrājam. (plural) Name of work ascribed to kātyāyana- (also -ślokāḥ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛgum. Name of one of the chief Brahmanical families (to which the aitaśāyana-s are said to belong) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtavidyāf. equals -vijñāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bodhāyanasūtran. Name of work (see baudhāyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bodhinmfn. awakening, enlightening (see jñāna--, tattva--, bāla-bodhinī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brādhnāyanyam. patronymic fr. bradhna- gaRa kuñjādi- (f(yanī-).; m. plural yanāḥ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmakāṇḍan. the inner portion of the veda- which relates to sacred knowledge or the knowledge of brahma- (= jñāna-k-,and opp. to karma-k- q.v), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmaṇan. the brāhmaṇa- portion of the veda- (as distinct from its mantra- and upaniṣad- portion) and consisting of a class of works called brāhmaṇa-s (they contain rules for the employment of the mantra-s or hymns at various sacrifices, with detailed explanations of their origin and meaning and numerous old legends;they are said by sāyaṇa- to contain two parts: 1. vidhi-,rules or directions for rites;2. artha-vāda-,explanatory remarks;each veda- has its own brāhmaṇa-, that of the is preserved in 2 works, viz. the aitareya-, sometimes called āśvalāyana-, and the kauṣītaki- or śāṅkhāyana-- brāhmaṇa-;the white yajur-veda- has the śata-patha-brāhmaṇa-;the black yajur-veda- has the brāhmaṇa- which differs little from the text of its saṃhitā-;the has 8 brāhmaṇa-s, the best known of which are the prauḍha- or pañca-viṃśa- and the ṣaḍviṃśa-;the has one brāhmaṇa- called go-patha-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmaṇyadevam. Name of viṣṇu- (= brahmaṇyānāṃ śreṣṭhaḥ- Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhatkālajñānan. "the large kāla-jñāna- or knowledge of times", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
budham. Name of a descendant of soma- (and hence also called saumya-, saumāyana-,author of , and father of purū-ravas-;identified with the planet Mercury) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cākṣuṣan. equals -jñāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candhanaSee cāndhanāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caraṇadāsam. Name of the author of the guru-śiṣya-saṃvāda- and of the philos. poem nāciketopākhyāna-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṭakam. plural "sparrows", a nickname of vaiśampāyana-'s school (varia lectio for caraka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhadran. 4 objects of human wishes (viz. dharma-, kāma-, artha-, bala- ;or the first 3 with mokṣa- ;or kīrti-, āyus-, yaśas-, bala- ;or dharma-, jñāna-, vairāgya-, aiśvarya-, ;or dāna-, jñāna-, śaurya-, bhoga-or vitta- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśan. (with or without ahan-) Name of an ekāha- (2nd day of the gavām-ayana- sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caulim. equals cauḍi-, (lakāyana-B, lika-V) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chad cl.1. dati-, to cover (varia lectio): Causal (or cl.10) chād/ayati- (once ch/ad- ; chand-[fr.1. chand-] ; Epic also A1. perfect tense chādayāṃ- cakre- ; parasmE-pada yāna- ), to cover, cover over, clothe, veil etc. ; to spread as a cover ; to cover one's self. ; to hide, conceal, keep secret ; to protect () : Causal Desiderative cicchādayiṣati- Va1rtt. 2 ; ([ see Gothscadus.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandobhāṣāf. (gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-) the language of the veda- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndobhāṣamfn. fr. chando-bhāṣā- gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomānan. (gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-),"measure of a metre", a syllable regarded as the metrical unit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndomānamfn. fr. chando-m- gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndovicitamfn. fr. chando-viciti- gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandovicitif. (gaRa ṛgayanādi-),"examination of metres", metrical science View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chettṛmfn. a remover (of doubts, saṃśayānām-,2, 21) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cint (see 4. cit-) cl.10. tayati- (cl.1. tati- ;metrically also tayate-See also tayāna-) to think, have a thought or idea, reflect, consider etc. ; to think about, reflect upon, direct the thoughts towards, care for (accusative;exceptionally dative case or locative case or prati-) etc. ; to find out ; to take into consideration, treat of. ; to consider as or that, tax (with double accusative or accusative and iti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cit cl.1. c/etati- (imperfect tense acetat- ; parasmE-pada c/etat- ) cl.2. (A1. Passive voice 3. sg. cit/e-, ; parasmE-pada f. instrumental case citantyā-, ; A1. citāna-, ) cl.3. irreg. cīhetati- (; subjunctive ciketat- ; imperative 2. sg. cikiddhi- ; parasmE-pada cikitān/a- ; perf. cik/eta- etc.; ciceta- ;3. dual number cetatur- ; A1.and Passive voice cikit/e- etc.;3. plural tre- ;for parasmE-pada cikitv/as-See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order; A1. Passive voice cicite- ; Aorist acetīt- ; A1. Passive voice /aceti-and c/eti- ;for acait-See 2. ci-; future 1st c/ettā-, ) to perceive, fix the mind upon, attend to, be attentive, observe, take notice of (accusative or genitive case) ; to aim at, intend, design (with dative case) ; to be anxious about, care for (accusative or genitive case), ; to resolve, ; to understand, comprehend, know (perf. often in the sense of proper) ; P. A1. to become perceptible, appear, be regarded as, be known : Causal cet/ayati-, te- (2. plural cet/ayadhvam- subjunctive cetayat- imperative 2. dual number cetayethām- imperfect tense /acetayat- ;3. plural cit/ayante- ; parasmE-pada cit/ayat- (eleven times); cet/ayat-, ; A1. cetayāna-See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) to cause to attend, make attentive, remind of. ; to cause to comprehend, instruct, teach ; to observe, perceive, be intent upon ; A1. (once P. ) to form an idea in the mind, be conscious of, understand, comprehend, think, reflect upon ; P. to have a right notion of. know ; P. "to recover consciousness", awake ; A1. to remember, have consciousness of (accusative) ; to appear, be conspicuous, shine : Desiderative c/ikitsati- (fr. kit- ;exceptionally A1. ; imperative tsatu- subjunctive tsāt- Aorist 2. sg. /acikitsīs- ; Passive voice parasmE-pada cikitsyamāna- ) to have in view, aim at, be desirous ; to care for, be anxious about, ; ( ) to treat medically, cure ; to wish to appear : Causal of Desiderative (future cikitsayiṣyati-) to cure : Intensive cekite- (fr.2. ci-?,or for tte- ; parasmE-pada c/ekitat-, ; A1. c/ekitāna- eight times) to appear, be conspicuous, shine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūḍam. equals ḍā-karaṇa- (see ḍopanayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dākṣam. or n. the south (in dākṣasyāyana ṣasyāyana- n.the sun's progress towards south, the winter solstice and sacrifice then performed [ varia lectio dakṣ-]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣam. Name of one of the prajā-pati-s ( etc. ;born from brahmā-'s right thumb etc.;or from a-ja-,"the unborn";or son of pra-cetas- or of the of 10 pra-cetasa-s, whence called prācetasa- ;father of 24 daughters by pra-sūti- etc.;of 50 [or 60 ;or 44 ] daughters of whom 27 become the Moon's wives, forming the lunar asterisms, and 13 [or 17 ;or 8 ]those of kaśyapa-, becoming by this latter the mothers of gods, demons, men, and animals, while 10 are married to dharma- etc.;celebrating a great sacrifice [hence dakṣa sy/ayana-,"Name of a sacrifice" ] to obtain a son, he omitted, with the disapproval of dadhīca-,to invite śiva-, who ordered vīra-bhadra- to spoil the sacrifice [identified with viṣṇu-] ,= ;named among the viśve-devā-s ; . [ ] etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣādhvaradhvansakam. equals kṣa-yajña-prabhañana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dākṣāyaṇan. equals dākṣasyāyana- (under dākṣa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇetif. (equals ṇāyana-) the sun's progress south of the equator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dālbhyam. of caikitāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
damanam. of yāmāyana- (author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dānikamfn. relating to a gift, etc. (only in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'; see adhyayana--, udaka--, vara--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāyakamf(ikā-)n. fulfilling, causing, effecting (generally in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'; see agni--, uttara--, jñāna-- viṣa--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devakṣemam. Name of the author of the vijñāna-kāya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devaśarmanm. of an arhat- (author of the vijñāna-kāya-śāstra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devataram. (with cyāvasāyana- kāśyapa-) Name (also title or epithet) of a teacher, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhalilam. or n. Name of a valley in which the capital of udyāna- is said to have been situated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmamegham. a particular samādhi- ( dharmameghadhyāna -dhyāna-; n.a particular state of mind connected with it ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātum. element, primitive matter (equals mahā-bhūta- ) etc. (usually reckoned as 5, viz. kha-or ākāśa-, anila-, tejas-, jala-, bhū-;to which is added brahma- ;or vijñāna- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātvavaropaṇan. depositing of relics (inside a Dagaba or stūpa-) (printed tvāva-and dhyānāva-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyā dhyāta-, dhyāna- See under dhyai-, below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyānajapyam. pl. Name of a race (varia lectio kara-j-and dhyāna-puṣṭa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīdhī (see 1. dhī-and dhyai-) cl.2 A1. didhīte-, 1. sg. dīdhye- (), parasmE-pada Pres. d/īdhyat- () and d/īdhyānā- ( , often with manasā-) to perceive, think, be intent upon ; to wish, desire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divyamfn. supernatural, wonderful, magical (aṅgāra- ; auṣadha- ; vāsas- ; see -cakṣus-, -jñāna-etc. below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divyaprajñānan. equals -jñāna- n. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divyavijñānavatmfn. equals -jñana- mfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drāvilam. equals vātsyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛgañcalam. a sidelong glance (see nayanāñc-and locanāñc-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛtikuṇḍaṭapaścitn. (only citām ayana- n.) Name of a sattra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛtivātavatan. (only vator ayana- n.), Name of a sattra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duradhyayayanamfn. equals adhīyāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmanasmfn. Name of a man (see daur-manasāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvaipāyanamf(ī-)n. relating to dvaipāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvijam. a man of any one of the first 3 classes, any Aryan, (especially) a Brahman (re-born through investiture with the sacred thread see upa-nayana-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvīpyam. Name of vyāsa- (see dvaipāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekāyanībhū(see ekāyana-), to become the centre of union, become the only object (of affection etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gamf(ā-)n. ( gam-) only in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' going, moving (exempli gratia, 'for example' yāna--,going in a carriage ; śīghra--,going quickly ; see antarikṣa--etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gārbhiṇa= simanto- nnayana- (parasmE-pada 1218). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāthāf. a verse, stanza (especially one which is neither ṛc-, nor sāman-, nor yajus-, a verse not belonging to the veda-s, but to the epic poetry of legends or ākhyāna-s, such as the śunaḥśepa-ākhyāna- or the ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaumāyanam. (gaRa aśvādi-) patronymic fr. go-min- (varia lectio mayāna-; majāta- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāvāmayanikamfn. belonging to the ceremony called gavām-ayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghanam. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' mere, nothing but (exempli gratia, 'for example' vijñāna-ghan/a-,"nothing but intuition") (see ambu--, ayo--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghaṭṭ cl.1 A1. ṭṭate- See vi--, saṃ--: cl.10 P. ṭṭayati-, to rub (the hands) over, touch, shake, cause to move ; to stir round ; to have a bad effect or influence on (accusative) ; (see ghaṭ-) to hurt with words, speak of malignantly (pr. p. ṭṭayāna-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghoṣilam. Name of one of king udayana-'s 3 ministers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
glaucukāyanam. plural the pupils of glaucukāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
glucukāyanim. see glaucukāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gūhamf(ā-)n. See jñāna--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇam. a property or characteristic of all created things (in nyāya- philosophy twenty-four guṇa-s are enumerated, viz. 1. rūpa-,shape, colour;2. rasa-,savour;3. gandha-,odour;4. sparśa-,tangibility;5. saṃkhyā-,number;6. parimāṇa-,dimension;7. pṛthaktva-,severalty;8. saṃyoga-,conjunction;9. vibhāga-,disjunction;10. paratva-,remoteness;11. aparatva-,proximity;12. gurutva-,weight;13. dravatva-,fluidity;14. sneha-,viscidity;15. śabda-,sound;16. buddhi-or jñāna-,understanding or knowledge;17. sukha-,pleasure;18. duḥkha-,pain;19. icchā-,desire; 20. dveṣa-,aversion; 21. prayatna-,effort; 22. dharma-,merit or virtue; 23. adharma-,demerit; 24. saṃskāra-,the self-reproductive quality) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hārakamf(ikā-)n. ravishing, captivating (in gopī-nayana-h-,"captivating the eyes of the gopī-s" ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hariṇalocanāf. equals -nayanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāsam. a jest, joke, fun (ākhyāna-h-,"a funny story") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hautrakan. Name of the 16th pariśiṣṭa- of kātyāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hayanam. a year (see hāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hayanan. a covered carriage or palanquin (also read ḍayana-;See under ḍī-)
yanamn. (according to to native authorities fr.1.or 2. -;but see hayana-) a year (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ī-).,and according to to on alsof(ā-).) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hayavidyāf. equals -jñāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hīnayānan. "simpler or lesser vehicle", Name of the earliest system of Buddhist doctrine (opp. to mahāyāna-;See yāna-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hve cl.1 P. A1. () hv/ayati-, te- (Vedic or Veda also h/avate-and huv/ati-, te-; other present forms are hve- ; hvāmahe- ; h/oma-, hūm/ahe-, juhūm/asi- ; p. huvān/a-[with pass. sense] ; hvayāna- ; perfect tense juhāva-, juhuvuḥ- etc.; juhv/e-, juhūr/e- ; juhuve-, huhurire- ; hvayāṃ-āsa-and hvayāṃ-cakre- ; Aorist /ahvat-, ahvata-[or ahvāsta- ] etc. etc.; ahvi- ; /ahūmahi-, ahūṣata- ; ahvāsīt-[?] ; future hvātā- grammar; hvayiṣyati-, te- ; hvāsyate- ; infinitive mood Class. hvātum-; Vedic or Veda h/avitave-, hv/ayitum-, tav/ai-; huv/adhyai-; ind.p. Class. hūtvā-;Ved. -h/ūya-and -hāvam-), to call, call upon, summon, challenge, invoke (with nāmnā-,"to call by name"; with yuddhe-,"to challenge to fight") etc. ; to emulate, vie with : Passive voice hūy/ate- (Aorist /ahāvi-,or ahvāyi-), to be called etc. : Causal hvāyayati- (Aorist ajūhavat-or ajuhāvat-), to cause anyone (accusative) to be challenged by (instrumental case) : Desiderative juhūṣati-, te- grammar : Intensive johūyate- or j/ohavīti- (johuvanta-, ajohavuḥ-, j/ohuvat-, j/ohuvāna- ) or johoti- (grammar), to call on, invoke etc. [ confer, compare Greek .]
i cl.2 P. /eti- (imperative 2. sg. ih/i-) and 1. P. A1. /ayati-, ayate- ([ confer, compare ay-]), (perfect tense iyāya-[2. sg. iy/atha- , and iy/etha- ] future eṣyati-; Aorist aiṣīt-; infinitive mood etum-, /etave- and , /etav/ai- /etos- ity/ai- ) to go, walk ; to flow ; to blow ; to advance, spread, get about ; to go to or towards (with accusative), come etc. ; to go away, escape, pass, retire ; to arise from, come from ; to return (in this sense only future) ; (with punar-) to come back again, return etc. ; to succeed ; to arrive at, reach, obtain etc. ; to fall into, come to ; to approach with prayers, gain by asking (confer, compare ita-) ; to undertake anything (with accusative) ; to be employed in, go on with, continue in any condition or relation (with a participle or instrumental case exempli gratia, 'for example' asura-rakṣasāni mṛdyamānāni yanti-,"the asura-s and Rakshases are being continually crushed" ; gavāmayaneneyuḥ-,"they, were engaged in the [festival called] gavāmayana-" ) ; to appear, be : Intensive A1. /īyate- (; parasmE-pada iyān/a- ; infinitive mood iy/adhyai- ) to go quickly or repeatedly ; to come, wander, run, spread, get about ; to appear, make one's appearance ; to approach any one with requests (with two accusative), ask, request : Passive voice /īyate-, to be asked or requested : Causal āyayati-, to cause to go or escape ; ([ confer, compare Greek , ; Latin e-o,i1-mus,i-ter,etc.; Lithuanian ei-mi4,"I go"; Slavonic or Slavonian i-du7,"I go",i-ti,"to go"; Gothic i-ddja,"I went."]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
iḍādadha(iḷā-, iḍā-,and ilā-) n. Name of a particular iṣṭy-ayana- or sacrificial observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
īhālihmfn. reading (any one's) wish (nayanayoḥ-,"in his eyes"; confer, compare 2. lih-, parasmE-pada 903), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
iṣumf. Name of a particular constellation ([According to dayānanda- iṣu-may mean"ray of light"; confer, compare Greek ; Zend ishu.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
itiind. (fr. pronominal base 3. i-), in this manner, thus (in its original signification /iti-refers to something that has been said or thought, or lays stress on what precedes;in the brāhmaṇa-s it is often equivalent to "as you know", reminding the hearer or reader of certain customs, conditions, etc. supposed to be known to him). In quotations of every kind /iti- means that the preceding words are the very words which some person has or might have spoken, and placed thus at the end of a speech it serves the purpose of inverted commas (/ity uktvā-,having so said; /iti kṛtvā-,having so considered, having so decided) . It may often have reference merely to what is passing in the mind exempli gratia, 'for example' vamantavyo manuṣya /iti bhūmipaḥ&iencoding=&lang='>bālo 'pi nāvamantavyo manuṣya /iti bhūmipaḥ-, a king, though a child, is not to be despised, saying to one's self,"he is a mortal", () In dramatic language /iti tathā karoti- means"after these words he acts thus."Sometimes /iti- is used to include under one head a number of separate objects aggregated together (exempli gratia, 'for example' ijyādhyayanadānāni tapaḥ satyaṃ kṣamā damaḥ- alobha /iti mārgo 'yam-,"sacrificing, studying, liberality, penance, truth, patience, self-restraint, absence of desire", this course of conduct, etc.) /iti- is sometimes followed by evam-, iva-, or a demonstrative pronoun pleonastically (exempli gratia, 'for example' tām brūyād bhavatīty evam-,her he may call "lady", thus) . /iti- may form an adverbial compound with the name of an author (exempli gratia, 'for example' /iti-pāṇini-,thus according to pāṇini-). It may also express the act of calling attention (lo! behold!) It may have some other significations exempli gratia, 'for example' something additional (as in /ityādi-,et caetera), order, arrangement specific or distinctive, and identity. It is used by native commentators after quoting a rule to express"according to such a rule" (exempli gratia, 'for example' anudāttaṅita /ity ātmanepadam bhavati-,according to the rule of pāṇini- , the ātmane-pada- takes place) . kim /iti- equals kim-, wherefore, why? (In the śatapatha-brāhmaṇa- ti-occurs for /iti-; see Prakrittiand tti-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jagajjīvanadāsam. Name of the author of three poems (jñāna-prakāśa-, prathama-grantha-, and mahā-pralaya-).
jaivantyāyani varia lectio for jīvantyāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janamejayam. ()"causing men to tremble" , Name of a celebrated king to whom vaiśampāyana- recited the (great-grandson to arjuna-, as being son and, successor to parikṣit- who was the son of arjuna-'s son abhimanyu-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaṭika"N." See jāṭikāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaulāyanabhaktamfn. inhabited by the jaulāyana-s gaRa aiṣukāry-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasvāminm. Name of a scholiast on chandoga-sūtra- and āśvalāyana-brāhmaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvanam. Name of the author of mānasa-nayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñānan. "knowledge about anything cognizance" See -tas- and a-- (jñānād- a-jñānād- -,knowingly or ignorantly, ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jūtif. equals pra-jñāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyotisn. plural the heavenly bodies, planets and stars etc. (tiṣām ayana- n. course or movements of the heavenly bodies, science of those movements ([ equals tiṣa-]) ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kabandhinm. Name of a kātyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākṣīvatamf(ī-)n. ākhyāna-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalāf. any practical art, any mechanical or fine art (sixty-four are enumerated in the śaivatantra-[ ];the following is a list of them: gītam-, vādyam-, nṛtyam-, nāṭyam-, ālekhyam-, viśeṣaka-cchedyam-, taṇḍula-kusuma-balivikārāḥ-, puṣpāstaranam-, daśana-vasanāṅgarāgāḥ-, maṇi-bhūmikā-karma-, śayana-racanam-, udaka-vādyam-, udaka-ghātaḥ-, citrā yogāḥ-, mālya-granthana-vikalpāḥ-, keśa-śekharāpīḍayojanam-, nepathya-yogāḥ-, karṇa-pattra-bhaṅgāḥ-, gandha-yuktiḥ-, bhūṣaṇa-yojanam-, indrajālam-, kaucumāra-yogāḥ-, hasta-lāghavam-, citraśākāpūpa-bhakṣya-vikāra-kriyā-, pānaka-rasarāgāsava-yojanam-, sūcīvāpa-karma-, vīṇā-ḍama-ruka-sūtra-krīḍā-, prahelikā-, pratimā-, durvacakayogāḥ-, pustaka-vācanam-, nāṭakākhyāyikā-darśanam-, kāvya-samasyā-pūraṇam-, paṭṭikā-vetrabāṇa-vikalpāḥ-, tarkū-karmāṇi-, takṣaṇam-, vāstu-vidyā-, rūpya-ratna-parīkṣā-, dhātu-vādaḥ-, maṇi-rāga-jñānam-, ākara-jñānam-, vṛkṣāyur-veda-yogāḥ-, meṣa-kukkuṭa-lāvaka-yuddha-vidhiḥ-, śuka-sārikā-pralāpanam-, utsādanam-, keśa-mārjana-kauśalam-, akṣara-muṣṭikā-kathanam-, mlechitaka-vikalpāḥ-, deśa-bhāṣā-jñānam-, puṣpa-śakaṭikā-nimitta-jñānam-, yantra-mātṛkā-, dhāraṇa-mātṛkā-, saṃpāṭyam-, mānasī kāvya-kriyā-, kriyā-vikalpāḥ-, chalitakayogāḥ-, abhidhāna-koṣa-cchando-jñānam-, vastra-gopanāni-, dyūta-viśeṣaḥ-, ākarṣaṇa-krīḍā-, bālaka-krīḍanakāni-, vaināyikīnāṃ vidyāṇāṃ jñānam-, vaijayikīnāṃ vidyānāṃ jñānam-;See also ) etc.
kalāyana(kalāyana-) m. a tumbler, dancer (especially one who dances or walks on the edge of a sword etc.)
kālīf. Name of satyavatī-, wife of king śāntanu- and mother of vyāsa- or kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana- (after her marriage she had a son vicitra-vīrya-, whose widows were married by kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana-, and bore to him dhṛta-rāṣṭra- and pāṇḍu- ;according to other legends kālī- is the wife of bhīmasena- and mother of sarvagata- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kamalam. of a pupil of vaiśampāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmalim. a descendant of kamala-, Name of a pupil of vaiśampāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmasūtran. Name of a treatise on sexual love by vātsyāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāṇvyāyanīyam. plural the school of kāṇvyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārṣṇamf(ī-)n. belonging to the god kṛṣṇa- or to kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana- or composed by him etc. (exempli gratia, 'for example' kārṣṇaveda- id est the mahā-bhārata- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṣṭam. "Name of a man" See kāṣṭāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṭham. Name of a sage (a pupil of vaiśampāyana- and founder of a branch of the yajur-veda-, called after him) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kati(for 1.See above) m. Name of a sage (son of viśvā-mitra- and ancestor of kātyāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
katithamfn. with cid-, the so-maniest (= katipayānāṃ pūraṇaḥ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kātyam. equals kātyāyana- gaRa gargādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kātyāyanamf(ī-)n. composed by kātyāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kātyāyanasūtran. the śrauta-- sūtra-s of kātyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kātyāyanīyam. plural the school of kātyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kātyāyanīyamfn. composed by kātyāyana- (exempli gratia, 'for example' -śāstra-,the law-book composed by kātyāyana-)
kātyāyanīyam. a pupil of kātyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauṇḍapāyinamfn. with ayana- Name of a soma- libation (equals kuṇḍa-pāyinām ay-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauñjāyanyam. a prince of the kauñjāyana-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kauśilyam. patronymic of the prince hiraṇyanābha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kautsāyanamf(ī-)n. relating to kutsāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kevalan. the highest possible knowledge (equals kevala-jñāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kevalajñāninm. "possessing the kevala-jñāna- ", an arhat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kevalinm. "possessing the kevala- (-jñāna-) ", an arhat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khāḍāyanabhaktan. a district inhabited by khāḍāyana-s gaRa aiṣukāry-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khāḍāyaninm. plural (gaRa śaunakādi-) the school of khāḍāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiraṇāvalīf. Name of a commentator or commentary by udayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kokilākṣam. equals lanayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kolitam. Name of maudgalyāyana- () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kośam. (in vedānta- philosophy) a term for the three sheaths or succession of cases which make up the various frames of the body enveloping the soul (these are, 1. the ānanda-maya k-or"sheath of pleasure", forming the kāraṇa-śarīra-or"causal frame";2. the vijñāna-maya-or buddhi-m-or mano-m-or prāṇa-m k-,"the sheath of intellect or will or life", forming the sūkṣma-śarīra-or"subtile frame";3. the anna-m k-,"the sheath of nourishment", forming the sthūla-śarīra-or "gross frame") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kratusaṃkhyāf. Name of the thirteenth of kātyāyana-'s pariśiṣṭa-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛśam. Name of sāṃkṛtyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣatravidyāf. ( ; gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-) the knowledge or science possessed by the kṣatriya- or military order (equals dhanur-veda- commentator or commentary) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣātravidyamfn. gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣayam. fall (as of prices, opposed to vṛddhi- exempli gratia, 'for example' kṣayo vṛddhiś ca paṇyānām-,"the fall and rise in the price of commodities") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣemaṃkaram. of a son of brahma-datta- (udayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṇḍapāyinmfn. drinking out of pitchers (yinām ayana- n.a particular religious ceremony) (see kauṇ ḍapāyina-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuraṅgākṣīf. equals kuraṅga-nayanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuraṅgalocanāf. equals -nayanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuraṅganetrāf. equals -nayanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusumāñjalif. Name of a philosophical work (written by udayana- ācārya- to prove the existence of a Supreme Being, and consisting of seventy-two kārikā-s divided into five chapters) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kūṭārthabhāṣitāf. (scilicet kathā-) equals kūṭakākhyāna- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kutsāyanam. Name of a man (see kautsāyana-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣyavīthīf. the visible or universally recognisable road (equals brahma-loka-mārga-or deva-yāna- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāmagāyanam. equals -lāmakāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāmakāyaninm. plural the school of lāmakāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāṭāyana wrong reading for la-tyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāṭyāyanaśrautasūtran. the śrauta-sūtra- of lāṭyāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laumāyanyam. patronymic fr. loman- gaRa kuñjādi- (plural laumāyanāḥ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laya layana- etc. See .
lihmfn. perceiving (nayanayoḥ-"in the eyes") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohityāf. Name of a celestial female (with jana-mātā-; varia lectio lohityā- yana-m-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lolekṣaṇamf(ā-)n. equals lola-nayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahābhāratan. (with or scilicet ākhyāna-),"great narrative of the war of the bharata-s", Name of the great epic poem in about 215, 000 lines describing the acts and contests of the sons of the two brothers dhṛtarāṣṭra- and pāṇḍu-, descendants of bharata-, who were of the lunar line of kings reigning in the neighbourhood of hastinā-pura- (the poem consists of 18 books with a supplement called hari-vaṃśa-, the whole being attributed to the sage vyāsa-) etc. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahābhāṣyan. "Great Commentary", Name of patañjali-'s commentary on the sūtra-s of pāṇini- and the vārttika-s of kātyāyana- etc. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahānādam. equals śayānaka- (bhayānaka-?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahānāgam. Name of vātsyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahātantrarājam. See brahmajñāna-m-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvanan. of a Buddhist monastery in a forest in udyāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvārttikan. "great vārttika- or critical commentary", Name of kātyāyana-'s vārttika-s on the sūtra-s of pāṇini- (see māhāv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māhāvārttikamf(ī-)n. (fr. mahā-v-) familiar with (kātyāyana-'s) vārttika-s vArttika View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvratan. Name of a sāman- or stotra- appointed to be sung on the last day but one of the gavām-ayana- (applied also to the day itself or its ceremonies or according to to commentator or commentary to the śastra- following the stotra-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāyānan. "great vehicle"(opp. to hīna-y-), Name of the later system of Buddhist teaching said to have been first promulgated by nāgārjuna- and treated of in the mahā-yāna-sūtra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāyānaparigrahakam. a follower of the mahā-yāna- doctrines View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāyānasūtraratnarājam.Name of a highly esteemed mahā-yāna-sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mallanāgam. Name of vātsyāyana-, author of the kāma-sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandanāgam. (prob. wrong reading for malla-nāga-) = vātsyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māndhātramfn. relating to māndhātṛ- (in trokhyāna- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalan. Name of the capital of udyāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānitāf. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') the fancying that one possesses, imaginary possession of (jñāna-m-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manobhirāmam. or n. (?) Name of the spot where buddha- tamāla-pattra-candana-gandha- (mahā-maudgalyāyana-) will appear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matyan. (for 1.See) the means of acquiring knowledge (equals jñānasya kāraṇam-) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maudgalyam. of lāṅgalāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauñjāyanīf. a princess of the mauñjāyana-s gaRa śārṅgaravādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauñjāyanīyam. a prince of the mauñjāyana-s, g., dāmany-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhājitm. Name of kātyāyana- (varia lectio medha-jit-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrāvaruṇam. dual number mitra- and varuṇa- etc. etc. (together they uphold and rule the earth and sky, together they guard the world, together they promote religious rites, avenge sin, and are the lords of truth and light see under 1. mitr/a-above; ṇayor ayanam-and ṇayor iṣṭiḥ-Name of particular sacrifices; ṇayoḥ saṃyojanam-Name of a sāman-) etc. (sg., wrong reading for maitrāvaruṇa- )
mṛgavyādhakathānakan. Name of chapter of the nārada-puraṇa- (called also mṛg/opākhyāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
