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     Grammar Search "tras" has 1 results.
     
tras: masculine nominative singular stem: tra
Root Search
  
"tras" has 3 results.
    
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√trastrasaadhāraṇe10188
√trastrasiibhāṣārthaḥ10195
√trastrasīīudvege410
  
"tras" has 4 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√त्रस्trasholding / dhāraṇa515/1Cl.10
√त्रस्trastaking / grahaṇa372/2Cl.10
√त्रस्trasobstructing / vāraṇa944/1Cl.10
√त्रस्trasfearing, trembling, quaking / udvega192/1Cl.4
     Amarakosha Search  
2 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
cariṣṇuḥ3.1.73MasculineSingularjaṅgamam, caram, trasam, iṅgam, carācaram
trasaraḥ2.4.24MasculineSingularsūtraveṣṭanam
     Monier-Williams
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295 results for tras
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
tras cl.10 P. trāsayati- (ind.p. sayitvā-) to seize ; to prevent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tras cl.1. tr/asati- () , cl.4. trasyati- ( etc.; Epic also A1.; perfect tense 3. tatrasur-[ ] or tresur-[ ] ) to tremble, quiver, be afraid of (ablative genitive case,rarely instrumental case) and (parasmE-pada f. tar/asantī-) etc.: Causal trāsayati- (Epic also A1.) to cause to tremble, frighten, scare ; ([ confer, compare Zendtares;; Latin terreo.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasamfn. moving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasan. the collective body of moving or living beings (opposed to sthāvara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasam. "quivering", the heart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasan. a wood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasadasyu(s/a--) m. (formed like etc.)"before whom the dasyu-s tremble", Name of a prince (son of puru-kutsa-;celebrated for his liberality and favoured by the gods;author of ), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaddasyum. for sa-d- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasanan. a quivering ornament (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaram. for t/as-, a shuttle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasareṇum. the mote or atom of dust moving in a sun-beam (considered as an ideal weight either of the lowest denomination[ ]or equal to 3[ ] or 30[Vaidyakaparibh.] invisible atoms) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasareṇuf. Name of a wife of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasnumfn. () equals sura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasnumfn. see /a--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trastamfn. quivering, trembling, frighted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trastamfn. (in music) quick; [ Latin tristis.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasuramfn. timid, fearful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhisaṃtrastamfn. ( tras-), terrified, much alarmed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnihotrasthālīf. a pot used at the agnihotra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amitrasaha varia lectio for mitra-saha- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amitrasāhamfn. (for -khad/a-in ) enduring or overcoming enemies (Name of indra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amitrasenāf. hostile army (= ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antrasrajf. a kind of garland worn by nara-siṃha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apatras(imperfect tense 3. plural -atrasan-) to flee from in terror View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apatrastamfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' or with ablative) afraid of, fleeing or retiring from in terror View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ardhavastrasaṃvītamfn. clothed or enveloped in half-garments. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśāstrasiddhamfn. not enjoined or established by the śāstra-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astrasāyakam. an iron arrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atirātrasavanīyapaśum. the victim sacrificed at the atirātra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atitrasnumfn. over timid. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atrasadmfn. sitting here, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atrasnu([ ]) or a-trāsa- mfn. fearless. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atrasyatmfn. not trembling, W. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atrasyatnot having a flaw (as a gem), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atrinetrasūta m. "produced by atri-'s look", the moon, (in arithmetic) the number one. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
audgātrasārasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avatrastamfn. ( tras-), terrified, (varia lectio apa.dhvasta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhayasaṃtrastamānasamfn. having the mind scared with terror View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhayatrastamfn. trembling with fear, frightened, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmakṣatrasavam. plural Name of particular rites
brahmasūtrasaṃgatif. Name of Comm. on the brahma-sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caitrasakham. "friend of month caitra-", the god of love View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caitrasaṃkrātif. Name (also title or epithet) of a festival usually celebrated early in April (in Bengal). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caitrasenim. patronymic fr. citra-sena-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāritrasiṃhagaṇim. Name of an author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
catuḥṣaṣṭyupacāramānasapūjāstotrastotran. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chattrasālam. Name of prince sabhā-siṃha-'s father. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chattrasinhan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasaṃsthamfn. equals -ga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasaṅgan. a metre of 4 x 16 syllables. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasarpam. the large speckled snake (mālu-dhāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenamfn. (tr/a--) having a bright spear, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. Name of a snake-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of a leader of the gandharva-s (son of viśvā-vasu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of a son (of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- ;of parikṣit-, ;of śambara- ;of nariṣyanta- ;of the 13th manu- ;of gada- or kṛṣṇa- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of an adversary of kṛṣṇa-, 5059 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of tarāsandha-'s general (ḍimbhaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of a divine recorder of the deeds of men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. (equals -gupta-) the secretary of a man of rank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. Name of a scholiast on piṅgala-'s work on metres View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenāf. Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenāf. of one of the mothers in skanda-'s retinue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenāf. of a courtesan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenāf. of a river (see caitraseni-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasthamfn. equals -ga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasthalan. Name of a garden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasudhānidhim. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasvanam. "clear-voice", Name of a rākṣasa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmaśāstrasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmaśāstrasaṃgrahaślokam. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmaśāstrasarvasvan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmaśāstrasudhānidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekavastrasnānavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃkaoinm. a cat, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃkocanīf. "contracting its body", a hedgehog. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃkocinm. idem or 'f. "contracting its body", a hedgehog. ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasamplavam. "body-diver", the bird Pelicanus fusicollis (see plava-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasparśam. contact of the limbs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghṛtapātrastanavatīf. (a cow) whose nipples are represented by vessels filled with ghee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotrasthitif. "id."and"standing like a mountain" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haimacitrasamutsedhamfn. enchased with golden pictures View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hautrasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hautrasūtrāvalokam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
horāśāstrasāramn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
horāśāstrasudhānidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalyāṇamitrasevanan. the becoming a disciple of buddha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krośamātrasthitamfn. standing at the distance of a krośa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣatrasāmann. Name of two sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣatrasaṃgrahītṛm. plural See kṣāttra-saṃg-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣatrasavam. Name of a sacrificial ceremony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣatrasavam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣāttrasaṃgrahītṛm. plural charioteers and drivers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣāttrasaṃgrahītṛm. (kṣatra-s- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasādhasm. one who divides the fields, who fixes the landmarks () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasādhas according to to some,"bestowing a field" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasamāsam. Name of a jaina- work. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasambhavam. "growing on the fields", Abelmoschus esculentus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasambhavam. Ricinus communis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasambhavāf. a kind of gourd (equals śaśāṇḍulī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasambhūtam. "growing on the fields", a kind of grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasaṃhitāf. any geometrical work like Euclid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasāti(kṣ/etra--) f. acquisition of fields or land (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasīmāf. the boundary of a field or holy place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasiṃha(or kheta-- s-), m. Name (also title or epithet) of various kings, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetrasthamfn. residing at a sacred place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitrasūtran. Name of a sūtra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
malamāsanirṇayatantrasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasādhakam. the Performer of an incantation, magician View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasādhanan. (or mantrasādhanā - f.) the performance of an incantation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasādhanāf. mantrasādhana
mantrasādhyamfn. to be subdued or effected by incantations or spells ( mantrasādhyatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasādhyamfn. to be attained by consulation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasādhyatvan. mantrasādhya
mantrasaṃdhyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasaṃhitāf. the collection of the Vedic hymns View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasaṃhitāf. "collection of magical formulas", Name of a Tantric work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasaṃkalanāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasaṃnāmam. altering the mantra-s, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasaṃskāram. a (nuptial) rite performed with sacred text View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasaṃskārakṛtm. (with pati-) a consecrated husband View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasaṃskriyāf. the preparation of magical formulas View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasamuccayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasaṃvaraṇan. concealment of a consultation or design View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasārasamuccayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantraśāstrasārasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasiddhamfn. accomplished by a spell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasiddhamfn. thoroughly versed in spells View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasiddhif. the effect of a spell View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasiddhif. the carrying out a resolution or advice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasnānan. the recitation of particular texts as a substitute for ablution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantraspṛśmfn. obtaining anything by means of spells (equals mantreṇa spṛśati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrasūtran. a charm fastened on a string View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mīmāṃsāśāstrasarvasvan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasaham. "indulgent towards friends", Name of a king (also called kalmāṣa-pāda-) R etc. of a brahman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasāhamfn. tolerant of friends, indulgent towards friends View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasāhvayāf. Name of a divine being View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasamprāptif. "acquisition of friends"Name of the 2nd book of the pañca-tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasaptamīf. Name of the 7th day in the light half of the month mārgaśīrṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. Name of a gandharva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. of a son of the 12th manu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. of a grandson of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. of a king of the draviḍa- country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. of a Buddhist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasneham. affection towards friends, friendship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasūktan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modamañjarīguṇaleśamātrasucakāṣṭakan. Name of stotra-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlamantrasāram. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃkṣayam. equals -kṣaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṅgam. a painful and bloody discharge of urinary ( mūtrasaṅgin gin- mfn.suffering from it) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṅginmfn. mūtrasaṅga
trasātind. into urine (sād-bhū-,to become urine) , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasamuccayam. "assemblage of nakṣatra-s", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasaṃvatsaram. a particular form of year View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasattran. equals nakṣatreṣṭi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasattran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasattrahautran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasattraprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasattreṣṭihautraprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasattreṣṭiprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasthāpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrastomam. Name of a particular ekāha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatrasūcakam. "star-indicator", astrologer
netrasaṃkocanan. closing of the eyes, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
netrasaṃvejanan. fixing an injection-pipe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
netrastambham. rigidity of the eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nistras(only imperfect tense nir-atrasan-), to fly, run away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nītiśāstrasamuccayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityavitrastam. "always scared", Name of an antelope View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāñcarātrasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāñcarātrasthāpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcavaktrastotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇinīyasūtrasārakośam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parātrasonly Causal Aorist parātitrasat-, to drive away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paritrastamfn. ( tras-) terrified, frightened, much alarmed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃcāram. the handing round of vessels or dishes at a meal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃskāram. the cleaning of a vessel or dish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃskāram. the current of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasātkṛto make a worthy person possessed of anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasthamfn. being in a receptacle or dish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattrasaṃskāra wrong reading for -jhaṃkāra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattrasirāf. the vein or fibre of a leaf. equals -bhaṅga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattrasūcif. "leaf-needle", a thorn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattrasundaram. or n. (?) a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pitāputrasamāgamam. Name of a sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratitantrasiddhāntam. a doctrine adopted in various systems (but not in all) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratrasP. -trasati-, to flee in terror : Causal -trāsayati-, to frighten or scare away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpamitrasabhāf. the court of king puṣyadharman- Va1rtt. 7 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasahasrakamf(ikā-)n. having 1000 sons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasahasrinmfn. idem or 'mf(ikā-)n. having 1000 sons ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasakham. fond or a friend of children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasāmaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasaṃkarinmfn. mixing or confusing children (through mixed marriages) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasaptamīf. the 7th day in the light half of the month āśvina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasaptamīvratakathāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasena(putr/a--) m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasneham. love of or for a son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasnehamayamf(ī-)n. consisting in the love for a son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasūf. the mother of a son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasvīkāram. making one's own id est adopting a son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasvīkāranirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasvīkāranirūpaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasvīkāravidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmacandracaritrasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasasūtrasthānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratnamañjarīguṇaleśamātrasūcakāṣṭakan. Name of stotra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rayapraśnasūtrasiddhāntam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saccaritrasudhānidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahautranakṣatrasattvaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakalārthaśāstrasāramfn. containing the essence of precepts about all things View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākunaśāstrasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālihotrasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samasūtrasthamfn. situated on the same diameter (id est situated on two opposite points of the globe) , living at the antipodes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdhyāvidhimantrasamūhaṭīkāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtrasP. -trasati-, or -trasyati-, to tremble all over, be greatly terrified or frightened etc.: Causal -trāsayati-, to cause to tremble, frighten, terrify View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtrastamfn. trembling with fear, frightened, alarmed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtrastagocaramfn. one who is looked at with terror View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samuttrasCaus. -trāsayati-, to frighten thoroughly, terrify View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samuttrastamfn. thoroughly frightened, greatly alarmed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvatsarasattrasadmfn. one who performs the above soma- sacrifice, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptahautrasūcīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptaputrasūf. the mother of 7 sons or children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptasūtrasaṃnyāsapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śārīrakasūtrasārārthacandrikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvabuddhakṣetrasaṃdarśanam. a particular samādhi- (wrong reading -buddha-kṣatra-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvatantrasiddhāntam. a dogma admitted by all systems (opp. to pratitantra-s- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvatrasattvan. omnipresence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śastrasaṃhatif. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śastrasampātam. "descent of weapons", discharge of missiles, battle, fight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śastrasamūham. "collection of weapons", an arsenal, armoury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrasārāvalif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrasāroddhāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrasiddhamfn. established by the śāstra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrasiddhāntaleśasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrasiddhāntaleśasaṃgrahasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sattrasadm. a companion at a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sattrasadmann. equals -gṛha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sattrasadyan. companionship at a soma- sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivāpāmārjanamālāmantrastotran. Name of stotra-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrotrasaṃvādam. agreement of the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrotrasparśinmfn. touching id est entering or penetrating the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrotrasukhamfn. sounding agreeably, melodious, musical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrotrasvinmfn. having a good or quick ear (see śata-svin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stotrasamīṣantīf. a particular viṣṭuti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
susaṃtrastamfn. greatly alarmed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃgraham. one who grasps or holds the reins View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃgraham. collection of sūtra-s (in next) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasaṃgrahadīpikāf. Name of works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasamuccayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trasthānan. (in medicine works) the first general section (treating of the physician, disease, remedies, diet etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svatantrasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmalāmantrasādhanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanmātrasargam. (in sāṃkhya- philosophy) creation of the subtle elements, rudimentary creation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantrasāram. " tantra--essence", Name of a compilation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taraṃgāpatrastamfn. afraid of waves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatraskandham. Name of a deity, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatrasthamfn. dwelling there, situated there, belonging to that place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttras(ud-- tras-), Causal P. -trāsayati-, to frighten, alarm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttrastamfn. frightened View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vagalāmantrasādhanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgbhaṭasūtrasthānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidyaśāstrasārasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṣanakṣatrasūcakam. a weather-prophet and astrologer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasumatīcitrasenāvilāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasumatīcitrasenīyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātsyāyanasūtrasāram. Name of work by kṣemendra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntaśāstrasaṃkṣiptaprakriyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedaśāstrasampannamfn. versed in the veda- and śāstra-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vicitrasiṃham. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyāmātrasiddhif. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyāmātrasiddhitridaśaśāstrakārikāf. Name of Buddhist works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvāmitrasaṃhitāf. Name of several works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvāmitrasmṛtif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvāmitrasṛṣṭif. viśvāmitra-'s creation (in allusion to several things fabled to have been created by this saint in rivalry of brahmā- exempli gratia, 'for example' the fruit of the Palmyra in imitation of the human skull, the buffalo in imitation of the cow, the ass of the horse etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vītatrasareṇumfn. equals -rāga-, free from passions or affections (printed -trās-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitrasP. -trasati-, -trasyati-, to tremble, be frightened etc.: Causal -trāsayati-, to cause to tremble, terrify View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitrastamfn. frightened, alarmed, terrified View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitrastakamfn. a little affrighted or intimidated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāsasūtrasaṃgatif. Name of work on the above sūtra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyuttrasCaus. -trāsayati-, to scare or frighten away, disperse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñatantrasudhānidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñatantrasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajurvedamantrasaṃhitāsukhabodhanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantrasadmann. an oil-mill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantrasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantrasāramn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantrasūtran. the cord attached to the mechanism of a doll or puppet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantrasūtran. Name of a sūtra--work on war-engines. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatrasāyaṃgṛha mfn. taking up an abode wherever evening overtakes one View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatrasāyampratiśrayamfn. taking up an abode wherever evening overtakes one View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatrasthamfn. where staying, in which place abiding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogaśāstrasūtrapāṭham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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tras त्रस् I. 1, 4 P. (त्रसति, त्रस्यति, त्रस्त) 1 To quake, tremble, shake, start with fear. -2 To fear, dread, be afraid of (with abl., sometimes with gen. or instr.); यस्य त्रसन्ति शवसः Rv.6.14.4; प्रमदवनात्त्रस्यति K.255; कपेर- त्रासिषुर्नादात् Bk.9.11;5.75;14.48;15.58; Śi.8.24; Ki.8.7. -3 To run away, run from. -Caus. (त्रासयति-ते) To frighten, terrify. -II. 1 U. (त्रासयति-ते) 1 To go, move. -2 To hold. -3 To take, seize. -4 To oppose, prevent.
trasa त्रस a. [त्रस्-घञर्थे क] Movable, locomotive. -सः The heart. -सम् 1 A wood, forest. -2 Animals. -3 The aggregate of moving or living beings (लिङ्गशरीर); ऋजुः प्रणिहितो गच्छंस्त्रसस्थावरवर्जकः Mb.12.9.19. -4 Animals and men. -Comp. -दस्युः N. of a Vedic prince and author of some Vedic Sūktas; (also त्रसद्दस्यु); cf. Bhāg.9.6.33. -रेणुः 1 an atom, the mote or atom of dust which is seen moving in a sunbeam; cf. जालान्तरगते भानौ सूक्ष्मं यद् दृश्यते रजः । प्रथमं तत्प्रमाणानां त्रसरेणुं प्रचक्षते ॥ Ms.8.132; also Y.1.361. -2 N. of one of the wives of the sun.
trasanam त्रसनम् [त्रस् भावे ल्युट्] 1 Alarm, fear. -2 Anxiety, uneasiness. -3 A quivering ornament (?); Kauś.14.
trasaraḥ त्रसरः A shuttle.
trasta त्रस्त p. p. [त्रस्-क्त] 1 Frightened, terrified, alarmed; त्रस्तैकहायनकुरङ्गविलोलदृष्टिः Māl.4.8. -2 Timid, fearful. -3 Quick, rolling.
trasura त्रसुर त्रस्नु a. [त्रस्-उरच्] Fearful, trembling, timid; अत्रस्नुभिर्युक्तधुरं तुरङ्गैः R.14.47; सीतां सौमित्रिणा त्यक्तां सध्रीचीं त्रस्नुमेकिकाम् Bk.6.7; तदनु मुनिवरेण त्रस्नुना तत्र रामे Rām. Ch.2.91.
apatras अपत्रस् To flee in terror from; अप स्मत् तरसन्ती न भुज्युः Rv.1.95.8
apatrasta अपत्रस्त p. p. Afraid of, deterred from; तरङ्गापत्रस्तः (slightly) afraid of waves; P.II.1.38 Sk.
uttras उत्त्रस् 1, 4 P. To be afraid. -Caus. To frighten, alarm.
uttrasta उत्त्रस्त a. Frightened.
paritrasta परित्रस्त a. Frightened, afraid.
trasāt पात्रसात् ind. In the possession of worthy persons.
vitras वित्रस् 1. 4 P. To be frightened or terrified; वित्रस्त- मुग्धहरिणीसदृशैः कटाक्षैः Bh.1.9. -Caus. To terrify, frighten.
