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"tud" has 1 results.
    
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"tud" has 1 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√तुद्tudtormenting / vyathana1031/1Cl.6
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62 results for tud
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tud cl.6 P. d/ati- (parasmE-pada f. datī-or dantī- ; perfect tense tut/oda-; future 2nd totsyati-or tottā-, ; Aorist atautsīt-) to push, strike, goad, bruise, sting, vex etc. ; Passive voice to pain (said of a wound) : Causal See todita- ; ([ confer, compare t/ottra-etc.; etc.; Latin tundo.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' "pricking" See vraṇa--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' "striking" See aruṃ--, tilaṃ--, vidhuṃ-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudam. Name of a man gaRa śubhrādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudam. see ut--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudādithe roots of cl.6. (beginning with tud-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anunitud(imperfect tense 3. plural -atudan-) to wound with a stab, goad, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aruṃtuda(mf(ā-)n.) ()"beating or hurting a wound" , causing torments, painful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aruṃtudaSee aru-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātud(p. -tud/at-; perf. -tut/oda-; ind.p. -tudya-) to strike, push, spur on, stir up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātudīpikāf. Name of gram. work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātudrāvakan. "dissolving metals"borax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetudṛṣṭif. examination of reasons, scepticism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetuduṣṭamfn. inconvincible by reasons, unreasonable (said of persons) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jatudhāmann. idem or 'n. equals gṛha- q.v ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudhānafor yāt- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñānaketudhvajam. Name of a devaputra-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ketudharmanm. Name of a man (varia lectio -varman-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kratudakṣiṇāf. sacrificial reward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kratudevam. Name of the man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kratudhvajam. Name of a rudra- (varia lectio ṛtu-dh-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kratudhvaṃsinm. "destroyer of dakṣa-'s sacrifice", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kratudruh(Nominal verb -dhruk-) m. an enemy of sacrifices, asura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kratudviṣ(Nominal verb -dviṭ-) m. idem or '(Nominal verb -dhruk-) m. an enemy of sacrifices, asura- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāruṃtudamfn. not hurting (a wound or a weak point), harmless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nistudP. -tudati- (Passive voice -tudyate-), to pierce, prick, sting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nitudP. A1. -tud/ati-, te- (-tundate- ;[ n/i- wrong reading for n/u-?]) , to pierce, penetrate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitudāravamfn. relating to or derived from the tree pītu-dāru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitudravamfn. equals daivadārava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paritudP. -tudati-, to trample down, pound, crush View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pautudruvamfn. relating to the tree pūtu-dru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudāru(p/ītu--) m. a kind of tree (equals deva-dāru-,or equals khadira-) (see pīta-dāru-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratudP. -tudati-, to strike at, cut through, pierce : Causal -todayati-, to push on, urge, instigate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratudm. "pecker", Name of a class of birds (including the falcon, hawk, owl, parrot, crow, raven, peacock etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratudam. idem or 'm. "pecker", Name of a class of birds (including the falcon, hawk, owl, parrot, crow, raven, peacock etc.) ' , Gaut View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratudam. an instrument for piercing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātudamfn. derived from the pratuda-s or peckers (a kind of bird) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātuda prātṛda- etc. See under 3. prā-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudārum. equals pūta-dru-, the tree Butea Frondosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudru pūt/u-dru- () m. () the tree Acacia Catechu or Pinus Deodora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudrun. its fruit. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudevatamfn. having the seasons for a deity, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudhāmanm. (probably for ṛta-dh-), Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saktudhānīf. a vessel of barley-meal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtudP. -tudati-, to strike at, goad, sting ; (with prarohān-) to put forth new sprouts id est recur again and again (as a disease) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudhātudakṣiṇamfn. (-dh/ā-) (prob.) one on whom the sacrificial fee is well conferred, worthy of the sacrificial fee (according to to Scholiast or Commentator"one who receives precious metal as a sacrificial fee")
śutudf. (according to to also śutudri-and dru-) the śata-dru- or Sutlej river (See śata-dru-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilaṃtudam. a sesamum-grinder vArttika View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttud(ud-- tud-) P. -tudati-, to push up, tear up ; to push open ; to stir up, urge on. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttudamfn. one who stirs up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāstudevam. () the deity presiding over a house. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāstudevatāf. () the deity presiding over a house. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastudharmam. sg. and plural the true nature of things ( vastudharmatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vastudharmatvan. vastudharma
vastudharminmfn. dependent on the nature of a thing, objective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhuṃtudam. "moon-troubler", Name of rāhu- or the personified ascending node (causing the moon's eclipses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipāṭchutudf. dual number the river vipāśā- and śutudrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitudP. A1. -tudati-, te-, to pierce, tear, strike, scourge, sting, prick etc. ; to strike id est play (a musical instrument) : Causal -tudāy/ati-, to prick, sting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitudam. Name of a particular spectral being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudhānam. equals yātu-, a kind of evil spirit or demon (f(ī-).) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudhānakṣayaṇamfn. destroying yātu-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tudhānapreṣitamfn. (dh/āna--) hurled by yātu-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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tud तुद् 6 U. (तुदति-ते, तुन्न) 1 To strike, wound, hit; तुतोद गदया चारिम् Bk.14.81;15.37; Śi.2.77. -2 To prick, goad. -3 To bruise, hurt. -4 To pain, vex, torment, afflict; सुतीक्ष्णधारापतनोग्रसायकैस्तुदन्ति चेतः प्रसभं प्रवासिनाम् Ṛs.2.4;6.28.
tuda तुद a. Striking, tormenting &c.
aruṃtuda अरुंतुद a. [अरूंषि मर्माणि तुदति; अरुस्-तुद्, खश् मुमागमश्च विध्वरुषोस्तुदः P.III.2.35; अरुद्विषदजन्तस्यमुम् VI.3.67] 1 Cutting or wounding the vital parts, inflicting wounds, corrosive, painful, sharp (fig. also); caustic; अरुंतुदमिवालानमनिर्वाणस्य दन्तिनः R.1.71; Ki.14.55; Si. 2.19. -2 Acrimonious, sour (disposition); नारुंतुदः स्यादार्तो$पि Ms.2.161.
ātud आतुद् 6 U. To strike, push, spur on, stir up. प्रतोदे- नातुदन्भृशम् Ms.4.68.
tudhānaḥ जातुधानः A demon, imp.
tilaṃtudaḥ तिलंतुदः An oilman.
nistud निस्तुद् 1 P. To pierce, prick, sting. निस्तोदः निस्तोदनम् nistōdḥ nistōdanam निस्तोदः निस्तोदनम् Piercing, pricking, stinging; Suśr.
pratud प्रतुद् 6 P. To strike, hurt, wound -Caus. 1 To urge on, drive forward; (fig.) to press, urge repeatedly (to do a thing); प्रविश गृहमिति प्रतोद्यमाना न चलति भाग्यकृतां दशामवेक्ष्य Mk.1.56. -2 To pierce, cut.
pratudaḥ प्रतुदः 1 An epithet of a class of birds (such as hawks, parrots, crows &c.); Ms.5.13; हारितो धवलः पाण्डुश्चित्रपक्षो बृहच्छुकः । पारावतः खञ्जरीटः पिकाद्याः प्रतुदाः स्मृताः ॥ प्रतुद्य भक्षयन्त्येते तुण्डेन प्रतुदास्ततः -2 An instrument for pricking.
vidhuṃtudaḥ विधुंतुदः N. of Rāhu; विधुमिव विकटविधुंतुददन्तदलनगलिता- मृतधारम् Gīt.4; आभिमुख्यं शशाङ्कस्य यथाद्यापि विधुंतुदः Pt.1. 326; N.4.71; Śi.2.61; ग्रस्तं विधुंतुदेनेव निखिलं विधुमण्डलम् Śiva B.25.62.
śutudriḥ शुतुद्रिः द्रूः f. The river Sutlej; cf. शतद्रु.
saṃtud संतुद् 6 U. 1 To goad, sting. -2 To recur (as a disease).
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tuda a. striking, chafing, galling (--°ree;).
tudāya den. vi, pierce.
atitud a. striking --, lashing violently.
aruṃtuda a. making a wound; touching a sore; excruciating.
kratudeva m. N.; -mat, a. reso lute; intelligent, wise; -râg, m. chief sacri fice (Asvamedha and Râgasûya); -vikrayin, a. selling the rewards for a sacrifice; -víd, a. powerful, inspiring.
tudāru m. kind of tree; n. its resin.
paitudārava a. coming from the Pîtudâru tree.
pratuda m. pecker (a class of birds); goad; -tushti, f. satisfaction: -da, a. giving pleasure to (--°ree;); -trid, a. cleaving; -todá, m. goad; -tolî, f. broad road, main street.
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tudad ahiṃ hariśipro ya āyasaḥ RV.10.96.4c; AVś.20.30.4c.
uttudas tvot tudatu # AVś.3.25.1a. P: uttudas tvā Kauś.35.22. Cf. stokas tvottuda.
nitudantīm arāte # AVś.5.7.7d; AVP.7.9.7d.
tudrur nāma bheṣajam # AVś.8.2.28d.
tudhānakṣayaṇaṃ ghṛtena # AVś.6.32.1b.
tudhānakṣayaṇam asi # AVP.2.46.2.
tudhānaṃ kimīdinam # AVś.1.7.1b; 4.20.8b; AVP.4.4.1b. Cf. yātudhānā kim-, yātudhānāt kimīdinaḥ, and yātudhānān kim-.
tudhānajambhanam asi svāhā # AVP.2.46.2.
tudhānam atho vṛkam # AVś.4.3.4d; AVP.2.8.5d.
tudhānasya rakṣasaḥ # RV.10.87.25c; SV.1.95c.
tudhānasya somapa # AVś.1.8.3a; AVP.4.4.9a.
tudhānā kimīdinā # RV.10.87.24b. Cf. under yātudhānaṃ kim-.
tudhānāt kimīdinaḥ # AVP.4.18.3c; 8.6.8b.
tudhānā nirṛtir ād u rakṣaḥ # AVś.7.70.2a; TB.2.4.2.2a.
tudhānān ihā naya # AVP.4.4.6d.
tudhānān kimīdinaḥ # AVś.1.28.1d. Cf. under yātudhānaṃ kim-.
tudhānān vi lāpaya # AVś.1.7.2d,6d; AVP.4.4.2d.
tudhānā hetiḥ # VS.15.16; TS.4.4.3.1; MS.2.8.10: 114.14; KS.17.9; śB.8.6.1.17.
tudhānebhyaḥ kaṇṭakīkārīm (TB. kaṇṭakakāram) # VS.30.8; TB.3.4.1.5.
tudhāno ya idaṃ kṛṇoti # AVś.8.3.8b. See yo yātudhāno.
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"tud" has 77 results.
     