munitrayan. "triad of muni-s", pāṇini- and kātyāyana- and patañjali- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muruṇḍakam. Name of a mountain in udyāna-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittamfn. (fr. ni-mitta-) relating to or explanatory of signs gaRa ṛgayanādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nairuktamfn. relating to the nirukta- (q.v), explaining it gaRa ṛgayanādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naiyāyamfn. (fr. ny-āya-) treating of the nyāya- philosophy (q.v), explaining it etc. gaRa ṛgayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalinīgulman. Name of an adhyayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naravāhanadattam. Name of a son of king udayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārāyaṇam. of a son of bhū-mitra- or bhūmi-mitra- (a prince of the dynasty of the kāṇvāyana-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navarātram. a soma- sacrifice with 9 sutyā- days ; 9 days in the middle of the gavām-ayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yanamf(ī-)n. (fr. nayana-) relating to the eye, ocular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
netran. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) the eye (as the guiding organ, also -ka-, ; see nayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
netraprabandham. = (and varia lectio for) nayanapr- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥśīonly pr. p. A1. niḥśayāna śayāna- mfn. starting up from sleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nimittajñānan. "knowledge of omens or signs", Name of chapter of the kāma-sūtra- by vātsyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niryāṇan. the outer corner of an elephant's eye (see nir-ṇāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niśoP. -śyati- (A1. parasmE-pada -śyāna-,or -śāna- ), to sharpen, whet (see ni-śi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣpadan. (with, yāna-) a vehicle moving without feet (as a ship etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' constantly dwelling or engaged in, intent upon, devoted or used to (see tapo-n-, dharma-n-, dhyāna-n-, śastra-n-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padavyākhyānan. explanation of words gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādavyākhyānamfn. (fr. pada-v-) gaRa rig-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pakṣilam. Name of the saint vātsyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāl cl.10 P. () pālayati- (te-;also regarded as Causal of2. -[ Va1rtt. 2, pat-.],but rather Nom.of pāla-below; parasmE-pada P. pālayat- A1. layāna-; perfect tense layām āsa-; Aorist apīpalat-), to watch, guard, protect, defend, rule, govern ; to keep, maintain, observe (a promise or vow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pālaṅginm. pl Name of a school called after a disciple of vaiśampāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palāyanan. a saddle (see paly-ayana-, paryāṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṅkajākṣīf. equals ja-nayanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṇyan. trade, traffic, business (see jñāna--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parājiA1. -jayate- (see ; perfect tense -jigye- ; parasmE-pada -jigyāna- ; Aorist parājaiṣṭa- ; future -jayiṣye- ;but also P. exempli gratia, 'for example' Potential -jayet-,or -jayyāt- ; perfect tense -jigyathur- ; Aorist parājaiṣīt- ; infinitive mood -jetum- ; ind.p. -jitya- ), to be deprived of, suffer the loss of (accusative), be conquered, succumb etc. ; to submit to, be overcome by (ablative) ; to conquer, win, vanquish, overthrow etc. ; to defeat in a lawsuit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramind. (with ablative) beyond, after (exempli gratia, 'for example' paraṃ vijñānāt-,beyond human knowledge; astam-ayāt p-,after sunset; mattaḥ p-,after me; ataḥ p-or param ataḥ-,after this, farther on, hereafter, next; itaḥ p-,henceforward, from now; tataḥ p-or tataś ca p-,after that, thereupon; smāt p-[for smāt p-],no more of this, enough) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāramitāf. transcendental virtue (there are 6 or 10, viz. dānta-, śīla-, kṣānti-, vīrya-, dhyāna-, prajñā-,to which are sometimes added satya-, adhiṣṭhāna-, maitra-, upekṣā-) (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariind. against, opposite to, in the direction of, towards, to (see ;also at the beginning of a compound mfn.; see Va1rtt. 4 and pary-adhyayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paridhūpana pari-dhūmana- and pari-dhūmāyana- n. equals dhūmāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriyānikan. (-yāna-) a travelling carriage. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārvatāyanam. patronymic of a chamberlain, (varia lectio parv-and vātāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāśupatan. equals -jñāna- Name of a celebrated weapon given by śiva- to arjuna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāśupataśāstran. equals -jñāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paśyanāf. See a-paśyanā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patitasāvitrīkam. "one who is deprived of the sāvitrī-", a man of the first 3 classes whose investiture (upa-nayana- q.v) has been unduly performed or omitted (see sāvitrī-patita-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pauṣyamfn. relating to king pauṣya- ( pauṣyopākhyāna ṣyokhyāna- n.Name of ; see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pavitran. (with ādityānām-and devānām-) Name of sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
or pi- (connected with pyai-), cl.1 A1. p/ayate- (cl.2 A1. pr.p. p/iyāna- cl.3 P. Impv. pīpihī-; imperfect tense /apīpet-, /apīpayat-; subjunctive pipyatam-, tām-; pīpayat- A1. yanta-, parasmE-pada A1. p/āpyāna-; perfect tense P. pīp/āya-.2. sg. pīpetha-,3. plural pipyur-; parasmE-pada A1. pīpyān/a-), to swell, overflow, be exuberant, abound, increase, grow ; (trans.) to fatten, cause to swell or be exuberant, surfeit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradhī(or -dīdhī-,only p. proper -dīdhyat-and -d/īdhyāna-), to long for, strive after ; to look out, be on the watch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajāti(pr/a--) f. equals upa-nayana-, initiation with the sacred thread (as causing second birth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇam. a vital organ vital air (3 in number, viz. prāṇa-, apāna-and vyāna- ;usually 5, viz. the preceding with sam-āna-and, ud-āna- etc. see ;or with the other vital organs 6 ;or 7 ;or 9 ;or 10 ; plural the 5 organs of vitality or sensation, viz. prāṇa-, vāc-, cakṣus-, śrotra-, manas-,collectively ;or = nose, mouth, eyes and ears ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇītākāleind. equals praṇītānām praṇayana-kāle- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāntaśayanāsanabhaktamfn. Iiving in the country (also -śayana-bhakta-and -śayanāsanā-sevin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prārth( pra-arth-) A1. prārthayate- (Epic also P. ti-and pr. p. yāna-), to wish or long for, desire (accusative) etc. ; to ask a person (accusative) for (accusative or locative case) or ask anything (accusative) from (ablative) etc. ; to wish to or ask a person to (infinitive mood) ; to demand in marriage, woo ; to look for, search ; to have recourse to (accusative) ; to seize or fall upon, attack, assail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasthānan. starting-point, place of origin, source, cause (in jñāna-pr-,Name of work ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratāparudram. Name of a king of the kākatīya-s (or according to others of vijayanagara- or of eka-śilā-; several works are attributed to him, though in reality composed by different authors) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātibhan. (with or scilicet jñāna-) intuitive knowledge, intuition, divination ( prātibhavat -vat- ind. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravṛttijñānan. equals -vijñāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punaḥsaṃskāram. Name of work (see punar-upanayana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarvasum. of kātyāyana- or vararuci- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇḍarīkalocanamfn. equals -nayana- mfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purāvṛttakathāf. an old story or legend (also purāvṛtttākhyāna ttākhyāna- n. ; purāvṛtttākhyānakathana ttākhyāna-kathana- n.telling old stories )
purīṣīf. Name of a particular religious observance (equals cayana- Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puth cl.4 P. puthyati-, to hurt : Causal pothayati- (A1.P. pothayāna- future, pothayiṣye-), to crush, kill, destroy ; to overpower or drown (one sound by another) ; to speak or to shine (bhāṣārthe-,or bhāsārthe-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājastambāyana(or b/āyana- ) m. patronymic fr. prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmāyaṇan. (ramāyaṇa-) Name of vālmīki-'s celebrated poem, describing the"goings" ([ ayana-]) of rāma- and sitā- (it contains about 24000 verses in 7 books called kāṇḍa-s, viz. 1. bāla-kāṇḍa- or ādi-kāṇḍa-;2. ayodhyā-kāṇḍa-;3. araṇya-kāṇḍa-;4. kiṣ-kindhyā-kāṇḍa-;5. sundara-kāṇḍa-;6. yuddha-kāṇḍa-;7. uttara-kāṇḍa-;part of the 1st book and the 7th are thought to be comparatively modern additions;the latter gives the history of rāma- and sītā- after their re-union and installation as king and queen of ayodhyā-, afterwards dramatized by bhava-bhūti- in the uttara-rāma-caritra-; rāma-'s character, as described in the rāmāyaṇa-, is that of a perfect man, who bears suffering and self-denial with superhuman patience;the author, vālmīki-, was probably a Brahman connected with the royal family of ayodhyā-;and although there are three recensions of the poem, all of them go back to a lost original recension, the ground work of which, contained in books 2-6, in spite of many amplifications and interpolations, may be traced back to one man, and does not like the mahābhārata-, represent the production of different epochs and minds) etc. (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāṇāyanīyam. plural the school of rāṇāyana-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasam. (in rhetoric) the taste or character of a work, the feeling or sentiment prevailing in it (from 8 to 10 rasa-s are generally enumerated, viz. śṛṅgāra-,love; vīra-,heroism; bībhatsa-,disgust; raudra-,anger or fury; hāsya-,mirth; bhayānaka-,terror; karuṇa-,pity; adbhuta-,wonder; śānta-,tranquillity or contentment; vātsalya-,paternal fondness;the last or last two are sometimes omitted; see under bhāva-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāsāyanamfn. (fr. rasāyana-) relating to an elixir etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathāṅgāhvam. () equals ga-tulyāhvayana- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathāṅgāhvayam. () equals ga-tulyāhvayana- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathāṅganāmakam. () equals ga-tulyāhvayana- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathāṅganāmanm. ( ) equals ga-tulyāhvayana- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathāṅgasāhvam. () equals ga-tulyāhvayana- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathāṅgasaṃjñam. () equals ga-tulyāhvayana- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratnatrayan. "jewels-triad", the three jewels or excellent things (with Buddhists, viz. buddha-, dharma-and saṃgha-;or with jaina-s, viz. samyag-darśana-, samyag-jñāna-and samyak-cāritra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rātrif(i-or ī-). or (older) r/ātrī- (prob."bestower" , fr. -;or"season of rest", fr. ram-) night, the darkness or stillness of night (often personified) etc. ( rātrau trau- ind.or rātryām tryām- ind.at night, by night; rātrau śayanam-,a festival on the 11th day of the first half of the month āṣāḍha-, regarded as the night of the gods, beginning with the summer solstice, when viṣṇu- reposes for four months on the serpent śeṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāyāna(?) m. Name of a cow-herd (varia lectio rāyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛcābham. Name of a pupil of vaiśampāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdānuśāsanan. "word-instruction or explanation", Name of pāṇini-'s grammar and similar works (by śākaṭāyana-, hemacandra- etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍāyatanamfn. consisting of the six āyatana-s (viz. vijñāna-,earth, air, fire, and water, and rūpa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍguṇam. the six acts or measures to be practised by a king in warfare (viz. saṃdhi-,"peace", vigraha-,"war", yāna-,"marching", āsana-,"sitting encamped", dvaidhī-bhāva-,"dividing his forces", saṃśraya-,"seeking the protection of a more powerful king") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍguruśiṣyam. Name of a Commentator on kātyāyana-'s ṛg-veda-sarvānukramaṇī- (who lived in the 12th century, A.D.)
sahaind. in common, in company, jointly, conjointly, in concert (often used as a prefix in compound,expressing"community of action", exempli gratia, 'for example' sahādhyayana- q.v;or forming adjectives expressing"the companion of an action", exempli gratia, 'for example' saha-cara- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrabhujarāmadhyānan. Name of work (wrong reading -dhyāna-rāma-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrasāvyan. a particular ayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahāyam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).prob. fr. saha-+ aya- see sahāyana-;but according to to some, a Prakrit form of sakhāya-See sakhi-,p.1130)"one who goes along with (another)" , a companion, follower, adherent, ally, assistant, helper in or to (locative case or compound; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'"having as a companion or assistant, accompanied or supported by") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saindhavam. Name of a particular school founded by saindhavāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakaṭāṅgajam. a patronymic equals śākatayana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakaṭāpaṇam. plural carts and merchandise (wrong reading śakaṭāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākaṭāyanasmṛtif. the law-book of śākaṭāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākaṭāyanim. a patronymic (prob. equals yana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākāyanyam. patronymic fr. śāka- gaRa kuñjādi- (plural yanāḥ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākhāf. a branch or school of the veda- (each school adhering to its own traditional text and interpretation;in the caraṇa-vyūha-, a work by śaunaka- treating of these various schools, five śākhā-s are enumerated of the ṛg-- veda-, viz. those of the śākala-s, bāṣkala-s, āśvalāyana-s, śāṅkhāyana-s, and māṇḍukāyana-s;forty-two or forty-four out of eighty-six of the yajur-veda-, fifteen of which belong to the vājasaneyin-s, including those of the kāṇva-s and mādhyaṃdina-s;twelve out of a thousand said to have once existed of the sāma-veda- and nine of the atharva-- veda-;of all these, however, the ṛg-- veda- is said to be now extant in one only, viz. the śākala-śākhā-, the yajur-veda- in five and partially in six, the sāma-veda- in one or perhaps two, and the atharva-- veda- in one: although the words caraṇa-and śākhā-are sometimes used synonymously, yet caraṇa-properly applies to the sect or collection of persons united in one school, and śākhā-to the traditional text followed, as in the phrase śākhām adhīte-,he recites a particular version of the veda-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakuntalāf. (said to be fr. śakunta-) Name of a daughter of the apsaras- menakā- by viśvāmitra- (she was supposed to have been born and left in a forest, where she was protected by birds till found by the sage kaṇva-, who took her to his hermitage and reared her as his daughter;she was there seen by king duṣyanta-, when on a hunting expedition, and married by him, and became the mother of bharata-, sovereign of all India;the story of duṣyanta-'s accidental meeting with śakuntalā-, their marriage, separation, his repudiation of her through temporary loss of memory caused by a curse, his subsequent recognition of her by means of a ring which was lost but afterwards recovered, forms the subject of kālidāsa-'s celebrated drama called abhijñāna-śakuntalā- q.v). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākuntalan. (according to to some alsof(ā-).) equals next or the drama commonly called śakuntalā- or abhijñāna-śakuntalam- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālaṅkāyanam. Name of a ṛṣi- (son of viśvāmitra-; plural = śālaṅkāyana-'s, descendants) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālaṅkāyanabāṣkalam. plural the śālaṅkāyana- and the bāṣkala-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālaṅkāyanagotran. the family of the śālaṅkāyana-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālaṅkāyanaf. " śālaṅkāyana-'s daughter", Name of satyavatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālaṅkāyanasauśravam. plural the śālaṅkāyana- and the sauśrava-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālaṅkāyanim. a patronymic (perhaps wrong reading for yana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālaṅkāyaninm. plural the school of śālaṅkāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samādhim. concentration of the thoughts, profound or abstract meditation, intense contemplation of any particular object (so as to identify the contemplator with the object meditated upon;this is the eighth and last stage of yoga- [ ];with Buddhists samādhi- is the fourth and last stage of dhyāna- or intense abstract meditation[ ];in the kāraṇḍa-vyūha- several samādhi- are enumerated) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sambhāram. preparation, equipment, provision, necessaries, materials, requisite, collection of things required for any purpose (with Buddhists twofold, viz. 1. puṇya-s-,"meritorious acts", and 2. jñāna-s-,"science";others add 3. śamatha-s-,"quietude", and 4. vidarśana-s-,"farsightedness" ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdihP. -degdhi-, to smear, besmear, cover etc. ; to heap together ; A1. -digdhe- (pr. p. -dihāna-,or -dehamāna-), to be doubtful or uncertain (said of persons and things) : Passive voice -dihyate-, to be smeared over or covered, be confused, confounded with (instrumental case) ; be indistinct or doubtful or uncertain etc.: Causal -dehayati-, to make indistinct or uncertain, confuse, perplex ; (A1.) to be doubtful or uncertain (in saṃ-dehayāna- varia lectio -dehamāna-)
same( -ā- 5 i-) P. -aiti- (pr. p. -eyāna- ), to come together, approach together, meet at or in (accusative or locative case) or with (instrumental case with or without samam-), go to or across, arrive at (accusative) etc. ; to unite with (instrumental case) in marriage ; to enter ; to emulate, cope with (accusative) ; (with yogam-) to lead or join together, form an alliance between (genitive case) and (instrumental case) (equals saṃ-gamayya-, ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṃkarācāryam. Name of various teachers and authors, (especially) of a celebrated teacher of the vedānta- philosophy and reviver of Brahmanism (he is thought to have lived between A.D. 788 and 820, but according to tradition he flourished 200 B.C.,and was a native of kerala- or Malabar;all accounts describe him as having led an erratic controversial life;his learning and sanctity were in such repute that he was held to have been an incarnation of śiva-, and to have worked various miracles;he is said to have died at the age of thirty-two, and to have had four principal disciples, called padma-pāda-, hastāmalaka-, sureśvara- or mandana-, and troṭaka-;another of his disciples, ānanda-giri-, wrote a history of his controversial exploits, called śaṃkara-vijaya- q.v;tradition makes him the founder of one of the principal śaiva- sects, the daśa-nāmi-daṇḍin-s or"Ten-named Mendicants" ;he is the reputed author of a large number of original works, such as the ātma-bodha-, ānanda-laharī-, jñāna-bodhinī- , maṇi-ratna-mālā-, etc.;and commentaries on the upaniṣad-s, and on the brahma-mīmāṃsā- or vedānta-sūtra-, bhagavadgītā-, and mahā-bhārata-, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṃkaravijayam. of a fanciful life of śaṃkarācārya- (in the form of a dialogue between cid-vilāsa- and vijñānakanda-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkasukam. Name of the author of (having the patronymic yāmāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃkhyapravacanabhāṣyan. (or sāṃkhya-bh-) Name of a commentator or commentary on the sāṃkhya-sūtra- by vijñāna-bhikṣu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃkhyasāra m. Name of work by vijñāna-bhikṣu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃkhyasāravivekam. Name of work by vijñāna-bhikṣu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃkhyāyanam. (patronymic fr. sāṃkhya-; see śānkhāyana-) Name of a teacher, (plural) his school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkṣepaśārīrakam. a summary in verse of śaṃkarācārya-'s brahma-sūtra-bhāṣya- by sarvajñātman- mahāmuni- ( saṃkṣepaśārīrakaṭīkā -ṭīkā- f. saṃkṣepaśārīrakaphalalakṣaṇa -phala-lakṣaṇa- n. saṃkṣepaśārīrakabhāṣya -bhāṣya- n. saṃkṣepaśārīrakavyākhyāna -vyākhyāna- n. saṃkṣepaśārīrakasambandhokti -sambandhokti- f.Name of works. connected with prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammṛdP. -mṛdnāti-, -mardati- (Ved. infinitive mood -marditoḥ-), to press or squeeze together, rub or grind to pieces, crush, destroy : Causal -mardayati- (pr. p. -mardayāna-), to cause to be rubbed together, crush, pound, bruise ; to rub ; to clean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃnikarṣam. connection with, relation to, (in philosophy) the connection of an indriya- or organ of sense with its viṣaya- or object (this according to to the nyāya-, is the source of jñāna-,and is of two kinds, 1. laukika-,which is sixfold, 2. a-laukika-,which is threefold ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampraviśP. -viśati- (Epic also te-), to enter into together or completely (with mānasam-,or dhyānam-,"to be lost in thought") etc. ; to have commerce or intercourse with (accusative) ; to be sexually united with (accusative) : Causal -veśayati-, to cause to enter, introduce, lead into (accusative or locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsadam. equals saṃsadām ayana- (above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṃśapāyanakamf(ikā-)n. written or composed by śāṃśapāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṃśapāyanim. equals śāṃśapāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃśīA1. -śete- (pr.p. -śayāna-; ind.p. -śayya-), to grow languid, become feeble ; to waver, be uncertain or irresolute or doubtful, hesitate etc. ; to despair of (locative case) ; to lie down for rest ; (P. -śayati-), to differ in opinion or disagree about (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃskāram. a sacred or sanctifying ceremony, one which purifies from the taint of sin contracted in the, womb and leading to regeneration (12 such ceremonies are enjoined on the first three or twice-born classes in , viz. 1. garbhādhāna-,2. puṃ-savana-,3. sīmantonnayana-,4. jāta-karman-,5. nāmakarman-,6. niṣkramaṇa-,7. anna-prāśana-,8. cūḍā-karman-,9. upanayana-,10. keśānta-,11. samāvartana-,12. vivāha-,qq. vv.; according to to there are 40 saṃskāra-s) etc. (; 192 etc. )
saṃvatsaraprabarha m. a variety of the gavām-ayana- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvatsarapravalham. a variety of the gavām-ayana- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvyeP. A1. -vyayati-, te- (perfect tense parasmE-pada -vivyāna- q.v), to roll or cover up ; to put on, wrap one's self in (accusative) ; to supply or furnish or provide or equip with : Causal See vāyita-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃyamam. concentration of mind (comprising the performance of dhāraṇā-, dhyāna-, and samādhi-, or the last three stages in yoga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkham. of the author of (having the patronymic yāmāyana-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkhāhatan. a particular rite in the gavām-ayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṅkhāyanamfn. relating etc. to śāṅkhāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṅkhāyanan. śāṅkhāyana-'s work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṅkhāyanabrāhmaṇan. the brāhmaṇa- of śāṅkhāyana- (also called kauṣītaki-brāhmaṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṅkhāyanagṛhyasūtran. the gṛhya-- sūtra-s ascribed to śāṅkhāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṅkhāyanaśrautasūtran. the śrauta-sūtra- of śāṅkhāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṅkhāyaninm. plural the pupils of śāṅkhāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṅkhāyanyam. patronymic fr. śāṅkhāyana- gaRa kuñjādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāntv (also written śāntv- q.v) cl.10 P. A1. (;rather Nom.fr. sāntva-below) sāntvayati-, te- (pr. p. once in [ ] sāntvamāna-and once [ ] sāntvayāna-; Aorist asasāntvat- grammar; ind.p. sāntvayitvā- ; sāntvayya- : Passive voice sāntvyate- ), to console, comfort, soothe, conciliate, address kindly or gently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārasamagraham. "concentration of the essence of any work", Name of various compendiums (also sārasamagrahajñānabhūṣaṇabhāṣya -jñāna-bhūṣaṇa-bhāṣya- n. sārasamagrahanighaṇṭu -nighaṇṭu- m. sārasamagrahasaṃgraha -saṃgraha-,m. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārasāyanam. (prob.) a patronymic gaRa ahukāry-ādi- (varia lectio for sāraryāyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārasāyanabhaktamfn. inhabited by sārasāyana-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārasyāyanaSee sārasāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaratalpam. a couch formed of arrow (especially for a dead or wounded warrior) (see -pañjara-, -śayana-, -śayyā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāriputram. Name of one of the two chief disciples (agra-śrāvaka-), of gautama- buddha- (the other being maudgalyāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a snake, serpent, serpent-demon (see nāga-; sarpāṇām ayanam-,"a particular annual festival") , tortuous motion etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpasattran. (prob.) equals sarpāṇām-, ayanam- (See sarp/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaśayānamfn. (perfect tense parasmE-pada of1. śī-;for 1. śaśa-y-See column 1) lying, reposing, sleeping (= śiśyāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṭhāyanyam. patronymic fr. śaṭha- (plural yanāḥ-), gaRa kuñjādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṭkarmann. the six duties of Brahmans (viz. adhyayana-,"studying or repeating the veda-", adhyāpana-,"teaching the veda-", yajana-"offering sacrifices", yājana-,"conducting them for others", dāna-,"giving", and pratigraha-,"accepting gifts"), etc. (the six daily duties according to to the later law-books, are, snāna-,"religious bathing", saṃdhyājapa-,"repetition of prayers at the three saṃdhyā-s", brahma-yajña-,"worship of the Supreme Being by repeating the first words of sacred books", tarpaṇa-,"daily oblations of water to the gods, sages, and pitṛ-s", homa-,"oblations of fuel, rice etc. to fire", deva-pūjā-,"worship of the secondary gods either in the domestic sanctuary or in temples") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṭyāyanam. plural "the followers of śāṭyāyana-" etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṭyāyanamf(ī-)n. of or belonging to śāṭyāyana- or the śāṭyāyana-brāhmaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṭyāyanabrāhmaṇan. the brāhmaṇa- of śāṭyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṭyāyanagotran. the family of śāṭyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṭyāyanakan. the brāhmaṇa- of śāṭyāyana- or a passage from it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṭyāyanasmṛtif. the law-book of śāṭyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāṭyāyaninm. plural the followers of śāṭyāyana- (Name of a śākhā- of the yajur-veda-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaubhāyanyam. a king of the śaubhāyana-s gaRa kuñjādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saukanyan. (scilicet ākhyāna-) the story of sukanyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saukhayānikam. (fr. sukha-yāna-) a bard or other official who wishes a prince a prosperous march View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saumadāyanam. (only plural) patronymic fr. su-mada- (or wrong reading for saumatāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saumanāyanaSee su-manāyana-, p.1230. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaunaḥśepan. (scilicet ākhyāna-) the story of śunaḥ-śepa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaunakam. (patronymic fr. śunaka- gaRa bidādi-) Name of various authors and teachers (also with indrota- and svaidāyana-; especially of the celebrated grammarian, author of the ṛg-veda- prātiśākhya-, the bṛhad-devatā-, and various other works;he is described as the teacher of kātyāyana- and especially of āśvalāyana-;he is said to have united the bāṣkala- and śākala- śākhā-s, and is sometimes identified with the Vedic ṛṣi- gṛtsa-mada-;but according to the viṣṇu-purāṇa-, śaunaka- was a son of gṛtsamada-, and originated the system of four castes;he is quoted in and ;the various legends about him are very confused) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauṇḍāyanyam. a king of the śauṇḍāyana-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvastikan. equals svasty-ayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvitracitif. equals -cayana-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvitrīf. initiation as a member of the three twice-born classes by reciting the above verse and investing with the sacred thread (see under sāvitr/a-,and upa-nayana-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvitrīf. of the wife of satya-vat- (king of śālva-;she was daughter of aśva-pati-, king of madra-, and is regarded as a type of conjugal love;her story is the subject of a fine episode of the mahā-bhārata-;See sāvitryupākhyāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāyakāyaninm. pl. the school of sāyakāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a bed, couch, sleeping-place (accusative with bhaj-, ā-- ruh-, saṃ-viś-etc.,"to go to bed or to rest";with Causal of ā-ruh-,"to take to bed, have sexual intercourse with [acc.]"; śayanaṃ- śṛta-or ne sthita- mfn.gone to bed, being in bed) etc.
sayanam. Name of a son of viśvāmitra- (Bombay edition seyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yanamfn. proceeding in the way of an ayana- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yanamfn. connected with the word ayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāyaṇḍāyanabhaktamfn. inhabited by the śāyaṇḍāyana-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayyāsanan. lying and sitting ( śayyāsanabhoga -bhoga- m.enjoyment of lying and sitting ; see śayanāsana-sevana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
seyanam. Name of a son of viśvāmitra- (varia lectio sayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śī cl.2 A1. () ś/ete- (with guṇa- throughout the proper stem : thus, ś/aye-[in also 3. sg. ], ś/eṣe-etc., 3. plural ś/erate-[in also ś/ere-and Class. śayire-]; Potential ś/ayīta- etc.; imperative -śetām-and śayām- ; imperfect tense aśeta- etc., 3. plural aśerata-[in also /aśeran-], parasmE-pada ś/ayāna- etc.;Ved. and Epic also cl.1. ś/ayate-, ti-; imperfect tense /aśayat-and aśāyata- ; perfect tense śiśye-, śiśyire- ; parasmE-pada Ved. śaśayān/a-,Class. śiśyāna-; Aorist aśayiṣṭa- subjunctive ś/eṣan- ; future śayitā- sg. t/āse- ; śayiṣyate-, ti- ; śeṣyate-, ti- ; infinitive mood śay/adhyai- ; śayitum- ; ind.p. śayitvā- etc.; -śayya- ), to lie, lie down, recline, rest, repose etc. ; to remain unused (as soma-) ; to lie down to sleep, fall asleep, sleep etc. ; (with patye-) to lie down to a husband (for sexual intercourse) ; (madanena-śī-= "to be impotent") : Passive voice śayyate- grammar (Aorist aśāyi- , pr.p. once in śīyat-): Causal śāyayati-, te- (Aorist aśīśayat-), to cause to lie down, lay down, put, throw, fix on or in (locative case) etc. ; to cause to lie down, allow to rest or sleep : Desiderative śiśayiṣate-, to wish to rest or sleep : Intensive śāśayyate-, śeśayīti-, śeśeti- grammar ([ confer, compare Greek ,"to lie";, "a bed."]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhivādam. equals jñānagoṣṭhī- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śilam. ( also n.;for 2.See column 2) gleaning, gathering stalks or ears of corn (according to to on śila- equals aneka-dhānyonnayana- id est"gleaning more than one ear of corn at a time", opp. to uñcha- equals ekaika-dhānyādi-guḍakoccayana-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantam. equals sīmanton-nayana- below View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śiṃśapāyana varia lectio for vaiśampāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīnamfn. (fr. śyai-; see śīta-and śyāna-) congealed, frozen, coagulated, thick (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandham. (with Buddhists) the five constituent elements of being (viz. rūpa-,"bodily form"; vedanā-,"sensation"; saṃjñā-,"perception"; saṃskāra-,"aggregate of formations"; vijñāna-,"consciousness or thought-faculty") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śmaśānan. (according to to for śmaśayana-above;but prob. for aśma-śayana-) an elevated place for burning dead bodies, crematorium, cemetery or burial-place for the bones of cremated corpses etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtif. the whole body of codes of law as handed down memoriter or by tradition (especially the codes of manu- yājñavalkya- and the 16 succeeding inspired lawgivers, viz. atri-, viṣṇu-, hārīta-, uśanas- or śukra-, aṅgiras-, yama-, āpastamba-, saṃvarta-, kātyāyana-, bṛhas-pati-, parāśara-, vyāsa-, śaṅkha-, likhīta-, dakṣa- and gautama-;all these lawgivers being held to be inspired and to have based their precepts on the veda-; see ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
