m.Name of an ancient king and sage (son of aja-mīḍha-, of su-hotra-, of kuru-, of hotraka-;ancestor of the kuśika-s;the Ganges, when brought down from heaven by bhagī-ratha-'s austerities, was forced to flow over the earth and to follow him to the ocean and thence to the lower regions in order to water the ashes of sagara-'s sons;in its course it inundated the sacrificial ground of jahnu-, who drank up its waters but consented at bhagī-ratha-'s prayer to discharge them from his ears;hence the river is regarded as his daughter)
a taddhita- affix (much used in forming adjectives;it may also be added to nouns to express diminution, deterioration, or similarity exempli gratia, 'for example'putraka-,a little son; aśvaka-,a bad horse or like a horse).
n.kuśa- grass (especially two kuśa- leaves for holding offerings or for sprinkling and purifying ghee etc.) etc. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' also ko-Seesa-pavitraka-), a ring of kuśa- grass worn on the fourth finger on particular occasions
अतिचिरम् adv. Very long; ˚रं मया कृतं Ratn.1. I have been very late; नातिचिरं गतायां च तस्याम् K.178 she had not long left when &c.
अतिच्छत्रः aticchatrḥ ग्रा grā च्छत्रका cchatrakā
अतिच्छत्रः ग्रा च्छत्रका [अतिक्रान्तः छत्रं तुल्याकारेण] A mushroom, anise, principally Anesum or Anethum Sowa (Mar. शोपा) N. of another plant, Barleria Longifolia. (˚त्रः is said by Amara to be जलतृणभेदः) (Mar. शेतगवत); and ˚त्रा = शतपुष्पा (Mar. शोप).
अभव्य a. 1 Not to be, not predestined; -2 Improper. -3 unfortunate; उपगतमवधीरयन्त्यभव्याः Ki.1. 51. -4 uncivil, rude; अभव्यो भव्यरूपेण Rām.4.17.28.
अभस्त्रका abhastrakā अभस्त्रिका abhastrikā
अभस्त्रका अभस्त्रिका also अभस्त्राका [अ-भस्त्रा P. VII.3.47.] 1 A badly made or inferior pair of bellows. -2 A young woman who has no bellows.
पालकः [पाल्-ण्वुल्] 1 A guardian, protector. -2 A prince, king, ruler, sovereign. -3 A groom, horsekeeper. -4 A horse. -5 The Chitraka tree. -6 A fosterfather. -7 Protection. -8 One who maintains or observes (as a promise &c). -कम् A spittoon.
पावक a. [पू-ण्वुल्] Purifying; पन्थानं पावकं हित्वा जनको मौढ्यमास्थितः Mb.12.18.4. -कः 1 Fire; पावकस्य महिमा स गण्यते कक्षवज्ज्ज्वलति सागरे$पि यः R.11.75;3.9;16.87. -2 Agni or the god of fire. -3 The fire of lightning. -4 The Chitraka tree. -5 The number 'three'. -6 A person purified by religious abstraction, saint, sage. -7 Good conduct or behaviour. -8 N. of Varuṇa. -की 1 The wife of Agni. -2 Ved. N. of Sarasvatī. -Comp. -अरणिः an epithet of a plant called अग्निमन्य (Mar. थोर ऐरण). -अर्चिस् f. a flash of fire. -अस्त्रम् a fiery weapon; प्रशान्तमेव पावकास्त्रम् U.6.5/6. -आत्मजः 1 an epithet of Kārtikeya. -2 N. of a sage called सुदर्शन who married the daughter of Duryodhana of the Ikṣvāku family. -मणिः m. The Sūryakānta Maṇi. -शिखः (= अग्निशिखः) Saffron; Śiva B.3.19.
मलिम्लुचः 1 A robber, thief; न परेषु महौजसश्छलादप- कुर्वन्ति मलिम्लुचा इव Śi.16.52. -2 A demon. -3 A gnat, mosquito. -4 An intercalary month. -5 Air, wind. -6 Fire. -7 A Brāhmaṇa who neglects the five daily Yajñas or sacrifices. -8 The Chitraka tree. -9 Frost, snow.
