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"tur" has 1 results.
    
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√turturaatvaraṇe331
  
"tur" has 1 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√तुर्turrunning / tvaraṇa464/1Cl.3
     Amarakosha Search  
21 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
āmayāvī2.6.58MasculineSingularāturaḥ, abhyamitaḥ, abhyāntaḥ, vikṛtaḥ, vyādhitaḥ, apaṭuḥ
āragvadhaḥ2.4.23MasculineSingularsaṃpākaḥ, caturaṅgulaḥ, ārevataḥ, vyādhighātaḥ, kṛtamālaḥ, rājavṛkṣaḥ, suvarṇakaḥ
āsaṅgavacanam3.2.2NeuterSingularturāyaṇam
aśvaḥ2.8.44MasculineSingular‍saptiḥ, gandharvaḥ, vājī, turagaḥ, saindhavaḥ, arvā, turaṅgam, ghoṭakaḥ, ghoड़ा, hayaḥ, vāhaḥ, turaṅgaḥ
brahmā1.1.16-17MasculineSingularprajāpatiḥ, viścasṛṭ, aṇḍajaḥ, kamalodbhavaḥ, satyakaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, pitāmahaḥ, svayaṃbhūḥ, abjayoniḥ, kamalāsanaḥ, vedhāḥ, vidhiḥ, pūrvaḥ, sadānandaḥ, haṃsavāhanaḥ, surajyeṣṭhaḥ, hiraṇyagarbhaḥ, caturāsanaḥ, druhiṇaḥ, sraṣṭā, vidhātā, nābhijanmā, nidhanaḥ, rajomūrtiḥ, parameṣṭhī, lokeśaḥ, dhātā, virañciḥbramha
ekahāyanī2.9.69FeminineSingularcaturhāyaṇī
gauḥ2.9.67-72FeminineSingularupasaryā, rohiṇī, bahusūtiḥ, kapilā, navasūtikā, ekahāyanī, droṇakṣīrā, bandhyā, saurabheyī, garbhopaghātinī, arjunī, acaṇḍī, dhavalā, vaṣkayiṇī, dvivarṣā, pīnoghnī, tryabdā, samāṃsamīnā, sandhinī, vaśā, praṣṭhauhī, naicikī, pareṣṭukā, pāṭalā, suvratā, caturabdā, droṇadugdhā, avatokā, usrā, kālyā, aghnyā, sukarā, kṛṣṇā, dhenuḥ, ekābdā, pīvarastanī, trihāyaṇī, māheyī, vehad, śṛṅgiṇī, bālagarbhiṇī, śavalī, cirasūtā, dvihāyanī, sukhasaṃdohyā, caturhāyaṇī, dhenuṣyā, sravadgarbhā, mātā(49)cow
indraḥ1.1.45MasculineSingularmarutvān, pākaśāsanaḥ, puruhūtaḥ, lekharṣabhaḥ, divaspatiḥ, vajrī, vṛṣā, balārātiḥ, harihayaḥ, saṅkrandanaḥ, meghavāhanaḥ, ṛbhukṣāḥ, maghavā, vṛddhaśravāḥ, purandaraḥ, śakraḥ, sutrāmā, vāsavaḥ, vāstoṣpatiḥ, śacīpatiḥ, svārāṭ, duścyavanaḥ, ākhaṇḍalaḥ, viḍaujāḥ, sunāsīraḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, śatamanyuḥ, gotrabhid, vṛtrahā, surapatiḥ, jambhabhedī, namucisūdanaḥ, turāṣāṭ, sahasrākṣaḥindra, the king of the gods
kārtikeyaḥMasculineSingularmahāsenaḥ, kumāraḥ, śikhivāhanaḥ, bāhuleyaḥ, senānīḥ, ṣaḍānanaḥ, śaktidharaḥ, viśākhaḥ, guhaḥ, skandaḥ, śarajanmā, krauñcadāruṇaḥ, ṣāṇmāturaḥ, tārakajit, agnibhūḥ, pārvatīnandanaḥkaarttik
kukūlam3.3.211NeuterSingulardanturaḥ, tuṅgaḥ
paṭaḥ2.10.18MasculineSingularuṣṇaḥ, dakṣaḥ, caturaḥ, ‍‍‍peśalaḥ, sūtthānaḥ
prasthaḥ3.3.94MasculineSingularaṅghriḥ, turyāṃśaḥ, raśmiḥ
sūkṣmam3.3.152MasculineSingularturaṅgaḥ, garuḍaḥ
svacchandaḥ3.3.200MasculineSingularcaturthaṃyugam
turuṣkaḥ1.2.129MasculineSingularpiṇḍakaḥ, sihlaḥ, yāvanaḥ
vināyakaḥMasculineSingulargaṇādhipaḥ, ekadantaḥ, herambaḥ, lambodaraḥ, vighnarājaḥ, gajānanaḥ, dvaimāturaḥganesh
viṣṇuḥ1.1.18-21MasculineSingularadhokṣajaḥ, vidhuḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, svabhūḥ, govindaḥ, acyutaḥ, janārdanaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, madhuripuḥ, devakīnandanaḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, kaṃsārātiḥ, kaiṭabhajit, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, mādhavaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvaksenaḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, trivikramaḥ, śrīpatiḥ, balidhvaṃsī, viśvambharaḥ, śrīvatsalāñchanaḥ, narakāntakaḥ, mukundaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, keśavaḥ, daityāriḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, śārṅgī, upendraḥ, caturbhujaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, śauriḥ, vanamālī(45)vishnu, the god
turvarṇam2.7.1NeuterSingular
caturvargaḥ2.7.62MasculineSingular
caturbhadram2.7.62NeuterSingular
caturabdā2.9.69FeminineSingulartrihāyaṇī
     Monier-Williams
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792 results for tur
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tur (see tṝ-, tvar-) cl.6. to hurry, press forwards, (parasmE-pada r/at-) (A1. r/ate-): cl.4. (Imper. tūrya-) to overpower ; A1. to run ; to hurt : cl.3. tutorti-, to run : Causal turayate- (parasmE-pada r/ayat-) to run, press forwards : Desiderative t/ūtūrṣati-, to strive to press forwards ; Intensive parasmE-pada t/arturāṇa-, rushing, pressing each other (waves), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmfn. running a race, conquering, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmfn. ( turam ram- accusative or ind."quickly") promoting, a promoter, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmfn. see ap--, āji--, pṛtsu--, pra--, mithas--, rajas--, ratha--, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamfn. quick, willing, prompt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamfn. strong, powerful, excelling, rich, abundant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turam. Name of a preceptor and priest with the patronymic kāvaṣeya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamfn. hurt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamfn. see ā--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagam. "going quickly", a horse etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagam. (hence) the number 7 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagam. the mind, thought View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagaf. equals ga-gandhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagabrahmacaryakan. "sexual restraint of horses", compulsory celibacy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagadaityam. "horse-titan", keśin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagadānavam. "horse-titan", keśin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagagandhāf. Physalis flexuosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagakāntāf. "horse-loved", a mare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagakāntāmukham. "mare's mouth", submarine fire (vaḍabā-mukha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagakriyāvatmfn. occupied with horses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagalīlakam. Name of a time (in music) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagamedham. a horse-sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagamukham. "horse-faced", a kiṃnara-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagānanam. plural "horse-faced", Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaganīlatālam. Name of a gesture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagaparicārakam. equals -rahṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagapātakam. a groom, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagapriyam. "liked by horses", barley View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagarakṣam. "horse-guardian", a groom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagaratham. a cart drawn by horses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagāroham. a horseman, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagātu(r/a--) mfn. going quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagavāhyālīf. a riding-school (varia lectio raṃg-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagīf. a mare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaginm. a horseman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turagopacārakam. equals ga-rakṣa-
turakam. plural the Turks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turakinmfn. Turkish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turakva equals ka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamind. tur
turamind. See 2. t/ur-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgam. "going quickly", a horse etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgam. (hence) the number 7 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgam. the mind, thought View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgadveṣaṇīf. a she-buffalo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgagandhāf. idem or 'f. equals raga-gandhā- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgāhvāf. the jujube View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgalīlam. equals ag- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgamam. a horse etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgamaratham. equals raga-r- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgamaśālāf. a horse-stable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgamedham. equals rag- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgamīf. a mare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgamukham. equals rag- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃganātham. Name of the head of a sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgapriyam. equals rag- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgārim. "horse-enemy", a buffalo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgārim. Nerium odorum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgasādinm. a horseman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgaskandham. a troop of horses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgasthānan. a horse-stable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgavadanam. equals -mukha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgavaktram. equals -mukha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgayāyinmfn. going on horseback View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgīf. a mare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgīf. Name of a shrub View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgīf. equals raga-gandhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgībhūyaind. ind.p. having become a horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃginm. a horseman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃginm. a groom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃginconsisting of horses or horsemen, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṃgiṇīf. a kind of gait (in dancing). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṇamf(ā-)n. swift View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṇya(gaRa kaṇḍv-ādi-) Nom. y/ati- (p. y/at-) to be quick or swift, 1; iv, 40, 3 ; to accelerate, 4; . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṇyam. "swift", one of the moon's horses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṇyasadmfn. dwelling among id est belonging to the quick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṇyumfn. swift, zealous, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṇyumfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāṣāh Nominal verb ṣāṭ-, () overpowering the mighty or overpowering quickly and (indra-) (viṣṇu-; vocative case -ṣāṭ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāṣāhm. (accusative -sāham-; see ) indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāṣāhSee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaṣka(equals ruṣka-) idem or ' equals ka-.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaspeyan. the racer's or conqueror's drinking, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaspeyaSee 2. t/ur-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaśravasm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turayāmfn. going quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāyaṇan. " tura-'s way", Name of a sacrifice or vow (modification of the full-moon sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāyaṇan. cursory reading View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāyaṇam. (fr. r/a-) Name of a man () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāyaṇaSee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turif. (only dative case ry/ai-) equals ry/ā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turif. "swift", a weaver's brush (also tuli-and -) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīf. idem or 'f. "swift", a weaver's brush (also tuli-and -) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīf. a shuttle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīf. (for tūlī-) a painter's brush (also tuli- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīf. Name of a wife of vasudeva- ([ equals caturthī- equals śūdrā- Scholiast or Commentator ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turiSee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīSee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīpan. (fr. r/i-and /ap-) seminal fluid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīpamfn. spermatic (tvaṣṭṛ-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīpaSee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyaNom. y/ati-, to go View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyamfn. (for ktur-[ Zend khtuiria]fr. cat/ur-) ( Va1rtt. 1) Vedic or Veda 4th etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyamfn. consisting of 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyan. the 4th state of spirit (pure impersonal Spirit or brahma-) ( ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyamfn. being in that state of soul View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyamfn. t/ur-, a 4th, constituting the 4th part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyan. a 4th part etc. (with yantra-,"a quadrant" ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyabhāgam. a 4th part (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyabhājmfn. a sharer of a 4th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyādiṭyafor yam āditya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyakamfn. a 4th (part) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyakavacan. Name of a spell. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyamānan. See -bhāga-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyārdham. n. "half the 4th", an 8th part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyātītaName of an Up. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīyavarṇam. "4th caste man", a śūdra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turphari mfn. = (kṣipra--) hantṛ- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turpharītumfn. = (kṣipra--) hantṛ- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turuṣkam. plural (equals raṣka-) the Turks etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turuṣkam. sg. a Turk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turuṣkam. a Turkish prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turuṣkam. Turkestan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turuṣkamn. () olibanum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turuṣkadattam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turuṣkagaṇḍam. (in music) Name of a rāga-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turuṣkakarpūramfn. consisting of olibanum and camphor
turv (see 1. tur-) cl.1 P. (2. sg. tūrvasi- dual number imperative vatam-; parasmE-pada t/ūrvat-) to overpower, excel (infinitive mood turv/aṇe-, ) ; to cause to overpower, help to victory, save, ; see pra--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvam. equals v/aśa-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvaṇeVed. infinitive mood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvaṇeSee turv-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvaṇimfn. overpowering, victorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvaśam. Name of a hero and ancestor of the Aryan race (named with yadu-; dual number turv/aśā y/adū-," turva- and yadu-", ; plural turva-'s race) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvasum. (later form of śa-) Name of a son of yayāti- by devayānī- and brother of yadu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvītim. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turf. superior power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyamfn. ( Va1rtt. 1) 4th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyamfn. forming a 4th part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyan. the 4th state of soul (See rīya-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyamfn. being in that state of soul View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turya y/ā- See column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyabhikṣāf. the 4th part of alms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyāśramfn. four-cornered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyauhīSee rya-v/ah-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyavahm. (in strong cases) vāh- Nominal verb vāṭ- f(ryauh/ī-). an ox or cow 4 years old View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyayantran. a quadrant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acaturamfn. destitute of four, having less than four View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acaturamfn. not cunning, not dexterous. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācaturamind. ( commentator or commentary) till the fourth generation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācaturyan. (fr. a-catura- ), clumsiness, stupidity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aindraturīyam. (scilicet graha-) a libation the fourth part of which belongs to indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājiturmfn. victorious in battles View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānandacaturdaśīvratan. Name of a religious rite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anantacaturdaśīf. the fourteenth lunar day (or full moon) of bhādra-, when ananta- is worshipped. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāturamfn. ([once /an-ātura- ]) free from suffering or weariness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāturamfn. well. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apaturīyamfn. not containing the last quarter, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aptur(only accusative sg. and plural /uram-and /urac-) m. (fr. 1. /ap-+ tvar-), active, busy (said of the aśvin-s, of soma-, of agni-, of indra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aptur according to to others = ap-- t/ur-,"vanquishing the waters in speed", id est "swift, rapid". View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ardhacaturthamfn. plural (See above 2. ardh/a-tend) three and a half , (jaina- PrakritaddhuTThaSee sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order adhyuṣṭa-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ardhadvicaturaskan. a particular posture, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atidantura(/ati--) mfn. whose teeth are too prominent
ātmacaturthamfn. being one's self the fourth one with three others (Name of janārdana- respecting his four heads?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atricaturaham. "the four days of atri-", Name of a sacrifice. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āturamf(ā-)n. suffering, sick (in body or mind) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āturamf(ā-)n. diseased or pained by (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āturamf(ā-)n. desirous of (Inf.) (see an-ātur/a-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aturamfn. not liberal, not rich View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyatacaturasramfn. oblong etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyatacaturasram. an obtain tree, Musa Paradisiaca Lin. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āyatadīrghacaturasram. equals -caturasra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālacāturbhadrikāf. a particular mixture for children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhādramāturam. (fr. bhadra-mātṛ-) the son of a virtuous or handsome mother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadraturagan. Name of a varṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhayāturamfn. distressed with fear, afraid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtacaturdaśīf. the 14th day in the dark half of the month kārttika- (consecrated to yama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
campakacaturdaśīf. "the 14th day in the light half of jyaiṣṭha-", Name of a festival. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
catur tv/āras- m. plural , tv/āri- n. plural , 4 (accusative m. t/uras- instrumental case t/urbhis-[for f. ] genitive case turṇ/ām- ablative t/urbhyas-;class. instrumental case dative case ablative,and locative case also oxyt. ; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' and on ;for f.See c/atasṛ-); [ confer, compare, AEolic ; Gothic fidvor; Latin quatuor; Cambro-Brit. pedwar,pedair; Hibernian or Irish ceatkair; Lithuanian keturi; Slavonic or Slavonian cetyrje.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals t/ur- (see upa--and tri-- vArttika; a--, vi--, su-- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturamf(ā- see gaRa arśa-ādi-)n. ( cat- ) swift, quick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturamf(ā- see gaRa arśa-ādi-)n. dexterous, clever, ingenious, shrewd etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturamf(ā- see gaRa arśa-ādi-)n. charming, agreeable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturamf(ā- see gaRa arśa-ādi-)n. visible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturam. a round pillow (see cāt-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturam. the fish Cyprinus Rohita View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturam. (scilicet hasta-) a particular position of the hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturan. equals -- gaRa arśa-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturan. an elephant's stable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamfn. (fr. cat/ur-) drawn by 4 (a carriage) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamfn. (fr. 2. cat-) clever, shrewd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamfn. speaking kindly, flattering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamfn. visible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turamfn. governing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turam. a small round pillow (see galla-cāturī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturadhyāyīf. "consisting of 4 adhyāya-s", Name of śaunaka-'s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturādhyāyīfor -adh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturadhyāyikan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturadhyāyikāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturādhyāyikafor -adh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturādhyāyikāfor -adh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturagamfn. going quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturagnivatmfn. having 4 fires View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaham. a period of 4 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaham. a soma- sacrifice lasting 4 days (see atri-c-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturakamf(ikā-)n. clever, skilful
caturakam. Name of a jackal (see mahā--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turakamfn. flattering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turakamfn. visible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turakamfn. governing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turakam. a small round pillow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturakramam. (in music) a kind of measure. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturakṣamf(-)n. four-eyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turakṣa(fr. cat-) a cast of dice with 4 dots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturakṣaramfn. (c/at-) consisting of 4 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturakṣaran. a combination of 4 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturakṣaraśasind. in numbers of 4 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturamind. (gaRa śarad-ādi-) see ā--, upa--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturamind. quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturamlan. 4 sour substances (viz. amlavetasa-, vṛkṣāmla-, bṛhaj-jambīra-,and nimbaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṃśavatmfn. consisting of 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturānanam. "four-faced", brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgamfn. (c/at-) having 4 limbs (or extremities) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgamfn. (with bala-,an army) comprising (4 parts, viz.) elephants, chariots, cavalry, and infantry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgam. Cucumis utilissimus (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgam. Name of a son of roma-- or loma-pāda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgan. (scilicet bala-) equals ṅga-bala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgan. a kind of chess (played by 4 parties) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgāf. (scilicet senā-) equals ṅga-bala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgabalan. an entire army (comprising elephants, chariots, cavalry, and infantry) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgabalādhipatyan. command of a complete army, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgabalādhyakṣam. the commander-in-chief of a complete army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgakrīḍāf. playing at chess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgasainyan. equals -bala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgavinodam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅginmfn. (equals ṅga-;with bala-or vāhinī-,an army) comprising elephants, chariots, cavalry, and infantry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgiṇīf. (scilicet vāhinī-) equals ṅga-bala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgulan. 4 fingers of the hand (without the thumb) ; 4 fingers broad, 4 inches View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgulam. Cathartocarpus fistula View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṅgulaparyavanaddhamfn. overgrown with that plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturanīka(c/at-) mfn. four-faced (varuṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturantamf(ā-)n. bordered on all 4 sides (the earth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturantāf. "the earth", in compound caturanteśa teśa- m. "earth-lord", a king (or catur-anteśa- equals -dig-īśa- q.v Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturanteśam. caturantā
caturanugānan. Name of a sāman-.