snānasūtran. Name of a sūtra- work ascribed to kātyāyana- (also -pariśiṣṭa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodayanamfn. together with udayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopānan. (perhaps contracted fr. sa-+ upāyana-) stairs, steps, a staircase, ladder to (genitive case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrautasmārtakarmapaddhatif. Name of work (equals kātyāyana-sūtra-p-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrautasūtran. Name of particular sūtra-s or sūtra- works based on śruti- or the veda- (ascribed to various authors, such as āpastamba-, āśvalāyana-, kātyāyana-, drāhyāyaṇa- etc.; see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāvakam. a disciple of the buddha- (the disciples of the hīna-yāna- school are sometimes so called in contradistinction to the disciples of the mahā-yāna- school;properly only those who heard the law from the buddha-'s own lips have the name śrāvaka-,and of these two, viz. Sariputta and Moggallana, were agra-śrāvaka-s, "chief disciples", while eighty, including kāśyapa-, upāli-, and ānanda-, were mahā-śrāvaka-s or"great disciples") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāvakayānan. the vehicle of the śrāvaka- (see under yāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutabandhum. Name of a ṛṣi- (having the patronymic gaupāyana-or laupāyana-and author of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthamf(ā-)n. occupied with, engaged in, devoted to performing, practising (See dhyāna--, yajña--, yoga--, savana-stha-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthairakāyaṇam. (yana-), metron. of mitra-varcas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
styai cl.1 P. styāyati-, to be collected into a heap or mass ; to spread about ; to sound ; cl.1 A1. styāyate- (pr. p. styāna- q.v; ind.p. -styāya-;See ni-ṣṭyai-), to stiffen, grow dense, increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
subandhum. Name of a ṛṣi- (having the patronymic gaupāyana- or laupāyana- and author of various hymns in ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
subandhum. Name of a ṛṣi- (having the patronymic gaupāyana- or laupāyana- and author of various hymns in ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūd (prob. connected with svad-) cl.1 A1. () sūdate- (occurring only in the reduplicated forms suṣūdima- ; s/uṣūdati-or dat- ; suṣūd/ata- ; grammar also future sūditā-, diṣyati-), to put or keep in order, guide aright : Causal or cl.10. (see ) sūd/ayati-, te- (parasmE-pada sūdayāna- ; Aorist asūṣudat-, ta-) idem or 'm. equals su-tr- Name of indra- ' ; to manage, arrange, prepare, effect, contrive ; to settle id est put an end to, kill, slay (also inanimate objects) etc. ; to squeeze, press, destroy : Desiderative susūdiṣate- grammar : Intensive sosūdyate-, sosūtti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūdrāvedanan. equals -pariṇayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkarakan. equals sūkara-nayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sulhaṇam. Name of the author of the su-kavi-hṛdayānandinī- (a commentator or commentary on kedāra-'s vṛtta-ratnākara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suptavijñānan. equals -jñāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suśāradam. Name of a teacher (with the patronymic śālaṅkāyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suśarmanm. of śāṃśapāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutemanasm. Name of a preceptor (having the patronymic śāṇḍilyāyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāminm. of the muni- vātsyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarasāmanm. (sv/ara--) Name of the three days before and after the viṣuvat- of the gavāmayana- (id est the last three days of the first, and the first three days of the second half-year) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tad(Nominal verb and accusative sg. n.of and base in compound for 2. t/a-from which latter all the cases of this pronoun are formed except Nominal verb sg. m. s/as-or s/a-& f. s/ā-; instrumental case plural t/ais- etc.;Ved. t/ebhis- etc.) m. he f. she n. it, that, this (often correlative of y/a-generally standing in the preceding clause exempli gratia, 'for example' yasya buddhiḥ sa balavān-,"of whom there is intellect he is strong";sometimes, for the sake of emphasis, connected with the 1st and 2nd personal pronouns, with other demonstratives and with relatives exempli gratia, 'for example' so 'ham-,"I that very person, I myself"[ tasya- equals mama- ]; tāv imau-,"those very two"; tad etad ākhyānam-,"that very tale" ; yat tat kāraṇam-,"that very reason which" ; yā sā śrī-,"that very fortune which" ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taimirikamfn. equals timira nayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tairyagayanikamfn. measured by the revolution (tiryag-ayana-) of the sun (a year) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taittirim. Name of a sage (elder brother of vaiśampāyana- ) (varia lectio titt- plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taittirīyasaṃhitāf. the saṃhitā- of the taittirīya-s (chief recension of the Black YV. , on the origin of which has the following legend: the YV. was first taught by vaiśampāyana- to 27 pupils, among whom was yājñavalkya-;subsequently V. being offended with Y. bade him disgorge the veda- committed to him, which he did in a tangible form;whereupon the older disciples of V. being commanded to pick it up, took the form of partridges, and swallowed the soiled texts, hence named"black";the other name taittirīya-referring to the partridges. Y. then received from the Sun a new or white version of the YV. , called from Y.'s patronymic vājasaneyin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāṇḍinm. plural () Name of a school of the (founded by a pupil of vaiśampāyana- ; see ) Scholiast or Commentator on ( = ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāpanīyam. plural Name of a school of the (to which several upaniṣad-s belong) (varia lectio pāyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tātparyapariśuddhif. Name of work by udayana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiramf(ā-)n. equals -nayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
traihāyaṇan. (varia lectio yana- ) a period of 3 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
traiśṛṅgam. patronymic fr. tri-ś- (gāyana- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
triyugmamfn. possessing 3 pairs (yaśo-vīrye-, aiśvarya-śriyau-, jñāna-vairāgye-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnayanan. making a straight line, or parting the hair (of a pregnant woman) upwards (See sīmantonnayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upākhyānan. (fr. ā-khyāna-with upa-), a subordinate tale or story, an episode (see nalo-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanaya upa-nayana- See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanāyam. leader , initiation, equals upa-nayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanayanan. that ceremony in which a Guru draws a boy towards himself and initiates him into one of the three twice-born classes (one of the twelve saṃskāra-s or purificatory rites [prescribed in the dharma-- sūtra-s and explained in the gṛhya-- sūtra-s] in which the boy is invested with the sacred thread [different for the three castes] and thus endowed with second or spiritual birth and qualified to learn the veda- by heart;a Brahman is initiated in the eighth year [or seventh according to hiraṇyakeśin-;or eighth from conception, according to śāṅkhāyana- etc.], a kṣatriya- in the eleventh, a vaiśya- in the twelfth;but the term could be delayed) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanāyanan. initiation equals upa-nayana- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanītif. initiation equals upa-nayana- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasmṛtif. a minor law-book (the following authors of such books are named jābāli-, nāciketa-, skanda-, laugākṣin-, kaśyapa-, vyāsa-, sanatkumāra-, śatarju-, janaka-, vyāghra-, kātyāyana-, jātūkarṇya-, kapiñjala-, baudhāyana-, kaṇāda-, and viśvāmitra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttaramīmāṃsāf. the vedānta- philosophy (an inquiry into the jñāna-kāṇḍa- or second portion of the veda-;opposed to pūrva-mīmāṃsā-;See mimāṃsā-): View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāhlāyana vāhli-, vāhlīka- See bālhāyana- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidhṛtam. (fr. vi-dhṛti-) Name of a particular yoga- (or conjunction of the sun and moon when they are on the same side of either solstitial point [i.e. in the same ayana-, whether uttarāyaṇa- or dakṣiṇāyana-] and of equal declination, and when the sum of their longitude amounts to 360 degrees;this is considered a malignant aspect see vy-atipāta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaijayikamf(ī-)n. conferring or foretelling victory (kīnāṃ-[ varia lectio kānāṃ-] vidyānāṃjñānam-,one of the 64 arts) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaijñānikamf(ī-)n. (fr. vi-jñāna-) rich in knowledge, proficient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vainayikamf(ī-)n. (fr. vi-naya-) relating to moral conduct or discipline or good behaviour (vainayikīnāṃ-[ wrong reading kānāṃ-] vidyānāṃ jñānam-"knowledge of the sciences relating to such subjects", reckoned among the 64 arts) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiśampāyanīyamfn. of or belonging to vaiśampāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaitānam. a patronymic (varia lectio vaitāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājapeyam. equals vājapeye bhavo mantraḥ-, or vājapeyasya vyākhyānaṃ kalpaḥ- on vArttika 5 etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vājasaneyisaṃhitāf. "the saṃhitā- or continuous text of the vājasaneyin-s" (id est of the hymns of the White yajur-veda- ascribed to the ṛṣi- yājñavalkya- and called śukla-,"white", to distinguish it from the Black or Dark yajur-veda-, which was the name given to the taittirīya-saṃhitā- [q.v.] of the yajur-veda-, because in this last, the separation between the mantra- and brāhmaṇa- portion is obscured, and the two are blended together;whereas the White saṃhitā- is clearly distinguished from the brāhmaṇa-;it is divided into 40 adhyāya-s with 303 anuvāka-s, comprising 1975 sections or kaṇḍikā-s: the legend relates that the original yajus- was taught by the ṛṣi- vaiśampāyana- to his pupil yājñavalkya-, but the latter having incurred his teacher's anger was made to disgorge all the texts he had learnt, which were then picked up by vaiśampāyana-'s other disciples in the form of partridges [see taittirīya-saṃhitā-] yājñavalkya- then hymned the Sun, who gratified by his homage, appeared in the form of a vājin-or horse, and consented to give him fresh yajus- texts, which were not known to his former master; see vājin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāmanetrāf. equals -nayanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāmekṣaṇāf. equals vāma-nayanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vararucim. Name of a grammarian (also a poet, lexicographer, and writer on medicine, sometimes identified with kātyāyana-, the reputed author of the vārttika-s or supplementary rules of pāṇini-; he is placed by some among the nine gems of the court of vikramāditya-, and by others among the ornaments of the court of bhoja-; he was the author of the Prakrit grammar called prākṛta-prakāśa-, and is said to be the first grammarian who reduced the various dialects of Prakrit to a system) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikan. an explanatory or supplementary rule, critical gloss or annotation (added to a grammatical or philosophical sūtra- and defined to be"the exposition of the meaning, of that which is said, of that which is left unsaid, and of that which is ill or imperfectly said";the term vārttika- is, however, especially applied to kātyāyana-'s critical annotations on the aphorisms of pāṇini-'s grammar, the object of which is to consider whether pāṇini-'s rules are correct or not, and to improve on them where this may be found to be necessary;and also to similar works on various matters by kumārila-, sureśvara- etc.; see tantra-v-, śloka-v-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikābharaṇan. Name of a commentator or commentary on the ṭupṭīkā- (q.v,also called ṭupṭīkā-vyākhyāna-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikakāram. "composer of vārttika-s", Name of kātyāyana-, kumārila- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsavadattāf. Name of various women (especially of the wife of udayana-, king of vatsa- and daughter of king caṇḍa-mahā-sena- of ujjayinī-[ ]or of king pradyota-[ ],to whom she offered herself after having been betrothed by her father to saṃjaya-[ ];and of the heroine of subandhu-'s novel, who is represented to have been betrothed by her father to puṣpa-ketu-, but carried off by kandarpa-ketu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsāyanikamfn. (fr. 3. vāsa-+ ayana-) going from house to house, making visits View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsta vāstāyana-, vāstika- See bāsta- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāstuvidyamfn. (fr. next) relating to architecture gaRa ṛg-ayanādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasun. (in veda- genitive case v/asos-, v/asvas-and v/asunas-;also plural,exceptionally m.) wealth, goods, riches, property etc. ( vasoṣpati soṣ-pati- m.prob."the god of wealth or property" [ asoṣ-p-,"the god of life"]; vasordhārā sor-dh/ārā- f."stream of wealth", Name of a particular libation of ghṛta- at the agni-cayana- etc.;of the wife of agni- ;of the heavenly gaṅgā- ;of sacred bathing-place ;of a kind of vessel ; vasordhārāprayoga sor-dh/ārā-prayoga- m.Name of work) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātādhvanm. "wind-way", air-hole, a round window (see 1. vātāyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātavatm. Name of a man (see vātavata-; dṛti-vātavator ayanam-Name of a sattra- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatāyana wrong reading for vātūyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātayānan. (= vātā- yana-), ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding iii, 20 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatsapatim. Name of udayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātsāyana wrong reading for vātsyāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātsyāyanamf(ī-)n. relating to or composed by vātsyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātsyāyanabhāṣyan. Name of vātsyāyana-'s commentator or commentary on the nyāya-- sūtra-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātsyāyanīyan. a work composed by vātsyāyana- (especially the kāma-- sūtra-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāyum. the wind of the body, a vital air (of which 5 are reckoned, viz. prāṇa-, apāna-, samāna-, udāna-,and vyāna-;or nāga-, kūrma-, kṛkara-, devadatta-,and dhanaṃ-jaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntam. Name of the second and most important part of the mīmāṃsā- or third of the three great divisions of Hindu philosophy (called vedānta- either as teaching the ultimate scope of the veda- or simply as explained in the upaniṣad-s which come at the end of the veda-;this system, although belonging to the mīmāṃsā- [q.v.] and sometimes called uttara-mīmāṃsā-,"examination of the later portion or jñāna-kāṇḍa-[q.v.] of the veda-", is really the one sole orthodox exponent of the pantheistic creed of the Hindus of the present day - a creed which underlies all the polytheism and multiform mythology of the people;its chief doctrine [as expounded by śaṃkara-] is that of advaita- id est that nothing really exists but the One Self or Soul of the Universe called brahman- [neut.] or paramātman-, and that the jīvātman- or individual human soul and indeed all the phenomena of nature are really identical with the paramātman-, and that their existence is only the result of ajñāna- [otherwise called avidyā-] or an assumed ignorance on the part of that one universal Soul which is described as both Creator and Creation;Actor and Act;Existence, Knowledge and Joy, and as devoid of the three qualities [see guṇa-];the liberation of the human soul, its deliverance from transmigrations, and re-union with the paramātman-, with which it is really identified, is only to be effected by a removal of that ignorance through a proper understanding of the vedānta-;this system is also called brahma-mīmāṃsā- and śārīrakamīmāṃsā-,"inquiring into Spirit or embodied Spirit";the founder of the school is said to have been vyāsa-, also called bādarāyaṇa-, and its most eminent teacher was śaṃkarācārya-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntālokam. a collective Name of vijñāna-bhikṣu-'s dissertations on a number of upaniṣad-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntasārasāram. Name of work (or -jñāna-bodhinī-,an abstract of sadānanda-'s vedānta-sāra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedārthapradīpikāf. Name of work (by kātyāyana-- śiṣya-)
vedavratavidhim. (or -vratānāṃ-vidhi-) Name of a pariśiṣṭa- of kātyāyana-.
vedāyana wrong reading for baidāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
in compound = 3. vi- (in -kāśa-, -cayana-, -taṃsa-, -nāha-, -barha-, -mārga-, -rudh-, -vadha-, -vāha-, -vidha-, -vṛta-, -sarpa-, -hāra-,qq.vv.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñānan. worldly or profane knowledge (opp. to jñāna-,"knowledge of the true nature of God") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilāpanan. a particular product of milk (see vi-layana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimalanirdeśam. Name of a mahāyāna-sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viparītākhyānakīf. "inverted ākhyānakī-", a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viparītāyanan. a contrary ayana- or progress of the sun from solstice to solstice ( viparītāyanagata -gata- mfn.situated in contrary ayana-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viprabandhum. "Brahman's friend", Name of the author of (having the patronymic gaupāyana- or laupāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenajam. "son of vīra-sena-", Name of nala- (the hero of several well-known poems exempli gratia, 'for example' the nalopākhyāna-, naiṣadha-, nalodaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenasutam. "son of vīra-sena-", Name of nala- (the hero of several well-known poems exempli gratia, 'for example' the nalopākhyāna-, naiṣadha-, nalodaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśabdanan. ( śabd-) equals prati-jañāna- on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣamavilocanam. "three-eyed", Name of śiva- (see -nayana-above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśampamfn. (accusative of 2. viś-+ pa-), people."protecting", Name of a man (?) gaRa aśvādi- (see vaiśampāyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇuguptam. "hidden by viṣṇu-", Name of the muni- vātsyāyana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśrāntavigrahakathamfn. one in whom,"war"or"a body" (see vi-graha-) is out of the question id est "unwarlike"and"bodiless"(applied to king udayana- and to the god of love) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvajitm. Name of an ekāha- in the gavām-ayana- rite (the 4th day after the viṣuvat-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvasṛjm. creator of the universe (of whom there are ten according to to some) etc. (-sṛjām ayana- n.a particular festival ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vraṇasāmānyakarmaprakāśam. Name of a section of the jñāna-bhāskara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratopāyanan. presents of cakes etc. (to be eaten during a religious feast equals vāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratopāyanīyamfn. belonging to the vratopāyana- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhamfn. grown up, full-grown, advanced in years, aged, old, senior (often in compound with the names of authors, especially of authors of law-books[ see ] , to denote either an older recension of their works or the work of some older authors of the same name; see vṛddha-kātyāyana-, -garga-etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhabaudhāyanam. the old baudhāyana- or an older recension of baudhāyana-'s law-book View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhakātyāyanam. the older kātyāyana- or an older recension of kātyāyana-'s law-book View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhatāf. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') pre-eminence in (exempli gratia, 'for example' jñāna-v-,"in knowledge") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyānabhṛtmfn. maintaining the vyāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyānadṛhmfn. (Nominal verb -dh/ṛk-) making the vyāna- strong or durable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyānodānam. dual number vyāna- and udāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapanayam. taking away, removal (varia lectio vy-apayana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāsam. "arranger, compiler", Name of a celebrated mythical sage and author (often called veda-vyāsa- and regarded as the original compiler and arranger of the veda-s, vedānta-- sūtra-s etc.;he was the son of the sage parāśara- and satyavatī-, and half-brother of vicitra-vīrya- and bhīṣma-;he was also called vādarāyaṇa- or bādarāyaṇa-, and kṛṣṇa- from his dark complexion, and dvaipāyana- because he was brought forth by satyavatī- on a dvīpa- or island in the Jumna;when grown up he retired to the wilderness to lead the life of a hermit, but at his mother's request returned to become the husband of vicitra-vīrya-'s two childless widows, by whom he was the father of the blind dhṛta-rāṣṭra- and of pāṇḍu-; he was also the father of vidura- [ q.v ] by a slave girl, and of śuka-, the supposed narrator of the bhāgavata-- purāṇa-, he was also the supposed compiler of the mahā-bhārata-, the purāṇa-s, and other portions of Hindu sacred literature; but the name vyāsa- seems to have been given to any great typical compiler or author) see View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatipātam. ( pat-) Name of a particular astronomical yoga- (when sun and moon are in the opposite ayana- and have the same declination, the sum of their longitudes being = 180 degrees) (see vy-atī-pāsa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñavacasm. (yajñ/a--) Name of a teacher (with the patronymic rāmastambāyana-; plural his family) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñopavītan. the investiture of youths of the three twice-born castes with the sacred thread or (in later times) the thread itself (worn over the left shoulder and hanging down under the right;originally put on only during the performance of sacred ceremonies but its position occasionally changed[ see prācīnāvītin-, nivītin-];in modern times assumed by other castes, as by the vaidya-s or medical caste in Bengal; see upanayana-and ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāmyāyanan. the sun's progress south of the equator, the winter solstice (equals dakṣiṇāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yānan. (with Buddhists) the vehicle or method of arriving at knowledge, the means of release from repeated births (there are either 3 systems, the śrāvaka-yāna-,the pratyeka-buddha-y-or pratyeka-y-,and the mahā-y-;or more generally only 2, the mahā-yāna-or"Great method"and the hina-y-or"Lesser method";sometimes there is only"One Vehicle", the eka-yāna-,or "one way to beatitude") (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yaugaṃdharāyaṇam. Name of a minister of king udayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogāṅgan. a constituent or part of the Yoga, means of attaining it (generally said to be 8 in number, viz. yama-, niyama-, āsana-, prāṇāyāma-, pratyāhāra-, dhāraṇā-, dhyāna-,and samādhi-,or according to another authority 6, viz. āsana-, prāṇasaṃrodha-,with the last four as enumerated above ),
yuñjakamfn. applying, performing, practising (exempli gratia, 'for example' dhyāna-y-,practising devotion) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yūpalakṣaṇan. Name of the 1st pariśiṣṭa- of kātyāyana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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akṣata अक्षत a. [न. त.] (a) Uninjured, unhurt; त्वमनङ्गः कथमक्षता रतिः Ku.4.9; ˚विग्रहा वाहाः Dk.3; प़ञ्चाक्षतास्ते वयं Ve.6.45.4.4; Mu.6.8; R.2.56; (b) Unbroken, whole; not crushed, undivided; मम नासिकामक्षतां कुर्वन्तु Pt.1, ˚सक्तूनां नवं कलशं पूरयित्वा Āśvalāyana. -तः 1 Śiva. -2 Thrashed and winnowed rice dried in the sun; (pl.) whole grain, entire unhusked and pounded rice washed with water, and used as an article of worship in all religious and sacred ceremonies; अक्षताः पान्तु पान्त्वक्षता इति श्राद्धमन्त्रः; अक्ष- तैर्नार्चयोद्विष्णुं न तुलस्या विनायकम् इति तन्त्रम्; साक्षतपात्रहस्ता R.2.21; आर्द्राक्षतारोपणमन्वभूतां 7.28. -3 Barley (यवाः); अक्षताश्च यवाः प्रोक्ताः sometimes neuter also (दूर्वाक्षतानि). -तम् 1 Corn, grain of any kind. -2 Absence of loss or ruin; good, wellbeing; अक्षतं चारिष्टं चास्तु इति श्राद्धमन्त्रः. -3 Eunuch (also m.). -ता 1 a virgin, a maiden not deflowered, blemished or enjoyed; अक्षता वा क्षता वापि. -2 N. of a plant कर्कटशृङ्गी (Mar. काकडशिंगी). -Comp. -योनिः a virgin, not yet blemished by sexual intercourse; सा चेदक्षतयोनिः स्यात् Ms.9.176; पत्नीष्वक्षतयोनिषु 1.5.
aṅgulaḥ अङ्गुलः [अङ्ग्-उल्] 1 A finger. -2 The thumb, अङ्गौ पाणौ लीयते (n. also). -3 A finger's breadth (n. also), equal to 8 barley-corns, 12 Aṅgulas making a वितस्ति or span, and 24 a हस्त or cubit; शङ्कुर्दशाङ्गुलः Ms. 8.271. -4 (Astr.) A digit or 12th part. -5 N. of the sage Chāṇakya or Vātsyāyana. अङ्गुलिः aṅguliḥ ली lī रिः riḥ री rī अङ्गुलिः ली रिः री f. [अङ्ग्-उलि Uṇ.4.2] A finger (the names of the 5 fingers are अङ्गुष्ठ thumb, तर्जनी forefinger, मध्यमा middle finger, अनामिका ring-finger, and कनिष्ठा or कनिष्ठिका the little finger); a toe (of the foot); एकविंशो$यं पुरुषः दश हस्त्या अङ्गुलयो दश पाद्या आत्मैकविंशः Ait. Br. -2 The thumb, great toe. -3 The tip of an elephant's trunk. cf. Mātaṅga L.6.9. -4 The measure अङ्गुल. -5 N. of the tree गजकर्णिका. (Mar. काकडी ?) -6 Penis (?). -Comp. -ग्रन्थिः f. (also -पर्वन) The portion of the finger between two joints. -तारणम् [अङ्गुलेः तोरणमिव कृतम्] a mark on the forehead of the form of the half moon made with sandal &c. -त्रम् त्राणम् [अङ्गुलिं त्रायते, अङ्गुलिस्त्रायते अनेन त्रै -क.] a fingerprotector (a contrivance like a thimble used by archers to protect the thumb or fingers from being injured by the bow-string). सज्जैश्चापैर्बद्धगोधाङ्गुलित्रैः Pañch. 2; व्रजति पुरतरुण्यो बद्धचित्राङ्गुलित्रे Bk.1.26. -पञ्चकम् the five fingers collectively. -फला f. Dolichos lablab (Mar. घेवडा). -मुद्रा, -मुद्रिका a seal-ring. इयमङ्गुलिमुद्रा आर्यमवगतार्थं करिष्यति Mu.1. -मोटनम्, -स्फोटनम् [अङ्गुल्योर्मोटनं मर्दनं स्फोटनं ताडनं वा यत्र] snapping or cracking the fingers (Mar चुटकी). -वेष्टः ring; अङ्गदान्यङ्गुलीवेष्टान् Rām.6.65.26. -सङ्गा [अङ्गुलौ सङ्गो यस्याः सा] sticking to the fingers; ˚गा यवागूः ˚गा यवागूः ˚गा गाः सादयति P. VIII.3.8 Sk. (अङ्गुलिसंलेपकारकं यवागूद्रव्यम् Tv.) (-ङ्गः) contact of the fingers; act of fingering. गतमङ्गुलिषङ्गं त्वां ..... Bk.9.78. -संज्ञा [तृ. त.] a sign made by the finger; मुखार्पितैकाङ्गुलिसंज्ञयैव Ku.3.41 -सन्देशः making signs with fingers; cracking or snapping the fingers as a sign. -संभूत a. [स. त.] produced from or on the finger. (-तः) a finger nail.
anaṃśa अनंश a. [न. ब.] 1 Not entitled to a share in the inheritance; ˚शौ क्लीबपतितौ जात्यन्धबधिरौ तथा । उन्मत्तजड- मूकाश्च ये च केचिन्निरिन्द्रियाः ॥ Ms.9.21. Other persons are also mentioned by Devala, Baudhāyana, Kātyāyana and Nārada. -2 Without parts, undivided, portionless; an epithet of the sky or the Supreme Being.
abhaya अभय a. [न. ब.] Free from fear or danger, secure, safe; वैराग्यमेवाभयम् Bh.3.35. -यः [न भयं यस्मात्] 1 An epithet of the Supreme Being, or knowledge concerning that being. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 One devoid of all worldly possessions. -4 One who fearlessly executes scriptural commandments. -5 N. of a Yoga (conjunture or time) favourable to a march or expedition. -6 A refugeoffering pose of the hand of an image; Māna.12. 12-21. See अभयमुद्रा. -या 1 N. of a plant (हरीतकी), Mar. हिरडा). -2 A form of the goddess Durgā. -यम् 1 Absence or removal of fear. -2 Security, safety, protection from fear or danger. मया तस्याभयं दत्तम् Pt.1; अभयस्य हि यो दाता Ms.8.33; Ś.2.17. -2 N. of a sacrificial hymn. -3 The root of a fragrant grass (वीरणमूलम्, उशीरम्). -Comp. -कृत् a. 1. not terrific, mild. -2. giving safety. -गिरिवासिन् m. one dwelling on the mountain of safety, N. of a class of Kātyāyana's pupils. -गिरिविहारः Buddhist monastery on the Abhayagiri. -डिण्डिमः 1 proclamation of assurance of safety. -2 a military or war-drum. -द, -दायिन्, -प्रद a. giving a guarantee or promise of safety; भयेष्वभयदः Rām.; ˚प्रद; ऐश्वर्यमभयप्रदः Ms.4.232. (-दः) an Arhat of the Jainas; N. of Viṣṇu. -दक्षिणा, -दानम्, -प्रदानम् giving a promise, assurance, or guarantee of safety or protection (from danger); सर्वप्रदानेष्वभयप्रदानम् (प्रधानम्) Pt.1.29; सर्वतः प्रतिगृह्णीयान्मध्वथाभयदक्षिणाम् Ms.4.247. -पत्रम् a written document or paper granting assurance of safety; cf. the modern 'safe-conduct'. -मुद्रा a variety of mudrā in Tantra literature. -याचना asking for protection; ˚अञ्जलिः; बध्यतामभययाचनाञ्जलिः R.11.78. -वचनम्, -वाच् f. an assurance or promise of safety. -सनि a. Ved. giving safety.
ayana अयन a. [अय्-ल्युट्] Going (at the end of comp.); यथेमा नद्यः स्यन्दमानाः समुद्रायणाः Praśn. Up. 1 Going, moving, walking; as in रामायणम्. -2 A walk, path, way, road; आयन्नापो$यनमिच्छमानाः Rv.3.33.7. अगस्त्य- चिह्नादयनात् R.16.44. -3 A place, site, abode, place of resort; Bṛi. Up.2.4.11. ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वम् Ms. 1.1 (occurring in the derivation of the word नारायण). -4 A way of entrance, an entrance (to an array of troops or व्यूह); अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमव- स्थिताः Bg.1.11. -5 Rotation, circulation period; अङ्गिरसां अयनम्; इष्टि˚, पशु˚. -6 A particular period in the year for the performance of particular sacrificial or other religious works; N. of certain sacrificial performances; as गवामयनम्. -7 The sun's passage, north and south of the equator. -8 (Hence) The period of this passage, half year, the time from one solstice to another; see उत्तरायण and दक्षिणायन; cf. also सायन and निरयण. -9 the equinoctial and solstitial points; दक्षिणम् अयनम् winter solstice; उत्तरम् अयनम् summer solstice; -1 Method, manner, way. -11 A Śāstra, scripture or inspired writing. -12 Final emancipation; नान्यः पन्था विद्यते$यनाय Śvet. Up. -13 A commentary; treatise. -14 The deities presiding over the ayanas. -Comp. -अंशः, -भागः the arc between the vernal equinoctial point and beginning of the fixed zodiac or first point of Aries. -कलाः The correction (in minutes) for ecliptic deviation. Sūryasiddhānta. -कालः the interval between the solstices. -ग्रहः A planet's longitude as corrected for ecliptic deviation; ibid. -जः a month caused by ayanāṁśa. -परिवृत्तिः Change of the अयन; sun's passage from one side of the equator to the other; अयनपरिवृत्ति- र्व्यस्तशब्देनोच्यते । ŚB. on MS.6.5.37. -संक्रमः, -संक्रान्तिः f. passage through the zodiac. -वृत्तम् the ecliptic.
āśvalāyana आश्वलायनः N. of the author of a celebrated ritual work, called the Āśvalāyana Sūtras; कौसल्यश्चाश्वलायनः Praśn. Up.1.1. -शाखा The school of आश्वलायन.
