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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
nikṛṣṭaḥ3.1.53MasculineSingularrephaḥ, garhyaḥ, kutsitaḥ, avamaḥ, arvā, kheṭaḥ, kupūyaḥ, yāpyaḥ, pratikṛṣṭaḥ, aṇakaḥ, avadyaḥ, adhamaḥ
śyāmā3.3.151NeuterSingularkutsitaḥ, nyūnaḥ
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
abahirind. "not outside", in the interior, in one's heart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abahirdhā(/a-bahir--) ind. not outside View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āhiṇḍakam. and āhiṇḍika- a man of mixed origin (the son of a niṣāda- father and a vaidehī- mother ;employed as a watchman outside gaols etc. commentator or commentary on ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apaind. (As a separable particle or adverb in Vedic or Veda , with ablative) away from, on the outside of, without, with the exception of ([ confer, compare Greek ; Latin ab; Gothic af; English of]). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apagṛhyamfn. being outside a house, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apaskhalam. slipping ["outside of a threshing-floor" ] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āreind. (locative case;See ār/āt-) far, far from, outside, without View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āsadP. -sīdati- (Ved. also -sadati-; infinitive mood -s/adam-and -s/ade- ; perfect tense -sasāda-; future -satsyati-) A1. (Ved. Aorist 1. sg. -satsi-and 3. sg. -sādi-) to sit, sit down, sit near ; to preside over ; to lie in wait for ; to go to, go towards, approach ; to meet with, reach, find ; to encounter, attack ; to commence, undertake etc.: Causal -sādayati-, to cause to sit down ; to set down, put down, place etc. ; to cause, effect ; to approach, meet with, find, reach, obtain
avapad -padyate- (subjunctive P. -padāti- ; preceding A1.3. sg. -padīṣṭa- ; Aorist subjunctive A1.3. sg. -pādi- ; Vedic or Veda infinitive mood (ablative) -p/adas- ) Vedic or Veda to fall down, glide down into (accusative) etc. ; (Imper. A1.3. plural -padyantām-; subjunctive P.2. sg. -patsi-; Potential P.1. sg. -padyeyam-) to drop from (ablative), be deprived of (ablative) ; (subjunctive A1.1. sg. -padyai-) to fall, meet with an accident ; (future 3. plural -patsyanti-) to throw down : Causal (Imper. 2. sg. -pādaya-; ind.p. -pādya-) to cause to glide or go down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avarādh(Aorist 2. sg. -arātsīs-) to commit a fault ; -rādhnoti-, to turn out ill, fail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvidP. (subjunctive 1. sg. -vidam- ;Inf. -v/ide- ) A1. (subjunctive 1. sg. -vide- ; Aorist 1. sg. vitsi- ) to reach, obtain ; to get into: Passive voice -vidyate-, to exist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥprayānan. going outside, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥsadmfn. one who sits outside (said of a person held in low esteem) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥsadas ind. outside the sadas-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥsadasamind. outside the sadas-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥsaṃdhyamfn. one who performs his morning and evening prayers outside (the village) ( bahiḥsaṃdhyatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥsaṃsthamfn. lying or situated outside (the town) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥśītamfn. cool or cooling on the outside View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥsthamfn. being outside, external, outer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥsthitamfn. being outside, external, outer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥsthyinmfn. being outside, external, outer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiḥstomabhāgamind. outside the bricks called stoma-bhāgā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhīkamfn. (fr. bahis-;but also written vāhīka-) being outside, external, exterior Va1rtt. 5 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahīrajjuind. outside a rope View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirātmamind. outside one's own person, away from one's self. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirbhavamfn. being outside, external (opp. to antar-ja-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirbhāvam. the being outside (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirbhavanan. the being outside, coming forth, emanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirdhāind. out, outward, outside of or away from (ablative)
bahirdṛśmfn. seeing only what is outside, superficial (in judgement) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirdvāran. an outer gate or the space outside a door or gate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirgehamind. outside the house, abroad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirgrāmamind. outside the village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirgrāmamapratiśrayamfn. living outside the village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirjānuind. so that the hands are outside (not between) the knees View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirmanasmfn. being outside the mind, external View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirmaṇḍalasthamf(ā-)n. standing outside a circle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirnidhanan. the singing of a finale outside or apart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirvartinmfn. being on the outside View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirvedif. the space outside the vedi- or sacrificial altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirvediind. outside the sacrificial altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahirvedikamfn. being or taking place outside the vedi- (See prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhirvedikamf(ī-)n. (fr. bahirvedi-). situated or taking place outside the vedi- (see bahir-vedika-).
bahiryogam. relation to"outside", sense or meaning of" bahis-, outside " View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiryoniind. outside the fire-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiryūtimfn. placed or fastened outside View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahisind. (the final s-is changed before k-and p-into -; see ) out, forth, outwards, outside (a house, village, city, kingdom etc.;also with ablative or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' = out of, apart from, except, beside) (with kṛ-,to place outside, expel, banish, exclude;with bhū-,to come forth;with gam-,or -,to go out etc.; see compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiścaramfn. going out, moving or appearing outside, external View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiścaram. (with prāṇa- m.or hṛdaya- n.another life or heart outside one's self dear as one's own life or heart etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiṣkarmann. a sacred rite performed outside the sacrificial place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiṣkratuind. outside or apart from the sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiṣparidhiind. outside the enclosure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiṣpathamind. outside the road View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiṣpatnīsaṃyājan. being outside the patnī-saṃyāja- (sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) ( bahiṣpatnīsaṃyājatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiṣpavamānam. Name of a stoma- or stotra- (generally consisting of 3 trica-s and sung outside the vedi- during the morning libation) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiṣpiṇḍamfn. having the knots outside View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiṣprāṇamfn. one whose breath or life is outside View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahiṣṭātind. outside View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyamf(ā-)n. (fr. bahis-;in later language also written vāhya- q.v; m. Nominal verb plural b/āhye- ) being outside (a door, house, etc.), situated without (ablative or compound), outer, exterior (accusative with kṛ-,to turn out, expel) etc., etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhya in the beginning of a compound outside, without, out etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyamind. outside, without, out etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyāṃsamfn. holding the hands outside (not between) the knees (see bahir-jānu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyasambhogam. "external coition", (prob.) gratification of sexual passion outside the vulva View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyataramfn. being outside, outer, external View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyatasind. outside, externally, on the outside of (with genitive case or ablative) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyatvan. the state of being outside, exclusion, deviation or divergence from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyavāsinmfn. dwelling outside a village or town (said of caṇḍila-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyeind. outside, without, out etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyenaind. outside, without, out etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhyopavanan. a grove situated outside (a town, puryāḥ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balim. any offering or propitiatory oblation (especially an offering of portions of food, such as grain, rice etc., to certain gods, semi-divine beings, household divinities, spirits, men, birds, other animals and all creatures including even lifeless objects; it is made before the daily meal by arranging portions of food in a circle or by throwing them into the air outside the house or into the sacred fire; it is also called bhūta-yajña-and was one of the 5 mahā-yajñas-,or great devotional acts; see ) etc. (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' with the object, the receiver, the time, or the place of the offering) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bandh cl.9 P. () badhn/āti- (rarely A1. badhnīt/e-; cl.1 P. A1. bandhati-, te- ; cl.4 P. badhyati- ; imperative badhāna- , bandhāna- , -badhnīhi- , bandha- ; perfect tense P. bab/andha-,3. plural bedh/us- , babandhus- ; A1. bedh/e-, dhir/e- , babandhe- grammar; future bhantsyati- etc., bandhiṣyati-, te- ; banddhā- grammar; Aorist abhāntsīt- grammar; preceding badhyāt- ; infinitive mood banddhum-,or bandhitum- , b/adhe- ind.p. baddhv/ā- , dhv/āya- , -badhya- ; -bandham- ), to bind, tie, fix, fasten, chain, fetter etc. ; to bind round, put on (;later also P."on one's self") etc. ; to catch, take or hold captive, met. = to attach to world or to sin ; to fix, direct, fasten, rivet (eyes, ears or mind) on (locative case or infinitive mood) ; to arrest, hold back, restrain, suppress, stop, shut, close ; to bind a sacrificial victim, offer, sacrifice (with dative case of the deity to whom it is presented) : ; to punish, chastise ; to join, unite, put together or produce anything in this way, exempli gratia, 'for example' fold (the hands), clench (the fist), knit or bend (the eyebrows), arrange, assume (a posture), set up (a limit), construct (a dam or a bridge), span, bridge over (a river), conceive or contract (friendship or enmity), compose, construct (a poem or verse) etc. ; to form or produce in any way, cause, effect, do, make, bear (fruit), strike (roots), take up (one's abode) ; to entertain, cherish, show, exhibit, betray (joy, resolution etc.) : Passive voice badhy/ate- (ti- ), to be bound etc. etc. ; (especially) to be bound by the fetters of existence or evil, sin again ; to be affected by id est experience, suffer (instrumental case) : Causal bandhayati- (Aorist ababandhat-), to cause to bind or catch or capture, imprison etc. ; to cause to be built or constructed ; to cause to be embanked or dammed up ; to bind together (also bādhayati-) : Desiderative bibhantsati- grammar : Intensive bābanddhi-, bābadhyate- [ confer, compare Zend band; Greek , ; Latin foedus,fides; Lit.be4ndras; Gothic Anglo-Saxon bindan; German binden; English bind.]
bhid cl.7.P. A1. () bhin/atti-, bhintte- (imperfect tense 2. 3. sg. /abhinat- ; subjunctive bhin/aadaḥ- ; imperative bindh/i- ; binddhi- [ confer, compare binddhi-lavaṇā-];cl.1. P. bh/edati- ; Potential bhideyam- ; perfect tense bibh/eda- ; Aorist , 2. 3. sg. bh/et- abhaitsīt- ; bhitthās- ; preceding bhitsīṣṭa- grammar; future bhetsy/ati-, te- etc.; Conditional abhetsyat- ; future bhettā- grammar; infinitive mood bh/ettav/ai- ; bhettum- etc.; ind.p. bhittv/ā-, -bhidya- etc.) , to split, cleave, break, cut or rend asunder, pierce, destroy etc.,; to pass through (as a planet or, comet) ; to disperse (darkness) ; to transgress, violate, (a compact or alliance) etc. ; to open, expand ; to loosen, disentangle, dissolve etc. ; to disturb, interrupt, stop ; to disclose, betray etc. ; to disunite, set at variance ; to distinguish, discriminate : Passive voice bhidy/ate- (Epic also ti- Aorist abhedi- etc.; perfect tense bibhide- ), to be split or broken, burst (intrans.) etc. ; to be opened (as a closed hand, eyes etc.) ; to overflow (as water) ; to be loosened, become loose ; to be stopped or interrupted ; to be disclosed or betrayed ; to be changed or altered (in mind), be won over ; to be disunited ; to keep aloof from (instrumental case) ; to be distinguished, differ from (ablative) etc.: Causal bhedayati-, te- (Aorist abībhidat-; confer, compare also bhidāpana-), to cause to split or break etc. ; to split, break, shatter, crush, destroy ; to separate, divide (See bhedita-) ; to disunite, set at variance, perplex, unsettle (in opinion), seduce, win over : Desiderative b/ibhitsati-, te-, to wish to break through or disperse or defeat (confer, compare, bibhitsā-): Desiderative of Causal See bibhedayiṣu-: Intensive bebhidīti- or bebhetti-, to cleave repeatedly [ confer, compare Latin findo; German beissen; English bite.]
budh cl.1 P. A1. () bodhati-, te- ; cl.4 A1. b/udhyate- (Epic also P. ti-; perfect tense P. bubodha- ; subjunctive b/ubodhati- ; A1. bubudh/e-, parasmE-pada bubudhān/a- ; Aorist P. subjunctive bodhiṣat- ; imperative bodhi- ; A1.3 plural abudhram-, ran-; parasmE-pada budhān/a- subjunctive budh/anta- ; abhutsi- ; preceding A1. bhutsīṣṭa- ; future bhotsyati-, te- etc.; boddhā- grammar; ind.p. buddhvā- ; -budhya- etc.; infinitive mood b/udhe- ; budh/i- ; boddhum- etc.) , to wake, wake up, be awake etc. ; to recover consciousness (after a swoon) (Aorist Passive voice abodhi-) ; to observe, heed, attend to (with accusative or genitive case) ; to perceive, notice, learn, understand, become or be aware of or acquainted with etc. ; to think of id est present a person ("with" instrumental case) ; to know to be, recognize as (with two accusative) etc. ; to deem, consider or regard as (with two accusative) : Passive voice budhyate- (Aorist abodhi-), to be awakened or restored to consciousness ; See above: Causal bodh/ayati-, te- (Aorist abūbudhat-; Passive voice bodhyate-), to wake up, arouse, restore to life or consciousness etc. ; to revive the scent (of a perfume) ; to cause (a flower) to expand ; to cause to observe or attend, admonish, advise etc. ; to make a person acquainted with, remind or inform of. impart or communicate anything to (with two accusative) etc.: Desiderative bubhutsati-, te- (grammar also bubodhiṣati-, te-,and bubudhiṣati-, te-), to wish to observe, desire to become acquainted with : Desiderative of Causal See bibodhayiṣu- and bubodhayiṣu-: Intensive bobudhīti- (grammar also bobudhyate-, boboddhi-), to have an insight into, understand thoroughly (with accusative) [ confer, compare Zend bud; Greek for () in, Slavonic or Slavonian bu8de8ti,bu8dru8; Lithuanian bude4ti,budru4s; Gothic biudan; German biotan,bieten; Anglo-Saxon be4odan; English bid.]
caikitsitamfn. fr. tsitya- gaRa kaṇvādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caikitsityam. patronymic fr. cikitsita- gaRa gargādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chad or 2. chand- cl.10. chad/ayati- (also te-= arc- [ varia lectio, ti-]; subjunctive yat- ;2. plural yātha-, ), chandayati- (twice cl.1. ch/andati-[ equals arcati- ] ; A1.[ subjunctive yāte-] ; Aorist acacchadat- ; acchān- ;2. plural nta-, ;3. plural ntsur-, ; subjunctive chantsat-[ ] ;2. sg. tsi-, ; perf. cacchanda-, ; Potential cacchadyāt-, ) to seem, appear, be considered as ; to seem good, please (with dative case) ; (with acc,) (see ) ; A1. to be pleased with, delight in (accusative or locative case) ; chandayati-, to gratify any one (accusative;exceptionally genitive case ) with anything (instrumental case, especially vareṇa-,"with a boon" ) ; to try to seduce any one (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chid cl.7. chin/atti-, chintte- (imperative n/attu-;2. sg. ndh/i-[ confer, compare ];2. dual number nt/am-; subjunctive 1. sg. n/adai-; Potential ndet- ; cl.9. 1. sg. chinnāmi- ; imperfect tense 2. sg. achinad-,or nas- ; perfect tense ciccheda-, cchide-; parasmE-pada cchidvas-, ; Aorist acchidat-or acchaitsīt-[ subjunctive ch- etc.] ;2. sg. chitsi- ;1. plural chedma- ; A1. acchitta-and 2. sg. tthās-[ subjunctive ch- ], on ; future chetsyati-, ; ind.p. chittvā- infinitive mood chettum-; Passive voice chidyate-; See /a-cchidyamāna-; Aorist /acchedi-and chedi- ) to cut off, amputate, cut through, hew, chop, split, pierce etc. ; to divide, separate from (ablative;exceptionally instrumental case ) ; to destroy, annihilate, efface, blot out etc. ; (in mathematics) to divide : Passive voice to be split or cut, break : Causal chedayati- (Aorist acicchidat-) to cut off. ; to cause to cut off or through : Desiderative See cicchitsu- : Intensive cecchidīti- (), dyate- ( Va1rtt. 2 ) ; future Ist ditā-, Va1rtt. 2 ; ([ confer, compare , etc.; Latin scindo; Gothic skeida.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cit cl.1. c/etati- (imperfect tense acetat- ; parasmE-pada c/etat- ) cl.2. (A1. Passive voice 3. sg. cit/e-, ; parasmE-pada f. instrumental case citantyā-, ; A1. citāna-, ) cl.3. irreg. cīhetati- (; subjunctive ciketat- ; imperative 2. sg. cikiddhi- ; parasmE-pada cikitān/a- ; perf. cik/eta- etc.; ciceta- ;3. dual number cetatur- ; A1.and Passive voice cikit/e- etc.;3. plural tre- ;for parasmE-pada cikitv/as-See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order; A1. Passive voice cicite- ; Aorist acetīt- ; A1. Passive voice /aceti-and c/eti- ;for acait-See 2. ci-; future 1st c/ettā-, ) to perceive, fix the mind upon, attend to, be attentive, observe, take notice of (accusative or genitive case) ; to aim at, intend, design (with dative case) ; to be anxious about, care for (accusative or genitive case), ; to resolve, ; to understand, comprehend, know (perf. often in the sense of proper) ; P. A1. to become perceptible, appear, be regarded as, be known : Causal cet/ayati-, te- (2. plural cet/ayadhvam- subjunctive cetayat- imperative 2. dual number cetayethām- imperfect tense /acetayat- ;3. plural cit/ayante- ; parasmE-pada cit/ayat- (eleven times); cet/ayat-, ; A1. cetayāna-See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) to cause to attend, make attentive, remind of. ; to cause to comprehend, instruct, teach ; to observe, perceive, be intent upon ; A1. (once P. ) to form an idea in the mind, be conscious of, understand, comprehend, think, reflect upon ; P. to have a right notion of. know ; P. "to recover consciousness", awake ; A1. to remember, have consciousness of (accusative) ; to appear, be conspicuous, shine : Desiderative c/ikitsati- (fr. kit- ;exceptionally A1. ; imperative tsatu- subjunctive tsāt- Aorist 2. sg. /acikitsīs- ; Passive voice parasmE-pada cikitsyamāna- ) to have in view, aim at, be desirous ; to care for, be anxious about, ; ( ) to treat medically, cure ; to wish to appear : Causal of Desiderative (future cikitsayiṣyati-) to cure : Intensive cekite- (fr.2. ci-?,or for tte- ; parasmE-pada c/ekitat-, ; A1. c/ekitāna- eight times) to appear, be conspicuous, shine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmabāhyamfn. "outside the law", contrary to what is right View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmagṛhyamfn. "adjoining the houses of a village", being outside a village (an army), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛdhūm. equals kutsita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhyāf. () in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' being outside (of a town or village, as senā-,an army) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kautsīf. "a female descendant of kutsa-" See k/autsī-p/utra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kautsīputram. "the son of kautsī-", Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mad (confer, compare mand-) cl.4 P. () m/ādyati- (Epic also te-; Vedic or Veda alsocl.1. P. A1. madati-, te-;cl.3. P. mam/atti-, ttu-, mam/adat-, /amamaduḥ-; Vedic or Veda imperative m/atsi-, sva-; perfect tense mam/āda-; Aorist amādiṣuḥ-, amatsuḥ-, amatta-; subjunctive m/atsati-, sat-; future maditā-, madiṣyati- grammar; Vedic or Veda infinitive mood maditos-), to rejoice, be glad, exult, delight or revel in (instrumental case genitive case locative case,rarely accusative), be drunk (also figuratively) with (instrumental case) etc. ; to enjoy heavenly bliss (said of gods and deceased ancestors) ; to boil, bubble (as water) ; to gladden, exhilarate, intoxicate, animate, inspire : Causal d/ayati-, te- (; Aorist /amīmadat-or amamadat-; Vedic or Veda infinitive mood maday/adhyai-), to gladden, delight, satisfy, exhilarate, intoxicate, inflame, inspire etc. ; (A1.) to be glad, rejoice, be pleased or happy or at ease ; (A1.) to enjoy heavenly bliss : Desiderative mimadiṣati- grammar : Intensive māmadyate-, māmatti- ([Perhaps originally "to be moist"; confer, compare Greek ; Latin madere.