tudādia class of roots headed by the root तुद् which take the conjugational sign अ ( श ) and which are popularly called roots of the sixth conjugation, confer, compare P. III.1.77.
ghātudīpikā(1)name of a commentary on the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva by Ramalamkara; (2) name of a commentary on the Kavikalpadruma by Durgadasa who wrote a commentary on the Mugdhabodha also.
mantudevaknown also as मन्नुदेव, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who has written a commentary named दर्पणा on the Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra of Koṇḍabhaṭṭa and a commentary named दोषोद्धरण on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
akālaka(1)not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. confer, compare “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।
anubhūtisvarūpācāryaa writer of the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called सरस्वती-प्रक्रिया or सारस्वतप्रक्रिया, He has also written धातुपाठ and आख्यातप्रक्रिया. The grammar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India.
abhyaṃkara(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. )an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit scholars in Grammar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyakar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commentaries on books in several Sanskrit Shastras, has written a commentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
aṣṭakaanother name for the famous work of Pāṇini popularly called the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; confer, compare अष्टावध्यायाः परिमाणमस्य सूत्रस्य अष्टकं पाणिनीयम् । दशकं वैयाघ्रपदीयम् । त्रिंकं काशकृत्स्नम् । Kāś on P.IV. 1.58; (2) students of Pāṇini's grammar, e. g. अष्टकाः पाणिनीयाः; confer, compare सूत्राच्च कोपधात् । Kāś. on P.IV. 2. 65.
āpiśala(1)a work of अापिशलि, possibly his grammar; confer, compare आपिशलमधीते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.14; (2) a student of Āpiśali's grammar: आपिशलमधीते आपिशला ब्राह्मणी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.14: अापिशलपाणिनीयव्याडीयगौतमीयाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 2.36.; confer, compare तथा चापिशलाः पाणिनीयाः पठन्ति-आगमोनुपघातेन विकारश्चोपमर्दनात् । आदेशस्तु प्रसङ्गेन लोपः सर्वापकर्षनात्.
ini(1)kṛt affix इन् applied to the roots क्री with धि, जु with प्र, and the roots जि, दृ, क्षि and others, e. g. सोमविक्रयी, प्रजवी, जयी et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III 2.93 and III.2.156-157: (2) taddhita affix. affix इन् affixed to the word पाण्डुकम्बल in the sense of 'covered with' ( confer, compare P, IV.2.11), in the sense of collection to the word खल exempli gratia, for example खलिनी confer, compare P.IV.2.51, to the word अनुब्राह्मण in sense 'student of' exempli gratia, for example अनुब्राह्मणी confer, compare P.IV.2.62, to the words कर्मन्द and कृशाश्च confer, compare P.IV.3.lll, to the word चूर्ण confer, compare P.IV.4.23 and to the word श्राद्ध confer, compare P.V.2.85 and साक्षात् confer, compare P. V. 2. 91 in specified senses and in the general sense of possession to words ending in अ, cf P. V.2.115-117 and to certain other words confer, compare P.V.2.128-37.
ukthādia class of words headed by the word उक्थ to which the taddhita affix इक (ठक् ) is applied in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; confer, compare उक्थमधीते वेद वा औक्थिकः, similarly लौकायतिकः Kāś. on P.IV.2.60.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
kaṇṭakoddhāraname of a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Mannudeva, known also as Mantudeva or Manyudeva, who was a pupil of Pāyaguṇḍe in the latter half of the 18th century.
kavikalpadrumaa treatise on roots written by Bopadeva, the son of Keśava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaśālās.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantrapariśiṣṭaascribed to Śrīpatidatta, whose date is not known; from a number of glosses written on this work, it appears that the work was once very popular among students of the Kātantra School.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kramādia class of words headed by the word क्रम to which the taddhita affix अक (वुञ् ) is added in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; e. g. क्रमकः, पदकः, मीमांसकः, शिक्षकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on IV. 2.61.
golḍsṭyūkaraa well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ḍhinuktaddhita affix. affix एयिन् applied to the word छगलिन् in the sense of 'students following the text of ' e. g. छागलेयिनः in the sense छगलिना प्रोक्तमधीयते ते; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.109.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
dayānandasarasvatia brilliant Vedic scholar of the nineteenth century belonging to North India who established on a sound footing the study of the Vedas and Vyakarana and encouraged the study of Kasikavrtti. He has written many books on vedic studies.
darpaṇāname of a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha, written by Mannudeva or Mantudeva of the nineteenth century.
daśakaa name given to the treatise on grammar written by व्याघ्रपाद which consisted of 10 chapters; confer, compare दशकं वैयाघ्रपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P V. 1.58. The word also means students reading the work दशक; confer, compare दशका वैयाघ्रपदीया: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.2.65.
dānīmtaddhita affix. affix called विभक्ति, applied word also means students reading the work दशक; confer, compare दशका वैयाघ्रपदीया: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.2.65.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
puruṣottamavidyāvāgīśaa famous grammarian of Bengal, who wrote the grammar work Prayogaratnamala in the fifteenth century. The work betrays a deep study and scholarship of the writer in the Mantrasāstra.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
prayojanaobject, motive or purpose in undertaking a particular thing; the word is used although rarely, in the sense of a cause also; confer, compare इमान्यस्य प्रयोजनानि अध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. For the advantages of the study of Vyakarana, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. See also Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII pp.226,227, D.E. Society's edition.
prauḍhamanoramāpopularly called मनोरमा also; the famous commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita written by the author himself to explain fully in a scholarly manner the popular grammar written by him; , the word प्रौढमनेारमा is used in contrast with बालमनोरमा another commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Vasudevadiksita. On account of the difficult nature of it, it is usual to read the प्रौढमनेारमा upto the end of the Karaka-prakarana only in the Sanskrit PathaSalas before the study of the Sabdendusekhara and the Paribhsendusekhara is undertaken.
