svar (= ) sur- cl.10 P. , to find fault, blame, censure svarayati- svar (prob. = a lost ; sur- see ) svṛ- cl.1 P. , svarati- Causal , to shine. svarayati- svar (in ind. also yajur- veda- ) (used in s/uvar- as nom veda- accusative locative case,or genitive case,in also as ablative;from the weak base the s/ūr- forms the genitive case and the s/ūras- dative case [ sūr/e- ]) , the sun, sunshine, light, lustre svar bright space or sky, heaven (as distinguished from ind. ,which is regarded as the vault above it;often"heaven"as a paradise and as the abode of the gods and the Blest, in div- also of the s; asura- ,"gone to heaven" svaḥ prayātaḥ- id est"departed this life") etc. svar the space above the sun or between the sun and the polar star, the region of the planets and constellations (regarded as the 3rd of the 7 worlds [see ind. ]and the 3rd of the three loka- s [i.e. vyāhṛti- ]; bh/ur bh/uvaḥ sv/aḥ- is pronounced after svar- and before the om- by every Brahman on beginning his daily prayers) gāyatrī- etc. svar water ind. svar ind. Name of śiva- [ confer, compare Greek , ; Latin sol; Lithuanian sa4ule; Gothic sauil; Anglo-Saxon so7l.] svara etc. svaraṇa- See p.1285. svara ( m. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ) sound, noise f( ). ā- etc. svara voice m. etc. svara tone in recitation etc. (either high or low), accent (of which there are three kinds, m. , udātta- qq. vv., and anudātta- , svarita- column 3), a note of the musical scale (of which seven [rarely six or eight] are enumerated, 1. ;2. niṣāda- ;3. ṛṣabha- ;4. gāndhāra- ;5. ṣaḍja- ;6. madhyama- ;7. dhaivata- [described as resembling respectively the notes of an elephant, bull, goat, peacock, curlew or heron, horse, and Koil]) pañcama- svara ( m. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ) sound, noise f( ). ā- etc. svara voice m. etc. svara tone in recitation etc. (either high or low), accent (of which there are three kinds, m. , udātta- qq. vv., and anudātta- , svarita- column 3), a note of the musical scale (of which seven [rarely six or eight] are enumerated, 1. ;2. niṣāda- ;3. ṛṣabha- ;4. gāndhāra- ;5. ṣaḍja- ;6. madhyama- ;7. dhaivata- [described as resembling respectively the notes of an elephant, bull, goat, peacock, curlew or heron, horse, and Koil;and designated by their initial letters or syllables thus, pañcama- ; ni- ; ṛ- ; ga- ; ṣa- ; ma- ; dha- ],but the order is sometimes changed, pa- being placed first, and ṣadja- last) niṣāda- etc. svara a symbolical expression for the number"seven" m. svara a vowel (either m. ,"long";or dīrgha- ,"short";or hrasva- ,"prolated") pluta- etc. svara air breathed through the nostrils m. svara m. Name of viṣṇu- svarā f. Name of the chief wife of brahmā- svara a musical note n. on svara n. Name of various s sāman- svarabaddha composed in musical measure (said of a song etc.) mfn. svarabhairava m. Name of tantra- work svarabhakti "vowel-separation", a vowel-sound phonetically inserted between f. or r- and a following consonant ( l- exempli gratia, 'for example' pronounced varṣa- ) variṣa- svarabhaṅga "broken articulation", stammering m. svarabhaṅga hoarseness m. svarabhaṅgin "note-separating", a kind of bird m. svarabheda indistinctness of utterance, hoarseness m. svarabheda simulation of voice ( m. instrumental case"in a feigned voice") svarabheda betrayal by one's voice ( m. svarabhedabhaya - bhaya- "fear of betraying one's voice") n. svarabheda difference of accent m. svarabheda difference of musical tones m. svarabhedabhaya n. svarabheda svarabhūta become a vowel ( mfn. id est changed from a semivowel followed by a vowel into or i- ) u- svarabrahman " n. as manifested in sound", the sacred texts brahman- svaracchidra the sound-hole of a flute n. svaracintā f. Name of work on vowels svaradhīta "reaching heaven", the mountain mfn. meru- svaradhītasāra m. Name of indra- svaradīpta (in augury) inauspicious with regard to voice or sound mfn. svaragatādhyāya m. Name of the first chapter of the and of the saṃgīta- darpaṇa- . saṃgīta- ratnākara- svaraghna "voice-destroyer", m. Name of a particular disease of the throat svaragrāma the musical scale, gamut m. svaragupti depth of voice f. svarahan m. equals - ghna- svarāj ( mfn. Nominal verb ) self-ruling - rāṭ- svarāj a self-ruler m. etc. svarāj self-resplendent, self-luminous mfn. svarāj m. Name of brahmā- svarāj of m. viṣṇu- kṛṣṇa- svarāj of a m. manu- svarāj of an m. ekā- ha svarāj of one of the 7 principal rays of the sun m. svarāj various kinds of metre f. svarājan self-ruling, self-guiding, a self-ruler mf( )n. jñī- svarājya independent dominion or sovereignty n. svarājya own dominion or kingdom n. svarājya (with n. ) indrasya- Name of a sāman- svarakampa trembling of tone m. svarakara producing voice mfn. svarakṣaya loss of voice m. svarakṣu f. Name of a river svaralakṣaṇa n. Name of a treatise (on the accents of the , by taittirīya- ). keśa- vārya- svaralāsikā a flute, pipe f. svarālu a kind of root ( m. equals ) vacā- svaramañcanṛtya (in music) a kind of dance n. svaramaṇḍala a kind of m. or stringed musical instrument vīṇā- svaramaṇḍalikā a kind of f. or stringed musical instrument vīṇā- svaramañjarī f. Name of work on Vedic accents. svaramantrakāṇḍa n. Name of work svaramātrā strength of sound f. svaramelakalānidhi f. Name of work svaraṃkrita well arranged or prepared (as a sacrifice) mfn. svarāṃśa a half or quarter tone in music m. svarāṃśa a seventh ( m. See under ) svara- svaraṇa loud-sounding, clear-voiced mfn. svaranābhi a kind of flute m. svaranirṇaya m. Name of work (on the accents of the - ṛg- , in 21 veda- s, by śloka- ). jayanta- svāmin- svarāṅka a kind of musical composition m. svarāṅkuśa m. Name of work ( equals ). svaranirṇaya- svarānta ending in a vowel mfn. svarānta having the mfn. accent on the last syllable svarita- svarāntara "vowel-interval", the interval between two vowels, hiatus ( n. equals ) vivṛtti- svarāntare between two vowels ind. svarāpagā "river of heaven" f. equals - gaṅgā- svarapakṣa "sound-winged", possessing sound as wings mfn. svarapañcāśat f. Name of work on Vedic accents. svaraparibhāṣā f. Name of work (on the more ancient notation of the accents or tones in the , used in South India). sāmaveda- svaraparivarta change or modulation of the voice m. svarapattana "abode of accents", n. Name of the . sāmaveda- svaraprakaraṇa n. Name of work svaraprakriyā f. Name of work svaraprastāra m. Name of work svarapṛṣṭha having the mfn. for a svara- sāman- ( pṛṣṭha- q.v) svarapuraṃjaya m. Name of a son of śeṣa- svarārāṣṭaka n. Name of work svararatnabhāṇḍa n. Name of work svararatnakośa m. Name of work svarārāvadhāna n. Name of work svarārṇava m. Name of work svarārūḍha ascended to heaven mfn. svaras See . gharm/a- svaras- svarasa own (unadulterated) juice or essence m. etc. svarasa natural or peculiar flavour m. svarasa proper taste or sentiment in composition m. svarasa a m. particular astringent juice or decoction svarasa the sediment of oily substances ground on a stone m. svarasa own inclination ( m. ,"through own inclination","for pleasure") - tas- svarasa feeling for one's own people m. svarasa instinct of self-preservation (?) m. svarasa analogy m. svarasa agreeable or pleasant to one's taste, congenial mf( )n. ā- svarasa m. Name of a mountain svarasa etc. sva- rāj- See . svarasāman ( m. ) sv/ara- - Name of the three days before and after the of the viṣuvat- ( gavāmayana- id est the last three days of the first, and the first three days of the second half-year) svarasāman n. Name of a . sāman- svarasaṃdarbha m. equals - saṃkrama- svarasaṃdehavivāda a kind of round game m. svarasaṃdhi the junction or coalition of vowels m. svarasaṃgraha m. Name of work on suppression of the voice and breath (for attaining beatitude). svarasaṃkrama succession of tones (applied to the musical scale m. ), rise and fall of the voice, modulation of tone svarasampad euphony or melody of voice f. svarasaṃpanna ( mf( )n. ā- ) melodious, harmonious sv/ara- - svarasaṃpanna having a melodious voice mf( )n. ā- svarasaṃsvāravat correct in accent mfn. svarasamuccaya m. Name of work svarasaṃyoga m. equals - yoga- svarasaṃyoga a song m. svarasaṃyoga the junction of vowels m. svarasāra m. Name of work svaraśas according to the accent ind. svaraśāstra n. Name of a class of works on the modulation of sounds or on the passage of the air through the nostrils ( especially as bearing on the prognostication of future events) svaraśāstra n. Name of work on Vedic. accents. svarasiddhāntacandrikā f. Name of work svarasiddhāntakaumudī f. Name of work svarasiddhāntamañjarī f. Name of work svarasīkṛ P. , to make into sap or juice - karoti- svaraśikṣā f. Name of work svarasiṃha m. Name of work svarāṣṭra own kingdom n. svarāṣṭra m. Name of a king svarāṣṭra m. plural Name of a people svarāṣṭracintā care for one's own country or people f. svarāṣṭrīya belonging to one's own kingdom ( mfn. svarāṣṭrīyajana - jana- m. plural"own subjects") svarāṣṭrīyajana m. svarāṣṭrīya svarasubodhinī f. Name of work svaraśuddha correct in musical measure mfn. svaraśūnya unmelodious, unmusical mfn. svara svarūpa n. Name of work svaratā the state of (being) voice or a musical sound f. svaratantra n. Name of work svaratattvacamatkāra m. Name of work svaratattvodaya m. Name of work svaratikrama stepping beyond heaven m. id est reaching vaikuṇṭha- svaratikrama etc. svar- adhī- ta See . svaravaidika n. Name of work svaravat ( mfn. ) having sound, sonorous, loud sv/ara- - svaravat having a melodious voice mfn. svaravat having an accent, accentuated mfn. svaravat containing a vowel mfn. svaravibhakti separation of a vowel (in f. -chanting) sāman- svaravidhi m. Name of a med. work svaravyākhyā f. Name of work svarayoga "sound-combination", voice m. svarayoni or m. the f. on which the ṛc- is based svara- sāman- svarbhānava a kind of gem m. svarbhānavī a daughter of f. svar- bhānu- svarbhānavīya relating or belonging to mfn. svar- bhānu- svarbhāṇu m. equals - bhānu- id est rāhu- svarbhānu ( m. ) sv^ar- - Name of