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     Grammar Search "tre" has 6 results.
     
tre: neuter nominative dual stem: tra
tre: feminine nominative dual stem: tra
tre: neuter accusative dual stem: tra
tre: feminine accusative dual stem: tra
tre: masculine locative singular stem: tra
tre: neuter locative singular stem: tra
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6 results
     
     Monier-Williams
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160 results for tre
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tredhāind. equals tr/i-dhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tredhābhāvam. dwelling in 3 places View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tredhāsaṃnaddhamfn. triply bound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tredhāsthitamfn. equals -vihit/a- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tredhāvihitamfn. divided into 3 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
treṇīSee try-eṇī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tref. (fr. tray/a-) and triad, triplet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tref. the 3 sacred fires (equals agni--), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tref. trey (throw at dice or the side of a die marked with 3 spots) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tref. "age of triads", the 2nd yuga- (or silver age) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretāchandasn. plural a class of metres View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretāgnim. (g-) equals agni-tretā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretāgnihotran. idem or 'm. (g-) equals agni-tretā- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretāstomam. plural a class of stoma-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretātvan. the condition of the fire-triad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretāya(ya-) m. the cast trey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretāyugan. the tretā- age View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretinīf. the threefold flame of the 3 fires of the altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnihotreṣṭif. a libation or offering at the agnihotra- ([ see iṣṭi-]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnitre([ ]) f. the three sacred fires, called respectively gārhapatya-, āhavanīya-, and dakṣiṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyam. ( commentator or commentary) a descendant of atri- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyam. Name of a physician View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyam. a priest who is closely related to the sadasya- (perhaps because this office was generally held by a descendant of atri-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyam. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyam. chyle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātref. (with śākhā-) the śākhā- of the ātreya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātref. a woman who has bathed after her courses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātref. Name of a river in the north of Bengal (otherwise called Tista) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyan. Name of two sāman-s etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyam. plural Name of a tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyam. (for atrayas- m. plural of atri- q.v) the descendants of atri- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyāyaṇam. a descendant of an ātreya-, (gaRa aśvādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātref. a female descendant of atri- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyikāf. a woman in her courses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyīputram. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātreyīyamfn. fr. ātreya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrāstreya varia lectio for bhrāṣṭreya-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrātreyam. equals prec. m. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhuktamātreind. immediately on having eaten View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmatantregāyatrīpañjaran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhadātreyam. "the larger ātreya-", Name of a work on med. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caitreyamfn. coming from a speckled cow (citr/ā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caitreyam. metron. fr. citrā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrātreyam. plural Name of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cirarātrepsitamfn. equals cirābhilaṣita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citreśam. "lord of citrā-", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
treyam. a patron., ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dattātreyam. Name of a sage (son of atri- by anasūyā- who favoured arjuna- kārtavīrya-). (brahmā-, viṣṇu-, and śiva- propitiated by his penance became in portions of themselves severally his sons soma-, datta-, and dur-vāsas-;hence worshipped as representing the Triad) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dattātreyam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dattātreyam. plural Name of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dattatreyāpaniṣadf. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dattatreyāṣṭottaraśatanāmastotran. Name of a chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dattātreyīyan. "story of treya- ", Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātreyikāf. foster-sister (a sort of confidante) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātreyikāf. wet-nurse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātreyikāf. female slave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātreyikāyīf. foster-sister View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhātreyikāyīf. wet-nurse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaurātreyam. plural Name of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotreṇaind. instrumental case with regard to one's family name gaRa prakṛty-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotreśam. "earth-lord", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaghanyarātre locative case ind. at the end of the night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalamātreṇa instrumental case ind. by mere water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñātamātre locative case ind. on its being merely ascertained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaniṣṭhātreyam. "the younger ātreya-", Name of an author on medicine. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāttreyakamfn. (fr. 2. k/ad-+ tri-), produced from or pertaining to any combination of three inferior articles View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇātreyam. Name of a sage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣaṇamātreṇaind. instrumental case in a mere moment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrekṣum. Andropogon bicolor (equals yāvanāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
līlāmātreṇaind. out of mere sport, in mere play, without the least effort View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamātreyam. the middle sized ātreya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākālabhairavatantreśarabhakavacan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākālayogaśāstrekhecarīvidyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāpavitreṣṭif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyamfn. (fr. maitri-) friendly, benevolent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyam. (fr. mitrayu- ) patronymic of kauṣārava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyam. of glāva- (according to to Scholiast or Commentator metron. fr. mitrā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyam. of various other men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyam. Name of a bodhi-sattva- and future buddha- (the 5th of the present age) () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyam. of the vidūṣaka- in the mṛc-chakaṭikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyam. of a grammarian (equals -rakṣita-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyam. of a particular mixed caste (equals maitreyaka-) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyakam. Name of a particular mixed caste or degraded tribe (the offspring of a vaideha- and an ayogavī-, whose business is to praise great men and announce the dawn by ringing a bell) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyarakṣitam. Name of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyasūtran. Name of a sūtra- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyavanan. Name of a forest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitref. See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitref. Name of the wife of yājñavalkya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitref. of ahalyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitref. of sulabhā-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyībrāhmaṇan. Name of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyikāf. descent from mitrayu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyikāf. a contest between friends or allies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyīśākhopaniṣadf. -next. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyopaniṣadf. equals maitry-up-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyyupaniṣadf. equals maitryup- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantreśa m. "supreme lord of spells", (with śaiva-s) Name of a particular superhuman being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantreśvaram. "supreme lord of spells", (with śaiva-s) Name of a particular superhuman being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meruvirahatantrebhuvaneśvarīsahasranāmastotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrerumfn. (or miśtr'-eru-?) (according to to ) troubling friends View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrerumfn. (prob.) one who breaks an alliance, faithless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitreruSee under 1. mitr/a- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitreśvaram. (with hara-) Name of a statue of śiva- erected by mitra-śarman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitreyuSee mitrāy/u- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukhamātreind. as high as the mouth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasattreṣṭihautraprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasattreṣṭiprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatreśam. equals tra-nātha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatreṣṭakāf. Name of particular sacrificial bricks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatreṣṭif. a sacrifice to the nakṣatra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatreṣṭif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatreṣṭihautran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatreṣṭihomam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatreṣṭinirūpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatreṣṭipaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatreṣṭiprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāmamātreṇaind. nominally, merely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥkṣatreind. niḥkṣatra
tre locative case of pātra-, in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trebahulamfn. (plural) frequently present at meals, parasitical gaRa pātre-samistādi- and yuktārohādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tresamitamfn. (plural) idem or 'mfn. (plural) frequently present at meals, parasitical gaRa pātre-samistādi- and yuktārohādi-' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tresamitamfn. sg. a treacherous or hypocritical person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattreśvaratīrthan. Name of a sacred bathing-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pavitreṣṭif. Name of a particular sacrifice (see above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pavitreṣṭif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pavitreṣṭihautran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pavitreṣṭipaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pavitreṣṭiprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pavitreṣṭisūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikṣetreind. instead of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrejyāf. (prob.) putreṣṭi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrejyāprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrepsumfn. wishing for a son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putreṣṭif. a sacrifice performed to obtain male children or one performed at the time of adoption View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putreṣṭikāf. equals putreṣti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putreṣṭiprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāktreyam. patronymic of parāśara- (Calcutta edition; see śākta-, śānta-, teya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvanakṣatreṣṭif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saubhāgyalakṣmītantreśyāmalāmbāvarmaratnan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvitreyam. Name of yama-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrotrendriyan. the sense or organ of hearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvaitreyam. (fr. śvitra-) the fire or brilliancy of lightning () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvaitreyam. metron. fr. śvitrā- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svamātreṇaind. by or through one's self View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyātreyam. Name of an ancient sage (supposed author of ; plural = "the family of svastyātreya-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyātreyam. the hymn composed by svasty-- ātreya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyātreyam. a mirror View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetātreyam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantreṇaind. instrumental case so as to be typical or hold good View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāvanmātreind. in that distance, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trirātreṇaind. after 3 days, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaimātreyamfn. descended from another mother on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaimātreyam. a step-mother's son, half brother
vaimātref. a step-mother's daughter, half sister View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaktrendum. a moon-like face View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhātreyam. the older ātreya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantreṇaind. yantra
yatrecchakamfn. wherever one likes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yavanaśāstremalapraśnam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogāvalītantrekuladīpinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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tredhā त्रेधा ind. Trebly, in three ways or parts; तदेकं सत्त्रेधाख्यायते Śat. Br.; Bṛi. Up.1.2.3; (नमः) तुभ्यं त्रेधा स्थितात्मने R.1.16.
tre त्रेता 1 A triad, triplet. -2 The three sacred fires taken collectively (गार्हपत्य, दक्षिण and आहवनीय); cf. Ms.2.231; Bhāg.9.14.44; त्रेताग्निधूमाग्रमनिन्द्यकीर्ते- स्तस्येदमाक्रान्तविमानमार्गम् R.13.37. -3 A particular throw at dice, a cast of three or trey; त्रेताहृतसर्वस्वः Mk.2.8. -4 The second of the four Yugas of the Hindus; see युग.
ātreya आत्रेय a. (-यी f.) [अत्रेरपत्यं ढक्] P.IV.1.122 Belonging to, descended or sprung from, Atri. -यः 1 A descendant of Atri. -2 The head of the descendants of Atri. -3 A priest closely related to the Sadasya. -4 An epithet of Śiva. -5 An essential humor or juice of the body, lymph. -यी 1 A female descendant of Atri; गोत्रप्रशंसार्थ- मात्रेय्या अवधसंकीर्तनम् । न चापन्नसत्त्वा आत्रेयी । गोत्रं ह्येतत् । ŚB. on MS.6.1.9. -2 The wife of Atri. -3 A woman in her courses (रजस्वला); Ms.11.87; Y.3.251. -4 Any woman of the Brāhmaṇical order. -5 N. of a river in the north of Bengal, also called Tista. -6 A pregnant woman; Mb.12.165.54; आत्रेयीमापन्नगर्भामाहुः । अत्र कुक्षौ अस्या विद्यत इत्यात्रेयी । ŚB. on MS.6.1.7.
ātreyikā आत्रेयिका [आत्रेयी स्वार्थे कन्] A woman in her courses.
tantreṇa तन्त्रेण (Instr. used adv.) Simultaneously. (Opp. पर्यायेण; द्वितीया च विभक्तिस्तन्त्रेणोभाभ्यां संबध्यते । ŚB. on MS.6.1.51; पर्यायेण क्रियायामेवं दोषः । तन्त्रेण तु क्रियायां भवति क्वचित् संभवः । ŚB. on MS.6.2.2.
maitreya मैत्रेय a. (-यी f.) Relating to a friend, friendly. -यः N. of a mixed tribe.
maitreyakaḥ मैत्रेयकः N. of a mixed tribe; मैत्रेयकं तु वैदेहो माधूकं संप्रसूयते Ms.1.33.
maitreyikā मैत्रेयिका A contest between friends or allies (मित्रयुद्धम्).
maitre मैत्रेयी N. of the wife of याज्ञवल्क्य.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
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tredhā tre-dhá̄, adv. in three ways, i. 154, 1.
tretre gá̄tre-gātre, lc. itv. cd., in every limb, viii. 48, 2 [gā go].
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tredhā ad. threefold; in(to) three parts; in three places, three times-: -sthita, pp. divided into three, threefold.
tre f. triad; the three sacred fires; die or side of a die marked with three points; the second age of the world (the age of threes, so called from three being contained in the numbers expressing its duration: it is de scribed as lasting 3000 years of the gods, etc.): -½agni, m. sg. the three sacred fires; -yuga, n. the second age of the world; -hrita-sar vasva, a. robbed of one's all by the three die.
anātre f. woman who has not bathed after menstruation.
ātreya m. descendant of Âtri; î, f. id.; woman who has bathed after menstruation.
dhātreyikā f. foster-sister; -î, f. id.
mitreśvara m. (with hara) N. of a temple of Siva erected by Mitrasarman.
maitreya a. benevolent; m. pat. or met. of various men; a mixed caste; N. of a jester: -ka, m. a mixed caste.
       Bloomfield Vedic
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tredhā jātaṃ janmanedaṃ hiraṇyam AVś.5.28.6a; AVP.2.59.4a.
tredhā tiṣṭhanti viṣitā ruśantaḥ AVś.4.16.6b; AVP.5.32.1b. Cf. antarā dyāvāpṛthivī vicṛttāḥ.
tredhā devānāṃ janimāni vidma AVś.13.3.21d.
tredhā ni dadhe padam (AVśṃS. padā) RV.1.22.17b; AVś.7.26.4b; SV.1.222b; 2.1019b; VS.5.15b; TS.1.2.13.1b; MS.1.2.9b: 18.17; 4.1.12b: 16.4; KS.2.10b; śB.3.5.3.13b; KA.1.198.10b; N.12.19b.
tredhā baddho varatrayā AVś.20.135.13b; śś.12.16.1.3b; AG.2.9.4b.
tredhā baddho vṛṣabho roravīti MS.1.6.2c: 87.18. See tridhā etc.
tredhā bhāgo nihito yaḥ purā vaḥ AVś.11.1.5a. P: tredhā bhāgaḥ Kauś.61.8.
tredhā mūlaṃ yātudhānasya vṛśca RV.10.87.10d; AVś.8.3.10d.
tredhā viṣṇur urugāyo vicakrame TB.3.1.2.6a. Cf. trīṇy eka.
tredhā viṣvaṅ vi gachati AVś.11.8.33b.
tredhā sahasraṃ vi tad airayethām RV.6.69.8d; AVś.7.44.1d; TS.3.2.11.2d; 7.1.6.7d; MS.2.4.3d: 42.1; KS.12.14d; AB.6.15.10; JB.2.243d.
tredhāmṛtasya cakṣaṇam AVś.5.28.7c; AVP.2.59.5c. See trīṇy amṛtasya.
tretāyā ādinavadarśam TB.3.4.1.16. See next but one.
tretāyai kalpinam VS.30.18. See prec. but one.
tretāyānām TS.4.3.3.1; MS.2.7.20: 105.5; KS.39.7.
agninetrebhyo devebhyaḥ puraḥsadbhyaḥ svāhā # VS.9.35; śB.5.2.4.5. P: agninetrebhyaḥ Kś.15.1.20. See agnaye puraḥsade, and ye devāḥ puraḥsado.
agnihotreṇedaṃ havir ajuṣatāvīvṛdhata (Aś. -vīvṛdhanta), maho jyāyo 'kṛta # TB.3.5.10.4; Aś.1.9.5. Cf. agnir idaṃ etc., and agnir hotreṇedaṃ etc.
acitre antaḥ paṇayaḥ sasantu # RV.4.51.3c.
atred u me maṃsase satyam uktam # RV.10.27.10a.
atrer iva śṛṇutaṃ pūrvyastutim # RV.8.35.19a.
atrer yathānasūyā syāt # RVKh.10.85.5a.
anukśātre namaḥ # KS.26.12. See anukhyātre.
anukhyātre namaḥ # GB.2.2.19; Vait.18.15; Apś.20.1.17. See anukśātre, and cf. agnir upadraṣṭā etc.
anyakṣetre aparuddhaṃ carantam # AVś.3.3.4b; AVP.2.74.4b.
anyakṣetre na ramase (AVP. -te) # AVś.5.22.9a; AVP.5.21.7a; 12.2.4a.
anyatreto 'ghāyavaḥ # AVP.7.3.5d.
apākhyātre svāhā # TA.6.2.1.
amatre pari ṣicyate # RV.5.51.4b.
amatrebhir ṛjīṣiṇam # RV.6.42.2c; SV.2.791c.
amitrebhyaḥ kṛṇotu naḥ # AVś.6.104.3d.
amitrebhyo dṛśe kuru # AVś.11.9.1b,15f,22f,24f.
amitrebhyo hetim asyan (also asyantaḥ, asyanti, asyantī, asyantau, asyantyaḥ) # AVP.10.13.1--10; 10.14.1--10 (10.14.7--9, asyan; 10.13.7,8 and 10.14.1--4, asyantaḥ; 10.14.10, asyanti; 10.13.1,10, asyantī; 10.13.2--6,9, asyantau; 10.14.5,6, asyantyaḥ).
amitreṣu ni dadhmasi # AVś.5.21.1d.
amitreṣu samīkṣayan # AVś.11.9.9d,11d,25f.
ahorātre atho uṣāḥ # AVś.11.6.7b; AVP.15.13.7b.
ahorātre adhipatnī āstām # VS.14.30; TS.4.3.10.2; MS.2.8.6: 110.14; KS.17.5; śB.8.4.3.12.
ahorātre anv eṣi bibhrat # AVś.12.2.49a. P: ahorātre Kauś.72.8.
ahorātre api tan mayi # AVś.11.7.14d.
ahorātre apramādaṃ kṣaranti # AVś.12.1.49b; Kauś.98.2b.
ahorātre idaṃ brūmaḥ # AVś.11.6.5a; AVP.15.13.6a.
ahorātre ūrvaṣṭīve (VS. -ṣṭhīve) bṛhadrathaṃtare ca me yajñena kalpetām (VS. kalpantām) # VS.18.23; MS.2.11.6: 143.13. See ahorātrayor vṛṣṭyā.
ahorātre kṛṇutāṃ dīrgham āyuḥ # AG.2.4.14d; MG.2.8.6d.
ahorātre gacha svāhā # VS.6.21; TS.1.3.11.1; 6.4.1.2; MS.1.2.18: 28.1; 3.10.7: 138.13; KS.3.8; śB.3.8.4.15.
ahorātre te (TB. me) kalpetām # MS.4.9.18: 135.10; TB.3.7.5.8. See ahorātrās.
ahorātre tvodīrayatām # TA.4.26.1.
ahorātre dravataḥ saṃvidāne # AVś.10.7.6b.
ahorātre dvāraphalake # śG.3.3.8.
ahorātre ni yachatām # AVP.2.90.5d.
ahorātre pari sūryaṃ vasāne # AVś.13.2.32c.
ahorātre paśupālyau # TB.3.12.9.6a.
ahorātre pārśve # VS.31.22; TA.3.13.2.
ahorātre pṛthivi no duhātām # AVś.12.1.36d.
ahorātre pra jāyete # AVś.10.8.23c.
ahorātrebhyaḥ svāhā # VS.22.28; TS.7.1.15.1; MS.3.12.7: 162.14; KSA.1.6; TB.3.1.6.1.
ahorātre me etc. # see ahorātre te.
ahorātre vanaspatiḥ # AVś.11.5.20b.
ahorātre vimimāno yad eṣi # AVś.13.2.5d.
ahorātre vihite bhūmyām adhi # AVś.12.1.52b.
ahorātre saṃ nahyethām # AVP.10.13.10.
ahorātre samadhātāṃ ma enat # Kauś.42.17b.
ahorātre stho 'rdhamāseṣu śrite, bhūtasya pratiṣṭhe bhavyasya prathiṣṭhe, yuvayor idam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartryau viśvasya janayitryau # TB.3.11.1.18.
ahorātre haviṣā vardhayantaḥ # TB.3.1.3.1c.
ātreya uta kāśyapo yaḥ # AVP.8.15.1b.
ātreyo niṣkakaṇṭhyaḥ # AB.8.22.6d.
ātreyo madhyato 'dadāt # AB.8.22.4d.
āntrebhyas te gudābhyaḥ # RV.10.163.3a; AVś.2.33.4a; 20.96.19a; AVP.4.7.4a; ApMB.1.17.3a (ApG.3.9.10).
āntrebhyo jajñire atrāḥ # AVś.10.10.21c.
āmatrebhiḥ siñcatā madyam andhaḥ # RV.2.14.1b; N.5.1.
indraputre somaputre # AVś.3.10.13a. P: indraputre Kauś.138.7.
indrāmitrebhyas tvam # AVP.3.6.5b. Cf. AVś.3.1.5a.
ugraputre jighāṃsataḥ # RV.8.67.11b.
upakhyātre namaḥ # KS.26.12; Apś.20.1.17.
upaśrotre namaḥ # GB.2.2.19; Vait.18.12. See upaśṛṇvate.
ūrṇāsūtreṇa kavayo vayanti # VS.19.80b; MS.3.11.9b: 153.1; KS.38.3b; TB.2.6.4.1b.
kālanetre haviṣo no juṣasva # Kauś.106.7c.
kṣatreṇa manuṣyān # TS.4.4.8.1.
kṣatreṇa yaśasā saha # TA.4.21.1f.
kṣatreṇāgne suyamam astu tubhyam # AVś.7.82.3c. See kṣatram agne.
kṣatreṇāgne svena (VSṭS. svāyuḥ) saṃ rabhasva # AVś.2.6.4a; AVP.3.33.5a; VS.27.5a; TS.4.1.7.2a; MS.2.12.5a: 149.2; KS.18.16a.
kṣatreṇātmānaṃ pari dhāpayāthaḥ # AVś.12.3.51c.
kṣatrebhyas tvā # KS.39.5; Apś.16.30.1.
kṣatre rāṣṭre ca jāgṛhi # KS.40.9d; TB.2.7.6.3d; Apś.22.12.20d.
kṣatre sīda # KS.39.5; Apś.16.30.1.
kṣetre kṛtyāṃ valagaṃ vā nicakhnuḥ # AVś.10.1.18b.
kṣetre cānṛtavādinam # AVP.9.19.2d.
kṣetre te kṛtyāṃ yāṃ cakruḥ # AVś.5.31.4c.
kṣetre yasyā vikurvate # AVś.12.1.43b.
kṣṇotreṇeva svadhitiṃ saṃ śiśītam # RV.2.39.7d.
khyātre namaḥ # KS.26.12; Apś.20.1.17.
khyātre svāhā # TA.6.2.1.
tre-gātre niṣasatthā nṛcakṣāḥ # RV.8.48.9b.
gāyatreṇa chandasāgninā devatayāgneḥ śīrṣṇāgneḥ śira upa dadhāmi # TS.5.5.8.2. See gāyatrasya chandaso, agninā devena, and gāyatreṇa chandasā chandasā-.
gāyatreṇa chandasāṅgirasvat (MS.KS. chandasā) pṛthivyāḥ sadhasthād agniṃ purīṣyam aṅgirasvad ā bhara (MS. bharā) # VS.11.9; MS.2.7.1: 74.13; KS.16.1; śB.6.3.1.38. See next but two.
gāyatreṇa chandasā chandasāgneś śīrṣṇāgneś śira upadadhāmi # KS.22.5. See under gāyatreṇa chandasāgninā.
gāyatreṇa chandasā trivṛtā stomena rathaṃtareṇa sāmnā vaṣaṭkāreṇa vajreṇa pūrvajān bhrātṛvyān adharān pādayāmi # TS.3.5.3.1. See under ānuṣṭubhena chandasai-.
gāyatreṇa chandasādade aṅgirasvat # TS.4.1.1.3. See prec. but two.
gāyatreṇa chandasā pṛthivīm anu vi krame # TS.1.6.5.2. See pṛthivīṃ viṣṇur, pṛthivyāṃ viṣṇur, and viṣṇuḥ pṛthivyāṃ.
gāyatreṇa chandasā pṛthivyāḥ etc. # see gāyatreṇa chandasāṅgirasvat etc.
gāyatreṇa chandasāvabāḍho valagaḥ (KS. -bāḍho yaṃ dviṣmaḥ) # TS.1.3.2.1; KS.2.11; 25.9; Apś.11.11.8.
gāyatreṇa chandasā viśvarūpam # AVP.15.1.2b. See gāyatrī chandasāṃ.
gāyatreṇa tvā chandasā karomi # TA.4.2.6; 5.3.3; Apś.15.3.1.
gāyatreṇa tvā chandasā chṛṇadmi # TA.4.3.3; Apś.15.4.10.
gāyatreṇa tvā chandasā pari gṛhṇāmi # VS.1.27; śB.1.2.5.6. P: gāyatreṇa Kś.2.6.25.
gāyatreṇa tvā chandasā manthāmi # VS.5.2; śB.3.4.1.23. P: gāyatreṇa Kś.5.2.2.
gāyatreṇa tvā chandasā sādayāmi # VS.13.53; MS.2.7.18: 103.11; KS.16.18; śB.7.5.2.61; Mś.6.1.8.4.
gāyatreṇa tvā chandasodūhāmy auṣṇihena tvānuṣṭubhena tvā vārhatena tvā pāṅktena tvā traiṣṭubhena tvā jāgatena tvā vairājena tvā dvaipadena tvātichandasā tvā # ā.5.1.4.3.
gāyatreṇa navīyasā # RV.1.12.11b.
gāyatreṇa prati mimīte arkam # RV.1.164.24a; AVś.9.10.2a.
gāyatreṇa rathaṃtaram # VS.11.8b; TS.3.1.10.1b; 4.1.1.3b; MS.2.7.1b: 74.10; 3.1.1: 2.6; KS.15.11b; śB.6.3.1.20b; Kauś.5.7b; JG.1.4b.
gāyatreṇa sam ajyate # RV.1.188.11b.
cakṣuḥśrotre me tarpayāmi # VārG.12.2. Cf. cakṣur me tarpayata and śrotraṃ me tarpayata.
citre citrābhir ūtibhiḥ # śś.8.19.1. Cf. under citraś citrābhir.
citreṇa deva rādhasā # RV.8.1.23b.
citrebhir abhrair upa tiṣṭhatho (MS. -to) ravam # RV.5.63.3c; MS.4.14.12c: 235.1.
citrebhir yāsi raśmibhiḥ # RV.9.100.8b.
citreva praty adarśy āyatī # RV.8.101.13c.
tatredaṃ viśvaṃ bhuvanam adhi śritam # KS.18.1d.
tatredaṃ sarvam ārpitam # AVś.10.8.6c.
tatred indro dadhate pṛtsu turyām # TS.2.2.12.4d.
tatremaṃ yajñaṃ yajamānaṃ ca dhehi (Mś.5.2.16.14d, dhatta) # Vait.2.1d; Kś.2.2.8d; Mś.5.2.15.10d; 5.2.16.14d; Apś.3.19.1d; 6.8.11; Kauś.125.2d.
tatremāṃś caturaḥ pado vyatiṣajya śayāvahai # Apś.20.18.1. Cf. under tā ubhau.
tanūnaptre tvā gṛhṇāmi # TS.1.2.10.2; Mś.2.2.1.2. Ps: tanūnaptre tvā Vait.13.16; tanūnaptre TS.6.2.2.3; GB.2.2.3. See next two.
tanūnaptre śakmane śākvarāya śakmanā ojiṣṭhāya # MS.1.2.7: 16.12. P: tanūnaptre MS.3.7.10 (bis): 90.15; 91.12. See under prec.
tanūnaptre śākvarāya śakmann ojiṣṭhāya # VSK.5.2.1. P: tanūnaptre śākvarāya Kś.8.1.20. See under prec. but one.
dattvātreyo 'vacatnuke # AB.8.22.7b.
datre viśvā adhithā indra kṛṣṭīḥ # RV.4.17.6d.
daśayoktrebhyo daśayojanebhyaḥ # RV.10.94.7b; N.3.9b.
daśarātre kilāsasya # AVP.9.3.3a.
daśarātreṇa saṃmitaḥ # AVP.8.19.8a.
tre 'mutra mahyaṃ duhānā # AVP.5.31.8a.
dīrghasatreṇa (for -sattreṇa) saṃmitaḥ # AVP.8.19.8c.
duhitre keśavardhanīm # AVś.6.137.1b.
duhitre patyām iva # AVP.12.10.3d.
devakṣatre ruśadgavi # RV.5.64.7b.
devatremāṃ vācaṃ śrīṇīhi (AVś. kṛdhi) # AVś.20.127.6c; śś.12.14.1.5c.
dhātre pṛṣodaraḥ # TS.5.5.23.1; KSA.8.2.
dhātre vidhātre (AVP. vidhartre) samṛdhe # AVś.3.10.10c; AVP.1.105.4c.
nakṣatrebhiḥ pitaro dyām apiṃśan # RV.10.68.11b; AVś.20.16.11b.
nakṣatrebhyaḥ kirmiram (TB. kilāsam) # VS.30.21; TB.3.4.1.17.
nakṣatrebhyas tvā # KA.2.145.
nakṣatrebhyaḥ sam anamat # TS.7.5.23.1. See candrāya sam.
nakṣatrebhyaḥ svāhā # VS.22.28,29; 39.2; TS.1.8.13.3; 7.1.15.1; MS.3.12.7: 162.14; 3.12.10: 163.11; KS.15.3; KSA.1.6; śB.14.3.2.12; TB.3.1.6.5; Tā.10.67.2; MahānU.19.2.
pavitre adhi tośate # RV.9.27.1b; SV.2.636b.
pavitre camvoḥ sutaḥ # RV.9.36.1b; SV.1.490b.
pavitreṇa punīhi (MS. punāhi) mā # VS.19.40a; MS.3.11.10a: 156.1; KS.38.2a; TB.1.4.8.1b; śś.15.15.6a.
pavitreṇa pṛthivi motpunāmi # AVś.12.1.30c. P: pavitreṇa pṛthivi Vait.12.6.
pavitreṇa vicarṣaṇiḥ # RV.9.67.22b; VS.19.42b; MS.3.11.10b: 155.11; KS.38.2b; TB.1.4.8.1b; Apś.10.7.13b. Cf. Rvidh.3.2.6.
pavitreṇa śatāyuṣā # VS.19.37c,37d; MS.3.11.10c (bis): 155.7,9; KS.38.2c,2d; TB.2.6.3.3d,4c.
pavitreṇa savena ca # RV.9.67.25b; AVś.6.19.3b; VS.19.43b; MS.3.11.10b: 155.17. KS.38.2b; TB.1.4.8.2b.
pavitreṇa sahāgahi # TB.3.7.4.12b; Apś.1.12.8b.
pavitre dakṣasādhanaḥ # RV.9.27.2c; SV.2.637c.
pavitre dhārayā sutaḥ # RV.9.100.6b; SV.2.366b; JB.3.129b.
pavitre pari ṣicyate (SV. -se) # RV.9.17.4b; 42.4b; SV.2.110b.
pavitrebhiḥ pavamānā asṛgran # RV.9.87.5c.
pavitrebhiḥ pavamāno nṛcakṣāḥ # RV.9.97.24a.
pavitre matsaro madaḥ # RV.9.27.5c; SV.2.634c.
pavitreṣṭiṃ tathaiva ca # Aś.2.12.6b.
pavitre somaṃ devebhya indum # RV.9.109.12b; SV.2.684b.
pavitre somo akṣāḥ (SV.JB. akṣarat) # RV.9.18.1b; SV.1.475b; 2.443b; JB.3.159b.
pavitre stho vaiṣṇavyau (TB.Apś. -ṣṇavī; VārG. -ṣṇavye) # VS.1.12; 10.6; śB.1.1.3.1; 5.3.5.15; TB.3.7.4.11; Apś.1.11.7; śG.1.8.14; GG.1.7.22; KhG.1.2.12; JG.1.2; VārG.1.12. P: pavitre sthaḥ Kś.2.3.31. Cf. oṣadhyā.
pavitre havyaśodhane # TB.3.7.4.11d,12d; Apś.1.6.10d; 2.8.6d.
tre gāṃ duhann abravīt # AVP.4.40.2b.
treva bhindan sata eti (AVś. etu) rakṣasaḥ # RV.7.104.21d; AVś.8.4.21d; N.3.20.
treṣu dattam amṛtaṃ svadhāvat # JG.2.1b.
treṣu pibato janān # VS.16.62b; TS.4.5.11.1b; MS.2.9.9b: 129.5; KS.17.16b.
pitre cic cakruḥ sadanaṃ sam asmai # RV.3.31.12a.
pitre putrāso apy avīvatann ṛtam (AVś. ṛtāni) # RV.10.13.5b; AVś.7.57.2b.
pitre mātre vibhukratum # RV.8.69.15d; AVś.20.92.12d.
pitre svāhā # ApMB.2.19.9,11 (ApG.8.21.3,4).
putrebhyaḥ pitaras tasya vasvaḥ # RV.10.15.7c; AVś.18.3.43c; VS.19.63c.
putrebhyaḥ prāyachat # VS.11.59c; śB.6.5.2.21. See tāṃ putrebhyaḥ.
putrebhyas tvā # MG.1.8.7.
putrebhyo lokaṃ datvā # AVś.11.8.10c.
pratigrahītre gotamo vasiṣṭhaḥ # AVP.2.28.5c; 5.28.4e.
pradātre svāhā # Aś.8.14.4.
prāṇasūtreṇa pṛśninā # SMB.1.3.8b.
phalgupātreṇa cāpyatha # ViDh.79.24d.
mantreṣu brāhmaṇe caiva # śG.1.2.5c.
tre nu te sumite indra pūrvī # RV.10.29.6a; AVś.20.76.6a.
mitrāvaruṇanetrebhyo vā marunnetrebhyo vā devebhya uttarāsadbhyaḥ (VSK. uttara-) svāhā # VS.9.35; VSK.11.1.1; śB.5.2.4.5.
mitreṇa varuṇena ca # AVś.3.6.2d; TA.6.9.2d. Cf. agninā varu-.
mitreṇa sākaṃ saha saṃviśantu # AG.2.9.5d. See under anyeṣv ahaṃ.
mitreṇāgne mitradheye (AVś. mitradhā; AVP. mitradheyaṃ) yatasva # AVś.2.6.4b; AVP.3.33.5b; VS.27.5b; TS.4.1.7.2b; MS.2.12.5b: 149.2; KS.18.16b.
mitrebhya edhi surabhiḥ suvarcāḥ # AVP.2.65.1b.
mitreva ṛtā śatarā śātapantā # RV.10.106.5b.
yatredaṃ veśayāmi vaḥ # AVś.3.13.7d. P: yatredam Kauś.40.6. See yatremaṃ veśayāmasi.
yatredaṃ brahma kriyate # AVś.8.2.25c; TA.6.11.2c.
yatredānīṃ paśyasi jātavedaḥ # RV.10.87.6a; AVś.8.3.5a.
yatrendraś ca vāyuś ca # VS.20.26a.
yatrendrasya ṛṣabhasya (KS. meṣasya) haviṣaḥ priyā dhāmāni # VS.21.46; KS.18.21.
yatrendrasya sutrāmṇaḥ priyā dhāmāni # VS.21.46.
yatrendrāgnyoś (TB. -gniyoś) chāgasya haviṣaḥ priyā dhāmāni # MS.4.13.7: 208.14; TB.3.6.11.3.
yatremaṃ veśayāmasi # AVP.2.40.6d. See yatredaṃ veśayāmi.
yatre viśvā bhuvanādhi tasthuḥ # RV.1.164.2d; AVś.9.9.2d; 13.3.18d; N.4.27d. See yenemā etc.
yamanetrebhyo devebhyo dakṣiṇāsadbhyaḥ svāhā # VS.9.35; śB.5.2.4.5.
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"tre" has 307 results.
     