caturaṇukan. an aggregate of 4 atoms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturarthamf(ā-)n. having 4 meanings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turarthikamfn. used in the 4 (artha-or) senses (taught ), iv, 2, 81 ff. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśītamfn. the 84th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśītif. 84 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśītisāhasramfn. numbering 84000 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśītitamamfn. the 84th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśītiyogādhyāyam. "containing 84 chapters on the yoga-", Name of a work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśramf(ā-)n. four-cornered, quadrangular etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśramf(ā-)n. regular () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśram. a quadrangular figure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśram. a square View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśram. (in astronomy) Name of the 4th and 8th lunar mansions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśram. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśram. (scilicet hasta) a particular position of the hands (in dancing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśram. (plural) Name of various ketu-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśran. a particular posture (in dancing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturasrafor -aśra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśrakamf(ā-)n. four-cornered, forming a quadrangular figure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśrakam. a particular posture (in dancing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturasrakafor -aśraka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāśramikamfn. being in one of the 4 periods (āśrama-) of life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturāśraminmfn. passing the 4 stages of a Brahman's life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāśramin(edition Calc.) for cat- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturāśramyafor cāt-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāśramyan. (gaRa caturvarṇādi-) the 4 periods of a Brahman's life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turāśramyan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturasraśobhinmfn. beautifully symmetrical, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśratāf. regularity, harmony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturasrayānamfn. moving regularly (others"four-wheeled"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśri(c/at-) mfn. quadrangular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaśrīkṛto make quadrangular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturaṣṭakamfn. having 4 days called aṣṭakā-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturatāf. cleverness, skilfulness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturātmanmfn. representing 4 persons, having 4 faces or shapes (viṣṇu-) (keśava-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturatvan. idem or 'f. cleverness, skilfulness ' (varia lectio for caṇa--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturavarārdhyamfn. at least 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturavattan. (ava-do-) "4 times cut off or taken up, consisting of 4 avadāna-s", 4 avadāna-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturavattinmfn. one who offers oblations consisting of 4 avadāna-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbāhumfn. four-armed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbāhumfn. (viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbāhum. Name of śiva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhadramfn. (4 times id est) extremely auspicious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhadran. 4 objects of human wishes (viz. dharma-, kāma-, artha-, bala- ;or the first 3 with mokṣa- ;or kīrti-, āyus-, yaśas-, bala- ;or dharma-, jñāna-, vairāgya-, aiśvarya-, ;or dāna-, jñāna-, śaurya-, bhoga-or vitta- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turbhadran. (fr. cat-) a collection of 4 medicinal plants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turbhadrakan. idem or 'n. (fr. cat-) a collection of 4 medicinal plants ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhadrataramfn. (Comparative degree) 4 times happier than (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhadrikāf. a kind of medical preparation for curing fever View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhāgam. the 4th part, quarter etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhāgamf(ā-)n. forming the 4th part of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhāgīyāf. (scilicet iṣṭakā-) a brick of the 4th part of a man's length View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turbhautikamfn. consisting of 4 elements (catur-bhūta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhṛṣṭimfn. (c/at-) four-cornered, quadrangular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhṛṣṭimfn. four-pointed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhuja(in compound) 4 arms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujamf(ā-)n. four-armed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujamf(ā-)n. quadrangular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujam. viṣṇu- or kṛṣṇa- (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujam. Name of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujam. a quadrangular figure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujam. Name of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujam. of the instructor of (the author of a commentator or commentary on ) rāmānanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujam. of the father of śiva-datta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujabhaṭṭācāryam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhujamiśram. Name of the author of a commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turbhujia son of catur-bhuja-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhūmikamfn. having 4 floors (a house) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbhūyasmfn. containing 4 (syllables) more View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbījan. the 4 kinds of seed (viz. of kālājājī-, candra-śūra-, methikā-, and yavānikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turbījan. (fr. cat-) an aggregate of 4 kinds of aromatic seed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbilamfn. (c/at-) having 4 openings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturbilamfn. (said of an udder) and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaivamfn. for cāt- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turdaivamfn. sacred to 4 deities (deva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdalam. "four-leaved", Marsilea quadrifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaṃṣṭramfn. (c/at-) having 4 tusks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaṃṣṭram. a beast of prey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaṃṣṭram. viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaṃṣṭram. Name of an attendant of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaṃṣṭram. of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaṃṣṭram. (also) Name (also title or epithet) of airāvata-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdantamfn. "having 4 tusks", indra-'s elephant airāvata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdantamfn. Name of an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdārikāf. Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśamf(ī-)n. the 14th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśamf(ī-)n. consisting of 14 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turdaśamfn. (gaRa saṃdhivelādi-) appearing on the caturdaśī- (14th day) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśadhāind. fourteen-fold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśaguṇamfn. having 14 merits see Scholiast or Commentator and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśaguṇanāmann. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśaguṇasthānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśakamfn. the 14th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśākṣaramfn. (c/at-) having 14 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśamamfn. equals śaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśamatavivekam. "disquisition on the 14 philos. systems", Name of work by śaṃkara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśan(c/at-), a- plural (locative case ś/asu- ) 14 ; ([ confer, compare Latin quatuordecim; Lithuanian keturo1lika]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśarātram. a soma- sacrifice lasting 14 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśarcan. a hymn consisting of 14 verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśasamadvandvamfn. having the 14 paired parts of the body symmetric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśasvapanavicāram. "disquisition on the 14 kinds of sleep"Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśavidhamfn. fourteen-fold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśīf. (scilicet rātri-) the 14th day in a lunar fortnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśīSee ś/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśika(fr. śī-), a feast on the 14th day of a lunar fortnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turdaśikamfn. reading sacred texts on the caturdaśī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdaśīśāntif. Name of work
caturdatm(Nominal verb -dan-)fn. four-toothed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdhāind. in 4 parts, fourfold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdhāind. ([ confer, compare ; Hibernian or Irish ceathardha]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdhāto be divided into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdhākaraṇan. dividing into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turdhākāraṇikamfn. (fr. caturdhā-karaṇa-) connected with a division into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdhākṛto divide into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdharam. Name of a family or race. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdhārinm. Cissus quadrangularis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdhāśāntif. a religious ceremony performed at the time of making the stated offerings to deceased ancestors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdhātumfn. fourfold (a term in music). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdhāvihitamfn. divided into 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdikkamind. towards the 4 quarters, on all sides, all around View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdikṣu(locative case plural) ind. idem or 'ind. towards the 4 quarters, on all sides, all around ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdiśamind. idem or '(locative case plural) ind. idem or 'ind. towards the 4 quarters, on all sides, all around ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdolam. n. a royal litter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdosmfn. four-armed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdvāramf(ā-)n. having 4 doors or openings (said of the puruṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdvāramukhamf(ī-)n. having 4 doors as mouths View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdvīpacakravartinm. the sovereign of the 4 dvīpa-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturgaṇam. a series of 4. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturgandhamfn. fragrant on 4 sides (varia lectio -vyaṅga-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturgatimfn. having 4 kinds of going View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturgatimfn. "going on 4 feet", a tortoise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturgavan. a carriage drawn by 4 oxen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturgrāma"containing 4 villages", Name of a country. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturgṛhītan. taken up or ladled out (as a fluid) 4 times, taking up (any fluid) 4 times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturgṛhītinmfn. one who has taken up (any fluid) 4 times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturguṇamf(ā-)n. fourfold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturguṇamf(ā-)n. tied with 4 strings (the upper garment) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhanumfn. (c/at-) having 4 jaws View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhanum. Name of a dānava- (varia lectio candra-h-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhastamfn. four-handed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhāyaṇamf(ī-)n. 4 years old (said of living beings) (also ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhāyanamf(ā-)n. (gaRa kṣubhnādi-) = yaṇa- (said of lifeless objects) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhāyaṇīf. a cow of 4 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhitamfn. useful for 4 (persons) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhotṛm. (c/at-) sg. or plural Name of a litany (recited at the new-moon and full-moon sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhotṛm. (see -hotra-) Name of kṛṣṇa- (varia lectio for -netṛ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhotram. (see tṛ-) viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhotram. varia lectio for anuha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhotram. for cāt- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turhotramfn. performed by the 4 chief priests (hotṛ-, adhvaryu-, udgātṛ-, and brahman-) Introd. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turhotran. a sacrifice performed by 4 priests (varia lectio cat-) (varia lectio catur-hotraka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turhotran. the duties of the 4 chief priests View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turhotran. the 4 chief priests (collectively) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhotrakafor cāturhotra- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turhotriyamfn. attended by 4 chief priests (agni-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turhotrīyabrāhmaṇan. Name of a particular chapter (called brāhmaṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turhotṛkamf(ī-)n. ( ) relating to the catur-hotṛ- service View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhotṛtvan. the condition of the caturhotṛ- litany View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturhrasvamfn. having the 4 extremities too short View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīf. (equals rya- ) dexterity, cleverness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turīf. amiableness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturiḍaspadastobham. (see iḍas-pad/e-) Name of a sāman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturikāf. (equals tuṣka-) a quadrangular courtyard (used for guests) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturikāf. Name of a woman (in Prakrit) and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turikam. (fr. 1. ra-) a charioteer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturindriyamfn. having 4 senses (a class of animals) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturjātan. equals cāt- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turjātan. an aggregate of 4 substances View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturjātakan. idem or 'n. equals cāt- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turjātakan. idem or 'n. an aggregate of 4 substances ' (see kaṭu--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturlekhamfn. having 4 lines on the forehead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmahāpathan. meeting of 4 great roads View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmahārājam. plural the 4 great kings or guardians of the lowest of the 6 sensuous heavens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmahārājakāyikam. plural (equals cāt-) "belonging to the attendance of those 4 great kings", Name of a class of deities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmahārājakāyika(plural) equals cat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmahārājikam. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmahārājikam. plural equals ja-kāyika- (see cāt-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmahārājikam. (equals cat-) viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmahārājikam. plural equals jakāyika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmāsan. a period of 4 months View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsamfn. produced in 4 months View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsakamfn. one who performs the cāturmāsya- sacrifices Va1rtt. 5. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmāsīf. idem or 'n. a period of 4 months ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsīf. (of sy/a-; scilicet paurṇamāsī-) full-moon day at the cāturmāsya- sacrifices Va1rtt. 5 and 7. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsikamfn. occurring every 4 months (the fourth kind of pratikramaṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsinmfn. equals saka- Va1rtt. 5. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmāsyan. (equals cāt-) a cāturmāsya- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsyan. beginning of a season of 4 months View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsyan. plural Name of the 3 sacrifices performed at the beginning of the 3 seasons of 4 months (viz. vaiśvadev/am-, varuṇa-praghās/āḥ-, sākam-edh/āḥ-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsyamfn. belonging to such sacrifices View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsyadevatāf. the deity of a cāturmāsya- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsyakārikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsyatvan. the state of a cāturmāsya- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turmāsyayājinmfn. equals saka-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmedham. one who has offered 4 sacrifices (aśva--, puruṣa--, sarva--, and pitṛ-medha-) or one who knows the mantra-s required for them View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmuhūrtamind. during 4 muhūrta-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukha(in compound) 4 faces
caturmukhamfn. "four-faced", in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukhamfn. four-pointed (an arrow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukham. Name of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukham. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukham. of śiva- (see -tva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukham. of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukham. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukharasam. a preparation of great curative power View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukhatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmukhatvan. (śiva-'s) state of having 4 faces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmūrtimfn. "having 4 forms of appearance, four-faced", in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmūrtim. Name of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmūrtim. of skanda-, ix, 2486 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmūrtim. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmūrtitvan. the state of being four-faced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmuṣṭim. 4 hands full View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturmuṣṭikan. plural idem or 'm. 4 hands full ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturṇavatamfn. (equals nav-) the 94th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturṇavatamfn. (with śata-,100) + 94 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturnavatamfn. (equals -ṇav-) the 94th (a chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturnavatif. 94, in compound caturnavatitama -tama- mfn. the 94th (a chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturnavatitamamfn. caturnavati
caturnetṛmfn. bringing near the 4 objects desired for by men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturnidhana(c/at-) mfn. consisting of 4 concluding passages View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturoghottīrṇamfn. one who has passed across the 4 floods (Buddha) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturṛcamfn. possessing 4 ṛc- verses id est obtaining the merit suggested by them View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturṛcan. a hymn consisting of 4 verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturṛddhipādacaraṇatalasupratiṣṭhitamfn. well-established on the soles of the feet of the supernatural power (Buddha) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthamf(-)n. (gaRa yājakādi- ) the 4th etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturtham. the 4th letter in the first 5 classes of consonants (gh-, jh-, ḍh-, dh-, bh-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturtham. "4th caste", a śūdra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthan. "constituting the 4th part", a quarter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthan. (for tuṣṭaya-; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') a collection of 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthaf. (scilicet vibhakti-) the termination of the 4th case, dative case View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthaf. equals tur-bhāgīyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturtha rthaka-, rya- See p.385. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turthamfn. (fr. cat-) treated of in the 4th (adhyāya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthabhājmfn. receiving the 4th part (as a tax from one's subjects) (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthabhaktakṣapaṇan. fasting so as to take only every 4th meal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turthāhnikamfn. (fr. caturthāhan-) belonging to the 4th day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthakamfn. the 4th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthakamfn. returning every 4th day (a fever), quartan, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthakam. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turthakamfn. appearing every 4th day, quartan (fever)
caturthakālamfn. equals lika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthakālam. "4th meal" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthakālamind. at the 4th meal-time id est at the evening of every 2nd day (of any one's fasting) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthakāleind. idem or 'ind. at the 4th meal-time id est at the evening of every 2nd day (of any one's fasting) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthakālikamfn. one who takes only every 4th meal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turthakārirasam. a medicine for keeping off quartan ague. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthamind. the 4th time ([ confer, compare ; Latin quartus Lithuanian ketwirtas; Slavonic or Slavonian cetvertyi; German vierter.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthamandrātisvāryamfn. "to be lengthened in a particular way", said of a kind of recitation of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthāṃśam. a 4th part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthāṃśamfn. equals śin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthāṃśinmfn. receiving a quarter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthaphalan. the 2nd inequality or equation of a planet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthāśramam. the 4th stage of a Brahman's life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthasvaram. having the 4th tone or accent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthasvaran. Name of a sāman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthīf. (scilicet rātri-) the 4th day in a lunar fortnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthīf. (metrically thi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthīf. "the 4th day of a marriage" See rthī-karman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthifor thī- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthīf. of th/a- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthikāf. a weight of 4 karṣa-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turthikamfn. (fr. caturth/a-) idem or 'mfn. (fr. caturthāhan-) belonging to the 4th day ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turthikam. a quartan ague View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthīkarmann. the ceremonies performed on the 4th day of a marriage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthiprabhṛtimfn. (for thī-- p-) beginning with the fourth night, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturthodāttatamamfn. "reciting the 4th as the highest tone (or accent)", said of a particular way of reciting the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturūdhnīf. (aditi-) having 4 udders View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturūrdhvapadm. (Nominal verb -pād-) "having 4 feet more (than other animals)", the fabulous animal śarabha- (with 8 legs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturūṣaṇan. the 4 hot spices (black and long pepper, dry ginger, and the root of long pepper; see -jāta-and try-ūṣ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturuṣṭran. the 4 substances taken from a camel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturuttaramfn. increasing by 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturuttarastomam. with gotamasya- Name of an ekāha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvāhinm. (scilicet ratha-) a carriage drawn by 4 (horses or oxen) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvaidyamfn. (fr. catur-vidyā- gaRa anuśatikādi-;fr. -veda- ) versed in the 4 veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvaidyam. equals rvedya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvaidyam. knowledge of the 4 veda-s gaRa brāhmaṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvaiśāradyaviśāradamfn. wise through fourfold knowledge (Buddha) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvaktramf(ā-)n. four-faced View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvaktram. Name of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvaktram. of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvaktram. of an attendant of durgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvargam. a collection of 4 things (exempli gratia, 'for example' equals bhadra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvargacintāmaṇim. Name of work by hemādri-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvarṇa(in compound) the 4 castes; 4 principal colours View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvarṇafour letters View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvarṇādimfn. a gaṇa- of ( Va1rtt. 1; equals anantādi-of ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvarṇamayamfn. consisting of the 4 castes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvarṇyan. (gaRa caturvarṇādi-) the four castes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvarṣaśatāyusmfn. reaching an age of 400 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvarṣikāf. (scilicet go-) a cow 4 years old View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvaya(c/at-) mfn. fourfold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvedamfn. (gaRa brāhmaṇādi-) containing the 4 veda-s (brahmā-) (viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvedamfn. ( ) equals -vidya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvedam. plural the 4 veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvedam. a class of manes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvedinmfn. equals -vidya- (in Prakrit). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvedyan. (fr. catur-veda-) a number of men versed in the 4 veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvibhaktamfn. divided into 4 parts
caturvidhamfn. (c/at-) fourfold, of 4 sorts or kinds etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvidhāhāramayamfn. made of 4 kinds of food (viz. bhakṣya-, bhojya-, lehya-,and peya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvidhamind. (am-) in 4 ways () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvidhasaṃśayodbhedam. "removal of doubts of 4 kinds", Name of a work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvidhyan. (fr. c/atur-vidha-) the being fourfold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvidyamfn. ( ) familiar with the 4 veda-s (varia lectio cāt-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvidyāf. gaRa anuśatikādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvidyamfn. ( ) equals cat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvidyan. the 4 veda-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turvidyan. fourfold knowledge (viz. of dharma-, artha-, kāma-, mokṣa- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśamf(ī-)n. the 24th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśamf(ī-)n. (with śata-,100) + 24 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśamf(ī-)n. consisting of 24 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśam. (scilicet st/oma-) Name of a stoma- having 24 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśan. (with or without ahan-) Name of an ekāha- (2nd day of the gavām-ayana- sacrifice) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśan. (sika-with ahan- on ; cāturviṃśaka-,on ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśacchatan. caturviṃśat
turviṃśakafr. caturviṃś/a- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśākṣaramf(ā-)n. having 24 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśastomamfn. connected with the caturviṃśa- stoma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatf. 24, only in compound caturviṃśacchata śac-chata- n. 124 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatif. (c/at-) sg. (once plural;also once n. sg. ) etc. (ā caturviṃśates-,"to the 24th year") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatidaṇḍakastavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatidhāind. twenty-fourfold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatigavan. sg. a set of 24 oxen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatikamfn. consisting of 24 , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatikṛtvasind. 24 times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatikṛtvasind. (tiṃ k/ṛtvas- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatimamfn. for ti-tama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatimānan. a sum of 24 (paid in gold), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatimatan. "views of the 24 chief legislators", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatipurāṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatisāhasramf(ī-)n. consisting of 24000 (G) i, 4, 147 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatismṛtif. equals -mata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatitamamfn. the 24th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatitīrthaṃkarapūjāf. "worship of the 24 tīrthaṃkara-s (of the jaina-s)", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśativikramamf(ā-)n. (c/at-) measuring 24 paces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatyaham. sg. 24 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatyakṣaramf(ā-)n. (c/at-) having 24 syllables View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatyakṣaramfn. having 24 syllables, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśatyavatāracaritran. "history of the 24 incarnations", Name of a work by naraharadāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśikamfn. measuring 24 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturviṃśikamfn. with ahan- See ś/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turviṃśikamfn. belonging to the 24th day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvinśakamfn. consisting of 24 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvīramfn. (c/at-) (said of an unguent) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvīram. Name of a soma- sacrifice lasting 4 days View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvṛṣamfn. having 4 bulls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvyaṅgamfn. equals -hrasva- (varia lectio -gandha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvyāpinmfn. relating to 4 (persons) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvyavasitayamakan. a kind of yamaka- (in which the four quarters of a stanza are homophonous), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvyūhamfn. having 4 kinds of appearance (hari-) (maheśvara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvyūhamfn. containing 4 chapters View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturvyūhavādinm. "asserting the 4 forms (of puruṣottama-, viz. vāsudeva-, saṃkarṣaṇa-, pradyumna-, aniruddha-)", a vaiṣṇava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturyaNom. P. ryati- (1st future ryitā- infinitive mood ryitum-), to wish for 4 Va1rtt. 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyan. (equals - ) dexterity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyan. amiableness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turyacintāmaṇim. Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturyaman. the having 4 tones of utterance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturyugan. (gaRa pātrādi-) the 4 yuga-s (or ages of the world) combined (= a mahā-yuga- q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturyugamf(ā-)n. (c/at-) equals -yukta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturyugamf(ā-)n. comprising the 4 yuga-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturyujmfn. put to (as oxen) in a yoke of 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturyujmfn. equals -yukta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturyuktamfn. drawn by 4 (horses or oxen) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cintāmaṇicaturmukham. Name of a medicine prepared with mercury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
danturamf(ā- )n. () having projecting teeth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
danturamf(ā- )n. jagged, uneven ( danturatā -- f.abstr.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
danturamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals rita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
danturamf(ā- )n. ugly ( danturatā -- f.abstr.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
danturacchadam. "prickly-leaved", the lime tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
danturakamfn. having prominent teeth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
danturakam. plural Name of a people (east of madhya-deśa-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
danturatāf. dantura
danturatāf. dantura
danturayaNom. yati-, to fill with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
danturitamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' filled with, full of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharāturāṣāh(sāh-) m. prince, king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturahasyan. Name of work on gramm. roots. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturājakan. "chief fluid of the body", semen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturatnākaram. Name of work on gramm. roots. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturatnamālāf. Name of a med. work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturatnamañjarī dhāturatnamañjari f. Name of work on gramm. roots. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturatnamañjari dhāturatnamañjarī f. Name of work on gramm. roots. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturatnāvalīf. Name of work on gramm. roots. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturūpan. Name of work on verbal roots. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturūpādarśam. Name of work on verbal roots. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāturūpāvalīf. Name of work on verbal roots. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhustura() and tūra- ( ; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' also raka-) thorn-apple (see dhattūra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghacaturaśramfn. shaped like an oblong square or parallelogram View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghacaturaśram. an oblong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duṣṭāturamfn. a bad or disobedient patient, kath-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvaimāturamf(ī-)n. (fr. dvi-mātṛ- ) having 2 mothers (with bhrātṛ- m.step-brother) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvaimāturam. Name of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvaimāturam. of tarasaṃdha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvicaturaśrakam. Name of a particular gesture or posture (varia lectio catur-asr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvisamacaturaśram. an isosceles quadrangle or triangle, algebra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvitricaturamind. twice or thrice or four times View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvitricaturbhāgam. plural 1/2, 1/3 or 1/4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gajaturaṃgavilasitan. Name of a metre (see ṛṣabha-gaja-v-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gallacāturīf. a small round pillow to put underneath the cheek View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇeśacaturthīf. the fourth day of the light half of the month bhādra- (considered as gaṇeśa-'s birthday) p.431 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaurīcaturthīf. the 4th day in the bright half of month māgha-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gūḍhacaturthapādaprahelikāf. a riddle in which the fourth pāda- (of a stanza) is hidden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harituragam. a horse of indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harituragam. Name of indra- idem or 'm. a horse of indra- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harituraṃgamam. idem or 'm. Name of indra- idem or 'm. a horse of indra- ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harituraṃgamāyudhan. indra-'s thunderbolt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
heturūpakan. a metaphor accompanied with reasons (exempli gratia, 'for example' gāmbhīryeṇa samudro 'si-,"because of thy profundity thou art a sea") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
homaturaṃgam. the sacrificial horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hoturantevasinm. the pupil of a hotṛ- priest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalaturagam. "water-horse", a kind of animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janturasa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janturasam. "insect-essence", red lac View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jarātura(t-) mfn. decrepit from age View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaturakaSee jantuka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turakim. plural jaturaka-'s descendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaturasam. "lac-juice", lac View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñapticaturthamfn. scilicet karman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālīcaturdaśīf. Name (also title or epithet) of a festival (kept on the 14th day of the second half of āśvina-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalmāṣatanturam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmāturamfn. love-sick, affected by love or desire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmāturam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karakacaturthīf. the fourth day in the dark half of the month āśvina-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṭucāturjātakan. an aggregate of four acid substances (cardamoms, the bark and leaves of Laurus Cassia, and black pepper) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keturatnan. " rāhu-'s favourite", beryl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kharaturagīya(with samparka-, m.), sexual union of a donkey and a horse, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kraturājm. the chief of sacrifices, most excellent sacrifice (id est the aśva-medha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kraturājm. (the rāja-sūya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kraturājam. the chief of sacrifices (id est the rāja-sūya- sacrifice performed by a monarch who has made all the princes of the world tributary to himself) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kraturātam. varia lectio for kīrti-r- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇacaturdaśīf. the fourteenth day in the dark half of the month View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kundacaturthīf. the fourth day in the light half of the month māgha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
līlācaturamfn. sportively charming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madanacaturdaśīf. Name of a festival in honour of kāma-deva- on the 14th day in the light half of the month caitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madanāturamfn. love-sick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahācaturakam. Name of a jackal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tur genitive case of mātṛ-, in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaSee column 3. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tura in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' after a proper N. equals mātṛ- (see dvai--, bhādra-mātura-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turbhrātram. a mother's brother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
miśracaturbhujam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithasturmfn. following one another, alternating (as day and night) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukundacaturdaśan. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nidrāturamfn. sleepy, languid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādacatura m. () a slanderer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādacaturam. a goat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādacaturam. a sand-bank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādacaturam. hail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādacaturam. Ficus Religiosa. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padacaturūrdhvan. a kind of metre (in which every pada- is 4 syllables longer than the preceding) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paricaturdaśaand san- (Nominal verb accusative śa- instrumental case śais-), fully fourteen, more than fourteen
pāṣāṇacaturdaśīf. the 14th day in the light half of the month mārgaśīrṣa- (on which a festival of gaurī- is celebrated, when cakes made of rice and shaped like large pebbles are eaten) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāśukacāturmāsyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prapañcacaturamfn. skilful in assuming different forms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praturSee su-prat/ur-.