saṃtras संत्रस् 1, 4 P. To fear, be afraid or terrified; विचकार ततो रामः शरान् संतत्रसुर्द्विषः Bk.14.39. -Caus. To frighten, terrify; भवतिं हि पापं कृत्वा स्वकर्मसंत्रासितः पुरुषः Pt.1.197.
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tras tras tremble, I. trasa [Gk. τρέω, Lat. terreo ‘frighten’]. nís- speed away, viii. 48, 11.
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trasa a. moving; n. living creature: (á)-dasyu, m. (at whom demons tremble), N. of a generous prince, favourite of the gods; -renu, m. mote in a sun-beam.
trasnu a. timid.
atrastha a. being here, staying here.
atrasta pp. intrepid.
anatitrasnu a. not very timo rous.
tatrastha a. being or abiding there.
yatrasāyaṃgṛha a. having one's dwelling wherever evening falls; -sâ yam-pratisraya, a. id.; -stha, a. dwelling in which place; -½astamita-sâyin, a. resting wherever sunset overtakes one; -½ikkhaka, a. wherever one likes.
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trasadasyu Son of Purukutsa, is mentioned in the Rigveda as king of the Pūrus. He was born to Purukutsa by his wife, Purukutsānī, at a time of great distress; this, according to Sāyana, refers to Purukutsa’s captivity: possibly his death is really meant. Trasadasyu was also a descendant of Giriksit and Purukutsa was a descendant of Durgaha. The genealogy, therefore, appears to be: Durgaha, Giriksit, Purukutsa, Trasa­dasyu. Trasadasyu was the ancestor of Tpksi, and, according to Ludwig, had a son Hiranin. Trasadasyu’s chronological position is determined by the fact that his father, Purukutsa, was a contemporary of Sudās, either as an opponent or as a friend. That Purukutsa was an enemy of Sudās is more probable, because the latter’s predecessor, Divodāsa, was apparently at enmity with the Pūrus, and in the battle of the ten kings Pūrus were ranged against Sudās and the Trtsus. Trasadasyu himself seems to have been an energetic king. His people, the Pūrus, were settled on the Sarasvatī, which was, no doubt, the stream in the middle country, that locality according well with the later union of the Pūrus with the Kuru people, who inhabited that country. This union is exemplified in the person of Kuruśravana, who is called Trāsadasyava, ‘ descendant of Trasadasyu,’ in the Rigveda, whose father was Mitrātithi, and whose son was Upamaśravas. The relation of Mitrātithi to Trksi does not appear. Another descendant of Trasadasyu was Tryaruna Traivrsna, who is simply called Trasadasyu in a hymn of the Rigveda. He was not only a 4 descendant of Trivrsan,’ but, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, he was also Traidhātva, descendant of Tridhātu.’ The order of these two predecessors of Tryaruna cannot be determined in any way from Vedic literature. According to the later tradition, a prince named Tridhanvan preceded Tryaruna in the succession. Vedic tradition further fails to show in what precise relation Trasadasyu stood to Trivrsan or Tryaruna.
tryaruṇa traivṛṣṇa trasadasyu Is the name of a prince whose generosity to a singer is celebrated in a hymn of the Rigveda. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana he appears as Tryaruna Traidhātva Aiksvāka, and is the hero of the following story. He was out in his chariot with his Purohita, or domestic priest, Vrśa Jāna, and by excessive speed in driving killed a Brahmin boy. This sin was atoned for by the Puro- hita’s using his Vārśa Sāman (chant). The Sātyāyana Brāh­mana, cited by Sāyana, elaborates the tale. As Vrśa had held the reins, king and priest accused each other of the murder. The Iksvākus being consulted threw the responsibility for the crime on Vrśa, who thereupon revived the boy by the Vārśa Sāman. In consequence of this unfairness of theirs—being Ksatriyas they were partial to a Ksatriya—Agni’s glow ceased to burn in their houses. In response to their appeal to restore it, Vrśa came to them, saw the Piśācī (demoness), who, in the form of Trasadasyu’s wife, had stolen the glow, and succeeded in restoring it to Agni. This version with some variations occurs also in the Brhaddevatā, which connects the story with a hymn of the Rigveda. Sieg’s attempt to show that the hymn really refers to this tale is not at all successful. It is clear that Trasadasyu must here mean ‘descendant of Trasadasyu,’ and not King Trasadasyu himself. The difference of the patronymics, Traivrsna and Traidhātva, by which he is referred to can best be explained by assuming that there were two kings, Trivrsan and Tridhātu (or possibly Tridhanvan), from whom Tryaruna was descended. The connexion with the Iksvākus is important (see Iksvāku).
putrasena Is the name of a man in the Maitrayanī Samhitā.
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trasadasyor hiraṇino rarāṇāḥ RV.5.33.8b.
trasadasyur vadhūnām RV.8.19.36b.
trastākṣaṃ mṛdvaṅgulim AVP.6.14.3c.
atras apravede (MS. adds asaṃbādhe) # MS.4.13.9: 212.1; śB.1.9.5.1; TB.3.5.10.1; Aś.1.9.1; śś.1.14.4.
amitrasāho astṛtaḥ # AVś.1.20.4b. See amitrakhādo.
amitrasenām abhijañjabhānaḥ # AVś.5.20.6c; AVP.9.27.6c.
amitrasenāṃ maghavan # AVś.3.1.3a; AVP.3.6.3a; SV.2.1215a.
amitrasya nidhir hitaḥ # RV.10.186.3b.
amitrasya vyathayā manyum indra # RV.6.25.2b; MS.4.14.12b: 235.3; TB.2.8.3.3b.
amitrasya śiro jahi # Mś.9.2.5.10d. See next.
amitrasyābhidāsataḥ # RV.10.152.3d; AVś.1.21.3d; AVP.2.88.2d; SV.2.1217d; TS.1.6.12.5d; Apś.20.20.7d. See prec.
kṣatrasya jarāyv asi # VS.10.8; śB.5.3.5.21. P: kṣatrasya Kś.15.5.15.
kṣatrasya tvā paraspāya brahmaṇas tanvaṃ pāhi # VS.38.19; śB.14.3.1.9. P: kṣatrasya tvā Kś.26.7.6. Cf. brahmaṇas tvā pa-.
kṣatrasya tvaujase yantrāya dhartrāya gṛhṇāmi # TS.1.6.1.2.
kṣatrasya nābhir asi # VS.10.8; 20.1; TS.1.8.16.1; MS.2.6.9: 69.3; 4.4.3: 52.12; KS.15.7; 38.4; śB.5.3.5.23; 12.8.3.8; TB.1.7.10.2; 2.6.5.1; Apś.18.18.6; Mś.9.1.3.9.
kṣatrasya yonim ā sīda # VS.10.26; śB.5.4.4.4.
kṣatrasya yonir asi # VS.10.8,26; 20.1; TS.1.7.9.1; 8.12.2; 16.1; MS.2.6.9: 69.3; 4.4.3: 52.12; KS.15.7; 38.4; śB.5.3.5.22; 4.4.3; 12.8.3.8; TB.1.7.6.4; 10.2; 2.6.5.1; Apś.18.5.8; 14.1; Mś.9.1.3.8. P: kṣatrasya yoniḥ Kś.15.7.2; 19.4.7.
kṣatrasya rājā varuṇo 'dhirājaḥ # TB.3.1.2.7a.
kṣatrasyolbam (VSṭB. -olvam) asi # VS.10.8; TS.1.7.9.1; 8.12.2; MS.2.6.9: 69.3; 4.4.3: 52.12; KS.15.7; śB.5.3.5.20; TB.1.7.6.4; Apś.18.5.7; 14.1; Mś.9.1.3.8.
kṣetrasātā vṛtrahatyeṣu pūrum # RV.7.19.3d; AVś.20.37.3d.
kṣetrasārathibhiḥ saha # Kauś.106.7d.
kṣetrasya pataye namaḥ # MS.2.9.3: 122.12. See kṣetrāṇāṃ etc.
kṣetrasya pataye svāhā # TS.1.8.13.3; MS.2.6.11: 70.9; KS.15.7.
kṣetrasya patinā vayam # RV.4.57.1a; TS.1.1.14.2a; MS.4.11.1a: 160.3; KS.4.15a; Aś.9.11.14; AG.2.10.4; ApMB.2.18.47a (ApG.7.20.16); N.10.15a. P: kṣetrasya patinā śś.15.8.15; śG.4.13.5; Rvidh.2.14.4. Cf. BṛhD.5.7.
kṣetrasya patiṃ prativeśam īmahe # RV.10.66.13c.
kṣetrasya patir madhumān no astu # RV.4.57.3c; AVś.20.143.8c; MS.4.11.1c: 160.6.
kṣetrasya pate madhumantam ūrmim # RV.4.57.2a; TS.1.1.14.3a; KS.4.15a; 30.4a (bis); Aś.9.11.15; Mś.7.2.6.7a; ApMB.2.18.48a (ApG.7.20.16); N.10.16a. P: kṣetrasya pate HG.2.9.11.
kṣetrasya patnī adhi no bruvāthaḥ (TS. brūyātam; KS. adhi vocataṃ naḥ) # TS.4.7.15.6b; MS.3.16.5b: 192.3; KS.22.15b.
kṣetrasya patnī suhavā no astu # AVP.10.6.11b.
kṣetrasya patny urugāyo 'dbhutaḥ (AVP. adbhutaḥ) # AVś.2.12.1b; AVP.2.5.1b.
kṣetrasya sātā tanayasya jinvathaḥ # RV.1.112.22b.
gāyatrastomam ita eka eva # GB.1.5.23b.
gāyatrasya chandaso 'gneḥ śīrṣṇāgneḥ śirā upa dadhāmi # MS.2.8.11: 115.10. See gāyatreṇa chandasāgninā.
gāyatrasya prabharmaṇi # RV.1.79.7b; SV.2.874b.
gāyatrasya samidhas tisra āhuḥ # RV.1.164.25c; AVś.9.10.3c.
cakṣurmantrasya durhārdaḥ # AVś.2.7.5c; 19.45.1c; AVP.15.4.1c.
citrasenā iṣubalā amṛdhrāḥ # RV.6.75.9c; AVP.15.10.9c; VS.29.46c; TS.4.6.6.3c; MS.3.16.3c: 186.14; KSA.6.1c.
citras te bhānuḥ kratuprā abhiṣṭiḥ # RV.10.100.12a.
trasyāgne svarpatiḥ (SV. svaḥ-) # RV.8.44.18b; SV.2.883b; KS.40.14b.
nāputrasya loko 'stīti # AB.7.13.12a; śś.15.17a.
pavitrasya prasravaṇeṣu vṛtrahan # RV.8.33.1c; AVś.20.52.1c; 57.14c; SV.1.261c; 2.214c.
trasyeva harivo matsaro madaḥ # RV.1.175.1b; SV.2.782b.
putras te daśamāsyaḥ # AVś.3.23.2d; AVP.3.14.2d; AG.1.13.6d (crit. notes); śG.1.19.6d; ApMB.1.12.9d; HG.1.25.1d.
putrasya pāthaḥ padam advayāvinaḥ # RV.1.159.3d.
putrasya śavaso mahaḥ # RV.8.90.2d; AVś.20.104.4d; SV.2.843d.
marutstotrasya vṛjanasya gopāḥ # RV.1.101.11a.
mitras tan no varuṇo devo aryaḥ # RV.7.64.3a.
mitras tan no varuṇo māmahanta # RV.7.52.2a.
mitras tan no varuṇo rodasī ca # RV.7.40.2a.
mitras tayor varuṇo yātayajjanaḥ # RV.1.136.3f. Cf. mitraṃ na yātayaj-.
mitras te astv aṃśabhūḥ # TB.3.7.9.1d; Apś.12.10.2d.
mitras te hastam agrabhīt # HG.1.5.9; ApMB.2.3.11 (ApG.4.10.12).
mitras tvam asi dharmaṇā (SMB. karmaṇā) # śG.2.3.1a; SMB.1.6.15d; HG.1.5.10b; JG.1.12; ApMB.2.3.12 (ApG.4.10.12).
mitras tvā padi badhnātu (VS.śB. badhnītām) # VS.4.19; TS.1.2.4.2; 6.1.7.6; MS.1.2.4: 13.5; 3.7.6: 82.6; KS.2.5; 24.3 (bis); śB.3.2.4.18; Apś.10.22.10.
mitrasya garbho varuṇasya nābhiḥ # RV.6.47.28b; AVś.6.125.3b; AVP.15.11.7b; VS.29.54b; TS.4.6.6.6b; MS.3.16.3b: 186.11; KSA.6.1b.
mitrasya cakṣur dharuṇaṃ (VārG. dharaṇaṃ) balīyaḥ (HG. dharīyaḥ) # śG.2.1.30a; PG.2.2.10a (crit. notes; see Speijer, Jātakarma, p. 22); HG.1.4.6a; ApMB.2.2.11a (ApG.4.10.11); VārG.5.9a.
mitrasya cakṣuṣā samīkṣāmahe # VS.36.18. Cf. mitrasya vaś cakṣuṣā sam-.
mitrasya ca dakṣiṇāḥ # AVP.2.85.4b.
mitrasya ca praśastibhiḥ # RV.5.9.6b.
mitrasya carṣaṇīdhṛtaḥ # RV.3.59.6a; VS.11.62a; TS.3.4.11.5a; 4.1.6.3a; MS.1.5.4a: 70.17; 1.5.11: 79.15; 2.7.6a: 81.17; 3.1.8: 10.14; 4.9.1a: 121.17; KS.16.6a; 19.7; 23.12a; śB.6.5.4.10; TA.4.3.2a; KA.1.26a,218Fa,218Ga; 2.26; Aś.7.5.9; śś.3.17.12; 9.26.3 (comm.); Apś.6.18.1; Mś.4.1.23; 6.1.2.18; BDh.2.4.7.11. P: mitrasya Kś.16.4.15. Cf. indrasya etc.
mitrasya tā varuṇasya vratāni # RV.3.55.6c.
mitrasya tṛtīyā # VS.25.5.
mitrasya tvā cakṣuṣā pratīkṣe (KAṃś. cakṣuṣānvīkṣe; Lś.Aś.8.4.18, cakṣuṣā prati paśyāmi; TS.KSṭB.KA.Apś. cakṣuṣā prekṣe) # VSK.2.3.4; TS.1.1.4.1; KS.1.4; 31.3; KB.6.14; TB.3.2.4.5; KA.1.218E (bis); Aś.1.13.1; 8.14.18; śś.4.7.4; Lś.4.11.10; Kś.2.2.15; Apś.1.17.9; 3.19.5; Mś.5.2.15.15; AG.1.24.14. P: mitrasya tvā PG.1.3.16. Cf. mitrasya vaś etc. Designated as maitryaḥ (sc. ṛcaḥ) BDh.2.10.18.21.
mitrasya navamī # TS.5.7.21.1; KSA.13.11.
mitrasya bhāgo 'si # VS.14.24; TS.4.3.9.1; 5.3.4.2; MS.2.8.5: 109.12; KS.17.4; 21.1; śB.8.4.2.6; Mś.6.2.1.24. P: mitrasya bhāgaḥ Kś.17.10.12.
mitrasya mā cakṣuṣā sarvāṇi bhūtāni samīkṣantām # VS.36.18.
mitrasya mā cakṣuṣekṣadhvam # VS.5.34. P: mitrasya mā Kś.9.8.23.
mitrasya yāyāṃ pathā # RV.5.64.3b.
mitrasya varuṇasya ca # AVś.6.85.2b; Kauś.6.17b.
mitrasya vaś cakṣuṣānuvīkṣe # Aś.8.14.18. See next, and cf. mitrasya tvā etc.
mitrasya vaś cakṣuṣā prekṣe # MS.1.1.5: 3.2; 4.1.5: 6.16; Mś.1.2.1.29. See prec., and cf. mitrasya tvā.
mitrasya vaś cakṣuṣāvekṣe # MS.1.1.7: 4.6; 4.1.7: 9.13; Mś.1.2.2.31. Cf. adabdhena vaś etc.
mitrasya vaś cakṣuṣā samīkṣadhvam (and samīkṣāmahe) # MS.4.9.27: 140.7. P: mitrasya Mś.4.3.42. Cf. mitrasya cakṣuṣā.
mitrasya vratā varuṇasya dīrghaśrut # RV.8.25.17c.
mitrasya vrate varuṇasya devāḥ # RV.10.36.13b; MS.4.14.11b: 232.8; TB.2.8.6.4b.
mitrasya śraddhā # TA.3.9.2.
mitrasya hi pratūrvataḥ # RV.5.65.4c.
mitrasyāsi kanīnikā # KS.2.1. See vṛtrasya kanīnikā, and vṛtrasyāsi.
mitrasyāsi varuṇasyāsi # VS.10.8; śB.5.3.5.28. P: mitrasyāsi varuṇasya Kś.15.5.18.
mitrasyāhaṃ cakṣuṣā sarvāṇi bhūtāni samīkṣe # VS.36.18.
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kātantrasūtravṛttian old Vṛtti on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Vararuci who is, of course, different from Vararuci Kātyāyana. The Vṛtti appears to have been occupying a position similar to that of Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
athaUṇādi affix अथ prescribed in Uṇādi Sūtras 393-396 exempli gratia, for example see शपथ, अवभृथ, आवसथ ctc.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anāntaryaabsence of proximity, absence of cognateness; confer, compare इह तर्हि खट्वर्श्यो मालर्श्य इति दीर्घवचनादकारो न, अनान्तर्यादेकारौकारौ न । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Māheśvarasūtras.s 3-4.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
antaḥkāryaliterally interior operation; an operation inside a word in its formation-stage which naturally becomes antaraṅga as contrasted with an operation depending on two complete words after their formation which is looked upon as bahiraṅga.
appayadīkṣitaअप्पदीक्षित A famous versatile writer of the sixteenth century A. D. (1530-1600 ), son of रङ्गराजाध्वरीन्द्र a Dravid Brāhmaṇa. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedānta, Mimāṁsā, Dharma and Alaṁkāra śāstras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The Kaumudi-prakāśa and Tiṅantaśeṣasaṁgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. Paṇdit Jagannātha spoke very despisingly of him.
abhyaṃkara(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. )an eminent scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit scholars in Grammar at Sātārā. He has also written a gloss on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another one on the Laghu-Śabdenduśekhara. (VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyakar 863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides writing several learned commentaries on books in several Sanskrit Shastras, has written a commentary named 'Tattvādarśa' on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and another named 'Guḍhārthaprakāśa' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. (KASHINATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of Sanskrit Grammar who has written महाभाष्यप्रस्तावना-खण्ड, and जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति and compiled the परिभाषासंग्रह and the present Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.
araktasandhia word, the coalescence of which is not nasalized, as the word आ in मन्द्रमा वरेण्यम् as contrastcd with अभ्र आं अपः confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.18.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
ardhamātrāhalf of a mātra or 'mora'., confer, compare अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Śekh. Pari. 122, signifying that not a single element of utterance in Pāṇini's grammar is superfluous. In other words, the wording of the Sūtras of Pāṇini is the briefest possible, not being capable of reduction by even half a mora.
alaukikavigrahathe dissolution of a compound not in the usual popular manner. e. g. राजपुरुष: dissolved as राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु, as contrasted with the लौकिकविग्रह viz. राज्ञः पुरुष: । see also अधिहरि dissolved as हरि ङि in the अलौकिकविग्रह.
avaśiṣṭaliṅga(v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग)a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' id est, that is possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes id est, that is potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
avyayaindeclinable, literally invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; confer, compare सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
asiddhaparibhāṣāthe same as Antaraṅga Paribhāṣā or the doctrine of the invalidity of the bahiraṅga operation. See the word असिद्ध a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see the Paribhāṣā 'asiddham , bahiraṅgam antaraṅge' Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 50 and the discussion thereon. Some grammarians have given the name असिद्धपरिभाषा to the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे as contrasted with अन्तरङ्गं बहुिरङ्कगाद् वलीयः which they have named as बहिरङ्गपरिभाषा.
ā(1)the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit exempli gratia, for example अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14.) (4) indeclinable आ in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; confer, compare ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद et cetera, and others confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substitute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the taddhita affix. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश et cetera, and others; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns ending in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः et cetera, and others
ākṣarasamāmnāyikadirectly or expressly mentioned in the fourteen Pratyāhāra Sūtras of Pāṇini; a letter actually mentioned by Pāṇini in his alphabet 'अइउण्', 'ऋलृक्' et cetera, and others
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
ātmanepadaa technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् et cetera, and others) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are usedition Contrast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8.
ānumānikaobtained or made out by inference such as Paribhāṣā rules as opposed to Śrauta rules such as the Sūtras of Pāṇini; confer, compare आनुमानिकं स्थानित्वमवयवयो; Kāś. on VI.1.85; also confer, compare आनुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्यादेशभावस्य न त्यागः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 11; confer, compare also किं च पूर्वत्रेत्यस्य प्रत्यक्षत्वेन अानुमानिक्या अस्या बाध एवोचितः Pari. Śek. on Pari. 50.
aābhyantaraprayatnainternal effort made in producing a sound, as contrasted with the external One called बाह्यप्रयत्न. There are four kinds of internal efforts described in the Kāsikāvrtti.; confer, compare चत्वार आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते स्पृष्टता, ईषत्स्पृष्टता, संवृतता, विवृतता चेति । Kās. on P. 1.1.9. See also यत्नो द्विधा । आभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च et cetera, and others Si. Kau. on I.1.9.
āraḍeKRISHNASHASTRI a reputed Naiyāyika of Banaras of the nineteenth century, who wrote, besides many treatises on Nyāya, a short gloss on the Sutras of Pāṇini, called Pāṇini-sūtra-vṛtti.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
ārṣaderived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas;confer, compare कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनिन्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the commentary on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; confer, compare आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; confer, compare also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109.
ujjvaladattathe famous commentator on the Uṅādi sūtras. His work .is called Uṅādisūtravṛtti, which is a scholarly commentary on the Uṅādisūtrapāṭha, consisting of five Pādas. Ujjvaldatta is belived to have lived in the l5th century A.D. He quotes Vṛttinyāsa, Anunyāsa, Bhāgavṛtti et cetera, and others He is also known by the name Jājali.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādisūtra,uṇādisūtrapāṭhathe text of the Sūtras which begins with the Sūtras prescribing the affix उण् after the roots कृ, वा, पा, जि, स्वद्, साध् and अश्; cf Uṅādi Sūtras 1.1. for the different versions of the text See उणादि. Similar Sūtras in Kātantra, Āpiśali, Sakaṭāyana and other systems of grammar are also called Uṇādi Sūtras.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
uṇādisūtrapañcapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into five chapters which is possessed of a scholarly commentary written by Ujjvaladatta. There is a commentary on it by Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita also.
uṇādisūtravṛttia gloss on the Uṇādi Sūtras in the different versions. Out of the several glosses on the Uṇādi Sūtras, the important ones are those written by Ujjvaladatta, Govardhana, Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, Rāmacandra Dīkṣita and Haridatta. There is also a gloss called Uṇādisūtrodghātana by Miśra. There is a gloss by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on the Kātantra version of the Uṇādi Sūtras.
uttarapadathe latter member or portion of a compound word as contrasted with पूर्वपद; confer, compare पतिरुत्तरपदमाद्युदात्तम् Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II. 3. 11; cf also अलुगुत्तरपदे P. VI. 3.1.
utsargaa general rule as contrasted with a special rule which is called अपवाद or exception; confer, compare उत्सर्गापवादयोरपवादो बलीयान् Hema. Pari.56; प्रकल्प्य वापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Par.Śek. Pari.63, Sīra. Pari.97; confer, compare also उत्सर्गसमानदेशा अपवादा;. For the बाध्यबाधकभाव relation between उत्सर्ग and अपवाद and its details see Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara on Paribhāṣās 57 to 65: confer, compare also न्यायैर्मिश्रान् अपवादान्प्रतीयात् explained by the commentator as न्याया उत्सर्गा महाविषया विधयः अपवादा अल्पविषया विधयः । तान् उत्सर्गेण भिश्रानेकीकृतान् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः R.Pr.I.23.
uddeśadescription; mention of qualities; confer, compare गुणैः प्रापणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I. 3.2: the word is used in contrast with उपदेश or direct mention; confer, compare कः पुनुरुद्देशोपदेशयोर्विशेषः । प्रत्यक्षमाख्यानमुपदेशो गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । प्रत्यक्षं तावदाख्यानमुपदेशः तद्यथा । अगोज्ञाय कश्चिद्गां सक्थनि कर्णे वा गृहीत्वोपदिशति । अयं गौरिति । स प्रत्यक्षमाख्यातमाह । उपदिष्टो मे गौरिति । गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । तद्यथा । कश्चित्कंचिदाह । देवदत्तं मे भवानुद्दिशतु इति । स इहस्थः पाटलिपुत्रस्थं देवदत्तमुद्दिशति । अङ्गदी कुण्डली किरीटी...ईदृशो देवदत्त इति । स गुणैः प्राप्यमाणमाह । उद्दिष्टो मे दवदत्त इति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence: उद्देश उपदेशदेशः; confer, compare यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् Pari.Śek. Pari. 2.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upamanyu(1)the famous commentator on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikeśvarakārikā. which are known by the name नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका and which form a kind of a commentary on the sūtras of Maheśvara; (2) a comparatively modern grammarian possibly belonging to the nineteenth century who is also named Nandikeśvarakārikā.kārikābhāṣya by Upamanyu.and who has written a commentory on the famous Kāśikāvṛtti by Jayāditya and Vāmana. Some believe that Upa-manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and whose pupil came to be known as औपमन्यव.
upasaṃkhyānamention, generally of the type of the annexation of some words to words already given, or of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already statedition The word is often found at the end of the statements made by the Vārttikakāra on the sūtras of Pāṇini.: confer, compare P.I.1.29 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: I.1.36 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3 et cetera, and others The words वाच्य and वक्तव्य are also similarly useditionThe word is found similarly used in the Mahābhāṣya also very frequently.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
ūṅfeminine. affix ऊ prescribed after masculine nouns ending in the vowel ऊ and denoting a human being as also after some other specific masculine bases cf ऊङुतः P.IV. I.66 and the following sūtras. exempli gratia, for example कुरूः, पङ्गूः श्वश्रूः, करभोरूः, भद्रबाहूः et cetera, and others
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ṛṣicchandsthe metre of the Vedic seers. The seven metres गायत्री, उष्णिक्, अनुष्टुप्, बृहती, पङ्क्ति, त्रिष्टुप् and जगती consisting respectively of 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables are named ऋषिच्छन्दस् as contrasted with the metres दैव, प्राजापत्य and आसुर, which, when combined together, make the metres of the Vedic seers, For details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.1.5.
ekakarmakatransitive verbs having one object, as contrasted with द्विक्रमेक; cf kātantra IV.6.62
ekayoga(1)combination of two Sutras into one;confer, compareअथवा एकयोगः करिष्यते वृद्धिरादैजदेड्गुण इति M.Bh.P.I.1.3,I.4.59,V.2. 25; (2) one and the same Sūtra;confer, compare एकयेागनिर्दिष्टानां सह वा प्रवृत्तिःसह वा निवृत्तिः Pari.Śek.Pari.17; confer, comparealso एकयोगानिर्दिष्टानामप्येकदेशानुवृत्तिर्भवति P. IV.1.27, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, Pari. Śek. Pari. 39.
ekavṛttisingle vṛtti or gloss on the Vedic as well as classical portions of grammar. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva has used this term in his Bhāṣāvṛtti to contrast his Vṛtti (भाषावृत्ति) with the Kāśikāvṛtti and the Bhāgavṛtti which deal with both the portions; confer, compareअनार्ष इत्येकवृत्तावुपयुक्तम् Bhāṣāvṛtti on I.1.16, confer, comparealso Bhāṣāvṛtti on III. 4.99, IV.3.22 and VI.3.20.एकवृत्ति is possibly used by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva in the sense of मुख्यवृत्ति or साधारणवृत्ति i. e. the common chief gloss on both the portions.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekārtha(1)possessed of one sense as contrasted with बह्वर्थ, द्व्यर्थ etc: (2) synonym, confer, compare बहवो हि शब्दा एकार्था भवन्ति । तद्यथा इन्द्रः शक्रः पुरुहूतः पुरंदरः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9; (3) Possessed of a composite sense; confer, compare समासे पुनरेकार्थानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.1 Vārt I. The words एकार्थ्य and एकार्थत्व derived from the word एकार्थ are often found used in the sense of 'possession of a composite sense' एकार्थस्य भाव: एकार्थता,ऐकार्थ्ये एकार्थत्वं वा; confer, compare समासस्यैकार्थत्वंत्संज्ञाया अप्रसिद्धिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.42 Vārt 1; confer, compare also the word एकार्थीभावः (4) potent to be connected; समर्थ; confer, compare सुप्सुपा एकार्थम् ( समस्यते ) C. Vy. II.2.1; (5) analogous समानाधिकरण confer, compare एकार्थं चानेकं च । एकः समानः अर्थः अधिकरणं यस्य तदेकार्थं समानाधिकरणम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Vy. III. 1.22: confer, compare also एकार्थे च । Śāk. II.1.4.
aikapadikagiven in the group of ekapadas or solitarily stated words as contrasted with anekapadas or synonymanuscript. See एकपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
omSee ओंकार a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.ओम् consists of 2 1/2 matras, confer, compare अर्धतृतीयमात्र एके ब्रुवते T. Pr 18.1; शैत्यायन says that ओम् has any one of the three accemts, while कौण्डिन्य says it has प्रचय or एकश्रुति i. e. absence of any accent.
oraṃbhaṭṭa scholar of grammar of the nineteenth century who wrote a Vṛtti on Pāṇini sūtras called पाणिनिसूत्रवृत्ति. He has written many works on the Pūrvamīmāmsa and other Śāstras.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
kan(1)Uṇādi affix as in the words एक, भेक, शल्क etc; (2) taddhita affix.affix क as given by Pāṇini sūtras IV.2.13l, IV.3.32, 65, 147, IV.4.21; V.1.22, 23, 51, 90, V.2.64, 65, 66, 68-75, 77-82, V.3.51, 52, 75,81,82,87, 95, 96, 97. V.4.3,4,6, 29-33.
karmasādhanaprescribed in the sense of an object; a term used in the Mahābhāṣya in the sense of affixes used in the sense of 'object' as contrasted with कर्तृसाधन or भावसाधनः e. g. the affix कि in the word विधि, explained as विधीयते इति विधिः or in the word भाव explained as भाव्यते यः स भावः; confer, compare क्रिया चैव हि भाव्यते, स्वभावसिद्धं तु द्रव्यम् M.Bh. on P. I.3.1. See similarly the words समाहार M.Bh. on II.1.51 and उपधि M.Bh. on V.1.13.
kalāpa(कलाप-व्याकरण)alternative name given to the treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Sātavāhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the namc Kātantra Vyākaraṇa. The available treatise,viz. Kalpasūtras, is much similar to the Kātantra Sūtras having a few changes and additions only here and there.It is rather risky to say that Kalāpa was an ancient system of grammar which is referred to in the Pāṇini Sūtra कलापिनोण् P. IV.3.108. For details see कातन्त्र.
kalāpasaṃgrahaa commentary on the Kalāpa Sūtras.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantrakaumudī(1)a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras written by Govardhana in the 12th century. A. D.; (2) a commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Gaṅgeśaśarman.
kātantradhātuvṛttiascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti., the famous commentator of the Kātantra Sūtras who lived in the ninth or the tenth century.
kātantrapañjikāa name usually given to a compendium of the type of Vivaraṇa or gloss written on the Kātantra Sūtras. The gloss written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on the famous commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. ( the same as the the famous Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. or another of the same name ) known as दौर्गसिंही वृत्ति is called Kātantra Pañjika or Kātantravivaraṇa. A scholar of Kātantra grammar by name Kuśala has written a Pañjika on दुर्गसिंहृ's वृत्ति which is named प्रदीप, Another scholar, Trivikrama has written a gloss named Uddyota.
kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭhaname given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantrapariśiṣṭasiddhāntaratnāṅkuraa gloss on the Kātantra-pariśiṣṭa by Śivarāmendra, who is believed to have written a gloss on the Sūtras of Pāṇini also.
kātantraprakriyāa name given to the Kātantra Sūtras which were written in the original form as a Prakriyāgrantha or a work discussing the various topics such as alphabet, euphonic rules, declension, derivatives from nouns, syntax, conjugation derivatives from roots et cetera, and others et cetera, and others
kātantrapradīpaa grammar work written by a scholar named Kuśala on the Kātantrasūtravṛtti by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. See कातन्त्रपञ्जिका.
kātantrabālabodhinīa short explanatory gloss on the Kātantra Sūtras by Jagaddhara of Kashmir who lived in the fourteenth century and who wrote a work on grammar called Apaśabdanirākaraṇa.
kātantrarahasyaa work on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Ramānātha Vidyāvācaspati of the sixteenth century A. D.
kātantralaghuvṛttia short gloss on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to a scholar named Chucchukabhaṭṭa.
kātantravṛttiname of the earliest commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. The commentary was once very popular as is shown by a number of explanatory commentaries written upon it, one of which is believed to have been written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. himselfeminine. See Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kātya(1)another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakavibhakticase affix governed by a verb or verbal derivative as contrasted with उपपदविभक्ति a case affix governed by a noun, not possessing any verbal activity. See the word कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., See also the word उपपदविभक्ति.