tresvarya(1)use of the three accents acute, grave and circumflex at the time of the recital of the Veda; त्रयः स्वरा एव त्रैस्वर्यम्; confer, compare चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनां स्वार्थॆ उपसंख्यानम् । त्रैलोक्यम् , त्रैस्यर्यम् Kas, on P. V. 1. 124. confer, compare also यद्येवं त्रैस्वर्ये न प्रकल्पते तत्र को दोषः। त्रैस्वर्येणाधीमहॆ इत्येतन्नोपपद्यते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31.
tresamitādia class of irregular compound words headed by the compound word पात्रेसमित, which are taken correct as they are. This class of words consists mostly of words forming a tatpurușa compound which cannot be explained by regular rules. The class is called आकृतिगण and hence similar irregular words are included in it: e. g. पात्रेसमिताः, गेहेशूरः कूपमण्डूकः etc confer, compare KS. on P. II.1.48.
metreyarakṣitaa recognised scholar of Paninis' grammar who belonged to the Eastern part of India and fourished in the beginning of the twelfth century. As it appears from the name Maitreya Raksita he appears to have been a Buddhist grammarian. Subsequent writers in their works refer to him by the name Raksita alone, as also by the name Maitreya, but very rarely by the name Maitreya Raksita.He wrote many works on grammar of which the 'tantrapradipa'a learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa on Kasika was a reputed one, which, although available in a fragmentary manuscript form today, has been profusely quoted by prominent grammarians after him.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
akampitanot shaken; tremulous: said with respect to vowels in Vedic utterance, kampa being looked upon as a fault of utterance., cf अकम्पितान् । कम्पनं नाम स्वराश्रितपाठदोषः प्रायेण दाक्षिणात्यानां भवति । तमुपलक्ष्य स वर्ज्य:। R.Pr.III.31
akarmakaintransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता confer, compare फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
atijagatīone of the varieties of-in fact, the first variety of-the Aticchandas metre, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: this Atijagatī consists of 52 syllables.e. g. तमिन्द्रे जोहवीमि मघवानमुग्रम् Ṛk. Saṁh.8.97.13 cf, प्रथमातिजगत्यासां सा द्विपञ्चाशदक्षरा Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.80.
atinicṛta variety of the Gāyatri metre consisting of 20 syllables, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.22.
atiśakvarīa variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 60 syllables. e. g. सुषुमा यातमद्रिभिः Ṛk. Saṁh. I. 137.1. cf, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) KVI.82.
atyaṣṭia variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 68 syllables. e. g. अथा रुचा हरिण्या पुनानः Ṛk. Sam. 8.111.1.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anākṛtinot capable of presenting (on its mere utterance) any tangible form or figure the word is used in connection with a technical term (संज्ञाशब्द) which presents its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise: confer, compare अनाकृति: संज्ञा । अाकृतिमन्तः संज्ञिनः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anuśāsanatraditional instruction; treatment of a topic; exempli gratia, for example अथ शब्दानुशासनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.1 where the word is explained as अनुशिष्यन्ते संस्क्रियन्ते व्युत्पाद्यन्ते अनेन इति अनुशासनम्.
antaraṅgabalīyastvathe strength which an antaraṅga rule or operation possesses by virtue of which it supersedes all other rules or operations,excepting an apavāda rule, when or if they occur simultaneously in the formation of a word.
antaraṅgalakṣaṇacharacterized by the nature of an antaraṅga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it.
appayadīkṣitaअप्पदीक्षित A famous versatile writer of the sixteenth century A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅantaśeṣasaṁgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.
abhikṛtia variety of long metres called अतिच्छन्दस्; it consists of 100 syllables. confer, compare अभिकृतिः -देवा अग्निः स्विष्टकृत् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.60.
abhisāriṇīname of a metre in which two feet have ten syllables and the other two have twelve syllables; confer, compare वैराजजागतैः पादैर्यो वाचेत्यभिसारिणी Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 43.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
aluksamāsaa compound in which the case-affixes are not droppedition The Aluk compounds are treated by Pāṇini in VI.3.I to VI.3.24.
alontyavidhian operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; confer, compare नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.65, confer, compare अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्यादेशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52.
avyayasaṃgrahaname of a treatise ondeclinable words attributed to Sākaṭāyana.
aṣṭākṣarāa metre having eight syllables in a foot;confer, compareगायत्री सा चतुर्विंशत्यक्षरा । अष्टाक्षरास्त्रयः पादाः चत्वारो वा षडक्षराः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XVI.9.
aṣṭiname of a metre of four feet consisting of 64 syllables in all, 12 syllables in the odd feet and 20 in the even feet; e. g. त्रिकद्रुकेषु महिषः et cetera, and others Ṛgveda, Ṛk. Saṁh=Ṛgveda-saṁhita. II.22.1.
ākṛtiliterally form; individual thing; confer, compare एकस्या अाकृतेश्चरितः प्रयोगो द्वितीयस्यास्तृतीयस्याश्च न भवति M.Bh on III.1.40 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6. The word is derived as आक्रियते सा आकृतिः and explained as संस्थानम्; confer, compare आक्रियते व्यज्यते अनया इति आकृतिः संस्थानमुच्यते Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on IV.1.63; (2) general form which, in a way, is equivalent to the generic notion or genus; confer, compare आकृत्युपदेशात्सिद्धम् । अवर्णाकृतिरुपदिष्टा सर्वमवर्णकुलं ग्रहीष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1; (3) notion of genus; cf also यत्तर्हि तद् भिन्नेष्वभिन्नं छिनेष्वच्छिन्नं सामान्यभूतं स शब्दः । नेत्याह । अाकृतिर्नाम सा. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya.1; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; confer, compare R. Prāt. XVI.56,57.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aākhyātavyākaraṇaa treatise on verbs discussing verbal forms by VaṅgaSena.
abādha(1)similarity of one phonetic element, for instance, in the case of ऐ with आ resulting from Saṁdhi: e. g. प्रजाया अरातिं निर्ऋत्या अकः where प्रजाया and निर्ऋत्या stand for प्रजायै and निर्ऋत्यै confer, compare एकारान्तानि अाकारबाधे Āth. Pr. II.1.4; (2) Similarity of accent of words in the Saṁhitāpāṭha and Padapāṭha; (3) followed by confer, compare Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.1.14; (4) distress; confer, compare आबाधे च, P. VIII.1.10.
āraḍeKRISHNASHASTRI a reputed Naiyāyika of Banaras of the nineteenth century, who wrote, besides many treatises on Nyāya, a short gloss on the Sutras of Pāṇini, called Pāṇini-sūtra-vṛtti.
aāstārapaṅkatia variety of पङ्कक्ति metre of 40 letters with 8 letters in the first and second quarters or pādas and 12 letters in the third and fourth quarters confer, compare अास्तारपङ्कक्तिरादितः R.Pr.XVI.40. For instances of आस्तारपङ्क्ति see Ṛgveda sūkta 2l, Mandala X.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
iṣṭaa word frequently used in the Vārttikas and the Mahābhāṣya and other treatises in the senses of (1) a desired object, (2) a desired purpose, (3) a desired statement, (4) a desired form id est, that is the correct form : confer, compare इष्टान्वाख्यानं खल्वपि भवति: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1. योगविभागादिष्टसिद्धिः Pari.Śek. Pari. 114.
iṣṭatantravyākaraṇaa short treatise on grammar ascribed to Jayadeva.
īśvarakāntaauthor of 'Dhātumāla', a short metrical treatise on roots.
īśvarānandaauthor of (l) a gloss on Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣya-pradīpa, and (2)an independent treatise Śābdabodhataraṅgiṇī. He is believed to have been a pupil of सत्यानन्द and iived in the latter part of the 16th century A.D.
uktipadaउक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds et cetera, and others written mostly in Gujarati.
uccāraṇapronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारणसामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and elsewhere in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which purpose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; confer, compare उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; confer, compare जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
udayakīrtiauthor of a treatise giving rules for the determination of the pada or padas of roots; the treatise is named पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिकाटीका He was a Jain grammarian, and one of the pupils of Sādhusundara.
uddyotanaprabhāname of a commentary on the 'Tantrapradipa' of Maitreya Rakṣita,which latter is a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. which itself is a commentary on Jayāditya's Kāśikā.
upasargavādaa treatise on upasargas, by Harikṛṣna.
vupasargavicāraa treatise on upasargas by Gadādhara Cakravartin.
upasargavṛttia treatise on upasargas by Bharatamalla in the Sixteenth Century A.D.
urobṛhatīa variety of the Vedic metre बृहती in which the first pada consists of twelve syllables and the rest of eight syllables; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 33.
uṣṇih(उष्णिक्)name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI 20-26.
ūrdhvabṛhatī( विराज् )a variety of the metre Bṛhatī which has three padas of twelve syllables each; confer, compare त्रयो द्वादशका यस्याः सा होर्ध्ववृहती विराट् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.33.
ṛṣicchandsthe metre of the Vedic seers. The seven metres गायत्री, उष्णिक्, अनुष्टुप्, बृहती, पङ्क्ति, त्रिष्टुप् and जगती consisting respectively of 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables are named ऋषिच्छन्दस् as contrasted with the metres दैव, प्राजापत्य and आसुर, which, when combined together, make the metres of the Vedic seers, For details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.1.5.
ekavattvaor एकवद्भाव use or treatment of the plural sense as if it is singular; confer, compare एकवद्भावोsनर्थक: 1 समाहारैकत्वात् M.Bh. on II. 4.12. Vart. 5.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
aikapadyatreatment as one single word especially found in the case of compound words (सामासिकपद) which, as a result of such treatment, have only one accent (acute) and one case affix after the whole word; confer, compare अयं खल्वपि बहुव्रीहिरस्त्येव प्राथमकल्पिकः । यस्मिन्नैकपद्यमैकस्व र्यमेकविभक्तित्वं च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.29. See एकपद.
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
aauṇādikaan afix mentioned in the class of affixes called उणादि in treatises of Pāṇini and other grammarians; confer, compare नमुचि । मुचेरौणादिकः केिप्रत्ययः Kāś.on P.VI.3.75; फिडफिड्डौ अौणादिकौ प्रत्ययौ M.Bh. on Māheśvarasūtras. 2. See the word उणादि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
auṣṇihabeginning with a stanza of the Uṣṇih metre; confer, compare उष्णिहापूर्वः सतोबृहत्यन्तः प्रगाथः औष्णिह इत्युच्यते । यथा यमादित्यासो अद्रुहः Uvaṭa on R.Pr.XVIII.5.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kavikalpadrumaa treatise on roots written by Bopadeva, the son of Keśava and the pupil of Dhaneśa who lived in the time of Hemādri, the Yādava King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodha which has been very popular in Bengal being studied in many Tols or Pāṭhaśālās.
kavicandraauthor of a small treatise on grammar called Sārasatvarī. He lived in the seventeenth century A.D. He was a resident of Darbhaṅgā. Jayakṛṣṇa is also given as the name of the author of the Sārasatvarī grammar and it is possible that Jayakṛṣṇa was given the title, or another name, Kavicandra.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantrottaraa treatise on the Kātantra Grammar believed to have been written by Vidyānanda.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakakārikāpossibly another name for the treatise on Kārakas known as कारकचक्र written by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva the reputed grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A. D. See कारकचक्र.
kārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaalso called षट्कारक-खण्डनमण्डन which is a portion of theauthor's bigger work named त्रिलो-चनचन्द्रिका. The work is a discourse on the six kārakas written by Maṇikaṇṭha, a grammarian of the Kātantra school. He has also written another treatise named Kārakavicāra
kārakatattvaa treatise on the topic of Kārakas written by Cakrapāṇiśeṣa, belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who lived in the seventeenth century A. D.
kārakanirṇayaa work discussing the various Kārakas from the Naiyāyika view-point written by the well-known Naiyāyika, Gadādhara Chakravartin of Bengal, who was a pupil of Jagadīśa and who fourished in the 16th century A. D. He is looked upon as one of the greatest scholars of Nyāyaśāstra. His main literarywork was in the field of Nyāyaśāstra on which he has written several treatises.
kārakavāda(1)a treatise discussing the several Kārakas, written by Kṛṣṇaśāstri Ārade a famous Naiyāyika of Benares who lived in the eighteenth century A. D; (2) a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below. a treatise on syntax written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya which is called कारकविवेक also, which see below.
kuppuśāstrina famous grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote some works on grammar of which the परिभाषाभास्कर is an independent treatise on Paribhāṣās.
kṛdvṛttia short treatise by a grammarian named मोक्षेश्वर who lived in the fifteenth century. The work deals with verbal derivatives.
kodṇḍarāmaa scholar of Sanskrit Vyākaraṇa who composed शब्दसिद्धान्तमञ्जरी a small treatise dealing with the declension of nouns.
kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa(1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also.
kṣapaṇakaa Jain grammarian quoted in the well-known stanza धन्वन्तरिः क्षपणकोमरसिंहशङ्कु which enumerates the seven gems of the court of Vikramāditya, on the strength of which some scholars believe that he was a famous grammarian of the first century B.C.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
gadādharacakravartinthe reputed Naiyāyika who wrote numerous works on the Navyanyaya; he has written a few works like व्युत्पत्तिवाद, उपसर्गविचार, कारकनिर्णय, सर्वनामविचार, प्रत्ययविचार on Vyākaraṇa themes although the treatment, as also the style, is logical.
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
gopīcandraknown also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the grammatical treatises of the Samksipatasara or Jaumāra school of Vyakarana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षितसारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D.
golḍsṭyūkaraa well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.
gotrinda( चक्रवर्तिन् )writer of Samasavada, a short treatise on the sense conveyed by compound words.
goṣṭhaca taddhita affix.affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; confer, compare गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.1. varia lectio, another reading,2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently.
caṅgavṛttia short treatise written by वङ्गदास, dealing with the topic of the five compact expressions or Vrttis viz. कृत्, तद्वित, समास, एकशेष, and सनादिधातु.
caṅgudāsaor चाड्गुदास a scholar of grammar who has written an independent work on Sanskrit Vyakaana called वैयाकरणजीवातु. The treatise is also known as चाङ्गुसूत्र or चाङ्गु-व्याकरण.
candrācāryaa grammarian mentioned by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya as one who took a leading part in restoring the traditional explanation of Panini's Vyakarana which, by the spread of rival easy treatises on grammar, had become almost lost: confer, compare यः पतञ्जलिशिष्येभ्यो भ्रष्टो ब्याकरणागमः । काले स दाक्षिणात्येषु ग्रन्थमात्रे व्यवस्थित: ॥ पर्वतादागमं लब्ध्वा भाष्यबीजानुसारिभि: । स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः ॥ Vakyapadiya II. 488-489. See चन्द्र and चन्द्रगोमिन्.
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
cāṅgusūtraa treatise on the grammar Written by चाडगुदास in the Sutra form,which was named वैयाकरणजीवातु by him.
cānaśkrt affix अान applied to a root, to signify habit, age or strength; e. g. आत्मानं भूषयमाणाः । कवचं बिभ्राणाः । शत्रून्निघ्राना: confer, compare P. III. 2. 129.
cāndraname of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition.
ciccandrikāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in reply to the treatise named दूषकरदोद्भेदः See विष्णुशास्त्रिन्. For details see pp. 39, 40 of Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
chandas(1)Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, and I.4.3; confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; confer, compareछन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda.
jayadevaa grammarian, ( of course different from well-known poet), to whom a small treatise on grammar by name इष्टतन्त्रव्याकरण is attributedition
jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya(1)a famous Bengalee scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. The treatise is named कारकवाद.
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jaumāra( व्याकरण )a treatise on vya'karana written by Jumaranandin. See जुमरनन्दिन् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. The Jaumara Vyakarana has no Vedic section dealing with Vedic forms or accents,but it has added a section on Prakrita just as the Haima Vyakaraha.
jaumārasaṃskaraṇathe revised version by Jumuranandin of the original grammar treatise in verse called संक्षिप्तसार written by KramadiSvara, The Jaumarasamskarana is the samc as.jaumara Vyakarana, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadvadatideśatreatment of something as that which is not that e. g. the treatment of affixes not marked with mute n or n as marked with n even though they are not actually marked that way, confer, compare P. I. 2.14; also cf तद्वदतिदेशेSकिद्विधिप्रसङ्गः P. I. 2.1 Vart 4.
timaṇṇāa southern grammarian who wrote a short treatise on the pratyaharas like अण्, इण् et cetera, and others in the grammar of Panini.
tiṣṭhadguprabhṛticompound words headed by the word तिष्ठद्गु which are termed as avyayibhava compounds and treated as indeclinables; exempli gratia, for example तिष्ठद्गु, वहद्गु असंप्रति, प्राह्णम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 1.17.
tīvrataraextreme sharpness of the nasalization at the time of pronouncing the anusvara and the fifth letters recommended by Saityayana.e. g. अग्नीररप्सुषदः, वञ्चते परिवञ्चते. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
tṛjvadbhāvatreatment of a word as ending with the affix तृच् although, in fact, it does not so end; e. g. the word क्रोष्टु; confer, compare तृज्वत्क्रोष्टु:, P. VII. 1.95 ; confer, compare also तृज्वद्भावस्यावकाशः क्रोष्ट्रा क्रोष्टुना; M.Bh, on VII. 1.95 Vart. 10.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyacalled also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' edition Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.
tripādīterm usually used in connection with the last three Padas (ch. VIII. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. 4) of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as also a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1; (2) name of a critical treatise on Panini's grammar ("The Tripadi") written by Dr. H. E. Buiskool recently.
tribhāṣyaratnaname of a commentary on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya written by Somayarya. The commentary is said to have been based on the three Bhasya works attributed to the three ancient Vedic scholarsVararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya.
trilokanāthason of Vaidyanatha who wrote a small treatise on karakas called षट्कारकनिरूपण.
thīma(THIEME, PAUL)a sound scholar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a critical treatise named "Panini and the Veda."
dayāpālaa.Jain writer who wrote a treatise named रूपसिद्धि.
dayāratnaa.Jain scholar who has written a grammar treatise on the Sarasvata Grammar called सारस्वतपरिभाषा.
daśakaa name given to the treatise on grammar written by व्याघ्रपाद which consisted of 10 chapters; confer, compare दशकं वैयाघ्रपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P V. 1.58. The word also means students reading the work दशक; confer, compare दशका वैयाघ्रपदीया: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.2.65.
daśagaṇī(1)a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1.
daśabalakārikāa short treatise on the roots belonging to more than one conjugation; the name of the author is not given.
dānavijayaa Jain grammarian, who wrote a small grammar treatise named शब्दभूषण.
daśagaṇī(1)a section of grammatical treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e.g the first section of the second part ( उत्तरार्ध ) of the Siddhanta Kaumudi; (2) name of the dhatupatha of Panini which gives ten classes of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो दशगणीपरिपठिता गृह्यन्ते Nyasa on I.3.1.
daśabalakārikāa short treatise on the roots belonging to more than one conjugation; the name of the author is not given.
dānavijayaa Jain grammarian, who wrote a small grammar treatise named शब्दभूषण.
durvalācāryaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar दुर्वलीयव्याकरण, named after him. Besides this treatise, he has written commentaries on Nagesa's Laghumanjusa and Paribhasendusekhara.
devanandincalled also पूज्यपाद or पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् believed to have lived in the fifth century A. D. and written the treatise on grammar, of course based om Panini Sutras, which is known as जैनेन्द्र-व्याकरण or जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as जैनेन्द्र in the usually guoted verse of Bopadeva :इन्द्रश्चन्द्रः काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्र जयन्त्यष्टादेिशाब्दिकाः. देवनन्दिन् was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which सर्वार्थसिद्धि, the commentary on the तत्त्वार्थाधिगमसूत्र, is well-known.
drutabodhaname of a treatise on grammar written for beginners by Bharatasena or Bharatamalla of Bengal in the sixteemth century.
dhanajitname of the author of a short metrical treatise on roots named धातुक्रल्पलतिका.
dhamekīrtia Jain scholar called by the name कीर्ति also, who was the author of धातुप्रत्ययपञ्जिक्रा and रूपावतार a well-known treatise on roots; confer, compare बोपदेवमहाग्राहग्रस्तो वामनदिग्गजः । कीर्तेरेव प्रसङ्गेन माधवेन समुद्धृतः । He is believed to have been the first grammarian who arranged the sutras of Panini according to the subject matter.
dhātukalpalatikāa short treatise on the roots of the different conjugations written by a grammarian named Dhananjaya.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhātupārāyaṇaa grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.
dhātupradīpaa work dealing with verbal forms written by Maitreya Raksita, a Buddhist writer and a famous grammarian belonging to the eastern part of India who lived in the middle of the twelfth century. He is believed to have written many scholarly works in connection with Panini's grammar out of which the Tantrapradipa is the most important one. The work Dhatupradipa is quoted by Saranadeva, who was a contemporary of Maitreya Raksita, in his Durghatavrtti on P. II. 4. 52.
dhāturatnamañjarīa treatise dealing with roots believed to have been written by Ramasimhavarman.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
nañsvarabalīyastvathe superiority, or strength of the accent caused by नञ्समास which sets aside the accent caused by the case affix; confer, compare विभक्तिस्वरान्नञ्स्वरो बलीयान् P. VI. 2.158 Vart. 13,
nandikeśvarakārikāa short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian नन्दिकेश्वर, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen sutras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva. See नन्दिकेश्वर. The treatise is also named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र.
narendrasūrian old grammarian believed to have been the original writer of the Sarasvata Vyakarana, on the strength of references to him in the commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana written by क्षेमेन्द्र as also references in the commentary on the Prakriykaumudi by Vitthalesa. He is believed to have lived in the tenth century A;D.
nāmaliṅgānuśāsanaa treatise in which words with their genders are given. The term is usually used in connection with the great dictionary by अमरसिंह which is called नामालिङ्गानुशासन or अमरकोष.
nārāyaṇavandyaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named Saravali, and a treatise on roots named Dhatuparayana.
nighaṇṭua name given to a collection of words which are mainly Vedic. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises on derivation such as the Nirukta of Yaska were based upon them; confer, compare निघण्टवः कस्मात् । निगमा इमे भवन्ति । छन्दोभ्यः समाहृत्य समाहृत्य समाम्नातास्ते निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः । अपि वा आहननादेव स्युः | समाहता भवन्ति । यद्वा समाहृता भवन्ति (Nir.I.1) where the word is derived from गम्,or हन् or हृ. The word निघण्टु is taken as synonymous with निगम by Durgacarya.
nicṛtless by one syllable; the word is used as an adjective to the name of a Vedic metre which has got one syllable less than the normal; confer, compare एकद्-व्यूनाधिकः सैव निचृदूनाधिका भुरिक् R.Pr.XVII.1.
nipātāvyayopasargavṛttiashort treatise explaining and illustrating the use of indeclinables, written by a grammarian named तिलक who probably lived in Kasmira.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nirdhāraṇa(1)selection of one or some out of many; confer, compare जातिगुणाक्रियाभिः समुदायादेकदेशस्य पृथक्करणं निर्धारणम् । मनुष्याणां मनुष्येषु वा क्षत्रियः शूरतमः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.2.10 as also on II.3.4l; (2) determined or definite sense to the exclusion of another, generally on the strength of the indeclinable एव which is expressed or understood. The word नेिर्धारण is used for अवधारण in this sense; confer, compare यत एवकारस्ततोन्यत्रावधारणम् a maxim used as a Paribhasa by some grammarians; cf; also धातोस्तन्निमित्तस्यैव । धात्ववधारणं यथा स्यात्तन्निमित्तावधारणं मा भूदिति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 1.81.
nirlūraname of a grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini on the strength of a reference to him in the Nyasa of Jinendrabuddhi; confer, compare वृत्तिः पाणिनीयसूत्राणां विवरणं चुल्लिभट्टिनिर्लूरादिप्रणीतम् Nyasa on I.1.1.
nyaṅkusāriṇīa kind of बृहती metre in which the second foot has twelve syllables, while the rest have eight syllables each; confer, compare द्वितीये न्यङ्कुसारिणी R.Pr.XVI.32.
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padmanābhaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar known as the Supadma Vyākaraņa. He is believed to have been an inhabitant of Bengal who lived in the fourteenth century A. D. Some say that he was a resident of Mithilā.
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
paratvaposteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: confer, compare परत्वादल्लोप: ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभाव: I. 1.11 et cetera, and others
parāṅgavadbhāvabehaviour as having become a part and parcel of another ; treatment of a word as a part of another. The term is used by Panini in connection with a word followed by and connected with a word in the vocative case of which it is looked upon as a part for purposes of accent, e. g. कुण्डेनाटन् , मद्राणां राजन् et cetera, and others Here the words अटन् and राजन् , being in the vocative case, are अाद्युदात्त, id est, that is अ ( at the beginning of अटन्) and अा (in राजन्) are acute and as a result all the other vowels in कुण्डेनाटन् and मद्राणां राजन् become अनुदात्त or grave; confer, compare सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P.II.1.2.
parigaṇanaliterally enumeration. The word is used in grammar treatises in the sense of a definite or complete enumeration' with a view to exclude those that are not included in the enumeration : cf परिगणनं कर्तव्यम् | यङ्यक्यवलोपे प्रतिषेधः M.Bh. on I.1.4 Vaart. 1.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāprakāśāan independent treatise explaining the various Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar, written by Visnusesa of the famous SeSa family.
paribhāṣāpradīpārcisa scholarly independent treatise on Vyakarana Paribhasas written by Udayamkara Pathaka, called also Nana Pathaka, a Nagara Brahmana, who lived at Benares in the middle of the 18th century A. D. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Naagesa.
paribhāṣābhāskara(1)a treatise on the Paribhasas in Panini's grammar written by Haribhaskara Agnihotri, son of Appajibhatta Agnihotri, who lived in the seventeenth century : (2) a treatise on Paniniparibhasas, as arranged by Siradeva, written by Sesadrisuddhi,
paribhāṣārthasaṃgrahṛa treatise on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's grammar written by Vaidyanatha Sastrin.
paribhāṣāvṛttia general name given to an explanatory independent work on Paribhasas of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribhasas,irrespective of the system of grammar, whether it be that of Panini, or of Katantra, or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. The treatises of Vyadi (Panini system), Durgasimha and BhavamiSra (Katantra system), Purusottamadeva and Siradeva (Panini system), Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the name Paribhasavritti.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
paspaśācalled also पस्पशाह्निक; name given to the first or introductory chapter ( अाह्निक ) of the Maahabhaasya of Patanjali. The word occurs first in the SiSupaalavadha of Maagha. The word is derived from पस्पश् , the frequentative base of स्पर्श to touch or to see (ancient use). Possibly it may be explained as derived from स्पश् with अप; cf . शब्दबिद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Sis.II.112. Mallinatha has understood the word पस्पश m. and explained it as introduction to a Saastra treatise; confer, compare पस्पशः शास्त्रारम्भसमर्थक उपेद्वातसंदर्भग्रन्थः । Mallinaatha on SiS. II.112.
pāribhāṣika(l)technical, as opposed to literal; conventional; e. g. the words संबुद्धि, हेतु et cetera, and others cf शब्दैरर्थाभिधानं स्वाभाविकम् । न पारिभाषिकमशक्यत्वात् । लोकत एवार्थावगते: । Kāś on P.I.2.56; confer, compare किमिदम् पारिभाषिक्याः संबुद्धैग्रहणमेकवचनं संबुद्धिराहोस्विदन्वर्थग्रहणं संबोधनं संबुद्धिरिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33; (2) derived on the strength of a Paribhasa confer, compare पारिभाषिकं क्वचिदनित्यं स्यात् Kat. Par. vr. Pari. 58.
puṣkaraṇaa popular term used for the treatise on grammar by an ancient grammarian Apisali. confer, compare अापिशलं पुष्करणम् Kas on P. IV. 3. 15. It was called Puskarana probably because it was very extensive and widely read before Panini. For the reading दुष्करण for पुष्करण, and other details see Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 132-133, D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvasūtraliterally previous rule: a rule cited erlier in a treatise. The word is however, frequently used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of 'a rule laid down by an earlier grammarian': confer, compareवर्ण वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे M. Bh, Ahnika 1, पूर्वसूत्रे गोत्रस्य वृद्धमिति संज्ञा क्रियते M. Bh on I. 2.68; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.IV.1.14 Vart. 3, VI.I. 163 Vart. 1, VII.1.18, VIII. 4.7.
pṛthvīdharācāryaa grammarian of the Eastern school who wrote the treatise कातन्त्रविवरण on Katantra Grammar.
pedubhaṭṭaa grammarian.who has written a treatise named औणादिकपदार्णव on the Unadi sutras.
paurvāparya(1)a relation between two operations or rules based upon their anterior and ulterior positions, which is many times taken into consideration for deciding their relative strength; (2) the order of words; cf शब्देनार्थान्वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात् पौर्वापर्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P 1.4.109 Vart. 10 cf also पौर्वापर्यमकालव्यपेतं सेहिता, P. I. 4.109 Vart. 8.
prakaraṇatopic; context; a section wherein a particular subject is treated; confer, compare अर्थात् प्रकरणाद्वा लोके कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे संप्रत्ययो भवति M.Bh. on I. 1. 23; confer, compare also सामान्यशब्दाश्च नान्तरेण विशेषं प्रकरणं वा विशेषेष्ववतिष्ठन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 2.45 Vart 9.
prakaraṇagranthaliterary works in which the treatment is given in the form of topics by arranging the original sutras or rules differently so that all such rules as relate to a particular topic are found together: the Prakriykaumudi, the Siddhantakumudi and others are called प्रकरणग्रन्थs. Such works are generally known by the name प्राक्रयाग्रन्थ as opposed to वृतिग्रन्थ.
prakarṣagatipreferential treatment, special consideration ; confer, compare तत्र प्रकर्षगतिर्विज्ञास्यते साधीयः यः अल्विधिः इति, M.Bh.on P.I. 1.56; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.94 Vart. 6.
prakīrṇakāṇḍaname given to the third Kanda or book of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya where miscellaneous topics are treatedition The third Kanda consists of 14 sections called by the name Samuddesa. For details see pp. 381-382 Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition.
pratyāhārasūtravicāraa short treatise explaining the pratyharas अण् , अट्, अश् et cetera, and others in the grammar of Panini; one such work is written by a southern grammarian named तिमण्णा.
prayuktākhyātamañjarīa small treatise on verbal forms by सारङ्गकवि.
prayogapallavaa small treatise in verses on the conjugation of roots, written by Bhavanatha Misra, son of Ramapati.
prayogamukhamaṇḍanaknown also by the name प्रयोगविवेक, an elementary treatise on syntax, attributed to वररुचि, who must, of course, have been different from the ancient grammarian वररुचि.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