prauḍhamanoramāṭīkāa commentary on Bhattoji DikSita's Praudhamanorama written by Bhattoji's grandson Hari Diksita. The commentary is called लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न which is an abridgment of the author's work बृहच्छब्दरत्न. The Laghusabdaratna is widely studied along with the Praudhamanorama in the Pathasalas.
phaḍegan[ FADDEGON, BAREND ]a scholar of Sanskrit Grammar, who has written a book 'Studies in Panini's Grammar'.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
bṛhadṛrpaṇāname of a commentary on Kondabhatta's Vaiyakaranabhusanasara by Mannudeva, who was called also Mantudeva, who lived in the latter half of the eighteenth century.
bhāṇḍārakara[ Sir Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar 1837-1925 A. D. ]a well-known scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who has written learned articles on many grammatical topics. He was a distinguished Professor of Sanskrit in the latter half of the nineteenth century. He was one of the pioneers of Sanskrit studies in India.
bhāskaraśāstrīsurnamed Abhyankar (1785-1870) a great grammarian in the line of the pupils of Nāgeśa who was educated at Poona and lived at Sātārā. He taught many pupils, a large number of whom helped the spread of Vyākaraṇa studies even in distant places of the country, such as Vārāṇasi and others. For details see Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. pp. 27-29, D. E. Society's Edition.
mañjūṣāa popular name given to the work परमलघुमञ्जूषा of Nāgeśa on अर्थप्रक्रिया (science or method of interpretation) in Vyākaraṇa, which is generally read by advanced students. Nāgeśa has also written a bigger work on the same subject लघुमञ्जूषा which sometimes is also referred to by the word मञ्जूषा.
madhyakaumudīcalled also मध्यमकौमुदी a work on grammar which is an abridgment, to a certain extent, of Bhaṭṭojī's Siddhāntakaumudī. The treatise was written by Varadarāja, a pupil of Bhaṭṭojī for facilitating the study of the Siddhānta-kaumudi.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyapradīpaa very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifiedition Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
rāmanātha( विद्यावाचस्पति )a Sanskrit scholar of the 17th century who studied Vyakarana,. Dharma, Alamkara and other Sastras and wrote a grammar work कातन्त्ररहस्य, besides many books on other Sastras.
rāmālaṃkārapossibly the same as रामराम (see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) who wrote Dhatudipika, a commentary on the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva.
rauḍhīyaa term jocularly used with the word घृत preceding it,for students of a famous scholar named धृतरौढि; confer, compare ओदनपाणिनीया: घृतरौर्ढायाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. 1.1.73.
laghuśabdaratnaname of a commentary on Bhațțoji's Manoramā by his grandson Hari Dīkşita, which is generally read together with the Manoramā, by students upto the end of the Kāraka Chapter after they have completely read and mastered the Siddhāntakaumudī. The commentary is called लघुशब्दरत्न which dlfferentiates it from the बृहच्छब्दरत्न written by the same author viz. Hari Dīkşita.
laghuśabdenduśekharaname of a commentary on Bhațțojī's Siddhāntakaumudī written by Nāgeśa Bhațța, the stalwart Grammarian of the eighteenth century. The work is named लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर which differentiates it from the author's another work बृहच्छब्देन्दुशेखर of which the former is an abridgment. As the study of the Laghuśabdenduśekhara is very common and as the Bŗhatśabdenduśekhara is seldom studied, it is always the Laghuśabdenduśekhara that is understood by the simple and popular name Śekhara.
lībiś[ LIEBICH, BRUNO ]a European grammarian belonging to Breslau who lived in the last quarter of the nineteenth and the first quarter of the twentieth century. He made a critical study of Sanskrit grammar and edited | the Cāndra Vyākaraņa and the Kșīratarańgiņī.
vasantādia class of words headed by the word वसन्त, which are mostly names of seasons, to which the affix इक (ठक्) is added in the sense of 'that which one studies or knows'; confer, compareवसन्तसहचरितोयं ग्रन्थो वसन्तस्तमधीते वासन्तिकः 1 वार्षिक: Kas on P. IV. 2.63.
viśrāntavidyādharaname of a grammar work of a general type which once occupied a prominent position and was studied as a text book of grammar, representing an independent system. The work is referred to by Hemacandra and Haribhadra. It is attributed to Vāmana who may be the same as one of the joint writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti. In that case the date of the work is the 7th century A. D.;confer, compare the popular verse परेत्र पाणिनीयज्ञाः केचित्कालपकोविदा: । एकेकं विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारकाः quoted in Vol.VII p. 388 Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya D.E. Society's edition.
vuñ(ID taddhita affix. affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न et cetera, and others in the quadruple senses; exempli gratia, for example अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर et cetera, and others, under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; exempli gratia, for example शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, confer, compareP.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; exempli gratia, for example. निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2. 146, 147.
vun(1)kṛt affix अक added to the roots प्रु, सृ, and लू in the sense of 'a skilled agent' and to any root in the sense of 'an agent who is blessed'; exempli gratia, for example प्रवकः, सरकः, लवकः, जीवकः ( meaning जीवतात् ) नन्दकः, ( meaning नन्दतात् ); confer, compare P. III. 1. 149, 150; (2) taddhita affix. affix अक added to(a) the words क्रम and others in the sense of 'a student of'; e.g, क्रमक:, पदकः शिक्षकः मीमांसकः; confer, compare P.IV.2.61; (b) the words पूर्वाह्न, अपराह्ण et cetera, and others as also the words पथिन् and अमावास्या in the sense of 'produced in': exempli gratia, for example पूर्वाह्नक,पन्थक, अमावास्यकः confer, compare P. IV.3. 28, 29, 30; (c) the words कलापि, अश्वत्य, यव and बुस in the sense of 'debt paid at the time of', the words वासुदेव and अर्जुन in the sense of 'devoted to',and the dvandva compounds when the words so formed mean either 'enmity' or 'nuptial ties';exempli gratia, for example कलापकम् (ऋणम्),यवकम् (ऋणम्) वासुदेवकः, अर्जुनकः, काकोलूकिका, कुत्सकुशिकिका; confer, compareP.IV.3.48, 98,125: (d) the words गोषद, इषेत्व et cetera, and others in the sense of 'containing' or 'possessing', and the word पथिन् in the sense of 'expert' exempli gratia, for example इषेत्वकः, पथक:; confer, compareP.V.2.62, 63; and (e) the words पाद and शत preceded by a numeral, in the sense of वीप्सा, as also in the senses of दण्ड (fine) and व्यवसर्ग when those words are preceded by a numeral; exempli gratia, for example द्विपदिकां ( ददाति ), द्विशतिकां ( ददाति ), द्विपदिकां दाडितः confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.4.l and 2.
