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Grammar Search
"tati" has 1 results
Amarakosha Search
5 results
dharmarājaḥ3.3.37MasculineSingularjanaḥ, santati
vallīFeminineSingularvratati, latā
kirātatiktaḥMasculineSingularbhūnimbaḥ, anāryatiktaḥ
santati2.7.1FeminineSingularvaṃśaḥ, gotram, anvavāyaḥ, jananam, santānaḥ, kulam, abhijanaḥ, anvayaḥ
vratati3.3.73FeminineSingularjanma, sāmānyam
Monier-Williams Search
123 results for tati
tati Nominal verb accusative plural () so many, Latin tot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatiSee tan-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatif. ( varia lectio; see tant/i-) a mass, crowd (see tamas--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatif. the whole mass (of observances, dharma--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatif. a sacrificial act, ceremony (see punas--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatif. a metre of 4 x 12 syllables, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatidhāind. in so many parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tatithamf(-)n. so maniest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhikasāptatikamfn. (containing or costing) more than seventy. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anusaṃtatif. continuation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṣṭasaptatif. seventy-eight. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṣṭāsaptati(aṣṭ/ā--) f. seventy-eight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṣṭasaptatitamamfn. the seventy-eight. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātatif. darkness, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyantatiraskṛtavācyadhvanif. (in rhetoric) a metaphoric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avatatif. stretching, extending View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahusaṃtatimfn. having a numerous posterity or after-growth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahusaṃtatim. Bambusa Spinosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baudhāyanatatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhavasaṃtatif. an uninterrupted series of births and transmigrations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
catuḥsaptatif. 74 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
catuḥsaptatitamamfn. equals ptata- (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhīsaṃtatif. continued meditation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvāntasaṃtatif. a dense or deep darkness, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvāsaptatif. (dv/ā--) 72 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvāsaptatiṣṭakamfn. consisting of 72 bricks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvisaptatif. 72 (see dvā-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvisāptatikamf(ī-)n. worth 72 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvisaptatitamamf(ī-)n. the 72nd, chapter of and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekasaptatif. 71 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekasaptatignṇamfn. multiplied by 71, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekasaptatikamfn. consisting of 71. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekasaptatitamamfn. the 71st. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghātatithif. an inauspicious lunar day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jñānasaṃtatif. continuity of knowledge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kirātatiktam. the plant Agathotes Chirayta (a kind of gentian)
kirātatiktakam. idem or 'm. the plant Agathotes Chirayta (a kind of gentian) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasaṃtatif. propagation of a family, descendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahābhāratasaptatiślokam. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
natitatif. excessive humbleness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navasaptatif. 79 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navasaptatitamamf(ī-)n. the 79th View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥsaṃtatimfn. destitute of offspring, childless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyasaṃketatilakāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcasaptatif. 75 (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcasaptatitamamf(ī-)n. the 75th (chapter of and ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pathikasaṃtatif. () a company of travellers, a caravan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajñānasaṃtatif. a train of thought View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakāśasaptatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prākṛtasaptatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśnasaptatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasūnavitatif. a nosegay, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratatif. spreading, extension View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratatif. (also ī-), a creeping plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prathitatithinirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyasaṃtatimfn. having a beloved son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punastatif. a repeated sacrificial performance, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃkhyasaptatif. equals -lārikā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatatika(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals saṃ-tati-, progeny, offspring on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatif. stretching or extending along, expanse, continuity, uninterruptedness etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatif. causal connection (of things) ()
saṃtatif. a continuous line or series or flow, heap, mass, multitude etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatif. density, intensity (of darkness) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatif. uninterrupted succession, lineage, race, progeny, offspring etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatif. continued meditation (equals dhī-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatif. disposition, feeling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatif. equals -homa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatif. Name of a daughter of dakṣa- and wife of kratu- (see saṃ-nati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatim. Name of a son of alarka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatihomam. Name of particular sacrificial texts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃtatikamfn. (fr. saṃ-tati-) bestowing offspring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtatimatmfn. possessing offspring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptasaptatif. 77 (vatsare saptasaptatau-,"in the 77th year") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptasaptatitamamfn. the 77th, chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatif. 70 (with the counted noun in apposition or in genitive case plural or in the beginning of a compound or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') etc.; 70 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatif. Name of work (equals sāṃkhyakārikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatif. dual number 2 seventies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatif. plural many seventies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatihāyanamfn. 70 years old View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāptatikamfn. (fr. saptati-) worth seventy etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatimamfn. the 70th (with bhāga- m."a 70th part") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatiratnamālikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatisambandham. a collection of 70 tales View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatisaṃkhyākamfn. amounting to 70 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatitamamfn. the 70th, chapter of and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sasaṃtatika() View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satatiSee sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satatimfn. coherent, uninterrupted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatatinm. Name of a son of raja- or rajas- (, śata-jit-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṭsaptatif. 76 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṭsaptatitamamfn. 76th (chapter of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāddhadvāsaptatikalāf. (plural) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śukasaptatif. Name of 70 stories related by a parrot (of which there are 2 recensions extant). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktatiktakaṣāyakamfn. astringent and sour and bitter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktatiktakaṣāyakam. astringent and sour and bad taste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūryasaptatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvṛttatilakam. or n. Name of work on metres. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamastatif. idem or 'm. (gaRa kaskādi-,not in ) great or spreading darkness ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantusaṃtatif. sewing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trayaḥsaptatif. 73 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trisaptatif. () 73 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trisaptatitamamfn. equals ptata- (chs. of ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṃśavitatif. a clump or thicket of bamboos View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṃśavitatif. family descent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakan. the ornament of spring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakan. the blossom of the tilaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakan. a particular mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakaf. a kind of metre (four times $) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakabhāṇam. Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakatantran. Name of a Buddhist work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntācāryasaptatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitatif. extent, length View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitatif. spreading, extension, expansion, diffusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitatif. excess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitatif. quantity, collection, cluster, clump (of trees etc.)
vratatif. (prob. fr. vṛt-) a creeping plant, creeper etc. etc. (also -) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratatif. expansion, extension, spreading (equals pra-tatī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratativalayam. n. a creeper winding round like a bracelet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapagatatilakagātratāf. the having limbs free from freckles (one of the 80 minor marks of a buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatiriktatiriktakan. a particular manner of flying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñatatif. performance of a sacrifice, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatirājasaptatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
10 results
tati तति pron. a. (Declined only in plural, nom. and acc. तति) So many; e. g. तति पुरुषाः सन्ति &c. (for other senses see the word under तन्).
tati ततिः f. [तन्-क्तिन्] 1 A series, row, line. -2 A troop, group, multitude; विस्रब्धं क्रियतां वराहततिभिर्मुस्ताक्षतिः पल्वले Ś.2.6; बलाहकततीः Śi.4.54;1.5. -3 A sacrificial act, a ceremony.
tatitha ततिथ a. (Correlative of यतिथ) That one of a number.
anusaṃtati अनुसंततिः f. Continued succession, continuity; अनुसंततिपातिनः पटुताम् Śi.
pratati प्रततिः f. 1 Extension, expansion, diffusion. -2 A creeper.
lohitati लोहितति Den. P. To become red, redden; so लोहितायति.
vitati विततिः f. 1 Extension, expansion; व्रततिविततिभिस्तिरो- हितायाम् Śi.7.45; Ki.6.18. -2 Quantity, collection, cluster, clump; वंशविततिषु विषक्तपृथुप्रियबालाः Ki.12.47. -3 A line, row; यदकालमेघविततिर्व्ययूयुजत् Māl.9.47.
vratati व्रततिः ती f. 1 A creeper; पादाकृष्टव्रततिवलयासंगसंजात- पाशः Ś.1.33; R.14.1. -2 Expansion, extension.
