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     Grammar Search "utam" has 4 results.
     
utam: neuter nominative singular past passive participle stem: uta.
utam: neuter accusative singular past passive participle stem: uta.
utam: masculine accusative singular past passive participle stem: uta.
utām: feminine accusative singular past passive participle stem: uta.
     Amarakosha Search  
29 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
abhīṣuḥ3.3.227MasculineSingularśāriphalakam, dyūtam, akṣam
abhitaḥ3.3.263MasculineSingularkhedaḥ, adbhutam
āranālaḥ2.9.38NeuterSingularabhiṣutam, avantisomam, dhānyāmlam, kuñjalam, sauvīram, kāñjikam, kulmāṣam
avagaṇitam3.1.107MasculineSingularavamatam, avajñātam, avamānitam, paribhūtam
īlitaśaḥMasculineSingularvarṇitam, paṇitam, paṇāyim, īḍitam, gīrṇam, praṇum, śastam, abhiṣṭutam, panitam, panāyim, stutam
kṣavaḥ2.6.52MasculineSingularkṣutam, kṣut
labdham3.1.105MasculineSingularāsāditam, bhūtam, prāptam, vinnam, bhāvitam
parīvāraḥ3.3.177MasculineSingulardyūtakāraḥ, paṇaḥ, dyūtam
śākyamuniḥ1.1.14-15MasculineSingularsarvārthasiddhaḥ, śauddhodaniḥ, gautamaḥ, arkabandhuḥ, māyādevīsutaḥ, śākyasiṃhaḥbuddha
saṃkaṭam3.1.84MasculineSingularsphuṭam
sandānitam3.1.94MasculineSingularmūtam, uhitam, sanditam, sitam, baddham
śīghram1.1.65NeuterSingularavilambitam, satvaram, kṣipram, tūrṇam, drutam, laghu, āśu, capalam, aram, tvaritamswiftly
spaṣṭam3.1.80MasculineSingularpravyaktam, ulbaṇam, sphuṭam
srastam3.1.104MasculineSingularpannam, cyutam, galitam, dhvastam, bhraṣṭam, skannam
syannam3.1.92MasculineSingularsnutam, rīṇam, srutam
tyaktam3.1.108MasculineSingularvidhutam, samujjhitam, dhūtam, utsṛṣṭam, hīnam
ūrīkṛtam3.1.110MasculineSingularupaśrutam, viditam, āśrutam, samāhitam, saṅgīrṇam, aṅgīkṛtam, upagatam, saṃśrutam, pratijñātam, urarīkṛtam
ūtam3.1.101MasculineSingularsyūtam, utam, tantusantatam
vaṣaṭkṛtam2.7.28MasculineSingularhutam
vismayaḥMasculineSingularadbhutam, āścaryam, citramsurprise
mukuṭam2.6.103NeuterSingularkirīṭam
pūtam2.9.24MasculineSingularbahulīkṛtam
pūtam3.1.54MasculineSingularpavitram, medhyam
prasūtam3.1.62MasculineSingularbhūyaḥ, puru, bahulam, pracuram, sphiram, puruham, adabhram, bhūri, bhūyiṣṭham, bahu, prājyam
kūṭam3.3.43MasculineSingularjñānam, akṣi, darśanam
kaladhautam3.3.83NeuterSingularyuktam, kṣmādiḥ, ṛtam, prāṇī, atītaḥ
śrutam3.3.83NeuterSingularrājyam
bhūtam3.3.84MasculineSingularrupyam, sitam, hema
niyutam3.5.24NeuterSingular
     Monier-Williams
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172 results for utam
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
ahalyāf. Name of the wife of gautama- or śaradvat- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājirimfn. fr. ajira-, (gaRa sutaṃgamādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣacaraṇa m. (probably)"having his eyes fixed in abstraction on his feet" , Name of the philosopher gautama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣapad m. (probably)"having his eyes fixed in abstraction on his feet" , Name of the philosopher gautama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākṣapādam. (fr. akṣ- sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order 4. akṣa-) a follower of akṣapāda-'s (id est gautama-'s) nyāya- doctrine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣapādam. (probably)"having his eyes fixed in abstraction on his feet" , Name of the philosopher gautama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ambapālīf. Name (also title or epithet) of a courtezan (converted by gautama- buddha-), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānanda Name (also title or epithet) of one of the chief disciples of gautama- buddha-, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyutan. (-yutam-) half-melted butter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahutamamfn. farthest, remotest (exempli gratia, 'for example' ā bahutamāt puruṣāt-,as far as the remotest descendant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāṣpam. Name of a disciple of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadravargīyam. plural Name of the first 5 disciples of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtif. (with marutām-) Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bimbisāram. (from bimbin-or bimbī+s-?) Name of a king of magadha- (contemporary and patron of gautama- buddha-) (varia lectio vidhisāra-, vidmi-sāra-, vindu-sena-, vindhya-sena-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bodhimaṇḍam. or n. (?) seat of wisdom (Name of the seats which were said to have risen out of the earth under 4 successive trees where gautama- buddha- attained to perfect wisdom) (see next) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bodhimaṇḍalan. Name of the place where gautama- buddha- attained to perfect wisdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmyahutan. equals myaṃ hutam-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddham. (with Buddhists) a fully enlightened man who has achieved perfect knowledge of the truth and thereby is liberated from all existence and before his own attainment of nirvāṇa- reveals the method of obtaining it, (especially) the principal buddha- of the present age (born at kapila-vastu- about the year 500 B.C. his father, śuddhodana-, of the śākya- tribe or family, being the rāja- of that district, and his mother, māyā-- devī-, being the daughter of rāja- su-prabuddha- ;hence he belonged to the kṣatriya- caste and his original name śākya-muni- or śākya-siṃha- was really his family name, while that of gautama- was taken from the race to which his family belonged;for his other namesSee ;he is said to have died when he was 80 years of age, prob. about 420 B.C. ;he was preceded by 3 mythical buddha-s of the present kalpa-, or by 24, reckoning previous kalpa-, or according to others by 6 principal buddha-s ;sometimes he is regarded as the 9th incarnation of viṣṇu- etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddhagayāf. Buddha's gayā-, Name of a sacred place near gaya- (in Behar), where gautama- Buddha and all the other Buddhas are said to have attained to true wisdom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddhakāpam. Name of the present buddha- era (which has already had 4 buddha-s, gautama- being the fourth). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caraṇākṣam. (equals akṣa-pāda-) gautama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devadattam. Name of a cousin (or younger brother) and opponent of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devadattāf. Name of the mother of deva-datta- who was the cousin of gautama- buddha- (See above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devadatttāgrajam. "the elder brother of deva-datta-", Name of gautama- buddha- (see above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhenun. Name of a sāman- (also marutāṃ dh-and dhenu-payasī- dual number) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛḍhadhanam. "having secure wealth", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛḍhadhanusm. "having a strong bow", Name of an ancestor of gautama- (varia lectio -hanu-and ḍhāśva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
droṇastūpam. Name of a stūpa- (said to contain a droṇa- holding relics of gautama- buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyūtakaramaṇḍalīf. a gambler's circle (see dyūtamaṇḍala-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaḍika gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāḍivimfn. fr. gaḍiva- gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gātṛm. Name of a man with the patronymic gautama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamam. plural gautama-'s family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamanyagrodham. " gautama-'s nyagrodha-"Name of a fig-tree near vaiśālī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamārdhikamfn. belonging half to the gautama- family Va1rtt. 1 and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamasambhavāf. the gautamī- river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamasarasn. " gautama-'s pond", Name of a lake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamavanan. " gautama-'s grove", Name of a locality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamīputra(g/aut-) m. "son of gautamī-", Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gautamīyamfn. belonging to or coming from gautama- etc. (f(-).with mitākṣarā-Name of hara-datta-'s commentator or commentary on ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotran. a tribe, subdivision (in the Brahman caste 49 gotra-s are reckoned and supposed to be sprung from and named after celebrated teachers, as śāṇḍilya-, kaśyapa-, gautama-, bharad-vāja-, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gurumf(-)n. (see gir/i-; compound g/arīyas-,once yas-tara-, guru-tara-,superl. gariṣṭha-, gurutama-See ss.vv.) heavy, weighty (opposed to lagh/u-) etc. (gaRa śauṇḍādi- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haradattam. Name of various writers etc. (especially of the author of the pada-mañjarī-, a commentator or commentary on the kāśikā-vṛtti-, and the mitākṣarā-, a commentator or commentary on gautama-'s dharmasūtra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaivifr. jiva- gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalavāhanam. "water-carrier", Name of a physician (gautama- buddha- in a former birth)
jātakan. the story of a former birth of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaṭilam. Name of a woman (with the patronymic gautamī-;mother-in-law of rādhikā- ;said to have had 7 husbands) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākṣīvam. (patronymic fr. kakṣīvat-) Name of a son of gautama- and auśīnarī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārṇimfn. idem or 'mfn. fr. k/arṇa- ' gaRa sutaṃ-gamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khaḍika gaRa sutaṃgamādi-.
khāḍikimfn. fr. khaḍika- gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khāṇḍitimfn. fr. khaṇḍita- gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛ Ved. (I) cl.2 P. 2. sg. k/arṣi- dual number kṛth/as- plural kṛth/a-; A1. 2. sg. kṛṣ/e-; imperfect tense 2. and 3. sg. /akar-, 3. sg. rarely /akat- () ; 3. dual number /akartām-; plural /akarma-, /akarta- (also ), /akran- (Aorist,according to ); A1. /akri- (), /akṛthās- (), /akṛta- (); akrātām- (), /akrata- ( ) : imperative kṛdh/i- (also ), kṛt/am-, kṛt/a-; A1. kṛṣv/a-, kṛdhv/am-; subjunctive 2. and 3. sg. kar- plural k/arma-, k/arta- and kartana-, kran-; A1. 3. sg. kṛta- () , 3. plural kr/anta- () : Potential kriyāma- (); pr. p. P. (Nominal verb plural) kr/antas- A1. krāṇ/a-. (II) cl.1 P. k/arasi-, k/arati-, k/arathas-, k/aratas-, k/aranti-; A1. k/arase-, k/arate-, k/arāmahe-: imperfect tense /akaram-, /akaras-, /akarat- (Aorist,according to ) : imperative k/ara-, k/aratam-, k/aratām-: subjunctive k/aram-, k/arāṇi-, k/aras-, k/arat-, k/arāma-, k/aran-; A1. karāmahai-; pr. p. f. k/arantī- () (III) cl.5 P. kṛṇ/omi-, ṇ/oṣi-, ṇ/oti-, kṛṇuth/as-, kṛṇm/as- and kṛṇmasi-, kṛṇuth/a-, kṛṇv/anti-; A1. kṛṇv/e-, kṛṇuṣ/e-, kṛṇut/e-, 3. dual number kṛṇv/aite- (); plural kṛṇm/ahe-, kṛṇv/ate-: imperfect tense /akṛṇos-, /akṛṇot-, /akṛṇutam-, /akṛṇuta- and ṇotana- (), /akṛṇvan-; A1. 3. sg. /akṛṇuta- plural /akṛṇudhvam-, /akṛṇvata-: imperative kṛṇ/u- or kṛṇuh/i- or kṛṇut/āt-, kṛṇ/otu-, kṛṇut/am-, kṛṇut/ām-, 2. plural kṛṇut/a- or kṛṇ/ota- or kṛṇ/otana-, 3. plural kṛṇv/antu-; A1. kṛṇuṣv/a-, kṛṇut/ām-, kṛṇv/āthām-, kṛṇudhv/am-: subjunctive kṛṇ/avas-, ṇ/avat- or ṇ/avāt-, kṛṇ/avāva-, ṇ/avāma-, ṇ/avātha-, ṇ/avatha-, ṇ/avan-; A1. kṛṇ/avai- (once ṇavā- ), kṛṇavase- (also varia lectio ṇvase-), kṛṇavate-, kṛṇ/avāvahai-, kṛṇ/avāmahai-, 3. plural kṛṇ/avanta- () or kṛṇavante- or kṛṇvata- () : Potential A1. kṛṇvīt/a-; pr. p. P. kṛṇv/at- (f. vat/ī-) A1. kṛṇvāṇ/a-. (IV) cl.8. (this is the usual formation in the brāhmaṇa-s; sūtra-s, and in classical Sanskrit) P. kar/omi- (Epic kurmi- ); kurv/as-, kuruth/as-, kurut/as-, kurm/as- ([ kulmas-in an interpolation after ]), kuruth/a-, kurv/anti-; A1. kurv/e-, etc., 3. plural kurv/ate- () : imperfect tense akaravam-, akaros-, akarot-, akurva-, etc.; A1. 3. sg. akuruta- plural akurvata-: imperative kuru-, karotu- (in the earlier language 2. and 3. sg. kurutāt-,3. sg. also ), kuruta- or kurutana- (); A1. kuruṣva-, kurudhvam-, kurv/atām-: subjunctive karavāṇi-, karavas-, vāt-, vāva- or vāvas- ( ), vāma- or vāmas- (), vātha-, van-; A1. karavai-, kuruthās-, karavāvahai- (; he- ), karavaithe-, vaite- ( , ), vāmahai-(he- ) : Potential P. kuryām- A1. kurvīya- (); pr. p. P. kurv/at- (f. vat/ī-); A1. kurvāṇ/a-: perf. P. cak/āra-, cak/artha-, cakṛv/a-, cakṛm/a-, cakr/a- (); A1. cakr/e-, cakrir/e-; parasmE-pada cakṛvas- (accusative cakr/uṣam- ); A1. cakrāṇa- () : 2nd future kariṣy/ati-; subjunctive 2. sg. kariṣy/ās- (); 1st future k/artā-: preceding kriyāsam-: Aorist P. Ved. cakaram- (), acakrat- (), /acakriran- (); A1. 