prākṛtasarvasyaa treatise on the grammar of Prakrta Languages attributed to Markandeya
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
balīyastvarelative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1.
bāhvādia class of words headed by the word बाहु to which the taddhita affix. affix इ ( इञ् ) is added in the sense of a descendant; e. g. बाहविः, पौष्करसादि:, पाञ्चिः et cetera, and others The class called बाह्वादि is looked upon as अाकृतिगण on the strength of the word च in the rule, so that similar words, not included in the class, could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.96.
bṛhatīa Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरिष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्वबृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा and विषमपदा. For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37.
bopadevaa great Sanskrit scholar and grammarian belonging to Devagiri in the greater Maharastra who was supported by Hemadri of Devagiri. He resided at सार्थग्राम on the river Varada in the first half of the thirteenth century. He wrote a short treatise on Sanskrit Grammar, which has a number of peculiar abbreviations for the usual well-known grammatical termanuscript. His grammar had a wide spread in Bengal and it is today a very common text on Grammar Bengal. On this account some scholars believe that he lived in Bengal. He was the son of Kesava and pupil of Dhanesa. He is also the author, of the well-known work कविकल्पद्रुम on which he has written a commentary named कामधेनु or काव्यकामधेनु.
bhāṣāṃmañjarīa small treatise on grammar written by Vyaṅkaṭa Subbā Shastrī.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhīmasenacalled भीमदास also, who flourished in the fourteenth century and wrote a treatise on grammar called भैमव्याकरण.
bhaimavyākaraṇaa grammar treatise written by भौमसेन in the fourteenth century A. D.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
bhrūmadhyaliterallycentre of the brows, or eyebrows which is described as the place of air ( which produces utterance or speech) at the time of the evening soma-pressing or sacrifice: confer, compare प्रात:सवनमाध्यन्दिनसवनतृतीयसवनक्रमेण उर:कण्ठभ्रूमध्यानि त्रीणि स्थानानि वायोर्भर्वान्त Vāj. Prāt. I. 30; confer, compare also भ्रुवोर्मध्ये प्राणमावेश्य सम्यक्.
maṅgalārthafor the sake of auspiciousness at the beginning of a treatise or work; confer, compare भूवादीनां वकारोयं मङ्गलार्थः प्रयुज्यते M.Bh. on P.I.3.1.;confer, compareमङ्गलादीनि हि शास्त्राणि | M.Bh. on P.I.1.1.
madhyakaumudīcalled also मध्यमकौमुदी a work on grammar which is an abridgment, to a certain extent, of Bhaṭṭojī's Siddhāntakaumudī. The treatise was written by Varadarāja, a pupil of Bhaṭṭojī for facilitating the study of the Siddhānta-kaumudi.
madhyamakaumudī(1)name of a treatise on grammar by Rāmaśarman; (2) the same as मध्यकौमुदी.
manoramā(1)the popular name given to the commentary प्रौढमनेारमा on the Siddhāntakaumudī of भट्टोजीदीक्षित by the author himself the commentary is a scholarly one and very extensive; and its first portion only upto the end of Kāraka is generally read in the Sanskrit Pāṭhaśālās;(2) name of a commentary on the Madhyasiddhāntakaumudī by Rāmasarman; (3) name given to a treatise discussing roots given in the Kātantra Grammar written by रमानाथशर्मा in the sixteenth century. The work is called कातन्त्रधातुवृत्ति also.
manoramākucamardananame given in a bantering tone to the treatise प्रौढमनोरमाखण्डन written by जगन्नाथपण्डित:
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyalaghuvṛttiname given to the short gloss on the Mahabhasya written by the famous eastern grammar-scholar Maitreya-Raksita of the twelfth century.
mahāsaṃjñāa long term, as contrasted with the very short terms टि, घु, भ, इत् and others introduced by Panini in his grammar for the sake of brevity. These long terms such as सर्वनाम, अब्यय,परस्मैपद, अात्मनेपद, and many others were widely in use at the time of Panini and hence he could not but pick them up in his grammar in spite of his strenuous attempts at brevity. The commentators, however, find out a motive for his doing this viz. that appropriate words only could be understood by those terms and not others; confer, compareमहासंज्ञाकरणेन तदनुगुणानामेव अत्र संनिवेशात् । S.K. on सर्वादीने सर्वनामानि P. I.1.27.
mahīdharaa grammarian of the sixteenth century who, besides many small treatises on other subjects, wrote a commentary on the SarasvataPrakriya Vyakarana.
mādhavathe well-known epoch-making scholar of the 14th century who has written a number of treatises in various Saastras. His धातुवृम्त्ति is a well-known work in grammar
mugdhabodhaliterally instructions to the ignorant: a treatise on grammar similar to the Astadhyayi of Panini but much shorter, written by Bopadeva or Vopadeva an inhabitant of the greater Maharastra in the Vardha district, in the thirteenth century. After the fall of the Hindu rulers in Bengal, treatises like भाषावृत्ति and others written by eastern grammarians fell into the back-ground and their place was taken up by easier treatises written by Bopadeva and others.Many commentaries were written upon the Mugdhabodha, of which the Vidyanivsa is much known to grammarians
makḍonel[MACDONELL,ARTHUR ANTHONY ]a deep scholar of Vedic Gram. and Literature who has written an exhaustive Vedic Grammar; in treatment, at places he differs from Panini and follows a different method, but the manner of thinking and argument is on original lines.
mokṣeśvaraa grammarian of the fourteenth century who has written a commentary on the Katantra Vrtti of Durgasimha. He has written a commentary on the Akhyatavrtti of the Katantra school as also a short treatise dealing with the krt affixes called Krdvrtti.
yathānyāsaṃas it is actually put in the rule or a treatise by the author. The phrase is often used in the Mahaabhaasya when after a long discussion, involving further and further difficulties, the author reverts to the original stand and defends the writing of the sUtra as it stands. सिध्यत्येवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति or सूत्रं भिद्यते । तर्हि यथान्यासमेवास्तु is the usual expression found in the Mahaabhaasya; cf, M.Bh. I.1. Aahnika 1, I.1.1, 9, 20, 62, 65 et cetera, and others
yavamadhyaliterally having the centre bulging out like the Yava grain; name given to a variety of the Gayatri which has 7 letters in the first and third (last) feet and 10 letters in the second id est, that is the middle foot; the name is also given to a Mahabrhati having the first and the last feet consisting of 8 letters and the middle one consisting of 12 syllables: cf R.Pr.XVI.18 and 48.
yaśa:kavia grammarian, the author of a treatise named Bhasanusasana. यश:सागर a Jain grammarian, the author of a work named Samasasobha.
yāskaa reputed ancient Niruktakara or etymologist, of the 6th century B.C. or even a few centuries before that, whose work, the Nirukta, is looked upon as the oldest authoritative treatise regarding derivation of Vedic words. Yaska was preceded by a number of etymologists whom he has mentioned in his work and whose works he has utilisedition Yaska's Nirukta threw into the back-ground the older treatises on etymology, all of which disappeared gradually in the course of time.
ratnapāṇia grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote a short treatise on the Karaka relations named षट्कारकविवरण.
ranu[RENOU,LOUIS]a sound Sanskrit scholar of France of the present time who has written some treatises and many articles on Sanskrit grammar out of which his works on the Terminology of Sanskrit Grammar, Kasika and Durghatavrtti reguire a special mention.
rapratyāhārakhaṇḍanaa small article showing that the short term र for the consonants र् and ल् need not be advocated as done by the learned old grammarians.The treatise was Written by Vaidyanatha Paya-gunde, the prominent pupil of Nagesabhatta.
rājārāmaśāstrī( कार्लेकर )a reputed scholar of Sanskrit grammar who resided at Varanasi and established a school of Sanskrit Grammarians there in the nineteenth century. He wrote a treatise on grammar named शब्दव्युत्पत्तिकौमुदी.
rādhākṛṣṇa( गोस्वामी )a grammarian who wrote two elementary graumar treatises (1) अव्ययार्थे and (2) वैयाकरणसर्वस्वसूची.
rāmakiṃkasarasvatīa grammarian who wrote a small grammar treatise named अायुबोधव्याकरण which is different from the well-known अाशुबोध of तारानाथतर्कवाचस्पति.
rāmakṛṣṇaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on Karaka relations known by the name शाब्दबोधप्रक्रिया.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
rukmanthe primary Yama letter; a term used in the Śikșā treatises.
laghuprakriyāname of a grammar treatise based on the Sabdānuśāsana of Hemacandra written by Vinayavijaya where the sūtras of Hemacandra are arranged in different topics as in the Siddhāntakaumudī of Bhoțțojī.
lactaddhita affix. affix ल applied optionally with the affix मतुप् to words ending in अा and meaning a detachable or undetachable part of an animal, ; as also to words mentioned in the group headed by the word सिध्म,as also to words वत्स and अस showing affection and strength respectively ; e. g. चूडाल:, सिध्मल:, वत्सल:, et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V. 2. 96-98.
liṅgānuśāsanaliterally science of genders; a short comprehensive old treatise on the gender of words attributed to Pāņini as its author. Other works with the same designation are attributed to वामन, दुर्गोत्तम and others.
lopabalīyastvathe superior strength or superiority of elision as a grammatical operation in contrast with other operations, by virtue of which the elision, which is prescribed, takes place first and then other operations get a scope for their application; confer, compare सर्वविधिभ्यो लोपविधिर्बलीयान् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.
lomaśyathe utterance of an aspirate letter rather harshly, with a stress on it, when that utterance is looked upon as a fault; confer, compare ऊष्मणां घोषाणां लोमश्यमसौकुमार्ये श्र्वेडनम् अधिको वर्णस्य ध्वनिः Uvvața on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.6.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
vākyapadīyaa celebrated work on meanings of words and sentences written by the famous grammarian Bhartrhari ( called also Hari ) of the seventh century. The work is looked upon as a final authority regarding the grammatical treatment of words and sentences,for their interpretation and often quoted by later grammarians. It consists of three chapters the Padakanda or Brahmakanda, the Vakyakanda and the Samkirnakanda, and has got an excellent commentary written by Punyaraja and Helaraja.
vākyaikadeśapart of a sentence which sometimes, on the strength of the context, conveys the whole meaning confer, compare दृश्यन्ते हिं वाक्येषु वाक्येकदेशान् प्रयुञ्जाना: पदेषु च पदैकदेशान् | प्रविश पिण्डीम् | प्रविश तर्पणम् पदेषु पदकैदेशान् देवदत्तो दत्तः | सत्यभामा भामेति M.Bh. on P.I.1.45 Vart. 3.
vāmananame of one of the joint authors of the well-known gloss or वृति upon the Sutras of Panini, who lived in the seventh century A. D. It cannot be ascertained which portion of the Kasika was written by Vamana and which by his colleague जयादित्य, There was another famous scholar of Kashmir by name Vamana who flourished in the tenth century and who wrote an independent grammar treatise विश्रान्तविद्याधर, together with उणादसूत्रवृत्ति and लिङ्गानुशासन.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vikampitaa fault in the pronunciation of vowels, the utterance being attended with a kind of tremor; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्त...विकम्पितम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). at the end of Ahnika 1.
vidhibalīyastvathe superior strength of an injunctive rule; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in speaking about the relative strength of rules; cf the term लेापाविधिबलीयस्त्व. M.Bh. on P.VII.2.3.
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
vibhaktibalīyastvathe relative superior strength possessed by the कारकविभक्ति which takes place in supersession of the उपपदविभक्ति when both become applicable at one and the same time; exempli gratia, for example मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not मुनित्रयाय नमस्कृत्य: confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94.
vibhāktisvarapratirūpakasimilar in form to a word ending in a case-affix or to a vowel. Such words are looked upon, and are treated as indeclinables exempli gratia, for example शनै:, चिरेण, अस्ति, उ, ए et cetera, and others; confer, compare the usual expressions तिडन्तप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम् et cetera, and others confer, compare विभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाता भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII.3.1: confer, compare also उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाताः । a gaṇasūtra inside the चादिगण mentioned in P.I.4.57.
vibhaktyarthanirṇayaa general term given to a chapter on case-affixes as also to treatises discussing the sense and relations of case-affixes. There is a treatise of this name written by Giridhara and another written by Jayakṛṣna Maunī.
vivṛtatarapossessed of the internal effort viz. विवृत which is specially strengthenedition The diphthongs have got at the time of their production the internal effort विवृत specially strengthened; confer, compare यदत्रवेर्णं, विवृततरं तदन्यस्मादवर्णात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Māheśvarasūtras. 3,4 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 10.
viśvarūpaa grammarian of the sixteenth century who has written a small grammar treatise called विश्वरूपनिबन्ध.
viṣṇupaṇḍitaa grammarian belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who has written a small treatise on Paribhāṣā or maxims of interpretation which he has named परिभाषाप्रक्राश.
vṛtta(1)arrived at or accomplished,as a result of वृत्ति which means a further grammatical formation from a noun or a verb; resultant from a vṛtti; confer, compare यावता कामचारो वृत्तस्य ये लिङ्गसंख्ये ते अतिदेक्ष्येते, न पुनः, प्राग्वृत्तेर्ये M Bh. on P.I.2.51; cf also युक्तंपुनर्यद् वृत्तनिमित्तको नाम अनुबन्धः स्यात्; (2) | employment, the same as प्रयोग, confer, compare वृत्ताद्वा । वृत्तं प्रयेागः । Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on P. I. 3.9; (3)behaviour, treatment confer, compare नकारस्योष्मवद् वृत्ते Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.13; (4) manner of Veda writing, metrical form, metre; confer, compare तद् वृत्तं प्राहुश्छन्दसाम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII.22.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vṛttidīpikāa treatise on the different ways in which the meaning is conveyed by words according to the conventions of grammarians,written by a grammarian Krisnabhatta surnamed Mauni.
vaidyanāthaVaidyanatha Payagunde, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century, who was one of the chief pupils of Nagesa and who prepared a line of pupils at Varanasi. He has written learned commentaries on standard works on grammar, the principal ones being the Prabha on the Sabdakaustubha, the Bhavaprakasika on the Brhaccabdendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the LaghuSabdendusekhara, the Kasika or Gada on the Paribhasendusekhara and an independent short treatise named Rapratyaya-khandana
vaiyarthyaabsence of any purpose or utility; the word is used many times in the case of a rule, or a word or two of it, in whose case वैयर्थ्य or absence of utility is shown, and, with a view to prevent its being looked upon as a serious fault, something is deduced and the purpose is shown; cf सूत्रवैयर्थ्यप्रसङ्गात् and व्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति used in grammar treatises.
vaiyākaraṇajīvātua term used for the grammar treatise written by Cangudasa which is also called Cangusutra or Canguvyakarana.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
veyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāraa slightly abridged form of the Vaiyakaranabhusana by the author Kondabhatta himself for students and beginners. It consists of the same number of fourteen chapters as the main treatise, which are given the name Nirnaya. See vaiyākaranabhusana.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdamālāवैयाकरणशब्दरत्नमाला a treatise on the use of words written as a helpful guide to Sanskrit writers, by a grammarian named Somayajin in 1848 A.D.
vaiyākaraṇasarvasvaa small treatise on grammar written by a scholar of grammar named Kasinatha who has also written a few more small works वर्णविवेकचन्द्रिका, वृत्तिचन्द्रिका,धातुमञ्जरी etc
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vaiyāghrapadyaname of a treatise of grammar written in ten chapters by an ancient grammarian व्याघ्रपाद्; confer, compare दशकं वैयाघ्रपद्यम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. IV 2.65. For details, see Vyakaranamahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Ed. pp. 133, 134.
vyaṅkaṭasubbāśāsrīa grammarian who has written a grammar treatise named भाषामञ्जरीव्याकरण.
vyapadeśivadbhāvatreatment of a secon dary thing as the principal one, e g. a person or a thing, without any second or any others, looked upon as the first or the last; confer, compare व्यपदेशिवदेकस्मिन् कार्ये भवतीति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.21. Vart. 2. The remark or expression व्यपदेशिवद्भावेन भविष्यति is found often given in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 Vart 14; I.1.9, I.1.51 I,1.72: I.2.48 et cetera, and others For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 30,
vyākaraṇaGrammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र or शब्दानुशासन); confer, compare(a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: confer, compare (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; confer, compare (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारित: संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7: (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4: confer, compare(f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभव:, अर्थं असंभवः | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.68. confer, compare (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याकरण is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar ' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art.
vyākaraṇacandrikāa short treatise on grammar written by Krsnacarya.
vyākaraṇadīpaa small treatise on grammar by Cidrupasraya.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyutpattivāda(l)name given to a topic in grammar which deals with the derivation of words as suitable to the sense: (2) name given to treatises discussing the derivation and interpretation of words.
vyūha(l)resolution or determination: confer, compare अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः । न कृतो विाशीष्ट ऊहो निश्चयः ,शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिविषये यैः इत्यर्थः Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) separation of the phonetic elements in a word, done especially for the recital of the Vedic texts according to metre:confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने क्षेप्रवणैकंभाविनाम् । व्यूहैः पृथक्करणेन Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII.22.
khadhmaname given to a Yama letter in the Siksa treatises.
śabarasvāmina grammarian to whom a metrical treatise on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन is ascribedition This शवरस्वामिन् was comparatively a modern grammarian who was given the title बालयोगीश्वर. This लिङ्गानुशासन has a commentary written by हृर्षवर्धन Evidently these grammarians शबरस्वामिन् and हृर्षवर्धन are different from the famous author of the मीमांसाभाष्य and the patron of the poet Bana respectively.
śabdakaustubhaa treatise on grammar, critically explaining and discuss ing the meaning of Panini's Sutras in the order of the author himselfeminine. the work is written by Bhattoji Diksita and is mainly based on the Mahabhasya.
śabdparavipratiṣedhacl,. comparatively superior strength possessed by a word, which in the text of a particular sutra is later than another word, which is put in earlier in the Sutra. This शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधे is contrasted with the standard शास्त्रपरविप्रतिषेध which is laid down by Panini in his rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् and which lays down the superior strength of that rule which is put by Panini later on in his Astadhyayi: e. g. in the rule विभाषा गमहनविदविशाम्,it is not the word हन् although occuring earlier, but the word विश् occuring later in the rule, which helps us to decide which विद् should be taken confer, compareज्ञानार्तस्य सत्यपि विदरूपत्वे अर्थस्य भेदकत्वेन रूपवदाश्रयणात्प्रतिषेधाभावः | यद्यपि हन्तिना साहचर्ये विदेरस्ति तथापि शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधाद् विशिर्व्यवस्थाहेतुर्न हान्तिः ! Kaiyata on P. VII.2.18:confer, compare also, P.VI.1.158 V.12.
śābdabodhaprakriyāa grammar treatise on the denotation and relation of words written by a grammarian ramed Ramakrsna.
śabdarūpāvalia very brief treatise on declension giving the forms of the seven cases of a few choice-words. The work is studied as the first elementary work and is very common without the name of any specific author.There are different works named शब्दरूपावलि giving declensions of different words which are all anonymous, although from the dates of manuscripts mentioned, they appear to be more than five or six hundred years old.
śabdavyutpattikaumudīa small treatise on the derivation of words written by a grammarian named RajaramaSastrin.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śarvavarmāa reputed grammarian who is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadhya in the court of Satavahana. He wrote the Grammar rules which are named the Katantra Sutras which are mostly based on the Sutras of Panini. In the grammar treatise named 'the Katantra Sutra' written by Sarvavarman the Vedic section and all the intricacies and difficult elements are carefully and scrupulously omitted by him, with a view to making his grammar useful for beginners and students of average intelligence.
śākaṭāyanavyākaraṇathe treatise on grammar written by sakatayana। See शाकटायन.
śākaṭāyanaśabdānuśāsananame of the treatise on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्ति-शाकटायन.
śāntanavaan ancient scholar of grammar who wrote a treatise known as the Phit sutras on accents.
śābdabodhataraṅgiṇīa treatise on the theory of verbal import written by ईश्वरानन्द.
śābdabodhaprakāśikāa treatise on the theory of शब्दबोघ written by रामकिशोरचक्रवर्तिन्.
śāstrascientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; confer, compare शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śeṣacakrapāṇia grammarian of the Sesa family who wrote a small treatise on case-relations named कारकतत्त्व.
śeṣādria grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a work, Paribhasabhaskara, on the Paribhasas of the Panini system; the treatise is written in the manner of Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti which has been taken as a basis by him.
śrīkaṇoktaa grammarian who has written a small treatise on corrupt words or ungrammatical words, which is named अपशब्दखण्डन.
śluvadbhāvatreatment as before the elision named श्लु, i. e. reduplication of the preceding root. This श्लुवद्भाव is prescribed in the case of the roots भी, ह्री, भृ and हु; confer, compare भीह्रीभृहुवां श्लुवच्च P. III. 1. 39.
ṣaṭkārakavicāraan anonymous small treatise on the six case-relations in verse-form with a commentary.
ṣaṭkārakavivecanaa small treatise on the six case-relations written by a grammarian Bhavananda who held the title Siddhāntavagisa.
ṣatvachange of the consonant स् into ष् in certain conditions in the formation of a word, or after prepositions in the case of verbs beginning with स्. This cerebralization of स् was a peculiar phonetic change which naturally occurred when स् in utterance came after a vowel excepting अ. Some of the Pratisakhya works have exhaustively treated this change and Panini has also mentioned many rules in connection with it.
saṃjñāa technical term; a short wording to convey ample sense; a term to know the general nature cf things; convention; confer, compare वृद्धिशब्द; संज्ञा; अादेच: संज्ञिन: M.Bh. on P.1-1.1. There are two main divisions of संज्ञा-कृत्रिमसंज्ञा or an artificial term such as टि, घु, or भ which is merely conventional, and अकृत्रिमसंज्ञा which refers to the literal sense conveyed by the word such as अव्यय, सर्वनाम and the like. Some grammar works such as the Candra avoid purely conventional terms, These samjhas are necessary for every scientific treatise. In Panini's grammar, there are the first two chapters giving and explaining the technical terms whose number exceeds well-nigh a hundredition
saṃjñādhikāraa topic or a chapter or a portion of a treatise in which technical terms are given and explained; cf, संज्ञाधिकारोयम्; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.46, I. 1.56, I. 4.1, I. 4.23; see the word संज्ञा.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃvādacintāmaṇiname of a small treatise on roots and their meanings written by : a grammarian named इन्द्रदत्तोपाध्याय who has also written a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha called कौस्तुभगुण and सिद्धान्तकौमुदीगूढफक्किकाप्रकाश,
satiśiṣṭasvarabalīyastvathe comparatively superior strength of a subsequent accent which prevails by the removal of the accent obtaining before in the process of the formation of a word; cf VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9. See सतिशिष्ट a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
samantabhadraa Jain scholar of great repute who is believed to have written, besides many well-known religious books such as आप्तमीमांसा गन्धहस्तिभाष्य et cetera, and others on Jainism, a treatise on grammar called Cintamani Vyakarana.
samanvayapradīpasaṃketaa treatise on the philosophy of Vyakarana written as a commentary by the author दंवशर्मन् on his own Karikas on the subject.
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
samāsavāda(l)a short treatise on compounds by गोविन्दचक्रवर्तिन् ; (2) a small compendium on compounds written by a grammarian named सार्वभौम.
samāsaśeābhāa short treatise on compounds by यश:सागर.
sarvanāmanpronoun: literally standing for any noun. There is no definition as such given, of the word pronoun, but the words, called pronouns, are enumerated in Panini's grammar one after another in the class or group headed by सर्व ( सर्व, विश्व, उभ, उभय, words ending in the affixes डतर and डतम, अन्य et cetera, and others)which appear to be pronouns primarily. Some words such as पूर्व, पर, अवर, दक्षिण, उत्तर, अपर, अधर, स्व, अन्तर etc are treated as pronouns under certain conditions. In any case, attention has to be paid to the literal sense of the term सर्वनामन् which is an ancient term and none of these words when standing as a proper noun, is to be treated as a pronoun: confer, compare सर्वादीनि सर्वनामानि P. I.1. 27, confer, compare also संज्ञोपसर्जनीभूतास्तु न सर्वादयः: M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 27 Vart. 2; ( 2 ) The word सर्वनामन् means also a common term, a general term; confer, compare एकश्रुतिः स्वरसर्वनाम, यथा नपुंसकं लिङ्गसर्वनाम Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 4.174 Vart 4.
sāmavaśaname of a Samdhi or euphonic change of the type of the vowels अ, इ and उ being lengthened in some specified cases chiefly for the sake of music ( साम ) or metre. This lengthening is given the name प्लुति in the Rk Pratisakhya: confer, compare दीर्ध ह्रस्वो व्यञ्जनेन्यस्त्वृकाराद् यथादिष्टं सामवशः स सन्धिः | Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)VII.1.
sāmānyaviśeṣabhāvathe relationship between the general and the particular, which forms the basis of the type of apavada which is explained by the analogy of तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; the word also refers to the method followed by the Sutras of Panini, or any treatise of grammar for the matter of that, where a general rule is prescribed and, for the sake of definiteness some specific rules laying down exceptions, are given afterwards: confer, compare किंचित्सामान्यविशेषवल्लक्षणं प्रवर्त्यं येनाल्पेन यत्नेन महतः शद्बौघान् प्रतिपद्येरन् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnik 1.
sārāvalīor सारावली-व्य्याकरण an inindependent treatise on grammar by Naryana Vandyopadhyaya.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
siddhāntasārasvataan independent work on grammar believed to have been written by Devanandin. सिद्धान्तिन् a term used in connection with the writer himself of a treatise when he gives a reply to the objections raised by himself or quoted from others,the term पूर्वपाक्षिन् being used for the objector. सिद्धि formation of a word: establishment of the correct view after the removal of the objection; e. g. संज्ञासिद्वि, कार्यसिाद्व, स्वरसिद्धि. सिप् (1) the personal ending ( सि ) of the second person singular (मध्यमपुरुषैकवचन ) substituted for the affix ल्; of the ten tenses and moods लट्, लिट्, लृट् and others; confer, compare P.III.4.78: (2 Vikarana affix स् added to a root before the affixes of लेट् or Vedic Subjunctive. सिम् a technical term used in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya for the first eight vowels of the alphabet, viz. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ and ऋ: confer, compare सिमादितोष्टौ स्वराणाम् V. Pr.. I.44.
sīradevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern part of India who lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was a very sound scholar of Panini's grammar who wrote a few glosses on prominent works in the system. His Paribhasavrtti is a masterly independent treatise among the recognised works on the Paribhasas in which he has quoted very profusely from the works of his predecessors, such as the Kasika, Nyasa, Anunyasa and others. The reputed scholar Maitreya Raksita is more often guoted than others.
suc(l)taddhita affix. affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107.
supadmasamāsasaṃgrahaa treatise written by a grammarian named रूपनारायण, on the सुपद्मव्याकरण, which see below.
sūtraa short pithy assertion laying down something in a scientific treatise; aphorism; the word is sometimes used in a collective sense in the singular, referring to the whole collection of Sutras or rules; confer, compare व्याकरणस्य सूत्रम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I. The term is defined as अाल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् | अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. There are given generally six kinds of Sutras viz. संज्ञासूत्र, परिभाषासूत्र,विधिसूत्र, नियमसूत्र, प्रतिषेधसूत्र and अधिकारसूत्र; confer, compare also संज्ञा च परिभाषा च विधिर्नियम एव च प्रतिषेधोधिकारश्च षड्विधम् सूत्रलक्षणम् | Com. on Kat. I. 1.2.
sphoṭacaṭakaa small treatise on the theory of Sphota by a sound modern scholar of Vyakarana and Nyaya, by name Krisnasastri Arade who lived in Benaras in the earlier part of the nineteenth century.
sphoṭacandrikāa small treatise on the theory of Sphota written by Jayakrsna Mauni of the famous Maunin family. The author is known as Krsnabhatta also.
sphoṭavādaa general name given to treatises discussing the nature of Sphota written by the Vaiyakaranas who defend and establish the theory of Sphota and by the Naiyayikas who criticise the theory. Famous among these works are (l) स्फोटवाद by a stalwart Grammarian Kondabhatta, the author of the Vaiyakaramabhusana and (2) स्फोटवाद by NageSa, the reputed grammarian of the eighteenth century.
sphīṭasiddhi(1)name of a short treatise on the nature of Sphota, written by a grammarian named Bharata MiSra; (2) name of a short disquisition on Sphota by MandanamiSra.
svarabhaktia vowel part; appearance of a consonant as a vowel; the character of a vowel borne by a consonant. Many times a semivowel which consists of one letter has to be divided especially for purposes of metre, as also for accentuation into two letters or rather, has to be turned into two letters by inserting a vowel before it or after it, for instance य् is to be turned into इय् e. g, in त्रियम्बकं यजामहे, while र् or रेफ is to be turned into र् ऋ as for instance in कर्हि चित् which is to be uttered as कर् ऋ हृि चित्. This prefixing or suffixing of a vowel is called स्वरभक्तिः confer, compare स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं द्राघीयसी सार्धमात्रेतरे च | अधोनान्या ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 32.35; confer, compare also न संयोगं स्वरभाक्तिर्विहृान्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 35; confer, compare also रेफात् खरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 46. In Panini's grammar, however, the word अज्भाक्त, which means the same is used for स्वरभक्ति; cf ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् | अाद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ ; रेफौ तयोरेकां मात्रा । अभितेाज्भक्तेरपरा। S. K. on VI. 1.101.
svaravivṛtti( 1 )the same as स्वरविराम which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; ( 2 ) a short treatise on Vedic accents written by a modern Vedic scholar and grammrian named Indradattopadhyaya.
harikṛṣṇaa scholar of grammar who wrote a short treatise on the nature and function of prepositions named उपसर्गवाद.
haribhāskara( अग्निहोत्री )a grammarian of the Deccan who lived in the seventeenth century at Nasik and wrote commentaries on grammarworks out of which his treatise on Paribhasas ( परिभाषाभास्कर ) written independently but based upon Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti, deserves a special notice and mention.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
haimāliṅgānuśāsanaa treatise on genders written by हेमचन्द्र, See हेमचन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
haimavyākaraṇaa treatise on grammar written by हेमचन्द्र, called by the name हेमशब्दानुशासन. See हेमचन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
haimaśābdānuśāsanaa treatise on grammar written by Hemacandra. See हेमचन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
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987 results
     