saṃtati संततिः f. 1 Stretching across, spreading along. -2 Extent, expanse, extension; संतापसंततिमहाव्यसनाय तस्या- मासक्तमेतदनपेक्षितहेतु चेतः Māl.1.23; Bhāg.1.4.19. -3 Continuous line or flow, series, row, range, succession, continuity; चिन्तासंततितन्तुजालनिबिडस्यूतेव लग्ना प्रिया Māl. 5.1; कुसुमसंततिसंततसंगिभिः Śi.6.36. -5 Perpetuation, uninterrupted continuance; निदानमिक्ष्वाकुकुलस्य संततेः R.3. 1. -6 A race, lineage, family. -7 Offspring, progeny; संततिः शुद्धवंश्या हि परत्रेह च शर्मणे R.1.69. -8 A heap, mass; (अलं) सहसा संततिमंहसां विहन्तुम् Ki.5.17.
saptati सप्ततिः f. Seventy. ˚तम a. 7th.
Macdonell Vedic Search
3 results
uktha uk-thá, n. recitation, iv. 51, 7 [vac speak].
cat cat hide (intr.), I. P. cátati; cs. cātáya drive away, ii. 33, 2.
cit cit perceive, I. cétati, -te; pf. cikéta, i. 35, 7; sb. cíketat, i. 35, 6; cs. citáya stimulate, iv. 51, 3; cetáya cause to think, vii. 86, 7. á̄- observe: pf. ciketa, vii. 61, 1.
Macdonell Search
8 results
tati a. pl. so many (nm., ac. táti).
tati f. multitude, troop.
tatitha a. (&isharp;) the so-manieth.
anusaṃtati ad. in uninterrupted succession; -samtâna, m. offspring, son; -sam dhâtavya, fp. to be heeded, to be attended to; -samdhâna, n. careful attention, application; scrutiny; -samdheya,fp. to be attended to.
dvāsaptati f. seventy-two.
dvisaptati f. seventy-two; -sahasra, n. two thousand; -sûrya, a. having two suns.
vratati f. creeper.
saptati f. seventy (w. n. in app., g., --°ree;, sts. °ree;--); seventy years: -hâyana, a. seventy years old; -trimsat, f. thirty-seven (w. app.); -trimsati, f. id.
Bloomfield Vedic
8 results0 results84 results
aṃśavaḥ sapta saptatīḥ # AVś.19.6.16b; AVP.9.5.14b.
akavārī cetati vājinīvatī # RV.7.96.3b.
akṣayya # śG.4.2.5; 4.12; YDh.1.242,251. Cf. Karmap.1.4.7. Rāmacandra's Paddhati to śG.4.2.5: adogotrasyāsmatpitur amuṣyāsmiñ chrāddhe yad dattaṃ tad akṣayyam astu. In Mahābh.13.23.36 akṣayyam is the felicitation to a vaiśya.
agnir dhiyā sa cetati # RV.3.11.3a.
agnir yajñasyādhvarasya cetati # RV.1.128.4b.
achā voceya vasutātim agneḥ # RV.1.122.5d.
ajasro vakṣi devatātim acha # RV.7.1.18b; TS.; MS.4.10.1b: 143.6; KS.35.2b.
ati dhāvatātisarāḥ # AVś.5.8.4a; AVP.7.18.4a.
atrir narāvavartati # RV.5.73.7d.
athāriṣṭābhir ā gahi # RV.6.54.7c. Cf. atho ariṣṭatātaye, and atho ariṣṭatātibhiḥ.
atho ariṣṭatātibhiḥ # RV.10.137.4b; AVś.4.13.5b; AVP.5.18.2b. Cf. prec.
aditiḥ sarvam # N.1.15. Perhaps no quotation at all.
adeva indra yudhaye ciketati # RV.10.38.3b.
adrogho na dravitā cetati tman # RV.6.12.3c; MS.4.14.15c: 240.6.
adhīn nv atra saptatiṃ ca sapta ca # RV.10.93.15a.
antarikṣeṇa patati # RV.10.136.4a; AVś.6.80.1a; AVP.5.38.4a. P: antarikṣeṇa Kauś.31.18. Cf. yo antarikṣeṇa.
apo na vajrin duritāti parṣi bhūri # RV.8.97.15b.
aṣṭrām (sc. hastāt etc.) # Kauś.80.50. Vikāra of one of the two preceding quotations, AVś.18.2.59, or 60.
ā tvāgamaṃ śaṃtātibhiḥ # RV.10.137.4a; AVś.4.13.5a; AVP.5.18.2a.
ā tvāyam arka ūtaye vavartati # RV.8.88.4c.
ād asmabhyam ā suva sarvatātim # RV.3.54.11d.
ādityā rudrā vasavaḥ # AVś.11.6.13a; AVP.10.3.6a; 15.14.6a; ViDh.73.12. The quotation in ViDh. represents probably the pratīka of one of the following mantras.
ā devatātim ahvanta dasmāḥ # RV.4.6.9d.
ā yajñiyo vavartati # RV.8.103.11b.
ā sarvatātim aditiṃ vṛṇīmahe # RV.10.100.1d--11d.
idaṃ rāṣṭraṃ jātavedaḥ patāti # Kauś.95.3b.
indro deveṣu cetati # RV.8.32.28c.
indro viśvasya cetati # Aś.8.2.21.
uta devā avahitam # RV.10.137.1a; AVś.4.13.1a; AVP.5.18.1a; MS.4.14.2a: 217.16; śś.16.13.4. P: uta devāḥ Vait.38.1; Kauś.58.3,11; Rvidh.4.9.4. Cf. BṛhD.8.49. Designated as śaṃtātīya (sc. sūkta) Kauś.9.4.
uta vāmasya vasunaś ciketati # RV.8.1.31c.
uto te sapta saptatiḥ # RVKh.10.127.2d; AVś.19.47.3d; AVP.6.20.3d; śś.9.28.10d.
katama ūtī abhy ā vavartati # RV.10.64.1d; KB.20.2.
kratvā yajñasya cetati # RV.1.128.4c.
gobhiḥ saṃnaddhā patati prasūtā # RV.6.75.11b; AVP.15.11.2b; VS.29.48b; TS.; MS.3.16.3b: 187.2; KSA.6.1b; N.2.5; 9.19b.
ghṛṇīvāñ cetati tmanā # RV.10.176.3d; TS.; MS.4.10.4d: 151.15; KS.15.12d.
ghṛtair bodhayatātithim # RV.8.44.1b; VS.3.1b; 12.30b; TS.; MS.2.7.10b: 87.14; KS.7.12b; 16.10b; śB.; TB.
janaṃ ca mitro yatati bruvāṇaḥ # RV.7.36.2d. Cf. mitro janān yātayati.
jīvātuṃ te dakṣatātiṃ kṛṇomi # AVś.8.1.6b.
jyeṣṭharājaṃ barhiṣadaṃ svardṛśam # MS.1.3.11b: 34.4. See jyeṣṭhatātiṃ.
tat tvā na hiṃsāc chivatātir astu te # AVP.5.36.4d,5d,7e.
tad āñjana tvaṃ śaṃtātim (AVP. śaṃtāte) # AVś.19.44.1c; AVP.15.3.1c.
tad id rudrasya cetati # RV.8.13.20a.
tad indro arthaṃ cetati # RV.1.10.2c; SV.2.695c.
taṃ marutaḥ kṣurapavinā vyayuḥ # N.5.5. Citation from a Brāhmaṇa: see Roth's Erl"auterungen, p. 57.
tāvat tejas tatidhā vājināni # AVś.12.3.2b.
tāvad vāṃ cakṣus tati vīryāṇi # AVś.12.3.2a.
tigmā yad antar aśaniḥ patāti # RV.4.16.17a.
tisṝṇāṃ saptatīnām # RV.8.19.37c.
te tvā na hiṃsāñ chivatātir astu te # AVP.5.36.1d,2d.
trikadrukebhiḥ patati (AVś. pavate) # RV.10.14.16a; AVś.18.2.6a; KS.40.11a; TA.6.5.3a; Apś.17.21.8a.
triḥ sapta saptatīnām # RV.8.46.26b.
divyaṃ chadmāsi saṃtatināma viśvajanasya chāyā # Lś.1.7.15. Cf. divaś chadmāsi.
devau martaś ciketati # RV.6.59.5b.
dyumnāni yeṣu vasutātī rāran # RV.1.122.12c.
dve dradhasī satatī vasta ekaḥ # TS. P: dve dradhasī Apś.12.18.18.
pakṣī jāyānyaḥ patati # AVś.7.76.4a.
parā vrajatu kṛntati # AVP.2.31.5a.
pavamānaḥ sa cetati # RV.9.62.10b; SV.1.508b.
purā no bādhād duritāti pāraya # RV.9.70.9c.
puruṣarakṣasam iṣiraṃ yat patāti # Kauś.95.3c.
pūrṇam indra ciketati # RV.1.82.4d; SV.1.424d.
prakośā yavācaṣṭati (?) # Lś.4.2.9b.
pratīcī jūrṇir devatātim eti # RV.7.39.1b.
pradakṣiṇid devatātim urāṇaḥ # RV.3.19.2c; 4.6.3b.
pra vīryeṇa devatāti cekite # RV.1.55.3c.
priyaṃ śiśītātithim # RV.6.16.42b; TS.; MS.4.10.3b: 148.11; KS.15.12b.
bālān kaścit prakṛntati # AVś.12.4.7b.
madaṃ yo asya raṃhyaṃ ciketati # RV.10.147.4b.
madaḥ śaviṣṭha cetati # RV.8.12.1b; AVś.20.63.7b; SV.1.394b.
te gṛdhnur aviśastātihāya # RV.1.162.20c; VS.25.43c; TS.; KSA.6.5c.
mūlaṃ lokasya saṃtatim # Apś.5.18.2b.
yajñasya tvā saṃtatim anusaṃtanomi # TB.; Apś.1.13.15; 6.5.5.
yajñasya saṃtatir asi # TB.; 7.4.17; śś.2.6.12; Apś.1.13.15; 15.4; 6.5.5; 12.18.7; Mś.
yajñasya saṃtatir vasatīvarīṣu prahriyamāṇāsu # KS.34.15.
yathā rudraś ciketati # RV.1.43.3b.
yathā so asya paridhiṣ patāti # AVś.5.29.2d,3a; AVP.12.18.3d,4b.
yathemām amūr vyupāpatati bhāsv iti , evaṃ kṣatrasya mānuṣād vyupāpatata śatravaḥ # JB.3.248.
yad ejati jagati yac ca ceṣṭati nāmno (MahānU. nānyo) bhāgo yan nāmne (MahānU. yatnān me) svāhā # Tā.10.67.2; MahānU.19.2.
yad ejati patati yac ca tiṣṭhati # AVś.10.8.11a.
yad ejati patati yat patatriṣu # AVP.1.91.3b; Kauś.115.2b.
yan nakṣatraṃ patati jātavedaḥ # Kauś.128.2a.
yābhiḥ śaṃtātī bhavatho dadāśuṣe # RV.1.112.20a.
yāvanto devās tati mādayantām # AVP.1.81.2d. See next but one.
yuvor atriś ciketati # RV.5.73.6a.
Dictionary of Sanskrit Search
"tati" has 164 results
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
anahvatech. term used by the writers; of the Prātiśākhya works for frequentative formations such as रीरिष:, चाक्लृपत् et cetera, and others; cf Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. 4.86.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
aniyatanot subject to any limitation confer, compare प्रत्यया नियताः, अर्था अनियताः, अर्था नियताः, प्रत्यया अनियताः M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the casc of नियमविधि (a restrictive rule or statement ) a limitation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called नियत, the other one being termed अनियत; also see Kāś. on II.2.30.
anukaraṇa(1)imitation; a word uttered in imitation of another; an imitative name: confer, compare अनुकरणे चानितिपरम् P.I.4.62; अनुकरणं हि शिष्टशिष्टाप्रतिषिद्धेषु यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु, Śiva sūtra 2 Vārt 1; confer, compare also प्रकृतिवद् अनुकरणं भवति an imitative name is like its original Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 36; also M.Bh. on VIII. 2.46; (2) imitative word, onomatopoetic word; confer, compare एवं ह्याहुः कुक्कुटाः कुक्कुड् इति । नैवं त आहुः । अनुकरणमेतत्तेषाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.48. confer, compare also दुन्दुभि: इति शब्दानुकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.IX. 12.
anupapattidiscord, absence of validity, incorrect interpretation; confer, compareप्रथमानुपपत्तिस्तु M.Bh on I.4.9.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anūktasaid afterwards, generally in imitation; confer, compare अनूक्तवान् अनूचानः । अनूक्तमित्येवान्यत्र M.Bh. on III.2.109.
aprasiddhiabsence of clear sense or interpretation; cf इतरेतराश्रयत्वादप्रसिद्धि: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, I.1.38 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4.
abhidhānadesignation, denotation, expression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word. The expression अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् ( denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word ) frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on 1.2.64 Vārt 93, II.1.1, confer, compare नपुसकं यदूष्मान्तं तस्य बह्वभिधानजः ( Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.7 ) where the word बह्वभिधान means बहुवचन.
abhinirvṛtidevelopment of an activity; manifestation; confer, compare द्रव्येषु कर्मचोदनायां द्वयोरेकस्याभनिर्वृत्तिर्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.1.84.
avacchedaexact limitation: confer, compare उपदेशत्वावच्छेदेने एकाजित्यर्थाच्च, Par.Śek. 120.3.
avadhāraṇarestriction; limitation; confer, compare अवधारणमियत्तापरिच्छेदः । यावदमत्रं ब्राह्मणानामन्त्रयतस्व Kāś. on P.II.1.8.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
āmantraṇa(1)calling out from a distance;(2) an invitation which may or may not be accepted; confer, compare विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ् P.III. 3.161 whereon Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). remarks अथ निमन्त्रणामन्त्रणयोः को विशेषः । अथ संनिहितेन निमन्त्रणं भवति असंनिहितेन अामन्त्रणम् । नैषोस्ति विशेषः । असंनिहितेनापि निमन्त्रणं भवति संनिहितेनापि चामन्त्रणम् । एवं तर्हि यन्नियोगतः कर्तव्यं तन्निमन्त्रणम् । अामन्त्रणे कामचारः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III.3.161.
aāropaattribution or imputation of properties which leada to the secondary sense of a word; confer, compare अप्रसिद्धश्च संज्ञादिरपि तद्गुणारोपादेव बुध्यते Par. Sek. on Pari. 15.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
itaretarapossessed of interdependence; depending upon each other; confer, compare इतरेतरं कार्यमसद्वत् Candra Pari. 5 }. Grammatical operations are of no avail if the rules stating them are mutually depending on each other. The word इतरेतर has the sense of इतरेतराश्रय here.
indumitraauthor of अनुन्यास, a commentary on Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa., the well-known commentary on the Kāśikavṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi. Many quotations from the Anunyāsa are found in the Paribhāṣāvṛtti of Sīradeva. The word इन्दु is often used for इन्दुमित्र; confer, compare एतस्मिन् वाक्ये इन्दुमैत्रेययोः शाश्वतिको विरोध: Sīra. Pari. 36.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
udāttanirdeśaconventional understanding about a particular vowel in the wording of a sūtra being marked acute or Udātta, when ordinarily it should not have been so, to imply that a Paribhāṣā is to be applied for the interpretation of that Sūtra: confer, compare उदात्तनिर्देशात्सिद्धम् P.VI.1.13 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).14, also Sīra. Pari. 112.
udāharaṇaa grammatical example in explanation of an interpretation; confer, compare नैकमुदाहरणमसवर्णग्रहणं प्रयोजयति P.VI. 1.11.
uddyotathe word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras.
upapadavibhaktia case termination added to a word on account of the presence of another word requiring the addition;confer, compare the well-known Paribhāṣā,उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94; and M.Bh. on I.4. 96 stating the possession of greater force in the case of a kāra-kavibhakti than in the case of an upapadavibhakti.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upādhicondition, limitation, determinant, qualification: exempli gratia, for example न हि उपाधेरुपाधिर्भवति, विशेषणस्य वा विशेषणम् M.Bh. on I.3.2 as also on V.1.16; confer, compare also इह यो विशेष उपाधिर्वोपादीयते द्योत्ये तस्मिंस्तेन भवितव्यम् । M.Bh. on III.1.7.