praturv(only pr. p. -t/ūrvat-), to be victorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyacaturamfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛtsuturmfn. victorious in battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
radhraturmfn. (prob.) idem or 'mfn. furthering or encouraging the obedient ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rajasturmfn. penetrating the sky, hastening through the air View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājavallabhaturaṃgamam. the favourite horse of a kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathaturmfn. urging or drawing (others,"overtaking") a chariots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turājam. "the king of the seasons", the spring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdacāturyan. skill in words, cleverness of diction, eloquence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sabhācāturyan. politeness in society View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śalāturaName of the abode of the ancestors of pāṇini- (see śālāturīya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālāturīyamfn. born in śalātura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālāturīyam. Name of pāṇini- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sālāturīyaSee śāl-, p.1067. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samacaturaśramf(ā-)n. (or -asra-) having four equal angles, square etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samacaturaśramn. a rectangular tetragon, square View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samacaturaśram. an equilateral tetragon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samacaturaśrīind. (with kṛ-) to transform into a square View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samacaturbhujamfn. having four equal sides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samacaturbhujam. or n. (?) a square or rhombus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃjvarāturamfn. afflicted with fever, fevered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkaṣṭacaturthīkathāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkaṣṭacaturthīvratakathāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkaṣṭaharacaturthīvratan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkaṣṭaharacaturthīvratakālanirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkaṭacaturthīf. Name of the fourth day in the dark half of śrāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkaṭaharacaturthīvratan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammātura wrong reading for sāmmātura- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmmāturaand sāmmātra- m. patronymic fr. 1. sam-mātṛ- on
saniturind. (according to to genitive case of sanit/ṛ-fr. san-?) besides, without (with preceding accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣāṇmāturam. (fr. ṣaṣ-+ mātṛ-) "having six mothers", Name of kārttikeya- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sanmāturaprob. wrong reading for sān-m-, of a virtuous mother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sānmāturam. (see san-m-and sāmm-) the son of a virtuous mother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sapatnaturmfn. (Nominal verb -t/ūḥ-) overcoming rivals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāracaturviṃśatikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvaphalatyāgacaturdaśīf. Name of a particular 14th day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvaphalatyāgacaturdaśīvratan. a particular religious observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śastrahatacaturdaśīf. Name of a particular fourteenth day sacred to the memory of fallen warriors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaunakīyacaturādhyāyikāf. " śaunaka-'s treatise in four chapters", Name of the atharva-- veda- prātiśākhya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitaturagam. "white-horsed", Name of arjuna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivacaturdaśīf. the 14th day of the dark half of the month māgha- kept as a festival in honour of skanda- (= śiva-rātri- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivacaturdaśīvratan. a fast and other observances on that day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śleṣmāturamf(ā-)n. suffering from phlegm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smarāturamfn. love-sick, pining with love View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāvaṇaśuklacaturthīf. the fourth and third day in the light half of śrāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śroturāti(śr/otu--) mfn. giving an ear, hearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthānacaturvidhaślokam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sucaturamfn. (according to to native authorities fr. catur-) very clever or skilful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suparamaturitāf. (with Buddhists) Name of a deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supraturmfn. (Nominal verb t/ūs-) very victorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sviṣṭakṛccaturthamf(ā-)n. having agni- sviṣṭa-kṛt- as fourth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanturan. the fibrous root of a lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanturam. plural Name of a family (varia lectio nnara-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taturimfn. ( tṝ-, ) conquering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taturimfn. promoting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilacaturthīf. the 4th day of the dark half of māgha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
traimāturamfn. having 3 (mātṛ-) mothers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tricaturamfn. ( vArttika) 3 or 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tricaturdaśamfn. dual number the 13th and 14th, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tuturvaṇimfn. (1. tur-) striving to bring near or obtain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uddanturamfn. large-toothed, having projecting teeth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uddanturamfn. high, tall View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uddanturamfn. terrific, formidable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
umācaturthīf. the fourth day in the light half of the month jyaiṣṭha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upacaturamfn. (plural) almost four, nearly four on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upacaturamind. nearly four, Sch. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāyaturīyan. "the fourth means"violence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vadanadanturam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaikuṇṭhacaturdaśīf. the 14th day of the light half of the month kārttika- (sacred to viṣṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varadacaturthīf. Name of the 4th day in the light half of the month māgha- (prob. wrong reading for varadā-caturthī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varadascaturthīf. See varada-c- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārtraturan. (fr. vritra-tur-) Name of a sāman-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasturacanāf. arrangement of matter, elaboration of a plot
veṅkaṭeśvaracāturbhadrikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vicaturamfn. containing various quarters (or half-verses) (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilakṣaṇacaturdaśakan. Name of work
vināyakacaturthīf. the fourth day of the festival in honour of gaṇeśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vināyakacaturthīvratan.Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vināyakasnapanacaturthīf. the fourth day of the gaṇeśa- festival (when his image is bathed) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣamacaturaśram. an unequal four-sided figure, trapezium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣamacaturbhujam. an unequal four-sided figure, trapezium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvaturmfn. all-surpassing, all-subduing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvaturāṣahmfn. (Nominal verb ṣāṭ-) all-surpassing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitarturamind. (fr. Intensive) alternately View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivāhacaturthikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivāhacaturthīkarmann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛtraturm. conquering enemies or vṛtra-, victorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛtraturmfn. (dative case t/ūre-) idem or 'm. conquering enemies or vṛtra-, victorious ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyathātura(vyathāt-) mfn. suffering pain, pained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yājñaturam. (fr. yajña-tura-) patronymic of ṛṣabha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yājñaturam. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñaturaṃgam. a horse for a sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yanturm. (only accusative t/uram-) a ruler, regulator, guide View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yavacaturthīf. a sort of game played on the 4th day in the light half of the month vaiśākha- (when people throw barley-meal over one another) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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tur तुर् I. 6 U. (तुरति-ते) 1 To hurry, hasten; सहः सहिष्ठ नुरतस्तुरस्य Rv.6.18.4. -2 To overcome. -3 To injure. -II. 3 P. (तुतोर्ति) To run. -तुर् a. 1 Hastening. -2 Fighting. -f. Speed.
tura तुर a. Ved. 1 Advancing, promoting. -2 Speedy, quick, prompt; Av.6.12.3. -3 Strong, energetic. -4 Hurt, wounded. -5 Rich. -6 Abundant; Av.7.5.2. -रः Speed, velocity.
turagaḥ तुरगः [तुरेण गच्छति गम्-ड] 1 A horse; तुरगखुरहतस्तथा हि रेणुः Ś.1.31; R.1.42;3.51. -2 The mind, thought. -गी A mare. -Comp. -आरोहः a horseman; Bṛi. S.15.26. -उपचारकः a groom. -प्रियः, -यम् barley. -ब्रह्मचर्यम् forced or compulsory celibacy, leading a life of celibacy simply in consequence of the absence of female society. -मेधः a horse-secrifice. -यातृ m. a horse-driver; स खलु तुरगयाता पूज्यते पार्थिवेन्द्रैः Aśvachikitsā. -रक्षः a groom, an equery.
turagin तुरगिन् m. A horseman; तुरङ्गिन् also; तुरङ्गिभिर्यत्ननिरुद्ध- वेगाः Śi.
turakin तुरकिन् a. Turkish.
turakvaḥ तुरक्वः N. of a people, the Turks.
turaṇa तुरण a. Ved. Quick, swift; राधः सुरेतस्तुरणे भुरण्यू Rv.1.121.5. -णम् Haste, speed.
turaṅgaḥ तुरङ्गः [तुरेण गच्छति, गम्-ख मुम् वा डिच्च] 1 A horse; भानुः सकृद्युक्ततुरङ्ग एव Ś.5.5; R.3.38;13.3. -2 A name for the number 'seven'. -3 The heart, mind. -गी A mare. -Comp. -अरिः 1 a buffalo -2 fragrant oleander. -आरूढः a horseman. -कान्ता a mare. ˚मुखः submarine fire; तुरङ्गकान्तामुखहव्यवाहज्वालेव Śi.3.33. -द्विषणी a shebuffalo. -प्रियः, -यम् barley. -मेधः a horse-sacrifice; तुरङ्गमेधावभृथावतीर्णैरिक्ष्वाकुभिः पुण्यतरीकृतानि (जलानि) R.13.61. -यायिन्, -सादिन् m. a horseman; R.7.37. -वक्त्रः, -वदनः a Kinnara. -शाला, स्थानम् a horse-stable. -स्कन्ध a troop of horses.
turaṅgakaḥ तुरङ्गकः A horse.
turaṅgamaḥ तुरङ्गमः A horse; अवहि मां प्रीतमृते तुरङ्गमात् किमिच्छसि R.3.63;9.72.
turaṇyati तुरण्यति Den. P.1 To be swift; उत स्मास्य द्रवतस्तुरण्यतः Rv.4.4.3. -2 To make haste, accelerate, expedite; राधो न रेत ऋतमित् तुरण्यन् Rv.1.61.11.
turāsāh तुरासाह् m. (Nom. sing. तुराषाट्-ड्) N. of Indra; तुरा- साहं पुरोधाय धाम स्वायंभुवं ययुः Ku.2.1; R.15.4; ततो राज- तुरासाहं शाहं युधि जिगीषतोः Śiva. B.9.9; also N. of Viṣṇu. तुरी (-रिः) [तुर्-इन् ङीप्] 1 The fibrous stick used by weavers to clear and separate the threads of the woof. -2 A shuttle; तद्भटचातुरीतुरी N.1.12. -3 A painter's brush.
turāyaṇam तुरायणम् 1 Non-attachment to any object or pursuit (असंग). -2 A kind of sacrifice; Ms.6.1. -3 A kind of vow (व्रत); Mb.13.13.34.
turī तुरी Ved. Great strength.
turīya तुरीय a. 1 The fourth. 2 Consisting of four parts. 3 Mighty. -यम् 1 A quarter, a fourth part, fourth. -2 (In Vedānta. phil.) The fourth state of the soul in which it becomes one with Brahman or the Supreme Spirit. -Comp. -वर्णः, -जातिः a man of the fourth caste, a Śūdra; तुरीयजातिं तिलकयन् कुलोत्तुङ्ग इति यथार्थनामा बभूव शूद्रः । चोलचम्पू p.6.
turīyaka तुरीयक a. A fourth (part); भगिन्यश्च निजादंशाद्दत्त्वांशं तु तुरीयकम् Y.2.124.
turuṣkāḥ तुरुष्काः m. (pl.) N. of a people, Turks. तुर्फरी turpharī तुर्फरीतु turpharītu तुर्फरी तुर्फरीतु a. Ved. Killing (हन्तृ); सृण्येव जर्भरी तुर्फरीतू नैतोशेव तुर्फरी पर्फरीका Rv.1.16.6.
turv तुर्व् 1 P. (तु-तू-र्वति) Ved. 1 To injure, hurt, kill; वृत्रं यदिन्द्र तूर्वसि Rv.8.99.6. -2 To excel. -3 To overpower. -4 To save.
turvaṇi तुर्वणि a. Ved. 1 Acting or moving quickly. -2 Injuring or destroying enemies, victorious.
turya तुर्य a. Fourth; N.4.123. -र्यम् 1 A quarter, a fourth part. -2 (In Vedānta phil.) The fourth state of the soul in which it becomes one with Brahman. -Comp. -यन्त्रम् a quadrant.
acatura अचतुर a. [अविद्यमानानि चत्वारि यस्य -निपातः] P.V.4. 77.] 1 Destitute of four. -2 (न. त.) Not skilful.
atura अतुर a. Ved. Not rich or liberal.
anātura अनातुर a. 1 Not eager, indifferent; अनातुरोत्कण्ठितयोः प्रसिध्यता समागमेनापि रतिर्व मां प्रति । v. l. for अनादर M.3.15. -2 Not fatigued, unwearied; भेजे धर्ममनातुरः R.1.21. -3 Not ill or diseased, well, healthy, in good health; अनातुरः सप्तरात्रमवकीर्णिव्रतं चरेत् Ms.2.187;4.144.
aptur अप्तुर् m. [अद्भ्यः जलदानाय तुतोर्ति, जलानि प्रेरयति, तुर् क्विप् Tv.] 1 Active, busy, giving water, flowing as water; an epithet of Indra (Sāy. अपां प्रेरक इन्द्रः). -2 Fire.
ātura आतुर a. [ईषदर्थे आ, अत्-उरच्] 1 Hurt, injured. -2 Suffering from, influenced or affected by, tormented, afflicted; रावणावरजा तत्र राघवं मदनातुरा R.12.32; Ku.4. 25; so काम˚, भय˚, व्याधि˚ &c. -3 Sick (in body or mind), disabled, diseased; आकाशेशास्तु विज्ञेया बालवृद्धकृशातुराः Ms.4.184,6.77. -4 Eager, over-anxious; M.2. -5 Weak, feeble, incapable of doing anything. -रः 1 A patient, one suffering from a disease V.3; आतुराणां चिकित्सकाः Pt.1.155. -2 Illness, disease; आतुरे व्यसने प्राप्ते Pt.5.41. -Comp. -शाला an hospital. -संन्यासः a kind of संन्यास (taken by a person when sick and grown hopeless of life).
āturyam आतुर्यम् [आतुरस्य भावः ष्यञ्] 1 A kind of fever. -2 Sickness.
uddantura उद्दन्तुर a. 1 Large-toothed or having projecting teeth. -2 High, tall (उत्तुङ्ग). -3 Terrific, formidable (कराल).
upacatura उपचतुर a. (P.V.4.77 Vārt.1) About four.
aindraturīyaḥ ऐन्द्रतुरीयः The fourth part of a libation to Indra.
catur चतुर् num. a. [चत्-उरन् Uṇ.5.58] (always in pl.; m. चत्वारः; f. चतस्रः; n. चत्वारि) Four; चत्वारो वयमृत्विजः Ve.1.25; चतस्रो$वस्था बाल्यं कौमारं यौवनं वार्धकं चेति; चत्वारि शृङ्गा त्रयो अस्य पादाः &c.; शेषान् मासान् गमय चतुरो लोचने मील- यित्वा Me.11. -ind. Four times. [cf. Zend chathru; Gr. tessares; L. quatuor.] [In Comp. the र् of चतुर् is changed to a Visarga (which in some cases becomes श्, ष् or स्, or remains unchanged) before words beginning with hard consonants.] -Comp. -अंशः a fourth part. -अङ्ग a. having 4 members, quadripartite. (-ङ्म्) 1 a complete army consisting of elephants, chariots, cavalry and infantry; चतुरङ्गसमायुक्तं मया सह च तं नय Rām.1.2. 1; एको हि खञ्जनवरो नलिनीदलस्थो दृष्टः करोति चतुरङ्गबलाधिपत्यम् Ś. Til.4; चतुरङ्गबलो राजा जगतीं वशमानयेत् । अहं पञ्चाङ्गबलवाना- काशं वशमानये ॥ Subhāṣ. -2 a sort of chess. -अङ्गिकः A kind of horse, having four curls on the forehead; यस्य ललाटे भ्रमरचतुष्टयं स चतुरङ्किको नाम । Śālihotra of Bhoj.25. -अङ्गिन् a. having four parts. (-नी) a complete army, see चतुरङ्ग. -अङ्गुलम् 1 the four fingers of the hand. -2 four fingers broad. -अन्त a. bordered on all sides; भूत्वा चिराय चतुरन्तमहीसपत्नी Ś.4.19. -अन्ता the earth. -अशीत a. eighty-fourth. -अशीति a. or f. eighty four. -अश्र, -अस्र a. (for अश्रि-स्रि) 1 four cornered, quardrangular; R.6.1. A quality of gems; Kau. A.2.11. -2 symmetrical, regular or handsome in all parts; बभूव तस्याश्चतुरस्रशोभि वपुः Ku.1.32. (-श्रः, स्रः) 1 a square. -2 a quardrangular figure. -3 (in astr.) N. of the fourth and eighth lunar mansions. -अहन् a period of four days. -आत्मन् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -आननः, -मुखः an epithet of Brahmā; इतरतापशतानि यथेच्छया वितर तानि सहे चतुरानन Udb. -आश्रमम् the four orders or stages of the religious life of a Brāhmaṇa. -उत्तर a. increased by four. -उषणम् the four hot spices, i. e. black pepper, long pepper, dry ginger, and the root of long pepper. -कर्ण (चतुष्कर्ण) a. heard by two persons only; Pt.1.99. -ष्काष्ठम् ind. In four directions. चतुष्काष्ठं क्षिपन् वृक्षान् ... Bk.9.62. -कोण (चतुष्कोण) a. square, quadrangular. (-णः) a square, tetragon, any quadrilateral figure. -गतिः 1 the Supreme Soul. -2 a tortoise. -गवः a carriage drawn by four oxen. -गुण a. four times, four-fold, quadruple. -चत्वारिंशत् (चतुश्च- त्वारिंशत्) a. forty-four; ˚रिंश, ˚रिंशत्तम forty-fourth. -चित्यः A pedestal, a raised square; चतुश्चित्यश्च तस्यासी- दष्टादशकरात्मकः Mb.14.88.32. -णवत (चतुर्नवत) a. ninety-fourth, or with ninety-four added; चतुर्णवतं शतम् 'one hundred and ninety four'. -दन्तः an epithet of Airāvata, the elephant of Indra. -दश a. fourteenth. -दशन् a. fourteen. ˚रत्नानि (pl.) the fourteen 'jewels' churned out of the ocean; (their names are contained in the following popular Maṅgalāṣṭaka :-- लक्ष्मीः कौस्तुभपारिजातकसुरा धन्वन्तरिश्चन्द्रमा गावः कामदुघाः सुरेश्वरगजो रम्भादिदेवाङ्गनाः । अश्वः सप्तमुखो विषं हरिधनुः शङ्खो$मृतं चाम्बुधे रत्नानीह चतुर्दश प्रतिदिनं कुर्युः सदा मङ्गलम् ॥). ˚विद्या (pl.) the fourteen lores; (they are:-- षडङ्गमिश्रिता वेदा धर्मशास्त्रं पुराणकम् । मीमांसा तर्कमपि च एता विद्याश्चतुर्दश ॥). -दशी the fourteenth day of a lunar fortnight. -दिशम् the four quarters taken collectively. -दिशम् ind. towards the four quarters, on all sides. -दोलः, -लम् a royal litter. -द्वारम् 1 a house with four entrances on four sides. -2 four doors taken collectively. -नवति a. or f. ninety-four. -पञ्च a. (चतुपञ्च or चतुष्पञ्च) four or five. -पञ्चाशत् f. (चतुःपञ्चाशत् or चतुष्पञ्चाशत्) fifty-four. -पथः (चतुःपथः or चतुष्पथः) (-थम् also) a place where four roads meet, a crossway; Ms.4.39,9,264. (-थः) a Brāhmaṇa. -पद or -पद् a. (चतुष्पद) 1 having four feet; यथा चतुष्पत्सु च केसरी वरः Rām.4.11.93. -2 consisting of four limbs. (-दः) a quadruped. (-दी) a stanza of four lines; पद्यं चतुष्पदी तच्च वृत्तं जातिरिति द्विधा Chand. M.1. -पाटी A river. L. D. B. -पाठी (चतुष्पाठी) a school for Brāhmaṇas in which the four Vedas are taught and repeated. -पाणिः (चतुष्पाणिः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पाद्-द (चतुष्पद्-द) a. 1. quadruped. -2 consisting of four members or parts. (-m.) 1 a quadruped. -2 (in law) a judicial procedure (trial of suits) consisting of four processes; i. e. plea, defence, rejoinder, and judgment. -3 The science of archery consisting of ग्रहण, धारण, प्रयोग and प्रतिकारः; यो$स्त्रं चतुष्पात् पुनरेव चक्रे । द्रोणः प्रसन्नो$भिवाद्यस्त्वया$सौ Mb.5.3.12-13; प्रतिपेदे चतुष्पादं धनुर्वेदं नृपात्मजः ibid 192.61. -पार्श्वम् the four sides of a square. -बाहुः an epithet of Viṣṇu. (-हु n.) a square. -भद्रम् the aggregate of the four ends of human life (पुरुषार्थ); i. e. धर्म, अर्थ, काम and मोक्ष. -भागः the fourth part, a quarter. -भावः N. of Viṣṇu. -भुज a. 1 quadrangular. -2 having four arms; Bg.11.46. (-जः) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu; R.16.3. -2 a quadrangular figure. -3 square. (-जम्) a square. -मासम् a period of four months; (reckoned from the 11th day in the bright half of आषाढ to the 11th day in the bright half of कार्तिक). -मुख having four faces. (-खः) an epithet of Brahmā; त्वत्तः सर्वं चतु- र्मुखात् R.1.22. (-खम्) 1. four faces; Ku.2.17. -2 a house with four entrances. -मण्डलम् a four-fold arrangement (of troops &c.) -मेधः One who has offered four sacrifices, namely अश्वमेध, पुरुषमेध, सर्वमेध, and पितृमेध. -युगम् the aggregate of the four Yugas or ages of the world. -युज् a. Consisting of four; चतुर्युजो रथाः सर्वे Mb.5.155.13. -रात्रम् (चतूरात्रम्) an aggregate of four nights. -वक्त्रः an epithet of Brahmā. -वर्गः the four ends of human life taken collectively (पुरुषार्थ); i. e. धर्म, अर्थ, काम and मोक्षः; चतुर्वर्गफलं ज्ञानं कालावस्थाश्चतुर्युगाः R.1.22. -वर्णः 1. the four classes or castes of the Hindus; i. e. ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य and शूद्र; चतुर्वर्णमयो लोकः R.1.22. -2 four principal colours. -वर्षिका a cow four years old. -विंश a. 1 twenty fourth. -2 having twenty-four added; as चतुर्विंशं शतम् (124). -विंशति a. or f. twenty-four. -विंशतिक a. consisting of twenty-four. -विद्य a. one who has studied the four Vedas. -विद्या the four Vedas. -विध a. of four sorts or kinds, four-fold. -वेद a. familiar with the four Vedas. (-दः) the Supreme Soul. -व्यूङः N. of Viṣṇu. (-हम्) medical science. a. having four kinds of appearance; hence ˚वादिन् 'asserting the four forms of पुरुषोत्तम viz. वासुदेव, संकर्षण, प्रद्युम्न and अनिरुद्ध.' -शालम् (चतुःशालम्, चतुश्शालम्, चतुःशाली, चतुश्शाली) a square of four buildings, a quadrangle enclosed by four buildings; अलं चतु शालमिमं प्रवेश्य Mk.3.7; देवीनां चतुःशालमिदम् Pratimā 6. -षष्टि a. or f. 1 sixty-four. -2 N. for the Ṛigveda consisting 64 Adhyāyas. ˚कलाः (pl.) the sixty-four arts. -सनः N. of Viṣṇu having four embodiments of सनक, सनन्दन, सनत्कुमार and सनातन; आदौ सनात् स्वतपसः स चतुःसनो$भूत् Bhāg.2.7.5. -सप्तति a. or f. seventy-four. -समम् an unguent of four things, sandal, agallochum, saffron and musk; L. D. B. -सीमा the boundaries on all four sides. -हायन, -ण a. four years old; (the f. of this word ends in आ if it refers to an inanimate object, and in ई if it refers to an animal). -होत्रकम् the four priests taken collectively.
caturtha चतुर्थ a. (र्थी f.) चतुर्णां पूरणः डट् युक् च] The fourth. -र्थः The fourth letter of any class. -र्थम् A quarter, a fourth part. -अंश a. receiving a fourth part. (-शः) a quarter or fourth part. -आश्रमः the fourth stage of a Brāhmaṇa's religious life, Saṁnyāsa. -फलम् the second inequality or equation of a planet. -भक्त a. eating the fourth meal. -भाज् a. receiving a fourth part of every source of income from the subjects, as a king; (this is allowed only in times of financial embarrassments, the usual share being a sixth.)
caturthaka चतुर्थक a. The fourth. -कः A fever that returns or is repeated every four days, a quartan. -र्थिका A weight equal to four Karṣas.
caturthī चतुर्थी 1 The fourth day of a lunar fortnight. -2 The dative case (in gram.). -Comp. -कर्मन् n. the ceremonies to be performed on the fourth night of the marriage.
caturdhā चतुर्धा ibid. In four ways, fourfold.