tre in Tretā-yugaCC Adi 3.37
tre the age of TretāSB 12.3.28
SB 3.11.18
tre TretāCC Adi 3.7
SB 11.5.20
tre Tretā-yugaSB 12.2.39
tretā-ādiṣu beginning from Tretā-yugaSB 7.14.39
tretā-ādiṣu beginning from Tretā-yugaSB 7.14.39
tretā-mukhe at the beginning of Tretā-yugaSB 11.17.12
tretā-mukhe at the beginning of Tretā-yugaSB 11.17.12
tretā-mukhe in the beginning of the Tretā-yugaSB 9.14.49
tretā-mukhe in the beginning of the Tretā-yugaSB 9.14.49
tretā-mukhe in the beginning of Tretā-yugaSB 6.10.16
tretā-mukhe in the beginning of Tretā-yugaSB 6.10.16
tretā-yuga-samaḥ exactly like the Tretā-yuga (when there is no tribulation)SB 5.17.12
tretā-yuga-samaḥ exactly like the Tretā-yuga (when there is no tribulation)SB 5.17.12
tretā-yuga-samaḥ exactly like the Tretā-yuga (when there is no tribulation)SB 5.17.12
tretāra of Tretā-yugaCC Madhya 20.335
tretāyām in the second ageSB 12.3.20
tretāyām in the Tretā-yugaSB 12.3.52
SB 9.10.51
tretāyām in Tretā-yugaCC Madhya 20.333
CC Madhya 20.345
CC Madhya 20.346
SB 11.5.24
tretāyām when the Tretā millenniumSB 9.14.43
nāma-ābhāsa mātre simply by a glimpse of the chanting of the holy nameCC Antya 3.195
ādi-kartre to the supreme creatorBG 11.37
āgama-śāstrera of the Vedic literatureCC Antya 19.25
agni-hotre in the fire sacrificeSB 5.5.23
agnimitre to AgnimitraSB 12.6.54-56
kurukṣetre āilāńa I have come to KurukṣetraCC Antya 14.34
śāstrera ājñāya according to the principles and regulations described in the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 22.109
aṣṭādaśa-akṣara-mantre by the hymn composed of eighteen lettersCC Adi 5.221
āma-pātre into an unbaked earthen potSB 4.18.18
āmāra putrere my sonCC Antya 6.180
śrotreṇa aṃśena with the hearing principlesSB 3.6.17
ānanda-mātre the reservoir of all pleasureSB 4.11.30
animiṣa-kṣetre the spot which is especially a favorite of Viṣṇu (who does not close His eyelids)SB 1.1.4
anna-pātre on the plate for foodCC Madhya 15.61
apara-rātre in the fourth part of the nightSB 6.8.22
vāk-mātreṇa api even by wordsSB 11.23.7
araṇya-pātre in the pot of the forestSB 4.18.23-24
ardha-rātre during the second part of the nightSB 6.8.21
ardha-rātre in the dead of nightCC Madhya 1.183
trera artha the meaning of the sūtrasCC Madhya 6.130
trera artha meanings of the sūtrasCC Madhya 6.131
tāńra sūtrera artha the meaning of Vyāsadeva's Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 25.92
asańga-śastreṇa by the weapon of detachmentBG 15.3-4
asat-śāstreṣu literature like newspapers, novels, dramas and fictionSB 7.13.7
tre āsi' returning at nightCC Antya 1.21
aṣṭādaśa-akṣara-mantre by the hymn composed of eighteen lettersCC Adi 5.221
sva-astreṇa by the weaponSB 1.8.13
astreṇa by the weaponSB 6.18.65
jṛmbhaṇa-astreṇa with a yawning weaponSB 10.63.14
līlā-ātapatreṇa by the pastime umbrellaSB 3.2.33
ātapatreṇa with an umbrella over the headSB 6.7.2-8
ātma-tantre fully under Your controlSB 8.6.10
ātma-nirveśa-mātreṇa as soon as He entered (between the two trees)SB 10.10.26
atre of AtriSB 1.3.11
atre of the sage AtriSB 2.7.4
atre of Atri MuniSB 4.1.15
atreḥ gṛhe in the house of AtriSB 4.1.16
ātta-totre with a whip in the right handSB 1.9.39
baḍa-putrera of the eldest sonCC Antya 10.142
bahu-śāstre by many books or scripturesCC Adi 16.11
bāla-gopāla-mantre with the mantra of Bāla-gopāla, child KṛṣṇaCC Antya 7.148
bālya-śāstre in grammar, which is considered a study for boysCC Adi 16.31
bāṇa-putreṇa with the son of BāṇaSB 10.63.8
bhakti-śāstrera pracāra propagation of the revealed scriptures of devotional serviceCC Madhya 23.103
bhrū-bhańga-mātreṇa simply by the flicking of the eyebrowsSB 9.4.53-54
sva-bhartre unto her husbandSB 9.14.8
bhartre to her husbandSB 10.80.14
brahma-sūtrera bhāṣya the commentary on the Brahma-sūtra aphorismsCC Madhya 25.100
bhrātre on his brother'sSB 3.1.41
bhrātre unto His brotherSB 8.23.19
bhrātreyaḥ brother's sonSB 10.49.9
bhrātreyam her brother's sonSB 10.71.38
bhrū-bhańga-mātreṇa simply by the flicking of the eyebrowsSB 9.4.53-54
bila-pātre in the pot of snake holesSB 4.18.22
brahma-putreṇa by the son of Lord BrahmāSB 4.22.41
brahma-satreṇa by understanding of the Supreme SpiritSB 4.31.2
brahma-satreṇa by continuous discussion of the SupremeSB 5.1.6
brahma-rātre the nighttime of BrahmāSB 10.33.38
brahma-sūtrera bhāṣya the commentary on the Brahma-sūtra aphorismsCC Madhya 25.100
caitre in the month of Caitra (March-April)CC Madhya 7.6
caitre in the month of Caitra (March-April)CC Madhya 20.199
tāńhāra caritre in his behaviorCC Madhya 16.138
prabhura caritre by the character of Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 7.79
yāhāra caritre in whose activitiesCC Antya 19.4
caritreṇa by characterSB 3.3.20
chatre at the almshouseCC Antya 6.219
chatre yāi' going to an alms boothCC Antya 6.281
chatre at the charity boothCC Antya 6.283
chatre yāi going to the booth for free food distributionCC Antya 6.286
chatre from centers for the distribution of foodCC Antya 9.72
hṛta-chatreṇa who had suffered the theft of (Varuṇa's) umbrellaSB 10.59.2-3
choṭa-putre the youngest sonCC Antya 12.45
choṭa-putre the youngest sonCC Antya 16.65
daiva-netreṇa under the supervision of the LordSB 3.31.1
darśana-mātre simply seeing YouCC Madhya 8.51-52
darśana-mātre as soon as one seesCC Antya 18.51
dattātreyāt from DattātreyaSB 9.23.24
deva-satre in an assembly of the demigodsSB 7.15.71
dhānya-kṣetre in paddy fieldsCC Madhya 18.5
dharma-kṣetre in the place of pilgrimageBG 1.1
dhātre unto the chief of this universe, Lord BrahmāSB 7.3.6
dhṛtarāṣṭra-putre the son of King DhṛtarāṣṭraSB 1.7.13-14
dīrgha-satre at the lengthy sacrificial performanceSB 12.4.43
drupada-putreṇa by the son of DrupadaBG 1.3
duhitre unto his daughterSB 10.1.30
duḥkha-tantreṣu spreading miseriesSB 3.30.9
dui-netre in the two eyesCC Madhya 17.111
dui netre in the two eyesCC Antya 14.94
satya-tretā-dvāpara-kali-yugera of Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga and Kali-yugaCC Madhya 20.329
ei kṣetrera of this holy placeCC Madhya 10.47
ei mantre by this mantraCC Madhya 20.339
ei sūtrera of the synopsis of this bookCC Madhya 24.329
eka-rātreṇa on the first nightSB 3.31.2
eka-rātreṇa in one nightSB 8.24.17
eka-vastre wearing one clothCC Antya 3.140
ekatre togetherCC Madhya 12.195
tre in the bodySB 8.20.25-29
tre on the bodyCC Antya 4.5
trebhyaḥ from his limbsSB 10.63.15
treṣu on the limbs of the bodySB 4.4.26
sarva-gātreṣu on all the limbs of the bodySB 10.13.49
giritreṇa by Lord ŚivaSB 4.24.16
gītā-śāstre in the Bhagavad-gītāCC Madhya 6.163
go-mūtreṇa with the urine of the cowsSB 10.6.20
bāla-gopāla-mantre with the mantra of Bāla-gopāla, child KṛṣṇaCC Antya 7.148
goptre who maintainsSB 7.8.44
atreḥ gṛhe in the house of AtriSB 4.1.16
guṇa-pātreṇa the reservoir of all qualitiesSB 1.16.26-30
hantre to the killerSB 10.40.22
vṛtre hate when Vṛtrāsura was killedSB 6.13.1
hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātre the revealed scripture named the Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātraCC Madhya 20.237
hindu-śāstre in the scriptures of the HindusCC Adi 17.212
agni-hotre in the fire sacrificeSB 5.5.23
hotre unto the hotā priest, who offers oblationsSB 9.11.2
hotre unto the priest known as hotāSB 9.16.20
hṛta-chatreṇa who had suffered the theft of (Varuṇa's) umbrellaSB 10.59.2-3
tomāra icchā-mātre simply by your desireCC Madhya 15.171
icchā-mātre just by desireCC Antya 11.96
śāstre ihā śuni we get this information from revealed scripturesCC Madhya 9.120
jala-pātre waterpotsCC Madhya 3.56
janayitre the progenitorSB 10.59.28
jṛmbhaṇa-astreṇa with a yawning weaponSB 10.63.14
śāstre kahe in the śāstra it is saidCC Madhya 9.258
sarva-śāstre kahe is announced in every revealed scriptureCC Madhya 9.263
śāstre kahe it is stated in the revealed scripturesCC Antya 3.195
satya-tretā-dvāpara-kali-yugera of Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga and Kali-yugaCC Madhya 20.329
kamala-netre whose lotus eyesCC Antya 5.112
ādi-kartre to the supreme creatorBG 11.37
tat-kartre to the creator of itSB 10.16.41
kaṭi-vastre by their waist clothsCC Madhya 14.209
maitreyaḥ kavaṣaḥ tritaḥ Maitreya, Kavasa and TritaSB 10.74.7-9
sarva-śāstre kaya described in every śāstraCC Madhya 20.385
śāstre kaya are mentioned in the śāstrasCC Antya 11.14
kṛṣṇa-mantre in the holy mantra Hare KṛṣṇaCC Madhya 19.5
kṣaṇa-mātre within a momentCC Antya 19.51
kṣatre when the whole royal classSB 9.16.17
kṣattṛ-maitreyayoḥ between Vidura and MaitreyaSB 12.12.8
dharma-kṣetre in the place of pilgrimageBG 1.1
kuru-kṣetre in the place named KurukṣetraBG 1.1
animiṣa-kṣetre the spot which is especially a favorite of Viṣṇu (who does not close His eyelids)SB 1.1.4
kṣetre in this tract of landSB 1.1.21
kṣetre in the landSB 1.17.31
kṣetre in the wifeSB 3.5.20
tava kṣetre in your wifeSB 3.21.32
kṣetre in the wifeSB 4.7.58
kṣetre in the landSB 4.19.1
kṣetre in the wives and maidservantSB 9.22.25
kṣetre in the wifeSB 9.23.5
kṣetre holy field (of Kurukṣetra)SB 10.84.43
kuru-kṣetre on the field of KurukṣetraCC Madhya 1.53
kuru-kṣetre on the field of KurukṣetraCC Madhya 1.78
kūrma-kṣetre at the pilgrimage site known as Kūrma-kṣetraCC Madhya 1.102
kṣetre at the place of pilgrimageCC Madhya 8.3
śiva-kṣetre at Śiva-kṣetraCC Madhya 9.78
śrī-rańga-kṣetre to the holy place named Śrī Rańga-kṣetraCC Madhya 9.79
śrī-rańga-kṣetre in Śrī Rańga-kṣetraCC Madhya 9.91
sei kṣetre in that holy placeCC Madhya 9.93
kṣetre to Jagannātha PurīCC Madhya 11.41
kṣetre at Jagannātha-kṣetra (Jagannātha Purī)CC Madhya 12.42
kuru-kṣetre in the holy place known as KurukṣetraCC Madhya 13.124
dhānya-kṣetre in paddy fieldsCC Madhya 18.5
soro-kṣetre to the holy place named Soro-kṣetraCC Madhya 18.144
soro-kṣetre to Soro-kṣetraCC Madhya 18.214
ei kṣetrera of this holy placeCC Madhya 10.47
kṣetrera maraṇa his death in a holy placeCC Antya 2.158
kṣetreṣu in bodily fieldsBG 13.3
kṣetreṣu in the living entitiesSB 3.7.6
kṣetreṣu in the gold minesSB 7.7.21
kṣetreṣu within the material fieldsSB 7.7.21
kūrma-kṣetre at the pilgrimage site known as Kūrma-kṣetraCC Madhya 1.102
kuru-kṣetre in the place named KurukṣetraBG 1.1
kuru-kṣetre on the field of KurukṣetraCC Madhya 1.53
kuru-kṣetre on the field of KurukṣetraCC Madhya 1.78
kuru-kṣetre in the holy place known as KurukṣetraCC Madhya 13.124
kurukṣetre at the place known as KurukṣetraSB 9.14.33
kurukṣetre in KurukṣetraCC Antya 14.34
kurukṣetre āilāńa I have come to KurukṣetraCC Antya 14.34
vastrera kuthalī small bags of clothCC Antya 10.36
rāja-putre lañā taking the King's sonCC Madhya 12.66
lauha-pātre in the iron potCC Adi 10.68
lauha-pātre from the iron potCC Adi 17.70
līlā-ātapatreṇa by the pastime umbrellaSB 3.2.33
mahā-rātre in the dead of nightSB 9.14.27
mahā-mantrera of the supreme hymnCC Adi 7.83
mahā-pātre unto the mahā-pātraCC Madhya 16.197
maitreyaḥ the great sage MaitreyaSB 3.1.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya saidSB 3.5.18
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.7.9
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya Muni saidSB 3.8.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.9.26
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 3.9.44
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.10.4
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.10.11
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.11.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.11.18
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya saidSB 3.12.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya saidSB 3.12.20
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.12.37
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.13.6
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya Muni saidSB 3.13.16
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 3.13.46
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.14.5
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.14.30
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.14.37
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 3.14.51
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 3.15.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.15.11
maitreyaḥ the sage MaitreyaSB 3.17.1
maitreyaḥ the great sage MaitreyaSB 3.18.1
maitreyaḥ the great sage MaitreyaSB 3.18.13
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.19.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya saidSB 3.19.31
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.20.12
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.21.6
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.21.33
maitreyaḥ the great sage MaitreyaSB 3.22.1
maitreyaḥ the great sage MaitreyaSB 3.22.21
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.23.1
maitreyaḥ the great sage MaitreyaSB 3.23.12
maitreyaḥ the great sage MaitreyaSB 3.24.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.24.5
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.24.20
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.24.41
maitreyaḥ MaitreyaSB 3.25.4
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.25.5
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.25.12
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.25.31
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.29.6
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.33.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.33.9
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.33.12
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.1.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya ṛṣi saidSB 4.1.17
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 4.1.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 4.2.4
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.2.17
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.2.33
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.3.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.4.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.4.24
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.5.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.6.1-2
maitreyaḥ MaitreyaSB 4.7.1
maitreyaḥ the sage MaitreyaSB 4.7.6
maitreyaḥ the sage MaitreyaSB 4.7.16
maitreyaḥ MaitreyaSB 4.7.48
maitreyaḥ MaitreyaSB 4.7.55
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.8.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.8.14
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.8.24
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.8.39
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.8.70
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.9.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.9.18
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.9.26
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya repliedSB 4.9.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.9.36
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.10.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.11.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.12.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.12.8
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.12.28
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.12.44
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.13.6
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya answeredSB 4.13.25
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya answeredSB 4.13.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.14.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.14.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.15.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya saidSB 4.15.7
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.16.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.17.1
maitreyaḥ the saint MaitreyaSB 4.17.8
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.17.9
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya saidSB 4.17.12
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.18.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 4.19.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.19.39
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.20.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.20.17
maitreyaḥ Maitreya, the great sageSB 4.20.32
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.20.34
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.21.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya saidSB 4.21.11
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.21.45
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.22.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.22.17
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.22.41
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.22.48
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.23.1-3
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.23.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.24.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.24.19
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.24.32
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.25.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.29.80
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.30.3
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.30.21
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.30.43
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.31.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.31.8
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.31.23
maitreyaḥ kavaṣaḥ tritaḥ Maitreya, Kavasa and TritaSB 10.74.7-9
maitreyaḥ MaitreyaSB 10.86.18
maitreyam unto MaitreyaSB 3.5.1
maitreyam unto the sage. MaitreyaSB 3.7.1
maitreyam from the sage MaitreyaSB 3.20.4
maitreyāt from the great sage MaitreyaSB 1.13.1
kṣattṛ-maitreyayoḥ between Vidura and MaitreyaSB 12.12.8
maitreyeṇa with MaitreyaSB 3.1.3
putrera mane in the mind of the sonCC Madhya 5.80
aṣṭādaśa-akṣara-mantre by the hymn composed of eighteen lettersCC Adi 5.221
veda-mantre by the power of Vedic hymnsCC Adi 17.161
kṛṣṇa-mantre in the holy mantra Hare KṛṣṇaCC Madhya 19.5
ei mantre by this mantraCC Madhya 20.339
upadeśa-mantre by instruction and hymnsCC Madhya 22.14-15
bāla-gopāla-mantre with the mantra of Bāla-gopāla, child KṛṣṇaCC Antya 7.148
mantreṇa by this hymn, or mantraSB 4.8.54
mantreṇa mantraSB 6.19.7
mūla-mantreṇa with the appropriate basic mantra for worshiping the particular DeitySB 11.3.50-51
mūla-mantreṇa with the primary mantras naming each deitySB 11.27.38-41
mahā-mantrera of the supreme hymnCC Adi 7.83
mantrera of the mantraCC Adi 17.212
mantreṣu in consultationsSB 3.4.17
mantreśvara named MantreśvaraCC Madhya 16.199
kṣetrera maraṇa his death in a holy placeCC Antya 2.158
śāstrera marma the essence of scripturesCC Adi 17.167
sva-mātre unto His own motherSB 2.7.3
tre to My motherSB 3.24.40
ānanda-mātre the reservoir of all pleasureSB 4.11.30
tre to her motherSB 9.15.9
tre unto His mother (Yaśodā)SB 10.7.30
tre unto mother YaśodāSB 10.8.32
tat-mātre its corresponding subtle sensationSB 11.24.22-27
śravaṇa-mātre simply by hearingCC Adi 15.5
darśana-mātre simply seeing YouCC Madhya 8.51-52
tomāra icchā-mātre simply by your desireCC Madhya 15.171
prāṇi-mātre to any living entity, however insignificantCC Madhya 22.120
nāma-ābhāsa mātre simply by a glimpse of the chanting of the holy nameCC Antya 3.195
icchā-mātre just by desireCC Antya 11.96
sparśa-mātre as soon as I touched itCC Antya 18.49
darśana-mātre as soon as one seesCC Antya 18.51
kṣaṇa-mātre within a momentCC Antya 19.51
treṇa justSB 3.29.11-12
treṇa qualitySB 4.8.29
bhrū-bhańga-mātreṇa simply by the flicking of the eyebrowsSB 9.4.53-54
śruti-mātreṇa simply by hearingSB 9.5.16
sparśa-mātreṇa simply by touchingSB 9.9.12
ātma-nirveśa-mātreṇa as soon as He entered (between the two trees)SB 10.10.26
treṇa simplySB 10.45.35-36
vāk-mātreṇa api even by wordsSB 11.23.7
treṇa by onlyCC Adi 3.104
śruti-mātreṇa only by hearingCC Adi 4.205
treṇa simply by doing soCC Adi 15.1
prāpti-mātreṇa only with the receivingCC Madhya 6.225
śruti-mātreṇa simply by hearingCC Madhya 8.72
śruti-mātreṇa only by hearingCC Madhya 19.171
prasāda-mātreṇa simply by the mercyCC Antya 7.1
tat-mātreṣu in the objects of the sensesSB 4.23.17
nāma-mātreṣu having names and formsSB 10.84.24-25
māyā-mātreṣu which are simply illusionSB 11.26.2
māyā-mātreṣu which are simply illusionSB 11.26.2
putrera milane by meeting the sonCC Madhya 12.56
mitre to a friendBG 12.18-19
sva-mitre with his friendSB 10.36.17
mitre to the friendCC Madhya 23.111-112
mitreṇa by the friendSB 1.15.45
mitrera of the sun-godCC Antya 18.98
mṛt-pātre earthen potsCC Madhya 4.117
mṛt-pātre in pots of earthCC Antya 10.36
mūla-mantreṇa with the appropriate basic mantra for worshiping the particular DeitySB 11.3.50-51
mūla-mantreṇa with the primary mantras naming each deitySB 11.27.38-41
go-mūtreṇa with the urine of the cowsSB 10.6.20
nāma-mātreṣu having names and formsSB 10.84.24-25
nāma-ābhāsa mātre simply by a glimpse of the chanting of the holy nameCC Antya 3.195
nānā śāstre paṇḍita scholars learned in various scripturesCC Madhya 25.19
nava-pātre in new potsCC Madhya 4.65
netre by the eyesSB 1.18.39
netre in the eyesSB 2.3.24
netre on the eyesSB 2.7.29
netre eyesSB 3.2.6
netre both eyesSB 4.5.20
netre the two eyesSB 4.29.10
netre her two eyesSB 10.6.11
netre her two eyesSB 10.7.37
netre their eyesSB 10.29.30
netre his eyesSB 10.45.25
netre her eyesSB 10.53.26
netre her eyesSB 10.60.27-28
netre your eyesSB 10.90.16
netre his eyesSB 11.2.35
padma-netre His lotus eyesSB 11.31.5
netre his eyesSB 12.10.14
prema-netre with the eyes of love of GodheadCC Adi 5.21
sei netre in his eyesCC Adi 5.165
netre in the eyesCC Adi 8.25
netre in the eyesCC Madhya 4.201
netre before the eyesCC Madhya 10.176
netre with eyesCC Madhya 13.99
netre from the eyesCC Madhya 13.109
netre in the eyesCC Madhya 14.12
netre on the eyesCC Madhya 14.191
dui-netre in the two eyesCC Madhya 17.111
netre in the movement of the eyesCC Antya 5.23
kamala-netre whose lotus eyesCC Antya 5.112
netre on the eyesCC Antya 6.291
netre through the eyesCC Antya 11.55
netre in the eyesCC Antya 14.36
dui netre in the two eyesCC Antya 14.94
netre from the eyesCC Antya 16.93
netre in the eyesCC Antya 17.16
netre in the eyesCC Antya 18.50
netre with eyesCC Antya 18.88
netre eyesMM 19
daiva-netreṇa under the supervision of the LordSB 3.31.1
niḥkṣatre when there were no kṣatriyas (all kṣatriyas having been vanquished by Paraśurāma)SB 9.9.40
nija-vastre by His own garmentCC Madhya 12.104
nija-vastre by His own garmentCC Madhya 12.104
ātma-nirveśa-mātreṇa as soon as He entered (between the two trees)SB 10.10.26
nitya rātre every nightCC Adi 17.42
nūtana-vastrera of new clothCC Antya 10.27
padma-netre His lotus eyesSB 11.31.5
padma-patrera of the leaf of the lotus flowerCC Madhya 2.24
pāka-pātre the cooking potsCC Antya 3.37
pañca-rātreṇa by the fifth nightSB 3.31.2
pañcarātre in the Vedic literatures known as the PañcarātrasCC Madhya 19.169
hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātre the revealed scripture named the Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātraCC Madhya 20.237
nānā śāstre paṇḍita scholars learned in various scripturesCC Madhya 25.19
tre to a suitable personBG 17.20
vaṭa-patre on the leaf of a banyan treeSB 3.33.4
tre in a potSB 4.18.16
tre in a potSB 4.18.17
āma-pātre into an unbaked earthen potSB 4.18.18
bila-pātre in the pot of snake holesSB 4.18.22
araṇya-pātre in the pot of the forestSB 4.18.23-24
tre potsSB 4.18.26
tre the most worthy recipientSB 5.24.19
tre unto the suitable personSB 7.15.5
lauha-pātre in the iron potCC Adi 10.68
lauha-pātre from the iron potCC Adi 17.70
tāla-patre the palm leafCC Madhya 1.66
tina pātre in three potsCC Madhya 3.53
jala-pātre waterpotsCC Madhya 3.56
nava-pātre in new potsCC Madhya 4.65
mṛt-pātre earthen potsCC Madhya 4.117
pūjā-pātre on the dish that holds flowers and tulasīCC Madhya 15.10
anna-pātre on the plate for foodCC Madhya 15.61
mahā-pātre unto the mahā-pātraCC Madhya 16.197
tāla-patre on a palm leafCC Antya 1.80
sei patre on that palm leafCC Antya 1.98
pāka-pātre the cooking potsCC Antya 3.37
mṛt-pātre in pots of earthCC Antya 10.36
tre to a fit recipientNBS 53
guṇa-pātreṇa the reservoir of all qualitiesSB 1.16.26-30
treṇa with a potSB 4.13.36
treṇa with a potSB 4.18.15
treṇa by a dazzling coveringIso 15
padma-patrera of the leaf of the lotus flowerCC Madhya 2.24
trera praveśa the entrance of the playersCC Antya 1.183
treṣu as fitting candidates for charitySB 11.6.37-38
treṣu in different reservoirsSB 11.18.32
tāla-patrete on a palm leafCC Madhya 1.61
trete on a plateCC Madhya 15.231
paṭṭa-vastre with silken clothCC Madhya 13.21
sva-pautreṇa with your grandson (Bali Mahārāja)SB 8.23.9
sva-pitre because of your father's demoniac activitiesSB 7.9.3
pitre unto her fatherSB 9.3.23
pitre to his fatherSB 9.6.8
pitre unto his fatherSB 9.7.20
pitre unto his fatherSB 9.15.34
pitre unto his fatherSB 9.15.37
pitre to their fatherSB 10.50.2
prabhura caritre by the character of Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 7.79
bhakti-śāstrera pracāra propagation of the revealed scriptures of devotional serviceCC Madhya 23.103
śāstrera prakāśe according to the revelation of revealed scriptureCC Madhya 21.29
śāstrera pramāṇa the verdict of all Vedic literatureCC Madhya 6.147
