akarmaka intransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad. confer, compare akārya not a grammatical positive operation: e. g. elision (लोप.) ननु च लोप एवेत्कार्यं स्यात् । अकार्यं लोपः । confer, compare on I.3.2. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aṅit not marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 2. In the case of the preposition ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् confer, compare आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् exempli gratia, for example confer, compare on I.l.14. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). atyādigaṇa the group of prepositions headed by अति which are compounded with a noun in the acc. case ; अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया confer, compare om P. II. 2.18. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). advyupasarge not preceded by (two or more) prepositions; i. e. preceded by only one preposition. छादेर्घेऽद्व्युपसर्गस्य P.VI.4.96 prescribing short अ for the long अा of the root छाद् before the confer, compare affix घ, eg. प्रच्छदः kṛt (affix). adhyāsa superimposition : a relation between a word and its sense according to the grammarians; Vāk. Pad. II.240. (2) appendage; confer, compare आहुस्त्वेकपदा अन्ये अध्यासानेकपातिनः confer, compare XVII.43. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) anarthaka (1) without any signification; having no meaning of themselves, literally possessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); id est, that is अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, exempli gratia, for example अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ confer, compare on P.I.4.93; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः confer, compare I. 1.3: Nirukta of Yāska. also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 confer, compare 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. on 1. varia lectio, another reading, XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. confer, compare 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). anāpya having or possessing no āpya or object; intransitive (root): चालशब्दार्थाद् अनाप्याद् युच् Cāndra I.2 97 standing for चलनशब्दार्थाद् अकर्मकाद् युच् P. III.2.148. confer, compare ani kṛt affix in the sense of curse, अजीवनिस्ते शठ भूयात्; exempli gratia, for example आक्रोशे नञि अनिः P.III.3.112. This affix अनि gets its न् changed into ण् after ऋ or रेफ of the preceding preposition as in अप्रयाणिः; confer, compare Kāś, on VIII.4.29. confer, compare anuprayoga subsequent utterance; post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphrastic perfect forms; literally आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4. confer, compare artha (1) signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: literally प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः confer, compare XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् confer, compare III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; id est, that is also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206. confer, compare avyāpya an intransitive root; a technical term in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa (C. Vy. I.4.70 ) as also in Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana; अव्याप्यस्य मुचेर्मोग् वा । मुचेरकर्मकस्य सकारादौ सनि परे मोक् इत्ययमादेशो वा स्यात् । न चास्य द्विः । मोक्षति मुमुक्षति चैत्र: । मोक्षते मुमुक्षते वा वत्सः स्वयमेव confer, compare IV.1.19. Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. asaṃhitā absence of juxta-position, absence of connectedness; यदि तावत्संहितया निर्देशः क्रियते भ्वादय इति भवितव्यम् । अथासंहितया भू अादय इति भविंतव्यम् confer, compare on I.3.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). asamartha (1) syntactically not connected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2) unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in connection with a word which cannot be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with another word: सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति confer, compare II.1.1.; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः. exempli gratia, for example aāṅ the preposition आ. See the word आ . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ācitādi a class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा although they are used as proper nouns. et cetera, and others आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; exempli gratia, for example Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146. confer, compare aāpya to be obtained by an activity: (the same as vyāpya). The term is used in connection with the object of a verb which is to be obtained by the verbal activity. The word अाप्य is found used in the sense of Karman or object in the grammars of Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana, Cāndra and Hemacandra; Cāndra II I. 43; Jainendra I. 2.119; Śāk.IV.3.120: confer, compare III.3.31. Hence, the term साप्य is used for a transitive root in these grammars. Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. āśvalāyanaprātiśākhya an authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa. āsvadīya a sub-division of the चुरादि (Xth ) roots, beginning with the root ग्रस् and ending with the root स्वद्, which take the Vikaraṇa णिच् conjugation which are conjugated like roots of the tenth conjugation, only if they are transitive in sense. id est, that is īpsita a desired object, which, in connection with transitive roots, gets the designation कर्म,when the agent has a keen desire for it; कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म P.I.4.49. confer, compare uṇādeikośa a metrical work explaining the उणादि words referred to with meanings assigned to them. There are two such compositions one by Rāmatarkavāgīśa or Rāmaśarma and the other by Rāmacandra Dīkṣita. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. uddyota the word always refers in grammar to the famous commentary by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa written in the first decade of the 18th century A. D. om the Mahābhāṣyapradīpa of Kaiyaṭa. The appears to be one of the earlier works of Nāgeśa. It is also called Vivaraṇa. The commentary is a scholarly one and is looked upon as a final word re : the exposition of the Mahābhāṣya. It is believed that Nāgeśa wrote 12 Uddyotas and 12 Śekharas which form some authoritative commentaries on prominent works in the different Śāstras. Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. upanyāsa proposition, statement, The remark 'विषम उपन्यासः' is of frequent occurrence in the Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya in connection with statements that are defective and have to be refuted or corrected; M.Bh. on P.1.1.21,46,50; I.2.5 confer, compare et cetera, and others upasaṃyoga (1) union; नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति prepositions are signs to show that such a union with another sense has occurred in the case of the noun or verb to which they are prefixed, confer, compare I.3.; (2) addition; Nirukta of Yāska. अक्रियमाणे हि संज्ञाग्रहणे गरीयानुपसंयोगः कर्तव्यः स्यात् M.Bh. on P. IV.2.21. Vārt, 2. confer, compare upasarga preposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': सोपसर्गेषु नामसु confer, compare XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; et cetera, and others उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् confer, compare I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, Nirukta of Yāska. ), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see et cetera, and others I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Nirukta of Yāska. 7 and Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attach Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः edition XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 15, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. upasargavivaraṇa a short anonymous work on the nature of upasargas or prepositions explaining their meanings with illustrations. upahita (1) with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': Durga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: confer, compare आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः confer, compare II.15. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ekakarmaka transitive verbs having one object, as contrasted with द्विक्रमेक; cf kātantra IV.6.62 ekavākya an expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति confer, compare on III.4.67; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences. confer, compare karaṇa (1) lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; confer, compare स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् confer, compare on P, I.1.10 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 3; (3) disposition of the organ which produces the sound; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). श्वासनादोभयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनिसंमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on confer, compare XIII.3; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि confer, compare on I.2.32: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् confer, compare XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; id est, that is अकारस्य तावत् अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; confer, compare द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः confer, compare I. 11; (4) use of a word Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; exempli gratia, for example किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129. confer, compare kartṛsthakriya (a root) whose activity is found functioning in the subject; यत्र क्रियाकृतविशेषदर्शनं कर्तरि Kaiyata on P.III.1.87 confer, compare 3. Such roots, although transitive do not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III. 1.87. as Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः has no कर्मकर्तरि construction; exempli gratia, for example कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । कर्तृस्थभावकानां कर्तृस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवन्मा भूदिति confer, compare on III. 1.87. Vārt, 3. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). karmakartṛ object of the transitive verb which functions as the subject when there is a marked facility of action: ओदन is karmakartariobject, functioning as subject, in पच्यते ओदनः स्वयमेव. The word कर्मकर्तृ is used also for the कर्मकर्तरि प्रयोग where the object, on which the verb-activity is found, is turned into a subject and the verb which is transitive is turned into intransitive as a result. exempli gratia, for example karmadhāraya name technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand. confer, compare karman (1) object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म confer, compare II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; et cetera, and others अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित confer, compare . Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. confer, compare कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः exempli gratia, for example It is called अभिहित in such cases; et cetera, and others P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित confer, compare .The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; et cetera, and others घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; exempli gratia, for example निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् confer, compare on I.4.49: Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also confer, compare on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; exempli gratia, for example confer, compare on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and confer, compare thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; commentary उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति confer, compare I. 3.4, where Nirukta of Yāska. explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ). Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta. kamenāman noun showing action, participle. कर्मप्रवचनीय a technical term used in connection with a preposition which showed a verbal activity formerly, although for the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes or उपसर्गs which are not used along.with a root, but without it literally कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीयाः इति M.Bh. on P.I.4.83; confer, compare शाकल्यस्य संहितामनु प्रावर्षत्, अन्वर्जुनं योद्धारः, अा कुमारं यशः पाणिनेः; exempli gratia, for example Kāś. on P.I.4.83 to 98. confer, compare kalpana,kalpanā supposition, assumption; cf गुणकल्पनया च भिक्षुनटसूत्रयोश्छन्दस्त्वम् Kāś. on P. IV.3.110; also अनेकक्लिष्टकल्पनापेक्षया अस्या उचितत्वात् Pari. Śek. on. Pari. 94. confer, compare kātantrasūtravṛtti an old Vṛtti on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Vararuci who is, of course, different from Vararuci Kātyāyana. The Vṛtti appears to have been occupying a position similar to that of . Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. kātya (1) another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers. kārmanāmika the word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक The changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; et cetera, and others कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on confer, compare I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; Nirukta of Yāska. एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् confer, compare on I.1.44 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे confer, compare ; et cetera, and others also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः confer, compare Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. शेषः कार्ये Śāk. confer, compare kāśikā (1) name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe. Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. kaimarthakya iit. position of questioning the utility; absence of any apparent utility: कैमर्थक्यान्नियमो भवति विधेयं नास्तीति कृत्वा confer, compare on I. 4.3, III.1.46; III.2.127, III. 3.19; VI.4.49, VII.2.26, and VIII.4.32. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). gaurādi a class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; exempli gratia, for example P. VI.2.194. confer, compare cakrin a grammarian who has written a small disquisition on the correctness of the form जाग्रहीता. See जाग्रहीतेतिवाद. jāgrahitetivāda a short disguisition on the correctness of the word जाग्रहीता, written by a grammarian named Cakrin; भट्टोजिदीक्षितग्राहग्रस्तं माधवदिग्गजम्। अमूमुचत् सत्यवर्यश्चक्री चक्रिप्रसादभाक्, colophon. confer, compare ṭīṭac affix टीट added to the preposition अच in the sense of 'lowering of the nose' ( नासिकाया: नतम् ) e. g. अवटीटम्: taddhita affix. P. V. 2.31 confer, compare ṇvi krt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; confer, compare on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. tṛtīyā the third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare confer, compare on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् id est, that is ; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. पृथग्देवदत्तेन exempli gratia, for example स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; et cetera, and others confer, compare on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. affix after them has been elided; taddhita affix. पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; exempli gratia, for example P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; confer, compare तुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; exempli gratia, for example P. II.3.72. confer, compare th () second consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2) augment थ् ( थुक् ) added to the words षष् , कति, कतिपय and चतुर् before the Purana affix डट्. e. g. षण्णां पूरण: षष्ठ:, कतिथः, चतुर्थः; Kas, on P. V. 2.51 ; (3) substitute for the consonant ह् of आह् before any consonant except a nasal, and a semivowel as also for the consonant स् of स्था preceded by the preposition उद्: confer, compare P, VIII. 2.35, VIII. 4.61. confer, compare devaśarman a grammarian who has written a disquisition on the philosophy of Vyakarana in verse, and added a commentary of his own on it which he has named as समन्वयप्रदीपसंकेत. droṇikā a kind of the position of the tongue at the time of pronouncing the letter ष्. dvitva doubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव exempli gratia, for example cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others et cetera, and others P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् ， which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् confer, compare cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र et cetera, and others P. VIII. 4.47. For details see confer, compare on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. confer, compare on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synony Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature manuscript. confer, compare VI. 1.4; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. dhāraṇa (1) suppression of a consonant, out of two successive consonants which is looked upon as a fault of recital; ह्वयामि when recited as वयामि; e exempli gratia, for example धारणमनुपलब्धिः Uvvata on R.Pr.XIV. 6; (2) repetition of a consonant which is also a fault; feminine. ज्ज्योतिष्कृत् for ज्योतिष्कृत्: exempli gratia, for example Uvvata on XIV.6; confer, compare also धारयन्त; परक्रमं confer, compare explained by Uvvata as सान्तस्थस्य संयोगस्य आदौ रक्तं धारयन्तो विलम्बमानाः परक्रमं कुर्वन्ति where धारयन्तः means 'lengthening’ or 'prolonging' et cetera, and others R.Pr. on XIV.23; (3) the peculiar position of the mouth (मुखसंधारणम् ) by which a double consonant is recited as a single one, confer, compare द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत् ( एकप्रयत्ननिर्वर्त्य ) धारणात् confer, compare व्यात्तम् , कुक्कुटः, exempli gratia, for example V.Pr. IV.144. confer, compare dhvāna the second out of the seven Positions of voice in the Veda recital which are-उपांशु, ध्वान, निमद, उपब्दिमत्, मन्द्र, मध्यम and तार. niyama (1) restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, confer, compare on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; confer, compare on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम confer, compare et cetera, and others ; (4) grave accent or anudatta; et cetera, and others उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् confer, compare III. 9; see नियत (2). Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) nirvartya one of the many kinds of karman or object governed by a transitive verb or root, which has got the nature of being produced or brought into existence or into a new shape; त्रिविधं कर्म निर्वर्त्य विकार्य प्राप्यं चेति । निर्वर्त्य तावत् कुम्भकारः नगरकारः। The word निर्वर्त्य is explained as यदसज्जन्यते यद्वा प्रकाश्यते तन्निर्वर्त्यम् । कर्तव्यः कटः । उच्चार्यः शब्दः Sr. Prakasa; confer, compare also Vakyapadiya III.7.78; confer, compare also इह हि तण्डुलानोदनं पचतीति द्व्यर्थः पचिः । तण्डुलान्पचन्नोदनं निर्वर्तयति । confer, compare on I.4.49. For details see the word कर्मन्; also see M.Bh. on I.4.49. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). nyāsa (1) position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; literally the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव in the Mahābhāșya, confer, compare confer, compare on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ; (2) a name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name et cetera, and others is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. . In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. . This commentary Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. in his Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. , which also is well-known as a scholarly work. Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. patañjali the reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itsel The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; feminine. पतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explain confer, compare He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are cover edition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य. edition padavākyaratnākara a disquisition on grammar dealing with the different ways in which the sense of words is convey The work consists of a running commentary on his own verses by the author Gokulanātha Miśra who, from internal evidence, appears to have flourished before Koņdabhațța and after Kaiyața. edition paribhāṣā an authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different syste confer, compare Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह. manuscript. pāṇini the illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation o the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native pl feminine. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition. accusative case. paurvāparya (1) a relation between two operations or rules based upon their anterior and ulterior positions, which is many times taken into consideration for deciding their relative strength; (2) the order of words; cf शब्देनार्थान्वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात् पौर्वापर्यम् on P 1.4.109 Vart. 10 cf also पौर्वापर्यमकालव्यपेतं सेहिता, P. I. 4.109 Vart. 8. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). prakrama (l) the place of articulation, the place of the production of sound, such as throat, chest, palate and the like; प्रक्रम्यन्ते अस्मिन्वर्णा इति प्रक्रमः स्थानमुच्यते confer, compare Pradipa on सिद्धं तु समानप्रक्रमवचनात् P.I.2.30 Vart.2; (2) recital of Veda, described as क्रमपाठ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). उभयथा च प्रक्रमे दोषो भवति M.Bh.on P. VIII. 4.28 confer, compare also "अष्टसु प्रक्रमेषु दोषो भवति"quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.VI. 1.172; (3) regularity in the position of words, regular order of words. confer, compare praṇayata composition ( of the original Sutra work); द्वयमपि चैतत् प्रमाणम् । उभयथा सूत्रप्रणयनात् confer, compare on P. IV.2. 117: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. also confer, compare on P.V.1.94 and V.4.21 . Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. pradeśaśāstra a rule, laying down a positive original injunction as opposed to the अपवादशास्त्र; यैः अर्थाः प्रदिश्यन्ते तानि प्रदेशशास्त्राणि confer, compare on commentary XI.35. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) bādhakatva the same as बाध ; sublation; setting aside; this sublation is described to be of two types(1) complete sublation when the rule set aside, is for ever set aside and cannot, by the maxim called तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय, be applied again; दधि ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दीयतां तक्रं कौण्डिन्यायेति सत्यपि संभवे दधिदानस्य तक्रदानं निवर्तकं भवति । confer, compare confer, compare on P. I. 1.47; VI. 1.2. VI. 2.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ; ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the rule set aside, can be applied, if possible after the special rule has been applied; et cetera, and others सर्वथा अनवकाशत्वादेव बाधकत्वे स्वस्य (अनवकाशशास्त्रस्य) पूर्वप्रवृत्तिरित्येव बाधः । तत्र बाधके प्रवृत्ते यद्युत्सर्गप्राप्तिर्भवति तदा भवत्येव यथा तत्रैव याडादयः Par.Sek.on Pari.57, The sublation or बाधकत्व is not only in the case of सामान्यविशेषभाव and अनवकाशत्व as given confer, compare , but a rule or operation which is पर (cited later), or नित्य, or अन्तरङ्ग sets aside the rule or operation which is पूर्व,or अनित्य,or बहिरङ्ग respectively. This बाध्यबाधकभाव occupies a very important position in respect of the application of grammar rules for arriving at the correct forms (इष्टरूपसिद्धि) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribhasas in the field of बाध्यबाधकभाव. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. bhartṛhari a very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् confer, compare on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. bhāvavikāra kinds of verbal activity which are described to be six in number viz. production, existence, transformation, growth, decay and destruction. These six modes of existence first mentioned by Vāŗșyayani and quoted by Yāska are explained philosophically by Bhartŗhari as a mere appearance of the Śabdabrahman or Sattā when one of its own powers, the time factor ( कालशक्ति ) is superimposed upon it, and as a result of that superimposition, it ( the Śabdabrahman) appears as a process; id est, that is षड् भावाविकारा भवन्ति इति वार्ष्यायणि: | जायते अस्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते अपक्षीयते विनश्यति इति । Nir.I.2; confer, compare also Vākyapadiya III.30. confer, compare yam (1) one of pair a twin letter available in pronunciation before a nasal letter and similar to it, when the nasal consonant is preceded by any one of the four consonants of the five classes; a transitional sound intervening between a non-nasal and the following nasal as a counterpart of the n6n-nasal: वर्गेष्वाद्यानां चेतुर्णो पञ्चमे पर मध्ये यमो नाम पूर्वसदृशो वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P.व्व्III. l.1; (2) name given to the seven musical notes, found in the singing of Saaman; confer, compare मन्द्रमध्यमत्राख्येषु त्रिषु वाचः स्थानेषु प्रत्येकं सत स्थरभेदा भवन्ति कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातित्वार्यः यमाः ' confer, compare XXIII. 13,14. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. yuc krt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: confer, compare सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others , et cetera, and others P.III.8.128-130. confer, compare liṅgavyatyaya transposition of genders, as noticed often in Vedic language; e. g. मधोर्गृह्लाति or मधोस्तृप्ताः for मधुन:; M.Bh. on P. I. 4.9. confer, compare varṇavyatyaya transposition of letters: वर्णव्यत्यये चार्थान्तरगमनात् ( अर्थवन्तो वर्णाः): confer, compare on Siva Sutra 5; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). कृतेस्तर्कुः कसेः सिकताः| हिंसे: सिंहृ:| वर्णव्यत्ययो नार्थव्यत्ययः| confer, compare on. Siva sutra 5. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vāc (1) expression from the mouth ; speech; series of sounds caused by expelling the air from the lungs through differently shaped positions of the mouth and the throat: cf स संघातादीन् प्राप्य वाग्भवति Vaj. Pr.I.9; see the word वाणी; (2) the sacred or divine utterance referring to the Veda: त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् ; (3) term used for उपपद in the Jainendra Vyākarana: confer, compare वाग्विभक्ते कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Jain Pari 104. confer, compare vārttika a statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discuss The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated edition . If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. vinigrahārthīya meant to cause prohibition or opposition; cf अह इति च ह इति च विनिग्रहार्थीयौ इदं ह करिष्यति | इदं न करिष्यतीति Nir.I.5. viparyaya change in the reverse order; reverse transposition; interversion; the usual expression वर्णविपर्यय. confer, compare वर्णागमाद् भवेद्धंसः सिंहो वर्णविपर्ययात् | S.K. on P.VI.3.109. The word व्यत्यय is used in this sense in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare वर्णव्यत्यये कृतेस्तर्कः | हिंसे: सिंहः ! M.Bh. on confer, compare 5 Māheśvarasūtras. 15; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also Kāś. on P.VI.3.109 and Cāndra Vyākaraṇa II.2.48. confer, compare vipratiṣedha confict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the is allowed to apply: Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे confer, compare I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् confer, compare Pari. 40, 39. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. virodha opposition or conflict between two rules where, the rule which is subsequen tly mentioned is regarded as stronger and given preference to, as far as its application is concerned; तुल्यबलयोर्विरोधो विप्रतिषेधः । विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: (2) contradiction where one thing prevents another confer, compare सर्वनामस्थाने इति अनुवर्तमानमपि विरोधादिह न संबध्यते Kāś.on P.VII.1.86. confer, compare vivṛtti (1) separation of the two vowels which were euphonically combined into one; the hiatus or position of two vowels near each other; विवृत्तिः स्वरयोरसंधिः; (2) the interval between two vowels placed near each other; confer, compare स्वरयोरनन्तरयोरन्तरं विवृत्तिः confer, compare I.119; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. also संहितायां यत्स्वरयोरन्तरं तद्विवृत्तिसंज्ञं स्यात् confer, compare on Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works. II.I. This interval is one mātrā according to the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya, while it is only half-a-mātrā according to the Ṛktantra and the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) confer, compare XXII. 13; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. 