kārtikeyathe original instructor of the Kātantra or Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Grammar, to Śarvavarman who composed the Sūtras according to inspiration received by him. The Kātantra, hence, has also got the name Kaumara Vyākaraṇa.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kuṇiname of an ancient Vṛttikāra the Sūtras of Pāṇini, mentioned in their works by Kaiyata and Haradatta; confer, compare Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on P. I.1.74, also Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.1.1
kumāra(1)Kārtikeya who is believed to havegiven inspiration to the Katantra-sūtrakāra to write the Kātantra-sūtras; (2) named Viṣṇumitra who wrote a commentary on the ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य,
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛtrimaartificial; technical, as opposed to derivative. In grammar, the term कृत्रिम means 'technical sense', as contrasted with अकृत्रिम 'ordinary sense'; confer, compare कृत्रिमाकृत्रिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्यय: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 9.
kṛdantathe word ending with a kṛt affix; the term कृत् is found used in the sūtras of Pāṇini for कृदन्त; confer, compare कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I.2.46. The term कृदन्त for root-nouns, or nouns derived from roots, is found in the Atharvaprātiśākhya (I.1.10, II.3.8, II1.2.4), the Mahābhāṣya and all the later works on grammar. See the word कृत्.
krama(1)serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simultaneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a particular order is generally followed in accordance with the general principle laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् et cetera, and others (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with reference to indeclinables like एव, च et cetera, and others which are placed after a noun with which they are connectedition When an indecinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; confer, compare परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
khilapāṭhaa supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadeśa generally in the form of the sūtras. The word is used in the Kāśikā in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadeśa; confer, compare Kāśikā उपदिश्यते अनेनेत्युपदेश: शास्त्रवाक्यानि सूत्रपाठ: खिलपाठश्च (on P.I.3.2); confer, compare also खिलपाठो धातुपाठः प्रातिपदिकपाठो वाक्यपाठश्च Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on Kāśikā I.3.2.
gaṇaa class of words, as found in the sūtras of Pāṇini by the mention of the first word followed by the word इति; exempli gratia, for example स्वरादि, सर्वादि, ऊर्यादि, भ्वादि, अदादि, गर्गादि et cetera, and others The ten gaṇas or classes of roots given by Pāṇini in his dhātupātha are given the name Daśagaṇī by later grammarians.
gaṇasūtraa statement of the type of a Sūtra in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini where mention of a word or words in the Gaṇapāṭha is made along with certain conditions; e. g. पूर्वपुरावरo, स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् , in the सर्वादिगण, and क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः, तसिलादय: प्राक्पाशपः in the स्वरादिगण. Some of the gaṇasūtras are found incorporated in the Sūtrapāṭha itself Many later grammarians have appended their own gaṇapāṭha to their Sūtrapāṭha.
gatyarthaa root denoting motion; the word frequently occurs in the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Mahābhāṣya in connection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are गत्यर्थ. There is also a conventional expression सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्था: meaning 'roots denoting motion denote also knowledge'; confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari. 121 .
gūḍhārthadīpinīa commentary ( वृत्ति ) on the sutras of Panini by Sadasiva Misra who lived in the seventeenth century.
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
govardhanaa grammarian who has written a work on Katantra Grammar called कातन्त्रकौमुदी and also a commentary on the Ganaratnamahodadhi of Vardhamana. A gloss on the Unadisutras is also assigned to Govardhana who is likely to be the same as a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ṅaña short term or Pratyahara standing for the letters ङ्, ण्, न् , झ् , and भू , casually mentioned in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare एतदप्यस्तु ञकारेण ङञो ह्र्स्वादचि ङञुण्नित्यमिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Mahesvara Sutras 8, 9.
caturmātraconsisting of four matras or moras, a short vowel consisting of one matra, a long vowel of two matras, and a protracted vowel of three matras; confer, compare आन्तर्यतस्त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्राणां स्थानिनां त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्रा आदेशा मा भूवन्निति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva sutra 3.4.
cāturarthikathe affixes prescribed in the four senses mentioned in P. IV.2.67-70. These taddhita affixes are given in the Sutras IV.2.71 to IV.2.91. The term चातुरर्थिक is used for these afixes by commentators on Panini sutras.
cintāmaṇiname of a commentary on the Sutras of the Sakatayana Vyakarana written by यक्षवर्मन्, It is also called लधुवृत्ति.
cullibhaṭṭia grammarian who is supposed to have written a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini; confer, compare तत्र च वृतिः पाणिनिप्रणीतानां सूत्राणां विवरणं चुल्लिभट्टिनल्लूरादि( V. 1. निर्लूरादि-) विरचितम् , Nyasa, on the benedictory verse of Kasika: वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा घातुनामपारायणादिषु at the very beginning.
cūrṇia gloss on the Sutras of Panini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta, Some scholars believe that Patanjali's Mahabhasya is referred to here by the word चूर्णि, as it fully discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that चूर्णि,stands for the Vrtti of चुल्लिभाट्टि. In Jain Religious Literature there are some brief comments on the Sutras which are called चूर्णि and there possibly was a similar चूर्णि on the sutras of Panini.
chandas(1)Vedic Literature in general as found in the rule बहुलं छन्दसि which has occurred several times in the Sutras of Panini, confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, and I.4.3; confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 1, 4; (2) Vedic Samhita texts as contrasted with the Brahmana texts; confer, compareछन्दोब्राह्मणानि च तद्विषयाणि P, IV.2.66; () metre, metrical portion of the Veda.
chandobhāṣāVedic language as contrasted with भाषा (ordinary language in use); confer, compare गुरुत्वं लघुता साम्यं ह्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतानि च...एतत्सर्व तु विज्ञेयं छन्दोभाषां विजानता Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIV. 5.
chucchukabhaṭṭaa grammarian who wrote a short gloss called कातन्त्रलघुवृत्ति on the Katantrasutras.
jagaddharaa poet and grammarian of Kasmira of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named बालबोधिनी on the Katantra Sutras.
jayādityaone of the famous joint authors ( जयादित्य and वामन ) of the well-known gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini, popularly called काशिकावृत्ति. As the काशिकावृत्ति is mentioned by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammer treatise Written some 40 years before his visit, the time of काशिकावृत्ति is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.D. Some scholars believe that जयादित्य was the same as जयापीड a king of Kasmira and बामन was his minister. For details, see pp. 386388 of the Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII published by the D.E. Society, Poona. See काशिका.
jātyaname of a variety of the Svarita or circumflex accent; the original svarita accent as contrasted with the svarita for the grave which follows upon an acute as prescribed by P. in VIII. 4.67, and which is found in the words इन्द्रः, होता et cetera, and others The jatya svarita is noticed in the words स्वः, क्व, न्यक्, कन्या et cetera, and others; .confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं स्वरितमनुदात्तं पदेक्षरम्। अतोन्यत् स्वरितं स्वारं जात्यमाचक्षते पदे॥ जात्या स्वभावेनैव उदात्तानुदात्तसंगतिं विना जातो जात्यः । तं जात्यमाचक्षतै व्याडिप्रभृयः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) and commentary III. 4.
jinacandraauthor of the Siddhantaratna, a commentary on the Sarasvata Sutras,
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jñāpakasamuccayaa work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव.
jhfourth consonant of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and महाप्राणत्व; झ् at the beginning of an affix in Panini Sutras is mute; e. g. the affixes झि, झ et cetera, and others; cf चुटूं P. I. 3.7.
ṭhthe second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्टत्व and महाप्राणत्व. For the syllable ठ at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable इक is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with ठ ) follows upon a word ending in इस्, उस्, उ, ऋ, लृ and त् then क is added instead of इक; e. g. धानुष्क:, औदश्वित्कः et cetera, and others; confer, compare टस्येकः, इसुसुक्तान्तात् कः, P. VII. 3.50, 51. Some scholars say that इक् and क् are substituted for ठ् by the sutras quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare KS. on VII. 3.50.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tadbhāvitaproduced or brought into being by some grammatical operation such as the vowel आ in दाक्षि, कारक्र, अकार्षीत् et cetera, and others by the substitution of वृद्धि, as contrasted with the original अा in ग्राम, विघान शाला, माला et cetera, and others; confer, compare किं पुनरिदं तद्भावितग्रहणं वृद्धिरित्येवं ये आकरैकारौकारा भाव्यन्ते तेषां ग्रहणमाहोस्विदादैज्मात्रस्य M.Bh. on I. 1.1.
tasilādia class of taddhita affixes headed by the affix तस् ( तसिल् ) as given by Panini in his sutras from पञ्चम्यास्तसिल् P. V. 3. 7. upto संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् V.3.17; confer, compare P. VI.3.35. The words ending with the affixes from तसिल् in P.V.3.7 upto पाशप् in P.V.3.47 (excluding पाशप्) become indeclinables; confer, compare Kas on P.I.1.38.
tācchīlikaprescribed in the sense of 'habituated'; a term used in connection with all affixes prescribed in the triad of senses viz. ताच्छील्य, ताद्धर्म्य, तत्साधुकारित्व in Sutras from P. III.2.134 to 180; confer, compare ताच्छीलिकेषु बासरूपविधिर्नास्ति P. III.2.146 Vart. 3, Par. Sek, Pari. 67.
tādrūpyarestoration to, or resumption of the same form by the rule of Sthanivadbhava, prescribed in P.I. 1.56, called रूपातिदेश as contrasted with कार्यातिदेश; confer, compare नेह ताद्रूप्यमतिदिश्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.85 Vart. 26.
tiṅanta(1)a word ending in तिङ्; a Verb; (2) a popular name given to the section which deals with verbs in books on grammar as contrasted with the term सुबन्त which is used for the section dealing with nouns.
trimātraconsisting of three moras or matras. The protracted or प्लुत vowels are said to consist of three matras as contrasted with the short and long vowels which respectively consist of one and two matras; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.I.2.27.
trimuni(1)the famous three ancient grammarians Panini (the author of the Sutras), Katyayana (the author of the Varttikas), and Patanjali (the author of the Mahabhasya;) (2) the grammar of Panini, called so, being the contribution of the reputed triad of Grammarians.
dīrghalong: a term used in connection with the lengthened tone of a vowel described to be dvimatra as contrasted with ह्रस्व having one matra and प्लुत having three matras; confer, compare द्विस्तावान् दीर्घः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 35, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 57, also ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P, I.2.27.
durgasiṃhathe famous commentator of the Katantra sutras, whose Vrtti on the sutras is the most popular one. It is called , कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति or कातन्तवृत्ति or दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति , also. A work on Paribhasas named परिभाषावृति, in which Paribhasas are explained and established as based on the Katantra Vyakarana sutras, is attributed to Durgasimha. It is doubtful whether this commentator Durgasimha is the same as Durgacarya, the famous commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. There is a legend that Durgasimha was the brother of Vikramaditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss on the Katantra sutras, some grammar works such as a gloss on the unadi sutras, a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on Kalapa-Vyakarana Sutras, a commentary on Karakas named षट्कारकरत्न, Namalinganusasana and Paribhasavrtti are ascribed to Durgasimha. Some scholars believe that the term अमरसिंह was only a title given to Durgasimha for his profound scholarship, and it was Durgasimha who was the author of the well-known work Amarakosa.
durghaṭavṛttiname of a grammar work explaining words which are difficult to derive according to rules of Panini. The work is written in the style of a running commentary on select sutras of Panini, devoted mainly to explain difficult formations. The author of it, Saranadeva, was an eastern grammarian who, as is evident from the number of quotations in his work, was a great scholar of the 12th or the 13th century.
devanandincalled also पूज्यपाद or पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् believed to have lived in the fifth century A. D. and written the treatise on grammar, of course based om Panini Sutras, which is known as जैनेन्द्र-व्याकरण or जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as जैनेन्द्र in the usually guoted verse of Bopadeva :इन्द्रश्चन्द्रः काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्र जयन्त्यष्टादेिशाब्दिकाः. देवनन्दिन् was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which सर्वार्थसिद्धि, the commentary on the तत्त्वार्थाधिगमसूत्र, is well-known.
dharaṇīdharaa grammarian of the sixteenth century at the court of Udayasimha who wrote a commentary on the sutras of Panini which was named वैयाकरणसर्वस्व as also a commentary on the Siksa of Panini.
dhamekīrtia Jain scholar called by the name कीर्ति also, who was the author of धातुप्रत्ययपञ्जिक्रा and रूपावतार a well-known treatise on roots; confer, compare बोपदेवमहाग्राहग्रस्तो वामनदिग्गजः । कीर्तेरेव प्रसङ्गेन माधवेन समुद्धृतः । He is believed to have been the first grammarian who arranged the sutras of Panini according to the subject matter.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhruva(1)fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव) which is termed अपादान and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound ( नाद ) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. II and XI. 24.
nandikeśvarakārikāa short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian नन्दिकेश्वर, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen sutras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva. See नन्दिकेश्वर. The treatise is also named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र.
navyamataa term used for the differentiation in views and explanations held by the comparatively new school of Bhattoji Diksita, as contrasted with those held by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in contrast with Bhagttoji Diksita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol.VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D.E. Society, Poona.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nādi(a root)beginning with न् in the Dhatupatha as contrasted with one beginning with ण् ( णादि ) whose ण् is, of course, changed into न् when conjugational and other forms are arrived at; confer, compare सर्वे नादयो णोपदेशा नृतिनन्दिनदिनक्किनाटिनाथृनाधृनॄवर्जम् M.Bh. on VI. 1.65.
nārāyaṇa(1)name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on the Mahabhsya-Pradipa; (2) a grammarian who is said to have written a gloss named Sabdabhusana on the Sutras of Panini as also some minor works named शब्दमञ्जरी, शब्दभेदनिरूपण, et cetera, and others
nigamaa statement in the Vedic passage; a Vedic passage; sacred tradition or Vedic Literature in general; confer, compare the frequent expression इत्यपि निगमो भवति where निगम means 'a vedic word, given as an instance'; if also means 'Veda'; confer, compare निगम एव यथा स्यात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 2. 64. Durgacarya says that the word it also used in the sense of 'meaning';confer, compare तत्र खले इत्येतस्य निगमा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.III.9. Durgacarya has also explained the word as गमयन्ति मन्त्रार्थान् ज्ञापयन्ति इति निगमाः, those that make the hidden meaning of the Mantras very clear.
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
nipātadyotakatvathe view that the nipatas and the upasargas too, as contrasted with nouns,pronouns and other indeclinables, only indicate the sense and do not denote it; this view, as grammarians say, was implied in the Mahabhasya and was prominently given in the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrhari which was followed by almost all later grammarians. See निपात.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niyogaan obligatory order or command, such as that of a preceptor, as contrasted with स्वभाव; cf धातोः परः अकारोऽकशब्दो वा नियोगतःकर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति ......... स्वभावतः कर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 4.67 Vart. 8 where Kaiyata explains नियोग as अाचार्यनियोग.
nirlūraname of a grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on the Sutras of Panini on the strength of a reference to him in the Nyasa of Jinendrabuddhi; confer, compare वृत्तिः पाणिनीयसूत्राणां विवरणं चुल्लिभट्टिनिर्लूरादिप्रणीतम् Nyasa on I.1.1.
naikācmultisyllabic, possessed of many syllables, as contrasted with एकाच्.
nyāsa(1)literally position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; confer, compare the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 et cetera, and others; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa.. This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta., which also is well-known as a scholarly work.
paṭhanaoral recital, the word is used in connection with the use of words by the author himself in his text which he is supposed to have handed over orally to his disciples, as was the case with the ancient Vedic and Sūtra works; confer, compare the words पठित, पठिष्यते, पठ्यते and the like, frequently used in the Mahābhāșya in connection with the mention of words in the Sūtras of Pāņini.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padakāṇḍa(1)a term used in connection with the first section of the Vākyapadīya named ब्रह्मकाण्ड also, which deals with padas, as contrasted with the second section which deals with Vākyas; (2) a section of the Așțadhyāyī of Pāņini, which gives rules about changes and modifications applicable to the pada, or the formed word, as contrasted with the base (अङ्ग) and the suffixes. The section is called पदाधिकार which begins with the rule पदस्य P.VIII.1.16. and ends with the rule इडाया वा VIII. 3. 54.
padavidhian operation prescribed in connection with words ending with case or verbal affixes and not in connection with noun-bases or root-bases or with single letters or syllables. पदविधि is in this way contrasted with अङ्गविधि ( including प्रातिपदिकविधि and धातुविधि ), वर्णविधि and अक्षरविधि, Such Padavidhis are given in Pāņini's grammar in Adhyāya2, Pādas l and 2 as also in VI.1.158, and in VIII. 1.16 to VIII.3.54 and include rules in connection with compounds, accents and euphonic combinations. When, however, an operation is prescribed for two or more padas, it is necessary that the two padas or words must be syntactically connectible; confer, compare समर्थः पदविधिः P. II.1.1.
padādhikārathe topic concerning padas id est, that is words which are regularly formed, as contrasted with words in formation. Several grammatical operations, such as accents or euphonic combinations, are specifically prescribed together by Pāņini at places which are said to be in the Padādhikāra formed by sūtras VIII.1.16 to VIII.3.54.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
padyaforming a part of a word or pada; confer, compare उपोत्तमं नानुदात्तं न पद्यम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 29; confer, compare also पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30. The word is used in this sense ( पदावयव ) mostly in the Prātiśākhya works. The word is used in the sense of पादसंपन्न, made up of the feet (of verses), in the Rk Prātiśākhya in contrast with अक्षर्य, made up of syllables. In this sense the word is derived from the word पाद; confer, compare पद्याक्षर्ये स उत्थितः R. Pr, XVIII. 3.
paranipātaliterallyplacing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, confer, compare उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक et cetera, and others can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) confer, compare परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.
parasaptamīa locative case in the sense of 'what follows', as contrasted with विषयसप्तमी, अधिकरणसप्तमी and the like; confer, compare लुकीति नैषा परसप्तमी शक्या विज्ञातुं न हि लुका पौर्वापर्यमस्ति । का तर्हि । सत्सप्तमी M.Bh. on P.I.2. 49.
parasmaipadaa term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: et cetera, and others applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
pāñcamikaliterallypertaining to the fifth; name given to the affixes prescribed in the fifth Adhyaya of Paanini's Astadhyayi, especially in Sutras V.2.1 to W.2.93.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
puruṣottamavidyāvāgīśaa famous grammarian of Bengal, who wrote the grammar work Prayogaratnamala in the fifteenth century. The work betrays a deep study and scholarship of the writer in the Mantrasāstra.
pūjārthalit for the sake of paying respect. The word is used by commentators in connection with references to ancient grammarians by Panini in his sutras, where the commentators usually say that the sutras citing the views of ancient grammarians imply merely an option, the name being quoted merely to show respect to the grammarian; confer, compare अापिशलिग्रहणं पूजार्थम् S.K. on P.VI.1.92.
pūrvapadaanterior member, the first out of the two members of a compound, as contrasted with the next member which is उत्तरपद; confer, compare पूर्वपदोत्तरपदयोरेकोदशः पूर्वपदत्यान्तवद्भवति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.1.85 Vart. 4.
pūrvavidhi(1)an operation or karya or the anterior confer, compare P. I. 1.57: cf also Mahabhasya on P. I. 1.57 cf also एकादेशः पूर्वविधौ स्थानिवत् M.Bh. on I.2.4 Vart. 2 and II. 4.62 Vart. 4; (2) an operation or a rule cited earlier in the order of sutras; confer, compare पूविधिमुत्तरो विधिर्वाधते M. Bh on P 1. 1.44 Vart. 13.
pedubhaṭṭaa grammarian.who has written a treatise named औणादिकपदार्णव on the Unadi sutras.
prakaraṇagranthaliterary works in which the treatment is given in the form of topics by arranging the original sutras or rules differently so that all such rules as relate to a particular topic are found together: the Prakriykaumudi, the Siddhantakumudi and others are called प्रकरणग्रन्थs. Such works are generally known by the name प्राक्रयाग्रन्थ as opposed to वृतिग्रन्थ.
prakalpakriyaa word in which a verbal activity has to be conjectured, as for example, the words गौः, अश्वः et cetera, and others Words which are not actually derived by rules of grammar are called प्रकल्पक्रिय as contrasted with प्रत्यक्षक्रिय.
prakṛtiniyamarestriction regarding the base, as contrasted with प्रत्ययनियम, confer, compare किमयं प्रत्ययनियम: प्रकृतिपर एव प्रत्ययः प्रयोक्तव्यः अप्रकृतिपरो नेति । अाहोस्वित् प्रकृतिनियमः । प्रत्ययपरैव प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या अप्रत्ययप्ररा नेति [ M.Bh. on P.III. 1.2.
prakrutisvarathe accent id est, that is the acute accent ( उदात्त ) possessed by the original word as contrasted with the accent of the afix ( प्रत्ययस्वर ) which (latter) is looked upon as more powerful; confer, compare (बहुव्रीहौ) पूर्वपदं प्रकृतिस्वरं भवति M.Bh, on II.I.24, II. 2.29 Vart. 17, See Panini Sutras VI.2.1 to 63.
prakriyāsaṃgrahaa work on grammar by Abhayacandra in which the Sutras of Sakatayana's Sabdanusasana are arranged in the form of different sections dealing with the different topics of grammar.
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
pratyāhārasūtraa term for the fourteen Siva Sutras which are utilized for the formation of Pratyaharas.
pratyāhārāhnikaname given to the second Ahnika of the Mahabhasya which explains the Siva Sutras अइउण्, ऋऌक् , et cetera, and others, and hence naturally discusses the Pratyaharas.
prayojyathat which is employed or incited or urged; the word which is the subject in the primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction, and as a result, which is put in the accusative case being प्रयोज्यकर्म. As, however, the प्रयोज्यकर्म originally occupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction, the term प्रयोज्यकर्ता ( प्रयोज्यश्चासौ कर्ता च ) is often used in connection with it, as contrasted with the term प्रयोजककर्ता which is used with respect to the subject in the causal construction; confer, compare इह च भेदिका देवदत्तस्य यज्ञदत्तस्य काष्ठानामिति प्रयोज्ये कर्तरि षष्ठी न प्राप्नोति । M.Bh. on P. III. 1.26 Vart. l ; confer, compare also Kaiy. on P. I. 2.65.
prasvāraa word or utterance in three matras or moras; confer, compare स ओमिति प्रस्वरति त्रिमात्रः प्रस्वारः स्थाने स भवत्युदात्तः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV.3 whereon Uvvata remarks त्रिमात्र: प्रस्वारः । See the word ओंकार
prākṛta(1)original, primary,belonging to the Prakrti as contrasted with a वैकृत modification or a modified thing; cf प्रकृतिः स्वभावः, तत्संबन्धी प्राकृतः. commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 28: confer, compare एतद्विकारा एवान्ये, सर्वे तु प्राकृताः समाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII. 23; confer, compare also तहीन् ... पशूंस्तकारपरः ( नकारः ) सकारं प्राकृतो नित्ये Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI. 14; (2) natural, which can be so ordinarily, without any specific effort; confer, compare तस्मात् प्राकृतमेवैतत् कर्म यथा कटं करोति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.5, confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III 1.5 Vart. 8, 9.
prācyāvaiyākaraṇaan eastern grammarian; the term प्राच्य (eastern) being a relative term, the east is to be taken with respect to the place in the context. The word प्राचां occurs many times in Panini's Sutras and the term प्राक् may refer to countries east of the river शरावती or सरस्वती in the Punjab. See प्राग्देश a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. प्राचां is understood by some commentators as referring to time, in which case, the word may refer to ancient grammarians आपिशलि, शाकटायन, इन्द्र and others who lived before Panini; confer, compare प्राचीनवैयाकरणतन्त्रे वाचनिकानि ...Par. Sek. Pari. 1. The word प्राचीन is, of course, mostly used in the sense of ancient, rather than the word प्राच्. For specific peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp. 148-149 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
prauḍhamanoramāpopularly called मनोरमा also; the famous commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Diksita written by the author himself to explain fully in a scholarly manner the popular grammar written by him; , the word प्रौढमनेारमा is used in contrast with बालमनोरमा another commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Vasudevadiksita. On account of the difficult nature of it, it is usual to read the प्रौढमनेारमा upto the end of the Karaka-prakarana only in the Sanskrit PathaSalas before the study of the Sabdendusekhara and the Paribhsendusekhara is undertaken.
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
plutiprolation or protraction of a vowel when it is possessed of three matras; confer, compare. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.31. See प्लुत a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अविद्वांसः प्रत्यभिवादे नाम्नो ये न प्लुतिं विदुः । कामं तेषु तु विप्रोष्य स्त्रीष्विवायमहं वदेत् M.Bh. on P.I.1 Ahnika 1
bahvacmultisyllabled, a word which contains three, or more than three vowels; the word occurs many times in the sutras of Panini. confer, compare P. II. 4.66, IV. 2.73, IV. 2.109, IV. 3.67; V. 3.78, VI. 2.83, VI. 3.118.
bāhulakathe application of a grammatical rule as a necessity to arrive at some forms in literature especially in the Vedic Literature as also in the works of standard writers, which cannot be explained easily by the regular application of the stated rules; confer, compare सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिदनराणां कालहलच्स्वरकर्तृयङां च । व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां सोपि च सिध्यति बाहुलकेन M.Bh. on P. III. 1.85; also confer, compare बाहुलकं प्रकृतेस्तनुदृष्टेः प्रायसमुच्चयनादपि तेषाम् । कार्यसशेषविधेश्च तदुक्तं नैगमरूढिभवं हि सुसाधु M.Bh. on P. III.3.1. In many sutras, Panini has put the word बहुलम् to arrive at such forms; e.g see P.II.1.32,57; II.3.62. II.4.39,73,76,84 et cetera, and others
buddhikarmanactivity of the mind of the type of understanding as contrasted with the activity of the sense organs; confer, compare इन्द्रियकर्म समासादनं बुद्धिकर्म व्यवसायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III. 3. 133 Vart. 8.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
bṛhatsaṃjñāthe same as महत्संज्ञा or महती संज्ञा; a bigger terminology as contrasted with लघुसंज्ञा brief terminology such as टि, घु, भ et cetera, and others for which (latter) Panini is very particular. The bigger terms such as सर्वनाम, अात्मनेपद, परस्मैपद and others are evidently borrowed by Panini from the ancient grammarians who lived before him.
brahmarāśithe sacred Sanskrit alphabet given in the fourteen sutras of Mahesvara, named Aksarasamamnaya which is called ब्रह्मराशि as it contains the basic letters of शब्द which is Brahma according to Grammarians; confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्यसमाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 2 end; confer, compare also एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः V. Pr.VIII. 25.