vebarWEBER, ALBRECHT of Berlin, 1825-190l ]a sound scholar of Vedic Literature who has written many articles on Sanskrit Grammar in "Indische Studien."
vaiyākaraṇaliterally a student of grammar; व्याकरणमधीते वैयाकरण: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV, 2.59. The word is used in the sense of 'a scholar of Grammar;'or, 'a person who has obtained proficiency in Grammar.' The word is used several times in this sense in the Mahabhasya. cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.3; I.4.2, II. 1.53, II.2.29, II.3.18, II.4.56, III.2.115 et cetera, and others The word is also used in the sense of 'pertaining to grammar' or 'found in grammar.'
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
veyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāraa slightly abridged form of the Vaiyakaranabhusana by the author Kondabhatta himself for students and beginners. It consists of the same number of fourteen chapters as the main treatise, which are given the name Nirnaya. See vaiyākaranabhusana.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vyākaraṇādhyayanaprayojanathe purpose of the study of Grammar which is beautifully summed up and discussed in the first Ahnika by Patanjali in his Mahabhasya.
vyāḍīyaname given to the pupils and students belonging to the school of Vyadi; confer, compare M.Bh, on P.VI.2.36.
vhiṭne[ WHITNEY, WILLIAM DWIGHT, 1827-1894]a sound scholar of Vedic grammar who has, besides some books on Linguistic studies, written a work on Vedic Grammar and edited the Atharvaveda Pratisakhya.
śabdaratnaname of a scholarly gloss written by Haridiksita on the Manorama, a commentary by Bhattoji Diksita on his own Siddhantakaumudi. The proper name of the commentary is लघुशब्दरत्न of which शब्दरत्न is an abridged form.The commentary लघुशब्दरत्न is generally studied along with the Manorama by students.There is a bigger work named बृहच्छब्दरत्न written by Hari Diksita, of which the लधुशद्वरत्न is an abridgment.
śabdarūpāvalia very brief treatise on declension giving the forms of the seven cases of a few choice-words. The work is studied as the first elementary work and is very common without the name of any specific author.There are different works named शब्दरूपावलि giving declensions of different words which are all anonymous, although from the dates of manuscripts mentioned, they appear to be more than five or six hundred years old.
śarvavarmāa reputed grammarian who is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadhya in the court of Satavahana. He wrote the Grammar rules which are named the Katantra Sutras which are mostly based on the Sutras of Panini. In the grammar treatise named 'the Katantra Sutra' written by Sarvavarman the Vedic section and all the intricacies and difficult elements are carefully and scrupulously omitted by him, with a view to making his grammar useful for beginners and students of average intelligence.
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śiṣṭa(1)cultured and learned people who want to speak correctly and who therefore have studied gra mmar; confer, compare के पुनः शिष्टा: | वैयाकरणाः | कुत एतत् | शास्त्रपूर्विका हि शिष्टिवैयाकरणाश्च शास्त्रज्ञा: | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.109; (2) enjoined, prescribed; confer, compare विपर्ययो ध्रुवशिष्टेSपरेषाम् | R.Pr.VI.120.
śeṣa(l)any other senses than what are given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare शेषे P.IV.2.92: (2) surname of a reputed family of grammarians belonging to Southern India which produced many grammarians, from the fifteenth century to the eighteenth century. Ramacandra Sesa was the first grammarian in the family who wrote the Prakriyakaumudi in the fifteenth century. His descendants developed the system of studying grammar by the study of topics as given in the Prakriya Kaumudi and wrote several works of the nature of glosses and comments.
śrutakevalina term of a very great honour given to such Jain monks as have almost attained perfection; the term is used in connection with Palyakirti Sakatayana, the Jain grammarian शाकटायन, whose works शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and its presentation in a topical form named शाकटायनप्रक्रिया are studied at the present day in some parts of India. See शाकटायन a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ṣikantaddhita affix. affix इक added to the word पथिन् in the sense of ' a student of' or ' a scholar of ' when the word पथिन् is preceded by the word शत or षष्टि. e. g. शतपथिकः, शतपथिकी । confer, compare शतषष्टेः षिकन् पथ: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. [I. 2.60.
saṃkṣiptasāraname of a complete grammar-work written by क्रमदीश्वर for facility of study. This grammar appears to have been written before the time of कैयटं or हेमचन्द्र, as can be seen from the popular stanza परेत्र पाणिनयिज्ञा: केचित् कालापकोविदा; ।| एके विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारका; ll
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇacalled also सरस्वतीसूत्र, name of a voluminous grammar work ascribed to king Bhoja in the eleventh century. The grammar is based very closely on Panini's Astadhyayi, consisting of eight chapters or books. Although the affixes, the augments and the substitutes are much the same, the order of the Sutras is considerably changedition By the anxiety of the author to bring together, the necessary portions of the Ganapatha, the Unadiptha and the Paribhasas, which the author' has included in his eight chapters, the book instead of being easy to understand, has lost the element of brevity and become tedious for reading. Hence it is that it is not studied widely. For details see pp. 392, 393 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition.
sāṃgrahasūtrikaa student of संग्रहसूत्र; the word occurs in the Mahabhasya along with वार्तिकसूत्रिक, and it may therefore mean a student of the stupendous work named the Samgraha of व्याडि which is believed to have consisted of small numerous sutralike assertions, with an exhaustive gloss thereon. See संग्रह.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
hṛradattaname of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: confer, compare एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent.
hareidīkṣitaa reputed grammarian of the Siddhantakaumudi school of Panini who lived in the end of the seventeenth century. He was the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita and the preceptor of Nagesabhtta. His commentary named लधुशब्दरत्न, but popularly called शब्दरत्न on Bhattoji Diksita's Praudhamanorama, is widely studied by pupils along with the Praudhamanorama in the Vyakaranapathasalas. There is a work existing in a manuscript form but recentlv taken for printing, mamed 'Brhatsabdaratna ' which has been written by Haridiksita, although some scholars beiieve that it was written by Nagesa who ascribed it to his preceptor. For details see लधुशब्दरत्न.
     Vedabase Search  
33 results
     
