tresvarya (1) use of the three accents acute, grave and circumflex at the time of the recital of the Veda; त्रयः स्वरा एव त्रैस्वर्यम्; चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनां स्वार्थॆ उपसंख्यानम् । त्रैलोक्यम् , त्रैस्यर्यम् Kas, on P. V. 1. 124. confer, compare also यद्येवं त्रैस्वर्ये न प्रकल्पते तत्र को दोषः। त्रैस्वर्येणाधीमहॆ इत्येतन्नोपपद्यते । confer, compare on P. I. 2.31. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). pā tresamitādi a class of irregular compound words headed by the compound word पात्रेसमित, which are taken correct as they are. This class of words consists mostly of words forming a tatpurușa compound which cannot be explained by regular rules. The class is called आकृतिगण and hence similar irregular words are included in it: e. g. पात्रेसमिताः, गेहेशूरः कूपमण्डूकः etc KS. on P. II.1.48. confer, compare me treyarakṣita a recognised scholar of Paninis' grammar who belonged to the Eastern part of India and fourished in the beginning of the twelfth century. As it appears from the name Maitreya Raksita he appears to have been a Buddhist grammarian. Subsequent writers in their works refer to him by the name Raksita alone, as also by the name Maitreya, but very rarely by the name Maitreya Raksita.He wrote many works on grammar of which the 'tantrapradipa'a learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa on Kasika was a reputed one, which, although available in a fragmentary manuscript form today, has been profusely quoted by prominent grammarians after him. a (1) the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the per feminine. second. and first and third plural person. ; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा singular. et cetera, and others अ प्रत्ययात् confer, compare (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 et cetera, and others अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति exempli gratia, for example ; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; et cetera, and others द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imper exempli gratia, for example and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् feminine. P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, confer, compare in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's et cetera, and others ; (9) Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ taddhita affix. in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the et cetera, and others of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73. inst. instrumental case. aṃ (ं) nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot the vowel preceding it. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare confer, compare V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also confer, compare 1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) akampita not shaken; tremulous: said with respect to vowels in Vedic utterance, kampa being looked upon as a fault of utterance., cf अकम्पितान् । कम्पनं नाम स्वराश्रितपाठदोषः प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । तमुपलक्ष्य स वर्ज्य:। R.Pr.III.31 akarmaka intransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad. confer, compare akṣarasamāmnāya alphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ，ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । confer, compare Ahnika.2-end. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). atijagatī one of the varieties of-in fact, the first variety of-the Aticchandas metre, which see : this Atijagatī consists of 52 syllables.e. g. तमिन्द्रे जोहवीमि मघवानमुग्रम् Ṛk. Saṁh.8.97.13 cf, प्रथमातिजगत्यासां सा द्विपञ्चाशदक्षरा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. XVI.80. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) atinicṛt a variety of the Gāyatri metre consisting of 20 syllables, confer, compare XVI.22. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) atiśakvarī a variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 60 syllables. e. g. सुषुमा यातमद्रिभिः Ṛk. Saṁh. I. 137.1. cf, KVI.82. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) atyaṣṭi a variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 68 syllables. e. g. अथा रुचा हरिण्या पुनानः Ṛk. Sam. 8.111.1. adhikāra governing rule consisting of a word ( प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः exempli gratia, for example ) or words ( et cetera, and others ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे exempli gratia, for example ) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; et cetera, and others अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeat confer, compare The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if oppo edition These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; singular. सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥ confer, compare anākṛti not capable of presenting (on its mere utterance) any tangible form or figure the word is used in connection with a technical term (संज्ञाशब्द) which presents its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise: अनाकृति: संज्ञा । अाकृतिमन्तः संज्ञिनः confer, compare on I.1.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aniṭkārikā (1) name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous. anuvṛtti repetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष. anuśāsana traditional instruction; treatment of a topic; अथ शब्दानुशासनम् exempli gratia, for example I. 1.1 where the word is explained as अनुशिष्यन्ते संस्क्रियन्ते व्युत्पाद्यन्ते अनेन इति अनुशासनम्. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). antaraṅgabalīyastva the strength which an antaraṅga rule or operation possesses by virtue of which it supersedes all other rules or operations,excepting an apavāda rule, when or if they occur simultaneously in the formation of a word. antaraṅgalakṣaṇa characterized by the nature of an antaraṅga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it. appayadīkṣita अप्पदीक्षित A famous versatile writer of the sixteenth century A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅantaśeṣasaṁgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him. abhikṛti a variety of long metres called अतिच्छन्दस्; it consists of 100 syllables. अभिकृतिः -देवा अग्निः स्विष्टकृत् confer, compare XVI.60. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) abhisāriṇī name of a metre in which two feet have ten syllables and the other two have twelve syllables; वैराजजागतैः पादैर्यो वाचेत्यभिसारिणी confer, compare XIV. 43. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) artha (1) signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: literally प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः confer, compare XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् confer, compare III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; id est, that is also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206. confer, compare aluksamāsa a compound in which the case-affixes are not dropp The Aluk compounds are treated by Pāṇini in VI.3.I to VI.3.24. edition alontyavidhi an operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे confer, compare on I.1.65, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्यादेशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52. confer, compare avyayasaṃgraha name of a treatise ondeclinable words attributed to Sākaṭāyana. aṣṭākṣarā a metre having eight syllables in a foot; गायत्री सा चतुर्विंशत्यक्षरा । अष्टाक्षरास्त्रयः पादाः चत्वारो वा षडक्षराः confer, compare XVI.9. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) aṣṭi name of a metre of four feet consisting of 64 syllables in all, 12 syllables in the odd feet and 20 in the even feet; e. g. त्रिकद्रुकेषु महिषः et cetera, and others II.22.1. Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita. ākṛti form; individual thing; literally एकस्या अाकृतेश्चरितः प्रयोगो द्वितीयस्यास्तृतीयस्याश्च न भवति M.Bh on III.1.40 confer, compare 6. The word is derived as आक्रियते सा आकृतिः and explained as संस्थानम्; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). आक्रियते व्यज्यते अनया इति आकृतिः संस्थानमुच्यते confer, compare on IV.1.63; (2) general form which, in a way, is equivalent to the generic notion or genus; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. आकृत्युपदेशात्सिद्धम् । अवर्णाकृतिरुपदिष्टा सर्वमवर्णकुलं ग्रहीष्यति confer, compare I.1 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 1; (3) notion of genus; cf also यत्तर्हि तद् भिन्नेष्वभिन्नं छिनेष्वच्छिन्नं सामान्यभूतं स शब्दः । नेत्याह । अाकृतिर्नाम सा. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. I.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 1; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. R. Prāt. XVI.56,57. confer, compare aākhyāta verbal form, verb; भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि confer, compare I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Nirukta of Yāska. I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). V.1; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ confer, compare as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted et cetera, and others from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a confer, compare affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined; kṛt (affix). कृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with confer, compare affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; kṛt (affix). अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa. confer, compare aākhyātavyākaraṇa a treatise on verbs discussing verbal forms by VaṅgaSena. abādha (1) similarity of one phonetic element, for instance, in the case of ऐ with आ resulting from Saṁdhi: e. g. प्रजाया अरातिं निर्ऋत्या अकः where प्रजाया and निर्ऋत्या stand for प्रजायै and निर्ऋत्यै एकारान्तानि अाकारबाधे Āth. Pr. II.1.4; (2) Similarity of accent of words in the Saṁhitāpāṭha and Padapāṭha; (3) followed by confer, compare confer, compare II.1.14; (4) distress; Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. आबाधे च, P. VIII.1.10. confer, compare āraḍe KRISHNASHASTRI a reputed Naiyāyika of Banaras of the nineteenth century, who wrote, besides many treatises on Nyāya, a short gloss on the Sutras of Pāṇini, called Pāṇini-sūtra-vṛtti. aāstārapaṅkati a variety of पङ्कक्ति metre of 40 letters with 8 letters in the first and second quarters or pādas and 12 letters in the third and fourth quarters अास्तारपङ्कक्तिरादितः R.Pr.XVI.40. For instances of आस्तारपङ्क्ति see Ṛgveda sūkta 2l, Mandala X. confer, compare indra name of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya confer, compare by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127. edition iṣṭa a word frequently used in the Vārttikas and the Mahābhāṣya and other treatises in the senses of (1) a desired object, (2) a desired purpose, (3) a desired statement, (4) a desired form the correct form : id est, that is इष्टान्वाख्यानं खल्वपि भवति: confer, compare I.