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447 results for riti
abhibhāf. "apparition, phenomenon", inauspicious omen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhidharmapiṭakam. "basket of metaphysics", Name of the third section of Buddhist writings. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilekhanan. writing upon, inscribing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiprāṇ( an-), -prāṇiti- to exhale, breathe forth towards (accusative) ; to exhale, breathe forth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiyogapattran. a petition or writing of complaint. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyāsam. (in later vedānta- philosophy) inculcation of a truth conveyed in sacred writings by means of repeating the same word or the same passage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āghātakālam. a critical or dangerous time, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣaracaṇa m. "clever in writing", a scribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣaracanam. "clever in writing", a scribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣaracañcu m. "clever in writing", a scribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣaracuñcu m. "clever in writing", a scribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣarajīvaka m. "one who lives by writing", a scribe. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣarajīvika m. "one who lives by writing", a scribe. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣarajīvinm. "one who lives by writing", a scribe. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akṣarasaṃsthānan. scripture, writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālekhyan. writing, painting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ambuprasādam. the clearing nut tree, Strychnos Potatorum (the nuts of this plant are generally used in India for purifying water[ see ];they are rubbed upon the inner surface of a vessel, and so precipitate the impurities of the fluid it contains). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ambuprasādanan. the clearing nut tree, Strychnos Potatorum (the nuts of this plant are generally used in India for purifying water[ see ];they are rubbed upon the inner surface of a vessel, and so precipitate the impurities of the fluid it contains). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amīmāṃsakamfn. uncritical, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
animittalipif. a particular mode of writing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅkanan. the act of marking, stamping, branding, ciphering, writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuharaṇainheriting, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuprāṇ( an-) cl.2 P. -prāṇiti-, to breathe after View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apacchāyāf. an unlucky shadow, a phantom, apparition. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparṇāf. "not having even leaves (for food during her religious austerities)", Name of durgā- or pārvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpītan. a pyritic mineral View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āraṇeyamfn. (fr. araṇi- q.v), made of or relating to the araṇi-s or two pieces of wood by the attrition of which sacred fire is kindled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
araṇif. "being fitted into"or"turning round", the piece of wood (taken from the Ficus Religiosa or Premna Spinosa) used for kindling fire by attrition etc. (generally distinction is made between the lower one and the upper one, adharāraṇ/i-and uttarāraṇi-,the former may also be meant by araṇi-alone without adhara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āraṇyakan. Name of a class of religious and philosophical writings closely connected with the brāhmaṇa-s and called āraṇyaka-s because either composed in forests or studied there, (the upaniṣad-s are considered to be attached to them.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ardhaharamfn. inheriting half a property, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arhamf(ā-)n. meriting, deserving (praise or blame see pūjārha-, nindārha-), worthy of. having a claim or being entitled to (accusative or infinitive mood or in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arhaṇan. deserving, meriting , worship, honour, treating any one (genitive case) with respect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthaharamfn. inheriting wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthasaṃdeham. a dubious or critical matter, (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āsannaprasavāf. a female (of an animal) whose (time of) parturition is near or who is about to bring forth (young ones) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astipravādam. Name of the fourth of the fourteen pūrva-s or older writings of the jaina-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātap -t/apati- (imperative -tapatu-;See ā-t/apat-and ā-t/apas- ss.vv.) to radiate heat : Passive voice (parasmE-pada -tapyamāna-) to suffer pain, be afflicted ; (with tapas-) to inflict (austerities) upon one's self View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atapas mfn. one who neglects tapas- or the practice of ascetic austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atapaska mfn. one who neglects tapas- or the practice of ascetic austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atapasyamfn. one who neglects tapas- or the practice of ascetic austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aticchandam. (probably) too much wilfulness or criticism, (Bombay edition - ccheda-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātmapravādam. "dogmas about the soul or supreme spirit", Name of the seventh of the fourteen pūrva-s