a demon supposed to eclipse the sun and the moon (in later language applied to or the personified ascending node) rāhu- etc. svarbhānu of a m. kaśyapa- svarbhānu of a son of m. kṛṣṇa- svarbhānusūdana "destroyer of m. ", rāhu- Name of the Sun svarcakṣas ( ) svā- r - brilliant as light mfn. svarcana (used in explaining prec.) mfn. svarcanas ( ) svā- r - "lovely as light"or"pleasing to heaven" mfn. svarci ( ) ( ) flashing beautifully. mfn. svarcis ( ) flashing beautifully. mfn. svard ( see ) svad- cl.1 A1. , to taste ; to please svardate- ; to be pleasing ; (also .) sañcaraṇe- svarda bestowing heaven mfn. svardā bestowing heaven mfn. svarda etc. svar- dṛś- See p.1281. svardantin a celestial elephant m. svardeva m. Name of a man svardhāman ( ) sv/ar- - abiding in light mfn. svardhenu f. equals - kāma- dhenu- svardhin a good partisan (or"one who has chosen the good side") m. svardhunī f. equals - āpagā- svardṛś ( mfn. Nominal verb ) seeing light or the sun (applied to gods and men) k- svareṇu f. Name of a wife of the sun ( varia lectio and sureṇu- ) saraṇyū- svarga See below. svarga (or mfn. ) going or leading to or being in light or heaven, heavenly, celestial (with suvarg/a- lok/a- or m. plural = "the world of light, heavens") etc. svarga heaven, the abode of light and of the gods, heavenly bliss, ( m. especially) 's heaven or paradise (to which the souls of virtuous mortals indra- See transferred until the time comes for their re-entering earthly bodies;this temporary heaven is the only heaven of orthodox Brahmanism;it is supposed to be situated on mount meru- q.v; accusative with , gā- ,or ā- - sthā ,"to go to heaven","die") ā- - pad etc. svarga a m. particular ekā- ha svarga m. Name of a son of the rudra- bhīma- svargabhartṛ m. equals - pati- svargābhikāma desirous if heaven, ib. mfn. svargacyuta fallen or descended from heaven mfn. svargada heaven-giving, procuring paradise mfn. svargadvāra heaven's gate n. svargadvāra n. Name of a tīrtha- svargadvāra of n. śiva- svargadvāreṣṭi f. Name of work svargagamana going to heaven, death n. svargagāmin going to heaven mfn. svargagata gone to heaven mfn. svargagati f. svargagiri "mountain of heaven", m. meru- svargahetau for the sake of heaven ind. svargahvāya mfn. svargajit winning heaven (superl. mfn. ) - tama- svargajīvin dwelling in heaven mfn. svargakāma desirous of heaven mfn. svargakhaṇḍa n. Name of the 3rd book of the . padma- purāṇa- svargaloka (also in m. plural) the celestial world, 's heaven indra- etc. svargaloka belonging to or dwelling in, heaven mfn. svargalokeśa "lord of heaven", m. indra- svargalokeśa the body (as enjoying felicity in m. 's heaven) indra- svargamana "going to heaven", death, future felicity n. svargamandākinī the celestial Ganges f. svargamārga the road to heaven m. svargamārga road of heaven, Milky Way m. svargamārga m. Name of a tīrtha- svargamārgadidṛkṣu wishing to see the road to heaven mfn. svarganaraka n. plural the heaven and hells svargaṅgā the heavenly Ganges, the Milky Way f. svargapada m. Name of a tīrtha- svargāpagā "heavenly river", the Ganges f. svargapara desirous of heaven mfn. svargaparvan n. Name of the 18th book of (in which is described the journey of the five princes towards pāṇḍava- 's heaven in mount indra- ) . meru- svargapatha "road of heaven", (prob.) the Milky Way m. svargapati "lord of heaven", m. indra- svargāpavarga heaven and emancipation m. dual number svargaprada mfn. equals - da- svargapradhāna having heaven as the best mfn. svargapurī "city of heaven", f. amarāvatī- svargarājya kingdom of heaven n. svargārgala or m. bar to (the gate of) heaven n. svargarodaḥkuhara the void or hollow space between heaven and earth m. svargārohaṇa ascension to heaven, n. Name of particular funeral ceremonies svargārohaṇaparvan n. equals ( svarga- parvan- q.v) svargārohaṇika relating to the 18th book of mfn. (with = prec.) parvan- ( ) . svargārtham for the sake of heaven, ind. svargārūḍha ascended to heaven mfn. svargasad "heaven-dweller", a god or one of the Blest m. svargasādhana means of attaining heaven mfn. svargasaṃkrama a bridge or ladder to heaven m. svargasaṃpādana procuring or gaining heaven mfn. svargasaridvarā "best of heavenly rivers", the Ganges f. svargasattraprayoga m. Name of work svargaśrī the glory of heaven f. svargastha "dwelling in heaven", dead mfn. svargasthita mfn. idem or ' "dwelling in heaven", dead mfn. ' svargasthita mfn. equals - sad- svargastrī f. equals - vadhū- svargasukha the bliss of heaven n. svargata being in heaven mfn. svargata gone to heaven, dead mfn. svargataraṃgiṇī "river of heaven", the Ganges f. svargatarṣa eager desire for heaven m. svargataru a tree of heaven m. svargati f. svargaukas "heaven-dweller", a god, one of the Blest m. svargavadhū "celestial nymph", an f. apsaras- svargavāsa residence in heaven m. svargāvāsa abode in heaven m. svargavat possessing or enjoying heaven mfn. svargaya Nom. A1. , to be like heaven yate- svargayāṇa going or leading to heaven mf( )n. ī- svargayāṇa the road to heaven n. svargayoni cause or source of heaven f. svargepsu desirous of obtaining heaven mfn. svargi in compound for . svargin- svargigiri the heavenly mountain, m. meru- svargin belonging to or being in heaven mfn. svargin gone to heaven, deceased, dead mfn. svargin an occupant of heaven, a god, one of the Blest m. svargiri "mountain of heaven", m. su- meru- svargistrī a celestial woman, f. apsaras- svargivadhū a celestial woman, f. apsaras- svargīya relating or belonging to heaven, leading to heaven, heavenly (with mfn. kārya- = "cremation of the dead") n. svargopaga going or coming to heaven mfn. svargya mfn. equals prec. etc. svargya occupying or dwelling in heaven mfn. svargya (with n. ) setu- ṣāman- Name of a . sāman- svarhaṇa great reverence n. svarhat very honourable ( mfn. ,superl.) - tama- svari noisy, boisterous mfn. svariṅgaṇa shaking heaven, a strong wind m. svarita caused to sound mfn. svarita sounded, having an accent, accentuated mfn. svarita having mfn. accent svarita- svarita added, admixed ( mfn. svaritatva - tva- ) n. svarita m. the n. accent (a kind of mixed tone, produced by a combination of high and low tone, and therefore named in svarita- ,the high and low tones being called sam- āhāra- ,"raised"or"acute", and ud- ātta- ,"low"or"grave";the an- udātta- corresponds to the Greek circumflex and is of four kinds, viz. svarita- [as in kṣaipra- for vy- /āpta- ], v/i- āpta- [as in jātya- for kv/a- ], k/ua- [as in praśliṣṭa- for div/īva- ],or div/i iva- [as in abhinihita- for t/e 'bruvan- ];it is marked in t/e abruvan- by a small upright stroke above a syllable;and when produced by an immediately preceding is sometimes called "a dependent udātta- ", and, when it properly belongs to a word, an"independent svarita- ") svarita- svaritatva the state of having the n. svarita- svaritatva n. svarita svaritavākyapaddhati f. Name of work svaritavat containing the mfn. svarita- svaritṛ sounding, noisy, loud, boisterous mfn. svaritra having good oars, well rowed mf( )n. /ā- svarīyas varia lectio for svaryas- svarjeṣa the winning of light etc. m. svarji ( f. equals ) natron, nitrate of potash sarji- svarjika ( m. ) idem or ' m. idem or ' ( f. equals ) natron, nitrate of potash sarji- ' ' svarjikā ( f. ) ( ) idem or ' ( m. ) idem or ' ' m. idem or ' ( f. equals ) natron, nitrate of potash sarji- ' ' svarjikākṣāra ( m. ) idem or ' ( f. ) ( ) idem or ' ' ( m. ) idem or ' ' m. idem or ' ( f. equals ) natron, nitrate of potash sarji- ' ' svarjikṣāra m. idem or ' ( f. equals ) natron, nitrate of potash sarji- ' svarjin m. idem or ' ( m. ) idem or ' ' ( f. ) ( ) idem or ' ' ( m. ) idem or ' ' m. idem or ' ( f. equals ) natron, nitrate of potash sarji- ' ' svarjit winning or procuring light or heaven mfn. svarjit a kind of sacrifice m. svarjit m. Name of a man (with patronymic ) nāgnajita- svarjyotirnidhana ( mfn. ) having sv^ar- - as final part svar- jyotis- svarjyotirnidhana n. Name of a sāman- svarjyotis ( mfn. ) shining with heaven's light sv^ar- - svarjyotis n. Name of two s sāman- svarka (fr. 5. mfn. + su- , arka- ) singing or praising beautifully arc- svarlīna Name of a place svarloka the world of heaven, a m. particular heaven, the region called ( svar- see , bhuvar- - ) bhūr- l- svarloka m. Name of mount (also meru- ) - śikhara- svarloka an occupant of heaven, a god, one of the Blest ( m. svarlokatā - tā- ) f. svarlokatā f. svarloka svarmadhya the central point of the sky, zenith n. svarmaṇi "sky-jewel", the sun m. svarmīḷha having light or the sun as its reward or prize mfn. svarmīḷha a contest for light n. svarṇa (contracted from m. ) a su- varṇa- particular agni- svarṇa gold (as a weight = one n. of gold) karṣa- etc. svarṇa a kind of red chalk n. svarṇa a kind of plant ( n. according to to ,"a kind of herb",= "the thorn-apple","a kind of cocoa palm", and"the flower of Mesua Roxburghii") gaura- suvarṇa- svarṇabandha a deposit of gold m. svarṇabandhaka a deposit of gold m. svarṇabhāj a m. particular sun svarṇabhṛṅgāra a golden vase m. svarṇabhṛṅgāra a kind of plant m. svarṇabhūmikā ginger or cassia bark f. svarṇabhūṣaṇa Cassia Fistula m. svarṇabhūṣaṇa a kind of red chalk n. svarṇabindu a spot of yellow or gold m. svarṇabindu m. Name of viṣṇu- svarṇabindu of a m. tīrtha- svarṇacūḍa "gold-crested", the blue jay m. svarṇacūḍa a cock m. svarṇacūḍa m. Name of a king svarṇacūḍaka the blue jay m. svarṇacūla (prob.) m. idem or ' the blue jay m. ' svarṇada giving gold mfn. svarṇadā Tragia Involucrata f. svarṇadāmā "gold-girdled", f. Name of a goddess svarṇadhātu red ochre m. svarṇadī f. equals - āpagā- svarṇadī a kind of shrub (prob. f. wrong reading for ) svarṇa- dā- svarnadī f. equals - ṇadī- svarṇadīdhiti "gold-rayed", fire m. svarṇādri "gold-mountain", m. meru- svarṇadru Cassia Fistula m. svarṇadugdhā Cleome Felina f. svarṇadugdhī Cleome Felina f. svarṇadvīpa m. "gold-island", (prob.) n. Name of Sumatra svarṇagairika a kind of yellow ochre or red chalk n. svarṇagaṇapati m. Name of a particular form of gaṇe- śa