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     Grammar Search "santa" has 1 results.
     
śāntā: feminine nominative singular past passive participle stem: śānta.
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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
dharmarājaḥ3.3.37MasculineSingularjanaḥ, santatiḥ
gṛham2.2.4-5NeuterSingularagāram, vastyam, sadma, geham, ālayaḥ, gṛhāḥ, bhavanam, niśāntam, veśma, nilayaḥ, mandiram, sadanam, niketanam, udavasitam, nikāyyaḥ
kṣattā3.3.69MasculineSingularasarvagocaraḥ, kakṣāntaraḥ, nṛpasya(śuddhāntaḥ)
sahiṣṇuḥ3.1.30MasculineSingularkṣamitā, kṣamī, sahanaḥ, kṣantā, titikṣuḥ
śāntaḥ3.1.96MasculineSingularśamitaḥ
santāpaḥMasculineSingularsaṃjvaraḥbecomin very hot,gear of burning heat
santāpitaḥ3.1.103MasculineSingulardūnam, santaptaḥ, dhūpitam, dhūpāyitam
santatiḥ2.7.1FeminineSingularvaṃśaḥ, gotram, anvavāyaḥ, jananam, santānaḥ, kulam, abhijanaḥ, anvayaḥ
satatam1.1.66NeuterSingularanavaratam, aśrāntam, ajasram, santatam, aviratam, aniśam, nityam, anāratameternal or continually
soḍhaḥ3.1.96MasculineSingularkṣāntam
ūtam3.1.101MasculineSingularsyūtam, utam, tantusantatam
pakṣāntauMasculineDualpañcadaśyaulast day of the half month
vasantaMasculineSingularpuṣpasamayaḥ, surabhiḥspring
veśantaḥMasculineSingularpallavam, alpasaramsmall pond
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
santam. equals saṃha-tala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santam. Name of a son of satya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santakamf(ikā-)n. (fr. sat-) belonging to (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhasantam. time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāsantamfn. splendid, beautiful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāsantam. the sun or the moon or a star View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāsantam. the bird bhāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyavasantakam. "the desired spring"and"the dear vasantaka-"
rasantamam. equals r/asa-tama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvasantam. a beautiful spring season View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvasantam. the day of full moon in the month caitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvasantam. a festival in honour of kāma-deva- in the moon caitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvasantakam. a particular festival (equals prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvasantakam. Gaertnera Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantam. (n. gaRa ardharcādi-) "brilliant (season)", spring (comprising according to to some, the months caitra- and vaiśākha- or from the middle of March to that of MaySee ṛtu-;often personified and considered as a friend or attendant of kāmadeva-, the god of love) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantam. a particular metre (4 times $) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantam. a particular time (in music) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantam. diarrhoea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santamf(-)n. (fr. vasanta-) relating to or produced in the spring season, vernal etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santamf(-)n. being in the spring of life, young View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santamf(-)n. equals avahita-, or vihita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santam. (only ) a camel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santam. the Indian cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santam. a young elephant, any young animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santam. the southern or western wind (equals malayānila- q.v)
santam. Phaseolus Mungo or a black species of this kind of bean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santam. a purple species of Barleria Cristata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santam. Vangueria Spinosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santam. a dissolute man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantabandhum. "friend of Spring", Name of kāma-deva- (god of love) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantabhānun. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantabhūṣaṇan. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadevam. Name of a king and poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadru m. "spring-tree", the mango (blossoming in March or April) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadrumam. "spring-tree", the mango (blossoming in March or April) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadūtam. (only ) "spring-messenger", the Indian cuckoo (See kokila-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadūtam. the mango tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadūtam. the month caitra- (March-April) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadūtam. the 5th rāga- or the musical mode hindola- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadūtam. Gaertnera Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadūtam. Bignonia Suaveoleus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadūtam. a plant like the Premna Spinosa. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantadūtīf. the female of the Indian cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantagandhi m. Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantagandhinm. Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantaghoṣa m. "singing in spring", the Koil or Indian cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantaghoṣinm. "singing in spring", the Koil or Indian cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantajamfn. born or produced in spring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantaf. a kind of jasmine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantaf. a festival in honour of the god of love (see vasantotsava-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantakam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' fem. ā-) spring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantakam. a particular tree, a species of śyonāka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantakam. Name of a man, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santakamf(ikā-)n. relating to or grown in spring, vernal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantakālam. spring-time, vernal season View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantakusamam. "having blossoms in spring", Cordia Latifolia or Myxa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantakusamākaram. a particular mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantalatā () f. Name of women. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantalatikā() f. Name of women. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantalekhā() f. Name of women. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantamadanan. a plant resembling the Premna Spinosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantamahotsavam. the great spring-festival (in honour of the love-god) (see vasantotsava-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantamālatirasam. a particular mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantamālikāf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantamandanīf. equals -madanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantamāsam. Name of the 9th ninth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantapañcamīf. a festival held on the 5th of the light half of the month māgha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantapañcamīprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantapañcamīpūjāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantapuran. Name of a town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantapuṣpan. a spring-flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantapuṣpan. a kind of kadamba- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantarājam. spring compared to a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantarājam. Name of a king of kumāra-giri- (author of the -rājīya-nātya-śāstra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantarājam. (also with bhaṭṭa-) of various authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantarājacikitsāf. Name of a medical work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantartu(for ṛtu-) m. spring-season View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantasahāyam. equals -bandhu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantasakham. equals -bandhu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantasakham. Name of the wind blowing from the Malaya mountains View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantaśākhinm. equals -dru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantasamayam. equals -kāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantasamayotsavam. the festive time of spring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantaśekharam. Name of a kiṃ-nara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantasenāf. Name of various women View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantaśrīf. the pomp or beauty of spring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakan. the ornament of spring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakan. the blossom of the tilaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakan. a particular mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakaf. a kind of metre (four times $) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakabhāṇam. Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantatilakatantran. Name of a Buddhist work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantavarṇanan. "description of spring", Name of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantavilāsam. Name of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantavitalam. Name of a form of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantavraṇan. "spring-pustule", small-pox View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantavratan. spring-observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantayātrāf. a spring-procession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantayodham. "spring-combatant", the god of love
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bhasanta भसन्तः Time.
bhāsanta भासन्त a. (-न्ती f.) 1 Shining. -2 Beautiful, handsome. -न्तः 1 The sun. -2 The moon. -3 An asterism, a star. -4 The bird भास q. v. -न्ती An asterism (नक्षत्र).
vasanta वसन्तः [वस्-झच् Uṇ.3.128] 1 The spring, vernal season (comprising the two months चैत्र and वैशाख); मधुमाधवौ वसन्तः Su&śr.; सर्वं प्रिये चारुतरं वसन्ते Ṛs.6.2; विहरति हरिरिह सरसवसन्ते Gīt.1. -2 Spring personified as a deity and regarded as a companion of Kāmadeva; सुहृदः पश्य वसन्त किं स्थितम् Ku.4.27. -3 Dysentery. -4 Smallpox. -5 (In dramas) A nickname for the Vidūṣaka or buffoon. -Comp. -अवतारः the advent or setting in of the spring; वसन्तावतारसमये$स्या उन्मादयितृकं रूपं प्रेक्ष्य Ś.1. -उत्सवः the vernal festival, spring-festivities, formerly held on the full-moon day of Chaitra, but now on the full-moon day of Phālguna, and identified with the Holi festival. -कालः the spring-tide, vernal season. -कुसुमः Cordia Latifolia (Mar. गोंधणी). -घोषिन् m. a cuckoo. -जा 1 the Vāsantī or Mādhavī creeper. -2 the spring festival; see वसन्तोत्सव. -तिलकः, -कम् the ornament of the spring; फुल्लं वसन्ततिलकं तिलकं वनाल्याः Chand. M.5. (-कः -का -कम्) N. of a metre. -दूतः 1 the cuckoo. -2 the month called Chaitra. -3 the musical mode हिन्दोल. -4 the mango tree. -दूती 1 the trumpet-flower. -2 the female cuckoo. -3 Bignonia Suaveolens (Mar. पाटला). -द्रुः, द्रुमः the mango tree. -पञ्चमी the fifth day in the bright half of Māgha. -बन्धुः, -योधः, -सखः epithets of the god of love.
santa वासन्त a. (-न्ती f.) 1 Vernal, suitable to or produced in spring. -2 In the spring or prime of life, youthful. -3 Diligent, attentive (in the performance of duties). -न्तः 1 A camel. -2 A young elephant. -3 Any young animal. -4 A cuckoo. -5 The south wind, the breeze blowing from the Malaya mountain; cf. मलयसमीर. -6 A kind of bean. -7 A dissolute man. -न्ती 1 A kind of jasmine (with fragrant flowers); वसन्ते वासन्तीकुसुम- सुकुमारैरवयवैः Gīt.1. -2 Long pepper. -3 The trumpetflower. -4 N. of a festival held in honour of Cupid; cf. वसन्तोत्सव. -5 The spring creeper.
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vasanta m. [brilliant season: fr. pr. pt. of √ 1. vas] spring (also personified); N.: -ka, m. id.; -kâla, m. spring time; -tila ka, n. ornament of spring; a metre (also â, f.); m. N.; -pushpa, n. flower of spring; -bandhu, m. friend of spring, god of love; -bhânu, m. N. of a king; mahotsava, m. great spring festival; -yodha, m. spring as a warrior; -râga, m. king spring; N. of a grammarian: î-ya, n. work composed by Vasanta-râga; -½ritu, m. spring season; -lekhâ, f. N.; -srî, f. pomp of spring; -sakha, m. friend of spring, ep. of the wind blowing from the Malaya; -samaya, m. spring-time: -½utsava, m. spring festival, lovely time of spring; -sahâya, m. god of love; -sena, m. N. of a king: â, f. N.
santa a. (&isharp;) belonging to or pro duced in spring, vernal: î, f. N. of various plants; N. of a sylvan goddess.
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ṛtu ‘Season,’ is a term repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Three seasons of the year are often alluded to, but the names are not usually specified. In one passage of the Rigveda spring (vasanta), summer (grīsma), and autumn (sarad) are given. The Rigveda knows also the rainy season (prā-vrs) and the winter (hitnā, hemanta). A more usual division (not found in the Rigveda is into five seasons,vasanta, grīsma, varsā, sarad, hemanta-śiśira; but occasionally the five are otherwise divided, varsā-śarad being made one season. Sometimes six seasons are reckoned, hemanta and śiśira being divided, so that the six seasons can be made parallel to the twelve months of the year. A still more artificial arrangement makes the seasons seven, possibly by reckoning the intercalary month as a season, as Weber and Zimmer hold, or more probably because of the predilection for the number seven, as Roth suggests. Occasionally the word rtu is applied to the months. The last season, according to the Satapatha Brāhmana, is hemanta. The growth of the division of the seasons from three to five is rightly explained by Zimmer as indicating the advance of the Vedic Indians towards the east. It is not Rigvedic, but dominates the later Samhitās. Traces of an earlier division of the year into winter and summer do not appear clearly in the Rigveda, where the appropriate words himā and samā are merely general appellations of the year, and where śarad is commoner than either as a designation of the year, because it denotes the harvest, a time of overwhelming importance to a young agricultural people. The division of the year in one passage of the Atharvaveda into two periods of six months is merely formal, and in no way an indication of old tradition.
kṛṣi ‘ploughing.’ The cultivation of the soil was no doubt known to the Indians before they separated from the Iranians, as is indicated by the identity of the expressions yavam krs and sasya in the Rigveda with yao karesh and hahya in the Avesta, referring to the ploughing in of the seed and to the grain which resulted. But it is not without significance that the expressions for ploughing occur mainly in the first and tenth books of the Rigveda, and only rarely in the so-called ‘ family ’ books (ii.-vii.). In the Atharvaveda Prthī Vainya is credited with the origination of ploughing, and even in the Rigveda the Aśvins are spoken of as concerned with the sowing of grain by means of the plough. In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas ploughing is repeatedly referred to. Even in the Rigveda there is clear proof of the importance attached to agriculture. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the Vrātyas, Hindus without the pale of Brahminism, are de¬scribed as not cultivating the soil.The plough land was called Urvarā or Ksetra; manure (Sakan, Karīsa) was used, and irrigation was practised (Khani- tra). The plough (Lāñgala, Sira) was drawn by oxen, teams of six, eight, or even twelve being employed. The operations of agriculture are neatly summed up in the śatapatha Brāhmana as ‘ ploughing, sowing, reaping, and threshing ’ (
devāpi arṣṭiṣeṇa (‘Descendant of Rstisena ’) is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda and in the Nirukta. According to the latter source there were two brothers, Devāpi and Santanu, princes of the Kurus. The elder was Devāpi, but śantanu got himself anointed king, whereupon no rain fell for twelve years. The drought being attributed by the Brahmins to his having superseded his elder brother, Santanu offered the kingdom to Devāpi. The latter, however, refused, but acting as Purohita, or domestic priest, for his brother, obtained rain. The Brhad­devatā tells much the same tale, but adds that the reason for Devapi’s exclusion from the throne was the fact that he suffered from a skin disease. The Epic and later legends further develop the story, presenting two somewhat discrepant accounts. According to the one version, the ground of Devāpi's being passed over was leprosy, while in the other his devoting himself to asceticism in his youth was the cause of his brother’s taking his place. The Epic, moreover, treats him as a son of Pratīpa, and names as his brothers Bāhlīka6 and Arstisena, who is a new figure developed from the patronymic of Devāpi. Possibly Sieg is right in holding that two stories, those of Devāpi, Pratlpa’s son, and of Devāpi, Estisena’s son, have been confused; but in any case it is impossible to extract history from them. The Rigvedic hymn certainly appears to represent Devāpi as sacrificing for Santanu, who seems to be called Aulāna. But there is no trace in it of the brotherhood of the two men, nor is there anything to show that Devāpi was not a Brahmin, but a Ksatriya. Sieg, who interprets the hymn by the Nirukta, thinks that he was a Ksatriya, but on this occasion was enabled by the favour of Brhaspati to officiate as priest, and that the hymn shows clear recognition of the unusual character of his action ; but this view seems very improbable.