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhūcchiṣṭasthitamfn. covered on the outside with wax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṇḍavīf. of a daughter of kuśa-dhvaja- and wife of bharata- (see v/ātsī.māṇḍavī-p/utra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛtavatsakā wrong reading for -vatsikā- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nah cl.4 P. A1. () n/ahyati-, te- (Potential -nahet- ; nahyur- ; parasmE-pada A1. n/ahyamāna-[also with pass. meaning] etc.; perfect tense nanāha-, nehe-; future natsyati-, naddhā- [ confer, compare ]; Aorist, anātsīt-, ; anaddha- ; ind.p. naddhvā- grammar; -n/ahya- etc.; infinitive mood -naddhum- ) to bind, tie, fasten, bind on or round or together ; (A1.) to put on (as armour etc.), arm one's self. etc. etc.: Passive voice nahyate-, parasmE-pada hyamāna- (See above) : Causal nāhayati- (Aorist anīnahat- grammar) to cause to bind together : Desiderative ninatsati-, te- grammar : Intensive nānahyate-, nānaddhi-. [Prob. for nagh-; confer, compare Latin nectere, German Nestel(?).] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirvindhyāf. "being outside or coming from the vindhya-", Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣad( sad-) P. -ṣīdati-, Ved. also -ṣadati- (imperfect tense ny-aṣīdat-,or ny-asīdat-;Ved. also -asadat-; perfect tense P. -ṣasāda-, -ṣedur- A1. -ṣedire- etc.; Aorist P. -ṣatsi-, -ṣatsat-; Passive voice ny-asādi- ; ind.p. -ṣadya- ;Ved. infinitive mood -ṣ/ade- ;for s-and - see ), to sit or lie down or rest upon (locative case) etc. ; to sink or go down (as a ship) ; to be afflicted, suffer pain ; to perform or celebrate by sitting (sattram-) ; (P. A1.) to set, found, establish, appoint : Causal -ṣādayati-, te- to cause to sit down, set down, appoint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nud cl.6 P. A1. () nud/ati-, te- (perfect tense nunoda- ; nunud/e-,3. plural dre- etc.; Aorist P. anautsīt- grammar; A1. anutthās- ; nudiṣṭhās- ; preceding -nudyāt- ; future -notsyati- ; te- etc.; nottā- grammar; ind.p. -nudya- ; infinitive mood -n/ude- ; -nudas- ; -nodam- ), to push, thrust, impel, move, remove etc. etc.: Causal nodayati- (Passive voice nodyate-), to push on, urge, incite etc.: Intensive nonudyate-, to push or drive away repeatedly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pad cl.4 A1. () padyate- (ti- ; Potential padyām- ; imperative patsva- ; perfect tense papāda- ; pede- ; Aorist apadmahi-, dran- [ subjunctive padāti- ]; apatsi-, patthās- ; preceding padīṣṭ/a- ; future patsyati- ; te- ; pattā- grammar; infinitive mood p/attave- ; tos-, tum- ; -p/adas- ; ind.p. -p/adya- ; -p/ādam- ), to fall, fall down or out, perish ; to go, resort or apply to, participate in (accusative), keep, observe : Causal pād/ayati-, te-, to cause to fall (Passive voice pādyate- ; Desiderative pipādayiṣati- etc.) ; padayate-, to go : Desiderative pitsate- : Intensive panīpadyate- ; panīpadīti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parācīnamfn. being opposite or beyond or outside of averse from, indifferent to (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāñcmfn. turned away, averted, distant, turning from, being beyond or outside of (ablative), not returning, done away with, gone, departed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parauru(r/a--) mf(-)n. broad on the outside or behind (see paro-varīyas-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariind. outside of, except (often repeated ;also at the beginning or the end of an ind. compound ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paritrigartamind. round about or outside tri-garta-
paroṃhu(r/o--) mf(-)n. narrow on the outside or at the top View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parovarīyasmfn. (r/o--) broader on the outside or at the top View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārṣṇif. the extremity of the fore-axle to which the outside horses of a four-horse chariot are attached (the two inner horses being harnessed to the dhur-,or chariot-pole) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārṣṇisārathim. dual number the two charioteers who drive the outside horses (see prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārṣṇivāh pārṣṇivah m. an outside horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārṣṇivah pārṣṇivāh m. an outside horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārṣṇivāham. an outside horse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārśvan. the extremity of the fore-axle nearest the wheel to which the outside horses of a four-horse chariot are attached View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakaraṇan. (asminn eva prakaraṇe-,"on this occasion"or"in this connection"; na ca prakaraṇaṃ vetsi-,"nor do you know what is the matter") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāntadurgan. "border-stronghold", a suburb or collection of houses outside the walls of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rad cl.1 P. () r/adati- (rarely A1. te-;Ved. imperative ratsi-; perfect tense rar/āda- ; Aorist arādīt- grammar; future raditā-, diṣyati- ), to scratch, scrape, gnaw, bite, rend, dig, break, split, divide ; to cut, open (a road or path) ; to lead (a river) into a channel ; to convey to, bestow on, give, dispense [ confer, compare Latin rad-o,rod-o; English rat.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rādh (confer, compare ṛdh-and radh-) cl.5.4. P. () rādhn/oti- rādhyati- (Vedic or Veda also proper rādhati-and r/ādhyate-; perfect tense rar/ādha- etc. etc. [2. sg. rarādhitha-or redhita-, confer, compare ]; Aorist, arātsīt-, rādhiṣi- ; preceding rādhyāsam- ; future rāddhā- grammar; rātsyati- ; ind.p. rāddhv/ā-, -rādhya- ), to succeed (said of things), be accomplished or finished ; to succeed (said of persons), be successful with (instrumental case), thrive, prosper ; to be ready for, submit to (dative case) ; to be fit for, partake of, attain to (dative case or locative case), ; (rādhyati-) to prophesy to (dative case) ; to accomplish, perform, achieve, make ready, prepare, carry out ; to hit, get at (accusative) ; to propitiate, conciliate, gratify ; to hurt, injure, destroy, exterminate (confer, compare ) : Passive voice rādhyate- (Aorist /arādhi-), to be conciliated or satisfied (confer, compare rādhyate-above) : Causal rādh/ayati- (Aorist arīradhat- ; Passive voice rādhyate- ), to accomplish, perform, prepare, make ready etc. ; to make favourable, propitiate, satisfy : Desiderative of Causal rirādhayiṣati- : Desiderative rirātsati- or -ritsati- Va1rtt. 1 : Intensive rārādhyate-, rārāddhi- grammar ([ confer, compare iradh-; Gothic gare7dan,rathjo1; Slavonic or Slavonian raditi.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛteyajñamind. outside the sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudh cl.7 P. A1. () ruṇ/addhi-, runddh/e- (1. plural -rudhmas- ; rundhati-, te- etc.; rodhati- perfect tense rurodha-, rurudhe- etc.; rurundhatuḥ- ; Aorist araut- ; arautsīt- etc.; rotsīs- ; arutsi-, aruddha- ; arautsi- ; arodham- ; arudhma- ; parasmE-pada rudh/at- see 1. rudh-; arudhat- etc.; preceding rudhyāt- ; future roddhā- grammar; rotsyati-, te- etc. infinitive mood roddhum-or rodhitum- ; roddhos- ; ind.p. ruddhvā- etc.; -r/udhya- etc.; -rundhya- ; -r/udham- ; -r/undham- ; -rodham- ), to obstruct, check, arrest, stop, restrain, prevent, keep back, withhold (always with na-), etc. ; to avert, keep off, repel (see rudhat-under1. rudh-) ; to shut, lock up, confine in (locative case) etc. (according to to also with double accusative) ; to besiege, blockade, invest etc. ; to close, block up (a path) ; to cover, conceal, veil, obscure etc. ; to stop up, fill ; to lay (dust) ; to touch, move (the heart) ; to torment, harass ; to lose, be deprived of (accusative) ; to tear, rend asunder (?) : Causal rodhayati- (Epic also te-and rundhayati-; Aorist arūrudhat-; Passive voice rodhyate-), to stop, arrest ; to cause to be confined by (accusative) ; to cause to be besieged by (instrumental case) ; to close (with a cover or lid) ; to fetter, enchain, influence ; to oppress, torment, harass : Desiderative rorutsate- (), ti- (), to wish to obstruct etc.: Intensive rorudhyate-, roroddhi-, to obstruct intensely or repeatedly etc. grammar (only rorudhaḥ- )
sad cl.1. or cl.6. P. () sīdati- (Epic also te-;Ved. s/adati-or s/īdati-, te-; perfect tense sas/āda-, sas/attha-, sed/us-, sedir/e- ; sīdatus- ; sasadyāt-. ; Aorist asadat-[ confer, compare present tense stem-] grammar;2. 3. sg. s/atsi-, s/atsat- ; asādīt- ; future sattā- grammar; satsyati- ; sīdiṣyati- ; infinitive mood s/ade- ; sattum- ; sīditum- ; ind.p. -s/adya-, -s/adam- ; -sādam- ), to sit down (especially at a sacrifice), sit upon or in or at (accusative or locative case) ; to sit down before, besiege, lie in wait for, watch (accusative) ; to sink down, sink into despondency or distress, become faint or wearied or dejected or low-spirited, despond, despair, pine or waste away, perish etc. : Passive voice sadyate- (Aorist asādi-, sādi- ) : Causal sād/ayati-, te- (Aorist asīṣadat-), to cause to sit down or be seated, place down, put upon or in (locative case) etc. ; to put in distress, afflict, weary, exhaust, ruin, destroy etc.: Desiderative siṣatsati- grammar : Intensive sāsadyate- (grammar also sāsatti-), to sit down in an indecent posture [ confer, compare Greek for ; Latin sidere,sedere; Lithuanian se4sti,sede4ti; Slavonic or Slavonian se8sti; Gothic sitan; German sitzen; Anglo-Saxon sittan; English sit.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādh (connected with2. sidh-) cl.1 P. A1. s/ādati-, te- ; according to to , cl.4. sādhyati-, cl.5. sādhnoti- (in also sadhnoti-; perfect tense sasādha-; Aorist asātsīt-; future sāddhā-, sātsyati-; infinitive mood sāddhum-,in later language sādhitum-;Ved. infinitive mood s/adhase- q.v), to go straight to any goal or aim, attain an object, to be successful, succeed, prosper ; to bring straight to an object or end, further, promote, advance, accomplish, complete, finish ; to submit or agree to, obey ; (sādhyati-) to be completed or accomplished : Causal sādhayati- (mc. also te-; Aorist asīṣadhat-;Ved. also sīṣadhati-, dhaḥ-, dhema-, dhātu-; Passive voice sādhyate- etc.), to straighten, make straight (a path) ; to guide straight or well, direct or bring to a goal ; to master, subdue, overpower, conquer, win, win over etc. ; to summon, conjure up (a god or spirit) ; (in law) to enforce payment, recover (a debt), collect (taxes) etc. ; to subdue a disease, set right, heal, cure ; to bring to an end or conclusion, complete, make perfect, bring about, accomplish, effect, fulfil, execute, practice (with vākyam-,"to execute any one's [ genitive case ] order";with naiṣkarmyam-,"to practise inactivity";with marum-,"to practise abstinence";with mantram-,"to practise the recitation of spells") etc. ; to attain one's object, be successful ; to produce, make, render (two accusative) ; to establish a truth, substantiate, prove, demonstrate ; to make ready, prepare ; to gain, obtain, acquire, procure etc. ; to find out (by calculation), ; to grant, bestow, yield etc. ; to put or place in (locative case) ; to set out, proceed, go (in dramatic language according to to = gam-) etc.: Desiderative of Causal siṣādhayisati- or sisādhayirhati-, to desire to establish or prove : Desiderative siṣātsati- grammar : Intensive , sāsādhyate-, sāsdidhi-
sidh cl.1 P. () s/edhati- (in later language also te-; perfect tense siṣedha-, Epic also siṣidhe-; Aorist asedhīt- grammar also asaitsīt-; future seddhā-or sedhitā- grammar; setsyati-or sedhiṣyati- etc.; infinitive mood seddhum- etc.; sedhitum- grammar; ind.p. -s/idhya- ), to drive off, scare away, repel, restrain, hinder ; to punish, chastise ; to ordain, instruct ; to turn out well or auspiciously : Passive voice sidhyate- (Aorist asedhi-), to be driven or kept off or repelled etc.: Causal sedhayati- (Aorist asīṣidhat-) grammar : Desiderative of Causal siṣedhayiṣati- : Desiderative sisedhiṣati-, sisidhiṣati-, siṣitsati- : Intensive seṣidhyate-, seṣeddhi- (pr. p. -s/eṣidhat- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sidh (weak form of sādh-) cl.4 P. () s/idhyati- (Epic and mc. also te-;pf: siṣedha- ; Aorist asidhat- grammar; saitsīt- ; preceding sidhyāsam- grammar; future seddhā- ; setsyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood seddhum- grammar; ind.p. sedhitvā-, sidhitvā-,or siddhvā- ), to be accomplished or fulfilled or effected or settled, be successful, succeed etc. ; to hit a mark (locative case) ; to attain one's aim or object, have success etc. ; to attain the highest object, become perfect, attain beatitude ; to be valid or admissible, hold good ; to be proved or demonstrated or established, result from ; to be set right, (especially) be healed or cured ; to be well cooked ; to conform to a person's will, yield to (genitive case) ; to fall to a person's (genitive case) lot or share ; to come into existence, originate, arise : Causal sedhayati- (Aorist asīṣidhat-) or sādhayati-, to show the knowledge or skill (of any one, the former,"with reference to sacred things", the latter,"to secular things") on (sadh-), to accomplish, effect : Desiderative siṣitsati- grammar : Intensive seṣidhyate-, seṣeddhi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīrṣan. (connected with śiras-:collateral of śīrṣ/an-below, from which it is not separable in compound; m.only in vasti-ś- q.v; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-or ī-).), the head, skull (accusative with Causal of vṛtśiras-with idem or 'mfn. (fr. 1. śrī-) mixed (in -śīrta- ; see śrīt/a-,p.1098).') etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skand (confer, compare skandh-and skund-) cl.1 P. () skandati- (mc. also te-; cask/anda- etc.; caskande- etc.; Aorist askan-, sk/an- ; /askān-, skān- ; askāntsīt- ; askadat- grammar; preceding skadyāt- ; future skanttā- ; skantsyati- ; infinitive mood skanditum- grammar; -sk/ade-, -sk/adas- ; ind.p. skanttvā- grammar; -sk/andya-or -sk/adya- ; -sk/andam- ), to leap, jump, hop, dart, spring, spurt out, be spilt or effused (especially said of semen) etc. ; (A1.) to emit seminal fluid ; to leap upon, cover (said of animals) ; to drop, fall down, perish, be lost : Passive voice skadyate- (perf. caskade-or caskande-; Aorist askandi-) grammar : Causal skandayati- (mc. also te-; Aorist acask/andat-), to cause to jump or leap (in explaining skanda-) ; to pour out, effuse, shed, spill, emit (especially seminal fluid) ; to omit, neglect etc. ; to cause to coagulate, thicken : Desiderative ciskantsati-, grammar : Intensive canīskadyate-, canīskandīti- (grammar), k/aniṣkan-, -caniṣkadat- ; (), to leap, jump, hop etc. [ confer, compare Greek ; Latin scando,de-scendo;scAlaforscant(s)la.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svalpadṛśmfn. very shortsighted (metaphorically) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tud cl.6 P. d/ati- (parasmE-pada f. datī-or dantī- ; perfect tense tut/oda-; future 2nd totsyati-or tottā-, ; Aorist atautsīt-) to push, strike, goad, bruise, sting, vex etc. ; Passive voice to pain (said of a wound) : Causal See todita- ; ([ confer, compare t/ottra-etc.; etc.; Latin tundo.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udrudhP. (Aorist -arautsīt-) to push away, turn out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vas cl.1 P. () v/asati- (mc. also te-; perfect tense uvāsa-, ūṣuḥ- etc.; parasmE-pada vāvasāna- ; -vāsāṃ cakre- ; Aorist avātsīt- ; avāksam- [where it is artificially connected with vāc-]; avāstam- ; future vastā- grammar; vatsyati-, te- etc.; vasiṣyati- ; infinitive mood vastum-, vasitum- etc.; ind.p. uṣitv/ā- ; uṣṭvā- ; -/uṣya- etc.), to dwell, live, stop (at a place), stay (especially "overnight" , with or without rātrim-or rātrīs-) etc. ; to remain, abide with or in (with locative case of Persian; locative case or accusative of place, especially with vāsam-or vasatim-) etc. ; to remain or keep on or continue in any condition (with a pp., exempli gratia, 'for example' with channa-,"to continue to be covered" ;or with an accusative,with brahmacaryam-,"to practise chastity" ;or with an adverb exempli gratia, 'for example' with sukham-,"to live pleasantly or at ease";with or without dūratas-,"to keep aloof") etc. ; to have sexual intercourse with (locative case) ; to rest upon (locative case) ; to charge or entrust with (instrumental case) ; cl.10 P. vasayati-, to dwell : Passive voice uṣyate- (Aorist avāsi-), to be dwelt etc. etc.: Causal vās/ayati-, te- (confer, compare ; Aorist avīvasat- : Passive voice vāsy/ate- , ti- ), to cause to halt or stay (overnight), lodge, receive hospitably or as a guest etc. ; to cause to have sexual intercourse with (locative case) ; to let anything stand overnight (with tisro-, scilicet ratrīs-,"three nights") ; to cause to wait, keep in suspense ; to delay, retard ; to cause to exist, preserve ; to cause to be inhabited, populate (a country) ; to put in, place upon (locative case) (anadhyāyam mukhe-,to put restraint on the mouth, refrain from speaking) ; to produce : Desiderative vivatsati-, to wish to dwell : Intensive vāvasyate-, vāvasti-, to remain, be in, be engaged in [ confer, compare Gothic wisan; German wësan,ge-wesen,waretc.; Anglo-Saxon wësan; English was,were.]
vātsīmāṇḍavīputra(v/ātsī--) m. Name of a preceptor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatsīputra wrong reading for vātsī-p-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatsīputrīya wrong reading for vātsī-p-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātsīputrīyam. plural the sect or school of vātsī-putra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedabāhyam. "outside the veda-", an unbeliever, sceptic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vid (originally identical with1. vid-) cl.6 P. A1. () vind/ati-, te- (Vedic or Veda also vitt/e-, vid/e-; parasmE-pada vidān/a-or vidāna-[ q.v ]; Epic 3. plural vindate- Potential vindyāt-,often equals vidyāt-; perfect tense viv/eda-[3. plural vividus- subjunctive vividat-], vividv/as-,3. plural vividre-, vidr/e- etc.; parasmE-pada vividv/as- ; vividivas- ; Aorist /avidat-, data- [ Vedic or Veda subjunctive vid/āsi-, d/āt-; Potential vid/et-, deta- ;3. sg. videṣṭa- ]; A1.1. sg. avitsi- ; future vettā-, vediṣyati- grammar; vetsyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood vid/e- ; vettum- etc.; v/ettave- ; ttavai-[?] and tos- ; ind.p. vittv/ā- ; -vidya- etc.) , to find, discover, meet or fall in with, obtain, get, acquire, partake of, possess etc. etc. (with diśas-,to find out the quarters of she sky ) ; to get or procure for (dative case) ; to seek out, look for, attend to etc. ; to feel, experience ; to consider as, take for (two accusative) ; to come upon, befall, seize, visit ; to contrive, accomplish, perform, effect, produce ; (A1. mc. also P.) to take to wife, marry (with or scilicet bhāryām-) etc. ; to find (a husband), marry (said of a woman) ; to obtain (a son, with or scilicet sutam-) : Passive voice or A1. vidy/ate- (Epic also ti-; parasmE-pada vidyamāna-[ q.v ]; Aorist avedi-), to be found, exist, be etc. ; (especially in later language) vidyate-,"there is, there exists", often with na-,"there is not" ; with bhoktum-,"there is something to eat" ; followed by a future ,"is it possible that?" ; yathā-vid/e-,"as it happens" id est "as usual","as well as possible" : Causal vedayati-, to cause to find etc. : Desiderative vividiṣati- or vivitsati-, te- grammar (see vivitsita-): Intensive vevidyate-, vevetti- (for parasmE-pada v/evidat-and dāna-See vi--and saṃvid-).
vyadh cl.4 P. () v/idhyati- (Epic also te-; perfect tense parasmE-pada vivyādha- etc.;3. plural vivyadhuḥ- , vividhuḥ- ; A1. vivyadhe- ; parasmE-pada vividhv/as- ; Aorist vyātsīḥ- ; preceding vidhyāt- grammar; future veddhā-, vetsyati-, te- ; vyaddhā-, vyatsyati- grammar; infinitive mood veddhum- ; -vidhe- ; ind.p. viḍḍhvā-, -vidhya- ), to pierce, transfix, hit, strike, wound etc. ; (with sirām-) to open a vein, bleed ; to pelt with (instrumental case) ; to inflict, attach to, affect with (accusative of Persian and instrumental case of thing) ; to shake, wave ; (in astronomy) to fix the position of a heavenly body ; to cling to (accusative) : Causal vyādhayati-, (Epic also vedhayati-; Aorist avīvidhat-or avivyadhat-), to pierce, open (a vein) ; to cause to pierce or perforate : Desiderative vivyatsati-, to wish to affect or taint with (instrumental case) : Intensive vevidhyate- or vāvyaddhi- (?) grammar