ūhamodification of a word, in a Vedic Mantra, so as to suit the context in which the mantra is to be utilised, generally by change of case affixes; adaptation of a mantra: confer, compare ऊहः खल्वपि । न सर्वैर्लिङ्गैर्न च सर्वाभिर्विभक्तिभिर्वेदे मन्त्रा निगदिताः । ते च अवश्यं यज्ञगतेन यथायथं विपरिणमयितव्याः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.1.1 Āhnika 1.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
etāvattvalimitation of the kind; 'such and such' (words et cetera, and others); confer, compare Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya.I.
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
carkarītavṛttaa form of the frequentative or intensive. exempli gratia, for example अापनीफणत् , चोष्कूयमाणः confer, compare अपनीफणदिति फणतेश्चर्करीतवृत्तम् । Nirukta of Yāska.II. 28; चोष्कूयमाण इति चोष्कूयतेश्चर्करीतवृत्तम् Nir.VI.22. See the word चर्करीत.
cekīyitathe sign य ( यङ् of Panini ) of the frequentative or intensive. The word is mostly used in the Katantra Grammar works confer, compare धातोर्यशब्दश्चेक्रीयितं क्रियासमभिहारे, Kat. III. 2. 14. The word चेक्रीयित is used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of यङन्त where Kaiyata remarks थडः पूर्वाचार्यसंज्ञा चेकीयितमिति confer, compare प्रदीप on M.Bh. on P. IV.1.78 Vartika. The word चेकीयितान्त means यङन्त in Panini’s terminology meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense of intensity. The word चर्करीतान्त is used for the frequentative bases in which य, the sign of the frequentative, is omittedition See चर्करीत।
jagannātha(1)the well-known poet and scholar of Vyakarana and Alam kara who wrote many excellent poetical works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of कृष्णशेष and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Diksita and Bhattoji Diksita. He wrote a sort of refutation of Bhattoji's commentary Praudha-Manorama on the Siddhānta Kaumudi, which he named प्रौढमनेारमाखण्डन but which is popularly termed मनोरमाकुचमर्दन. His famous work is the Rasagangadhara on Alankrasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varnakramalaksana; (3) writer of Sarapradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
jātigenus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kindeclinable The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.
jātipakṣathe view that जाति, or genus only, is the denotation of every word. The view was first advocated by Vajapyayana which was later on held by many, the Mimamsakas being the chief supporters of the view. See Mahabhasya on P. I. 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari. 40.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jñāpyaa conclusion or formula to be drawn from a Jñāpaka word or words; confer, compare the usual expression यावता विनानुपपत्तिस्तावतो ज्ञाप्यत्वम् stating that only so much, as is absolutely necessary, is to be inferredition
ḍāctaddhita affix. affix आ applied to dissyllabic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoetic, when connected with the root कृ or भू or अम्. The word to which डाच् is applied becomes generally doubled; c. g पटपटाकरोति, पटपटाभवति पटपटास्यात्; confer, compare P.V.4.57. The affix डाच् is also applied to द्वितीय, तृतीय, to compound words formed of a numeral and the word गुण, as also to the words सपत्र, निष्पत्र, सुख, प्रिच etc when these words are connected with the root कृ;exempli gratia, for example द्वितीयाकरोति,तृतीया करोति, द्विगुणाकरोति, सपत्राकरोति, सुखाकरोति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4. 58 to 67.
tattvabodhinīname of the well-known commentary on Bhattoji's Siddhnta Kaumudi written by his pupil Jnanendrasarasvati at Benares. Out of the several commentaries on the Siddhantakaumudi, the Tattvabodhini is looked upon as the most authoritative and at the same time very scholarly.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
triruktarepeated thrice, occurring thrice; a term used in the PratiSakhya works in respect of a word which is repeated in the krama and other artificial recitations.
daṇḍaone of the eight artificial Vedic recitations.
durghaṭavṛttiname of a grammar work explaining words which are difficult to derive according to rules of Panini. The work is written in the style of a running commentary on select sutras of Panini, devoted mainly to explain difficult formations. The author of it, Saranadeva, was an eastern grammarian who, as is evident from the number of quotations in his work, was a great scholar of the 12th or the 13th century.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dravyābhidhānadenotation of द्रव्य or individual object as the sense of words as opposed to आकृत्यभिधान i, e. denotation of the general form possessed by objects of the same class; of द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः P. I.2.64 Vart. 45. See द्रव्य.
dhruva(1)fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव) which is termed अपादान and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound ( नाद ) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. II and XI. 24.
dhrauvyafixed; of a stationary nature; of क्तोऽधिकरणे च ध्रौव्यगतिप्रत्यवसानार्थेभ्य: P. III. 4.76.
nandikeśvarakārikāa short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian नन्दिकेश्वर, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen sutras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva. See नन्दिकेश्वर. The treatise is also named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिकासूत्र.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niyāmakalimiting; limitative; confer, compare तुः क्रियते । स नियामको भविष्यति । अमेवापञ्चम्याः इति M. Bh, on II. 4.83; confer, compare also लोके निमित्तं द्विविधं दृष्टम् । कार्यस्थितौ नियामकं तदनियामकं च Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
nirvacanainterpretation by means of etymology as found in the Nirukta works; the act of fully uttering the meaning hidden in words that are partially or wholly unintelligible in respect of their derivation, by separating a word into its component letters; confer, compare निष्कृष्य विगृह्य निर्वचनम्, Durgavrtti on Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1.For details see Nirukta II.1.
nyāyamaxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; confer, compare the words अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II 2.24, अपवादन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3.9, अविरविकन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, शालिपलालन्याय M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, confer, compare न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.
pakṣaalternative view or explanation presented by, or on behalf of, a party ; one of the two or more way of presenting a matter. The usual terms for the two views are पूर्वपक्ष and उत्तरपक्ष, when the views are in conflict. The views, if not in conflict, and if stated as alternative views, can be many in number, e. g. there are seven alternative views or Pakșas re : the interpretation of the rule इको गुणवृद्धी; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.3; confer, compare also सर्वेषु पक्षेषु उपसंख्यानं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64.
padakāraliterally one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; confer, compare also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
parivartanareversion in the order of words as found in the recital of the Veda at the time of the recital of जटा, घन and other artificial types of recitations.
paspaśācalled also पस्पशाह्निक; name given to the first or introductory chapter ( अाह्निक ) of the Maahabhaasya of Patanjali. The word occurs first in the SiSupaalavadha of Maagha. The word is derived from पस्पश् , the frequentative base of स्पर्श to touch or to see (ancient use). Possibly it may be explained as derived from स्पश् with अप; cf . शब्दबिद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Sis.II.112. Mallinatha has understood the word पस्पश m. and explained it as introduction to a Saastra treatise; confer, compare पस्पशः शास्त्रारम्भसमर्थक उपेद्वातसंदर्भग्रन्थः । Mallinaatha on SiS. II.112.
pāṭha(1)recital of a sacred Vedic or Sastra work; the original recital of an authoritative text;(2) the various artificial ways or methods of such a recital; c.g. पदपाठ, क्रमपाठ et cetera, and others in the case of Vedic Literature: (3) an original recital such as the सुत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ, वार्तिकपाठ and परिभाषापाठ in the case of the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar; the five Paathas are called पञ्चपाठी; (4) recitation; confer, compare नान्तरेण पाठं स्वरा अनुबन्धा वा शक्या विज्ञातुम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.1 Vaart. 13; (5) reading, variant: confer, compare चूर्णादीनि अप्राण्युपग्रहादिति सूत्रस्य पाठान्तरम् Kaas. on P.V.2.134.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pārārthyaliterally serving the purpose of another like the Paribhāşā and the Adhikāra rules in Grammar which have got no utility as fair as they themselves are concerned, but which are of use in the interpretation of other rules; confer, compare अधिकारशब्देन पारार्थ्यात् परिभाषाप्युच्यते. Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3.
pārṣada parṣadi bhavaṃ pārṣadamliterally the interpretation or theory discussed and settled at the assembly of the learnedition The word is used in the sense of works on Nirukti or derivation of words as also works of the type of the Prātiśākhyās; confer, compare पदप्रकृतीनि सर्वचरणानां पार्षदानि Nirukta of Yāska.I. 17 and the commentary of, दुर्गाचार्यः confer, compare also पार्षदकृतिरेषा तत्रभवतां नैव लोके नान्यस्मिन्वेदे अर्ध एकारः अर्ध ओकारो वास्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 48: see also pp. 104, 105 Vol. VII Mahābhāsya D. E. Society's edition. See पारिषद.
paunaḥpunyafrequency; repetition a sense in which the frequentative affix यङ् and in some cases the imperative mood are prescribed; confer, compareपौनःपुन्यं भृशार्थश्च क्रियासमभिहारः:S.K. on P.1II. 1.22: confer, compare also S. K on P.III.4.2.
pratikrama(1)recital in the reverse order as in some of the artificial recitations of the Samhita text such as जटा, घन et cetera, and others
pratipadavidhian injunction or operation stating expressly the word or words for which it is meant; confer, compare यं विधिं प्रति उपदेशोनर्थकः स विधिर्बाध्यते । दत्वं प्रति नुमः प्रतिपदविधिरनर्थकः, रोः पुनर्निमित्तमेव. M.Bh. on P. VIII. 2.72.
pratṛṇṇaliterally broken or split up; the separated words of the Samhita of the Vedas i. e. the Padapatha; the recitation of the Padapatha.; confer, compare शौद्धाक्षरोच्चारणं च प्रतृण्णम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 3.
pratyādānaliterally taking again; uttering a word already utttered in the Krama and other recitations of the Vedas; confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिकम्य प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयो: । प्रत्यादाय पुनर्गृहीत्वा Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X-1.
pramāṇa(1)authority; authoritative proof; confer, compare लोकः अवश्यं शब्देषु प्रमाणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 2.64 Vart. 29; (2) measurement, measure; confer, compare प्रमाणे द्वयसज्दघ्नत्र्मात्रचः P. V. 2.37; प्रमाणत; अकारो गुणः प्राप्तः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.50.
pravṛtti(l)application or presentation of a rule as opposed to निवृत्ति; cf क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः कचिद्विभाषा क्वचिदन्येदेवः (2) working; function; confer, compare नान्तरेण साधन क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिर्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.3.7.
prasajyapratiṣedhaprohibition of the possible application of a rule, generally laid down by the use of the negative particle न, together with, or connected with, a verbal activity: e.g न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.63, नामि P.VI. 4.3, न माङ्योगे VI.4.74 et cetera, and others etc: confer, compare प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधोSयं क्रियया सह यत्र नञ्; confer, comparealso प्रसज्यायं क्रियागुणौ ततः पश्चान्निवृतिं करोति M.Bh. on P.II.2.6. In some cases the negative particle in a compound has also to be taken as stating a negation by प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः;confer, compare M.Bh. on सुडनपुंसकस्य P.1.1.43, सार्वधातुकमपित् I.4.2, चादयोsसत्त्वे I. 4. 57.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prāmāṇikaauthoritative; those that talk with authority; confer, compare प्रामाणिकमतमेतत्, a phrase often used by commentators.