indraḥ इन्द्रः [इन्द्-रन्; इन्दतीति इन्द्रः; इदि ऐश्वर्ये Malli.] 1 The lord of gods. -2 The god of rain, rain; cloud; इन्द्रो वरुणः सोमो रुद्रः । शं न इन्द्रो बृहस्पतिः Tait. Vp.1.1.1. Bṛi. Up.1.4.11. -3 A lord or ruler (as of men &c.). इन्द्रो- मायाभिः पुरुरूप ईयते Bṛi. Up.2.5.19. first or best (of any class of objects), always as the last member of comp.; नरेन्द्रः a lord of men i. e. a king; so मृगेन्द्रः a lion; गजेन्द्रः the lord or chief of elephants; so योगीन्द्रः, कपीन्द्रः. -4 A prince, king. -5 The pupil of the right eye. -6 N. of the plant कुटज. -7 Night. -8 One of the divisions of भारतवर्ष. -9 N. of the 26th Yoga. -1 The human or animal soul. -11 A vegetable poison. -12 The Yoga star in the 26th Nakṣatra. -13 Greatness. -14 The five objects of senses. -द्रा 1 The wife of Indra, Indrāṇī. -2 N. of a plant (मरुबक Mar. मरवा) [Indra, the god of the firmament, is the Jupiter Pluvius of the Indian Āryans. In the Vedas he is placed in the first rank among the gods; yet he is not regarded as an uncreated being, being distinctly spoken of in various passages of the Vedas as being born, and as having a father and a mother. He is sometimes represented as having been produced by the gods as a destroyer of enemies, as the son of Ekāṣṭakā, and in Rv.1.9.13 he is said to have sprung from the mouth of Puruṣa. He is of a ruddy or golden colour, and can assume any form at will. He rides in a bright golden chariot drawn by two tawny horses. His most famous weapon is the thunderbolt which he uses with deadly effect in his warfare with the demons of darkness, drought and inclement weather, variously called Ahi, Vṛitra, Śambar, Namuchi &c. He storms and breaks through their castles, and sends down fertilizing showers of rain to the great delight of his worshippers. He is thus the lord of the atmosphere, the dispenser of rain, and governor of the weather. He is represented as being assisted by the Maruts or storm-gods in his warfare. Besides the thunderbolt he uses arrows, a large hook, and a net. The Soma juice is his most favourite food, and under its exhilarating influence he performs great achievements (cf. Rv.1.119), and pleases his devout worshippers, who are said to invite the god to drink the juice. He is their friend and even their brother; a father, and the most fatherly of fathers; the helper of the poor, and the deliverer and comforter of his servants. He is a wall of defence; his friend is never slain or defeated. He richly rewards his adorers, particularly those who bring him libations of Soma, and he is supplicated for all sorts of temporal blessings as cows, horses, chariots, health, intelligence, prosperous days, long life, and victory in war. In the Vedas Indra's wife is Indrānī, who is invoked among the goddesses. Such is the Vedic conception of Indra. But in later mythology he falls in the second rank. He is said to be one of the sons of Kaśyapa and Dākṣāyaṇī or Aditi. He is inferior to the triad Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśa (though in some places Viṣṇu is regarded as his younger brother, cf. R.14.59,15.4), but he is the chief of all the other gods, and is commonly styled Sureśa, Devendra &c. As in the Vedas so in later mythology, he is the regent of the atmosphere, and of the east quarter, and his world is called Svarga. He sends the lightning, uses the thunderbolt and sends down rain. He is frequently at war with Asuras, whom he constantly dreads, and by whom he is sometimes defeated. The Indra of mythology is famous for his incontinence and adultery, one prominent instance of which is his seduction of Ahalyā, the wife of Gautama (see Ahalyā), and for which he is often spoken of as Ahalyā-jāra. The curse of the sage impressed upon him a 1 marks resembling the female organ, and he was therefore called Sayoni; but these marks were afterwards changed into eyes, and he is hence called Netra-yoni and Sahasrākṣa. In the Rāmāyana Indra is represented as having been defeated and carried off to Laṅkā by Ravaṇa's son called Meghanāda, who for this exploit received the title of 'Indrajit'. It was only at the intercession of Brahmā and the gods that Indra was released, and this humiliation was regarded as a punishment for his seduction of Ahalyā. He is also represented as being in constant dread of sages practising potent penances, and as sending down nymphs to beguile their minds (see Apsaras). In the Purāṇas he is said to have destroyed the offspring of Diti in her womb, and to have cut off the wings of mountains when they grew troublesome. Other stories are also told in which Indra was once worsted by Raja, grandson of Purūravas, owing to the curse of Durvāsas, and other accounts show that he and Kṛiṣna were at war with each other for the Pārijāta tree which the latter wanted to remove from Svarga, and which he succeeded in doing in spite of Indra's resistance. His wife is Indrāṇī, the daughter of the demon Puloman, and his son is named Jayanta. He is also said to be father of Arjuna. His epithets are numerous; mostly descriptive of his achievements, e. g. वृत्रहन्, बलभिद्, पाकशासन, गोत्रभिद्, पुरंदर, शतक्रतु, जिष्णु, नमुचिसूदन &c. (see Ak.I.1.44.47). The Heaven of Indra is Svarga; its capital, Amarāvatī; his garden, Nandana; his elephant, Airāvata; his horse, Uchchaiśravas; his bow, the rain-bow, and his sword, Paranja.]. -Comp. -अग्निः the fire produced from the contact of clouds; ˚धूमः frost, snow; ˚देवता the 16th lunar mansion. -अनुजः, -अवरजः an epithet of Viṣṇu and of Nārāyaṇa (उपेन्द्र); तस्थौ भ्रातृसमीपस्थः शक्रस्येन्द्रानुजो यथा Rām.6.91.4. -अरिः an Asura or demon. -अवसानः a desert. -अशनः 1 hemp (dried and chewed). -2 the shrub which bears the seed used in jeweller's weight, (गुंजावृक्ष). -आयुधम् Indra's weapon, the rainbow; इन्द्रा- युधद्योतिततोरणाङ्कम् R.7.4,12.79; K.127. (-ध) 1 N. of the horse in Kādambarī (i. e. Kapiñjala changed into a horse). -2 a horse marked with black about the eyes. -3 a diamond. (-धा) a kind of leech. -आसनम् 1 the throne of Indra. -2 a throne in general. -3 a foot of five short syllables. -इज्यः N. of बृहस्पति the preceptor of gods. -ईश्वरः one of the forms of Śiva-liṅga. -उत्सवः a festival honouring Indra. -ऋषभ a. having Indra as a bull, or impregnated by Indra, an epithet of the earth. इन्द्रऋषभा द्रविणे नो दधातु Av.12.1.6. -कर्मन् m. an epithet of Viṣṇu (performing Indra's deeds). -कान्तः A class of the four-storeyed buildings. (Mānasāra 21.6-68). -कीलः 1 N. of the mountain मन्दर. -2 a rock. (-लम्) 1 the banner of Indra. -2 A pin, nail, bolt फालका भाजनोर्ध्वे तु तदूर्ध्वे चेन्द्रकीलकम् (Mānasāra 12.126). cf. also Kau. A.2.3. -कुञ्जरः Indra's elephant, Airāvata. -कूटः N. of a mountain -कृष्ट a. 'ploughed by Indra', growing exuberantly or in a wild state. (-ष्टः) a kind of corn produced by rain-water. -केतुः Indra's banner. -कोशः, -षः, -षकः, -ष्ठः 1 a couch, sofa, which is generally made up of covering pieces of perforated wooden planks; cf. अट्टालक- प्रतोलीमध्ये त्रिधानुष्काधिष्ठानं-इन्द्रकोशं कारयेत् Kau. A.2.3. -2 a platform. -3 a projection of the roof of a house. -4 A pin or bracket projecting from the wall (नागदन्त). A projection of the roof of a house forming a kind of balcony; Kau. A.24. -गिरिः the महेन्द्र mountain. -गुरुः, -आचार्यः the teacher of Indra; i. e. बृहस्पति. -गोपः, -गोपकः [इन्द्रो गोपो रक्षको$स्य, वर्षाभवत्वात्तस्य] a kind of insect of red or white colour; Śukra.4.157; K.1. -चन्दनम् the white sandal wood. -चापम्, -धनुस् n. 1 a rainbow; विद्युत्वन्तं ललितवनिताः सेन्द्रचापं सचित्राः Me.64; Śi.7.4. -2 the bow of Indra -चिर्भटा A mild variety of Colocynth. The leaf is tripartite, rough and wrinkled. (Mar. कंवडळ, applied often as इन्द्रावण in the sense of vile, malignant, dark and hateful.) -च्छदः A necklace of pearls having 18 strings. -च्छन्दस् n. [इन्द्र इव सहस्रनेत्रेण सहस्रगुच्छेन च्छाद्यते] a necklace consisting of 1 strings. -जः N. of Vālī. -जतु n. Bitumen (Mar. शिलाजित). -जननम् Indra's birth. -जननीय a. treating of Indra's birth (as a work). -जा a. Ved. born or arising from Indra. Av.4.3.7. -जालम् [इन्द्रस्य परमेश्वरस्य जालं मायेव] 1 the net of Indra. तेनाह- मिन्द्रजालेनामूंस्तमसाभि दधामि सर्वान् Av.8.8.8. -2 a weapon used by Arjuna; a stratagem or trick in war. -3 deception, cheating. -4 conjuring, jugglery, magical tricks; इन्द्रजालं च मायां वै कुहका वा$पि भीषणा Mb.5.16.55. स्वप्नेन्द्रजालसदृशः खलु जीवलोकः Śānti.2.2; K.15. -जालिक a. [इन्द्रजाल-ठन्] deceptive, unreal, delusive. (-कः) a juggler, conjurer. -जित् m. 'conqueror of Indra', N. of a son of Rāvaṇa who was killed by Lakṣmaṇa. [Indrajit is another name of Meghanāda a son of Rāvaṇa. When Rāvaṇa warred against Indra in his own heaven, his son Meghanāda was with him, and fought most valiantly. During the combat, Meghanāda, by virtue of the magical power of becoming invisible which he had obtained from Śiva, bound Indra, and bore him off in triumph to Laṅkā. Brahmā and the other gods hurried thither to obtain his release, and gave to Meghanāda the title of Indrajit, 'conqueror of Indra'; but the victor refused to release his prisoners unless he were promised immortality. Brahmā refused to grant this extravagant demand, but he strenuously persisted, and achieved his object. In the Rāmāyaṇa he is represented to have been decapitated by Lakṣmaṇa while he was engaged in a sacrifice]. ˚हन्तृ or विजयिन् m. N. of Lakṣmaṇa. -ज्येष्ठ a. Ved. led by Indra. -तापनः the thundering of clouds. -तूलम्, -तूलकम् a flock of cotton. -दमनः the son of Bāṇāsura. -दारुः the tree Pinus Devadāru. -द्युति Sandal -द्रुः, -द्रुमः 1 the plant Terminalia Arjuna (अर्जुन). -2 The plant कुटज. -द्वीपः, -पम् one of the 9 Dvīpas or Divisions of the continent (of India). -धनुः N. of Indra's bow, the rainbow; स एकव्रा- त्यो$भवत्स धनुरादत्त तदेवेन्द्रधनुः Av.15.1.6. -ध्वजः 1 a flag raised on the 12th day of the bright half of Bhādra. -2 Indra's weapon; विस्रस्ताकल्पकेशस्रगिन्द्रध्वज इवापतत् Bhāg.1.44.22. -नक्षत्रम् Indra's lunar mansion फल्गुनी. -नेत्रम् 1 the eye of Indra. -2 the number one thousand. -नीलः [इन्द्र इव नीलः श्यामः] a sapphire; परीक्षाप्रत्ययैर्यैश्च पद्मरागः परीक्ष्यते । त एव प्रत्यया दृष्टा इन्द्रनीलमणेरपि ॥ Garuḍa. P.; R.13.54;16.69; Me.48,79. -नीलकः an emerald. -पत्नी 1 Indra's wife, शची. -पर्णी, -पुष्पा N. of a medicinal plant (Mar. कळलावी). -पर्वतः 1 the महेन्द्र mountain. -2 a blue mountain. -पुत्रा N. of अदिति. -पुरोगम, -पुरःसर, -श्रेष्ठ a. led or preceded by Indra, having Indra at the head. -पुरोहितः N. of बृहस्पति. (-ता) the asterism Puṣya. -प्रमतिः N. of the pupil of Paila and the author of some ṛiks of the Rv. -प्रस्थम् N. of a city on the Yamunā, the residence of the Paṇḍavas (identified with the modern Delhi); इन्द्रप्रस्थगमस्तावत्कारि मा सन्तु चेदयः Śi.2.63. -प्रहरणम् Indra's weapon, the thunderbolt. -भगिनी N. of Pārvatī. -भेषजम् dried ginger. -मखः a sacrifice in honour of Indra. -महः 1 a festival in honour of Indra. -2 the rainy season; ˚कामुकः a dog. -मादन a. animating or delighting Indra; ये वायव इन्द्रमादनासः Rv.7.92.4. -मेदिन् a. Ved. whose friend or ally is Indra; इन्द्रमेदी सत्वनो नि ह्वयस्व Av.5.2-.8. -यज्ञः (See इन्द्रमह and इन्द्रमख) श्वो$स्माकं घोषस्योचित इन्द्रयज्ञो नामोत्सवः भविष्यति Bālacharita I. -यवः, -वम् seed of the Kutaja tree. -लुप्तः, -प्तम्, -लुप्तकम् 1 excessive baldness of the head. -2 loss of beard. -लोकः Indra's world, Svarga or Paradise. -लोकेशः 1 lord of Indra's world, i. e. Indra. -2 a guest (who, if hospitably received, confers paradise on his host). -वंशा, -वज्रा N. of two metres, see Appendix. -वल्लरी, -वल्ली N. of a plant (पारिजात) or of इन्द्रवारुणी. -वस्तिः [इन्द्रस्य आत्मनः वस्तिरिव] the calf (of the leg). -वाततम a. Ved. desired by Indra. अस्मे ऊतीरिन्द्रवाततमाः Rv.1.6.6. -वानकम् A variety of diamonds. Kau. A.2.11. -वायू (du.) Indra and Vāyu. इन्द्रवायू उभाविह सुहवेह हवामहे Av.3.2.6. -वारुणी, -वारुणिका Colocynth, a wild bitter gourd cucumis colocynthis. (Mar. मोठी कंवडळ) किमिन्द्रवारुणी राम सितया कटुकीयते Laghu Yoga-vāsiṣṭha-sāra X. सौवर्चलं हरिद्रा च पिप्पली चेन्द्रवारुणिः । मूत्र- कृच्छ्रे प्रशंसन्ति पिण्डो$यं वाजिनां हितः ॥ शालिहोत्र of भोज 33. -वाह् a. carrying Indra. -वृक्षः the Devadāru tree. -वृद्धा a kind of abscess. -वैडूर्यम् a kind of precious stone. -व्रतम् Indra's rule of conduct; one of the duties of a king (who is said to follow इन्द्रव्रत when he distributes benefits as Indra pours down rain); वार्षिकांश्चतुरो मासान् यथेन्द्रो$प्यभिवर्षति । तथाभिवर्षेत्स्वं राष्ट्रं कामैरिन्द्रव्रतं चरन् ॥ Ms.9.34. -शक्तिः f. Indrāṇī, the wife of Indra, or his energy personified. -शत्रुः 1 an enemy or destroyer of Indra (when the accent is on the last syllable), an epithet of प्रह्लाद; इन्द्रशत्रो विवर्धस्व मा चिरं जहि विद्विषम् Bhāg.6.9.12. बलिप्रदिष्टां श्रियमाददानं त्रैविक्रमं पादमिवेन्द्रशत्रुः R.7.35. -2 [इन्द्रः शत्रुः यस्य] one whose enemy is Indra, an epithet of वृत्र (when the accent is on the first syllable). (This refers to a legend in the Śat. Br., where it is said that Vṛitra's father intended his son to become the destroyer of Indra, and asked him to say इन्द्रशत्रुर्वधस्व &c. but who, through mistake, accented the word on the first syllable, and was killed by Indra; cf. Śik.52; मन्त्रो हीनः स्वरतो वर्णतो वा मिथ्याप्रयुक्तो न तमर्थमाह । स वाग्वज्रो यजमानं हिनस्ति यथेन्द्रशत्रुः स्वरतो$पराधात् ॥ -शलभः a kind of insect (इन्द्रगोप). -संजयम् N. of a sāman. Arṣeya Br. -संधा connection or alliance with Indra. तयाहमिन्द्रसंधया सर्वान् देवानिह हुव Av.11.1.9. -सारथिः 1 N. of Mātali. -2 an epithet of Vāyu, driving in the same carriage with Indra; Rv.4.46.2. -सावर्णिः N. of the fourteenth Manu. -सुतः, -सूनुः 1 N. of (a) Jayanta; (b) Arjuna; (c) Vāli, the king of monkeys. -2 N. of the अर्जुन tree. -सुरसः, -सुरा a shrub the leaves of which are used in discutient applications (निर्गुंडी). -सेनः N. of several men; of Bali; of a mountain; Bhāg.8.2.23. -सेना 1 Indra's missile or host. -2 Indra's army; Rv.1.12.2. -सेनानीः the leader of Indra's armies, epithet of Kārtikeya. -स्तुत् m. -स्तोमः 1 praise of Indra; N. of a particular hymn addressed to Indra in certain ceremonies. -2 a sacrifice in honour of Indra. -हवः invocation of Indra; भद्रान् कृण्वन्निन्द्रहवान्त्सखिभ्य Rv.9.96.1. -हस्तः a kind of medicament.
iṣṭiḥ इष्टिः f. [इष्-क्तिन्] 1 Wish, request, desire. -2 Seeking, striving to get. -3 Any desired object. -4 A desired rule or desideratum; (a term used with reference to Patañjali's additions to Kātyāyana's Vārttikas; इष्टयो भाष्यकारस्य, इति भाष्यकारेष्टया &c.; cf. उपसंख्यान). -5 Impulse, hurry. -6 Invitation, order. -7 (यज्-क्तिन्) A sacrifice. Ms.11.2.2. शबर seems to interpret the word especially in the sense of 'a दर्शपूर्णमास sacrifice'. इष्टिराजसूयचातुर्मास्येषु । &c. MS.II.2.12. -8 An oblation consisting of butter, food &c. -9 Summary in verses (= संग्रहश्लोक). एभिर्यज्ञेभिस्तदभीष्टिमश्याम् Rv.1.166.14. -Comp. -अयनम् a sacrifice lasting for a long time. -पचः 1 a miser. -2 a demon; an Asura; so ˚मुष्. -पशु an animal to be killed at a sacrifice. -श्राद्धम् A particular funeral rite.
udakam उदकम् [उन्द्-ण्वुल् नि ˚नलोपश्च Uṇ.2.39] Water; अनीत्वा पङ्कतां धूलिमुदकं नावतिष्ठते Śi.2.34. उदकं दा, -प्रदा or कृ To offer a libation of water to a dead person; इत्येवमुक्तो मारीचः कृत्वोदकमथात्मनः Mb.3.278.14. उदकं उपस्पृश् to touch certain parts of the body with water, bathe; [cf. Gr. hudor; L. unda 'a wave']. -Comp. -अञ्जलिः 1 A handful water. -2 See उदककर्मन्. -अन्तः margin of water, bank, shore; ओदकान्तात्स्निग्धो जनो$- नुगन्तव्य इति श्रूयते Ś.4. -अर्थिन् a. desirous of water, thirsty. -आत्मन् a. chiefly consisting of water; अव- कोल्बा उदकात्मान ओषधयः Av.8.7.9. -आधारः a reservoir, a cistern, well. -उदञ्जनः a water-jar. -उदरम् dropsy. -उदरिन् a. dropsical. -ओदनः rice boiled with water. -कर्मन्, -कार्यम्, -क्रिया, -दानम् presentation of (a libation of) water to dead ancestors or the manes; लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः Bg.1.42. वृकोदरस्योदकक्रियां कुरु Ve.6; Y.3.4. -कार्यम् Ablution of the body; Rām. -कुम्भः a water-jar. -कृच्छ्रः a kind of vow. -क्ष्वेडिका f. sprinkling water on each other, a kind of amorous play; Vātsyāyana. -गाहः entering water, bathing; P.VI.3.6. -गिरिः, -पर्वतः mountain abounding in streams of water. -ग्रहणम् drinking water; Pt.1. -चन्द्रः a kind of magic. -द, -दातृ, -दायिन्, -दानिक a. giver of water; (विशुध्यन्ति) त्र्यहादुदकदायिनः Ms.5.64. (-दः) 1 a giver of water to the manes. -2 an heir, near kinsman. -दानम् = ˚कर्मन् q. v. -धरः a cloud. -परीक्षा a kind of ordeal. -पूर्वकम् ind. preceded by the pouring of water, by pouring water on the hand as preparatory to or confirmatory of a gift or promise. -प्रतीकाश a. watery, like water. -प्रवेशः A water burial (जलसमाधि); Mb.3. -भारः, -वीवधः a. yoke for carrying water. -भूमः water or moist soil. -मञ्जरी N. of a work on medicine. ˚रसः A particular decoction used as a febrifuge. -मण्डलुः a water-pitcher (Ved.) -मन्थः a kind of peeled grain. -मेहः a sort of diabetes (passing watery urine). -मेहिन् a. suffering from this disease. -वज्रः 1 a thunder-shower. -2 thunderbolt in the form of shower; see उदवज्रः. -वाद्यम् 'water music' (performed by striking cups filled with water; cf. जलतरङ्ग), one of the 64 Kalās; Vātsyāyana. -शाकम् any aquatic herb. -शान्तिः f. sprinkling holy or consecrated water over a sick person to allay fever; cf. शान्त्युदकम्. -शील a. Practising the उदक ceremony; जपेदुदकशीलः स्यात् Mb.12.123.22. -शुद्ध a. bathed, purified by ablutions. -सक्तुः ground rice moistened with water. -स्पर्शः 1 touching different parts of the body with water. -2 touching water preparatory to or in confirmation of an oath, gift, or promise. -हारः a water-carrier.
udayanam उदयनम् 1 Rising, ascending, going up; सूर्यस्योदयना- दधि Rv.1.48.7. -2 Result, consequence. -3 End, conclusion. -नः 1 N. of Agastya. -2 N. of the king Vatsa; प्राप्यावन्तीनुदयनकथाकोविदग्रामवृद्धान् Me.3. [A celebrated Prince of the lunar race, who is usually styled Vatsarāja. He reigned at Kauśambī. Vāsavadattā, Princess of Ujjayinī, saw him in a dream and fell in love with him. He was decoyed to that city and there kept in prison by Chaṇḍamahāsena, the king. But on being released by the minister, he carried off Vāsava-dattā from her father and a rival suitor. Udayana is the hero of the play called Ratnāvalī and his life has been made the subject of several other minor compositions. See Vatsa also]. -Comp. -आचार्यः N. of a philosopher and author of several works.
upasaṃkhyānam उपसंख्यानम् 1 Addition. -2 Supplementary addition, further or additional enumeration (a term technically applied to the Vārtikas. of Kātyāyana which are intended to supply omissions in Pāṇini's Sūtras and generally to supplement them); e. g. जुगुप्साविरामप्रमादार्था- नामुपसंख्यानम्; cf. इष्टि. -3 (In gram.) A substitute in form or sense.
upastha उपस्थ a. Near, approximate. -स्थः 1 The lap; उपस्थं कृ to make a lap; ˚स्थे कृ to take on the lap. -2 The middle part in general. तस्मिन्निर्मनुजे$रण्ये पिप्पलोपस्थ आस्थितः Bhāg.1.6.16. -स्थः, -स्थम् 1 The organ of generation (of men and women, particularly of the latter); स्नानं मौनोपवासेज्यास्वाध्यायोपस्थनिग्रहाः Y.3.313 (male); स्थूलोपस्थस्थलीषु Bh.1.37 (female); हस्तौ पायु- रुपस्थश्च Y.3.92 (where the word is used in both senses). -2 The anus. -3 The haunch or hip. -4 A sheltered place, seat. एवमुक्त्वा$र्जनः संख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् Bg.1.47. -5 Surface, ground; तं शयानं धरोपस्थे Bhāg.7.13.12. -Comp. -दघ्न a. reaching to the lap. -निग्रहः restraint of sensual passions, continence; स्नानं मौनोपवासेज्यास्वाध्यायोपस्थनिग्रहाः Y.3..313. -पत्रः, -दलः the Indian fig-tree (so called because its leaves resemble in shape the female organ of generation). -पदा f. A particular artery leading to the generative organs (of a male); Sāyaṇa on Ait. Br.3.37.6. -पाद a. Sitting with the legs bent down so as to form a lap; Sāṅkhyāyana Gr. Sūtra 4. -सद् a. sitting in the lap. प्रेष्ठः श्रेष्ठ उपस्थसत् Rv.1.156.5.
upoh उपोह् 1 P. (उप-ऊह्) 1 To propel, push or impel towards; उपोह्य रुचिरां नावम् Rām.; so धनुः. -2 To push under, insert; कूर्चावधस्तादुपोह्य Kātyāyana. -3 To bring near, produce; connected with उपवह् in this sense; q. v. -4 To accumulate, collect. -pass. 1 To be brought about. -2 To advance, begin.
ulūli उलूलि उलूलु a. Crying aloud, noisy (while joyous); तं जायमानं घोषा उलूलवो$नूदतिष्ठन् Ch. Up.3.19.3; Lāṭyāyana 4.2.9.
kaṭhaḥ कठः 1 N. of a sage, pupil of Vaiśampāyana, teacher of that branch of Yajurveda which is called after him. -2 A Brāhmaṇa. -3 A note or simple sound. -4 A kind of ṛik. -ठाः The follower of that sage. के सव्रह्यचारिणोस्येति । कठाः । Mbh. on P.II.2.24. -ठी 1 A female follower of Kaṭha. कठी वृन्दारिका कठवृन्दारिका Mbh. on P.VI.3.42. -2 The wife of a Brāhmaṇa. -Comp. -अध्यापकः a teacher of the Kaṭha branch of the Yajurveda. -उपनिषद् N. of an Upaniṣad (generally said to belong to अथर्ववेद). -कालापाः P.II. 4.3. Schools of कठ and कालाप; नन्दन्तु कठकालापाः वर्धन्तां कठकौथुमाः Mbh. on II.4.3. ये च मे कठकालापा बहवो दण्ड- माणवाः Rām.2.32.18. -धूर्तः a Brāhmaṇa well-versed in the कठ branch of the Yajurveda. -श्रोत्रियः P.V. 2.84. a Brāhmaṇa who has mastered the कठ branch of the Yajurveda.
kabandhaḥ कबन्धः न्धम् A headless trunk (especially when it retains life); (स्वं) नृत्यत्कबन्धं समरे ददर्श R.7.51, 12.49; शिवातूर्यनृत्यत्कबन्धे Ve.1.27. यस्य नेष्यति वपुः कबन्धताम् Śi. -न्धः 1 The belly; a large belly-like vessel; वसोः कबन्धमृषभो बिभर्ति Av.9.4.3. -2 A cloud. -3 A comet. -4 N. of Rāhu. -5 Water (said to be n. also in this sense); Śi.16.67. -6 N. of a mighty demon mentioned in the Rāmāyana. [While Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa lived in the Dandkā forest, Kabandha attacked them and was slain by them. It is said that, though at first a heavenly being, he was cursed by Indra to assume the form of a demon and to be in that state till killed by Rāma and Laksmaṇa. He advised Rāma to form friendship with Sugrīva; see Rām.3.69.27 ff.; वधनिर्धूतशापस्य कबन्धस्योपदेशतः । मुमूर्छ सख्यं रामस्य समानव्यसने हरौ ॥ R.12.57].
kaba कब (व) न्धिन् a. 'Endowed with water', epithet of the Maruts; अर्यमणो न मरुतः कबन्धिनः Rv.5.54.8. -m. N. of Kātyāyana. कबन्धी कात्यायनः पप्रच्छ Praśna. Up.1.1.
kātīya कातीय a. Belonging to Kātyāyana. -यः A pupil of the sage.
kātyāyana कात्यायनः 1 N. of a celebrated writer on grammar who wrote Vārtikas to supplement the Sūtras of Pāṇini; न स्म पुराद्यतन इति ब्रुवता कात्यायनेनेह Mbh. on P. III.2.118; Rām.2.67.3. -2 N. of a sage who is a writer on civil and religious law; Y.1.4. -Comp. सूत्रम् the Śrauta sūtras of Kātyāyana.
kātyāyanīya कात्यायनीय a. Composed by Kātyāyana. -यः pupil of the sage.
kāmaḥ कामः [कम्-घञ्] 1 Wish, desire; संतानकामाय R.2.65, 3.67; oft. used with the inf. form; गन्तुकामः desirous to go; संगात्संजायते कामः Bg.2.62; Ms.2.94. -2 Object of desire; सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते Ms.2.5; Bṛi. Up.1.3.28. Kaṭh. Up.1.25. -3 Affection, love. -4 Love or desire of sensual enjoyments, considered as one of the ends of life (पुरुषार्थ); cf. अर्थ and अर्थकाम. -5 Desire of carnal gratification, lust; Ms.2.214; न मय्यावेशितधियां कामः कामाय कल्पते Bhāg.1.22.26. -6 The god of love. -7 N. of Pradyumna. -8 N. of Balarāma. -9 A kind of mango tree. -1 The Supreme Being. -मा Desire, wish; उवाच च महासर्पं कामया ब्रूहि पन्नग Mb.3.179.2. -मम् 1 Object of desire. -2 Semen virile. [Kāma is the Cupid of the Hindu mythology the son of Kṛiṣṇa and Rukmiṇī. His wife is Rati. When the gods wanted a commander for their forces in their war with Tāraka, they sought the aid of Kāma in drawing the mind of Śiva towards Pārvatī, whose issue alone could vanquish the demon. Kāma undertook the mission; but Śiva, being offended at the disturbance of his penance, burnt him down with the fire of his third eye. Subsequently he was allowed by Śiva to be born again in the form of Pradyumna at the request of Rati. His intimate friend is Vasanta or the spring; and his son is Aniruddha. He is armed with a bow and arrows--the bow-string being a line of bees, and arrows of flowers of five different plants]. -Comp. -अग्निः 1 a fire of love, violent or ardent love. -2 violent desire, fire of passion. ˚संदीपनम् 1 inflaming fire of love. -2 an aphrodisiac. -अङ्कुशः 1 a fingernail (which plays an important part in erotic acts). -2 the male organ of generation. -अङ्गः the mango tree. -अधिकारः the influence of love or desire. -अधिष्ठित a. overcome by love. -अनलः see कामाग्नि. -अन्ध a. blinded by love or passion. (-न्धः) the (Indian) cuckoo. -अन्धा musk. -अन्निन् a. getting food at will. -अभिकाम a. libidinous, lustful. -अरण्यम् a pleasant grove. -अरिः 1 an epithet of Śiva; ते समेत्य तु कामारिं त्रिपुरारिं त्रिलोचनम् Rām.7.6.3. -2 a mineral substance. -अर्थिन् a. amorous, lustful, lascivious. -अवतारः N. of Pradyumna. -अवशा(सा)यिता f. 1 Self-control. -2 a kind of Yogic power. -अवसायः suppression of passion or desire, stoicism. -अशनम् 1 eating at will. -2 unrestrained enjoyment. -आख्या, -अक्षी N. of Durgā. -आतुर a. love-sick, affected by love; कामातुराणां न भयं न लज्जा Subhāṣ. -आत्मजः an epithet of Aniruddha, son of Pradyumna. -आत्मन् a. lustful, libidinous, enamoured. कामात्मानः स्वर्गफलाः Bg.2.43. Mb.1.119.3-4. Ms.7.27. -आयुधम् 1 arrow of the god of love. -2 membrum virile. (-धः) the mango-tree. -आयुस् m. 1 a vulture. -2 Garuḍa. -आर्त a. love-stricken, affected by love; कामार्ता हि प्रकृतिकृपणाश्चेतनाचेतनेषु Me.5. -आश्रमः the hermitage of the god of love; Rām.1. -आसक्त a. overcome with love or desire, impassioned, lustful. -इष्टः the mango tree. -ईप्सु a. striving to obtain a desired object, यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म Bg.18.24. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of Kubera; -2 the Supreme soul. -3 a person possessing all wealth. अपास्य कामा- न्कामेशो वसेत्तत्राविचारयन् Mb.12.287.56. -उदकम् 1 voluntary libation of water. -2 a voluntary libation of water to deceased friends exclusive of those who are entitled to it by law; कामोदकं सखिप्रत्तास्वस्रीयश्वशुर- र्त्विजाम् Y.3.4. -उपहत a. affected by or overcome with passion. -कला N. of Rati, the wife of Kāma. -काम, -कामिन् a. following the dictates of love or passion, गतागतं कामकामा लभन्ते Bg.9.21; स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी Bg.2.7. -कार a. acting at will, indulging one's desires. (-रः) 1 voluntary action, spontaneous deed; Rām.2.11.18; Ms.11.41,45. -2 desire, influence of desire; अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते Bg.5. 12. -कूटः 1 the paramour of a harlot. -2 harlotry. -कृत् a. 1 acting at will, acting as one likes. -2 granting or fulfilling a desire. (-m.) the Supreme soul. -केलि a. lustful. (-लिः) 1 a paramour. -2 amorous sport. -3 copulation. -क्रीडा 1 dalliance of love, amorous sport. -2 copulation. -ग a. going of one's own accord, able to act or move as one likes. (-गा) 1 an unchaste or libidinous woman; Y.3.6. -2 a female Kokila. -गति a. able to go to any desired place; अध्यास्त कामगति सावरजो विमानम् R.13.76. -गुणः 1 the quality of passion, affection. -2 satiety, perfect enjoyment. -3 an object of sense. -चर, -चार a. moving freely or unrestrained, wandering at will; सर्वेषु लोकेष्वकामचारो भवति Bṛi. Up.7.25.2; नारदः कामचरः Ku.1.5. -चार a. unchecked, unrestrained. (-रः) 1 unrestrained motion. -2 independent or wilful action, wantonness; न कामचारो मयि शङ्कनीयः R.14.62. -3 one's will or pleasure, free will; अव्यपवृक्ते कामचारः Mbh. on Śiva Sūtra 3.4. कामचारानुज्ञा Sk.; Ms.2.22. -4 sensuality. -5 selfishness. -चारिन् a. 1 moving unrestrained; Me.65. -2 libidinous, lustful. -3 self-willed. (-m.) 1 Garuḍa. -2 a sparrow. -ज a. produced by passion or desire; Ms.7.46,47,5. -जः anger; रथो वेदी कामजो युद्धमग्निः Mb.12.24.27. -जननी betel-pepper (नागवेली). -जानः, -निः See कामतालः. -जित् a. conquering love or passion; R.9.33. (-m.) 1 an epithet of Skanda. -2 of Śiva. -तन्त्रम् N. of a work. -तालः the (Indian) cuckoo. -द a. fulfilling a desire, granting a request or desire. (-दः) an epithet of Skanda and of Śiva. -दहनम् a particular festival on the day of full moon in the month फाल्गुन (Mar. होलिकोत्सव). -दा = कामधेनु q. v. -दर्शन a. looking lovely. -दानम् 1 a gift to one's satisfaction. -2 a kind of ceremony among prostitutes; B. P. -दुघ a. 'milking one's desires', granting every desired object; प्रीता कामदुघा हि सा R.1.81,2.63; Māl.3.11. -दुघा, -दुह् f. a fabulous cow yielding all desires; आयुधानामहं वज्रं धेनूनामस्मि कामधुक् Bg.1.28. स्वर्गे लोके कामधुग्भवति Mbh. on P.VI.1.84. -दूती the female cuckoo. -दृश् f. a woman; विमोचितुं कामदृशां विहारक्रीडामृगो यन्निगडो विसर्गः Bhāg.7.6.17. -देव 1 the god of love. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 N. of Viṣṇu. -दोहिन् a. granting desires. -धर्मः amorous behaviour. -धेनुः f. the cow of plenty, a heavenly cow yielding all desires; कलतिवलती कामधेनू; or कलिवली कामधेनू Vyākraṇa Subhāṣita. -ध्वंसिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -पति, -पत्नी f. Rati, wife of Cupid. -पालः N. of Balarāma; also of Śiva. -प्रद a. granting desires. (-दः) 1 a kind of coitus. -2 the Supreme Being. -प्रवेदनम् expressing one's desire, wish or hope; कच्चित् कामप्रवेदने Ak. -प्रश्नः an unrestrained or free question; स ह कामप्रश्नमेव वव्रे Bṛi. Up.4.3.1. -फलः a species of the mango tree. -ला the plantain tree. -भाज् a. partaking of sensual enjoyment; कामानां त्वा कामभाजं करोमि Kaṭh.1.24. -भोगाः (pl.) sensual gratifications; प्रसक्ताः कामभोगेषु Bg.16.16. -महः a festival of the god of love celebrated on the full-moon day in the month of Chaitra. -मालिन् m. N. of Gaṇeśa. -मूढ, -मोहित a. influenced or infatuated by love; यत्क्रौञ्च- मिथुनादेकमवधीः काममोहितम् U.2.5. -रसः 1 seminal discharge. -2 the spling -रसिक a. lustful, libidinous; क्षणमपि युवा कामरसिकः Bh.3.112. -रूप a. 1 taking any form at will; जानामि त्वां प्रकृतिपुरुषं कामरूपं मघोनः Me.6. -2 beautiful, pleasing. (-पाः) (pl.) a district lying in the east of Bengal (the western portion of Assam); तमीशः कामरूपाणाम् R.4.83,84. -रूपिन् a. 1 taking any form at will; कामान्नी कामरूपी Tait. Up.3.1.5. -2 beautiful. -m. 1 a pole-cat. -2 a boar. -3 a Vidyādhara. -रेखा, -लेखा a harlot, courtezan. -लता membrum virile. -लोल a. overcome with passion, love-stricken. -वरः a gift chosen at will. -वल्लभः 1 the spring. -2 the moon. -3 the mango tree. (-भा) moonlight. -वश a. influenced by love. (-शः) subjection to love. -वश्य n. subject to love. -वाद a. saying anything at will. -विहन्तृ a. disappointing desires. -वीर्य a. 'showing heroism at will,' an epithet of Garuḍa. -वृक्षम् a. paracitical plant. -वृत्त a. addicted to sensual gratification, licentious, dissipated; विशीलः कामवृत्तो वा गुणैर्वा परिवर्जितः । उपचर्यः स्त्रिया साध्व्या सततं देववत्पतिः ॥ Ms. 5.154. -वृत्ति a. acting according to will, self-willed, independent; न कामवृत्तिर्वचनीयमीक्षते Ku.5.82. (-त्तिः) f. 1 free and unrestrained action. -2 freedom of will. -वृद्धिः f. increase of passion. -वृन्तम् the trumpet flower. -शर 1 a love shaft. -2 the mango tree. -शास्त्रम् the science of love, erotic science. -संयोगः attainment of desired objects. -सखः 1 the spring. -2 the month of Chaitra. -3 the mango tree. -सू a. fulfilling any desire. किमत्र चित्रं यदि कामसूर्भूः R.5.33. -m. N. of Vāsudeva. -f. N. of Rukmiṇi; -सूत्रम् 1 N. of an erotic work by Vātsyāyana. -2 'thread of love', love-incident' औद्धत्यमायोजितकामसूत्रम् Māl.1.4. -हैतुक a. produced by mere desire without any real cause; Bg.16.8.
klība क्लीब (व) a. 1 Impotent, neuter, emasculated; Ms. 3.15,4.25; Y.1.223. -2 Unmanly, timid, weak, weak-minded; R.8.84; क्लीबान् पालयिता Mk.9.5. -3 Cowardly. -4 Mean, base. -5 Idle. -6 Of the neuter gender. -7 Desireless (कामहीन); विद्वान्क्लीबः पश्यति प्रीतियोगात् Mb.12.292.23. -बः, -बम् (-वः, -वम्) 1 An impotent man, a eunuch; न मूत्रं फेनिलं यस्य विष्टा चाप्सु निमज्जति । मेढ्रं चोन्मादशुक्राभ्यां हीनं क्लीबः स उच्यते ॥ Kātyāyana quoted in Dāyabhāga. -2 The neuter gender. क्लीबता, क्लैब्यम् (व्यम्) 1 Impotence (lit.); बरं क्लैब्यं पुंसां न च परकलत्राभिगमनम् Pt.1. -2 Unmanliness, timidity, cowardice; क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः पार्थ Bg.2.3. -3 Impotence, powerlessness; यत्रोत्पलदलक्लैब्यमस्त्राण्यापुः सुरद्विषाम् R.12.86.
chucchukabhaṭṭaḥ छुच्छुकभट्टः N. of the author of a लघुवृत्ति on Kātyāyana.
janamejayaḥ जनमेजयः N. of a celebrated king of Hastināpura, son of Parīkṣit, the grandson of Arjuna. [His father died, being bitten by a serpent; and Janamejaya, determined to avenge the injury, resolved to exterminate the whole serpent-race. He accordingly instituted a serpent sacrifice, and burnt down all serpents except Takṣaka, who was saved only by the intercession of the sage Astika, at whose request the sacrifice was closed.. It was to this king that Vaiśampāyana related the Mahābhārata, and the king is said to have listened to it to expiate the sin of killing a Brāhmaṇa.].
juhotiḥ जुहोतिः A technical name for those sacrificial ceremonies to which the verb जुहोति is applied as distinguished from those to which यजति is applied; क्षरन्ति सर्वा वैदिक्यो जुहोतियजतिक्रियाः Ms.2.84. (See Medhātithi and other commentators; सर्वज्ञनारायण shortly renders जुहोति by उपविष्टहोम and यजति by तिष्ठद्धोम. See Āśvalāyana 1. 2.5 also); cf. also जुहोतिरासेचनाधिकः स्यात् MS.4.2.28. यजतिरेवासेचनाधिको जुहोतिः । ŚB. on MS.4.2.28.