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 1. योगविभागादिष्टसिद्धिः Pari.Śek. Pari. 114. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. iṣṭatantravyākaraṇa a short treatise on grammar ascribed to Jayadeva. īśvarakānta author of 'Dhātumāla', a short metrical treatise on roots. īśvarānanda author of (l) a gloss on Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣya-pradīpa, and (2)an independent treatise Śābdabodhataraṅgiṇī. He is believed to have been a pupil of सत्यानन्द and iived in the latter part of the 16th century A.D. uktipada उक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds written mostly in Gujarati. et cetera, and others uccāraṇa pronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारणसामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and elsewhere in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which purpose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; confer, compare जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः. confer, compare uṇādi affixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; et cetera, and others Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriv confer, compare The derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; edition उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. confer, compare on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; et cetera, and others confer, compare on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). uṇādisūtradaśapādī the text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable. udayakīrti author of a treatise giving rules for the determination of the pada or padas of roots; the treatise is named पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिकाटीका He was a Jain grammarian, and one of the pupils of Sādhusundara. uddyotanaprabhā name of a commentary on the 'Tantrapradipa' of Maitreya Rakṣita,which latter is a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's which itself is a commentary on Jayāditya's Kāśikā. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. upasargavāda a treatise on upasargas, by Harikṛṣna. vupasargavicāra a treatise on upasargas by Gadādhara Cakravartin. upasargavṛtti a treatise on upasargas by Bharatamalla in the Sixteenth Century A.D. urobṛhatī a variety of the Vedic metre बृहती in which the first pada consists of twelve syllables and the rest of eight syllables; confer, compare XVI. 33. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) uṣṇih (उष्णिक्) name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see XVI 20-26. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ūrdhvabṛhatī ( विराज् ) a variety of the metre Bṛhatī which has three padas of twelve syllables each; त्रयो द्वादशका यस्याः सा होर्ध्ववृहती विराट् confer, compare XVI.33. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ṛṣicchands the metre of the Vedic seers. The seven metres गायत्री, उष्णिक्, अनुष्टुप्, बृहती, पङ्क्ति, त्रिष्टुप् and जगती consisting respectively of 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables are named ऋषिच्छन्दस् as contrasted with the metres दैव, प्राजापत्य and आसुर, which, when combined together, make the metres of the Vedic seers, For details see XVI.1.5. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ekavattva or एकवद्भाव use or treatment of the plural sense as if it is singular; एकवद्भावोsनर्थक: 1 समाहारैकत्वात् M.Bh. on II. 4.12. Vart. 5. confer, compare ekaśeṣa a kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः confer, compare अजा feminine. अश्वाः feminine. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original masculine gender. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona. Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. aikapadya treatment as one single word especially found in the case of compound words (सामासिकपद) which, as a result of such treatment, have only one accent (acute) and one case affix after the whole word; अयं खल्वपि बहुव्रीहिरस्त्येव प्राथमकल्पिकः । यस्मिन्नैकपद्यमैकस्व र्यमेकविभक्तित्वं च confer, compare on P.I.1.29. See एकपद. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aindra name of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': ( I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aauṇādika an afix mentioned in the class of affixes called उणादि in treatises of Pāṇini and other grammarians; नमुचि । मुचेरौणादिकः केिप्रत्ययः Kāś.on P.VI.3.75; फिडफिड्डौ अौणादिकौ प्रत्ययौ M.Bh. on confer, compare 2. See the word उणादि Māheśvarasūtras. . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. auṣṇiha beginning with a stanza of the Uṣṇih metre; उष्णिहापूर्वः सतोबृहत्यन्तः प्रगाथः औष्णिह इत्युच्यते । यथा यमादित्यासो अद्रुहः Uvaṭa on R.Pr.XVIII.5. confer, compare karman (1) object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म confer, compare II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; et cetera, and others अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित confer, compare . Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. confer, compare कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः exempli gratia, for example It is called अभिहित in such cases; et cetera, and others P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित confer, compare .The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; et cetera, and others घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; exempli gratia, for example निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् confer, compare on I.4.49: Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also confer, compare on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; exempli gratia, for example confer, compare on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and confer, compare thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; commentary उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति confer, compare I. 3.4, where Nirukta of Yāska. explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ). Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta. kalāpa (कलाप-व्याकरण) alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र. kavikalpadruma a treatise on roots written by Bopadeva, the son of Keśava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaśālās. kavicandra author of a small treatise on grammar called Sārasatvarī. He lived in the seventeenth century A.D. He was a resident of Darbhaṅgā. Jayakṛṣṇa is also given as the name of the author of the Sārasatvarī grammar and it is possible that Jayakṛṣṇa was given the title, or another name, Kavicandra. kātantra name of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. . A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375. Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. kātantrottara a treatise on the Kātantra Grammar believed to have been written by Vidyānanda. kātyāyana the well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascrib For details see edition . pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below. The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. kāraka doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: literally also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa confer, compare . pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. kārakakārikā possibly another name for the treatise on Kārakas known as कारकचक्र written by adeva the reputed grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A. D. See कारकचक्र. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍana also called षट्कारक-खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of theauthor's bigger work named त्रिलो-चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse on the six kārakas written by Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the Kātantra school. He has also written another treatise named Kārakavicāra kārakatattva a treatise on the topic of Kārakas written by Cakrapāṇiśeṣa, belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who lived in the seventeenth century A. D. kārakanirṇaya a work discussing the various Kārakas from the Naiyāyika view-point written by the well-known Naiyāyika, Gadādhara Chakravartin of Bengal, who was a pupil of Jagadīśa and who fourished in the 16th century A. D. He is looked upon as one of the greatest scholars of Nyāyaśāstra. His main literarywork was in the field of Nyāyaśāstra on which he has written several treatises. kārakavāda (1) a treatise discussing the several Kārakas, written by Kṛṣṇaśāstri Ārade a famous Naiyāyika of Benares who lived in the eighteenth century A. D; (2) a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below. a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below. kuppuśāstrin a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote some works on grammar of which the परिभाषाभास्कर is an independent treatise on Paribhāṣās. kṛdvṛtti a short treatise by a grammarian named मोक्षेश्वर who lived in the fifteenth century. The work deals with verbal derivatives. kodṇḍarāma a scholar of Sanskrit Vyākaraṇa who composed शब्दसिद्धान्तमञ्जरी a small treatise dealing with the declension of nouns. kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa (1) an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also. kṣapaṇaka a Jain grammarian quoted in the well-known stanza धन्वन्तरिः क्षपणकोमरसिंहशङ्कु which enumerates the seven gems of the court of Vikramāditya, on the strength of which some scholars believe that he was a famous grammarian of the first century B.C. gaṇapāṭha the mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or , the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna. Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. gati (1) motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, literally हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, exempli gratia, for example P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति confer, compare Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. gadādharacakravartin the reputed Naiyāyika who wrote numerous works on the Navyanyaya; he has written a few works like व्युत्पत्तिवाद, उपसर्गविचार, कारकनिर्णय, सर्वनामविचार, प्रत्ययविचार on Vyākaraṇa themes although the treatment, as also the style, is logical. gopāla ( देव ) known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the et cetera, and others मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. gopīcandra known also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the grammatical treatises of the Samksipatasara or Jaumāra school of Vyakarana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षितसारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D. golḍsṭyūkara a well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century. gotrinda ( चक्रवर्तिन् ) writer of Samasavada, a short treatise on the sense conveyed by compound words. goṣṭhac a affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; taddhita affix. गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् confer, compare on P. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. 2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently. 1. varia lectio, another reading, caṅgavṛtti a short treatise written by वङ्गदास, dealing with the topic of the five compact expressions or Vrttis viz. कृत्, तद्वित, समास, एकशेष, and सनादिधातु. caṅgudāsa or चाड्गुदास a scholar of grammar who has written an independent work on Sanskrit Vyakaana called वैयाकरणजीवातु. The treatise is also known as चाङ्गुसूत्र or चाङ्गु-व्याकरण. candrācārya a grammarian mentioned by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya as one who took a leading part in restoring the traditional explanation of Panini's Vyakarana which, by the spread of rival easy treatises on grammar, had become almost lost: यः पतञ्जलिशिष्येभ्यो भ्रष्टो ब्याकरणागमः । काले स दाक्षिणात्येषु ग्रन्थमात्रे व्यवस्थित: ॥ पर्वतादागमं लब्ध्वा भाष्यबीजानुसारिभि: । स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः ॥ Vakyapadiya II. 488-489. See चन्द्र and चन्द्रगोमिन्. confer, compare carkarīta a term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; person. चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः confer, compare II.4.72; Pāṇini. also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elid confer, compare See चेक्रीयित. edition cāṅgusūtra a treatise on the grammar Written by चाडगुदास in the Sutra form,which was named वैयाकरणजीवातु by him. cānaś krt affix अान applied to a root, to signify habit, age or strength; e. g. आत्मानं भूषयमाणाः । कवचं बिभ्राणाः । शत्रून्निघ्राना: P. III. 2. 129. confer, compare cāndra name of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र . For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ciccandrikā name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in reply to the treatise named दूषकरदोद्भेदः See विष्णुशास्त्रिन्. For details see pp. 39, 40 of Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. published by the D.E. Society, Poona. chandas (1) Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति confer, compare on I.1.1, and I.4.3; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also confer, compare I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. छन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda. confer, compare jayadeva a grammarian, ( of course different from well-known poet), to whom a small treatise on grammar by name इष्टतन्त्रव्याकरण is attribut edition jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya (1) a famous Bengalee scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. The treatise is named कारकवाद. jayāditya one of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका. jaumāra ( व्याकरण ) a treatise on vya'karana written by Jumaranandin. See जुमरनन्दिन् The Jaumara Vyakarana has no Vedic section dealing with Vedic forms or accents,but it has added a section on Prakrita just as the Haima Vyakaraha. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. jaumārasaṃskaraṇa the revised version by Jumuranandin of the original grammar treatise in verse called संक्षिप्तसार written by KramadiSvara, The Jaumarasamskarana is the samc as.jaumara Vyakarana, which see . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. tatpuruṣa name of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष id est, that is P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, confer, compare , and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; et cetera, and others परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, confer, compare on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: confer, compare राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; exempli gratia, for example P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compare P.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona. confer, compare tadvadatideśa treatment of something as that which is not that e. g. the treatment of affixes not marked with mute n or n as marked with n even though they are not actually marked that way, P. I. 2.14; also cf तद्वदतिदेशेSकिद्विधिप्रसङ्गः P. I. 2.1 Vart 4. confer, compare timaṇṇā a southern grammarian who wrote a short treatise on the pratyaharas like अण्, इण् in the grammar of Panini. et cetera, and others tiṣṭhadguprabhṛti compound words headed by the word तिष्ठद्गु which are termed as avyayibhava compounds and treated as indeclinables; तिष्ठद्गु, वहद्गु असंप्रति, प्राह्णम् exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P.II. 1.17. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. tīvratara extreme sharpness of the nasalization at the time of pronouncing the anusvara and the fifth letters recommended by Saityayana.e. g. अग्नीररप्सुषदः, वञ्चते परिवञ्चते. confer, compare XVII. 1. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. tṛjvadbhāva treatment of a word as ending with the affix तृच् although, in fact, it does not so end; e. g. the word क्रोष्टु; तृज्वत्क्रोष्टु:, P. VII. 1.95 ; confer, compare also तृज्वद्भावस्यावकाशः क्रोष्ट्रा क्रोष्टुना; M.Bh, on VII. 1.95 Vart. 10. confer, compare taittirīyaprātiśākhya called also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore. edition tripādī term usually used in connection with the last three Padas (ch. VIII. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. 4) of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as also a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1; (2) name of a critical treatise on Panini's grammar ("The Tripadi") written by Dr. H. E. Buiskool recently. confer, compare tribhāṣyaratna name of a commentary on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya written by Somayarya. The commentary is said to have been based on the three Bhasya works attributed to the three ancient Vedic scholarsVararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya. trilokanātha son of Vaidyanatha who wrote a small treatise on karakas called षट्कारकनिरूपण. thīma (THIEME, PAUL) a sound scholar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a critical treatise named "Panini and the Veda." dayāpāla a.Jain writer who wrote a treatise named रूपसिद्धि. dayāratna a.Jain scholar who has written a grammar treatise on the Sarasvata Grammar called सारस्वतपरिभाषा. daśaka a name given to the treatise on grammar written by व्याघ्रपाद which consisted of 10 chapters; दशकं वैयाघ्रपदीयम् confer, compare on P V. 1.58. The word also means students reading the work दशक; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. दशका वैयाघ्रपदीया: confer, compare on P. IV.2.65. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. daśagaṇī (1) a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1. confer, compare daśabalakārikā a short treatise on the roots belonging to more than one conjugation; the name of the author is not given. dānavijaya a Jain grammarian, who wrote a small grammar treatise named शब्दभूषण. daśagaṇī (1) a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1. confer, compare daśabalakārikā a short treatise on the roots belonging to more than one conjugation; the name of the author is not given. dānavijaya a Jain grammarian, who wrote a small grammar treatise named शब्दभूषण. durvalācārya a grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar दुर्वलीयव्याकरण, named after him. Besides this treatise, he has written commentaries on Nagesa's Laghumanjusa and Paribhasendusekhara. devanandin called also पूज्यपाद or पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् believed to have lived in the fifth century A. D. and written the treatise on grammar, of course based om Panini Sutras, which is known as जैनेन्द्र-व्याकरण or जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as जैनेन्द्र in the usually guoted verse of Bopadeva :इन्द्रश्चन्द्रः काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्र जयन्त्यष्टादेिशाब्दिकाः. देवनन्दिन् was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which सर्वार्थसिद्धि, the commentary on the तत्त्वार्थाधिगमसूत्र, is well-known. drutabodha name of a treatise on grammar written for beginners by Bharatasena or Bharatamalla of Bengal in the sixteemth century. dhanajit name of the author of a short metrical treatise on roots named धातुक्रल्पलतिका. dhamekīrti a Jain scholar called by the name कीर्ति also, who was the author of धातुप्रत्ययपञ्जिक्रा and रूपावतार a well-known treatise on roots; बोपदेवमहाग्राहग्रस्तो वामनदिग्गजः । कीर्तेरेव प्रसङ्गेन माधवेन समुद्धृतः । He is believed to have been the first grammarian who arranged the sutras of Panini according to the subject matter. confer, compare dhātukalpalatikā a short treatise on the roots of the different conjugations written by a grammarian named Dhananjaya. dhātupāṭha (1) name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century. dhātupārāyaṇa a grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D. dhātupradīpa a work dealing with verbal forms written by Maitreya Raksita, a Buddhist writer and a famous grammarian belonging to the eastern part of India who lived in the middle of the twelfth century. He is believed to have written many scholarly works in connection with Panini's grammar out of which the Tantrapradipa is the most important one. The work Dhatupradipa is quoted by Saranadeva, who was a contemporary of Maitreya Raksita, in his Durghatavrtti on P. II. 4. 