tudan harassingSB 10.78.7
tudanti prickSB 11.23.3
tudanti they biteSB 3.31.27
tudyamānaḥ being painedSB 3.18.6
tudhānī api although she was a witch (whose only business was to kill small children and who had tried to kill Kṛṣṇa also)SB 10.6.34
arum-tudam capable of tormenting the heartSB 11.23.48
aruntudaḥ causing tormentSB 3.19.30
aruntudāḥ by piercing wordsSB 4.6.47
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
pratudantam piercingSB 3.18.9
tudhāna-pṛtanām the soldiers of the RākṣasasSB 9.10.19
santudati gives distressSB 11.28.28
arum-tudam capable of tormenting the heartSB 11.23.48
vitudan by playing onSB 4.8.38
vitudan playing onSB 4.12.40
vitudanti gives painSB 4.6.47
tudhāna RākṣasasSB 6.8.25
tudhāna-pṛtanām the soldiers of the RākṣasasSB 9.10.19
tudhānāḥ RākṣasasSB 5.21.18
tudhānāḥ the cannibals (Rākṣasas)SB 6.6.28
tudhānāḥ the RākṣasasSB 8.1.17
tudhānāḥ demonsSB 11.12.3-6
tudhānān a particular type of evil spiritSB 2.10.37-40
tudhānān man-eating demons, also known as RākṣasasSB 10.63.10-11
tudhāneṣu the ghostly YakṣasSB 4.10.15
tudhānī api although she was a witch (whose only business was to kill small children and who had tried to kill Kṛṣṇa also)SB 10.6.34
tudhānyaḥ demonessesSB 3.19.20
tudhānyaḥ carnivorous female demonsSB 8.10.48
tudhānyaḥ the wives of the RākṣasasSB 9.10.24
tudhānyaḥ disturbing elements, bad elementsSB 10.6.3
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
     DCS with thanks   
20 results
     