bhasaṃjñāthe term भ applied to the noun-base in contrast with the term पद. For details see the word भ.
bhāgavṛttione of the oldest commentaries on the Sutras of Panini, which, although not available at present, has been profusely quoted by Purusottamadeva and other Eastern Grammarians of the twelfth and later centuries. The authorship of the work is attributed to Bhartrhari, but the point is doubtful as Siradeva in his Paribhasavrtti on Pari. 76 has stated that the author of the Bhagavrtti has quoted from Maghakavya; confer, compare अत एवं तत्रैव सूत्रे भागवृत्तिः पुरातनमुनेर्मुनितामिति पुरातनीनेदिरिति च प्रमादपाठावेतौ गतानुगतिकतया कवयः प्रयुञ्जते न तेषां लक्षणे चक्षुरिति | Some scholars attribute its authorship to Vimalamati. Whosoever be the author, the gloss ( भागवृत्ति ) was a work of recognised merit; confer, compare काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत् सिद्धान्तं वेत्तुमस्ति धी: | तदा विचिन्त्यतां भातभीषावृत्तिरियं मम Bhasavrtti at the end. सृष्टिघर in his commentary on the Bhasavrtti also says " सा हि द्वयोर्विवरणकर्त्री."
bhāvyamānalit, which is to be produced; which is prescribed by a rule, like an affix; hence, an affix or an augment or a substitute prescribed by a rule as contrasted with the conditions or the original wording for which something is substituted, or after which an affix is placed, or to which an addition is made, or which is deleted; confer, compare भाव्यमानेन सवर्णानांग्रहृणं न Par. Sek. Pari, 19; also confer, compare M.Bh. on P.I. 1.50, I.1. 69,VI.1.85, VI.4.160.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhāṣikabelonging to, or used in spoken language as contrasted with the Vedic Language or निगम; confer, compare अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhāṣyasūtrathe brief pithy statements in the Mahābhāṣya of the type of the Sūtras or the Vārttikas. These assertions or statements are named 'ișṭi' also.
bhāṣyeṣṭithe brief pithy assertions or injunctions of the type of Sūtras given by Patañjali in a way to supplement the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Vārttikas thereon. See the word इष्टि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. and the word भाष्यसूत्र also.
bhīmādia class of words headed by the word भीम in which the Uṇādi affixes म and others, as prescribed by specific Uṇādi sūtras, are found added in the sense of the 'apādāna' case-relation; exempli gratia, for example भीमः in the sense 'बिभेति अस्मात्'. Similarly भीष्मः, भूमि:, रज: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.4.74.
bhūvādilit headed by भू , or headed by भू and वा as some scholars like to explain; the term means roots; in general, which have भू as the first root in Pāṇini's list of roots; confer, compare भूवादयो धातव: P. I. 3.1; The word भूवादि denoting roots stands in contrast with the word भ्वादि which stands for the roots of the first conjugation. भूवादीनां वकारोयं मङ्गलार्थः प्रयुज्यते | भुवो वार्थं वदन्तीति भ्वर्था वा वादयः स्मृता: Kāś. on P. I. 3.1.
bhedaka(1)literallydistinguishing; differentiating; cf भेदकत्वात्स्वरस्य | भेदका उदात्तादय: | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 13; (2) adjective; confer, compare भेदकं विशेषणं भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II: 1.57; (3) variety; kind; confer, compare सामान्यस्य विशेषो भेदकः प्रकार: Kāś. on P.V. 3.23; (4) indicating, suggesting, as contrasted with वाचक; confer, compare संबन्धस्य तु भेदक: Vākyapadīya.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
maṇḍūkagatiliterallythe gait of a frog; jump; the continuation of a word from a preceding Sūtra to the following Sūtra or Sūtras in the manner of a frog by omitting one or more Sūtras in the middle; the word मण्डूकप्लुति is also used in the same sense especially by later grammarians; confer, compare अथवा मण्डूकगतयोधिकाराः | यथा मण्डूका उत्प्लुत्योत्प्लुत्य गच्छन्ति तद्वदधिकाराः || Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2, II. 3.32, II. 4.34, VI.1.16, VI.3.49,VII. 2.117.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahāsaṃjñāa long term, as contrasted with the very short terms टि, घु, भ, इत् and others introduced by Panini in his grammar for the sake of brevity. These long terms such as सर्वनाम, अब्यय,परस्मैपद, अात्मनेपद, and many others were widely in use at the time of Panini and hence he could not but pick them up in his grammar in spite of his strenuous attempts at brevity. The commentators, however, find out a motive for his doing this viz. that appropriate words only could be understood by those terms and not others; confer, compareमहासंज्ञाकरणेन तदनुगुणानामेव अत्र संनिवेशात् । S.K. on सर्वादीने सर्वनामानि P. I.1.27.
māṇikyadevaa Jain writer who has written a gloss on the Unadisutras consisting of ten chapters popularly called उणादिसूत्रदशपादी.
mādhavathe well-known epoch-making scholar of the 14th century who has written a number of treatises in various Saastras. His धातुवृम्त्ति is a well-known work in grammar
mādhurīrvṛtia gloss not composed by, but simply explained by an inhabitant of Mathuraa or Madhuraa Such a gloss is referred to in the Mahaabhaasya on P.IV.3.101 Vaart.3, which possibly might be referring to an existing gloss on the SUtras of Paanini, which was being explained at Mathura, at the time of Patanjali. The term मधुरा was used for मथुरा in ancient times and the word माथुरी वृत्ति is also used for माधुरी वृति.
māheśasutrthe fourteen sutras अइउण्, ऋलृक् et cetera, and others which are believed to have been composed by Siva and taught to Paanini, by means of the sounds of the drum beaten at the end of the dance; confer, compare नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजेा ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् । उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद्विमशौ शिवसूत्रजालम् Nandikeswara-kaarikaa 1. For details see Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition.
māheśrvarasūtrthe sUtras, the authorship of which is attributed to Shiva; the sutras अइउण etc। giving the alphabet. see माहेशसूत्र
mitavṛtyarthasaṃgrahaname ofa grammatical work on the SUtras of Paanini by Udayana.
mukhanāsikāvacanadefinition of अनुनासक, a letter which is pronounced through both-the mouth and the nose-as contrasted with नासिक्य a letter which is uttered only through the nose; exempli gratia, for example ड्, ञ् , ण्, न् , म् and the nasalized vowels and nasalized य् , व् and ल्; confer, compare मुखनासिक्रावचनेीSनुनासिकः Paan. I. 1.8: confer, compare also अनुस्वारोत्तम अनुनासिकाः (Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II.30), where the fifth letters and the anusvaara are called anunaasika. According to Bhattoji, however, anusvaara cannot be anunaasika as it is pronounced through the nose alone, and not through both-the mouth and the nose. As the anusvaara is pronounced something like a nasalized ग् according to the Taittiriyas it is called a consonant in the Taittiriya Praatisaakhya: confer, compare ' अनुस्वारोप्युत्तमवह्यञ्जनमेव अस्मच्छाखायाम् ! अर्धगकाररूपत्वात् / Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 30.
mukhyamain, , principal, primary substantive as contrasted with a gualifying substantive;confer, compareगौणमुख्ययोमुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्यय: Par. Sek. Pari. 15.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yamanvāan obscure term found used in the Phit-sUtras राजाविशेषस्य यमन्वा चेत् ( आद्युदात्ते भेवति ) Phi-sUtra II. 42, where the word यमन्वा is explained as वृद्ध by the commentator for the meaning of वृद्ध, see वृद्धिर्यस्याचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् P. 1.1.73.
yuktavatthe sense of the original base,the affix after which is dropped by means of the term लुप् as contrasted with the terms लोप and लुक् which are used in the same sense: confer, compare लुप्तवदिति निष्ठाप्रत्ययेन क्तवतुना प्रकृत्यर्थ उच्यते । स हि प्रत्ययार्थमात्मना युनक्ति ' KS. on P. I. 3.51.
yogavāhaa technical term used for phonetic elements or letters which are mentioned in the alphabet of Panini, viz., the Mahesvara sutras in contrast with the term अयोगवाह which is used by grammarians for the phonetic elements अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others which are not mentionedition ,See अयोगवाह; confer, compare also M. Bh on Siva sutra 5.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
yogārambhalaying down or citing a rule as done by the writers of sutras; confer, compare नैकं प्रयोजनं योगारम्भं प्रयोजयति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1.67 Vart. 5; P. VII. 1.96 Vart. 2.
raktaliterally coloured id est, that iscoloured by nasalization: a term used by ancient grammarians for a nasaIized letter ( अनुनासिक ); cf रक्तसंज्ञो नुनासेकः R.Pr.r.17on which Uvvata comments :-अनुनासिको वणो . रक्त इत्युच्यते; also confer, compare अरक्तसंध्येत्यपवाद्यते पदं R. Pr, XI. 18, where unnasalized अा is stated as अरक्तसंधि and illustrated by the commentator by quoting the passage मन्द्रमावरेण्यम् as contrasted with अभ्र औ अषः ।
ratnārṇavaname of a commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi written by Krsnamitra, a famous grammarian and Naiyayika who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote many commentary works on books in the Vyakarana and Nyāya Sastras.
rāmacandra dīkṣitaa grammarian who wrote (l) Unadikosa, ( 2 ) Manidipika, a commentary on the Unadisutras, and (3) Sabdabhedaniruipana.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
rāmanātha( विद्यावाचस्पति )a Sanskrit scholar of the 17th century who studied Vyakarana,. Dharma, Alamkara and other Sastras and wrote a grammar work कातन्त्ररहस्य, besides many books on other Sastras.
rāmānanda grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a commentary on Bopadeva's Mugdhabodha. He was possibly the same as Ramarama (see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) and Ramānandatirtha who wrote the Katantrasamgraha, although different from the well-known रामानन्दतर्थि of the sixteenth century who was a sanyasin and who wrote many philosophical and religious booklets.
ru(1)substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः confer, compare P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् (exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् (exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; confer, compareP.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd person. sing; confer, compare P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example मरुत्व: हरिवः ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter id est, that is the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; exempli gratia, for example भवांश्चिनोति; confer, compare P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12.
rūḍhāSamhitāpǎțha, as contrasted with the Padapāțha.
rūpamālā(1)an elementary work on Sanskrit grammar composed by Vimalasarasvatī, in which the Sūtras of Pāņini are arranged in different topics many of which are called माला, such as अजन्तमाला, हलन्तमाला, छान्दसमाला, अव्ययमाला and so on.(2) the name रूपमाला is also found given to a work giving collections of formed words written by Puņyanandana.
laghu(1)a term used in the sense of light or short as contrasted with गुरु meaning heavy or long, which is applied to vowels like अ, इ et cetera, and others confer, compare ह्रस्वं लघु P.I. 4. 10; (2) brevity; brief expression;confer, compare लघ्वर्थे हि संज्ञाकरणम् M.Bh. on P.I.2,27 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6 also संज्ञा हि नाम यतो न लघीय:; (3) small, as qualifying an effort in writing or explaining something as also in utterance; confer, compare व्यॊर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य P.VIII.3.18.
laghutāsmallness of effort as contrasted with गुरुता; confer, compare तत्राप्ययं नावश्यं गुरुलघुतामेवोपलक्षयितुमर्हति, M.Bh. on P. I.1.3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
laghunyāsa(1)short writing, brief putting in, brief expression; confer, compare सोयमेवं लघुना न्यासेन सिद्धे et cetera, and others; (2) the word is given as a name to a grammatical work, written by देवेन्द्रसूरि on the शब्दानुशासन of Hemacandra, possibly in contrast with the बृहन्न्यास written by Hemacandra himself or with Kāśikāvivaranapańjikā popularly called न्यास written by Jinendrabuddhi on the Kāśikāvŗti of Jayāditya and Vāmana. See न्यास.
laghuparibhāṣāvṛttian independent work on Paribhāşās written by Puruşottamadeva in the twelfth century A. D. called लघुपरिभाषावृत्ति in contrast with the बृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति of सीरदेव. The Vŗtti is named ' Lalitā ' also, by the author.
laghuprakriyāname of a grammar treatise based on the Sabdānuśāsana of Hemacandra written by Vinayavijaya where the sūtras of Hemacandra are arranged in different topics as in the Siddhāntakaumudī of Bhoțțojī.
lāghavabrevity of expression; expressing in as few words as possible; brevity of thought and conception. About brevity of expression,rules or sūtras of the ancient Sūtrakāras are noteworthy especially those of the grammarian Pāņini, whose brevity of expression is aptly extolled in the familiar expression अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणा: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 122; confer, compare also in contrast पर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par.Śek.Pari.115.
lugvikaraṇaa term used by grammarians especially in the Mahābhāșya; (confer, compare M.Bh. on P.I. 2.4, I.2.12, II.4. 77 et cetera, and others) for such roots as have their Vikaraņa (conjugational sign) dropped by a rule with the mention of the word लुक्;exempli gratia, for example the roots of the second conjugation as contrastedition with other roots; confer, compare लुग्विकरणालुग्विकरणयोरलुग्विकरणस्य Par.Śek. Pari.90.
luṅan affix applied to a root, showing action of immediate past time as contrasted with affixes called लिट् or लङ्. The affix लुङ् is found used, however, in the sense of the past time in general, and irrespective of time in Vedic Literature; confer, compare छन्दसि लुङ्लङ्लिटः P. III. 4.6. The conjugational affixes ति, त:, et cetera, and others are substituted for लुङ् as for the lakāras of other tenses and moods and the distinguishing sign or विकरण is added to a root before the affix called लुङ्; confer, compare च्लि लुङि and the following P. III. 1.43 et cetera, and others
lokaa term used in the Mahābhāșya in contrast with the term वेद, signifying common people speaking the language correctly; the term लोक is also used in contrast with the term शास्त्र or its technique; confer, compare यथा लोके or लोकतः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VII. 1. 9, I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; also confer, compare न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
lopabalīyastvathe superior strength or superiority of elision as a grammatical operation in contrast with other operations, by virtue of which the elision, which is prescribed, takes place first and then other operations get a scope for their application; confer, compare सर्वविधिभ्यो लोपविधिर्बलीयान् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.
laukikaprevalent in common utterance.of the people as contrasted with वैदिक;confer, compareयथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु कृतान्तेषु M.Bh.on Āhnika 1.See लोक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.
vacana(1)literally statement; an authoritative statement made by the authors of the Sutras and the Varttikas as also of the Mahabhasya; confer, compare अस्ति ह्यन्यदेतस्य वचने प्रयोजनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 1 Vart. 1 The word is also used predicatively in the sense of वक्तव्यम् by the Varttikakara; confer, compare ऌति ऌ वावचनम् , ऋति ऋ वावचनम् ; (2) number, such as एकवचन, द्विवचन, बहुवचन et cetera, and others; confer, compare वचनमेकत्वद्वित्वबहुत्वानि Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.I.2.51 ; cf लुपि युक्तिवद् व्यक्तिवचने | लुकि अभिधेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति। लवणः सूपः। लवणा यवागू:। M.Bh.on P.I. 2.57; (3) expressive word; confer, compare गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P. V.1.124 where the Kasika explains the word गुणवचन as गुणमुक्तवन्तो गुणवचनाः; confer, compare also the terms गुणवचन, जातिवचन, क्रियावचन et cetera, and others as classes of words; confer, compare also अभिज्ञावचने लृट् P.III.2.112; (4) that which is uttered; confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिक:। मुखसहिता नासिका मुखनासिका । तया य उच्चार्यते असौ वर्ण: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.1.8.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṇaphonemic unit: a letter The term was in use in ancient times and found used generally in the masculine gender, but occasionally in the neuter gender too; .e. g. उपदिष्टा इमे वर्णाः M.Bh. Ahnika 1. also मा कदाचिदवर्णे भूत् M.Bh. on Siva Sutras 3, 4.
varṇapāṭhaserial mention or enumeration of letters in the fourteen Siva Sutras. The word is also used in the sense of the alphabet given in the Pratisakhya and grammar works; confer, compare एवं तर्हि वर्णपाठ एव उपदेश: करिष्यते M.Bh. on P. I. 1.69.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
a term often used in the sutras of Panini and others,' to show the optional application of a rule: confer, compare न वेति विभाषा P.I.2.44: confer, compare also वा गम:I.2.13 et cetera, and others See विभाषा.
vākyakāraa term used for a writer who composes a work in pithy, brief assertions in the manner of sutras, such as the Varttikas. The term is found used in Bhartrhari's Mahabhasyadipika where by contrast with the term Bhasyakara it possibly refers to the varttikakara Katyayana; confer, compare एषा भाष्यकारस्य कल्पना न वाक्यकारस्य Bhartrhari Mahabhasyadipika. confer, compare also Nagesa's statement वाक्यकारो वार्तिकरमारभते: confer, compare also चुलुम्पादयो वाक्यकारीया ; Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti.
vākyaparisamāpticompletion of the idea to be expressed in a sentence or in a group of sentences by the wording actually given, leaving nothing to be understood as contrasted with वाक्यापरिसमाप्ति used in the Mahabhasya: confer, compare वाक्यापरिसमाप्तेर्वा P.I.1.10 vart. 4 and the Mahabhasya thereon. There are two ways in which such a completion takes place,singly and collectively; cf प्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः: illustrated by the usual example देवदत्तयज्ञदत्तविष्णुमित्रा भोज्यन्ताम् where Patanjali remarks प्रत्येकं ( प्रत्यवयवं) भुजिः परिसमाप्यते; cf also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः where Patajali remarks गर्गा: शतं दण्ड्यन्ताम् | अर्थिनश्च राजानो हिरण्येन भवन्ति न च प्रत्येकं दण्डयन्ति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.1Vart.12: cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.7, I.2.39, II.2.l et cetera, and others वाक्यप्रकाश a work on the interpretation of sentences written with a commentary upon it by उदयधर्ममुनि of North Gujarat who lived in the seventeenth century A.D.
vācakaexpressive, as contrasted with द्योतक्र, व्यञ्जक, सूचक and भेदक which ७ mean suggestive; the term is used in connection with words which directly convey their sense by denotation, as opposed to words which convey indirectly the sense or suggest it as the prefixes or Nipatas do.
vācanikaexpressly cited by a वचन or a statement of the authors of the Sutra, the Varttika and the Mahabhasya, as contrasted with what naturally occurs or is inferred from their statements; confer, compare नेदं वाचनिकसलिङ्गता असंख्यता च ( अव्ययानाम् ) ( स्वाभाविकमेतत् M.Bh. on P.I. 1.38 Vart. 5 and P. II.2.6, confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.64 Vart. 53.
vācya(1)directly expressed (sense) as contrasted with व्यङ्ग्य or ध्वनित: confer, compare शब्देनार्थान् वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात्पौर्वापर्यम् | M.Bh. on P. I.4.109 Vart. 10; (2) which should be stated or which deserves to be stated, The word वाच्य is generally put in connection with the additions or corrections to the sutras by the Varttikakara and the Mahbhasyakara in their explanations: confer, compare तत्रैतावद्वाच्यम्, M.Bh. on P. I.4.1 ; confer, compare also वाच्य ऊर्णोर्णुवद्भावःM.Bh. on P. III.1. 22 Vart. 3; III. I. 36 Vart. 6.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vāmananame of one of the joint authors of the well-known gloss or वृति upon the Sutras of Panini, who lived in the seventh century A. D. It cannot be ascertained which portion of the Kasika was written by Vamana and which by his colleague जयादित्य, There was another famous scholar of Kashmir by name Vamana who flourished in the tenth century and who wrote an independent grammar treatise विश्रान्तविद्याधर, together with उणादसूत्रवृत्ति and लिङ्गानुशासन.
vārarucakārikāan ancient grammarwork in verse believed to have been written by an ancient scholar of grammar, who, if not the same as Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas, was his contemporary and to whom the authorship of the Unadi Sutras is ascribed by some scholars. See वररुचि.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārtikavacanaa small pithy statement or assertion in the manner of the original sutras which is held as much authoritative as the Sutra: cf न ब्रुमो वृत्तिसूत्रवचनप्रामाण्यादिति | किं तर्हि | वार्तिकवचनप्रामाण्यादिति [ M.Bh. on P.II..1.1 Varttika 23.
vārttikasūtrathe same as वार्तिकवचन which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Varttikas are termed Varttika sutras on account of their close similarity with the original Sutras, which in contrast are termed Vrttisutras.
vāsudeva( शास्त्री)surnamed Abhyankar, who lived from 1863 to l942 and did vigorous and active work of teaching pupils and writing essays, articles, commentary works and original works on various Shastras with the same scholarship, zeal and acumen for fifty years in Poona. He wrote गूढार्थप्रकाश a commentary on the LaghuSabdendusekhara and तत्त्वादर्श a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara in 1889. His edition of the Patanjala Mahabhasya with full translation and notes in Marathi can be called his magnum opus. See अभ्यंकर.
vikaraṇaan affix placed between a root and the personal ending, for showing the specific tense or mood or voice to convey which, the personal ending is applied; e. g. the conjugational signs शप् , श्यन् , श्रु, श, श्नम्, उ, श्ना and यक्, आम् , as also स्य, तास् , सिप् , अाम् and च्लि with its substitutes. Although the term विकरण is used by ancient grammarians and freely used by the Mahabhsyakara in connection with the affixes, mentioned in the sutras of Panini, such as शप् , श्यन् and others, the term is not found in the Sutras of Panini. The vikaranas are different from the major kinds of the regular affixes तिङ्, कृत्य and other similar ones. The vikaranas can be called कृत्; so also, as they are mentioned in the topic (अधिकार) of affixes or Pratyayas,they hold the designation ' pratyaya '. For the use of the word विकरण see M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12, III, 1.31 and VI. 1.5. The term विकरण is found . in the Yājñavalkya Siksa in the sense of change, ( confer, compare उपधारञ्जनं कुर्यान्मनोर्विकरणे सति ) and possibly the ancient grammarians used it in that very sense as they found the root कृ modified as करु or कुरु, or चि as चिनु, or भू as भव before the regular personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vidheya;(1)predicate as constrasted with उद्देश्य; confer, compareसमर्थाधिकारस्य विधेयसामानाधिकरण्यनियमोनर्थकः M.Bh. on P.II.1. 1 Vart. 17: (2) that which should be prescribed as contrasted with प्रतिषेध्य: confer, compare तिङ् च कश्चिद्विडधेयः कश्चित् प्रतिषेध्य: M.Bh. on P.I. 2.64 Vart.9.
viprarājendraa grammarian who has written पाणिनिसूत्रविवरण, a gloss on the Sūtras of Pāṇini.
vimalamatian old grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss named भागवृत्ति on Pāṇini's Sūtras to which the grammarians Purusottamadeva, Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand others of the twelfth century refer. Some scholars say that भागवृत्ति was written by भर्तृहरि; but it is not feasible, as there is a reference to Māghakāvya in भागवृति. In books on grammar,. especially of the Eastern School in the 11th and the 12th century, there are several quotations from the Bhāgavṛtti. See भागवृत्ति.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vivṛtaname given to an internal effort (as contrasted with the external effort named विवार ) when the tip, middle, or root of the tongue which is instrumental in producing a sound, is kept apart from the place or sthāna of the Pro duction of the sound; confer, compare तत्रोत्पत्तेः प्राग्यदा जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानि तत्तद्वर्णोत्पत्तिस्थानानां ताल्वादीनां दूरतः वर्तन्ते तदा विवृतता Tattvabodhini on S. K. on P.I.1.9.
viśeṣavihitaspecifically prescribed, as contrasted with prescribed in general which is set aside; confer, compare सामान्यविहितस्य विशेषविहितेन वाधः; M.Bh. on P.II.1.24: cf also M.Bh. on P.III. 1.94 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).10, III.2.77 et cetera, and others
viśrambharelaxation, a characteristic of the grave accent as contrasted with अायाम which characterizes the acute accent; confer, compare उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । आयामविश्रम्भाक्षेपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः । विश्रम्भः अधोगमनं गात्राणाम् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on R.Pr.III.1.विश्रम्भ is the same as अन्ववसर्ग which is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as अन्ववसर्गो गात्राणां शिथिलता. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.29,30.
viśleṣaseparation of vowels that are in coalescence: showing separately the two vowels that are combined together in the Saṁhitā Text.The term is contrasted with प्रश्लेष which is the same as एकादेश in the terminology of Pāṇini.
viṣayasaptamīlocative case denoting the domain or province of a particular suffix or a substitute or the like, which could be actually applied later on; this विषयसप्तमी is contrast ed with परसप्तमी when the thing mentioned in the locative case is required, to be present in front; confer, compareअसति पौर्वापर्ये विषयसप्तमी विज्ञास्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.35; confer, compare also अार्धधातुके इति विषयसप्तमी Kāś, on P.II. 4.35; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26 and IV. 1.90.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vṛttitrayavārtikaa very short work in verse-form explaining in a very general manner the nature of Sūtras and Vārttikas; the work is anonymous.
vṛttipakṣathe alternative method of speaking by the use of compound words as contrasted with simple words; both the methods are observed in use among the people: cf इह द्वौ पक्षौ वृत्तिपक्षश्चावृत्तिपक्षश्च। स्वभावतश्चैतद् भवति वाक्यं च समासश्च । M.Bh.on P.II.1.l,II.1.51, III.1.7,IV.1. 82.
vṛttiparigaṇanaa definite enumeration of words used in a specific sense (as contrasted with वार्तिपरिगणन) which means a definite enumeration of the senses in which an operation, such as a compound-formation or so,takes place; confer, compare अथैतस्मिन्सति अनभिधाने यदि वृतिपरिगणनं क्रियते, वर्तिपरिगणनमपि कर्तव्यम् ; cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.24 Vart. 16.
vṛttisamavāyaserial arrangement of letters in a specific way ( as for instance in the Mahesvara Sutras) for the sake of grammatical functions; confer, compare वृत्तिसमवायार्थं उपदेशः | वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः। समवायॊ वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण सांनवेशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I.
vṛttisūtraa rule forming the basis of a vrtti, i. e. a rule on which glosses are written, as contrasted with वार्तिकसूत्र or वार्तिक a pithy Sutralike statement composed as an addition or a modification of the original Sutra; confer, compare केचित्तावदाहुर्यद् वृत्तिसूत्रे इति | संख्ययाव्ययासन्नादूराधिकसंख्यां: संख्येये ( P. II. 2.25 ) इति | M, Bh. on P. II. 2. 24,
vṛddha(1)a term used in Paninis grammar for such words or nouns ( प्रातिपदिक ) which have for their first vowel a vrddhi vowel, i. e. either अा or ऐ or अौ: exempli gratia, for example शाला, माला et cetera, and others; confer, compare वृद्धिर्यस्य अचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् ; (2) a term applied to the eight pronouns headed by त्यत् for purposes of the addition of taddhita affix. affixes prescribed for the Vrddha words, such as छ by वृद्धाच्छ: P. IV.2.114: (3) a term applied to words having ए or ओ as the first vowel in them, provided such words denote districts of Eastern India, e. g. गोनर्द, भोजकट et cetera, and others confer, compare एङ् प्राचां देशे, P.I.1.73, 74 and 75; (4) a term used in the Pratisakhya works for a protracted vowel ( प्लत ) which has three matras; cf तिस्रॊ वृद्धम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.44.
vṛṣan( वृषा ),a term used in ancient grammar works for a word of the masculine gender as contrasted with येषा.
vedalanguage of the Vedic Literature as contrasted with the term लॊकः; confer, compare नैव लोके न च वेदे अकारो विवृतोस्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Mahesvara Sutra; confer, compare also रक्षार्थं वेदानामध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).Ahnika 1. The term वैदिक referring to words found in Vedic language is also frequently used in the Mahabhasya. Panini, however, has used the term छन्दस्, मन्त्र and निगम, and not वेद, out of which the first term छन्दस् is often used; confer, compare बहुलं छन्दसि P. II. 4.39, 76: III, 2.88; V. 2.122; or छन्दसि च P. V. 1.67, V. 4.142, VI. 3.126. VI. l.34, VII. 1.8, et cetera, and others
vaikṛtaliterally subjected to modifications; which have undergone a change; the term, as contrasted with प्राकृत, refers to letters which are noticed in the Samhitpatha and not in the Padapatha. The change of अस् into ओ, or of the consonant त् into द् before soft letters, as also the insertion of त् between त् and स् et cetera, and others are given as instances. confer, compare वैकृताः ये पदपाठे अदृष्टाः | यथा प्रथमास्तृतीयभूता:, अन्त:पाता: इत्येवमादयः
vaidikafound in Vedic Literature; the term is used in contrast with लौकिक which means ’found , in commmon use' : confer, compare यथा लोकिकवैदिकेषुMahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. kaiyata explains वैदिक as श्रुत्युपनिबद्ध.
vaidikīprakriyāname of that section of Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi which deals with Vedic peculiarities noticed by Panini in his sutras. There is a well-known commentary upon this section named सुबोधिनी written by Jayakrisna a famous grammar scholar of the Maunin family.