52. dhāturatnamañjarī a treatise dealing with roots believed to have been written by Ramasimhavarman. dhātuvṛtti a general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others. nañsvarabalīyastva the superiority, or strength of the accent caused by नञ्समास which sets aside the accent caused by the case affix; विभक्तिस्वरान्नञ्स्वरो बलीयान् P. VI. 2.158 Vart. 13, confer, compare nandikeśvarakārikā a short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian नन्दिकेश्वर, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen sutras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva. See नन्दिकेश्वर. The treatise is also named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र. narendrasūri an old grammarian believed to have been the original writer of the Sarasvata Vyakarana, on the strength of references to him in the commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana written by क्षेमेन्द्र as also references in the commentary on the Prakriykaumudi by Vitthalesa. He is believed to have lived in the tenth century A;D. nāmaliṅgānuśāsana a treatise in which words with their genders are given. The term is usually used in connection with the great dictionary by अमरसिंह which is called नामालिङ्गानुशासन or अमरकोष. nārāyaṇavandya a grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named Saravali, and a treatise on roots named Dhatuparayana. nighaṇṭu a name given to a collection of words which are mainly Vedic. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises on derivation such as the Nirukta of Yaska were based upon them; निघण्टवः कस्मात् । निगमा इमे भवन्ति । छन्दोभ्यः समाहृत्य समाहृत्य समाम्नातास्ते निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः । अपि वा आहननादेव स्युः | समाहता भवन्ति । यद्वा समाहृता भवन्ति (Nir.I.1) where the word is derived from गम्,or हन् or हृ. The word निघण्टु is taken as synonymous with निगम by Durgacarya. confer, compare nicṛt less by one syllable; the word is used as an adjective to the name of a Vedic metre which has got one syllable less than the normal; एकद्-व्यूनाधिकः सैव निचृदूनाधिका भुरिक् R.Pr.XVII.1. confer, compare nipātāvyayopasargavṛttia short treatise explaining and illustrating the use of indeclinables, written by a grammarian named तिलक who probably lived in Kasmira. niyama (1) restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, confer, compare on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; confer, compare on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम confer, compare et cetera, and others ; (4) grave accent or anudatta; et cetera, and others उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् confer, compare III. 9; see नियत (2). Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) nirukta name of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) nirdhāraṇa (1) selection of one or some out of many; जातिगुणाक्रियाभिः समुदायादेकदेशस्य पृथक्करणं निर्धारणम् । मनुष्याणां मनुष्येषु वा क्षत्रियः शूरतमः confer, compare on P. II.2.10 as also on II.3.4l; (2) determined or definite sense to the exclusion of another, generally on the strength of the indeclinable एव which is expressed or understood. The word नेिर्धारण is used for अवधारण in this sense; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. यत एवकारस्ततोन्यत्रावधारणम् a maxim used as a Paribhasa by some grammarians; cf; also धातोस्तन्निमित्तस्यैव । धात्ववधारणं यथा स्यात्तन्निमित्तावधारणं मा भूदिति confer, compare on P. VI. 1.81. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. nirlūra name of a grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini on the strength of a reference to him in the Nyasa of Jinendrabuddhi; वृत्तिः पाणिनीयसूत्राणां विवरणं चुल्लिभट्टिनिर्लूरादिप्रणीतम् Nyasa on I.1.1. confer, compare nyaṅkusāriṇī a kind of बृहती metre in which the second foot has twelve syllables, while the rest have eight syllables each; द्वितीये न्यङ्कुसारिणी R.Pr.XVI.32. confer, compare nyāsa (1) position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; literally the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare confer, compare on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name et cetera, and others is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. . In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. . This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. , which also is well-known as a scholarly work. Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. patañjali the reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itsel The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; feminine. पतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explain confer, compare He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are cover edition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य. edition padmanābha a grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar known as the Supadma Vyākaraņa. He is believed to have been an inhabitant of Bengal who lived in the fourteenth century A. D. Some say that he was a resident of Mithilā. para (l) subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. confer, compare 7; II. 1.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). et cetera, and others paratva posteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: परत्वादल्लोप: ; confer, compare on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). et cetera, and others parāṅgavadbhāva behaviour as having become a part and parcel of another ; treatment of a word as a part of another. The term is used by Panini in connection with a word followed by and connected with a word in the vocative case of which it is looked upon as a part for purposes of accent, e. g. कुण्डेनाटन् , मद्राणां राजन् Here the words अटन् and राजन् , being in the vocative case, are अाद्युदात्त, et cetera, and others अ ( at the beginning of अटन्) and अा (in राजन्) are acute and as a result all the other vowels in कुण्डेनाटन् and मद्राणां राजन् become अनुदात्त or grave; id est, that is सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P.II.1.2. confer, compare parigaṇana enumeration. The word is used in grammar treatises in the sense of a definite or complete enumeration' with a view to exclude those that are not included in the enumeration : cf परिगणनं कर्तव्यम् | यङ्यक्यवलोपे प्रतिषेधः M.Bh. on I.1.4 Vaart. 1. literally paribhāṣā an authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different syste confer, compare Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह. manuscript. paribhāṣāprakāśā an independent treatise explaining the various Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar, written by Visnusesa of the famous SeSa family. paribhāṣāpradīpārcis a scholarly independent treatise on Vyakarana Paribhasas written by Udayamkara Pathaka, called also Nana Pathaka, a Nagara Brahmana, who lived at Benares in the middle of the 18th century A. D. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Naagesa. paribhāṣābhāskara (1) a treatise on the Paribhasas in Panini's grammar written by Haribhaskara Agnihotri, son of Appajibhatta Agnihotri, who lived in the seventeenth century : (2) a treatise on Paniniparibhasas, as arranged by Siradeva, written by Sesadrisuddhi, paribhāṣārthasaṃgrahṛ a treatise on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar written by Vaidyanatha Sastrin. paribhāṣāvṛtti a general name given to an explanatory independent work on Paribhasas of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribhasas,irrespective of the system of grammar, whether it be that of Panini, or of Katantra, or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. The treatises of Vyadi (Panini system), Durgasimha and BhavamiSra (Katantra system), Purusottamadeva and Siradeva (Panini system), Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the name Paribhasavritti. paribhāṣāsegraha' a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundr edition paribhāṣenduśekhara the reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis. paspaśā called also पस्पशाह्निक; name given to the first or introductory chapter ( अाह्निक ) of the Maahabhaasya of Patanjali. The word occurs first in the SiSupaalavadha of Maagha. The word is derived from पस्पश् , the frequentative base of स्पर्श to touch or to see (ancient use). Possibly it may be explained as derived from स्पश् with अप; cf . शब्दबिद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Sis.II.112. Mallinatha has understood the word पस्पश m. and explained it as introduction to a Saastra treatise; पस्पशः शास्त्रारम्भसमर्थक उपेद्वातसंदर्भग्रन्थः । Mallinaatha on SiS. II.112. confer, compare pāribhāṣika (l) technical, as opposed to literal; conventional; e. g. the words संबुद्धि, हेतु cf शब्दैरर्थाभिधानं स्वाभाविकम् । न पारिभाषिकमशक्यत्वात् । लोकत एवार्थावगते: । Kāś on P.I.2.56; et cetera, and others किमिदम् पारिभाषिक्याः संबुद्धैग्रहणमेकवचनं संबुद्धिराहोस्विदन्वर्थग्रहणं संबोधनं संबुद्धिरिति । confer, compare on P. I. 2.33; (2) derived on the strength of a Paribhasa Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). पारिभाषिकं क्वचिदनित्यं स्यात् Kat. Par. vr. Pari. 58. confer, compare puṣkaraṇa a popular term used for the treatise on grammar by an ancient grammarian Apisali. अापिशलं पुष्करणम् Kas on P. IV. 3. 