1. sg. kṛske- (); Class. akārṣīt- ( ;once akāraṣīt- ); Passive voice Aorist reflex. akāri- and akṛta- ( ) : infinitive mood k/artum-, Ved. k/artave-, k/artav/ai-, k/artos- (See ss.vv.); ind.p. kṛtv/ā-, Ved. kṛtv/ī- ([ ]) and kṛtv/āya- ([ ]) ; to do, make, perform, accomplish, cause, effect, prepare, undertake etc. ; to do anything for the advantage or injury of another (genitive case or locative case) etc. ; to execute, carry out (as an order or command) ; to manufacture, prepare, work at, elaborate, build ; to form or construct one thing out of another (ablative or instrumental case) etc. ; to employ, use, make use of (instrumental case) etc. ; to compose, describe ; to cultivate (confer, compare ) ; to accomplish any period, bring to completion, spend (exempli gratia, 'for example' varṣāṇi daśa cakruḥ-,"they spent ten years"; kṣaṇaṃ kuru-,"wait a moment"; confer, compare kritakṣaṇa-) ; to place, put, lay, bring, lead, take hold of (accusative or locative case or instrumental case exempli gratia, 'for example' ardh/aṃ-kṛ-,to take to one's own side or party, cause to share in(genitive case;See 2. ardh/a-); haste-or pāṇau-kṛ-,to take by the hand, marry ; hṛdayena-kṛ-,to place in one's heart, love ; hṛdi-kṛ-,to take to heart, mind, think over, consider ; manasi-kṛ- idem or 'f. (equals kuhī-) a fog ' ;to determine, purpose [ ind.p. si-kṛtvā-or si-kṛtya-] ; vaśe-kṛ-,to place in subjection, become master of ) ; to direct the thoughts, mind, etc. (m/anas-[ etc.] or buddhim-[ ] or matim-[ ]or bhāvam-[ ], etc.) towards any object, turn the attention to, resolve upon, determine on (locative case dative case infinitive mood,or a sentence with iti- exempli gratia, 'for example' mā śoke manaḥ kṛthāḥ-,do not turn your mind to grief ; gamanāya matiṃ cakre-,he resolved upon going ; alābuṃ samutsraṣṭuṃ manaś cakre-,he resolved to create a gourd ; draṣṭā tavāsmīti matiṃ cakāra-,he determined to see him ) ; to think of (accusative) ; to make, render (with two accusative exempli gratia, 'for example' ādityaṃ kāṣṭhām akurvata-,they made the sun their goal ) etc. ; to procure for another, bestow, grant (with genitive case or locative case) etc. ; A1. to procure for one's self, appropriate, assume ; to give aid, help any one to get anything (dative case) ; to make liable to (dative case) ; to injure, violate (exempli gratia, 'for example' kanyāṃ-kṛ-,to violate a maiden) ; to appoint, institute ; to give an order, commission ; to cause to get rid of, free from (ablative or -tas-) ; to begin (exempli gratia, 'for example' cakre śobhayitum purīm-,they began to adorn the city) ; to proceed, act, put in practice etc. ; to worship, sacrifice ; to make a sound (svaram-or śabdam-) ( ), utter, pronounce (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' with the sounds phaṭ-, phut-, bhāṇ-, v/aṣaṭ-, svadh/ā-, sv/āhā-, hiṃ-), pronounce any formula () ; (with numeral adverbs ending in dhā-) to divide, separate or break up into parts (exempli gratia, 'for example' dvidhā-kṛ-,to divide into two parts, ind.p. dvidhā kṛtvā-or dvidhā-kṛtya-or -kāram- ; sahasradhā-kṛ-,to break into a thousand pieces) ; (with adverbs ending in vat-) to make like or similar, consider equivalent (exempli gratia, 'for example' rājyaṃ tṛṇa-vat kṛtvā-,valuing the kingdom like a straw ) ; (with adverbs ending in sāt-) to reduce anything to, cause to become, make subject (See ātma-sāt-, bhasma-sāt-) The above senses of kṛ- may be variously modified or almost infinitely extended according to the noun with which this root is connected, as in the following examples: sakhyaṃ-kṛ-, to contract friendship with ; pūjāṃ-kṛ-, to honour ; rājyaṃ-kṛ-, to reign ; snehaṃ-kṛ-, to show affection ; ājñāṃ- or nideśaṃ- or śāsanaṃ- or kāmaṃ- or yācanāṃ- or vacaḥ- or vacanaṃ- or vākyaṃ-kṛ-, to perform any one's command or wish or request etc. ; dharmaṃ-kṛ-, to do one's duty ; nakhāni-kṛ-,"to clean one's nails" See kṛta-nakha- ; udakaṃ- ([ ]) or salilaṃ- ([ ]) kṛ-, to offer a libation of Water to the dead ; to perform ablutions ; astrāṇi-kṛ-, to practise the use of weapons ; darduraṃ-kṛ-, to breathe the flute ; daṇḍaṃ-kṛ-, to inflict punishment etc. ; kālaṃ-kṛ-, to bring one's time to an end id est to die ; ciraṃ-kṛ-, to be long in doing anything, delay ; manasā- (for si-See above) kṛ-, to place in one's mind, think of, meditate ; śirasā-kṛ-, to place on one's the head ; mūrdhnā-kṛ-, to place on one's head, obey, honour. Very rarely in veda- () , but commonly in the brāhmaṇa-s, sūtra-s, and especially in classical Sanskrit the perf. forms cakāra-and cakre- auxiliarily used to form the periphrastical perfect of verbs, especially of causatives exempli gratia, 'for example' āsāṃ cakre-,"he sat down" ; gamay/āṃ cakāra-,"he caused to go"[see ;in veda- some other forms of kṛ-are used in a similar way, viz. proper karoti- ; imperfect tense akar- and ;3. plural akran- and ; preceding kriyāt- (See );according to , also karotu-with vid-]. Causal kārayati-, te-, to cause to act or do, cause another to perform, have anything made or done by another (double accusative instrumental case and accusative [see ] exempli gratia, 'for example' sabhāṃ kāritavān-,he caused an assembly to be made ; rāja-darśanaṃ māṃ kāraya-,cause me to have an audience of the king; vāṇijyaṃ kārayed vaiśyam-,he ought to cause the vaiśya- to engage in trade ; na śakṣyāmi kiṃcit kārayituṃ tvayā-,I shall not be able to have anything done by thee ) ; to cause to manufacture or form or cultivate etc. ; to cause to place or put, have anything placed, put upon, etc. (exempli gratia, 'for example' taṃ citrapaṭaṃ vāsa-gṛhe bhittāv akārayat-,he had the picture placed on the wall in his house ) . Sometimes the Causal of kṛ- is used for the simple verb or without a causal signification (exempli gratia, 'for example' padaṃ kārayati-,he pronounces a word ; mithyā k-,he pronounces wrongly ; kaikeyīm anu rājānaṃ kāraya-,treat or deal with kaikeyī- as the king does ) : Desiderative c/ikīrṣati- (Aorist 2. sg. acikīrṣīs- ) , Epic also te-, to wish to make or do, intend to do, design, intend, begin, strive after etc. ; to wish to sacrifice or worship : Intensive 3. plural karikrati- (pr. p. k/arikrat-See ), to do repeatedly ; Class. carkarti- or carikarti- or carīkarti- ([ ]) , also carkarīti- or carikarīti- or carīkarīti- or cekrīyate- ([ib. Scholiast or Commentator ]); ([ confer, compare Hibernian or Irish caraim,"I perform, execute";ceard,"an art, trade, business, function";sucridh,"easy"; Old German karawan,"to prepare"; modern German gar,"prepared (as food)"; Latin creo,ceremonia;, .])
kṛpamf(ī-). Name of the son and daughter of the sage śaradvat- (who performed severe penance;the jealous indra- therefore sent a nymph to tempt him, but without success;however, twin sons were born to the sage in a clump of grass[ śara-stambe-],who were found by king śāntanu- and out of pity[ kṛpā-]taken home and reared;the daughter, kṛpī-, married droṇa-, and had by him a son called aśvatthāman-;the son, kṛpa-, became one of the council at hastināpura-, and is sometimes called gautama-, sometimes śāradvata-;according to and , kṛpa- and kṛpī- were only distant descendants of śaradvat-;according to others, kṛpa- = vyāsa- or = a son of kṛṣṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛpācāryam. Name of gautama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṇḍavāsinīf. "pitcher-dwelling", gautama-'s tutelar deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokānugrahapravṛttam. Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahābhikṣum. "great monk", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahābuddharūpan. a great image of Gautama buddha-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahācitta gaRa sutaṃgamādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māhācittimfn. (fr. mahā-jana-) gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahānāmanm. Name of a relation of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāprajāpatīf. Name of gautama- buddha-'s aunt and foster-mother (the first woman who embraced the buddha-'s doctrines) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāpuruṣam. Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māhāputrimfn. (fr. mahā-putra-) gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maharṣim. a great ṛṣi-, any great sage or saint (according to to ten maharṣi-s were created by manu- svāyambhuva-, viz. marīci-, atri-, aṅgiras-, pulastya-, pulaha-, kratu-, pracetas-, vasiṣṭha-, bhṛgu-, nārada-, also called the 10 prajāpati-s, q.v;some restrict the number to 7, and some add dakṣa-, dharma-, gautama-, kaṇva-, vālmīki-, vyāsa-, manu-, vibhāṇḍaka- etc.) etc. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāsattvam. of gautama- buddha- as heir to the throne View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāśramaṇam. "great religious mendicant", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāśrāvakam. a great śrāvaka- or disciple (of gautama- buddha- or of a jina-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvīram. of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitrībalam. Name of a king (regarded as an incarnation of gautama- buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārīcam. of the mother of gautama- buddha- (equals māyā-devī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maudgalyāyanam. (patronymic fr. preceding) Name of a pupil of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mauniciti(fr. muni-cita-) gaRa sutaṃ-gamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māyāf. Name of the mother of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māyādevīf. Name of the mother of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māyādevīsutam. "son of māyādevī-", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māyāsutam. "son of māyā-", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgadāvam. "deer-park", Name of the place where gautama- buddha- first preached View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlan. immediate neighbourhood (mama mūtam-= to my side) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlagrantham. "original text", Name of the very words uttered by gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
municita gaRa sutaṃgamādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
munīndram. Name of a buddha- or jina-, (especially) of gautama- Buddha View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
munīśam. "chief of muni-s", Name of gautama- buddha- or of a jina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgadattam. of a man related to gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nālāgirim. Name of an elephant connected with gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandam. of a step-brother and disciple of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandabalāf. Name of a girl connected with gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandikamfn. of a pupil of gautama- buddha- (chief of the village uru-vilvā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatidhanusm. Name of an ancestor of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navatiratham. Name of an ancestor of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāyakam. Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikrīḍam. play, sport, with marutām- Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nodhasm. (according to 4. nu-?) Name of a ṛṣi- also called gautama- ( ) or kākṣīvata- () (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyam. a system of philosophy delivered by gotama- or gautama- (it is one of the six darśanas- q.v,and is perhaps so called, because it"goes into"all subjects physical and metaphysical according to the above syllogistic method treated of in one division of the system;its branch is called vaiśeṣika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyasūtran. the aphorisms of the nyāya- philosophy by gautama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṃsukūlasīvanan. "the sewing together of rags f-om a dust-heap"Name of the place where gautama- buddha- assumed his ascetic's dress (Calcutta edition pāṇḍu-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcagatisamatikrāntam. "having passed through the 5 forms of existence", Name of gautama- buddha- (some reckon 6 formsSee ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcakam. plural the 5 first disciples of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇḍudukūlasīvanan. "sewing of the white winding-sheet", Name of a place (where gautama- buddha- made a white-winding-sheet) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇihatāf. (sc. puṣ-kariṇī-) Name of a lake (which the gods created for gautama- buddha- with a stroke of the hand) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇinim. (according to patronymic fr. pāṇina-) Name of the most eminent of all native Sanskrit grammarians (he was the author of the aṣṭādhyāyī-and supposed author of several other works, viz. the dhātu-pāṭha-, gaṇa-pātha-, liṅgānuśāsana- and śikṣā-;he was a gāndhāra- and a native of śalātura-, situated in the North-West near Attok and Peshawar [see and śālāturīya-];he lived after gautama- buddha- but B.C. and is regarded as an inspired muni-;his grandfather's name was devala- and his mother's dākṣi- [see sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order and ananta-]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pilindavatsam. Name of a disciple of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prābhūtikamf(ī-)n. equals pra-bhūtam āha- Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajāpatī(--) f. Name of gautama- buddha- 's aunt and nurse (with the patronymic gautamī-, the first woman who assented to his doctrines) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakrīḍam. (with marutāṃ-) Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasenajitm. Name of several princes (especially of a sovereign of śrāvastī- contemporary with gautama- buddha- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyakṣatasind. before the eyes, visibly, perceptibly (taḥ śrutam-,heard perceptibly or with the ears) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