prāṇi-mātre to any living entity, however insignificantCC Madhya 22.120
prāpti-mātreṇa only with the receivingCC Madhya 6.225
prasāda-mātreṇa simply by the mercyCC Antya 7.1
prati-sūtre in every sūtra, or aphorism, of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Adi 7.133
prati-sūtre in each and every aphorismCC Adi 7.134
trera praveśa the entrance of the playersCC Antya 1.183
śāstre pravīṇa experienced in the learning of the śāstrasCC Antya 4.167
prema-netre with the eyes of love of GodheadCC Adi 5.21
pūjā-pātre on the dish that holds flowers and tulasīCC Madhya 15.10
dhṛtarāṣṭra-putre the son of King DhṛtarāṣṭraSB 1.7.13-14
putre for the sonSB 6.14.37
putre sonSB 7.1.48
putre unto her sonCC Adi 14.41
rāja-putre lañā taking the King's sonCC Madhya 12.66
putre his sonCC Madhya 12.67
putre unto his sonCC Antya 3.57
putre on our sonsCC Antya 12.22
tina-putre three sonsCC Antya 12.44
choṭa-putre the youngest sonCC Antya 12.45
choṭa-putre the youngest sonCC Antya 16.65
putrebhyaḥ unto his sonsSB 4.31.27
putrebhyaḥ unto his sonsSB 5.1.38
sva-putrebhyaḥ his own sonsSB 5.20.14
putrebhyaḥ to his sonsSB 11.27.3-4
sva-putrebhyaḥ to their own sonsSB 12.6.45
drupada-putreṇa by the son of DrupadaBG 1.3
putreṇa by the sonSB 4.21.46
brahma-putreṇa by the son of Lord BrahmāSB 4.22.41
putreṇa the sonSB 5.9.4
putreṇa by such a sonSB 9.14.14
bāṇa-putreṇa with the son of BāṇaSB 10.63.8
putreo even my own sonCC Madhya 5.19
putrera of their sonCC Adi 13.120
putrera of her sonCC Adi 14.11
putrera of his sonCC Adi 14.83
putrera of your sonCC Adi 14.85
putrera of the sonCC Adi 14.87
putrera of the sonCC Adi 14.89
putrera of his sonCC Adi 14.94
putrera of the sonCC Adi 17.228
putrera of his sonCC Madhya 5.28
putrera mane in the mind of the sonCC Madhya 5.80
putrera milane by meeting the sonCC Madhya 12.56
rāja-putrera of the King's sonCC Madhya 12.63
putrera of his sonCC Madhya 12.66
sei rāja-putrera of that princeCC Antya 9.24
baḍa-putrera of the eldest sonCC Antya 10.142
putrere unto the sonCC Adi 14.72
āmāra putrere my sonCC Antya 6.180
putrere his sonCC Antya 16.66
putreṣu when her sonsSB 8.16.1
putreṣu toward the sonsSB 10.48.34
putreṣu among the sonsSB 11.18.1
rāja-putrera of the King's sonCC Madhya 12.63
rāja-putre lañā taking the King's sonCC Madhya 12.66
sei rāja-putrera of that princeCC Antya 9.24
śrī-rańga-kṣetre to the holy place named Śrī Rańga-kṣetraCC Madhya 9.79
śrī-rańga-kṣetre in Śrī Rańga-kṣetraCC Madhya 9.91
ardha-rātre during the second part of the nightSB 6.8.21
apara-rātre in the fourth part of the nightSB 6.8.22
mahā-rātre in the dead of nightSB 9.14.27
brahma-rātre the nighttime of BrahmāSB 10.33.38
tre at nightCC Adi 4.109
sei rātre on that nightCC Adi 5.180
tre at nightCC Adi 14.84
tre at nightCC Adi 16.105
tre at nightCC Adi 17.34
tre at nightCC Adi 17.38
nitya rātre every nightCC Adi 17.42
sei rātre on that nightCC Adi 17.178-179
tre at nightCC Adi 17.209
tre on the nightCC Adi 17.246
tre at nightCC Madhya 1.94
tre at nightCC Madhya 1.151
ardha-rātre in the dead of nightCC Madhya 1.183
sei rātre that nightCC Madhya 1.228
tre at nightCC Madhya 1.237
tre at nightCC Madhya 2.7
tre at nightCC Madhya 3.161
tre at nightCC Madhya 3.201
śeṣa-rātre at the end of the nightCC Madhya 4.34
sei rātre on that nightCC Madhya 4.157
sei rātre on that nightCC Madhya 8.244
tre uṭhi' getting up at nightCC Madhya 13.4
sei rātre that nightCC Madhya 15.266
śeṣa-rātre near the end of nightCC Madhya 17.21
tre at nightCC Madhya 18.22
tre at nightCC Madhya 18.27
tre at nightCC Madhya 19.245
tre at nightCC Madhya 20.15
tre uṭhi' rising at nightCC Madhya 25.178
tre āsi' returning at nightCC Antya 1.21
tre at nightCC Antya 1.41
tre at nightCC Antya 2.151
tre at nightCC Antya 6.36
śeṣa-rātre at the end of nightCC Antya 6.166
tre at nightCC Antya 6.219
tre at nightCC Antya 6.317
eka-rātreṇa on the first nightSB 3.31.2
pañca-rātreṇa by the fifth nightSB 3.31.2
eka-rātreṇa in one nightSB 8.24.17
treṇa in a nightSB 10.53.6
saba śāstrera of all scripturesCC Madhya 1.34
sarpa-satre in the snake sacrificeSB 12.6.17
sarva-gātreṣu on all the limbs of the bodySB 10.13.49
sarva-śāstre all scripturesCC Adi 2.106
sarva-veda-sūtre in all the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Adi 7.131
sarva-sūtrera of all the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Adi 7.147
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Adi 13.65
sarva-śāstre in all scripturesCC Adi 16.6
sarva-śāstre in all scripturesCC Adi 16.34
sarva-śāstrete in every scriptureCC Madhya 8.98
sarva-śāstre kahe is announced in every revealed scriptureCC Madhya 9.263
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Madhya 9.274
sarva-śāstre all Vedic literaturesCC Madhya 20.130
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Madhya 20.139
sarva-śāstre kaya described in every śāstraCC Madhya 20.385
sarva-śāstre all Vedic literaturesCC Madhya 22.5
sarva-śāstre all the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 22.54
sarva-śāstre all revealed scripturesCC Madhya 22.109
sarva-śāstre all revealed scripturesCC Madhya 23.17
sarva-śāstre in all the revealed scripturesCC Antya 3.65
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Antya 7.18
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Antya 13.92
sarva-śāstre all the revealed scripturesCC Antya 16.61
śāstre in scriptureSB 11.3.26
yoga-śāstre in the scriptures of yogaCC Adi 2.18
sarva-śāstre all scripturesCC Adi 2.106
śāstre in the revealed scripturesCC Adi 5.154
śāstre the scripturesCC Adi 6.97
śāstre revealed scripturesCC Adi 7.86
tarka-śāstre in the logicCC Adi 8.14
śāstre in scriptureCC Adi 12.16
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Adi 13.65
sarva-śāstre in all scripturesCC Adi 16.6
bahu-śāstre by many books or scripturesCC Adi 16.11
bālya-śāstre in grammar, which is considered a study for boysCC Adi 16.31
sarva-śāstre in all scripturesCC Adi 16.34
śāstre in the scripturesCC Adi 16.64
sei śāstre in the scripture (the Koran)CC Adi 17.156
yavana-śāstre in the scriptures of the meat-eatersCC Adi 17.171
hindu-śāstre in the scriptures of the HindusCC Adi 17.212
śāstre the scripturesCC Madhya 6.87
gītā-śāstre in the Bhagavad-gītāCC Madhya 6.163
tarka-śāstre due to logical scripturesCC Madhya 6.214
śāstre in revealed scripturesCC Madhya 9.31
śāstre ihā śuni we get this information from revealed scripturesCC Madhya 9.120
śāstre kahe in the śāstra it is saidCC Madhya 9.258
sarva-śāstre kahe is announced in every revealed scriptureCC Madhya 9.263
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Madhya 9.274
śāstre in discussions of the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 10.116
tomāra śāstre in your scriptureCC Madhya 18.190
śāstre in the KoranCC Madhya 18.199
śāstre in the scriptureCC Madhya 20.5
sarva-śāstre all Vedic literaturesCC Madhya 20.130
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Madhya 20.139
veda-śāstre in the Vedic literatureCC Madhya 20.143
śāstre in the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 20.144
sarva-śāstre kaya described in every śāstraCC Madhya 20.385
śāstre in the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 21.42
veda-śāstre all Vedic literaturesCC Madhya 22.3
sarva-śāstre all Vedic literaturesCC Madhya 22.5
sarva-śāstre all the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 22.54
śāstre in the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 22.66
sarva-śāstre all revealed scripturesCC Madhya 22.109
sarva-śāstre all revealed scripturesCC Madhya 23.17
nānā śāstre paṇḍita scholars learned in various scripturesCC Madhya 25.19
sarva-śāstre in all the revealed scripturesCC Antya 3.65
śāstre kahe it is stated in the revealed scripturesCC Antya 3.195
śāstre pravīṇa experienced in the learning of the śāstrasCC Antya 4.167
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Antya 7.18
śāstre in the revealed scripturesCC Antya 8.77
śāstre kaya are mentioned in the śāstrasCC Antya 11.14
sarva-śāstre in all revealed scripturesCC Antya 13.92
śāstre in scriptureCC Antya 14.81
sarva-śāstre all the revealed scripturesCC Antya 16.61
śāstrebhyaḥ from religious scripturesSB 11.8.10
asańga-śastreṇa by the weapon of detachmentBG 15.3-4
śastreṇa by the weapon ofSB 2.1.15
śāstreṇa by regular study of the scripturesSB 7.15.56
śāstrera of revealed scripturesCC Adi 1.45
śāstrera vyākhyāna the description in the revealed scripturesCC Adi 6.54
śāstrera of the revealed scripturesCC Adi 6.104
śāstrera of the revealed scripturesCC Adi 7.48
śāstrera vicāra discussion of śāstraCC Adi 16.94
śāstrera on the śāstrasCC Adi 16.104
śāstrera marma the essence of scripturesCC Adi 17.167
saba śāstrera of all scripturesCC Madhya 1.34
śāstrera of scriptureCC Madhya 2.23
śāstrera of all Vedic scripturesCC Madhya 6.97
śāstrera pramāṇa the verdict of all Vedic literatureCC Madhya 6.147
śāstrera of the scriptureCC Madhya 6.237
śāstrera vacana quotations from the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 15.268
śāstrera vicāre discussion of the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 19.16
śāstrera prakāśe according to the revelation of revealed scriptureCC Madhya 21.29
śāstrera ājñāya according to the principles and regulations described in the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 22.109
bhakti-śāstrera pracāra propagation of the revealed scriptures of devotional serviceCC Madhya 23.103
śāstrera of the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 25.49
śāstrera vicāre the verdict of the revealed scriptureCC Antya 9.90
āgama-śāstrera of the Vedic literatureCC Antya 19.25
śāstreṣu in the scripturesSB 4.22.21
asat-śāstreṣu literature like newspapers, novels, dramas and fictionSB 7.13.7
śastreṣu the missile weaponsSB 11.30.20
śāstrete the scripturesCC Adi 4.7
sarva-śāstrete in every scriptureCC Madhya 8.98
śāstrete in revealed scripturesCC Madhya 9.254
śāstrete in the revealed scriptureCC Madhya 10.168
satre in the sacrificial ceremonySB 2.7.11
satre in the sacrificeSB 3.4.11
satre at a sacrificeSB 4.2.4
satre in the sacrificial arenaSB 4.12.40
deva-satre in an assembly of the demigodsSB 7.15.71
satre in the arena of sacrificeSB 9.3.1
satre at a major fire sacrificeSB 10.89.26-27
dīrgha-satre at the lengthy sacrificial performanceSB 12.4.43
satre in a great sacrificeSB 12.6.16
sarpa-satre in the snake sacrificeSB 12.6.17
satreṇa for performance of sacrificesSB 1.1.21
brahma-satreṇa by understanding of the Supreme SpiritSB 4.31.2
brahma-satreṇa by continuous discussion of the SupremeSB 5.1.6
satreṇa in assemblySB 11.29.11
satreṣu in human societySB 3.5.11
satreṣu in the arenas of sacrificeSB 7.8.54
satya-tretā-dvāpara-kali-yugera of Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga and Kali-yugaCC Madhya 20.329
sei netre in his eyesCC Adi 5.165
sei rātre on that nightCC Adi 5.180
sei śāstre in the scripture (the Koran)CC Adi 17.156
sei rātre on that nightCC Adi 17.178-179
sei rātre that nightCC Madhya 1.228
sei rātre on that nightCC Madhya 4.157
sei rātre on that nightCC Madhya 8.244
sei kṣetre in that holy placeCC Madhya 9.93
sei rātre that nightCC Madhya 15.266
sei patre on that palm leafCC Antya 1.98
sei rāja-putrera of that princeCC Antya 9.24
śeṣa-rātre at the end of the nightCC Madhya 4.34
śeṣa-rātre near the end of nightCC Madhya 17.21
śeṣa-rātre at the end of nightCC Antya 6.166
śiva-kṣetre at Śiva-kṣetraCC Madhya 9.78
soro-kṣetre to the holy place named Soro-kṣetraCC Madhya 18.144
soro-kṣetre to Soro-kṣetraCC Madhya 18.214
sparśa-mātreṇa simply by touchingSB 9.9.12
sparśa-mātre as soon as I touched itCC Antya 18.49
śravaṇa-mātre simply by hearingCC Adi 15.5
śrī-rańga-kṣetre to the holy place named Śrī Rańga-kṣetraCC Madhya 9.79
śrī-rańga-kṣetre in Śrī Rańga-kṣetraCC Madhya 9.91
śṛńga-vetre both the horn bugle and the cow-driving stickSB 10.13.11
supta-śrotre when the sense of hearing is asleepSB 12.6.40-41
śrotreṇa by vibration of the earSB 2.2.29
śrotreṇa aṃśena with the hearing principlesSB 3.6.17
śrotreṇa with the sense of hearingSB 3.26.64
śruti-mātreṇa simply by hearingSB 9.5.16
śruti-mātreṇa only by hearingCC Adi 4.205
śruti-mātreṇa simply by hearingCC Madhya 8.72
śruti-mātreṇa only by hearingCC Madhya 19.171
stotreṇa by the versesSB 3.9.40
stotreṇa with prayersSB 6.19.16
stotreṇa by the hymnBs 5.28
śukla-vastre on white clothCC Madhya 2.48
śukla-vastre on white clothCC Madhya 12.51
śāstre ihā śuni we get this information from revealed scripturesCC Madhya 9.120
supta-śrotre when the sense of hearing is asleepSB 12.6.40-41
tre on a threadBG 7.7
tre characterized by the chain of fruitive activitiesSB 11.15.14
sarva-veda-sūtre in all the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Adi 7.131
prati-sūtre in every sūtra, or aphorism, of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Adi 7.133
prati-sūtre in each and every aphorismCC Adi 7.134
tre in the aphorisms of the VedāntaCC Adi 7.146
tre in notesCC Adi 13.46
tre on the threadCC Adi 17.32
tre in the synopsisCC Madhya 4.8
vyāsa-sūtre in the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 6.133
tre in the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 6.172
yei sūtre in the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 25.99
treṇa making him the causeSB 4.6.44
treṇa with this sūtra-tattvaSB 11.24.6
sarva-sūtrera of all the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Adi 7.147
trera of the sūtrasCC Adi 14.4
trera artha the meaning of the sūtrasCC Madhya 6.130
trera artha meanings of the sūtrasCC Madhya 6.131
trera of the sūtrasCC Madhya 6.131
trera of the sūtrasCC Madhya 6.132
vyāsa-sūtrera of the Vedānta-sūtra, by VyāsadevaCC Madhya 6.138
vyāsa-sūtrera of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 6.170
ei sūtrera of the synopsis of this bookCC Madhya 24.329
vyāsa-sūtrera the aphorisms of Vyāsadeva (Vedānta-sūtra)CC Madhya 25.24
trera of the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 25.41
vyāsa-sūtrera of the aphorisms of the Vedānta known as Vyāsa-sūtraCC Madhya 25.44
trera of the Brahma-sūtraCC Madhya 25.89
vyāsa-sūtrera of the Vedānta-sūtra, written by VyāsadevaCC Madhya 25.91
tāńra sūtrera artha the meaning of Vyāsadeva's Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 25.92
trera of the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 25.93
trera of the Brahma-sūtraCC Madhya 25.97
trera of the Brahma-sūtraCC Madhya 25.97
brahma-sūtrera bhāṣya the commentary on the Brahma-sūtra aphorismsCC Madhya 25.100
trera of the Brahma-sūtraCC Madhya 25.142
trera of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 25.142
trete in the aphorismsCC Adi 7.121
sva-astreṇa by the weaponSB 1.8.13
sva-mātre unto His own motherSB 2.7.3
sva-putrebhyaḥ his own sonsSB 5.20.14
sva-pitre because of your father's demoniac activitiesSB 7.9.3
sva-pautreṇa with your grandson (Bali Mahārāja)SB 8.23.9
sva-bhartre unto her husbandSB 9.14.8
sva-mitre with his friendSB 10.36.17
sva-putrebhyaḥ to their own sonsSB 12.6.45
śvitreṇa by a white spot of leprosyCC Adi 16.71
tāla-patrete on a palm leafCC Madhya 1.61
tāla-patre the palm leafCC Madhya 1.66
tāla-patre on a palm leafCC Antya 1.80
tāńhāra caritre in his behaviorCC Madhya 16.138
tāńra sūtrera artha the meaning of Vyāsadeva's Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 25.92
tantre in the corollaries of the VedasSB 4.24.62
ātma-tantre fully under Your controlSB 8.6.10
duḥkha-tantreṣu spreading miseriesSB 3.30.9
tarka-śāstre in the logicCC Adi 8.14
tarka-śāstre due to logical scripturesCC Madhya 6.214
tat-mātreṣu in the objects of the sensesSB 4.23.17
tat-kartre to the creator of itSB 10.16.41
tat-mātre its corresponding subtle sensationSB 11.24.22-27
tava kṣetre in your wifeSB 3.21.32
tina pātre in three potsCC Madhya 3.53
tina-putre three sonsCC Antya 12.44
tomāra icchā-mātre simply by your desireCC Madhya 15.171
tomāra śāstre in your scriptureCC Madhya 18.190
ātta-totre with a whip in the right handSB 1.9.39
satya-tretā-dvāpara-kali-yugera of Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga and Kali-yugaCC Madhya 20.329
maitreyaḥ kavaṣaḥ tritaḥ Maitreya, Kavasa and TritaSB 10.74.7-9
udgātre unto the priest known as udgātāSB 9.16.20
upadeśa-mantre by instruction and hymnsCC Madhya 22.14-15
upātrebhyaḥ to unworthy personsBG 17.22
tre uṭhi' getting up at nightCC Madhya 13.4
tre uṭhi' rising at nightCC Madhya 25.178
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya saidSB 3.5.18
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.7.9
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya Muni saidSB 3.8.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.9.26
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 3.9.44
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.10.4
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.10.11
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.11.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.11.18
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya saidSB 3.12.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya saidSB 3.12.20
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.12.37
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.13.6
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya Muni saidSB 3.13.16
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 3.13.46
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.14.5
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.14.30
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.14.37
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 3.14.51
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 3.15.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.15.11
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.19.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya saidSB 3.19.31
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.20.12
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.21.6
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.21.33
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.23.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.24.5
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.24.20
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 3.24.41
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.25.5
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.25.12
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.25.31
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.29.6
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.33.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.33.9
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 3.33.12
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.1.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Śrī Maitreya ṛṣi saidSB 4.1.17
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 4.1.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 4.2.4
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.2.17
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.2.33
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.3.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.4.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.4.24
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.5.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.6.1-2
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.8.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.8.14
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.8.24
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.8.39
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.8.70
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.9.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.9.18
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.9.26
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya repliedSB 4.9.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.9.36
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.10.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.11.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.12.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.12.8
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.12.28
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.12.44
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.13.6
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya answeredSB 4.13.25
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya answeredSB 4.13.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continuedSB 4.14.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.14.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.15.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya saidSB 4.15.7
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.16.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.17.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.17.9
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya saidSB 4.17.12
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.18.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya saidSB 4.19.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.19.39
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.20.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.20.17
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.20.34
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.21.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya saidSB 4.21.11
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.21.45
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.22.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.22.17
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya saidSB 4.22.41
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.22.48
maitreyaḥ uvāca the sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.23.1-3
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.23.29
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.24.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.24.19
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great saint Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.24.32
maitreyaḥ uvāca the great sage Maitreya continued to speakSB 4.25.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.29.80
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.30.3
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.30.21
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.30.43
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.31.1
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.31.8
maitreyaḥ uvāca Maitreya saidSB 4.31.23
śāstrera vacana quotations from the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 15.268
vāk-mātreṇa api even by wordsSB 11.23.7
vaktre in the mouthSB 5.2.12
vaktre in the mouthSB 10.37.5
vaktrebhyaḥ from his mouthsSB 3.12.39
vaktreṇa by the mouthSB 6.9.13-17
vaktreṇa with his mouthSB 6.12.27-29
varatreṇa used as a ropeSB 8.24.45
vastre in a pair of garmentsSB 10.41.39
vastre in clothCC Adi 4.170
śukla-vastre on white clothCC Madhya 2.48
śukla-vastre on white clothCC Madhya 12.51
nija-vastre by His own garmentCC Madhya 12.104
nija-vastre by His own garmentCC Madhya 12.104
paṭṭa-vastre with silken clothCC Madhya 13.21
kaṭi-vastre by their waist clothsCC Madhya 14.209
vastre in clothCC Madhya 18.119
vastre by the clothCC Madhya 24.271
eka-vastre wearing one clothCC Antya 3.140
vastrera of the clothCC Madhya 12.38
vastrera vātāsa fanning with the clothCC Madhya 17.220
vastrera of clothCC Antya 10.23
nūtana-vastrera of new clothCC Antya 10.27
vastrera kuthalī small bags of clothCC Antya 10.36
vastrete through a clothCC Antya 10.35
vaṭa-patre on the leaf of a banyan treeSB 3.33.4
vastrera vātāsa fanning with the clothCC Madhya 17.220
sarva-veda-sūtre in all the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Adi 7.131
veda-mantre by the power of Vedic hymnsCC Adi 17.161
veda-śāstre in the Vedic literatureCC Madhya 20.143
veda-śāstre all Vedic literaturesCC Madhya 22.3
śṛńga-vetre both the horn bugle and the cow-driving stickSB 10.13.11
vetreṇa with their staffsSB 3.15.30
śāstrera vicāra discussion of śāstraCC Adi 16.94
śāstrera vicāre discussion of the revealed scripturesCC Madhya 19.16
śāstrera vicāre the verdict of the revealed scriptureCC Antya 9.90
vṛtre hate when Vṛtrāsura was killedSB 6.13.1
śāstrera vyākhyāna the description in the revealed scripturesCC Adi 6.54
vyāsa-sūtre in the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 6.133
vyāsa-sūtrera of the Vedānta-sūtra, by VyāsadevaCC Madhya 6.138
vyāsa-sūtrera of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 6.170
vyāsa-sūtrera the aphorisms of Vyāsadeva (Vedānta-sūtra)CC Madhya 25.24
vyāsa-sūtrera of the aphorisms of the Vedānta known as Vyāsa-sūtraCC Madhya 25.44
vyāsa-sūtrera of the Vedānta-sūtra, written by VyāsadevaCC Madhya 25.91
yāhāra caritre in whose activitiesCC Antya 19.4
chatre yāi' going to an alms boothCC Antya 6.281
chatre yāi going to the booth for free food distributionCC Antya 6.286
yavana-śāstre in the scriptures of the meat-eatersCC Adi 17.171
yei sūtre in the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtraCC Madhya 25.99
yoga-śāstre in the scriptures of yogaCC Adi 2.18
satya-tretā-dvāpara-kali-yugera of Satya-yuga, Tretā-yuga, Dvāpara-yuga and Kali-yugaCC Madhya 20.329
     DCS with thanks   
32 results
     
