arthapada n. Name of the s on vārttika- kāra an author ( mf( )n. ī- exempli gratia, 'for example' ) vārttika- k- kātyāyana "descendant of m. " ( kati- See 2. ), kati- Name of the author of several treatises on ritual, grammar, etc. (he is also author of the s or critical annotations on the aphorisms of vārttika- , of the pāṇini- yajur- veda- , and of the prātiśākhya- s, and is identified with śrauta- sūtra- , the author of the vara- ruci- ) prākṛta- prakāśa- mahābhāṣya "Great Commentary", n. Name of 's commentary on the patañjali- s of sūtra- and the pāṇini- s of vārttika- kātyāyana- etc. ( ) mahāvārttika "great n. or critical commentary", vārttika- Name of 's kātyāyana- s on the vārttika- s of sūtra- ( pāṇini- see ). māhāv- māhāvārttika (fr. mf( )n. ī- ) familiar with ( mahā- v- 's) kātyāyana- s vārttika- vArttika mīmāṃsāvārttika n. equals . sātantra- vārttika- narendra m. equals or vārttika- rājika- pātañjalabhāṣya ( n. pātañjalabhāṣyavarttika - varttika- ) n. Name of work rāṇaka of a m. commentator or commentary on the (also called tantra- vārttika- or nyāya- sudhā- or vārttika- yojanā- ) sarvā- navadya kāriṇī- savārttika (a mfn. ) with its sūtra- s vārttika- tantraṭīkā f. Name of i-iv - vārttika- ṭupṭīkā collective f. Name of the last 8 books of the . tantra- vārttika- vararuci m. Name of a grammarian (also a poet, lexicographer, and writer on medicine, sometimes identified with , the reputed author of the kātyāyana- s or supplementary rules of vārttika- ; he is placed by some among the nine gems of the court of pāṇini- , and by others among the ornaments of the court of vikramā- ditya ; he was the author of the Prakrit grammar called bhoja- , and is said to be the first grammarian who reduced the various dialects of Prakrit to a system) prākṛta- prakāśa- vārttika an explanatory or supplementary rule, critical gloss or annotation (added to a grammatical or philosophical n. and defined to be"the exposition of the meaning, of that which is said, of that which is left unsaid, and of that which is ill or imperfectly said";the term sūtra- is, however, especially applied to vārttika- 's critical annotations on the aphorisms of kātyāyana- 's grammar, the object of which is to consider whether pāṇini- 's rules are correct or not, and to improve on them where this may be found to be necessary;and also to similar works on various matters by pāṇini- , kumārila- etc.; sureśvara- see , tantra- v- ) śloka- v- vārttikakāra "composer of m. s", vārttika- Name of , kātyāyana- etc. kumārila- vārttikasūtrika one who studies the mfn. s and vārttika- s sūtra- vijñāneśvara m. Name of an author ( vijñāneśvaratantra - tantra- n. vijñāneśvaravārttika , - vārttika- n. Name of works.)
balīyastva relative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1. confer, compare vararuci (1) a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himsel confer, compare (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss＾ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त. feminine. vākyakāra a term used for a writer who composes a work in pithy, brief assertions in the manner of sutras, such as the Varttikas. The term is found used in Bhartrhari's Mahabhasyadipika where by contrast with the term Bhasyakara it possibly refers to the varttikakara Katyayana; एषा भाष्यकारस्य कल्पना न वाक्यकारस्य Bhartrhari Mahabhasyadipika. confer, compare also Nagesa's statement वाक्यकारो वार्तिकरमारभते: confer, compare also चुलुम्पादयो वाक्यकारीया ; Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti. confer, compare vārttika a statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discuss The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated edition . If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. vārttikakāra believed to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः ) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition. et cetera, and others śabdānuśāsana science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the literally mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ślokavārtika Varttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.