catura चतुर a. [चत्-उरच्] 1 Clever, skilful, ingenious, sharp-witted; सर्वात्मना रतिकथाचतुरेव दूती Mu.3.9; Amaru.15.44; मृगया जहार चतुरेव कामिनी R.9.69;18.15. -2 Quick, swift. -3 Charming, beautiful, lovely, agreeable; न पुनरेति गतं चतुरं वयः R.9.47; Ku.1.47; 3.5;5.49. -रः 1 A round pillow. -2 Crooked gait. -3 An elephant's stable. -रम् 1 Cleverness, ingenuity. -2 An elephant's stable.
turaka चातुरक a. 1 Flattering. -2 Perceptible, visible. -3 Governing. -कः A small round pillow.
turakṣam चातुरक्षम् [चतुर्भिरक्षौर्निष्पाद्यते अण्] Four casts in playing at dice. -क्षः A small round pillow.
turanta चातुरन्त a Possessing the whole earth bounded by four oceans; चातुरन्तो$पि राजा सद्यो विनश्यति Kau. A.1.5.
turarthikaḥ चातुरर्थिकः [चतुर्षु अर्थेषु विहितः ठक्] (In gram.) A suffix added to words in four different senses.
turāśramika चातुराश्रमिक a. (-की f.), [चतुर्षु आश्रमेषु विहितः ठक्], चातुराश्रमिन् a. (-णी f.) Being in one of the four periods of the religious life of a Brāhmaṇa; see आश्रम.
turāśramyam चातुराश्रम्यम् The four periods of the religious life of a Brāhmaṇa; see आश्रम.
turikaḥ चातुरिकः [चातुरीं रथचर्यां वेत्ति ठक्] A coachman, driver, charioteer.
turīkaḥ चातुरीकः 1 A swan. -2 A sort of duck; कलहंसे च कारण्डे चातुरीकः पुमानयम् Nm. चातुर्थक cāturthaka चातुर्थिक cāturthika चातुर्थक चातुर्थिक a. (-की f.) [चतुर्थे अह्नि भवः ठक् वुञ् वा] 1 Quartan, occurring every fourth day. -कः A quartan ague.
turthāhnika चातुर्थाह्निक a. (-की f.) Belonging to the fourth day.
turdaśa चातुर्दश a. Appearing on the fourteenth day. -शम् A demon (चतुर्दश्यां दृश्यते इति) (Sk.)
turdaśikaḥ चातुर्दशिकः One who studies on the fourteenth day of a lunar fortnight (that being a day of अनध्याय q. v.).
turbhautika चातुर्भौतिक a. Consisting of four elements.
turmāsa चातुर्मास a. [चतुर्षु मासेषु भवः अण्] Produced in four months. -सी 1 N. of a sacrifice (इष्टि). -2 The day of full moon at this sacrifice.
turmāsaka चातुर्मासक a. (-सिका f.) One who performs the Chāturmāsya sacrifice.
turmāsyam चातुर्मास्यम् [चतुर्षु मासेषु भवो यज्ञः, ण्य] N. of a sacrifice performed every four months; i. e. at the beginning of कार्तिक, फाल्गुन and आषाढ.
turyam चातुर्यम् [चतुरस्य भावः ष्यञ्] 1 Skill, cleverness, dexterity, shrewdness. -2 Loveliness, amiableness, beauty; भ्रूचातुर्य Bh.1.3.
turvarṇya चातुर्वर्ण्य a. [चतुर्वर्ण-ष्यञ्] Suited to the four tribes, or belonging to them. -र्ण्यम् 1 The aggregate of the four original castes of the Hindus; एवं सामासिकं धर्मं चातु- र्वर्ण्ये$ब्रवीन्मनुः Ms.1.63; चातुर्वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुणकर्मविभागशः Bg.4.13. -2 The duties of these four castes.
turvidya चातुर्विद्य a. (-द्यी) Knowing the four Vedas. -द्यम् The four Vedas; also चातुर्वैद्य.
turvidhyam चातुर्विध्यम् Four kinds (collectively), a four-fold division.
turhotra चातुर्होत्र a. Conducted by the four priests. -त्रम् 1 A sacrifice performed by four priests. -2 The office or duties of these priests. -3 The four priests taken collectively; चातुर्होत्रं च धुर्या मे शरा दर्भा हविर्यशः Mb. 5.58.13.
turhotriyaḥ चातुर्होत्रियः A sacrifice performed by four priests.
taturi ततुरि a. 1 Preserving, cherishing. -2 Conquering; ददथुर्मित्रावरुणा ततुरिम् Rv.4.39.2. -3 Killing, hurting. -रिः An epithet of Agni and Indra.
tanturam तन्तुरम् लम् The fibrous root of a lotus.
traimāturaḥ त्रैमातुरः An epithet of Lakṣmaṇa; त्रैमातुरः कृत्स्नजितास्त्र- शस्त्रःसध्ऱ्यङ् रतः श्रेयसि लक्ष्मणisभूत् Bk.1.25. Lakṣmaṇa is so called because he was born to his mother Sumitrā on her eating the sacrificial oblation given to her by her two co-wives, Kausalyā and Kaikeyī.
dantura दन्तुर a. [दन्त-उरच्] 1 Having long or projecting teeth; शूकरे निहते चैव दन्तुरो जायते नरः Tv.; Śi.6.54. -2 Jagged, dentated, notched, serrated, uneven (fig. also); अखर्वगर्वस्मितदन्तुरेण Vikr.1.5. -3 Undulatory. -4 Rising, bristling (as hair). -5 Overspread, covered with; U.6.27. -Comp. -छदः the lime tree.
danturita दन्तुरित a. 1 Having long or projecting teeth. -2 Notched, serrated, bristling; केतकिदन्तुरिताशे Gīt.1; पुलक- भर˚ 11; K.216. -3 Besmeared, covered with; Māl.3.
dvaimātura द्वैमातुर a. Having two mothers, i. e. a natural mother and a stepmother. -रः 1 N. of Gaṇeśa. -2 N. of Jarāsandha; हते हिडिम्बरिपुणा राज्ञि द्वैमातुरे युधि Śi.2.6.
paricaturdaśan परिचतुर्दशन् a. Fully fourteen; more than fourteen; भृत्याः परिचतुर्दश Mb.3.1.11; so also परिदश; क्वचित् परिदशान् मासान् Rām.3.11.24.
bhādramāturaḥ भाद्रमातुरः The son of a virtuous or good mother (भद्रमातुरपत्यम्).
śālāturīyaḥ शालातुरीयः An epithet of Pāṇini (written also शालोत्तरीय; so called from शलातुर the place of his birth).
ṣāṇmāturaḥ षाण्मातुरः [षड् मातरो$स्य] Having six mothers, an epithet of Kārtikeya.
saṃmātura संमातुर = सन्मातुर q. v. under सत्.
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tura tur-á, a. cager, vii. 86, 4 [tur = tvar speed].
caturakṣa catur-akṣá, a. (Bv.) four-eyed, x. 14, 10. 11 [akṣá = ákṣi eye].
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tura a. quick; ready, willing.
tura a. strong, mighty, superior; rich, abundant.
turaga m. horse: î, f. mare; -pari- kâraka, m. groom; -mukha, m. (having a horse's face), a Kimnara; -vâhyâlî, f. course for horses.
turaṃga m. (swift-goer), horse.
turaṃgama m. (î) horse: -tva, n. abst. n.; -medha, m. horse-sacrifice.
turī f. weaver's brush; weaver's shuttle.
turīya a. [ka-turîya] fourth (part); n. quarter.
turīya SB.), a. fourth; consisting of four; n. fourth state of Vedântist's soul (completeunion with Brahma).
turīyaka a. fourth (part).
turuṣka m. Turk; olibanum (kind of resin).
turyavah a. (strong st. -v&asharp;h, nm. -v&asharp;t) being in its fourth year (ox); m. ox --, f. turyauh&isharp;, cow in its fourth year.
aticatura a. extremely swift.
anātura a. healthy; undaunted; not love-sick.
aptur a. active; victorious.
ātura a. diseased, ill, weak; ailing; --°ree;, afflicted with, tortured by; w. inf. morbidly desirous of.
kāmātura a. love-sick; -½âtman, a. voluptuous; filled with love: (a)-tâ, f. sensuality; -½andha, a. blinded by love; -½ari, m. ep. of Siva (foe of Kâma); -½asoka, m. N. of a king.
kharaturagīya a. sexual con- nexion (samparka) between ass and horse; -nakhara, m. N. of a lion; -mayûkha, m. (hot-rayed), sun; -½amsu, m. id.
grahaṇacatura a. expert in seizing; -dvaya, n. eclipse of sun and (or) moon; -sambhava, a. arising from the taking away (of, g.); -½anta, a. done with learning; -½antika, a. id.
caturatā f. cleverness, craftiness, shrewdness.
caturaṅgin a. consisting of four parts.
caturaṅga a. having four members: -m balam, n. complete army (consisting of infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariots); â, f. army consisting of these four arms; n. id.; chess: -bala½adhipatya, n. command of a complete army.
caturakṣara a. having four syl lables; n. aggregate of four syllables.
caturakṣa a. (&isharp;) four-eyed.
catura a. quick, swift; dexterous, clever, ingenious, crafty; charming; n. clever ness: -ka, a. (ikâ) dexterous, clever; m. N. of a jackal; f. N. of a woman.
catur num. m. n. pl. four.
caturbāhu a. four-armed; -bila, a. having four apertures; -bhâgá, m. fourth, quarter; -bhuga, a. four-armed, ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; -bhûmika, a. four-storied; -mâsî, f. period of four months; -mukha, a. four-faced; ep. of Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva: -samîrita, pp. uttered by the four mouths; -muhûrtam, ac. for four muhûrtas; -mûrti, a. having four forms or faces; -yuga, n. the four ages; a. comprising the four ages; -vak tra, a. four-faced; ep. of an attendant of Durgâ; -varga, m. aggregate of four: esp. the four goods of life, the good (artha), the pleasant (kâma), the useful (artha), and final liberation (moksha):-kintâmani, m. T. of a work; -varna-maya, a. consisting of the four castes; -varsha-sata½âyus, a. attaining an age of 400 years; -vimsá, a. (î) twenty-fourth; consisting of twenty-four; m. N. of a stoma in which three verses are chanted eight times; n. the day on which it is employed; -vimsat, f. twenty-four; (kátur)-vimsati, f. sg. and (rarely) pl. id.: -kritvas, ad. twenty-four times, -tama, a. twenty-fourth, y-aha, m. sg. twenty-four days; -vimsika, n.=katur-vimsa, m.; -vidha, a. fourfold: -m, ad.; -vîra, m. kind of Soma rite lasting four days; -veda, m. pl. the four Vedas; a. containing or fami liar with the four Vedas; -vedin, a. versed in the four Vedas; (kátur)-hanu, a. four-jawed.
caturdaśa a. (î) fourteenth; con sisting of fourteen; î, f. fourteenth day of a fortnight: -dasa-dh&asharp;, ad. fourteenfold; -dasán (or ká-), num. fourteen; -dasama, a. fourteenth; -dasarká, a. hvg. fourteen verses; -dârikâ, f. N. of the fifth lambaka in the Kathâsaritsâgara; -dikkam, ad. to the four quarters; -disam, ad. id.; -dvâra-mukha, a. (î) having four gates as mouths; -dhâ, ad. in four parts; fourfold.
caturthīkarman n. ceremony of the fourth wedding day.
caturthāṃśa m. fourth part; a. receiving a fourth; -½amsin, a. id.
caturthakāla m. fourth meal time: -m, lc.=on the evening of the second day; -kâlika, a. eating the fourth meal only; -bhâg, a. receiving a fourth part as tribute.
caturtha a. (&isharp;) fourth: -m, ad. the fourth time; n. fourth part; î, f. fourth day in a fortnight; fourth wedding day.
caturguṇa a. fourfold.
caturanīka a. four-faced; -anta, a. bounded on all four sides (by the sea): â, f. earth; -asra, a. square; regular, harmoni ous: -tâ, f. harmony, -sobhin, a. harmoni ously beautiful; -asri, a. square; -ahá, m. period of four days; -âtman, a. having four forms or faces; -ânana, a. four-faced, ep. of Brahman; -uttará, a. increasing by four.
turvarṇya n. the four castes; -vimsika, a. belonging to the 24th day; -vid ya, a. versed in the four Vedas; n. the four Vedas; -vaidya, a. versed in the four Vedas; -hotra, a. performed by the fourprincipal priests; n. sacrifice performed by the four principal priests.
turya n. skill, dexterity; charm.
turmāsī f. day of full moon at the four-monthly sacrifices; -mâsyá, n. period of four months; sacrifice to be offered every four months (at the beginning of the three seasons).
turdhākāraṇika a. divided into four parts.
turtha a. discussed in the fourth (chapter): -ka, a. occurring every fourth day (fever); -½ahnika, a. belonging to the fourth day.
tura a. flattering; guiding, ruling; î, f. cleverness, dexterity; charm.
danturaya den. P. stud or fill with: pp. danturita, studded with, full of (--°ree;).
dvatricaturam ad. twice, thrice or four times; -tri-katush-pañkaka, a. increased by two, three, four, or five; with satam, n.=two, three, four, or five per cent.
dvaimātura a. having two mothers (real and step-); having different mothers (brothers); -bhrâtri, m. step-brother; -mâs ya, a. lasting two months; -ratha, n. (± yuddha) single combat with chariots; single fight; m. adversary; -râgya, n. dominion divided between two kings; frontier; -vidh ya, n. twofold nature, duality; -samdhya, (?) n. the two twilights.
śālāturīya a. belonging to Salâtura; m. ep. of Pânini.
sanitur ad. (w. preceding ac.) be sides, without (RV.).
samacaturaśra a. having four equal corners, square; -kitta, a. having a calm mind (-tva, n. equanimity); -ketas, a. id.; -gâtîya, a. homogeneous.
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
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tura kāvṣeya Is mentioned in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the tenth book of the śatapatha Brāhmana as the source of the doctrine set forth in that book, and as separated, in the succession of teachers, from Sāndilya by Yajñavacas and Kuśri. In the same Brāhmana he is quoted by śāndilya as having erected a fire-altar on the Kārotī. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he appears as a Purohita, or ‘ domestic priest,’ of Janamejaya Pāriksita, whom he consecrated king. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad4 and a Khila he appears as an ancient sage. Oldenberg, no doubt rightly, assigns him to the end of the Vedic period. He is probably identical with Tura, the deva-muni, ‘saint of the gods,’ who is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
turaśravas Is the name of a seer mentioned in the Pañca­vimśa Brāhmana as having pleased Indra by two Sāmans (Chants) of his composition. Indra in return appears to have given him the oblation of the Pārāvatas on the Yamunā.
turva Occurs only once in the Rigveda, doubtless as a name of the Turvaśa people or king.
turvaśa Occurs frequently in the Rigveda as the name of a man or of a people, usually in connexion with Yadu. The two words usually occur in the singular without any connecting particle, Turvaśa Yadu or Yadu Turvaśa. In a plural form the name Turvaśa occurs once with the Yadus, and once alone in a hymn in which the singular has already been used. In one passage the dual Turvaśā-Yadñ actually occurs, and in another Yadus Turvaś ca, ‘Yadu and Turva.’ In other passages Turvaśa appears alone, while in one Turvaśa and Yādva occur. From these facts Hopkins deduces the erroneousness of the ordinary view, according to which Turvaśa is the name of a tribe, the singular denoting the king, and regards Turvaśa as the name of the Yadu king. But the evidence for this is not conclusive. Without laying any stress on the argument based on the theory that the five peoples’ of the Rigveda are the Anus, Druhyus, Turvaśas, Yadus, and Pūrus, it is perfectly reasonable to hold that the Turvaśas and Yadus were two distinct though closely allied tribes. Such they evidently were to the seers of the hymns which mention in the dual the Turvaśā-Yadū and speak of Yadus Turvaś ca. This explanation also suits best the use of the plural of Turvaśa in two Rigvedic hymns. In the Rigveda the chief exploit of Turvaśa was his partici¬pation in the war against Sudās, by whom he was defeated. Hopkins suggests that he may have been named Turvaśa because of his fleet (tura) escape from the battle. His escape may have been assisted by Indra, for in some passages Indra’s aid to Turvaśa (and) Yadu is referred to; it is also significant that the Anu, and apparently the Druhyu, kings are mentioned as having been drowned in the defeat, but not the Turvaśa and Yadu kings, and that Turvaśa appears in the eighth book of the Rigveda as a worshipper of Indra with the Anu prince, the successor, presumably, of the one who was drowned. Griffith, however, proposes to refer these passages to a defeat by Turvaśa and Yadu of Arna and Citraratha on the Sarayu ; but the evidence for this is quite inadequate. Two passages of the Rigveda seem to refer to an attack by Turvaśa and Yadu on Divodāsa, the father of Sudās. It is reasonable to suppose that this was an attack of the two peoples on Divodāsa, for there is some improbability of the references being to the Turvaśa, who was concerned in the attack on Sudās, the son. Zimmer considers that the Turvaśas were also called Vrcī- vants. This view is based on a hymn in which reference is made to the defeat of the Vrcīvants on the Yavyāvatī and Hariyūpīyā in aid of Daivarāta, and of Turvaśa in aid of Srñjaya, the latter being elsewhere clearly the son of Deva- rāta. But as this evidence for the identification of the Turvaśas with the Vrcīvants is not clear, it seems sufficient to assume that they were allies. Later, in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Turvaśas appear as allies of the Pañcālas, Taurvaśa horses, thirty-three in number, and armed men, to the number of 6,ooo, being mentioned. But otherwise the name disappears: this lends probability to Oldenberg’s conjecture that the Turvaśas became merged in the Pañcāla people. Hopkins considers that in the śatapatha passage the horses were merely named from the family of Turvaśa; but this view is less likely, since it ignores the difficulty involved in the reference to the men. It is impossible to be certain regarding the home of the Turvaśas at the time of their conflict with Sudās. They apparently crossed the Parusnī, but from which side is dis¬puted. The view of Pischel and Geldner, that they advanced from the west towards the east, where the Bharatas were (see Kuru), is the more probable.
turvīti Is mentioned several times in the Rigveda, both in association with Vayya and alone. In three passages reference is made to Indra aiding him over a flood. Ludwig has conjectured that he was king of the Turvaśas and Yadus. But there is no sufficient evidence for this view, though presumably he was of the Turvaśa tribe.
turyavah (masculine) ‘A four-year-old ox or cow,’ is mentioned in the later Samhitās.
turmāsya ‘Four-monthly,’ denotes the festival of the Vedic ritual held at the beginning of the three seasons of four months each, into which the Vedic year was artificially divided. It is clear that the sacrifices commenced with the beginning of each season, and it is certain that the first of them, the Vaiśvadeva, coincided with the Phālgunī full moon, the second, the Varuna-praghāsas, with the AsadhI full moon, and the third, the Sāka-medha, with the Kārttikī full moon. There were, however, two alternative datings: the festivals could also be held in the Caitri, the Srāvanī, and Agrahāyanī (Mārgaśīrsī) full moons, or in the Vaiśākhī, Bhādrapadī, and Pausī full moons. Neither of the later datings is found in a Brāhmana text, but each may well have been known early, since the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana both recognize the full moon in the month Caitra as an alternative to the full moon in the month Phālguna, for the beginning of the year. Jacobi considers that the commencement of the year with the full moon in the asterism Phālgunī, which is supported by other evidence, indicates that the year at one time began with the winter solstice with the moon in Phālgunī, corresponding to the summer solstice when the sun was in Phālgunī. These astronomical conditions, he believes, existed in the time of the Rigveda, and prevailed in the fourth millennium B.C. The alternative dates would then indicate periods when the winter solstice coincided with the Caitrī or the Vaiśākhī full moon. But Oldenberg and Thibaut seem clearly right in holding that the coincidence of Phālgunī with the beginning of spring, which is certain, is fatal to this view, and that there is no difficulty in regarding this date as consistent with the date of the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, which is given by the Kausītaki Brāhmana, and which forms the basis of the calculations of the Jyotisa. The full moon in Phālguna would be placed about one month and a half after the winter solstice, or, say, in the first week of February, which date, according to Thibaut, may reasonably be deemed to mark the beginning of a new season in India about 800 B.C. At the same time it must be remembered that the date was necessarily artificial, inasmuch as the year was divided into three seasons, each of four months, and the Indian year does not in fact consist of three equal seasons. The variations of the other datings would then not be unnatural if any school wished to defer its spring festival, the Vaiśvadeva, to the time when spring had really manifested itself. See also Samvatsara.
turbhrātra Is a curiously formed compound, occurring once in the Maitrāyani Samhitā as a designation of the maternal uncle,’ who in the Sūtra period bears the name of Mātula. Thus little is heard of the maternal uncle in the Vedic period: it is not till the Epic that traces appear of his prominence as compared with the paternal uncle (pitrvya). This fact is significant for the ‘patriarchal’ character of the early Indian family organization.
yājñatura ‘Descendant of Yajñatura,’ is the patronymic of. Rçabha in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
175 results
     
tura gopāya mā SMB.2.6.19. P: tura gopāya GG.4.9.17; KhG.4.4.2.
turaṃ yatīṣu turayann ṛjipyaḥ RV.4.38.7c.
turaṃ devasya bhojanam Kauś.91.10.
turaṃ bhagasya dhīmahi RV.5.82.1d; TA.1.11.3d; Apś.6.22.1d; ChU.5.2.7d.
turāṇām aturāṇām AVś.7.50.2a; AVP.1.111.4a.
turaṇyavo 'ṅgiraso nakṣanta RV.7.52.3a.
turaṇyavo madhumantaṃ ghṛtaścutam RV.8.51 (Vāl.3).10a; AVś.20.119.2a; SV.2.960a.
tur cid viśvam arṇavat tapasvān AVś.5.2.8d. See duraś ca.
turaspeye yo haripā avardhata RV.10.96.8b; AVś.20.31.3b.
turasya karmāṇi navya ukthaiḥ RV.1.61.13b; AVś.20.35.13b.
turasyāsti vidhataḥ RV.8.78.7b.
turāyā āturasya ca AVP.4.21.7b.
turīyabhāja ādityān AVP.12.10.9a.
turīyāditya (VSK. turyā-) savanaṃ (RV. havanaṃ) ta indriyam RV.8.52 (Vāl.4).7c; VS.8.3c; VSK.8.1.2c; TS.1.4.22.1c; MS.1.3.26c: 39.5; KS.4.10c; śB.4.3.5.12.
turīyaṃ vasavo vaśe AVP.12.10.8d.
turīyaṃ vāco manuṣyā vadanti RV.1.164.45d; AVś.9.10.27d; śB.4.1.3.17d; TB.2.8.8.6d; JUB.1.7.3d; 40.1d; N.13.9d.
turīyaṃ svij janayad viśvajanyaḥ RV.10.67.1c; AVś.20.91.1c.
turīyaṃ dhāma mahiṣo vivakti RV.9.96.19d; SV.2.527d; JB.3.205.
turīyaṃ nāma yajñiyam RV.8.80.9a.
turīyam ādityā rudrāḥ AVP.12.10.8c.
turīyam id rohitasya pākasthāmānam RV.8.3.24c.
turīyaṃ pātram amṛktam amartyam RV.2.37.4c.