preṅkhamfn. a swing, a sort of hammock or swinging-cot (m. dual number the two posts between which a swing moves ; idem or 'mfn. trembling, rocking, swaying, pitching ' [with nakulasya vāma-devasya-]and sg. [with marutām-]Name of sāman-s ; preṅkhaphalaka kha-phalaka- n.the board or seat in a swing ; preṅkheṅkhana kheṅkhana- n.swinging ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raghum. of a son of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāhulam. of a son of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāhulabhadram. equals hula- Name of a son of gautama- Buddh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāhulasūf. "father of rāhula-", Name of gautama- Buddh View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratharājam. Name of an ancestor of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ric cl.7 P. A1. () riṇ/akti-, riṅkte- cl.1 P. () recati- ; cl.4 A1. (confer, compare Passive voice) r/icyate- (Epic also ti-; perfect tense rir/eca-, riric/e- etc. etc.: riricyām-, arirecīt- ; parasmE-pada ririkv/as-, riricān/a- ; Aorist /āraik- ; arikṣi- ; aricat- ; future rektā- grammar, rekṣyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood rektum- grammar), to empty, evacuate, leave, give up, resign ; to release, set free ; to part with id est sell ("for" instrumental case) ; to leave behind, take the place of (accusative), supplant ; to separate or remove from (ablative) : Passive voice ricy/ate- (Aorist areci-), to be emptied etc. etc. ; to be deprived of or freed from (ablative) ; to be destroyed, perish : Causal (or cl.10. ; Aorist arīricat-), to make empty ; to discharge, emit (as breath, with or scilicet mārutam-), ; to abandon, give up : Desiderative ririkṣati-, te- grammar : Intensive rericyate-, rerekti- [ confer, compare Zend ric; Greek , ; Latin linquo,licet; Lithuanian likti; Gothic leihwan; Anglo-Saxon leo4n; English loan,lend; German li7han,leihen.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahadevam. of a son of su-prabuddha- and uncle of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasrākṣam. Name of indra- (so called from the curse of gautama- who detecting indra- in a desire to seduce his wife ahalyā- covered him with a thousand marks of the female organ, afterwards changed to eyes;a different legend is in ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākyam. Name of a tribe of landowners and kṣatriya-s in kapila-vastu- (from whom gautama-, the founder of Buddhism, was descended) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākyam. Name of gautama- buddha- himself View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākyaketum. "star of the śākya-s", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākyamunim. " śākya- sage", Name of gautama- buddha- (also -buddha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākyapuṃgavam. " śākya-s bull", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākyaśāsanan. the doctrine or teaching of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākyasiṃham. " śakya- lion", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākyavaṃśāvatīrṇam. "incarnate in the śākya-s family", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkrīḍam. plural (with marutām-) Name of sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammatīyam. Name of one of the four divisions of the vaibhāṣika- system of Buddhism (said to have been founded by upāli-, a disciple of gautama- buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃstobham. or n. (with or without marutām-),"id.", Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāradvatam. of gautama- (plural equals gautamāḥ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śārif. Name of a daughter of māṭhara- (wife of tiṣya- and mother of the first disciple of gautama- buddha-; see śāri-putra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāriputram. Name of one of the two chief disciples (agra-śrāvaka-), of gautama- buddha- (the other being maudgalyāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvārthasiddham. Name of gautama- buddha- (so called, according to some, because his parents' wishes were all fulfilled by his birth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauddhodanim. (fr. śuddhodana-) patronymic of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaukrimfn. gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sautaṃgamamf(ī-)n. (fr. sutaṃgama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śauvanimfn. (fr. śvan-) gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saveśīyan. (with marutām-), Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhārtham. "he who has fulfilled the object (of his coming)", Name of the great buddha- (gautama- or śākya-muni-, founder of Buddhism) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhahanum. Name of the grandfather of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślokagautamam. gautama- (when speaking) in śloka-s or in metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtif. the whole body of codes of law as handed down memoriter or by tradition (especially the codes of manu- yājñavalkya- and the 16 succeeding inspired lawgivers, viz. atri-, viṣṇu-, hārīta-, uśanas- or śukra-, aṅgiras-, yama-, āpastamba-, saṃvarta-, kātyāyana-, bṛhas-pati-, parāśara-, vyāsa-, śaṅkha-, likhīta-, dakṣa- and gautama-;all these lawgivers being held to be inspired and to have based their precepts on the veda-; see ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sṛ (confer, compare sal-) cl.1.3. P. () s/arati- (Epic also te-and according to to also dhāvati-), and s/isarti- (the latter base only in veda-;3. dual number s/isratuḥ-,3. plural s/israte- ; parasmE-pada s/israt-[ q.v ] ; perfect tense sas/āra-, sasr/e- etc.;1. dual number sasriva- ; parasmE-pada sasṛv/as-, sasrāṇ/a-and sasṛmāṇ/a- ; Aorist asārṣīt- grammar; subjunctive sarṣat- ; preceding sriyāt- grammar; future sartā- ; sariṣy/ati- etc.; infinitive mood sartum- etc.; s/artave-, tav/ai- ; ind.p. sṛtv/ā- ; -s/ṛtya-, -s/āram- etc.), to run, flow, speed, glide, move, go (with uccakais-,"to spring up";with v/ājam-,or ājim-,"to run a race" id est"exert one's self") Calcutta edition etc. ; to blow (as wind) ; to run away, escape ; to run after, pursue (accusative) ; to go towards, betake one's self to (accusative or tatra-etc.) ; to go against, attack, assail ; to cross, traverse (accusative) ; (A1.) to begin to flow (said of the fluid which surrounds the fetus) : Passive voice sriyate- (Aorist asāri- ), to be gone etc., grammar : Causal sārayati- or cl.10 P. () to cause to run ; to set in motion, strike (a lute) ; to remove, push aside (a braid of hair) ; put in array, to arrange (with dyūtam-,"the men on a chess-board") ; to make visible, show, manifest ; to nourish, foster (genitive case) ; A1. sārayate- (for sar/ayate-See saraya-,), to cause one's self to be driven, drive (in a carriage) : pass. sāryate-, to be made to flow, discharge (excrement) : Desiderative sisīrṣati-, to wish to run (vājam-,"a race") : Intensive (confer, compare sarisrar/a-) s/arsṛte- (parasmE-pada s/arsrāṇa-See pra-sṛ-) or sarīṣarti-, to stride backwards and forwards ; to blow violently (as the wind) [ confer, compare Greek ,;, ; Latin salire.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutan. learning or teaching, instruction (śrutaṃ-kṛ-,"to learn") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
subhadram. of the last man converted by gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuddhodanam. "having pure rice or food", Name of a king of kapila-vastu- (of the tribe of the śākya-s and father of gautama- buddha- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuddhodanasutam. "son of S3uddh'odana", gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudhanusm. of an ancestor of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sugautamam. "the good gautama-", Name of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumantram. Name of a preceptor (having the patronymic bābhrava- gautama-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suṣūmfn. (prob.) very stimulating (according to to others equals su-ṣuta-;superl. -ṣ/ūtama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
susutama(s/u--) mfn. (used in explaining su-ṣ/ūtama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutaṃjayam. "son-winning", Name of a man (see sutaṃ-gama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvaiti(fr. śveta-) gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svānimfn. (fr. svana-) gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetaketum. of gautama- buddha- as a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tathāgatamfn. "he who comes and goes in the same way [as the buddha-s who preceded him]", gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tritam. "third"(), Name of a Vedic deity (associated with the marut-s, vāyu-, and indra-;fighting like the latter with tvāṣṭra-, vṛtra-, and other demons;called āptya- [ q.v ],"water-deity", and supposed to reside in the remotest regions of the world, whence[ ]the idea of wishing to remove calamity to tvāṣṭra-, and the view of the trita-s being the keepers of nectar[ ] , similarly [ ]the notion of trita-'s bestowing long life;also conceived as an inferior deity conquering the demons by order and with the help of indra-[ ];fallen into a well he begged aid from the gods [ ];as to this last myth on relates that 3 ṛṣi-s, ekata-, dvita-, and trita-, parched with thirst, looked about and found a well, and when tvāṣṭra- began to draw water, the other two, desirous of his property, pushed him down and closed up the well with a wheel;shut up there, tvāṣṭra- composed a hymn to the gods, and managed miraculously to prepare the sacrificial soma-, that he might drink it himself, or offer it to the deities and so be extricated: this is alluded to in [ confer, compare ] and described in ;also makes him a ṛṣi-, and he is the supposed author of ;in epic legends[ ] ekata-, dvita-, and tvāṣṭra- are described as 3 brothers, sons of gautama- or of prajā-pati- or brahmā-;elsewhere tvāṣṭra- is one of the 12 sons of manu- cākṣuṣa- by naḍvalā- ; confer, compare traitan/a-; Zend Thrita;, , etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tul cl.10. tolayati-, or tul- (only tul-also figuratively; A1. ) to lift up, raise (future Passive voice tolayiṣyate-) ; to determine the weight of anything by lifting it up, weigh, compare by weighing and examining, ponder, examine with distrust etc. ; to make equal in weight, equal, compare (with instrumental case exempli gratia, 'for example' na brāhmaṇais tulaye bhūtam anyat-,"I do not compare any other being with Brahmans";or with an adverb terminating in -vat-) etc. ; to counterbalance, outweigh, match, possess in the same degree, resemble, reach ; (perfect tense parasmE-pada tulita-) & ([ confer, compare Latin te-tul-ietc.; etc.; Gothic thulan.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utathyatanayam. "a descendant of utathya-", Name of gautama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaigrahi(fr. vi-graha-) gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaigri(fr. vigra-) gaRa sutaṃ-gamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaipracitimfn. (fr. vipra-cita-) gaRa sutaṃgamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiśeṣikan. Name of the later of the two great divisions of the nyāya- school of philosophy (it was founded by kaṇāda-, and differs from the," nyāya- proper" founded by gautama-, in propounding only seven categories or topics instead of sixteen;and more especially in its doctrine of viśeṣa-,or eternally distinct nature of the nine substances, air, fire, water, earth, mind, ether, time, space, and soul, of which the first five, including mind, are held to be atomic)
vajrakālikāf. Name of the mother of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vid (originally identical with1. vid-) cl.6 P. A1. () vind/ati-, te- (Vedic or Veda also vitt/e-, vid/e-; parasmE-pada vidān/a-or vidāna-[ q.v ]; Epic 3. plural vindate- Potential vindyāt-,often equals vidyāt-; perfect tense viv/eda-[3. plural vividus- subjunctive vividat-], vividv/as-,3. plural vividre-, vidr/e- etc.; parasmE-pada vividv/as- ; vividivas- ; Aorist /avidat-, data- [ Vedic or Veda subjunctive vid/āsi-, d/āt-; Potential vid/et-, deta- ;3. sg. videṣṭa- ]; A1.1. sg. avitsi- ; future vettā-, vediṣyati- grammar; vetsyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood vid/e- ; vettum- etc.; v/ettave- ; ttavai-[?] and tos- ; ind.p. vittv/ā- ; -vidya- etc.) , to find, discover, meet or fall in with, obtain, get, acquire, partake of, possess etc. etc. (with diśas-,to find out the quarters of she sky ) ; to get or procure for (dative case) ; to seek out, look for, attend to etc. ; to feel, experience ; to consider as, take for (two accusative) ; to come upon, befall, seize, visit ; to contrive, accomplish, perform, effect, produce ; (A1. mc. also P.) to take to wife, marry (with or scilicet bhāryām-) etc. ; to find (a husband), marry (said of a woman) ; to obtain (a son, with or scilicet sutam-) : Passive voice or A1. vidy/ate- (Epic also ti-; parasmE-pada vidyamāna-[ q.v ]; Aorist avedi-), to be found, exist, be etc. ; (especially in later language) vidyate-,"there is, there exists", often with na-,"there is not" ; with bhoktum-,"there is something to eat" ; followed by a future ,"is it possible that?" ; yathā-vid/e-,"as it happens" id est "as usual","as well as possible" : Causal vedayati-, to cause to find etc. : Desiderative vividiṣati- or vivitsati-, te- grammar (see vivitsita-): Intensive vevidyate-, vevetti- (for parasmE-pada v/evidat-and dāna-See vi--and saṃvid-).