dauḥṣanti (‘Descendant of Duhsanta’) is the patronymic of Bharata in the Aitareya and Satapatha Brāhmanas.
dhṛtarāṣṭra vaicitravīrya (‘Descendant of Vicitra- vīrya’) is mentioned in a passage of the Kāthaka Samhitā, which is, unhappily, far from intelligible. But there is no ground for supposing that he was a Kuru-Pañcāla king; he seems rather to have lived at some distance from the Kuru- Pañcālas. There is no good reason to deny his identity with the Dhrtarāstra of the Satapatha Brāhmana, king of Kāśi, who was defeated, when he attempted to offer a horse sacrifice, by Sātrājita śatānīka. The fact that the latter was a Bharata also points to Dhrtarāstra's not having been a Kuru-Pañcāla at all. In the Kāthaka Samhitā he appears as having a dispute with Vaka Dālbhi; but even assuming that the latter was a Pañcāla, there is nothing to hint that the former was a Kuru or that this dispute is a sign of an early hostility of Kuru and Pañcāla. It is true that in the Epic śantanu and Vicitravīrya and Dhrtarāstra himself are all connected, but this connexion seems to be due, as so often in the Epic, to a confused derange¬ment of great figures of the past.
parikṣit Appears in the Atharvaveda as a king in whose realm, that of the Kurus, prosperity and peace abound. The verses in which he is celebrated are later called Pāriksityafy, and the Brāhmanas explain that Agni is pari-ksit because he dwells among men. Hence Roth and Bloomfield regard Pariksit in the Atharvaveda not as a human king at all. This may be correct, but it is not certain. Both Zimmer and Oldenberg recognize Pariksit as a real king, a view supported by the fact that in the later Vedic literature King Janamejaya bears the patronymic Pāriksita. If this be so, Pariksit belonged to the later period, since the Atharvan passage in which his name occurs is certainly late, and none of the other Samhitās know Pariksit at all. The Epic makes him grandfather of Pratisravas and great-grandfather of Pratīpa, and Zimmer, probably with justice, compares the Prātisutvana and Pratīpa found in another late Atharvan passage.8 But Devāpi and Santanu cannot be brought into connexion with Pratīpa.
purohita (‘Placed in front,’ ‘appointed’) is the name of a priest in the Rigveda and later. The office of Purohita is called Purohiti and Purodhā. It is clear that the primary function of the Purohita was that of ‘ domestic priest ’ of a king, or perhaps a great noble; his quite exceptional position is shown by the fact that only one Purohita seems ever to be mentioned in Vedic literature. Examples of Purohitas in the Rigveda are Viśvāmitra or Vasiçtha in the service of the Bharata king,.Sudās. of the Trtsu family; the Purohita of Kuruśravana ; and Devāpi, the Purohita of Santanu. The Purohita was in all religious matters the alter ego of the king. In the ritual it is laid down that a king must have a Purohita, else the gods will not accept his offerings. He ensures the king's safety and victory in battle by his prayers ; he procures the fall of rain for the crops j he is the flaming fire that guards the kingdom. Divodāsa in trouble is rescued by Bharadvāja; and King Tryaruna Traidhātva Aikçvāka reproaches his Purohita, Vj?śa Jāna, when his car runs over a Brahmin boy and kills him. The close relation of king and Purohita is illustrated by the case of Klltsa Aurava, who slew his Purohita, UpagfU Sauśravasa, for disloyalty in serving Indra, to whom Kutsa was hostile. Other disputes between kings and priests who officiated for them are those of Janam- ejaya and the Kaśyapas, and of Viśvantara and the śyā- parnas ;lβ and between Asamāti and the Gaupāyanas. In some cases one Purohita served more than one king; for example, Devabhāg a Srautarṣa was the Purohita of the Xufus and the Sfñjayas at the same time, and Jala Jātū- karnya was the Purohita of the kings of Kāśi, Videha, and Kosala. There is no certain proof that the office of Purohita was hereditary in a family, though it probably was so. At any rate, it seems clear from the relations of the Purohita with King Kuruśravana, and with his son Upamaśravas, that a king would keep on the Purohita of his father. Zimmer thinks that the king might act as his own Purohita, as shown by the case of King Viśvantara, who sacrificed without the help of the śyāparṇas, and that a Purohita need not be a priest, as shown by the case of Devāpi and śantanu. But neither opinion seems to be justified. It is not said that Viśvantara sacrificed without priests, while Devāpi is not regarded as a king until the Nirukta, and there is no reason to suppose that Yāska's view expressed in that work is correct. According to Geldner, the Purohita from the beginning acted as the Brahman priest in the sacrificial ritual, being there the general superintendent of the sacrifice. In favour of this view, he cites the fact that Vasiṣtha is mentioned both as Purohita and as Brahman: at the sacrifice of Sunahśepa he served as Brahman, but he was the Purohita of Sudās; Bṛhaspati is called the Purohita and the Brahman of the gods; and the Vasisthas who are Purohitas are also the Brahmans at the sacrifice. It is thus clear that the Brahman was often the Purohita; and it was natural that this should be the case when once the Brahman’s place became, as it did in the later ritual, the most important position at the sacrifice. But the Brahman can hardly be said to have held this place in the earlier ritual; Oldenberg seems to be right in holding that the Purohita was originally the Hotr priest, the singer par excellence, when he took any part at all in the ritual of the great sacrifices with the Rtvijs. So Devāpi seems clearly to have been a Hotr; Agni is at once Purohita and Hotr; and the two divine Hotṛs ’ referred to in the Apr! litanies are also called the ‘two Purohitas.’ Later, no doubt, when the priestly activity ceased to centre in the song, the Purohita, with his skill in magic, became the Brahman, who also required magic to undo the errors of the sacrifice. There is little doubt that in the original growth of the priest¬hood the Purohita played a considerable part. In historical times he represented the real power of the kingship, and may safely be deemed to have exercised great influence in all public affairs, such as the administration of justice and the king’s conduct of business. But it is not at all probable that the Purohita represents, as Roth and Zimmer thought, the source which gave rise to caste. The priestly clcss is already in existence in the Rigveda (see Varṣa).
balhika prātipīya Is the name of a Kuru king in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where he appears as having been opposed to the restoration of Duçtarītu Paumsāyana to his hereditary sovereignty over the Srñjayas, but as having failed to prevent the restoration being carried out by Revottaras Pā^ava Cākra Sthapati. The epithet Prātipīya is curious: if it connects him with Pratīpa (whose son he is in the Epic), the form is remarkable, Zimmer indeed tacitly altering it to Prātīpīya. In the Epic and the Purānas he is in the form of Vāhlīka made a brother of Devāpi and śantanu, and a son of Pratīpa. To base chronological conclusions on this would be utterly misleading, for the facts are that Devāpi was son of çṣ^iṣena and a priest, while śantanu was a Kura prince of unknown parentage, but not probably a son of Pratīpa, who seems to be a late figure in the Vedic age, later than Parikçit, being his great-grandson in the Epic. Very possibly Balhika was a descendant of Pratīpa. Why he bore the name Balhika must remain uncertain, for there is no evidence of any sort regarding it.
rājan King,' is a term repeatedly occuring in the rigveda and the later literature. It is quite clear that the normal, though not universal form of government, in early India was that by kings, as might be expected in view of the fact that the Āryan Indian were invaders in a hostile territory : a situation which, as in the case of Ārayan invaders of Greece and German invaders of England, resulted almost necessarily in strengthening the monarchic element of the constitution. The mere patriarchal organization of society is not sufficient, as Zimmer assumes, to explain the Vedic kingship. Tenure of Monarchy.—Zimmer is of opinion that while the Vedic monarchy was sometimes hereditary, as is indeed shown by several cases where the descent can be traced,® yet in others the monarchy was elective, though it is not clear whether the selection by the people was between the members of the royal family only or extended to members of all the noble clans. It must, however, be admitted that the evidence for the elective monarchy is not strong. As Geldner argues, all the passages cited can be regarded not as choice by the cantons (Viś), but as acceptance by the subjects (viś): this seems the more prob¬able sense. Of course this is no proof that the monarchy was not sometimes elective: the practice of selecting one member of the family to the exclusion of another less well qualified is exemplified by the legend in Yāska of the Kuru brothers, Devāpi and śantanu, the value of which, as evidence of contemporary views, is not seriously affected by the legend itself being of dubious character and validity. Royal power was clearly insecure: there are several references to kings being expelled from their realms, and their efforts to recover their sovereignty, and the Atharvaveda contains spells in the interest of royalty. The King in War.—Naturally the Vedic texts, after the Rigveda, contain few notices of the warlike adventures that no doubt formed a very considerable proportion of the royal functions. But the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa contains the statement that the Kuru-Pañcāla kings, who, like the Brahmins of those tribes, stand as representatives of good form, used to make their raids in the dewy season. The word Udāja, too, with its variant Nirāja, records that kings took a share of the booty of war. The Rigveda13 has many references to Vedic wars: it is clear that the Kṣatriyas were at least as intent on fulfilling their duty of war as the Brahmins on sacrificing and their other functions. Moreover, beside offensive war, defence was a chief duty of the king: he is emphatically the ‘ protector of the tribe* (gopā janasya), or, as is said in the Rājasūya (‘royal consecration’), ‘protector of the Brahmin.’14 His Purohita was expected to use his spells and charms to secure the success of his king’s arms. The king no doubt fought in person: so Pratardana met death in war according to the Kausītaki Upanisad;16 and in the Rājasūya the king is invoked as ‘sacker of cities’ (purāψ bhettā). The King in Peace.—In return for his warlike services the king received the obedience—sometimes forced—of the people, and in particular their contributions for the maintenance of royalty. The king is regularly regarded as ‘ devouring the people,’ but this phrase must not be explained as meaning that he necessarily oppressed them. It obviously has its origin in a custom by which the king and his retinue were fed by the people’s contributions, a plan with many parallels. It is also probable that the king could assign the royal right of mainten¬ance to a Ksatriya, thus developing a nobility supported by the people. Taxation would not normally fall on Kṣatriya or Brahmin; the texts contain emphatic assertions of the exemption of the goods of the latter from the royal bounty. In the people, however, lay the strength of the king. See also Bali. In return the king performed the duties of judge. Himself immune from punishment (a-daiidya), he wields the rod of punishment (Daṇda). It is probable that criminal justice remained largely in his actual administration, for the Sūtras preserve clear traces of the personal exercise of royal criminal jurisdiction. Possibly the jurisdiction could be exercised by a royal officer, or even by a delegate, for a Rājanya is mentioned as an overseer (adhyaksa) of the punishment of a śūdra in the Kāthaka Samhitā. In civil justice it may be that the king played a much less prominent part, save as a court of final appeal, but evidence is lacking on this head. The Madhyamaśi of the Rigveda was probably not a royal, but a private judge or arbitrator. A wide criminal jurisdiction is, however, to some extent supported by the frequent mention of Varuna’s spies, for Varuṇa is the divine counterpart of the human king. Possibly such spies could be used in' war also. There is no reference in early Vedic literature to the exercise of legislative activity by the king, though later it is an essential part of his duties. Nor can we say exactly what executive functions devolved on the king. In all his acts the king was regularly advised by his Purohita ; he also had the advantage of the advice of the royal ministers and attendants (see Ratnin). The local administration was entrusted to the Grāmartī, or village chief, who may have been selected or appointed by the'king. The outward signs of the king’s rank were his palace and his brilliant dress. The King as Landowner.—The position of the king with regard to the land is somewhat obscure. The Greek notices,30 in which, unhappily, it would be dangerous to put much trust, since they were collected by observers who were probably little used to accurate investigations of such matters, and whose statements wore based on inadequate information, vary in their statements. In part they speak of rent being paid, and declare that only the king and no private person could own land, while in part they refer to the taxation of land. Hopkins is strongly of opinion that the payments made were paid for protection —i.e., in modern terminology as a tax, but that the king was recognized as the owner of all the land, while yet the individual or the joint family also owned the land. As against Baden- Powell, who asserted that the idea of the king as a landowner was later, he urges for the Vedic period that the king, as we have seen, is described as devouring the people, and that, according to the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Vaiśya can be devoured at will and maltreated (but, unlike the śūdra, not killed); and for the period of the legal Sūtras and śāstras he cites Bṛhaspati and Nārada as clearly recognizing the king’s overlordship, besides a passage of the Mānava Dharma Sāstra which describes the king as ‘lord of all a phrase which Būhler35 was inclined to interpret as a proof of landowning. The evidence is, however, inadequate to prove what is sought. It is not denied that gradually the king came to be vaguely con¬ceived—as the English king still is—as lord of all the land in a proprietorial sense, but it is far more probable that such an idea was only a gradual development than that it was primitive. The power of devouring the people is a political power, not a right of ownership; precisely the same feature can be traced in South Africa,3® where the chief can deprive a man arbitrarily of his land, though the land is really owned by the native. The matter is ultimately to some extent one of terminology, but the parallel cases are in favour of distinguishing between the political rights of the crown, which can be transferred by way of a grant, and the rights of ownership. Hopkins37 thinks that the gifts of land to priests, which seems to be the first sign of land transactions in the Brāhmaṇas, was an actual gift of land; it may have been so in many cases, but it may easily also have been the grant of a superiority : the Epic grants are hardly decisive one way or the other. For the relations of the king with the assembly, see Sabhā ; for his consecration, see Rājasūya. A rāja-tā, lack of a king,’ means‘anarchy.’
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
veṇu In the Atharvaveda and later denotes a ‘reed’ of bamboo. It is described in the Taittirīya Samhitā as ‘hollow’ (sιt-sira). In the Rigveda it occurs only in a Vālakhilya hymn in a Dānastuti (‘praise of gifts’), where Roth thinks that ‘flutes of reed’ are meant, a sense which Veṇu has in the later texts. The Kausītaki Brāhmana couples Veṇu with Sasya, stating that they ripen in Vasanta, ‘spring.’ Apparently bamboo reeds are meant.
veśantā All denote a 'pond' or ‘tank.’ Cf. Vaiśanta.
veśāntā See Veśantā.
       Bloomfield Vedic
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antarikṣaṃ śāntaṃ tad vāyunā śāntaṃ tan me śāntaṃ śucaṃ śamayatu TA.4.42.5.
anti santaṃ na jahāti AVś.10.8.32a.
anti santaṃ na paśyati AVś.10.8.32b.
apākā santam iṣira praṇayasi RV.1.129.1b.
asurāḥ santaḥ svadhayā caranti VS.2.30b; śB.2.4.2.15b; Aś.2.6.2b; śś.4.4.2b; Apś.1.8.7b; Kauś.88.1b; SMB.2.3.4b; JG.2.2b. Cf. apayantv asurāḥ.
atharvabhiḥ śāntaḥ sukṛtām etu lokam Kauś.125.2d. Cf. atharvāṇo 'ṅgirasaś.
brahma santaṃ brahmaṇā vardhayanti AVś.13.1.33d; TB.2.8.8.9d.
citraṃ santaṃ guhā hitam RV.4.7.6c.
dyauḥ śāntā TA.4.42.5; BDh.3.6.6.
ekaṃ santam akṛṇutā caturvayam RV.1.110.3d.
ekaṃ santaṃ bahudhā kalpayanti RV.10.114.5b.
garbhe santaṃ reṣaṇā reṣayanti RV.1.148.5b.
guhā santaṃ subhaga viśvadarśatam RV.5.8.3c; TS.3.3.11.2c; JB.1.64c; śB.12.4.4.2c; Mś.5.1.2.17c.
guhā santaṃ havyavāhaṃ samīdhe RV.3.5.10d.
guhā santaṃ mātariśvā mathāyati RV.1.141.3d.
ihaiva santaḥ prati tad yātayāmaḥ TB.3.7.9.8c; Apś.13.22.5c. See next, and ihaiva san nir-.
ihaiva santaḥ prati dadma enat AVś.6.117.2a. See under prec.
namaḥ śāntātmane tubhyam MU.5.1a.
nīcā santam ud anayaḥ parāvṛjam RV.2.13.12c.
pākaṃ santaṃ dhīratarā anāgasam AVś.10.1.18d.
paścā santaṃ puras kṛdhi RV.10.171.4b.
pṛthivī śāntā TA.4.42.5.
tvayi santaṃ mayi santaṃ mākṣiṣur mā rīriṣur mā hiṃsiṣur mā dāṅkṣuḥ sarpāḥ MG.2.16.3. See tvayi mā.
ugrā santā havāmahe RV.1.21.4a.