prauḍhamanoramākhaṇḍana(1)a grammatical work written by a grammarian named Cakrapani of the Sesa family of grammarians. The work is meant to refute the arguments of Bhattoji Diksita in his Praudhamanorama; (2) a grammar work written by the famous poet and rhetorician Jagannātha in refutation of the doctrines and explanations given in the Praudhamanorama by the stalwart Grammarian Bhattoji Diksita. The work is not a scholarly one and it has got a tone of banter. It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works on Grammar and the bearded pedant Bhattoji should not be proud of his profound scholarship in Grammar. The work of Jagannatha was named मनोरमाकुचमर्दन possibly by his followers or even by himselfeminine.
bhūtapūrvagatiliterally denotation of something which formerly was existing; a consideration of that form of a word which was formerly present. The word is used frequently by commentators when they try to apply a rule of grammar to a changed wording under the plea that the wording required by the rule was formerly there; confer, compareभूतपूर्वगत्या (पकारलोपे कृतेपि ) दाप् भविष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.20 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.56, VII.1.9 and VII.3.103; confer, comparealso सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Par. Śeḵ. Pari. 76.
mañjūṣāa popular name given to the work परमलघुमञ्जूषा of Nāgeśa on अर्थप्रक्रिया (science or method of interpretation) in Vyākaraṇa, which is generally read by advanced students. Nāgeśa has also written a bigger work on the same subject लघुमञ्जूषा which sometimes is also referred to by the word मञ्जूषा.
madhyakaumudīcalled also मध्यमकौमुदी a work on grammar which is an abridgment, to a certain extent, of Bhaṭṭojī's Siddhāntakaumudī. The treatise was written by Varadarāja, a pupil of Bhaṭṭojī for facilitating the study of the Siddhānta-kaumudi.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mālāa variety of the utterance of the Veda-Samhita ( वेदपाठ): a kind of Krama-Patha, one of the eight artificial recitations.
yaḍlugantaśiromaṇia grammar work dealing with the frequentative roots written by Pandita Sesakrsna.
yāskaa reputed ancient Niruktakara or etymologist, of the 6th century B.C. or even a few centuries before that, whose work, the Nirukta, is looked upon as the oldest authoritative treatise regarding derivation of Vedic words. Yaska was preceded by a number of etymologists whom he has mentioned in his work and whose works he has utilisedition Yaska's Nirukta threw into the back-ground the older treatises on etymology, all of which disappeared gradually in the course of time.
yukaugment य् (1) added to a verbbase or a root ending in अा before the affix चिण् and krt affixes marked with mute ञ् or णु: exempli gratia, for example अदायि, दायक: confer, compare आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः, P.VII.3.33; (2) added to the roots शा, ( शो ), छा ( छो ), सा ( सो ), ह्वा ( ह्वे ), व्या ( व्ये ) वा ( वै ) and पा ( पा and पे ) before the causal affix णिच् ; e. g. निशाययति पाययति et cetera, and others cf शाच्छासाह्वाव्यावेपां युक् P. VII.3.37; (3) added in Vedic Literature to the frequentative base of the root मृज् of which मर्मज्य is the form of perf Ist and 3rd person. singular. instead of ममार्ज: confer, compare दाधर्ति...ममृज्यागनीगन्तीति च P.VII.4.65.
yukti(1)argumentation: reasoning; (2) current maxim: confer, compare युक्तिसिद्धमेतत्.
yugapadadhikaraṇavacanatādenotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; confer, compare सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29.
rikan augment added optionally with रुक् and रीक् to the reduplicative syllable of the frequentative root from a primitive root which ends in ऋ or has a penultimate ऋ; e. g. चरिकर्ति, नरिनर्ति भरिभ्रत् et cetera, and others; confer, compare रुग्रिकौ च लुकि, P.VII. 4.9l and ऋतश्च VII.4.92.
rīkaugment री added optionally with रुक् and रिक् to the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास ) of the frequentative base of roots having ऋ as their penultimate vowel; exempli gratia, for example वरीवृश्च्यते वरीवृश्चीति, नरीनर्ति, चरीकर्ति; cf रीगृदुपधस्य च P.VII. 4.90.
rūpātideśathe actual replacement of the original in the place of the substitute by virtue of the rule स्थानिवदादेशोनल्विधौ P. I. 1. 56; one of the two kinds of स्थानिवद्भाव wherein the word-form of the original ( स्थानी ) is put in the place of the substitute (आदेश); the other kind of स्थानिवद्भाव being called कार्यातिदेश by means of which grammatical operations caused by the original ( स्थानी ) take place although the substitute (आदेश) has been actually put in the place of the original. About the interpretation of the rule द्विर्वचनेचि P. I.1.59, the grammarians accept the view of रूपातिदेश; confer, compare रूपातिदेशश्चायं नियतकालस्तेन कृते द्विर्वचने पुन: आदेशरूपमेवावतिष्ठते | पपतुः पपुः | अातो लोप इटि च इत्याकारलोपे कृते तस्य स्थानिवद्भावात् एकाचो द्बे० इति द्विर्वचनं भवति Kāś on P.I.1.59; confer, compare also रूपातिदेशश्चायम् | द्विर्वचनेचि इत्यत्रास्य भाष्ये पाठात् | Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 97. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.VII.1.95 96.
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
lakṣaṇāimplication; potentiality of implication; this potentiality of words viz. लक्षणा is not recognised by grammarians as a potentiality different from the अभिधाशक्ति or the power of denotation. Later grammarians, however, like the Ālamkārikas, have used the word in the sense of potentiality of implication as different from that of denotation; confer, compare अन्त्यशब्द लक्षणा न च Paribhāşenduśekhara.
ghumañjūṣāname of an independent work on the meaning of words and their interpretation written by Nāgeśa of which the परमलघुमञ्जूषा is a popular short extract by the author himselfeminine.
liṅgeneral term for the affixes called लिङ् (optative) which includes the potential ( विधिलिङ् ) and the conditional ( अाशीर्लिङ् ) affixes; .confer, compare विधिनिमन्त्रणामन्त्रणाधीष्टसंप्रश्र्नप्रार्थनेषु लिङ् and अाशिषि लिङ्लोटौ P. III. 3.161 and 173.
liṅpratyayārthasense of the optative and the potential moods given or expressed by affixes under the common name लिङ् prescribed by PIII.3.161, 164, 173.
lekhāone of the varieties or developments of the क्रमपाठ or the artificial recitation of the separate words of the Samhitā.
vaktavyathat which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika.
vacana(1)literally statement; an authoritative statement made by the authors of the Sutras and the Varttikas as also of the Mahabhasya; confer, compare अस्ति ह्यन्यदेतस्य वचने प्रयोजनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 1 Vart. 1 The word is also used predicatively in the sense of वक्तव्यम् by the Varttikakara; confer, compare ऌति ऌ वावचनम् , ऋति ऋ वावचनम् ; (2) number, such as एकवचन, द्विवचन, बहुवचन et cetera, and others; confer, compare वचनमेकत्वद्वित्वबहुत्वानि Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.I.2.51 ; cf लुपि युक्तिवद् व्यक्तिवचने | लुकि अभिधेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति। लवणः सूपः। लवणा यवागू:। M.Bh.on P.I. 2.57; (3) expressive word; confer, compare गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P. V.1.124 where the Kasika explains the word गुणवचन as गुणमुक्तवन्तो गुणवचनाः; confer, compare also the terms गुणवचन, जातिवचन, क्रियावचन et cetera, and others as classes of words; confer, compare also अभिज्ञावचने लृट् P.III.2.112; (4) that which is uttered; confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिक:। मुखसहिता नासिका मुखनासिका । तया य उच्चार्यते असौ वर्ण: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.1.8.
vākyaa sentence giving an idea in a single unit of expression consisting of the verb with its karakas or instruments and adverbs; confer, compareअाख्यातं साब्ययं सकारकं सकारकविशेषणं वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् | साव्ययम् | उच्चैः पठति | सकारकम् | ओदनं पचति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 10. Regarding the different theoretical ways of the interpretation of a sentence see the word शाब्दबोध. For details, see वाक्यपदीय II. 2 where the different definitions of वाक्य are given and the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट is established as the sense of a sentence.
vākyakāṇḍaname given to the second chapter of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya in which problems regarding the interpretation of a sentence are fully discussedition
vākyapadīname of a work on the denotation of words in verse-form with a comentary of his own written by a grammarian named गङ्गादास. The name वाक्यपदी is confounded with वाक्यपदीय of Bhartrhari through mistake.
vākyapadīyaa celebrated work on meanings of words and sentences written by the famous grammarian Bhartrhari ( called also Hari ) of the seventh century. The work is looked upon as a final authority regarding the grammatical treatment of words and sentences,for their interpretation and often quoted by later grammarians. It consists of three chapters the Padakanda or Brahmakanda, the Vakyakanda and the Samkirnakanda, and has got an excellent commentary written by Punyaraja and Helaraja.
vākyaparisamāpticompletion of the idea to be expressed in a sentence or in a group of sentences by the wording actually given, leaving nothing to be understood as contrasted with वाक्यापरिसमाप्ति used in the Mahabhasya: confer, compare वाक्यापरिसमाप्तेर्वा P.I.1.10 vart. 4 and the Mahabhasya thereon. There are two ways in which such a completion takes place,singly and collectively; cf प्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः: illustrated by the usual example देवदत्तयज्ञदत्तविष्णुमित्रा भोज्यन्ताम् where Patanjali remarks प्रत्येकं ( प्रत्यवयवं) भुजिः परिसमाप्यते; cf also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः where Patajali remarks गर्गा: शतं दण्ड्यन्ताम् | अर्थिनश्च राजानो हिरण्येन भवन्ति न च प्रत्येकं दण्डयन्ति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.1Vart.12: cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.7, I.2.39, II.2.l et cetera, and others वाक्यप्रकाश a work on the interpretation of sentences written with a commentary upon it by उदयधर्ममुनि of North Gujarat who lived in the seventeenth century A.D.
vākyabhedaa serious fault of expression when a sentence is required to be divided into two sentences for the sake of its proper interpretation: cf केचिद्वा सुप्यापिशलेरित्यनुवर्तयन्ति तद्वाक्य भेदेन सुब्धातौ विकल्पं करोति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. onP.VI. 1.94: cf also तद्धि ( स्थानेग्रहणं ) तृतीयया विपरिणमय्य वाक्यभेदेन स्थानिन: प्रसङ्गे जायमानः et cetera, and others Par. Sek. on Pari. 13.
vākyasaṃskārapakṣathe grammarian's theory that as the individual words have practically no existence as far as the interpretation or the expression of sense is concerned, the sentence alone being capable of conveying the sense, the formation of individual words in a sentence' is explained by putting them in a sentence and knowing their mutual relationship. The word गाम् cannot be explained singly by showing the base गो and the case ending अम् unless it is seen in the sentence गाम् अानय; confer, compare यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे कृष्णादिसंबुद्धयन्त उपपदे ऋधेः क्तिनि कृते कृष्ण ऋध् ति इति स्थिते असिद्धत्वात्पूर्वमाद्गुणे कृते अचो रहाभ्यामिति द्वित्वं .. Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 99The view is put in alternation with the other view, viz. the पदसंस्कारपक्ष which has to be accepted in connection with the गौणमुख्यन्याय; cf पदस्यैव गौणार्थकत्वस्य ग्रहेण अस्य ( गौणमुख्यन्यायस्य) पदकार्यविषयत्वमेवोचितम् | अन्यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे तेषु तदनापत्तिः Par. Sek. on Pari. 15, The grammarians usually follow the वाक्यसंकारपक्ष.
vācakaexpressive, as contrasted with द्योतक्र, व्यञ्जक, सूचक and भेदक which ७ mean suggestive; the term is used in connection with words which directly convey their sense by denotation, as opposed to words which convey indirectly the sense or suggest it as the prefixes or Nipatas do.
vādiroots headed by वा and similar to वा. Really there is no class of roots headed by वा given anywhere but in the interpretation of the rule भूवादयो धातव: it is suggested that ' the roots which are similar to वा are termed roots (धातु)' could also be the interpretation of the rule: confer, compare भ्वादय इति च वादय इति M.Bh. on P. I. 3. l . Vart. ll .