vikaṭam. Name of the mother of gautama- buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipramf(ā-)n. of a son of śrutaṃ-jaya- (or śṛtaṃ-jaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipracita gaRa sutaṃ-gamādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśeṣoktif. "mention of difference", Name of a figure of speech (in which the excellence of a thing is implied by comparing it to some highly prized object, yet mentioning the difference exempli gratia, 'for example' dyūtaṃnāma puruṣasyāsiṃhāsanaṃ rājyam-,"truly gambling is a man's throneless kingdom" ) (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhagautamam. the older gautama- or an older recension of gautama-'s law-book View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhagautamasaṃhitāf. vṛddha-- gautama-'s law-book. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyavahāraviṣayam. a subject or title of legal procedure, any act or matter which may become the subject of legal proceedings (according to eighteen in number, viz. ṛṇādānam-, nikṣepaḥ-, asvāmi-vikrayaḥ-, sambhūya-samutthānam-, dattasyānapakarma-, vetanādānam-, saṃvid-vyatikramaḥ-, kraya-vikrayānuśayaḥ-, svāmi-pālayor vivādaḥ-, sīmā-vivādaḥ-, vāk-pāruṣyam-, daṇḍa-pāruṣyam-, steyam-, sāhasam-, strī-saṃgrahaṇam-, strīpuṃ-dharmaḥ-, vibhāgaḥ-, dyūtam-, āhvayaḥ-,qq.vv.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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apadrutam अपद्रुतम् To run away in a bent posture; Rām.6. 4.25. (परस्परजान्वादिग्रहायावनतकायया धावनम् इति टीका)
ārutama आरुतम Cry, Crying; निषेदुःशतशस्तत्र दारुणा दारुणारुताः Rām.6.16.31.
kāladhautam कालधौतम् (= कलधौतम्) Silver or gold. स कालधौतातनु- दुग्धपूर्णतत्कटाहमध्यास्थितनूतनाज्यवत् Rām. Ch.2.17.
gurutama गुरुतम a. Most important. -मः 1 A best teacher. -2 N. of Viṣṇu.
gautamaḥ गौतमः N. of (1) the sage Bhāradvāja; (2) of Śatānanda, Gotama's son; (3) of Kṛipa, Droṇa's brother-in-law; (4) of Buddha; (5) of the propounder of the Nyāya system of philosophy. -Comp. -सम्भवा the river Godāvarī.
gautamī गौतमी 1 N. of Kṛipī, wife of Droṇa. -2 An epithet of the Godāvarī. -3 The teaching of Buddha. -4 The Nyāya system of philosophy propounded by Gautama. -5 Turmeric. -6 A kind of yellow pigment. -7 An epithet of Durgā. -8 N. of the river Gomatī. गौधारः gaudhārḥ धेयः dhēyḥ धेरः dhērḥ गौधारः धेयः धेरः (= गोधिकात्मजः Pāṇ.4.1.129- 3) A lizard living in the hollows of trees (Bengali तोक्के) L. D. B.
niyutam नियुतम् 1 A million. -2 A hundred thousand. -3 Ten thousand crores or 1 Ayutas.
pratikṣutam प्रतिक्षुतम् Sneezing.
bahutama बहुतम a. Most abundant, greatest.
madhutama मधुतम a. Very intoxicating, sweetest.
vaiṣṭutam वैष्टुतम् The ashes of a burnt offering; also वैष्टुभम्.
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bahutama spv. remotest: â bahutamât purushât, down to the remotest descendant; -tara, cpv. more numerous, more, than (ab.); more extensive, greater (fire); too or very much; several: etad eva½asmâkam bahutaram -yad, it is already a great thing for us that --; -m, ad. more; repeatedly; -tara-ka, a. very much or numerous; -tarâm, (ac. f.) ad. highly, greatly, very; -tâ, f. abundance, multitude; -titha, a.(having many tithis or lunar days), long (time); much, manifold: -m, ad. greatly; e&zip;hani, on many a day=for many days; -trina, n. almost grass, a mere straw; -trish- na, a. suffering from great thirst; -trivarsha, a.almost three years old; -tva, n. multiplicity, multitude; majority, opinion of the majority; plural; -dakshiná, a. accompanied by many gifts (sacrifice); -dâna, n. bounteous gift; 2. a. (á) munificent; -dâyin, a. id.; -drisvan,m. great observer, very learned man; -devata, a. addressed to many deities (verse); -devatyã, a. belonging to many gods; -daivata, a. relating to many gods; -dosha, 1. m. great harm or disadvantage; 2. a. having many drawbacks (forest); -dhana, a. possessing much wealth, very rich: -½îsvara, m. very wealthy man; -dh&asharp;, ad. in many ways, parts, or places; variously; many times, repeatedly; very: -kri, multiply; spread abroad;-nâman, a. having many names; -patnîka, a. having many wives: -tâ, f. polygamy; -pada, a. many footed; -parná, a. many-leaved; -pasu, a. rich in cattle; -pâda, a. many-footed; hav ing several pâdas (verse); -putra, a.having many sons or children; -pushpa-phala½upe ta, pp. having many flowers and fruits; -pra kâra, a. manifold: -m, ad. variously; repeatedly; -prakriti, a. consisting of several nominal bases (compound); -praga, a.rich in children; -pragña, a. very wise; -pra- gñâna-sâlin, a. possessed of much knowledge; -pratigña, a. involving several charges or counts (leg.); -prapañka, a. of great diffuseness, prolix; -pralâpin, a. garrulous; -bhâshin, a. id.; -bhâshya, n. loquacity; -bhug, a. eating much; -bhûmika, a. consisting of many stories (building); -bhoktri, m. great eater; -bhogyâ, f. harlot; -bhog aka, a. eating much; -bhog-in, a. id.: (-i) tâ, f.voracity; -bhauma, a. many-storied (building); -mati, f. high opinion, esteem, respect; -matsya, n. place abounding in fish; -madhya-ga, a. belonging to many; -mantavya, fp. to be highly thought of, prized or esteemed; -mâna, m. high opinion or regard, esteem, respect, for (lc. of prs. or thing, rarely g. of prs.); attaching great im portance to (lc.): -purah-saram, ad. with respect; -mânin, a. held in esteem, respected; -mânya, fp. to be highly thought of, estimable; -mâya, a. having many wiles, artful, treacherous; -mitra, a. having many friends; -mukha, a. many-mouthed, talking of many things; -mûla-phala½anvita, pp. furnished with many roots and fruits; -mûlya, 1. n. large sum of money; 2. a. of great price, costly; -yâgín, a. having offered many sacrifices; -ragas, a. very dusty and having much pollen; -ratna, a. abounding in jewels.
buddha pp. (√ budh) awakened, fully awake; expanded (flower); enlightened, wise; known, observed; m. enlightened person who is qualified by good works and knowledge of the truth for Nirvâna and reveals the true doctrine of salvation to the world before his decease (B.); the historical Buddha, named Sâkya-muni Gautama, the founder of the Buddhist religion, who was born in Magadha and died about 477 b. c.; -gayâ, f. Buddha's Gayâ, the Buddhistic name of the town of Gayâ (so called because Buddha obtained true knowledge there); -ghosha, m. N. of a celebrated Buddhist scholar who lived at the beginning of the fifth century a. d. (the N. is not quotable in Sanskrit); -tva, n. Buddha hood; -datta, m. N. of a minister; -dharma, m. Buddha's law; -pâlita, m. N. of a pupil of Nâgârguna; -mârga, m. way or doctrine of Buddha; -rakshita, m. N.: â, f. N.; -½âgama, m. Buddha's doctrine; -½anta, m. waking condition.
yathātattva ad. °ree;-- or -m, in accordance with truth, truly, accurately; -tatham, ad. as it is really (tathâ), circumstantially, accurately; properly, suitably; -tathyam, -tathyena, ad. in accordance with truth; -½âtmaka, a. having whatever nature; -darsana, ad. °ree;-or -m, at each occurrence, in each individual case; -dik, -disam, ad. in accordance with the cardinal points, ac cording to thecorresponding direction; -½â dishta, pp. according to the direction or statement: (á)-m, ad.; -drishtam, ad. as one has seen it; -devatam, ad. deity by deity; -desam, ad. according to the place; -½âdesam, according to precept; -dharmám, ad. in due order; according to the nature; -½adhikâra, ad. °ree;-or -m, according to au thority; -½adhîta, °ree;-or -m, ad. as learnt, in accordance with the text; -½adhyâpakam, ad. in accordance with the teacher; -nirup tam, ad. as scattered; -nirdishta, pp. as above specified, described, or characterized; -½anu pûrvam, ad. in regular order; -½anupûrvya, °ree;-or â, (in.) ad. id.; -½anubhûtam, ad. ac cording toprevious experience; -½anurûpam, ad. in exact conformity, regularly; -nyastam, ad. in the manner in which deposited; -nyây am, ad. according to rule, duly, fitly; -nyâs am, ad. according to the written wording of a sûtra, as is written; -nyupta, pp. in the order in which laid down.
yathāvakāśam ad. accord ing to space; into the proper place; accord ing to or on the first opportunity; -vakana kârin, a. acting according to orders, obedient; -vakanam, ad. according to the expression; -vat, ad. exactly as it is or should be, accord ing to usage, in due order, suitably, fitly, cor rectly, accurately;=yathâ, as (rare); -vay as, ad. according to age; of the same age; -vasám, ad. according toone's will or pleasure (V.); -½avasaram, ad. at every opportunity; -vastu, ad. in accordance with the facts, ac curately, truly; -½avastham, ad. in accord ance with the condition or circumstances; -½avasthita½artha-kathana, n. description of a matter in accordance with facts; -½âvâs am, ad. to one's respective dwelling; -vit tam, ad. in accordance with the find; in pro portion to property; -vidha, a. of what kind; -vidhânam, ad.according to prescription or rule, duly; -vidhânena, in ad. id.; -vidhi, ad. id.; in due form, suitably; according to the deserts of (g.); -viniyogam, ad. in the order stated; -vibhava, °ree;--, -m, or -tas, ad. in proportion to means or income; -vibhâg am, ad. in accordance with the share; -vi shayam, ad. according to the thing in ques tion; -vîrya, a. having what strength: -m, ad. in proportion or with regard to valour; -vritta, pp. as happened; how conducting oneself: °ree;-or -m, ad. as it happened, in ac cordance with the facts, circumstantially; according to the metre; n. previous event; ac tual facts, details of an event; -vrittânta, m.(?) experience, adventure; -vriddha, °ree;-or -m, according to age, by seniority; -vyavahâram, ad. in accordance with usage; -vyutpatti, ad. according to the degree of culture; -sakti, -saktyâ, ad. according to one's power, to the utmost of one's power, as far as possible; -½âsayam, ad. according to wish; according to the conditions or premises; -sâstra, °ree;-or -m, according to prescribed rules or the in stitutes of the law; -sîlam, ad.according to the character; -sraddhám, ad. according to inclination; -½âsramam, ad. according to the stage of religious life; -½âsrayam, ad. in re gard to the connexion; -srâddham, ad. in accordance with the funeral feast; -srutam, pp. as heard of: -m, ad. as one heard it; in accordance with knowledge; incorr. for -sruti; -sruti, ad. according to the precepts of the Veda; -samstham, ad. according to circum stances; -sakhyam, ad. in proportion to friend ship; -samkalpita, pp. as wished; -sam khyam, -samkhyena, ad. according to num ber, number for number, in such a way that the numbers of two equal series correspond numerically (the first to the first, the second to the second, etc.); -sa&ndot;gam, ad. according to need, adequately; -satyam, ad. in accord ance with truth, truthfully; -samdishtam, ad. as directed; -½âsannam, ad. as soon as come near; -samayam,ad. at the proper time; -samarthitam, ad. as has been con sidered good; -samâmnâtam, ad. as men tioned; -samîhita, pp. as desired: -m, ad. according to wish (Pr.); -samuditám, ad. as agreed; -sampad, ad. as it happens; -sam pratyayam, ad. according to agreement; -sampradâyam, ad. as handed down; -sam bandham, ad. according to the relationship; -sambhava, a. corresponding as far as pos sible: -m, ad. according to the connexion, respectively; -sambhavin, a., -sambhâvita, pp. corresponding; -sâma, ad. according to the sequence of the Sâmans; -sâram, ad. ac cording to the quality; -siddha, pp. as hap pening to be ready; -sukha,°ree;-or -m, ad. at pleasure; at ease, comfortably; pleasantly, conveniently; -sukha-mukha, a. facing any way one pleases; -sûktam, ad. hymn by hymn; -sûkshma, a. pl. according to size from the smallest onwards: -m,ad.; -½astam, ad. to one's respective home; -sthâna, n. proper place (only lc. sg. & pl.); a. being in the proper place: (á)-m, ad. to or in the proper place; -sthitam, ad. according to one's stand; as it stands, certainly, surely; -sthiti, ad. according to custom, as usual; -sthûla, °ree;-or -m, ad. in the rough, without going into detail; -smriti, ad. according to one's recollection; according to the rules of the law-books; -sva, a. one's (his, their) respective: °ree;-or -m, ad. each his own, each individually or in his own way, respectively; -svaira, °ree;-or -m, ad. at pleasure, without restraint; -½âhâra, a. eating whatever comes to hand.