yathāpaḥ śāntāḥ, yathā pṛthivī, evaṃ mayi śāmyatu śG.6.6.3--6.
yudhmaṃ santam anarvāṇam RV.8.92.8a; SV.2.993a.
yuvānaṃ santaṃ palito jagāra RV.10.55.5b; AVś.9.10.9b; SV.1.325b; 2.1132b; MS.4.9.12b: 133.10; TA.4.20.1b; KA.1.198.14b; N.14.18b.
agnaye gāyatrāya trivṛte rāthaṃtarāyāṣṭākapālaḥ (TS.KSA. rāthaṃtarāya vāsantāyāṣṭākapālaḥ; MS. rāthaṃtarāya vāsantikāya puroḍāśam aṣṭākapālaṃ nirvapati) # VS.29.60; TS.7.5.14.1; MS.3.15.10: 180.7; KSA.5.10. P: agnaye gāyatrāya Apś.20.9.2.
agniṃ nakṣanta (SV. nakṣantu) no giraḥ # RV.8.103.1d; SV.1.47d; 2.865d.
agnir bhagaḥ savitedaṃ juṣantām # Mś.3.5.13a. Cf. dhātā rātiḥ savitedaṃ.
agniś ca mā manyuś ca manyupatayaś ca manyukṛtebhyaḥ pāpebhyo rakṣantām # TA.10.24.1; MahānU.14.3. P: agniś ca mā manyuś ca VāDh.23.23.
aṅgoṣiṇam avāvaśanta vāṇīḥ # SV.1.528b; 2.758b. See āṅgūṣāṇām.
achāpa itośatīr uśantaḥ # RV.10.30.2b.
atharvāṇo 'ṅgirasaś ca śāntāḥ # GB.1.5.24b. Cf. atharvabhiḥ.
atho puruṣareṣaṇaḥ # AVP.3.12.9b. See śāntaḥ puruṣa-.
aditsanta dāpayati (TSṃS. dāpayatu) prajānan # VS.9.24c; TS.1.7.10.1c; MS.1.11.4c: 165.6; KS.14.2c; śB.5.2.2.6c. See utāditsantaṃ.
adbhir ātmānam abhi saṃ spṛśantām # AVś.12.3.30b.
adhokṣaṇo daśa mahyaṃ ruśantaḥ # RV.8.1.33c.
anasvantaḥ śrava aiṣanta pajrāḥ # RV.1.126.5d.
anujighraṃ pramṛśantam # AVś.8.6.6a.
antarikṣe (KS. antarikṣaṃ) viṣṇur vyakraṃsta traiṣṭubhena chandasā # VS.2.25; KS.5.5; śB.1.9.3.10,12; śś.4.12.3. See viṣṇur antarikṣe, and traiṣṭubhena chandasāntarikṣam.
anti cit santam aha # RV.8.11.4a.
annaṃ rakṣantau bahudhā virūpam # TB.3.1.2.10c.
annaṃ pūrvā rāsantāṃ me aṣāḍhāḥ # AVś.19.7.4a; Nakṣ.10.4a.
anvaikṣanta (TS. abhyaikṣanta) manasā cakṣuṣā ca # AVś.2.34.3b; AVP.3.32.4b; TS.3.1.4.2b; MS.1.2.15b: 25.5; KS.30.8b. P: anvaikṣanta manasā MS.3.9.7: 125.16.
apayantv asurāḥ pitṛrūpāḥ # Apś.1.8.7a; Mś.1.1.2.8a. P: apayantv asurāḥ ViDh.73.11. Cf. asurāḥ santaḥ.
apām iṣanta bhurvaṇi # RV.1.134.5c.
apo hy eṣām ajuṣanta devāḥ # RV.4.33.9a.
aprapāṇā ca veśantā # AVś.20.128.8a; śś.12.21.2.3a. P: aprapāṇā śś.16.13.10.
abhipratārin bahudhā vasantam # ChU.4.3.6d; JUB.3.2.2d,13.
abhy aikṣanta # see anv aikṣanta.
aryo naśanta no dhiyaḥ # RV.10.133.3b; AVś.20.95.4b; SV.2.1153b.
aryo naśanta saniṣanta (SV. naḥ santu saniṣantu) no dhiyaḥ # RV.9.79.1d; SV.1.555d.
ava bādhe dviṣantaṃ devapīyum # AVś.4.35.7a.
avāhaṃ bādha upabhṛtā sapatnān (KS. dviṣantam) # KS.31.14a; TB.3.7.6.9a; Apś.4.7.2a.
astaṃ na gāvo nakṣanta iddham # RV.1.66.9b; N.10.21b.
asthur apāṃ normayo ruśantaḥ # RV.6.64.1b.
asme vatsaṃ pari ṣantaṃ na vindan # RV.1.72.2a.
asyed eva śavasā śuṣantam # RV.1.61.10a; AVś.20.35.10a.
ahaś ca rātriś ca kṛṣiś ca vṛṣṭiś ca tviṣiś cāpacitiś cāpaś cauṣadhayaś cork ca sūnṛtā ca tās tvā dīkṣamāṇam anudīkṣantām # TB.3.7.7.8; Apś.10.11.1. Cf. catasro diśaś.
āgneyā vāsantāḥ # Apś.20.23.11.
āṅgūṣāṇām avāvaśanta vāṇīḥ # RV.9.90.2b. See aṅgoṣiṇam etc.
ā ca viśanty uśatīr uśantam # RV.9.95.3d; SV.1.544d.
āñjanena sarpiṣā saṃ viśantu (AVś. spṛśantām; TA. mṛśantām) # RV.10.18.7b; AVś.12.2.31b; 18.3.57b; TA.6.10.2b.
ātithye raṇann ṛbhavaḥ sasantaḥ # RV.4.33.7b.
ād it te viśve kratuṃ juṣanta # RV.1.68.3a.
ādityā rudrā vasavo juṣanta (AVś.AVP. juṣantām) # RV.7.35.14a; AVś.19.11.4a; AVP.12.17.4a.
ānujāvaram anu rakṣanta ugrāḥ # AVP.4.27.1c.
āpa oṣadhīr vanino juṣanta # RV.7.34.25b; 56.25b.
āpaḥ śivāḥ śivatamāḥ śāntāḥ śāntatamāḥ # PG.1.8.5.
āpas tvā dīkṣamāṇam anudīkṣantām # TB.3.7.7.8; Apś.10.11.1.
ā vāṃ devāsa uśatī uśantaḥ # RV.10.70.6c.
āveśayan niveśayan saṃveśanaḥ saṃśāntaḥ śāntaḥ # TB.3.10.1.2.
āsann eṣanta śrutyā upāke # RV.8.96.3d.
ichanto 'paridākṛtān # ApMB.2.13.11d. See īpsantaḥ.
iḍā (VārG. ilā) devī ghṛtapadī juṣanta (VārG. omits juṣanta) # RV.10.70.8d; VārG.13.2b.
itthaṃ mā santaṃ pāhi # MS.1.2.2: 11.4; KS.2.2.
idaṃ sūktaṃ maruto juṣanta # RV.7.58.6b.
idam ahaṃ ruśantaṃ grābham # AVś.14.1.38a. P: idam aham Kauś.75.15.
idam ahaṃ dviṣantaṃ bhrātṛvyaṃ pāpmānam alakṣmīṃ cāpa dhunomi # śG.6.5.5.
idam aham ābhyo digbhyo 'syai divo 'smād antarikṣād asmād annadyād asyai pratiṣṭhāyai dviṣantaṃ bhrātṛvyaṃ nirbhajāmi # śś.4.12.10. See idam aham amuṃ bhrātṛvyam.
idam ahaṃ pañcadaśena vajreṇa dviṣantaṃ bhrātṛvyam avakrāmāmi yo 'smān dveṣṭi yaṃ ca vayaṃ dviṣmaḥ # TB.3.5.1.1.
idaṃ me devā havir juṣantām # TB.3.5.8.3; 13.3; Aś.1.7.7; śś.1.12.1.
indra ṛbhukṣā maruto juṣanta # RV.5.41.2b.
indra okyaṃ didhiṣanta dhītayaḥ # RV.1.132.5f.
indravanto havir idaṃ juṣantām # TB.2.6.16.2d; Apś.8.15.17d. Cf. under indravantā.
indrasyāvadyaṃ didhiṣanta āpaḥ # RV.4.18.7b.
indrasyorum ā viśa dakṣiṇam uśann uśantaṃ syonaḥ syonam # VS.4.27; TS.1.2.7.1; MS.1.2.6: 15.2; KS.2.6; śB.3.3.3.10. Ps: indrasyorum ā viśa dakṣiṇam TS.6.1.11.1; MS.3.78: 86.1; KS.24.6; indrasyorum ā viśa Apś.10.27.3; Mś.2.1.4.18; indrasyorum Kś.7.8.23.
imaṃ yajñaṃ pitaro me juṣantām # AVś.18.4.40b. See etaṃ yajñaṃ.
imaṃ yajñaṃ pradivo me juṣantām # AVś.1.15.1c.
imāṃ devā ajuṣanta viśve # KS.1.9c; Apś.2.2.6c; Mś.1.2.4.19c.
imā havyā juṣanta naḥ # RV.6.52.11c.
imau devau jāyamānau juṣanta # RV.2.40.2a; TS.1.8.22.5a; MS.4.11.2a: 164.1; KS.8.17a. P: imau devau TS.2.6.11.4; MS.4.14.1: 214.11; TB.2.8.1.5.
iha mā santaṃ pāhi # TS.1.2.1.2.
ihaiva san (Mś. saṃs) tatra santaṃ tvāgne # TB.2.5.8.7a; Aś.2.5.7a; Mś.1.6.3.18a. See prec.
ihaiva san niravadaye tad # TS.3.3.8.2c. See under ihaiva santaḥ prati tad.
īrmaiva te ny aviśanta kepayaḥ # RV.10.44.6d; AVś.20.94.6d; N.5.25d.
ukṣante aśvān taruṣanta ā rajaḥ # RV.5.59.1c.
utāditsanta dāpayatu (AVP. -yati) prajānan # AVś.3.20.8c; AVP.3.34.9c. See aditsantaṃ dāpayati.
udapruto nabhasī saṃ vasantām # KS.35.9d; Apś.14.28.4d.
ud dharṣantāṃ maghavan vājināni (AVP.1.56.2a, maghavann āyudhāni; AVP.1.56.2c, -tāṃ vājināṃ vājināni) # AVś.3.19.6a; AVP.1.56.2a,2c. P: ud dharṣantām Vait.34.16. Cf. ud dharṣaya, and ud vṛtrahan.
ud dharṣaya maghavann (AVś.AVP. satvanām) āyudhāni # RV.10.103.10a; AVś.5.20.8b; AVP.9.27.6b; SV.2.1208a; VS.17.42a; TS.4.6.4.4a. Cf. ud dharṣantāṃ.
ud vṛtrahan vājināṃ vājināni # RV.10.103.10c; SV.2.1208c; VS.17.42c; TS.4.6.4.4c. Cf. ud dharṣantāṃ.
upa pra jinvann uśatīr uśantam # RV.1.71.1a. P: upa pra jinvan Aś.4.13.7.
uśantas tvā ni dhīmahi (AVś. tvedhīmahi; TSṃS.KSṭB.Apśṃś. tvā havāmahe) # RV.10.16.12a; AVś.18.1.56a; VS.19.70a; TS.2.6.12.1a; MS.1.10.18a: 157.18; 4.10.6: 156.1; KS.21.14a; 36.12; śB.2.6.1.22a; TB.2.6.16.1; Aś.2.19.6; Apś.8.14.18; Mś.5.1.4.11; 11.9.1.5; 11.9.2.7. Ps: uśantas tvā śś.3.16.23; YDh.1.232; AuśDh.5.37; BṛhPDh.5.197; uśantaḥ Kauś.87.19.
ūrjasvatīr oṣadhīr ā riśantām (KSA. viśantām) # RV.10.169.1b; TS.7.4.17.1b; KSA.4.6b.
ṛgbhiḥ pṛthivīṃ yajuṣāntarikṣam # GB.1.5.25a.
ṛcas tvā dīkṣamāṇam anudīkṣantām # TB.3.7.7.8; Apś.10.11.1. Cf. vācaṃ ma ṛco.
ṛtaṃ śaṃsanta ṛju dīdhyānāḥ # RV.10.67.2a; AVś.20.91.2a.
ṛtaṃ śaṃsanta ṛtam it ta āhuḥ # RV.3.4.7c; 7.8c.
ṛtasya yoniṃ vimṛśanta āsate # RV.10.65.7b.
ṛtasya yonau tanvo juṣanta # RV.10.8.3d.
etaṃ yajñaṃ pitaro no juṣantām # HG.2.10.6b. See imaṃ yajñaṃ pitaro.
etaṃ dviṣantam avadhiṣam # AVP.10.12.12a.
ehi brahmopehi brahma brahma tvā sa brahma santam upanayāmy aham asau # VārG.5.17.
oṣadhayas tvā dīkṣamāṇam anudīkṣantām # TB.3.7.7.8; Apś.10.11.1.
oṣadhīr dāntu parvan # part of ahiṃsanta oṣadhīr, q.v.
kakṣīvanta ud amṛkṣanta pajrāḥ # RV.1.126.4d.
kad atviṣanta sūrayaḥ # RV.8.94.7a.
kṛṣṇāḥ pṛṣantas traiyambakāḥ # VS.24.18. P: kṛṣṇāḥ pṛṣantaḥ Apś.20.14.14.
ke pāyavaḥ saniṣanta dyumantaḥ # RV.5.12.4b.
ko maṃsate santam indraṃ ko anti # RV.1.84.17b; N.14.26b.
kratuṃ hi te mitramaho juṣanta # RV.7.5.6b.
kratuṃ hy asya vasavo juṣanta # RV.7.11.4c.
yemānaṃ pari ṣantam adrim # RV.4.1.15b.
gaur amīmed anu (AVś. abhi) vatsaṃ miṣantam # RV.1.164.28a; AVś.9.10.6a; AB.1.22.2; Aś.4.7.4; N.11.42a. P: gaur amīmet śś.5.10.6.
grāme vasanta uta vāraṇye # PG.1.12.4b.
grīṣmo hemanta uta no (śG. vā) vasantaḥ # TS.5.7.2.4a; śG.4.18.1a; SMB.2.1.11a; PG.3.2.2a. See next two, vasanto grīṣmo madhumanti, and hemanto vasanto.
grīṣmo hemantaḥ śiśiro vasantaḥ # AVś.6.55.2a. P: grīṣmo hemantaḥ Vait.2.16. See under prec. but one.
ghṛtasya dhārāḥ samidho nasanta # RV.4.58.8c; AVP.8.13.8c; VS.17.96c; KS.40.7c; Apś.17.18.1c; N.7.17c.
ghraṃsaṃ rakṣantaṃ pari viśvato gayam # RV.5.44.7c.
cārum annādaṃ parā dviṣantaṃ śṛṇīta # AVP.4.30.1d--9d.
jane cit santaṃ tam ihā vahāsi # AVP.2.66.3b.
jināmi vet kṣema ā santam ābhum # RV.10.27.4c.
jivrī yat santā pitarā sanājurā # RV.4.36.3c.
jīvā vo jīvanta iha santaḥ syāma # MS.1.10.3: 143.6; Aś.2.7.7; Mś.1.1.2.36.
juṣatām # Aś.3.4.15. Cf. the ūha juṣantām, in the comm.
juṣantāṃ yajñam adruhaḥ # RV.3.22.4c; VS.12.50c; śB.7.1.1.25. See juṣantāṃ havyam.
juṣantāṃ havyam āhutam # TS.4.2.4.3c; MS.2.7.11c: 89.16; KS.16.11c. See juṣantāṃ yajñam, and cf. juṣasva havyam āhutam.
juṣasva havyam āhutam # RV.2.32.6c; AVś.7.20.2c; 46.1c; 68.1c; VS.34.10c; TS.3.1.11.3c; MS.4.12.6c: 195.5; KS.13.16c; N.11.32c. Cf. juṣantāṃ havyam.
jñātī cit santau na samaṃ pṛṇītaḥ # RV.10.117.9d.
taṃ vai paśyāmo bahudhā nu santam # AVś.19.53.3b; AVP.11.8.3b.
tataḥ pāvakā āśiṣo no juṣantām # TS.4.6.3.3d; 5.4.6.3. See tato vākā.
tato vākā āśiṣo no juṣantām # VS.17.57c; MS.2.10.5d: 137.7; 3.3.8: 41.20; KS.18.3d; śB.9.2.3.11. See tataḥ pāvakā.
tad asmai devā rāsantām # MS.4.13.9: 212.11; TB.3.5.10.5; śB.1.9.1.19; Aś.1.9.5; śś.1.14.18.
tad eva santas tad u tad bhavāmaḥ # śB.14.7.2.15a; BṛhU.4.4.15a.
tan me juṣantāṃ tā mā pāntu # JG.1.23.
tam agnayaḥ sarvahutaṃ juṣantām # AVś.18.4.13c.
tam apsanta śavasa utsaveṣu # RV.1.100.8a.
tam amṛkṣanta vājinam # RV.9.26.1a.
tayor devā adhisaṃvasantaḥ # Apś.7.5.1c. See under tasyāṃ devā.
tasya te vasantaḥ śiraḥ # MS.4.9.18: 135.8; TB.3.10.4.1; TA.4.19.1.
tasya devā devahūtiṃ juṣantām # AVP.15.6.7c.
tasyāṃ devā adhi saṃvasantaḥ # TS.3.5.1.1c; TB.3.1.1.12c. See next, tayor devā, and yasyāṃ devā abhi.
abhi santam astṛtam # AVś.9.9.5a.
tābhyāṃ durhārdam abhidāsantaṃ kimīdinam # AVś.8.3.25c.
tāṃ me sametāḥ pitaro juṣantām # HG.2.15.2b.
tiro mā santam āyur mā pra hāsīt (Aś. santaṃ mā pra hāsīḥ) # TB.1.2.1.27c; 2.5.8.7c; Aś.2.5.7c; Apś.6.25.2c. See tiro me yajña.
tiro vaiśantam ati pāntam ugram # RV.7.33.2b.
turaṇyavo 'ṅgiraso nakṣanta # RV.7.52.3a.
tṛpyantu devā āvṛṣantāṃ ghṛtena # Apś.3.11.2d.
te devāso (TS. devā) yajñam imaṃ juṣadhvam (AVś. juṣantām) # RV.1.139.11d; AVś.7.28.1d; VS.7.19d; TS.1.4.10.1d; MS.1.3.13d: 35.8; KS.4.5d; śB.4.2.2.9d. See next.
te no rāsantām urugāyam adya # RV.7.35.15c; 10.65.15c; AVś.19.11.5c; AVP.12.17.5c.
te no rāsantāṃ mahaye sumitryāḥ # RV.10.65.3d.
te mā juṣantāṃ payasā ghṛtena # AVś.3.15.2c.
tritaṃ naśanta pra śiṣanta iṣṭaye # RV.10.115.4d.
tredhā tiṣṭhanti viṣitā ruśantaḥ # AVś.4.16.6b; AVP.5.32.1b. Cf. antarā dyāvāpṛthivī vicṛttāḥ.
traiṣṭubhena chandasāntarikṣam anu vi krame # TS.1.6.5.2. See under antarikṣe viṣṇur.
tvaṃ kūcit santaṃ sahasāvann abhiṣṭaye # RV.10.93.11b.
tvayi mā santaṃ tvayi santaḥ sarpā mā hiṃṣiṣuḥ # AG.2.1.10. See tvayi santaṃ.
tvāṃ nakṣanta no giraḥ # RV.8.92.27b.
daṅkṣyantaṃ ca daśantaṃ ca # ApMB.2.17.1c.
dadhāno vajraṃ bāhvor uśantam # RV.4.22.3c.
dipsauṣadhe tvaṃ dipsantam # AVś.5.14.1c; AVP.7.1.1c.
divyāḥ sarpā ava nenijatām # śG.4.15.6; ... sarpā ā chādayantām 4.15.10; ... sarpā āñjatām 4.15.11; ... sarpā ā badhnatām 4.15.9; ... sarpā īkṣantām 4.15.12; ... sarpā eṣa vo baliḥ 4.15.13; ... sarpāḥ pra likhantām 4.15.7; ... sarpāḥ pra limpantām 4.15.8.
diśas tvā dīkṣamāṇam anudīkṣantām # TB.3.7.7.8; Apś.10.11.1.
dūre cit santam aruṣāsa indram # AVś.3.3.2a; AVP.2.74.2a. P: dūre cit santam Vait.30.27.
dūre cit santam avase havāmahe # RV.8.86.4b.
devasya sūno sahaso naśanta # RV.7.1.22d.
devā ājyapā ājyam ajuṣanta # MS.4.13.9: 212.7; śB.1.9.1.10; TB.3.5.10.4; Aś.1.9.5; śś.1.14.14.
devā ma idaṃ havir juṣantām # MS.4.13.5: 206.4; śB.1.8.1.37.
devās tvā devayajyāyai juṣantām # VS.5.42; śB.3.6.4.8.
daivyā hotārā vaniṣanta etc. # see next but one.
daivyā hotāro (TS. hotārā) vanuṣanta (TS. vaniṣanta) pūrve (KS. vaniṣan na etat) # RV.10.128.3c; TS.4.7.14.1c; KS.40.10c. See daivā hotāraḥ saniṣan.
druhe rīṣantaṃ pari dhehi rājan # RV.2.30.9d.
dviṣantam apa bādhasva (AVP. bādhatām) # AVP.7.5.12d; SMB.1.2.1c; JG.1.12c. Cf. dviṣantaṃ me 'va-.
dviṣantaṃ mahyaṃ (TB.Apś. mama) randhayan # RV.1.50.13c; TB.3.7.6.23c; Apś.4.15.1c. P: dviṣantam Rvidh.1.19.2,4.
dviṣantaṃ me 'vabādhasva # TA.4.32.1d. Cf. dviṣantam apa.
dhane hite taruṣanta śravasyavaḥ # RV.1.132.5b.
dhātā rātiḥ savitedaṃ juṣantām # AVś.3.8.2a; 7.17.4a; VS.8.17a; TS.1.4.44.1a; MS.1.3.38a: 44.4; KS.4.12a; 13.9a,10; śB.4.4.4.9a. P: dhātā rātiḥ Apś.9.18.16; 13.18.4; Mś.2.5.4.16. Cf. agnir bhagaḥ savitedaṃ.
dhīram adhīrā dhayati śvasantam # RV.1.179.4d.
dhīrāś cit tat saminakṣanta āśata # RV.9.73.9c.
dhūmrān vasantāyālabhate # VS.24.11. See next but one.
dhūmrā vasantāya # MS.3.13.19: 172.5. See prec. but one.
nakir ditsantam ā minat # RV.7.32.5d.
na tat te anyā uṣaso naśanta # RV.1.123.11d.
na te bhojasya sakhyaṃ mṛṣanta # RV.7.18.21c.
na martāso ditsantam # RV.8.81.3b; SV.2.80b.
namo nādyāya (VS. nādeyāya) ca vaiśantāya ca # VS.16.37; TS.4.5.7.1; MS.2.9.6: 125.8; KS.17.15.
nāsatyā kuha cit santāv aryaḥ # RV.1.184.1c.
ni cin miṣantā nicirā ni cikyatuḥ # RV.8.25.9c.
nir dviṣantaṃ divo niḥ pṛthivyā nir antarikṣād bhajāma # AVś.16.7.6.
nir dviṣantaṃ nir arātiṃ nuda (MSṃś. daha) # MS.1.4.3: 51.1; Apś.3.10.4; Mś.1.4.3.4.
ny anyā arkam abhito viviśre (AVś. 'viśanta; JB. viviśyuḥ) # RV.8.101.14b; AVś.10.8.3b; JB.2.229b (ter); śB.2.5.1.4b; ā.2.1.1.4b,6.
pakvair vitthaiḥ pratibhūṣanta enau # AVP.2.20.3c.
pañca janā mama hotraṃ juṣantām # RV.10.53.5a. Designated as pañcajanīyā (sc. ṛk) śś.10.2.8; 14.56.14; 18.22.9.
patiṃ na patnīr uśatīr uśantam # RV.1.62.11c.
patha imaṃ tasmād rakṣantaḥ # AVś.8.2.10c.
padaṃ juṣanta yad divi # RV.8.13.29b.
parāvato ye didhiṣanta āpyam # RV.10.63.1a; AB.5.2.11; KB.22.5. Ps: parāvato ye Aś.7.7.2; parāvataḥ śś.10.4.14; 11.9.14; Rvidh.3.13.5.
parā vada dviṣantaṃ ghorāṃ vācaṃ parā vadāthāsmabhyaṃ sumitryāṃ vācaṃ dundubhe kalyāṇīṃ kīrtim ā vada # Lś.3.11.3. Quasi metrical.
pari varṇaṃ bharamāṇo ruśantam # RV.9.97.15c; SV.2.158c.
paścāc cit santam adrivaḥ # RV.8.80.4b.
pitur na putrāḥ kratuṃ juṣanta # RV.1.68.9a.
piśaṅgās trayo vāsantāḥ # TS.5.6.23.1; KSA.10.3; TB.3.9.9.3; Apś.20.23.10.
puroḍāśaṃ ghṛtavantaṃ juṣantām # TB.2.8.2.2d.
pūṣā bhagaḥ sarasvatī juṣanta # RV.5.46.2d; VS.33.48d.
pṛthupragāṇam uśantam uśānaḥ # RV.3.5.7b.
prati gāva uṣasaṃ vāvaśanta # RV.7.75.7d.
prati śvasantaṃ vṛṣabha bruvīmahi # RV.8.21.11b; SV.1.403b.
prati śvasantam ava dānavaṃ han # RV.5.29.4d.
pratyaṅ janān saṃcukośāntakāle # N.1.15d, in Durga's comm. See Roth's Erl"auterungen, p. 12, note 4. See next.
pra tvā carum iva yeṣantam # AVś.4.7.4c; AVP.2.1.3c.
prabodhayantīr uṣasaḥ sasantam # RV.4.51.5c.
pra brahmāṇo aṅgiraso nakṣanta # RV.7.41.1a; AB.5.20.8; KB.26.11; Aś.8.11.1. P: pra brahmāṇaḥ śś.10.10.4.
pra brahmāṇo abhinakṣanta indram # RV.8.96.5d.
pra yakṣanta śravasyavaḥ # RV.1.132.5c.
pra yā vājaṃ na heṣantam # RV.5.84.2c; TS.2.2.12.3c.
pra saptayaḥ pra saniṣanta no dhiyaḥ # RV.10.142.2c.
prācīnaṃ jyotiḥ pradiśā diśantā # RV.10.110.7d; AVś.5.12.7d; VS.29.32d; MS.4.13.3d: 202.8; KS.16.20d; TB.3.6.3.4d; N.8.12d.
prācyā tvā diśāgninā devatayā gāyatreṇa chandasā vasantam ṛtuṃ praviśāmi # KA.1.58; 2.58. See prec.
prāvan namīṃ sāpyaṃ sasantam # RV.6.20.6c.
priyaṃ priyāḥ sam aviśanta pañca # RV.10.55.2d.
brahmabhāga evāhaṃ bhūyāsaṃ pāpmabhāgā me dviṣantaḥ # SMB.2.4.14.
brahmāṇo me juṣantām annam annam # JG.2.2b.
bhūtaṃ spṛtam # VS.14.25; śB.8.4.2.12. See bhūtaṃ niśāntaṃ.
bhūtaṃ niśāntaṃ spṛtam (KS. omits spṛtam) # TS.4.3.9.2; MS.2.8.5: 110.4; KS.17.4. See bhūtaṃ spṛtam.
bhūrīd indra udinakṣantam ojaḥ # RV.10.8.9a.
bhṛmiṃ cid yathā vasavo juṣanta # RV.7.56.20b.
maghāsu yajñaṃ sukṛtaṃ juṣantām # TB.3.1.1.7d.
matsarāso jarhṛṣanta prasāham # RV.6.17.4d.
mahām adriṃ pari gā indra santam # RV.6.17.5c.
mahīr apo vṛṣantamaḥ # RV.6.57.4b; SV.1.148b; KS.23.11b.
māṃ viśaḥ saṃmanaso juṣantām # AVP.5.4.12c. Cf. evā viśaḥ.
tvā dabhan sapatnā dipsantaḥ # AVP.2.72.5c.
na ukṣantam uta mā na ukṣitam # RV.1.114.7b; VS.16.15b; TS.4.5.10.2b; Tā.10.52b; Mś.3.1.28b. See mā no vahantam.
no vahantam uta mā no vakṣyataḥ # AVś.11.2.29b. See mā na ukṣantam.
mām imaṃ tava santam atre # RV.5.40.7a.
mā (KS. māṃ) hiṃsiṣṭaṃ svaṃ (KS. yat svaṃ) yonim āviśantau (KS. āviśāthaḥ) # MS.2.3.8d: 36.12; KS.17.19d. See mā mā hiṃsīḥ svāṃ, and mainaṃ hiṃsiṣṭaṃ.
mitrasya mā cakṣuṣā sarvāṇi bhūtāni samīkṣantām # VS.36.18.
mitro aryamā varuṇo juṣanta # RV.2.27.2b.
mitho nasanta jāmibhiḥ # RV.8.72.14c; SV.2.831c.
medhaṃ juṣanta vahnayaḥ # RV.1.3.9c; MS.4.10.3c: 150.13.
mainaṃ hiṃsiṣṭaṃ svāṃ yonim āviśantau # AB.8.8.11d. See under mā mā hiṃsiṣṭaṃ svaṃ.
yajūṃṣi tvā dīkṣamāṇam anudīkṣantām # TB.3.7.7.8; Apś.10.11.1.
yajñasya-yajñasya ketuṃ ruśantam # RV.10.1.5b; TB.2.4.3.6b.
yatāyai yatāyai śāntāyai śāntivāyai bhadrāyai bhadrāvati syonāyai śagmāyai śivāyai # Kauś.39.9.
yatra devā ajuṣanta etc. # see yatra devāso etc.
yatra devāso (KS. devā) ajuṣanta viśve # VS.4.1b; KS.2.4b; śB.3.1.1.11; Mś.2.1.1.6b. See viśve devā yad.
yatra viśve kāravaḥ saṃnasanta # RV.9.92.5b.
yat sasantaṃ vajreṇābodhayo 'him # RV.1.103.7b.
yathaitā etasyāṃ praṇutās takantīr yanty evainena dviṣantaḥ praṇutā yanty adhipatir bhavati svānāṃ cānyeṣāṃ ca ya evaṃ veda # AVP.11.16.3.
yad apāṃ krūraṃ yad amedhyaṃ yad aśāntaṃ tad apagachatāt # TA.10.1.13; MahānU.5.1; BDh.2.5.8.6. See next.
yad apāṃ ghoraṃ yad apāṃ krūraṃ yad apām aśāntam ati tat sṛjāmi # SMB.1.7.2. Ps: yad apāṃ ghoraṃ yad apāṃ krūraṃ yad apām aśāntam GG.3.4.15; yad apām KhG.3.1.14. See prec.
yad īm uśantam uśatām anu kratum # RV.10.11.3c; AVś.18.1.20c.
yaḥ śaṃsantaṃ yaḥ śaśamānam ūtī # RV.2.12.14b; 20.3c; AVś.20.34.15b; AVP.12.15.5b.
yasya pratihitāyāḥ saṃviśantaḥ # AVP.5.22.5a.
yasyāṃ (var. lect. asyāṃ) devā abhi saṃviśantaḥ # Mś.6.2.3.8c. See under tasyāṃ devā.
yasyām uśantaḥ praharāma (AVś.ApMBḥG.JG. -rema) śepam (AVś. śepaḥ; JG. śepham) # RV.10.85.37d; AVś.14.2.38d; PG.1.4.16c; ApMB.1.11.6d; HG.1.20.2d; JG.1.21d; N.3.21.
yābhiḥ kaṇvaṃ pra siṣāsantam āvatam # RV.1.112.5c.
yām iṣuṃ giriśanta (NīlarU. -ntam) # AVP.14.3.5a; VS.16.3a; TS.4.5.1.1a; MS.2.9.2a: 121.1; KS.17.11a; śvetU.3.6a; NīlarU.5a.
yūnā ha santā prathamaṃ vi jajñatuḥ # RV.9.68.5c.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"santa" has 17 results.
     