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārtikavacanaa small pithy statement or assertion in the manner of the original sutras which is held as much authoritative as the Sutra: cf न ब्रुमो वृत्तिसूत्रवचनप्रामाण्यादिति | किं तर्हि | वार्तिकवचनप्रामाण्यादिति [ M.Bh. on P.II..1.1 Varttika 23.
vipariṇāmachange; confer, compare कार्यविपरिणामाद्वा सिद्धम् | कार्यस्य संप्रत्ययस्य विपरिणामः कार्यविपरिणामः M.Bh. on I.1.56 Vart. 14. The word is very frequently used in connection with a change of the case of a word in a grammar rule which becomes necessary for interpretation; confer, compare विभक्तिविपरिणामाद्वा सिद्वम् as also अर्थाद्विभक्तिविपरिणामो भवति । M.Bh. on P.I.3.9,12:V.3.60, VI.1 . 4, VII.3.50.
vimalamatian old grammarian who is believed to have written a gloss named भागवृत्ति on Pāṇini's Sūtras to which the grammarians Purusottamadeva, Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand others of the twelfth century refer. Some scholars say that भागवृत्ति was written by भर्तृहरि; but it is not feasible, as there is a reference to Māghakāvya in भागवृति. In books on grammar,. especially of the Eastern School in the 11th and the 12th century, there are several quotations from the Bhāgavṛtti. See भागवृत्ति.
viṣṇupaṇḍitaa grammarian belonging to the famous Śeṣa family of grammarians, who has written a small treatise on Paribhāṣā or maxims of interpretation which he has named परिभाषाप्रक्राश.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vṛttisamuddeśaname given to the last of the fourteen sections of the third chapter of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya ( viz. the संकीर्णकाण्ड ) in which the taddhita affixes and their interpretations are discussedition
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikāa very scholarly work by Bhattoji Diksita on the interpretation of words and sentences, based upon the learned discussions on that subject introduced in the Mahabhasya, Vakyapadiya, Pradipa, et cetera, and others and discussed fully in his Sabdakaustubha by the author himselfeminine. The work although scholarly and valuable, is compressed in only 72 verses ( karikas ) and has to be understood with the help of the Vaiyakaranabhusana or BhuSansara written by Kondabhatta, the nephew of the author. See वैयाकरणभूषण and वैयाकरणभूषणसार.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntamañjūṣāa well-known work on the syntax and denotation of words written by Nagesabhatta which is popular by the name Laghumanjusha. The Paramalaghumanjusha is an abridgment of this work by the author himselfeminine.
vyakti(1)literallydistinct manifestation, as for instance that of the generic features in the individual object; confer, compareसामान्ये वर्तमानस्य व्याक्तिरुपजायत, M.Bh. on P.I.1,57; (2) gender, which in fact, is the symbol of the manifestation of the generic property in the individual object; confer, compareहरीतक्यादिषु व्यक्ति: P.I.2.52 Vart. 3, as also लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने P. I.2.5I: (3) individual object; confer, compare व्यक्तिः पदार्थ:.
vyapadeśa(1)special designation or representation; confer, compare अाकृतिर्व्यपदेशानां प्राय आदित अादित: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII. 4: ( 2 ) main designation; confer, compare निमित्तसद्भावाद्विशिष्टोपदेश: व्यपदेश: मुख्यो व्यवहारः Par. Sek. Pari. 30; confer, compare also यो द्वयेा: षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टयॊ: प्रसङ्गे भवति, लभतेसौ अन्यतरतो व्यपदेशम् । M.Bh.on P.I.1.51 Vart. 7.
vyākhyāna(1)explanation of a rule, or a line, or a verse by analysing the rule and giving examples and counter-examples; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऎजिति | किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति | M.Bh. Ahnika l Vart.11 ; (2)authoritative decision given in places of doubt by ancient scholars; confer, compare याख्थानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्ति: न हि संदेहादलक्षणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika .1; Par.Sek.Pari.1.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyutpattivāda(l)name given to a topic in grammar which deals with the derivation of words as suitable to the sense: (2) name given to treatises discussing the derivation and interpretation of words.
śaktipotentiality of expressing the sense which is possessed by words permanently with them: denotative potentiality or denotation; this potentiality shows the senses,which are permanently possessed by the words, to the hearer and is described to be of one kind by ancient grammarian as contrasted with the two (अभिघा and लक्षणा) mentioned by the modern ones. It is described to be of two kinds-(a) स्मारिका शक्ति or recalling capacity which combines चैत्रत्व with पाक, and अनुभाविका शक्ति which is responsible for the actual meaning of a sentence. For details see Vakyapadiya III.
śābdabodhaprakriyāa grammar treatise on the denotation and relation of words written by a grammarian ramed Ramakrsna.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śabddhārthapratipattiशब्दार्थप्रत्यय knowledge of the meaning of a word from that word when heard, the word being either denotative ( वाचक ) or ind cative ( द्योतक ).
śabdārtharahasyaa grammatical work on the interpretation of words by Ramanatha Vidyavacaspati.
śabdārthavyākaraṇaexplanation of the sense of a word as arising from the word by stating the base, the affixes and the modifications to the base and the affixes.
śabdopadeśascientific and authoritative citation or statement of a word as contrasted with अपशब्दोपदेशः; confer, compare किं शब्दोपदेश: कर्तव्यः आहोस्विदपशब्दोपदेशः आहोस्विदुभयोपदेश इति ।Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika l. शमादि a class of eight roots headed by शम् which get their vowel lengthened before the conjugational sign य (श्यन्) as also before the krt. affix इन् ( घिनुण् ) in the sense of 'habituated to': exempli gratia, for example शाम्यति, शमी, भ्राम्यति, भ्रमी et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.VII.3.74 and P. III.2.141.
śābdabodhaverbal interpretation; the term is generally used with reference to the verbal interpretation of a sentence as arising from that of the words which are all connected directly or indirectly with the verb-activity. It is defined as पदजन्यपदार्थोपस्थितिजन्यबोध:. According to the grammarians, verbal activity is the chief thing in a sentence and all the other words (excepting the one which expresses verbal activity) are subordinated to the verbal activity and hence are connected with it; confer, compare पदज्ञानं तु करणं द्वारे तत्र पदार्थधीः | शाब्दबोधः फलं तत्र शक्तिधीः सहकारिणी | मुक्तावली III.81.
śtip'the syllable ति applied to the Vikarana-ending form of a root to denote a root for a grammatical operation. The specific mention of a root with श्तिप् added, shows that the root of the particular class or conjugation shown, is to be taken and not the same root belonging to any other conjuga-tion; confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे; exempli gratia, for example अस्यतिवक्तिख्यातिभ्योऽङ् P.III. 1. 52. Although operations prescribed for a primary root are applicable to a frequentative root when the frequentative sign य has been omitted, operations prescribed for a root which is stated in a rule with ति ( श्तिप् ) added to it, do not take place in the frequentative roots;confer, compare श्तिपा शपानुबन्धेन ... पञ्चैतानि न यङ्लुकि.
śrutaliterally what is actually heard; the word is used in connection with such statements as are made by the authoritative grammarians, Panini and the Varttikakara by their actual utterance or wording, as contrasted with such dictums as can be deduced only from their writings. confer, compare श्रुतानुभितंयोः श्रौतः संबन्धो बलीयान्. Par. Sek Pari. 104.
śrutakevalina term of a very great honour given to such Jain monks as have almost attained perfection; the term is used in connection with Palyakirti Sakatayana, the Jain grammarian शाकटायन, whose works शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and its presentation in a topical form named शाकटायनप्रक्रिया are studied at the present day in some parts of India. See शाकटायन a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
śruti(1)literally hearing sound.confer, compare श्रुतौ च रूपग्रहणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64; perception, as a proof contrasted with inference; confer, compare ननु च श्रुतिकृतोपि भेदोस्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 1.72 Vart. 1; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 2.25; cf also तस्मादुच्चश्रुतीनि Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 61; (2) authoritative word; the word is sometimes used in connection with the utterances of the Sutrakaras viz. the Sutra.
ṣoḍaśakārikāan anonymous work consisting of only 16 stanzas discussing the denotation of words and that of the case-relations with a commentary by the author himselfeminine.
saṃgrahaname of a very vast work on grammar attributed to an ancient grammarian Vyadi who is supposed to have been a relative of Panini; confer, compare सेग्रहेस्तमुपागते Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya confer, compare also संग्रहप्रतिकञ्चुके: confer, compare संग्रहो नाम लक्षश्लोकात्मको त्याडिकृतो ग्रन्थः । Some quotations only are found from the Samgraha in grammar works, but the work is lost long ago.
saṃdehaambiguity; doubt regarding the wording of a rule or its interpretation or regarding the correctness of a word. It is looked upon as the main purpose of grammar to solve doubts regarding the correctness of words; confer, compare व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिप्रत्तिर्नहि संदेहादलक्षणम् Pari. Sekh.Pari.1.
saṃnamanainterpretation, explanation: cf यथायथं विभक्ती: संनमयेत् Nirukta of Yāska.1.
saṃhitāpāṭhathe running text or the original text of the four Vedas as originally composedition This text, which was the original one, was split up into its constituent padas or separate words by ancient sages शौनक, अात्रेय and others,with a view to facilitating the understanding of it, and consequently to preserving it in the oral tradition.The original was called मूलप्रकृति of which the पदपाठ and the क्रमपाठ which were comparatively older than the other artificial recitations such as the जटापाठ, घनपाठ and others, are found mentioned in the Pratisakhya works.
sattāexistence, supreme or universal existence the Jati par excellence which is advocated to be the final sense of all words and expressions in the language by Bhartrhari and other grammarians after him who discussed the interpretation of words. The grammarians believe that the ultimate sense of a word is सत्ता which appears manifold and limited in our everyday experience due to different limitations such as desa, kala and others. Seen from the static viewpoint, सत्ता appears as द्रब्य while, from the dynamic view point it appears as a क्रिया. This सत्ता is the soul of everything and it is the same as शव्दतत्त्व or ब्रह्मन् or अस्त्यर्थ; confer, compare Vakyapadiya II. 12. The static existence, further, is . called व्यक्ति or individual with reference to the object, and जाति with reference to the common form possessed by individuals.
satvaan aspect of सत्ता of the type.of the static existence possessed by substantives as contrasted with भाव the dynamic type of existence possessed by verbs; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातम् ! सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि. Nirukta of Yāska.I: cf also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरण: R.Pr. XII. 8. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50.
saptamī(1)the seventh case; the locative case; a term used for the locative case by ancient grammarians and Panini; confer, compare न सप्तम्यामन्त्रितयोः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III 139; confer, compare ईदूतौ च सप्तम्यर्थे P. I. 1. 19. or सप्तम्यास्त्रल् P. V. 3. 10; cf also द्वितीयादयः शब्दाः पूर्वाचार्यः सुपां त्रिकेषु स्मर्यन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3.2: ( 2 ) the seventh of the moods and tenses; the optative mood; confer, compare Kat. III. 1, 20; Hemacandra III. 3. 7.
samupasthāpanasimultaneous presentation of different grammatical operations; confer, compare वसुसंप्रसारणादीनामाभाच्छास्त्रीयाणामेव असिद्धत्वादन्तरङ्गयोर्युगपत्समुपस्थानं नास्तीति परिभाषा न प्रवर्तते | Kas,on P. VI.4.22.
sarvaprasaṅgaa presentation of all the substitutes for all the original ones indiscriminately; an application in all cases irrespective of any special consideration: confer, compare स्थानिन एकत्वनिर्देशादनेकादेशनिर्देशाच्च सर्वप्रसङ्ग: M.Bh.on P. I. 1. 50 Vart. l and 12; cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.60, I.3.2, 3,10 etc