turīyaṃ bhejire vaśe AVP.12.10.8b.
turīyas te manuṣyajāḥ RV.10.85.40d; AVś.14.2.3d; PG.1.4.16d; ApMB.1.3.1d. See turīyo 'haṃ.
turīyeṇa brahmaṇāvindad atriḥ RV.5.40.6d.
turīyeṇāmanvata (śś. turīyeṇa manvata) nāma dhenoḥ AVś.7.1.1d; śś.15.3.7d.
turīyo yajño yatra havyam eti VS.17.57b; TS.4.6.3.3c; MS.2.10.5c: 137.7; KS.18.3c; śB.9.2.3.11.
turīyo 'haṃ (VārG. turyo 'haṃ) manuṣyajāḥ HG.1.20.2d; JG.1.21d; VārG.14.10d. See turīyas te.
turo gṛṇīta martyaḥ RV.8.3.13b; AVś.20.50.1b.
turo dyām iva rohati RV.8.41.8b.
turo na karma nayamāna ukthā RV.1.173.9d.
turo na yāmann etc. see tūrvan na.
turo na svābhir ūtibhiḥ RV.6.44.3b.
turo no aturo bhava AVP.5.13.7a.
turo bhagasya hastābhyām AVś.6.102.3c.
turo viśām aṅgirasām anu dyūn RV.1.121.3b.
turvaśeṣv amanmahi RV.8.4.19d.
turvītaye gādhaṃ turvaṇiḥ kaḥ RV.1.61.11d; AVś.20.35.11d.
turvītaye ca vayyāya ca srutim RV.2.13.12b.
turvītaye vayyāya kṣarantīm RV.4.19.6b.
turvītiṃ dasyave sahaḥ RV.1.36.18d.
turyāditya etc. see turīyāditya.
turyāma dasyūn tanūbhiḥ RV.5.70.3c. See sāhyāma etc.
turyāma martyānām RV.5.9.6d.
turyāma yas ta ādiśam arātīḥ RV.6.4.5c.
turyavāḍ gaur vayo dadhuḥ VS.21.16d; MS.3.11.11d: 158.7; KS.38.10d; TB.2.6.18.2d. Cf. turyavāhaṃ.
turyavāḍ vayaḥ VS.14.10; TS.4.3.3.2; 5.1; MS.2.7.20: 105.14; 2.8.2: 108.1; KS.17.2; 39.7; śB.8.2.4.15.
turyavāha uṣṇihe VS.24.12; MS.3.13.17: 172.2; Mś.9.2.3.18.
turyavāhaṃ gāṃ vayo dadhat VS.28.28f; TB.2.6.17.4f. Cf. turyavāḍ gaur.
turyavāṭ ca turyauhī ca MS.2.11.6: 143.16. See next.
turyavāṭ ca me turyauhī ca me (VS. me yajñena kalpantām) VS.18.26; TS.4.7.10.1; KS.18.12. See prec.
turyo 'haṃ manuṣyajāḥ see turīyo 'haṃ etc.
adṛptakratur avātaḥ # RV.8.79.7b.
anāturā ajarā sthāmaviṣṇavaḥ # RV.10.94.11c.
anāturān sumanasas talpa bibhrat # AVś.12.2.49c.
anāturāḥ sumanasaḥ suvīrāḥ # AVP.1.65.1c.
anātureṇa manasā # Aś.2.5.9b; Apś.6.2.2b; 25.7b; Mś.1.6.3.12b.
anātureṇa varuṇaḥ pathemam # AVP.2.61.5a.
aptur vaisarjane # KS.34.15.
astur na didyut tveṣapratīkā # RV.1.66.7b; N.10.21b.
astur na śaryām asanām anu dyūn # RV.1.148.4d.
ājituraṃ satpatiṃ viśvacarṣaṇim # RV.8.53 (Vāl.5).6a.
āturaṃgamiṣṭhāsi # AVP.6.4.10c.
utthātur abruvan padaḥ # AVś.9.4.14c.
tur ṛtunā nudyamānaḥ # TA.1.3.2a.
tur janitrī tasyā apas (GB. apasas) pari # RV.2.13.1a; GB.2.4.17. P: ṛtur janitrī Aś.6.1.2; śś.9.4.3; 12.26.12. Designated as ṛtur-janitrīya (sc. sūkta) śś.11.14.10,22.
tur hemanto viṣṭhayā naḥ pipartu (KS. viṣṭhayā pipartu naḥ) # AVP.15.1.9b; TS.4.4.12.3b; MS.3.16.4b: 188.14; KS.22.14b; Aś.4.12.2b.
ekaṛtur nāti ricyate # AVś.8.9.26d.
ketur yajñasya pūrvyaḥ # RV.3.11.3b.
ketur viśvaṃ bhuvanam āviveśa # TB.3.7.10.1b; Apś.9.18.15b. Cf. under keṣu viśvaṃ.
kratur indur vicakṣaṇaḥ # RV.9.107.3b; SV.2.665b; JB.3.252.
kratur ekatriṃśaḥ # VS.14.23; TS.4.3.8.1; 5.3.3.5; MS.2.8.4: 109.6; KS.17.4; 20.13; śB.8.4.1.21.
kratur devānām amṛktaḥ # RV.3.11.6b; SV.2.908b.
kratur bhavaty ukthyaḥ # RV.1.17.5c.
caturaḥ kumbhāṃś caturdhā dadāmi (AVP. dadāti) # AVś.4.34.7a; AVP.6.22.6a.
caturakṣau pathirakṣī (AVś. pathiṣadī) nṛcakṣasau (AVśṭA. nṛcakṣasā) # RV.10.14.11b; AVś.18.2.12b; TA.6.3.1b.
caturakṣau śabalau sādhunā pathā # RV.10.14.10b; AVś.18.2.11b; TA.6.3.1b.
caturantā bhaved dattā # ViDh.87.9c.
caturaśītyai svāhā # KSA.2.5.
catur cid dadamānāt # RV.1.41.9a; N.3.16a.
caturjālaṃ brahmakośaṃ yaṃ mṛtyur nāvapaśyati taṃ prapadye # TA.2.19.1.
caturthāḥ pañcameṣu śrayadhvam # TB.3.11.2.1.
caturtho nāpy ucyate # AVś.13.4.16b.
caturthyā rātryā caturthyā samidhā # AVP.9.20.4.
caturdaṃṣṭrāṃ chyāvadataḥ # AVś.11.9.17a.
caturdaśa dvaitavanaḥ # śB.13.5.4.9a.
caturdaśabhyaḥ svāhā # TS.7.2.11.1; 13.1.
caturdaśarcebhyaḥ svāhā # AVś.19.23.11.
caturdaśāḥ pañcadaśeṣu śrayadhvam # TB.3.11.2.2.
caturdaśānye mahimāno asya # RV.10.114.7a.
caturdhā reto abhavad vaśāyāḥ # AVś.10.10.29a.
caturdhā hy etasyāḥ pañca-pañcākṣarāṇi; ... etasyāḥ ṣaḍ-ṣaḍ akṣarāṇi; ... etasyāḥ sapta-saptākṣarāṇi; ... etasyā aṣṭā-aṣṭā akṣarāṇi; ... etasyā nava-navākṣarāṇi; ... etasyā daśa-daśākṣarāṇi; ... etasyā ekādaśaikādaśākṣarāṇi; ... etasyā dvādaśa-dvādaśākṣarāṇi # MS.1.11.10: 172.12--19; KS.14.4 (with tasyāḥ etc., for etasyāḥ etc. of MS., and only as far as ... tasyā nava-navākṣarāṇi).
caturdhaitān sam abharaḥ # AVP.8.19.2a.
catur namo aṣṭakṛtvo bhavāya # AVś.11.2.9a.
caturnavatiś ca padāny asya # GB.1.5.23b. See sapta śatāni pañcāśataṃ.
caturbhiḥ śudhyate bhūmiḥ # ṣB.5.10c; AdB.10c.
caturbhiḥ sākaṃ navatiṃ ca nāmabhiḥ # RV.1.155.6a.
caturbhiḥ saindhavair yuktaiḥ # śB.11.5.5.12a.
caturbhṛṣṭiṃ śīrṣabhidyāya vidvān # AVś.10.5.50b.
caturbhyaḥ śatebhyaḥ svāhā # TS.7.2.19.1; KSA.2.9.
caturbhyaḥ svāhā # TS.7.2.11.1; 13.1; 15.1; KSA.2.1,3,5.
caturbhyo amṛtebhyaḥ # AVś.1.31.1b; AVP.1.22.1b; TB.2.5.3.3a; 3.7.5.8b; Aś.2.10.18b; Apś.4.11.1b.
caturmukhaṃ tarpayāmi # BDh.2.5.9.5.
caturmukhāya vidmahe # MahānU.3.18. See tac catur-.
caturyugas trikaśaḥ saptaraśmiḥ # RV.2.18.1b.
caturviṃśatiś ca me 'ṣṭāviṃśatiś ca me # VS.18.25.
caturviṃśatyai svāhā # KSA.2.5.
caturviṃśa (MS. -śaḥ; KS. -śas) stomaḥ # VS.14.25; TS.4.3.9.2; MS.2.8.5: 109.15; KS.17.4; śB.8.4.2.7.
caturviṃśāḥ pañcaviṃśeṣu śrayadhvam # TB.3.11.2.3.
caturvidhaiḥ sthito mantraiḥ # GB.2.2.5c.
caturvīraṃ nairṛtebhyaś caturbhyaḥ # AVś.19.45.5c; AVP.15.4.5c.
caturvīraṃ parvatīyaṃ yad āñjanam # AVś.19.45.3c; AVP.15.4.3c.
caturvīraṃ badhyata āñjanaṃ te # AVś.19.45.4a; AVP.15.4.4a.
caturhotāra āpriyaḥ # AVś.11.7.19a.
caturhotāraṃ pradiśo 'nukḷptam # TA.3.11.2c.
caturhotāro yatra saṃpadaṃ gachanti devaiḥ # TA.3.11.2c.
caturhotṝṇām ātmānaṃ kavayo nicikyuḥ # TA.3.11.3d (bis).
turmāsyāni nīvidaḥ # AVś.11.7.19b.
turhautravinirmitaḥ # GB.2.2.5b.
jaritur vardhayā giraḥ # RV.9.40.5c.
taturir vīro naryo vicetāḥ # RV.6.24.2a.
tantur asi # VSK.2.6.9; TS.3.5.2.3; 4.4.1.2; KS.17.7; GB.2.2.13; PB.1.10.1; śś.2.12.10; Apś.6.22.1; Vait.25.1; Kś.3.8.25. P: tantuḥ TS.5.3.6.1. Cf. daivas tantur.
tantur ā tāyatām iti # AVś.10.2.17b.
tantur ivāvavyayann īhi # AVP.7.1.8c.
tantur deveṣv ātataḥ # RV.10.57.2b; AVś.13.1.60b; AB.3.11.18b.
tasthatur dharuṇāya kam # AVP.5.30.3b.
tridhātur arko rajaso vimānaḥ # ArS.3.12c. See arkas tridhātū.
dīrghatantur bṛhadukṣāyam agniḥ # RV.10.69.7a.
durvartur bhīmo dayate vanāni # RV.6.6.5d; N.4.17.
duhitur ā anubhṛtam anarvā # RV.10.61.5d.
dhātur ādhipatyam # VS.14.24; TS.4.3.9.1; MS.2.8.5: 109.11; KS.17.4; 21.1; śB.8.4.2.5.
dhātur daśamī # VS.25.4; TS.5.7.22.1; MS.3.15.5: 179.5. See dhātur navamī.
dhātur devasya satyena # AVś.2.36.2c; AVP.2.21.3c.
dhātur dyutānāt savituś ca viṣṇoḥ # RV.10.181.1c--3c; ArS.2.5c.
dhātur dhātājāyata # AVś.11.8.9d.
dhātur navamī # KSA.13.12. See dhātur daśamī.
pitur aprāyi dhāmabhiḥ (AVP. pitur aprāyudhāmabhiḥ) # RVKh.10.127.1b; AVś.19.47.1b; AVP.6.20.1b; VS.34.32b; N.9.29b.
pitur asmā asad viṣam # AVP.8.7.10b.
pitur iva nāmāgrabhiṣam (ApMB. -bhaiṣam; PG. nāma jagrabham) # PG.1.13.1d; HG.1.10.6b; ApMB.2.8.3b. See pitur nāmeva.
pitur na jivrer vi vedo bharanta # RV.1.70.10b.
pitur na nāma suhavaṃ havāmahe # RV.10.39.1d.
pitur napātam ā dadhīta vedhāḥ # RV.10.10.1c; AVś.18.1.1c; SV.1.340c.
pitur na putra upasi preṣṭhaḥ # RV.5.43.7c; MS.4.9.3c: 123.14; TA.4.5.2c.
pitur na putraḥ kratubhir yatānaḥ # RV.9.97.30c.
pitur na putraḥ sicam ā rabhe te # RV.3.53.2c.
pitur na putraḥ subhṛto duroṇa ā # RV.8.19.27a.
pitur na putrāḥ kratuṃ juṣanta # RV.1.68.9a.
pitur na yasyāsayā # RV.1.127.8e.
pitur nāmeva jagrabha # RVKh.10.128.4b; AVP.2.32.4b. See pitur iva.
pitur mātur adhy ā ye samasvaran # RV.9.73.5a.
pitur yat putro mamakasya jāyate # RV.1.31.11d.
pitur yonā niṣīdathaḥ # RV.8.9.21b; AVś.20.142.6b.
babhūvatur gṛṇate citrarātī # RV.6.62.5d.
bhrātur na ṛte saptathasya māyāḥ # RV.10.99.2d.
mandhātur dasyuhantamam # RV.8.39.8d.
māṃścatur nāma vṛkṣakaḥ # AVP.13.3.7c.
tur anyo 'va padyata # śG.3.13.5d. See ābhur anyo.
tur upastha ādadhe # TA.6.6.1b,2b; 7.3b.
tur upastha āvapatu # VS.35.5b; śB.13.8.3.3b.
tur upasthe yad aśocad ūdhani # RV.3.29.14b.
tur upasthe vana ā ca somaḥ # RV.9.89.1d.
tur garbhaṃ pitur asuṃ yuvānam # AVś.7.2.1b.
tur garbhe bharāmahe # RV.8.83.8c.
tur didhiṣum abravam # RV.6.55.5a.
tur na sīm upa sṛjā iyadhyai # RV.6.20.8d.
tur mahi svatavas tad dhavīmabhiḥ # RV.1.159.2b.
tur mātari mātā # MS.2.7.16b: 100.16. See mātā mātari.
tur mātrādhi nirmitā # AVś.8.9.5b.
tur yad ena iṣitaṃ na āgan # AVś.6.116.2c.
tur vastreṇa bhadrayā # AVś.18.2.52b.
tur heḍaṃ na gachati # AVś.12.4.32d.
mithastura ūtayo yasya pūrvīḥ # RV.7.26.4c.
mithasturā vicarantī pāvake # RV.6.49.3c.
yājñature yajamāne # śB.13.5.4.15a.
tur me 'si # KS.37.13,14.
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"tur" has 566 results.
     
caturthaa term used by ancient grammarians for the fourth consonants which are sonant aspirates, termed झष् by Panini; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 2. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 18, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1 54. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 176.
vaturthīa term used by ancient grammarians for the dative case; confer, compare उतो त्वस्मै तन्वं विसस्रे इति चतुर्थ्याम्; Nirukta of Yāska.I. 9.३.
caturthīsamāsathe tatpurusa compound with the first word in the dative case in its dissolution; confer, compare वतुर्थीसमासे सति पूर्वपदकृतिस्वरत्वेन भवितव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.36.
caturmātraconsisting of four matras or moras, a short vowel consisting of one matra, a long vowel of two matras, and a protracted vowel of three matras; confer, compare आन्तर्यतस्त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्राणां स्थानिनां त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्रा आदेशा मा भूवन्निति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva sutra 3.4.
turarthaa tadaffix prescribed in the four senses-तदस्मिन्नस्ति, तेन निवृत्तम् , तस्य निवासः and अदूरभवः mentioned by Panini in IV.2.67-70; confer, compareअपत्यादिभ्यश्चातुरर्थपर्यन्तेभ्यः येन्येर्थाः स शेष: M.Bh. on IV.2.92.
turarthikathe affixes prescribed in the four senses mentioned in P. IV.2.67-70. These taddhita affixes are given in the Sutras IV.2.71 to IV.2.91. The term चातुरर्थिक is used for these afixes by commentators on Panini sutras.
turvarṇyādiwords mentioned in the class headed by चातुर्वर्ण्य where the taddhita affix. affix ष्यञ् is applied although the words चतुर्वर्ण, चतुर्वेद and others are not गुणवचन words to which ष्यञ् is regularly applied by P. V-1-124. confer, compare ब्राह्मणादिषु चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनामुपसंख्यानम् P. V. I. 124 Vart. 1.
dhāturatnamañjarīa treatise dealing with roots believed to have been written by Ramasimhavarman.
dhāturatnākaraa work dealing with roots believed to have been written by Narayana who was given the title वन्द्य. He lived in the seventeenth century; a work named सारावलि व्याक्ररण is also believed to have been written by him.
dhāturatnāvalīa short list of the important roots from the Dhatuptha of Panini, given in verse by चोक्कनाथ a grammarian of the 17th century.
śālāturīyaname of the great grammarian Panini given to him on account of his being an inhabitant of शलातुर् an old name of the modern Lahore or a name of a place near Lahore; confer, compare P IV.3.14
a,k(ೱ),(ೱ)जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks वज्राकृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvāmūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.
ak(1)condensed expression (प्रत्याहार ) representing the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ in Pāṇini's Grammar confer, compare P. VI.1.12, 101; VII.4.2. (2) sign (विकरण) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root दृश् c. g. पितरं च दृशेयं P.III.l.86 V 2; ( 3 ) remnant of the termnination अकच् P. V. 3. 71 ; ( 4 ) substitute (अादेश) अकङ् for the last vowel of the word मुधातृ ( P.IV.1.97 ) e. g. सोघातकिः.
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
ajitasenaauthor of the Cintāmaṇiprakāśika a gloss on Cintāmaṇi, the well known commentary by Yakṣavarman on the Sabdānuśāsana of Śākatāyana. Ajitasena was the grand pupil of Abhayadeva; he lived in the 12th century A.D.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhyai,adhyainkṛt affixes substituted in the place of तुम् of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P. III.4.9.), e. g. पिबध्यैः when अध्यैन् is substituted, the initial vowel of the word becomes उदात्त. e. g. कर्मण्युपाचारध्यै ।
anadyatanaperiod of time not pertaining to the day in question; used in connection with past time, to express which the imperfect is generally used; also in connection with the future time, to express which the first future is generally used e gह्यः अपचत्, श्वः कर्ता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2.111,113; III. 3.15,135: V.3.21.
anudāttetliterally one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: et cetera, and others provided the root begins with a consonant; confer, compare अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anubhūtisvarūpācāryaa writer of the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called सरस्वती-प्रक्रिया or सारस्वतप्रक्रिया, He has also written धातुपाठ and आख्यातप्रक्रिया. The grammar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India.
anulomain the natural order (opp. to प्रतिलोम ), confer, compare तेऽन्वक्षरसंधयोनुलोमाः in R.Pr.II.8. अनुलोमसंधि is a term applied to Saṁdhis with a vowel first and a consonant afterwards.
antaḥkāryaliterally interior operation; an operation inside a word in its formation-stage which naturally becomes antaraṅga as contrasted with an operation depending on two complete words after their formation which is looked upon as bahiraṅga.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgalakṣaṇacharacterized by the nature of an antaraṅga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it.
apāya(1)point of departure, separation; confer, compare ध्रुवमपायेपादानम् P.I.4.24; (2) disappearance; confer, compare संनियेागशिष्टानामन्यतरापाये उभयोरप्यपायः । तद्यथा । देवदत्तयज्ञदत्ताभ्यामिदं कर्म कर्तव्यम् । देवदत्तापाये यज्ञदत्तेपि न करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.36.
appayadīkṣitaअप्पदीक्षित A famous versatile writer of the sixteenth century A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅantaśeṣasaṁgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.
abhayacandraa Jain grammarian , who wrote प्रक्रियासंग्रह, based on the Śabdānuśāsana Vyākaraṇa of the Jain Śākatāyana.His possible date is the twelfth century A. D.
abhyatilakaa Jain writer of the thirteenth century who wrote a commentary on the Śabdāśāsana Grammar of Hemacandra.
abhayanandina reputed jain Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote an extensive gloss on the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण. The gloss is known as जैनेन्द्रव्याकरणमहावृत्ति of which वृहज्जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण appears to be another name.
abhidhānadesignation, denotation, expression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word. The expression अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् ( denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word ) frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on 1.2.64 Vārt 93, II.1.1, confer, compare नपुसकं यदूष्मान्तं तस्य बह्वभिधानजः ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.7 ) where the word बह्वभिधान means बहुवचन.
amutaddhita affix. affix अम् applied in Vedic Literature to किम्, words ending in ए, indeclinables and the affixes तर and तम: e. g. प्रतरं नयामः प्रतरं वस्यः confer, compare अमु च च्छन्दसि P. V. 4. 12.
amoghavarṣaA Jain grammarian of the ninth century who wrote the gloss known as अमोघावृत्ति on the Śabdānuśāsana of Śākaṭāyana; the वृत्ति is quoted by माधव in his धातुवृत्ति.
ayāc,ayāṭsubstitutes for inst. sing affix टा in Vedic literature e. g. स्वप्नया, नावया.
ayāvananon-mixture of words where the previous word is in no way the cause of (any charge in) the next word. अयावनं अमिश्रयम् U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 12 e. g, अग्निमीळे where the क्रमपाठ is अग्निं ईळे ।
ariphitanot rhotacized: not turned into the letter र; confer, compare विसर्जनीयोsरि्फितो दीर्घपूर्वः स्वरोदयः आकारम् , R. Pr II. 9.
arīhaṇādia group of words given in P. IV.2.80 which get the taddhita affix घुञ् ( अक ) added to them as a cāturarthika affix e. g. अारीहणकम्, द्रौघणकम् et cetera, and otherssee Kāśikā on P.IV.2.80.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
arthābhidhānaconveyance or expression of sense, confer, compare अर्थाभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् P. I.2.64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 38. It is only a nature of words that they convey their sense.
alpataranot of frequent occurence in the spoken language or literature the term is used in connection with such words as are not frequently used; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः । व्रंततिर्दम्नाः जाटय आट्णारो जागरूको द्विर्धिहोमीति Nir I.14.
avasthitaof a uniform nature; confer, compare सिद्धं त्ववस्थिता वर्णाः, वक्तुश्चिराचिरवचनाद् वृत्तयो विशिष्यन्ते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.70 V. 5.
avyayārthanirūpaṇaa work on the meanings of indeclinable words written in the sixteenth century A. D. by Viṭṭhala Śeṣa, grandson of Ramacandra Śeṣa the author of the Prakriyā Kaumudi.
asukthe augment अस् seen in Vedic Literature added to the nominative case. plural case-affix जस् following a nounbase ending in अ; e.g, जनासः, देवासः et cetera, and others cf आज्जसेरसुक् P. VII.1.50,51.
asekṛt affix in the sense of the infinitive (तुमर्थे) in Vedic Literature,e.gजीवसे; confer, compare तुमर्थे सेसेनसेo P.III.4.9
ā(1)the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit exempli gratia, for example अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14.) (4) indeclinable आ in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; confer, compare ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद et cetera, and others confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substitute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the taddhita affix. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश et cetera, and others; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns ending in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः et cetera, and others
aākhyātavivekaa work dealing with verbs and their activity by KṛṣṇaShāstrī Āraḍe a great Naiyāyika of the 18th century.
aāt(1)long अा as different from short or protracted अ prescribed by the wofd वृद्धि or दीर्घ in the case of अ, or by the word अात् when substituted for another vowel, as for example in the rule आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following: confer, compare P.VI.1.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ङस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare P. VII.1.12; (3) substitute अात् for a case affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example न ताद् ब्राह्मणाद् निन्दामि Kāś. on VII. 1.39.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
aāmantrita(1)a word in the vocative singular. confer, compare सामन्त्रितम् P.II.3.48: a tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar, the peculiar features of which are पराङ्गवद्भाव (confer, compare P.II.1.2), अविद्यमानवद्भाव (confer, compare P.VIII.1.72), द्वित्व (confer, compare P.VIII. 1.8), अद्युदात्तत्व (confer, compare P.VI.1.198), सर्वानुदात्तत्व(confer, compare P.VIII.1.19), splitting of ए into अा and इ, exempli gratia, for example अग्रे into अग्ना ३ इ (confer, compare P.VIII.2.107 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3); (2) Vocative case, confer, compare ओकार अामन्त्रितजः प्रगृह्यः Ṛk. Prāt. I.28; Vāj. Pr. III.139: II.17: II.24 VI.1.