yathāpaṇyam ad. according to the commodity; -½aparâdha-danda, a. pun ishing in proportion to guilt; -parîttam, ad. as delivered up; -puram, ad. as before; -pûr va, a. being as before: (á)-m, ad. as before; in succession, one after the other; -pragñam, ad. to the best of one's knowledge; -pratya ksha-darsanam, ad. as if actually seen; -pra dishtam, ad. as prescribed, duly; -pradesam, ad. in its respective place; in the proper place; in all directions; according to precept; -pradhânam, ad. according to size; accord ing to precedence; -pravesam, ad. as one has entered; -prasnam, ad. in accordance with the questions; -prastutam, ad. as had al ready been begun, at length; -prânam, ad. according to one's strength, with all one's might; -prânena, in. ad. id.; -prâpta, pp. as fallen in with, the first that occurs; as resulting from circumstances, suitable; re sulting from a preceding grammatical rule: -m, ad. according to the rule, regularly; -prârthitam, ad. as requested; -phalam, ad. according to the produce; -balám, ad. according to one'spower, with all one's might; according to the condition of the army; -bîg am, ad. according to the seed; -buddhi, ad. to the best of one's knowledge; -bhâgám, ad. according to the share; in one's respective place; in the right place; -bhâganam, ad. respectively in the right place; -bhâva, m. condition of how it is, true state; fate; -½abhi preta, pp. wished for, desirable (--°ree;): -m, ad. according to desire, as any one (g.) likes; -½abhimata, pp. desired: -m, ad. according to desire, to one's heart's content, -desa, m. desired place, whatever place one likes; -½abhi rukita, pp. liked, favourite; -½abhilashita, wished for, desirable; -½abhîshta, pp.desired: -dis, f. place desired by each; -bhûtam, ad. according to what has happened, truly; -bhû mi, ad. into the respective country; -½abhy arthita, pp. previously requested; -ma&ndot;ga lam, ad. according to the respective custom; -mati, ad. as seems fit to any one (g.); to the best of one's understanding; -manas, ad. to one's heart's content; -mukhyam, ad. as re gards the chief persons; -mukhyena, in. ad. chiefly, above all; -½âmnâtam, ad. as handed down in the text.
saharṣa a. rejoicing, glad: -m, ad. joyfully: -mrigayu-grâma-ninâda-maya, a. filled with the shouts of the rejoicing throng of hunters; -sâdhvasam, ad. with joy and yet alarm; -½âkûtam, ad. joyfully and emphatically.
     Vedic Index of
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ātreyīputra Is mentioned as a pupil of Gautamīputra in a Vamśa, or Genealogy, in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad
uddālaka aruṇi Uddālaka, son of Aruna, is one of the most prominent teachers of the Vedic period. He was a Brāh­mana of the Kurupañcālas, according to the śatapatha Brāh­mana. This statement is confirmed by the fact that he was teacher of Proti Kausurubindi of Kauśāmbī, and that his son Svetaketu is found disputing among the Pañcālas. He was a pupil of Aruna, his father, as well as of Patañcala Kāpya, of Madra, while he was the teacher of the famous Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya and of Kausītaki, although the former is represented elsewhere as having silenced him. He overcame in argument Prācīnayogya śauceya, and apparently also Bhadrasena Ajāta- śatrava, though the text here seems to read the name as Arani. He was a Gautama, and is often alluded to as such. As an authority on questions of ritual and philosophy, he is repeatedly referred to by his patronymic name Aruni in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and occasionally in the Aitareya, the Kausītaki, and the Sadvimśa Brāhmanas, as well as the Kausītaki Upanisad. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā he is not mentioned, according to Geldner, but only his father Aruna; his name does not occur, according to Weber, in the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, but in the Kāthaka Samhitā he is, as Aruni, known as a contemporary of Divodāsa Bhaimaseni, and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he is mentioned as serving Vāsistha Caikitāneya. In the Taittirīya tradition he seldom appears. There is an allusion in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Kusurubinda Auddālaki, and according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, Naciketas was a son of Vājaśravasa Gautama, who is made out to be Uddālaka by Sāyana. But the episode of Naciketas, being somewhat unreal, cannot be regarded as of historical value in proving relationship. Aruna is known to the Taittirīya Samhitā. A real son of Uddālaka was the famous śvetaketu, who is expressly reported by Apastamba to have been in his time an Avara or later authority, a statement of importance for the date of Aruni.
gārgya ‘Descendant of Garga,’ is the patronymic of Bālāki in the Brhadāranyaka and the Kausītaki Upanisads. Two Gārgyas are mentioned in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad: one of them is the pupil of Gārgya, who again is the pupil of Gautama. Others occur in the Taittirīya Áranyaka and in the Nirukta, as well as later in the ritual Sūtras. Thus the family was evidently long connected with the development of liturgy and grammar.
gotama Is mentioned several times in the Rigveda, but never in such a way as to denote personal authorship of any hymn. It seems clear that he was closely connected with the Añgirases, for the Gotamas frequently refer to Añgiras. That he bore the patronymic Rāhūgana is rendered probable by one hymn of the Rigveda, and is assumed in the Satapatha Brāh¬mana, where he appears as the Purohita, or domestic priest, of Māthava Videgha, and as a bearer of Vedic civilization. He is also mentioned in the same Brāhmana as a contemporary of Janaka of Videha, and Yājñavalkya, and as the author of a Stoma. He occurs, moreover, in two passages of the Atharvaveda. The Gotamas are mentioned in several passages of the Rigveda, Vāmadeva and Nodhas being specified as sons of Gotama. They include the Vāj aśravases. See also Gautama.
gotamīputra Son of Gotamī,’ is mentioned as a pupil of Bhāradvājī-putra in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. See also Gautamī-putra.
gautama ‘Descendant of Gotama,’ is a common patro­nymic, being applied to Aruna, Uddālaka Aruni, Kuśri, Sāti, Hāridrumata. Several Gautamas are mentioned in the Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as pupils of Agni- veśya, of Saitava and Prācīnayogya, of Saitava, of Bhārad- vaja, of Gautama, and of Vatsya. referred to elsewhere.
gautamīputra (‘Son of a female descendant of Gotama ’) is mentioned in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Bhāradvājīputra. In the Mādhyamdina a Gautamīputra is a pupil of Atreyī- putra, pupil of a Gautamīputra, pupil of Vātsīputra. See also Gotamīputra.
jāra ‘Lover,’ has no sinister sense in the early texts generally, where the word applies to any lover. But it seems probable that the Jāra at the Purusamedha, or human sacrifice, must be regarded as an illegitimate lover; this sense also appears in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and Indra is styled the lover of Ahalyā, wife of Gautama.
didhiṣūpati Occurs in the Kāthaka and Kapisthala Sam­hitās, as well as in the Apastamba, Gautama, and Vasistha
māṇti Is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Gautama, in the a pupil of Gautama, in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vārṣagamputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Vṛṣagaṇa,’ is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Gautamī-putra in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
vaira Seem to have in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas the definite and technical sense of ‘wergeld,’ the money to be paid for killing a man as a compensation to his relatives. This view is borne out by the Sūtras of Apa­stamba and Baudhāyana. Both prescribe the scale of 1,000 cows for a Kṣatriya, 100 for a Vaiśya, 10 for a śūdra, and a bull over and above in each case. Apastamba leaves the destination of the payment vague, but Baudhāyana assigns it to the king. It is reasonable to suppose that the cows were intended for the relations, and the bull was a present to the king for his intervention to induce the injured relatives to abandon the demand for the life of the offender. The Apa­stamba Sūtra allows the same scale of wergeld for women, but the Gautama Sūtra puts them on a level with men of the śūdra caste only, except in one special case. The payment is made for the purpose of vaira-yātana or vaira-niryātana, 'requital of enmity,' 'expiation' he Rigveda preserves, also, the important notice that a man’s wergeld was a hundred (cows), for it contains the epithet śata-dāya, ‘one whose wergeld is a hundred/ No doubt the values varied, but in the case of śunaháepa the amount is a hundred (cows) in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. In the Yajurveda Samhitās śata-dāya again appears. The fixing of the price shows that already public opinion, and perhaps the royal authority, was in Rigvedic times diminishing the sphere of private revenge; on the other hand, the existence of the system shows how weak was the criminal authority of the king (cf. Dharma).
śāṇḍilya ‘Descendant of śaṇdila,’ is the patronymic of several teachers (see Udara and Suyajña). The most important śāṇdilya is the one cited several times as an authority in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where his Agni, or ‘sacrificial fire,’ is called śaṇdila. From this it appears clearly that he was one of the great teachers of the fire ritual which occupies the fifth and following books of the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. In the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the tenth book he is given as a pupil of Kuśri and a teacher of Vātsya ; another list at the end of the last book in the Kāṇva recension gives him as a pupil of Vātsya, and the latter as a pupil of Kuśri. In the confused and worthless lists of teachers at the end of the second and fourth books of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad he is said to be the pupil of various persons—Kaiśorya Kāpya, Vaiṣtapureya, Kauśika, Gautama, Bayavāpa, and Ánabhimlāta. No doubt different śāndilyas may be meant, but the lists are too confused to claim serious consideration.
śauppaṇāyya Descendant of śūrpaṇāya' is the patronymic of a teacher, a pupil of Gautama, in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Bṛhadāran- yaka Upaniṣad.
śvetaketu áruṇeya (‘Descendant of Aruṇa’) or Auddālaki (‘son of Uddālaka’) is mentioned repeatedly in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. In the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad he appears as śvetaketu, son of Áruṇi, and as a Gautama. In the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa he is quoted as an authority on the vexed question of the duty of the Sadasya, or the seventeenth priest, at the ritual of the Kauṣītakins, to notify errors in the sacrifice; Áruṇi, his father, is also cited. He was a person of some originality, for he insisted on eating honey despite the general prohibition of the use of that delicacy by Brahmacārins or religious students. He was a contemporary of, and was instructed by the Pañcāla king Pravāhaṇa Jaivala. He was also a contemporary of Janaka, of Videha, and figured among the Brahmin disputants at his court. A story is told of him in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra:[6] Jala Jātūkarṇyā was lucky enough to become the Purohita of three peoples or kings, of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha. Seeing this, śvetaketu felt annoyed and reproached his father with his excessive devotion to sacrifice, which merely enriched and glorified others, not himself. His father replied, forbidding him to speak thus: he had learned the true method of sacrificing, and his ambition in life had been to discuss it with every Brahmin. All the references to śvetaketu belong to the latest period of Vedic literature. It is, therefore, not surprising that the Ápa- stamba Dharma Sūtra should refer to him as an Avara, or person of later days, who still became a Rṣi by special merit. His date, however, must not be fixed too low, because the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa in which he plays so marked a part is certainly earlier than Pāṇini, and was apparently even in that grammarian’s time believed to be an ancient work; hence 500 B.c. is probably rather too late than too early a period for śvetaketu as a rough approximation to a date.
satyakāma (‘Lover of truth’) Jābāla ('descendant of Jabālā') is the name of a teacher, the son of a slave girl by an unknown father. He wás initiated as a Brahmacārin, or religious student, by Gautama Hāridrumata according to the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. He is often cited as an authority in that Upaniṣad and in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, where he learns a certain doctrine from Jānaki Áyasthūṇa. He is also mentioned in the Aitareya and the Satapatha Brāhmaṇas.
sumantra bābhrava (‘Descendant of Babhru’) Gautama (‘descendant of Gotama’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Sūça Vāhneya Bhāradvāja, in the Vamśa Brāhmaṇa.
hāridrumata ‘Descendant of Haridrumant,’ is the patro­nymic of a Gautama in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad.
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akṛṇutam antarikṣaṃ varīyaḥ # RV.6.69.5c.
acyutam akṣitaṃ viśvadānīm # AVP.5.40.4a.
acyutamanā upavaktā # TA.3.5.1. See acittamanā.
ayutam ekaṃ prayutāni triṃśat (JB. ṣaṣṭiḥ) # GB.1.5.23a; JB.2.73a.
ahrutam asi havirdhānam # VS.1.9; TS.1.1.4.1; MS.1.1.5: 3.1; 4.1.5: 6.14; KS.1.4; 31.3; śB.1.1.2.12; TB.3.2.4.5; Apś.1.17.8; Mś.1.2.1.27. See next.
udaplutam iva dāru # AVś.10.4.3c,4c.
gautama bruvāṇa # JB.2.79; śB.3.3.4.18; ṣB.1.1.23; TA.1.12.3; Lś.1.3.1.
gautamim (sc. tarpayāmi) # śG.4.10.3.
jānanti-bāhavi-gārgya-gautama-śākalya-bābhravya-māṇḍavya-māṇḍūkeyāḥ (sc. tṛpyantu) # AG.3.4.4. Cf. śG.4.10.3.
taṣṭevānapacyutam # RV.10.93.12d.
dveṣoyutam ā vivāsanti dhībhiḥ # RV.4.11.5c.
parisrutam usriyā nirṇijaṃ dhire # RV.9.68.1d; SV.1.563d.
madacyutam ahaye hantavā u # RV.8.96.5b.
madacyutam auśānaṃ nabhojām # RV.10.30.9c.
mārutam asi marutām ojaḥ # TS.2.4.7.1; 9.1; KS.11.9; Apś.19.25.17.
yuyutam asmad anirām amīvām # RV.7.71.2c.
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"utam" has 1 results.
     