vaidikaprakriyāṭīkā(1)a commentary on the sutras of Panini dealing with the Vedic words and their peculiarities written by a grammarian named Murari; (2) a commentary on the section of Bhattoji's Siddhantakaumudi named वैदिकीप्रक्रिया written by Jayakrsna Maunin and named Subodhini.
vaiyādhikaraṇyaIit. possession of separate residences, as contrasted with सामानाधिकरण्य: absence of apposition; use in different cases, non-agreement in case.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
veṣāyika(1)pertaining to the word विषय in the sutra विषयो देशे P. IV.2. 52; the term refers to the taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the sense of ’country' or ’district' (विषय) in P. IV. 2.52-54 as contrasted with नैवासिक affixes prescribed in the sense of 'inhabited district' by P. IV. 2.69-80 (2) one of the three senses of the locative case, viz. the sense 'substratum' of the locative case, which is not physical but which is a topical one, forming an object or aim of an , action as specified by the word 'about'; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं व्यापकमौपश्लेषिकं वैषयिकमिति |
vyaṅgya(1)suggested sense as contrasted with the denoted sense; (2) the supreme or ultimate suggested sense viz. Sphota which is the ultimate sense of every sentence.
vyapavṛktadistinctly separated as two or more consonants joined together in a conjunct consonant, as contrasted with the two vowels in a diphthong which cannot be called व्यपवृक्त; confer, compare नाव्यपवृक्तस्यावयवे तद्विधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3.4 Vart. 9. confer, compare also वर्णैकदेशा: के वर्णग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते | ये व्यपवृक्ता अपि वर्णा भवन्ति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3,4 Vart. ll .
vyapekṣāmutual relationship in sense, as obtaining between two different words ( पद ) connected with each other in a sentence, as contrasted with compositeness of sense as seen in two words joined into a compound word ( समास ) ; व्यपेक्षा is given as an alternative definition of the word सामर्थ्य along with एकार्थीभाव as the other one, in the Mahabhasya: e. g. there is व्यपेक्षा between सर्पिः and पिब in the sentence सर्पिष्पिब, but not in तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुद्कम्: confer, compare तथेदमपरं द्वैतं भवति एकार्थाभावो वा सामर्थ्यं स्याद् व्यपेक्षा वेति ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II,1.1 ; cf, also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII.3 44.
vyākaraṇadīpikāname of a short gloss or Vrtti on the Sutras of Panini written by a modern scholar of grammar Orambhatta of Varanasi.
vyākaraṇasudhānighia gloss on the Sutras of Panini written by Visvesvara.
vyāsa(1)showing separately; separate expression as contrasted with समास; (2) fault of pronunciation of the type of unnecessarily extending the place of origin as also the instrument of the production of sound; confer, compare स्थानकरणयोर्विस्तारे व्यासो सो नाम दोषो जायते Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 2.
vyutpattipakṣathe view that every word is derived from a suitable root as contrasted with the other view viz. the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष. The grammarians hold that Panini held the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष,id est, that is the view that not all words in a language can be derived but only some of them can be so done, and contrast him (id est, that isPanini) with an equally great grammarian Sakatayana who stated that every word has to be derived: confer, compare न्यग्रोधयतीति न्यग्रोध इति व्युत्पत्तिपक्षे नियमार्थम् ! अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष विध्यर्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VII.3.6.
śaktipotentiality of expressing the sense which is possessed by words permanently with them: denotative potentiality or denotation; this potentiality shows the senses,which are permanently possessed by the words, to the hearer and is described to be of one kind by ancient grammarian as contrasted with the two (अभिघा and लक्षणा) mentioned by the modern ones. It is described to be of two kinds-(a) स्मारिका शक्ति or recalling capacity which combines चैत्रत्व with पाक, and अनुभाविका शक्ति which is responsible for the actual meaning of a sentence. For details see Vakyapadiya III.
śakyawhich forms the object pointed out by means of the potentiality to the hearer by the word (id est, that is शब्द) which directly communicates the sense, in which case it is termed वाचक as contrasted with भेदक or द्योतक when the sense,which is of the type of संबन्ध is conveyed rather indirectly. This nice division into वाचकता and भेदकता was introduced clearly by भर्तृहरि: confer, compare Vakyapadtya Kanda 2.
śabdakaustubhaa treatise on grammar, critically explaining and discuss ing the meaning of Panini's Sutras in the order of the author himselfeminine. the work is written by Bhattoji Diksita and is mainly based on the Mahabhasya.
śabdanityatvathe doctrine of the Vaiyakaranas as also of the Mimamsakas that word is permanent, as contrasted with that of tha Naiyayikas who advocate the impermanence of words,
śabdparavipratiṣedhacl,. comparatively superior strength possessed by a word, which in the text of a particular sutra is later than another word, which is put in earlier in the Sutra. This शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधे is contrasted with the standard शास्त्रपरविप्रतिषेध which is laid down by Panini in his rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् and which lays down the superior strength of that rule which is put by Panini later on in his Astadhyayi: e. g. in the rule विभाषा गमहनविदविशाम्,it is not the word हन् although occuring earlier, but the word विश् occuring later in the rule, which helps us to decide which विद् should be taken confer, compareज्ञानार्तस्य सत्यपि विदरूपत्वे अर्थस्य भेदकत्वेन रूपवदाश्रयणात्प्रतिषेधाभावः | यद्यपि हन्तिना साहचर्ये विदेरस्ति तथापि शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधाद् विशिर्व्यवस्थाहेतुर्न हान्तिः ! Kaiyata on P. VII.2.18:confer, compare also, P.VI.1.158 V.12.
śabdabhūṣaṇaname of a short gloss on the Sutras of Panini, written by Narayana Pandita.
śabdasaṃcayaan anonymous elementary booklet on declension similar to Sabdarupavali. शब्दसंज्ञा a technical term given to a wording irrespective of the sense element as contrasted with अर्थसंज्ञा. See.exempli gratia, for example घु, भ or the like: confer, compare शब्दसंज्ञायां ह्यर्थासंप्रत्ययो यथान्यत्र P.I. 1.44 Vart. 2.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śabdāmṛtaa work, explanatory of the Sutras of Panini, written by a grammarian named विप्रराजेन्द्र.
śabdopadeśascientific and authoritative citation or statement of a word as contrasted with अपशब्दोपदेशः; confer, compare किं शब्दोपदेश: कर्तव्यः आहोस्विदपशब्दोपदेशः आहोस्विदुभयोपदेश इति ।Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika l. शमादि a class of eight roots headed by शम् which get their vowel lengthened before the conjugational sign य (श्यन्) as also before the krt. affix इन् ( घिनुण् ) in the sense of 'habituated to': exempli gratia, for example शाम्यति, शमी, भ्राम्यति, भ्रमी et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.VII.3.74 and P. III.2.141.
śambhuGod Siva who is supposed to have composed, or to have inspired Panini to compose, the fourteen . Sutras अइउण् , ऋलृक् et cetera, and others giving the alphabet of the Panini system ; confer, compare त्रिषष्टिः चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Pāṇini. Siksa, St. 3.
śarvavarmāa reputed grammarian who is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadhya in the court of Satavahana. He wrote the Grammar rules which are named the Katantra Sutras which are mostly based on the Sutras of Panini. In the grammar treatise named 'the Katantra Sutra' written by Sarvavarman the Vedic section and all the intricacies and difficult elements are carefully and scrupulously omitted by him, with a view to making his grammar useful for beginners and students of average intelligence.
śānānkrt affix (आन) substituted for the Atmampada affixes instead of शानच्, prescribed after the roots पू and यज्; the application of शानन् for शानच् is for the acute accent on the initial vowel of the root;exempli gratia, for example पवमानः with the acute accent on the initial vowel as contrasted with विद्यमान; with the acute accent on the last vowel; confer, compare P. III. 2.128.
śāntanavaan ancient scholar of grammar who wrote a treatise known as the Phit sutras on accents.
śāśvatikaeternal or permanent, as contrasted with कार्य id est, that is produced; confer, compareएतस्मिन्वाक्ये इन्दुमैत्रेययो: शाश्वतिको विरोधः Siradeva Pari.36; cf also एके वर्णाञू शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr.XIII.4.
śāstrātideśasupposition of the original in the place of the substitute merely for the sake of the application of a grammatical rule as contrasted with रूपातिदेश, the actual restoration of the original form; confer, compare किं पुनरयं शास्त्रातिदेशः । तृचो यच्छास्त्रं तदतिदिश्यते । आहोस्विद्रूपातिदेशः तृचो यद्रूपं तदतिदिश्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII.1.95.
śivarāmendra( सरस्वती )a grammarian who wrote (1) a gloss on the sutras of Panini, (2) a commentary named सिद्धान्तरत्नाकर on the Siddhantakaumudi, and (3) a commentary on the Mahabhasya named Mahabhasyaprakasa.
śivasūtraname given to the fourteen small sutras giving the alphabet which Panini took as the basis of his grammar. The Sivasutras have got a well-known explanation in Verse, named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका on which there is a commentary of the type of Bhasya by उपमन्यु. The origin of the Sivasutra given by the writer of the Karika is summed up in the stanza नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजो ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् । उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद् विमर्शे शिवसूत्रजालम् | Nand. 1.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śravaṇahearing of a phonetic element or a word in the actual speech; audition; confer, compare तस्य चोदात्तस्वरितपरत्वे श्रवणं स्पष्टम् S. K. on P.I.2.32. In many technical grammatical terms, affixes and substitutes, there is sometimes a portion of them which is not a vital part of the word, but it is for the sake of causing certain prescribed grammatical operations. The letters or syllables which form such a portion are called इत् and they are only for the sake of grammatical operations (कार्यार्थ ), as contrasted with the other ones which are actually heard (श्रुत्यर्थ or श्रवणार्थ ).
śrutaliterally what is actually heard; the word is used in connection with such statements as are made by the authoritative grammarians, Panini and the Varttikakara by their actual utterance or wording, as contrasted with such dictums as can be deduced only from their writings. confer, compare श्रुतानुभितंयोः श्रौतः संबन्धो बलीयान्. Par. Sek Pari. 104.
śruti(1)literally hearing sound.confer, compare श्रुतौ च रूपग्रहणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64; perception, as a proof contrasted with inference; confer, compare ननु च श्रुतिकृतोपि भेदोस्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 1.72 Vart. 1; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 2.25; cf also तस्मादुच्चश्रुतीनि Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 61; (2) authoritative word; the word is sometimes used in connection with the utterances of the Sutrakaras viz. the Sutra.
ślathabandhaa loose connection as obtaining between the various words in the Pada recital, as contrasted with श्लिष्टबन्ध in the Samhita text.
śrvasānupradānacaused by the emission of breath; the term is used in contrast with नादानुप्रदान in connection with hard consonants, surds, visarga,the Jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters: see श्वास a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
śvobhūtivṛttia grammatical work of the type of a gloss on the Sutras of Panini written by an ancient grammarian श्वोभूति mentioned in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare स्तोष्याम्यहं पादिकमौदवाहिं ततः श्वेाभूते शातनीं पातनीं च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.57. Possibly the grammarian श्वोभूति is referred to in the word श्वोभूत in the verse.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
ṣphafeminine affix अायनी, termed also तद्वित (l) added, according to the Eastern school of grammarians, to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix यञ् ( prescribed by rules like गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् IV.1.105) e. g. गार्ग्यायणी, वात्स्यायनी as contrasted with गांर्गी or वात्सी according to the Western school of Panini; (2) added to form feminine bases of the words from लोहित to कत to which यञ् has already been added as also to the words कौरव्य and माण्डूक. e. g. लौहित्यायनी, बाभ्रव्यायणी, कात्यायनी, कौरव्यायणी, माण्डूकायनी confer, compare P. IV. 1.17-19.
sa(1)short term for समास used by ancient grammarians ; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana also ; confer, compare ति्त्रक्कारकाणां प्राक् सुवुप्तत्तेः कृद्भिः सविधि: Jain.. Pari. 100; confer, compare also राजाsसे ; ( 2 ) Unadi affix स placed after the roots वॄ, तॄ, वद् , हन् and others; confer, compareUnadiSutras 342-349; (3) taddhita affix. affix स in the quadruple senses (चातुरर्थिक) applied to the words तृण and others. exempli gratia, for example तृणसः; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (4) taddhita affix. affix स applied to the word मृद् when praise is intended e. g. मृत्सा, मृत्स्नाः; also confer, compare P. V. 4.41; (5) substitute for the preposition सम् before the words हित and तत; confer, compare समो हितततयोर्वा लोपः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI.1.144 Vart. I.
saṃkarṣanon-resolution of the consonants य् and व् into इय् and उव् exempli gratia, for example त्र्यम्बकम् as contrasted with त्रियम्बकम् which is called विकर्ष.
saṃjñāvidhia rule laying down the definition of a संज्ञा or a technical term as contrasted with कार्यविधि or a rule laying down a grammatical operation: confer, compare संज्ञाविधौ वृद्धिरादैच् अदेङ्गुणः इति M.Bh. on Siva Sutra 3, 4.
saṃdhyaa diphthong: see below the word संधिः cf अत्थनामनी संध्यम् . संध्यक्षर diphthong, a vowel resulting from a combination of two vowels, but which is to be looked upon as one single vowel by reason of only a single effort being required for its pronunciation; the letters ए, ऐ, ओ and औ are termed as संध्यक्षर as contrasted with समानाक्षर, confer, compare अष्टौ समानाक्षराण्यादितस्ततश्चत्वारि संध्यक्षराण्युत्तराणि Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 10; confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 13, Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 111 ; confer, compare also संध्यक्षराणामिदुतौ ह्रस्वादेशे Kat. Pari. 43
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
satvaan aspect of सत्ता of the type.of the static existence possessed by substantives as contrasted with भाव the dynamic type of existence possessed by verbs; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातम् ! सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि. Nirukta of Yāska.I: cf also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरण: R.Pr. XII. 8. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50.
sadāśiva-paṇḍitaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who has written a commentary on the Sutras of Panini and a brief commentary on the Mahabhasya called गूढार्थदीपिनी or गूढार्थदीपिका which is incomplete.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
samavāya(I)combination as contrasted with व्यवाय disjunction or separation; (2) the enumeration of the letters of the alphabet in a particular order so as to facilitate their combination, technically termed प्रत्याहार; confer, compare वृतिसमवायार्थ उपदेशः । का पुनर्वृत्तिः l शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः । अथ कः समवायः । वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण संनिवेशः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika l Vart. 15. confer, compare also समवायो वर्णगत: क्रमविशेषः । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on the Bhasya mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; (3) contact; cf रक्तै रागः समवाये स्वराणाम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.24.
samānakartṛkahaving got the same agent: the word is used in connection with actions ( क्रिया ) having the same agent of the activity; confer, compare समानकर्तृकेषु तुमुन् P. III. 3. 158. समानपद the same word as contrasted with भिन्नपद a compound word which consists of two or more words. confer, compare रषाभ्यां नो णः समानपदे P. VIII.4.1.
samānākṣarasimple vowels or monophthongs अ, इ and उ as contrasted with diphthongs ( संध्यक्षर ); cf अष्टौ समानाक्षराण्यादितस्ततश्चत्वारि संध्यक्षराण्युत्तराणि Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 11, confer, compare also अथ नवादितस्समानाक्षराणि Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.1. 2. Some writers of Pratisakhyas held ऋ as संध्यक्षर and not as समानाक्षर; cf अन्यत्तु मतम्-ऋकारादीनां त्रयाणां त्वरद्वयसंधिरूपत्वाभावेपि रूपद्वयसद्भावादेषा संज्ञा न युक्तेति नवानामेवाहेति। gloss on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 2.
samānāśrayahaving got the same wording to operate on; the word is used in connection with operations which occur in the same word or wording as contrasted with व्याश्रय;confer, compareसमानाश्रये कार्ये तदसिद्धं स्यात् S. K. on P. VI. 4.22: confer, compare also अत्रेति समानाश्रयप्रतिपत्त्यर्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI,4,22.
sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇacalled also सरस्वतीसूत्र, name of a voluminous grammar work ascribed to king Bhoja in the eleventh century. The grammar is based very closely on Panini's Astadhyayi, consisting of eight chapters or books. Although the affixes, the augments and the substitutes are much the same, the order of the Sutras is considerably changedition By the anxiety of the author to bring together, the necessary portions of the Ganapatha, the Unadiptha and the Paribhasas, which the author' has included in his eight chapters, the book instead of being easy to understand, has lost the element of brevity and become tedious for reading. Hence it is that it is not studied widely. For details see pp. 392, 393 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition.
sarvanighātagrave accent ( अनुदात्त ) for the whole word, generally for a verbal form or a word in the vocative case, if preceded by another word which is not a verb. The term is used in contrast with शेषनिघात the grave accent for the remaining vowels of a word when a particular vowel is definitely fixed as an acute or an independent Svarita or circumflex; confer, compare P.VIII. 1.28 to 74.
sarvavarmanspelt as शर्वबर्मन् also, the reputed author of the Katantra Vyakarana. He is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadbya at the Satavahana court, and to have revised and redacted the Katantra Sutras already existing for the benefit of his patron. With him began the Katantra school of grammar, the main contribution to which was made by दुर्गसिंहृ who wrote a scholarly gloss on the Katantra Sutras. For details see कातन्त्र,
sarvopasarjanaall the constituent members of which (compound) are subordinated to quite a different word and not mutually in the manner of one member to another. The Bahuvrihi compound, as contrasted with other compounds, is described to be such an one, as all its members are subordinate in sense to another word; confer, compare यस्य सर्वे अवयवा उपसर्जनीभूताः स सर्वोपसर्जनो बहुव्रीहिर्गृह्यते ; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI. 3.82.
sāṃhitikaoriginal, as belonging to the Samhitapatha of the Sutras and not introduced for some additional purpose without forming a part of the actual affix; confer, compare अाकर्षात् ष्ठल् | इह केषां चित्सांहितिकं षत्वं केषांचित्षिदर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 4.9.
sāmānyaviśeṣabhāvathe relationship between the general and the particular, which forms the basis of the type of apavada which is explained by the analogy of तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; the word also refers to the method followed by the Sutras of Panini, or any treatise of grammar for the matter of that, where a general rule is prescribed and, for the sake of definiteness some specific rules laying down exceptions, are given afterwards: confer, compare किंचित्सामान्यविशेषवल्लक्षणं प्रवर्त्यं येनाल्पेन यत्नेन महतः शद्बौघान् प्रतिपद्येरन् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnik 1.
sāmānyābhidhānadenotation of the genus factor of a word, as contrasted with द्रव्याभिधान denotation of the individual object; confer, compare तद्यदा द्रव्याभिधानं तदा बहुवचने भविष्यति, यदा सामान्याभिधानं तदैकवचनं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 58 Vart. 7.
sārasvataname of a grammar work which was once very popular on account of its brevity, believed to have been written in the sutra form by an ancient grammarian named Narendra who is said to have composed 700 sutras under the inspiration of Sarasvati.The exposition of these Sutras by a reputed grammarian named Anubhutisvarupacarya who possibly flourished in the thirteenth century A. D., is known by the name सारस्वतप्रक्रिया which has remained as a text book on grammar to the present day in some parts of India. This प्रक्रिया is popularly known as सारस्वतव्याकरण. The technical terms in this grammar are the current popular ones.
sārthakaliterally possessed of sense; significant, as contrasted with निरर्थक; confer, compare इतरे च सार्थकाः Rk. Prati. XIII. 9.
sāvakāśapossessed of scope for its application as contrasted with निरवकाश; a term used in connection with a rule which has got its application to some cases without conflict with any other rule: confer, compare द्वयोर्हि सावकाशयोः समवस्थितयौर्विप्रतिषेधो भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.3 Vart. 6.
siddhakāṇḍathe chapter or portion of Panini's grammar which is valid to the rules inside that portion, as also to the rules enumerated after it. The word is used in connection with the first seven chapters and a quarter of the eighth chapter of Panini's Astadhyayi, as contrasted with the last three guarters called त्रिपादी, the rules in which are not valid to any rule in the preceding portion, called by the name सपासप्ताध्यायी or सपादी as also to any preceding rule in the Tripadi itSelf confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P, VIII.2.1. सिद्धनन्दिन् an ancient Jain sage who is believed to have written an original work on grammar.
siddhāntaestablished tenet or principle or conclusion, in the standard works of the different Shastras.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
sūtraa short pithy assertion laying down something in a scientific treatise; aphorism; the word is sometimes used in a collective sense in the singular, referring to the whole collection of Sutras or rules; confer, compare व्याकरणस्य सूत्रम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I. The term is defined as अाल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् | अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. There are given generally six kinds of Sutras viz. संज्ञासूत्र, परिभाषासूत्र,विधिसूत्र, नियमसूत्र, प्रतिषेधसूत्र and अधिकारसूत्र; confer, compare also संज्ञा च परिभाषा च विधिर्नियम एव च प्रतिषेधोधिकारश्च षड्विधम् सूत्रलक्षणम् | Com. on Kat. I. 1.2.
sūtrakārathe original writer of the sutras; e. g. पाणिनि, शाकटायन, शर्ववर्मन् , हेमचन्द्र and others. In Panini's system, Panini is called Sutrakara, as contrasted with Katyayana,who is called the Varttikakara and Patanjali, who is called the Bhasyakara;confer, compare पाणिने: सूत्रकारस्य M.Bh. on P.II 2.1.1.
sūtrapāṭhathe text of Panini's Sutras handed down by oral tradition from the preceptor to the pupil. Although it is said that the actual text of Panini was modified from time to time, still it can be said with certainty that it was fixed at the time of the Bhasyakara who has noted a few different readings only. The Sutra text approved by the Bhasyakara was followed by the authors of the Kasika excepting in a few cases. It is customary with learned Pandits and grammarians to say that the recital of the Sutras of Panini was originally a continuous one in the form of a Samhitatext and it was later on, that it was split up into the different Sutras, which explains according to them the variation in the number of Sutras which is due to the different ways of splitting the Sutrapatha.
seṭkaसेट् together with the augment 'iț' prescribed in general for being prefixed to an Ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्. The word is also used in the sense of a root which allows the augment इट् ( इ ) to be prefixed to valadi Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after it, in contrast with such roots which do not allow it and hence which are termed अनिट्.
sautrabelonging to the sutra; found in the sutra as contrasted with what is given elsewhere; confer, compare सौत्रोयं धातु: or सौत्रं पुस्त्वम् et cetera, and others cf also सौत्रो निर्देशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 2.139, III. 4.60, 64, IW. 2.64 et cetera, and others
saunāganame of a school of ancient grammarians who composed Varttikas in explanation of the sutras of Panini; confer, compare सौनागाः पठन्ति P. III. 2.56 Vart. 1, IV. 1.74 Vart. 1. confer, compare एतदेव सौनागैर्विस्तरतरकेण पठितम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.18 Vart. 4.
sthāneyogāa variety of the genitive case when it is connected in sense with the Pratipadika by the relationship of स्थान or place, as contrasted with the relationships of the kind of विषयविषयिभाब, अवयवावयविभाव and others. As grammar is a Science of words,in those places where one word is mentioned for another by the use of the genitive case it should be understood that the word mentioned is to be substituted for the other;cf the rule of Panini for that purpose षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा explained by Bhattoji Diksita as अानिर्धारितसंबन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या; confer, compare S.K. on P.I.1.49. In some grammars the sthanin and adesa are expressed in the same case, Viz. the nominative case.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svarasahitoccāraṇarecital of the veda Samhita text with intonation or accents, as contrasted with एकश्रुत्युच्चारण which is specially prescribed in a few cases; tonal system showing distinction between words of different senses although pronounced alike, in the Samhita text. exempli gratia, for example नतेन and न तेन.
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
svaritapratijñāthe conventional dictum that a particular rule or part of a rule, is marked with the accent स्वरित which enables the grammarians to decide that that rule or that part of a rule is to occur in each of the subsequent Sutras, the limit of continuation being ascertained from convention. It is possible that Panini in his original recital of the Astadhyayi recited the words in the rules with the necessary accents; probably he recited every word, which was not to proceed further, with one acute or with one circumflex vowel, while, the words which were to proceed to the next rule or rules, were marked with an actual circumflex accent ( स्वरित ), or with a neutralization of the acute and the grave accents (स्वरितत्व), that is, probably without accents or by एकश्रुति or by प्रचय; cf स्वरितेनाधिकार: P. I.3.II and the Mahabhasya thereon.
svānga(l)one's own limb, as contrasted with that of another person ; confer, compare स्वाङ्गकर्मकाच्वेति वक्तव्यम् | स्वान्गे चेह न पारिभाषिकं गृह्यते | किं तर्हि स्वमन्गं स्वान्गम् | Kas:, on P.I. 3.28; (2) forming a part, a portion; confer, compare स्वान्गाच्चोपसर्जनादसंयोगोपधात् | किं स्वान्गं नाम । अद्रवं मूर्तिमत्स्वान्गे प्राणिस्थमविकारजम् । अतत्स्थं तत्र दृष्ठे च तस्य चेत्तत्तथा युतम्॥ अप्राणीनोपि स्वान्गम् ) M.Bh on P. IV.1.54.
svāśrayapossessed as its own, as contrasted with artificial or intentionally stated ( आनुदेशिक );confer, compare अस्त्वत्र आनुदेशिकस्य वलादित्वस्य प्रतिषेधः । स्वाश्रयमत्र बलादित्वं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 59 Vart. 6.
the last of the spirant consonants, | which is a glottal, voiced letter called also ऊष्म or spirant of a partial contact, i. e. possessed of the properties कण्ठय, नादानुप्रदान, ऊष्म and ईषत्स्पृष्टत्व. This letter has been given twice in the Paninian alphabet, viz. the Mahesvara Sutras, and the Bhasyakara has given the purpose of it, viz. the technical utility of being included among soft consonants along with semi-vowels, nasals and the fifth, the fourth, and the third class-consonants (हश् अश् et cetera, and others),as also among the hard consonants along with the fourth and the third class-letters and spirants ( झ्लू, ). The second letter हू in हल् appears, however, to have only a technical utility,as the purpose of its place there among spirants is served by the jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters which are,in fact, the velar and the labial spirants respectively, besides the other three शू, षू and सू .The Rk Pratisakhya calls ह as a chest sound. For details, see Mahabhasya on the Siva Sutra हयवरट् Varttikas 1, 2 and 3.
hṛradattaname of a reputed grammarian of Southern India who wrote a very learned and scholarly commentary, named पदमञ्जरी, on the Kasikavrtti which is held by grammarians as the standard vrtti or gloss on the Sutras of Panini,and studied especially in the schools of the southern grammarians. Haradatta was a Dravida Brahmana, residing in a village on the Bank of Kaveri. His scholarship in Grammar was very sound and he is believed to have commented on many grammarworks.The only fault of the scholar was a very keen sense of egotism which is found in his work, although it can certainly be said that the egotism was not ill-placed and could be justified: confer, compare एवं प्रकटितोस्माभिर्भाष्ये परिचय: पर:। तस्य निःशेषतो मन्ये प्रतिपत्तापि दुर्लभः॥ also प्रक्रियातर्कगहने प्रविष्टो हृष्टमानसः हरदत्तहरिः स्वैरं विहरन् ! केन वार्यते | Padamajari, on P. I-13, 4. The credit of popularising Panini's system of grammar in Southern India goes to Haradatta to a considerable extent.
haridattaa grammarian who wrote a commentary on the Unadi Sutras, called उणादिसूत्रटीका.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
     Vedabase Search  
113 results
     