svarnagarī "town of heaven", f. Name of amarāvatī- svarnagarīkṛta turned into mfn. amarāvatī- svarṇagaurīvrata n. Name of a particular religious observance svarṇagaurīvratapūjā f. Name of a chapter of the svarṇagharma m. Name of a particular anuvāka- svarṇagiri m. Name of a mountain svarṇagrāma m. Name of a country situated to the east of Dacca svarṇagrīva "gold-necked" m. Name of one of 's attendants skanda- svarṇagrīvā f. Name of a river issuing from the eastern side of the mountain nāṭaka- svarṇāhvā a kind of plant f. svarṇaja "gold-produced", the metal tin n. svarṇajātī a kind of jasmine f. svarṇajātikā a kind of jasmine f. svarṇajīrī (?) a f. particular mixture svarṇajīvā Hoya Viridiflora f. svarṇajīvantikā Hoya Viridiflora f. svarṇaka a kind of tree m. svarṇaka gold m. svarṇaka golden, of gold m. svarṇakaṇa a kind of bdellium ( m. equals ) kaṇa- guggulu- svarṇakaṇikā a particle or grain of gold f. svarṇakāra a gold-worker, gold smith (forming a m. particular caste; svarṇakāratā - tā- ) f. svarṇākara a gold-mine m. svarṇakāraka m. idem or ' a gold-worker, gold smith (forming a m. particular caste; svarṇakāratā - tā- ) f. ' svarṇakāratā f. svarṇakāra svarṇākarṣaṇa n. Name of work svarṇākarṣaṇabhairavavidhāna n. Name of work svarṇakāya "gold-bodied", m. Name of garuḍa- svarṇaketakī Pandanus Odoratissimus f. svarṇakhaṇḍāya Nom. A1. , to become a lump of gold yate- svarṇakṛt m. equals - kāra- svarṇakṣīrī Cleome Felina f. svarṇakṣīriṇikā Cleome Felina f. svarṇakūṭa Name of a place svarṇalābha a m. particular spell recited over weapons ( see ) - nābha- svarṇalatā "gold creeper", Cardiospermum Halicacabum f. svarṇalatā Hoya Viridiflora f. svarṇalī or svarṇulī- a kind of plant f. svarṇamahā f. Name of a river svarṇamākṣika a kind of mineral substance n. svarṇamātṛ a kind of plant f. svarṇamaya consisting or made of gold mf( )n. ī- svarṇamukharīmāhātmya n. Name of work svarṇamūla "gold-rooted", m. Name of a mountain svarṇamūṣikā a kind of plant (prob. f. wrong reading for ) - yūthikā- svarṇanābha ammonite m. svarṇanābha a m. particular spell recited over weapons svarṇāṅga "gold-bodied", Cassia Fistula m. svarṇanibha a kind of red chalk n. svarṇapadmā "bearing gold lotuses", the heavenly Ganges f. svarṇapakṣa "gold-winged", m. Name of garuḍa- svarṇapārevata a kind of fruit tree n. svarṇaparṇī "gold-leaved", Hoya Viridiflora f. svarṇapāṭhaka borax m. svarṇaphalā "having gold fruit", a kind of Musa f. svarṇaprastha m. Name of an in upadvīpa- jambu- dvīpa- svarṇapuṅkha gold-feathered (as an arrow) mfn. svarṇapuṅkha a gold-feathered arrow m. svarṇapuṣpa "gold-flowered", Cassia Fistula m. svarṇapuṣpa Michelia Campaka m. svarṇapuṣpa f( and ā- ). ī- Name of various plants (Methonica Superba, Cassia Fistula etc.) svarṇapuṣpikā jasmine f. svarṇara ( m. ) lord of heaven (applied to sv^ar- - , the sun, agni- etc.) soma- svarṇara a m. particular sun svarṇara bright space, ether n. svarṇarāga white lotus m. svarṇarāja white lotus m. svarṇarambhā a kind of plant f. svarṇarekhā a gold streak (on a touchstone) f. svarṇarekhā f. Name of a vidyā- dharī- svarṇarekhā of a river f. svarṇaretas having golden seed (said of the sun) mfn. svarṇāri "enemy of gold", lead n. svarṇāri sulphur n. svarṇarīti gold-like brass, bell metal f. svarṇaroman "gold-haired", m. Name of a king svarṇarūpin gold-coloured mfn. svarṇaśaila m. Name of a mountain svarṇasaṃcayā f. Name of a town svarṇaśephālikā Cassia Fistula, f. svarṇaśikha a m. particular bird ( equals ) - cūḍa- svarṇasindūra a m. particular medicinal preparation svarṇaśṛṅga gold-horned mfn. svarṇaśṛṅgin m. Name of a mountain svarṇastha set in gold mfn. svarṇaṣṭhīvin m. equals suvarṇa- ṣṭh- svarṇasū producing gold (as a mountain) mfn. svarṇaśuktikā gold from f. suvarṇa- dvīpa- svarṇatantra n. Name of a . tantra- svarṇavajra a sort of steel n. svarṇavalkala "having gold bark", Bignonia Indica m. svarṇavallī a kind of plant ( f. equals ) rakta- phalā- svarṇavaṅga a m. particular preparation made of tin svarṇavaṇij a gold merchant, money-changer (forming a m. particular caste) svarṇavarṇa turmeric (also n. ) f( ). ā- svarṇavarṇābhā a species of plant f. svarṇavarṇabhāj Terminalia Chebula f. svarṇavidyā (prob.) the art of making gold f. svarnayana leading to heaven mfn. svarṇayūthī yellow jasmine svarṇetṛ guide to heaven (as a mfn. Name of a king) svarṇidhana n. as a conclusion svar- svarṇīta led to heaven mfn. svarṇṛ ( ) svā- r - lord of heaven (applied to m. and the agni- s) marut- svarocas ( ) sv/a- - self-shining mfn. ( varia lectio ). - rocis- svaroci own ray f. ( plural) svarocis mfn. svarocis own light n. svarocis ( ) sv/a- - self-shining mfn. svarocis m. Name of a son of the gandharva- by the kali- apsaras- varūthinī- svarociṣa wrong reading for svār- svarodaya followed by a vowel mfn. svarodaya mn. Name of a class of works. ( equals svara- śāstra- q.v) svarodayavicāra m. Name of work svarodayayuddhanirṇaya m. Name of work svaropadha having a vowel as penultimate letter mfn. svaropaghāta "voice-destruction", hoarseness m. svaropaghātin suffering from it mfn. svarpati ( mfn. ) lord of light sv^ar- - svarpati mfn. Name of indra- svarṣā mfn. equals - vid- svarṣāti ( ) svā- r - the acquiring light or heaven f. svart varia lectio for śvart- q.v svartha pursuing or serving worthy ends mf( )n. ā- svaru (of doubtful derivation) a large piece of wood cut from the trunk of a tree, stake, ( m. especially) sacrificial post or a strip of wood from it svaru a sacrifice m. svaru sunshine m. svaru a thunderbolt m. svaru an arrow m. svaru a kind of scorpion m. svaruci own will or pleasure f. svaruci following one's own pleasure mfn. svarucyā according to one's own will ind. svaruh self-growing, self-increasing mfn. svarumocana the third cubit from the bottom or the fifteenth from the top of the sacrificial post m. svarūpa ( n. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ) one's own form or shape, the form or shape of ( f( ). ā- genitive case or compound;with or without or śabdasya- ,"a word itself or in its own form"[ śabda- sva- r- opp. to its synonyms or varieties];with = "names themselves") nāmnām- etc. svarūpa own condition, peculiarity, character, nature ( n. or eṇa- in the beginning of a compound,"by nature","in reality""by itself") etc. svarūpa peculiar aim n. svarūpa kind, sort n. svarūpa a n. particular relation (in philosophy See under ) sambandha- svarūpa occurrence, event n. svarūpa having one's own peculiar form or character mfn. svarūpa having a like nature or character, similar, like, mfn. ( wrong reading for ) sa- r- svarūpa pleasing, handsome (for mfn. ) sa- r- svarūpa wise, learned mfn. svarūpa m. Name of a daitya- svarūpa of a son of m. su- nandā- svarūpa of a pupil of m. caitanya- svarūpa or m. n. Name of a place svarūpā f. Name of a place svarūpabhāva (a short word) whose essence is of the same efficacy (as that of the full form) m. svarūpācārya m. Name of a teacher svarūpadhārin having one's own form mfn. svarūpagata endowed with one's own form or nature, having a like character mfn. svarūpaka an image of ( nf( ). ikā- genitive case) svarūpaka ( nf( ). ikā- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') own condition, peculiarity, character, nature svarūpākhyastotra n. Name of work svarūpanirṇaya m. Name of work svarūpanirūpaṇa n. Name of work svarūpānusaṃdhāna n. Name of work svarūpānusaṃdhānastotra n. Name of work svarūpaprakāśa m. Name of work svarūpasambandharūpa n. Name of work svarūpasambodhana n. Name of work svarūpasambodhanapañcaviṃśativṛtti f. Name of work svarūpāsiddhi a form of non-proof (where the quality alleged to belong to a subject is not really proved) f. svarūpatā (or f. svarūpatātva - tva- ) the state of one's own form or nature ( n. ,"literally","in reality") tayā- svarūpatā the having a natural form, identity of form or nature f. svarūpatā f. wrong reading for su- rūpa- tā- svarūpatas in one's own form ind. svarūpatas according to one's own form, analogously, similarly, identically ind. svarūpatas by nature, in reality, by itself ind. svarūpatas ( ind. to godāna- prayogaḥ- Name of work) svarūpatātva n. svarūpatā svarūpavat having the form of ( mfn. compound) svarūpin having one's own or natural form mfn. svarūpin appearing in the form of ( mfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') svarūpin embodied mfn. svarūpin having essential properties mfn. svarūpin identical mfn. svarūpopaniṣad f. Name of an . upaniṣad- svarūpotprekṣā a kind of simile f. svarus m. equals , a thunderbolt svaru- svarvadhū f. equals - yoṣit- svarvāhinī f. equals - āpagā- svarvaidya "physician of heaven", m. Name of either of the two s ( aśvin- ," - pratima- -like") apsaras- svarvannidhana mfn. svarvat svarvāpī "stream of heaven", the Ganges f. svarvat ( mfn. or sv^ar- - ) bright, shining, celestial s/uvar- - svarvat containing the word mfn. ( svar- svarvannidhana van- nidhana- applied to a mfn. ; sāman- see ) svar- ṇidhana- svarvat a good or swift courser m. svarveśyā "courtezan of heaven", an f. apsaras- svarvid winning or possessing or bestowing light or heaven, celestial mfn. svarvīthi f. Name of the wife of vatsara- svarya See . svarya resounding, roaring, crashing, loud mf( ,Ved. ā- )n. ī- svarya beneficial to the voice mf( ,Ved. ā- )n. ī- svaryāna the act of going to heaven, dying, death n. svaryas (with n. ) viṣṇoḥ- Name of s sāman- svaryaśas the glory of heaven n. svaryāta gone to heaven, dead mfn. svaryātṛ going to heaven, dying mfn. svaryoṣit a celestial woman, an f. apsaras- svaryu desirous of light or splendour mfn. ābhā svara ( mfn. ) shining, bright ābhā svara m. Name of a class of deities, sixty-four in number ābhā svara m. Name of a particular set of twelve subjects ( ātmā jñātā damo dāntaḥ śāntir jñānaṃ śamas tapaḥ kāmaḥ krodho mado moho dvādaśā- bhāsvarā ime ) abhi svar ( f. instrumental case ) invocation - sv/arā- abhi svare ind. dative case "for calling into one's presence", just behind (with genitive case) abhi svartṛ an invoker m. ādi svarita having the Svarita accent