gautamaan ancient sage referred to in the Pratisakhya works as a Pratisakhyakara; confer, compare T.Pr. V.38.
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17 results
     
vasiṣṭha-asita-gautama-ādibhiḥ by such brāhmaṇas as Vasiṣṭha, Asita and GautamaSB 9.4.22
vasiṣṭha-asita-gautama-ādibhiḥ by such brāhmaṇas as Vasiṣṭha, Asita and GautamaSB 9.4.22
bharadvājaḥ atha gautamaḥ Bharadvāja and GautamaSB 10.84.2-5
bharadvājaḥ atha gautamaḥ Bharadvāja and GautamaSB 10.84.2-5
gautamī-gańgāya to the bank of the Gautamī-gańgāCC Madhya 9.14
vasiṣṭha-asita-gautama-ādibhiḥ by such brāhmaṇas as Vasiṣṭha, Asita and GautamaSB 9.4.22
gautamaḥ GautamaSB 1.9.6-7
gautamaḥ GautamaSB 6.15.12-15
gautamaḥ GautamaSB 8.13.5
bharadvājaḥ atha gautamaḥ Bharadvāja and GautamaSB 10.84.2-5
ghṛtācī gautamaḥ Ghṛtācī and GautamaSB 12.11.39
gautamāt generated by her husband, GautamaSB 9.21.34
gautamī-sutam the son of GautamīSB 1.7.33
gautamī-gańgāya to the bank of the Gautamī-gańgāCC Madhya 9.14
ghṛtācī gautamaḥ Ghṛtācī and GautamaSB 12.11.39
gautamī-sutam the son of GautamīSB 1.7.33
vasiṣṭha-asita-gautama-ādibhiḥ by such brāhmaṇas as Vasiṣṭha, Asita and GautamaSB 9.4.22
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buddha