trasaddasyuḥ by the name TrasaddasyuSB 9.7.4
trasanti are afraidSB 9.6.33-34
trasareṇu six atoms togetherCC Adi 5.70
trasareṇu-trikam combination of three hexatomsSB 3.11.6
trasareṇu-trikam combination of three hexatomsSB 3.11.6
trasareṇuḥ hexatomSB 3.11.5
trasat-dasyuḥ of the name Trasaddasyu ('one who threatens thieves and rogues')SB 9.6.33-34
trasat-dasyuḥ of the name Trasaddasyu ('one who threatens thieves and rogues')SB 9.6.33-34
trasta become afraidSB 7.5.49
tras being very much afraidSB 4.17.17
trasta fearingSB 9.10.4
trasta frightenedSB 3.30.19
trastāḥ being afraidSB 4.14.3
trastāḥ fearfulSB 3.19.17
trastāḥ frightenedSB 3.17.12
trastaḥ frightenedSB 7.9.16
trastāḥ frightened ofSB 3.17.22
trastān who are very much afraid (of him)SB 10.3.28
trasyante are terrifiedSB 1.17.10-11
anamitrasya a son of AnamitraSB 9.24.14
aputrasya without a sonSB 4.15.1
aputrasya (of Kunti) who was sonlessSB 9.24.27
brahma-astrasya of the brahmāstraSB 10.63.13
astrasya of the weapon (the blade of kuśa grass)SB 10.78.35
asvatantrasya who is not independent (that is, who is under the control of his senses)SB 10.20.10
ati-santrastāḥ extremely afraidSB 11.1.17
ātma-tantrasya of Lord Śiva, who is self-dependentSB 4.6.7
ātma-tantrasya being self-sufficient, not dependent on any other personSB 6.3.17
atrasan were frightenedSB 3.17.13
atrasan became frightenedSB 4.10.6
atrasat became frightenedSB 10.18.27
bhaya-santrastān to the cowherd boys, who were disturbed by fear that within the dense forest the calves would be attacked by some ferocious animalsSB 10.13.13
bhaya-vitrastau seized with overwhelming fearSB 10.57.29
brahma-kṣatrasya of brāhmaṇas and kṣatriyasSB 9.22.43
brahma-astrasya of the brahmāstraSB 10.63.13
bṛhatkṣatrasya of the grandson of Bharadvāja named BṛhatkṣatraSB 9.21.18
hari-cakrataḥ trasan being afraid of the roaring sound of a lionSB 5.13.16
cit-mātrasya of the complete spiritual wholeSB 3.7.2
citrasena CitrasenaSB 8.13.30
citrasenaḥ one named CitrasenaSB 9.2.19
śukraḥ citrasvanaḥ Śukra and CitrasvanaSB 12.11.36
santrasta-cittaḥ with a fearful heartSB 9.4.52
devahotrasya of DevahotraSB 8.13.32
droṇa-putrasya of the son of DroṇaSB 1.7.27
gotrasya of the descendantSB 1.19.35
hari-cakrataḥ trasan being afraid of the roaring sound of a lionSB 5.13.16
vitrasta-hṛdayaḥ being afraid in the heartSB 5.14.29
jyeṣṭha-putrasya of the first son, YaduSB 9.23.17
jyeṣṭha-putrasya of the eldest sonSB 12.12.25-26
kṛta-maitrasya having put faith in the mindSB 5.6.4
brahma-kṣatrasya of brāhmaṇas and kṣatriyasSB 9.22.43
kṛta-maitrasya having put faith in the mindSB 5.6.4
maitrasya friendshipSB 10.88.9
mantrasya (the purification) of a mantraSB 11.21.15
mat-putrasya of my sonSB 12.2.42
cit-mātrasya of the complete spiritual wholeSB 3.7.2
rūpa-mātrasya of the subtle element formSB 3.26.39
mitrasaham MitrasahaSB 9.9.18
mitrasaham King SaudāsaSB 9.9.36
mitrasya of MitraSB 2.6.9
mitrasya of MitraSB 4.7.3
paritras frightenedCC Antya 1.151
paritrastaiḥ who were terrifiedSB 10.51.15
pautrasya of the grandsonSB 12.2.42
putrasya with a sonBG 11.44
droṇa-putrasya of the son of DroṇaSB 1.7.27
putrasya of the sonSB 3.14.44-45
putrasya of his sonSB 9.6.9
jyeṣṭha-putrasya of the first son, YaduSB 9.23.17
yadu-putrasya of the son of YaduSB 9.23.29
sva-putrasya of his own childSB 10.5.14
putrasya of her sonSB 10.46.28
mat-putrasya of my sonSB 12.2.42
jyeṣṭha-putrasya of the eldest sonSB 12.12.25-26
rūpa-mātrasya of the subtle element formSB 3.26.39
samatrasat he became fearfulSB 12.9.13
santatrasuḥ sma became frightenedSB 10.6.14
su-santras very much frightenedSB 4.28.19
santrasta-cittaḥ with a fearful heartSB 9.4.52
santrastaḥ being afraidSB 9.14.29
santrastāḥ terrifiedSB 10.37.14
santrastaḥ terrifiedSB 10.42.28-31
santrastaḥ terrifiedSB 10.57.20
santrastaḥ terrifiedSB 10.88.24
ati-santrastāḥ extremely afraidSB 11.1.17
santrastāḥ distraughtSB 11.1.20
bhaya-santrastān to the cowherd boys, who were disturbed by fear that within the dense forest the calves would be attacked by some ferocious animalsSB 10.13.13
śāstrasya of the scripturesSB 6.5.20
santatrasuḥ sma became frightenedSB 10.6.14
su-santras very much frightenedSB 4.28.19
suhotrasya of SuhotraSB 9.17.1-3
śukraḥ citrasvanaḥ Śukra and CitrasvanaSB 12.11.36
sva-putrasya of his own childSB 10.5.14
ātma-tantrasya of Lord Śiva, who is self-dependentSB 4.6.7
ātma-tantrasya being self-sufficient, not dependent on any other personSB 6.3.17
tatrasuḥ became afraidSB 6.10.27
tatrasuḥ became afraidSB 10.11.47
tatrasuḥ became frightenedSB 10.36.3-4
tatrasuḥ became frightenedSB 10.66.35
hari-cakrataḥ trasan being afraid of the roaring sound of a lionSB 5.13.16
viśvāmitrasya of ViśvāmitraSB 9.16.29
vitatrasuḥ became afraidSB 7.8.16
vitrasta-hṛdayaḥ being afraid in the heartSB 5.14.29
vitrasta afraidSB 7.9.5
vitrastāḥ fearfulSB 6.9.13-17
bhaya-vitrastau seized with overwhelming fearSB 10.57.29
vṛtrasya of VṛtrāsuraSB 6.12.5
vṛtrasya of VṛtrāsuraSB 6.12.25
vṛtrasya of VṛtrāsuraSB 6.12.35
vṛtrasya of VṛtrāsuraSB 6.14.1
vṛtrasya of VṛtrāsuraSB 6.17.39
vṛtrasya of VṛtrāsuraSB 10.77.36
yadu-putrasya of the son of YaduSB 9.23.29
     DCS with thanks   
63 results
     