on the first syllable, VPra1t., mfn. Scholiast or Commentator aika svarya (fr. n. ), the state of having but one accent (as of a compound) eka- svara- on aika svarya sameness of tone, monotony n. alpa svara having a feeble voice, mfn. alpa svara containing few vowels, aṃśa svara key-note or chief note in music. m. āndhā svara a n. particular mode of singing, anta svarita the m. accent on the last syllable of a word svarita- anta svarita a word thus accentuated. n. anubhūti svarūpācārya m. Name of the author of the grammar . sārasvatī- prakriyā- apa svara an unmusical note or sound m. apa svara singing out of tune, mfn. ārta svara a cry of pain m. a svara not loud (as the voice), indistinct mfn. a svara having no vowel Up having no accent mfn. a svara having a bad or croaking voice mfn. a svarādi not beginning with a vowel. mfn. a svaraka unaccentuated mfn. a svaram in low tone, indistinctly ind. a svargya not leading to heaven mfn. a svarita not having the accent called mfn. svarita- a svarūpa essentially different mfn. a svarūpa shapeless (opposed to mfn. ) rūpa- vat- a svarya not good for the voice, mfn. a svaryogya uuworthy of heaven, mfn. avanī svara "lord of the earth", a king m. avi svararm without dissonance ind. bahu svara many-syllabled, containing more than two syllables mfn. bahu svaratva n. bahu svarṇalakṣamūlya worth many hundred thousand pieces of gold, mfn. bahvī svaramāhātmya n. Name of work bhāgavatapurāṇa svarūpaviṣayakaśaṅkānirāsa m. Name of work connected with the bhagavat svarūpa n. Name of work bhagavat svarūpaviṣayaśaṅkānirāsa m. Name of work bhāṣika svara m. equals brāhmaṇasvara- bhā svara shining, brilliant, bright, resplendent mf( )n. ā- etc. bhā svara the sun m. bhā svara a day m. bhā svara m. Name of a satellite of the god of the sun bhā svara of a Buddhist deity (?) m. bhā svara Costus Arabicus or Speciosus n. bhā svaravarṇa ( ) bh/āsv- light-coloured, having the colour of light mfn. bhinna svara having a broken or changed voice mfn. bhinna svara discordant mfn. bhinna svaramukhavarṇa having a broken or changed voice and complexion mfn. bhīṣmagarjitaghoṣa svararāja m. Name of a number of s buddha- bhīṣma svararāja "king of terrible sounds", m. Name of a buddha- bhū svarga "heaven on earth", m. Name of the mountain sumeru- bhū svargāya Nom. A1. , to become a heaven on earth yate- bila svarga "subterranean heaven", the lower regions, hell m. brāhmaṇa svara the accent usual in a m. brāhmaṇa- brahma svarūpa of the nature or essence of the one self-existing Spirit mfn. candraprabhā svararāja m. Name of several s. buddha- cātuḥ svarya the use of 4 ( n. ) accents, (viz. svara- and traisvarya- ) eka- śruti- caturtha svara having the 4th tone or accent m. caturtha svara n. Name of a . sāman- cit svarūpa pure thought n. devatā svarūpavicāra m. Name of work devī svarūpastuti f. Name of stotra- dhīrapraśānta svara mfn. dhīrapraśānta dīrgha svara m. equals - varṇa- dīrghatapaḥ svargagamana "the story of a long penance", and"going to heaven by long penance", n. Name of 2 chapters of the dundubhi svara "having drum-like voice", m. Name of a man dundubhi svaranirghoṣa m. Name (also title or epithet) of a , tathāgata- . dundubhi svararāja m. Name of several s. buddha- dūra svarga having heaven distant, far off from heaven mfn. ( varia lectio ). re- sv- dvi svara 2-syllabled mfn. dvi svara doubly accented mfn. dvitīya svara n. Name of a . sāman- ekāneka svarūpa simple yet manifold mfn. gadgada svara mf( )n. ā- idem or ' mfn. idem or ' mfn. idem or ' mfn. idem or ' (speech) stopped by sobs, mfn. ' ' ' ' gadgada svara stammering utterance m. gadgada svara a buffalo m. gadgada svara m. Name of a bodhi- sattva- gambhīrasattva svaranābhi mfn. equals ( tri- g- See above) gharma svaras ( ) rm/a- - sounding like the contents of a boiler (said of rivers) mfn. gha svara voracious mfn. ghora svara of dreadful sound mfn. girirajaghoṣe svara m. Name (also title or epithet) of a , tathāgata- graha svara the 1st note of a musical piece. m. hasta svaralakṣaṇa n. Name of work hata svara one who has lost his voice, hoarse mfn. hīna svara defective in sound, soundless ( mfn. hīnasvaratā - tā- ) f. hīna svaratā f. hīnasvara hīṣī svara n. Name of a sāman- homa svarottara n. Name of a tantra- work hra svaroman "short-haired", m. Name of a king of (son of videha- ) svarṇa- roman- jaladharagarjitaghoṣasu svaranakṣatrarājasaṃkusumitābhijña "having a voice musical as the sound of the thunder of the clouds and conversant with the appearance of the regents of the m. s", nakṣatra- Name of a , buddha- jita svarga mfn. equals . - loka- kāka svara a shrill tone. m. kala svara a low musical sound n. kāla svarūpa having the very form of death (applied to any terrific object). mfn. kalaviṅka svara a kind of m. ( samādhi- q.v) kalaviṅka svara having a voice (soft) as a sparrow's, mfn. kaṇṭhya svara a guttural vowel ( m. id est and a- ) ā- kapi svara m. Name of a man. kārta svara (fr. n. ), gold kṛta- sv- kārta svara the thorn-apple n. ka svara mfn. ka svara See 1. . kas- khara svarā wild jasmine ( f. ) vana- mallikā- kiṃ svarūpa of what characteristics? mf( )n. ā- commentator or commentary on kṛta svara having the original accent mfn. krūra svara crying frightfully mfn. kṣudra svarṇa n. equals - suvarṇa- kuhaka svara m. idem or ' a wild cock (Phasianus gallus) m. ' kūṭa svarṇa alloyed or counterfeit gold n. madhuracārumañju svaratā the having a sweet and agreeable and pleasant voice (one of the 80 minor marks of a f. ) buddha- madhura svara sweetly-sounding, sweet-voiced ( mfn. madhurasvaram am- ) ind. etc. madhura svara m. Name of a gandharva- madhura svaram ind. madhurasvara madhu svara "sweet-voiced", the Indian cuckoo m. madhyama svara the middle or dominant note m. madhyama svara spoken in a middle tone (not too loud and not too low) mfn. madhya svarita having the mfn. accent on the middle syllable svarita- mahābhā svara mfn. equals - bhāsura- mahāghoṣa svararāja m. Name of a bodhi- sattva- mahāmoha svarottaratantra n. Name of work mahā svara loud-sounding mfn. māna svarūpa the nature of honour n. māna svarūpābhijñatva knowledge of the nature of honour n. mandra svara having the low or base tone m. maṅgala svara a sea-shell m. maṇi svaratīrtha n. Name of a tīrtha- mañju svara mfn. idem or ' sweet-sounding mfn. ' mañju svara m. equals - śrī- manojña svara m. Name of a gandharva- mataṃgapārasne svara m. Name of work meghadundubhi svararāja m. Name of a buddha- megha svara m. Name of two s buddha- megha svararāja m. Name of two s buddha- naga svarūpiṇī a kind of metre f. nage svara m. idem or ' , of m. or of kailāsa- śiva- ' Name of himā- laya naraka svargaprāptiprakāravarṇana "description of the mode of obtaining heaven and hell", n. Name of chapter of the . māghamāhātmya- naṣṭahīnavikalavikṛta svara whose voice has been lost or become feeble or deficient or changed mfn. naṣṭahīnavikalavikṛta svaratā f. nīla svarūpa a kind of metre n. niṣeka svarā f. Name of work ni svara soundless, noiseless mfn. ni svara m. Name of agni- ( varia lectio ). ni- svan/a- ni svaram noiselessly. ind. nyāya svarūpanirūpaṇa n. Name of work pañcama svara n. Name of a metre, pañca svarā f. Name of an astrology work on divination pañca svarānirṇaya m. Name of commentator or commentary pañca svarodaya m. Name of work paramabhā svara excessively radiant mfn. pārthive svara m. idem or ' the chief or greatest of princes m. ' pe svara ( mfn. ) going, moving pe svara destructive mfn. pe svara splendid mfn. pika svarā "cuckoo's note", f. Name of a surā- ṅganā prabhā svara mfn. idem or '( ) shining forth, shining brightly, brilliant.' mfn. prabhā svara clear, shrill (as a voice) mfn. prabhā svarā a f. particular mythical plant pracaya svara "accumulated tone", the tone occurring in a series of unaccented syllables following a m. svarita- pracita svara m. equals . pracaya- svara- prākṛtalaṅke svara m. Name of work prātarvika svara rising early mfn. prathama svara the first sound m. prathama svara supplied with the first sound mfn. prathama svara n. Name of a sāman- prati svara ( m. ) a rever berated sound, echo svar- prati svara a focus m. pratyak svarūpa m. Name of an author pratyā svara ( mfn. ) shining back, reflecting svṛ- pratyaya svara (in gram.) an accent on an affix m. prauḍha svaram with a strong or loud voice ind. pūrvapadaprakṛti svara having the original accent of the first member of a mfn. compound pūrva svara (in gram.) having the accent of the preceding m. rāgarāgiṇī svarūpavelāvarṇana n. Name of work rājarāje svara (prob.) m. Name of śiva- rājarāje svarayogakathā f. Name of work rāja svarṇa a kind of thorn apple m. raticaraṇasamanta svara m. Name of a gandharva- ṛṣi svara praised by mfn. s ṛṣi- rudra svarga m. 