akathita not mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. akāra the letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे confer, compare et cetera, and others I. 4. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. akālaka (1) not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the confer, compare as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् । Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. ativyāpti the same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see . Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. adravyavācin not expressive of any substance which forms a place of residence (of qualities and actions); तथा व्याकरणे विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि ( P. II.4.13 ); इत्यद्रव्यवाचीति गम्यते । M.Bh. on II.1.1. confer, compare abhayanandin a reputed jain Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote an extensive gloss on the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण. The gloss is known as जैनेन्द्रव्याकरणमहावृत्ति of which वृहज्जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण appears to be another name. abhividhi inclusive extension to a particular limit; inclusive limit आङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योः P.II.1.13, अङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योरिति वक्तव्यम् confer, compare on I.4.89; (2) full or complete extension Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). अभिविधौ भाव इनुण् । अभिविधिरभिव्याप्तिः । सांराविणं वर्तते Kāś on P. III. 3.44. confer, compare avadhi limit,which is either exclusive or inclusive of the particular rule or word which characterizes it: सर्वश्च हल् तं तमवधिं प्रति अन्त्यो भवति confer, compare on I.3.3. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). avaśiṣṭaliṅga (v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग) a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes id est, that is potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188). id est, that is ānupūrvī serial order, successive order of grammatical operations or the rules prescribing them as they occur; अानुपूर्व्या सिद्धमेतत् M.Bh. on V.3.5; confer, compare also ययैव चानुपूर्व्या अर्थानां प्रादुर्भावस्तयैव शब्दानामपि । तद्वत् कार्यैरपि भवितव्यम् M.Bh. on. P.I.1.57. confer, compare ānupūrvya successive order, as prescribed by tradition or by the writer; ऋतुनक्षत्राणामानुपूर्व्येण समानाक्षराणां पूर्वनिपातः । शिशिरवसन्तौ उदगयनस्थौ । कृत्तिकारोहिण्यः । M.Bh. II.2.34 confer, compare 3;also वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविट्शूद्राः M.Bh. on II.2.34 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6: Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). पदानुपूर्व्येण प्रश्लिष्टान् संधीन् कुर्यात् । इन्द्र अा इहि । आदौ इन्द्र आ इत्येतयोः; न तु अा इहि इत्येतयाः confer, compare II.2; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also आनुपूर्व्यात् सिद्धम् Sīra. Pari. 6. confer, compare īyas tad-affix ईयसुन् , showing superiority or excellence of one individual over another in respect of a quality, added to a substantive expresive of quality; when the substantive ends in the affix तृ, that affix तृ is removed: पटीयान्, लघीयान्, गरीयान्, दोहीयसी (धेनुः) exempli gratia, for example P.V.3.57-64. confer, compare upalakṣaṇa implication, indication: a thing indicatory of another thing. The term is very frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; Kāśikā on भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये P.I.3.68 भयग्रहणमुपलक्षणार्थं विस्मयोपि तत एव । as also मन्त्रग्रहणं तु च्छन्दस उपलक्षणार्थम् Kāś. on II.4.80. The verbal forms of लक्ष् and उपलक्ष् as also the words लक्षयितुम्, लक्षणीय, लक्षित confer, compare possess the sense of 'expressing the meaning not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'. et cetera, and others kartṛ agent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice ( confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, ( confer, compare P.II.3.65). confer, compare kartṛyak the affix य of the passive voice where the object functions as the subject: e. g. यक् in लूयते केदारः स्वयमेव; अचः कर्तृयकि P.VI. 1.95 and the Kāśikā thereon. confer, compare koṇḍabhaṭṭa a reputed grammarian who wrote an extensive explanatory gloss by name Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa on the Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikā of Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita. Another work Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra. which is in a way an abridgment of the Bhūṣaṇa, was also written by him. Koṇḍabhaṭṭa lived in the beginning of the l7th century. He was the son of Raṅgojī and nephew of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita. He was one of the few writers on the Arthavicāra in the Vyākaraṇaśāstra and his Bhūṣaṇasāra ranks next to the Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Besides the Bhūṣaṇa and Bhūṣaṇasāra, Koṇḍabhaṭṭa wrote two independent works viz. Vaiyākaraṇsiddhāntadīpika and Sphoṭavāda. ktānta a noun base ending in the kṛt affix क्त; past passive participle; क्षेपे सप्तम्यन्तं क्तान्तेन सह समस्यते । अवतप्तेनकुलस्थितं त एतत् confer, compare on II.2. 47. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). gūḍhārthadīpinī a commentary ( वृत्ति ) on the sutras of Panini by Sadasiva Misra who lived in the seventeenth century. ṅīṣ afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः feminine. P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc confer, compare इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' exempli gratia, for example P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65. confer, compare carkarītavṛtta a form of the frequentative or intensive. अापनीफणत् , चोष्कूयमाणः exempli gratia, for example अपनीफणदिति फणतेश्चर्करीतवृत्तम् । confer, compare II. 28; चोष्कूयमाण इति चोष्कूयतेश्चर्करीतवृत्तम् Nir.VI.22. See the word चर्करीत. Nirukta of Yāska. ciṇ substitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् in the active voice before the affix त of the third et cetera, and others person. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66. singular. cekīyita the sign य ( यङ् of Panini ) of the frequentative or intensive. The word is mostly used in the Katantra Grammar works धातोर्यशब्दश्चेक्रीयितं क्रियासमभिहारे, Kat. III. 2. 14. The word चेक्रीयित is used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of यङन्त where Kaiyata remarks थडः पूर्वाचार्यसंज्ञा चेकीयितमिति confer, compare प्रदीप on M.Bh. on P. IV.1.78 Vartika. The word चेकीयितान्त means यङन्त in Panini’s terminology meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense of intensity. The word चर्करीतान्त is used for the frequentative bases in which य, the sign of the frequentative, is omitt confer, compare See चर्करीत। edition ṭhak a very common affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is add taddhita affix. ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, edition P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना confer, compare in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; et cetera, and others P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ confer, compare ; et cetera, and others P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त confer, compare , in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), et cetera, and others P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण confer, compare in the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; et cetera, and others P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The confer, compare affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' taddhita affix. ; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, et cetera, and others P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general confer, compare affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, taddhita affix. and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; et cetera, and others P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; ( confer, compare आकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The confer, compare affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases. feminine. dravyavacana expressive of substance as their sense as opposed to गुणवचन; उभयवचना ह्येते शुक्लादयः द्रव्यं चाहुर्गुणं च। confer, compare on P. V.1.119. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). dhātu a root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; et cetera, and others ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् exempli gratia, for example P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, confer, compare अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; exempli gratia, for example P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा confer, compare शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) confer, compare गोप्ता, गेीपिता, exempli gratia, for example P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past confer, compare passive voice. participle. क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, exempli gratia, for example P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, confer, compare अगमत् exempli gratia, for example P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past confer, compare passive voice. participle. लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् confer, compare on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona. confer, compare dhāraṇa (1) suppression of a consonant, out of two successive consonants which is looked upon as a fault of recital; ह्वयामि when recited as वयामि; e exempli gratia, for example धारणमनुपलब्धिः Uvvata on R.Pr.XIV. 6; (2) repetition of a consonant which is also a fault; feminine. ज्ज्योतिष्कृत् for ज्योतिष्कृत्: exempli gratia, for example Uvvata on XIV.6; confer, compare also धारयन्त; परक्रमं confer, compare explained by Uvvata as सान्तस्थस्य संयोगस्य आदौ रक्तं धारयन्तो विलम्बमानाः परक्रमं कुर्वन्ति where धारयन्तः means 'lengthening’ or 'prolonging' et cetera, and others R.Pr. on XIV.23; (3) the peculiar position of the mouth (मुखसंधारणम् ) by which a double consonant is recited as a single one, confer, compare द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत् ( एकप्रयत्ननिर्वर्त्य ) धारणात् confer, compare