or most ancient sacred writings of the jaina-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avilikhamfn. unable to write or paint, writing or painting badly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baiḍālavratika( ) mfn. acting like a cat, hypocritical, a religious impostor (equals bhaṇḍa-tapasvin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baiḍālavratin() mfn. acting like a cat, hypocritical, a religious impostor (equals bhaṇḍa-tapasvin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhagavatmfn. holy (applied to gods, demigods, and saints as a term of address, either in vocative case bhagavan-, bhagavas-, bhagos-[ see Va1rtt. 2 ] f. bhagavatī- m. plural bhagavantaḥ-;or in Nominal verb with 3. sg. of the verb;with Buddhists often prefixed to the titles of their sacred writings) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhalandanam. Name of a man (father of vatsa-prī- or vatsa-prīti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṇati wrong reading for ṇiti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṇḍatapasvinm. a hypocritical ascetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bharatajñamfn. "knowing the science of bharata-varṣa-", conversant with dramatic writings and rules View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaumadevalipif. Name of a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūmikāf. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') a spot, place for (exempli gratia, 'for example' āhāra-bh-,an eating-place ; akṣara-bh-,a place id est a tablet for writing ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhur (prob. a secondary form of bhri-not in ), P. A1. bhur/ati-, te-, to move rapidly or convulsively, stir, palpitate, quiver, struggle (in swimming) : Intensive j/arbhurīti- (parasmE-pada j/arbhurat-, rāṇa-), to flicker (as fire) (confer, compare Greek , ; Latin furere.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūrjam. a species of birch (the Bhoj tree, Betula Bhojpattra, the bark of which is used for writing on) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūrjan. a leaf made of birch bark for writing on ; a written deed, document, [ confer, compare Slavonic or Slavonian bre7za; Lithuanian be4rzas; German bircha,Birke; English birch.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtalipif. "demon-writing", Name of a particular magical formula View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
biḍālavratikamfn. "acting like a cat", false, hypocritical (see baiḍāla-vr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmalekham. " brahmā-'s writing" equals -rekhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmavadalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmavallīlipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛṃhaṇīyamfn. fattening, nutritious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddhadharmam. Buddha's marks or peculiarities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakranāmanm. a pyritic ore of iron (mākṣika-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakṣūrāgam. equals kṣūṣ-prīti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
car cl.1. c/arati-, rarely te- (subjunctive c/arat-,3 plural c/arān- ; perf. cac/āra-[ etc.] , 2 sg. cacartha- ; plural cerur-,etc.; ratur- etc.; A1. cere- ; future cariṣyati-, te-; Aorist acārīt-[ ]; infinitive mood c/aritum-[ ]or cartum-[ ] , Vedic or Veda car/adhyai-[ ], c/aritave-[ ], car/ase-[ ], car/āyai-[ ], caritos-[ ]; ind.p. caritv/ā- ; cartvā- ; cīrtvā-, ; parasmE-pada c/arat-) to move one's self, go, walk, move, stir, roam about, wander (said of men, animals, water, ships, stars, etc.) etc. ; to spread, be diffused (as fire) ; to move or travel through, pervade, go along, follow etc. ; to behave, conduct one's self, act, live, treat (with instrumental case or locative case) etc. ; to be engaged in, occupied or busy with (instr exempli gratia, 'for example' yajñ/ena c-,"to be engaged in a sacrifice" ) etc. ; (with[ ]or without[ ] mithun/am-) to have intercourse with, have to do with (instrumental case) ; (with a parasmE-pada or adjective (cf. mfn.) or ind.p. or adverb) to continue performing or being (exempli gratia, 'for example' arcantaś cerur-,"they continued worshipping"; svāminam avajñāya caret-,"he may go on despising his master") etc. ; (in astronomy) to be in any asterism or conjunction ; to undertake, set about, under go, observe, practise, do or act in general, effect, make (exempli gratia, 'for example' vrat/āni-"to observe vows" etc.; vighnaṃ c-,"to put a hindrance"; bhaikṣaṃ c-"to beg"; vivādaṃ c-,"to be engaged in a lawsuit"; mṛgayāṃ c-,"to hunt" ; sambandhāṃś c-,"to enter into connections"; mārgaṃ cacāra bāṇaiḥ-,"he made a way with arrows"; tapasā indriyāṇi c-,to exercise one's organs with penance ) etc. ; to consume, eat (with accusative), graze ; to make or render (with double accusative) exempli gratia, 'for example' nar/endraṃ satya-sthaṃ carāma-,"let us make the king keep his word" : Causal cārayati-, to cause to move or walk about (Aorist /acīcarat-) ; to pasture ; to send, direct, turn, move etc. ; to cause any one (accusative) to walk through (accusative) ; to drive away from (ablative) ; to cause any one (accusative) to practise or perform (with accusative) ; to cause (any animal accusative) to eat ; to cause to copulate ; to ascertain (as through a spy instrumental case) ; to doubt (see vi--) : Desiderative cicariṣati-, to try to go (parasmE-pada cicarṣat-) ; to wish to act or conduct one's self ; to try to have intercourse with (instrumental case), : Intensive carcarīti- A1. or rarely ([ ]) Passive voice cañcūryate- (curīti-and cūrti- ; ind.p. cūrya- ; parasmE-pada once P. cūryat- ) to move quickly or repeatedly, walk about, roam about (in locative case) etc. ; to act wantonly or coquettishly (see ) ; ([ see, etc.])