sarvopādhivyabhicārārthaa term used by the authors of the Kasika in connection with the application of a rule irrespective of all limitations and not of any one limitation: confer, compare अन्येभ्योपि दृश्यते । अपिशब्दः सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थ: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III. 2.75;cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.32, III.2.10l, VII. 1.38.
sāmānyābhidhānadenotation of the genus factor of a word, as contrasted with द्रव्याभिधान denotation of the individual object; confer, compare तद्यदा द्रव्याभिधानं तदा बहुवचने भविष्यति, यदा सामान्याभिधानं तदैकवचनं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 58 Vart. 7.
sthānivadbhāvabehaviour of the substitute like the original in respect of holding the qualities of the original and causing grammatical operations by virtue of those qualities. By means of स्थानिवद्भाव,the substitute for a root is,for instance, looked upon as a root; similarly, a noun-base or an affix or so, is looked upon like the original and it can cause such operations or be a recipient of such operations as are due to its being a root or a noun or an affix or the like. This स्यानिवद्भाव cannot be, and is not made also, a universally applicable feature; and there are limitations or restrictions put upon it, the chief of them being अल्विधौ or in the matter of such operations as are caused by the 'property of being a single letter' (अल्विधौ). There are two views regarding this 'behaviour like the original' : (l) supposed behaviour which is only instrumental in causing operations or undergoing them which is called शास्त्रातिदेदा and (2) actual restoration to the form of the original under certain conditions only as prescribed which is called रूपातिदेश. The रूपातिदेश is actually resorted to by some grammarians in the case of the reduplication of roots; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on द्विवेचनेचि P.I.1.59 and M.Bh. on P.I.1.59.See the word रूपातिदेश also. For details see Vol. VII p.p. 241243, Vyākarana Mahabhasya D.E. Society's Edition.
sphoṭaname given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; confer, compare also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare commentary on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; confer, compare स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:||
sphoṭana(1)manifestation of the sense of a word by the external sound or dhvani; the same as sphota; (2) separate or distinct pronunciation of a consonant in a way by breaking it from the cor.junct consonants; confer, compare स्फोटनं नाम पिण्डीभूतस्य संयोगस्य पृथगुश्चरणम् स दोषो वा न वा | V. Pr.IV.165.
smṛtian authoritative dictum of an ancient grammarian before the famous author of the Varttika;confer, compare तथा च स्मृतिः श्तिपा शापानुबन्धेन निर्दिष्ट्ं etc, Siradeva Pari. 68.
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
svābhāvikanatural, unartificial; the word is used frequently in connection with the capacity of denotation which words naturally possess; confer, compare अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् P. I. 2.64 Vrt. 36.
svābhāvyainherence; natural capacity; the word is used many times in connection with the power of denotation: confer, compare शब्दशक्तिस्वाभाव्यात् | Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. III.1. 112 or अभिधानशक्तिस्वाभाव्यात् Nyasa on P. IV. 4.60. स्वार a term used in the PratiSakhya works for स्वरित or the circumflex accent: स्वारः स्वरितः ( Com. on T.Pr. XVII.6: confer, compare also T.Pr.XX.20; XXIII.24. There are seven varieties of स्वार given in thc Pratisakhya works, viz. क्षैप्र, नित्य, प्रातिहत, अभिनिहत, प्रश्लिष्ट, पादवृत्त and तैरोव्यञ्जन, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XX.1-7.
ha(1)representation of the consonant हू with अ added for facility of pronunciation; (2) a technical term for the internal effort between विवृत and संवृत, which causes घोष in the consonants; confer, compare संवृतविवृतयोर्मध्ये मध्यमप्रक्रारे यः शब्दः क्रियते स हकारसंज्ञो भवति। संज्ञायाः प्रयेाजनं ' हकारो हचतुर्थेषु ' इति ( तै. प्रा.श ९)Tribhasyaratna on T.Pr. II.6; (3) name of an external effort causing घोष: confer, compare सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हृकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते | तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते। Vaidikabharana on T.Pr. II.6; (4) name of a kind of external effort of the type of अनुप्रदान found in the utterance of the consonant ( ह् ) and the fourth class-consonants; confer, compare हकारौ हृचतुर्थेषु T.Pr.II.9.
halsvaraprāptia possibility of the application of an accent to the consonant by the literal interpretation of rules prescribing an accent for the first or the last letter of a word, to prevent which a ruling is laid down that a consonant is not to be accented; confer, compare हल्स्वरप्राप्तौ व्यञ्जनमविद्यमानवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 80.
Vedabase Search
43 results
tati the expansionCC Adi 4.77
tati thereCC Madhya 21.109
tati massCC Antya 1.177
sundarī-tatibhiḥ ābhiḥ by the women of VrajaCC Adi 4.196
āpatati suddenly appearsSB 11.19.7
aṣṭa-saptati seventy-eightSB 9.20.23
bhakta-tati all the devotees thereCC Adi 13.103
eka-saptatim seventy-oneSB 3.11.24
eka-saptatim seventy-oneSB 3.22.36
eka-santatim the only son in the familySB 6.14.52
nipatati falls downSB 5.17.4
nipatati he falls downSB 5.26.10
nipatati falls downSB 5.26.15
nipatati falls downSB 5.26.16
nipatati falls downSB 5.26.17
nipatati falls downSB 5.26.18
nipatati falls downSB 5.26.28
nipatati falls downSB 5.26.36
patati he falls downSB 5.14.21
patati he falls downSB 5.14.22
patati fallsSB 6.16.37
patati falls downSB 8.21.33
patati will now fall downSB 9.14.35
patati falls downSB 11.8.7
patati he fallsSB 11.10.26
patati fallSB 11.21.17
patati he fallsSB 11.23.24
patati he fallsSB 11.26.3
patati does fallSB 12.6.19
patati falls downMM 37
santati a son known as SantatiSB 9.17.8
santati the progenySB 12.12.17
santatim a sonSB 6.14.11
eka-santatim the only son in the familySB 6.14.52
aṣṭa-saptati seventy-eightSB 9.20.23
eka-saptatim seventy-oneSB 3.11.24
eka-saptatim seventy-oneSB 3.22.36
sundarī-tatibhiḥ ābhiḥ by the women of VrajaCC Adi 4.196
tamastati the extent of the darknessCC Adi 3.59
bhakta-tati all the devotees thereCC Adi 13.103
sundarī-tatibhiḥ ābhiḥ by the women of VrajaCC Adi 4.196
vitatim expansionSB 11.8.30
yatati endeavorsBG 7.3
34 results
tati noun (feminine) a mass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a metre of 4x12 syllables (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sacrificial act (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ceremony (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
crowd (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dharma-) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the whole mass (of observances) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35267/72933
anusaṃtati noun (feminine) continuation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31996/72933
aṣṭasaptati noun (feminine) seventy-eight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45730/72933
aṣṭasaptatitama adjective the seventy-eight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26808/72933
ekasaptati noun (feminine) 71 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12872/72933
ekasaptatitama adjective the 71st
Frequency rank 27273/72933
ekonasaptati noun (feminine) 69
Frequency rank 48051/72933
ekonasaptatitama adjective the 69th
Frequency rank 27286/72933
kirātatikta noun (masculine neuter) the plant Agathotes Chirayta (a kind of gentian) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12005/72933
kirātatiktaka noun (masculine neuter) the plant Agathotes Chirayta (a kind of gentian) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11226/72933
kairātatiktaka noun (masculine) Gentiana Cherayta Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 50137/72933
catuḥsaptati noun (feminine) 74
Frequency rank 52031/72933
catuḥsaptatitama adjective the 74th
Frequency rank 27957/72933
trisaptati noun (feminine) 73 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12059/72933
trisaptatitama adjective the 73rd
Frequency rank 28276/72933
dvāsaptati noun (feminine) 72 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13565/72933
dvisaptati noun (feminine) 72 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14211/72933
dvisaptatitama adjective the 72nd
Frequency rank 35947/72933
pañcasaptati noun (feminine) seventy-five
Frequency rank 56934/72933
pañcasaptatitama adjective the 75th
Frequency rank 28825/72933
pratati noun (feminine) a creeping plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
extension (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spreading (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58705/72933
vasantatilaka noun (neuter) a kind of metre (four times) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular mixture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the blossom of the Tilaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the ornament of spring (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39122/72933
vitati noun (feminine) clump (of trees etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cluster (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
collection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
diffusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
expansion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
extension (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
extent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
length (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quantity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spreading (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 65546/72933
vyātati noun (feminine) extension (?)
Frequency rank 66908/72933
vratati noun (feminine) a creeping plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
creeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
expansion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
extension (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spreading (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39851/72933
ṣaṭsaptati noun (feminine) 76 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14504/72933
ṣaṭsaptatitama adjective the 76th
Frequency rank 30649/72933
saptati noun (feminine) 70 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
70 years (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
many seventies (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4305/72933
saptatika adjective 70 years old
Frequency rank 40369/72933
saptatitama adjective the 70th (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30700/72933
saptatima adjective the 70th (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 68808/72933
saptasaptati noun (feminine) 77 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17333/72933
saptasaptatitama adjective the 77th
Frequency rank 30708/72933
saṃtati noun (feminine) a continuous line or series or flow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
causal connection (of things) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continued meditation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
density (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disposition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
expanse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
feeling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
heap (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
intensity (of darkness) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lineage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
multitude (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Kratu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
offspring (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
progeny (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
race (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stretching or extending along (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uninterrupted succession (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uninterruptedness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3017/72933