15. It was called Puskarana probably because it was very extensive and widely read before Panini. For the reading दुष्करण for पुष्करण, and other details see Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 132-133, D. E. Society's edition. confer, compare pūrvasūtra previous rule: a rule cited erlier in a treatise. The word is however, frequently used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of 'a rule laid down by an earlier grammarian': literally वर्ण वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे M. Bh, Ahnika 1, पूर्वसूत्रे गोत्रस्य वृद्धमिति संज्ञा क्रियते M. Bh on I. 2.68; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.IV.1.14 Vart. 3, VI.I. 163 Vart. 1, VII.1.18, VIII. 4.7. confer, compare pṛthvīdharācārya a grammarian of the Eastern school who wrote the treatise कातन्त्रविवरण on Katantra Grammar. pedubhaṭṭa a grammarian.who has written a treatise named औणादिकपदार्णव on the Unadi sutras. paurvāparya (1) a relation between two operations or rules based upon their anterior and ulterior positions, which is many times taken into consideration for deciding their relative strength; (2) the order of words; cf शब्देनार्थान्वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात् पौर्वापर्यम् on P 1.4.109 Vart. 10 cf also पौर्वापर्यमकालव्यपेतं सेहिता, P. I. 4.109 Vart. 8. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). prakaraṇa topic; context; a section wherein a particular subject is treated; अर्थात् प्रकरणाद्वा लोके कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे संप्रत्ययो भवति M.Bh. on I. 1. 23; confer, compare also सामान्यशब्दाश्च नान्तरेण विशेषं प्रकरणं वा विशेषेष्ववतिष्ठन्ते confer, compare on I. 2.45 Vart 9. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). prakaraṇagrantha literary works in which the treatment is given in the form of topics by arranging the original sutras or rules differently so that all such rules as relate to a particular topic are found together: the Prakriykaumudi, the Siddhantakumudi and others are called प्रकरणग्रन्थs. Such works are generally known by the name प्राक्रयाग्रन्थ as opposed to वृतिग्रन्थ. prakarṣagati preferential treatment, special consideration ; तत्र प्रकर्षगतिर्विज्ञास्यते साधीयः यः अल्विधिः इति, M.Bh.on P.I. 1.56; confer, compare also confer, compare on III. 1.94 Vart. 6. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). prakīrṇakāṇḍa name given to the third Kanda or book of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya where miscellaneous topics are treat The third Kanda consists of 14 sections called by the name Samuddesa. For details see pp. 381-382 Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition. edition pratyāhārasūtravicāra a short treatise explaining the pratyharas अण् , अट्, अश् in the grammar of Panini; one such work is written by a southern grammarian named तिमण्णा. et cetera, and others prayuktākhyātamañjarī a small treatise on verbal forms by सारङ्गकवि. prayogapallava a small treatise in verses on the conjugation of roots, written by Bhavanatha Misra, son of Ramapati. prayogamukhamaṇḍana known also by the name प्रयोगविवेक, an elementary treatise on syntax, attributed to वररुचि, who must, of course, have been different from the ancient grammarian वररुचि. prayogaratnamālā name of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam. prākṛtasarvasya a treatise on the grammar of Prakrta Languages attributed to Markandeya prātiśākhya a work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itsel The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindl feminine. Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also. edition balīyastva relative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1. confer, compare bāhvādi a class of words headed by the word बाहु to which the affix इ ( इञ् ) is added in the sense of a descendant; e. g. बाहविः, पौष्करसादि:, पाञ्चिः taddhita affix. The class called बाह्वादि is looked upon as अाकृतिगण on the strength of the word च in the rule, so that similar words, not included in the class, could be explained; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P.IV.1.96. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. bṛhatī a Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरिष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्वबृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा and विषमपदा. For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37. bopadeva a great Sanskrit scholar and grammarian belonging to Devagiri in the greater Maharastra who was supported by Hemadri of Devagiri. He resided at सार्थग्राम on the river Varada in the first half of the thirteenth century. He wrote a short treatise on Sanskrit Grammar, which has a number of peculiar abbreviations for the usual well-known grammatical ter His grammar had a wide spread in Bengal and it is today a very common text on Grammar Bengal. On this account some scholars believe that he lived in Bengal. He was the son of Kesava and pupil of Dhanesa. He is also the author, of the well-known work कविकल्पद्रुम on which he has written a commentary named कामधेनु or काव्यकामधेनु. manuscript. bhāṣāṃmañjarī a small treatise on grammar written by Vyaṅkaṭa Subbā Shastrī. bhāṣāvṛtti a short gloss on the of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti. वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव. confer, compare bhīmasena called भीमदास also, who flourished in the fourteenth century and wrote a treatise on grammar called भैमव्याकरण. bhaimavyākaraṇa a grammar treatise written by भौमसेन in the fourteenth century A. D. bhoja the well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa. bhrūmadhya centre of the brows, or eyebrows which is described as the place of air ( which produces utterance or speech) at the time of the evening soma-pressing or sacrifice: literally प्रात:सवनमाध्यन्दिनसवनतृतीयसवनक्रमेण उर:कण्ठभ्रूमध्यानि त्रीणि स्थानानि वायोर्भर्वान्त Vāj. Prāt. I. 30; confer, compare also भ्रुवोर्मध्ये प्राणमावेश्य सम्यक्. confer, compare maṅgalārtha for the sake of auspiciousness at the beginning of a treatise or work; भूवादीनां वकारोयं मङ्गलार्थः प्रयुज्यते M.Bh. on P.I.3.1.; confer, compare मङ्गलादीनि हि शास्त्राणि | M.Bh. on P.I.1.1. confer, compare madhyakaumudī called also मध्यमकौमुदी a work on grammar which is an abridgment, to a certain extent, of Bhaṭṭojī's Siddhāntakaumudī. The treatise was written by Varadarāja, a pupil of Bhaṭṭojī for facilitating the study of the Siddhānta-kaumudi. madhyamakaumudī (1) name of a treatise on grammar by Rāmaśarman; (2) the same as मध्यकौमुदी. manoramā (1) the popular name given to the commentary प्रौढमनेारमा on the Siddhāntakaumudī of भट्टोजीदीक्षित by the author himself the commentary is a scholarly one and very extensive; and its first portion only upto the end of Kāraka is generally read in the Sanskrit Pāṭhaśālās;(2) name of a commentary on the Madhyasiddhāntakaumudī by Rāmasarman; (3) name given to a treatise discussing roots given in the Kātantra Grammar written by रमानाथशर्मा in the sixteenth century. The work is called कातन्त्रधातुवृत्ति also. manoramākucamardana name given in a bantering tone to the treatise प्रौढमनोरमाखण्डन written by जगन्नाथपण्डित: mahābhāṣya the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the literally of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे confer, compare scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplement et cetera, and others Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to edition , he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ). confer, compare mahābhāṣyalaghuvṛtti name given to the short gloss on the Mahabhasya written by the famous eastern grammar-scholar Maitreya-Raksita of the twelfth century. mahāsaṃjñā a long term, as contrasted with the very short terms टि, घु, भ, इत् and others introduced by Panini in his grammar for the sake of brevity. These long terms such as सर्वनाम, अब्यय,परस्मैपद, अात्मनेपद, and many others were widely in use at the time of Panini and hence he could not but pick them up in his grammar in spite of his strenuous attempts at brevity. The commentators, however, find out a motive for his doing this viz. that appropriate words only could be understood by those terms and not others; महासंज्ञाकरणेन तदनुगुणानामेव अत्र संनिवेशात् । S.K. on सर्वादीने सर्वनामानि P. I.1.27. confer, compare mahīdhara a grammarian of the sixteenth century who, besides many small treatises on other subjects, wrote a commentary on the SarasvataPrakriya Vyakarana. mādhava the well-known epoch-making scholar of the 14th century who has written a number of treatises in various Saastras. His धातुवृम्त्ति is a well-known work in grammar mugdhabodha instructions to the ignorant: a treatise on grammar similar to the Astadhyayi of Panini but much shorter, written by Bopadeva or Vopadeva an inhabitant of the greater Maharastra in the Vardha district, in the thirteenth century. After the fall of the Hindu rulers in Bengal, treatises like भाषावृत्ति and others written by eastern grammarians fell into the back-ground and their place was taken up by easier treatises written by Bopadeva and others.Many commentaries were written upon the Mugdhabodha, of which the Vidyanivsa is much known to grammarians literally makḍonel [MACDONELL,ARTHUR ANTHONY ] a deep scholar of Vedic Gram. and Literature who has written an exhaustive Vedic Grammar; in treatment, at places he differs from Panini and follows a different method, but the manner of thinking and argument is on original lines. mokṣeśvara a grammarian of the fourteenth century who has written a commentary on the Katantra Vrtti of Durgasimha. He has written a commentary on the Akhyatavrtti of the Katantra school as also a short treatise dealing with the krt affixes called Krdvrtti. yathānyāsaṃ as it is actually put in the rule or a treatise by the author. The phrase is often used in the Mahaabhaasya when after a long discussion, involving further and further difficulties, the author reverts to the original stand and defends the writing of the sUtra as it stands. सिध्यत्येवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति or सूत्रं भिद्यते । तर्हि यथान्यासमेवास्तु is the usual expression found in the Mahaabhaasya; cf, M.Bh. I.1. Aahnika 1, I.1.1, 