वह्निः [वह्-निः &Uṇ.4.53] 1 Fire; अतृणे पतितो वह्निः स्वयमेवोपशाम्यति Subhāṣ. -2 The digestive faculty, gastric fluid. -3 Digestion, appetite. -4 A vehicle. -5 The marking-nut plant. -6 Lead-wort. -7 A sacrificer, priest. -8 A god in general. -9 An epithet of the Maruts. -1 Of Soma. -11 A horse. -12 A draught animal. -13 The number 'three'. -14 The mystical N. of the letter र्; रकार. -Comp. -उत्पातः an igneous meteor. -कर a. 1 igniting. -2 stimulating digestion, stomachic. -करी Grislea Tomentosa (Mar. धायटी). -काष्ठम् a kind of agallochum. -कोणः the south-east quarter. -कोपः a conflagration. -गन्धः 1 incense. -2 resin. -गर्भः 1 a bamboo. -2 the Śamī tree; cf. अग्नि- गर्भ. -दीपकः safflower. (-का) = अजमोदा q. v. -धौत a. pure like fire. -नामन् m. 1 the marking nut plant. -2 lead-wort. -पतनम् self-immolation. -बीजम् 1 gold. -2 a citron tree. -3 N. of the mystical syllable रम्. -भोग्यम् clarified butter. -मन्थः, -मन्थनः Premna Spinosa (Mar. नरवेल). -मारकम् water. -मित्रः air, wind. -रेतस् m. 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 gold. -लोह, -लोहक copper. -वधू f. 1 Svāhā, the wife of Agni. -2 The Svāhā Mantra. -वर्णम् the red water-lilly. -वल्लभः resin. -वीजम् 1 gold. -2 the common lime. -शिखम् 1 saffron. -2 saffower; स्यात् कुसुम्भं वह्निशिखं वस्त्ररञ्जकमित्यपि Bhāva P. -शेखरम् saffron. -संस्कारः the religious rite of cremation. -सखः the wind. -संझकः the Chitraka tree. -साक्षिकम् ind. fire being the witness. -सुतः chyle.
वैश्वानर a. (-री f.) 1 Relating or common to all mankind, fit for all men; तान् होवाचैते वै खलु यूयं पृथगिवेम- मात्मानं वैश्वानरं विद्वांसो$न्नमत्थ Ch. Up.5.18; स एष वैश्वानरो विश्वरूपः प्राणो$ग्निरुदयते Praśṇa Up.1.7; हिरण्यगर्भः स्थूले$स्मिन् देहे वैश्वानरो भवेत् Pañchadaśī 1.28; -2 Universal, general, common. -2 Zodiacal; गगने तान्यनेकानि वैश्वानरपथाद्वहिः
Rām.1.6.31. -रः 1 An epithet of fire; त्वत्तः खाण्डव- रङ्गताण्डवनटो दूरे$स्तु वैश्वानरः Bv.1.57. -2 The fire of digestion (in the stomach); अहं वैश्वानरो भूत्वा प्राणिनां देह- माश्रितः । प्राणापानसमायुक्तः प्रचाम्यन्नं चतुर्विधम् ॥ Bg.15.14. -3 General consciousness (in Vedānta phil.). -4 The Supreme Being. -5 The Chitraka tree. -री 1 N. of a particular division of the moon's path; also वैश्वानरपथ; Rām.1.6.31. -2 N. of a particular sacrifice performed at the beginning of every year; इष्टिं वैश्वानरीं नित्यं निर्वपेदब्दपर्यये Mb.12.165.15.
शिखिन् a. [शिखा अस्त्यस्य इनि] 1 Pointed. -2 Crested, tufted; एकवस्त्रधरो धन्वी शिखी कनकमालया Rām.3.38.14. -3 One who has reached the summit of knowledge. -4 Proud. -m. 1 A peacock; उष्णालुः शिशिरे निषीदति तरोर्मूलालवाले शिखी V.2.23;4.8; Pt.1.151; Śi.4.5. -2 Fire; रिपुरिव सखीसंवासो$यं शिखीव हिमानिलः Gīt.7; न श्वेतभावमुञ्झति शङ्खः शिखिभुक्तमुक्तो$पि Pt.4.11; R.19.54; Śi.15.7. -3 A cock. -4 An arrow. -5 A tree. -6 A lamp. -7 A bull. -8 A horse. -9 A mountain. -1 A Brāhmaṇa. -11 A religious mendicant. -12 N. of Ketu. -13 The number 'three'. -14 The Chitraka tree. -Comp. -कणः a spark. -कण्ठम्, -ग्रीवम् blue vitriol; तार्क्ष्यशैलं शिखिग्रीवं चक्षुष्यं यामुनं पुनः Śiva B.3.18. -दिश् south-east. -ध्वजः 1 an epithet of Kārtikeya. -2 smoke. -पिच्छम्, -पुच्छम् a peacock's tail. -प्रियः a kind of jujube tree. -भूः N. of Skanda. -मोदा a kind of plant (अजमोदा). -मृत्युः the god of love (मदन); Gīrvāṇa. -यूपः an antelope. -वर्धकः a gourd. -वाहनः an epithet of Kārtikeya. -शिखा 1 a flame. -2 a peacock's crest.
शुक्र a. [शुच्-रक् नि˚ कुत्वम् Uṇ.2.28] Ved. 1 Bright, radiant; स पर्यगाच्छुक्रम् Īśop.8; shining. -2 White, pure; रोचिष्णु जायते शुक्रं तद्रूपगुणमुच्यते Mb.12.232.6. -क्रः 1 The planet Venus. -2 N. of the preceptor of the Asuras, who, by means of his magical charm, restored to life the demons killed in battle; see कच, देवयानी and ययाति. -3 The month of Jyeṣṭha; रथस्वन इति ह्येते शुक्र- मासं नयन्त्यमी Bhāg.12.11.35. -4 N. of Agni or fire. -5 N. of the plant Chitraka. -क्रम् 1 Semen virile; पुमान् पुंसो$धिके शुक्रे स्त्री भवत्यधिके स्त्रियाः Ms.3.49;5.63. -2 The essence of anything. -3 Male and female energy. -4 Ved. Water. -5 Brightness, clearness, light; यथा पुरस्तात् सविता दृश्यते शुक्रमुच्चरन् Mb.5.75.12. -6 Morbid affection of the iris. -7 Gold, wealth. -Comp. -अङ्गः a peacock. -कर a. spermatic. (-रः) the marrow of the bones. -कृच्छ्रम् a particular urinary disease. -दोषः defect of semen; impotence. -भुज् f a pea-hen. -भूः m. the marrow of the bones. -मेहः seminal diabetes. -वर्ण a. bright coloured. -वारः, -वासरः Friday. -शिष्यः a demon.