yudh cl.4 A1. () y/udhyate- (rarely P. ti-; cl.1 P. yodhati- ; imperative y/otsi- ; perfect tense yuy/odha-, yuyudh/e- etc.; Aorist Ved. yodhi-, yodhat-, yodhān/a-; ayodhīt-, yodhiṣat-; yutsmahi-; Epic yotsīs-;Class. ayuddha-; future yoddhā- ; yotsyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood yudh/e-or yudh/aye- ; yudham- ; yoddhum- ; ind.p. -yuddhvī- ; -yudhya- ), to fight, wage war, oppose or (rarely) overcome in battle ; to fight with (instrumental case,also with saha-, samam-) or for (locative case) or against (accusative) etc. ; (y/udhyati-), to go ; to move, fluctuate (as waves) (confer, compare on ) : Passive voice yudhyate-, to be fought (also impersonal or used impersonally) (varia lectio): Causal yodh/ayati- (; mc. also te-; Aorist ayūyudhat- ; Passive voice yodhyate- ), to cause to fight, lead to war, engage in battle etc. ; to oppose or overcome in war, be a match for (accusative) etc. ; to defend : Desiderative y/uyutsati-, te- (P.in Class. only mc.) , to be desirous or anxious to fight, wish to fight with (instrumental case) etc.: Causal of Desiderative yuyutsayati-, to make desirous of fighting : Intensive yoyudhyate-, yoyoddhi- (confer, compare yavīy/udh-) grammar ([ confer, compare Zend yud; Greek .]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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antara अन्तर a. [अन्तं राति ददाति, रा-क] 1 Being in the inside, interior, inward, internal (opp. बाह्य); योन्तरो यमयति Śat. Br.; ˚र आत्मा Tait. Up.; कश्चनान्तरो धर्मः S. D. अन्तरापणवीथ्यश्च नानापण्योपशोभिताः अनुगच्छन्तु Rām.7.64.3. -2 Near, proximate (आसन्न); कृष्वा युजश्चिदन्तरम् Rv.1. 1.9. -3 Related, intimate, dear, closely connected (आत्मीय) (opp. पर); तदेतत्प्रेयः पुत्रात् ...... प्रेयो$न्यस्मात्सर्व- स्मादन्तरतरं यदयमात्मा Śat. Br.; अयमत्यन्तरो मम Bharata. -4 Similar (also अन्तरतम) (of sounds and words); स्थाने$न्तरतमः P.I.1.5; हकारस्य घकारोन्तरतमः Śabdak.; सर्वस्य पदस्य स्थाने शब्दतो$र्थतश्चान्तरतमे द्वे शब्दस्वरूपे भवतः P. VIII.1.1. Com. -5 (a) Different from, other than (with abl.); यो$प्सु तिष्ठन्नद्भ्यो$न्तरः Bṛi. Ār. Up.; आत्मा स्वभावो$न्तरो$न्यो यस्य स आत्मान्तरः अन्यस्वभावः व्यवसायिनो$न्तरम् P.VI.2.166 Sk. ततो$न्तराणि सत्त्वानि स्वादते स महाबलः Rām.7. 62.5. (b) The other; उदधेरन्तरं पारम् Rām. -6 Exterior, outer, situated outside, or to be worn outside (अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः P.I.1.36) (In this sense it is declined optionally like सर्व in nom. pl. and abl. and loc. sing.) अन्तरे-रा वा गृहाः बाह्या इत्यर्थः (चण्डालादिगृहाः); अन्तरे-रा वा शाटकाः परिधानीया इत्यर्थः Sk.; so अन्तरायां पुरि, अन्तरायै नगर्यै, नमो$न्तरस्मै अमेधसाम् Vop. -रम् 1 (a) The interior, inside; ततान्तरं सान्तरवारिशीकरैः Ki.4.29,5.5; जालान्तरगते भानौ Ms.8.132; विमानान्तरलम्बिनीनाम् R.13.33; Mk.8.5, Ku. 7.62; अपि वनान्तरं श्रयति V.4.24; लीयन्ते मुकुलान्तरेषु Ratn. 1.26, Ki.3.58; अन्तरात् from inside, from out of; प्राकारपरिखान्तरान्निर्ययुः Rām.; अन्तरे in, into; वन˚, कानन˚, प्रविश्यान्तरे &c. (b) Hence, the interior of any thing, contents; purport, tenor; अत्रान्तरं ब्रह्मविदो विदित्वा Śvet. Up. (c) A hole, an opening; तस्य बाणान्तरेभ्यस्तु बहु सुस्राव शोणितम्. -2 Soul, heart; mind; सततमसुतरं वर्णयन्त्यन्तरम् Ki.5.18 the inmost or secret nature (lit. middle space or region); लब्धप्रतिष्ठान्तरैः भृत्यैः Mu.3.13 having entered the heart; सदृशं पुरुषान्तरविदो महेन्द्रस्य V.3. -3 The Supreme Soul. -4 Interval, intermediate time or space, distance; रम्यान्तरः Ś.4.11; किंचिदन्तरमगमम् Dk.6; अल्प- कुचान्तरा V.4.49; क्रोशान्तरेण पथि स्थिताः H.4 at the distance of; बृहद् भुजान्तरम् R.3.54; अन्तरे oft. translated by between, betwixt; गीतान्तरेषु Ku.3.38 in the intervals of singing; मरणजीवितयोरन्तरे वर्ते betwixt life and death; अस्त्रयोगान्तरेषु Rām.; तन्मुहूर्तकं बाष्पसलिलान्तरेषु प्रेक्षे तावदार्यपुत्रम् U.3 in the intervals of weeping; बाष्पविश्रामो$प्यन्तरे कर्तव्य एव U.4 at intervals; स्मर्तव्योस्मि कथान्तरेषु भवता Mk.7.7 in the course of conversation; कालान्तरावर्तिशुभाशुभानि H.1 v. l. See कालान्तरम्; सरस्वतीदृषद्वत्योर्यदन्तरम् Ms.2.17,22; द्यावापृथिव्यो- रिदमन्तरं हि व्याप्तं त्वयैकेन Bg.11.2; न मृणालसूत्रं रचितं स्तनान्तरे Ś.6.18 between the breasts; Bg.5.27; अस्य खलु ते बाणपथवर्तिनः कृष्णसारस्यान्तरे तपस्विन उपस्थिताः Ś.1; तदन्तरे सा विरराज धेनुः R.2.2;12.29. (b) Intervention (व्यवधान) oft. in the sense of 'through'; मेघान्तरालक्ष्यमि- वेन्दुबिम्बम् R.13.38 through the clouds; वस्त्रं अन्तरं व्यवधायकं यस्य स वस्त्रान्तरः P.VI.2.166 Sk.; महानद्यन्तरं यत्र तद्देशान्त- रमुच्यते; जालान्तरप्रेषितदृष्टिः R.7.9 peeping through a window; विटपान्तरेण अवलोकयामि Ś.1; क्षणमपि विलम्बमन्तरीकर्तु- मक्षमा K.36 to allow to come between or intervene; कियच्चिरं वा मैघान्तरेण पूर्णिमाचन्द्रस्य दर्शनम् U.3. -5 Room, place, space in general; मृणालसूत्रान्तरमप्यलभ्यम् Ku.1.4; न ह्यविद्धं तयोर्गात्रे बभूवाङ्गुलमन्तरम् Rām.; मूषिकैः कृते$न्तरे Y.1. 147; गुणाः कृतान्तराः K.4 finding or making room for themselves; न यस्य कस्यचिदन्तरं दातव्यम् K.266; देहि दर्शना- न्तरम् 84. room; पौरुषं श्रय शोकस्य नान्तरं दातुमर्हसि Rām. do not give way to sorrow; तस्यान्तरं मार्गते Mk.7.2 waits till it finds room; अन्तरं अन्तरम् Mk.2 make way, make way. -6 Access, entrance, admission, footing; लेभेन्तरं चेतसि नोपदेशः R.6.66 found no admission into (was not impressed on) the mind; 17.75; लब्धान्तरा सावरणे$पि गेहे 16.7. -7 Period (of time), term; मासान्तरे देयम् Ak.; सप्तैते मनवः । स्वे स्वेन्तरे सर्वमिदमुत्पाद्यापुश्चराचरम् Ms.1.63, see मन्वन्तरम्; इति तौ विरहान्तरक्षमौ R.8.56 the term or period of separation; क्षणान्तरे -रात् within the period of a moment. -8 Opportunity, occasion, time; देवी चित्रलेखामव- लोकयन्ती तिष्ठति । तस्मिन्नन्तरे भर्तोपस्थितः M.1. अत्रान्तरे प्रणम्याग्रे समुपविष्टः; Pt.1 on that occasion, at that time; अस्मिन्नन्तरे Dk.164; केन पुनरुपायेन मरणनिर्वाणस्यान्तरं संभावयिष्ये Māl.6; कृतकृत्यता लब्धान्तरा भेत्स्यति Mu.2.22 getting an opportunity; 9; यावत्त्वामिन्द्रगुरवे निवेदयितुं अन्तरान्वेषी भवामि Ś.7. find a fit or opportune time; शक्तेनापि सता जनेन विदुषा कालान्तरप्रेक्षिणा वस्तव्यम् Pt.3.12; waiting for a suitable opportunity or time; सारणस्यान्तरं दृष्ट्वा शुको रावणमब्रवीत् Rām. -9 Difference (between two things), (with gen. or in comp.) शरीरस्य गुणानां च दूरमत्यन्तमन्तरम् H.1.46; उभयोः पश्यतान्तरम् H.1.64, नारीपुरुषतोयानामन्तरं महदन्तरम् 2.39; तव मम च समुद्रपल्वलयोरिवान्तरम् M.1; Bg.13.34; यदन्तरं सर्षपशैलराजयोर्यदन्तरं वायसवैनतेययोः Rām.; द्रुमसानुमतां किमन्तरम् R.8.9;18.15; rarely with instr.; त्वया समुद्रेण च महदन्तरम् H.2; स्वामिनि गुणान्तरज्ञे Pt.1.11; difference; सैव विशिनष्टि पुनः प्रधानपुरषान्तरं सूक्ष्मम् Sāṅ. K. -1 (Math.) Difference, remainder also subtraction, cf. योगोन्तरेणोनयुतो$र्धितस्तौ राशी स्मृतौ संक्रमणाख्यमेतत् ॥ Līlā. -11 (a) Different, another, other, changed, altered (manner, kind, way &c.); (Note:- that in this sense अन्तर always forms the latter part of a compound and its gender remains unaffected i. e. neuter, whatever be the gender of the noun forming the first part; कन्यान्तरम् (अन्या कन्या), राजान्तरम् (अन्यो राजा), गृहान्तरम् (अन्यद् गृहम्); in most cases it may be rendered by the English word 'another'.); इदमवस्थान्तरमारोपिता Ś.3 changed condition; K.154; Mu.5; शुभाशुभफलं सद्यो नृपाद्देवाद्भवान्तरे Pt.1.121; जननान्तरसौहृदानि &Sacute.5.2 friendships of another (former) existence; नैवं वारान्तरं विधास्यते H.3 I shall not do so again; आमोदान् हरिदन्तराणि नेतुम् Bv.1.15, so दिगन्तराणि; पक्षान्तरे in the other case; देश˚, राज˚, क्रिया˚ &c. (b) Various, different, manifold (used in pl.); लोको नियम्यत इवात्मदशान्तरेषु Ś.4.2; मन्निमित्तान्यवस्थान्तराण्यवर्णयत् Dk.118 various or different states; 16; sometimes used pleonastically with अन्यत् &c.; अन्यत्स्थानान्तरं गत्वा Pt.1. -12 Distance (in space); व्यामो बाह्वोः सकरयोस्ततयोस्ति- र्यगन्तरम् Ak.; प्रयातस्य कथंचिद् दूरमन्तरम् Ks.5.8. -13 Absence; तासामन्तरमासाद्य राक्षरीनां वराङ्गना Rām.; तस्यान्तरं च विदित्वा ibid. -14 Intermediate member, remove, step, gradation (of a generation &c.); एकान्तरम् Ms.1.13; द्वयेकान्तरासु जातानाम् 7; एकान्तरमामन्त्रितम् P.VIII.1.55; तत्स्रष्टुरेकान्तरम् Ś.7.27 separated by one remove, See एकान्तर also. -15 Peculiarity, peculiar or characteristic possession or property; a (peculiar) sort, variety, or kind; व्रीह्यन्तरेप्यणुः Trik.; मीनो राश्यन्तरे, वेणुर्नृपान्तरे ibid.; प्रासङ्गो युगान्तरम् cf. also प्रधानपुरुषान्तरं सूक्ष्मम् Sāṅ. K.37. &c. -16 Weakness, weak or vulnerable point; a failing, defect, or defective point; प्रहरेदन्तरे रिपुम्, Śabdak. सुजयः खलु तादृगन्तरे Ki.2.52; असहद्भिर्माममिमित्रैर्नित्यमन्तरदर्शिभिः Rām; परस्यान्तरदर्शिना ibid.; कीटकेनेवान्तरं मार्गयमाणेन प्राप्तं मया महदन्तरम् Mk.9; अथास्य द्वादशे वर्षे ददर्श कलिरन्तरम् Nala.7.2.; हनूमतो वेत्ति न राक्षसो$न्तरं न मारुतिस्तस्य च राक्षसो$न्तरम् Rām. -17 Surety, guarantee, security; तेन तव विरूपकरणे सुकृतमन्तरे धृतम् Pt.4 he has pledged his honour that he will not harm you; आत्मान- मन्तरे$र्पितवान् K.247; अन्तरे च तयोर्यः स्यात् Y.2.239; भुवः संज्ञान्तरयोः P.III.2.179; धनिकाधमर्णयोरन्तरे यस्तिष्ठति विश्वासार्थं स प्रतिभूः Sk. -18 Regard, reference, account; न चैतदिष्टं माता मे यदवोचन्मदन्तरम् Rām. with reference to me; त्वदन्तरेण ऋणमेतत्. -19 Excellence, as in गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः M.1.6 (this meaning may be deduced from 11). -2 A garment (परिधान). -21 Purpose, object, (तादर्थ्य) तौ वृषाविव नर्दन्तौ बलिनौ वासितान्तरे Mb.1.12.41; (Malli. on R.16.82). -22 Concealment, hiding; पर्व- तान्तरितो रविः (this sense properly belongs to अन्तर्-इ q. v.). -23 Representative, substitution. क्षात्रमाचरतो मार्गमपि बन्धोस्त्वदन्तरे Mb.12.1.3. -24 Destitution, being without (विना) which belongs to अन्तरेण. (अन्तरमवकाशाव- धिपरिधानान्तर्धिभेदतादर्थ्ये । छिद्रात्मीर्यावेनाबहिरवसरमध्येन्तरात्मनि च Ak.) [cf. L. alter] -25 Space (अवकाश); प्रेक्षतामृषि- सङ्घानां बभूव न तदान्तरम् Rām.7.14.19. -26 Separation (वियोग); भार्यापत्योरन्तरम् Mb.5.35.43. -27 A move or skilful play in wrestling; अन्योन्यस्थान्तरप्रेप्सू प्रचक्राते$न्तरं प्रति Mb.9.57.11. -28 A moulding of the pedestal and the base; षडंशं चान्तरे कर्णे उत्तरांशं तदूर्ध्वके । Māna.13.121; cf. स्थानात्मीयान्यतादर्थ्यरन्ध्रान्तर्धिषु चान्तरम् । परिधाने$वधौ मध्ये$- न्तरात्मनि नपुंसके । Nm. -Comp. -अपत्या a pregnant woman. -चक्रम् a technical term in augury Bṛi. S. chap.86. -ज्ञ a. knowing the interior, prudent, wise, foreseeing; नान्तरज्ञाः श्रियो जातु प्रियैरासां न भूयते Ki.11.24 not knowing the difference. -तत् a. spreading havoc. -द a. cutting the interior or heart. -दिशा, अन्तरा दिक् intermediate region or quarter of the compass. -दृश् a. realizing the Supreme Soul (परमात्मानुसंधायिन्). -पु(पू)रुषः the internal man, soul (the deity that resides in man and witnesses all his deeds); तांस्तु देवाः प्रपश्यन्ति स्वस्यैवान्तरपूरुषः; Ms.8.85. -पूजा = अन्तर-पूजा. -प्रभवः [अन्तराभ्यां भिन्नवर्णमातापितृभ्यां प्रभवति] one of a mixed origin or caste. (अम्बष्ठ, क्षत्तृ, करण, इ.); अन्तरप्रभवाणां च धर्मान्नो वक्तुमर्हसि Ms.1.2. -प्रश्नः an inner question, one contained in and arising out of what has been previously mentioned. -शायिन् -स्थ, -स्थायिन् -स्थित a. 1 inward, internal, inherent; ˚स्थैर्गुणैः शुभ्रैर्लक्ष्यते नैव केन चित् Pt. 1.221. -2 interposed, intervening, separate. -3 seated in the heart, an epithet of जीव.
apa अप ind. [न पाति रक्षति पतनात् पा-ड Tv.] 1 (As a prefix to verbs it means) (a) Away, away from, denoting वियोग; अपयाति, अपनयति; (b) deterioration (विकृति); अपकरोति does wrongly or badly; (c) opposition, negation, contradiction (विपरीत); अपकर्षति, अपचिनोति; (d) direction or mention or illustration (निदर्शन); अपदिशति; (e) exclusion (वर्जन); अपवह्, अपसृ Caus. (f) joy, merriment or laughter (आनन्द); अपहसति; (g) concealment or denial (चौर्य); अपलपति, अपवदते. -2 As first member of Tat. or Bahuvrīhi comp. it has all the above senses; अपयानम्, अपकर्म, अपपाठः; अपशब्दः a bad or corrupt word; ˚भी fearless; ˚कल्मष stainless; अपरागः discontent (opp. to अनुराग); ˚मेघोदयं वर्षम् Ku.6.54 &c. In most cases अप may be translated by 'bad', 'inferior', 'corrupt', 'wrong', 'unworthy', &c. It also means 'going downwards' as in अपानः. -3 As a separable preposition (with a noun in the abl.) (a) away from; यत्संप्रत्यप लोकेभ्यो लङ्कायां वसतिर्भयात् Rām; (b) without, on the outside of; अप हरेः संसारः Sk.; (c) with the exception of, excepting; अप त्रिगर्तेभ्यो वृष्टो देवः Sk. on the outside of, with the exception of. In these senses अप may form adverbial compounds also (P.II.1.12); ˚विष्णु संसारः Sk. without Viṣṇu; ˚त्रिगर्तं वृष्टो देवः excepting त्रिगर्त &c. It also implies negation, contradiction &c.; ˚कामम्, ˚शङ्कम्. The senses of this word as given by G. M. may be thus put in verse; वर्जने विकृतौ चौर्ये विपरीतवियोगयोः । अपकृष्टे च निर्देशे हर्षे चापः प्रयुज्यते. [cf. L. ab; Gr. apo; Goth. af. Eng. of or off; Zend apa].
āhiṇḍikaḥ आहिण्डिकः A man of mixed origin, the son of a Niṣāda father and Vaidehī mother; आहिण्डिको निषादेन वैदेह्यामेव जायते Ms.1.37 (according to Kull., he was employed as a watchman on the outside of jails; and hence called आहिण्डिक).
grāmaḥ ग्रामः [ग्रस्-मन् आदन्तादेशः] 1 A village, hamlet; पत्तने विद्यमाने$पि ग्रामे रत्नपरीक्षा M.1; त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे ग्रामस्यार्थे कुलं त्यजेत् । ग्रामं जनपदस्यार्थे स्वात्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्यजेत् ॥ H.1.129; R.1.44; Me.3. -2 A race, community; कथा ग्रामं न पृच्छसि Rv.1.146.1. -3 A multitude, collection (of anything); e. g. गुणग्राम, इन्द्रियग्राम; Bg.8.19;9.8. शस्त्रास्त्र- ग्रामकोविदः Bm.1.611,613. -4 A gamut, scale in music; स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छनाम् Śi.1.1. -Comp. -अक्षपटलिकः a village archioist; Hch.7.23. -अधिकृतः, -अधिपः, -अधिपतिः, -अध्यक्षः, -ईशः, -ईश्वरः superintendent, head, chief of a village; ग्रामाधिपस्य तरुणीमहं भार्यां सदा भजे Ks.64.115; Ms.7.115. -अन्तः the border of a village, space near a village; Ms.4.116;11.78. -अन्तरम् another village. -अन्तिकम् the neighbourhood of a village. -अन्तीय a. situated in the neighbourhood of a village; Ms.8.24. -यम् space near a village. -आचारः a village custom. -आधानम् hunting. -उपाध्यायः the village priest. -कण्टकः 1 'the village-pest', one who is a source of trouble to the village. -2 a tale-bearer. -काम a. 1 one wishing to take possession of a village. -2 fond of living in villages. -कायस्थ a village scribe. -कुक्कुटः a domestic cock; Ms.5.12,19. -कुमारः 1 one beautiful in a village. -2 a village-boy. -कूटः 1 the noblest man in a village. -2 a Śūdra. -गृह्य a. being outside a village. -गृह्यकः a village-carpenter. -गोदुहः the herdsman of a village. -घातः plundering a village; Ms.9.274. -घोषिन् a. sounding among men or armies (as a drum); प्रवेदकृद् बहुधा ग्रामघोषी Av. 5.2.9. -m. an epithet of Indra. -चर्या sexual intercourse; (स्त्रीसंभोग). -चैत्यः a sacred fig-tree of a village; नीडारम्भैर्गृहबलिभुजामाकुलग्रामचैत्याः Me.23. -ज, -जात a. 1 village-born, rustic. -2 grown in cultivated ground; Ms.6.16. -जालम् a number of villages, a district. -णीः 1 the leader or chief of a village or community; तयोर्युद्धं समभवद्रक्षोग्रामणिमुख्ययोः Mb.7.19.3. -2 a leader or chief in general. -3 a barber. -4 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -5 a libidinous man. -6 a yakṣa; उन्नह्यन्ति रथं नागा ग्रामण्यो रथयोजकाः Mb.12.11.48. (-f.) 1 a whore, harlot. -2 the indigo plant. ˚पुत्रः a bastard, the son of a harlot. -तक्षः a village-carpenter; P.V.4.95. -देवता the tutelary deity of a village. -द्रुमः a sacred tree in a village. -धर्मः 1 the observances or customs of a village. -2 sexual intercourse. -धान्यम् a cultivated grain (like rice); ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः Mb.12.36.48. See ग्राम्यधान्यम्. -पालः 1 the guardian of a village. -2 army for the protection of a village. -पुरुषः the chief of a village. -प्रेष्यः the messenger or servant of a community or village. -मद्गुरिका 1 a riot, fray, village tumult. -2 N. of a fish (or a plant) -मुखम् a market. -मृगः a dog. -याजकः, -याजिन् m. 1 'the village priest,' a priest who conducts the religious ceremonies for all classes and is consequently considered as a degraded Brāhmaṇa; Ms.4.25. -2 the attendant of an idol. -युद्धम् a riot, fray. -लुण्ठनम् plundering a village. -वासः (ग्रामेवासः also) 1 a villager. -2 residence in a village. -विशेषः a variety of scales in music; स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छना Śi. -वृद्धः an old villager; प्राप्यावन्तीनुदयनकथाकोविदग्रामवृद्धान् Me.3. -षण्डः an impotent man (क्लीब). -संकरः the common sewer or drain of a village. -संघः a villagecorporation. -सिंहः a dog; व्यमुञ्चन्विविधा वाचो ग्रामसिंहास्त- तस्ततः Bhāg.3.17.1. -स्थः a. 1 a villager. -2 a covillager. -हासकः a sister's husband.
nis निस् ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs it implies separation (away from, outside of), certainty, completeness or fulness, enjoyment, crossing over, transgressing &c.; (for examples see under (निर्). -2 As a prefix to nouns, not directly derived from verbs, it forms nouns or adjectives, and has the sense of (a) 'out of', 'away from'; as in निर्वन, निष्कौशाम्बि; or (b) more usually, 'not', 'without', 'devoid of' (having a privative force); निःशेष 'without a remainder'; निष्फल, निर्जल, &c. N. B. In compound the स् of निस् is changed to र् before vowels and soft consonants (see निर्), to a visarga before sibilants, to श् before च् and छ्, and to ष् before क् and प्; cf. दुस्. -Comp. -कण्टक (निष्कण्टक) a. 1 thornless. -2 free from thorns or enemies, free from danger or nuisance. (-कः) N. of Śiva. -कन्द (निष्कन्द) a. without edible roots. -कपट (निष्कपट) a. guileless, sincere. -कम्प (निष्कम्प) a. motionless, steady, immovable; निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः Ś.1.8; Ku.3.48. -करुण (निष्करुण) a. merciless, pitiless, cruel. -करूष (निष्क रूष) a. free from dirt. -कर्मन् (निष्कर्मन्) a. inactive. -कल (निष्कल) a. 1 without parts, undivided, whole. -2 waned, decayed, diminished. -3 impotent, barren. -4 maimed. -5 inarticulate (a musical term); N.21.16. -6 Without attributes, or qualities; निष्कलं निष्क्रियं शान्तं निरवद्यं निरञ्जनम् Śvet. Up; Bhāg.1.9.44; तद् ब्रह्म निष्कलमहं (स्मरामि). -(लः) 1 a receptacle. -2 the pudendum muliebre. -3 N. of Brahmā. (-ला, -ली) an elderly woman, one who is past child-bearing, or one in whom menstruation has ceased. -कलङ्क, (निष्कलङ्क) -कल्मष a. stainless, spotless. -कषाय (निष्कषाय) a. free from dirt or impure passions. -कान्त (निष्कान्त) a. not lovely, ugly. -काम (निष्काम) a. 1 free from wish or desire, desireless, disinterested, unselfish. -2 free from all worldly desires; विशिष्टफलदाः पुंसां निष्कामाणां विमुक्तिदाः Viṣṇu. P. (-मम् ind.) 1 without wish or desire. -2 unwillingly. -कारण (निष्कारण) a. 1 causeless, unnecessary. -2 disinterested, free from any motive; निष्कारणो बन्धुः. -3 groundless, not proceeding from any cause. (-णम् ind.) without any cause or reason, causelessly, needlessly. -कालकः (निष्कालकः) a penitent shaven and smeared with clarified butter. -कालिक (निष्कालिक) a. 1 one whose term of life is over or elapsed, whose days are numbered. -2 one who has no conqueror, invincible (अजय्य). -किञ्चन (निष्किञ्चन) a. penniless, poor, indigent; प्रज्ञानं शौचमेवात्र शरीरस्य विशेषतः । तथा निष्कि- ञ्चनत्वं च मनसश्च प्रसन्नता ॥ Mb. -किल्विष (निष्किल्विष) a. sinless, faultless. -कुल (निष्कुल) a. having no kindred, left alone in the world. (निष्कुलं कृ 'to cut off completely, exterminate'; निष्कुला कृ 1 to exterminate one's family -2 to shell, strip off the husk; निष्कुलाकरोति दाडिमम् Sk.; N.22.15.) -कुलीन (निष्कुलीन) a. of low family. -कूज (निष्कूज) a. still, silent; U.2.16. -कूट (निष्कूट) a. pitiless, merciless, cruel. -कैवल्य (निष्कैवल्य) a. 1 mere, pure, absolute. -2 deprived of final beatitude (मोक्षहीन). -कोश (निष्कोश) a. unsheathed. -कौशाम्बि (निष्कौशाम्बि) a. who has gone out of Kauśāmbī. -क्रिय (निष्क्रिय) a. 1 inactive. -2 not performing ceremonial rites; Ms.1.58. -3 knowing higher knowledge as a sage, Saṁnyāsin; न्यासे कुटीचकः पूर्वं बह्वोदो हंस- निष्क्रियौ Bhāg.3.12.43. -यम् the Supreme Spirit (ब्रह्म). -क्षत्र (निःक्षत्र), -क्षत्रिय (निःक्षत्रिय) a. destitute of the military tribe. -क्षेपः (निःक्षेपः) = निक्षेप q. v. -चक्रम् (निश्चक्रम्) ind. completely; निश्चक्रं हतराक्षसः पुनरगाद्ब्रह्मत्व- माद्यं स्थिराम् A. Rām.1.1.1. -चक्रिक (निश्चक्रिक) a. without tricks, honest. -चक्षुस् (निश्चक्षुस्) a. blind, eyeless. -चत्वारिंशः (निश्चत्वारिंश) a. past forty. -चिन्त (निश्चिन्त) a. 1 free from anxiety, unconcerned, secure. -2 thoughtless, unthinking. -चेतन (निश्चेतन) a. unconscious. -चेतस् (निश्चेतस्) a. not in one's right senses, mad. -चेष्ट (निश्चेष्ट) a. motionless, powerless. -चेष्टाकरण (निश्चेष्टाकरण) a. depriving (one) of motion, causing motionlessness (said of one the arrows of Cuhid). -छन्दस् (निश्छन्दस्) a. not studying the Vedas (छन्दस्) Ms.3,7. -छिद्र (निश्छिद्र) a. 1 without holes. -2 without defects or weak points. -3 uninterrupted, unhurt. -तन्तु a. 1 having no offspring, childless. -2 a Brahmachārin; मुण्डा निस्तन्तवश्चापि वस- त्यर्थार्थिनः पृथक् Mb.12.167.16. -तन्द्र, -तन्द्रि a. not lazy, fresh, healthy. -तमस्क -तिमिर a. 1 free from darkness, bright; तस्य द्वितीयहरिविक्रमनिस्तमस्कं वायोरिमं परि- वहस्य वदन्ति मार्गम् Ś.7.6. -2 freed from sin or moral impurities. -तर्क्य a. unimaginable, inconceivable. -तल a. 1 round, globular; मुक्ताकलापस्य च निस्तलस्य Ku.1.42. Kau. A.2.9. -2 moving, trembling, shaking. -3 bottomless. -4 down, below. (-ला) a pill, round ball. -तुल a. matchless, incomparable. -तुष a. 1 freed from chaff. -2 purified, cleansed. -3 simplified. ˚क्षीरः wheat. ˚रत्नम् a crystal. -4 faultless, pure; शशंस गुणैररीणैरुदयास्तनिस्तुषम् N.15.8. -तुषत्वम् faultlessness; कवेः पुष्यति निस्तुषत्वम् Maṅkhaka.2.7. -तुषित a. 1 husked. -2 made thin. -3 abandoned. -तेजस् a. destitute of fire, heat or energy, powerless, impotent; न भेतव्यं भृशं चैते मात्रा निस्ते- जसः कृताः Mārk. P. -2 spiritless, dull. -3 obscure. -त्रप a. impudent, shameless. -त्रिंश a. 1 more than thirty; निस्त्रिंशानि वर्षाणि चैत्रस्य P.V.4.73; Sk. -2 pitiless, merciless, cruel; हे निस्त्रिंश विमुक्तकण्ठकरुणं तावत् सखी रोदितु Amaru.6. (-शः) a sword; निजध्नुः शरनिस्त्रिंशकुन्ततोमरशक्तिभिः Śiva B.3.19; शूरौर्निस्त्रिंशपाणिभिः Parnāl 1.5. ˚भृत् m. a sword-bearer. -त्रैगुण्य a. destitute of the three qualities (सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्); निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन Bg.2.45. -पक्व (निष्पक्व) well cooked, boiled. -पङ्क (निष्पङ्क) a. free from mud, clear, pure. -पताक (निष्पताक) a. having no flag or banner. -पतिसुता (निष्पतिसुता) a woman having no husband and no sons. -पत्र (निष्पत्र) a. 1 leafless. -2 unfeathered, featherless. [निष्पत्राकृ 'to pierce with an arrow so that the feathers come through on the other side'; to cause excessive bodily pain (fig.); निष्पत्राकरोति मृगं व्याधः (सपुङ्खस्य शरस्य अपर- पार्श्वे निर्गमनान्निष्पत्रं करोति Sk.); एकश्च मृगः सपत्राकृतो$न्यश्च निष्पत्राकृतो$पतत् Dk.165; so यान्ती गुरुजनैः साकं स्मयमानानना- म्बुजा । तिर्यग्ग्रीवं यदद्राक्षीत्तन्निष्पत्राकरोज्जगत् Bv.2.132.] -पथ्य (निष्पथ्य) a. unwell, ill -पद (निष्पद) a. having no foot. (-दम्) a vehicle moving without feet (as a ship). -पराक्रम (निष्पराक्रम) a. weak, powerless. -परामर्श (निष्परामर्श) a. without advice, helpless; M.4.2/3 -परिकर (निष्परिकर) a. without preparations. -परिग्रह (निष्परिग्रह) a. having no property or possessions; Mu.2. (-हः) an ascetic without family, dependents, or other belongings. -परिच्छद (निष्परिच्छद) a. having no retinue or train. -परिदाह (निष्परिदाह) a. incombustible. -परिहार्य (निष्परिहार्य) a. To be applied by all means. -परीक्ष (निष्परीक्ष) a. not examining or testing accurately. -परीहार (निष्परीहार) a. 1 not avoiding. -2 not observing caution. -परुष (निष्परुष) a. (in music) soft. -पर्यन्त (निष्पर्यन्त), -पार (निष्पार) a. boundless, unbounded. -पर्याय (निष्पर्याय) a. out of order. -पाप (निष्पाप) sinless, guiltless, pure. -पुत्र (निष्पुत्र) a. sonless, childless. -पुराण (निष्पुराण) a. not existing before, unheard of, new. -पुरुष (निष्पुरुष) 1 unpeopled, tenantless, desolate. -2 without male issue; Ms.3.7. -2 not male, feminine, neuter. -षः 1 a eunuch. -2 a coward. -पुलाक (निष्पुलाक) a. freed from chaff. -पौरुष (निष्पौरुष) a. unmanly. -प्रकम्प (निष्प्रकम्प) a. steady, immovable, motionless. -प्रकारक (निष्प्रकारक) 1 a. without ditinction of species, without specification, absolute. -2 without the relation of the qualifier and the qualified, see निर्विकल्प (7); निष्प्रकारकं ज्ञानं निर्विकल्पकम् T. S. -प्रकाश (निष्प्रकाश) a. not transparent, not clear, dark. -प्रचार (निष्प्रचार) a. 1 not moving away, remaining in one place. -2 concentrated, intently fixed; निष्प्रचारेण मनसा परं तदधिगच्छति Mb.12.215.17. -प्रज्ञ (निष्प्रज्ञ) a. ignorant, stupid. -प्रणय (निष्प्रणय) a. cold. -प्रताप (निष्प्रताप) a. destitute of glory, mean, base; शङ्क- नीया हि सर्वत्र निष्प्रतापा दरिद्रता Pt.2.94. -प्रति(ती)कार (निष्प्रति(ती)कार), -प्रतिक्रिय (निष्प्रतिक्रिय) a. 1 incurable, irremediable; सर्वथा निष्प्रतीकारेयमापदुपस्थिता K. 151. -2 unobstructed, uninterrupted. (-रम्) ind. uninterruptedly. -प्रतिग्रह (निष्प्रतिग्रह) a. not accepting gifts. -प्रतिघ (निष्प्रतिघ) a. unhindered, unobstructed, unimpeded; स हि निष्प्रतिघेन चक्षुषा त्रितयं ज्ञानमयेन पश्यति R.8.78. -प्रतिद्वन्द्व (निष्प्रतिद्वन्द्व) a. without enemies, unopposed. -2 matchless, unrivalled, unequal- led. -प्रतिभ (निष्प्रतिभ) a. 1 devoid of splendour. -2 having no intelligence, not ready-witted, dull, stupid. -3 apathetic. -प्रतिभान (निष्प्रतिभान) a. cowardly, timid. -प्रतीप (निष्प्रतीप) a. 1 looking straightforward, not turned backwards. -2 unconcerned (as a look). -प्रत्याश (निष्प्रत्याश) a. hopeless, despondent. -प्रत्यूह (निष्प्रत्यूह) a. unobstructed, unimpeded; निष्प्रत्यूहाः प्रियसखि यदा दुःसहाः संबभूवुः Māl.9.45; निष्प्र- त्यूहमुपास्महे भगवतः कौमोदकीलक्ष्मणः Murārināṭakam. -प्रपञ्च (निष्प्रपञ्च) a. 1 without extension. -2 without deceit, honest. -प्रभ (निःप्रभ or -निष्प्रभ) a. 1 lustreless, pale-looking; निष्प्रभश्च रिपुरास भूभृताम् R.11.81. -2 powerless. 