9, 20, 62, 65 et cetera, and others yavamadhya having the centre bulging out like the Yava grain; name given to a variety of the Gayatri which has 7 letters in the first and third (last) feet and 10 letters in the second literally the middle foot; the name is also given to a Mahabrhati having the first and the last feet consisting of 8 letters and the middle one consisting of 12 syllables: cf R.Pr.XVI.18 and 48. id est, that is yaśa:kavi a grammarian, the author of a treatise named Bhasanusasana. यश:सागर a Jain grammarian, the author of a work named Samasasobha. yāska a reputed ancient Niruktakara or etymologist, of the 6th century B.C. or even a few centuries before that, whose work, the Nirukta, is looked upon as the oldest authoritative treatise regarding derivation of Vedic words. Yaska was preceded by a number of etymologists whom he has mentioned in his work and whose works he has utilis Yaska's Nirukta threw into the back-ground the older treatises on etymology, all of which disappeared gradually in the course of time. edition ratnapāṇi a grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote a short treatise on the Karaka relations named षट्कारकविवरण. ranu [RENOU,LOUIS] a sound Sanskrit scholar of France of the present time who has written some treatises and many articles on Sanskrit grammar out of which his works on the Terminology of Sanskrit Grammar, Kasika and Durghatavrtti reguire a special mention. rapratyāhārakhaṇḍana a small article showing that the short term र for the consonants र् and ल् need not be advocated as done by the learned old grammarians.The treatise was Written by Vaidyanatha Paya-gunde, the prominent pupil of Nagesabhatta. rājārāmaśāstrī ( कार्लेकर ) a reputed scholar of Sanskrit grammar who resided at Varanasi and established a school of Sanskrit Grammarians there in the nineteenth century. He wrote a treatise on grammar named शब्दव्युत्पत्तिकौमुदी. rādhākṛṣṇa ( गोस्वामी ) a grammarian who wrote two elementary graumar treatises (1) अव्ययार्थे and (2) वैयाकरणसर्वस्वसूची. rāmakiṃkasarasvatī a grammarian who wrote a small grammar treatise named अायुबोधव्याकरण which is different from the well-known अाशुबोध of तारानाथतर्कवाचस्पति. rāmakṛṣṇa a grammarian who wrote a treatise on Karaka relations known by the name शाब्दबोधप्रक्रिया. rāmacandra (1) रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya. rāmatarkavāgīśa a learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी, rukman the primary Yama letter; a term used in the Śikșā treatises. laghuprakriyā name of a grammar treatise based on the Sabdānuśāsana of Hemacandra written by Vinayavijaya where the sūtras of Hemacandra are arranged in different topics as in the Siddhāntakaumudī of Bhoțțojī. lac affix ल applied optionally with the affix मतुप् to words ending in अा and meaning a detachable or undetachable part of an animal, ; as also to words mentioned in the group headed by the word सिध्म,as also to words वत्स and अस showing affection and strength respectively ; e. g. चूडाल:, सिध्मल:, वत्सल:, taddhita affix. ; et cetera, and others P. V. 2. 96-98. confer, compare liṅgānuśāsana science of genders; a short comprehensive old treatise on the gender of words attributed to Pāņini as its author. Other works with the same designation are attributed to वामन, दुर्गोत्तम and others. literally lopabalīyastva the superior strength or superiority of elision as a grammatical operation in contrast with other operations, by virtue of which the elision, which is prescribed, takes place first and then other operations get a scope for their application; सर्वविधिभ्यो लोपविधिर्बलीयान् Par.Śek. Pari. 93. confer, compare lomaśya the utterance of an aspirate letter rather harshly, with a stress on it, when that utterance is looked upon as a fault; ऊष्मणां घोषाणां लोमश्यमसौकुमार्ये श्र्वेडनम् अधिको वर्णस्य ध्वनिः Uvvața on confer, compare XIV.6. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) vararuci (1) a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himsel confer, compare (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss＾ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त. feminine. vākyapadīya a celebrated work on meanings of words and sentences written by the famous grammarian Bhartrhari ( called also Hari ) of the seventh century. The work is looked upon as a final authority regarding the grammatical treatment of words and sentences,for their interpretation and often quoted by later grammarians. It consists of three chapters the Padakanda or Brahmakanda, the Vakyakanda and the Samkirnakanda, and has got an excellent commentary written by Punyaraja and Helaraja. vākyaikadeśa part of a sentence which sometimes, on the strength of the context, conveys the whole meaning दृश्यन्ते हिं वाक्येषु वाक्येकदेशान् प्रयुञ्जाना: पदेषु च पदैकदेशान् | प्रविश पिण्डीम् | प्रविश तर्पणम् पदेषु पदकैदेशान् देवदत्तो दत्तः | सत्यभामा भामेति M.Bh. on P.I.1.45 Vart. 3. confer, compare vāmana name of one of the joint authors of the well-known gloss or वृति upon the Sutras of Panini, who lived in the seventh century A. D. It cannot be ascertained which portion of the Kasika was written by Vamana and which by his colleague जयादित्य, There was another famous scholar of Kashmir by name Vamana who flourished in the tenth century and who wrote an independent grammar treatise विश्रान्तविद्याधर, together with उणादसूत्रवृत्ति and लिङ्गानुशासन. vārttika a statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discuss The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated edition . If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. vikampita a fault in the pronunciation of vowels, the utterance being attended with a kind of tremor; ग्रस्तं निरस्त...विकम्पितम् । confer, compare at the end of Ahnika 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vidhibalīyastva the superior strength of an injunctive rule; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in speaking about the relative strength of rules; cf the term लेापाविधिबलीयस्त्व. M.Bh. on P.VII.2.3. vipratiṣedha confict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the is allowed to apply: Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे confer, compare I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् confer, compare Pari. 40, 39. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. vibhaktibalīyastva the relative superior strength possessed by the कारकविभक्ति which takes place in supersession of the उपपदविभक्ति when both become applicable at one and the same time; मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not मुनित्रयाय नमस्कृत्य: exempli gratia, for example उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी confer, compare Pari. 94. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. vibhāktisvarapratirūpaka similar in form to a word ending in a case-affix or to a vowel. Such words are looked upon, and are treated as indeclinables शनै:, चिरेण, अस्ति, उ, ए exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others the usual expressions तिडन्तप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम् confer, compare et cetera, and others विभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाता भवन्ति confer, compare on P. VIII.3.1: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाताः । a gaṇasūtra inside the चादिगण mentioned in P.I.4.57. confer, compare vibhaktyarthanirṇaya a general term given to a chapter on case-affixes as also to treatises discussing the sense and relations of case-affixes. There is a treatise of this name written by Giridhara and another written by Jayakṛṣna Maunī. vivṛtatara possessed of the internal effort viz. विवृत which is specially strengthen The diphthongs have got at the time of their production the internal effort विवृत specially strengthened; edition यदत्रवेर्णं, विवृततरं तदन्यस्मादवर्णात् confer, compare on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 3,4 Māheśvarasūtras. 10. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). viśvarūpa a grammarian of the sixteenth century who has written a small grammar treatise called विश्वरूपनिबन्ध. viṣṇupaṇḍita a grammarian belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who has written a small treatise on Paribhāṣā or maxims of interpretation which he has named परिभाषाप्रक्राश. vṛtta (1) arrived at or accomplished,as a result of वृत्ति which means a further grammatical formation from a noun or a verb; resultant from a vṛtti; यावता कामचारो वृत्तस्य ये लिङ्गसंख्ये ते अतिदेक्ष्येते, न पुनः, प्राग्वृत्तेर्ये M Bh. on P.I.2.51; cf also युक्तंपुनर्यद् वृत्तनिमित्तको नाम अनुबन्धः स्यात्; (2) | employment, the same as प्रयोग, confer, compare वृत्ताद्वा । वृत्तं प्रयेागः । confer, compare on P. I. 3.9; (3)behaviour, treatment Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. नकारस्योष्मवद् वृत्ते confer, compare X.13; (4) manner of Veda writing, metrical form, metre; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) तद् वृत्तं प्राहुश्छन्दसाम् confer, compare XVII.22. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) vṛtti (1) treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare confer, compare on P. I.4. 109, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ll ; ( 5 ) nature Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन confer, compare II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; Nirukta of Yāska. परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar. confer, compare vṛttidīpikā a treatise on the different ways in which the meaning is conveyed by words according to the conventions of grammarians,written by a grammarian Krisnabhatta surnamed Mauni. vaidyanātha Vaidyanatha Payagunde, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century, who was one of the chief pupils of Nagesa and who prepared a line of pupils at Varanasi. He has written learned commentaries on standard works on grammar, the principal ones being the Prabha on the Sabdakaustubha, the Bhavaprakasika on the Brhaccabdendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the LaghuSabdendusekhara, the Kasika or Gada on the Paribhasendusekhara and an independent short treatise named Rapratyaya-khandana vaiyarthya absence of any purpose or utility; the word is used many times in the case of a rule, or a word or two of it, in whose case वैयर्थ्य or absence of utility is shown, and, with a view to prevent its being looked upon as a serious fault, something is deduced and the purpose is shown; cf सूत्रवैयर्थ्यप्रसङ्गात् and व्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति used in grammar treatises. vaiyākaraṇajīvātu a term used for the grammar treatise written by Cangudasa which is also called Cangusutra or Canguvyakarana. vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa a well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar. veyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra a slightly abridged form of the Vaiyakaranabhusana by the author Kondabhatta himself for students and beginners. It consists of the same number of fourteen chapters as the main treatise, which are given the name Nirnaya. See vaiyākaranabhusana. vaiyākaraṇaśābdamālā वैयाकरणशब्दरत्नमाला a treatise on the use of words written as a helpful guide to Sanskrit writers, by a grammarian named Somayajin in 1848 A.D. vaiyākaraṇasarvasva a small treatise on grammar written by a scholar of grammar named Kasinatha who has also written a few more small works वर्णविवेकचन्द्रिका, वृत्तिचन्द्रिका,धातुमञ्जरी etc vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudī an extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. vaiyāghrapadya name of a treatise of grammar written in ten chapters by an ancient grammarian व्याघ्रपाद्; दशकं वैयाघ्रपद्यम् confer, compare on P. IV 2.65. For details, see Vyakaranamahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Ed. pp. 133, 134. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. vyaṅkaṭasubbāśāsrī a grammarian who has written a grammar treatise named भाषामञ्जरीव्याकरण. vyapadeśivadbhāva treatment of a secon dary thing as the principal one, e g. a person or a thing, without any second or any others, looked upon as the first or the last; व्यपदेशिवदेकस्मिन् कार्ये भवतीति वक्तव्यम् confer, compare on P. I. 1.21. Vart. 2. The remark or expression व्यपदेशिवद्भावेन भविष्यति is found often given in the Mahabhasya; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). confer, compare Ahnika 1 Vart 14; I.1.9, I.1.51 I,1.72: I.2.48 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 30, et cetera, and others vyākaraṇa Grammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र or शब्दानुशासन); (a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: confer, compare (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्: confer, compare Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे confer, compare on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारित: संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7: (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). (f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभव:, अर्थं असंभवः | confer, compare on P. I. 1.68. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । confer, compare on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याकरण is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar ' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vyākaraṇacandrikā a short treatise on grammar written by Krsnacarya. vyākaraṇadīpa a small treatise on grammar by Cidrupasraya. byāḍi name of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् confer, compare Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition. Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. vyutpattivāda (l) name given to a topic in grammar which deals with the derivation of words as suitable to the sense: (2) name given to treatises discussing the derivation and interpretation of words. vyūha (l) resolution or determination: अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः । न कृतो विाशीष्ट ऊहो निश्चयः ，शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिविषये यैः इत्यर्थः Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) separation of the phonetic elements in a word, done especially for the recital of the Vedic texts according to metre: confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने क्षेप्रवणैकंभाविनाम् । व्यूहैः पृथक्करणेन Uvvata on confer, compare VIII.22. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) khadhma name given to a Yama letter in the Siksa treatises. śabarasvāmin a grammarian to whom a metrical treatise on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन is ascrib This शवरस्वामिन् was comparatively a modern grammarian who was given the title बालयोगीश्वर. This लिङ्गानुशासन has a commentary written by हृर्षवर्धन Evidently these grammarians शबरस्वामिन् and हृर्षवर्धन are different from the famous author of the मीमांसाभाष्य and the patron of the poet Bana respectively. edition śabdakaustubha a treatise on grammar, critically explaining and discuss ing the meaning of Panini's Sutras in the order of the author himsel the work is written by Bhattoji Diksita and is mainly based on the Mahabhasya. feminine. śabdparavipratiṣedha cl,. comparatively superior strength possessed by a word, which in the text of a particular sutra is later than another word, which is put in earlier in the Sutra. This शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधे is contrasted with the standard शास्त्रपरविप्रतिषेध which is laid down by Panini in his rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् and which lays down the superior strength of that rule which is put by Panini later on in his Astadhyayi: e. g. in the rule विभाषा गमहनविदविशाम्,it is not the word हन् although occuring earlier, but the word विश् occuring later in the rule, which helps us to decide which विद् should be taken ज्ञानार्तस्य सत्यपि विदरूपत्वे अर्थस्य भेदकत्वेन रूपवदाश्रयणात्प्रतिषेधाभावः | यद्यपि हन्तिना साहचर्ये विदेरस्ति तथापि शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधाद् विशिर्व्यवस्थाहेतुर्न हान्तिः ! Kaiyata on P. VII.2.18: confer, compare also, P.VI.1.158 V.12. confer, compare śābdabodhaprakriyā a grammar treatise on the denotation and relation of words written by a grammarian ramed Ramakrsna. śabdarūpāvali a very brief treatise on declension giving the forms of the seven cases of a few choice-words. The work is studied as the first elementary work and is very common without the name of any specific author.There are different works named शब्दरूपावलि giving declensions of different words which are all anonymous, although from the dates of manuscripts mentioned, they appear to be more than five or six hundred years old. śabdavyutpattikaumudī a small treatise on the derivation of words written by a grammarian named RajaramaSastrin. śabdānuśāsana science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the literally mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. śarvavarmā a reputed grammarian who is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadhya in the court of Satavahana. He wrote the Grammar rules which are named the Katantra Sutras which are mostly based on the Sutras of Panini. In the grammar treatise named 'the Katantra Sutra' written by Sarvavarman the Vedic section and all the intricacies and difficult elements are carefully and scrupulously omitted by him, with a view to making his grammar useful for beginners and students of average intelligence. śākaṭāyanavyākaraṇa the treatise on grammar written by sakatayana। See शाकटायन. śākaṭāyanaśabdānuśāsana name of the treatise on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्ति-शाकटायन. śāntanava an ancient scholar of grammar who wrote a treatise known as the Phit sutras on accents. śābdabodhataraṅgiṇī a treatise on the theory of verbal import written by ईश्वरानन्द. śābdabodhaprakāśikā a treatise on the theory of शब्दबोघ written by रामकिशोरचक्रवर्तिन्. śāstra scientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2 confer, compare śuklayajuḥprātiśākhya name of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. śeṣacakrapāṇi a grammarian of the Sesa family who wrote a small treatise on case-relations named कारकतत्त्व. śeṣādri a grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a work, Paribhasabhaskara, on the Paribhasas of the Panini system; the treatise is written in the manner of Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti which has been taken as a basis by him. śrīkaṇokta a grammarian who has written a small treatise on corrupt words or ungrammatical words, which is named अपशब्दखण्डन. śluvadbhāva treatment as before the elision named श्लु, i. e. reduplication of the preceding root. This श्लुवद्भाव is prescribed in the case of the roots भी, ह्री, भृ and हु; भीह्रीभृहुवां श्लुवच्च P. III. 1. 39. confer, compare ṣaṭkārakavicāra an anonymous small treatise on the six case-relations in verse-form with a commentary. ṣaṭkārakavivecana a small treatise on the six case-relations written by a grammarian Bhavananda who held the title Siddhāntavagisa. ṣatva change of the consonant स् into ष् in certain conditions in the formation of a word, or after prepositions in the case of verbs beginning with स्. This cerebralization of स् was a peculiar phonetic change which naturally occurred when स् in utterance came after a vowel excepting अ. Some of the Pratisakhya works have exhaustively treated this change and Panini has also mentioned many rules in connection with it. saṃjñā a technical term; a short wording to convey ample sense; a term to know the general nature cf things; convention; वृद्धिशब्द; संज्ञा; अादेच: संज्ञिन: M.Bh. on P.1-1.1. There are two main divisions of संज्ञा-कृत्रिमसंज्ञा or an artificial term such as टि, घु, or भ which is merely conventional, and अकृत्रिमसंज्ञा which refers to the literal sense conveyed by the word such as अव्यय, सर्वनाम and the like. Some grammar works such as the Candra avoid purely conventional terms, These samjhas are necessary for every scientific treatise. In Panini's grammar, there are the first two chapters giving and explaining the technical terms whose number exceeds well-nigh a hundr confer, compare edition saṃjñādhikāra a topic or a chapter or a portion of a treatise in which technical terms are given and explained; cf, संज्ञाधिकारोयम्; on P. I. 1.46, I. 1.56, I. 4.1, I. 4.23; see the word संज्ञा. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). saṃprasāraṇa extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्， into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ literally the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare confer, compare on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण. confer, compare saṃvādacintāmaṇi name of a small treatise on roots and their meanings written by : a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्तोपाध्याय who has also written a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha called कौस्तुभगुण and सिद्धान्तकौमुदीगूढफक्किकाप्रकाश, satiśiṣṭasvarabalīyastva the comparatively superior strength of a subsequent accent which prevails by the removal of the accent obtaining before in the process of the formation of a word; cf VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9. See सतिशिष्ट . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. sapādasaptādhyāyī a term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1. samantabhadra a Jain scholar of great repute who is believed to have written, besides many well-known religious books such as आप्तमीमांसा गन्धहस्तिभाष्य on Jainism, a treatise on grammar called Cintamani Vyakarana. et cetera, and others samanvayapradīpasaṃketa a treatise on the philosophy of Vyakarana written as a commentary by the author दंवशर्मन् on his own Karikas on the subject. samāsa placing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष confer, compare as also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type. et cetera, and others samāsavāda (l) a short treatise on compounds by गोविन्दचक्रवर्तिन् ; (2) a small compendium on compounds written by a grammarian named सार्वभौम. samāsaśeābhā a short treatise on compounds by यश:सागर. sarvanāman pronoun: standing for any noun. There is no definition as such given, of the word pronoun, but the words, called pronouns, are enumerated in Panini's grammar one after another in the class or group headed by सर्व ( सर्व, विश्व, उभ, उभय, words ending in the affixes डतर and डतम, अन्य literally )which appear to be pronouns primarily. Some words such as पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर, स्व, अन्तर etc are treated as pronouns under certain conditions. In any case, attention has to be paid to the literal sense of the term सर्वनामन् which is an ancient term and none of these words when standing as a proper noun, is to be treated as a pronoun: et cetera, and others सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि P. I.1. 27, confer, compare also संज्ञोपसर्जनीभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः: M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 2; ( 2 ) The word सर्वनामन् means also a common term, a general term; confer, compare एकश्रुतिः स्वरसर्वनाम, यथा नपुंसकं लिङ्गसर्वनाम confer, compare on P. VI. 4.174 Vart 4. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). sāmavaśa name of a Samdhi or euphonic change of the type of the vowels अ, इ and उ being lengthened in some specified cases chiefly for the sake of music ( साम ) or metre. This lengthening is given the name प्लुति in the Rk Pratisakhya: दीर्ध ह्रस्वो व्यञ्जनेन्यस्त्वृकाराद् यथादिष्टं सामवशः स सन्धिः | confer, compare VII.1. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) sāmānyaviśeṣabhāva the relationship between the general and the particular, which forms the basis of the type of apavada which is explained by the analogy of तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; the word also refers to the method followed by the Sutras of Panini, or any treatise of grammar for the matter of that, where a general rule is prescribed and, for the sake of definiteness some specific rules laying down exceptions, are given afterwards: किंचित्सामान्यविशेषवल्लक्षणं प्रवर्त्यं येनाल्पेन यत्नेन महतः शद्बौघान् प्रतिपद्येरन् l confer, compare Ahnik 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). sārāvalī or सारावली-व्य्याकरण an inindependent treatise on grammar by Naryana Vandyopadhyaya. siddhāntakaumudī a critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita. siddhāntasārasvata an independent work on grammar believed to have been written by Devanandin. सिद्धान्तिन् a term used in connection with the writer himself of a treatise when he gives a reply to the objections raised by himself or quoted from others,the term पूर्वपाक्षिन् being used for the objector. सिद्धि formation of a word: establishment of the correct view after the removal of the objection; e. g. संज्ञासिद्वि, कार्यसिाद्व, स्वरसिद्धि. सिप् (1) the personal ending ( सि ) of the second person singular (मध्यमपुरुषैकवचन ) substituted for the affix ल्; of the ten tenses and moods लट्, लिट्, लृट् and others; P.III.4.78: (2 Vikarana affix स् added to a root before the affixes of लेट् or Vedic Subjunctive. सिम् a technical term used in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya for the first eight vowels of the alphabet, viz. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ and ऋ: confer, compare सिमादितोष्टौ स्वराणाम् V. Pr.. I.44. confer, compare sīradeva a prominent grammarian of the Eastern part of India who lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was a very sound scholar of Panini's grammar who wrote a few glosses on prominent works in the system. His Paribhasavrtti is a masterly independent treatise among the recognised works on the Paribhasas in which he has quoted very profusely from the works of his predecessors, such as the Kasika, Nyasa, Anunyasa and others. The reputed scholar Maitreya Raksita is more often guoted than others. suc (l) affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति taddhita affix. cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु et cetera, and others . सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107. confer, compare supadmasamāsasaṃgraha a treatise written by a grammarian named रूपनारायण, on the सुपद्मव्याकरण, which see below. sūtra a short pithy assertion laying down something in a scientific treatise; aphorism; the word is sometimes used in a collective sense in the singular, referring to the whole collection of Sutras or rules; व्याकरणस्य सूत्रम् confer, compare on Ahnika I. The term is defined as अाल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् | अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. There are given generally six kinds of Sutras viz. संज्ञासूत्र, परिभाषासूत्र,विधिसूत्र, नियमसूत्र, प्रतिषेधसूत्र and अधिकारसूत्र; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also संज्ञा च परिभाषा च विधिर्नियम एव च प्रतिषेधोधिकारश्च षड्विधम् सूत्रलक्षणम् | Com. on Kat. I. 1.2. confer, compare sphoṭacaṭaka a small treatise on the theory of Sphota by a sound modern scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya, by name Krisnasastri Arade who lived in Benaras in the earlier part of the nineteenth century. sphoṭacandrikā a small treatise on the theory of Sphota written by Jayakrsna Mauni of the famous Maunin family. The author is known as Krsnabhatta also. sphoṭavāda a general name given to treatises discussing the nature of Sphota written by the Vaiyakaranas who defend and establish the theory of Sphota and by the Naiyayikas who criticise the theory. Famous among these works are (l) स्फोटवाद by a stalwart Grammarian Kondabhatta, the author of the Vaiyakaramabhusana and (2) स्फोटवाद by NageSa, the reputed grammarian of the eighteenth century. sphīṭasiddhi (1) name of a short treatise on the nature of Sphota, written by a grammarian named Bharata MiSra; (2) name of a short disquisition on Sphota by MandanamiSra. svarabhakti a vowel part; appearance of a consonant as a vowel; the character of a vowel borne by a consonant. Many times a semivowel which consists of one letter has to be divided especially for purposes of metre, as also for accentuation into two letters or rather, has to be turned into two letters by inserting a vowel before it or after it, for instance य् is to be turned into इय् e. g, in त्रियम्बकं यजामहे, while र् or रेफ is to be turned into र् ऋ as for instance in कर्हि चित् which is to be uttered as कर् ऋ हृि चित्. This prefixing or suffixing of a vowel is called स्वरभक्तिः स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं द्राघीयसी सार्धमात्रेतरे च | अधोनान्या ( confer, compare I. 32.35; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also न संयोगं स्वरभाक्तिर्विहृान्ति confer, compare VI. 35; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also रेफात् खरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा: confer, compare VI. 46. In Panini's grammar, however, the word अज्भाक्त, which means the same is used for स्वरभक्ति; cf ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् | अाद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ ; रेफौ तयोरेकां मात्रा । अभितेाज्भक्तेरपरा। S. K. on VI. 1.101. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) svaravivṛtti ( 1 ) the same as स्वरविराम which see ; ( 2 ) a short treatise on Vedic accents written by a modern Vedic scholar and grammrian named Indradattopadhyaya. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. harikṛṣṇa a scholar of grammar who wrote a short treatise on the nature and function of prepositions named उपसर्गवाद. haribhāskara ( अग्निहोत्री ) a grammarian of the Deccan who lived in the seventeenth century at Nasik and wrote commentaries on grammarworks out of which his treatise on Paribhasas ( परिभाषाभास्कर ) written independently but based upon Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti, deserves a special notice and mention. hemacandra a Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास. haimāliṅgānuśāsana a treatise on genders written by हेमचन्द्र, See हेमचन्द्र . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. haimavyākaraṇa a treatise on grammar written by हेमचन्द्र, called by the name हेमशब्दानुशासन. See हेमचन्द्र . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. haimaśābdānuśāsana a treatise on grammar written by Hemacandra. See हेमचन्द्र . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.