शुचि a. [शुच्-कि] 1 Clean, pure, clear; सकलहंसगुणं शुचि मानसम् Ki.5.13. -2 White; अथ हिमशुचिभस्मभूषितम् Ki.18.15. -3 Bright, resplendent; प्रभवति शुचिर्बिम्बोद्ग्राहे मणिर्न मृदां चयः U.2.4. -4 Virtuous, pious, holy, undefiled, unsullied; अय तु वेत्सि शुचिव्रतमात्मनः Ś.5.27; पथः शुचेर्दर्शयितार ईश्वराः R.3.46; Ki.5.13. -5 Purified, cleansed, hallowed; सुतां तदीयां सुरभेः कृत्वा प्रतिनिधिः शुचिः R. 1.81; Ms.4.71. -6 Honest, upright, faithful, true,
guileless; सभायां वक्ति सामर्षः सावष्टम्भो नरः शुचिः Pt.1. 2. -7 Correct, accurate. -चिः 1 The white colour. -2 Purity, purification. -3 Innocence, virtue, goodness, uprightness. -4 Correctness, accuracy. -5 The condition of a religious student. -6 A pure man. -7 A Brāhmaṇa. -8 The hot season; क्रीडन् परिवृतः स्त्रीभिर्ह्रदिनीमा- विशच्छुचौ Bhāg.4.25.44; उपयवौ विदधन्नवमल्लिकाः शुचिरसौ चिरसौरभसंपदः Śi.6.22;1.58; R.3.3; Ku.5.2. -9 The months of (a) Jyeṣṭha; यथोग्ररश्मिः शुचिशुक्रमध्यगः Mb.8.79-78 and (b) Āṣāḍha; शुक्रश्चित्रस्वनश्चैव शुचिमासं नयन्त्यमी Bhāg.12.11.36. -1 A faithful or true friend. -11 The sun. -12 The moon. -13 Fire; शुचीनां हृदयं शुचिः Mb.12.193.18. -14 The sentiment of love (शृङ्गार). -15 The planet Venus. -16 The Chitraka tree. -17 Acquittal. -18 An oblation made to fire at the first feeding of an infant. -19 N. of Śiva. -2 The Arka plant. -21 The sky; हंसः शुचिषद् Kaṭh.5.2. -Comp. -द्रुमः the sacred fig-tree. -प्रणी a. sipping water. -मणिः 1 a crystal. -2 a jewel worn on the head. -मल्लिका a kind of jasmine (Arabian). -मानस a. pure-hearted. -यन्त्रम् a machine through which fire-work is shot; वियदग्रमुदग्रमाविशन् शुचियन्त्रस्फुरित- स्फुलिङ्गकाः Śāhendra. 2.8. -रोचिस् m. the moon. -व्रत a. holy, virtuous. -श्रवस् N. of Viṣṇu. -षद् a. abiding in the path of virtue; स्वर्गापवर्गद्वाराय नित्यं शुचिषदे नमः Bhāg.4.24.37. -समाचार a. maintaining pure practices. -स्मित a. having a sweet or pleasant smile; शुचिस्मिता मध्यगता सुमध्यमा Ku.5.2; R.8.49.
शूर a. [शूर्-अच्] Brave, heroic, valiant, mighty; शून्येषु शूरा न के K. P.7; स्वाध्यायशूरैर्मुखैः Pañcharātram 1.5. -रः 1 A hero, warrior, valiant man. -2 A lion. -3 A boar. -4 The sun. -5 The Śāla tree. -6 N. of a Yādava, the grandfather of Kṛiṣṇa; (hence the descendants of Śūra i. e. Yādavas also; cf. शूरः स्याद् यादवे भटे Medinī; ख्यातानि कर्माणि च यानि शौरेः शूरादय- स्तेष्वबला बभूवुः Bu. Ch.1.51). -7 The Arka plant. -8 The Chitraka tree. -9 A dog. -1 A cock. -Comp. -कीटः a contemptible warrior; लीयन्ते यत्र शत्रुप्रपतनविवशाः कोटिशः शूरकीटाः Mv.6.32. -मानम् arrogance, vaunting. -मानिन् m. a boaster, braggart. -वादः the Buddhist doctrine of non-existence. -वादिन् a. 1 a Buddhist. -2 an atheist. -सेनः m. pl. N. of the country about Mathurā or the inhabitants of that country; सा शूरसेनाधिपतिं सुषेणम् (उद्दीश्य) R.6.45.