ṭacthe samasanta affix अ added to certain specified words at the end of the tatpurusa and other compounds exempli gratia, for example राजसखः, पञ्चगवम्, महानसम्, समक्षम् , अध्यात्मम् et cetera, and others cf P.V.4.91-112.
ḍacasamasanta (अ) added to a Bahu vrihi compound meaning a numeral exempli gratia, for example उपदशाः उपविंशाः confer, compare P.V.474.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
dvidaṇḍyādia class of words, which are headed by the word द्विदण्डि and which are all bahuvrihi compounds, to which the affix इ is found added as a Samasanta affix e. gद्विदण्डिः, सपदि et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.1. varia lectio, another reading, 4.128.
samāsāntasecondary suffixes which are prescribed at the end of compounds in specific cases and which are looked upon as taddhita affixes; exempli gratia, for examplethe Samasanta डच् ( अ ), causing elision of the last syllable of the compound word, is added to compounds called संख्याबहुव्रीहि; exempli gratia, for example उपदशाः,पञ्चषाः et cetera, and others P.V.4.73. Samasanta अ is added to compounds ending with ऋच्,पुर्, अप्, and धुर,and अच् to words ending with सामन् , लोमन् , अक्षन् , चतुर् पुंस् , अनडुह्, मनस् , वर्चस्, तमस् , श्रेयस् , रहस्, उरस्, गो, तावत्, अध्वन् , etc :under specific conditions; cf P.V.4.68 to 86. अच् ( अ ) is added at the end of the tatpurusa compounds to the words अङ्गुलि, and रात्रि, under specific conditions; confer, compare P.V.4.86, 87: टच् ( अ ) is added at the end of tatpurusa compounds ending in राजन् , अहन् , सखि , गो, and उरस् and under specific conditions to those ending in तक्षन् , श्वन् , सक्थि, नौ, खारी, and अज्जलि as also to words ending in अस् and अन् in the neuter gender in Vedic Literature, and to the word ब्रह्मन् under specific conditions: confer, compare P.V. 4.91 to 105: टच् is added at the end of समाहारद्वन्द्व compounds ending in च् , छ् , ज्, झ्,ञ्, , द्, ष् and ह्, and at the end of अव्ययीभाव compounds ending with the words शरद् , विपाश् , अनस् , and मनस् et cetera, and others as also at the end of words ending in अन् or with any of the class consonants except nasals, confer, compare P.V.4.106-ll2; षच् ( अ ) is added to Bahuvrihi compounds ending with सक्थि and अक्षि as limbs of the body, as also with अङ्गुलि, while ष , अप् and अच् are added to specified words under special conditions; the Samasanta affix असिच् ( अस् ) is added at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound ending in प्रजा, and मेधा, the Samasanta affix इच् is added at the end of the peculiar Bahuvrihi compound formed of दण्ड, मुसल et cetera, and others when they are repeated and when they show a fight with the instruments of fight exchanged; confer, compare P. V.4.113128. Besides these affixes, a general समासान्त affix कप् is added necessarily or optionally as specified in P.V. 4.151-159.
svārthikaprescribed (after a base) in the sense of itself; id est, that is in the sense of the base. The word is used in connection with a large number of taddhita affix. affixes which are prescribed without any special sense attached to them; vide P. V.3.36 to P. V. 4.67. The Samasanta affixes prescribed from P.V.4.68 onwards can also be called स्वार्थिक;confer, compareस्वार्थिकाश्च प्रकृतितो लिङ्गवचनान्यनुवर्तन्ते | M.Bh. on P. V. 4. 14, 27. See the word स्वार्थ.
     Vedabase Search  
Results for santa146 results
     