dvi द्वि num. a. (Nom. du. द्वौ m., द्वे f., द्वे n.) Two, both; सद्यः परस्परतुलामधिरोहतां द्वे R.5.68. (N. B. In comp. द्वा is substituted for द्वि necessarily before दशन्, विंशति and त्रिंशत् and optionally before चत्वारिंशत्, पञ्चाशत्, षष्टि, सप्तति and नवति, द्वि remaining unchanged before अशीति.) [cf. L. duo, bis or bi in comp.; Gr. duo, dis; Zend dva; A. S. twi.] -Comp. -अक्ष a. two-eyed, binocular. द्व्यक्षीं त्र्यक्षीं ललाटाक्षीम् Mb. -अक्षर a. dissyllabic. (-रः) a word of two syllables. -अङ्गुल a. two fingers long. (-लम्) two fingers' length. -अणुकम् an aggregate or molecule of two atoms, a diad. विषयो द्व्यणुकादिस्तु ब्रह्माण्डान्त उदाहृतः Bhāṣāparichchheda. -अन्तर a. separated by two intermediate links. -अर्थ a. 1 having two senses. -2 ambiguous, equivocal. -3 having two objects in view. ˚कर a. accomplishing two objects; आम्रश्च सिक्तः पितरश्च तृप्ता एका क्रिया द्व्यर्थकरीह लोके Vāyu P. ˚त्वम् the state of having to convey two senses; द्व्यर्थत्वं विप्रतिषिद्धम् MS.7.1.6. -अर्ध a. 1. -अवर a. at least two; द्व्यवरान् भोजयेद् विप्रान् पायसेन यथोचितम् Bhāg.8.16.43. -अशीत a. eighty-second. -अशीतिः f. eighty-two. -अष्टम् copper. ˚सहस्रम् 16. -अहः a period of two days. -आत्मक a. 1 having a double nature. -2 being two. -आत्मकाः m. (pl.) the signs of the zodiac Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces. -आमुष्यायणः 'a son of two persons or fathers', an adopted son who remains heir to his natural father though adopted by another. -आम्नात a. twice mentioned. -आहिक a. recurring every day (fever). -ऋचम् (द्वृचम् or द्व्यर्चम्) a collection of two verses or riks. -एकान्तर a. separated by two or by one (degree); द्व्येकान्तरासु जातानां धर्म्यं विद्यादिमं विधिम् Ms.1.7. कः, -ककारः 1 crow (there being two 'Ka's in the word काक). -2 the ruddy goose (there being two 'Ka's in the word कोक). -ककुद् m. a camel. -कर a. Yielding two senses, serving two purposes; तत्र द्विकरः शब्दः स्यात् । न च सकृदुच्चरितः शक्तो ŚB. on MS.12.1.4. -कार्षापणिक a. worth two कार्षापणs -कौडविक a. containing or worth two कुडवs. -गत a ambiguous. -गु a. exchanged or bartered for two cows. (-गुः) a subdivision of the Tatpuruṣa compound in which the first member is a numeral; द्वन्द्वो द्विगुरपि चाहम् Udb. -गुण a. double, twofold; पितुर्वधव्यसनमिदं हि येन मे चिरादपि द्विगुणमिवाद्य वर्धते Mu.5.6 (द्रिगुणाकृ to plough twice; द्विगुणीकृ to double, increase; द्विगुणीभूत a. double, augmented). -गुणित a. 1 doubled, multiplied by two; वैरोचनैर्द्विगुणिताः सहसा मयूखैः Ki.5.46. -2 folded double. -3 enveloped. -4 doubly increased, doubled. -चरण a. having two legs, two-legged; द्विचरणपशूनां क्षितिभुजाम् Śānti.4.15. -चत्वारिंश a. (द्वि-द्वा-चत्वारिंश) fortysecond. -चत्वारिंशत् f. (द्वि-द्वा चत्वारिंशत्) forty-two. -चन्द्रधी, -मतिः The illusion of seeing two moons due to an eye disease called Timira; N.13.42. -जः 'twice-born' 1 a man of any of the first three castes of the Hindus (a Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya or Vaiśya); मातुर्यदग्रे जायन्ते द्वितीयं मौञ्जिबन्धनात् । ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशस्तस्मादेते द्विजाः स्मृताः Y.1.39. -2 Brāhmaṇa (over whom the Saṁskāras or purificatory rites are performed); जन्मना ब्राह्मणो ज्ञेयः संस्कारै- र्द्विज उच्यते. -3 any oviparous animal, such as a bird, snake, fish &c.; Mb.12.361.5. (द्विजश्रेष्ठ = द्विजाना- मण्डजानां सर्पाणां श्रेष्ठ); स तमानन्दमविन्दत द्विजः N.2.1; Ś.5.22; R.12.22; Mu.1.11; Ms.5.17. -4 a tooth; कीर्णं द्विजानां गणैः Bh.1.13. (where द्विज means 'a Brāhmaṇa' also). -5 A star; L. D. B. -6 A kind of horse; जलोद्भवा द्विजा ज्ञेयाः Aśvachikitsā. -7 A Brahmachārī; Bhāg.11.18.42. ˚अग्ऱ्य a Brāhmaṇa. ˚अयनी the sacred thread worn by the first three castes of the Hindus. ˚आलयः 1 the house of a dvija. -2 a nest. ˚इन्द्रः, ˚ईशः 1 the moon; द्विजेन्द्रकान्तं श्रितवक्षसं श्रिया Śi.12.3. -2 an epithet of Garuḍa. -3 camphor. ˚दासः a Sūdra. ˚देवः 1 a Brāhmaṇa; Bhāg.8.15.37. -2 a sage; Bhāg.3.1.23. -3 N. of Brahmadeva; Bhāg. 5.2.16. ˚पतिः, ˚राजः an epithet of 1 the moon; इत्थं द्विजेन द्विजराजकान्तिः R.5.23. -2 Garuḍa. -3 camphor. ˚प्रपा 1 a trench or basin round the root of a tree for holding water. -2 a trough near a well for watering birds, cattle &c. ˚प्रियः kind of khadira. ˚प्रिया the Soma plant. ˚बन्धुः, ˚ब्रुवः 1 a man who pretends to be a Brāhmaṇa. -2 one who is 'twice-born' or a Brāhmaṇa by name and birth only and not by acts; cf. ब्रह्मबन्धु. ˚मुख्यः a Brāhmaṇa. ˚लिङ्गिन् m. 1 a Kṣatriya. -2 a pseudo-Brāhmaṇa, one disguised as a Brāhmaṇa. ˚वाहनः an epithet of Viṣṇu (having Garuḍa for his vehicle). ˚सेवकः a Sūdra. -जन्मन् a. 1 having two natures. -2 regenerated. -3 oviparous (-m.). -जातिः m. 1 a man of any of the first three castes of the Hindus; एतान् द्विजातयो देशान् संश्रयेरन् प्रयत्नतः Ms.2.24. -2 a Brāhmaṇa. Ki.1.39; Ku.5.4. गुरुरग्निर्द्विजातीनां वर्णानां ब्राह्मणो गुरुः H. -3 a bird. -4 a tooth. -5 A kind of horse; लक्षणद्वयसम्बन्धाद् द्विजातिः स्यात् तुरङ्गमः Yuktikalpataru. -जातीय a. 1 belonging to the first three castes of the Hindus. -2 of a twofold nature. -3 of mixed origin, mongrel. (-यः) a mule. -जानि a having two wives. -जिह्व a. double-tongued (fig. also). -2 insincere. (-ह्वः) 1 a snake; परस्य मर्माविधमुज्झतां निजं द्विजिह्वतादोषमजिह्मगामिभिः Śi.1.63; R.11.64;14.41; Bv.1.2. -2 an informer, a slanderer, tale-bearer. -3 an insincere person -4 a thief. -5 particular disease of the tongue. -ज्या the sine of an arc. -ठः 1 the sign visarga consisting of two dots. -2 N. of Svāhā, wife of Agni. -त्र a. (pl.) two or three; द्वित्राण्यहान्यर्हसि सोढुमर्हन् R.5.25; सूक्ष्मा एव पतन्ति चातकमुखे द्वित्राः पयोबिन्दवः Bh.2.121. -त्रिंश (द्वात्रिंश) a. 1 thirty second. -2 consisting of thirty two. -त्रिंशत् (द्वात्रिंशत्) f. thirty-two. ˚लक्षण a. having thirty-two auspicious marks upon the body. -दण्डि ind. stick against stick. -दत् a. having two teeth (as a mark of age). -दन्तः an elephant. -दल a. having two parts, two-leafed. -दश a. (pl.) twenty. -दश a. (द्वादश) 1 twelfth; गर्भात् तु द्वादशे विशः Ms.2.36. -2 consisting of twelve. -दशन् (द्वादशन्) a. (pl.) twelve. ˚अंशुः, ˚अर्चिस् m. an epithet of 1 the planet Jupiter. -2 Bṛihaspati, the preceptor of the gods. ˚अक्षः, ˚करः, ˚लोचनः epithets of Kārtikeya ˚अक्षरमन्त्रः- विद्या the mantra ऊँ नमो भगवते वासुदेवाय; गन्धधूपादिभिश्चार्चेद्वाद- शाक्षरविद्यया Bhāg.8.16.39. ˚अङ्गुल a measure of twelve fingers. ˚अध्यायी N. of Jaimini's Mimāṁsā in twelve Adhyāyas. ˚अन्यिक a. committing twelve mistakes in reading. ˚अस्र a dodecagon. ˚अहः 1 a period of twelve days; शुध्येद् विप्रो दशाहेन द्वादशाहेन भूमिपः Ms.5.83;11.168. -2 a sacrifice lasting for or completed in twelve days. ˚अक्षः, ˚आख्यः a Buddha. ˚आत्मन् m. the sun; N.1.52. ˚आदित्याः (pl.) the twelve suns; see आदित्य. ˚आयुस् m. a dog. ˚लक्षणी f. the मीमांसासूत्र of जैमिनि (so called because it comprises twelve chapters); धर्मो द्वादशलक्षण्या व्युत्पाद्यः ŚB. on MS. ˚वार्षिक a. 1 twelve years old, lasting for twelve years; Pt.1. ˚विध a. twelve-fold. ˚सहस्र a. consisting of 12. -दशी (द्वादशी) the twelfth day of a lunar fortnight. -द्वादशान्यिक (द्वादशापपाठा यस्य जाताः द्वादशान्यिकः). -दशम् (द्वादशम्)) a collection of twelve, ˚आदित्याः Twelve Ādityas:- विवस्वान्, अर्यमा, पूषन्, त्वष्टा, सविता, _x001F_3भग, धाता, विधाता, वरुण, मित्र, रुद्र, विष्णु. ˚पुत्रा Twelve types of sons according to Dharmaśāstra:-- औरस, क्षेत्रज, दत्तक, कृत्रिम, गूढोत्पन्न, अपविद्ध, कानीन, सहोढ, क्रीत, पौनर्भव, स्वयंदत्त, पारशव. -दाम्नी a cow tied with two ropes. -दिवः a ceremony lasting for two days. -देवतम् the constellation विशाखा. -देहः an epithet of Gaṇesa. -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa. -नग्नकः a circumcised man. -नवत (द्वि-द्वा-नवत) a. ninety-second. -नवतिः(द्वि-द्वा-नवतिः) f. ninety-two. -पः an elephant; यदा किञ्चिज्ज्ञो$हं द्विप इव मदान्धः समभवम् Bh.3.31; विपूर्यमाणश्रवणोदरं द्विपाः Śi. ˚अधिपः Indra's elephant. ˚आस्य an epithet of Gaṇesa. -पक्षः 1 a bird. -2 a month. -पञ्चाश (द्वि-द्वा-पञ्चाश) a. fifty-second. -पञ्चाशत् f. (द्वि-द्वा-पञ्चाशत्) fifty-two. -पथम् 1 two ways. -2 a cross-way, a place where two roads meet. -पद् see द्विपाद् below. -पद a. having two feet (as a verse). -पदः a biped man. -पदिका, -पदी a kind of Prākṛita metre. -पाद्, a. two footed; द्विपाद बहुपादानि तिर्यग् गतिमतीनि च Mb.14.37. -पादः 1 a biped, man. -2 a bird. -3 a god. -पाद्यः, -द्यम् a double penalty. -पायिन् m. an elephant. -फालबद्धः hair parted in two; N.1.16. -बाहुः man; Ks.53.94. -बिन्दुः a Visarga (:). -भातम् twilight. -भुजः an angle. -भूम a. having two floors (as a palace). -भौतिकः a horse possessing two elements out of the five; द्वयोर्लक्षणसंबन्धात् तुरगः स्याद् द्विभौतिकः Yuktikalpataru. -मातृ, -मातृजः an epithet of 1 Gaṇesa. -2 king Jarāsandha. -मात्रः a long vowel (having two syllabic instants); एकमात्रो भवेद् ह्रस्वो द्विमात्रो दीर्घ उच्यते Śikṣā. -मार्गी a cross-away. -मुखा 1 a leech. -2 kind of water-vessel; ˚अहिः, ˚उरगः a doublemouthed snake. -रः 1 a bee; cf. द्विरेफ. -2 = बर्बर q. v. -मुनि ind. the two Munis, Pāṇini and Kātyāyana; द्विमुनि व्याकरणस्य, विद्याविद्यावतारभेदाद् द्विमुनिव्याकरणमित्यपि साधु Sk. -मूर्वा N. of a plant, presumably some hemp. Mātaṅga. L.9.2. -यामी Two night-watches = 6 hours. -रदः an elephant; सममेव समाक्रान्तं द्वयं द्विरदगामिना R.4.4; Me.61. ˚अन्तकः, ˚अराति, ˚अशनः 1 a lion. -2 the Śarabha. -रसनः a snake. -रात्रम् two nights. -रूप a. 1 biform. -2 written in two ways. -3 having a different shape. -4 bi-colour, bipartite. (-पः) 1 a variety of interpretation or reading. -2 a word correctly written in two ways. -रेतस् m. a mule. -रेफः a large black bee (there being two 'Ra's in the word भ्रमर); अनन्तपुष्पस्य मधोर्हि चूते द्विरेफमाला सविशेषसङ्गा Ku.1.27;3.27,36. -लयः (in music) double time (?); साम्य of two things (like गीत and वाद्य); द्विलयान्ते चर्चरी V.4.35/36. -वक्त्रः 1 a double-mouthed serpent. -2 a kind of demon; एकवक्त्रो महावक्त्रो द्विवक्त्रो कालसंनिभः Hariv. -वचनम् the dual number in grammar. -वज्रकः a kind of house or structure with 16 angles (sides). -वर्गः The pair of प्रकृति and पुरुष, or of काम and क्रोध; जज्ञे द्विवर्गं प्रजहौ द्विवर्गम् Bu. Ch.2.41. -वाहिका a wing. -विंश (द्वाविंश) a. twenty-second. -विंशतिः f. (द्वाविंशति) twenty-two. -विध a. of two kinds or sorts; द्विविधः संश्रयः स्मृतः Ms.7.162. -वेश(स)रा a kind of light carriage drawn by mules. -व्याम, -व्यायाम a. two fathoms long. -शतम् 1 two hundred. -2 one hundred and two. -शत्य a. worth or bought for two hundred. -शफ a. clovenfooted. (-फः) any cloven-footed animal. -शीर्षः an epithet of Agni; also द्विशीर्षकः; सप्तहस्तः चतुःशृङ्गः सप्तजिह्वो द्विशीर्षकः Vaiśvadeva. -श्रुति a. comprehending two intervals. -षष् a. (pl.) twice six, twelve. -षष्ट (द्विषष्ट, द्वाषष्ट) a. sixty-second. -षष्टिः f. (-द्विषष्टिः, द्वाषष्टिः) sixty-two. -सन्ध्य a. having a morning and evening twi-light. -सप्तत (द्वि-द्वा-सप्तत) a. seventy-second. -सप्ततिः f. (द्वि-द्वा सप्ततिः) seventy two. -सप्ताहः a fortnight. -सम a. having two equal sides. -समत्रिभुजः an isosceles triangle. -सहस्राक्षः the great serpent Śeṣa. -सहस्र, -साहस्र a. consisting of 2. (-स्रम्) 2. -सीत्य, -हल्य a. ploughed in two ways, i. e. first length-wise and then breadth-wise. -सुवर्ण a. worth or bought for two golden coins. -स्थ (ष्ठ) a. conveying two senses; भवन्ति चद्विष्ठानि वाक्यानि यथा श्वेतो धावति अलम्बुसानां यातेति ŚB. on MS.4.3.4. -हन् m. an elephant. -हायन, -वर्ष a. two years old; शुके द्विहायनं कत्सं क्रौञ्चं हत्वा त्रिहायनम् Ms.11.134. -हीन a. of the neuter gender. -हृदया a pregnant woman. -होतृ m. an epithet of Agni.
pakṣilaḥ पक्षिलः 1 N. of the saint Vātsyāyana. -2 A helper; Gīrvāna.
pratisaṃruddha प्रतिसंरुद्ध p. p. Shrunk, contracted. प्रतिसंलयनम् pratisaṃlayanam संलीनम् saṃlīnam प्रतिसंलयनम् संलीनम् Complele retirement.
pratyāmnāna प्रत्याम्नान a. Representative; यजमानकर्तृत्वेन विधीयन्ते प्रत्याम्नानाश्च ऋत्विजो निवर्तन्ते Kātyāyana S.
pravirala प्रविरल a. Separated by a great interval, isolated, separate. -2 Very few or rare, very scanty; प्रविरला इव मुग्धवधूकथाः R.9.34. प्रविलयः pravilayḥ विलयनम् vilayanam प्रविलयः विलयनम् 1 Melting away. -2 Complete dissolution or absorption.
pravrajyā प्रव्रज्या 1 Going abroad, migration. -2 Roaming, wandering about as a religious mendicant; अतश्च प्रव्रज्या- सुलभसमयाचारविमुखः । प्रसक्तस्ते यत्नः ... Māl.4.6. -3 The order of a religious mendicant, a mendicant's life, the fourth (or भिक्षु) order in the riligious life of a Brāhmaṇa; प्रव्रज्यां कल्पवृक्षा इवाश्रिताः Ku.6.6. (where Malli. says प्रव्रज्या means the वानप्रस्थ or third order). -Comp. -अवसितः a religious mendicant who renounces his order; प्रव्रज्यावसिता यत्र त्रयो वर्णा द्विजोत्तमाः । निर्वासं कारयेद् विप्रं दासत्वं क्षत्रवैश्ययोः ॥ Kātyāyana.
prītiḥ प्रीतिः [प्री भावे क्तिच्] f. Pleasure, happiness, satisfaction, delight, gladness, joy, gratification; निहत्य धार्त- राष्ट्रान् नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन Bg.1.36; Bhāg.1.23.32. भुवनालोकनप्रीतिः Ku.2.45;6.21; R.2.51; Me.64. -2 Favour, kindness. -3 Love, affection, regard; प्रीतिप्रमुख- वचनं स्वागतं व्याजहार Me.4,16; R.1.57;12.54. -4 Liking or fondness for, delight in, addiction to; द्यूत˚, मृगया˚. -5 Friendliness, amity. -6 Conciliation. -7 A symbolical expression for the letter ध. -9 N. of a wife of Cupid and rival of Rati; (स चानङ्गवती वेश्या कामदेवस्य सांप्रतम् । पत्नी, सपत्नी संजाता रत्याः प्रीतिरिति श्रुता ॥ Matsya P.). -1 Longing (अभिलाषा); प्रीतिरेषा कथं रामो राजा स्यान्मयि जीवति ॥ एषा ह्यस्य परा प्रीतिर्हृदि संपरिवर्तते । Rām.2.1.36-37. -11 N. of a श्रुति. -12 The 2nd of the 27 astrological Yogas. -Comp. -कर a. producing love, kind, agreeable. -कर्मन् n. an act of friendship or love, a kind action. -च्छेदः destruction of joy; Mk. -जुषा N. of the wife of अनिरुद्ध. -तृष् m. N. of cupid. -द a. inspiring love; giving pleasure, pleasing. (-दः) a jester or buffoon in a play. -दत्त a. given through affection. (-दत्तम्) property given to a female by her relatives, particularly by her father-in law or mother-in-law at the time of marriage; प्रीत्या दत्तं तु यत् किंचित् श्वश्र्वा वा श्वशुरेण वा । पाद- वन्दनिकं चैव प्रीतिदत्तं तदुच्यते ॥ Kātyāyana. -दानम्, -दायः a gift of love, a friendly present; तदवसरो$यं प्रीतिदायस्य Māl.4; R.15.68. -धनम् money given through love or friendship. -पात्रम् an object of love, any beloved person or object. -पुरोग a. affectionate, loving. -पूर्वम्, पूर्वकम् ind. kindly, affectionately. -प्रमुख a. friendly, affectionate, full of love, kind; Me.4. -भाज् a. 1 enjoying friendship, loved. -2 Contented; स्तनभरनमिताङ्गीरङ्गनाः प्रीति- भाजः Ki.6.47. -मनस् a. 1 delighted in mind, pleased, happy. -2 kind, affectionate. -मय a. arising from love or joy. -युज् a. dear, affectionate, beloved; सखीनिव प्रीति- युजो$नुजीविनः Ki.1.1. -रसायनम् 1 a collyrium made of love; मित्रं प्रीतिरसायनं नयनयोः H.183. -2 Any nectar-like beverage causing joy. -वचस् n., -वचनम् a friendly or kind speech. -वर्धन a. increasing love or joy. (-नः) an epithet of Viṣṇu; प्रियकृत् प्रीतिवर्धनः Viṣṇusahasranāma. -वादः a friendly discussion. -विवाहः a love-marriage, love-match (based purely on love). -श्राद्धम् a sort of Śrāddha or obsequial ceremony performed in honour of the manes of both parents. -संयोगः relation of friendship. -संगतिः friendly alliance. -स्निग्ध a. moist or wet through love (as the eyes).
biḍaujas बिडौजस् m. (वेवेष्टि विट् व्यापकमोजो यस्य बिडौजाः पृषोदरा- दित्वात् वृद्धिः N.5.24 Nārāyana com.); also विडौजस्. An epithet of Indra; तव भवतु बिडौजा प्राज्यवृष्टिः प्रजासु Ś.7.34; तेजसेव बिडौजसः N.17.111.
mahā महा The substitute of महत् at the beginning of Karmadhāraya and Bahuvrīhi compounds, and also at the beginning of some other irregular words. (Note : The number of compounds of which महा is the first member is very large, and may be multiplied ad infinitum. The more important of them, or such as have peculiar significations, are given below.) -Comp. -अक्षः an epithet of Śiva. ˚पटलिक a chief keeper of archives. -अङ्ग a. huge, bulky. -(ङ्गः) 1 a camel. -2 a kind of rat. -3 N. of Śiva. -अञ्जनः N. of a mountain. -अत्ययः a great danger or calamity. -अध्वनिक a. 'having gone a long way', dead. -अध्वरः a great sacrifice. -अनसम् 1 a heavy carriage. -2 cooking utensils. (-सी) a kitchen-maid. (-सः, -सम्) a kitchen; सूपानस्य करिष्यामि कुशलो$स्मि महानसे Mb.4.2.2. -अनिलः a whirlwind; महानिलेनेव निदाघजं रजः Ki.14.59. -अनुभाव a. 1 of great prowess, dignified, noble, glorious, magnanimous, exalted, illustrious; ग्रहीतुमार्यान् परिचर्यया मुहुर्महानु- भावा हि नितान्तमर्थिनः Śi.1.17; Ś.3. -2 virtuous, righteous, just. (-वः) 1 a worthy or respectable person. -2 (pl.) people of a religious sect in Mahārāṣtra founded by Chakradhara in the 13th century. -अन्तकः 1 death. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -अन्धकारः 1 thick darkness. -2 gross (spiritual) ignorance. -अन्ध्राः (pl.) N. of a people and their country. -अन्वय, -अभिजन a. nobly-born, of noble birth. (-यः, -नः) noble birth, high descent. -अभिषवः the great extraction of Soma. -अमात्यः the chief or prime minister (of a king). -अम्बुकः an epithet of Śiva. -अम्बुजम् a billion. -अम्ल a. very sour. (-म्लम्) the fruit of the tamarind tree. अरण्यम् a great (dreary) forest, large forest. -अर्घ a. very costly, costing a high price; महार्घस्तीर्थानामिव हि महतां को$प्यतिशयः U.6.11. (-र्घः) a kind of quail. -अर्घ्य a. 1 valuable, precious. -2 invaluable; inestimable; see महार्ह below. -अर्चिस् a. flaming high. -अर्णवः 1 the great ocean. -2 N. of Śiva. -अर्थ a. 1 rich. -2 great, noble, dignified. -3 important, weighty. -4 significant. -अर्बुदम् one thousand millions. -अर्ह a. 1 very valuable, very costly; महार्हशय्यापरिवर्तनच्युतैः स्वकेशपुष्पैरपि या स्म दूयते Ku.5.12. -2 invaluable, inestimable; महार्हशयनोपेत किं शेषे निहतो भुवि Rām.6.19. 2. (-र्हम्) white sandal-wood. -अवरोहः the fig-tree. -अशनिध्वजः a great banner in the form of the thunderbolt; जहार चान्येन मयूरपत्रिणा शरेण शक्रस्य महाशनि- ध्वजम् R.3.56. -अशन a. voracious, gluttonous; Mb. 4. -अश्मन् m. a precious stone, ruby. -अष्टमी the eighth day in the bright half of Āśvina sacred to Durgā; आश्विने शुक्लपक्षस्य भवेद् या तिथिरष्टमी । महाष्टमीति सा प्रोक्ता ...... -असिः a large sword. -असुरी N. of Durgā. -अह्नः the afternoon. -आकार a. extensive, large, great. -आचार्यः 1 a great teacher. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -आढ्य a. wealthy, very rich. (-ढ्यः) the Kadamba tree. -आत्मन् a. 1 high-souled, high-minded, magnanimous, noble; अयं दुरात्मा अथवा महात्मा कौटिल्यः Mu.7; द्विषन्ति मन्दाश्चरितं महात्मनाम् Ku.5.75; U.1.49; प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् Bh.1.63. -2 illustrious, distinguished, exalted, eminent; किमाचाराः किमाहाराः क्व च वासो महात्मनाम् Mb.3. 1.4. -3 mighty (महाबल); अथायमस्यां कृतवान् महात्मा लङ्केश्वरः कष्टमनार्यकर्म Rām.5.9.74. (-m.) 1 the Supreme Spirit; युगपत्तु प्रलीयन्ते यदा तस्मिन् महात्मनि Ms.1.54. -2 the great principle, i. e. intellect of the Sāṅkhyas. (महात्मवत् means the same as महात्मन्). -आनकः a kind of large drum. -आनन्दः, -नन्दः 1 great joy or bliss. -2 especially, the great bliss of final beatitude. (-न्दा) 1 spirituous liquor. -2 a festival on the ninth day in the bright half of Māgha. -आपगा a great river. -आयुधः an epithet of Śiva. -आरम्भ a. undertaking great works, enterprizing. (-म्भः) any great enterprize. -आलयः 1 a temple in general. -2 a sanctuary, an asylum. -3 a great dwelling. -4 a place of pilgrimage. -5 the world of Brahman. -6 the Supreme Spirit. -7 a tree &c. sacred to a deity. -8 N. of a particular dark fortnight. -9 पितृश्राद्ध in the month of Bhādrapada. (-या) N. of a particular deity. -आशय a. highsouled, nobleminded, magnanimous, noble; दैवात् प्रबुद्धः शुश्राव वराहो हि महाशयः Ks; राजा हिरण्यगर्भो महाशयः H.4; see महात्मन्. (-यः) 1 a noble-minded or magnanimous person; महाशयचक्रवर्ती Bv.1.7. -2 the ocean. -आस्पद a. 1 occupying a great position. -2 mighty, powerful. -आहवः a great or tumultuous fight. -इच्छ a. 1 magnanimous, noble-minded, high-souled, noble; मही महेच्छः परिकीर्य सूनौ R.18.33. -2 having lofty aims or aspirations, ambitious; विद्यावतां महेच्छानां ...... नाश्रयः पार्थिवं विना Pt.1.37. -इन्द्रः 1 'the great Indra', N. of Indra; इयं महेन्द्रप्रभृतीनधिश्रियः Ku.5.53; R.13.2; Ms.7.7. -2 a chief or leader in general. -3 N. of a mountain range; पतिर्महेन्द्रस्य महोदधेश्च R.6.54;4.39,43. ˚चापः rain-bow. ˚नगरी N. of Amarāvatī, the capital of Indra. ˚मन्त्रिन् m. an epithet of Bṛihaspati. ˚वाहः the elephant Airāvata; महेन्द्रवाहप्रतिमो महात्मा Mb.9.17.52. -इभ्य a. very rich. -इषुः a great archer; अधिरोहति गाण्डीवं महेषौ Ki.13.16. -इष्वासः a great archer, a great warrior; अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भामार्जुनसमा युधि Bg.1.4. -ईशः, -ईशानः N. of Śiva; महेशस्त्वां धत्ते शिरसि रसराजस्य जयिनीम् Udb. ˚बन्धुः the Bilva tree. -ईशानी N. of Pārvatī. -ईश्वरः 1 a great lord, sovereign; महेश्वरस्त्र्यम्बक एव नापरः R.; गोप्तारं न निधीनां कथयन्ति महेश्वरं विबुधाः Pt.2.74. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 a god (opp. प्रकृति). -5 the Supreme Being (परमात्मा); मायां तु प्रकृतिं विद्यान्मायिनं तु महेश्वरम् Śvet. Up.4.1. ˚सखः N. of Kubera; यया कैलासभवने महेश्वरसखं बली Mb.9.11.55. (-री) 1 N. of Durgā. -2 a kind of bell-metal. -उक्षः (for उक्षन्) a large bull; a full grown or strong bull; महोक्षतां वत्सतरः स्पृशन्निव R.3.32;4.22;6.72; Śi.5.63. -उत्पलम् a large blue lotus. (-लः) the Sārasa bird. -उत्सवः 1 a great festival or occasion of joy; नयनविषयं जन्मन्येकः स एव महोत्सवः Māl.1.36. -2 the god of love. -उत्साह a. possessed of great energy, energetic, persevering; अहं च कर्णं जानामि ...... सत्यसंधं महोत्साहं ...... Mb.3.91.2. (-हः) 1 perseverance. -2 great pride; ये जात्यादिमहो- त्साहान्नरेन्द्रान्नोपयान्ति च । तेषामामरणं भिक्षा प्रायश्चितं विनिर्मितम् ॥ Pt.1.38. -उदधिः 1 the great ocean; महोदधेः पूर इवेन्दु- दर्शनात् R.3.17. -2 an epithet of Indra. ˚जः a conchshell, shell. -उदय a. very prosperous or lucky, very glorious or splendid, of great prosperity. (-यः) 1 (a) great elevation or rise, greatness, prosperity; नन्दस्त्वतीन्द्रियं दृष्ट्वा लोकपालमहोदयम् Bhāg.1.28.1; अपवर्ग- महोदयार्थयोर्भुवमंशाविव धर्मयोर्गतौ R.8.16. (b) great fortune or good luck. (c) greatness, pre-eminence. -2 final beatitude. -3 a lord, master. -4 N. of the district called Kānyakubja or Kanouja; see App. -5 N. of the capital of Kanouja. -6 sour milk mixed with honey. -7 = महात्मन् q. v.; संसक्तौ किमसुलभं महोदयानाम Ki.7.27. ˚पर्वन् a time of union of the middle of श्रवण नक्षत्र and the end of व्यतिपात (generally in the month of माघ or पौष at the beginning of अमावास्या). -उदर a. big-bellied, corpulent. -(रम्) 1 a big belly. -2 dropsy. -उदार a. 1 very generous or magnanimous. -2 mighty, powerful. -उद्यम a. = महोत्साह q. v; महोद्यमाः कर्म समा- रभन्ते. -उद्योग a. very industrious or diligent, hardworking. -उद्रेकः a particular measure (= 4 प्रस्थs). -उन्नत a. exceedingly lofty. (-तः) the palmyra tree. -उन्नतिः f. great rise or elevation (fig. also), high rank. -उपकारः a great obligation. -उपाध्यायः a great preceptor, a learned teacher. -उरगः a great serpent; वपुर्महोरगस्येव करालफणमण्डलम् R.12.98. -उरस्क a. broad-chested. (-स्कः) an epithet of Śiva. -उर्मिन् m. the ocean; ततः सागरमासाद्य कुक्षौ तस्य महोर्मिणः Mb.3.2.17. -उल्का 1 a great meteor. -2 a great fire-brand. -ऋत्विज् m. 'great priest', N. of the four chief sacrificial priests. -ऋद्धि a. very prosperous, opulent. (-f.) great prosperity or affluence. -ऋषभः a great bull. -ऋषिः 1 a great sage or saint; यस्मादृषिः परत्वेन महांस्त- स्मान्महर्षयः; (the term is applied in Ms.1.34 to the ten Prajāpatis or patriarchs of mankind, but it is also used in the general sense of 'a great sage'). -2 N. of Sacute;iva. -3 of Buddha. -ओघ a. having a strong current. -घः a very large number; शतं खर्व- सहस्राणां समुद्रमभिधीयते । शतं समुद्रसाहस्रं महौघमिति विश्रुतम् ॥ Rām.6.28.37. -ओष्ठ (महोष्ठ) a. having large lips. (-ष्ठः) an epithet of Śiva. -ओजस् a. very mighty or powerful, possessed of great splendour or glory; महौजसा मानधना धनार्चिताः Ki.1.19. (-m.) a great hero or warrior, a champion. (-n.) great vigour. -ओजसम् the discus of Viṣṇu (सुदर्शन). (-सी) N. of plant (Mar. कांगणी). -ओदनी Asparagus Racemosus (Mar. शतावरी). -ओषधिः f. 1 a very efficacious medicinal plant, a sovereign drug. -2 the Dūrvā grass. -3 N. of various plants ब्राह्मी, श्वेतकण्टकारी, कटुका, अतिविष &c. ˚गणः a collection of great or medicinal herbs:-- पृश्निपर्णी श्यामलता भृङ्गराजः शतावरी । गुड्चा सहदेवी च महौषधिगणः स्मृतः ॥ cf. also सहदेवी तथा व्याघ्री बला चातिबला त्वचा । शङ्खपुष्पी तथा सिंही अष्टमी च सुवर्चला ॥ महौषध्यष्टकं प्रोक्तं... . -औषधम् 1 a sovereign remedy, panacea. -2 ginger. -3 garlic. -4 a kind of poison (वत्सनाभ). -कच्छः 1 the sea. -2 N. of Varuṇa. -3 a mountain. -कन्दः garlic. -कपर्दः a kind of shell. -कपित्थः 1 the Bilva tree. -2 red garlic. -कम्बु a. stark naked. (-म्बुः) an epithet of Śiva. -कर a. 1 large-handed. -2 having a large revenue. -कर्णः an epithet of Śiva. -कर्मन् a. doing great works. (-m.) an epithet of Śiva. -कला the night of the new moon. -कल्पः a great cycle of time (1 years of Brahman); Bhāg.7.15.69. -कविः 1 a great poet, a classical poet, such as कालिदास, भवभूति, बाण, भारवि &c. -2 an epithet of Śukra. -कषायः N. of a plant (Mar. कायफळ). -कान्तः an epithet of Śiva. (-ता) the earth. -काय a. big-bodied, big, gigantic, bulky. (-यः) 1 an elephant. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 of a being attending on Śiva (= नन्दि). -कारुणिक a. exceedingly compassionate. -कार्तिकी the night of full-moon in the month of Kārtika. -कालः 1 a form of Śiva in his character as the destroyer of the world; महाकालं यजेद्देव्या दक्षिणे धूम्रवर्णकम् Kālītantram. -2 N. of a celebrated shrine or temple of Śiva (Mahākāla) (one of the 12 celebrated Jyotirliṅgas) established at Ujjayinī (immortalized by Kālidāsa in his Meghadūta, which gives a very beautiful description of the god, his temple, worship &c., together with a graphic picture of the city; cf. Me.3-38; also R.6.34); महाकालनिवासिनं कालीविलासिनमनश्वरं महेश्वरं समाराध्य Dk.1.1. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -4 N. of a kind of gourd. -5 N. of Śiva's servant (नन्दि). ˚पुरम् the city of Ujjayinī. ˚फलम् a red fruit with black seeds; पक्वं महाकालफलं किलासीत् N.22.29. -काली an epithet of Durgā in her terrific form. -काव्यम् a great or classical poem; (for a full description of its nature, contents &c., according to Rhetoricians see S. D.559). (The number of Mahākāvyas is usually said to be five:-रघुवंश, कुमारसंभव, किरातार्जुनीय, शिशुपालवध and नैषधचरित or six, if मेघदूत-- a very small poem or खण़्डकाव्य-- be added to the list. But this enumeration is apparently only traditional, as there are several other poems, such as the भट्टिकाव्य, विक्रमाङ्कदेवचरित, हरविजय &c. which have an equal claim to be considered as Mahākāvyas). -कीर्तनम् a house. -कुमारः the eldest son of a reigning prince, heir-apparent. -कुल, -कुलीन a. of noble birth or descent, sprung from a noble family, nobly born. (-लम्) a noble birth or family, high descent. -कुहः a species of parasitical worm. -कृच्छ्रम् a great penance. -केतुः N. of Śiva. -केशः, -कोशः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 a large sheath. -क्रतुः a great sacrifice; e. g. a horse-sacrifice; तदङ्गमग्ऱ्यं मघवन् महाक्रतोरमुं तुरङ्गं प्रतिमोक्तुमर्हसि R.3.46. -क्रमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -क्रोधः an epithet of Śiva. -क्षत्रपः a great satrap. -क्षीरः sugar-cane. -क्षीरा f. a She-buffalo; Nighaṇṭaratnākara. -खर्वः, -र्वम् a high number (ten billions ?). -गजः a great elephant; see दिक्करिन्. -गणपतिः a form of the god Gaṇeśa. -गदः fever. -गन्ध a. exceedingly fragrant. (-न्धः) a kind of cane. (-न्धम्) a kind of sandalwood. (-न्धा) N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -गर्तः, -गर्भः -गीतः N. of Śiva. -गर्दभगन्धिका N. of a plant, भारङ्गी. -गल a. longnecked. -गवः Bos gavaeus. -गुण a. very efficacious, sovereign (as a medicine); त्वया ममैष संबन्धः कपिमुख्य महागुणः Rām.5.1.12. (-णः) a chief quality, cardinal virtue. -गुरुः a highly respectable or venerable person; (these are three, the father, mother and preceptor; पिता माता तथाचार्यो महागुरुरिति स्मृतः). -गुल्मा the Soma plant. -गृष्टिः f. a cow with a large hump. -ग्रहः 1 an epithet of Rāhu. -2 the sun; महाग्रहग्राहविनष्टपङ्कः Rām.5.5.6. -ग्रामः N. of the ancient capital of Ceylon, the modern Māgama. -ग्रीवः 1 a camel. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -ग्रीविन् m. a camel. -घूर्णा spirituous liquor. -घृतम् ghee kept for a long time (for medicinal purposes). -घोष a. noisy, loud-sounding. (-षम्) a market, fair. (-षः) a loud noise, clamour. -चक्रम् the mystic circle in the शाक्त ceremonial. -चक्रवर्तिन् m. a universal monarch. -चण्डा N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -चपला a kind of metre. -चमूः f. a large army. -छायः the fig-tree. -जङ्घः a camel. -जटः an epithet of Śiva. -जटा 1 a great braid of hair. -2 the matted hair of Śiva. -जत्रु a. having a great collar-bone. (-त्रुः) an epithet of Śiva. -जनः 1 a multitude of men, a great many beings, the general populace or public; महाजनो येन गतः स पन्थाः Mb.3.313. 117; आगम्य तु ततो राजा विसृज्य च महाजनम् 6.98.25. -2 the populace, mob; विलोक्य वृद्धोक्षमधिष्ठितं त्वया महाजनः स्मेरमुखो भविष्यति Ku.5.7. -3 a great man, a distinguished or eminent man; महाजनस्य संसर्गः कस्य नोन्नतिकारकः । पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम् Pt.3.6. -4 the chief of a caste or trade. -5 a merchant, tradesman. -जवः an antelope. -जातीय a. 1 rather large. -2 of an excellent kind. -जालिः, -ली N. of a plant (Mar. सोनामुखी) -जिह्वः an epithet of Śiva. -ज्ञानिन् m. 1 a very learned man. -2 a great sage. -3 N. of Śiva. -ज्यैष्ठी the day of fullmoon in the month of Jyeṣṭha; ताभिर्दृश्यत एष यान् पथि महाज्यैष्ठीमहे मन्महे N.15.89; पूर्णिमा रविवारेण महाज्यैष्ठी प्रकीर्तिता Agni P.121.63. -ज्योतिस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -ज्वरः great affliction. -ज्वाल a. very brilliant or shining. (-लः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 a sacrificial fire. -डीनम् a kind of flight; 'यानं महाडीनमाहुः पवित्रामूर्जितां गतिम्' Mb.8.41.27 (com.). -तपस् m. 1 a great ascetic. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -तलम् N. of one of the seven lower regions; see पाताल. -तारा N. of a Buddhist goddess. -तिक्तः the Nimba tree. -तिथिः the 6th day of a lunation. -तीक्ष्ण a. exceedingly sharp or pungent. (-क्ष्णा) the markingnut plant. -तेजस् a. 1 possessed of great lustre or splendour. -2 very vigorous or powerful, heroic. (-m.) 1 a hero, warrior. -2 fire. -3 an epithet of Kārtikeya. (-n.) quick-silver. -त्याग, -त्यागिन् a. very generous. (-m.) N. of Śiva. -दंष्ट्रः a species of big tiger. -दन्तः 1 an elephant with large tusks. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -दण्डः 1 a long arm. -2 a severe punishment. -दम्भः an epithet of Śiva. -दशा the influence exercised (over a man's destiny) by a predominant planet. -दानम् the gift of gold equal to one's own weight; अथातः संप्रवक्ष्यामि महादानस्य लक्षणम्. -दारु n. the devadāru tree. -दुर्गम् a great calamity; Pt. -दूषकः a kind of grain. -देवः N. of Śiva. (-वी) 1 N. of Pārvatī. -2 the chief queen. -द्रुमः the sacred fig-tree. -द्वारम् a large gate, the chief or outer gate of a temple. -धन a. 1 rich. -2 expensive, costly; हेमदण्डैर्महाधनैः Rām.7. 77.13. (-नम्) 1 gold. -2 incense. -3 a costly or rich dress. -4 agriculture, husbandry. -5 anything costly or precious. -6 great booty. -7 a great battle (Ved.). -धनुस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -धातुः 1 gold. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 lymph. -4 N. of Meru. -धी a. having a great understanding. -धुर्यः a full-grown draught ox. -ध्वजः a camel. -ध्वनिक a. dead. -नग्नः an athlete; Buddh. -नटः an epithet of Śiva; महानटः किं नु ...... तनोति ...... साम्प्रतमङ्गहारम् N.22.7; महानटबाहुनेव बद्धभुजाङ्केन Vās. -नदः a great river. -नदी 1 a great river, such as Gaṅgā, Kṛiṣṇā; मन्दरः पर्वतश्चाक्षो जङ्घा तस्य महानदी Mb.8.34.2; संभूयाम्भोधिमभ्येति महानद्या नगापगा Śi.2.1. -2 N. of a river falling into the bay of Bengal. -नन्दा 1 spirituous liquor. -2 N. of a river. -3 ninth day of the bright half of the month of Māgha; माघमासस्य या शुक्ला नवमी लोकपूजिचा । महानन्देति सा प्रोक्ता ... . -नरकः N. of one of the 21 hells. -नलः a kind of reed. -नवमी the ninth day in the bright half of Āśvina, sacred to the worship of Durgā ततो$नु नवमी यस्मात् सा महानवमी स्मृता. -नाटकम् 'the great drama', N. of a drama, also called Hanumannāṭaka, (being popularly ascribed to Hanumat); thus defined by S. D. :-- एतदेव यदा सर्वैः पताकास्थानकैर्युतम् । अङ्कैश्च दशभिर्धीरा महानाटकमूचिरे ॥ -नाडी sinew, tendon. -नादः 1 a loud sound, uproar. -2 a great drum. -3 a thunder-cloud. -4 a shell. -5 an elephant. -6 a lion. -7 the ear. -8 a camel. -9 an epithet of Śiva. (-दम्) a musical instrument. -नाम्नी 1 N. of a परिशिष्ट of Sāmaveda. -2 (pl.) N. of 9 verses of Sāmaveda beginning with विदा मघवन् विदा. -नायकः 1 a great gem in the centre of a string of pearls. -2 a great head or chief. -नासः an epithet of Śiva. -निद्र a. fast asleep. (-द्रा) 'the great sleep', death. -निम्नम् intestines, abdomen. -नियमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निर्वाणम् total extinction of individuality (according to the Buddhists). -निशा 1 the dead of night, the second and third watches of the night; महानिशा तु विज्ञेया मध्यमं प्रहरद्वयम् -2 an epithet of Durgā. -नीचः a washerman. -नील a. dark-blue. (-लः) a kind of sapphire or emerald; इन्द्रनीलमहानीलमणिप्रवरवेदिकम् Rām.5.9.16; महा- महानीलशिलारुचः Śi.1.16;4.44; R.18.42; Kau. A.2.11. 29. ˚उपलः a sapphire. -नृत्यः, -नेत्रः an epithet of Śiva. -नेमिः a crow. -न्यायः the chief rule. -पक्ष a. 1 having many adherents. -2 having a large family or retinue; महापक्षे धनिन्यार्थे निक्षेपं निक्षिपेद् बुधः Ms.8.179. (-क्षः) 1 an epithet of Garuḍa. -2 a kind of duck. (-क्षी) an owl. -पङ्क्तिः, -पदपङ्क्तिः a kind of metre. -पञ्चमूलम् the five great roots:-- बिल्वो$ग्निमन्थः श्योनाकः काश्मरी पाटला तथा । सर्वैस्तु मिलितैरेतैः स्यान्महापञ्चमूलकम् ॥ -पञ्चविषम् the five great or deadly poisons:-- शृङ्गी च कालकूटश्च मुस्तको वत्सनाभकः । शङ्खकर्णीति योगो$यं महापञ्चविषाभिधः ॥ -पटः the skin. -पथः 1 chief road, principal street, high or main road; संतानकाकीर्णमहापथं तत् Ku.7.3. -2 the passage into the next world, i. e. death. -3 N. of certain mountain-tops from which devout persons used to throw themselves down to secure entrance into heaven. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -5 the long pilgrimage to mount Kedāra. -6 the way to heaven. -7 the knowledge of the essence of Śiva acquired in the pilgrimage to Kedāra. -पथिक a. 1 undertaking great journeys. -2 one receiving Śulka (toll) on the high way; cf. Mb.12.76.6 (com. महापथिकः समुद्रे नौयानेन गच्छन् यद्वा महापथि शुल्कग्राहकः) -पद्मः 1 a particular high number. -2 N. of Nārada. -3 N. of one of the nine treasures of Kubera. -4 N. of the southernmost elephant supporting the world. -5 an epithet of Nanda. -6 a Kinnara attendant on Kubera. (-द्मम्) 1 a white lotus. -2 N. of a city. ˚पतिः N. of Nanda. -पराकः a. a particular penance; Hch. -पराङ्णः a late hour in the afternoon. -पवित्रः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पशुः large cattle; महापशूनां हरणे ... दण्डं प्रकल्पयेत् Ms.8.324. -पातः a long flight; Pt.2.58. -पातकम् 1 a great sin, a heinous crime; ब्रह्महत्या सुरापानं स्तेयं गुर्वङ्गनागमः । महान्ति पातकान्याहुस्तत्संसर्गश्च पञ्चमम् ॥ Ms.1154. -2 any great sin or transgression. -पात्रः a prime minister. -पादः an epithet of Śiva. -पाप्मन् a. very sinful or wicked. -पुराणम् N. of a Purāṇa; महापुराणं विज्ञेयमेकादशकलक्षणम् Brav. P. -पुंसः a great man. -पुरुषः 1 a great man, an eminent or distinguished personage; शब्दं महापुरुषसंविहितं निशम्य U. 6.7. -2 the Supreme Spirit. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पौरुषिकः a worshipper of Viṣṇu; तदहं ते$भिधास्यामि महापौरुषिको भवान् Bhāg.2.1.1. -पुष्पः a kind of worm. -पूजा great worship; any solemn worship performed on extraordinary occasions. -पृष्ठः a camel. -पोटगलः a kind of large reed. -प्रजापतिः N. of Viṣṇu. -प्रतीहारः a chief door-keeper. -प्रपञ्चः the great universe. -प्रभ a. of great lustre. (-भः) the light of a lamp. -प्रभुः 1 a great lord. -2 a king, sovereign. -3 a chief. -4 an epithet of Indra. -5 of Śiva -6 of Viṣṇu. -7 a great saint or holy man. -प्रलयः 'the great dissolution', the total annihilation of the universe at the end of the life of Brahman, when all the lokas with their inhabitants, the gods, saints &c. including Brahman himself are annihilated; महाप्रलयमारुत ...... Ve.3.4. -प्रश्नः a knotty question. -प्रसादः 1 a great favour. -2 a great present (of food offered to an idol); पादोदकं च निर्माल्यं नैवेद्यं च विशेषतः । महाप्रसाद इत्युक्त्वा ग्राह्यं विष्णोः प्रयत्नतः -प्रस्थानम् 1 departing this life, death. -2 setting out on a great journey for ending life; इहैव निधनं याम महाप्रस्थानमेव वा Rām.2.47.7 (com. महाप्रस्थानं मरणदीक्षा- पूर्वकमुत्तराभिमुखगमनम्); Mb.1.2.365. -प्राणः 1 the hard breathing or aspirate sound made in the pronunciation of the aspirates. -2 the aspirated letters themselves (pl.); they are:-ख्, घ्, छ्, झ्, ठ्, ढ्, थ्, ध्, फ्, भ्, श्, ष्, स्, ह्. -3 a raven. -प्राणता possession of great strength or essence; अन्यांश्च जीवत एव महाप्राणतया स्फुरतो जग्राह K. -प्रेतः a noble departed spirit. -प्लवः a great flood, deluge; ... क्षिप्तसागरमहाप्लवामयम् Śi.14.71. -फल a. 1 bearing much fruit. -2 bringing much reward. (-ला) 1 a bitter gourd. -2 a kind of spear. (-लम्) 1 a great fruit or reward. -2 a testicle. -फेना the cuttle-fish bone. -बन्धः a peculiar position of hands or feet. -बभ्रुः a kind of animal living in holes. -बल a. very strong; नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद्राज्यं महाबलः Rām (-लः) 1 wind, storm. -2 a Buddha. -3 a solid bamboo. -4 a palm. -5 a crocodile. -बला N. of a plant; महाबला च पीतपुष्पा सहदेवी च सा स्मृता Bhāva. P. (-लम्) lead. ˚ईश्वरः N. of a Liṅga of Śiva near the modern Mahābaleśwara. -बाध a. causing great pain or damage. -बाहु a. long-armed, powerful. (-हुः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -बि(वि)लम् 1 the atmosphere. -2 the heart. -3 a water-jar, pitcher. -4 a hole, cave. -बिसी a variety of skin (चर्म), a product of द्वादशग्राम in the Himālayas. -बी(वी)जः an epithet of Śiva. -बी (वी)ज्यम् the perinæum. -बुध्न a. having a great bottom or base (as a mountain). -बुशः barley. -बृहती a kind of metre. -बोधिः 1 the great intelligence of a Buddha. -2 a Buddha. -ब्रह्मम्, -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit. -ब्राह्मणः 1 a great or learned Brāhmaṇa. -2 a low or contemptible Brāhmaṇa. -भटः a great warrior; तदोजसा दैत्यमहाभटार्पितम् Bhāg. -भद्रा N. of the river Gaṅgā. -भाग a. 1 very fortunate or blessed, very lucky or prosperous. -2 illustrious, distinguished, glorious; उभौ धर्मौ महाभागौ Mb.12.268.3; महाभागः कामं नरपतिरभिन्नस्थितिरसौ Ś.5.1; Ms.3.192. -3 very pure or holy, highly virtuous; पतिव्रता महाभागा कथं नु विचरिष्यति Mb.4.3.16. -भागता, -त्वम्, -भाग्यम् 1 extreme good fortune, great good luck, prosperity. -2 great excellence or merit. -भागवतम् the great Bhāgavata, one of the 18 Purāṇas. (-तः) a great worshipper of Viṣṇu. -भागिन् a. very fortunate or prosperous. -भाण्डम् a chief treasury. -भारतम् N. of the celebrated epic which describes the rivalries and contests of the sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu. (It consists of 18 Parvans or books, and is said to be the composition of Vyāsa; cf. the word भारत also); महत्त्वाद्भारतत्वाच्च महाभारतमुच्यते -भाष्यम् 1 a great commentary. -2 particularly, the great commentary of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini. -भासुरः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -भिक्षुः N. of Śākyamuni. -भीता a kind of sensitive plant (लाजाळू). -भीमः an epithet of king Śantanu. -भीरुः a sort of beetle or fly. -भुज a. long-armed, powerful. -भूतम् a great or primary element; see भूत; तस्यैतस्य महाभूतस्य निःश्वसितमेतद्यदृग्वेदः Up.; तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना R.1. 