3 gloomy, obscure, dim, dark. -प्रमाणक (निष्प्रमाणक) a. without authority. -प्रयत्न (निष्प्र- यत्न) a. inactive, dull. -प्रयोजन (निष्प्रयोजन) a. 1 without motive, not influenced by any motive. -2 causeless, groundless, -3 useless. -4 needless, unnecessary. (-नम्) ind. causelessly, without reason, without any object; Mu.3. -प्रवणि, प्रवाण, प्रवाणि (निष्प्रवणि, -ष्प्रवाण, -ष्प्रवाणि) a. fresh from loom, quite new (cloth, &c.) -प्राण (निष्पाण) a. 1 lifeless, dead. -2 Weak (निर्बल); निष्प्राणो नामिहन्तव्यः Mb.12.95.12. -फल (निष्फल) a. 1 bearing no fruit, fruitless (fig. also), unsuccessful, futile; निष्फलारम्भयत्नाः Me.56. -2 useless, profitless, vain; Ku.4.13. -3 barren (as a tree). -4 meaningless (as a word). -5 seedless, impotent. (-ला, -ली) a woman past child-bearing. -फेन (निष्फेन) a. foamless. n. opium. -शङ्क (निःशङ्क) a. free from fear or risk, secure, fearless. (-निःशङ्कः) (in music) a kind of dance. -f. (निःशङ्का) absence of fear. -ind. fearlessly, securely, easily. -शब्द (निःशब्द) a. not expressed in words, inaudible; निःशब्दं रोदितुमारेभे K.135. (-ब्दः, ब्दम्) silence, a calm. -शमः (निःशमः) uneasiness, anxiety. -शरण a. (-निःशरण) helpless, forlorn. -शर्कर (-निःशर्कर) a. free from pebbles (as a bathing place). -शलाक (निःशलाक) a. lonely, solitary, retired. (-कम्) a retired place, solitude; अरण्ये निःशलाके वा मन्त्रयेदविभावितः Ms.7.147. -शल्य a. 1 free from arrows. -2 free from thorns or darts. -शूक (निःशूक) a. merciless, cruel. (-कः) beardless rice. -शेष (निःशेष) a. without remainder (either finished or passed away). -शोध्य (निःशोध्य) a. washed, pure, clean. -श्रीकः a. 1 deprived of lustre, beauty. -2 unhappy. -श्रेयस a. the best, most excellent. (-सः) an epithet of Śiva. (-सम्) final beatitude, absolution; यः करोति वधोदर्का निःश्रेयसकरीः क्रियाः Ki.11.19; see निःश्रेयस also. -2 devotion, faith, belief. -3 apprehension, conception. -4 happiness (in general), welfare; इदं निःश्रेयसं परम् Ms. 1.16. -संशय (निःसंशय) a. 1 undoubted, certain. -2 not doubtful, not suspecting or doubting; कुरु निः- संशयं वत्से स्ववृत्ते लोकमित्यशात् R.15.79. (-यम्) ind. doubtlessly, undoubtedly, surely, certainly. -संस्कार (निःसंस्कार) a. uneducated, ill-mannered. -संख्य (निःसंख्य) a. innumerable. -संग (निःसंग) a. 1 not attached or devoted to, regardless of, indifferent to; यन्निःसंगस्त्वं फलस्यानतेभ्यः Ki.18.24. -2 one who has renounced all worldly attachments; भर्तुर्ये प्रलये$पि पूर्वसुकृता- सङ्गेन निःसङ्गया भक्त्या कार्यधुरं वहन्ति कृतिनस्ते दुर्लभास्त्वादृशाः Mu.1.14. -3 unconnected, separated, detatched. -4 unobstructed; निःसङ्गं प्रतिभिरुपाददे विवृत्तिः Ki.7.12. (-गम्) ind. unselfishly. -संचारः (निःसंचारः) not taking a walk; Māl. -संज्ञ (निःसंज्ञ) a. unconscious. -सत्त्व (निःसत्त्व) a. 1 unenergetic, weak, impotent. -2 mean, insignificant, low. -3 non-existent, unsubstantial. -4 deprived of living beings. (-त्त्वम्) 1 absence of power or energy. -2 non-existence. -3 insignificance. -संतति (निःसंतति), -संतान (निःसंतान) a. childless. -संदिग्ध (निःसंदिग्ध), -संदेह (निःसंदेह) a. see निःसंशय. -संधि (निस्संधि), निःसंधि) a. having no joints perceptible, compact, firm, close, -सपत्न (निःसपत्न) a. 1 having no rival or enemy; घनरुचिरकलापो निःसपत्नो$द्य जातः V.4.1. -2 not claimed by another, belonging exclusively to one possessor. -3 having no foes. -समम् (निःसमम्) ind. 1 unseasonably, at a wrong time. -2 wickedly. -संपात (निःसंपात) a. affording no passage, blocked up. (-तः) the darkness of midnight, thick darkness. -संबाध (निःसंबाध) a. not contracted, spacious, large. -संभ्रम (निःसंभ्रम) a. not perplexed, unembarrassed. -सरणि (निःसरणि) a. pathless. -सह (निःसह) a. 1 Exhausted, powerless; कुसुमावचयपरिश्रमनिःसहं मे शरीरम् Nāg.2. -2 intolerable, irresistible. -सार (निःसार) a. 1 sapless, pithless. -2 worthless, vain, unsubstantial. ˚ता 1 sapless, pithlessness; निःसारत्वाल्लघीयसः (तृणस्य च समा गतिः) Pt.1.16. -2 worthlessness. -3 vanity, unsubstantial or transitory nature. -सीम (निःसीम), -सीमन् (निःसीमन्) a. immeasurable, boundless; अहह महतां निःसीमानश्चरित्रविभूतयः Bh.2.35; निःसीमशर्मप्रदम् 3.97. -स्तम्भ (निःस्तम्भ) a. having no pillars. -2 having no support. -3 not proud; निःस्तम्भो भ्रष्टसंकल्पः स्वान् मेघान् स न्यवारयत् Bhāg.1.25.24. -सूत्र a. helpless; निःसूत्रमास्ते घनपङ्कमृत्सु N.7.69. -स्नेह (निःस्नेह) a. 1 not unctuous or greasy, without unction or oil, dry. -2 not showing affection, unfeeling, unkind, indifferent. -3 not loved, not cared for; केशा अपि विरज्यन्तो निःस्नेहाः किं न सेवकाः Pt.1. 82. -4 not longing for, indifferent to. (-हा) lin-seed. -स्पन्द (निःस्पन्द or निस्स्पन्द) a. motionless, steady; ज्याबन्धनिस्स्पन्दभुजेन यस्य R.6.4. -स्पर्श (निःस्पर्श) a. hard, rough. -स्पृह (निःस्पृह) a. free from desire; निःस्पृहस्य तृणं जगत्. -2 regardless of, indifferent to; ननु वक्तृविशेषनिःस्पृहाः Ki.2.5; R.8.1; भोगेभ्यः स्पृहयालवो न हि वयं का निःस्पृहाणामसि Bh. -3 content, unenvious. -4 free from any worldly ties. -स्व (निःस्व) a. poor, indigent; निस्वो वष्टि शतम् Śānti.2.6; त्यक्त्वा जनयितारं स्वं निःस्वं गच्छति दूरतः Pt.1.9. -स्वन (निःस्वन) a. soundless. -स्वभावः (निःस्वभावः) poverty. -a. void of peculiarities. -स्वादु (निःस्वादु) a. tasteless, insipid.
pari परि ind. (Sometimes changed to परी, as परिवाह or परीवाह, परिहास or परीहास) 1 As a prefix to verbs and nouns derived from them, it means (a) round, round about, about; (b) in addition to, further; (c) opposite to, against; (d) much, excessively. -2 As a separable preposition it means (a) towards, in the direction of, to, opposite to (with an acc.); वृक्षं परि विद्योतते विद्युत्; (b) successively, severally (with an acc.); वृक्षं वृक्षं परि सिञ्चति 'he waters tree after tree'; (c) to the share or lot of (showing भाग or participation) (with acc.); यदत्र मां परि स्यात् 'what may fall to my lot'; or लक्ष्मीर्हरिं परि Sk.; (d) from, out of; (e) expect, outside of, with the exception of (with abl.); परि त्रिगर्तेभ्यो वृष्टो देवः or पर्यनन्तात् त्रयस्तापाः Vop.; (f) after the lapse of; परि संवत्सरात् (g) in consequence of; (h) beyond, more than; भृत्याः परि चतुर्दश Mb.3.1.11 (com. अधिकचतुर्दशाः पञ्चदशेत्यर्थः; (i) according to, in accordance with; (j) above, over. -3 As an adverbial prefix to nouns not directly connected with verbs, it means 'very', 'very much, 'excessively'; as in पर्यश्रु 'bursting into tears'; so परिचतुर्दशन्, परिदौर्बल्य. -4 At the beginning of adverbial compounds परि means (a) without, except, outside, with the exception of; as in परित्रिगर्तं वृष्टो दिवः P.II.1.12; VI.2.33. (According to P.II. 1.1. परि may be used at the end of adverbial comp. after अक्ष, शलाका, and a numeral to denote loss or defeat in a game by an unlucky or adverse cast of dice' (द्यूतव्यवहारे पराजये एवायं समासः) e. g. अक्षपरि, शलाका- परि, एकपरि; cf. अक्षपरि; (b) round about, all round, surrounded by; as in पर्यग्नि 'in the midst of flames'. -5 At the end of an adjectival comp. परि has the sense of 'exhausted by', or 'feeling repugnance for'; as in पर्यध्ययनः = परिग्लानो$ध्ययनाय.
parovarīyas परोवरीयस् a. Ved. 1 Broader on the outside. -2 Most excellent of all. -m. 1 The Supreme Being. -3 The highest happiness.
pārṣṇiḥ पार्ष्णिः m. f. [पृष्-नि नि˚ वृद्धिः; Uṇ.4.52] 1 The heel; Bhāg.7.8.31; उद्वेजयत्यङ्गुलिपार्ष्णिभागान् Ku.1.11; पार्ष्णिप्रहार K.119; प्रतनत्रिकपुच्छमूलपार्ष्णिम् Bu. Ch.5.73. -2 The rear of an army. -3 The back or rear in general; शुद्धपार्ष्णिरयान्वितः R.4.26 'with his rear cleared of foes.' -4 A kick. -5 Desire of conquering. -6 Inquiry. (-f.) 1 A licentious woman. -2 An epithet of Kuntī. -3 The extremity of the fore-axle of a four-horse chariot. -Comp. -ग्रहः a follower. -ग्रहणम् attacking or threatening an enemy in the rear. -ग्राहः 1 an enemy in the rear; ˚चिन्ता N. of a chapter in Kau. A. (7.13). बलिनो$फजलस्यैते पार्ष्णिग्राहाः प्रमाथिनः Śiva B.21. 6;24.44; also 12.15. -2 a general commanding the rear of an army. -3 an ally who supports a prince; Bhāg.7.2.6; पार्ष्णिग्राहं च संप्रेक्ष्य तथाक्रन्दं च मण्डले Ms.7. 27. -घातः a kick; क्षितिं विधुन्वन्निव पार्ष्णिघातैः Ki.17.5. -त्रम् a rear-guard, a body of forces in the rear, reserve. -वाहः an outside horse. -विग्रहः an attack by an enmy in the rear; मा विधान्मुधा कृतानुतापस्त्वयि पार्ष्णिविग्रहम् N.9. 134. -सारथिः a charioteer who drives one of the outside horses.
prāntaḥ प्रान्तः [प्रकृष्टो$न्तः] 1 Edge, margin, border, skirt, verge; प्रान्तसंस्तीर्णदर्भाः Ś.4.8. -2 Corner (as of the lips, eyes &c.); ईषत्तिर्यग्वलनविषमं कूणितप्रान्तमेतत् Māl.4.2; ओष्ठ˚, नयन˚. -3 Boundary, extremity. -4 Extreme verge, end; यौवनप्रान्त Pt.4. -5 A point, tip. -6 The back part. -Comp. -ग a. living close by. -दुर्गम् a suburb outside the walls of a town, a town near a fort. -निवासिन् a. dwelling near the boundaries. -भूमिः final place or term. -भूमौ ind. finally, at last. -विरस a. tasteless in the end. -वृत्तिः the horizon. -शून्य a. see प्रान्तरशून्य. -स्थ a. one who inhabits the borders.
bahis बहिस् ind. 1 Out of, outside (with abl.); निवस- न्नावसथे पुराद्बहिः R.8.14;11.29. -2 On the outside, out of doors (opp. अन्तः); बहिर्गच्छ -3 Externally, outwardly; अन्तर्बहिः पुरत एव विवर्तमानाम् Māl.1.4,14; H. 1.94 -4 Apart, separately. -5 Beside, except. -Comp. -अङ्ग a. outer, external. (-गम्) 1 an external part. -2 an outer limb. -3 property. -4 a stranger. -5 the preliminary part of a religious ceremony. -6 What is remotely related or connected; अन्तरङ्गबहिरङ्गयोरन्तरङ्गं बलीयः ŚB. on MS.12.2.29. -अर्थः an external object. -इन्द्रियम् an external organ or sense, an organ of action. -उपाधिः an external condition or circumstance; न खलु बहिरुपाधीन् प्रीतयः संश्रयन्ते Māl.1.24. -कुटीचरः a crab. -गीतम् a song accompanied by a stringed instrument. -गेहम् ind. out of doors, abroad. -चर a. outer, external, outward; बहिश्चराः प्राणाः Dk. (-रः) a crab. -तपस् n. outward penance. -दृश् a. superficial (in judgment). -देशः 1 a foreign country. -2 the outskirts of a village. -3 a place without a town or village. -द्वारम् an outer door. ˚प्रकोष्ठकम् a portico. -निःसारणम् expulsion. -पवमानम् a Sāma in the Somayāga; ते ह यथैवेदं बहिष्पवमानेन स्तोष्यमाणाः संरब्धाः Ch. Up.1.12.4. -प्रज्ञ a. One whose knowledge is directed towards external objects; बहिष्प्रज्ञो विभुर्विश्वो ह्यन्तः प्रज्ञस्तु तैजसः Āgama.1. -प्राणः 1 the external or outer breath or life; (hence) anything as dear as life. -2 money; Bhāg.5.14.5. -भव a. external. -भवनम् emanation. -भूत a. 1 expelled. -2 expired (time &c.). -3 inattentive, careless. -मनस् a. being outside the mind; external. -मनस्क a. out of mind. -मुख a. 1 turning one's face away from. -2 averse from, indifferent to. -3 greatly devoted to external things. -4 coming out of the mouth. (-खः) a god or deity. -यात्रा, -यानम् excursion, expedition abroad. -यूति a. placed or fastened outside. -योगः 1 external meditation. -लम्ब a. obtuse-angled. (-म्बः) an obtuseangled triangle. -लापिका a kind of enigma. -वर्तिन् a. being on the outside. -वासस् n. an outer or upper garment. -विकारः syphilis. -a. ind. free from change; बहिर्विकारं प्रकृतेः पृथग् विदुः Śi.1.33. -वृत्तिः f. an external aspect or appearance; अन्तर्विषमया ह्येता बहिर्वृत्त्या मनोरमाः । गुञ्जाफलसमाकाराः स्वभावादेव योषितः ॥ Pt.4.87. -व्यसनम् licentiousness, immorality, evil or lewd practices -व्यसनिन् a. dissolute, lewd. -संस्थ a. lying or situated outside (the town). -स्थ, -स्थित a. external, outer.
bahiṣkṛ बहिष्कृ 8 U. 1 To place outside of, exclude from, drive out of; राष्ट्रादेनं बहिष्कुर्यात् समग्रधनमक्षतम् Ms.8.38; Y.1.93. -2 To excommunicate.
bahiṣṭāt बहिष्टात् ind. On the outside, abroad.
bāhya बाह्य a. [बहिर्भवः ष्यञ् टिलोपः] 1 Outer, outward, external, exterior, being or situated without; विरहः किमिवानुतापयेद् वद बाह्यैर्विषयैर्विपश्चितम् R.8.89; बाह्योद्यान Me. 7; Ku.6.46; बाह्यनामन् 'the outer name', i. e. the address or superscription written on the back of a letter; अदत्तबाह्यनामानं लेखं लेखयित्वा Mu.1. -2 Foreign, strange; Pt.1. -3 Excluded from, out of the pale of; जातास्तदूर्वोरुपमानबाह्याः Ku.1.36. -4 Expelled from society, outcast; अतो$पि शिष्टस्त्वधमो गुरुदारप्रधर्षकः । बाह्यं वर्णं जनयति चातुर्वर्ण्यविगर्हितम् ॥ Mb.13.48.9. -5 Public; तेषां बाह्यं चारं छत्रभृङ्गारव्यजनपादुकोपग्राहिणः तीक्ष्णाः विद्युः Kau. A.1.12. -ह्यः 1 A stranger, foreigner; त्यक्ताश्चाभ्यन्तरा येन बाह्याश्चाभ्यन्तरीकृताः Pt.1.259; बाह्यः क्षणेन भवतीति विचित्र- मेतत् 5.26. -2 One who is excommunicated, an outcast. -3 A person or community born from प्रतिलोम connection; cf. Ms.1.28-31; प्रतिकूलं वर्तमाना बाह्या बाह्यतरान् पुनः । हीना हीनान् प्रसूयन्ते वर्णान् पञ्चदशैव च ॥ Ms.1.31. -ह्यम्, -बाह्येन, -बाह्ये ind. outside, on the outside, externally -Comp. -अर्थः a meaning external to the sounds or letters forming a word; P.I.1.68 (com.). ˚वादः the doctrine that the external world has a real existence. -कक्षः the outer side (of a house). -करणम् an external organ of sense. -द्रुतिः f. a process in the preparation of quicksilver. -प्रयत्नः (in gram.) the external effort in the production of articulate sounds; P.I.1. 9. (com.). -लिङ्गिन् a heretic. -संभोगः the gratification of sexual passion outside the vulva; Charak. बाह्लकाः bāhlakāḥ बाह्लिकाः bāhlikāḥ बाह्लीकाः bāhlīkāḥ बाह्लकाः बाह्लिकाः बाह्लीकाः m. (pl.) N. of a people. -कः 1 A king of the Bālhikas. -2 A horse of the Balkh breed; काम्बोजविषये जातैर्बाह्लीकैश्च हयोत्तमैः Rām. 1.6.22. -कम् 1 Saffron; ... प्रियाङ्गसंगव्यालुप्तस्तनतटबाह्लिक- श्रियो$पि दृश्यन्ते बहिरबलाः Rām. Ch.7.64. -2 Asa Foetida; अजमोदां च बाह्लीकं जीरकं लोध्रकं तथा Śiva B.3.18.
surā सुरा (सु-क्रन् Uṇ.2.24) 1 A spirituous liquor, wine; सुरा वै मलमन्नानाम् Ms.11.93; गौडी पैष्टी च माध्वी च विज्ञेया त्रिविधा सुरा 94. -2 Water. -3 A drinking vessel. -4 A snake. -Comp. -आकरः 1 a distillery. -2 the cocoanut tree. -आजीवः, -आजीविन् m. a distiller. -आलयः a tavern, dram-shop. -आसवः spirituous liquor. -उदः the sea of spirituous liquor. -कारः a distiller. -गृहम् a tavern. -ग्रहः a vessel for holding liquor; व्यवस्थितिस्तेषु विवाहयज्ञ- सुराग्रहैरासु निवृत्तिरिष्टा Bhāg.11.5.11. -जीविन् a tavernkeeper, a vintner -ध्वजः a flag or sign hung outside a tavern. -प a. 1 a drinker of spirituous liquor; Ms.11.49. -2 pleasant, agreeable. -3 wise, sage. -पाणम्, -पानम् the drinking of wine or liquor. -पात्रम्, -भाजनम्, -भाण्डम् a wine glass or cup; अपः सुराभाजनस्था मद्यभाण्डस्थितास्तथा Ms.11.147. -पीत a. one who has drunk wine; सुखजातः सुरापीतः ... Bk.5.38. -बीजम् a substance serving for the preparation of beer. -भागः yeast. -मण्डः the froth or scum of spirituous liquor during fermentation. -मूल्यम् drink-money. -संधानम् distillation of spirituous liquor. -सुः 1 a drunkard. -2 a heretic.
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duścara a. hard to traverse; inac cessible; hard to pass (time); difficult to prac tise: -tva, n. difficulty of practising; -kar ita, pp. behaving ill, doing ill deeds; n. (dús-), ill-conduct, misdeed, folly;-kárman, a. having a skin disease; -kâritra, a. ill conducted; -kârin, a. id.; -kikitsâ, f. wrong medical treatment; -kikitsita, pp. hard to cure; -kikitsya, fp. id.: -tva, n. difficulty of curing; -kitta, a. dejected, sad; -ketas, a.ill-disposed; -keshtâ, f. bad conduct, perverse ness; -keshtita, pp. n. id.: pl. ill-doings; -kyavaná, a. hard to overthrow, immovable; -kyâva, a. id.; -khid, a. hard to destroy.
prakara m. (scattered) heap, quantity, plenty: î, f. kind of song; short interlude (in a drama); -karana, n. production, creation; treatment, discussion, exposition; subject of discussion, topic; section, chapter; special treatise, monograph; kind of drama (in which the plot is invented by the poet): asminn eva prakarane, in regard to this very point, in this connection; na ka prakaranam vetsi, nor do you know what the point in question is: -tas, ad. on a suitable occasion, -tva, n. condition of discussing (--°ree;); -kartavya, fp. to be prepared; to be displayed or cherished; to be appointed to (lc.); -kartri, m. one who causes or occasions; -karsha, m. (preference, advantage), excellence, superiority, pre-eminence; intensity, excess; predominance; --°ree; a. consisting for the most part in: in., ab., °ree;--, highly, strongly, thoroughly; -karshana, m. troubler;n. drawing off; protrusion; extension, long duration; -karsha-vat, a. excellent; --°ree;, distinguished or pre-eminent in; -kalpanâ, f. allotment; -kalp-ita, pp. fitted, arranged, placed; -kalp-ya, to be allotted or settled; -kâ&ndot;kshâ, f. appetite; -kânda, m. n. trunk of a tree (between the root and branches); minor section in a book; --°ree;=pre-eminent, excellent; -kâmá, m. delight, voluptuousness: pl. objects of desire: -m, -tas, or°ree;--, ad. with delight, willingly; according to desire, sufficiently; in very deed; -kâra, m. kind, sort, species; way, manner; --°ree; a. of the nature of, -like: kena prakârena, in what way? how? prakâraih, in one way or another; râmâyanasya bhâratasya vâ pra kârah, a kind of Râmâyana or Mahâbhârata; -kâra-ka, a. (--°ree;) of the nature of, -like; -kâra-tâ, f. speciality; -kâra-vat, a. belonging to a species; -kârya, fp. to be exhibited; -kâlana, a. driving on; m. N. of a Nâga.
praghaṇa m. [√ han] space outside the door of a house; -gharsha, m. friction; -ghâna, m. = -ghana; -ghosha, m. sound, noise.
bahiścara a. moving or appearing outside, external: w. prâna, m. sg. & pl. or hridaya, n. one's external breath or heart, i.e. dear to one as one's own life or heart; m. external spy.
bahiraṅga a. external; unessen tial: -tâ, f., -tva, n. abst. n.; -argala, --°ree;, a. external bolt; -artha, m. external object; -gata, pp. come forth: -tva, n. appearance; -giri, m. (country beyond the hills), N. of a country: pl. N. of a people; -geham, ad. outside the house; -grâmam, ad. outside the village; -grâma-pratisraya, a. dwelling outside the village; -dris, a. looking at the outside, superficial (person); -dvâra, n. outer door; space outside the door; -dvârin, a. being outside the door; -dh&asharp;, ad. prp. with ab. outside, away from (V.); -nirgamana, n. going out of (ab.); -nihsarana, n. taking out, removal; -bhava, a.external; -bhâga, m. exterior; -mandala-stha, a. being out side the circle; -mukha, a. issuing from the mouth; averting one's face, averse from (--°ree;); having one's mind outward, i.e. directed to wards the external world; -yâna, n. going out; (ír)-loma, a. having the hair turned outwards; -loman, a. id.; -vâsas, n. upper garment; -vikâram, ad. apart from indi vidual existence (Sâmkhya ph.); -vritti, f. occupation with external matters; -vedi, 1. f. space outside the Vedi; 2. ad. (í) outside the Vedi; -vedi-ka, a. being outside the Vedi.
bahiḥsaṃstha a. lying or situated outside (the town).
bahis ad. outside (the house, town, country, etc.); out of doors (go, etc.); prp. from without, outside or out of (ab. or --°ree;); -ish kri, expel, banish, exclude from (ab. or lc.); put aside, abandon, renounce: pp. -krita, taken out of, expelled from (ab.); abandoned by (--°ree;); shut off by=dwelling beyond (in.); excluded from (ab. or --°ree;); free from, destitute of, refraining from (in. or --°ree;); become apparent, manifested, embodied; r gata, pp. id.; r bhû, come forth, from (ab.).
bahiṣpaṭa m. upper garment; -paridhí, ad. outside the enclosure; -pava mâná, m. n. a Stoma or Stotra generally consisting of three triplets chanted outside the Vedi during the Prâtahsavana: î, f. pl. its single verses; -pragña a. having external cognition; -prâna, 1. m. external breath, i. e. what is dear to one as one's own life; gold; 2. (bahísh)-prâna, a. whose breath or life is outside (V.).
bahiṣṭāt ad. outside (V.).
bahiḥśālā f. outer hall; -sîta, a. cold outside, cool to the touch.
bāhyāṃsa a. holding the hands outside (not between) the kness; -½antar, ad. from without and within; -½artha-vada, m. doctrine that the external world is real; -½artha-vâdin, a. maintaining the reality of the external world (ph.); -½âlaya, m. abode of the outcast=country of the Bâhîkas; -½in driya, n. external organ of sense.
bāhyakaraṇa n. external organ of sense; -tara, cpv. external etc.; outcast; -tas, ad. prp. outside, without (ab., g.); -tâ, f. deviation or divergence from (ab.); -pra kriti, f. pl. constituent parts of a foreign state (except the king).