santa devoteesCC Adi 1.59
SB 3.25.35
SB 4.22.39
santa mystic saintsSB 10.32.7
santa persons who are spiritually situatedSB 10.14.28
santa sagesSB 1.19.8
santa saintly devoteesSB 11.26.32
santa saintly personsSB 11.26.26
santa self-realized soulsBs 5.56
santa the devoteesBG 3.13
SB 11.26.33
SB 11.26.34
santa the devoteesSB 11.26.34
santa the devoteesSB 11.26.34
santa the pure devoteesBs 5.38
santa the saintly devoteesSB 10.14.28
SB 11.26.27
santa those saintly personsCC Antya 1.2
santam beingSB 11.8.31
santam being presentSB 3.29.22
santam existingCC Madhya 25.130
SB 4.20.8
SB 4.24.64
SB 4.25.34
SB 6.3.16
SB 7.10.12
santam existing within oneselfSB 7.13.28
santam presentSB 10.30.4
SB 10.69.41
SB 10.90.46
SB 12.8.48
santam realSB 10.14.28
santam situatedSB 3.28.17
SB 8.24.52
santanu please describeSB 8.23.14
santanvantaḥ generatingSB 10.73.22
santanvataḥ displayingSB 1.3.37
santapsyante they will suffer great distressSB 12.2.10
santaptā burningSB 10.32.5
santapta moltenSB 10.64.6
santapyamānaḥ being scorchedSB 3.30.22
santapyamānasya being tormentedSB 11.19.9
santa another type of tangerineCC Antya 18.104
santardana-ādayaḥ headed by SantardanaSB 9.24.38
santardana-ādayaḥ headed by SantardanaSB 9.24.38
santardana-ādayaḥ Santardana and so onSB 10.75.4-7
santardana-ādayaḥ Santardana and so onSB 10.75.4-7
santardana-ādibhiḥ headed by SantardanaSB 10.58.56
santardana-ādibhiḥ headed by SantardanaSB 10.58.56
santaret can swimCC Adi 9.1
santariṣyasi you will cross completelyBG 4.36
santarjana-ādibhiḥ by scolding and so onSB 5.26.8
santarjana-ādibhiḥ by scolding and so onSB 5.26.8
santarpaṇa attentionCC Antya 6.207
santarpaṇa taking careCC Madhya 17.219
santarpya and having honoredSB 10.78.18
santarpya gratifyingSB 10.45.15-16
santarpya propitiatingSB 10.79.10
santata alwaysCC Madhya 23.87-91
santatam alwaysMM 7
santatam pervadingSB 11.25.20
santatam spreadSB 6.16.52
santatān arising from suffering or enjoying various kinds of reactions to fruitive activitiesCC Madhya 20.114
CC Madhya 6.155
santatayā without any gapSB 1.3.38
santatiḥ a son known as SantatiSB 9.17.8
santatiḥ the progenySB 12.12.17
santatim a sonSB 6.14.11
santatrasuḥ sma became frightenedSB 10.6.14
santatrasuḥ sma became frightenedSB 10.6.14
santatya expandingSB 11.9.21
santatyai for performancesSB 4.7.17
santatyai to expandSB 1.4.19
kāmān abhīpsantau desiring to beg some benedictionSB 10.3.33
vasanta-ādiṣu headed by springSB 5.22.3
āgrasanta swallowing upSB 12.9.12
anusantasthuḥ was rigidly followedSB 4.2.31
anusantatam expandedSB 4.13.8-9
anusantatāni extendedBG 15.2
asanta demoniac menSB 4.16.23
asanta very impiousSB 11.5.14
asanta nonexistentSB 11.28.5
asantam nonexistentSB 3.5.24
asantam unrealSB 10.14.28
asantam unrealSB 11.21.31
ati-praśaṃsanta praising the LordSB 8.18.9-10
bhṛśa-santaptaḥ very much aggrievedSB 9.21.11
hasantaḥ ca punaḥ daduḥ when they saw the proprietor, they threw it farther away and enjoyed laughing, and when the owner sometimes cried, his bag was given to him againSB 10.12.5
hasantaḥ ca punaḥ daduḥ when they saw the proprietor, they threw it farther away and enjoyed laughing, and when the owner sometimes cried, his bag was given to him againSB 10.12.5
dhamani-santataḥ whose veins were visible everywhere on the bodySB 9.3.14
dhamani-santatam his veins visibleSB 10.80.23
dhamani-santataḥ emaciated so much that the veins are visible throughout his bodySB 11.18.9
eka-santatim the only son in the familySB 6.14.52
grasantam while devouringSB 3.3.6
grasantam who is devouringSB 6.9.44
grasantam swallowingSB 12.9.21
hasantaḥ ca punaḥ daduḥ when they saw the proprietor, they threw it farther away and enjoyed laughing, and when the owner sometimes cried, his bag was given to him againSB 10.12.5
hasanta after tasting, they were all laughingSB 10.13.10
hasantam smilingSB 6.1.58-60
hasantam laughingSB 10.69.29
hasantau laughingSB 10.15.15
vasanta-kāle during the season of springCC Adi 17.282
kāma-santaptaḥ being agitated by lusty desiresSB 9.20.10
kāmān abhīpsantau desiring to beg some benedictionSB 10.3.33
lipsanta desiring stronglySB 8.8.35
munayaḥ santa great saintly persons and transcendentalistsCC Madhya 24.146
niḥśvasantam heavily breathingSB 4.8.15
nyavṛtsanta stoppedSB 5.9.8
vasanta pradhāna the spring season was chiefCC Antya 19.83
ati-praśaṃsanta praising the LordSB 8.18.9-10
praśaṃsanta glorifyingSB 10.75.27
praśaṃsanta glorifyingSB 11.31.10
hasantaḥ ca punaḥ daduḥ when they saw the proprietor, they threw it farther away and enjoyed laughing, and when the owner sometimes cried, his bag was given to him againSB 10.12.5
vasanta-rajanīte on a spring nightCC Antya 20.137
vasanta-samayaḥ springtimeCC Antya 1.136
śaṃsanta glorifyingSB 3.16.28
śaṃsanta eulogizingSB 4.22.48
śaṃsanta while praisingSB 8.4.1
śaṃsanta praisingSB 10.74.52
śaṃsanta praisingSB 10.84.55-56
saṃvasanta living togetherSB 3.2.8
munayaḥ santa great saintly persons and transcendentalistsCC Madhya 24.146
kāma-santaptaḥ being agitated by lusty desiresSB 9.20.10
bhṛśa-santaptaḥ very much aggrievedSB 9.21.11
dhamani-santataḥ whose veins were visible everywhere on the bodySB 9.3.14
dhamani-santataḥ emaciated so much that the veins are visible throughout his bodySB 11.18.9
dhamani-santatam his veins visibleSB 10.80.23
eka-santatim the only son in the familySB 6.14.52
śvasantam breathingSB 4.29.61
śvasantam endeavoringSB 6.16.48
uddhasanta loudly laughingSB 10.12.24
vasanta-ādiṣu headed by springSB 5.22.3
vasanta the spring seasonSB 11.4.7
vasanta the spring seasonSB 12.8.16
vasanta VasantaCC Adi 11.50
vasanta-kāle during the season of springCC Adi 17.282
vasanta-samayaḥ springtimeCC Antya 1.136
vasanta pradhāna the spring season was chiefCC Antya 19.83
vasanta-rajanīte on a spring nightCC Antya 20.137
vasanta personified springtimeSB 8.8.11
vasanta springtimeSB 10.18.3
vasanta are residingCC Madhya 23.77
vasantam residingSB 2.2.8
vasantam dwellingSB 10.80.3
vasantam residingCC Madhya 24.156
vihasanta laughingSB 10.12.7-11
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
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ādāna

