n. an irregular combination of consonants id est the combination of the fourth letter of gutturals, cerebrals, etc. with the first or third letter, of the second with the first letter, and of the third with the second letter of those classes of consonants.
cl.2 P./atti-, āda-, atsyati-, attum-, to eat, consume, devour, Vedic or Vedainfinitive mood/attave- : Causalād/ayati- and te- (once adayate-[ ]) to feed ([ confer, compareLithuanian edmi; Slavonic or Slavonian jamjforjadmj; Greek ; Latin edo; Gothic rootAT present tense ita; German essen; English toeat, Armorican or the language of Brittany utem]).
cl.7.P. A1. () bhin/atti-, bhintte- (imperfect tense 2. 3. sg./abhinat-; subjunctivebhin/aadaḥ-; imperativebindh/i-; binddhi- [ confer, comparebinddhi-lavaṇā-];cl.1. P.bh/edati-; Potentialbhideyam-; perfect tensebibh/eda-; Aorist , 2. 3. sg.bh/et-abhaitsīt-; bhitthās-; precedingbhitsīṣṭa-grammar; futurebhetsy/ati-, te- etc.; Conditionalabhetsyat-; futurebhettā-grammar; infinitive moodbh/ettav/ai-; bhettum- etc.; ind.p.bhittv/ā-, -bhidya- etc.) , to split, cleave, break, cut or rend asunder, pierce, destroy etc.,; to pass through (as a planet or, comet) ; to disperse (darkness) ; to transgress, violate, (a compact or alliance) etc. ; to open, expand ; to loosen, disentangle, dissolve etc. ; to disturb, interrupt, stop ; to disclose, betray etc. ; to disunite, set at variance ; to distinguish, discriminate : Passive voicebhidy/ate- (Epic also ti-Aoristabhedi- etc.; perfect tensebibhide-), to be split or broken, burst (intrans.) etc. ; to be opened (as a closed hand, eyes etc.) ; to overflow (as water) ; to be loosened, become loose ; to be stopped or interrupted ; to be disclosed or betrayed ; to be changed or altered (in mind), be won over ; to be disunited ; to keep aloof from (instrumental case) ; to be distinguished, differ from (ablative) etc.: Causalbhedayati-, te- (Aoristabībhidat-; confer, compare also bhidāpana-), to cause to split or break etc. ; to split, break, shatter, crush, destroy ; to separate, divide (Seebhedita-) ; to disunite, set at variance, perplex, unsettle (in opinion), seduce, win over : Desiderativeb/ibhitsati-, te-, to wish to break through or disperse or defeat (confer, compare, bibhitsā-): Desiderative of CausalSeebibhedayiṣu-: Intensivebebhidīti- or bebhetti-, to cleave repeatedly [ confer, compareLatin findo; German beissen; English bite.]
the thirty-third and last consonant of the nāgarī- alphabet (in pāṇini-'s system belonging to the guttural class, and usually pronounced like the Englishhinhard;it is not an original letter, but is mostly derived from an older gh-,rarely from dh-or bh-).
mfn. belonging to the throat, pronounced from the throat, guttural (as sounds;they are, according to the prātiśākhya-s, a-, ā-, h-,and the jihvāmūlīya- [or visarjanīya-];according to the commentator or commentary on , a-, ā-, k-, kh-, g-, gh-, ṅ-and h-;according to also e-)
(confer, comparemand-) cl.4 P. () m/ādyati- (Epic also te-; Vedic or Veda alsocl.1. P. A1.madati-, te-;cl.3. P.mam/atti-, ttu-, mam/adat-, /amamaduḥ-; Vedic or Vedaimperativem/atsi-, sva-; perfect tensemam/āda-; Aoristamādiṣuḥ-, amatsuḥ-, amatta-; subjunctivem/atsati-, sat-; futuremaditā-, madiṣyati-grammar; Vedic or Vedainfinitive moodmaditos-), to rejoice, be glad, exult, delight or revel in (instrumental casegenitive caselocative case,rarely accusative), be drunk (also figuratively) with (instrumental case) etc. ; to enjoy heavenly bliss (said of gods and deceased ancestors) ; to boil, bubble (as water) ; to gladden, exhilarate, intoxicate, animate, inspire : Causalmād/ayati-, te- (; Aorist/amīmadat-or amamadat-; Vedic or Vedainfinitive moodmaday/adhyai-), to gladden, delight, satisfy, exhilarate, intoxicate, inflame, inspire etc. ; (A1.) to be glad, rejoice, be pleased or happy or at ease ; (A1.) to enjoy heavenly bliss : Desiderativemimadiṣati-grammar : Intensivemāmadyate-, māmatti- ([Perhaps originally "to be moist"; confer, compareGreek ; Latin madere.])