's heaven rudra- rūkṣa svara harsh-sounding ( mfn. rūkṣasvaram am- ) ind. rūkṣa svara an ass m. rūkṣa svaram ind. rūkṣasvara rūpya svarṇamaṇimaya consisting of silver and gold and (or) jewels mf( )n. ī- sagadgada svaram ind. idem or ' with or having a faltering or stammering voice, mfn. ' sama svara having the same or a similar tone or accent mfn. śaṅkha svara prob. wrong reading for = saṃkasvara- , saṃkasuka- śaṅkukarṇe svara a m. particular form of śiva- śaṅkukarṇe svara n. Name of a liṅga- sānu svarita (prob.) resounding, re-echoing mfn. sarva svarahasya n. Name of work sarva svaralakṣaṇa n. Name of work sarva svarita having only the mfn. ( svarita- q.v) sarva svarṇamaya entirely golden mf( )n. ī- sa svar (of unknown derivation) , secretly ind. ( see ) . sa svara sounding, having the same sound with ( mfn. instrumental case or compound) sa svara having accent, accentuated mfn. sa svaram loudly ind. sa svartā ind. idem or ' (of unknown derivation) , secretly ind. ( see ) .' ṣaṭcakra svarūpa n. Name of work śaunakīya svarāṣṭaka n. Name of work sau svarya (fr. n. ) euphony su- svara- śikṣā svara m. equals śikṣā- kṣara n. śiva svarūpamantra m. Name of work śiva svarūpapūjā f. Name of work śiva svarūpapūjāvidhi m. Name of work sotkṛṣṭahasita svara accompanied by loud laughter mfn. śrī svarūpa m. Name of a disciple of caitanya- śrī svarūpiṇī having the nature of f. (applied to śrī- ) rādhā- strī svarūpa having a women's shape or figure mfn. strī svarūpavat having a women's shape or figure mfn. strī svarūpin mfn. idem or ' having a women's shape or figure mfn. ' subhā svara shining brightly, radiant, splendid mfn. subhā svara m. plural Name of a class of deceased ancestors śuklabhā svara shining bright mfn. śukta svara (said to be) mfn. equals a- vyakta- svara- ( Scholiast or Commentator) su svara the right tone or accent m. su svara having a beautiful voice mf( )n. ā- su svara well-sounding, harmonious, melodious ( mf( )n. ā- susvaram am- ) ind. su svara loud ( mf( )n. ā- susvaram am- ) ind. etc. su svara a conch m. su svara m. Name of a son of garuḍa- su svaram ind. susvara su svaram ind. susvara su svaru (of unknown meaning) mfn. (= or śobhana- gamana- - stutika- ) suvrata svara m. Name of an asura- sva svaruci mfn. plural every one brilliant in his own way sva svarūpa one's true character n. sva svarūpa n. Name of work tāna svara uttered monotonously, mfn. tāra svara sounding loud mfn. tathā svara uttered with the same accent mfn. trai svarya ( n. gaRa ) the 3 accents caturvarṇā- di on tṛtīya svara "3rd tune", n. Name of a . sāman- uccaiḥ svara crying aloud, mfn. ūpā svara the way in which the n. is sung, ūpā- ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding, Scholiast or Commentator vaikuṇṭha svarga m. equals - bhuvana- vai svarya (fr. mfn. ) depriving of voice, vi- svara- vai svarya loss of voice or language n. vai svarya different accentuation n. vākya svara the accent in a word or sentence m. vicitrālaṃkāra svara m. Name of a serpent-demon vidhi svarūpavādārtha m. Name of work vidhi svarūpavicāra m. Name of work vika svara opened (as eyes) mfn. vika svara expanded, blown mfn. vika svara clear (as sound) mfn. vika svara candid mfn. vika svarūpa (?) m. Name of a man virajastejaḥ svara m. Name of a serpent-demon virāṭ svarāja a m. particular ekā- ha virāṭ svarūpa consisting of mfn. (applied to the supreme Being) virāj- viṣṇu svarūpadhyānādivarṇana n. Name of work viśuddha svaranirghoṣā a f. particular dhāraṇī- vi svara discord m. vi svara having no sound mfn. vi svara dissonant, discordant ( m. visvaram am- ) ind. etc. vi svara pronounced with a wrong accent ( m. visvaram am- ) ind. vi svara vi- svāda- See . vi svaram ind. visvara vi svaram ind. visvara vṛṣabha svargavidhāna n. Name of work vyākhyā svara "tone of exposition", the middle tone (in speech) m. yajurvedakriyā svaralakṣaṇa n. Name of work yathāprāpta svara a regular accent m. yathā svaram ind. according to to the sound yoga svarodaya m. Name of work yuddharatna svara m. Name of work yugapradhāna svarūpa n.
svarabhakti f. vowel portion, i. e. vocalic sound heard after r or l when im mediately followed by a consonant; -bhûta, pp. become a vowel (i. e. changed from a semi-vowel + vowel to i or u); -bheda, m. indistinctness of voice, hoarseness; simulation of voice; betrayal by one's voice; difference of accent; difference of musical tones: in. in a feigned voice: -bhaya, n. fear of betraying one's voice; -yoga, m.combination of sounds, voice; (svára)-vat, a. (Br.) sounding loud; having a melodious voice; accented (also C.). svaraṃkṛta pp. well-prepared (sacrifice; RV.1). svarasa m. own or unmixed juice; feeling for one's own people; own inclina tion; a. to one's taste, congenial (wife). svarasaṃyoga m. combination of sounds, voice; continuous notes (of a song); -samsvâra-vat, a. having correctness of ac cent, rightly intoned (verse); -samkrama, m. harmony of tone, modulation of voice; -samdeha-vivâda, m. kind of social game; -sampad, f. euphony of voice, melodious voice; (svára)-sâman, m. ep. of the three days before and after the Vishuvat of the Gavâmayana (=the last three days of the first, and the first of the second half-year). svarga a. (V.) going or leading to the light or heaven, celestial; w. loká, m. (also pl.) world of light, the heavens; m. (V., C.) heaven (abode of the gods and the Blest); heavenly bliss: -kâma, a. desiring heaven; -gati, f. going to heaven; death; -gâmin, a. going to heaven; -kyuta, pp. come down from heaven. svargadvāra n. gate of heaven; -pati, m. lord of heaven, ep. of Indra; -purî, f. city of heaven, Amarâvatî; -pratikkhanda, m. pl. heaven-like joys; -bhartri, m. lord of heaven, ep. of Indra; -mandâkinî, f. celestial Mandâkinî (Ganges); -mârga, m. way to heaven; celestial path, milky way: -didrik shu, des. a. desirous of seeing the road to heaven; -yâna, n. way to heaven; -yoni, f. object securing heaven; -râgya, n. kingdom of heaven; -loka, m. (sts. pl.) celestial world, heaven; -strî, f. celestial nymph, Apsaras; -stha, a. dwelling in heaven, dead; -sthita, pp. id.; m. god; one of the Blest. svargāmin a. going or having gone to heaven; dying, dead. svargārohaṇa n. ascension (to heaven); -½argala, m. or n. bar to (the gate of) heaven. svargata pp. gone to or being in heaven; dead. svargataraṅgiṇī f. river of heaven; ep. of the Ganges; -taru, m. tree of paradise. svargati f. going to heaven; death. svargaukas m. dweller in heaven, god; one of the Blest. svargin a. possessing heaven; gone to heaven, dead; m. god; one of the Blest; -îya, a. relating to heaven, celestial; leading to heaven. svargya a. leading to heaven, celestial; securing heavenly bliss; possessing heaven. svarita cs. pp. (√ svar) caused to sound etc.; m. n. Svarita accent (produced by a combined rise and fall of the voice): -tva, n. accentuation with the Svarita accent; addition. svarjit a. winning light or heaven (V.); m. kind of sacrifice (C.). svarka a. singing beautifully (V.). svarṇa n. [contracted from suvarna] gold; as a weight=one Karsha of gold; kind of red chalk (rare): -ka, n. gold; -kâra, m. goldsmith; -khandâ-ya, den. Â. become a piece of gold; -kûda, m. blue jay;N. of a king; -kûla, m. blue jay; -da, a. giving gold. svarṇadī f. celestial river, Ganges. svarṇadvīpa m. n. (=suvarna-) gold island, prob.=Sumatra; -dhurya, n. sg. gold and a beast of burden; -pu&ndot;kha, a. having a golden-feathered end (arrow); m. arrow with a golden-feathered end; -bhri&ndot; gâra, m. golden water-pot; -mûla, m. N. of a mountain. svarṇara m. lord of splendour, ep. of Agni, of the Sun, and of Soma (V.). svarṇarekhā f. gold streak (on the touchstone); N. of a fairy; -sikha, m. (golden-crested), blue jay; -sû, a. producing gold (mountain); -½âkara, m. gold mine. svartha a. travelling to fair goals, directed to worthy ends (RV.). svaru m. (V.) stake, sacrificial post; splinter of the sacrificial post (rit.). svaruci f. own will or pleasure; in. according to one's own will; a. following one's own pleasure; -rûpa, n. own form or shape; form of (g., --°ree;); word itself (±sabda or sabdasya; opp. synonyms, species); own condition, peculiarity, character, nature; oc currence, event (rare): nâmnâm --, names themselves: °ree;-or -tas, ad. in one's own form; by nature, in reality; by itself: -tâ, f. own form: in. literally, in reality,-dhârin, a. having one's own form, -bhâva, m. use of the true form (of a name); -rûpin, a. having one's own or natural form; appearing in the form of (--°ree;); embodied; -rûpa½utprekshâ, f. kind of simile; (svá)-rokis,a. self-lu minous. svarvat a. bright, celestial (V.); -vâhinî, f. celestial river, Ganges; -víd, a. winning or possessing light or heaven, celes tial (V.); -vesyâ, f. celestial courtesan, Ap saras; -vaidya, m. du. the two celestial physicians, Asvins; -sh&asharp;, RV. a. [√ sâ= √ san]=-víd; (svãr)-shâti, f. winning of light or heaven (RV.). svarya a. (â, C.; -&isharp;, V.) resounding, bellowing, roaring, whizzing, crashing (RV.); beneficial to the voice (C.). svaryāta pp. gone to heaven; dead; -yoshit, f. celestial nymph, Apsaras; -loka, m. celestial world; ep. of Mount Meru; -va dhû, f. celestial nymph, Apsaras. abhi svare lc. prp. (within call), behind (g.). a svargya a. not leading to heaven. a svargayogya a. unfit for heaven. a svarita a. not having the svarita accent: -tva, n. abst. n. kārta svaramaya a. golden and sounding piteous. ghuṣṭa svara a. with a loud voice; -½anna, n. food offered by invitation. bhā svara a. shining, radiant, bril liant. madhura svara a. uttering a sweet sound; mellifluous (speech). sa svara a. identical in sound with (--°ree;); having the same accent as (in.); ac cented: -m, ad. loudly; -svâhâ-kâra, a. accompanied with the exclamation svâhâ; -sveda, a. perspiring. sa svar ad. (RV.) secretly; without (ab.). sau svarya n. [susvara] euphony.