Gautama, the founder of Buddhism.

lūtāmaya

skin disease spreading across.

nyāya

system of philosophy propounded by Gautama; one of the six systems of Indian philosophy.

     Wordnet Search "utam" has 75 results.
     

utam

yojanam, saṃyojanam, yutam   

ekā saṅkhyā anyayā saṅkhyayā anyābhiḥ saṅkhyābhiḥ vā yojanasya kriyā।

caturṣu pañcasya yojanena nava iti saṅkhyā samprāptā।

utam

tatvam, mūlavastū, mūlam, bhūtam, bījam, abhibhūtam, mātram, viṣayaḥ, tanmātram, avayavaḥ   

jagataḥ mūlakāraṇam।

sāṅkhyadarśanasya mate pañcaviṃśati tatvāni santi।

utam

spaṣṭam, prakaṭam, vyaktam, sphuṭam, parivyaktam, parisphuṭam, ulvaṇam, udriktam   

suspaṣṭarūpeṇa vinā kañcit vibhramam।

bhoḥ, adhunā yat kim api ahaṃ vakṣyāmi tat sarvaṃ spaṣṭaṃ vakṣyāmi।

utam

prakāśam, prakaṭam, prākaṭyena, vyaktam, suvyaktam, sphuṭam   

sarveṣāṃ purataḥ।

prakāśena tena svasya mataṃ pratipāditam।

utam

vastuḥ, bhūtam, abhibhūtam, sattvam, sattā, bhāvaḥ   

vāstavikī sattā।

vāyuḥ iti amūrtaṃ vastu। / kiṃ vastu vidvan gurave pradeyam।

utam

ghrāṇam, nāsā, nāsikā, nasā, nasyā, ghoṇā, gandhavāhaḥ, gandhajñā, gandhanālī, ghratiḥ, nāḥ, nastaḥ, nāsikyam, nāsikyakam, siṅghinī, vikūṇikā, tanubhasrā, nakram, nakuṭam, narkuṭakam   

avayavaviśeṣaḥ, jighrate anena iti।

nyāyamatena ghrāṇasya gandhagrāhitvam iti guṇaḥ।

utam

nāsārandhram, nāsikārandhram, nāsāgrarandhram, nāsāvivaram, nāsāpuṭam   

avayavaviśeṣaḥ, śvasanārthe nāsikāyāṃ vartamānaṃ nāsāgravarti chidraṃ।

nasyālaṅkāreṇa śobhate nāsārandhram।

utam

paśca-kūṭam   

khagasya śarīrasya saḥ pārśvabhāgaḥ yasmāt pucchapakṣāḥ ārabhante।

asya khagasya paśca-kūṭaṃ bhagnam।

utam

satyam, tathyam, ṛtam, samyak, avitatham, tattvam, tattvārtham, yathārthavacaman, yāthārthyam, sattvam, sattā, paramārthaḥ, pūtam   

tad vacanam yad yathārtham nyāyasaṅgatam dharmasaṅgataṃ ca;

satyasya rakṣaṇāya taiḥ svasya prāṇāḥ arpitāḥ। / varaṃ kūpaśatādvāpī varaṃ vāpīśatāt kratuḥ varaṃ kratuśatāt putraḥ satyaṃ putraśatāt kila।

utam

asatyam, mithyā, mṛṣā, vitathaḥ, anṛtam, kūṭaḥ, kūṭam   

tad vacanam yad ayathārtham anyāyasaṅgatam adharmasaṅgataṃ ca;

asatyaṃ vacanaṃ pāpam। / rājā pramāṇaṃ bhūtānāṃ sa vinaśyenmṛṣā vadan arthakṛcchramapi prāpya na mithyā kartumutsahe।

utam

kāpaṭyam, kauṭilyam, asādhutvam, aśucitvam, khalatā, duṣṭatā, adharmaḥ, asaralatā, asāralyam, jihmatā, anṛjutā, vakratā, kauṭam, aśuddhatā, adākṣiṇyam, māyā   

anṛjuprakṛteḥ bhāvaḥ।

kāpaṭyena prāptaṃ dhanaṃ na sthiram।

utam

sāvadhānam, sākūtam, avadhānāt, avahitam, manaḥpraveśena, pramāda-vyatirekeṇa   

samyak avadhānena saha vinā kim api pramādāt vā।

kimapi kāryaṃ sāvadhānaṃ kuru।

utam

śīghram, tvarayā, tvaritam, drutam, vegena, vegataḥ, javena, tūrṇam, āśu, satvaram, satvaritam, añjasā, kṣipram, jhaṭiti, drāk, ajiram, añjas, abhitaḥ, caturam, capalam, am, kṣepṇā, kṣepīyaḥ, dravat   

tīvragatyā saha yathā syāt tathā।

śīghram etat kāryaṃ sampannatāṃ nayatu।

utam

jalam, vāri, ambu, ambhaḥ, payaḥ, salilam, sarilam, udakam, udam, jaḍam, payas, toyam, pānīyam, āpaḥ, nīram, vāḥ, pāthas, kīlālam, annam, apaḥ, puṣkaram, arṇaḥ, peyam, salam, saṃvaram, śaṃvaram, saṃmbam, saṃvatsaram, saṃvavaraḥ, kṣīram, pāyam, kṣaram, kamalam, komalam, pīvā, amṛtam, jīvanam, jīvanīyam, bhuvanam, vanam, kabandham, kapandham, nāram, abhrapuṣpam, ghṛtam, kaṃ, pīppalam, kuśam, viṣam, kāṇḍam, savaram, saram, kṛpīṭam, candrorasam, sadanam, karvuram, vyoma, sambaḥ, saraḥ, irā, vājam, tāmarasa, kambalam, syandanam, sambalam, jalapītham, ṛtam, ūrjam, komalam, somam, andham, sarvatomukham, meghapuṣpam, ghanarasaḥ, vahnimārakaḥ, dahanārātiḥ, nīcagam, kulīnasam, kṛtsnam, kṛpīṭam, pāvanam, śaralakam, tṛṣāham, kṣodaḥ, kṣadmaḥ, nabhaḥ, madhuḥ, purīṣam, akṣaram, akṣitam, amba, aravindāni, sarṇīkam, sarpiḥ, ahiḥ, sahaḥ, sukṣema, sukham, surā, āyudhāni, āvayāḥ, induḥ, īm, ṛtasyayoniḥ, ojaḥ, kaśaḥ, komalam, komalam, kṣatram, kṣapaḥ, gabhīram, gambhanam, gahanam, janma, jalāṣam, jāmi, tugryā, tūyam, tṛptiḥ, tejaḥ, sadma, srotaḥ, svaḥ, svadhā, svargāḥ, svṛtikam, haviḥ, hema, dharuṇam, dhvasmanvatu, nāma, pavitram, pāthaḥ, akṣaram, pūrṇam, satīnam, sat, satyam, śavaḥ, śukram, śubham, śambaram, vūsam, vṛvūkam, vyomaḥ, bhaviṣyat, vapuḥ, varvuram, varhiḥ, bhūtam, bheṣajam, mahaḥ, mahat, mahaḥ, mahat, yaśaḥ, yahaḥ, yāduḥ, yoniḥ, rayiḥ, rasaḥ, rahasaḥ, retam   

sindhuhimavarṣādiṣu prāptaḥ dravarupo padārthaḥ yaḥ pāna-khāna-secanādyartham upayujyate।

jalaṃ jīvanasya ādhāram। /ajīrṇe jalam auṣadhaṃ jīrṇe balapradam। āhārakāle āyurjanakaṃ bhuktānnopari rātrau na peyam।

utam

ajñātaḥ, ajñātā, ajñātam, aviditaḥ, aviditā, aviditam, ananubhūtaḥ, ananubhūtā, ananubhūtam, aparicitaḥ, aparicitam, aparicitā, agocaraḥ, agocarā, agocaram   

yad na jñātam।

eṣaḥ ajñātaḥ pradeśaḥ asti।

utam

jātiphalam, jātīkośam, jātīkoṣam, jātiśasyam, śālūkam, mālatīphalam, majjasāram, papuṭam, koṣakam   

phalaviśeṣaḥ- sugandhiphalam asya guṇāḥ kaṇṭhamayārtivātātīsāramehanāśitvādayaḥ।

jātiphalam oṣadharūpeṇa yujyate।

utam

suvarṇam, svarṇam, kanakam, hiraṇyam, hema, hāṭakam, kāñcanam, tapanīyam, śātakumbham, gāṅgeyam, bharmam, karvaram, cāmīkaram, jātarūpam, mahārajatam, rukmam, kārtasvaram, jāmbunadam, aṣṭāpadam, śātakaumbham, karcuram, rugmam, bhadram, bhūri, piñjaram, draviṇam, gairikam, cāmpeyam, bharuḥ, candraḥ, kaladhautam, abhrakam, agnibījam, lohavaram, uddhasārukam, sparśamaṇiprabhavam, mukhyadhātu, ujjvalam, kalyāṇam, manoharam, agnivīryam, agni, bhāskaram, piñajānam, apiñjaram, tejaḥ, dīptam, agnibham, dīptakam, maṅgalyam, saumañjakam, bhṛṅgāram, jāmbavam, āgneyam, niṣkam, agniśikham   

dhātuviśeṣaḥ-pītavarṇīyaḥ dhātuḥ yaḥ alaṅkāranirmāṇe upayujyate।

suvarṇasya mūlyaṃ vardhitam।

utam

viṣam, garam, garaḥ, garalam, garadam, bhūgaram, jīvanāghātam, jaṅgulam, jāṅgulam, halāgalam, halāhalaḥ, hālāhālam, pālahalam, halahalam, hāhalam, hāhalaḥ, kālakūṭam, kālakūṭaḥ, kalākulam, kākolam, kākolaḥ, saurāṣṭrikam, dāradaḥ, pradīpanaḥ, brahmaputraḥ, śauktikeyaḥ, vatsanābhaḥ, dhūlakam, nidaḥ, kṣyeḍaḥ   

saḥ padārthaḥ yasya prāśanena jīvaḥ vyākulo bhavati mriyate vā।

samudramanthanāt prāptaṃ viṣaṃ śivena pītam।

utam

āmram, cūtam, sahakāram, kāmaśaram, kāmavallabham, kāmāṅgam, kīrevṛḥ, mādhavadrumam, bhṛṅgāmīṣṭam, sīdhurasam, madhūlī, kokilotsavam, vasantadūtam, āmraphalam, modākhyam, manmathālayaḥ, madhvāvāsaḥ, sumadanaḥ, pikarāgaḥ, nṛpapriyaḥ, priyāmbuḥkokilāvāsaḥ, mākandaḥ, ṣaṭpadātithiḥ, madhuvrataḥ, vasantadruḥ, pikaprayaḥ, strīpriyaḥ, gandhabandhuḥ, alipriyaḥ, madirāsakhaḥ   

phalaviśeṣaḥ, āmravṛkṣasya phalam asya guṇāḥ varṇarucimāṃsaśukrabalakāritvam।

rāmāya āmraḥ rocate।

utam

droṇaḥ, sampuṭam, patrapuṭam   

parṇaiḥ vinirmitaṃ laghupātram।

saḥ miṣṭānnaṃ droṇe gṛhitvā atti।

utam

kutakūtam   

sā madhurā anubhūtiḥ yā komalāṅgaṃ punaḥpunaḥ spṛṣṭvā jāyate।

mā sparśaya kutakūtāni bhavanti।

utam

rajatam, rūpyam, raupyam, śvetam, śvetakam, sitam, dhautam, śuklam, śubhram, mahāśubhram, kharjūram, kharjuram, durvarṇam, candralauham, candrahāsam, rājaraṅgam, indulohakam, tāram, brāhmapiṅgā, akūpyam   