(confer, comparemrad-and mṛḍ-) cl.9 P.mṛdnāti- (cl.1. P. A1.m/ardati-, te-; confer, compare; perfect tenseP.mamarda-,3. pluralmamṛduh-.or mamarduḥ-A1.mamṛde-; Aorist, amaradīt-grammar; future, mardiṣyati-, te-; infinitive moodmarditum-; tos-; -mrad/e-; ind.p., mriditvā-; m/ṛdya- etc.; -mardam-), to press, squeeze, crush, pound, smash, trample down, tread upon, destroy, waste, ravage, kill, slay etc. ; to rub, stroke, wipe (exempli gratia, 'for example' the forehead) ; to rub into, mingle with (instrumental case) ; to rub against, touch, pass through (a constellation) ; to overcome, surpass : Causalmardayati- (mc. also te-; Aoristamīmridat-or amamardat-), to press or squeeze hard, crush, break, trample down, oppress, torment, plague, destroy, kill etc. ; to rub ; to cause to be trampled down : Desiderativemimardiṣati-, to desire to crush or pound Intensivemarmartti- (only imperativettu-), to crush, grind down, destroy ; marīmartti- and marimṛdyate-grammar ([ confer, compareGreek and under mṛdu-.])
(chid-; infinitive mood-cchettum-ind.p.-cchidya-), to cut on both sides, clip round, cut through or off or to pieces, mutilate etc. ; to mow or reap (corn), ; to limit on all sides, define or fix accurately, discriminate, decide, determine ; to separate, divide, part ; to avert, obviate
cl.6 P. () riphati- (parasmE-pada-rephat-; perfect tenserirepha-etc. grammar; ind.p.rephitvā-), to snarl ; (only ) to speak or boast (kathane-or katthane-) ; to blame ; to fight ; to give ; to hurt, kill (seerimph-): Passive voiceriphyate-, to be murmured or spoken in a guttural or burring manner (like the letter r-) ; to have or take the pronunciation of the letter r- (seerepha-).
cl.1.6.A1. () śīyate- (confer, compare; P.in non-conjugational tenses, ; perfect tenseśaśada-, śeduḥ-; futureśatsyati-; Aoristaśadat-grammar; futureśattā-; infinitive moodśattum-), to fall, fall off or out : Causalśādayati-, to impel, drive on (cattle) ; śāt/ayati-, te- (confer, compare) , to cause to fall off or out or asunder, hew or cut off, knock out etc. ; to fell, throw down, slay, kill ; to disperse, dispel, remove, destroy : Desiderativeśiśatsati-grammar : Intensiveśāśadyate-, śāśatti- [ confer, compare, according to to some, Latin cedo.]
cl.1. or cl.6. P. () sīdati- (Epic also te-;Ved. s/adati-or s/īdati-, te-; perfect tensesas/āda-, sas/attha-, sed/us-, sedir/e-; sīdatus-; sasadyāt-. ; Aoristasadat-[ confer, comparepresent tensestem-] grammar;2. 3. sg.s/atsi-, s/atsat-; asādīt-; futuresattā-grammar; satsyati-; sīdiṣyati-; infinitive moods/ade-; sattum-; sīditum-; ind.p.-s/adya-, -s/adam-; -sādam-), to sit down (especially at a sacrifice), sit upon or in or at (accusative or locative case) ; to sit down before, besiege, lie in wait for, watch (accusative) ; to sink down, sink into despondency or distress, become faint or wearied or dejected or low-spirited, despond, despair, pine or waste away, perish etc. : Passive voicesadyate- (Aoristasādi-, sādi-) : Causalsād/ayati-, te- (Aoristasīṣadat-), to cause to sit down or be seated, place down, put upon or in (locative case) etc. ; to put in distress, afflict, weary, exhaust, ruin, destroy etc.: Desiderativesiṣatsati-grammar : Intensivesāsadyate- (grammar also sāsatti-), to sit down in an indecent posture [ confer, compareGreek for ; Latin sidere,sedere; Lithuanian se4sti,sede4ti; Slavonic or Slavonian se8sti; Gothic sitan; German sitzen; Anglo-Saxon sittan; English sit.]