29; Ms.1.6. (-तः) 1 the Supreme Being. -2 a great creature. -भोगः 1 a great enjoyment. -2 a great coil or hood; great winding. -3 a serpent. (-गा) an epithet of Durgā. -मणिः 1 a costly or precious jewel; संस्कारोल्लिखितो महामणिरिव क्षीणो$पि नालक्ष्यते Ś.6.5. -2 N. of Śiva. -मति a. 1 high-minded. -2 clever. (-तिः) N. of Bṛihaspati or Jupiter. -मत्स्यः a large fish, sea-monster. -मद a. greatly intoxicated. (-दः) an elephant in rut. -मनस्, -मनस्क a. 1 high-minded, nobleminded, magnanimous; ततो युधिष्ठिरो राजा धर्मपुत्रो महामनाः Mb.4.1.7. -2 liberal. -3 proud, haughty. (-m) a fabulous animal called शरभ q. v. -मन्त्रः 1 any sacred text of the Vedas. -2 a great or efficacious charm, a powerful spell. -मन्त्रिन् m. the prime-minister, premier. -मयूरी N. of Buddhist goddess. -मलहारी a kind of Rāgiṇi. -महः a great festive procession; Sinhās. -महस् n. a great light (seen in the sky). -महोपाध्यायः 1 a very great preceptor. -2 a title given to learned men and reputed scholars; e. g. महामहो- पाध्यायमल्लिनाथसूरि &c. -मांसम् 'costly flesh', especially human flesh; न खलु महामांसविक्रयादन्यमुपायं पश्यामि Māl.4; अशस्त्रपूतं निर्व्याजं पुरुषाङ्गोपकल्पितम् । विक्रीयते महामांसं गृह्यतां गृह्यतामिदम् 5.12 (see Jagaddhara ad loc.). -माघी the full-moon day in the month of Māgha. -मात्र a. 1 great in measure, very great or large. -2 most excellent, best; वृष्ण्यन्धकमहामात्रैः सह Mb.1.221.27; 5.22.37. (-त्रः) 1 a great officer of state, high stateofficial, a chief minister; (मन्त्रे कर्मणि भूषायां वित्ते माने परिच्छदे । मात्रा च महती येषां महामात्रास्तु ते स्मृताः); Ms. 9.259; गूढपुरुषप्रणिधिः कृतमहामात्रापसर्पः (v. l. महामात्यापसर्पः) पौरजानपदानपसर्पयेत् Kau. A.1.13.9; Rām.2.37.1. -2 an elephant-driver or keeper; मदोन्मत्तस्य भूपस्य कुञ्जरस्य च गच्छतः । उन्मार्गं वाच्यतां यान्ति महामात्राः समीपगाः ॥ Pt.1.161. -3 a superintendent of elephants. (-त्री) 1 the wife of a chief minister. -2 the wife of a spiritual teacher. -मानसी N. of a Jain goddess. -मान्य a. being in great honour with; मकरन्दतुन्दिलानामरविन्दानामयं महामान्यः Bv.1.6. -मायः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -माया 1 worldly illusion, which makes the material world appear really existent. -2 N. of Durgā; महामाया हरेश्चैषा यया संमोह्यते जगत् Devīmāhātmya. -मायूरम् a particular drug. (-री) N. of an amulet and a goddess; Buddh. -मारी 1 cholera, an epidemic. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -मार्गः high road, main street. ˚पतिः a superintendent of roads. -मालः N. of Śiva. -माहेश्वरः a great worshipper of Maheśvara or Śiva. -मुखः a crocodile. -मुद्रा a particular position of hands or feet (in practice of yoga). -मुनिः 1 a great sage. -2 N. of Vyāsa. -3 an epithet of Buddha. -4 of Agastya. -5 the coriander plant. (-नि n.) 1 coriander seed. -2 any medicinal herb or drug. -मूर्तिः N. of Viṣṇu. -मूर्धन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -मूलम् a large radish. (-लः) a kind of onion. -मूल्य a. very costly. (-ल्यः) a ruby. -मृगः 1 any large animal. -2 an elephant, -3 the fabulous animal called शरभ. -मृत्युः, -मेधः N. of Śiva. -मृत्युंजयः a kind of drug. -मृधम् a great battle. -मेदः the coral tree; महामेदाभिधो ज्ञेयः Bhāva. P. -मेधा an epithet of Durgā. -मोहः great infatuation or confusion of mind. (ससर्ज) महामोहं च मोहं च तमश्चाज्ञानवृत्तयः Bhāg.3.12.2. (-हा) an epithet of Durgā. -यज्ञः 'a great sacrifice', a term applied to the five daily sacrifices or acts of piety to be performed by a house-holder; अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः पितृयज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् । होमो दैवो (or देवयज्ञः) बलिर्भौतो (or भूतयज्ञः) नृयज्ञो$तिथिपूजनम् ॥ Ms.3.7,71, (for explanation, see the words s. v.). -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -यमकम् 'a great Yamaka', i. e. a stanza all the four lines of which have exactly the same words, though different in sense; e. g. see Ki.15.52, where विकाशमीयुर्जगतीशमार्गणाः has four different senses; cf. also बभौ मरुत्वान् विकृतः समुद्रः Bk.1.19. -यशस् a. very famous, renowned, celebrated. -यात्रा 'the great pilgrimage', the pilgrimage to Benares. -यानम् N. of the later system of Buddhist teaching, firstly promulgated by Nāgārjuna (opp. हीनयान). -याम्यः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -युगम् 'a great Yuga', consisting of the four Yugas of mortals, or comprising 4,32, years of men. -योगिन् m. 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -3 a cock. -योनिः f. excessive dilation of the female organ. -रक्तम् coral. -रङ्गः a large stage. -रजतम् 1 gold; उच्चैर्महारजतराजिविराजितासौ Śi.4.28. -2 the thorn-apple. -रजनम् 1 safflower. -2 gold. -3 turmeric; तस्य हैतस्य पुरुषस्य रूपं यथा महारजनं वासः Bṛi. Up.2.3.6. -रत्नम् 1 a precious jewel; वज्रं मुक्ता प्रवालं च गोमेदश्चेन्द्रनीलकः ॥ वैडूर्यः पुष्करागश्च पाचिर्माणिक्यमेव च । महारत्नानि चैतानि नव प्रोक्तानि सूरिभिः ॥ Śukra.4.155-56. -रथः 1 a great chariot. -2 a great warrior or hero; द्रुपदश्च महारथः Bg.1.4; कुतः प्रभावो धनंजयस्य महारथजयद्रथस्य विपत्तिमुत्पादयितुम् Ve.2; दशरथः प्रशशास महारथः R.9.1; Śi.3.22; (a महारथ is thus defined:-- एको दशसहस्राणि योधयेद्यस्तु धन्विनाम् ॥ शस्त्रशास्त्र- प्रवीणश्च विज्ञेयः स महारथः ॥). -3 desire, longing; cf. मनोरथ. -रवः a frog. -रस a. very savoury. (-सः) 1 a sugarcane. -2 quicksilver. -3 a precious mineral. -4 the fruit of the date tree. -5 any one of the eight substances given below :-दरदः पारदं शस्ये वैक्रान्तं कान्तमभ्रकम् । माक्षिकं विमलश्चेति स्युरेते$ष्टौ महारसाः ॥ (-सम्) sour ricewater. -राजः 1 a great king, sovereign or supreme ruler; पञ्चाशल्लक्षपर्यन्तो महाराजः प्रकीर्तितः Śukra.1.184. -2 a respectful mode of addressing kings or other great personages (my lord, your majesty, your highness); इति सत्यं महाराज बद्धो$स्म्यर्थेन कौरवैः Mb. -3 a deified Jaina teacher. -4 a fingernail. ˚अधिराजः a universal emperor, paramount sovereign. ˚चूतः a kind of mango tree. -राजिकः N. of Viṣṇu. -राजिकाः (m. pl.) an epithet of a class of gods (said to be 22 or 236 in number.). -राज्यम् the rank or title of a reigning sovereign. -राज्ञी 1 the reigning or chief queen, principal wife of a king. -2 N. of Durgā. -रात्रम् midnight, dead of night. -रात्रिः, -त्री f. 1 see महाप्रलय; ब्रह्मणश्च निपाते च महाकल्पो भवेन्नृप । प्रकीर्तिता महारात्रिः. -2 midnight. -3 the eighth night in the bright half of Āśvina. -राष्ट्रः 'the great kingdom', N. of a country in the west of India, the country of the Marāṭhās. -2 the people of Mahārāṣṭra; the Marāṭhās (pl.). (-ष्ट्री) N. of the principal Prākṛita; dialect, the language of the people of the Mahārāṣṭra; cf. Daṇḍin:-महाराष्ट्राश्रयां भाषां प्रकृष्टं प्राकृतं विदुः Kāv.1.34. -रिष्टः a kind of Nimba tree growing on mountains. -रुज्, -ज a. very painful. -रुद्रः a form of Śiva. -रुरुः a species of antelope. -रूप a. mighty in form. (-पः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 resin. -रूपकम् a kind of drama. -रेतस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -रोगः a dangerous illness, grievous malady; (these are eight :-उन्मादो राजयक्ष्मा च श्वासस्त्वग्दोष एव च । मधुमेहश्चाश्मरी च तथो- दरभगन्दरौ ॥). -रौद्र a. very dreadful. (-द्री) an epithet of Durgā. -रौरवः N. of one of the 21 hells; Ms.4.88-9. -लक्ष्मी 1 the great Lakṣmī, or Śakti of Nārāyaṇa; सेवे सैरिभमर्दिनीमिह महालक्ष्मीं सरोजस्थिताम्. -2 a young girl who represents the goddess Durgā at the Durgā festival. -लयः 1 a great world destruction. -2 the Supreme Being (महदादीनां लयो यस्मिन्). -लिङ्गम् the great Liṅga or Phallus. (-ङ्गः) an epithet of Śiva. -लोलः a crow. -लोहम् a magnet. -वंशः N. of a wellknown work in Pali (of the 5th century). -वक्षस् m. epithet of Śiva. -वनम् a large forest in Vṛindāvana. -वरा Dūrvā grass. -वराहः 'the great boar', an epithet of Viṣṇu in his third or boar incarnation. -वर्तनम् high wages; -वल्ली 1 the Mādhavī creeper. -2 a large creeping plant. -वसः the porpoise. -वसुः silver; Gīrvāṇa. -वाक्यम् 1 a long sentence. -2 any continuous composition or literary work. -3 a great proposition, principal sentence; such as तत्त्वमसि, ब्रह्मैवेदं सर्वम् &c. -4 a complete sentence (opp. अवान्तरवाक्य q. v.); न च महावाक्ये सति अवान्तरवाक्यं प्रमाणं भवति ŚB. on MS.6.4.25. -वातः a stormy wind, violent wind; महावातातैर्महिषकुलनीलैर्जलधरैः Mk.5.22. -वादिन् m. a great or powerful disputant. -वायुः 1 air (as an element). -2 stormy wind, hurricane, tempest. -वार्तिकम् N. of the Vārtikas of Kātyāyana on Pāṇini's Sūtras. -विडम् a kind of factitious salt. -विदेहा N. of a certain वृत्ति or condition of the mind in the Yoga system of philosophy. -विद्या the great lores; काली तारा महाविद्या षोडशी भुवनेश्वरी । भैरवी छिन्नमस्ता च विद्या धूमवती तथा । बगला सिद्धविद्या च मातङ्गी कमला- त्मिका । एता दश महाविद्याः ... ॥ -विपुला a kind of metre. -विभाषा a rule giving a general option or alternative; इति महाविभाषया साधुः. -विभूतिः an epithet of Śiva. -विषः a serpent having two mouths. -विषुवम् the vernal equinox. ˚संक्रान्तिः f. the vernal equinox (the sun's entering the sign Aries). -विस्तर a. very extensive or copious. -वीचिः N. of a hell. -वीरः 1 a great hero or warrior. -2 a lion. -3 the thunderbolt of Indra. -4 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -5 of Garuḍa. -6 of Hanumat. -7 a cuckoo. -8 a white horse. -9 a sacrificial fire. -1 a sacrificial vessel. -11 a kind of hawk. ˚चरितम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti. -वीर्य a. of great valour, very powerful. (-र्यः) 1 N. of Brahman. -2 the Supreme Being. (-र्या) the wild cotton shrub. -2 an epithet of संज्ञा, the wife of the sun. -वृषः a great bull. -वेग a. 1 very sw
muniḥ मुनिः [मन्-इन् उच्च Uṇ.4.122] 1 A sage, a holy man, saint, devotee, an ascetic; मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः Bg.1. 37; दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः । वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थित- धीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥ 2.56; पुण्यः शब्दो मुनिरिति मुहुः केवलं राजपूर्वः Ś.2.15; R.1.8;3.49. -2 N. of the sage Agastya. -3 Of Vyāsa; Mb.6.119.4. -4 Of Buddha. -5 of Pāṇini. -6 N. of several plants (पियालु, पराशर and दमनक). -7 The internal conscience (according to Kull. on Ms.8.91 'the Supreme Spirit'). -8 The mango-tree. -9 The number 'seven'. -pl. The seven sages. -Comp. -अन्नम् (pl.) the food of ascetics, (कन्दफलादि); देशे काले च संप्राप्ते मुन्यन्नं हरिदैवतम् Bhāg.7. 15.5. -इन्द्रः 1 'the lord of the sages', a great sage. -2 an epithet of Śākyamuni. -3 of Bharata. -4 of Śiva. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः 1 a great sage. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -3 of Buddha. -च्छदः Alstonia Scholaris (Mar. सातवीण). -त्रयम् 'the triad of sages', i. e. Pāṇini, Kātyāyana, and Patañjali (who are considered to be inspired saints); मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य, or त्रिमुनि व्याकरणम् Sk. -दारकः, -कुमारः a young sage. -द्रुमः the Śyonāka tree. -धान्यम् a kind of wild grain (Mar. देवभात). -परंपरा uninterrupted tradition. -पित्तलम् copper. -पुङ्गवः a great or eminent sage. -पुत्रकः 1 a wagtail. -2 the damanaka tree. -प्रियः Panicum Miliaceum (Mar. नीवार, काङ्ग). -भेषजम् 1 the fruit of the yellow myrobalan. -2 fasting. -वृत्ति a. leading an ascetic life; वार्द्धके मुनि- वृत्तीनाम् R.1.8. -व्रतम् an ascetic vow; keeping silence; मुनिव्रतैस्त्वामतिमात्रकर्शिताम् Ku.5.48; मुनिव्रतमथ त्यक्त्वा निश्चक्रामाम्बिकागृहात् Bhāg.1.53.51.
medhā मेधा [मेध्-अञ्] (changed to मेधस् in Bah. comp. when preceded by सु, दुस् and the negative particle अ) 1 Retentive faculty, retentiveness (of memory); धी- र्धारणावती मेधा Ak. -2 Intellect, intelligence in general; यत् सप्तान्नानि मेधया तपसाजनयत् पिता Bṛi. Up.1.5.1; Bg. 1.34; आयुष्मन्तं सुतं सूते यशोमेधासमन्वितम् Ms.3.263; Y. 3.173. -3 A form of Sarasvathī. -4 A sacrifice. -5 Strength, power (Ved.). -Comp. -अतिथिः N. of a learned commentator on Manusmṛiti. -जननम् N. of a rite for producing mental and bodily strength. -जित् m. an epithet of Kātyāyana. -रुद्रः an epithet of Kālidāsa.
mlecchaḥ म्लेच्छः [म्लेच्छ्-घञ्] 1 A barbarian, a non-Āryan (one not speaking the Sanskṛit language, or not conforming to Hindu or Āryan institutions), a foreigner in general; ग्राह्या म्लेच्छप्रसिद्धिस्तु विरोधादर्शने सति J. N. V.; म्लेच्छान् मूर्छयते; or म्लेच्छनिवहनिधने कलयसि करवालम् Gīt.1. -2 An outcast, a very low man; (Baudhāyana thus defines the word:-- गोमांसखादको यस्तु विरुद्धं बहु भाषते । सर्वा- चारविहीनश्च म्लेच्छ इत्यभिधीयते ॥). -3 A sinner, wicked person. -4 Foreign or barbarous speech. -च्छम् 1 Copper. -2 Vermilion. -Comp. -आख्यम् copper. -आशः wheat. -आस्यम्, -मुखम् copper. -कन्दः garlic. -जातिः f. a savage or barbarian race, a mountaineer; पुलिन्दा नाहला निष्ट्याः शबरा वरुटा भटाः । माला भिल्लाः किराताश्च सर्वे$पि म्लेच्छजातयः ॥ Abh. Chin.934. -देशः, -मण्डलम् a country inhabited by non-Āryans or barbarians, a foreign or barbarous country; कृष्णसारस्तु चरति मृगो यत्र स्वभावतः । स ज्ञेयो यज्ञियो देशो म्लेच्छदेशस्त्वतः परः ॥ Ms.2.23. -द्विष्टः bdellium. -भाषा a foreign language. -भोजनः wheat. (-नम्) barley. -वाच् a. speaking a barbarous or foreign language; म्लेच्छवाचश्चार्यवाचः सर्वे ते दस्यवः स्मृताः Ms.1.45.
yajñaḥ यज्ञः [यज्-भावे न] 1 A sacrifice, sacrificial rite; any offering or oblation; यज्ञेन यज्ञमयजन्त देवाः; तस्माद्यज्ञात् सर्वहुतः &c.; यज्ञाद् भवति पर्जन्यो यज्ञः कर्मसमुद्भवः Bg.3.14. -2 An act of worship, any pious or devotional act. (Every householder, but particularly a Brāhmaṇa, has to perform five such devotional acts every day; their names are :-- भूतयज्ञ, मनुष्ययज्ञ, पितृयज्ञ, देवयज्ञ, and ब्रह्मयज्ञ, which are collectively called the five 'great sacrifices'; see महायज्ञ, and the five words separately.) -3 N. of Agni. -4 Of Viṣṇu; ऋषयो यैः पराभाव्य यज्ञघ्नान् यज्ञमीजिरे Bhāg.3.22.3. -Comp. -अंशः a share of sacrifice ˚भुज् m. a deity, god; निबोध यज्ञांशभुजामिदानीम् Ku.3.14. -अ(आ)गारः, -रम् a sacrificial hall. -अङ्गम् 1 a part of a sacrifice. -2 any sacrificial requisite, a means of a sacrifice; यज्ञाङ्गयोनित्वमवेक्ष्य यस्य Ku.1.17. (-गः) 1 the glomerous figtree (उदुम्बर). -2 the Khadira tree. -3 N. of Viṣṇu. -4 the black-spotted antelope. -अन्तः 1 the completion of a sacrifice. -2 an ablution at the end of a sacrifice for purification. -3 a supplementary sacrifice. ˚कृत् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -अरिः an epithet of Śiva. -अर्ह a. 1 deserving sacrifice. -2 fit for a sacrifice. (-m. dual) an epithet of the Aśvins. -अवयवः N. of Viṣṇu. -अशनः a god. -आत्मन् m. -ईश्वरः N. of Viṣṇu. -आयुधम् an implement of a sacrifice. These are said to be ten in number; स्पयश्च कपालानि च अग्निहोत्रहवणी च शूर्पं च कृष्णाजिनं च शम्या चोलूखलं च मुसलं च दृषच्चोपला एतानि वै दश यज्ञायुधानीति (quoted in ŚB. on MS.4.7.) -ईशः 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 of the sun. -इष्टम् a kind of grass (दीर्घरोहिततृण). -उपकरणम् any utensil or implement necessary for a sacrifice. -उपवीतम् the sacred thread worn by members of the first three classes (and now even of other lower castes) over the left shoulder and under the right arm; see Ms.2.63; वामांसावलम्बिना यज्ञोपवीतेनोद्भासमानः K.; कौशं सूत्रं त्रिस्त्रिवृतं यज्ञोपवीतम् ...... Baudhāyana; (originally यज्ञोपवीत was the ceremony of investiture with the sacred thread). -उपासक a. performing sacrifices. -कर्मन् a. engaged in a sacrifice. (-n.) a sacrificial rite. -कल्प a. of the nature of a sacrifice or sacrificial offering. -कालः the last lunar day of every fortnight (full-moon and newmoon). -कीलकः a post to which the sacrificial victim is fastened. -कुण्डम् a hole in the ground made for receiving the sacrificial fire. -कृत् a. performing a sacrifice. (-m.) 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 a priest conducting a sacrifice. -क्रतुः 1 a sacrificial rite; Ait. Br.7.15. -2 a complete rite or chief ceremony. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu; ईजे च भगवन्तं यज्ञक्रतुरूपम् Bhāg.5.7.5. -क्रिया a sacrificial rite. -गम्य a. accessible by sacrifice (Viṣṇu). -गुह्यः N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -घ्नः a demon who interrupts a sacrifice. -त्रातृ m. N. of Viṣṇu. -दक्षिणा a sacrificial gift, the fee given to the priests who perform a sacrifice. -दीक्षा 1 admission or initiation to a sacrificial rite. -2 performance of a sacrifice; (जननम्) तृतीयं यज्ञदीक्षायां द्विजस्य श्रुतिचोदनात् Ms.2.169. -द्रव्यम् anything (e. g. a vessel) used for a sacrifice. -द्रुह् m. an evil spirit, a demon. -धीर a. conversant with worship or sacrifice. -पतिः 1 one who institutes a sacrifice. See यजमान. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -पत्नी the wife of the institutor of a sacrifice. -पशुः 1 an animal for sacrifice, a sacrificial victim. -2 a horse. -पात्रम्, -भाण्डम् a sacrificial vessel. -पुंस्, -पुमान् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -पुरुषः, -फलदः epithets of Viṣṇu. -बाहुः N. of Agni. -भागः 1 a portion of a sacrifice, a share in the sacrificial offerings. -2 a god, deity. ˚ईश्वरः N. of Indra. ˚भुज् m. a god, deity. -भावनः N. of Viṣṇu. -भावित a. honoured with sacrifice; इष्टान् भोगान् हि वो देवा दास्यन्ते यज्ञभाविताः Bg.3.12. -भुज् m. a god. -भूमिः f. a place for sacrifice, a sacrificial ground. -भूषणः white darbha grass. -भृत् m. an epithet of Viṣṇu. -भोक्तृ m. an epithet of Viṣṇu or Kṛiṣṇa. -महीत्सवः a great sacrificial caremony. -योगः the Udumbara tree. -रसः, -रेतस् n. Soma. -वराहः Viṣṇu in his boar incarnation. -वल्लिः, -ल्ली f. the Soma plant. -वाटः a place prepared and enclosed for a sacrifice. -वाह a. conducting a sacrifice. -वाहनः 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 a Brahmaṇa. -3 N. of Śiva. -वीर्यः N. of Viṣṇu. -वृक्षः the fig-tree. -वेदिः, -दी f. the sacrificial altar. -शरणम् a sacrificial shed or hall, a temporary structure under which a sacrifice is performed ; M.5. -शाला a sacrificial hall. -शिष्टम्, -शेषः -षम् the remains of a sacrifice; यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः सन्तो मुच्यन्ते सर्वकिल्बिषैः Bg.3.13; यज्ञशेषं तथामृतम् Ms.3.285. -शील a. zealously performing sacrifice; यद् धनं यज्ञशीलानां देवस्वं तद् विदुर्बुधाः Ms.11.2. -श्रेष्ठा the Soma plant. -संस्तरः the act of setting up the sacrificial bricks; यज्ञ- संस्तरविद्भिश्च Mb.1.7.42. -सदस् n. a number of people at a sarifice. -संभारः materials necessary for a sacrifice. -सारः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -सिद्धिः f. the completion of a sacrifice. -सूत्रम् see यज्ञोपवीत; अन्यः कृष्णाजिन- मदाद् यज्ञसूत्रं तथापरः Rām.1.4.21. -सेनः an epithet of king Drupada. -स्थाणुः a sacrificial post. -हन् m., -हनः epithets of Śiva. -हुत् m. a sacrificial priest.
rāsabhaḥ रासभः [रासेः अभच् Uṇ.3.124] An ass, a donkey. रासायन rāsāyana रासायनिक rāsāyanika रासायन रासायनिक Relating to रसायन.
lakṣaṇam लक्षणम् [लक्ष्यते$नेन लक्ष्-करणे ल्युट् Uṇ.3.8.] 1 A mark, token, sign, indication, characteristic, distinctive mark; वधूदुकूलं कलहंसलक्षणम् Ku.5.67; अनारम्भो हि कार्याणां प्रथमं बुद्धिलक्षणम् Subhāṣ; उपकारापकारौ हि लक्ष्यं लक्षण- मेतयोः H.4.15; अव्याक्षेपो भविष्यन्त्याः कार्यसिद्धेर्हि लक्षणम् R.1.6;19.47; गर्भलक्षण Ś.5; पुरुषलक्षणम् 'the sign or organ of virility'. -2 A symptom (of a disease). -3 An attribute, a quality. -4 A definition, accurate description; असाधारणधर्मो लक्षणम्; नामधेयेन पदार्थमात्रस्याभि- धानमुद्देशः, तत्रोद्दिष्टस्यातत्त्वव्यवच्छेदको धर्मो लक्षणम् Vātsyāyana Bhāṣya 1.1.2. -5 A lucky or auspicious mark on the body (these are considered to be 32); द्वात्रिंशल्लक्षणोपेतः; लक्षणसंपन्नान्नां गवामधः सस्नौ K.64. -6 Any mark or features of the body (indicative of good or bad luck); क्व तद्विधस्त्वं क्व च पुण्यलक्षणा Ku.5.73; क्लेशावहा भर्तुरलक्षणाहम् R.14.5. -7 A name, designation, appellation (oft. at the end of comp.); विदिशालक्षणां राजधानीम् Me.24. -8 Excellence, merit, good quality; as in आहितलक्षण R. 6.71 (where Malli. renders it by प्रख्यातगुण and quotes Ak.:-- गुणैः प्रतीते तु कृतलक्षणाहितलक्षणौ). -9 An aim, a scope, an object. -1 A fixed rate (as of duties); नदीतीरेषु तद्विद्यात् समुद्रे नास्ति लक्षणम् Ms.8.46. -11 Form, kind, nature. -12 Effect, operation. -13 Cause, occasion. -14 Head, topic, subject. -15 Pretence, disguise (= लक्ष); प्रसुप्तलक्षणः Māl.7. -16 A line, spot. -17 Observation, seeing. -18 Indicatory characteristic; लक्ष्यते येन तल्लक्षणम्, धूमो लक्षणमग्नेरिति हि वदन्ति ŚB. on MS.1.1.2. -19 A chapter; धर्मो द्वादशलक्षण्या व्युत्पाद्यः. -2 A sexual organ; लक्षणं लक्षणेनैव वदनं वदनेन च Mb.13.4.58. -णः 1 N. of Lakṣmaṇa. -2 The crane. -णा 1 An aim, object. -2 (In Rhet.) An indirect application or secondary signification of a word, one of the three powers of a word; it is thus defined:-- मुख्यार्थबाधे तद्योगे रूढितो$थ प्रयोजनात् । अन्यो$र्थो लक्ष्यते यत् सा लक्षणारोपिता क्रिया K. P.2. लक्षणा शक्यसंबन्धस्तात्पर्यानुपपत्तितः Bhāṣā P.; see S. D.13. also श्रुतिलक्षणाविषये च श्रुतिर्न्याय्या न लक्षणा ŚB. on MS.6.2.2; A. Rām.7.5.26-27. -3 A goose. -4 N. of Duryodhana's daughter. -Comp. -अन्वित a. possessed of auspicious marks; उद्वहेत द्विजो भार्यां सवर्णां लक्षणा- न्विताम् Ms.3.4. -कर्मन् n. definition. -ज्ञ a. able to interpret or explain marks (as on the body). -भ्रष्ट a. deprived of good quatities, ill-fated, unlucky; जायन्ते लक्षणभ्रष्टा दरिद्राः पुरुषाधमाः Y.3.217. -लक्षणा = जहल्लक्षणा q. v. -संनिपातः branding, stigmatizing. -संपद् f. a multitude of marks.
vatsaḥ वत्सः [वद्-सः Uṇ.3.61] 1 A calf, the young of an animal; तेनाद्य वत्समिव लोकममुं पुषाण Bh.2.46; यं सर्वशैलाः परिकल्प्य वत्सम् Ku.1.2. -2 A boy, son; in this sense often used in the voc. as a term of endearment and translateable by 'my dear', 'my darling', 'my dear child'; अयि वत्स कृतं कृतमतिविनयेन, किमपराद्धं वत्सेन U.6. -3 Offspring or children in general; जीवद्वत्सा 'one whose children are living'. -4 A year. -5 N. of a country; (its chief town was कौशाम्बी and ruled over by Udayana), or the inhabitants of that country (pl.) -त्सा 1 A female calf. -2 A little girl; वत्से सीते 'dear Sītā' &c. -त्सम् The breast. -Comp. -अक्षी a kind of cucumber. -अदनः a wolf. (-नी) Cocculus Cordifolius (Mar. गुळवेल). -अनुसारिणी a hiatus between a long and a short syllable; also वत्सानुसृता-तिः. -ईशः, -राजः a king of the Vatsas; लोके हारि च वत्सराजचरितं नाट्ये च दक्षा वयम् Ratn.1. -काम a. fond of children. (-मा) a cow longing for her calf or a mother for her child. -तन्त्री a rope for tying calves; न लङ्घयेद्वत्सतन्त्रीं न प्रधावेच्च वर्षति Ms.4.38. -दन्तः a kind of arrow. -नाभः 1 N. of a tree. -2 a kind of very strong poison. -पत्तनम् N. of the town Kauśāmbī. -पदम् a ford (Mar. उतार); भवाम्बुधिर्वत्सपदं परं पदम् Bhāg.1.14.58. -पालः 'a keeper of calves', N. of Kṛiṣṇa or Balarāma. -बन्धा a cow longing for her calf. -रूपः a small calf; Hch. -शाला a cow-shed.
vara वर a. [वृ-कर्मणि अप्] 1 Best, excellent, most beautiful or precious, choicest, finest, royal, princely; with gen. or loc. or usually at the end of comp.; वदतां वरः R.1.59; वेदविदां वरेण 5.23;11.54; Ku.6.18; नृवरः, तरुवराः, सरिद्वरा &c. -2 Better than, preferable to; ग्रन्थिभ्यो धारिणो वराः Ms.12.13; Y.1.352. -रः 1 The act of choosing, selecting. -2 Choice, selection. -3 A boon, blessing, favour (तपोभिरिष्यते यस्तु देवेभ्यः स वरो मतः); वरं वृ or याच् 'to ask a boon'; प्रीतास्मि ते पुत्र वरं वृणीष्व R.2.63; भवल्लब्धवरोदीर्णः Ku.2.32; (for the distinction between वर and आशिस् see आशिस्). -4 A gift, present, reward, recompense. -5 A wish, desire in general. -6 Solicitation, entreaty. -7 Charity, alms. -8 Surrounding, enclosing. -9 Obstructing, checking. -1 A bridegroom, husband; वरं वरयते कन्या; see under वधू (1) also. -11 A suitor, wooer. -12 A dowry. -13 A son-in-law; 'वरो जामातरि श्रेष्ठे' इति विश्वः; रथाङ्गभर्त्रे$भिनवं वराय Śi.3.36. -14 A dissolute man, libertine. -15 A sparrow. -16 Bdellium. -रम् Saffron; (for वरम् see separately). -Comp. -अङ्ग a. having an excellent form. (-ङ्गः) 1 an elephant. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 N. of Cupid. -4 a Nakṣatra year consisting of 324 days. (-ङ्गी) turmeric. (-ङ्गम्) 1 the head; वराङ्गानि महार्हाणि धनुषा शातयामि वः Rām.1.66.1; वराङ्गमुर्व्यामपतच्चमूमुखे Mb.8.91.53. -2 the best part. -3 an elegant form. -4 pudendum muliebre. -5 green cinnamon. -अङ्गना a lovely woman; वराङ्गनासेवनमल्पभोजनम् Lakṣmīcharitra. -अन्नम् excellent dish; पक्वापक्वं दिवारात्रं वरान्नममृतोपमम् Mb.7.67.2. -अरणिः a mother; ददर्श रावणस्तत्र गोवृषेन्द्रवरारणिम् Rām.7.23.22. -अर्ह a. 1 worthy of a boon. -2 very worthy, highly esteemed; -मत्कृते$द्य वरार्हायाः श्यामतां समुपागतम्(मुखम्) Mb.3.144. 11. -3 very expensive. -आनना a lovely-faced woman. -आजीविन् m. an astrologer. -आरुहः an ox. -आरोह a. having fine hips. (-हः) 1 an excellent rider. -2 a rider on an elephant or horse. -3 mounting, riding. (-हा) an elegant or a beautiful woman; कामं कुरु वरा- रोहे देहि मे परिरम्भणम् Māl.6.11. -आलिः the moon. -आसनम् 1 an excellent seat. -2 the chief seat, a seat of honour. -3 the China rose. -4 a cistern, reservoir. (-नः) 1 a door-keeper. -2 a lover, paramour -इन्द्रः 1 a chief, sovereign. -2 Indra. -3 (also n.) N. of a part of Bengal. -न्द्री the ancient Gaura or Gauda country. -ईश्वरः N. of Śiva. -उरुः, -रूः f. a beautiful woman (lit. having beautiful thighs). -क्रतुः an epithet of Indra. -गात्र a. fair-limbed, beautiful. -चन्दनम् 1 a kind of sandal wood. -2 the pine tree. -तनु a. fairlimbed. (-नुः f.) a beautiful woman; वरतनुरथवासौ नैव दृष्टा त्वया मे V.4.22. -तन्तुः N. of an ancient sage; कौत्सः प्रपेदे वरतन्तुशिष्यः R.5.1. -त्वचः the Nimba tree. -द a. 1 conferring a boon, granting or fulfilling a boon; आगच्छ वरदे देवि जपे मे संनिधौ भव Sandhyā. -2 propitious. (-दः) 1 a benefactor. -2 N. of a class of Manes. -3 fire for propitiatory burnt offerings. ˚चतुर्थी N. of the 4th day in the bright half of माघ, ˚हस्तः the boon-giving or beneficent hand (placed on the head of a suppliant by a deity &c.). (-दा) 1 N. of a river; वरद वरदारोधोवृक्षैः सहावनतो रिपुः M.5.1. -2 a maiden, girl. -दक्षिणा 1 a present made to the bridegroom by the father of the bride. -2 a term for expense incurred in fruitless endeavours to recover a loss. -दानम् the granting of a boon. -दानिक a. arising from the bestowal of a favour or boon; चतुर्दश वने वासं वर्षाणि वरदानिकम् Rām.2.17.7. -द्रुमः agallochum. -धर्मः a noble act of justice. -निमन्त्र- णम् a journey undertaken by the parents of the bride to recall the bridegroom (who pretends to go to Kāśī.). -निश्चयः the choice of a bridegroom. -पक्षः the party of the bridegroom (at a wedding); प्रमुदितवरपक्षमेकतस्तत् R.6.86. -पुरुषः the best of men; अहं वरपुरुषमनुष्यो वासुदेवः कामयितव्यः Mk.1.3/31. -प्रद a. granting wishes. -प्रदा N. of Lopāmudrā. -प्रस्थानम्, -यात्रा the setting out of the bridegroom in procession towards the house of the bride for the celebration of marriage. -फलः the cocoa-nut tree. -बाह्लिकम् saffron. -युवतिः, -ती f. a beautiful young woman. -रुचिः N. of a poet and grammarian (one of the 'nine gems' at the court of king Vikrama; see नवरत्न; he is identified by some with Kātyāyana, the celebrated author of the Vārtikas on Pāṇini's Sūtras). -लक्षणम् the requisites of wedding. पाणिग्रहणमन्त्राश्च प्रथितं वरलक्षणम् Mb.7.55.16. -लब्ध a. received as a boon. (-ब्धः) the Champaka tree. -वत्सला a mother-in-law. -वर्णम् gold. -वर्णिनी 1 an excellent or fair-complexioned woman; मया हीयं वृता पूर्वं भार्यार्थे वरवर्णिनी Mb.1.5.23. -2 a woman in general. -3 turmeric. -4 lac. -5 N. of Lakṣmī. -6 of Durgā. -7 of Sarasvatī. -8 the creeper called Priyaṅgu. -9 a yellow pigment. -वृद्धः N. of Śiva. -शीतम् cinnamon. -सुरत a. 1 very wanton. -2 acquainted with the secrets of sexual intercourse. -स्रज् f. 'the bridegroom's garland', the garland put by the bride round the neck of the bridegroom.
vārttika वार्त्तिक a. (-की f.) [वृत्ति-ठक्] 1 Relating to news. -2 Bringing news. -3 Explanatory, glossarial. -कः 1 An emissary, a spy. -2 A husbandman (a man of the third tribe). -3 A mineralogist; L. D. B. -4 A trader, businessman. -5 A physician. -का 1 Business, trade. -2 News; कः पन्थाः का च वार्त्तिका Mb.3.313.114. -कम् [वृत्तिरूपेण कृतो ग्रन्थः] An explanatory or supplementary rule which explains the meaning of that which is said, of that which is left unsaid, of that which is imperfectly said; or a rule which explains what is said or but imperfectly said and supplies omissions; उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तार्थव्यक्ति (or चिन्ता)कारि तु वार्त्तिकम् (the term is particularly applied to the explanatory rules of Kātyāyana on Pāṇini's Sūtras). -Comp. -कारः N. of Kātyāyana.
vāsava वासव a. (-वी f.) [वसुरेव स्वार्थे अण् वसूनि सन्त्यस्य अण् वा] 1 Relating to the Vasus. -2 Belonging to Indra; पाण्डुतां वासवी दिगयासीत् K.; वासवीनां चमूनाम् Me.45. -वः N. of Indra; स वासवेनासनसंनिकृष्टमितो निषीदेति विसृष्टभूमिः Ku.3.2; R.5.5. -वम् The constellation Dhaniṣṭhā. -Comp. -अनुजः Viṣṇu or Kṛiṣṇa; स्मितपूर्वमुवाचेदं भगवान् वासुवानुजः Mb.12.46.1. -चापः a rainbow. -दत्ता 1 N. of a work by Subandhu. -2 N. of a heroine of several stories. [Different writers give different accounts of this lady. According to Kathāsaritsāgara she was the daughter of king Chaṇḍamahāsena of Ujjayinī and was carried off by Udayana, king of Vatsa. Śrīharṣa represents her to be the daughter of king Pradyota (see Ratn.1.1.), and, according to Mallinātha's comment on the line प्रद्योतस्य प्रियदुहितरं वत्सराजो$त्र जह्रे she was the daughter of Pradyota, king of Ujjayinī. Bhavabhūti says that she was betrothed by her father to king Sañjaya, but that she offered herself to Udayana; (see Māl.2.). But the Vāsavadattā of Subandhu has nothing in common with the story of Vatsa, except the name of the heroine, as she is represented to have been betrothed by her father to Puṣpaketu, but carried off by Kandarpaketu. It is probable that there were several heroines bearing the name Vāsavadattā.] -दिश् f. the east.
vaiśampāyana वैशम्पायनः N. of a celebrated pupil of Vyāsa; जनमे- जयेन पृष्टः सन् ब्राह्मणैश्च सहस्रशः । शशास शिष्यमासीनं वैशम्पायन- मन्तिके ॥ Mb. [It was he who made Yājñavalkya 'disgorge the whole of the Yajurveda he had learnt from him which was picked up by his other pupils in the form of Tittiris or partridges; and hence the Veda was called 'Taittirīya'. Vaīśampāyana was celebrated for his great skill in narrating Purāṇas, and is said to have recounted the whole of the Mahābhārata to king Janamejaya].
vyāsaḥ व्यासः 1 Distribution, separation into parts. -2 Dissolution or analysis of a compound. -3 Severalty, distinction. -4 Diffusion, extension; तस्यैव व्यासमिच्छामि ज्ञातुं ते भगवन् यथा Bhāg.6.4.2. -5 Width, breadth. -6 The diameter of a circle. -7 A fault in pronunciation. -8 Arrangement, compliation. -9 An arranger, a compiler; द्वैपायनो$स्मि व्यासानां कवीनां काव्य आत्मवान् Bhāg. 11.16.28. -1 N. of a celebrated sage. [He was the son of the sage Parāśara by Satyavatī (born before her marriage with Śantanu q. v.); but he retired to the wilderness as soon as he was born, and there led the life of a hermit, practising the most rigid austerities until he was called by his mother Satyavatī to beget sons on the widows of her son Vichitravīrya. He was thus the father of Pāṇḍu and Dhṛitarāṣṭra and also of Vidura; q. q. v. v. He was at first called 'Kṛiṣṇadvaipāyana' from his dark complexion and from his having been brought forth by Satyavatī on a Dvīpa or island; but he afterwards came to be called Vyāsa or 'the arranger,' as he was supposed to have arranged the Vedas in their present form; विव्यास वेदान् यस्मात् स तस्माद् व्यास इति स्मृतः cf. also जातः स यमुनद्वीपे द्वैपायन इति स्मृतः । व्यस्य वेदान् समस्ताश्च व्यासतामगमद्विभुः ॥ Bm.1.214. He is believed to be the author of the great epic, the Mahābhārata, which he is said to have composed with Gaṇapati for his scribe. The eighteen Purāṇas, as also the Brahma-sūtras and several other works are also ascribed to him. He is one of the seven chirajeevins or deathless persons; cf. चिरजीविन्.] -11 A Brāhmaṇa who recites or expounds the Purāṇas in public. -Comp. -पीठम् the seat of the an expounder of the Purāṇas -पूजा N. of the observance of honouring one's preceptor, performed on the 15th of the bright half of Āṣāḍha. -समास (dual) details and the aggregate; आयव्ययौ च व्याससमासाभ्यामाचक्षीत Kau. A.2.9.
svāmin स्वामिन् a. (-नी f.) [स्व अस्त्यर्थे मिनि दीर्घः] Possessing proprietory rights. -m. 1 A proprietor, an owner. -2 A lord, master; रघुस्वामिनः सच्चरित्रम् Vikr.18.17. -4 A sovereign, king, monarch. -5 A husband. -6 A spiritual preceptor. -7 A learned Brāhmana, an ascetic or religious man of the highest order; (in this sense usually added to proper names).-8 An epithet of Kārtikeya. -9 Of Viṣṇu. -1 Of Śiva. -11 Of the sage Vātsyāyana. -12 Of Garuḍa. -13 The sacrificer, the owner (at a याग); यो$र्थी स्वत्यागेन ऋत्विजः परिक्रीणीते, यश्च स्वं प्रदेयं त्यजति स स्वामी ŚB. on MS.6.3. 21; तस्मान्न स्वामिनः प्रतिनिधिः ibid. -14 The image or temple of a god. -Comp. -उपकारकः a horse. -कार्यम् the business of a king or master. -गुणः the virtue of a ruler. -जङ्घिन् m. N. of Paraśurāma. -जनकः the father-in-law. -पाल m. du. the owner and the keeper (of cattle); क्रयविक्रयानुशयो विवादः स्वामिपालयोः Ms.8.5. -भट्टारकः a noble lord. -भावः the state of a lord or owner, ownership. -मूल a. originating in or derived from a master or lord. -वात्सल्यम् affection for the husband or lord. -सद्भावः 1 existence of a master or owner. -2 goodness of a master or lord. -सेवा 1 the service of a master. -2 respect for a husband.
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sūpāyana sūpāyaná, a. (Bv.) giving easy access, easily accessible, i. 1, 9 [sú + upá̄yana].
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"yana" has 119 results.
     