3५. See विराम. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. viśrāntavidyādhara name of a grammar work of a general type which once occupied a prominent position and was studied as a text book of grammar, representing an independent system. The work is referred to by Hemacandra and Haribhadra. It is attributed to Vāmana who may be the same as one of the joint writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti. In that case the date of the work is the 7th century A. D.; the popular verse परेत्र पाणिनीयज्ञाः केचित्कालपकोविदा: । एकेकं विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारकाः quoted in Vol.VII p. 388 Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya D.E. Society's edition. confer, compare visarjanīya same as विसर्ग which see ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. विसृज्यते पुनर्वर्णैर्न संबध्यते इति विसर्गः; confer, compare on Kat. I. 1. 16. The term विसृष्ट is also used in the same sense. The visarjanīya has the same position (स्थान) in the mouth as the vowel after which it occurs. It is a glottal sound; the Ṛk-Prātiśākhya says that some scholars describe visarjanīya as a chest sound: Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. कण्ठयोकार:प्रथमपञ्चमौ च द्वावूष्माणौ केचिदेतावुरस्यौ | confer, compare I 18: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also उरसि विसर्जनीयो वा confer, compare 3. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. visthāna belonging to a position of utterance (स्थान) other than the one assigned,or referred to; विस्थाने स्पर्श उदये मकार; confer, compare IV. 3. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) vihāra expansion of the position ( स्थान ) and the means of utterance ( करण ) of a sound beyond the necessary extent, which produces a fault of pronunciation, called व्यास; विहारसंहारयेाव्यासपीडने । स्थानकरणयोर्विहारे विस्तारे व्यासो नाम दोषो जायते confer, compare on Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works. XIV 2. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) vuc affix अक applied optionally with the affixes घ and इल to the preposition उप when the whole word is used as the name of a man taddhita affix. उपक:; exempli gratia, for example Kāś. on P. V. 3.80. confer, compare vṛtti (1) treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare confer, compare on P. I.4. 109, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ll ; ( 5 ) nature Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन confer, compare II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; Nirukta of Yāska. परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar. confer, compare vaiyādhikaraṇya Iit. possession of separate residences, as contrasted with सामानाधिकरण्य: absence of apposition; use in different cases, non-agreement in case. vyatyaya occurrence of one for another transposition: सुतिङुपग्रहृ ... व्यत्ययमिच्छति शास्त्रकृदेषां ... confer, compare on P.III. 1.85. See विपर्यय. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vyāpya that which is occupied; the word refers to a kind of an object where the object is occupied by the verbal activity of the transitive root; the word अाप्य is also used in this sense: literally कर्म निर्वर्त्ये विकार्यं प्राप्यं च ग्रस्य प्रकृत्युच्छेदो गुणान्तरं वोत्पद्यते तद्विकार्यम् SrinagaraPrakasa 2, The term is used as a technical term instead of the term कर्म in the Hemacandra, Candra and other systems of grammar: confer, compare confer, compare II.2.3;Candra I.1.23. Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. śāstrātideśa supposition of the original in the place of the substitute merely for the sake of the application of a grammatical rule as contrasted with रूपातिदेश, the actual restoration of the original form; किं पुनरयं शास्त्रातिदेशः । तृचो यच्छास्त्रं तदतिदिश्यते । आहोस्विद्रूपातिदेशः तृचो यद्रूपं तदतिदिश्यते confer, compare on P. VII.1.95. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). śramaṇādi a class of words headed by the word श्रमणा with which words in the masculine or the feminine gender are compounded when they stand in apposition; कुमारी श्रमणा कुमारश्रमणा, युवा अध्यापकः युवाध्यापक: confer, compare on P.II.1.70. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. śreṇyādi a class of words headed by the word श्रेणि, which are compounded with words like कृत if they stand in apposition, provided the word so compounded has got the sense of the affix च्वि i. e. having become what was not before: अश्रेणयः श्रेणय: कृताः श्रेणिकृता:, एककृता: Kas, on P. II. 1. 