सप्तन् num. a. (always pl.; सप्त nom. and acc.) Seven. -Comp. -अंशुः N. of Agni. -अंशुपुङ्गवः the planet Saturn. -अङ्ग a. see सप्तप्रकृति below. -अर्चिस् a. 1 having seven tongues or flames. -2 evil-eyed, of inauspicious look. (-m.) 1 N. of fire. -2 of Saturn. -3 the Chitraka plant. -अशीतिः f. eighty-seven. -अश्रम् a heptagon. -अश्वः the sun; नप्ता सप्ताश्वसंनिभः Śiva B. 25.45. ˚वाहनः the sun. -अस्र a. septangular. -अहः seven days, i. e. a week. -आत्मन् m. an epithet of Brahman. -ऋषि (सप्तर्षि) m. pl. 1 the seven sages; i. e. मरीचि, अत्रि, अङ्गिरस्, पुलस्त्य, पुलह, क्रतु, and वसिष्ठ. -2 the constellation called Ursa Major (the seven stars of which are said to be the seven sages mentioned above). -कोण a. septangular. -गङ्गम् ind. in the place of the seven streams of the Ganges. -गुण a. seven-fold. -चत्वारिंशत् f. forty-seven. -च्छदः N. of a tree (Mar. सातवीण); गजाश्च सप्तच्छद- दानगन्धिनः Karṇabhāra 1.11. -जिह्वः, -ज्वालः fire. (the seven tongues are काली, कराली, मनोजवा, सुलोहिता, सुधूम्रवर्णा, उग्रा and प्रदीप्ता). -तन्तुः a sacrifice; सप्ततन्तु- मधिगन्तुमिच्छतः Śi.14.6; पुनः प्रवर्तयिष्यामि सप्ततन्त्वादिकाः क्रियाः Śiva B.5.56; विधये सप्ततन्तूनाम् ibid.18.23. cf. note on N.11.1. -त्रिंशत् f. thirty-seven. -दशन् a. seventeen. ˚अरत्निन्यायः A rule of interpretation according to which an expression, if it is found to be inapplicable to the matter or thing with reference to which it is used, should be taken as being connected with or applying to a part or subsidiary thereof. This mode of construing an expression (in its literal sense) is preferable to लक्षणा. This rule is discussed and established by जैमिनि and शबर in the सूत्र 'आनर्थक्यात् तदङ्गेषु' MS.3.1.18 and भाष्या thereon. -दाधितिः N. of fire. -द्वारावकीर्ण a. dominated or affected by the seven gates (5 organs, mind and intellect); सप्तद्वाराकीर्णां च न वाचमनृतां वदेत् Ms.6.48 (see Kull.). -द्वीपा an epithet of the earth; पुरा सप्तद्वीपां जयति वसुधामप्रतिरथः Ś.7.33. -धातु m. pl. the seven constituent elements of the body; i. e. chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, and semen; (रसास्रमांस- मेदो$स्थिमज्जानः शुक्रसंयुताः). -नली birdlime. -नवतिः f. ninetyseven. -नाडीचक्रम् a kind of astrological diagram used as a means of foretelling rain. -पदी the seven steps at a marriage (the bride and bridegroom walk together seven steps, after which the marriage becomes irrevocable). -पर्णः (so सप्तच्छदः, सप्तपत्रः) N. of a tree. (-र्णी) the sensitive plant. -पातालम् the seven regions of the earth (i. e. अतल, वितल, सुतल, महातल, रसातल, तलातल and पाताल). -प्रकृतिः f. pl. the seven constituent parts of a kingdom; स्वाम्यमात्यसुहृत्कोशराष्ट्र- दुर्गबलानि च Ak.; see प्रकृति also. -भद्रः the Śirīsa tree. -भूमिक, -भौम a. seven stories high (as a palace). -मन्त्रः fire. -मातृ f. collective N. of seven mothers (i. e. ब्राह्मी, माहेश्वरी, कौमारी, वैष्णवी, वाराही, इन्द्राणी, and चामुण्डा). -मुष्टिकः a particular mixture used as a remedy for fever. -रक्तः one who has got the seven parts of the body red; (पाणिपादतले रक्ते नेत्रान्तरनखानि च । तालुकाधर- जिह्वाश्च प्रशस्ता सप्तरक्तता ॥). -रात्रम् a period of seven nights. -रुचिः fire; सप्तरुचेरिव स्फुलिङ्गाः Śi.2.53. -लोकाः the seven worlds (i. e. भूर्, भुवर्, स्वर्, महर्, जनस्, तपस्, and सत्यम्). -विंशतिः f. twentyseven. -विध a. seven-fold, of seven sorts. -शतम् 1 7. -2 17. (-ती) an aggregate or collection of 7 verses or stanzas. -शलाकः a kind of astronomical diagram used for indicating auspicious days for marriages. -शिरा betel. -सप्तिः an epithet of the sun; सर्वैरुस्रैः समग्रैस्त्वमिव नृपगुणैर्दीप्यते सप्तसप्तिः M.2.12; Ś.6.29; Ki.5.34. -स्वरः the seven musical notes (i. e. सा, रि, ग, म, प, ध, नी).