āraḍeKRISHNASHASTRI a reputed Naiyāyika of Banaras of the nineteenth century, who wrote, besides many treatises on Nyāya, a short gloss on the Sutras of Pāṇini, called Pāṇini-sūtra-vṛtti.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
ālcase affix in Vedic literature exempli gratia, for example वनन्ता यजेत Kāś. on VII.1.39.
āśubodha(1)name of a work on grammar written by Tārānātha called Tarka-vācaspatī, a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the 19th century A.D. who compiled the great Sanskrit Dictionary named वाचस्पत्यकेाश and wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called अाशुबोध is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by रामकिंकरसरस्वती, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
iyācase-ending for inst. singular. in Vedic Literature; e. g. उर्विया, दार्विया; confer, compare P.VII.1.39. and Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1 there on.
iractaddhita affix. affix ( इर ) in the sense of possession applied in Vedic Literature to रथ exempli gratia, for example रथिरः; confer, compare P.V. 2.109 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
iranataddhita affix. affix ( इर ) in the sense of possession applied in Vedic Literature; to मेघा exempli gratia, for example confer, compare P. मेधिरः V.2.109 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
iṣyaikṛt affix in Vedic Literature in the sense of the infinitive, e. g. रेहिष्यै, अव्यथिष्यै; cf P.III.4.10.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
īkataddhita affix. affix ईकक added to शक्ति and यष्टि exempli gratia, for example शाक्तकिः feminine. शाक्तीकी; याष्टीकः; confer, compare P.IV.4.59; (2) taddhita affix. affix ईक added to कर्क and लोहित in the sense of comparison, e. g. कार्कीकः, लौहितीकः ( स्फटिकः ), confer, compare Kāś. on P.V. 3.110; (3) taddhita affix. affix ईकक् added to बहिस्, exempli gratia, for example बाहीकः confer, compare बहिषष्टिलोपो यश्च, ईकक्च P.IV.1.85. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4-5; (4) tad affix इकङ् in Vedic Literature added to बहिस् exempli gratia, for example बाहीकः confer, compare Kāś.on P. IV. 1.85,Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6; (5) taddhita affix. affix ईकन् added to खारी exempli gratia, for example द्विखारिकम्; confer, compare P. V. 1.33.
īśvarānandaauthor of (l) a gloss on Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣya-pradīpa, and (2)an independent treatise Śābdabodhataraṅgiṇī. He is believed to have been a pupil of सत्यानन्द and iived in the latter part of the 16th century A.D.
u(1)labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;confer, compareP.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,exempli gratia, for example कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, confer, compareP.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt (affix). affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,exempli gratia, for example चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; confer, compare P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; exempli gratia, for example कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; confer, compare also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.
ugrabhūtior उग्राचार्य writer of a gloss on the Nirukta, called Niruktabhāṣya believed to have lived in the 18th century A. D; writer also of a grammatical work Śiṣyahitāvṛtti or Śiṣyahitānyāsa, which was sent to kāshmir and made popular with a large sum of money spent upon it, by his pupil Ānanadpāla.
ujjvaladattathe famous commentator on the Uṅādi sūtras. His work .is called Uṅādisūtravṛtti, which is a scholarly commentary on the Uṅādisūtrapāṭha, consisting of five Pādas. Ujjvaldatta is belived to have lived in the l5th century A.D. He quotes Vṛttinyāsa, Anunyāsa, Bhāgavṛtti et cetera, and others He is also known by the name Jājali.
utpalaauthor of a commentary on Pāṇini's Liṅgānuśāsana. It is doubtful whether he was the same as उत्पल-भट्ट or ‌भट्टोत्पल, the famous astrologer of the tenth century.
udgātrādia class of words headed by the word उद्गातृ to which the taddhita affix अञ् is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession'; confer, compare उद्गातुर्भावः कर्म वा औद्गात्रम् । Similarly औन्नेत्रम् Kāś. on P. V. 1.129.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upasargavivaraṇaa short anonymous work on the nature of upasargas or prepositions explaining their meanings with illustrations.
upasargavṛttia treatise on upasargas by Bharatamalla in the Sixteenth Century A.D.
ubhayadīrghāa hiatus or a stop which occurs between two long-vowelled syllables; the term उभयदीर्घा is a conventional term in the Prātiśākhya literature. The term उभयह्रस्वा is similarly used in connection with short vowels.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ekībhāvafusion, mixture, union, combination (of 2 or more letters); confer, compare उदात्तवति एकीभावे उदात्तं सन्ध्यमक्षरम्, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)III.6.एकीभाव is said to be resulting from the coalescence called अभिनिहितसन्धि, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.16, 17.
egeliṃg( Eggeling )a well-known German scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who flourished in the l9th century and who edited the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa with the commentary of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. and many appendices in 1876.
elutad-affix चेलु in the sense of unable to bear, found in Vedic Literature only; exempli gratia, for example हिमेलुः confer, compare हिमाक्चेलुर्वक्तव्यः । P.V.2.122 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
(1)the substitute ए for the perfect affix त, substituted for the whole त by reason of the indicatory letter श् attached to ए; confer, compare लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् and अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य P. III.4.8l and I.1.55; (2) affix ए applied to the root चक्ष् in Vedic Literature; confer, compare नावचक्षे । नावख्यातव्यमित्यर्थः Kāś. on P.III.4.15.
oraṃbhaṭṭa scholar of grammar of the nineteenth century who wrote a Vṛtti on Pāṇini sūtras called पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति. He has written many works on the Pūrvamīmāmsa and other Śāstras.
auṇādikapadārṇavaa collection of words called औणादिक; a name given to his work by पेदुभदृ of the 18th century.
k(1)the consonant क्; the first con. sonant of the consonant group as also of the guttural group; (2) substitute क् for consonants ष्, and ढ् before the consonant स्;confer, compareV.P.2.41. For the elision ( लोप ) of क् on account of its being termed इत् see P.I.3.3 and 8.
kaktaddhita affix. cāturarthika affix क (I) by P. IV.2.80 after words headed by वराह, exempli gratia, for example वराहकः, पलाशकः; (2) by P.IV.4.21, after the word अपमित्य exempli gratia, for example आपमित्यकः
kaṇṭakoddhāraname of a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Mannudeva, known also as Mantudeva or Manyudeva, who was a pupil of Pāyaguṇḍe in the latter half of the 18th century.
kaṇṭhatālavyagutturo-palatal. The diphthongs ए and ऐ are called Kaṇṭhatālavya, as they are produced in the Kaṇṭhatalu-sthāna.
kaṇṭhoṣṭhya,kaṇṭhauṣṭhyagutturo-labial, the diphthongs ओ and औ are called Kaṇṭhoṣṭhya as they are produced at both the Kaṇṭha and the Oṣṭha Sthānas.
kaṇṭhyaproduced at the throat or at the glottis; the vowel अ, visarga and the consonant ह् are called कण्ठ्यं in the Prātiśākhyas, while later grammarians include the guttural consonants क्, ख् ग्, घ् and ङ् among the Kaṇṭhya letters; confer, compare अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठः Sid. Kau.on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9. See कण्ठ.
kadhyai kadhyainkṛt affix अध्यै of the infinitive in Vedic Literature: confer, compare तुमर्थे सेसे...कध्यैकध्यैन्..तवेनः P.III.4.9.
kariṣyat kariṣyantīancient technical terms for the future tense;the word करिष्यन्ती is more frequently usedition
karmakartṛobject of the transitive verb which functions as the subject when there is a marked facility of action: exempli gratia, for exampleओदन is karmakartariobject, functioning as subject, in पच्यते ओदनः स्वयमेव. The word कर्मकर्तृ is used also for the कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग where the object, on which the verb-activity is found, is turned into a subject and the verb which is transitive is turned into intransitive as a result.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kalyāṇasarasvatīauthor of the Laghusārasvata, a small grammar work. He lived in the 18th century A. D.
kasunaHemacandra's grammar. He lived in the 16 th century A. D.
kavargathe class of guttural consonants consisting of the five consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ् ङ्
kavikalpadrumaa treatise on roots written by Bopadeva, the son of Keśava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaśālās.
kavicandraauthor of a small treatise on grammar called Sārasatvarī. He lived in the seventeenth century A.D. He was a resident of Darbhaṅgā. Jayakṛṣṇa is also given as the name of the author of the Sārasatvarī grammar and it is possible that Jayakṛṣṇa was given the title, or another name, Kavicandra.
kasunkṛt affix अस् found in Vedic Literature, in the sense of the infinitive: e. g. ईश्वरो विलिखः (विलि-खितुम्) confer, compare P. III.4.13, 17. The word ending in this कसुन् becomes an indeclinable: cf क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः P.I.1.40.
kasenkṛt affix असे in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature; e. g. प्रेषे, श्रियसे्; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 4. 9.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantrakaumudī(1)a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras written by Govardhana in the 12th century. A. D.; (2) a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Gaṅgeśaśarman.
kātantracandrikāa gloss on the commentary of Vararuci on the कातन्त्रसूत्र ascribed to Hari Dīkṣita of the 17th century if this Hari Dīkṣita is the same as the author of the Śabdaratna.
kātantradhātuvṛttiascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti., the famous commentator of the Kātantra Sūtras who lived in the ninth or the tenth century.
kātantrapariśiṣṭapradyotaa gloss on the Kātantrapariśiṣṭa by Goyicandra in the twelfth century.
kātantrabālabodhinīa short explanatory gloss on the Kātantra Sūtras by Jagaddhara of Kashmir who lived in the fourteenth century and who wrote a work on grammar called Apaśabdanirākaraṇa.
kātantrarahasyaa work on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Ramānātha Vidyāvācaspati of the sixteenth century A. D.
kātantrarūpamālāa work, explaining the various forms of nouns and verbs according to the rules of the Kātantra grammar, ascribed to Bhāvasena of the fifteenth century.
kātantravivaraṇaa commentary on the Kātantravistara of Vardhamāna by Pṛthvīdhara who lived in the fifteenth century A. D.
kātantravistaraa famous work on the Kātantra Grammar written by Vardhamāna a Jain Scholar of the twelfth century who is believed to be the same as the author of the well-known work Gaṇaratnamahodadhi.
kātantravṛttiṭippaṇīa gloss on दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति written by Guṇakīrti in the fourteenth century A.D.
kātantravṛttiṭīkāa commentary on Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.'s Kātantravṛrtti by Mokṣeśvara in the fifteenth century A.D.
kātantravyākhyāsāraa work of the type of a summary written by Rāmadāsa Cakravartin of the twelfth century.
kānacaffix अान forming perfect partciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: exempli gratia, for example सोमं सुषुवाणः; confer, compare P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.
kāmadhenusudhārasaa commentary on the Kāvyakāmadhenu by Ananta, son of Cintāmaṇi who lived in the sixteenth century A. D.
kārakakārikāpossibly another name for the treatise on Kārakas known as कारकचक्र written by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva the reputed grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A. D. See कारकचक्र.
kārakatattvaa treatise on the topic of Kārakas written by Cakrapāṇiśeṣa, belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who lived in the seventeenth century A. D.
kārakanirṇayaa work discussing the various Kārakas from the Naiyāyika view-point written by the well-known Naiyāyika, Gadādhara Chakravartin of Bengal, who was a pupil of Jagadīśa and who fourished in the 16th century A. D. He is looked upon as one of the greatest scholars of Nyāyaśāstra. His main literarywork was in the field of Nyāyaśāstra on which he has written several treatises.
kārakavāda(1)a treatise discussing the several Kārakas, written by Kṛṣṇaśāstri Ārade a famous Naiyāyika of Benares who lived in the eighteenth century A. D; (2) a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below. a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below.
kārakavilāsaan anonymous elementary work on syntax explaining the nature and function of the six Kārakas.
kārakavivekaknown as कारकवाद also; a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The work forms the concluding portion of a larger work called कारकविवेक which was written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.. The work कारकवाद has a short commentary written by the author himselfeminine.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
ki(1)kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached;exempli gratia, for exampleप्रदिः प्रधिः confer, compare P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplication and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; exempli gratia, for example पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि.
ku(1)guttural class of consonants, ie the consonants क्, ख्, ग्, घ्, ङ् The vowel उ added to क्, signifies the class of क्. e. g. चजोः कु घिण्यतो, VII.3.52, कुहोश्चुः VII.4.62, चोः कुः VIII.2.30, किन्प्रत्ययस्य कुः; VIII.2.62; confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.1.69; (2) substitute कु for किम् confer, compare P.VII.2. 104.
kutvasubstitution of the consonants of the क् class or guttural consonants
kuppuśāstrina famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote some works on grammar of which the परिभाषाभास्कर is an independent treatise on Paribhāṣās.
kumata word containing a guttural letter in it;.confer, compare कुमति च P. VIII.4. 13.
kuvyavāyaintervention by a letter of the guttural class;confer, compare कुव्यवाये हादेशेषु प्रतिषेधो वक्तव्यः । प्रयोजनं वृत्रघ्नः, स्रुघ्नः प्राघानीति, P.VIII.4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4,5.
kṛtveform of the taddhita affix. affix कृत्वम् in Vedic Literature. See कृत्वसुच्,
kṛdvṛttia short treatise by a grammarian named मोक्षेश्वर who lived in the fifteenth century. The work deals with verbal derivatives.
kṛṣṇamitraa scholar of grammar and nyāya of the 17th century A.D. who wrote many commentary works some of which are (l) a commentary called Ratnārṇava on the Siddhānta-Kaumudī, (2) a commentary named Kalpalata on Bhaṭṭoji's Prauḍhamanoramā, (3) a commentary named Bhāvadīpa on Bhaṭṭoji's Śabdakaustubha of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita., (4) a commentary on Nagojibhaṭṭa's Laghumañjūṣā of Nāgeśa.by name Kuñcikā and (5) a commentary on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
kṛṣṇamauninSon of Govardhana and surnamed Maunī, who wrote a commentary named सुबोधिनी on the Siddhānta-Kaumudī at the end of the 17th century A.D.
kṛṣṇaśāstrin( आरडे )a famous grammarian and logician of the 18th century who wrote Ākhyātaviveka and Kārakavāda. See अारडे.
kenkṛt (affix). affix ए in the sense of कृत्य (Pot.passive voice.participle.) found in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example नावगाहे = नावगाहितव्यम् confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.4.14.
kenyakṛt (affix). affix एन्य in the sense of कृत्य in Vedic Literature: exempli gratia, for example दिदृक्षेण्यः शुश्रूषेण्यः confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.4.14.
keśavawriter of a commentary named प्रकाश on the Śikṣā of Pāṇini. He lived in the 17th century.
kaikṛt affix ऐ used in Vedic Literature as noticed in the forms प्रयै रोहिष्यै and अव्यथिष्यै: confer, compare P.III.4.10.
kaiyaṭaname of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.out of which Nageśa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.
kaiyaṭaprakāśaa commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Nīlakaṇṭha of the Draviḍa country. Nīlakaṇṭha lived in . the 17th century and wrote works on various subjects.
kaiyaṭavivaraṇa(1)a commentary on the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa written by Iśvarānanda, in the 16th century; (2) a commentary on Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.by Rāmacandra-Sarasvatī, who lived in the 16th century.
koṇḍabhaṭṭaa reputed grammarian who wrote an extensive explanatory gloss by name Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa on the Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikā of Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita. Another work Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra. which is in a way an abridgment of the Bhūṣaṇa, was also written by him. Koṇḍabhaṭṭa lived in the beginning of the l7th century. He was the son of Raṅgojī and nephew of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita. He was one of the few writers on the Arthavicāra in the Vyākaraṇaśāstra and his Bhūṣaṇasāra ranks next to the Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Besides the Bhūṣaṇa and Bhūṣaṇasāra, Koṇḍabhaṭṭa wrote two independent works viz. Vaiyākaraṇsiddhāntadīpika and Sphoṭavāda.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
ktvāntagerund; a mid-way derivative of a verbal root which does not leave its verbal nature on the one hand although it takes the form of a substantive on the other hand.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramadīśvaraauthor of a grammar named संक्षिप्तसार who lived at the end of the 13th century.
kvasukṛt affix वस्, taking the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) in the feminine gender, prescribed in the sense of perfect tense, which is mostly found in Vedic Literature and added to some roots only such as सद्, वस्, श्रु et cetera, and others in the spoken language; e. g. जक्षिवान् पपिवान् उपसेदिवान् कौत्स; पाणिनिम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.2.107-109.
kṣapaṇakaa Jain grammarian quoted in the well-known stanza धन्वन्तरिः क्षपणकोमरसिंहशङ्कु which enumerates the seven gems of the court of Vikramāditya, on the strength of which some scholars believe that he was a famous grammarian of the first century B.C.
kṣipraliterally rapid, accelerated, a short name given in the a Prātiśākhya works to a Saṁdhi or euphonic combination of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ,; लृ with a following dissimilar vowel; confer, compare Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.Bhāṣya on R.Pr. III.10; confer, compare also इको यणचि P.VI.1.77. The name Kṣipra is given to this Saṁdhi possibly because the vowel, short or long, which is turned into a consonant by this saṁdhi becomes very short (id est, that is shorter than a short vowel id est, that is a semi-vowel). The word क्षैप्र is also used in this sense referring to the Kṣiprasaṁdhi.
kṣīrasvāmina grammarian of Kashmir of the 8th century who wrote the famous commentary क्षीरतरङ्गिणी on the Amarakośa and a commentary on the Nirukta of Yāska.
ksekṛt affix से in the sense of तुमुन् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for exampleप्रेषे (भगाय) Kāś. on III. 4. 9.
khsecond consonant of the guttural class of consonants possessed of श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and विवार qualities.
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
gaṅgādhara[GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG] (l)a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Bālasarasvatī of Vārāṇaśī and prepared in the last century a host of Sanskrit scholars in Banaras among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gaṅgānātha Jhā. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahāmahopādhyāya and C. I.E. His surname was Mānavallī but he was often known as गङाधरशास्त्री तेलङ्ग. For details, see Mahābhāṣya, D.E. Society Ed.Poona p.p.33, 34; (2)an old scholar of Vyākarana who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikṛtavallī of Vyādi; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written a commentary named Induprakāśa on the Śabdenduśekhara; (4) author of the Vyākaraṇadīpaprabhā, a short commentary on the Vyākaraṇa work of Cidrūpāśramin. See चिद्रूपाश्रमिन्.
gaṅgeśaśarmāwriter of Kātantra-kaumudī possibly different from the reputed Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāa who is looked upon as the founder of the Navyanyāya school of modern Naiyāyikas, and who lived in the twelfth century A. D.
gaṇaratnamahodadhia grammar work, consisting of a metrical enumeration of the words in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini, written by Vardhamāna, a Jain grammarian of the 12th century, who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lakṣmaṇasena of Bengal. Vardhamāna has written a commentary also, on his Gaṇaratnamahodadhi. Besides Vardhamāna's commentary, there are other commentaries written by गोवर्धन and गङ्गाधर.
gaṇasūtravicāraa commentary on the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini written by Mannudeva who flourished in the nineteenth century.
gamyādia class of words headed by the word गमी which are formed by the application of unādi affixes in the sense of future time; e. g. गमी ग्रामम्, अागामी, प्रस्थायी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 3. 3.
gīrvāṇapadamañjarīa grammatical work written by वरदराज, pupil of Bhattoji Diksita in the 17th century who wrote many works on grammar such as मध्यकौमुदी, लघुकौमुदी et cetera, and others
guṇakīrtia Jain writer of the thirteenth century who wrote a commentary named कातन्त्रवृत्तिटिप्पणी on दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति.
gūḍhabhāvavṛttia commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriya Kaumudi by Krsnasesa of the famous Sesa family of grammarians. The date of this Krsnasesa is the middle of the sixteenth century. For details about Krsnasesa and the Sesa family see introduction to Prakriyakaumudi B. S. S. No. 78.
gūḍhārthadīpinīa commentary ( वृत्ति ) on the sutras of Panini by Sadasiva Misra who lived in the seventeenth century.
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
gopīcandraknown also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the grammatical treatises of the Samksipatasara or Jaumāra school of Vyakarana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षितसारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D.
golḍsṭyūkaraa well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
ghastad, affix इय, occurring in Vedic Literature,applied to the word ऋतु, exempli gratia, for example अयं ते योनिऋत्वीयः; confer, compare Kās on P. V.1.106.
ghitaffixes having the mute letter घ्, as for instance, घञ् घ, घच् et cetera, and otherswhich cause the substitution of a guttural in the place of the palatal letter च् or ज् before it: exempli gratia, for example त्याग: राग: confer, compare P.VII.3.52.
(1)fifth letter of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य; (2) the consonant ङ् getting the letter ,क as an augment added to it, if standing at the end of a word and followed by a sibilant, e. g. प्राङ्कूशेते confer, compare ङ्णो: कुक् टुक् शरि P. VIII. 3.28; (3) the consonant ङ् which, standing at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel, causes the vowel following it to get the augment ङ् prefixed to it; e. g, प्रत्यङ्ङास्ते confer, compare ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् P. VIII.3.32.