tud noun (masculine) [gramm.] root tud
Frequency rank 53665/72933
tud verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to bruise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pain (said of a wound) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to push (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to strike (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to vex (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5261/72933
tudana noun (neuter) toda
Frequency rank 53666/72933
abhitud verb (class 6 ātmanepada) to afflict to hit to push
Frequency rank 32295/72933
aruntuda adjective aggressive hurting
Frequency rank 20749/72933
ātud verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to push (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to spur on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to stir up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to strike (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46319/72933
kratudhvaṃsin noun (masculine) name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34337/72933
jatudruma noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 52640/72933
dhātudrāvaka noun (neuter) borax (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55391/72933
nāruṃtuda adjective harmless (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not hurting (a wound or a weak point) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28616/72933
nistud verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to pierce (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to prick (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to sting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14993/72933
paritud verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to crush (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to trample down (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36660/72933
pratud verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to cut through (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pierce (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to strike at (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19676/72933
pratuda noun (masculine) eine bestimmte Klasse von Vögeln
Frequency rank 9886/72933
prātuda adjective derived from the Pratudas or peckers (a kind of bird) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59647/72933
tudhānī noun (feminine) a female yātudhāna
Frequency rank 29807/72933
tudhāna noun (masculine) yātu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of evil spirit or demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a Rākṣasa
Frequency rank 6012/72933
vitud verb (class 6 ātmanepada) to pierce (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to prick (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to scourge (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to sting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to strike (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to strike i.e. play (a musical instrument) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to tear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12214/72933
vidhuṃtuda noun (masculine) name of Rāhu or the personified ascending node (causing the moon's eclipses) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39356/72933
śatakratudruma noun (masculine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 67153/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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ālasya