(āma.doṣa) clinical manifestations resulting from undigested fo


Go to kirātatikta.


fasting; debilitating the body.


authoritative statement.


a medicinal preparation made by adding decoction (kaṣāya) of prescribed drugs in a solution of sugar or jaggery and preserving for a specified period to enable fermentation; liquor, ex: vāsāriṣṭa


a medicinal preparation made by soaking fresh drugs, either in form of powder or adding mash (kalka) in a solution of sugar or jaggery for a specified period to enable fermentation; liquor, ex: aravindāsava.


Plant linseed, Linum usitatissimum.


Go to kirātatikta.


1. skinrash; 2. ring worm infestation on skin; 3. lepromatous leprosy.


meditation; mindfulness; attention.


sciatica disease; lumbago; group of symptoms including pain that is caused by general compression or irritation of one of five spinal nerve roots that give rise to sciatic nerve, or by compression or irritation of the left or right or both sciatic nerves radiating into lower limbs.


prostatitis, urine with lasīka.


heart palpitation; unpleasant feeling in the mouth and heart region; nausea.




brick fomentation; rice-water or daśamūla kaṣāya is poured over two heated bricks, which is used as fomentation.


habitation; village.


(janpada.vidhvamśa) epidemics; dosease(s) that spread rapidly and extensively in habitation(s).


Go to kirātatikta.


sour gruel, fermented rice water, water of boiled rice in a state of spontaneous fermentation.


Plant chireta, whole plant of Swertia chirata; Andrographis paniculata is used in southeastern India as kirātatikta.


irritating, aggravating factor.


duration of an action, rise and falls of humors in the body: accumulation (sancaya), aggravation (prakopa), flow (prasara), translocation (sthānasamsraya), manifestation (vyaktībhāva), becoming chronic and incurable (bheda).


devastation, destruction.


transmutation of base metals into gold.


incantation, oracle.


lipostatic, lypolyti Century


malpresentation of the foetus; obstructed labour.


Plant leaves of heart-leaved moonseed guḍūci, neem nimba, vasaka vāsā, febrifuge plant kanṭakāri, wild snake gourd paṭola (kantakari, guduci, sunthi, kiratatikta, puṣkaramūla is another set).




oil fomentation; one of the Kerala specialities of pancakarma.


abnormal increase, aggravation, vitiation, excitation.


application of fluid remedies or fomentations.


symptoms, appearance, manifestation of a disease.


poultice, cataplasm, fomentation.


process of fermentation, sandhānakalpana fermented products.




stationary, belonging to vegetable and mineral origin.


sun salutation, two sets of twelve yogic postures practiced in serie


austerity, meditation, penance.


belching, eructation.