सीवनी 1 A needle. -2 The frenum of the prepuce. -3 The part of the body of a horse below the anus.
सीसम् sīsam सीसकम् sīsakam सीसपत्रकम् sīsapatrakam सीसपत्रम् sīsapatram
सीसम् सीसकम् सीसपत्रकम् सीसपत्रम् Lead; ताम्रायः कांस्यरैत्यानां त्रपुणः सीसकस्य च । शौचं यथार्हं कर्तव्यं क्षारा- म्लोदकवारिभिः ॥ Ms.5.114; Y.1.19.
हिम a. [हि-मक्] Cold, frigid, frosty, dewy. -मः 1 The cold season, winter. -2 The moon. -3 The Himālaya mountain. -4 The sandal tree. -5 Camphor. -मम् 1 Frost, hoar-frost; हिमनिर्मुक्तयोर्योगे चित्राचन्द्रमसोरिव R.1.46;9.25;9.28;15.66;16.44; Ki.5.12; अनन्तरत्न- प्रभवस्य यस्य हिमं न सौभाग्यविलोपि जातम् Ku.1.3,11. -2 Cold, coldness. -3 A lotus. -4 Fresh butter. -5 A pearl. -6 Night. -7 Tin. -8 Sandal wood. -Comp. -अंशुः 1 the moon; प्राचीमूले तनुमिव कलामात्रशेषां हिमांशोः Me.91; मलिनमपि हिमांशोर्लक्ष्म लक्ष्मीं तनोति Ś.1.2; R.5.16;6.47;14.8; Śi.2.49. -2 camphor. ˚अभिख्यम् silver. -अङ्कः camphor. -अचलः, -अद्रिः the Himālaya mountain; प्रस्थं हिमाद्रे- र्मृगनाभिगन्धि किंचित् क्वणत् किंनरमध्युवास Ku.1.54; R.4.79; 4.3. ˚जा, ˚तनया 1 Pārvatī. -2 the Ganges. -अम्बु, -अम्भस् n. 1 cold water. -2 dew; निर्धौतहारगुलिकाविशदं हिमाम्भः R.5.7. -अनिलः a cold wind. -अपहः fire. -अब्जम् a lotus. -अभ्रः camphor. -अरातिः 1 fire. -2 the sun. -3 the arka and chitraka plants. -अरिः fire. ˚शत्रुः water; Bu. Ch.11.71. -आगमः the cold or winter-season. -आनद्ध a. frozen. -आर्त a. pinched or shivering with cold, chilled. -आलयः 1 the Himālaya mountain; अस्त्युत्तरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा हिमालयो नाम नगाधिराजः Ku.1.1. -2 the white Khadira tree. ˚सुता an epithet of Pārvatī. -आह्वः, -आह्वयः camphor. (-यम्) a lotus. -उत्तरा the tawny grape. -उत्पन्ना a kind of sugar. -उद्भवा the plant called Zedoary. -उस्रः the moon; यदा- प्यानं हिमोस्रेण भनक्त्युपवनं कपिः Bk.9.2. -ऋतुः the winter season. -करः 1 the moon; लुठति न सा हिमकरकिरणेन Gīt.7. -2 camphor. -कूटः 1 the winter season. -2 the Himālaya mountain. -खण्डम् a hail stone. -गिरिः the Himālaya. -गुः the moon. -गृहम् a room furnished with cool appliances. -जः the Maināka mountain. -जा 1 the plant Zedoary. -2 Pārvatī. -ज्योतिस् a. cool-rayed (as the moon). -ज्वरः ague. -झटिः, -झण्टिः mist, fog. -तैलम् a kind of camphor ointment. -दीधितिः the moon; प्रथमं कलाभवदथार्धमथो हिमदीधितिर्महदभूदुदितः Śi.9.29. -दुर्दिनम् wintry weather, cold and bad weather. -द्युतिः the moon. -द्रुमः the Nimba tree. -द्रुह् m. the sun; हरेः प्रगमनं नास्ति, न प्रभानं हिमद्रुहः Bk.9.17. -धातुः the Himālaya mountain. -धामन् m. the moon. -ध्वस्त a. bitten, nipped, or blighted by frost. -पातः 1 cold rain; Pt.3. -2 fall of snow. -प्रस्थः the Himālaya mountain. -भानुः the moon. -भास्, -रश्मि m. the moon; शोभाभि- भूतहिमबालुकबालुकेन छायाजुषा सविधरोपितपादपेन Rām. ch.5.42; N.2.88; कस्तूरिकां च काश्मीरं पाटीरं हिमबालुकाम् Śiva B.3. 13. -शर्करा a kind of sugar produced from Yavanāla. -शीतल a. ice-cold. -शैलः Himālaya mountain. -श्रथः the moon; चन्दनद्रुमसंच्छन्ना निराकृत-हिमश्रथाः Bk.22. 4. -संहतिः f. a mass of ice or snow. -सरस् n. 'a lake of snow', cold water; न संतापच्छेदो हिमसरसि वा चन्द्रमसि वा Māl.1.31. -स्रुत m. the moon. -स्रुतिः the snow-shower. -हासकः the marshy date-tree.