व्यात्तम् , कुक्कुटः, exempli gratia, for example V.Pr. IV.144. confer, compare nipāta a particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elid Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works; edition confer, compare I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Nirukta of Yāska. XII. 8 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; et cetera, and others अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । confer, compare I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; Nirukta of Yāska. निपातः पादपूरणः confer, compare XII. 8, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII. 50, ( Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answer commentary Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; edition निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconcil confer, compare This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicat edition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206. edition nirvartaka (1) productive, as opposed to expressive; किं पुनरिदं निर्वर्तकम् । अन्तरतमा अनेन निर्वर्त्यन्ते । अहोस्वित्प्रतिपादकम् । अन्येन निर्वृत्तानामनेन प्रतिपत्तिः । M.Bh. on P.I.1.50 Vart. 1; (2) productive of activity; confer, compare साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् confer, compare on I.4.23. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). nīk augment नी affixed to the reduplicative syllables of the roots फण्, वञ्च् , स्रंस,ध्वंस्, भ्रंस् कस्, पत्, पद् and स्कन्द् in the intensive; e. g. अापनीफणत्, वनीवच्यते et cetera, and others P. VII. 4.65 and 84. confer, compare nuk augment न् (l) affixed to the words अन्तर्वत् and पतिवत् before the feminine affix ङीप् e. g. अन्तर्वत्नी, पतिवत्नी, P. IV. 1.32; (2) affixed to the root ली before the causal affix णिच् , e. g. विलीनयति, confer, compare P. VII. 3.39; (3) affixed to the reduplicative syllable of roots ending in a nasal consonant and having the penultimate अ as also of the roots जप्, जभ् , दह् , दश्, भञ्ज्, पश्, चर्, and फल् in the intensive; e. g. जङ्गम्यते, तन्तन्यते, यंयमीति, जङ्गमीति, जञ्जप्यते, दन्दह्यते, दन्दशीति. चञ्चूर्यते, पम्फु लीति confer, compare P. VII 4.85, 86, 87. confer, compare pada a word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' ( confer, compare III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and confer, compare affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु taddhita affix. as also before the et cetera, and others affixes मत्, वत् taddhita affix. which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; et cetera, and others स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् confer, compare on P. I. 2. 64 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. 2; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा confer, compare on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् confer, compare , (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others , (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words et cetera, and others verbs like एधते, वर्धते, id est, that is Verbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words. et cetera, and others parasmaipada a term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others ; et cetera, and others परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः. confer, compare paśyantī name of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । confer, compare on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. commentary also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । confer, compare on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. Ahnika 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). pāṇinisūtravṛtti a gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by in his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known. Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti puṣkaraṇa a popular term used for the treatise on grammar by an ancient grammarian Apisali. अापिशलं पुष्करणम् Kas on P. IV. 3. 15. It was called Puskarana probably because it was very extensive and widely read before Panini. For the reading दुष्करण for पुष्करण, and other details see Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 132-133, D. E. Society's edition. confer, compare pratiloma regressive; a kind of Sandhi or euphonic combination, in which the consonant precedes and the vowel comes after it; e. g. हव्यवाडग्निः; literally प्रतिलोमसंधिषु व्यञ्जनानि पूर्वाणि स्वरा उत्तरे; Uvvata on confer, compare I. 4. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) pratihāra excessive contact with the sound-producing organ which is looked upon as a fault; वर्गेषु जिह्वाप्रथनं चतुर्षु ग्रासो मुख्ये प्रतिहारश्चतुर्थे । चतुर्थे वर्गे ( तवर्गे ) प्रतिहारः अतिप्रयत्नो नाम दोषो भवति । Uvvata on confer, compare XIV.7. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) praiṣādi the senses प्रैष 'order to do', अतिसर्ग 'permission to do' and प्राप्तकालता 'fitness of time', as possessed by the potential passive participles; cf विधीयन्ते प्रैषादिषु लोडादयः on P. III. 1.26. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). balādi (1) a class of words headed by the word बल, to which the affix य is added in the four senses given by Panini in IV.2.67-70. e. g. बल्यः कुल्यम्, तुल्यम् , वन्यम् taddhita affix. cf Kas, on P.IV.2.80; (2) a class of words headed by बल which take the possessive et cetera, and others affix मत् optionally with the regular affix इन् ; e. g. बलवान् , बली; cf taddhita affix. on P. V. 2.136. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. bhāvavacana (1) expressive of भाव or the completed verbal activity; the word भाव itself, as also कृती, राग, and others; (2) having for their subject a verbal derivative in the form of the verbal activity. See भावकर्तृक. exempli gratia, for example bhūmādi the limited senses भूमन् (plurality) and others in which भतुप् and other possessive taddhita affixes should take place, and not in the general sense of the 'presence at one place' as also 'the possession by some one individual;' भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने । संसर्गेस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare on V. 2.94. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). matup affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly express taddhita affix. The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , edition et cetera, and others तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other confer, compare affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस ( taddhita affix. रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned confer, compare which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140). Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. manoramā (1) the popular name given to the commentary प्रौढमनेारमा on the Siddhāntakaumudī of भट्टोजीदीक्षित by the author himself the commentary is a scholarly one and very extensive; and its first portion only upto the end of Kāraka is generally read in the Sanskrit Pāṭhaśālās;(2) name of a commentary on the Madhyasiddhāntakaumudī by Rāmasarman; (3) name given to a treatise discussing roots given in the Kātantra Grammar written by रमानाथशर्मा in the sixteenth century. The work is called कातन्त्रधातुवृत्ति also. y (1) the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; confer, compare चेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् exempli gratia, for example : et cetera, and others अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. confer, compare : cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) et cetera, and others affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात taddhita affix. , as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others et cetera, and others P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल confer, compare e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् e et cetera, and others P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika feminine. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; . taddhita affix. . et cetera, and others P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, confer, compare : cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) et cetera, and others affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; taddhita affix. P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 confer, compare and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) et cetera, and others शाख्यः, मुख्य:, exempli gratia, for example : et cetera, and others P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय confer, compare et cetera, and others कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubl confer, compare e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. edition P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs. confer, compare liṅgānuśāsana science of genders; a short comprehensive old treatise on the gender of words attributed to Pāņini as its author. Other works with the same designation are attributed to वामन, दुर्गोत्तम and others. literally vacana (1) statement; an authoritative statement made by the authors of the Sutras and the Varttikas as also of the Mahabhasya; literally अस्ति ह्यन्यदेतस्य वचने प्रयोजनम् confer, compare on Siva Sutra 1 Vart. 1 The word is also used predicatively in the sense of वक्तव्यम् by the Varttikakara; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ऌति ऌ वावचनम् , ऋति ऋ वावचनम् ; (2) number, such as एकवचन, द्विवचन, बहुवचन confer, compare ; et cetera, and others वचनमेकत्वद्वित्वबहुत्वानि confer, compare on P.I.2.51 ; cf लुपि युक्तिवद् व्यक्तिवचने | लुकि अभिधेयवल्लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति। लवणः सूपः। लवणा यवागू:। M.Bh.on P.I. 2.57; (3) expressive word; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. गुणवचनब्राह्मणादिभ्यः कर्मणि च P. V.1.124 where the Kasika explains the word गुणवचन as गुणमुक्तवन्तो गुणवचनाः; confer, compare also the terms गुणवचन, जातिवचन, क्रियावचन confer, compare as classes of words; et cetera, and others also अभिज्ञावचने लृट् P.III.2.112; (4) that which is uttered; confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिक:। मुखसहिता नासिका मुखनासिका । तया य उच्चार्यते असौ वर्ण: confer, compare on P. I.1.8. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. vatī the posssssive affix वत् ( मतुप् ) with ई added; feminine. विश्वदेव्यसोमौ वत्याम् ( दीर्धमापद्येते ) V.Pr.III.117. confer, compare vara or वरच् krt affix वर applied to the roots स्था, ईश्, भास्, पिस् and कस्,as also to the intensive base of या in the sense of a habituated agent; e. g. स्थावर, ईश्वर, यायावर et cetera, and others स्थेशभासपिसकसो वरच् ) यश्च यडः P. III. 2. 175, 176. confer, compare vācaka expressive, as contrasted with द्योतक्र, व्यञ्जक, सूचक and भेदक which ७ mean suggestive; the term is used in connection with words which directly convey their sense by denotation, as opposed to words which convey indirectly the sense or suggest it as the prefixes or Nipatas do. vārttikasiddhānta categorical conclusive statements made by the Varttikakara many of which were cited later on as Paribhasas by later writers For details see pp. 212220 Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahbhasya, D. E. Society's edition. vīpsā complete application to all the different parts; comprehensive inclusion of every part or unit: desire to occupy completely: व्याप्तिविशेषविषया प्रयोक्तुरिच्छा वीप्सिा नानावा| चिनामधिकरणानां क्रियागुणाभ्यां युगपत्प्रयोक्तुर्व्याप्तुर्व्याप्तुमिच्छा नानाभूतार्थवाचिनां शब्दानां यान्यधिकरणानि वाच्यानि तेषां क्रियागुणाभ्यां युगपत्प्रयोक्तुमिच्छा वीप्सा; confer, compare ग्रामो ग्रामो रमणीयः । Kāś on P.VIII.1.4. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.VIII.1.1 and 4. exempli gratia, for example vṛtti (1) treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare confer, compare on P. I.4. 109, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ll ; ( 5 ) nature Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन confer, compare II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; Nirukta of Yāska. परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar. confer, compare vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodha import of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया. vyapadeśivadvacana statement of Vyapadesivadbhava : तत्र व्यपदेशिवद्वचनम् -एकाचो द्वे प्रथमार्थं षत्वे चादेशसंप्रत्ययार्थम् । confer, compare on VIII.3.59 Vart. 7. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vyākaraṇamahābhāṣyagūḍhārthadīpinī a brief commentary on the Mahabhasya, written by Sadasiva, son of Nilakantha and pupil of Kamalakara Diksita. The gloss confines itself to the explanations of obscure and difficult passages in the Mahabhasya and criticizes Kaiyata's explanations. vyāpti occupation; presence comprehensive nature; cf व्याप्तिमत्वात्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.2, where व्याप्ति refers to the permanent presence of the word in the minds of the speaker and the hearer, the word शब्द referring to the नित्यशब्द or स्फोट. vyāptinyāya the general method of taking a comprehensive sense instead of a restricted one in places of doubt; व्याप्तिन्यायाद्वा confer, compare on P. III. 2. 168. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. ṣyaṅ affix य (taking Samprasarana change i e. ई before the words पुत्र and पति and बन्धु in the Bahuvrihi compound) added, instead of the affix अण् or इञ्, in the sense of offspring, (l) to words having a long ( गुरु ) vowel for their penultimate , only in the formation of feminine bases, taddhita affix. कारीषगन्ध्या कौमुद्गन्ध्या, वाराह्या; कारीषगन्धीपुत्रः, कारीषगन्धीपति:, कारीषगन्धबिन्धुः ( Bah. exempli gratia, for example ): cf P.IV.1.78; (2) to words expressive of family names like पुणिक, मुखर compound as also to the words क्रौडि, लाडि, व्याडि आपिशलि et cetera, and others and optionally to the words दैवयज्ञि and others in the formation of feminine bases; e. g. पौणिक्या, मौखर्या, क्रौड्या, व्याड्या, अापिशल्या et cetera, and others : et cetera, and others P. IV.1.79, 80, 81. confer, compare sakarmaka a root which, by virtue of the nature of its meaning verbal activity, requires or expects an object which is covered by the activity; a transitive root. In the passive voice of these roots the object is expressed by the verbal termination and hence it is put in the nominative case. id est, that is saliṅga inclusive of the notion of gender; the word is used in connection with the sense of a Pratipadika or a crude base as inclusive of the notion of gender | and number: अर्थग्रहृणस्यैतत् प्रयेाजनं कृत्स्नः पदार्थो यथाभिधीयेत सद्रव्यः सलिङ्गः ससंख्यश्चेति | confer, compare on P. II. 2 24 Vart. 8. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). sārvanāmika pertaining to pronouns; the term is used in connection with rules or operations concerning exclusively the pronouns; literally नान्यत्सार्वनामिकम् । Kat. II. 1.33. confer, compare svara (l) vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. harṣavardvanasvāmin a fairly old grammarian who wrote an extensive metrical compendium on genders named लिङ्गानुशासन on which a commentary was written by a grammarian named शबरस्वासिन्. These grammarians were,of course, different from the reputed king इर्षवर्धन and the ; Mimamsaka शाबरस्वामिन्. haimabṛhannyāsa an extensive critical commentary written by Hemacandra on his own work, Haima Sabdanusasana. See हेमचन्द्र.