Plant flax, Linum usitatissimum.


1. disease of the outer ear; swelling of the pinna; 2. agitation; 3. killing.


one of tantrayuktis, reply, refutation, answer to first or objectionable argument.


transmutation of mercury.


manifestation (of disease).


localized hyperpigmentation usually on the face; chloasma or melasma.

Wordnet Search
"tati" has 47 results.



sapta daśataḥ।

asyām parīkṣāyāṃ saptati chātrāḥ uttīrṇāḥ।


vaṃśajaḥ, santānaḥ, santānam, santatiḥ, apatyam, pravaram, prajā, sūnuḥ, prasavaḥ, prasūtiḥ, tantuḥ   

vaṃśe jātaḥ।

vayaṃ manoḥ vaṃśajāḥ।


paṅktiḥ, śreṇiḥ, śreṇī, rājiḥ, rājī, āvaliḥ, āvalī, paddhatiḥ, paddhatī, rājikā, tatiḥ, vīthiḥ, vithī, āliḥ, ālī, pāliḥ, pālī, dhāraṇī, rekhā, saraṇiḥ, saraṇī, mālā, viñcolī   

sajātīyavastūnāṃ sakramaṃ racanāyāḥ paramparā।

janāḥ paṅktyām upaviśya bhojanaṃ gṛhṇanti।


apatyam, santānam, santati   

kasyacit putrī putro vā। [na patanti pitaro.nena];

kati apatyāni santi bhavatām। / apatyairiva vīvārabhāgadheyocitairmṛgaiḥ।


gotram, santatiḥ, jananam, kulam, abhijanaḥ, santānaḥ   

kasyacit pūrvajasya kulaguroḥ vā nāmni ādhāritā bhāratīyānāṃ vaṃśānāṃ sā viśiṣṭā saṃjñā yā tasmin vaṃśe janmanaḥ eva prāpyate।

kaśyapamuneḥ nāmnā kaśyapaḥ iti gotram asti।


ātatiḥ, ātattvam, aśaithilyam   

atyantena vitatikṛtasya bhāvaḥ।

ātatyā rajjudhvaṃsaḥ bhavati।



bhayādibhiḥ mastiṣke vidyamānānāṃ śirāṇāṃ tananasya kriyā yayā vikalatā vardhate।

mānasikyāḥ ātatyāḥ saḥ vyādhigrastaḥ jātaḥ।



vitanasya kriyā।

ātatyā niryāsaḥ chinnaḥ।


pṛthutā, pārthavam, prathimā, viśālatā, vipulatā, vistāraḥ, vistīrṇatā, parisaraḥ, prasthaḥ, vitatiḥ, āyāmaḥ, āyatanam, pāṭaḥ, pariṇāhaḥ, vyāsaḥ, parisaraḥ   

vastunaḥ āsīmātaḥ prasṛtiḥ।

asya vastunaḥ pṛthutā adhikā asti।


latā, vallī, vratatiḥ, valliḥ, velliḥ, pratatiḥ, vīrut, gulminī, ulupaḥ   

vanaspativiśeṣaḥ bhūmyādeḥ ādhāraṃ gṛhītvā vardhate।

latā vṛkṣasya ādhāreṇa vardhate।


apatyam, saṃtatiḥ, prajā, prasūtiḥ, santānaḥ, santanaḥ, tokaḥ, vaṃśaḥ, tuk, sūnuḥ, gayaḥ   

kasyāpi manuṣyasya paśupakṣiṇāṃ vā śarīrāt prasūtaḥ putraḥ kanyā vā।

paśūnām apekṣayā manuṣyasya apatyaṃ svasya pitarau dīrghakālaṃ yāvat āśrayate।


navaṣaṣṭi, ekonasaptati   

navādhikaṃ ṣaṣṭiḥ abhidheyā।

mama pārśve navaṣaṣṭiḥ rūpyakāṇi santi।


catussaptati, catuḥsaptati   

caturadhikaṃ saptatiḥ abhidheyā।

asmin yāne catussaptatiḥ janāḥ santi।



ṣaṭ adhikaṃ saptatiḥ abhidheyā।

etasmin yāne ṣaṭsaptatiḥ janāḥ upaveṣṭuṃ śaknuvanti।



ṣaḍadhikaṃ saptatiḥ abhidheyā।

aśītyāḥ catvāri nyūnīkṛtya ṣaṭsaptatiḥ prāpyate।



tryadhikaṃ saptatiḥ abhidheyā।

rājā daśamīkakṣāyāḥ parīkṣāyāṃ pratiśataṃ trisaptatiḥ aṅkān prāptavān।



pañcādhikaṃ saptatiḥ।

pitāmahasya āyuḥ pañcasaptatiḥ varṣāṇi tathāpi saḥ sopānamārgeṇa līlayā gacchati।



dvyadhikaṃ saptatiḥ abhidheyā।

tasya saṃyukte kuṭumbe dvisaptatiḥ janāḥ santi।


vistāraḥ, prasāraḥ, prasaraḥ, vistaraḥ, prasaraṇam, vyāptiḥ, vitatiḥ, vyāpanam, vyāpakatvam   

vardhanasya kriyā bhāvaḥ vā।

jalaplāvanāt rakṣituṃ setūnāṃ vistāraḥ āvaśyakaḥ asti।


bhūnimbaḥ, kirātatiktaḥ, anāryatiktaḥ, bhūtikam, kairātaḥ, rāmasenakaḥ, haimaḥ, kāṇḍatiktaḥ, kirātakaḥ, kaṭutiktaḥ   

parvatapradeśeṣu prāpyamāṇaḥ auṣadhīyakṣupaḥ yaḥ ekavarṣīyaḥ vā dvivarṣīyaḥ vā bhavati, yasya unnatiḥ dvyaṅgulādārabhya caturaṅgulaparyantaṃ ca bhavati।

bhūnimbasya mūlarūpaṃ nepāladeśe prāpyate।



saptateḥ evaṃ aṣṭānāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

yadi trayodaśabhiḥ ṣaṭ guṇyante tarhi aṣṭasaptatiḥ prāpyante।



aṣṭādhikaṃ saptatiḥ abhidheyā।

asmin grāme aṣṭasaptatiḥ gṛhāṇi santi।



ṣaṣṭiḥ tathā ca daśa ityetayoḥ yogāt prāptā saṅkhyā।

tena vayasaḥ saptatiḥ pūritā।



ekādhikaṃ saptatiḥ abhidheyā।

mama kanyā pratiśate ekasaptatiḥ aṅkān prāptavatī।



gaṇanāyāṃ ekasaptateḥ sthāne āgataḥ।

paśyatu mayā ekasaptatitamā kapardikā prāptā।



saptateḥ ekasya ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

pañcāśataḥ ekaviṃśateḥ ca yogaḥ bhavati ekasaptatiḥ।



saptateḥ dvayoḥ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

dvādaśa ṣaḍbhiḥ guṇyante cet dvisaptatiḥ prāpyate।



gaṇanāyāṃ dvisaptateḥ sthāne āgataḥ।

dvisaptatitamānāṃ dinānāṃ anantaramapi rogī śayyāyāmeva asti।



gaṇanāyāṃ trisaptateḥ sthāne āgataḥ।

kṣatigrastānāṃ śibire trisaptatitamaḥ sainikaḥ praviṣṭaḥ।



saptateḥ trayāṇāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

trayaścatvāriṃśataḥ triśataḥ ca yogaḥ trisaptatiḥ।


catuḥsaptatitama, catuḥsaptata   

gaṇanāyāṃ catuḥsaptateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

aghorasiṃgaḥ catuḥsaptatitamam apūpaṃ bhuktvā api na virataḥ।



saptateḥ caturṇāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

asya yogaḥ catuḥsaptatiḥ eva kila।


pañcasaptatitama, pañcasaptata   

gaṇanāyāṃ pañcasaptatisthāne vartamānaḥ।

kitavaḥ pañcasaptatitamaṃ kramam api parājitavān।



saptateḥ pañcānāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

pañcadaśanāṃ pañcaguṇitaṃ bhavati pañcasaptatiḥ।


ṣaṭsaptatitama, ṣaṭsaptata   

gaṇanāyāṃ ṣaṭsaptateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

ṣaṭsaptatitamaṃ pustakam api puttikayā āhatam।



saptādhikaṃ saptatiḥ abhidheyā।

mahilā saptasaptatiḥ pratiśataṃ dagdhā।


saptasaptatitama, saptasaptata   

gaṇanāyāṃ saptasaptateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

ārakṣakālayāt saptasaptatitamaḥ bandiḥ palāyitaḥ।



saptateḥ saptānāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

kiṃ tvaṃ saptasaptatiṃ likhituṃ śaknosi।


aṣṭasaptatitama, aṣṭasaptata   

gaṇanāyām aṣṭasaptateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

mayā atra aṣṭasaptatitamā vartikā nirmitā।


navasaptati, ekonāśīti   

navādhikaṃ saptatiḥ abhidheyā।

utpāte navasaptatiḥ janāḥ kṣatāḥ।


navasaptatitama, navasaptata   

gaṇanāyāṃ navasaptateḥ sthāne vartamānaḥ।

navasaptatitame dine api tasya viṣaye sucihnaṃ na dṛṣṭam।



saptateḥ navānāṃ ca yogena prāptā saṃkhyā।

saḥ navasaptatiṃ likhituṃ na śaknoti।



karṣaṇasya avasthā bhāvaḥ vā।

mama pādayoḥ śirāsu ātatiḥ āgatā।



caturdaśavarṇaiḥ yuktaḥ varṇavṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

vasantatilakāyāḥ pratyekasmin caraṇe krameṇa tagaṇaḥ bhagaṇaḥ jagaṇaḥ bhagaṇaḥ tathā dvau gurū ca bhavataḥ।




santateḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।



ātatyā yuktaḥ।

idānīṃtane ātatiyukte jīvane hasanam āvaśyakam।



ātatyā rahitaḥ।

ātatirahitaṃ jīvanaṃ sukhapūrṇaṃ bhavati।

Parse Time: 2.172s Search Word: tati Input Encoding: IAST: tati