bāhaya ] a. being outside (the door, house, village, etc.); situated out side (ab. or --°ree;); outer, external; strange, foreign; excluded from caste or the com munity, outcast; lying outside anything (ab. or --°ree;)=diverging from, conflicting with, be yond the pale of, having nothing to do with; with taddhita, m. secondary taddhita suffix (added after another taddhita); w. artha, m. meaning external to and having no imme diate connexion with the letters forming a word; -m kri, expel, eject; -m, in., lc., °ree;--, ad. or prp. outside (ab. or --°ree;); -m, ad. (go) out (of doors); ab. from without; m. corpse.
savāsas a. clothed, with one's clothes; -vikalpa, a. possessing or admitting of variety or distinctions, differentiated: -ka, a. id.; -vikâra, a. together with its develop ments or derivatives; together with its pro ducts (milk); enamoured; subject to modi fication or decomposition (food); -vikâsa, a. shining; -vikrama, a. vigorous, energetic; -viklavam, ad. dejectedly; -vigraha, a. embodied; -vikikitsitam, ad.doubtfully; -vitarkam, ad. thoughtfully; -vitâna, a. having a canopy.
sāpekṣa a. paying regard to (lc., prati); requiring, dependent on (--°ree;): -tva, n. dependence: e&zip;pi gamakatvât samâ sah, the compound holds, even though part of it is in construction with a word outside of it, because it readily makes its meaning understood (referring to the theory of the Hindu grammarians that the words in a compound should be so connected in construc tion as to form a whole of their own and should therefore not govern anything outside the compound, as in actual literature they often do).
siṃha m. lion; Leo (sign of the zodiac); --°ree;, lion-like=chief or best of, pre-eminent; lord or ruler of (also °ree;-in some cpds.); N.: -gupta, m. N. of a king; -ghosha, m. N.; -tâ, f. condition of a lion; -tunda, m. a fish: -ka, m. id.; -tva, n. state of a lion; -damsh- tra, a. lion-toothed; m. N. of an Asura; N. of a prince of the Sabaras; -datta, m. N. of an Asura; -deva, m. N. of a prince; -dvâr, f. (prince's=) palace-gate; -dvâra, n. id.; -dhvani, m. (lion's=) challenging shout; -nâda, m. lion's roar; war-cry; confident assurance; N. of an Asura, of a son of Râvana, and of a king of Malaya; -parâ krama, m. N.; -pura, n. N. of a town; -bala,m. N. of a prince: -datta, m. N.; -bhata, m. N. of an Asura; -bhû-bhrit, m. N. of a king; -mahî-pati, m. N. of a king; -ratha, a. having a car drawn by lions, ep. of Durgâ; m. N.; -rava, m. lion's roar; war cry; -râga, m. N. of a king; -rotsikâ, f. N. of a village.
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itihāsa As a kind of literature, is repeatedlymentioned along with Purāna in the later texts of the Vedic period. The earliest reference to both occurs in the late fifteenth book of the Atharvaveda. Itihāsa then appears in the Satapatha Brāhmana, the Jaiminīya, Brhadāranyaka, and Chāndogya Upanisads. In the latter it is expressly declared with Purāna to make up the fifth Veda, while the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra makes the Itihāsa a Veda and the Purāna a Veda. The Itihāsa-veda and the Purāna-veda appear also in the Gopatha Brāhmana, while the śatapatha identifies the Itihāsa as well as the Purāna with the Veda. In one passage Anvākhyāna and Itihāsa are distinguished as different classes of works, but the exact point of distinction is obscure; probably the former was supplementary. The Taittirīya Áranyaka mentions Itihāsas and Purānas in the plural. There is nothing to show in the older literature what dis¬tinction there was, if any, between Itihāsa and Purāna; and the late literature, which has been elaborately examined by Sieg, yields no consistent result. Geldner has conjectured that there existed a single work, the Itihāsa-purāna, a collection. of the old legends of all sorts, heroic, cosmogonic, genealogical; but though a work called Itihāsa, and another called Purāna, were probably known to Patañjali, the inaccuracy of Geldner’s view is proved by the fact that Yāska shows no sign of having known any such work. To him the Itihāsa may be a part of the Mantra literature itself, Aitihāsikas being merely people who interpret the Rigveda by seeing in it legends where others see myths. The fact, however, that the use of the compound form is rare, and that Yāska regularly has Itihāsa, not Itihāsa-purāna, is against the theory of there ever having been one work. The relation of Itihāsa to Akhyāna is also uncertain. Sieg considers that the words Itihāsa and Purāna referred to the great body of mythology, legendary history, and cosmogonic legend available to the Vedic poets, and roughly classed as a fifth Veda, though not definitely and finally fixed. Thus, Anvākhyānas, Anuvyākhyānas, and Vyākhyānas could arise, and separate Ákhyānas could still exist outside the cycle, while an Akhyāna could also be a part of the Itihāsa-purāna. He also suggests that the word Akhyāna has special reference to the form of the narrative. Oldenberg, following Windisch, and followed by Geldner, Sieg, and others, has found in the Akhyāna form a mixture of prose and verse, alternating as the narrative was concerned with the mere accessory parts of the tale, or with the chief points, at which the poetic form was naturally produced to correspond with the stress of the emotion. This theory has been severely criticized by Hertel and von Schroeder. These scholars, in accordance with older suggestions of Max Muller and Levi, see in the so-called Ákhyāna hymns of the Rigveda, in which Oldenberg finds actual specimens of the supposed literary genus, though the prose has been lost, actual remains of ritual dramas. Elsewhere it has been suggested that the hymns in question are merely literary dialogues.
kāśyapībālākyāmātharīputra (‘ son of Kāśyapī, Bālākyā, and Mātharī ’). This curious name is given in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad to a teacher, pupil of Kautsīputra.
kulmāṣa A word mentioned by the Chāndogya Upanisad in the plural, is interpreted by the commentator as bad beans ’ (kutsitā māsāh), a version adopted by Bohtlingk in his Dictionary. Little renders it ‘sour gruel’ in accordance with the Nirukta.
gotra Occurs several times in the Rigveda in the account of the mythic exploits of Indra. Roth interprets the word as cowstall,’ while Geldner thinks ‘ herd ’ is meant. The latter sense seems to explain best the employment which the term shows in the later literature as denoting the £ family or £ clan,’ and which is found in the Chāndogya Upanisad. In the Grhya Sūtras stress is laid on the prohibition of marriage within a Gotra, or with a Sapinda of the mother of the bridegroom—that is to say, roughly, with agnates and cognates. Senart has emphasized this fact as a basis of caste, on the ground that marriage within a curia, phratria, or caste (Varna) was Indo-European, as was marriage outside the circle of agnates and cognates. But there is no evidence at all to prove that this practice was Indo-European, while in India the Satapatha expressly recognizes marriage within the third or fourth degree on either side. According to Sāyana, the Kānvas accepted marriage in the third degree, the Saurāstras only in the fourth, while the scholiast on the Vajrasūcī adds to the Kānvas the Andhras and the Dāksinātyas, and remarks that the Vājasaneyins forbade marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother. All apparently allowed marriage with the daughter of a paternal uncle, which later was quite excluded. Change of Gotra was quite possible, as in the case of Sunah- śepa and Grtsamada, who, once an Añgirasa, became a Bhārgava.
gautamīputra (‘Son of a female descendant of Gotama ’) is mentioned in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Bhāradvājīputra. In the Mādhyamdina a Gautamīputra is a pupil of Atreyī- putra, pupil of a Gautamīputra, pupil of Vātsīputra. See also Gotamīputra.
niṣāda Is found in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas. The word seems to denote not so much a particular tribe, but to be the general term for the non-Aryan tribes who were not under Aryan control, as the Sūdras were, for Aupamanyava took the five peoples (pañca jaηāh) to be the four castes (catvāro varnāh) and the Nisādas, and the commentator Mahīdhara explains the word where it occurs in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā as meaning a Bhilla, or Bhīl. A village of Nisādas is men¬tioned in the Lātyāyana Srauta Sūtra, and a Nisāda Sthapati, a leader of some kind, is referred to in the Kātyāyana Srauta Sūtra and in a Brāhmana cited by the scholiast on that passage. Weber thinks that the Nisādas were the settled aborigines (from ni, ‘down,’ and sad, ‘settle’), a view sup-ported by the fact that the ritual of the Viśvajit sacrifice requires a temporary residence with Nisādas; for the Nisādas who would permit an Aryan to reside temporarily amongst them must have been partially amenable to Aryan influence. But the name might easily be applied to the whole body of aborigines outside the Aryan organization. Von Schroeder thinks that the Nisādas were most probably identical with the Nysseans, who, according to the Greek account, sent an embassy to Alexander when he was in the territory of the Aśvakas, but this identification is doubtful.
niṣtya Means in the Rigveda and later an outsider or stranger. Hence the constellation usually known as Svāti (see Naksatra) is named Nistyā in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, because it occupies a position markedly away from the ecliptic.
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
pārāśarīputra Son of a female descendant of Parāśara,’ is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhad­āranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Kātyāyanīputra,1 of Aupasva- tīputra, of Vātsīputra, of Vārkārunīputra, and of Gārgī­putra. Different men are no doubt meant.
purukutsa Is the name of a king who is mentioned several times in the Rigveda. In one passage he is mentioned as a contemporary of Sudās, but whether as a foe, according to Ludwig, or merely as a contemporary, according to Hille­brandt, is uncertain. In two other passages he is mentioned as victorious by divine favour, and in another he appears as a king of the Pūrus and a conqueror of the Dāsas. His son was Trasadasyu, who is accordingly called Paurukutsya or Paurukutsi. Different conclusions have been drawn from one hymn of the Rigveda in which the birth of Purukutsa’s son, Trasadasyu, is mentioned. The usual interpretation is that Purukutsa was killed in battle or captured, whereupon his wife secured a son to restore the fortunes of the Pūrus. But Sieg offers a completely different interpretation. According to him the word daurgahe, which occurs in the hymn, and which in the ordinary view is rendered descendant of Durgaha,' an ancestor of Purukutsa, is the name of a horse, the hymn recording the success of an Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) undertaken by Purukutsa for his wife, as by kings in later times, to secure a son. This interpretation is supported by the version of daurgahe given in the śatapatha, but is by no means certain. Moreover, if Purukutsa was a contemporary of Sudās, the defeat of the Pūrus by Sudās in the Dāśarājña might well have been the cause of the troubles from which Purukutsānī, by the birth of Trasadasyu, rescued the family. In the śatapatha Brāhmana Purukutsa is called an Aiksvāka.
balhika Is the name of a people in the Atharvaveda where the fever (Takman) is called upon to go to the Mūjavants, the Mahāvrsas, and the Balhikas. The Mūjavants are quite certainly a northern tribe, and though, as Bloomfield suggests, the passage may contain a pun on Balhika as suggesting ‘outsider’ (from bahts, ‘without’), still no doubt the name was chosen from a northern tribe. But the view of Roth and Weber, which Zimmer once accepted, that an Iranian tribe is referred to (cf. Balkh), is not at all probable. Zimmer shows that there is no need whatever to assume Iranian influence. See also Parśu.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
bhāradvājīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Bharad­vāja,’ is the metronymic of several teachers in the Bṛhadāraṇ- yaka Upaniṣad, pupils of Pāraśarīputra, Pamgīputra, and Vātsīmāndavīputra respectively.
māṇḍavī Female descendant of Maṇdu occurs in the name of a teacher, Vātsī-māridavī-putra, in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad ( Mādhyamdina).
muñja Denotes a grass, the Saccharum Muñja, which is of luxuriant growth, attaining to a height of ten feet. It is mentioned in the Rigveda along with other kinds of grasses as the lurking-place of venomous creatures. In the same text the Muñja grass is spoken of as purifying, apparently being used as the material of a filter for Soma. The grass is often mentioned in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas. It is in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa said to be ‘ hollow ’ (sitsira) and to be used for the plaited part of the throne (Ásandī).
yājñavalkya ‘Descendant of Yajñavalkya,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as an authority on questions of ritual. He is, however, also given as an authority on questions of philosophy in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, but Oldenberg is, no doubt, right in thinking that no possible importance can be attached to the mention of Yājñavalkya in the latter capacity. He is said to have been a pupil of Uddālaka Arum, whom he opposed successfully in a dispute.5 His two wives, Maitreyī and Kātyāyanī, are mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, which concludes with a passage ascribing to Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya the ‘white Yajus ’ {śuklāni yajUmsi). It is remarkable that Yājñavalkya is never mentioned in any other Vedic text outside the śatapatha Brāhmana y except the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, where, however, both/\ references are merely transcripts from the śatapatha. It has been supposed by Oldenberg10 and others that Yājñavalkya belonged to Videha, but despite the legend of Janaka’s patronage of him, his association with Uddālaka, the Kuru-Pañcāla, renders this doubtful.
vrātya Is included in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda, where, however, no further explanation of the name is given. Fuller information is furnished by the Atharvaveda, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Sūtras, which describe at length a certain rite intended for the use of Vrātyas. According to the Pañcavimśa Brāh­maṇa, there are four different kinds of ‘outcasts’—viz., the hīna, who are merely described as ‘depressed’; those who have become outcasts for some sin (nindita); those who become out­casts at an early age, apparently by living among outcasts; and those old men who, being impotent (śama-nīcamedhra), have gone to live with outcasts. The last three categories are by no means of the same importance as the first. The motive of the fourth is hard to understand: according to Rājārām Rām- krishṇa Bhāgavat,5 they were men who had enfeebled their constitutions by undue intercourse with women in the lands of the outcasts, and returned home in a debilitated state. But this is not stated in the text. It seems probable that the really important Vrātyas were those referred to as Itlna, and that the other classes were only subsidiary. According to Rāj'ārām,® there were two categories of the first class: (a) The depressed (hīna), who were non- Aryan ; and (6) degraded Aryans (gara-gir). This, however, is a mere guess, and devoid of probability. There seems to have been but one class of Vrātyas. That they were non-Aryan is not probable, for it is expressly said7 that, though unconse¬crated, they spoke the tongue of the consecrated: they were thus apparently Aryans. This view is confirmed by the state-ment that ‘they call what is easy of utterance, difficult to utter’: probable they had already a somewhat Prakritic form of speech (cf. Vāc). The Sūtras mention their Arhants (‘saints’) and Yaudhas (‘warriors’), corresponding to the Brahminical Brāhmana and Kṣatriya. Other particulars accord with the view that they were Aryans outside the sphere of Brahmin culture. Thus they are said not to practise agriculture or commerce (an allusion to a nomadic life), nor to observe the rules of Brahmacarya—i.e., the principle regulating the Brahminic order of life. They were also allowed to become members of the Brahminical community by performance of the ritual prescribed, which would hardly be so natural in the case of non-Aryans. Some details are given of the life and dress of the Vrātyas. Their principles were opposed to those of the Brahmins: they beat those unworthy of correction. Their leader (Gṛhapati) or householder wore a turban (Uçṇīçε), carried a whip (Pratoda), a kind of bow (Jyāhroda), was :lothed in a black (krçnaśa) garment and two skins (Ajina), blxk and white (krsna-valaksa), and owned a rough wagon (Vijatha) covered with planks (phalakāstīrna). The others, subordinate to the leader, had garments with fringes of red (valūkāntāni dāmatūsām), two fringes on each, skins folded double (dvisamhitāny ajinūni), and sandals (Upānah). The leader wore also an ornament (Niçka) of silver, which Rājārām converts into a silver coinage. The Vrātyas, on becoming consecrated, were expected to hand over their goods to the priest. Many other details are given in the Sūtras (e.g., that the shoes or sandals were of variegated black hue and pointed), but these are not authenticated by the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. The locality in which the Vrāiyas lived cannot be stated with certainty, but their nomad life suggests the western tribes beyond the Sarasvatī. But they may equally well have been in the east: this possibility is so far supported by the fact that the Sūtras make the Brahmin receiving the gift of the Vrātya's outfit an inhabitant of Mag’adha. The Atharvaveda does not help, for it treats the Vrātya in so mystical a way that he is represented as being in all the quarters. Indeed, Roth believed that it was here not a case of the Vrātya of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa at all, but of a glorification of the Vrātya as the type of the pious vagrant or wandering religious mendicant (Parivrājaka). This view is clearly wrong, as the occurrence of the words usnīsa, vipatha, and pratoda shows. It is probable that the 15th Book of the Atharvaveda, which deals with the Vrātya, and is of a mystical character, exalts the converted Vrātya as a type of the perfect Brahmacārin, and, in so far, of the divinity.
saubala ‘Descendant of Subala,’ is the name of a pupil of Sarpi Vātsi in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa.
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agne ni ṣatsi namasādhi barhiṣi # RV.8.23.26c.
aṅge-aṅga ārpita utsitaś ca # AVś.6.112.3b. Cf. parau-parāv ārpito.
aditir mātāsy āntarikṣān mā chetsīḥ # Aś.1.3.22.
arāte taṃ no mā vīrtsīḥ # AVP.7.9.3c.
asmabhyaṃ jeṣi yotsi ca # RV.1.132.4e.
asyai pratiṣṭhāyai mā chitsi # śś.1.5.9.
asyopasadyāṃ mā chaitsīt # śB.14.9.4.23c; BṛhU.6.4.23c. See next.
ā ca huve ni ca satsīha devaiḥ # RV.1.76.4b.
ā cāsmin satsi barhiṣi # RV.2.6.8c.
āntarikṣān mā chetsīḥ # Aś.1.3.22.
āyukṣi sarvā oṣadhīḥ # MS.2.7.13c: 93.16. See āvitsi etc.
āyuṣmatyā (Aś.śś. -tya) ṛco mā gāta (Vait. māpagāyā; Kauś. mā satsi) tanūpāt (śś. -pāḥ) sāmnaḥ (Aś. sāmna om) # TS.3.2.7.1; Aś.5.2.14; śś.6.8.6; Vait.17.4; Kauś.108.2. See next.
āyuṣmatyā ṛco mā chaitsi mā sāmno bhāgadheyād vi yoṣam # JB.1.167. See prec.
āvṛkṣam anyāsāṃ varcaḥ # RV.10.159.5c. See under āvitsi sarvāsāṃ.
āhaṃ pitṝn suvidatrāṃ (MS. -traṃ) avitsi # RV.10.15.3a; AVś.18.1.45a; VS.19.56a; TS.2.6.12.3a; MS.4.10.6a: 156.16; KS.21.14a; AB.3.37.15; Aś.2.19.22; 5.20.6. P: āhaṃ pitṝn TB.2.6.16.1; śś.3.16.6.
indrehi matsy andhasaḥ # RV.1.9.1a; AVś.20.71.7a; SV.1.180a; VS.33.25a; Aś.6.4.10; Svidh.3.1.7. P: indrehi matsi śś.9.14.1,2.
uru jyotiḥ kṛṇuhi matsi devān # RV.9.94.5b.
te niṣattiḥ kim u no mamatsi # RV.4.21.9c; MS.4.12.3c: 186.14.
gavām aha na māyur vatsinīnām # RV.7.103.2c.
jāmim itvā mā vivitsi lokān # TA.2.6.2d. See next.
jāmim ṛtvā māva patsi lokāt # AVś.6.120.2d. See prec.
tad vo mā vyavachaitsīt (Apś. vigāt) # Kś.25.13.26; Apś.14.20.7.
trayas tribhir utsitā yebhir āsan # AVś.6.112.2b.
tvam īśiṣe sāsminn ā satsi barhiṣi # RV.10.44.5c; AVś.20.94.5c.
divyād dhāmno mā chitsi mā mānuṣāt # MS.1.4.2: 49.3; 1.4.7: 55.13; Apś.4.16.4.
devair ā satsi barhiṣi # RV.1.12.4c; 5.26.5c; 8.44.14c; SV.2.1063c.
daivas tantur asy anu tvā rabhe māhaṃ tvad vyavachitsi # śś.2.12.9. Cf. tantur asi.
ni hotā satsi barhiṣi # RV.6.16.10c; SV.1.1c; 2.10c; MS.4.10.2c: 145.2; KS.20.14c; JB.1.65c; GB.1.1.29c; śB.1.4.1.24; TB.3.5.2.1c; Kś.25.11.33c.
nv etenārātsīr asau svāhā # AVś.5.6.5a. Cf. vy etenā-.
pacanti te vṛṣabhāṃ atsi teṣām # RV.10.28.3c.
punarmagha tvaṃ (AVP. punarmaghatvaṃ) manasācikitsīḥ # AVś.5.11.1d; AVP.8.1.1d.
pūrvavatsena saha vatsinī gauḥ # AVP.11.5.5a.
matsi śardho mārutaṃ matsi devān # RV.9.90.5c; 97.42c; SV.2.604c; JB.3.240c.
matsi soma varuṇaṃ matsi mitram # RV.9.90.5a.
no vaniṃ mā vācaṃ mā vīrtsīr ugrā (followed by i-) # AVP.7.9.8a. See mā vaniṃ mā vācaṃ .
māpa rātsīr māti vyātsīḥ # TS.7.5.10.1; Apś.21.19.14.
me 'dyeśāyāṃ vātsīt # śB.5.3.1.13; Kś.15.3.35.
māyābhir utsisṛpsataḥ # RV.8.14.14a; AVś.20.29.4a.
vaniṃ mā vācaṃ vīrtsīr ubhau # AVś.5.7.6a. P: mā vaniṃ mā vācam Vait.3.2. See mā no vaniṃ.
māhaṃ tvad vyavachitsi # śś.2.12.9.
mukṣījayeva padim utsināti # RV.1.125.2d; N.5.19d.
muṣṇāmy anyāsāṃ bhagam # AVP.2.41.5c. See under āvitsi sarvāsāṃ.
yathāśvattha vibhinatsi # AVP.3.3.4a. See prec. but two.
yan me 'dya retaḥ pṛthivīm askāntsīt (TS. askān) # śB.14.9.4.5a; TA.1.30.1a; BṛhU.6.4.5a. P: yan me 'dya retaḥ YDh.3.278. Designated as retasyā (sc. ṛk) GDh.23.20; BDh.2.1.1.29. Cf. yad adya dugdhaṃ.
te agna utsīdataḥ pavamānā priyā tanūs tayā saha pṛthivīm āviśa rathaṃtareṇa sāmnā gāyatreṇa ca chandasā # Apś.5.26.5. Quasi-metrical, five pādas.
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"tsi" has 4 results.
     