agniveśyāyanawriter of Vedic grammar, mentioned in the Taittirīya prātiśākhya. confer, compare नाग्निवेश्यायनस्य ( मते उदात्तपरः स्वरितपरो वा अनुदात्तः स्वरितं नापद्यते इति न) Tait. Pr. XIV.32.
atiśāyanaexcellence, surpassing; the same as अतिशय in Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V. 2 confer, compare अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ P. V. 3.55, also confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेऽतिशायने । संसर्गेऽ स्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.2.94, where अतिशायन means अतिशाय. Patañjali, commenting on P. V.3.55 clearly remarks that for अतिशय, or for अतिशयन, the old grammarians, out of fancy only, used the term अतिशायन as it was a current term in popular usage; confer, compare देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते यावद् ब्रूयात् प्रकर्षे अतिशय इति तावदतिशायन इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on , P. V.3.55.
abhayanandina reputed jain Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote an extensive gloss on the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण. The gloss is known as जैनेन्द्रव्याकरणमहावृत्ति of which वृहज्जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण appears to be another name.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
kāṇḍamāyananame of an ancient writer of a Prātiśākhya work who held that Visarga before the consonant स् is dropped only when स् is followed by a surd consonant; confer, compare Tai.Pr. IX. 1.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
puṇyanandanaa famous grammarian, who wrote a grammar work, named रूपमाला.
vājapyāyanaan ancient grammarian who holds the view that words denote always the jati i.e they always convey the generic sense and that the individual object or the case is understood in connection with the statement or the word,as a natural course,when the purpose is not served by taking the generic sense; confer, compare अाकृत्यभिधानाद्वा एकं शब्दं विभक्तौ वाजप्यायन अाचार्यो न्याय्यं मन्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.64 Vart. 35.
vyākaraṇādhyayanaprayojanathe purpose of the study of Grammar which is beautifully summed up and discussed in the first Ahnika by Patanjali in his Mahabhasya.
śākaṭāyana(1)name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन.
śākaṭāyanataraṅgiṇīa commentary on Sakatayana's Sabdanusana.
śākaṭāyanavyākaraṇathe treatise on grammar written by sakatayana। See शाकटायन.
śākaṭāyanaśabdānuśāsananame of the treatise on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्ति-शाकटायन.
śaityāyanaan ancient Grammarian and Vedic scholar who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya for recommending a sharp and distinct nasalisation of the anusvara and the fifth class-consonants; confer, compare तत्रितरमानुनासिक्यमनुस्वारोत्तमेषु इति शैत्यायन: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
ṭāyanaस्फोan ancient grammarian referred to by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य P.VI.1.123, Great grammarians like Haradatta observe that this स्फोटायन was the first advocate of the Sphota theory and hence he was nicknamed स्फोटायन; confer, compare स्फोटः अयनं परायणं यस्य स स्फोटायन: स्फोटप्रतिपादनपरो वैयाकरणाचार्यः | Padamajari on P. VI.1.123.
ajitasenaauthor of the Cintāmaṇiprakāśika a gloss on Cintāmaṇi, the well known commentary by Yakṣavarman on the Sabdānuśāsana of Śākatāyana. Ajitasena was the grand pupil of Abhayadeva; he lived in the 12th century A.D.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
abhayacandraa Jain grammarian , who wrote प्रक्रियासंग्रह, based on the Śabdānuśāsana Vyākaraṇa of the Jain Śākatāyana.His possible date is the twelfth century A. D.
amoghavarṣaA Jain grammarian of the ninth century who wrote the gloss known as अमोघावृत्ति on the Śabdānuśāsana of Śākaṭāyana; the वृत्ति is quoted by माधव in his धातुवृत्ति.
amoghāalso अमोघावृत्ति, a gloss on the grammar of Sākaṭāyana. See अमोघवर्ष a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
avyayasaṃgrahaname of a treatise ondeclinable words attributed to Sākaṭāyana.
asmadfirst person; the term is used in the sense of the first person in the grammars of Hemacandra and Śākaṭāyana. confer, compare त्रीणि त्रीण्यन्ययुष्मदस्मदि (Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.3.17);
aāpyato be obtained by an activity: (the same as vyāpya). The term is used in connection with the object of a verb which is to be obtained by the verbal activity. The word अाप्य is found used in the sense of Karman or object in the grammars of Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana, Cāndra and Hemacandra; confer, compare Cāndra II I. 43; Jainendra I. 2.119; Śāk.IV.3.120: Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.3.31. Hence, the term साप्य is used for a transitive root in these grammars.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
uktaprescribed, taught, lit, said (already). उक्तं वा is a familiar expression in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already expresseditionSometimes this expression in the Mahābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subsequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhāṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72.
uṇādisūtra,uṇādisūtrapāṭhathe text of the Sūtras which begins with the Sūtras prescribing the affix उण् after the roots कृ, वा, पा, जि, स्वद्, साध् and अश्; cf Uṅādi Sūtras 1.1. for the different versions of the text See उणादि. Similar Sūtras in Kātantra, Āpiśali, Sakaṭāyana and other systems of grammar are also called Uṇādi Sūtras.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upāntyasee उपान्त; the word is generally found used in the grammars of Śākaṭāyana and Hemacandra.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
eka(1)Singular number, ekavacana: confer, compare नो नौ मे मदर्थं त्रिह्येकेषु. V. Pr.II.3: the term is found used in this sense of singular number in the Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana and Haima grammars ( 2 ) single ( vowel ) substitute (एकादेश) for two (vowels); cf एकः पूर्वपरयोः P.VI. 1.84; अथैकमुभे T.Pr. X.1; ( 3 ) many, a certain number : (used in plural in this sense), confer, compare इह चेत्येके मन्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 4.21 .
ekamunipakṣaa view or doctrine propounded by one of the many ancient sages or munis who are believed to be the founders of a Sastra; a view propounded only by Pāṇini, to the exclusion of Kātyāyana and Patañjali; confer, compare एकमुनिपक्षे तु अचो ञ्णितीत्यत्राच इति योगं विभज्य...व्यवस्थितविभाषात्रोक्ता Durghaṭa-Vṛtti I.1.5; see also I.4.24, II.3.18.
aicshort term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for 'the two diphthong vowels ऐ and औ; confer, compare न य्वाभ्यां पदान्ताभ्यां पूर्वौ तु ताभ्यामैच् P.VII.3.4; confer, compare ऐचोश्चोत्तरभूयस्त्वात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.48, The short substitutes of ऐ and औ are इ and उ when prescribed confer, compare P. I.1.48; so also the protracted forms of ऐ and औ are protracted इ and उ; confer, compare P. III.2.106. They are called द्विस्वर vowels in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. Śākaṭāyana says they are द्विमात्र.
opperṭ[Gustav Oppert 1836-1908 ]a German scholar of Sanskrit who edited the Śabdānuśāsana of Śākaṭāyana.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kalāpinthe author of the work referred to as Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. in the Mahābhāṣya which perhaps was a work on grammar as the word कालाप is mentioned with the word in the Mahābhāṣya, confer, compare M.Bh. on कलापिनोSणू P. IV.3. 108. Kalāpin is mentioned as a pupil of Vaiśampāyana in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare वैशम्पायनान्तेवासी कलापी M.Bh. on P. IV.3.104.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantrasūtravṛttian old Vṛtti on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Vararuci who is, of course, different from Vararuci Kātyāyana. The Vṛtti appears to have been occupying a position similar to that of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kātya(1)another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kīlhārnKielhorn F., a sound scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who brought out excellent editions of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya and the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and wrote an essay on the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana. For details see Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya Vol VII.p.40, D. E society edition, Poona.
goṣṭhaca taddhita affix.affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; confer, compare गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.1. varia lectio, another reading,2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently.
cidasthimālāname of a commentary on the Laghusabdendusekhara by Vaidyanatha Payagunde,one of the distinguished disciples of Nagesabhatta.
cintāmaṇiname of a commentary on the Sutras of the Sakatayana Vyakarana written by यक्षवर्मन्, It is also called लधुवृत्ति.
jātipakṣathe view that जाति, or genus only, is the denotation of every word. The view was first advocated by Vajapyayana which was later on held by many, the Mimamsakas being the chief supporters of the view. See Mahabhasya on P. I. 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari. 40.
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
jainendravyākaraṇamahāvṛttiname of a commentary on the Jainendra Vyakarana, written by Abhayanandin in the ninth century A. D. see जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
tīvrataraextreme sharpness of the nasalization at the time of pronouncing the anusvara and the fifth letters recommended by Saityayana.e. g. अग्नीररप्सुषदः, वञ्चते परिवञ्चते. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
trimuni(1)the famous three ancient grammarians Panini (the author of the Sutras), Katyayana (the author of the Varttikas), and Patanjali (the author of the Mahabhasya;) (2) the grammar of Panini, called so, being the contribution of the reputed triad of Grammarians.
trilokanāthason of Vaidyanatha who wrote a small treatise on karakas called षट्कारकनिरूपण.
devendraa Jain grammarian of the 13th century who has written a commentary named लघुन्यास on the शब्दानुशासन of Hemacandra. He has written many works on the Jain Agamas, of which a commentary on the Uttaradhyanasutra can be specially mentionedition He is called देवेन्द्रसूरि also.
dvisdouble reduplicated; the word is frequently used in connection with doubling of consonants or words in the PratiSakhya Literature as also in the Katantra, Sakatayana and Haima grammars confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1, XV. 5, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 101, R, T. 264; confer, compare also Kat. III. 8.10, Sak. IV. 1.43; Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV. 1.1.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhāturatnākaraa work dealing with roots believed to have been written by Narayana who was given the title वन्द्य. He lived in the seventeenth century; a work named सारावलि व्याक्ररण is also believed to have been written by him.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
nārāyaṇavandyaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named Saravali, and a treatise on roots named Dhatuparayana.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
padakāraliterally one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; confer, compare also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣārthasaṃgrahṛa treatise on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar written by Vaidyanatha Sastrin.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
paribhāṣāsūcanaan old work on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's Grammar, believed to have been written by Vyaadi, who lived after Kaatyayana and before Patanjali. The work is written in the old style of the MahabhaSya and consists of a short commentary on 93 Paribhasas.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
parisaṃkhyānaliterally enumeration; enunciation;mention ; the word is found generally used by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras at the end of their Varttikas. The words वक्तव्यम्, वाच्यम् , and the like, are similarly usedition
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
prakriyāsaṃgrahaa work on grammar by Abhayacandra in which the Sutras of Sakatayana's Sabdanusasana are arranged in the form of different sections dealing with the different topics of grammar.
prāgdeśadistricts of the east especially districts to the east of Ayodhya and Pataliputra, such as Magadha, Vanga and others; nothing can definitely be said as to which districts were called Eastern by Panini and his followers Katyayana and Patanjali. A Varttika given in the Kasika but not traceable in the Mahabhasya defines Pragdesa as districts situated to the east of शरावती (probably the modern river Ravi or a river near that river ): confer, compare प्रागुदञ्चौ विभजते हंसः क्षीरोदके यथा । विदुषां शब्दसिद्ध्यर्थे सा नः पातु शरावती ॥ Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on एङ् प्राचां देशे P. I. 1.75. There is a reading सरस्वती in some manuscript copies and सरस्वती is a wellknown river in the Punjab near Kuruksetra, which disappears in the sandy desert to the south: a reading इरावती is also found and इरावती may stand for the river Ravi. शरावती in Burma is simply out of consideration. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 202-204 and 141-142 D. E. Society's Edition.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
bālaṃbhaṭṭa( बाळंभट्ट )surnamed Payagunda or Payagunde, who has written a commentary on the commentary Mitaksara on the याज्ञवल्क्यस्मृति. Some scholars say that he was also a great grammarian and identical with वैद्यनाथ पायगुंडे who has written the commentary काशिका or गदा on the Paribhasendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the Laghusabdendusekhara and commentaries on the Vaiyakaranabhusana,Sabdakaustubha and Bhasyapradipoddyota. Other scholars believe that Balambhatta was the son of Vaidyanatha and that he wrote only the commentary on Mitaksara called Balambhatti after him. (2) There was also a comparatively modern grammarian of Tanjore who has written small grammar works बालबोधिनी and बालरञ्जनी.
bhrājastray or spurious verses or stanzas whose authorship cannot be traced, but which are commonly quoted by scholars; confer, compare भ्राजा नाम श्लेाका: M.Bh. on I.1 Āhnika 1; the word भ्राज is explained as 'composed by Kātyāyana' by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa in his Uddyota.
mantraname given to the Samhitā portion of the Veda works especially of the Ṛgveda and the Yajurveda as different from the Brāhmaṇa, Āraṇyaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other Vedas; confer, compare मन्त्रशब्द ऋक्शब्दे च यजु:शब्दे च; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. The word मन्त्र occurs several times in the rules of Pāṇini ( confer, compare P. II. 4. 80, III.2.71, III.3.96, VI. 1. 151, VI.1.210, VI.3.131, VI.4.53, VI. 4.141) and a few times in the Vārttikas. (confer, compare I. 1. 68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4, IV.3.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 and VI. 4. 141 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1). It is, however, doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by Pāṇini and Kātyāyana. Later on, the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula, which was looked upon as sacredition Still later on, the word came to mean a secret counsel. For details see Goldstūcker's Pāṇini p. 69, Thieme's 'Pāṇini and the Veda ' p. 38.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyavyākhyāname given to each of the explanatory glosses on the Mahabhasya written by grammarians prominent of whom were Purusottamadeva, Narayana Sesa, Visnu, Nilakantha and others whose fragmentary works exist in a manuscript form. महामिश्र name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa. The commentary is known by the name Vyakaranaprakasa. महाविभाषा a rule laying down an option for several rules in a topic by being present in every rule: confer, compare महाविभाषया वाक्यमपि. विभाषा (P.II.1.11) and समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (P. IV.1.82) are some of the rules of this kindeclinable
mitavṛtyarthasaṃgrahaname ofa grammatical work on the SUtras of Paanini by Udayana.
yakṣavarmanaauthor of the commentary called चिन्तामणि on the SabdaanuSaasana of Sakataayana.
yaḍlugantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् to roots specified in P. III. 1.22,23,24, which affix is sometimes dropped: confer, compare यङोचि च ; P. II. 4. 74. The yanluganta roots take the parasmaipada personal endings and not the atmanepada ones which are applied to yananta roots.
yaśovarmadevathe same as यक्षवर्मन् the author of ' चिन्तृामणि ' a commentary on the Sabdnussana of Sakatyana.
rapratyāhārakhaṇḍanaa small article showing that the short term र for the consonants र् and ल् need not be advocated as done by the learned old grammarians.The treatise was Written by Vaidyanatha Paya-gunde, the prominent pupil of Nagesabhatta.
rapratyāhāmaṇḍanaan anonymous work, comparatively modern, refuting the arguments advanced in the रप्रत्याहारखण्डन by Vaidyanatha Pyagunde.
rāmacandrabhaṭṭa tāreone of the senior pupils of Nagesabhatta who was a teacher of Vaidyanatha Payagunde. He wrote a small gloss on the Astadhyayi which is named पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति He lived in the first half of the eighteenth century and taught several pupils at Varnasi.
rāmasiṃhṛvarmāpossibly the same king of Sringaberapura who patronised Nagesabhatta. He is said to have written some Small comments on " the Ramayana and a small grammar work named धातुरत्नमञ्जरी.
rūpamālā(1)an elementary work on Sanskrit grammar composed by Vimalasarasvatī, in which the Sūtras of Pāņini are arranged in different topics many of which are called माला, such as अजन्तमाला, हलन्तमाला, छान्दसमाला, अव्ययमाला and so on.(2) the name रूपमाला is also found given to a work giving collections of formed words written by Puņyanandana.
laghuprayatnatararequiring still less effort for utterance than that required for the usual utterance; the term is used in connection with the utterance of the consonant य् which is substituted for Visarga following upon long अा and followed by any vowel. In such cases य् is not pronounced at all according to Śākalya, while it is somewhat audibly pronounced according to Śākațāyana; confer, compare व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṣaname of an ancient scholar of grammar and Mimamsa, cited by some as the preceptor of कात्यायन and Panini. If not of Panini, he may have been a preceptor of Katyayana
vākyakāraa term used for a writer who composes a work in pithy, brief assertions in the manner of sutras, such as the Varttikas. The term is found used in Bhartrhari's Mahabhasyadipika where by contrast with the term Bhasyakara it possibly refers to the varttikakara Katyayana; confer, compare एषा भाष्यकारस्य कल्पना न वाक्यकारस्य Bhartrhari Mahabhasyadipika. confer, compare also Nagesa's statement वाक्यकारो वार्तिकरमारभते: confer, compare also चुलुम्पादयो वाक्यकारीया ; Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vārarucaa work attributed to वररुचि: confer, compare वाररुचे काव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. IV.3.101 cf also वाररुनो ग्रन्थ: S.K.on P.IV.3. 101 This work possibly was not a grammar work and its author also was not the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. See वरुरुचि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The name वाररुचव्याकरण was given possibly to Katyayana's Prakrit Grammar, the author of which was वररुचि surnamed Katyayana. For details see p.395 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
vārarucakārikāan ancient grammarwork in verse believed to have been written by an ancient scholar of grammar, who, if not the same as Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas, was his contemporary and to whom the authorship of the Unadi Sutras is ascribed by some scholars. See वररुचि.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārttikakārabelieved to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः et cetera, and others) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
vārtikapāṭhathe text of the Varttikas as traditionally handed over in the oral recital or in manuscripts As observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.(see वार्त्तिक),although a large number of Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya are ascribed to Katyayana, the genuine Varttikapatha giving such Varttikas only, as were definitely composed by him, has not been preserved and Nagesa has actually gone to the length of making a statement like " वार्तिकपाठ: भ्रष्टः" ; confer, compare . Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P.I.l.I2 Varttika 6.
vijayāname of a commentary on the Laghusabdendusekhara by Sivanarayana.
vaidyanāthaVaidyanatha Payagunde, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century, who was one of the chief pupils of Nagesa and who prepared a line of pupils at Varanasi. He has written learned commentaries on standard works on grammar, the principal ones being the Prabha on the Sabdakaustubha, the Bhavaprakasika on the Brhaccabdendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the LaghuSabdendusekhara, the Kasika or Gada on the Paribhasendusekhara and an independent short treatise named Rapratyaya-khandana
vyākaraṇāntaraa term used by scholars of the Paniniyan system of grammar with respect to grammar works of other systems such as the Katantra, the Sakatyana, and others; confer, compare श्रन्थिग्रन्थिदाम्भिस्वञ्जीनां लिटः कित्वं व्याकरणान्तरे S.K. on अश्नॊतेश्च P. VII.4.72.
vyutpattipakṣathe view that every word is derived from a suitable root as contrasted with the other view viz. the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष. The grammarians hold that Panini held the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष,id est, that is the view that not all words in a language can be derived but only some of them can be so done, and contrast him (id est, that isPanini) with an equally great grammarian Sakatayana who stated that every word has to be derived: confer, compare न्यग्रोधयतीति न्यग्रोध इति व्युत्पत्तिपक्षे नियमार्थम् ! अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष विध्यर्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VII.3.6.
śabdakaustubhaṭīkāor शब्दकौस्तुभप्रभा a commentary on Bhattoji's Sabdakaustubha written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde.
śabdabhūṣaṇaname of a short gloss on the Sutras of Panini, written by Narayana Pandita.
śabdamañjarīname of a short grammar work written by Narayana Pandita.
śabdaratnaṭīkāknown by the name भावप्रकाशिका, a commentary on Hari Diksita's Sabdaratna, written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde.
śabdaratnadīpaa commentary on the Laghusabdaratna written by a grammarian named Kalyanamalla.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śeṣakṛṣṇaone of the prominent grammarians belonging to the Sesa family, who was the son of नरससिंहशेत्र. He wrote a gloss on the Prakriyakaumudi and two small works Prakrtacandrika and Padacandrika. Two other minor grammar works viz. the Yanlugantasiromani and Upapadamatinsutravyakhyana are ascribed to शेषकृष्ण who may be the same as शेषकृष्ण the son of नरसिंह, or another, as there were many persons who had the name Krsna in the big family.
śrutakevalina term of a very great honour given to such Jain monks as have almost attained perfection; the term is used in connection with Palyakirti Sakatayana, the Jain grammarian शाकटायन, whose works शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and its presentation in a topical form named शाकटायनप्रक्रिया are studied at the present day in some parts of India. See शाकटायन a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
sāpyafurnished with अाप्य or object; a transitive root;the term is used in the Sakatayana, Haimacandra and Candra grammars; confer, compare Candra I.4.100, Hema. III.3.21, Sakat. IV. 3.55.
sāyaṇa,sāyaṇācāryathe celebrated Vedic scholar and grammarian of Vijayanagar who flourished in the 14th century and wrote, besides the monumental commentary works on the Vedas, a grammatical work on roots and their forms known by the name माधवीया धातुवृत्ति. As the colophon of the work shows, the Dhatuvrtti was written by Sayanacarya, but published under the name of Madhava, the brother of Sayanacarya: confer, compare इति महामन्त्रिणा मायणसुतेन माधवसहोदरेण सायणाचार्येण विरचितायां माधवीयायां धातुवृत्तौ...Madhaviya Dha tuvrtti at the end; cf also तेन मायणपुत्रेण सायणेन मनीषिणा । व्याख्येया माधवी चेयं धातुवृत्तिर्विरच्यते । Mad. Dhatuvrtti at the beginning.
sārasvataṭīkāname in general given to commentary works on the Sarasvata Vyakarana out of which those written by Ramanarayana, Satyaprabodha, Ksemamkara, Jagannatha and Mahidhara are known to scholars.
sārāvalīor सारावली-व्य्याकरण an inindependent treatise on grammar by Naryana Vandyopadhyaya.
sūtrakārathe original writer of the sutras; e. g. पाणिनि, शाकटायन, शर्ववर्मन् , हेमचन्द्र and others. In Panini's system, Panini is called Sutrakara, as contrasted with Katyayana,who is called the Varttikakara and Patanjali, who is called the Bhasyakara;confer, compare पाणिने: सूत्रकारस्य M.Bh. on P.II 2.1.1.
spardhaa word used in the sense of 'a conflict of two rules' ( विप्रतिषेध ) in some grammars such as those of Jainendra, Sakatayana and Hemacandra; cf Jain. I.2.39,Sak. I.1.46 and Hema. VII.4. l l9.
sva(1)personal-ending of the second person singular. Atmanepada in the imperative mood; cf थास: से | सवाभ्यां वामौ | P.III.4.80, 91 ; (2) a term used in the sense of स्ववर्गीय (belonging to the same class or category) in the Pratisakhya works; cf स्पर्श: स्वे R.T.25; confer, compare also कान्त् स्वे Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 1. 55;confer, comparealso R, Pr.IV.1 ; and VI.1 ;(3) cognate, the same as सवर्ण defined by Panini in तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. P.I.1.9; the term is found used in the Jain grammar works of Jainendra, Sakatayana and Hemacanda cf ]ain. I.1.2 SikI. 1.2; Hema. I.1.17.
haimaliṅgānuśāsanavivaraṇaa commentary, written in the seventeenth century by Kalyanasagara on the हैमलिङ्गानुशासन.
haimaliṅānuśāsanavyākhyāa commentary named उद्धार also, written by Jayananda on the हैमलिङ्गानुशासन.
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
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ācāra