to suck or extract; ādānakāla the first half of the year (uttarāyana or northern solstice); it includes śiśira (winter); vasanta (spring) and grīṣma (summer).

candana

Plant sandalwood, Santalum album, S. verum.

dvividhopakrama

santarpaṇa (fasting) and apatarpaṇa (restoration).

grāsāntare

medicine taken between two boluses of food.

kucandana

Plant 1. sappanwood, Caesalpinia sappan; 2 coralwood tree, Adenathera pavonia. 3. redsander tree, Pterocarpus santalinus.

raktacandana

Plant redsanders; heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus.

santāpa

1. rise in body temperature; hyperpyrexia; 2. grief.

santarpana

nourishing therapy, restorative; drākṣa, dāḍima, kharjūra, lāja, water with sugar along with ghee and honey are well mixed.

santata

continued; santatajvara fever without relapse for many days.

śiśira

1. cool or dewy season, two-month period after monsoon; 2. Plant candana or Santalum album.

śvetacandana

Plant sandal wood, Santalum album.

vasanta

spring season.

vasantakusumākararasa

(vasanta.kusumākara.ras) herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

vasantamālatirasa

herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of fevers.

     Wordnet Search "santa" has 101 results.
     

santa

bhāṣāntaram, bhāṣāntarīkaraṇam, avataraṇam, avatāraḥ, vivaraṇam, anuvādaḥ, chāyā   

anyasyāṃ bhāṣāyāṃ nirūpaṇam।

rāmāyaṇasya bhāṣāntaraṃ naikāsu bhāṣāsu dṛśyate।

santa

anuvādita-kṛtiḥ, bhāṣāntarita-kṛtiḥ   

yasya anuvādaḥ kṛtaḥ।

eṣā rāṣṭrapatiḥ mahodayasya āṅglapustakasya anuvādita-kṛtiḥ asti।

santa

anuvādita, bhāṣāntarita   

yasya anuvādaḥ kṛtaḥ।

eṣā mahāśvetādevyāḥ anuvāditā kṛtiḥ asti।

santa

pikaḥ, kokīlaḥ, vasantadūtaḥ, parabhṛtaḥ, parapuṣṭā, paraidhitaḥ, madālāpī, cātakaḥ, śāraṅgaḥ, vanapriyaḥ   

khagaviśeṣaḥ- kṛṣṇavarṇamadhurasvarapakṣī।

pikasya kūjanaṃ manohāri asti।

santa

aṃtardeśīya, deśāntargata   

deśasya antarbhāgeṣu sambandhavān।

mahyam antardeśīyaṃ patraṃ yaccha।

santa

tārā, tārakā, tārikā, nakṣatram, ṛkṣam, uḍuḥ, dyotiḥ, udyat, jyotis, jyotiṣī, bhāsantaḥ, rātrijam, rātribham   

ākāśe dṛśyamanāḥ khagolīya-piṇḍāḥ ye rātrau sphuranti, tathā ca yeṣāṃ śobhā na kṣarati।

rātrau tārāyāḥ śobhā avarṇanīyā।

santa

vaṃśajaḥ, santānaḥ, santānam, santatiḥ, apatyam, pravaram, prajā, sūnuḥ, prasavaḥ, prasūtiḥ, tantuḥ   

vaṃśe jātaḥ।

vayaṃ manoḥ vaṃśajāḥ।

santa

kṣamya, kṣamārha, kṣamaṇīya, kṣantavya, mraṣṭavya, śodhanīya, mārjanīya, mocanīya, sahanīya   

yaḥ kṣantuṃ yogyaḥ।

bhavataḥ aparādhaḥ kṣamyaḥ।

santa

anuvādaka, bhāṣāntarakārin   

yaḥ bhāṣāntaraṃ karoti।

asmākaṃ kāryālaye ekasya anuvādakasya janasya āvaśyakatā asti।

santa

uṣma, uṣṇa, tapta, caṇḍa, pracaṇḍa, ucaṇḍa, santapta, upatapta, tāpin, koṣṇa, soṣma, naidoṣa, aśiśira, aśīta, tigma, tīvra, tīkṣṇa, khara, grīṣma   

yasmin auṣmyam asti।

vasantād anantaraṃ vāyuḥ uṣmaṃ bhavati।

santa

dīkṣāntaḥ   

mahāvidyālayīnaśikṣāyāḥ antaḥ।

asya saṃvatsarasya dīkṣāntasya samārohasya adhyakṣaḥ prācārya bhaṭṭācārya mahodayaḥ।

santa

aśānta, udvigna, vyagra, vyathita, savyatha, kliṣṭa, aśānta, anirvṛta, vidhura, vidura, udbhrānta, mohita, jātaśaṅka   

yad śāntaṃ nāsti।

yadi cittam aśāntaṃ tarhi kimapi kartuṃ na śakyate।

santa

śāntacittatā, sthiramanaskatā, sthiracittatā, sthitaprajñatā, acapalatā   

cittasya sthirāvasthā bhāvo vā।

niścitaṃ kāryaṃ śāntacittatayā nirvahaṇīyam।

santa

gṛham, geham, udvasitam, veśma, sadma, niketanam, niśāntam, natsyam, sadanam, bhavanam, agāram, sandiram, gṛhaḥ, nikāyaḥ, nilayaḥ, ālayaḥ, vāsaḥ, kuṭaḥ, śālā, sabhā, pastyam, sādanam, āgāram, kuṭiḥ, kuṭī, gebaḥ, niketaḥ, sālā, mandirā, okaḥ, nivāsaḥ, saṃvāsaḥ, āvāsaḥ, adhivāsaḥ, nivasati, vasati, ketanam, gayaḥ, kṛdaraḥ, gartaḥ, harmyam, astam, duroṇe, nīlam, duryāḥ, svasarāṇi, amā, dame, kṛttiḥ, yoniḥ, śaraṇam, varūtham, chardichadi, chāyā, śarma, ajam   

manuṣyaiḥ iṣṭikādibhiḥ vinirmitaṃ vāsasthānam।

gṛhiṇyā eva gṛhaṃ śobhate।

santa

śivaḥ, śambhuḥ, īśaḥ, paśupatiḥ, pinākapāṇiḥ, śūlī, maheśvaraḥ, īśvaraḥ, sarvaḥ, īśānaḥ, śaṅkaraḥ, candraśekharaḥ, phaṇadharadharaḥ, kailāsaniketanaḥ, himādritanayāpatiḥ, bhūteśaḥ, khaṇḍaparaśuḥ, girīśaḥ, giriśaḥ, mṛḍaḥ, mṛtyañjayaḥ, kṛttivāsāḥ, pinākī, prathamādhipaḥ, ugraḥ, kapardī, śrīkaṇṭhaḥ, śitikaṇṭhaḥ, kapālabhṛt, vāmadevaḥ, mahādevaḥ, virūpākṣaḥ, trilocanaḥ, kṛśānuretāḥ, sarvajñaḥ, dhūrjaṭiḥ, nīlalohitaḥ, haraḥ, smaraharaḥ, bhargaḥ, tryambakaḥ, tripurāntakaḥ, gaṅgādharaḥ, andhakaripuḥ, kratudhvaṃsī, vṛṣadhvajaḥ, vyomakeśaḥ, bhavaḥ, bhaumaḥ, sthāṇuḥ, rudraḥ, umāpatiḥ, vṛṣaparvā, rerihāṇaḥ, bhagālī, pāśucandanaḥ, digambaraḥ, aṭṭahāsaḥ, kālañjaraḥ, purahiṭ, vṛṣākapiḥ, mahākālaḥ, varākaḥ, nandivardhanaḥ, hīraḥ, vīraḥ, kharuḥ, bhūriḥ, kaṭaprūḥ, bhairavaḥ, dhruvaḥ, śivipiṣṭaḥ, guḍākeśaḥ, devadevaḥ, mahānaṭaḥ, tīvraḥ, khaṇḍaparśuḥ, pañcānanaḥ, kaṇṭhekālaḥ, bharuḥ, bhīruḥ, bhīṣaṇaḥ, kaṅkālamālī, jaṭādharaḥ, vyomadevaḥ, siddhadevaḥ, dharaṇīśvaraḥ, viśveśaḥ, jayantaḥ, hararūpaḥ, sandhyānāṭī, suprasādaḥ, candrāpīḍaḥ, śūladharaḥ, vṛṣāṅgaḥ, vṛṣabhadhvajaḥ, bhūtanāthaḥ, śipiviṣṭaḥ, vareśvaraḥ, viśveśvaraḥ, viśvanāthaḥ, kāśīnāthaḥ, kuleśvaraḥ, asthimālī, viśālākṣaḥ, hiṇḍī, priyatamaḥ, viṣamākṣaḥ, bhadraḥ, ūrddharetā, yamāntakaḥ, nandīśvaraḥ, aṣṭamūrtiḥ, arghīśaḥ, khecaraḥ, bhṛṅgīśaḥ, ardhanārīśaḥ, rasanāyakaḥ, uḥ, hariḥ, abhīruḥ, amṛtaḥ, aśaniḥ, ānandabhairavaḥ, kaliḥ, pṛṣadaśvaḥ, kālaḥ, kālañjaraḥ, kuśalaḥ, kolaḥ, kauśikaḥ, kṣāntaḥ, gaṇeśaḥ, gopālaḥ, ghoṣaḥ, caṇḍaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, jaṭādharaḥ, jaṭilaḥ, jayantaḥ, raktaḥ, vāraḥ, vilohitaḥ, sudarśanaḥ, vṛṣāṇakaḥ, śarvaḥ, satīrthaḥ, subrahmaṇyaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ- hindūdharmānusāraṃ sṛṣṭeḥ vināśikā devatā।

śivasya arcanā liṅgarūpeṇa pracalitā asti।

santa

viṣṇuḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, svabhūḥ, daityāriḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, govindaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, acyutaḥ, śārṅgī, viṣvaksenaḥ, janārdanaḥ, upendraḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, madhuripuḥ, vāsudevaḥ, trivikramaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, śauriḥ, śrīpatiḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, vanamālī, balidhvaṃsī, kaṃsārātiḥ, adhokṣajaḥ, viśvambharaḥ, kaiṭabhajit, vidhuḥ, śrīvatsalāñachanaḥ, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, vṛṣṇiḥ, śatadhāmā, gadāgrajaḥ, ekaśṛṅgaḥ, jagannāthaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, sanātanaḥ, mukundaḥ, rāhubhedī, vāmanaḥ, śivakīrtanaḥ, śrīnivāsaḥ, ajaḥ, vāsuḥ, śrīhariḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, nṛhariḥ, vibhuḥ, madhujit, madhusūdanaḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, śrīgarbhaḥ, śrīkaraḥ, śrīmān, śrīdharaḥ, śrīniketanaḥ, śrīkāntaḥ, śrīśaḥ, prabhuḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, ajitaḥ, jitāmitraḥ, ṛtadhāmā, śaśabinduḥ, punarvasuḥ, ādidevaḥ, śrīvarāhaḥ, sahasravadanaḥ, tripāt, ūrdhvadevaḥ, gṛdhnuḥ, hariḥ, yādavaḥ, cāṇūrasūdanaḥ, sadāyogī, dhruvaḥ, hemaśaṅkhaḥ, śatāvarttī, kālanemiripuḥ, somasindhuḥ, viriñciḥ, dharaṇīdharaḥ, bahumūrddhā, vardhamānaḥ, śatānandaḥ, vṛṣāntakaḥ, rantidevaḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, dāśārhaḥ, abdhiśayanaḥ, indrānujaḥ, jalaśayaḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, tārkṣadhvajaḥ, ṣaḍbinduḥ, padmeśaḥ, mārjaḥ, jinaḥ, kumodakaḥ, jahnuḥ, vasuḥ, śatāvartaḥ, muñjakeśī, babhruḥ, vedhāḥ, prasniśṛṅgaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, suvarṇabinduḥ, śrīvatsaḥ, gadābhṛt, śārṅgabhṛt, cakrabhṛt, śrīvatsabhṛt, śaṅkhabhṛt, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, lakṣmīpatiḥ, murāriḥ, amṛtaḥ, ariṣṭanemaḥ, kapiḥ, keśaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, janārdanaḥ, jinaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, vikramaḥ, śarvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ hindudharmānusāraṃ jagataḥ pālanakartā।

ekādaśastathā tvaṣṭā dvādaśo viṣṇurucyate jaghanyajastu sarveṣāmādityānāṃ guṇādhikaḥ।

santa

paścāttāpaḥ, anutāpaḥ, anuśokaḥ, anuśocanam, manastāpaḥ, tāpaḥ, santāpaḥ, udnegaḥ, anuśayaḥ, śokaḥ, khedaḥ, duḥkham, manoduḥkham, manovyathā, utkaḥ, vipratīsāraḥ   

agrato akārye kṛte carame tāpaḥ।

tena pituḥ avajñā kṛtā ataḥ paścātāpaṃ karoti।

santa

tejomayaḥ, tejomayī, tejomayam, suprabhaḥ, suprabhā, suprabham, tejiṣṭhaḥ, tejiṣṭham, tejiṣṭhā, tejīyān, tejīyasī, tejīyaḥ, atitaijasaḥ, atitaijasī, atitaijasam, atiśobhanaḥ, atiśobhānā, atiśobhanam, atidīptimān, atidīptimat, atidīptimatī, atikāntimān, atitejasvī, atitejasvinī, atikāntimatī, atikāntamat, atiprabhāvān, mahātejāḥ, mahātejaḥ, mahāprabhaḥ, mahāprabhā, mahāprabham, ujjvalaḥ, ujjvalā, ujjvalam, śobhamānaḥ, śobhamānam, śobhamānā, śubhraḥ, śubhrā, śubhram, bhāsvān, bhāsantaḥ, bhāsantā, bhāsantam, bhāsantaḥ, bhānumān, bhāsuraḥ, bhāsurā, bhāsuram   