tras verb (class 1 ātmanepada) to be afraid of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to quiver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to tremble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2372/72933
trasa noun (neuter) a wood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the collective body of moving or living beings (opposed to sthāvara) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53896/72933
trasa adjective moving (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19394/72933
trasadasyu noun (masculine) name of a prince (son of Purukutsa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21401/72933
trasaddasyu noun (masculine) name of a son of Purukutsa
Frequency rank 53897/72933
trasana noun (neuter) a quivering ornament (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fear
Frequency rank 35494/72933
trasara noun (masculine) a shuttle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53898/72933
trasareṇu noun (feminine) name of a wife of the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35495/72933
trasareṇu noun (masculine neuter) the mote or atom of dust moving in a sun-beam (considered as an ideal weight either of the lowest denomination) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21402/72933
trasi noun (masculine) [gramm.] root tras
Frequency rank 53895/72933
trasnu adjective
Frequency rank 35496/72933
trastatara adjective more frightened
Frequency rank 53900/72933
trastatā noun (feminine) fear
Frequency rank 53899/72933
atrasta adjective unfrightened
Frequency rank 22890/72933
anatitrasnu adjective
Frequency rank 42581/72933
apatras verb (class 4 parasmaipada) to flee from in terror (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32104/72933
abhisaṃtras verb (class 4 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 44386/72933
avitrasant adjective not afraid
Frequency rank 45369/72933
avitrasta adjective not frightened
Frequency rank 32695/72933
asaṃtrasta adjective
Frequency rank 32852/72933
uttras verb (class 4 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 47176/72933
uttrasta adjective frightened (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47177/72933
kutrastha adjective standing where?
Frequency rank 23738/72933
kṣetrasambhava noun (masculine) Abelmoschus esculentus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ricinus communis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34456/72933
kṣetrasambhavā noun (feminine) a kind of gourd (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50717/72933
kṣetrasambhūta noun (masculine) a kind of grass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50718/72933
trasaṃkocin noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 51251/72933
citrasānu noun (masculine) name of a mountain
Frequency rank 28007/72933
citrasena noun (masculine) name of a divine recorder of the deeds of men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a leader of the Gandharvas (son of Viśvāvasu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a scholiast on Piṅgala's work on metres (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a snake-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an adversary of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Gada or Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Narishyanta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Parikṣit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Tarāsandha's general (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the 13th Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śambara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the secretary of a man of rank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2841/72933
citrasenā noun (feminine) name of a courtesan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the mothers in Skanda's retinue (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28008/72933
citrasvana noun (masculine) name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52342/72933
caitraseni noun (masculine) patr. from citra-sena (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52454/72933
tatrastha adjective belonging to that place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dwelling there (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
situated there (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5083/72933
tantrasadbhāva noun (masculine) name of a work
Frequency rank 53283/72933
tantrasāgara noun (masculine) name of a text
Frequency rank 53284/72933
tantrasāra noun (masculine) name of a compilation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a work of Abhinavagupta
Frequency rank 35278/72933
pattrasūci noun (feminine) a thorn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57040/72933
paritras verb (class 4 parasmaipada) to be frightened to tremble
Frequency rank 11682/72933
trasaṃcāra noun (masculine) the handing round of vessels or dishes at a meal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36812/72933
putrasiddhikṛt noun (masculine) Nageia Putranjiva
Frequency rank 58165/72933
mantrasaṃskāra noun (masculine) a (nuptial) rite performed with sacred text (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61466/72933
mantrasaṃhitā noun (feminine) collection of magical formulas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Tāntric work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the collection of the Vedic hymns (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61467/72933
mantrasiddhāsanā noun (feminine) a kind of divyauṣadhi/creeper
Frequency rank 61468/72933
mantrasiṃhāsanī noun (feminine) a kind of divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 24977/72933
mantrasnāna noun (neuter) the recitation of particular texts as a substitute for ablution (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38044/72933
mitrasaha noun (masculine) name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17116/72933
mitrasāhvayā noun (feminine) name of a divine being (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62221/72933
trasaṅga noun (masculine) a painful and bloody discharge of urine; a kind of mūtrāghāta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18338/72933
trasaṃkṣaya noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 62694/72933
trasāda noun (masculine) [medic.] a kind of urinary disease
Frequency rank 38446/72933
traseka noun (masculine neuter) mūtrapraseka, the urethra
Frequency rank 62695/72933
yatrasāyampratiśraya adjective taking up an abode wherever evening overtakes one (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62833/72933
yatrasāyaṃgṛha adjective taking up an abode wherever evening overtakes one (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29776/72933
yatrastha adjective in which place abiding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
where staying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38482/72933
vitras verb (class 4 parasmaipada) to be frightened (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to tremble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4483/72933
vitrastaka adjective a little affrighted or intimidated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 65561/72933
śāstrasaṃgraha noun (masculine) name of a work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the 1st chapter of Kāmasūtra
Frequency rank 67538/72933
śāstrasiddha adjective established by the Śāstra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72910/72933
samuttras verb (class 1 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 69132/72933
saṃtras verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to be greatly terrified or frightened to tremble all over
Frequency rank 5407/72933
suvitrasta adjective
Frequency rank 71268/72933
trasamuccaya noun (masculine) name of a work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71713/72933
trasthāna noun (neuter) (in medic. wks.) the first general section (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14578/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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jalavetasa