anubhūti svarūpācārya a writer of the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called सरस्वती-प्रक्रिया or सारस्वतप्रक्रिया, He has also written धातुपाठ and आख्यातप्रक्रिया. The grammar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India. aneka svara having many vowels or syllables in it; the same as अनेकाच् of Pāṇini; confer, compare III. 4.46 Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. aprakṛti svaratva non-retention of the original word accents; तत्र यस्य गतेरप्रकृतिस्वरत्वं तस्मादन्तेादात्वं प्राप्नोति confer, compare on VI.2.49. See the word प्रकृतिस्वरत्व. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). abhi svarita provided with a svarita or circumflex accent. a svaraka untoned; a word without an accent, as different from a word which has an accent,but which is not uttered with that accent: cf अक्रियमाणे ह्युपदेशिवद्भावे...अान्तर्यत अांदेशा अस्वरकाणामस्वरकाः स्युः M.Bh. on VII. 1.2, VII. 1. 89. eka svara possessed of one vowel,monosyllabic; a term used by Hemacandra in his grammar for the term एकाच् of Pāṇini: आद्योंश एकस्वरे confer, compare IV.1.2, which means the same as एकाचेा द्वे प्रथमस्य P.VI.1.1. Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. ekādeśa svara an accent prescribed for the single substitute,as, for instance, by rules like उदात्तस्वरितयोर्यणः स्वरितोनुदात्तस्य and the following rules P. VI.2.4, 5 and 6. aika svarya having only one principal accent (Udātta or Svarita) for the whole compound word which is made up of two or more individual words confer, compare on P. I.1.29. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). kṛt svara the same as कृदुत्तरपदप्रकृतिस्वर, the retention of its accent by the second member of a tatpuruṣa compound, if the first member is a word termed Gati or Kāraka, by the rule गतिकारकोपपदात् कृत् P.VI.2. 139; अव्ययस्वरस्य कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. on VI.2.52; confer, compare विभक्तीषत्स्वरात्कृत्स्वरः M.Bh. VI.2.52 Vārt, 6. confer, compare jāti svara the acute accent for the last vowel of a word ending with क्त of the denoting a genus; past passive participle. P. VI. 2.170. confer, compare tit svara the circumflex accent possessed by an affix marked with the mute letter त्. See तित्. tre svarya (1) use of the three accents acute, grave and circumflex at the time of the recital of the Veda; त्रयः स्वरा एव त्रैस्वर्यम्; चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनां स्वार्थॆ उपसंख्यानम् । त्रैलोक्यम् , त्रैस्यर्यम् Kas, on P. V. 1. 124. confer, compare also यद्येवं त्रैस्वर्ये न प्रकल्पते तत्र को दोषः। त्रैस्वर्येणाधीमहॆ इत्येतन्नोपपद्यते । confer, compare on P. I. 2.31. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). dvi svara possessed of two vowels,dissyllabic; न पदे द्विस्वरे नित्यम् confer, compare XVI. 17. द्विस्स्पृष्ट a term used for an upadhmaniya letter or a phonetic element resulting from a visarga followed by the letter प्， or फ़्. See उपध्मांनीय.The word is also used sometimes for the pronunciation ळ् of ड्, and ळ्ह् of ढ्. See दुःस्पृष्ट. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. nañ svarabalīyastva the superiority, or strength of the accent caused by नञ्समास which sets aside the accent caused by the case affix; विभक्तिस्वरान्नञ्स्वरो बलीयान् P. VI. 2.158 Vart. 13, confer, compare napuṃsaka svara the special accent viz. the acute accent for the first vowel for nouns in the neuter gender excepting those that end in इस्, as prescribed by नबिषयस्यानिसन्तस्य Phitsutra 11; नपुंसकस्वरो मा भूत् M.Bh. on P.VII.1.77. confer, compare nipātana svara the accent, with which the Nipatana word is expressed in the Sutra, which is said to prevail over the accent which ordinarily should be possessed by the word; स निपातनस्वरः प्रकृतिस्वरस्य बाधको भविष्यति M.Bh. on P.I.1.56 Vart. 23; confer, compare also M.Bh. on I.3.3, VI.1.123 confer, compare . et cetera, and others niyata svara (1) an affix whose accent is definitely given by an indicatory mute letter applied to it; M.Bh. on I.1.3; (2) the grave accent; a syllable with a grave accent; grave vowel; confer, compare नियतस्वरोदये R.Pr.XI.25; (3) name of a Samdhi when a visarga is changed into रेफ and then omitted and the preceding vowel is lengthened; cf ह्रस्वस्याकामनियता उभाविमौ R.Pr. IV.9; confer, compare also P. VIII.3.14 and VI.3.111. confer, compare parādisa svara a consonant belonging to the succeeding vowel in sylllabication; R.Pr.I.15. confer, compare pūrvapadaprakṛti svara retention of the original acute accent of the first member in a compound as is generally noticed in the bahuvrihi compound and in special cases in other compounds; cf बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् and the following rules P. WI. 2.1 to 63. pūrvāntasa svara belonging to the previous vowel in syllabication; e. g. a consonant at the end of a word or the first in a consonant group ( संयोग ). prakruti svara the accent the acute accent ( उदात्त ) possessed by the original word as contrasted with the accent of the afix ( प्रत्ययस्वर ) which (latter) is looked upon as more powerful; id est, that is (बहुव्रीहौ) पूर्वपदं प्रकृतिस्वरं भवति M.Bh, on II.I.24, II. 2.29 Vart. 17, See Panini Sutras VI.2.1 to 63. confer, compare pratyaya svara an accent caused by virtue of the affix which is added; यथैव हि निपातनस्वरः प्रकृतिस्वरं बाधेत एवं प्रत्ययस्वरमपि बाधेत । लतिशिष्टत्वाप्रत्ययस्वरो भविष्यति । confer, compare on P. I.I 56 Vart. 23. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). prātipadika svara the general accent of the Pratipadika viz. the acute ( उदात्त ) for the last vowel as given by the Phit sutra फिषः ( प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः; also प्रातिपदिकस्वरस्यावकाशः । अाम्रः । confer, compare on P. VI. 1.91 Vart. 7. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). bahuvrīhiprakṛti svara the accent peculiar to, or specifically mentioned in the case of the Bahuvrihi compound viz. the retention of its own accents by the first member, in spite of the general rule that a compound word has the last vowel accented acute उदात्त. id est, that is बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम्. P. VI. 2.1. The expression बहुव्रीहिस्वर in this very sense is used in the Mahabhasya confer, compare बहुव्रीहिस्वरं शास्ति समासान्तविधेः सुकृत् confer, compare on P. VI. 2.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). lit svara the acute accent for the vowel immediately preceding the affix caused by that affix being marked with the mute consonant ल्. See लित् ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. अनुदात्तत्वं क्रियतां लित्स्वर इति किमत्र कर्तव्यम् confer, compare on P. II. 4.33. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vibhākti svarapratirūpaka similar in form to a word ending in a case-affix or to a vowel. Such words are looked upon, and are treated as indeclinables शनै:, चिरेण, अस्ति, उ, ए exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others the usual expressions तिडन्तप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम् confer, compare et cetera, and others विभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाता भवन्ति confer, compare on P. VIII.3.1: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाताः । a gaṇasūtra inside the चादिगण mentioned in P.I.4.57. confer, compare vi svara characterized by a faulty or incorrect accent, which is looked upon as a fault of pronunciation. śatṛ svara the acute accent specifically stated for the vowel of the caseaffix beginning with a vowel prescribed by the rule शतुरनुमे। नद्यजादी P. VI. 1.173: et cetera, and others शतृस्वर , तुदती नुदती ... शतुरनुमो नद्यजादिरन्तांदात्तादित्वेष स्वरो यथा स्यात् confer, compare on P. VIII. 2.6. Vart 2. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). satiśiṣṭa svarabalīyastva the comparatively superior strength of a subsequent accent which prevails by the removal of the accent obtaining before in the process of the formation of a word; cf VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9. See सतिशिष्ट . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. sapta svara lit, the seven accents; the term refers to the seven accents formed of the subdivisions of the three main Vedic accents उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित viz उदात्त, उदात्ततर, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितोदात्त,and एकश्रुति: cf त एते तन्त्रे तरनिर्देशे सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति ( उदात: । उदात्ततरः । अनुदात्तः ! अनुदात्ततरः । स्वरित: । स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः । एकश्रुतिः सप्तम: ॥ M. Bh on P. I. 2. 33. It is possible that these seven accents which were turned into the seven notes of the chantings of the samans developed into the seven musical notes which have traditionally come down to the present day known as सा रे ग म प ध नी; उदात्ते निषादगान्धारौ अनुदात्ते ऋषभधैवतौ । स्वरितप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः। confer, compare Siksa. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions the seven accents differently; Pāṇini. उदात्तादयः परे सप्त । यथा-अभिनिहितक्षैप्र-प्राशश्लिष्ट-तैरोव्यञ्जन-तैरोविराम-पादवृत्तताथाभाव्याः Uvvata on V.Pr.I.l l4. confer, compare sa svara connected with a vowel; the term is used in connection with a consonant as connected with a vowel for purposes of syllabication, the vowel being either the previous one or the succeeding one. literally svara (l) vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. svarapratirūpaka a word or Pratipadika which is exactly similar to a single vowel such as उ or अा or . ए and the like; such words are to be looked upon as Avyayas and the case-affixes after them are dropped when they are us edition स्वरप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम्. confer, compare svarabhakti a vowel part; appearance of a consonant as a vowel; the character of a vowel borne by a consonant. Many times a semivowel which consists of one letter has to be divided especially for purposes of metre, as also for accentuation into two letters or rather, has to be turned into two letters by inserting a vowel before it or after it, for instance य् is to be turned into इय् e. g, in त्रियम्बकं यजामहे, while र् or रेफ is to be turned into र् ऋ as for instance in कर्हि चित् which is to be uttered as कर् ऋ हृि चित्. This prefixing or suffixing of a vowel is called स्वरभक्तिः स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं द्राघीयसी सार्धमात्रेतरे च | अधोनान्या ( confer, compare I. 32.35; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also न संयोगं स्वरभाक्तिर्विहृान्ति confer, compare VI. 35; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also रेफात् खरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा: confer, compare VI. 46. In Panini's grammar, however, the word अज्भाक्त, which means the same is used for स्वरभक्ति; cf ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् | अाद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ ; रेफौ तयोरेकां मात्रा । अभितेाज्भक्तेरपरा। S. K. on VI. 1.101. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) svarabhinna differing in the matter of accent; words so differing are Practically looked upon as one and the same; स्वरभिन्नानां यस्योत्तरस्वरविधिस्तस्येंकशेषो वक्यव्य: | अक्षश्च अक्षश्च अक्षौ । M. Bh on I. 2. 64 Vart. 24, For technical purposes, they are sometimes looked upon as different; confer, compare स्वरभिन्नस्य च प्राप्नुवन् विधिरनित्यः । Par. Sek. Pari. 49. confer, compare svarabhed difference in accents. See स्वराभिन्न . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. svaravidhi a rule prescribing an accent or a modification of accent. svaravirāma a pause between two vowels in one and the same word as in तितउ or पउग or in two different words coming close by the visarga or य् between the two being elided, as for instance in देवा इह. svaravivṛtti ( 1 ) the same as स्वरविराम which see ; ( 2 ) a short treatise on Vedic accents written by a modern Vedic scholar and grammrian named Indradattopadhyaya. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. svarasaṃdhi euphonic combination of two vowels, a detailed description of which . forms a small topic in the Prtisakhya and grammar works; wide chapters II. 1-26; T Pr. chapters 9 and 10 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III and अच्सन्धिप्रकणम् in the Siddhantakaumudi. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. svarasarvanāma a common accent; the accent which is supposed to be . present in a word when none of the three accents are definite. एकश्रुतिः स्वरसर्वनाम यथा नपुंसकं लिङ्गसर्वनाम confer, compare on P. VI. 4.174. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). svarasahitoccāraṇa recital of the veda Samhita text with intonation or accents, as contrasted with एकश्रुत्युच्चारण which is specially prescribed in a few cases; tonal system showing distinction between words of different senses although pronounced alike, in the Samhita text. नतेन and न तेन. exempli gratia, for example svarārtha for purposes of accent, meant for accent; अवश्यं चैषा परिभाषा ( असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे ) आश्रयितव्या स्वरार्थम् confer, compare on P. I. 1.57. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). svarita the circumflex accent, the accent between the acute (.उदात्त) and the grave ( अनुदात्त); for details see स्वर. svaritakaraṇa marking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been mark As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; edition प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2. confer, compare svaritapratijñā the conventional dictum that a particular rule or part of a rule, is marked with the accent स्वरित which enables the grammarians to decide that that rule or that part of a rule is to occur in each of the subsequent Sutras, the limit of continuation being ascertained from convention. It is possible that Panini in his original recital of the Astadhyayi recited the words in the rules with the necessary accents; probably he recited every word, which was not to proceed further, with one acute or with one circumflex vowel, while, the words which were to proceed to the next rule or rules, were marked with an actual circumflex accent ( स्वरित ), or with a neutralization of the acute and the grave accents (स्वरितत्व), that is, probably without accents or by एकश्रुति or by प्रचय; cf स्वरितेनाधिकार: P. I.3.II and the Mahabhasya thereon. svaritet marked with a mute circumflex vowel; the term is used in connection with roots in the Dhatupatha which are said to have been so marked for the purpose of indicating that they are to take personal endings of both the padas; स्वरितञित: कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P. I.3.72. confer, compare svarūpagrahaṇa mention by the verbal form, and not by the description of characteristics; e. g. मृजेर्वृद्धिः P VII. 2.114; सृजिदृशेIर्झल्यमाकिति VI. l. 58; धातोः स्वरूपग्रहणे तत्प्रत्यये कार्यविज्ञानम् M.Bh. on P.VI.1.58. confer, compare svarūpayogyatā deserving by virtue of one's own form. svarūpavidhi an operation prescribed for the verbal form of the word and not for such words as possess the meaning of the word; .cf अस्ति कश्चित्पुरुषारम्भः। क: | स्वरूपविधिर्नाम | हन्तेरात्मनेपदमुच्यमानं हृन्तेरेत्र स्यादूधेर्न स्यात् | M.Bh. on P.I.1.56 Vart. 1. In grammar there is a general dictum that in connection with words of a Sutra, unless they are technical terms, the word-forms are to be understood, and not those shown by the sense of the word: स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा P. I.1.68. This rule has some exceptions; for example in the rule नदीभिश्च P.II.1.20 the various rivers are to be understood and not the word नदी. confer, compare hal svaraprāpti a possibility of the application of an accent to the consonant by the literal interpretation of rules prescribing an accent for the first or the last letter of a word, to prevent which a ruling is laid down that a consonant is not to be accented; हल्स्वरप्राप्तौ व्यञ्जनमविद्यमानवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 80. confer, compare akṣarasamāmnāya alphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ，ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । confer, compare Ahnika.2-end. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). akṣarāṅga forming a part of a syllable just as the anusvāra ( nasal utterance ) or svarabhakti (vowelpart) which forms a part of the preceding syllable. अनुस्वारो व्यञ्जनं चाक्षराङ्गम् confer, compare I.22, also स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.32. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) anudātta non-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless. अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः id est, that is उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works; confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य confer, compare on I.2.29,30. C Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ feminine. III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ). Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) akhyātaprakriyā a work dealing with verbs, written by Anubhūtisvarūpācārya on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa. it (1) a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, 1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; ( Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । confer, compare P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, et cetera, and others P.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compare P.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past confer, compare affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; participle. P.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्; confer, compare P.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compare VII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist, confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past confer, compare participle. P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compare P.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel; confer, compare P.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed; confer, compare P.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compare P I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the confer, compare affix ई (ङीप्) feminine. P.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compare P.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel. confer, compare P.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि, confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217，ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compare P.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the confer, compare affix ई ( ङीप् ) feminine. P.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 exempli gratia, for example (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: et cetera, and others शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34. confer, compare karaviṇī or कर्विणी name of a svarabhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel लृ, noticed in the case of the consonant ल् when followed by the sibilant ह्; करेणू रहयोर्योगे कर्विणी लहकारयोः । हरिणी रशसानां च हारिता लशकारयोः ॥ करेणुः बर् हिः । कर्विणी भलहाः Com. on confer, compare XXI. 15. See स्वरभक्ति. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. kariṇī name of a svarabhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel ऋ noticed in the case of the consonant र्. when it is followed by ह् e. g. बर् हिः करिणी is named करेणु also. karviṇī A kind of svarabhakti. See करविणी. kurviṇī a kind of svarabhakti; see कर्विणी. gopīcandra known also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the grammatical treatises of the Samksipatasara or Jaumāra school of Vyakarana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षितसारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D. ṅañ a short term or Pratyahara standing for the letters ङ्, ण्, न् , झ् , and भू , casually mentioned in the Mahabhasya; एतदप्यस्तु ञकारेण ङञो ह्र्स्वादचि ङञुण्नित्यमिति । confer, compare on Mahesvara Sutras 8, 9. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). carcā (1) splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is generalty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separately the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a repeated word; confer, compare इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on confer, compare III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115. confer, compare cātuḥsvārya the view that there are four accents-the udatta, the anudatta, the svarita and the pracaya held by the Khandikya and the Aukhiya Schools. jātya name of a variety of the Svarita or circumflex accent; the original svarita accent as contrasted with the svarita for the grave which follows upon an acute as prescribed by P. in VIII. 4.67, and which is found in the words इन्द्रः, होता The jatya svarita is noticed in the words स्वः, क्व, न्यक्, कन्या et cetera, and others ; . et cetera, and others उदात्तपूर्वं स्वरितमनुदात्तं पदेक्षरम्। अतोन्यत् स्वरितं स्वारं जात्यमाचक्षते पदे॥ जात्या स्वभावेनैव उदात्तानुदात्तसंगतिं विना जातो जात्यः । तं जात्यमाचक्षतै व्याडिप्रभृयः confer, compare and Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 4. commentary tīvratara extreme sharpness of the nasalization at the time of pronouncing the anusvara and the fifth letters recommended by Saityayana.e. g. अग्नीररप्सुषदः, वञ्चते परिवञ्चते. confer, compare XVII. 1. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. tairovyañjana a kind of svarita or circumflex-accented vowel which follows an acute-accented vowel, with the intervention of a consonant between the acute accented vowel and the circumflex vowel which (vowel) originally was grave. e. g. इडे, रन्ते, हव्ये, काम्ये; here the vowel ए is तैरोव्यञ्जनस्वरित; स्वरो व्यञ्जनयुतस्तैरोव्यञ्जनः, confer, compare I. 117. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. dīpti explained as स्फूर्ति or throbbing in utterance. Out of the seven svaras or yamas क्रुष्ट, प्रथम, द्वितीय, तृतीय, चतुर्थ, मन्द्र and अतिस्वार्य, the throbbing ( दीप्ति ) of the latter and latter tone leads to the perception of the former and former one: तेषां दीप्तिजोपलब्धि: confer, compare XXIII. 15. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. dhātupārāyaṇa a grammatical treatise dealing with roots written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar work called Rasavati,which itself was a thoroughly revised and enlarged edition of the रसवती a commentary written by Kramadisvara on his own grammar named संक्षिप्तसार.Jumaranandin is believed to have been a Jain writer who lived in the fifteenth century A.D. dhātumālā a work on roots in verseform attributed to a grammarian named Isvarakanta. dhve Personal-ending of the second. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति person. ; et cetera, and others P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65. confer, compare nāsikāsthāna a place in the nose where a nasal letter such as ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न् or म् and anusvara get a tinge of nasalization while passing through it. The yama letters e.g the nasal क्, ख् ,ग् , घ् get nasalization in the utterance of the words पलिक्किनः, चख्ख्नतुः, अग्ग्निः, घ्घ्नन्ति; यमो नाम वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P. VIII. 2. 1. confer, compare also यमानुस्वारनासिक्यानां नासिके confer, compare I. 74, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. 12. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. paripanna a kind of Samdhi or coalescence characterized by the change of the consonant म् into an anusvara, as by मोनुस्वारः P. VIII. 3.23, before a sibilant or before रेफ; रेफोष्मणोरुदययोर्मकारः अनुस्वारं तत् परिपन्नमाहुः R.Pr.IV.5; confer, compare also सम्राट्शब्द: परिसंपन्नापवाद: R.Pr.IV.7. confer, compare prakampa depression of the voice after raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view to show the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly, in spite of the fact that such a depression is generally looked upon as a.fault; असन्दिग्धान् स्वरान् ब्रूयादविकृष्टानकाम्पितान् confer, compare III.18 as also जात्योभिानिहितश्चैव क्षैप्रः प्रश्लिष्ट एव च । एते स्वराः प्रकम्पन्ते यत्रोच्चस्वरितोदयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 19. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) pravaṇa circumflex accent; possessed of svarita accent; सुर्वः प्रवण इत्येके । प्रकर्षेण वन्येत व्युत्क्षिप्यते इति प्रवणः स्वरितस्वरः confer, compare I. 47; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. also प्रवणे यष्टव्यम् confer, compare on VI. 2.33. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). baś short term or pratyahara for the consonants from ब to mute श् in the Mahesvara sutra the consonants ब्, ग्, ड् and द्. id est, that is bindu anusvara, letter pronounced only through the nose; a dot to indicate the nasal phonetic element shown in writing or sometimes after that letter or vowel, after which it is uttered; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति ।। Kat. I.1.19. confer, compare brahmarāśi the sacred Sanskrit alphabet given in the fourteen sutras of Mahesvara, named Aksarasamamnaya which is called ब्रह्मराशि as it contains the basic letters of शब्द which is Brahma according to Grammarians; सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्यसमाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः confer, compare Ahnika 2 end; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः V. Pr.VIII. 25. confer, compare bha (1) the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175. taddhita affix. yay short term (प्रत्याहार) for sonants beginning with य् ( in हयवरट्) and ending before the ; mute letter य् ( in कपय् ) all consonants except! श्, ष्, स्, and ह्; id est, that is अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः P.VIII 4. 58 by which an anusvara is changed into a cognate letter of the following which is a letter included in यय्. confer, compare yas affix य with mute स् to indicate the application of the term पद् to the preceding base as a consequence of which the final म् of the words कम् and शम्, after which यस् is prescribed, gets changed into anusvara e. g. कंयु:, दंयु:: cf P.W.2.138. taddhita affix. yogavāha a technical term used for phonetic elements or letters which are mentioned in the alphabet of Panini, viz., the Mahesvara sutras in contrast with the term अयोगवाह which is used by grammarians for the phonetic elements अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others which are not mention ,See अयोगवाह; edition also M. Bh on Siva sutra 5. confer, compare ṛ word-form of the ajbhakti or svarabhakti ( a term used in the ancient Prātiśākhya works), where ऋ is looked upon as the consonant र् surrounded by, or followed by the nature of a vowel. ऋ as a vowel is possessed of one mātrā of which in svarabhakti, the consonant र् possesses half and the svarabhakti possesses half: cf रेफात् स्वरोपहिताह्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभाक्तिरूत्तरा VI.13. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) varṇasamāmnāya a collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters vowels अ, इ id est, that is , consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); et cetera, and others त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः confer, compare VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. vṛttisamavāya serial arrangement of letters in a specific way ( as for instance in the Mahesvara Sutras) for the sake of grammatical functions; वृत्तिसमवायार्थं उपदेशः | वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः। समवायॊ वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण सांनवेशः confer, compare on Ahnika I. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). veda language of the Vedic Literature as contrasted with the term लॊकः; नैव लोके न च वेदे अकारो विवृतोस्ति confer, compare on Mahesvara Sutra; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also रक्षार्थं वेदानामध्येयं व्याकरणम् confer, compare Ahnika 1. The term वैदिक referring to words found in Vedic language is also frequently used in the Mahabhasya. Panini, however, has used the term छन्दस्, मन्त्र and निगम, and not वेद, out of which the first term छन्दस् is often used; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). बहुलं छन्दसि P. II. 4.39, 76: III, 2.88; V. 2.122; or छन्दसि च P. V. 1.67, V. 4.142, VI. 3.126. VI. l.34, VII. 1.8, confer, compare et cetera, and others vaivṛtta name given to the svarita or circumflex accent on the vowel following upon a vowel accented acute, when there is a vivrtti or pause between the two vowels; e.g, य इन्द्रः; cf वैवृत्ततैरोव्यञ्जनौ क्षैप्राभिनिहितौ च तान् | III. 10. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) vyākaraṇasudhānighi a gloss on the Sutras of Panini written by Visvesvara. śuddhāśubodhasūtrārthavyākaraṇa a gloss on the Asubodha-grammar, written by a grammarian named Ramesvara. śaityāyana an ancient Grammarian and Vedic scholar who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya for recommending a sharp and distinct nasalisation of the anusvara and the fifth class-consonants; तत्रितरमानुनासिक्यमनुस्वारोत्तमेषु इति शैत्यायन: confer, compare XVII. 1. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. sārasvata name of a grammar work which was once very popular on account of its brevity, believed to have been written in the sutra form by an ancient grammarian named Narendra who is said to have composed 700 sutras under the inspiration of Sarasvati.The exposition of these Sutras by a reputed grammarian named Anubhutisvarupacarya who possibly flourished in the thirteenth century A. D., is known by the name सारस्वतप्रक्रिया which has remained as a text book on grammar to the present day in some parts of India. This प्रक्रिया is popularly known as सारस्वतव्याकरण. The technical terms in this grammar are the current popular ones. sārasvataprakriyā the popular name given to the gloss by Anubhutisvarupacarya on Narendra's grammar rules. See सारस्वत . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. hū the last of the spirant consonants, | which is a glottal, voiced letter called also ऊष्म or spirant of a partial contact, i. e. possessed of the properties कण्ठय, नादानुप्रदान, ऊष्म and ईषत्स्पृष्टत्व. This letter has been given twice in the Paninian alphabet, viz. the Mahesvara Sutras, and the Bhasyakara has given the purpose of it, viz. the technical utility of being included among soft consonants along with semi-vowels, nasals and the fifth, the fourth, and the third class-consonants (हश् अश् ),as also among the hard consonants along with the fourth and the third class-letters and spirants ( झ्लू, ). The second letter हू in हल् appears, however, to have only a technical utility,as the purpose of its place there among spirants is served by the jihvamuliya and the Upadhmaniya letters which are,in fact, the velar and the labial spirants respectively, besides the other three शू, षू and सू .The Rk Pratisakhya calls ह as a chest sound. For details, see Mahabhasya on the Siva Sutra हयवरट् Varttikas 1, 2 and 3. et cetera, and others haṃstapadā name given to a kind of svarabhakti,when the consonant. र, followed by ष्, is read as र + ष्+ ह् इकार See ह् as also ह. hariṇi name of a kind of svarabhakti when r ( र् ) followed by s ( श् ) and s ( स् ) is read as र + इ +श् and र + इ +स् respectively.