anupradānaan effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु et cetera, and others which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; confer, compare स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articulate sound confer, compare अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.
cūrṇia gloss on the Sutras of Panini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta, Some scholars believe that Patanjali's Mahabhasya is referred to here by the word चूर्णि, as it fully discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that चूर्णि,stands for the Vrtti of चुल्लिभाट्टि. In Jain Religious Literature there are some brief comments on the Sutras which are called चूर्णि and there possibly was a similar चूर्णि on the sutras of Panini.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
sāpekṣawith an expectancy in sense; although in grammar expectancy is at the root of, and forms a sort of a connecting link for, the various kinds of relations which exist between the different words of a sentence which has to give a composite sense, yet, if a word outside a compound is connected with a word inside a compound, especially with a second or further member, the sense becomes ambiguous; and expectancy in such cases is looked upon as a fault; e. g. अप्रविष्टविषयो हि रक्षसाम् Raghu XI. When, however, in spite of the fault of expectancy the sense is clear, the compound is admissible; confer, compare यदि सविशेषणानां वृत्तिर्न वृत्तस्य वा विशेषणं न प्रयुज्यते इत्युच्यते देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् देवदत्तस्य गुरुपुत्रः,अत्र वृत्तिर्न प्राप्नोति। अगुरुकुलपुत्रादीनामिति वक्तव्यम् I Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P II.1.1 ; confer, compare also the expression सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समास: often used by commentators.
     Vedabase Search  
171 results
     