Plant Indian willow, Salix tetrasperma.

navanīta

a treatise on āyurveda (4th Century ) discovered by colonel Bower, a British military officer, therefore named Bower’s manuscript; also known as Yaśomitrasamhita.

patanjali

compiler of Yogasūtras (–2nd Century ), author of Mahābhāṣya commentary (on Kātyāyana vārtīka) and on Pāṇiṇi’s Aṣṭādhyāyi.

rudrākṣa

Plant ultrasum bead tree, rosary, seeds of Elaeocarpus ganitrus, E. sphaericus

viparyaya

one of tantrayuktis, reversion, contrary to, contrast, difference; assuming the opposite.

yajurveda

the sacrificial Veda; the collective body of sacred mantras or texts.

     Wordnet Search "tras" has 40 results.
     

tras

pavitrasthānam, puṇyabhūmiḥ, puṇyasthalam   

tat sthānaṃ yat pavitram asti iti manyante।

hindūnāṃ kṛte kāśī iti pavitrasthānam asti।

tras

apavitrasthānam, apuṇyabhūmiḥ   

tat sthānaṃ yat pavitraṃ nāsti।

dharmānusāreṇa piśāccāḥ apavitrasthāne eva nivasanti।

tras

bhīruḥ, bhītaḥ, bhīrukaḥ, bhīruhṛdayaḥ, bhayaśīlaḥ, hariṇahṛdayaḥ, kātaraḥ, trasruḥ, dīnacetanaḥ, dīnaḥ, asāhasikaḥ, bhayāturaḥ   

yaḥ bibheti।

bhīruḥ mriyate naikavāraṃ vīraḥ ekavāram।

tras

vastrasūcī, sūcikā   

sā sūcī yasyām ekaḥ kaṇṭakasadṛśaḥ bhāgaḥ asti saḥ eva bhāgaḥ vakrīkṛtvā aparasmin āvaraṇayukte bhāge saṃyujyate।

maheśena uttarīye golyāḥ sthāne vastrasūcī sthāpitā।

tras

bhīta, trasta, bhayātura, bhayākula   

yaḥ bibheti।

grāme āgatasya vyāghrasya vārtāṃ śrutvā janāḥ bhītāḥ abhavan।

tras

pīḍita, trasta, santrasta   

yaḥ santrāsyate pīḍyate vā।

ārakṣikaiḥ pīḍitaḥ vyaktiḥ katham nyāyaṃ prāpyate।

tras

bhayavipluta, bhayagrasta, bhayatrasta   

yaḥ bibheti।

bhayaviplutaḥ manuṣyaḥ anyāyam abhibhavituṃ na śaknoti।

tras

santras, vitras   

vaiklavyānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

narabhakṣakaḥ vyāghraḥ grāmam āgataḥ iti śrutvā sarve janāḥ samatrasan।

tras

pravyath, udvep, tras, udvij, saṃvij, santras   

bhayānubhūtijanyaḥ śarīrāvayāvānāṃ kampanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

ātaṅkavādinaṃ dṛṣṭvā sohanasya śarīraṃ prāvyathata।

tras

ghaṭīyantrasūciḥ   

ghaṭīyantre vartamānaṃ kaṇṭakasadṛśam upakaraṇaṃ yat samayaṃ sūcayati।

ghaṭīyantrasūciṃ dṛṣṭvā kāryaṃ karotu।

tras

udvij, vibhī, saṃvitras   

aniṣṭasya āpadaḥ vā āśaṅkayā manasaḥ parikampanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

kimapi aniṣṭaṃ bhavet iti āśaṅkayā manaḥ udvijate।

tras

trasaraḥ, sūtraveṣṭanam, sūtrayantram, tasaraḥ, mallikaḥ, nāḍīcīram   

sūtraveṣṭanārthe tantravāyopakaraṇaviśeṣaḥ।

trasareṇa vinā tantravāyopakaraṇaṃ śūnyavat bhavati।

tras

patrācāraḥ, patravinimayaḥ, patrasaṃvādaḥ, pātanikā   

patradvārā vyavahāraḥ।

ī-patrasya dūradhvanyāśca suvidhayā idānīṃ patrācāraḥ nyūnaḥ jātaḥ asti।

tras

bhiṇḍaḥ, bhiṇḍā, bhiṇḍākṣupaḥ, bhiṇḍakaḥ, bhiṇḍītakaḥ, bheṇḍī, bheṇḍītakaḥ, asrapatrakam, catuṣpuṇḍrā, karaparṇaḥ, kṣetrasambhavaḥ, catuṣpadaḥ, catuḥpuṇḍaḥ, suśākaḥ, vṛttabījaḥ   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ- yasya bījaguptiḥ śākarūpeṇa khādyate।

āyurvede bhiṇḍasya uṣṇatvaṃ grāhitvaṃ rūcikaratvam ityete guṇāḥ proktāḥ।

tras

patrādeśaḥ, patrasaṅketaḥ, gṛhasaṅketaḥ   

patrapreṣaṇārthe upayujyamānaḥ gṛhasya athavā sthānasya saṅketaḥ yaḥ patragrāhakasya nāmnaḥ adhaḥ likhyate।

asamyak patrādeśāt patravāhaḥ kasyāpi anyasyaiva patram asmadīye gṛhe nikṣiptavān।

tras

bhī, vibhī, udvij, śaṅk, viśaṅk, tras, saṃvitras, āśaṅk, āśaṃs, klav, dṛbh, kṣup   

aniṣṭasya śaṅkayā ākulībhavanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

parīkṣāyām saphalā na bhaveyam iti cintayitvā aham abhaiṣam।

tras

patrasvīkartā, patraprāpakaḥ, prāpakā, prāpakam, prāpī, prāpikā, prāpiṇī, labdhā, saṃnidhātā, pratigrāhī, ādāyī, grāhakaḥ, grāhikā, grāhakam, grahītā   

yaḥ patrādayaḥ prāpnoti;

pihitapatre patrasvīkartuḥ gṛhasaṅketaḥ āvaśyakaḥ

tras

citrāṅga, citrasarpa, citrakaḥ   

citram aṅgam yasya saḥ [sarpaprakāraḥ];

citrāṅgo vātaśamano bṛṃhaṇo balakṛnmataḥ

[śa.ka]

tras

mitrasaptamī   

mārgaśīrṣaśuklasaptamī।

murāreḥ janma mitrasaptamyām abhavat।

tras

citrasenaḥ   

ekaḥ gandharvaḥ।

citrasenasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

tras

citrasenaḥ   

dhṛtarāṣṭrasya ekaḥ putraḥ।

citrasenasya varṇanaṃ bhāgavate vartate।

tras

plavaḥ, gātrasamplavaḥ, kāraṇḍaḥ, kāraṇḍavaḥ, jalavāyasaḥ, jalakākaḥ, jalakukkuṭaḥ   

bakaḥ iva ekaḥ pakṣī।

plavasya cañcuḥ sthūlaḥ bhavati।

tras

vibhutvam, vyāptiḥ, sarvagatatvam, sarvasāmpratam, sarvatrasattvam   

vibhavasya guṇaḥ avasthā vā।

īśvarasya vibhutve mama sampūrṇaḥ viśvāsaḥ asti।

tras

vastrasañcakam   

mudraṇaviśeṣaḥ yena vastrasya mudraṇaṃ bhavati।

vastrasañcakaṃ tīkṣṇasārāyāḥ kāṣṭhena racyate।

tras

vargaḥ, kakṣā, chātrasamūhaḥ   

sahādhyāyināṃ chātrāṇāṃ gaṇaḥ।

chātrasya ekasya pramādāt samagraḥ vargaḥ śāsanam anvabhavat।

tras

yaṃtrasya antarracanā   

kasmin api upakaraṇasya antargata-saṃracanā;

punaḥ sandhānārthaṃ yantrasya antarracanāyāḥ jñānam āvaśyakam asti

tras

citrapañcī, citrasaṅgrahaḥ   

samānānāṃ vastūnāṃ saṅgrahaḥ yaḥ pustakarūpeṇa sthāpyate।

tena vivāhasya citrapañjī rakṣitā।

tras

śastrasamūhaḥ   

kasyāpi deśasya sarvāṇi śastrāṇi।

śastrasamūhāṇāṃ viṣaye bhāratadeśaḥ pākistānadeśāt agresaraḥ asti।

tras

trasadasyuḥ   

vaidikaḥ ṛṣiviśeṣaḥ।

trasadasyoḥ varṇanaṃ ṛgvede asti।

tras

nayanaramya, nayanābhirāma, netrasukha   

yad nayanebhyaḥ kṛte ramyam asti।

pathi naikāni nayanaramyāṇi dṛśyāni āsīt।

tras

mitrasenaḥ   

kṛṣṇasya putraḥ।

mitrasenasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।

tras

mitrasenaḥ   

dvādaśasya manoḥ putraḥ।

mitrasenasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।

tras

vicitrasiṃhaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

rājataraṅgiṇyāṃ vicitrasiṃhasya varṇanaṃ dṛśyate

tras

kṣatrasavaḥ   

ekaḥ yajñīyasamārohaḥ ।

kṣatrasavasya varṇanaṃ śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtre samupalabhyate

tras

kṣatrasavaḥ   

ekaḥ yajñīyasamārohaḥ ।

kṣatrasavasya varṇanaṃ śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtre samupalabhyate

tras

putrasenaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

putrasenasya ullekhaḥ maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitāyām asti

tras

trasareṇuḥ   

sūryasya ekā patnī ।

trasareṇoḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

tras

parvamitrasya ullekhaḥ hemacandrasya pariśiṣṭaparvan ityasmin granthe asti   

parvamitra ।

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ

tras

cāritrasiṃhagaṇi   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

cāritrasiṃhagaṇiḥ kośe ullikhitaḥ asti

tras

trasareṇuḥ   

sūryasya ekā patnī ।

trasareṇoḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate









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