tredhā indeclinable
Frequency rank 14934/72933
tre noun (feminine) the 2nd Yuga (or silver age) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the 3 sacred fires (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
trey (throw at dice or the side of a die marked with 3 spots) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
triad (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
triplet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2526/72933
tretāgni noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 12981/72933
agnitre noun (feminine) the three sacred fires (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41683/72933
anātre noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 42844/72933
ātre noun (feminine) a female descendant of Atri (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a woman who has bathed after her courses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river in the north of Bengal (otherwise called Tistā) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Śākhā of the Ātreyas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16543/72933
ātreya noun (masculine) a descendant of Atri (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a priest who is closely related to the Sadasya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
chyle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a physician (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1659/72933
ātreyabhadrakāpyīya noun (masculine) name of CS, Sū. 26
Frequency rank 23357/72933
kṛṣṇātreya noun (masculine) name of a sage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27646/72933
kṣetrekṣu noun (masculine) Andropogon bicolor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50720/72933
jaghanyarātre indeclinable at the end of the night (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52618/72933
dattātreya noun (masculine) name of a family (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a sage; son of Atri by Anasūyā who favoured Arjuna Kārtavirya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15752/72933
dhātre noun (feminine) Emblica officinalis
Frequency rank 55405/72933
dhātreyika noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 55406/72933
dhātreyikā noun (feminine) female slave (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
foster-sister (a sort of confidante) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wet-nurse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10118/72933
nakṣatreśa noun (masculine) the moon
Frequency rank 36082/72933
pattreśa noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha at the Narmadā
Frequency rank 57046/72933
pattreśvara noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha
Frequency rank 36600/72933
pattreśvara noun (masculine) name of a son of king Citra
Frequency rank 28838/72933
patreśvaratīrthamāhātmyavarṇana noun (neuter) name of SkPur, Revākhaṇḍa 32
Frequency rank 57051/72933
pavitreṣṭi noun (feminine) name of a particular sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36765/72933
tresamita noun (masculine) constantly present at meals (a parasite)
Frequency rank 57725/72933
putreṣṭi noun (feminine) a sacrifice performed to obtain male children or one performed at the time of adoption (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58169/72933
mantreśa noun (masculine) (with Śaivas) name of a particular superhuman being (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19814/72933
mantreśvara noun (masculine) (with Śaivas) name of a particular superhuman being (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10742/72933
mitreśvara noun (masculine) name of a statue of Śiva erected by Mitraśarman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62225/72933
maitreya noun (masculine) name of a Bodhisattva and future Buddha (the 5th of the present age) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a grammarian (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular mixed caste (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Glāva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the Vidūshaka in the Mṛcchakaṭikā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various other men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
patr. of Kauṣārava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4258/72933
maitreyaka noun (masculine) name of a particular mixed caste or degraded tribe (the offspring of a Vaideha and an Ayogavi) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62613/72933
yatrecchaka adjective wherever one likes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62834/72933
vastreśvara noun (masculine) name of a place
Frequency rank 64920/72933
sutatreṇī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 70803/72933
svastyātreya noun (masculine) a group of descendants of Kṛśāśva a mirror (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an ancient sage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hymn composed by Atreya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20389/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
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ābādha