mfn. (see on ) able, capable (mostly used with na-,and giving a pass. sense to the infinitive moodexempli gratia, 'for example'na śakitaṃ-chettum-,it could not be cut;also impersonal or used impersonallyexempli gratia, 'for example'na śakitaṃ tena-,he was not able)
(ud-chid-) P.-chinatti- (imperative 2. sg.-chindhi-; infinitive moodchettum-; -chettav/ai-) to cut out or off, extirpate, destroy etc. ; to interfere, interrupt, stop etc. ; to analyze, resolve (knotty points or difficulties) ; to explain ([ ]) : CausalP.-chedayati-, to cause to extirpate or destroy : Passive voice-chidyate-, to be cut off ; to be destroyed or extirpated ; to be interrupted or stopped ; to cease, be deficient, fail
m. (especially) any series or group of words classified together (as manuṣya-vanas-pati-v-etc.), or a class or series of consonants in the alphabet (seven such classes being given, viz. ka-varga-,"the class of Guttural letters"ca-kāra-v-,or ca-v-,"the Palatals"; ṭa-v-"the Cerebrals"; ta-v-"the Dentals"; pa-v-"the Labials"; ya-v-"the Semivowels"; śa-v-"the Sibilants", and the aspirate h-seevarga-dvitīya-and -prathama-)
cl.2 P. () vetti- (vidmahe-; vedati-, te-; vid/ati-, te- etc.; vindati-, te- etc.; imperativevidāṃ-karotu- [ confer, compare ];1. sg.imperfect tenseavedam-,2. sg.avet-or aves-[ ] etc.;3. pluralavidus- [ confer, compare ]; avidan- etc.; perfect tensev/eda-[often substituted for propervetti-confer, compare ], 3. pluralvid/us-or vidre-; viveda- etc.; vidāṃcak/āra- etc.[ confer, compare; according to to also vidām-babhūva-]; Aoristavedīt-; vidām-akran-; futurevedit/ā-; vettā-futurevediṣyati-, te-; vetsyati-, te- etc.; infinitive moodv/editum-, tos-; vettum- etc.; ind.p.viditv/ā- etc.), to know, understand, perceive, learn, become or be acquainted with, be conscious of, have a correct notion of (with accusative,in older, language also with genitive case;with infinitive mood = to know how to) etc. (viddhi yathā-,"know that"; vidyāt-,"one should know","it should be understood"; ya evam veda-[in ],"who knows thus","who has this knowledge") ; to know or regard or consider as, take for, declare to be, call (especially in 3. pluralvidus-,with two accusative or with accusative and Nominal verb with iti-, exempli gratia, 'for example'taṃ sthaviraṃ viduḥ-,"they consider or call him aged"; rājarṣir iti māṃ viduḥ-,"they consider me a rājarṣi-") etc. ; to mind, notice, observe, remember (with genitive case or accusative) ; to experience, feel (accusative or genitive case) etc. ; to wish to know, inquire about (accusative) : Causalved/ayate- (rarely ti-; Aoristavīvidat-; Passive voicevedyate-), to make known, announce, report, tell etc. ; to teach, explain ; to recognize or regard as, take for (two accusative) etc. ; to feel, experience etc.: Desiderative of Causal in vivedayiṣu-q.v : Desiderativevividiṣati- or vivitsati-, to wish to know or learn, inquire about (acc) : Intensivevevidyate-, vevetti-grammar ([ confer, compareGreek for , for equalsveda-; Latin videre; Slavonic or Slavonian ve8de8ti; Gothic witan,wait; German wizzan,wissen; Anglo-Saxon wa7t; English wot.])