ṅa(1)fifth consonant of the guttural class of consonants which is a nasal ( अनुनासिक ) consonant; the vowel अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.21; (2) a conventional term used for all the nasal consonants in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
cakrakaa kind of fault in the application of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps; confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराट् इति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.60 Vart 5.
cakrapāṇi( शेष )a grammarian of the Sesa family of the latter half of the 17th century who held views against Bhattoji Diksita and wrote प्रौढमनोरमाखण्डन, कारकतत्व and कारकविचार.
candrakalācalled also कला, a wellknown commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara by Bhairavamisra who lived in the latter half of the 18th century and the first half of the nineteenth century.
candrakīrtia Jain grammarian of the twelfth century A.D. who has written a commentary named Subodhini on the Sarasvata Vyakaraha.
candragominnamed also चन्द्र, a Buddhist scholar who has written an easy Sanskrit Grammar based on the Astadhyayi of Panini. He is believed to have lived in North India in the fifth century A.D. See चन्द्र.
ciṇsubstitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् et cetera, and others in the active voice before the affix त of the third person. singular. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66.
cintāmaṇiprakāśikāa commentary on the चिन्तामाणि of यक्षवर्मन्, written by अाजतसेन in the twelfth century. See विन्तामणि.
cūrṇia gloss on the Sutras of Panini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta, Some scholars believe that Patanjali's Mahabhasya is referred to here by the word चूर्णि, as it fully discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that चूर्णि,stands for the Vrtti of चुल्लिभाट्टि. In Jain Religious Literature there are some brief comments on the Sutras which are called चूर्णि and there possibly was a similar चूर्णि on the sutras of Panini.
cokkanāthaa southern grammarian of the seventeenth century who has composed in 430 stanzas a short list of the important roots with their meaning. The work is called धातुरत्नावली.
codaka(1)an objector; the word is common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to making matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with इति interposed: confer, compare चेदकः परिग्रहः इत्यनर्थान्तरम्. See अदृष्टवर्ण and परिग्रह.
chandas(1)Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, and I.4.3; confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; confer, compareछन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda.
chāndasafound in the Vedic Literature; Vedic; cf छान्दसा अपि क्वचिद् भाषायां प्रयुज्यन्ते Bhasavrtti on P. IV.4.143; confer, compare also छान्दसमेतत् । दृष्टानुविधिश्च च्छन्दसि भवति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.5.
chāyāa learned commentary on Nagesa's Mahabhasyapradipoddyota written by his pupil बाळंभट्ट (possibly the same as, or the son of, वैद्यनाथ पायगुण्डे) who lived in the eighteenth century.
jagaddharaa poet and grammarian of Kasmira of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named बालबोधिनी on the Katantra Sutras.
jagannātha(1)the well-known poet and scholar of Vyakarana and Alam kara who wrote many excellent poetical works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of कृष्णशेष and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Diksita and Bhattoji Diksita. He wrote a sort of refutation of Bhattoji's commentary Praudha-Manorama on the Siddhānta Kaumudi, which he named प्रौढमनेारमाखण्डन but which is popularly termed मनोरमाकुचमर्दन. His famous work is the Rasagangadhara on Alankrasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varnakramalaksana; (3) writer of Sarapradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
jaṭāa kind of Vedic recital wherein each word is repeated six times. जटा is called one of the 8 kinds ( अष्टविकृति) of the Kramapatha, which in its turn is based on the Padapatha; confer, compare जटा माला शिखा रेखा ध्वजो दण्डो रथो घनः। अष्टौ बिकृतय: प्रोक्ताः क्रमपूर्वा मनीषिभिः । जटा is defined as अनुलोमविलोमाभ्यां त्रिवारं हि पठेत् क्रमम् । विलोमे पदवत्संधिः अनुलोमे यथाक्रमम् । The recital of ओषधयः संवदन्ते संवदन्ते सोमेन can be illustrated as ओषधयः सं, समोषधयः, ओषधयः सं, सं वदन्ते, वदन्ते सं, सेवदन्ते, वदन्ते सोमेन,सोमेन वदन्ते , वदन्ते सोमेन ।
jayakṛṣṇaa famous grammarian of the Mauni family who lived in Varanasi in the seventeenth century. He wrote विभक्त्यर्थनिर्णय, स्फोटचन्द्रिका, a commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi called सुबोधिनी and a commentary on the Madhya Kaumudi named विलास. He wrote a commentary on the Laghukaumudi also.
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jayānandaa Jain grammarian of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named उद्धार on the लिङ्गानुशासन of Hemacandra
jinendrabuddhia reputed Buddhist Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote a scholarly commentary on the Kasikavrtti ofJayaditya and Vamana. The commentary is called न्यास or काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका and the writer is referred to as न्यासकार in many later grammar works Some scholars identify him with पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् the writer of the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण, but this is not possible as पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् was a Jain Grammarian who flourished much earlier.
jihvāmūlasthāna(l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its production;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when followed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the guttural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.
jumaranandina grammarian of the fourteenth century A. D. who ' revised and rewrote the.grammar संक्षिप्तसार and the commentary named रसवती on it, which were composed by क्रमदीश्वर in the thirteenth century. The work of जुमरनन्दिन् is known as जौमारव्याकरण.
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
jainendravyākaraṇamahāvṛttiname of a commentary on the Jainendra Vyakarana, written by Abhayanandin in the ninth century A. D. see जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
jauhotyādikaa root belonging to the जुहोत्यादिगण or the third conjugation. ज्ञानदीपिका name of a commentary on Amarasimha’s Amarakosa written by Sripati (Chakravartin) in the 14th century.
jñāpakasamuccayaa work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव.
jyotsnā(Ι)name of a commentary by Rāmacandra possibly belonging to the 18th century on the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya; (2) name of a commentary on Nāgeśa's 'Laghuśabdenduśekhara by Udayaṃakara Pāṭhaka of Vārāṇasi in the 18th century.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
ñyuṭkrt affix added to the root वह् in Vedic Literature preceded by the words कव्य, पुरीष, पुरीष्य or हव्य, exempli gratia, for example कव्यवाहनः, पुरीषवाहनः, हव्यवाहनः confer, compare P. III,2.65, 66.. .
ṭhacataddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) with the vowel अ accented acute applied to (1) कुमुद and others as a Caturarthika affix; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with उप which are proper nouns for persons; confer, compare P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word एकशाला in the sense of इव; confer, compare P. V.3.109. The base, to which टच् is added, retains generally two syllables or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ठच् e. g. देविकः, वायुकः, पितृकः शेबलिकः et cetera, and others from the words देवदत्त, वायुदत्त, पितृदत्त, शेवलदत्त et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V,3.83, 84.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
ḍāverb-ending आ, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd person. sing, affix तिप् of the first future; exempli gratia, for example क्रर्ता ; confer, compare P.II.4.85; (2) case ending आ substituted in Vedic Literature for any case affix as noticed in Vedic usages; exempli gratia, for example नाभा पृथिव्याम्: confer, compare P. VII.1.39
ḍiyāccase affix इया for Inst.singular.seen in Vedic Literature: exempli gratia, for example सुक्षेत्रिया, सुगात्रिया; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.1.39.
ḍyācase affix या seen in vedic Literature e. g. अनुष्ठथा उच्च्यावयतात् confer, compare S. K. on P. VII. 1.39.
ḍhataddhita affix. affix ढ (1) applied to the word सभा in the sense of 'fit for' ( तत्र साधुः ) in Vedic literature;. e. g. सभेयः; confer, compare IV. 4.106; (2) applied to the word शिला in the sense of इव; e. g. शिलेयं दधि ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102; (3) common term ( ढ ) for the affixes ढक्, ढञ् and ढ also, after the application of which the affix ङीप् (ई) is , added in the sense of feminine gender; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
ṇopadeśaa root mentioned in the Dhatupatha by Panini as beginning with ण् which subsequently is changed to न् ( by P. VI. 1.65) in all the forms derived from the root; e. g. the roots णम, णी and others. In the case of these roots the initial न् is again changed into ण् after a prefix like प्र or परा having the letter र् in it and having a vowel or a consonant of the guttural or labial class intervening between the letter र् and the letter न्; e. g. प्रणमति, प्रणयकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.14.
ṇvikrt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64.
ṇvinkrt affix व् or zero, seen applied in Vedic Literature to the root वह् preceded by श्वेत, to शंस् preceded by उक्थ, to दाश् preceded by पुरस् and to यज् preceded by अव. e. g. श्वेतवा इन्द्रः, उक्थशा यजमानः, पुरोडाः, अवयाः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2.71, 72.
ṇvuckrt affix अक seen always with the feminine. affix अा applied to a root when the sense conveyed is ' a turn ' or ' a deserving thing ' or ' debt ' or ' occurrence;' e. g. भवतः शायिका, अर्हति भवान् इक्षुभक्षिकाम्, ओदनभोजिकां धारयसि, इक्षुभक्षिका उदपादि ; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.1 1 1.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tattvavimarśinīname of a commentary on the Kasikavrtti by a grammarian named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.in the beginning of the nineteenth century A. D.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tadrājathe taddhita affixes अञ्,अण्,ञ्यङ, ण्य, as also इञ्, छ्, ञ्युट्, ण्य, टेण्यण् and यञ् given in the rules of Panini IV. 1.168-174 and V.3. 112-119. They are called तद्राज as they are applied to such words as mean both the country and the warrior race or clan ( क्षत्त्रिय ): confer, compare तद्राजमाचक्षाणः तद्राजः S. K. on P. IV.l.168. The peculiar feature of these tadraja affixes is that they are omitted when the word to which they have been applied is used in the plural number; e. g. ऐक्ष्वाकः, ऐक्ष्वाकौ, इक्ष्वाकवः; similarly इक्ष्वाकूणाम्; confer, compare P.II.4.62.
tana(1)personal ending for त of the second person. plural Parasmaipada in the imperative in Vedic Literature e.g जुजुष्टन for जुषत confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. On P VII. 1.45; (2) taddhita affix. affixes टयु and टयुल् id est, that is अन which, with the augment त्, in effect becomes तन exempli gratia, for example सायंतन, चिरंतन, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. IV. 3.23.
tantrapradīpaname of the learned commentary_written by मैत्रेयरक्षित, a famous Buddhist grammarian of the 12th century A. D. on the काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका ( न्यास ) of Jinendrabuddhi। The work is available at Present only in a manuscript form, and that too in fragments. Many later scholars have copiously quoted from this work. The name of the work viz. तन्त्रप्रदीप is rarely mentioned; but the name of the author is mentioned as रक्षित, मैत्रेय or even मैत्रेयरक्षित. Ther are two commentaries on the तन्त्रप्रदीप named उद्द्योतनप्रभा and आलोक,
tap(1)taddhita affix. affix त added to the words पर्वन् and मरुत् to form the words पर्वतः and मरुत्तः; confer, compare P. V. 2.122 Vart. 10; (2) personal ending in Vedic Literature substitutcd for त of the imperative second. person. plural e. g. श्रुणोत ग्रावाणः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 1.45.
taltad, affix त (l) added in the sense of collection (समूह) to the words ग्राम, जन, बन्धु and सहाय and गज also, exempli gratia, for example ग्रामता, जनता et cetera, and others; (2) added in the sense of 'the nature of a thing' ( भाव ) along with the affix त्व optionally, as also optionally along with the affixes इमन्, ष्यञ् et cetera, and others given in P. V. 1.122 to 136; e. g. अश्वत्वम्, अश्वता; अपतित्वम्, अपतिता; पृथुत्वम्, पृथुता, प्रथिमा; शुक्लता, शुक्लत्वम्, शौक्ल्यम्, शुक्लिमा; et cetera, and others, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.119 to 136. Words ending with the affix तल् are always declined in the feminine gender with the feminine. affix अा ( टाप् ) added to then; confer, compare तलन्तः (शब्दः स्त्रियाम् ), Linganusasana 17.
taveṅkrt affix तवे for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature: exempli gratia, for example दशमे मासि सूतवे; confer, compare P.III 4.9.
tavenkrt affix तवे for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for exampleगन्तवे, कर्तवे, हर्तवे; confer, compare P.III. 4.9.
tavai(1)krt affix तवै for the infinitive affix तुम् in Vedic Literature. The affix तवै has a peculiarity of accent, namely that the word ending in तवै has got both the initial and ending vowels accented acute (उदात्त); exempli gratia, for example सोममिन्द्राय पातवै, हर्षसे दातवा उ; confer, compare P.III.4.9; and VI. 1.200; (2) krtya affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example परिघातवै for परिघातव्यम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14.
tāt(1)the same as तातङ् substituted for तु and हि of the imperative second. and third singular. Parasmaipada; confer, compare P.VII.1.35; (2) substitute तात् for त of the imperative 2nd plural in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example गात्रं गात्रमस्यानूनं कृणुतात् confer, compare Kas on P.VII.1.44.
tātiltaddhita affix. affix ताति in the very sense of the word to which it is applied occurring in Vedic Literature after the words सर्व and देव, as also after शिव, शम् and अरिष्ट in the sense of 'bringing about' and in the sense of भाव (presence) after the same words शिव, शम् and अरिष्ट; exempli gratia, for example सर्वतातिः, देवतातिः, शिवतातिः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.4.142-144.
tādarthya(1)the nature of being meant for another ; confer, compare चतुर्थीविधाने तादर्थ्य उपसंख्यानम् । यूपाय दारु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.13; (2) meant for another: confer, compare तदर्थे एव तादर्थ्यम् । चातुर्वण्यादित्वात् ष्यञ् । अग्निदेवतायै इदम् अग्निदेवत्यम् । तादर्थ्ये यत् । confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 4.24 (3) being possessed of the same sense: confer, compare तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम्. See ताच्छब्द्य.
tādātmyapossession of the same nature; तत्स्वभावता; confer, compare सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे । तादात्म्यातिदेशोयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.2.
tārānāthacalled तर्कवाचस्पति; a Bengali modern Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of the nineteenth century who has written a commentary called Sarala on the Siddhanta Kaumudi. He has edited many important Sanskrit works consisting of many kosas.
tāsconjugational sign or Vikarana (तासि) added to a root in the first future before the personal endings which become accented grave (अनुदात्त); confer, compare P.VI.1.186; it has the augment इ prefixed, if the root, to which it is added, is सेट्, confer, compare P. VI. 4. 62.
tiltaddhita affix. affix ति added in Vedic Literature to the word वृक when superior quality is meant, exempli gratia, for example वृकतिः confer, compare P. V. 4.41.
tu(1)short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the dental consonants त्, थ्, द्, ध् and न् confer, compare P. I. 1.69; (2) personal-ending substituted for ति in the 2nd person. imper. singular. Parasmaipada confer, compare P. III, 4.86; (3) taddhita affix. affix तु in the sense of possession added in Vedic Literature to कम् and शम् e. g. क्रन्तुः, शन्तु: confer, compare P. V. 2.138; (4) unadi affix तु ( तुन्) prescribed by the rule सितनिगमिमसिसच्यविधाञ्कुशिभ्यस्तुन् ( Unadi Sitra I.69 ) before which the augment इ is not added exempli gratia, for example सेतुः सक्तुः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 2.9
tujādiroots such as the root तुज् and the like, which have their vowel of the reduplicative syllable lengthened as seen mostly in Vedic Literature: e. g. तूतुजानः, मामहानः, दाधार et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.1.7.
tṛ(1)substitute prescribed for the last vowel of the word अर्वन् so as to make it declinable like words marked with the mute letter ऋ; (2) common term for the krt affixes तृन् and तृच् prescribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the taddhita affix. affixes ईयस्, and इष्ठ are seen placed after words ending in तृ in Vedic Literature before which the affix तृ is elided; exempli gratia, for example करिष्ठः, दोहीयसी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.59.
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
tosunkrt affix तोस् in the sense of the infinitive ( तुम् ) seen in Vedic Literature; e. g. ईश्वरोभिचरितो:. The word ending with तोसुन् becomes an indeclinable.
tnataddhita affix. affix त्न added to the words चिर, परुंत् and परारि showing time, as also to the word प्रग in Vedic Literature: e. g. चिरत्नम्, परुत्नम् , परारित्नम्, प्रत्नम् ( where ग is elided ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 23.
tripathagāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Raghavendracarya Gajendragadkar, a resident of Satara and a pupil of Nilakanthasastri Thatte. He lived in the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth century and wrote comentaries on important grammar works.
triśikhāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Laksminrsimha in the 18th century.
traikālyaall the three times, past, present and future; confer, compare त्रयः काला: समाहृताः त्रिकालम्, त्रिकालमेव त्रैकाल्यम् । स्वार्थे ष्यञ् Uvvatabhasya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. I5.
tryambakaa grammarian of the nineteenth century, who resided at Wai in Satara District and wrote a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara which is named त्र्यम्बकी after the writer.
tvataddhita affix. affix त्व in the sense of duty, nature or essence, prescribed optionally with the affix तल् ( ता ); e. g. अश्वत्वम्, गोत्वम् , अश्वता, गोता; cf तस्य भावस्त्वतलौ P. V. 1.119, also cf त्वतलोर्गुणवचनस्य P. VI. 3. 35 Vart.lo.
tvatkrt affix त्च in the sense of the potential passive voice. participle. in Vedic Literature; e. g. कर्त्वे हविः । कर्तव्यम्: also confer, compare Kas, on P.III. 4.14;cf also कृतानि या च कर्त्वा R. V. IX. 47.2.
thaṭtaddhita affix. affix थ added to numerals ending in न् in Vedic Literature; e. g. पञ्चथ, सप्तथः, पर्णमयानि पञ्चथानि भवन्ति: confer, compare P. V. 2.50.
thanapersonal-ending थन substituted for त of the 2nd person. plural of the imperative Parasmaipada in Vedic ' Literature, e. g. यदिष्ठन for यदिच्छथ: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 1.45.
thā(1)taddhita affix. affix था in the sense of question or reason ( हेतु ) added to the pronoun किम् in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कथा देवा आसन् ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.3.26; (2) taddhita affix. affix था (थाल् according to Panini) which gets caesura or avagraha after प्रत्न, पूर्व, विश्व, इम and ऋतु; exempli gratia, for example प्रत्नथेतिं प्रत्नSथा, पूर्वथेति पूर्वऽथा et cetera, and others: confer, compare Vij. Pr.V.12: (3) taddhita affix. affix थाल् in the sense of इव added to the words प्रत्न, पूर्व, विश्व and इम in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example तं प्रत्नथा पूर्वथा विश्वथेमथा; cf Kas, on P. V.3.111: (4) taddhita affix. affix थाल् in the sense of mannar ( प्रक्रार) added to किन् , pronouns excepting those headed by द्वि, and the word बहु; exempli gratia, for example सर्वथा, confer, compare P V.3.23.
thīma(THIEME, PAUL)a sound scholar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a critical treatise named "Panini and the Veda."
dayānandasarasvatia brilliant Vedic scholar of the nineteenth century belonging to North India who established on a sound footing the study of the Vedas and Vyakarana and encouraged the study of Kasikavrtti. He has written many books on vedic studies.
darpaṇāname of a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha, written by Mannudeva or Mantudeva of the nineteenth century.
dīrghavidhia grammatical operation where a short vowel is turned into a long one: a rule of grammar prescribing the lengthening of a short vowel.
durghaṭavṛttiname of a grammar work explaining words which are difficult to derive according to rules of Panini. The work is written in the style of a running commentary on select sutras of Panini, devoted mainly to explain difficult formations. The author of it, Saranadeva, was an eastern grammarian who, as is evident from the number of quotations in his work, was a great scholar of the 12th or the 13th century.
dūṣakaradodbhedaname of a commentary, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa, believed to have been written by Gopalacārya Karhadkar, a grammarian of the 19th century and attributed to Bhimacarya. This commentary, which was written to criticize the commentary written by Visnusastri Bhat, was again criticized in reply by Visnusastri Bhat in his Ciccandrika ( चिच्चन्द्रिका ). See विष्णुशास्त्री भट.
dṛḍhādia class of words headed by दृढ to which the taddhita affix. affix य ( ष्यञ् ) or इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added in the sense of nature ( भाव ); त्व and तल् ( ता ) can, of course, be added optionally exempli gratia, for example दार्ढ्यम्, द्रढिमा दृढत्वम्, दृढता.See also लावण्य शैत्य, औष्ण्य, जाड्य, पाण्डित्य, मौर्ख्य et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1. 123.
dṛṣṭaseen in use in Vedic Literature, or Classical Literature, or in the talk of cultured people; said in connection with words which a grammarian tries to explain; confer, compare दृष्टानुविधिश्छन्दसि भवति' Vyadi Pari. Patha 68.
devanandincalled also पूज्यपाद or पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् believed to have lived in the fifth century A. D. and written the treatise on grammar, of course based om Panini Sutras, which is known as जैनेन्द्र-व्याकरण or जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as जैनेन्द्र in the usually guoted verse of Bopadeva :इन्द्रश्चन्द्रः काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्र जयन्त्यष्टादेिशाब्दिकाः. देवनन्दिन् was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which सर्वार्थसिद्धि, the commentary on the तत्त्वार्थाधिगमसूत्र, is well-known.
devanandina Jain grammarian of the eighth century who is believed to have written a grammar work, called सिद्धान्तसारस्वत-शब्दानुशासन. It is likely that देवनन्दिन् is the same as देवानन्दि-पूज्यपाद and the grammar work is the same as जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन for which see देवनन्दिन् .
devīdīnamodern grammarian of the 19th century who has written a gloss on the Asādhyāyi of Panini.
devendraa Jain grammarian of the 13th century who has written a commentary named लघुन्यास on the शब्दानुशासन of Hemacandra. He has written many works on the Jain Agamas, of which a commentary on the Uttaradhyanasutra can be specially mentionedition He is called देवेन्द्रसूरि also.
doṣoddharaṇaname of a commentary on Nagesa's Paribhisendusekhara written by मन्नुदेव of the eighteenth century.
doṣoddhāraname of a commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara written by मन्नुदेव of the eighteenth century.
drutabodhaname of a treatise on grammar written for beginners by Bharatasena or Bharatamalla of Bengal in the sixteemth century.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dvisdouble reduplicated; the word is frequently used in connection with doubling of consonants or words in the PratiSakhya Literature as also in the Katantra, Sakatayana and Haima grammars confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1, XV. 5, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 101, R, T. 264; confer, compare also Kat. III. 8.10, Sak. IV. 1.43; Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV. 1.1.
dharaṇīdharaa grammarian of the sixteenth century at the court of Udayasimha who wrote a commentary on the sutras of Panini which was named वैयाकरणसर्वस्व as also a commentary on the Siksa of Panini.
ghātukārikāvalīa grammatical work in verse written by Varadarja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita who lived in the 17th century, Besides Karikvali, Varadarja wrote लघुकौमुदी and मध्यकौमुदी also.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhātupārāyaṇaa grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
dhātupratyayapañjikāa work dealing with verbal forms written by Dharmakirti, a Jain grammarian of the eighth century.
dhātupradīpaa work dealing with verbal forms written by Maitreya Raksita, a Buddhist writer and a famous grammarian belonging to the eastern part of India who lived in the middle of the twelfth century. He is believed to have written many scholarly works in connection with Panini's grammar out of which the Tantrapradipa is the most important one. The work Dhatupradipa is quoted by Saranadeva, who was a contemporary of Maitreya Raksita, in his Durghatavrtti on P. II. 4. 52.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
dhṛta or dhṛtapracayaa kind of original grave vowel turned into a circumflex one which is called प्रचय unless followed by another acute or circumflex vowel. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has mentioned seven varieties of this 'pracaya' out of which धृतप्रचय or धृत is one. For details see Bhasya on धृतः प्रचयः कौण्डिन्यस्य, T.Pr.XVIII.3.
dhyaikrt afix ध्यै seen in Vedic Literature, substituted for त्या optionally; e. g. साढयै, साढ्वा; cf P. VI. 3.113.
dhrauvyafixed; of a stationary nature; of क्तोऽधिकरणे च ध्रौव्यगतिप्रत्यवसानार्थेभ्य: P. III. 4.76.
dhvātpersonal-ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for ध्वम् of the second. person. plural Atmanepada; exempli gratia, for exampleवारयध्वात् for वारयध्वम् confer, compare P. VII. 1.42.
dhvePersonal-ending of the second. person. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
naraperson; personal ending; the term is used in connection with (the affixes of) the three persons प्रथम, मध्यम, and उत्तम which are promiscuously seen sometimes in the Vedic Literature confer, compare सुतिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां ... व्यत्ययमिच्छति ... Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.85.
narendrasūrian old grammarian believed to have been the original writer of the Sarasvata Vyakarana, on the strength of references to him in the commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana written by क्षेमेन्द्र as also references in the commentary on the Prakriykaumudi by Vitthalesa. He is believed to have lived in the tenth century A;D.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nārāyaṇavandyaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named Saravali, and a treatise on roots named Dhatuparayana.
nāvyavadhānanecessary intervention; confer, compare येन नाव्यवधानं तेन व्यवहितेपि वचनप्रामाण्यात्, a statement which is looked upon as a general statement of the ' nature of Paribhasa occurring in the Mahabhasya on P. VII. 2.3.
nigamaa statement in the Vedic passage; a Vedic passage; sacred tradition or Vedic Literature in general; confer, compare the frequent expression इत्यपि निगमो भवति where निगम means 'a vedic word, given as an instance'; if also means 'Veda'; confer, compare निगम एव यथा स्यात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 2. 64. Durgacarya says that the word it also used in the sense of 'meaning';confer, compare तत्र खले इत्येतस्य निगमा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.III.9. Durgacarya has also explained the word as गमयन्ति मन्त्रार्थान् ज्ञापयन्ति इति निगमाः, those that make the hidden meaning of the Mantras very clear.