maithuna-ādi represented by talking of sex, reading sexual literature or enjoying sex life (at home or outside, as in a club)SB 7.9.45
antaḥ bahiḥ inside and outsideSB 10.1.4
bahiḥ-antaḥ-pura-dvāraḥ the doors inside and outside the houseSB 10.4.1
bāhire āsi' coming outsideCC Madhya 16.110
bāhire āsiyā coming outsideCC Antya 9.11
ātma-vastunaḥ everything belongs to You, but You are outside and inside of everythingSB 10.3.14
avadhūtasya of a holy man acting outside the scope of ordinary regulative principlesSB 11.7.24
bahiḥ outsideBG 13.16
bahiḥ outsideSB 1.13.58
bahiḥ outsideSB 1.17.34
bahiḥ outsideSB 2.10.23
bahiḥ outsideSB 3.7.16
bahiḥ outsideSB 3.11.16
bahiḥ outside ofSB 3.11.22
bahiḥ outsideSB 3.11.40
bahiḥ outsideSB 3.19.24
bahiḥ on the outsideSB 3.26.52
bahiḥ outsideSB 3.31.8
bahiḥ outsideSB 3.31.19
bahiḥ outsideSB 3.31.20
bahiḥ for what is outsideSB 3.32.42
bahiḥ outsidersSB 4.24.55
bahiḥ and outsideSB 4.24.58
bahiḥ outsideSB 4.29.8
bahiḥ outsideSB 5.1.32
bahiḥ outsideSB 5.1.33
bahiḥ outsideSB 5.18.12
bahiḥ outsideSB 5.20.13
bahiḥ outsideSB 5.20.18
bahiḥ outsideSB 5.20.29
bahiḥ outsideSB 5.20.42
bahiḥ outsideSB 5.26.4
bahiḥ outsideSB 6.16.23
bahiḥ outsideSB 6.18.50
bahiḥ outside the homeSB 7.3.36
bahiḥ outsideSB 8.1.12
bahiḥ outside the waterSB 8.2.29
bahiḥ outside of YouSB 8.12.5
bahiḥ outsideSB 8.15.23
bahiḥ outsideSB 9.3.4
antaḥ bahiḥ inside and outsideSB 10.1.4
bahiḥ gantum to go outsideSB 10.3.47
bahiḥ-antaḥ-pura-dvāraḥ the doors inside and outside the houseSB 10.4.1
bahiḥ outsideSB 10.14.27
bahiḥ and outsideSB 10.38.18
bahiḥ outsideSB 10.52.42
bahiḥ outsideSB 10.56.19
bahiḥ to the outsideSB 10.72.33
bahiḥ outsideSB 10.82.45
bahiḥ on its outsideSB 11.6.16
bahiḥ outsideSB 11.8.23
bahiḥ outsideSB 11.9.13
bahiḥ outside of urban areas, in a secluded placeSB 11.18.19
bahiḥ outsideSB 11.29.6
bahiḥ outsideSB 12.9.30
bahiḥ outsideCC Adi 1.48
bahiḥ outsideCC Madhya 22.48
bahiḥ outsideCC Madhya 25.130
bahiḥ outsideCC Antya 16.53
bahiḥ-dvāre outside the doorCC Antya 16.55
bahir-dvāre the outside doorCC Madhya 7.85
bahir-dvāre to the outside doorCC Madhya 7.87
bahir-dvāre outside the doorCC Madhya 12.162
bāhira outsideCC Madhya 1.240
bāhira outsideCC Madhya 6.252
bāhira kariyā outsideCC Madhya 12.88
bāhira outsideCC Madhya 12.136
bāhira udyāne in an outside gardenCC Madhya 16.101
bāhira outsideCC Antya 1.66
bahirańga-jñāne thinking outside My intimate relationshipCC Antya 4.170
nahi bahirańga are not outsidersCC Antya 15.46
bāhirāya come outsideCC Madhya 20.279-280
vaikuṇṭha-bāhire outside the Vaikuṇṭha planetsCC Adi 5.31
vaikuṇṭha-bāhire outside the VaikuṇṭhalokasCC Adi 5.32
vaikuṇṭha-bāhire outside the Vaikuṇṭha planetsCC Adi 5.51
tāhāra bāhire outside that effulgenceCC Adi 5.51
bāhire outsideCC Adi 14.38
bāhire outsideCC Adi 14.47
bāhire outsideCC Adi 17.36
bāhire outsideCC Adi 17.141
bāhire outsideCC Madhya 1.275
bāhire outsideCC Madhya 1.278
bāhire outsideCC Madhya 2.8
bāhire outsideCC Madhya 3.63
bāhire outside the houseCC Madhya 6.221
bāhire outsideCC Madhya 10.31
bāhire phelāya throw outsideCC Madhya 12.89
bāhire outsideCC Madhya 12.106
bāhire outsideCC Madhya 13.90
bāhire outsideCC Madhya 14.22
kare bāhire vijaya He remains outsideCC Madhya 15.6
bāhire outside the temple roomCC Madhya 15.77
bāhire āsi' coming outsideCC Madhya 16.110
bāhire outsideCC Madhya 19.244
grāmera bāhire outside the cityCC Madhya 19.245
bāhire and outsideCC Madhya 25.125
bāhire rahiyā staying outsideCC Antya 2.23
bāhire outsideCC Antya 2.61
bāhire outsideCC Antya 6.155
bāhire outside the houseCC Antya 6.159-160
bāhire outsideCC Antya 9.11
bāhire āsiyā coming outsideCC Antya 9.11
bāhire outsideCC Antya 16.36
bāhire outsideCC Antya 17.21
bāhirete outsideCC Madhya 11.152
bāhya-upavane in an outside gardenSB 4.25.17
bāhya-jala-dhārā the flow of water from the Causal Ocean outside the universeSB 5.17.1
bāhya outsideSB 10.68.16
bāhya outsideCC Madhya 2.39
loka-bāhyaḥ without caring for outsidersSB 11.2.40
loka-bāhyaḥ without caring for outsidersCC Adi 7.94
loka-bāhyaḥ without caring for outsidersCC Madhya 9.262
loka-bāhyaḥ not caring for outsidersCC Madhya 23.41
loka-bāhyaḥ without caring for outsidersCC Madhya 25.141
loka-bāhyaḥ not caring for outsidersCC Antya 3.179
bāhyataḥ outsideSB 4.6.24
sukha-duḥkha-bāhye outside of happiness and distressSB 3.28.36
bāhye outsideCC Madhya 15.206
parakīyā-bhāve in the mood of parakīyā, or conjugal relations outside of marriageCC Adi 4.47
bhittye on the outside wallCC Madhya 6.253
bāhya-jala-dhārā the flow of water from the Causal Ocean outside the universeSB 5.17.1
kṣudra-dṛśaḥ shortsightedSB 12.3.31
sukha-duḥkha-bāhye outside of happiness and distressSB 3.28.36
bahiḥ-antaḥ-pura-dvāraḥ the doors inside and outside the houseSB 10.4.1
bahir-dvāre the outside doorCC Madhya 7.85
bahir-dvāre to the outside doorCC Madhya 7.87
bahir-dvāre outside the doorCC Madhya 12.162
bahiḥ-dvāre outside the doorCC Antya 16.55
bahiḥ gantum to go outsideSB 10.3.47
grāmera bāhire outside the cityCC Madhya 19.245
ihāń outside the gardenCC Madhya 14.47
bāhya-jala-dhārā the flow of water from the Causal Ocean outside the universeSB 5.17.1
bahirańga-jñāne thinking outside My intimate relationshipCC Antya 4.170
kare bāhire vijaya He remains outsideCC Madhya 15.6
bāhira kariyā outsideCC Madhya 12.88
kona pravāsīre to some outsiderCC Antya 13.61
kṣudra-dṛśaḥ shortsightedSB 12.3.31
loka-bāhyaḥ without caring for outsidersSB 11.2.40
loka-bāhyaḥ without caring for outsidersCC Adi 7.94
vijātīya loka outside peopleCC Madhya 8.28
loka-bāhyaḥ without caring for outsidersCC Madhya 9.262
loka-bāhyaḥ not caring for outsidersCC Madhya 23.41
loka-bāhyaḥ without caring for outsidersCC Madhya 25.141
loka-bāhyaḥ not caring for outsidersCC Antya 3.179
maithuna-ādi represented by talking of sex, reading sexual literature or enjoying sex life (at home or outside, as in a club)SB 7.9.45
nahi bahirańga are not outsidersCC Antya 15.46
para outsiderCC Madhya 10.58
parācīna and beyond, or outsideSB 5.20.30
paraḥ an outsiderSB 10.46.38
parakīyā-bhāve in the mood of parakīyā, or conjugal relations outside of marriageCC Adi 4.47
parasmai to outsidersSB 8.17.20
paryupāsitam worshiped from outsideBs 5.26
bāhire phelāya throw outsideCC Madhya 12.89
kona pravāsīre to some outsiderCC Antya 13.61
bahiḥ-antaḥ-pura-dvāraḥ the doors inside and outside the houseSB 10.4.1
bāhire rahiyā staying outsideCC Antya 2.23
ut-śāstra outside the scope of scriptural rulesSB 10.85.30
sautrāmaṇyāḥ outside of the sacrifice known as SautrāmaṇiSB 10.23.8
sukha-duḥkha-bāhye outside of happiness and distressSB 3.28.36
tāhāra bāhire outside that effulgenceCC Adi 5.51
ubhayatra both the upper and lower or inside and outsideSB 1.19.6
bāhira udyāne in an outside gardenCC Madhya 16.101
bāhya-upavane in an outside gardenSB 4.25.17
ut-śāstra outside the scope of scriptural rulesSB 10.85.30
vaikuṇṭha-bāhire outside the Vaikuṇṭha planetsCC Adi 5.31
vaikuṇṭha-bāhire outside the VaikuṇṭhalokasCC Adi 5.32
vaikuṇṭha-bāhire outside the Vaikuṇṭha planetsCC Adi 5.51
ātma-vastunaḥ everything belongs to You, but You are outside and inside of everythingSB 10.3.14
vijātīya loka outside peopleCC Madhya 8.28
kare bāhire vijaya He remains outsideCC Madhya 15.6
visphūrjita outsideSB 8.3.16
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
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plakṣa