(sad-) P.-ṣīdati- (imperfect tense Class. vy-aṣīdat-,Ved. vya-ṣīdat-,or vy-asīdat-; perfect tensevi-ṣasāda-; infinitive mood-ṣattum-or -ṣīditum-), to be exhausted or dejected, despond, despair etc. ; to sink down, be immersed in (locative case) (perhaps vi-ṣeduḥ-wrong reading for ni-ṣ-): Causal-ṣādayati-, to cause to despond or despair, vex, grieve, afflict ; Bombay edition etc.
उच्चारणम् 1 Pronunciation, utterance; वाचः Śik. 2; वेद˚. -2 Declaration, announcement, enunciation. -3 Lifting up; स्कन्धोच्चारणनम्यमानवदनप्रच्योतितोये घटे Pratima.1.5. -Comp. -अर्थ a. 1 useful for pronunciation. -2 necessary for pronunciation, such as a redundant letter only used to facilitate pronunciation. -ज्ञः a linguist. उच्चारणज्ञो$थ गिरा दधानम् Śi.4.18. -स्थानम् the part of the throat from which certain sounds (such as nasals, gutturals &c.) issue.
क् Jivhāmūlīya letter occurring before the guttural क् or ख् and written as ( क्, ख्).
प् Upadhmānīya letter occurring before the labial प् or फ् and written also ( प्, फ्); These are called अर्धविसर्ग.
of dry medicinal billets चूर्ण. (3) Decoction of medicinal herbs (कषाय). (4) Decoction mixed with medicinal powder (अवलेह). (5) A medicine to be pounded like condiment (कल्क). -पञ्चामृतं गुडूची, गोक्षुर, मुसली, मुण्डी, शतावरी. -प्रतिनिधिः A substitute for a herb which cannot be secured.
कण्ठः ण्ठम् 1 Throat; कण्ठे निपीडयन् मारयति Mk.8. कण्ठः स्तम्भितबाष्पवृत्तिकलुषः Ś.4.6; कण्ठेषु स्खलितं गते$पि शिशिरे पुंस्कोकिलानां रुतम् 6.4. -2 The neck; अयं कण्ठे बाहुः U.1. कण्ठाश्लेषपरिग्रहे शिथिलता Pt.4.6; कण्ठाश्लेषप्रणयिनि जने किं पुनर्दूरसंस्थे Me.3,99,114; Amaru.19.57; Ku.5.57. -3 Sound, tone, voice; सा मुक्तकण्ठं चक्रन्द R.14.68; किमिदं किन्नरकण्ठि सुप्यते 8.64; आर्यपुत्रो$पि प्रमुक्तकण्ठं रोदिति U.3. -4 The neck or brim of a vessel &c. -5 Vicinity, immediate proximity (as in उपकण्ठ). -6 The opening of the womb. -7 A bud on a stalk. -8 The space of an inch from the edge of the hole in which sacrificial fire is deposited. -9 The मदन tree. -1 Guttural sound. -Comp. -अग्निः a bird (digesting in the throat or gizzard). -अवसक्त a. clinging to the neck. -आगत a. come to the throat (as the breath or soul of a dying person). -आभरणम् a neck-ornament, necklace; परि- क्षितं काव्यसुवर्णमेतल्लोकस्य कण्ठाभरणत्वमेतु Vikr.1.24; cf. names like सरस्वतीकण्ठाभरण. -आश्लेषः Neck-embrace;
Me.3; कण्ठाश्लेषपरिग्रहे शिथिलता Pt.4.6; ˚उपगूढ Bh.3.28. -उक्ताम् personal testimony. -कुब्जः a kind of fever. -कूणिका the Indian lute. -ग a. reaching or extending to the throat; हृद्गाभिः पूयते विप्रः कण्ठगाभिस्तु भूमिपः Ms.2.62. -गत a. 1 being at or in the throat, coming to the throat; i. e. on the point of departing; न वदेद्यावनीं भाषां प्राणैः कण्ठगतैरपि Subhāṣ; Pt.1.296. -2 approaching or reaching the throat. -तटः, -तटम्, -टी the side of the neck. -तला- सिका the leather or rope passing round the neck of a horse. -त्रः A necklace; शुक्लकेयूरकण्ठत्राः Mb.5. 