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
nityānandaparvatīyaa scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who wrote glosses on the Mahabhasyapradipa, on the Laghusabdendusekhara and on the Paribhasendusekhara. He was a resident of Benares where he coached many pupils in Sanskrit Grammar. He lived in the first half of the nineteenth century.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
niruktabhāṣyaa gloss on Yaska's Nirukta written by a modern scholar of grammar named Ugracarya in the eighteenth century A. D.
nirvartyaone of the many kinds of karman or object governed by a transitive verb or root, which has got the nature of being produced or brought into existence or into a new shape; confer, compare त्रिविधं कर्म निर्वर्त्य विकार्य प्राप्यं चेति । निर्वर्त्य तावत् कुम्भकारः नगरकारः। The word निर्वर्त्य is explained as यदसज्जन्यते यद्वा प्रकाश्यते तन्निर्वर्त्यम् । कर्तव्यः कटः । उच्चार्यः शब्दः Sr. Prakasa; confer, compare also Vakyapadiya III.7.78; confer, compare also इह हि तण्डुलानोदनं पचतीति द्व्यर्थः पचिः । तण्डुलान्पचन्नोदनं निर्वर्तयति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.49. For details see the word कर्मन्; also see M.Bh. on I.4.49.
nirhrāsa(1)abridgment, diminution; confer, compareसर्ववचनं प्रकृतिनिह्लासार्थम् । निर्ह्लासः अपचयः अल्पत्वमित्यर्थः । Kaiyata on M.Bh. on IV.3.100; (2) being turned into a short (vowel); confer, compare स्पर्शान्तस्थाप्रत्ययौ निर्ह्रसेते R.Pr.IV.39.
nīcaiḥkaraconstituting the grave accent, features of the grave accent; confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता खस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य M.Bh.on I. 2.30.
nīlakaṇṭhadīkṣitaa famous grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote an independent work on the Paribhasas in Vyakarana named Paribhasavrtti. This Vrtti is referred to in the Paribhsendusekhara by Nagesabhatta and the views expressed in it are severely criticised in the commentary गदा.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
numaugment न् inserted after the last vowel (1) of a root given in the Dhātupātha as ending with mute इ; exempli gratia, for example निन्दति, क्रन्दति, चिन्तयति, जिन्वति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.1.58; (2) of roots मुच् and others before the conjugational sign अ ( श ); e. g. मुञ्चति, लुम्पति; confer, compare P. VII.1.59; (3) of the roots मस्ज्, नश्, रध्, जभ् and लभ् under certain specified conditions, exempli gratia, for exampleमङ्क्त्वा, नंष्टा, रन्धयति, जम्भयति, लम्भयति, आलम्भ्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declinable bases marked with the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or ऌ as also of the declinable wording अञ्च् from the root अञ्च् and युज्, exempli gratia, for exampleभवान्, श्रेयान् , प्राङ्, युङ्, confer, compare Kās. on P. VII.1. 70, 71; (5) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with a vowel or with any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal, before a case-ending termed Sarvanāmasthāna; exempli gratia, for example यशांसि, वनानि, जतूनि et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās. on VII.1.72; (6) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with इ, उ,ऋ or ऌ before a case-ending beginning with a vowel; exempli gratia, for example मधुने, शुचिने et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās, on P. VII.1.73; (7) of the affix शतृ ( अत् of the present tense. participle.) under certain conditions याती यान्ती; पचन्ती, सीव्यन्ती, confer, compare I .VII.78-8 : (8) of the word अनडुह् before the nominative case. and vocative case. singular. affix सु;exempli gratia, for example अनड्वान् , हे अनड्वन्, confer, compare P. VII.1. 82; (9) of the words दृक्, स्ववस् and स्वतवस् before the nominative case. and vocative case.singular.affix सु in Vedic Literature, e. g. यादृङ्, स्ववान् , स्वतवान् , confer, compare P.VII.1.83.
nyaṅkvādia class of words headed by the word न्यङ्कु, which are formed by means of the substitution of a guttural consonant in the place of a consonant of any other class belonging to the root from which these words are formed; exempli gratia, for example न्यङ्कुः मद्गुः, भृगुः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kās, on P.VII.3. 53.
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
paṇḍitawriter of Citprabhā, a commentary on the Paribhāșenduśekhara. A commentary on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara is also ascribed to him. He was a Gauda Brāhmaņa whose native place was Kurukșetra. He lived in the beginning of the nineteenth century.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padacandrikāa grammar work on the nature of words written by कृष्णशेष of the sixteenth century.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
padmanābhaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar known as the Supadma Vyākaraņa. He is believed to have been an inhabitant of Bengal who lived in the fourteenth century A. D. Some say that he was a resident of Mithilā.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāpradīpārcisa scholarly independent treatise on Vyakarana Paribhasas written by Udayamkara Pathaka, called also Nana Pathaka, a Nagara Brahmana, who lived at Benares in the middle of the 18th century A. D. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Naagesa.
paribhāṣābhāskara(1)a treatise on the Paribhasas in Panini's grammar written by Haribhaskara Agnihotri, son of Appajibhatta Agnihotri, who lived in the seventeenth century : (2) a treatise on Paniniparibhasas, as arranged by Siradeva, written by Sesadrisuddhi,
paribhāṣāvṛttiṭīkāa commentary on the Paribhasavrtti of Siradeva written by Ramabhadra Diksita who lived in the seventeenth century A. D.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
parvanword, pada; literally member of a sentence; the word is found used in the sense of पद in the old Pratisaakhya Literature: confer, compare अन्तरेण पर्वणी । पर्वशबेदन पदमुच्यते । पदयोर्मध्ये पद अागमो भवति । यथा प्राङ्कसोमः, प्राङ्क्सोम: । Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 138.
pāṭha(1)recital of a sacred Vedic or Sastra work; the original recital of an authoritative text;(2) the various artificial ways or methods of such a recital; c.g. पदपाठ, क्रमपाठ et cetera, and others in the case of Vedic Literature: (3) an original recital such as the सुत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ, वार्तिकपाठ and परिभाषापाठ in the case of the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar; the five Paathas are called पञ्चपाठी; (4) recitation; confer, compare नान्तरेण पाठं स्वरा अनुबन्धा वा शक्या विज्ञातुम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.1 Vaart. 13; (5) reading, variant: confer, compare चूर्णादीनि अप्राण्युपग्रहादिति सूत्रस्य पाठान्तरम् Kaas. on P.V.2.134.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pāyaguṇḍa,pāyaguṇḍeA learned pupil of Nāgeśabhațța who lived in Vārǎņasī in the latter half of the 18th century A.D. He was a renowned teacher of Grammar and is believed to have written commentaries on many works of Nāgeśa, the famous among which are the 'Kāśikā' called also 'Gadā' on the Paribhāșenduśekhara,the'Cidasthimālā' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara and the 'Chāyā' on the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.Bālambhațța Pāyaguņde, who has written a commentary on the Mitākșarā (the famous commentary on the Yajňavalkyasmŗti), is believed by some as the same as Vaidyanātha: while others say that Bālambhațța was the son of Vaidyanātha.
pāriśeṣyaresidual nature; the law or rule of elimination; the remaining alternative after full consideration of all the other alternatives; confer, compare विभाषा कुरुयुगन्धराभ्याम् । पारिशेष्याद्युगन्धरार्था विभाषा Kāś. on P. IV. 2.130; confer, compare also पारिशेष्यादजन्तादेव यत् सिद्धः Sira. Pari. 37.
piśel[ PISCHELL, RICHARD]a famous European Grammarian of the nineteenth century who wrote many articles on grammatical subjects and wrote a work entitled 'Prakrit Grammar.'
puṃskamasculine nature, hence masculine gender. The word is generally found as a part of the word भाषितपुंस्क​ which means a word which is declined in the masculine and the feminine gender or in the neuter and the masculine gender in the same sense. For details see M. Bh, on P. VI.3.34.
puñjarājaa famous grammarian of the 12th century who wrote a learned commentaty on a part of the Vāky apadīya of Bhartŗhari in which he has quoted passages from famous writers and grammarians such as भामह, कुन्तक, वामन, हेमच​न्द्र and others. The name is found written as पुण्यराज also.
puṇḍarīkākṣaa grammarian of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named कातन्त्रपरिशिष्टटीका on the कातन्त्रव्याकरण.
puruṣottamadevaa famous grammarian believed to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lakșmaņasena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ones among which are the Bhāșāvŗtti and the Paribhāșāvŗtti, the Gaņavŗtti and the Jñapakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahābhāșya called Prāņapaņā of which only a fragment is available. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of which Hārāvalī, Trikāņdaśeșa, Dvirūpakosa, and Ekaaksarakosa are the prominent ones. The Bhasavrtti has got a lucid commentary on it written by Srstidhara.
puruṣottamavidyāvāgīśaa famous grammarian of Bengal, who wrote the grammar work Prayogaratnamala in the fifteenth century. The work betrays a deep study and scholarship of the writer in the Mantrasāstra.
purohitādia class of words headed by the word पुरोहित to which the taddhita affix यक् is added in the sense of 'duly' or 'nature': e.g . पौरोहित्यम् , राज्यम् , बाल्यम् , मान्द्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare KaS. on P. V. !. 128.
pūrvanighātathe grave accent for the preceding acute vowel as a result of the following vowel made acute, and the preceding , as a result, turned into grave by virtue of the rule अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम् VI.1.198: confer, compare मतुब्विभक्त्युदात्तत्वं पूर्वनिघातस्यानिमित्तं स्यात् । अग्निमान् । वायुमान् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.39 Vart. 16.
pṛthvādia class of words headed by the word पृथु to which the taddhita affix इमन् ( इमनिच् ) is added optionally with the other usual affixes अण्, त्व and तल् in the sense of 'nature'; e. g. प्रथिमा, पार्थवम् , पृथुत्वम् , पृथुता; similarly म्रदिमा, मार्दवम् मृदुत्वम्, मृदुता पटिमा पाटवम् , पटुता पटुत्वम् ; confer, compare KS. om P.V.1.122.
paurastyavaiyākaraṇaa grammarian of the eastern school which is believed to have been started by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि the writer of the gloss called न्यास on the Kasikavrtti. The school practically terminated with पुरुषोत्तमदेव and सीरदेव at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Such a school existed also at the time of Panini and Patanjali, a reference to which is found made in प्राचां ष्फ ताद्धतः P. IV. 1.17 and प्राचामवृद्धात्फिन् बहुलम् IV.1. 160 and प्राचामुपादेरडज्वुचौ च V.3.80 where the word is explained as प्राचामाचार्याणां by the writer of the Kasika.
prakampadepression of the voice after raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view to show the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly, in spite of the fact that such a depression is generally looked upon as a.fault; confer, compare असन्दिग्धान् स्वरान् ब्रूयादविकृष्टानकाम्पितान् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.18 as also जात्योभिानिहितश्चैव क्षैप्रः प्रश्लिष्ट एव च । एते स्वराः प्रकम्पन्ते यत्रोच्चस्वरितोदयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 19.
prakalpaka(fem. प्रकल्पिका )a word or expression causing a change in the nature of another word or expression which has to be taken as changed accordingly; confer, compare प्रकल्पक्रमिति चेन्नियमाभावः P.I. 1.68 Vart. 15; प्रत्ययविधिरयं न च प्रत्ययविधौ पञ्चम्यः प्रकल्पिक्रा भवन्ति M.Bh. on P.I.1.27 Vart.1,I.1. 62 Vart.7; II.2.3 Vart.1, IV. 1.60; cf also रुधादिभ्यः इत्येषा पञ्चमी शप् इति प्रथमायाः षष्ठीं प्रकल्पयिष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II 2.3, Vart. 1, III.1.33.
prakalpakriyaa word in which a verbal activity has to be conjectured, as for example, the words गौः, अश्वः et cetera, and others Words which are not actually derived by rules of grammar are called प्रकल्पक्रिय as contrasted with प्रत्यक्षक्रिय.
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
pracaya(1)a specific feature or quality ( धर्म ) of the grave (अनुदात्त) accent when a vowel, accented grave, is preceded by a स्वरित (circumflex . vowel) and is followed upon by another grave-accented vowel. These grave vowels in succession, id est, that is the grave vowels which are not followed by an acute or a circumflex vowel are uttered neither distinctly circumflex nor distinctly grave; cf also R. Pr, III.II-14. They are uttered like the acute, but slightly so; e. g. the vowels after मे and before ति in इमं मे गङ्गे' यमुने सरस्वति; confer, compare स्वरितात्संहितायामनुदात्तानां प्रचय उदात्तश्रुतिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXI.10, 11 also confer, compare P.I.2.39, where the term एकश्रुति is used for the word प्रचय; (2) the connection of one word with many words; exempli gratia, for example राज्ञो गोश्चाश्वश्च पुरुषश्च where राज्ञः is connected with गौ, अश्व and पुरुष; confer, compare प्रचये समासप्रतिषेधो: वक्तव्य: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1 Vart, 6.
pratyāpattirestitution, restoration to the previous wording; confer, compare प्रातिपदिकस्य च प्रत्यापत्तिर्वक्तव्या Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.3.34 Vart.2; restoration to the previous nature; confer, compare अकारस्य प्रत्यापत्तौ दीर्घप्रतिषेधः । खट्वा,माला । M.Bh. on P. VIII.4.68.
pratyāmnāyaliterally, repetition in a contrary way; in the Pratisakhya literature, the word refers to the repetition of a Vedic passage; repetition by pupils after hearing from the preceptor ; confer, compare प्रत्याम्नायः पुनर्वचनं Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV. 9.
pratyāhārāhnikaname given to the second Ahnika of the Mahabhasya which explains the Siva Sutras अइउण्, ऋऌक् , et cetera, and others, and hence naturally discusses the Pratyaharas.
pradīpapopular name of the famous commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh century A. D. The cornmentary is a very scholarly and critical one and really does justice to the well-known compliment given to it, viz. that the Pradipa has kept the Mahabhasya alive which otherwise would have remained unintelligible and consequently become lost. The commentary प्रदीप is based on the commentary महाभाष्यदीपिका,or प्रदीपिका written by Bhartrhari, which is available at present only in a fragmentary form. The Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the Mahabhasya in spite of the presence of a few other commentaries on it which are all thrown into the back-ground by it.
pradīpavivaraṇacalled also उद्द्योत written by the well-known grammarian Nagesabhatta of Varanasi who flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century.
prayatna(1)effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य and आभ्यन्तर of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters ( सावर्ण्य ); confer, compareअाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते;Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; confer, compare सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्वसूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.22.
prayoga(1)employment or use of a word in language and literature about which, laying down rules is looked upon as the purpose of grammar; confer, compare प्रयोगमूलत्वाद् व्याकरणस्मृतेः Kaiy.on P. V. 1.16, लोकतोर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमो यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika I. Vart. 1; (2) use of speech; utterance; confer, compare मध्यमेन स वाक्प्रयोगः प्रणवात्मकः कर्तव्यः, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVIII. 4.
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
prayogaviṣayasphere or domain of the use of words; the whole Vedic and classical recognized literature: cf महान् हि शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः । सप्तद्वीपा वसुमती त्रयो लोकाः चत्वारो वेदाः साङ्गाः सरहस्याः बहुधा विाभन्नाः, एकशतमध्वर्युशाखाः, सहस्रवर्त्मा सामवेदः, एकविंशतिधा बाह् वृच्यम् , नवधाथर्वणो वेदो वाकोवाक्यामितिहासः पुराणं वैद्यकमित्येतावाञ्शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. Vrt. 5
prākṛta(1)original, primary,belonging to the Prakrti as contrasted with a वैकृत modification or a modified thing; cf प्रकृतिः स्वभावः, तत्संबन्धी प्राकृतः. commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 28: confer, compare एतद्विकारा एवान्ये, सर्वे तु प्राकृताः समाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII. 23; confer, compare also तहीन् ... पशूंस्तकारपरः ( नकारः ) सकारं प्राकृतो नित्ये Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI. 14; (2) natural, which can be so ordinarily, without any specific effort; confer, compare तस्मात् प्राकृतमेवैतत् कर्म यथा कटं करोति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.5, confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III 1.5 Vart. 8, 9.
prāṇapaṇāa gloss on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali, written by the famous easterm grammarian Purusottamadeva of the 12th century A. D., of which only a fragment of a few pages is available. As the legend goes, the name प्राणपणा was given to the gloss as it was accompanied by an oath on the part of the author that his life was at stake if he did even the slightest injustice to the author of the Mahabhasya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prādhānyapreponderance, principal nature as opposed to the subordinate one ( विशेषण्त्व ); confer, compare यत्र प्राधान्येन अल् आश्रीयते तत्रैव प्रतिषेधः स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 56. confer, compare also प्राधान्येन व्यपदेशा भवन्ति ।
prāyageneral nature, general public; confer, compare प्राय इति लोको व्यपदिश्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. V. 1.16; confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII.16; confer, compare also, लौकिकी विवक्षा यत्र प्रायस्य सं त्ययः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. V. 1.16.
prauḍhamanoramāpopularly called मनोरमा also; the famous commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita written by the author himself to explain fully in a scholarly manner the popular grammar written by him; , the word प्रौढमनेारमा is used in contrast with बालमनोरमा another commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Vasudevadiksita. On account of the difficult nature of it, it is usual to read the प्रौढमनेारमा upto the end of the Karaka-prakarana only in the Sanskrit PathaSalas before the study of the Sabdendusekhara and the Paribhsendusekhara is undertaken.
phak(1)taddhita affix.affix फ marked with mute क् for effecting the वृद्धि substitute for the initial vowel of the word to which it is appliedition The initial letter फ् of all the affixes beginning with फ् in Panini's grammar is always changed into आयन्. The taddhita affix. affix फक् is affixed (1) in the sense of गोत्रापत्य grandchild and his issues, to the words नड and others as also to the words ending with the affixes यञ् and इञ् and words शरद्वत्, दर्भ, द्रोण et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example नाडायनः, शालङ्कायनः, दाक्षायणः प्लाक्षायणः, द्रोणायनः, वैदः, अौर्वः et cetera, and others; cf P.IV. 1.99-103; (2) as a caturarthika affix in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 to the words पक्ष and others e. g. पाक्षायणः, तौषायणः; confer, compare P.IV. 2.80.
bāhulakathe application of a grammatical rule as a necessity to arrive at some forms in literature especially in the Vedic Literature as also in the works of standard writers, which cannot be explained easily by the regular application of the stated rules; confer, compare सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिदनराणां कालहलच्स्वरकर्तृयङां च । व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां सोपि च सिध्यति बाहुलकेन M.Bh. on P. III. 1.85; also confer, compare बाहुलकं प्रकृतेस्तनुदृष्टेः प्रायसमुच्चयनादपि तेषाम् । कार्यसशेषविधेश्च तदुक्तं नैगमरूढिभवं हि सुसाधु M.Bh. on P. III.3.1. In many sutras, Panini has put the word बहुलम् to arrive at such forms; e.g see P.II.1.32,57; II.3.62. II.4.39,73,76,84 et cetera, and others
buddhisāgarawriter of a grammar work who lived in the 11th century.
bṛhadṛrpaṇāname of a commentary on Kondabhatta's Vaiyakaranabhusanasara by Mannudeva, who was called also Mantudeva, who lived in the latter half of the eighteenth century.
bopadevaa great Sanskrit scholar and grammarian belonging to Devagiri in the greater Maharastra who was supported by Hemadri of Devagiri. He resided at सार्थग्राम on the river Varada in the first half of the thirteenth century. He wrote a short treatise on Sanskrit Grammar, which has a number of peculiar abbreviations for the usual well-known grammatical termanuscript. His grammar had a wide spread in Bengal and it is today a very common text on Grammar Bengal. On this account some scholars believe that he lived in Bengal. He was the son of Kesava and pupil of Dhanesa. He is also the author, of the well-known work कविकल्पद्रुम on which he has written a commentary named कामधेनु or काव्यकामधेनु.
brāhmaṇādia class of words headed by the word ब्राह्मण to which the taddhita affix. affix य ( ष्यञ् ) is added in the sense of 'nature' or 'duty'; e. g. ब्राह्मण्यं ( ब्राह्मणस्य भावः कर्म बां ); cf ब्राह्मणादिराकृतिगणः अादिशव्दः प्रकारवचन: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.1.24.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhatvathe nature or quality of being called भ which causes many grammatical operations which are given together by Panini in VI. 4.129 to 179. See the word भ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
bharatamallaa grammarian of Bengal who lived in the sixteenth century and who wrote उपसर्गवृत्ति, दुतबोध and other works on grammar.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
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