Plant Indian tulip tree, Thespesia populnea; white fruited wavy leaf fig, Ficus infectora, F. lacor, F. arnottiana, F. glabella, F. tsiela.

     Wordnet Search "tsi" has 15 results.
     

tsi

jālikaḥ, dhīvaraḥ, dāseraḥ, mainālaḥ, ānāyī, śākunī, choṭī, dāserakaḥ, mātsikaḥ, mātsyikaḥ, jalacarājīvaḥ, dhīvan   

matsyabandhanaṃ kurvāṇā ekā jātiḥ।

grāme naike jālikāḥ matsyabandhanam eva kurvanti।

tsi

cikitsi   

strī cikitsakaḥ।

prāyaḥ striyaḥ cikitsakayā upacārān kurvanti।

tsi

garvita, garvin, sagarva, garvara, garvavat, garvitacitta, sadarpa, darpavān, darpī, mānī, ahaṅkārī, ahaṃyu, sāhaṅkāra, ahamānī, pragalbha, uddhata, uddhatacitta, uddhatamanas, samuddhata, prauḍha, unnaddha, samunnaddha, sāṭopa, āṭopī, utsikta, unnataśiraska, unnatamanaska, samunnatacitta, ūrdhvadṛṣṭi, avalipta, darpaghmāta, sāvahela, pradhṛṣṭa   

yaḥ garvaṃ karoti।

rājeśaḥ garvitaḥ।

tsi

kurūpā, arūpā, virūpā, rūpahīnā, kadākārā, kutsitākārā, kutsi   

sā strī yasyāḥ darśanaṃ cāru nāsti।

tena svabuddhyā kurūpayā striyā saha vivāhaṃ kṛtam।

tsi

ghṛṇita, avadya, jugupsya, kutsita, vībhatsa, jaghanya, ghṛṇāspada, apakṛṣṭa   

ghṛṇārthe yogyaḥ।

bhrūṇahatyā ekaḥ ghṛṇitaḥ aparādhaḥ।

tsi

adhama, pratikṛṣṭa, avamaḥ, nikṛṣṭa, arvā, rephaḥ, yāpyaḥ, kutsitaḥ, avadyaḥ, kupūyaḥ, kheṭaḥ, garhyaḥ, aṇakaḥ, repaḥ, aramaḥ, āṇakaḥ, anakaḥ   

yad atyantam apakṛṣṭam asti।

tava adhamāni kṛtyāni dṛṣṭvā klāntaḥ aham।

tsi

kurūpa, aparupa, virupa, rupahīna, kadākāra, kutsitākāra, kutsita, kutsitākṛti, asundara, asaumya, durdarśana, vikṛtākāra   

yasya rūpam apakṛṣṭam।

kathāyāḥ ārambhe eva mantraiḥ māyinī rājaputraṃ kurupam akarot।

tsi

abhiman, utsic, udi, kak   

ahamanyajanya abhimānānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

kiñcit stutyā saḥ ātmānaṃ paṇḍitam amanyata।

tsi

dhīvaraḥ, dhīvā, śākunikaḥ, śākunī, kaivartaḥ, kaivartakaḥ, kevartaḥ, jālikaḥ, ānāyī, abdhijīvī, kupinī, choṭī, jalacarājīvaḥ, timighātī, dāśaḥ, dāsaḥ, dāśeraḥ, dāseraḥ, dāśerakaḥ, dāserakaḥ, puñjiṣṭhaḥ, matsyaghātī, matsyajīvā, matsyajīvī, matsyabandhaḥ, matsyahā, matsyopajīvī, mātsikaḥ, mātsyikaḥ, mīnaghātī, mīnāriḥ, mainālaḥ, vāryupajīvī, śākulikaḥ, śāpharikaḥ, salilopajīvī   

yaḥ matsyān jāle baddhvā krīṇāti।

vārdalāt dhīvarāḥ samudre matsyabandhanārthe na gatāḥ।

tsi

utkvath, utsic   

dravapadārtham ūṣṇīkṛtya utkvathanānukūlaḥ phenajanakaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

mayā pānārthaṃ jalam utkvathyate।

tsi

abhimānī, garvitaḥ, avaliptaḥ, sagarvaḥ, sadarpaḥ, utsiktaḥ, sāṭopaḥ, sāhaṃkāraḥ, ahaṃmānī, mattaḥ, samunnaddhaḥ, dhṛṣṭaḥ, pratibhāvān, garvitacittaḥ, madoddhataḥ, darpādhmātaḥ, smayākulaḥ, ahaṃkṛtaḥ, abhimāninī, garvitā, avaliptā, sagarvā, sadarpā, utsiktā, sāṭopā, sāhaṃkārī, ahaṃmāninī, mattā, samunnaddhā, dhṛṣṭā, pratibhāvatī, garvitacittā, madoddhatā, darpādhmātā, smayākulā, ahaṃkṛtā   

yasya abhimānaḥ vartate।

ahaṃ tasya abhimāninaḥ chāyāyāḥ api dūraṃ sthātum icchāmi।

tsi

cikitsita   

yasya cikitsā kṛtā।

rugṇālayāt cikitsitāḥ pīḍitāḥ gṛhaṃ nivartitāḥ।

tsi

karṇikikā, vatsi   

navīyā gauḥ।

iyaṃ karṇikikā gurviṇī nāsti।

tsi

cikitsitaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

cikitsitaḥ pāṇininā gargādigaṇe parigaṇitaḥ

tsi

jagatsiṃhaḥ   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

jagatsiṃhasya ullekhaḥ praśastyām asti

Parse Time: 2.016s Search Word: tsi Input Encoding: IAST: tsi