हिरण्यम् [हिरणमेव स्वार्थे यत्] 1 Gold; Ms.2.246. -2 Any vessel of gold; मन्त्रवत् प्राशनं चास्य हिरण्यमधुसर्पिषाम् Ms.2.29 (some take in the first sense). -3 Silver; (ददौ) हिरण्यस्य सुवर्णस्य मुक्तानां विद्रुमस्य च Rām.1.74.5; Mb. 13.57.34. -4 Any precious metal. -5 Wealth, property; अपदेश्यैश्च संन्यस्य हिरण्यं तस्य तत्त्वतः Ms.8.182. -6 Semen virile. -7 A cowrie. -8 particular measure. -9 A substance. -1 The thorn-apple (धत्तूर). -ण्या One of the seven tongues of fire. -Comp. -अक्षः N. of
a celebrated demon, twin brother of Hiraṇyakaśipu; अंशे हिरण्याक्षरिपोः स जाते हिरण्यनाभे तनवे नयज्ञः R.18.25. [On the strength of a boon from Brahman, he became insolent and oppressive, seized upon the earth, and carried it with him into the depths of the ocean. Viṣṇu therefore became incarnate as a boar, killed the demon and lifted up the earth.] -कक्ष a. wearing a golden girdle. -कर्तृ m. goldsmith; यथा हिरण्यकर्ता वै रूप्यमग्नौ विशोधयेत् Mb.12.28.11. -कवच a. having golden armour (said of Śiva). -कशिपुः N. of a celebrated king of demons. [He was a son of Kaśyapa and Diti, and by virtue of a boon from Brahman, he became so powerful that he usurped the sovereignty of Indra and oppressed the three worlds. He freely blasphemed the great god and subjected his son Prahrāda to untold cruelties for acknowledging Viṣṇu as the Supreme deity. But he was eventually torn to pieces by Viṣṇu in the form of Narasimha; see प्रह्लाद]. -कारः a goldsmith. -केशी a branch (शाखा) of Yajurveda. -कोशः gold and silver (whether wrought or unwrought). -गर्भः 1 N. of Brahman (as born from a golden-egg). -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 the soul invested by the subtile body or सूक्ष्मशरीर q. v. -द a. giving or granting gold; भूमिदो भूमिमाप्नोति दीर्घमायुर्हिरण्यदः Ms.4.23. (-दः) the ocean. (-दा) the earth. -नाभः 1 the mountain Maināka. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. (-भम्) a building having three halls (towards east, west and south). -बाहुः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 the river Śoṇa. -बिन्दुः fire. -रेतस् m. 1 fire; द्विषामसह्यः सुतरां तरूणां हिरण्यरेता इव सानिलो$भूत् R.18.25. -2 the sun. -3 N. of Śiva. -4 the Chitraka or Arka plant. -वर्चस् a. shining with golden lustre. -वर्णा a river. -वाहः 1 the river Śoṇa. -2 N. of Śiva.
हुत p. p. [हु-क्त] 1 Offered as an oblation to fire, burnt as a sacrificial offering; हुतं च दत्तं च तथैव तिष्ठति Karṇabhāra 1.22. -2 One to whom an oblation is offered; Ś.4; R.2.71. -तः N. of Śiva. -तम् 1 An oblation, offering. -2 An Oblation to fire; द्वे देवानभाजय- दिति हुतं च प्रहुतं च Bṛi. Up.1.5.2; Bg.9.16. -Comp. -अग्निः a. who has made an oblation to fire; हुताग्निर्बाह्मणां- श्चार्च्य प्रविशेत् स शुभां सभाम् Ms.7.145; यथाविधिहुताग्नीनाम् R.1.6. (-m.) a sacrificial fire. -अशः 1 fire. -2 N. of the number 'three'. -3 Plumbago Ceylanica (Mar. चित्रक). -अशनः 1 fire; समीरणो नोदयिता भवेति व्यादिश्यते केन हुताशनस्य Ku.3.21; R.4.1. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 the Chitraka tree. ˚सहायः an epithet of Śiva. -अशनी the full-moon day in the month of Phālguna (होलिका). -आशः fire; प्रदक्षिणीकृत्य हुतं हुताशम् R. 2.71. -जातवेदस् a. one who has made an oblation to fire. -भुज् m. fire; शक्यो वारयितुं जलेन हुतभुक् Bh.2.11; नैशस्यार्चिर्हुतभुज इव च्छिन्नभूयिष्ठधूमा V.1.7; U.5.9. ˚प्रिया Svāhā, the wife of Agni. -वहः fire; जनाकीर्णं मन्ये हुतवहपरीतं गृहमिव Ś.5. 1; शीतांशुस्तपनो हितो हुतवहः Gīt.9; Me.45; Ṛs.1.27. -होमः a Brāhmaṇa who has offered oblations to fire; आश्रमादाश्रमं ग़त्वा हुतहोमो जितेन्द्रियः Ms.6.34. (-मम्) a burnt offering.