śvetavarṇīyaḥ dīptimān dhātuḥ tathā ca yasmāt alaṅkārādayaḥ nirmīyante।

sā rajatasya alaṅkārān dhārayati।

utam

godāvarī, godā, gautamī, tapanī, dakṣiṇagaṅgā   

dakṣiṇabhārate vartamānā khyātā nadī।

dakṣiṇabhārate godāvaryā gaṅgāsadṛśā mahattā prāptā।

utam

dyūtam, dyūtakrīḍā, devanam, akṣavatī, kaitavam, paṇaḥ   

krīḍāviśeṣaḥ- kamapi dravyaṃ paṇaṃ kṛtvā tasya svāmibhāvārthaṃ kriyamāṇā akṣadevanayuktā aprāṇikaraṇakā krīḍā।

dyūte pāṇḍavāḥ draupadīm ahāsīt।

dyūtam etat purākalpe sṛṣṭaṃ vairakaram mahat। tasmāt dyūtama na seveta hāsyārtham api buddhimān॥ [manu. 9।227]

utam

puṭaḥ, puṭam   

vastreṣu syūtaḥ laghuḥ dṛtiḥ।

ekena coreṇa mama puṭaḥ kartitaḥ।

utam

tarkuṭī, tarkuḥ, tarkuṭam, sūtralā   

sūtranirmāṇayantracakramadhyasthā kapālanalikā yasyāṃ sūtraṃ tarkyate;

saḥ tarkuṭyā sūtram tarkayati

utam

pañcatattvam, pañcabhūtam   

pṛthvī-āp-tejo-vāyu-ākāśa ityetāni pañca bhūtāni।

hindūdharmagranthānusāreṇa śarīrasya nirmitiḥ pañcatattvāt jātā।

utam

dārugandhā, gandhabadhū, gandhamādanī, taruṇī, tārā, bhūtamārī, maṅgalyā, kapaṭinī, grahabhītijit   

cīḍavṛkṣāt prāptaḥ laśaḥ।

dārugandhā mānavārthe upayuktā।

utam

ṣṭhyūtaḥ, ṣṭhyūtā, ṣṭhyūtam   

mukhāt tāmbūlavallikādīnāṃ rasasya vinirvamanam।

pitāmahasya uttarīye sthāne sthāne ṣṭhyūtasya cihnāni santi।

utam

drutam   

saṅgīte tālasya mātrāyāḥ ardhabhāgaḥ।

saḥ drutaṃ gāyati।

utam

apadeśaḥ, vyapadeśaḥ, chadma, upadhiḥ, kapaṭam, chalam, kūṭaḥ, kūṭam, vyājaḥ, lakṣyam   

kañcit vañcayituṃ dhāryamāṇaṃ rūpam athavā kriyamāṇaṃ kāryam।

saḥ pīḍitasya apadeśaṃ karoti।

utam

matam, abhiprāyaḥ, sammatiḥ, dṛṣṭiḥ, buddhiḥ, pakṣaḥ, bhāvaḥ, manaḥ, dhī, matiḥ, ākutam, āśayaḥ, chandaḥ   

keṣucit viṣayādiṣu prakaṭīkṛtaḥ svavicāraḥ।

sarveṣāṃ matena idaṃ kāryaṃ samyak pracalati।

utam

mukuṭam, kirīṭaḥ, kirīṭam, mauliḥ   

devatānāṃ rājñāñca mastake virājamānaṃ śirobhūṣaṇam।

rājñaḥ mastake mukuṭaṃ virājate।

utam

ahalyā, gautamī   

gautamaṛṣeḥ patnī yā tasya abhiśāpāt śilā abhavat।

prabhū-rāmacandrasya padasparśāt ahalyā auddharat।

utam

paṭalam, puṭam, ācchādanam, āveṣṭanam, lepaḥ   

kasyacit vastunaḥ saḥ staraḥ yasya anyasmin vastuni lepanaṃ bhavati।

kumbhakāraḥ ghaṭe mṛttikāyāḥ paṭalaṃ karoti।

utam

kūjanam, virutaḥ, virāvaḥ, kūjitam, rutam   

pakṣiṇāṃ madhuraḥ dhvaniḥ।

prabhāte pakṣiṇāṃ kūjanena ānandam anubhūyate।

utam

caturaṅgakrīḍā, buddhidyūtam   

catuḥṣaṣṭigṛhayukte aṣṭāpade śāriphalake krīḍamānā krīḍā।

caturaṅgakrīḍāyāṃ dvātriṃśat śārayaḥ santi।

utam

gautama-ṛṣiḥ, gautamaḥ   

nyāyaśāstrasya khyātaḥ ācāryaḥ yaḥ khyātaḥ ṛṣiḥ asti।

gautama-ṛṣeḥ patnyaḥ nāma ahilyā āsīt।

utam

garjam, garjaḥ, garjanam, ghoṣaḥ, ghoṣaṇam, hiṅkāraḥ, ghanadhvaniḥ, abhiṣṭanaḥ, avakrandaḥ, avagūraṇam, avasvanyam, ānardam, ānarditam, āraṭi, ārasitam, udgāraḥ, uddhūtam, kaṇṭhīravaḥ, kṣveḍā, dhuniḥ, dhūtkāraḥ, nardaḥ, nardanaḥ, narditaḥ, nirhrādaḥ, nivāśaḥ, nihrāditam, pragarjanam, prasvanitam, mahānādaḥ, mahāvirāvaḥ, māyuḥ, meḍiḥ, raṭitam, rambhaḥ, rambham, ravaṇaḥ, ravaṇam, ravaṇā, ravataḥ, reṣaṇam, vāśaḥ, vāśanam, vāśiḥ, vāśraḥ, viravaḥ, visphoṭanam, visphūrjitam, śuṣmaḥ, samunnādaḥ, hulihulī, huṃkṛtam   

abhiṣṭanakriyā।

meghānāṃ garjanābhiḥ saha vidyudbhiḥ saha ca varṣā avarṣat।

utam

ākarṇanam, saṃśravaṇam, śrāvaḥ, saṃśravaḥ, śrutiḥ, upaśrutiḥ, āśrutiḥ, abhiśrāvaḥ, upakarṇanam, śrutam   

śravaṇasya kriyā bhāvaḥ vā।

suvacanānām ākarṇanaṃ kartum eva karṇau staḥ।

utam

āścaryam, adbhūtam   

lokavilakṣaṇavastu;

agopena gavām doho āścaryam

utam

kūṭaḥ, kūṭam   

tat padaṃ yasmin śliṣṭānāṃ śabdānāṃ prayogaḥ kriyate tathā ca yasya arthaḥ sāmānyānāṃ kṛte sulabhaḥ nāsti।

sūrasya bhramaragītāni kūṭaiḥ paripūrṇāni santi।

utam

kūṭaḥ, kūṭam   

yad vyaṅgārthaṃ sūcayati।

gopyaḥ uddhavena saha kūṭaṃ kurvanti।

utam

adbhutam, āścaryam, iṅgam   

yat prakṛtim anusṛtya nāsti।

idaṃ saṅgrahālayam adbhutaiḥ yuktaṃ vartate।

utam

pañca, pāṇḍavaḥ, śivāsyam, indriyam, svargaḥ, vratāgniḥ, mahāpāpam, mahābhūtam, mahākāvyam, mahāmakhaḥ, purāṇalakṣaṇam, aṅgam, prāṇāḥ, vargaḥ, indriyārthaḥ, bāṇaḥ   

ekādhikaṃ catvāri।

pañcādhikaṃ pañca āhatya daśa bhavanti।

utam

vismayaḥ, adbhutam, āścaryam, citram   

alaṅkāraśāstrānusāraṃ navaraseṣu ekaḥ।

kimapi asādhāraṇaṃ vastu dṛṣṭvā paṭhitvā śrutvā vā asmākaṃ hṛdaye jāyamānaṃ vismayabhāvaḥ bhavati adbhutaḥ।

utam

puppuṭam   

tālurogaviśeṣaḥ।

gaṅgādharaḥ puppuṭena pīḍitaḥ।

utam

annakūṭam   

annasya kūṭam।

annakūṭāt annaṃ syūte sthāpayati।

utam

bhautikam, bhautam, pārthivam   

pañcabhūtaiḥ racitam।

idaṃ bhautikaṃ śarīraṃ mṛtyoḥ anantaraṃ pañcabhūteṣu vilīyate।

utam

vidyutamālī   

ekaḥ rākṣasaḥ।

vidyutamālinaḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

utam

dyūtaḥ, dyūtam   

akṣaiḥ sahitaṃ paṇaṃ kṛtvā vā khelanasya kriyā।

anusāyaṃ grāmīṇāḥ dyūte vyastāḥ draṣṭuṃ śakyante।

utam

rebhaṇam, meṣarutam, urabhranādaḥ   

ajānāṃ meṣāṇāṃ vā bhāṣā athavā teṣāṃ svaraḥ śabdaḥ vā।

kṣetre ajānāṃ rebhaṇaṃ śrūyate।

utam

gautamabuddhanagaram   

uttarapradaśe vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

gautamabuddhanagarasya pratīcī sīmā dehalyā lagnā asti।

utam

citrakūṭamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

citrakūṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ citrakūṭanagare vartate।

utam

citrakūṭamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

citrakūṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ citrakūṭanagare asti।

utam

gautamabuddhanagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gautamabuddhanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gautamabuddhanagare asti।

utam

korāpuṭam   

utkalaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

hyaḥ korāpuṭe sarvakārasya kāryālaye ātatāyibhiḥ ākramaṇaṃ kṛtam।

utam

korāpuṭamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

korāpuṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ korāpuṭanagare asti।

utam

gautamabuddhanagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gautamabuddhanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ noeḍānagare asti।

utam

adbhutam, āścaryam, camatkāraḥ, vismayaḥ, kautukam, vismitiḥ   

āścaryajanyavastu।

tejomahālayaḥ saptasu adbhuteṣu ekaḥ।

utam

bhūtakālaḥ, bhūtaṃ, kṛtam   

vyākaraṇe prayuktaḥ kālaḥ yaḥ pūrvakriyāṇāṃ parāvasthānāṃ ca pratipādanaṃ karoti।

bhūtakālasya kānicana udāharaṇāni dīyatām।

utam

kaladhvaniḥ, sausvaryam, svarasampad, svarasampat, kaladhautam, nīthā   

hṛdyaḥ nyuṅkhaḥ ca dhvaniḥ।

himālayastha-jalavāyuvṛkṣebhyaḥ utpannaṃ kaladhvaniṃ karṇaiḥ pītvā kaivalyam anubhūyate।

utam

śrutam   

vacanaṃ yad karṇayoḥ gṛhitvā avadhāryate। śrutam kvacid asatyam api bhavati। śrutam;

śrutam kvacid asatyam api bhavati।

utam

sutambharā   

vaidikī mahilā।

sutambharāyāḥ varṇanaṃ ṛgvede asti।

utam

rasarājaḥ, rasāñjanam, rasagarbham, tārkṣyaśailam, rasodbhūtam, rasāgrajam, kṛtakam, bālabhaiṣajam, dārvīkvāthodbhavam, varyāñjanam, rasanārbham, agnisāram   

dāruharidrāyāḥ mūlakāṣṭhayoḥ rasena nirmitaḥ bheṣajaviśeṣaḥ।

rasarājasya sevanaṃ naikeṣāṃ vyādhīnāṃ nivāraṇārthaṃ kriyate।

utam

daśalakṣam, १००००००, niyutam, prayutam   

daśalakṣasaṅkhyakaḥ।

etat kṣetraṃ daśalakṣāni hastāni vistṛtam asti।

utam

daśasahasram, ayutam, १००००   

daśasahasreṇa saha guṇanena prāptā saṅkhyā।

daśasahasraṇāṃ rūpyakāṇām abhikāṅkṣayā tena bālāpahāraḥ kṛtaḥ।

utam

daśasahasram, ayutam, १००००   

bahvaṅkī-saṅkhyāyāṃ dakṣiṇatatamāt ekakasthānāt vāmataḥ pañcamo'ṅkaḥ yaḥ tad aṅkasya daśasahasreṇa saha guṇanena prāptāṃ saṅkhyām avabodhayati।

pañcaviṃśatisahasram ityatra dve daśasahasrasya sthāne vartate।

utam

anudrutam   

saṅgītaśāstre mātrārdhasya uccāraṇakālaḥ।

saṅgītaśāstre anudrutasya viśiṣṭaṃ mahattvaṃ vartate।

utam

prayutam   

daśalakṣam।

prayutena pañcāśatsahastraṃ yojanena kā saṅkhyā prāpyate।

utam

garuḍarutam   

varṇavṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

garuḍarute ṣoḍaśa varṇāḥ bhavanti।

utam

gautamāraṇyam   

ekam araṇyam ।

gautamāraṇyasya varṇanaṃ hitopadeśe vartate

utam

gautamāśramaḥ   

ekaḥ āśramaḥ ।

gautamāśramasya ullekhaḥ gaṇeśa-purāṇe dṛśyate

utam

mallikāmārutam   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

saṃskṛtanāṭyavāṅmaye mallikāmārutaṃ nāma nāṭakaṃ prasiddham

utam

citrakūṭam   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

citrakūṭasya varṇanaṃ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

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