debility, lassitude, indolence.

ārjava

sincere; honest; frankness; rectitude.

aupadhenava

student of Dhanvantari and colleague of Suśruta.

aurabhra

student of Dhanvantari, colleague of Śuśruta.

bharadvāja

a celestial āyurveda physician and student of Indra; skylark; planet Mars; bone.

bhela

student of Ātreya, native of northwest (Gāndhāra) India and author of Bhela samhita, manuscript found in the Tanjore library.

hārīta

physician and author contemporary to Agnivesa and student of Atreya.

ojovisramsa

decripitude of immunity; senility, weakness.

parimāṇa

amount, quantity, magnitude, measurement in weight or volume.

sandhāraṇa

posture, position; attitude; holding together, supporting.

vāritara,vāritaratva

float on water; a test for improperly processed metal. This is one of the physical analytical parameters for bhasma, and is applied to study the lightness and fineness of prepared bhasma.

viparītalajjālu

Plant better stud, Biophytum sensitivum.

visramśa

decrepitude, dropping down.

     Wordnet Search "tud" has 17 results.
     

tud

taḍ, tuḍ, tud, āhan, abhihan, abhyāhan, abhinihan, ātud, udāhan, uṭh   

kasmin api kena api vastunā āhananapūrvakaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

ārakṣakaḥ cauraṃ laguḍena tāḍayati।

tud

tud   

kasya api kṛtyā vacanena vā manasi duḥkhotpādanātmakaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

satyavacanaṃ sarvathā manaḥ tudati। / tudasi me marmāṇi vākśaraiḥ।

tud

śivaḥ, śambhuḥ, īśaḥ, paśupatiḥ, pinākapāṇiḥ, śūlī, maheśvaraḥ, īśvaraḥ, sarvaḥ, īśānaḥ, śaṅkaraḥ, candraśekharaḥ, phaṇadharadharaḥ, kailāsaniketanaḥ, himādritanayāpatiḥ, bhūteśaḥ, khaṇḍaparaśuḥ, girīśaḥ, giriśaḥ, mṛḍaḥ, mṛtyañjayaḥ, kṛttivāsāḥ, pinākī, prathamādhipaḥ, ugraḥ, kapardī, śrīkaṇṭhaḥ, śitikaṇṭhaḥ, kapālabhṛt, vāmadevaḥ, mahādevaḥ, virūpākṣaḥ, trilocanaḥ, kṛśānuretāḥ, sarvajñaḥ, dhūrjaṭiḥ, nīlalohitaḥ, haraḥ, smaraharaḥ, bhargaḥ, tryambakaḥ, tripurāntakaḥ, gaṅgādharaḥ, andhakaripuḥ, kratudhvaṃsī, vṛṣadhvajaḥ, vyomakeśaḥ, bhavaḥ, bhaumaḥ, sthāṇuḥ, rudraḥ, umāpatiḥ, vṛṣaparvā, rerihāṇaḥ, bhagālī, pāśucandanaḥ, digambaraḥ, aṭṭahāsaḥ, kālañjaraḥ, purahiṭ, vṛṣākapiḥ, mahākālaḥ, varākaḥ, nandivardhanaḥ, hīraḥ, vīraḥ, kharuḥ, bhūriḥ, kaṭaprūḥ, bhairavaḥ, dhruvaḥ, śivipiṣṭaḥ, guḍākeśaḥ, devadevaḥ, mahānaṭaḥ, tīvraḥ, khaṇḍaparśuḥ, pañcānanaḥ, kaṇṭhekālaḥ, bharuḥ, bhīruḥ, bhīṣaṇaḥ, kaṅkālamālī, jaṭādharaḥ, vyomadevaḥ, siddhadevaḥ, dharaṇīśvaraḥ, viśveśaḥ, jayantaḥ, hararūpaḥ, sandhyānāṭī, suprasādaḥ, candrāpīḍaḥ, śūladharaḥ, vṛṣāṅgaḥ, vṛṣabhadhvajaḥ, bhūtanāthaḥ, śipiviṣṭaḥ, vareśvaraḥ, viśveśvaraḥ, viśvanāthaḥ, kāśīnāthaḥ, kuleśvaraḥ, asthimālī, viśālākṣaḥ, hiṇḍī, priyatamaḥ, viṣamākṣaḥ, bhadraḥ, ūrddharetā, yamāntakaḥ, nandīśvaraḥ, aṣṭamūrtiḥ, arghīśaḥ, khecaraḥ, bhṛṅgīśaḥ, ardhanārīśaḥ, rasanāyakaḥ, uḥ, hariḥ, abhīruḥ, amṛtaḥ, aśaniḥ, ānandabhairavaḥ, kaliḥ, pṛṣadaśvaḥ, kālaḥ, kālañjaraḥ, kuśalaḥ, kolaḥ, kauśikaḥ, kṣāntaḥ, gaṇeśaḥ, gopālaḥ, ghoṣaḥ, caṇḍaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, jaṭādharaḥ, jaṭilaḥ, jayantaḥ, raktaḥ, vāraḥ, vilohitaḥ, sudarśanaḥ, vṛṣāṇakaḥ, śarvaḥ, satīrthaḥ, subrahmaṇyaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ- hindūdharmānusāraṃ sṛṣṭeḥ vināśikā devatā।