हेमन् n. [हि-मनिन्] 1 Gold; हेम्नः संलक्ष्यते ह्यग्नौ विशुद्धि श्यामिकापि वा R.1.1. -2 Water. -3 Snow. -4 The thorn-apple. -5 The Keśara flower. -6 Winter, the cold season. -7 The planet Mercury. -8 The Dhattūra plant.; हेमनामकतरुप्रसवेन त्र्यम्बकस्तदुपकल्पितपूजः N.21.34. -Comp. -अङ्कः a. adorned with gold; Mu.2.1 (v. l.); see next word. -अङ्ग a. golden; सुगाङ्गे हेमाङ्गं नृवर तव सिंहासनमिदम् Mu.2.1. (-ङ्गः) 1 Garuḍa. -2 a lion. -3 the mountain Sumeru. -4 N. of Brahman. -5 of Viṣṇu. -6 the Champaka tree. -अङ्गदम् a gold bracelet. -अद्रिः 1 the mountain Sumeru. -2 N. of an author of the encyclopædic work चतुर्वर्गचिन्तामणि. -अम्भोजम् a golden lotus, Nelumbium Speciosum (variety yellow); हेमाम्भोजप्रसवि सलिलं मानसस्याददानः Me.64. -अम्भोरुहम् golden lotus; हेमाम्भोरुहसस्यानां तद्वाप्यो धाम सांप्रतम् Ku. 2.44. -आह्वः 1 the wild Champaka tree. -2 the Dhattūra plant. -कक्ष a. having golden walls. -क्षः a golden girdle. -कन्दलः coral. -करः, -कर्तृ, -कारः, -कारकः a goldsmith; (हृत्वा) विविधानि च रत्नानि जायते हेमकर्तृषु Ms.12.61; हेममात्रमुपादाय रूपं वा हेमकारकः Y.3.
147. -कलशः a golden pinnacle; Inscr. -किंजल्कम् the Nāgakeśara flower. -कुम्भः a golden jar. -कूटः N. of a mountain; Ś.7. -केतकी the Ketaka plant, bearing yellow flowers (स्वर्णकेतकी). -केलिः 1 an epithet of Agni. -2 the Chitraka plant. -केशः N. of Śiva. -गन्धिनी the perfume named Reṇukā. -गर्भ a. containing gold in the interior. -गिरिः the mountain Sumeru. -गारैः the Aśoka tree. -घ्नम् lead. -घ्नी turmeric. -चन्द्रः N. of a celebrated Jaina lexicographer (of the 11th century). -छन्न a. covered with gold. (-न्नम्) gold covering. -ज्वालः fire. -तरुः the thorn-apple. -तारम् blue vitriol. -दुग्धः, -दुग्धकः the glomerous fig-tree. -धान्यकः the 11/2 Māṣaka weight. -धारणम् the 8-Palas weight of gold. -पर्वतः the mountain Meru. -पुष्पः, -पुष्पकः 1 the Aśoka tree. -2 the Lodhra tree. -3 the Champaka tree. (-n.) 1 the Aśoka flower. -2 the flower of China rose. -पुष्पिका yellow jasmine. -पृष्ठ a. gilded. -ब(व)लम् a pearl. -माला the wife of Yama. -माक्षिकम् pyrites. -मालिन् m. the sun. -यूथिका the golden or yellow jasmine. -रागिणी f. turmeric. -रेणुः a kind of atom (त्रसरेणुः). -वलम् a pearl. -व्याकरणम् Hemachandra's grammar. -शङ्खः N. of Viṣṇu. -शृङ्गम् 1 a golden horn. -2 a golden summit. -सारम् blue vitriol. -सूत्रम्, -सूत्रकम् a kind of necklace (Mar. गोफ).
m. (--°ree; a., f. â, î) ear; handle; rudder; N. of several men, esp. of a son of Kuntî; a. having ears or handles; long-eared (also á); -kuvalaya, n. lotus attached to the ear; -kâmara, n. whiskadorning the ears of elephants; -gâpa, m. tale-bearing; -tâ, f. condition of an ear; -tâla, m. flapping of elephants' ears (--°ree;); -dhâra, m. helmsman; sailor: -tâ, f. helmsmanship; -nîlotpala, n. blue lotus attached to the ear; -pa, m. N.; -pattraka, m. flap of the ear (tragus); -patha, m. ear-shot, hearing: -m, â-yâ, or upa½i, come to the ears: -½atithi, m.=come to the ears; -paramparâ, f. passing from ear to ear, gossip; -pâsa, m.beautiful ear; -pûra, m. n. ear or nament, esp. flowers: -pûraka, m. N. of a chattering servant; -pûrî-kri, turn into an ear ornament; -bha&ndot;ga, m. curve of the ears; -bhûshana, n. ear ornament; -mûla, n. root of the ear (where it is attached to the head); -vamsa, m. flat projecting bamboo roof; -vat, a. having ears; -vish, f. ear-wax; -visha, n. poison for the ears; -veshta, m. ear-ring: *-na, n. id.; -sirîsha, n. Sirîsha flower at tached to the ear; -srava, a. audible; -su bhaga, a. pleasant to the ear.