59. confer, compare ṣatva change of the consonant स् into ष् in certain conditions in the formation of a word, or after prepositions in the case of verbs beginning with स्. This cerebralization of स् was a peculiar phonetic change which naturally occurred when स् in utterance came after a vowel excepting अ. Some of the Pratisakhya works have exhaustively treated this change and Panini has also mentioned many rules in connection with it. sa (1) short term for समास used by ancient grammarians ; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana also ; ति्त्रक्कारकाणां प्राक् सुवुप्तत्तेः कृद्भिः सविधि: Jain.. Pari. 100; confer, compare also राजाsसे ; ( 2 ) Unadi affix स placed after the roots वॄ, तॄ, वद् , हन् and others; confer, compare UnadiSutras 342-349; (3) confer, compare affix स in the quadruple senses (चातुरर्थिक) applied to the words तृण and others. taddhita affix. तृणसः; exempli gratia, for example P. IV.2.80; (4) confer, compare affix स applied to the word मृद् when praise is intended e. g. मृत्सा, मृत्स्नाः; also taddhita affix. P. V. 4.41; (5) substitute for the preposition सम् before the words हित and तत; confer, compare समो हितततयोर्वा लोपः confer, compare on P. VI.1.144 Vart. I. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). saṃnikarṣa contact, juxtaposition; this contact between two letters is called संहिता when it is very close; परः संनिकर्षः संहिता P. I. 4,109. confer, compare saṃnidhi juxtaposition; coming together phonetically very close: पदानामविलम्बितेनोच्चारणम् Tarka Samgraha; अव्यवधानेन अन्वयप्रतियोग्युपस्थितिः Tattvacintamani 4; the same as संनिकर्ष which see confer, compare . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. saṃyukta (!) closely connected; गृहपतिना संयुक्ते ञ्यः P. IV. 4.90; (2) joint, conjoint; the term is used frequently in connection with two or more consonants in juxtaposition; confer, compare अननुस्वारसंयुक्तम् confer, compare XXII. 15. Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. saṃhitā position of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1. confer, compare sakarmaka a root which, by virtue of the nature of its meaning verbal activity, requires or expects an object which is covered by the activity; a transitive root. In the passive voice of these roots the object is expressed by the verbal termination and hence it is put in the nominative case. id est, that is sagati or सगतिक accompanied by a preposition which is called गति; cf सगतिरपि तिङ् P. VIII. 1.68; also सगतिरपि । प्रपचति M.Bh. on P VIII.1.68. confer, compare sagati or सगतिक accompanied by a preposition which is called गति; cf सगतिरपि तिङ् P. VIII. 1.68; also सगतिरपि । प्रपचति M.Bh. on P VIII.1.68. confer, compare samāsa placing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष confer, compare as also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type. et cetera, and others sahacarita going together: occurring together; e. g. विपराभ्यां जेः ( where परा is taken as the preposition परा and not the pronoun परा which is the base of पर on account of the paribhasa सहचरितासहचरितयोः सहृचरितस्यैव ग्रहणम्): feminine. Pari.Sek.Pari.103. confer, compare sāpya furnished with अाप्य or object; a transitive root;the term is used in the Sakatayana, Haimacandra and Candra grammars; Candra I.4.100, Hema. III.3.21, Sakat. IV. 3.55. confer, compare sāmānādhikaraṇya standing in apposition; the word is used many times in its literal sense ' having the same substratum.' For instance, in घटं करोति देवदत्तः, the personal ending ति and देवदत्त are said to be समानाधिकरण. The Samanadhikarana words are put in the same case although, the gender and number sometimes differ. See the word समानाधिकरण. sārasvata name of a grammar work which was once very popular on account of its brevity, believed to have been written in the sutra form by an ancient grammarian named Narendra who is said to have composed 700 sutras under the inspiration of Sarasvati.The exposition of these Sutras by a reputed grammarian named Anubhutisvarupacarya who possibly flourished in the thirteenth century A. D., is known by the name सारस्वतप्रक्रिया which has remained as a text book on grammar to the present day in some parts of India. This प्रक्रिया is popularly known as सारस्वतव्याकरण. The technical terms in this grammar are the current popular ones. suc (l) affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति taddhita affix. cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु et cetera, and others . सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107. confer, compare sopasarga together with a preposition ( उपसर्ग ) prefixed; the term is used in connection with a root to which a preposition such as प्र, परा has been prefixed; et cetera, and others अकर्मका अपि वै सोपसर्गाः सकर्मका भवन्ति confer, compare on P. I. 1,44. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). sphīṭasiddhi (1) name of a short treatise on the nature of Sphota, written by a grammarian named Bharata MiSra; (2) name of a short disquisition on Sphota by MandanamiSra. harikṛṣṇa a scholar of grammar who wrote a short treatise on the nature and function of prepositions named उपसर्गवाद.