śivasya arcanā liṅgarūpeṇa pracalitā asti।

tud

asuraḥ, daityaḥ, daiteyaḥ, danujaḥ, indrāriḥ, dānavaḥ, śukraśiṣyaḥ, ditisutaḥ, pūrvadevaḥ, suradviṭ, devaripuḥ, devāriḥ, kauṇapaḥ, kravyāt, kravyādaḥ, asrapaḥ, āśaraḥ, rātriñcaraḥ, rātricaraḥ, kavvūraḥ, nikaṣātmajaḥ, yātudhānaḥ, puṇyajanaḥ, nairṛtaḥ, yātuḥ, rakṣaḥ, sandhyābalaḥ, kṣapāṭaḥ, rajanīcaraḥ, kīlāpāḥ, nṛcakṣāḥ, naktañcaraḥ, palāśī, palāśaḥ, bhūtaḥ, nīlāmbaraḥ, kalmāṣaḥ, kaṭaprūḥ, agiraḥ, kīlālapaḥ, naradhiṣmaṇaḥ, khacaraḥ   

dharmagranthaiḥ varṇitāḥ te jīvāḥ ye dharmavirodhinaḥ kāryān akarot tathā ca devānāṃ ṛṣīṇāṃ ca śatravaḥ āsan।

purākāle asūrāṇāṃ bhayena dharmakārye kāṭhīnyam abhavat।

tud

rāhuḥ, tamaḥ, svarbhānuḥ, saiṃhikeyaḥ, vidhuntudaḥ, asrapiśācaḥ, grahakallolaḥ, saiṃhikaḥ, upaplavaḥ, śīrṣakaḥ, uparāgaḥ, siṃhikāsūnuḥ, kṛṣṇavarṇaḥ, kabandhaḥ, aguḥ, asuraḥ   

śāstreṣu varṇitaḥ navagraheṣu ekaḥ grahaḥ।

bhavataḥ putrasya janmapatrikāyāṃ saptame sthāne rāhuḥ asti।

tud

nistud, udākṛ, vitud, upārṣ, cimicimāya   

kṣuradhārasya vastunaḥ kasyāpi mṛdupṛṣṭhe praveśānukūlavyāpāraḥ।

alasmāt kaṇṭakaḥ niratudat mama pāde।

tud

tud   

anyeṣāṃ durvacanaiḥ vyathanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

tasya vacanāni mama manaḥ atudat।

tud

tāḍaya, tud, han   

ekaṃ vastu anyena vastunā āhananānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

basayānasya cālakena yānaṃ vṛkṣeṇa saha atāḍyata।

tud

devadāru, śakrapādapaḥ, paribhadrakaḥ, bhadradāru, drukilimam, pītudāru, dāru, dārukam, snigdhadāru, amaradāru, śivadāru, śāmbhavam, bhūtahāri, bhavadāru, bhadravat, indradāru, mastadāru, surabhūruhaḥ, surāvham, devakāṣṭham   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ- yasmāt tailaṃ prāpyate।

devadāruṇaḥ kāṣṭham dṛḍham asti।

tud

vyadh, chid, āvyadh, anuvyadh, nirbhid, avabhid, prabhid, nirbhad, pratibhid, vibhid, vinirbhid, nirvyadh, nivyadh, parivyadh, pratud, nistud, pariṇud, tṛd, ātṛd, atitṛd, ativyadh, nikṣ, anunikṣ, udṛṣ, upatṛd, upārṣ, nitud, nitṛd, paritṛd, pracchid, vitud, vitṛd, vinikṣ, vivyadh, vyṛṣ, śvabhr, saṃkṛt, saṃchid, sañchid, sambhid   

tigmena astreṇa kasyacana vastunaḥ chidranirmāṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

takṣakaḥ utpīṭhikāṃ nirmātuṃ kānicana kāṣṭhāni avidhyat।

tud

śutudrī, śitadruḥ, satalajanadī   

pañjābaprānte vartamānā ekā nadī।

pañjābaprānte vartamāneṣu pañcasu nadīṣu ekā śutudrī asti।

tud

ketudharmā , ketuvarmā   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

ketudharmā mahābhārate ullikhitaḥ asti

tud

ketudharmā , ketuvarmā   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

ketudharmā mahābhārate ullikhitaḥ asti

tud

kratudevaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

kratudevasya varṇanaṃ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

tud

kratudevaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

kratudevasya varṇanaṃ kathāsaritsāgare vartate

tud

tudaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

tudaḥ śubhrādigaṇe parigaṇitaḥ

tud

tudaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

tudaḥ śubhrādigaṇe parigaṇitaḥ









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