ābhāyuktaḥ।

tasya kumārasya tejomayaṃ mukhaṃ dṛṣṭvā saḥ uccakulajātaḥ iti vicārya ācāryaḥ taṃ śiṣyatvena svīkṛtavān।

santa

gambhīra, śānta, saumya, aṭala, dṛḍha, sthiradhī, sthiramati, sthiramanas, sthirātman, sthitimat, sthitamati, sthitaprajā, sthitadhī, susthira, sudhīra, prastha, dhṛtātman   

yaḥ cañcalaḥ nāsti।

saḥ prakṛtyā gambhīraḥ asti।

santa

dhīra, anākula, dhīrapraśānta, dhīraśānta, dhṛtātman, dhṛtimat   

avicalacittaḥ।

vipattau api dhairyasya atyāgāt dhīraḥ antato gatvā yaśasvī bhavati।

santa

atīvra, atejā, nistejā, tejohīna, dhārāhīna, atīkṣṇa, nirvyākula, praśānta, praśāntacitta, śāntacetas, śāntātman   

yad na tīkṣṇam।

kim bhavān anayā atīvrayā churikayā eva yuddhaṃ kariṣyati।

santa

śānta, praśānta, nirudvigna, avikala, avyākula, avyagra, viśrabdha, nirākula, anākula, śamita, viśrānta, śāntacetas   

yad udvignaṃ nāsti।

mohanasya jīvanaṃ śāntam asti।

santa

praśānta, śānta, sthiracitta, sthira, upaśānta, dhīraśānta, sūrata, viprasanna, śāntimat   

yasya citta sthiram asti।

praśāntaḥ vyaktiḥ vipattibhyaḥ na bibheti।

santa

kārajaḥ, kārujaḥ, vāsantaḥ, ibhapoṭā, ibhayuvatiḥ   

dantavihīnaḥ puṃjātīyaḥ gajaśiśuḥ।

gajayuthasya ante ekaḥ kārajaḥ mandagatyā gacchati।

santa

vyathita, udvigna, vyagra, savyatha, kliṣṭa, parikliṣṭa, aśānta   

yaḥ vyathate।

vyathitaḥ eva jānāti paraduḥkham।

santa

āmram, cūtam, sahakāram, kāmaśaram, kāmavallabham, kāmāṅgam, kīrevṛḥ, mādhavadrumam, bhṛṅgāmīṣṭam, sīdhurasam, madhūlī, kokilotsavam, vasantadūtam, āmraphalam, modākhyam, manmathālayaḥ, madhvāvāsaḥ, sumadanaḥ, pikarāgaḥ, nṛpapriyaḥ, priyāmbuḥkokilāvāsaḥ, mākandaḥ, ṣaṭpadātithiḥ, madhuvrataḥ, vasantadruḥ, pikaprayaḥ, strīpriyaḥ, gandhabandhuḥ, alipriyaḥ, madirāsakhaḥ   

phalaviśeṣaḥ, āmravṛkṣasya phalam asya guṇāḥ varṇarucimāṃsaśukrabalakāritvam।

rāmāya āmraḥ rocate।

santa

āmraḥ, āmravṛkṣaḥ, cūtaḥ, sahakāraḥ, kāmaśaraḥ, kāmavallabhaḥ, kāmāṅgaḥ, kīrevṛḥ, mādhavadrumaḥ, bhṛṅgāmīṣṭaḥ, sīdhurasaḥ, madhūlī, kokilotsavaḥ, vasantadūtaḥ, amraphalaḥ, modākhyaḥ, manmathālayaḥ, madhvāvāsaḥ, sumadanaḥ, pikarāgaḥ, nṛpapriyaḥ, priyāmbuḥ, kokilāvāsaḥ, mākandaḥ, ṣaṭpadātithiḥ, madhuvrataḥ, vasantadruḥ, pikaprayaḥ, strīpriyaḥ, gandhabandhuḥ, alipriyaḥ, madirāsakhaḥ   

phalavṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ- dīrghajīvī pādapaḥ yasya pītavarṇīyaṃ phalam atīva madhuram।

āmravṛkṣe śukāḥ nivasanti।

santa

vaidyaḥ, cikītsakaḥ, bhiṣak, cikītsājīvī, agadakārakaḥ, rogaśāntakaḥ, rogahṛt, rogahā, jīvadaḥ   

yaḥ rogīṇāṃ rogalakṣaṇasya cikītsāṃ kṛtvā roganivaraṇārthe bheṣajaṃ yacchati। carakaḥ vaidyaḥ āsīt। vaidyaḥ rogiṇāṃ kṛte bhagavān iva। / carakaḥ vaidyaḥ āsīt।

santa

apatyam, santānam, santatiḥ   

kasyacit putrī putro vā। [na patanti pitaro.nena];

kati apatyāni santi bhavatām। / apatyairiva vīvārabhāgadheyocitairmṛgaiḥ।

santa

durgā, umā, kātyāyanī, gaurī, brahmāṇī, kālī, haimavatī, īśvarā, śivā, bhavānī, rudrāṇī, sarvāṇī, sarvamaṅgalā, aparṇā, pārvatī, mṛḍānī, līlāvatī, caṇaḍikā, ambikā, śāradā, caṇḍī, caṇḍā, caṇḍanāyikā, girijā, maṅgalā, nārāyaṇī, mahāmāyā, vaiṣṇavī, maheśvarī, koṭṭavī, ṣaṣṭhī, mādhavī, naganandinī, jayantī, bhārgavī, rambhā, siṃharathā, satī, bhrāmarī, dakṣakanyā, mahiṣamardinī, herambajananī, sāvitrī, kṛṣṇapiṅgalā, vṛṣākapāyī, lambā, himaśailajā, kārttikeyaprasūḥ, ādyā, nityā, vidyā, śubhahkarī, sāttvikī, rājasī, tāmasī, bhīmā, nandanandinī, mahāmāyī, śūladharā, sunandā, śumyabhaghātinī, hrī, parvatarājatanayā, himālayasutā, maheśvaravanitā, satyā, bhagavatī, īśānā, sanātanī, mahākālī, śivānī, haravallabhā, ugracaṇḍā, cāmuṇḍā, vidhātrī, ānandā, mahāmātrā, mahāmudrā, mākarī, bhaumī, kalyāṇī, kṛṣṇā, mānadātrī, madālasā, māninī, cārvaṅgī, vāṇī, īśā, valeśī, bhramarī, bhūṣyā, phālgunī, yatī, brahmamayī, bhāvinī, devī, acintā, trinetrā, triśūlā, carcikā, tīvrā, nandinī, nandā, dharitriṇī, mātṛkā, cidānandasvarūpiṇī, manasvinī, mahādevī, nidrārūpā, bhavānikā, tārā, nīlasarasvatī, kālikā, ugratārā, kāmeśvarī, sundarī, bhairavī, rājarājeśvarī, bhuvaneśī, tvaritā, mahālakṣmī, rājīvalocanī, dhanadā, vāgīśvarī, tripurā, jvālmukhī, vagalāmukhī, siddhavidyā, annapūrṇā, viśālākṣī, subhagā, saguṇā, nirguṇā, dhavalā, gītiḥ, gītavādyapriyā, aṭṭālavāsinī, aṭṭahāsinī, ghorā, premā, vaṭeśvarī, kīrtidā, buddhidā, avīrā, paṇḍitālayavāsinī, maṇḍitā, saṃvatsarā, kṛṣṇarūpā, balipriyā, tumulā, kāminī, kāmarūpā, puṇyadā, viṣṇucakradharā, pañcamā, vṛndāvanasvarūpiṇī, ayodhyārupiṇī, māyāvatī, jīmūtavasanā, jagannāthasvarūpiṇī, kṛttivasanā, triyāmā, jamalārjunī, yāminī, yaśodā, yādavī, jagatī, kṛṣṇajāyā, satyabhāmā, subhadrikā, lakṣmaṇā, digambarī, pṛthukā, tīkṣṇā, ācārā, akrūrā, jāhnavī, gaṇḍakī, dhyeyā, jṛmbhaṇī, mohinī, vikārā, akṣaravāsinī, aṃśakā, patrikā, pavitrikā, tulasī, atulā, jānakī, vandyā, kāmanā, nārasiṃhī, girīśā, sādhvī, kalyāṇī, kamalā, kāntā, śāntā, kulā, vedamātā, karmadā, sandhyā, tripurasundarī, rāseśī, dakṣayajñavināśinī, anantā, dharmeśvarī, cakreśvarī, khañjanā, vidagdhā, kuñjikā, citrā, sulekhā, caturbhujā, rākā, prajñā, ṛdbhidā, tāpinī, tapā, sumantrā, dūtī, aśanī, karālā, kālakī, kuṣmāṇḍī, kaiṭabhā, kaiṭabhī, kṣatriyā, kṣamā, kṣemā, caṇḍālikā, jayantī, bheruṇḍā   

sā devī yayā naike daityāḥ hatāḥ tathā ca yā ādiśaktiḥ asti iti manyate।

navarātrotsave sthāne sthāne durgāyāḥ pratiṣṭhāpanā kriyate।

santa

śānta, avāk, nirvāk, nirvacana, nibhṛta   

yaḥ kimapi na vadati।

tasya kathanaṃ śrutvā ahaṃ śāntaḥ abhavam।

santa

śāntatā   

abhāṣaṇasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

paṇḍitamahodayasya praśnena sabhāyāṃ śāntatā abhavat।

santa

nīravatā, niḥstabdhatā, śāntiḥ, śāntatā, nīravatvam   

dhvanihīnā avasthā bhāvo vā।

tamomayī niśā nīravatayā yuktā āsīt।

santa

deśāntarādhivāsaḥ   

svarāṣṭraṃ tyaktvā anyatra vasanasya kriyā।

mayā bhāratarāṣṭrasya deśāntarādhivāse jñānam adhigatam।

santa

vasantakālīna, vāsantika   

vasantasambandhī।

vasantakālīnaḥ vāyuguṇaḥ vilobhanīyaḥ asti।

santa

gotram, santatiḥ, jananam, kulam, abhijanaḥ, santānaḥ   

kasyacit pūrvajasya kulaguroḥ vā nāmni ādhāritā bhāratīyānāṃ vaṃśānāṃ sā viśiṣṭā saṃjñā yā tasmin vaṃśe janmanaḥ eva prāpyate।

kaśyapamuneḥ nāmnā kaśyapaḥ iti gotram asti।

santa

santarj, santap, kup, parigarj, paribharts, samabhitarj, upālabh, upakruś, ātarj, abhinirbharts, adhikṣip, avabharts   

krodhajanya udvegajanya vā vacanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

kāryālaye karmacāriṇaḥ anupasthityā adhikārīmahodayaḥ bahu samatarjayat।

santa

garh, vigarha, śap, adhikṣip, tarjaya, nind, kṣip, abhitarjaya, ātarjaya, abhibhartsaya, avagarh, upālabh, paribharts, paribhartsaya, samabhitarjaya, vinind, tiraskṛ, saṃtarjaya, santarjaya, apadhvaṃs, upakruś, upakṛ, parigarj   

uccaiḥ svareṇa dhikkārapūrvakaḥ sakrodhaṃ vākprabandhānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saḥ sajjanāya garhati।

santa

masūrikā, śītalā, raktavaṭī, vasantaḥ, masūrī, gulī, visphoṭaḥ, pāparogaḥ   

rogaviśeṣaḥ,yasmin duṣṭaraktena gostanaja-naragātrajeṣu masūri-sadṛśa-pūyāḥ dṛśyante।

grīṣme masūrikāyāḥ prakarṣeṇa prādurbhāvaḥ bhavati।

santa

karkaṭī, kaṭudalī, jīnasā, mūtraphalā, trapuṣā, hastiparṇī, lomaśakāṇḍā, mūtralā, bahukandā, karkaṭākṣaḥ, śāntanuḥ, cirbhaṭī, vālukī, ervāruḥ, trapuṣī   

phalaviśeṣaḥ- devadālīlatāyāḥ dīrghaṃ tathā ca atundaṃ phalam।

janāḥ grīṣmakāle karkaṭīm adanti।

santa

śānta   

yaḥ na prajvalati।

sā śānte agnau jalaṃ siñcati।

santa

śānta   

yaḥ prakṛtyā krodhena āveśena vā yuktaḥ nāsti।

rohitasya śāntaḥ svabhāvaḥ sarvebhyaḥ rocate।

santa

āmalakī, tiṣyaphalā, amṛtā, vayasthā, vayaḥsthā, kāyasthā, śrīphalā, dhātrikā, śivā, śāntā, dhātrī, amṛtaphalā, vṛṣyā, vṛttaphalā, rocanī, karṣaphalā, tiṣyā   

phalavṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yasya phalāni auṣadharūpeṇa upayujyante।

jhañjāvāte asya āmalakeḥ ekā śākhā bhagnā।

santa

tap, uttap, pratap, santap, uṣṇīkṛ   

ūṣṇībhavanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

grīṣme bhūmiḥ tapati।

santa

anutapya, paścāt tap, paścāt santap, anuśuc, śuc, khid, udvij   

anucitaṃ kāryam anuṣṭhīya paścāt udvegānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saḥ niraparādhinaṃ śyāmam abhikruddhya anutapyate।

santa

rekhāṃśaḥ, deśāntaram   

pṛthivyāḥ mānacitre uttaradiktaḥ dakṣiṇadiśaṃ yāvat rekhitāyāḥ sarvasammatāyāḥ madhyarekhāyāḥ pūrvadiśi vartamānaṃ paścimadiśi vartamānaṃ vā sthānasya antaram।