causing distress, that which produces constant discomfort

abhiṣangajvara

fever due to evil spirits or fear, grief , anger etc; viral fevers and fever caused by stress and anxiety are grouped under this heading .

abhiśāpajvara

fever due to curse of elders, gods etc; stress induced fever.

agastya

swamp-pea, hummingbird tree, Sesbania grandiflora.

agnimantha

Plant migraine tree; Premna integrifolia; Premna latifolia and Clerodendrum phlomidis too are considered as agnimantha.

agniveśa

first author of Caraka samhita, disciple of Ātreya.

ahika

silk cotton tree.

airāvata

1. Plant orange tree, Citrus reticulata; 2. a species of fern; 3. Artocarpus lacucha, monkey jack tree; 4. Mythological white elephant carrying the god Indra.

ajākarṅa

goat’s ear; Plant white dammar tree, Indian cop tree, resinous exudate of Vateria indica.

ākṣība

Plant horse-radish tree; Moringa pterygosperma.

alpa

less, alpa bala decreased strength and immunity.

ambu

1. water; 2. kind of grass; ambuprasāda Plant kataka tree, Strychnos potatorum, useful in cleaning the water.

amlavetasa

Plant Himalayan rhubarb; Garcinia pedunculata; Rumex vesicarius; vinegar. Solena amplexicaulis a substitute. Garcinia pedunculata tree is also considered amlavetasa. Rheum emodi is used as another substitute. not yet identified.

antaḥparimārjana

(antah.parimārjana) suppressing (doṣas) internally; an approach in the treatment of diseases.

aparānta

1. living at the western border, extreme end; 2. death

āragvadha

Plant purging fistula, Cassia fistula, C. rhombifolia; golden shower tree; pudding pipe tree.

aralu

Plant stembark of Ailanthus excelsa, tree of heaven.

āraṇyaka

forest-born; any of Sanskrit religious and philosophical treatises, post-Vedic in ori intended to interpret Vedic concepts.

aratni

1. elbow as measure; 2. a linear measurement equal to 42 centimetres.

arimeda

Plant cassie flower tree, white bark acacia; dried stem bark of Acacia leucophloea; A fornesiana; syn. distiller’s acacia, needle bush.

arka

1. sun; 2. purple calatropis; madar tree; Calotropis procera, C. gigantea. 3. distillate; a liquid medicinal preparation obtained by distillation of certain liquids or of drugs with volatile constituents, soaked in water using the distillation apparatus ex: ajāmodārka.

aśoka

Plant asok tree, Saraca asoca, S. indica. the bark of Polyalthia longifolia is used instead.

āsphoṭa

1. trembling; quivering; 2. Plant Vallaris solanacea. girikarṇika, kovidāra. (Clitoria ternata and Bauhinia variegata) Calotropis gigantea, Echies dichotomoa, Jasminum sambac, Clotorea ternata are also known by this name; breadflower.

aśvaśākoṭa

Plant a sort of ebony tree, Glycosmis arborea.

aśvattha

Plant peepul tree, holy fig tree; Ficus religiosa.

āvarta

1. whorl, lock of hair that curls; 2. lethal point above the eye. 3. Plant east Indian screw tree, Helecteres isora.

āyurvedasaukhya

a compendium of ayurveda authored by Todaramalla (16th Century ), minister of emperor Akbar. It describes many diseases and treatment.

babbūla

Plant Indian gum Arabic tree; babul; Acacia arabica.

badarāyana

teacher and founder of Vedāntadarśana, one of the six philosophical streams of thinking

bahiparimārjana

expelling vitiated humors from the body; an approach in the treatment of diseases.

bala

physical strength; vigour; force; vitality.

bālagrahacikitsa

a treatise on paediatrics authored by Devendramuni in 13th Century , partly available now

balāśa

swelling, benign tumor; decrease of strength.

bhadradāru

Plant deodar, longleaf pine tree.

bhālukitantra

a treatise on surgery, not survived, therefore not available.

bhaumajala

water from earthly sources like streams and rivers.

bhayātisāra

diarrhoea due to psychological stress.

bhela

student of Ātreya, native of northwest (Gāndhāra) India and author of Bhela samhita, manuscript found in the Tanjore library.

bhojpatra

Plant Betula utilis; bark of this tree was used to write as a paper in ancient India, Himalayan silver birch.

bījaka

Plant 1. Indian kino tree, Pterocarpus marsupium; 2. Indian laurel, Terminalia tomentosa, T. ellipta.

bījasāra

Plant Indian kino tree, dried stembark of Pterocarpus marsupium

bola

Plant Commiphora myrrha; myrrh is a resin made from the dried tree sap.

bṛhatyogataraṇgiṇi

a treatise of ayurveda written by Trimallabhaṭṭu, 18th Century

cālmogra

Plant Hydnocarpus winghtiana; leathery-leaved tree with fruits yielding hydnocarpus oil used to treat leprosy. (tuvaraka)

candradala

a metal treated with mercury or other metals attains whitenss or yellowness.

cātaka

tree sparrow; the bird Cucculus melanoleucus (said to be subsist on rain-drops)

caturāmla

Plant four citrous fruits that iclude plums (badari), pomegranate (dāḍima), kokam or butter tree (vṛkṣāmla) and common sorrel (amlavetasa).

chāgakarṇa

1. goat’s ear; 2. Plant teak tree, Tectonia grandis.

cikitsa

medical treatment.

ciñcā

Plant tamarind tree; fruits of Tamarindus indica.

cirabilva

Plant Indian elm, jungle cork tree, dried fruit of Holoptelea integrifolia.

daivavyapāśraya

one of the three modes of treatment, belief in supernatural healing.

dārvi

Plant tree turmeric, Berberis aristata.

devadhūpa

resin of sal tree, Plant Shorea robusta.

dhanvantrivilāsa

a medical treatise authored by Tukkoji in Tanjavur (18th Century ).

dhāra

stream, current; one of the Keraliya therapies; medicalted liquid is dropped over forehead drop by drop.

dhātri

wet nurse; foster-mother; midwife; dhātriphala Plant 1. fruit of phillanthus emblica; 2. Baringtonia tree that grows in mangroves.

dūyana

distress; fever, heat.

dveṣa

aversion, hatred, repugnance.

gajaśāstra

a treatise on the diseases of elephants authored by Sripurusha in 8th Century AD; now this is not available.

gambhāri

Plant Cashmere tree; Kandahar tree; root & fruit of Gmelina arborea.

gandhakarasāyana

herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of skin diseases.

gātrakampa

tremors in voice

ghoṣa

ancient Indian female philospher, who suffered from leprosy and was successfully treated by Aśvini vaidyas. Two hymns of Ṛgveda are attributed to her.

giriśālmalika

Plant yellow-flowered cotton tree, Cochlospermum religiosum.

govidya

a treatise on treatment of cows, written by Kirtivarma in the 12th Century AD; the book is partly available.

hārīta

physician and author contemporary to Agnivesa and student of Atreya.

hārītasamhita

a treatise on ayurveda authored by Hārīta.

hasta

1. hand; 2. a linear measurement equal to 45.72 centimetres; 3. star Delta Corvi in the southern constellation of Corvus.

hastikarṇa

elephant-eared; Plant trees Ricinus communis and Butea frondosa.

hayāyurveda

ayurvedic veterinary medicine to treat diseases of horses; equestrian medicine.

hemagarbhapoṭaliras

(hema.garbha.poṭali.ras) a herbo-mineral medicine to treat chronic diseases and used as rejuvenator.

hiṅgvaṣṭakacūrna

powdered preparation used in the treatment of anorexia and tympanitis.

hintāla

Plant mangrove date palm; marshy date tree; Phoenix or Elate paludosa; queen sago, Cycas circinalis.

icchābhediras

herbo-mineral preparation to treat chronic constipation.

indra

ancient Vedic deity, taught āyurveda to Ātreya, the teacher of Agniveśa.

jiñgini

Plant wodier tree, Lannea coromandical, L. grandis.

jvaramurāriras

herbo-mineral preparation used to treat fevers.

jyotiṣmati

Plant climbing staff tree, black oil plant, intellect tree, bittersweet; Celastrus paniculata.

kabala

mouthwash; gargle; bolus; kind of fish; kabalagraha hold mouthful; medicine to treat the diseases that affect head and sensory organs.

kadara

1. corn; disease affecting soles, hardened mass on soles; 2. Plant white cutch tree, Acacia suma, A. polyacantha.

kākodumbara

Plant opposite-leaved fig tree, Ficus oppositifolia, F. semicordata.

kālabala

temporal strength; strength of the body according to season.

kaliṅga

Plant 1. water melon; 2. tree Albizia lebbeck.

kalpa

1. cosmic eon; 2. preparation; 3. treatment of the sick; 4. ritual (one of the vedāngas); 5. idea.

kāmasūtra

a treatise on sexual love authored by Vātsyāyana, apparently belonged to the period between 4th and 6th centuries during the Gupta empire.

kampavāta

tremors, Parkinson’s disease.

kampilla

1. Plant monkey face tree, glands and hairs of fruit of Mallotus philippinensis; 2. a mineral substance from north-west of India.

kāñcana

Plant forest pepper, wild orange tree, orange climber, Toddalia asiatica, T. aculeata.

karanja,karanjaka

Plant Indian beech tree, smoothleaved pongamia, Pongamia pinnata, P. glabra; syn. Derris indica.

kārmuka

1. Plant bamboo; bow; 2. Sagittarius; 3. kind of honey; 4. Plant white khadira tree (Acacia catechu); Elegant smilax; 5. rainbow.

karṇikāra

1. earrings; 2. Plant golden shower tree, Cassia fistula.

kāsīsa

green vitreol, ferrous sulphate.

kāsyapa

vṛddha Jīvaka, paediatrician and gynaecologist par excellence in āyurveda kāsyapatantra a treatise on peadiatrics.

khadara

Plant white cutch tree, Acasia suma.

khadira

Plant cutch tree, black catechu, dried heart-wood of Acacia catechu.

kikkisa

striae gravidarum; stretch marks on the abdomen during and following pregrancy.

kotha

gangrene, sore, putrefaction.

kramuka

Plant 1. red areca nut; betel nut tree; 2. fruit of cotton tree; 3. red variety of lodhra tree.

kṛkara

1. kind of partridge bird, 2. one of five vital breaths; 3. kind of pepper; 3. fragrant oleander tree.

kṛṣnacampaka

Plant pogodo tree, temple tree, Plumeria rubra, P. acutifolia.

kṛtamāla

1. spotted antilope; 2. Plant golden shower tree or Indian laburnum tree, Cassia fistula.

kṣārapañcaka

Plant alkalis obtained from natron (svarjikṣāra), flame of the forest (palāṣakṣāra), barley (yavakṣāra), sesamum (tilakṣāra), weaver’s beam tree (muṣkakakṣāra).

kṣārasūtra

alkali thread; treatment procedures for anorectal disorders.

kṣupa

shrub, bush, medicinal plant; undertree.

kucandana

Plant 1. sappanwood, Caesalpinia sappan; 2 coralwood tree, Adenathera pavonia. 3. redsander tree, Pterocarpus santalinus.

kupīlu

Plant a sort of ebony tree, Glycosmis arborea.

kurūṭaka

Plant trellis-vine, Pergularia daemia.

kuṭipraveśa

entering an isolated treatment enclosure for rasāyana (rejuvenating) therapy.

lākṣāvṛkṣa

Plant lac tree, Ceylon oak, Schleichera oleosa.

lavaṇā

lustre, beauty.

lodhra

Plant lodh tree, dried stem bark of Symplocos racemosa, S. hamiltonia.

mādhavanidāna

a treatise on pathology, also known as Ṛgviniscaya.

madhūka

1. bee; 2. Plant mahua, butter tree, Madhuca indica, M. longifolia; Bassia latifolia; 3. bees wax.

manaḥśila

realgar, used in treatig obesity; red arsenic, arsenic sulphide.

maṇḍalin

1. encircling; 2.a kind of snake; 3. chameleon; 4. Indian fig-tree.

mantha

cold infusion, demulcent drink; churned drink; powder of yava treated with ghee and then added cold water.

mātuluṅga

Plant sweet lime; species of citron tree, Citrus medica.

mṛgaśṛngi

Plant east Indian screw tree, Helicteres isora.

muṣkaka

Plant weaver’s beam tree, Schrebera swietenioides.

nāḍihingu

Plant cumbi gum tree, Gardenia gummifera.

nāgabalā

1. having strength of an elephant; 2. Plant country mallow or flannel weed, Sida spinosa and S. cordata; Grewia populifolia is a substitute or an adulterant.

nāgamalli

Plant tree jasmine, Jasminum arborescens.

nakulī

Plant 1. cotton tree, Salmalia malabarica; 2. muskroot plant or spikenard, Nardostachys jatamamsi; 3. saffron.

nasya

errhine, tonic treatment of the head; inhalation therapy

navanīta

a treatise on āyurveda (4th Century ) discovered by colonel Bower, a British military officer, therefore named Bower’s manuscript; also known as Yaśomitrasamhita.

nimba

Plant margosa tree, neem, Azadirachta indica.

nirguṇḍi

Plant five leaved chaste tree, Indian privet, roots and leaves of Vitex negundo; nirguṇḍitaila oilbased preparation with nirgunḍi as main ingredient used in vraṇa.

niryāsa

gum and resin (from a tree).

nityānandarasa

herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of filariasis.

nyagrodha

Plant banyan tree, Ficus bengelensis, F. indica.

ojas

strength, vigour, immunity, essence of saptadhātu.

pālakāpya

author of Hastyāyurveda, a treatise on diseases of elephants.

palāśa

Plant flame of the forest, bastard teak, butea gum tree, parrot tree, Butea monosperma, B. frondosa.

pañcasakāracūrṇa

(panca.sakāra.cūrṇa) medicine to treat chronic constipation.

parāśara

one of the six desciples of Ātreya, authored a treatise not available now; specialized in pancakarma.

pārāvata

1. bird pigeon; 2. Plant phalsa tree, Grevia asiatica; 3. a kind of snake.

pāribhadra

Plant 1. coral tree, stembark of Erythrina indica, E. variegata; 2. neem tree; 3. Himalayan pine or longleaf pine tree, Pinus deodera; 4. a gemstone, aquamarine.

pārijāta

Plant 1. night-flowering coral jasmine, Nyctanthes arbortristis; 2. Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica; 3. fragrance.

parimlāyi

an eye disease. Vision with yellow streaks, seeing all things with glistening.

pāriśa

Plant 1. Thespesia populnea, Indian tulip tree; 2. Indian rock fig, Ficus arnottiana.

parvatakatantra

a treatise on peadiatrics.

pārvati

1. mountain stream; 2. rock; 3. kind of pepper.

paśuharītaki

Plant fruit of hogplum tree, wild mango, Spondius mangifera.

patala

Plant fragrant padri tree, Stereospermum chelonoides.

pāṭalā

Plant rose flower fragrant, trumpet flower tree, yellow snake tree, stembark of Stereospermum suaveolens, syn. Bignonia suaveolens.

pauṣkalāvata

one of the six disciples of Dhanvantari; fragments of the his treatise were recovered.

picu

1. swab, tampon arranged around the head to treat it with oil; 2. a kind of skin disease, picumarda neem tree, Azadirachta indica

pīlu

1. Plant toothbrush tree, Salvadora persica; 2. atom, tiniest part of matter.

pītadru

Plant 1.Himalayan pine; 2.dāruharidra, tree turmeri Century

plakṣa

Plant Indian tulip tree, Thespesia populnea; white fruited wavy leaf fig, Ficus infectora, F. lacor, F. arnottiana, F. glabella, F. tsiela.

prabhākaravaṭi

a herbo-mineral medicine to treat heart dieseases and more.

pradeha

unctuous paste, thick and viscid ointment, hot ointment; juices made semisolid by cooking; pradehasveda poultice or cataplasm, soft moist mass, heated and medicated, applied on the skin to treat pain.

praklinna

humid, moist, wet, putrefied; praklinnadeha wet body; praklinnavartma moist eyelid or putrefied.

praroha

adventitious roots; roots sprouting on the branches of ficus trees for support.

prasādana

palliative, care to reduce pain, symptoms and stress of serious illness.

pratiṣedha

medical treatment, prevention, warding off.

priyaka

deer with soft skin; a chameleon; trees Nauclea cadamba, Terminalia tomentosa.

priyāla

Plant calumpang nut tree, charoli, almondette, Buchanania lanzen, B. latifolia.

pruthuka

rice treated with hot water and flattened by pounding.

puṣkalāvata

author of a treatise on surgery.

putranjīva

1. giving life to children; 2. Plant spurious wild olive, lucky bean tree, Putranjiva roxburghi.

rakṣātika

Plant tree cotton. Gossypium arboreum.

raktamokṣan

blood-letting to treat certain diseases.

rāla

Plant sal tree, Shorea robusta.

rasakaumudi

a treatise on medicinal alchemy by Jnana Chandra.

rasāla

1. curds mixed with sugar and spices; 2. mango tree; 3. sugar cane; 4. kind of grass.

rasendrakalpadruma

a treatise on medicinal alchemy by Ramakrishna Bhatta.

reṇuka

Plant five-leaved chaste tree, Vitex nigundo

ṛgviniscaya

a treatise on pathology written by Mādhavakara (8th Century ), probably belongs to Bengal region. This is also known as Mādhavanidāna.

rodhra

Plant lotus bark tree (Symplocos recemosa).

rohitaka

Plant 1. rohida, a tree species grown in desert and dry regions of northwest India, Tecomella undulate; 2. rohituka tree, Aphanamixis polystachya.

rudrākṣa

Plant ultrasum bead tree, rosary, seeds of Elaeocarpus ganitrus, E. sphaericus

sadāphala

Plant always fruit-bearing tree; bael tree (bilva), Aegle marmelos. Ficus glomerata; Ficus recemosa and Cocos nucifera are also considered sadāphala.