143.39. -दघ्न a. reaching to the neck. -नालम् Stalklike throat, a throat, neck; कण्ठनालादपातयत् R.15.52. also. -नाली, -नडिकः a kite. -नीलकः a large lamp or torch, a whisp of lighted straw &c. (Mar. मशाल). -पाशः, -पाशकः 1 a rope tied round an elephant's neck. -2 a halter in general. -बन्धः a rope for an elephant's neck. -भूषणम्, -भूषा a short necklace; विदुषां कण्ठभूषात्वमेतु Vikr.18.12. -भङ्गः Stammering. -मणिः 1 a jewel worn on the neck. -2 (fig.) a dear or beloved object. -3 Thyroid Cartilage. -रोधम् Stopping or lowering the voice. -लग्न a. 1 clinging to the throat. -2 suspended round the neck. -3 throwing the arms round the neck (in embraces); कण्ठेलग्ना. -लता 1 a collar. -2 a horse's halter. -वर्तिन् a. being at or in the throat, i. e. on the point of departing; ˚प्राणैः R. 12.54. -शालुकम् a hard tumour in the throat. -शुण्डी swelling of the tonsils. -शोषः (lit.) 1 drying up or parching of the throat. -2 (fig.) fruitless expostulation. -सज्जनम् hanging on, by, or round the neck. -सूत्रम् a kind of embrace; (thus defined :-- यत्कुर्वते वक्षसि वल्लभस्य स्तनाभिघातं निबिडोपगृहात् । परिश्रमार्थं शनकैर्विदग्धा- स्तत्कण्ठसूत्रं प्रवदन्ति सन्तः ॥); कण्ठसूत्रमपदिश्य योषितः R.19.32. -स्थ a. 1 being in the throat. -2 guttural (as a letter). -3 being in the mouth, ready to be repeated by rote. -4 learnt and ready to be repeated.
कुहरम् 1 A cavity, hollow; as in नाभिकुहर, आस्य˚ &c. दधति कुहरभाजामत्र भल्लूकयूनामनुरसितगुरूणि स्त्यानमम्बूकृतानि Māl.9.6; Ve.1.22. -2 The ear. -3 The throat. -4 Proximity. -5 Copulation; प्रवृत्तकुहरपारावत ... &c. Dk.2.2. -6 A hole, rent. -7 A guttural sound. -रः A window, the interior window; कुहरा अभ्यन्तरगवाक्षाः Bṛi. S.56.2. B. P.13.5.27.
ग्रासः [ग्रस् कर्मणि घञ्] 1 A mouthful, a quantity of anything equal to a mouthful; Ms.3.133;6.28; Y.3.55. -2 Food, nourishment; ग्रासाच्छादनमात्रं तु दद्या- दिति निदर्शनम् Mb.12.165.63. -3 The part of the sun or the moon eclipsed. -4 The morsel bitten. -5 The act of swallowing. -6 Slurring, indistinct pronunciation; fault in a pronunciation of the gutturals. -7 (In geom.) A piece cut out by the intersection of two circles -8 An eclipse. -Comp. -आच्छादनम् food and clothing; i. e. bare subsistence; see ग्रास (2); Ms.9.22. -प्रमाणम् the size of a morsel. -शल्यम् any extraneous substance lodged in the throat. -ग्रासीकृ To swallow; ग्रासीकर्तुं प्रवृत्तो$भूदुत्थायाजगरो महान् Ks.9.57.
जिह्वा 1 The tongue. -2 The tongue of fire i. e. a flame. -3 A sentence. -Comp. -आस्वादः licking, lapping. -उल्लेखनी, -उल्लेखनिका, -निर्लेखनम् a tonguescraper. -पः 1 a dog. -2 a cat. -3 a tiger. -4 a leopard. -5 a bear. -मलम् the fur of the tongue. -मूलम् the root of the tongue. -मूलीय a. a term particularly applied to the Visarga before क् and ख् and also to ऋ and लृ and the guttural class of consonants (in gram.) -रदः a bird. -लिह् m. a dog. -लौल्यम् greediness. -शल्यः the Khadira tree.
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