āsṭreliyā pṛthivyāḥ śatottaradaśāt ārabhya śatottaraṣaṣṭi rekhāṃśaṃ yāvat pūrvadiśi asti।

santa

praśānta-mahāsāgaraḥ   

āśiyā-amerīkā-khaṇḍayoḥ madhye vartamānaḥ mahāsāgaraḥ।

pṛthivyāṃ vartamāneṣu mahāsāgareṣu praśānta-mahāsāgaraḥ viśālaḥ asti।

santa

vasantaḥ, puṣpasamayaḥ, surabhiḥ, madhuḥ, mādhavaḥ, phalgaḥ, ṛturājaḥ, pikānandaḥ, kāntaḥ, kāmasakhaḥ   

ṛtuviśeṣaḥ yasya kālaḥ māghamāsasya dvitīyapakṣāt ārabhya caitramāsasya prathamapakṣaparyantam asti।

vasanto ṛturājaḥ iti kavayaḥ।

santa

śāntanuḥ, mahābhīṣmaḥ, prātīpaḥ, pratīpaḥ, pratipaḥ   

candravaṃśīyaḥ rājā yaḥ bhīṣmasya pitā āsīt।

śāntanuḥ dvāpārayugīnaḥ ekaviṃśatitamaḥ candravaṃśīyaḥ rājā āsīt।

santa

veṣāntaram, ākāragopanam, viḍambanam   

kasyacit anyasya rūpam iva dhāryamāṇam aprakṛtaṃ rūpam।

indreṇa gautamamuneḥ veṣāntaraṃ kṛtvā ahilyāyāḥ pāvitryaṃ naṣṭaṃ kṛtam।

santa

śaraḥ, kṣīraśaraḥ, dugdhaphenam, dugdhatālīyam, kṣīrajam, kilāṭaḥ, kilāṭī, śārkakaḥ, śārkaraḥ, kūrccikā, saraḥ, santānikā   

dugdhasya snehayuktaḥ sāraḥ।

biḍālaḥ śaraṃ khādati।

santa

apatyam, saṃtatiḥ, prajā, prasūtiḥ, santānaḥ, santanaḥ, tokaḥ, vaṃśaḥ, tuk, sūnuḥ, gayaḥ   

kasyāpi manuṣyasya paśupakṣiṇāṃ vā śarīrāt prasūtaḥ putraḥ kanyā vā।

paśūnām apekṣayā manuṣyasya apatyaṃ svasya pitarau dīrghakālaṃ yāvat āśrayate।

santa

śānta   

yaḥ śāntyā paripūrṇaḥ।

etat sthānaṃ śāntam asti।

santa

tuṣṭiḥ, tṛptiḥ, parituṣṭiḥ, hārdiḥ, toṣaḥ, alobhaḥ, śāntaḥ, sauhityam, tarpaṇam   

kasyāpi viṣayasya santoṣasya bhāvaḥ।

mama kāryeṇa bhavate tuṣṭiḥ jātā vā na vā।

santa

deśatyāgaḥ, deśāntarādhivāsanam   

svadeśaṃ tyaktvā anyadeśe sthātum anyadeśagamanam।

uccaśikṣitāḥ janāḥ dhanalobhāt deśatyāgaṃ kurvanti।

santa

kṣamita, mṛṣṭa, soḍha, kṣanta   

yaḥ titikṣitaḥ।

bhavataḥ pratyekaḥ doṣaḥ kṣamitaḥ asti।

santa

deśāntarādhivāsī, anyadeśavivatmuḥ, deśāntarādhivāsinī   

yaḥ anyadeśe nivasanti।

bhāratasarvakāreṇa kebhyaścit deśāntarādhivāsibhyaḥ bhāratadeśasya nāgarikatā pradīyate।

santa

alakaḥ, alakam, āvartaḥ, kamujā, kuntalaḥ, kurulaḥ, keśī, keśamaṇḍalam, keśastukaḥ, keśāntaḥ, khaṅkaraḥ, guḍālakaḥ, guḍālakam, cūḍā, cūrṇakuntalaḥ, śikhaṇḍakaḥ, śikhā, śikhāsūtram   

pṛṣṭhabhāge vāmabhāge dakṣiṇabhāge ca itastataḥ avakīrṇāḥ keśāḥ।

tasyāḥ alakena yuktaṃ mukhaṃ aparicitaḥ iva abhāsata।

santa

vyādhaḥ, ākheṭakaḥ, ākheṭikaḥ, kulikaḥ, kṣāntaḥ, khaṭṭikaḥ, gulikaḥ, drohāṭaḥ, nirmanyuḥ, nirvairaḥ, naiṣādaḥ, pāparddhikaḥ, balākaḥ, mārgikaḥ, mṛgadyūḥ, lubdhakaḥ, vyādhakaḥ, śvagaṇikaḥ, saunikaḥ   

yaḥ mṛgayāṃ karoti।

śvāpadaḥ na prāptaḥ ataḥ vyādhaḥ riktahastaḥ eva pratyāgacchat।

santa

du, śuc, khid, pīḍaya, bādh, kliś, vyathaya, upatap, saṃtap, santap, paritap, āyas, udvij, duḥkhaya   

duḥkhānubhūtyanukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

mṛtaḥ puruṣaḥ kadāpi na pratyāgacchati bhavān mā dauṣīḥ।

santa

tan, vitan, santan, drāgh, āyam   

āyateḥ dīrghīkaraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saḥ sīvanaṃ vyapakṛṣya svavastram atanot।

santa

śamī, saktuphalā, śivā, śaktuphalā, śaktuphalī, śāntā, tuṅgā, kacaripuphalā, keśamathanī, īśānī, lakṣmīḥ, tapanatanayā, iṣṭā, śubhakarī, havirgandhā, medhyā, duritadamanī, śaktuphalikā, samudrā, maṅgalyā, surabhiḥ, pāpaśamanī, bhadrā, śaṅkarī, keśahantrī, śivāphalā, supatrā, sukhadā, jīvaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

śamyāḥ kāṣṭhasya upayogaḥ pūjākāryeṣu bhavati।

santa

vasantarāgaḥ   

rāgaviśeṣaḥ, ṣaḍrāgāntargataḥ dvitīyo rāgaḥ;

vasantasya gānasamayaḥ vasantarttuḥ

santa

vasantabhairavī   

ekā rāgiṇī।

gāyakaḥ vasantabhairavīṃ gāyati।

santa

vasantapañcamī   

māghamāsasya śuklapakṣasya pañcamī।

vasantapañcamī utsavarūpeṇa nirvahanti।

santa

mahāsāntapanam.   

vrataviśeṣaḥ।

mahāsāntapane pañcadināni yāvat pañcagavyaṃ ṣaṣṭhe dine kuśajalaṃ pītvā saptame dine upavāsaṃ kurvanti।

santa

anyedyuḥ, divasāntare, anyasmin ahani, anyadine   

anyasmin dine।

anyedyuḥ kartavyam etad। / anyedyuḥ ātmānucarasya bhāvaṃ jijñāsamānā munihomadhenuḥ। [raghu.2.26]

santa

anuvādaḥ, bhāṣāntaram, avatāraḥ   

anuvāditā racanā।

asmin anuvāde bahavaḥ truṭayaḥ santi।

santa

śāntarasaḥ   

kāvyasya navaraseṣu ekaḥ।

śāntarasasya ālambanaṃ jagataḥ niḥsāratāyāḥ jñānam athavā paramātmanaḥ svarūpasya cintanam asti।

santa

śāntaḥ   

manoḥ putraviśeṣaḥ।

śāntasya varṇanaṃ manusmṛtau asti।

santa

kali-saṇṭāraṇa-upaniṣad, kali-saṇṭāraṇaḥ   

ekā upaniṣad।

kali-saṇṭāraṇa-upaniṣad yajurvedena sambandhitā।

santa

sthagita, asantata, udbaddha, paribhagna, pratiruddhā   

yasmai kiñcit samayaṃ yāvat virāmaḥ dīyate।

sthagitā sabhā daśa nimiṣāṇām anantaraṃ punaḥ prārabdhā।

santa

santāpaḥ   

mahat duḥkham।

bhagavati śraddhā santāpaṃ nyūnayati।

santa

krisṭopharamahodayaḥ, santa-krisṭopharaḥ   

khrīṣṭīyaḥ mahātmāviśeṣaḥ।

krisṭopharamahodayaḥ tṛtīye śatake jātaḥ।

santa

santakabīranagaram   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

santakabīranagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ santakabīranagare vartate।

santa

santaravidāsamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

santaravidāsanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ santaravidāsanagare vartate।

santa

santaravidāsanagaram   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

saḥ santaravidāsanagarasya nivāsī asti।

santa

nāṭavasanta   

saṅgītaśāstre rāgaviśeṣaḥ।

saṅgītakāraḥ nāṭavasantaṃ gāyati।

santa

uṣṭraḥ, karabhaḥ, dāserakaḥ, dīrghagrīvaḥ, dhūsaraḥ, lamboṣṭhaḥ, ravaṇaḥ, mahājaṅghaḥ, javī, jāṅghikaḥ, kramelakaḥ, mayaḥ, mahāṅgaḥ, dīrghagatiḥ, dīrghaḥ, śṛṅkhalakaḥ, mahān, mahāgrīvaḥ, mahānādaḥ, mahādhvagaḥ, mahāpṛṣṭhaḥ, baliṣṭhaḥ, dīrghajaṅghaḥ, grīvī, dhūmrakaḥ, śarabhaḥ, kramelaḥ, kaṇṭakāśanaḥ, bholiḥ, bahukaraḥ, adhvagaḥ, marudvipaḥ, vakragrīvaḥ, vāsantaḥ, kulanāśaḥ, kuśanāmā, marupriyaḥ, dvikakut, durgalaṅghanaḥ, bhūtaghnaḥ, dāseraḥ, kelikīrṇaḥ   

paśuviśeṣaḥ- yaḥ prāyaḥ marusthale dṛśyate।

tena uṣṭraṃ datvā uṣṭrī krītā।

santa

śāntā   

maharṣeḥ atharvaṇaḥ patnī।

śāntāyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

santa

śāntā   

śṛṅgamuneḥ patnī।

kathānusāreṇa śāntā daśarathasya putrī āsīt yasyāḥ rājā romapāt aṅgīkāram cakāra।

santa

vasantatilakā   

caturdaśavarṇaiḥ yuktaḥ varṇavṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

vasantatilakāyāḥ pratyekasmin caraṇe krameṇa tagaṇaḥ bhagaṇaḥ jagaṇaḥ bhagaṇaḥ tathā dvau gurū ca bhavataḥ।

santa

vasantamāruḥ   

saṅgītaśāstre sampūrṇāyāḥ jāteḥ rāgaviśeṣaḥ।

saṅgītajñaḥ vasantamāruṃ gāyati।

santa

śāntiḥ, śāntaḥ, sthiratā, sthairyam, ekotibhāvaḥ, kṣemaḥ, nirvyākulatā, praśamaḥ, praśāntiḥ, praśāmaḥ, śamaḥ, śamathaḥ   

yuddhopadravādivirahitāvasthā।

yuddhasya paścāt deśe śāntiḥ asti।

santa

kuntalaḥ, keśāntaḥ, keśastukaḥ, khaṅkaraḥ, cūrṇakuntalaḥ, keśamaṇḍalaḥ, guḍālakaḥ   

keśānāṃ kalakaḥ।

kapolasthān kuntalān sā saṅkocati।

santa

santatiḥ   

dakṣakanyā।

santateḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।

santa

santa   

chandoviśeṣaḥ।

sante ekaviṃśatiḥ mātrāḥ santi।

santa

dīkṣānta   

dīkṣāyāḥ ante jāyamānaḥ।

viśvavidyālayasya nideśakasya dīkṣāntasya bhāṣaṇasya anantaraṃ chātrebhyaḥ upādhipramāṇapatrādayaḥ dattāḥ।

santa

kṣāntaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

kṣāntaḥ aśvādigaṇe parigaṇyate

santa

kṣāntaḥ   

ekaḥ ākheṭakaḥ ।

kṣāntasya ullekhaḥ harivaṃśe vartate

santa

śantātīyam   

ekaṃ sūktam ।

śantātīyasya sūktasya ullekhaḥ ṛgvede asti

santa

śāntapuram   

ekaḥ grāmaḥ ।

śāntapurasya ullekhaḥ bauddhasāhitye asti

santa

śāntarasanāṭakam   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

śāntarasanāṭakasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

santa

śāntavīradeśikendraḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

śāntavīradeśikendrasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

santa

śāntasūriḥ   

ekaḥ vidvān ।

śāntasūreḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

santa

praśāntarāgaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

kośeṣu praśāntarāgaḥ samullikhitaḥ

santa

praśāntaviniścayapratihāryanirdeśaḥ   

sūtraviśeṣaḥ ।

praśāntaviniścayapratihāryanirdeśaḥ iti bauddhasūtram asti

santa

śrīśāntaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

śrīśāntasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

santa

santānakāraṇyam   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

santānakāraṇyasya ullekhaḥ bālarāmāyaṇe asti

santa

vasanta   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

vasantasya ullekhaḥ rājataraṅgiṇyāṃ vartate

santa

candrakṣāntaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

candrakṣāntasya varṇanaṃ kośe vartate

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