śākhoṭaka

Plant sandpaper mulberry, stembark of Strebulus asper.

śakra

Plant arjun tree, Terminalia arjuna.

sāla

Plant sal tree, Shorea robusta.

śallaki

Plant Indian frankincense, Indian olibanum tree, exudates of Boswellia serrata.

śālmali

Plant silk-cotton tree, stem bark of Salmalia malabarica, Bombax malabaricum, B. ceiba

samhita

treatise, compilation, compendium.

śamī

Plant 1. white cutch tree, Acacia polycantha; 2. Prosopis spicigera or Mimosa suma used in kindling fire.

samīrapannagaras

mineral preparation used in the treatment of paralysis.

sannipāta

vitiation of three humors; three humors increased; severe condition of any disease, sannipātabhairavaras herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of complicated fevers.

saptacchada

Plant Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris), ditabark, blackboard tree.

saptaparṇa

Plant dita, devil’s tree, stem bark of Alstonia scholaris.

sāraṇa

pushing, stretching out (mercury).

śarīrasthāna

chapter on embodied person; part of ayurveda treatises dealing with human body and its physical and psychological disposition.

sarja

1. natron, sodium carbonate decahydrate, soda ash, 2. Plant white dammar tree, Indian cop tree, resinous exudates of Vateria indica.

sarvāngaroga

paraplegia; impairment of motor and sensory functions of lower extremeties.

sarvāngaśotha

anasarca; an extreme generalized edema.

śataṣloki

poetic treatise on āyurveda by a Telugu scholar in Tanjavur.

satva

1. purity or pure state of mind; mental strength, one of the psychic humors; 2. extract prepared from a mineral substance. 3. sun-dried paste prepared from a cold infusion which is set in the sun until all the moisture evaporates and the concentrate becomes solid.

siddhārtha

1. one whose goal has been achieved, Gouthama Buddha; 2. India fig tree; 3. white mustard.

śirīṣa

Plant lebbeck tree, stembark of Albizzia lebbeck

snāyuka

dracunculiasis; Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitical worm eruption on the skin of the extremities.

sūcikābharanaras

herbo-mineral preparation used in treatment of fevers.

śukta

1. vinegar, fermented liquors. 2. treacle, 3. honey, 4. fermented rice gruel and watery substance above the curds are kept in a new and clean vessel underneath a bushel of paddy for three days.(Dalhana).

śulbasūtra

parts of ancient treatises of empirical mathematics.

suniṣanna

Plant 1. small water clover, Marselia minute, M. quadrifolia; 2. rohida tree, Blepheris persica; 3. plumed cockscomb, Celosia argentea.

surākṣāra

salt petre; salt marsh.

surasa

1.holy basil; 2. gum-myrrh, resin, fragrant grass; 3. five leaved chaste tree (Vitex negundo)

suśruta

disciple of Dhanvatari, who was the king of Kāśi. He authored Śuśruta samhita, an important treatise on surgery.

suśrutasamhita

foremost surgical treatise of ancient India, authored by Śuśruta and redacted by Nāgārjuna.

sūtrasthāna

first general section of ayurveda treatises containing principles of ayurveda.

svarṇa

gold, svarṇabhasma ash prepared from gold, svarṇaparpaṭi golden crust, it is a hebo-mineral medicine to treat tuberculosis and used as aphrodisiac; svarṇavanga mosiac gold, used in sterility.

śvāsāvarodha

suffocation, respiratory distress.

śvetaśālmali

Plant white silk cotton tree, Ceiba pentandra.

śyāmaka

Plant Indian barnyard millet; dark coloured grain, which reduces fat; Panicum sumatrense.

tailadroṇi

tub or trough for treatig the patient with oil; a wooden trough used in pañcakarma.

takradhāra

a form of śirodhāra, a treatment method which involves continuous flow of buttermilk to the centre of the forehead.

talahṛdaya

lethal points in the centre of palms and soles, whose damage can cause pain and eventual death.

tāma

anxiety, distress.

tamāla

1. sectarial mark on the forehead, 2. Plant a sort of black khadira tree, Crataeva roxburghii; 3. garcinia, Xanthochymus pictorius; 4. Cinnamomum tamala.

tāpyādilauha

herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of anaemia and jaundice.

trāyamāna

Plant Gentiana kurroo; Delphinium zalil; pakhur fig tree, Ficus heterophylla.

tribhuvanakīrtiras

(tri.bhuvana.kīrti.ras) herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of commoncold.

tūda

mulberry tree and fruit; cotton tree; Thespesia populneoides; Spondium mangifera.

udumbara

Plant cluster fig tree, Ficus racemosa, F. glomerata, F. hispida.

ulūkhala

socket of teeth; resin of guggulu tree.

urumāṇa

Plant sacred garlic pear tree, Crataeva religiosa.

uṭingana

Plant rohida tree, Blepheris persica.

vaidyarājavallabha

a treatise of āyurveda authored by Laxmanapandita in Hampi, Vijayanagara empire in 14th Century

vajradruma

Plant milk bush, pencil tree, Euphorbia tirucalli.

vakula

Plant bakula tree, bullet wood tree, Mimusops elengi, fragrant flower of spanish cherry.

vanaspati

1. trees having fruits without apparent flowers; 2. king of the wood, Bignonia species

vānaspatya

trees having both fruits and flowers; tree; vānaspatyakāya arboreal person; person with traits similar to a tree: not moving from a place, devoid of lust and wealth, takes food often et Century

vāruṇi

1. alcoholic bewerage made from the stuff of palm trees; 2. women whose child dies on the fifth day after delivery.

vāsā

Plant Malabar nut tree, vasaka, leaves of Adhatoda vasica, vāsāvalehya confection preparation used in the treatment of respiratory diseases.

vasantakusumākararasa

(vasanta.kusumākara.ras) herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

vasantamālatirasa

herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of fevers.

vaṭa

Plant banyan tree, Ficus bengalensis, F. indica.

vātagajānkuṣarasa

(vāta.gaja.ankusa.ras) herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of arthritis and muscular diseases.

vātāma

Plant tha almond tree, Prunus amygdalus, P. dulcis.

venāmra

Plant cashewnut tree, Anacardium occidentale.

vepana

tremor, shaking, quivering.

vepathu

trembling, quivering, Parkinson’s disease.

vibhītaka

Plant myrobalan tree,Terminalia belerica.

vidhura

1. lethal point (marma) below the ear, damage can lead to deafness; 2. helpless, widower, distress.

viṣamuṣti

Plant nux-vomica, poison nut tree, seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica.

vṛkṣāsana

yogic pose resembling a tree, standing on one leg.

yavodara

a linear measurement equal to 0.24 centimetre.

yogarājaguggulu

herbomineral preparation used in the treatment of arthritis.

yogaratnākara

a treatise of āyurveda authored by Nayanasekhara (17th Century ).

yogendrarasa

herbomineral preparation used in the treatment of paralysis.

yuktivyapāśraya

(yukti.vyapāśraya) depending on rationale; treating diseases using medicaments.

yūṣa

1. water in which pulses of various kinds are boiled; broth; soup of pulses; 2. Plant Indian mulberry tree, Morinda citrifolia, M. tinctoria, M. tomentosa.

     Wordnet Search "tre" has 39 results.
     

tre

bāhuḥ, bhujā, karaḥ, praveṣṭaḥ, doḥ, doṣaḥ, bāhaḥ, āyātī, cyavanā, anīśū, aplavānā, vinaṅgṛsau, gabhastī, kavasnau, bhūrijau, kṣipastī, śakkarī, bharitre   

avayavaviśeṣaḥ- kakṣādyaṅgulyagraparyantāvayavaviśeṣaḥ yena vastūni dhriyante kāryaṃ ca kriyate।

balinau bhīmasya bāhū। / ṛṣṭayoḥ vo, maruto aṃsayoradhi saha ojo bāhvoḥ vā balam hitam।

tre

vimātṛjā, vaimātreyī, vaimātrā, anyodaryā   

vimātuḥ vipituḥ vā putrī।

bhavataḥ vimātṛjā kimarthaṃ roditi।

tre

vimātṛjaḥ, vaimātreyaḥ, vaimātraḥ, anyodaryaḥ   

mātuḥ sapatnyāḥ putraḥ।

rāmaḥ lakṣmaṇasya vimātṛjaḥ asti।

tre

candraḥ, kalānāthaḥ, kalādharaḥ, himāṃśuḥ, candramāḥ, kumudabāndhavaḥ, vidhuḥ, sudhāṃśuḥ, śubhrāṃśuḥ, oṣadhīśaḥ, niśāpatiḥ, abjaḥ, jaivātṛkaḥ, glauḥ, mṛgāṅkaḥ, dvijarājaḥ, śaśadharaḥ, nakṣatreśaḥ, kṣapākaraḥ, doṣākaraḥ, niśīthinīnāthaḥ, śarvarīśaḥ, eṇāṅkaḥ, śītaraśmiḥ, samudranavanītaḥ, sārasaḥ, śvetavāhanaḥ, nakṣatranāmiḥ, uḍupaḥ, sudhāsūtiḥ, tithipraṇīḥ, amatiḥ, candiraḥ, citrāṭīraḥ, pakṣadharaḥ, rohiṇīśaḥ, atrinetrajaḥ, pakṣajaḥ, sindhujanmā, daśāśvaḥ, māḥ, tārāpīḍaḥ, niśāmaṇiḥ, mṛgalāñchanaḥ, darśavipat, chāyāmṛgadharaḥ, grahanemiḥ, dākṣāyaṇīpati, lakṣmīsahajaḥ, sudhākaraḥ, sudhādhāraḥ, śītabhānuḥ, tamoharaḥ, tuśārakiraṇaḥ, pariḥ, himadyutiḥ, dvijapatiḥ, viśvapsā, amṛtadīdhitiḥ, hariṇāṅkaḥ, rohiṇīpatiḥ, sindhunandanaḥ, tamonut, eṇatilakaḥ, kumudeśaḥ, kṣīrodanandanaḥ, kāntaḥ, kalāvān, yāminījatiḥ, sijraḥ, mṛgapipluḥ, sudhānidhiḥ, tuṅgī, pakṣajanmā, abdhīnavanītakaḥ, pīyūṣamahāḥ, śītamarīciḥ, śītalaḥ, trinetracūḍāmaṇiḥ, atrinetrabhūḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, parijñāḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, valakṣaguḥ, tuṅgīpatiḥ, yajvanāmpatiḥ, parvvadhiḥ, kleduḥ, jayantaḥ, tapasaḥ, khacamasaḥ, vikasaḥ, daśavājī, śvetavājī, amṛtasūḥ, kaumudīpatiḥ, kumudinīpatiḥ, bhūpatiḥ, dakṣajāpatiḥ, oṣadhīpatiḥ, kalābhṛt, śaśabhṛt, eṇabhṛt, chāyābhṛt, atridṛgjaḥ, niśāratnam, niśākaraḥ, amṛtaḥ, śvetadyutiḥ, hariḥ   

khagolīyapiṇḍaḥ yaḥ pṛthvīṃ paribhramati।

adhunā mānavaḥ candrasya pṛṣṭhabhāgaṃ gatvā saṃśodhanaṃ karoti।

tre

śastreṇa upacar   

vikṛtasya aṅgasya apākaraṇaṃ vā sthānataḥ bhraṣṭasya avayavasya punaḥ sthāne nidhānaṃ ityetādṛśaḥ śastrakaraṇakaḥ śarīravikṛtyapanayanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

cikitsakaḥ rāmasya pautraṃ śastreṇa upacarati।

tre

abhilikh, pustake āropay, pustake samāropay, patre āropay, patre samāropay, patre samarpay, lekhye āropay, lekhye samāropay, lekhye samarpay, lekhyapatre āropay, lekhyapatre samāropay, nyas, lekhyapatre samarpay   

lekhāpañjikādiṣu samāveśasya likhitarūpeṇa āśvastipradānānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

bhavataḥ dhanasya āharaṇasya tathā ca nikṣepasya vivaraṇam asmin lekhāpustake abhyalikham aham।/bhoḥ bhavataḥ nāma asyāṃ matadātāsūcyāṃ abhilikhāmi aham।

tre

tretāyugam, tre   

hindūnāṃ mate kālasya caturvibhāgeṣu dvitīyaḥ vibhāgaḥ tretāyugasaṃjñakaḥ sa ca satyayugāt anantaraṃ 1296000 varṣaparyantaḥ। tretāyuge śrīrāmaḥ ajāyat। /

tretāyugasya lakṣaṇam- dānadharmaratā nityaṃ tapasyā tīrthadarśanam। agnihotraparā lokā rājāno yajñakāriṇaḥ॥

tre

dhātrī, aṅkapālī, upamātā, kulabhṛtyā, dogdhrī, kṣīradhātrī, dhanyā, dhātrikā, dhātreyikā, dhātreyikāyī, mātṛkā, vardhāpikā   

vyavasāyaviśeṣaḥ- kā api strī upajīvikārthe svāminaḥ śiśūn svaṃ dugdhaṃ pāyayitvā poṣayati tathā ca tebhyaḥ kauṭumbikān ācārān pāṭhayati।

mātuḥ viyogāt dhātrī eva śyāmaṃ paryapālayat।

tre

vaimātreya   

vimātuḥ apatyam।

mohanaḥ gāyatryāḥ vaimātreyaḥ bhrātā asti।

tre

yāvanālam, ikṣupatraḥ, śikharī, ikṣupatrakaḥ, vṛttataṇḍulaḥ, dīrghanālaḥ, dīrghaśaraḥ, kṣetrekṣuḥ   

vanaspativiśeṣaḥ, yasya patram ikṣoḥ patram iva tīkṣṇam asti tathā ca yasya dhavalabījāni dhānyatvena upayujyante;

eṣā kṛṣī yāvānalasya asti

tre

daṃś, khard vṛścikasya madhumakṣiṇāṃ vā dantaiḥ kṣetre mamatāṃ vṛścikaḥ adaśat.   

vṛścikasya madhumakṣikāyāḥ viṣayuktaiḥ daṃṣṭraiḥ tuditvā viṣasya praveśanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

kṣetre mamatāṃ vṛścikaḥ adaśat।

tre

yāvanālaḥ, śikharī, vṛttataṇḍulaḥ, dīrghanālaḥ, dīrghaśaraḥ, kṣetrekṣuḥ, ikṣupatrakaḥ   

dhānyaviśeṣaḥ-asya guṇāḥ tridoṣajitva-balyatva-ruṭyatvādayaḥ।

yāvanālasya guṇāḥ- tridoṣajitvam

tre

ātreyaḥ   

atrimuneḥ putraḥ।

ātreyasya gamanādeva rājā utthitaḥ।

tre

atreyaḥ   

atrinadyaḥ taṭavartī bhāgaḥ।

atreyasya nivāsī sukhī āsīt।

tre

kṣīradhātrī, dhātreyikā, dhātrī, dhātreyikāyī   

sā dhātrī yā dugdhaṃ pāyayati।

kṣīradhātrī śiśuṃ dugdhaṃ pāyayati।

tre

putreṣṭiḥ, putrakāmeṣṭiḥ   

yajñaprakāraḥ।

putreṣṭiḥ putraprāptyarthe kriyate।

tre

maitreyī-upaniṣad, maitre   

ekā upaniṣad।

maitreyī-upaniṣad sāmavedasya bhāgaḥ।

tre

dattātreya-upaniṣad, dattātreyaḥ   

ekā upaniṣad।

dattātreya-upaniṣad atharvavedena sambandhitā।

tre

dattātreyaḥ   

paurāṇikaḥ mahātmā yaḥ bhagavataḥ caturviśaṃtau avatāreṣu ekaḥ iti manyate।

saḥ dattātreyasya bhaktaḥ asti।

tre

somaḥ, candraḥ, śaśāṅkaḥ, induḥ, mayaṅkaḥ, kalānidhiḥ, kalānāthaḥ, kalādharaḥ, himāṃśuḥ, candramāḥ, kumudabāndhavaḥ, vidhuḥ, sudhāṃśuḥ, śubhrāṃśuḥ, oṣadhīśaḥ, niśāpatiḥ, abjaḥ, jaivātṛkaḥ, somaḥ, glauḥ, mṛgāṅkaḥ, dvijarājaḥ, śaśadharaḥ, nakṣatreśaḥ, kṣapākaraḥ, doṣākaraḥ, niśīthinīnāthaḥ, śarvarīśaḥ, eṇāṅkaḥ, śītaraśmiḥ, samudranavanītaḥ, sārasaḥ, śvetavāhanaḥ, nakṣatranāmiḥ, uḍupaḥ, sudhāsūtiḥ, tithipraṇīḥ, amatiḥ, candiraḥ, citrāṭīraḥ, pakṣadharaḥ, rohiṇīśaḥ, atrinetrajaḥ, pakṣajaḥ, sindhujanmā, daśāśvaḥ, māḥ, tārāpīḍaḥ, niśāmaṇiḥ, mṛgalāñchanaḥ, darśavipat, chāyāmṛgadharaḥ, grahanemiḥ, dākṣāyaṇīpati, lakṣmīsahajaḥ, sudhākaraḥ, sudhādhāraḥ, śītabhānuḥ, tamoharaḥ, tuśārakiraṇaḥ, pariḥ, himadyutiḥ, dvijapatiḥ, viśvapsā, amṛtadīdhitiḥ, hariṇāṅkaḥ, rohiṇīpatiḥ, sindhunandanaḥ, tamonut, eṇatilakaḥ, kumudeśaḥ, kṣīrodanandanaḥ, kāntaḥ, kalāvān, yāminījatiḥ, sijraḥ, mṛgapipluḥ, sudhānidhiḥ, tuṅgī, pakṣajanmā, abdhīnavanītakaḥ, pīyūṣamahāḥ, śītamarīciḥ, śītalaḥ, trinetracūḍāmaṇiḥ, atrinetrabhūḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, parijñāḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, valakṣaguḥ, tuṅgīpatiḥ, yajvanāmpatiḥ, parvvadhiḥ, kleduḥ, jayantaḥ, tapasaḥ, khacamasaḥ, vikasaḥ, daśavājī, śvetavājī, amṛtasūḥ, kaumudīpatiḥ, kumudinīpatiḥ, bhūpatiḥ, dakṣajāpatiḥ, oṣadhīpatiḥ, kalābhṛt, śaśabhṛt, eṇabhṛt, chāyābhṛt, atridṛgjaḥ, niśāratnam, niśākaraḥ, amṛtaḥ, śvetadyutiḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ;

patitaṃ somamālokya brahmā lokapitāmahaḥ[śa.ka]

tre

maitre   

paurāṇikī mahilā।

maitreyī maharṣeḥ yājñavalkyasya patnī āsīt।

tre

maitreyaḥ   

paurāṇikaṛṣiviśeṣaḥ yaḥ parāśaramuneḥ śiṣyaḥ āsīt।

kadācit duryodhanaḥ maitreyasya upahāsaṃ cakāra yena kruddhaḥ maitreyaḥ tasmai śāpaṃ dadau।

tre

madhyamātreyaḥ   

ṛṣiviśeṣaḥ।

madhyamātreyasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

tre

mitreyuḥ   

rājñaḥ divodāsasya ekaḥ putraḥ।

mitreyoḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

tre

ātreyaḥ   

atrimuneḥ vaṃśajaḥ।

te ātmānam ātreyaṃ kathayanti।

tre

ātreyaḥ   

atrimuneḥ putraḥ।

durvāsācandramādayaḥ ātreyāḥ santi।

tre

ātreyaḥ   

ātreyīnadyāḥ samīpasthaḥ deśaḥ।

ātreyaḥ idānīṃ dīnājapuram iti nāmnā prasiddhaḥ asti।

tre

ātreyīnadī   

prācīnā nadī yā adhunā dīnājapūramaṇḍale asti।

ātreyīnadyāṃ nirmitasya setoḥ nāma sarojaḥ asti।

tre

ātre   

atrivaṃśotpannā strī yā vedāntaśāstrasya jñātrī āsīt।

ātreyī svasya vidvattāyāḥ kṛte khyātā āsīt।

tre

ātre   

atrigotrotpannā strī।

apālā ekā ātreyī āsīt।

tre

ātreyaḥ   

ekaḥ cikitsakaḥ ।

ātreyasya varṇanam bhāvaprakāśe vartate

tre

ātreyaḥ   

ekā jātiḥ ।

ātreyasya varṇanam mahābhārate vartate

tre

kṛṣṇātreyaḥ   

ekaḥ ṛṣiḥ ।

kṛṣṇātreyasya ullekhaḥ carakeṇa kṛtaḥ

tre

kṛṣṇātreyaḥ   

ekaḥ ṛṣiḥ ।

kṛṣṇātreyasya ullekhaḥ carakeṇa kṛtaḥ

tre

śvetātreyaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

śvetātreyasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

tre

gaurātreyaḥ   

ekaḥ parivāraḥ ।

gaurātreyāṇāṃ varṇanaṃ pravaragranthe samupalabhyate

tre

ātreyīputraḥ   

ekaḥ śikṣakaḥ ।

ātreyīputrasya ullekhaḥ śatapatha-brāhmaṇe asti

tre

candrātreyaḥ   

ekaḥ parivāraḥ ।

candrātreyasya ullekhaḥ pravaragranthe samupalabhyate

tre

dattatreyāpaniṣad   

ekā upaniṣad ।

dattatreyāpaniṣadaḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate









Parse Time: 1.400s Search Word: tre Input Encoding: IAST: tre