a. nourishing, breeding, rearing; m. nourisher, breeder; -ana, a. cherishing, favouring (--°ree;); n. nurture, maintenance, cultivation (of trees, of the senses); -anîya, fp. to be nourished; -ayitnú, a. causing to thrive (ac.); -ayishnú, a. beneficial; -i-tri, m. nourisher, breeder; -in, a. rearing, bringing up (--°ree;); -u-ka, a. thriving; -tri, m. nourisher, bringer up; -ya, fp. thriving, well-fed; abundant; causing prosperity; to be nourished: -putraka, m. adopted son.
m. constructor of machines or magical contrivances; -dri- dha, pp. secured by a bolt; -dhârâ-griha, n. shower-bath room: -tva, n. condition or function of a shower-bath; -nâla, n.artificial pipe or tube; -putraka, m., -putrikâ, f. mechanical doll; -pravâha, m. mechanical spray or jet of water; -maya, a. artificially imitated, mechanical (animal, etc.); -mayû ra-ka, m. artificial peacock; -mârga, m.aqueduct.
m. kind of gem, dia mond of inferior quality; -patnî, f. consort of a king; -patha, m. royal road, highway; -paddhati, f. id.; -pitri, m. royal father; -putrá, 1. m. king's son, prince; Râjput (a mixed caste, offspring of Vaisya and Am bashthâ or Kshatriya and Karanî); son of the moon, planet Mercury: î, f. king's daugh ter, female Râjput; (r&asharp;ga)-putra, 2. a. hav ing kings as sons (RV.1); -putraka, m. king's son, prince: ikâ, f. princess; -putra-loka, m. assemblage of princes; -pums, m. royal servant or official; -pura, n. Kingstown, N. of a town; -purî, f. N. of a town; -pu rusha, m. king's man, royal servant or offi cial; -pûrusha, m. metr.=-purusha; -pau rushika, a. being in the service of a king; -prakriti, f. king's minister; -priyâ, f. mis tress of a king; mistress of the moon; -presh ya, m. king's servant; n. royal service; -bandin, m. N.; -bândhava, m. relation of a king: î, f. female relation of a king; -bîg in, a. of royal descent; -bhakti-puras krita, pp. distinguished by devotion to their king; -bhata, m. royal mercenary, soldier; -bhaya, n. fear of a king; danger from a king; -bhavana, n. royal palace; -bhâryâ, f. king's spouse; -bhrita, m. soldier; -bhri tya, m. king's servant; -bhauta, m. fool of a king; -bhratrí, m. king's brother; -mani, m. kind ofjewel; -mandira, n. royal palace; -mahishî, f. chief consort of a king; king's wife; -mâtri, f. king's mother, queen mother.
f. 1. (V.) [√ 1. hu] priestly office, sp. function of the Hotrakas: also= the Hotrakas themselves; 2. [√ hû] invoca tion (V.); also personified: -víd, a. knowing invocation (RV.); -samsin,m. (reciting the part of the Hotraka), assistant of the Hotri, Hotraka (Br., S.).
Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana resolves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis).
17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v.
18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e.
20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā.
21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention.
22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred.
24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse.
26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
Is, with Sūnu, the usual name for ‘ son ’ from the Rigveda onwards. The original sense of the word was apparently ‘ small,’ or something analogous. The form Putraka is often used with the distinct intention of an affectionate address to a younger man, not merely a son proper. Reference is frequently made to the desire for a son. Cf. Pati.
(‘Reciting after the Brāhmaṇa — i.e., Brahman ’) is the name of a priest in the Brāhmaṇas. In the technical division of the sacrificial priests (Rtvy) he is classed with the Brahman, but it is clear that he was really a Hotraka or assistant of the Hotṛ. According to Oldenberg, he was known to the Rigveda as Brahman. This is denied by Geldner, who sees in Brahman merely the ‘superintending priest’ or the ‘ priest.’
Sanskrit Dictionary understands and transcodes देवनागर्-ई IAST, Harvard-Kyoto, SLP1, ITRANS. You can type in any of the Sanskrit transliteration systems you are familiar with and we will detect and convert it to IAST for the purpose of searching.
Using the Devanagari and IAST Keyboards
Click the icon to enable a popup keybord and you can toggle between देवनागरी and IAST characters. If you want a system software for typing easily in देवनागरी or IAST you can download our software called SanskritWriter
Wildcard Searches and Exact Matching
To replace many characters us * example śakt* will give all words starting with śakt. To replace an individual character use ? for example śakt?m will give all words that have something in place of the ?. By default our search system looks for words “containing” the search keyword. To do an exact match use “” example “śaktimat” will search for this exact phrase.
Type sandhi: and a phrase to search for the sandhi of the two words example.
sandhi:sam yoga will search for saṃyoga
Type root: and a word to do a root search only for the word. You can also use the √ symbol, this is easily typed by typing \/ in SanskritWriter software.