good conduct, acceptable and established rule of conduct; ācārarasāyana ethical behavior as a way of preventing diseases.

ādāna

to suck or extract; ādānakāla the first half of the year (uttarāyana or northern solstice); it includes śiśira (winter); vasanta (spring) and grīṣma (summer).

aṣṭāṅga

eight branches of ayurveda : kāya, bāla, śalya, śalākya, graha, agada, rasāyana, vajīkaraṇa.

hemādri

author of Āyurvedarasāyana, a commentary on Aṣṭāngahṛdaya, native of Devagiri, Maharashtra region (13th Century ).

kāmasūtra

a treatise on sexual love authored by Vātsyāyana, apparently belonged to the period between 4th and 6th centuries during the Gupta empire.

kuru

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to Haryana.

kuṭipraveśa

entering an isolated treatment enclosure for rasāyana (rejuvenating) therapy.

lohita

blood; lohitakṣaya a condition resulting in amenorrhoea; lohitanayana a kind of fish.

patanjali

compiler of Yogasūtras (–2nd Century ), author of Mahābhāṣya commentary (on Kātyāyana vārtīka) and on Pāṇiṇi’s Aṣṭādhyāyi.

rasaratnākara

a 14th Century work on rasaṣāstra by Nityanatha Siddha

śayana

scholar of Hampi, the capital of Viajayanagara empire (14th – 15th Century ), author of Ayurveda sudhanidhi, the manuscript is not available.

simhanāda

an expert in rasāyana and vājīkaraṇa and believer of Jainism.

vaidyarājavallabha

a treatise of āyurveda authored by Laxmanapandita in Hampi, Vijayanagara empire in 14th Century

vikriti

1. variation; constitutional disorders; vikritivigyana pathology.

yogaratnākara

a treatise of āyurveda authored by Nayanasekhara (17th Century ).

     Wordnet Search "yana" has 172 results.
     

yana

gai, anugai, abhigai, pragai, nigai, parigai, udgai, gāyanaṃ kṛ, gānaṃ kṛ   

ālāpena saha dhvanīnām uccāraṇa-vyāpāraḥ yaḥ svaratālabaddhaḥ asti।

sā madhureṇa svareṇa gāyati।

yana

paryyaṅkaḥ, palyaṅkaḥ, śayyā, śayanam, talpaḥ, khaṭvā, saṃstaraḥ, starimā, śayanīyam, mañcaḥ, mañcakaḥ, prastaraḥ, āstaraṇam   

kāṣṭhādiracitaśayyādhāraḥ।

mātā bālakaṃ paryaṅke śāyayati।

yana

sīmantonnayanam   

hindūdharmānusāreṇa garbhadhāraṇasamaye uttamāpatyasya kāṅkṣayā caturthe ṣaṣṭe aṣṭame vā māse kṛtaḥ tṛtīyaḥ saṃskāraḥ।

sīmaṃtonnayanena bālakasya ujjvalabhaviṣyena sahitaṃ dīrghāyuḥ kāmyate।

yana

upanayanam   

hindūdharmānusāreṇa ṣoḍaśasaṃskāreṣu ekaḥ yasmin bālakaḥ yajñopavītaṃ dhārayati।

mama upanayanam navame varṣe abhavat।

yana

dūtaḥ, sandeśaharaḥ, sandeśahārakaḥ, vārtābaraḥ, vārtāyanaḥ, vācikaharaḥ, ākhyāyakaḥ, adhvagaḥ, prayojyaḥ, sañcārakaḥ, cāraḥ, dhāvakaḥ, samācāradāyakaḥ, kāryaṅkaraḥ, nisṛṣṭārthaḥ   

yaḥ sandeśaṃ harati।

aṅgadaḥ rāmasya dūtaḥ bhūtvā rāvaṇasya pārśve gataḥ।

yana

palāyin, apakramin, palāyanaśīla   

yasya svabhāvaḥ palāyanam।

yuddhāt palāyinaḥ sainikāḥ senāpatinā golikayā ghātitāḥ।

yana

vidyālayaḥ, śālā, pāṭhaśālā, vidyālayam, vidyāveśma, vidyāgṛham, vidyābhyāsagṛham, vidyābhyāsaśālā, śikṣāgṛham, śikṣālayam, śikṣālayaḥ, adhyayanaśālā, adhyayanagṛham, maṭhaḥ, āśramaḥ, avasathaḥ, avasathyaḥ   

vidyāyāḥ ālayaḥ।

asmākaṃ vidyālaye ekādaśa prakoṣṭhāḥ santi/prātaḥ sarve chātrāḥ vidyālayaṃ gacchanti।

yana

akṣayanavamī   

kārtikamāsasya śuklapakṣasya navamī tithiḥ।

saḥ akṣayanavamyāṃ jātaḥ।

yana

virāmaḥ, viratiḥ, vyanadhānam, avaratiḥ, uparatiḥ, nivṛttiḥ, vinivṛttiḥ, nirvṛttiḥ, nivarttanam, nirvarttanam, chedaḥ, vicchedaḥ, upaśamaḥ, apaśamaḥ, kṣayaḥ   

samupasthitāyām athavā pravartamānāyām kriyāyām santaticchedaḥ।

kartuḥ vṛthā virāmāt kālakṣepaḥ bhavati।

yana

kāmadevaḥ, kāmaḥ, madanaḥ, manmathaḥ, māraḥ, pradyumnaḥ, mīnaketanaḥ, kandarpaḥ, darpakaḥ, anaṅgaḥ, pañcaśaraḥ, smaraḥ, śambarāriḥ, manasijaḥ, kusumeṣuḥ, ananyajaḥ, ratināthaḥ, puṣpadhanvā, ratipatiḥ, makaradhvajaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, brahmasūḥ, viśvaketuḥ, kāmadaḥ, kāntaḥ, kāntimān, kāmagaḥ, kāmācāraḥ, kāmī, kāmukaḥ, kāmavarjanaḥ, rāmaḥ, ramaḥ, ramaṇaḥ, ratināthaḥ, ratipriyaḥ, rātrināthaḥ, ramākāntaḥ, ramamāṇaḥ, niśācaraḥ, nandakaḥ, nandanaḥ, nandī, nandayitā, ratisakhaḥ, mahādhanuḥ, bhrāmaṇaḥ, bhramaṇaḥ, bhramamāṇaḥ, bhrāntaḥ, bhrāmakaḥ, bhṛṅgaḥ, bhrāntacāraḥ, bhramāvahaḥ, mohanaḥ, mohakaḥ, mohaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ, bhṛṅganāyakaḥ, gāyanaḥ, gītijaḥ, nartakaḥ, khelakaḥ, unmattonmattakaḥ, vilāsaḥ, lobhavardhanaḥ, sundaraḥ, vilāsakodaṇḍaḥ   

kāmasya devatā।

kāmadevena śivasya krodhāgniḥ dṛṣṭaḥ।

yana

śayanāgāraḥ, śayanagṛhaḥ, svapnaniketanam, nidrāśālā, viśrāmaśālā, vāsagṛham, vāsāgāram, svapnagṛham   

śayanasya kṛte kakṣaḥ।

kaḥ asti śayanāgāre।

yana

viṣṇuḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, svabhūḥ, daityāriḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, govindaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, acyutaḥ, śārṅgī, viṣvaksenaḥ, janārdanaḥ, upendraḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, madhuripuḥ, vāsudevaḥ, trivikramaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, śauriḥ, śrīpatiḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, vanamālī, balidhvaṃsī, kaṃsārātiḥ, adhokṣajaḥ, viśvambharaḥ, kaiṭabhajit, vidhuḥ, śrīvatsalāñachanaḥ, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, vṛṣṇiḥ, śatadhāmā, gadāgrajaḥ, ekaśṛṅgaḥ, jagannāthaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, sanātanaḥ, mukundaḥ, rāhubhedī, vāmanaḥ, śivakīrtanaḥ, śrīnivāsaḥ, ajaḥ, vāsuḥ, śrīhariḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, nṛhariḥ, vibhuḥ, madhujit, madhusūdanaḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, śrīgarbhaḥ, śrīkaraḥ, śrīmān, śrīdharaḥ, śrīniketanaḥ, śrīkāntaḥ, śrīśaḥ, prabhuḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, ajitaḥ, jitāmitraḥ, ṛtadhāmā, śaśabinduḥ, punarvasuḥ, ādidevaḥ, śrīvarāhaḥ, sahasravadanaḥ, tripāt, ūrdhvadevaḥ, gṛdhnuḥ, hariḥ, yādavaḥ, cāṇūrasūdanaḥ, sadāyogī, dhruvaḥ, hemaśaṅkhaḥ, śatāvarttī, kālanemiripuḥ, somasindhuḥ, viriñciḥ, dharaṇīdharaḥ, bahumūrddhā, vardhamānaḥ, śatānandaḥ, vṛṣāntakaḥ, rantidevaḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, dāśārhaḥ, abdhiśayanaḥ, indrānujaḥ, jalaśayaḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, tārkṣadhvajaḥ, ṣaḍbinduḥ, padmeśaḥ, mārjaḥ, jinaḥ, kumodakaḥ, jahnuḥ, vasuḥ, śatāvartaḥ, muñjakeśī, babhruḥ, vedhāḥ, prasniśṛṅgaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, suvarṇabinduḥ, śrīvatsaḥ, gadābhṛt, śārṅgabhṛt, cakrabhṛt, śrīvatsabhṛt, śaṅkhabhṛt, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, lakṣmīpatiḥ, murāriḥ, amṛtaḥ, ariṣṭanemaḥ, kapiḥ, keśaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, janārdanaḥ, jinaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, vikramaḥ, śarvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ hindudharmānusāraṃ jagataḥ pālanakartā।

ekādaśastathā tvaṣṭā dvādaśo viṣṇurucyate jaghanyajastu sarveṣāmādityānāṃ guṇādhikaḥ।

yana

cakṣuḥ, locanam, nayanam, netram, īkṣaṇam, akṣi, dṛk, dṛṣṭiḥ, ambakam, darśanam, tapanam, vilocanam, dṛśā, vīkṣaṇam, prekṣaṇaṃ, daivadīpaḥ, devadīpaḥ, dṛśiḥ, dśī   

avayavaviśeṣaḥ-darśanendriyam।

tasyāḥ cakṣuṃṣī mṛgīvat staḥ।

yana

bāṣpīyanaukā, bāṣpīyanauḥ, bāṣpīyatarī, āgneyanau, āgneyanaukā   

bāṣpasañcālitā naukā।

vayaṃ bāṣpīyanaukayā gaṅgāpāraṃ gatāḥ।

yana

kṛṣṇaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, acyutaḥ, govindaḥ, janārdanaḥ, giridharaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, mādhavaḥ, śauriḥ, ahijitaḥ, yogīśvaraḥ, vaṃśīdharaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, kaṃsārātiḥ, vanamālī, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, mukundaḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, vāsuḥ, muralīdharaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, nandātmajaḥ, gopālaḥ, nandanandanaḥ, yādavaḥ, pūtanāriḥ, mathureśaḥ, dvārakeśaḥ, pāṇḍavāyanaḥ, devakīsūnuḥ, gopendraḥ, govardhanadharaḥ, yadunāthaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, trivikramaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvambharaḥ, viśvarujaḥ, sanātanaḥ, vibhuḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, prabhuḥ, jitāmitraḥ, sahasravadanaḥ   

yaduvaṃśīya vasudevasya putraḥ yaḥ viṣṇoḥ avatāraḥ iti manyate।

sūradāsaḥ kṛṣṇasya paramo bhaktaḥ।

yana

adhyayanam, paṭhanam, adhigamanam, jñānārjanam   

kasyāpi viṣayasya jñānaprāptyarthaṃ kṛtā kriyā।

saḥ saṃskṛtasya adhyayanārthe kāśīnagaraṃ gatavān।

yana

unnatiḥ, pragatiḥ, vikāsaḥ, abhyudayaḥ, unnayanam   

vartamānāvasthāyāḥ apekṣayā unnatāvasthāṃ prati gamanam।

bhāratadeśasya unnatiṃ bhāratīyāḥ eva kurvanti।

yana

praśikṣaṇam, vinītiḥ, vinayanam   

kasyāpi vyavasāyasya kauśalyasya vā kriyātmakaṃ śikṣaṇam।

sītā grāme grāme gatvā yantradvārā sīvanasya praśikṣaṇaṃ dadāti।

yana

gajaḥ, hastī, karī, dantī, dvipaḥ, vāraṇaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ, mataṅgaḥ, kuñjaraḥ, nāgaḥ, dviradaḥ, ibhaḥ, radī, dvipāyī, anekapaḥ, viṣāṇī, kareṇuḥ, lambakarṇaḥ, padmī, śuṇḍālaḥ, karṇikī, dantāvalaḥ, stamberamaḥ, dīrghavaktraḥ, drumāriḥ, dīrghamārutaḥ, vilomajihvaḥ, śakvā, pīluḥ, māmṛgaḥ, mataṅgajaḥ, ṣaṣṭhihāyana   

paśuviśeṣaḥ- saḥ paśuḥ yaḥ viśālaḥ sthūlaḥ śuṇḍāyuktaḥ ca।

gajāya ikṣuḥ rocate।

yana

vātāyanam, jālakam   

vāyvarthe prakāśārthe ca bhittyāṃ vinirmitaḥ jālayuktaḥ chedaḥ।

gṛhe vāyvādhikyārthe tena pratikakṣe vātāyanaṃ vinirmitam।

yana

gavākṣaḥ, vātāyanam, badhūdṛgayanam, jālam, jālakam   

vātasya gamanāgamanamārgaḥ।

asmin koṣṭhe ekaḥ gavākṣaḥ asti।

yana

sadaśvaḥ, sukaraḥ, sukhacāraḥ, sukhāyanaḥ, vitantuḥ   

saḥ aśvaḥ yaḥ ārohaṇārthe yogyaḥ।

prācīnakālīnaḥ rājānaḥ sadaśve āruhya vane mṛgayārthe gacchanti sma।