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     Grammar Search "upapada" has 1 results.
     
upapada: neuter vocative singular stem: upapada
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
upapadan. a word standing near or accompanying another to which it is subordinate (either a subordinate word in a compound [but not in a bahu-vrīhi- compound] generally forming the first member, or a discriminative appellation at the end of proper names, as varman-, śarman-etc.;or a preposition, particle etc. prefixed to a verb or noun;or a secondary word of any kind which is governed by or limits the general idea contained in the principal word) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapadan. (vṛkṣāḥ kalpo-papadāḥ-,"those trees which have the word kalpa-as accompanying word "equals kalpa-vṛkṣāḥ- ; see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapadan. a bit, little View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapadasamāsam. a compound containing an upa-pada- (exempli gratia, 'for example' kumbha-kāra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirupapadamfn. having no epithet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirupapadamfn. not connected with a subordinate word Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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upapadam उपपदम् 1 A word prefixed or previously uttered; धनुरुपपदं वेदम् Ki.18.44 (धनुर्वेदम्); तस्याः स राजोपपदं निशान्तम् R.16.4. -2 A title, a degree; epithet of respect, such as आर्य, शर्मन्; कथं निरुपपदमेव चाणक्यमिति न आर्यचाणक्यमिति Mu.3. -3 A secondary word of a sentence, a preposition, particle &c. prefixed to a verb or a noun derived from a verb which determines or qualifies the sense of the verb; उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; (see Sk. thereon). ˚तत्पुरुषः a kind of Tat. comp. in which the last member is some form of a verbal character; e. g. वेदविद्, ग्रामणी, आकर्णलम्बिन् &c. उपपरीक्षा upaparīkṣā क्षणम् kṣaṇam उपपरीक्षा क्षणम् Investigation, examination.
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upapada n. secondary word accom panying another (gr.).
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"upapada" has 12 results.
     
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upapadavidhia grammatical operation caused by a word which is near; cf उपपदविधौ भयाढ्यादिग्रहणं P. I.1.72 Vārt 9, also अतिप्रसङ्ग उपपदविधौ P. IV 1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8 where rules such as 'कर्मण्यण्' and the following are referred to as उपपदविधि, the words कर्मणि, स्तम्ब, कर्ण, et cetera, and others being called उपपद by the rule तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम्; P. III.1.92.
upapadavibhaktia case termination added to a word on account of the presence of another word requiring the addition;confer, compare the well-known Paribhāṣā,उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94; and M.Bh. on I.4. 96 stating the possession of greater force in the case of a kāra-kavibhakti than in the case of an upapadavibhakti.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
kyapkṛt afix य applied to the roots व्रज् and यज् in the sense of 'verbal activity' and to the roots अजू with सम्, षद् with नि et cetera, and others to form proper nouns e. g. व्रज्या, इज्या, समज्या, निषद्या et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III. 3.98 and 99; (2) kṛtya affix य in the sense of 'should be done' applied to the roots वद्, भू and हन् (when preceded by certain words put as upapada), as also to roots with penultimate ऋ and the roots मृज्, इ, स्तु and others; e. g. ब्रह्मोद्यम् , ब्रह्मभूयम् , इत्यम् , स्तुत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1. 106,121.
kvip(1)kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् et cetera, and others, and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; confer, compareP.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति et cetera, and others; confer, compare M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.
khalkṛt afix अ added to any root preceded by the word ईषद्, दुस् or सु, and to the roots भू and कृ preceded by an upapada word forming either the subject or the object of the roots, e. g. ईषत्करः कटो भवता, ईषदाढ्यंभवं भवता; confer, compare P. III. 3.126, 127.
khaśkṛt affix added to the roots यज् (causal), ध्मा, धे,रुज्, वह्, लिह्, पच् , दृश् , तप्, मन् et cetera, and others preceded by certain specified upapada words. The root undergoes all the operations such as the addition of the conjugational sign et cetera, and others before this खश् on account of the mute letter श् which makes खश् a Sārvadhātuka affix, and the augment म् is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable on account of the mute letter ख्; e. g. जनमेजयः, स्तनंधयः, नाडिंधमः, असूयै. पश्यः पण्डितंमन्यः etc,; confer, compare Pāṇ. III2.28-37, 83.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇvikrt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64.
nityasamāsaan invariably effective compound; the term is explained as अस्वपदविग्रहो नित्यसमासः i. e. a compound whose dissolution cannot be shown by its component words as such; e. g. the dissolution of कुम्भकारः cannot be shown as कुम्भं कारः, but it must be shown as कुम्भं करोति स: । The upapadasamasa, the gatisamsa and the dative tatpurusa with the word अर्थ are examples of नित्यसमास.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
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upapada noun (neuter) a word standing near or accompanying another to which it is subordinate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[gramm.] ein Wort in untergeordneter Stellung, das einem anderen Worte als Begleiter oder als Ergänzung beigefügt wird
Frequency rank 15563/72933








Parse Time: 1.116s Search Word: upapada Input Encoding: IAST: upapada