carkarītan. a term for any Intensive formed without the syllable ya- (like carkarīti-,1. kṛ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carmadrumam. "parchment-tree", Name of a tree (the bark of which is used for writing upon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
catuṣkramam. a krama- (or method of reading and writing the veda-) consisting of 4 parts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citran. various modes of writing or arranging verses in the shape of mathematical or other fanciful figures (syllables which occur repeatedly being left out or words being represented in a shortened form) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
codayitavyamfn. to be criticised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
codyamfn. to be criticised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cud cl.1. c/odati-, te- (subjunctive c/odat-; imperative da-, data-, dasva-,(2. dual number) dethām-; Aorist 2. sg. codīs-; pr. p. See a-cod/at-), to impel, incite, animate ; to bring or offer quickly (as the soma-) ; A1. to hasten : Causal cod/ayati-, rarely te- (subjunctive 2. sg. yāsi-, yāse-; Aorist acūcudat- ; parasmE-pada cod/ayat-;Pan. codyamāna-), to sharpen, whet (confer, compare ) ; ; to impel, incite, cause to move quickly, accelerate etc. ; (with cakṣus-) to direct (the eye) towards (locative case) ; to inspire, excite, animate ; to request, petition, ask, urge on, press or importune with a request etc. ; help on, assist in the attainment of (dative case) ; to bring or offer quickly, ; to ask for ; to inquire after ; to enjoin, fix, settle ; to object, criticise ; to be quick ; ([ confer, compare , ; Latin cudo.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇalipif. the southern way of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāmbhamf(ī-)n. (fr. dambha-) deceitful, hypocritical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dambhamunim. a hypocritical muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dambhayajñam. a hypocritical sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantaśaṭham. Name of several trees with acid fruits and (n.) Name of the fruits (equals -karṣaṇa-,Citrus Auraritium equals -phala-,Averrhoa Carambola ), 42 and 46 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daradalipif. writing peculiar to the darada-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devanāgarīf. "divine city writing", Name of the character in which Sanskrit is usually written (prob. from its having originated in some city) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmadhvajamfn. "whose banner is law", feigning virtue, hypocritical, an impostor (also -vat-and jika- ; jin- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharminmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') following the laws or duties of, having the rights or attributes or peculiarities of. having anything as a characteristic mark, subject to any state or condition etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmopadhamfn. making a pretence of religion, hypocritical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drāviḍalipif. the Dravidian writing or character View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duḥkhamfn. (according to grammarians properly written duṣ-kha-and said to be from dus-and kha-[ see su-kh/a-]; but more probably a Prakritized form for duḥ-stha- q.v) uneasy, uncomfortable, unpleasant, difficult (Comparative degree -tara- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durlipim. "the fatal writing"(of Destiny on man's forehead) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvādaśāṅgīf. the collective jaina- sacred writings (consisting of 12 parts) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gambhīramfn. equals gabh- (only in the beginning of pāda-s, six times) etc. (in post-Vedic writings gambh-is more used than gabh-;the deepness of a man's navel, voice, and character are praised together ;hence a person who is said to have a deep navel, voice, and character is called trigambhīra tri-gambhīr/a- mf(ā-)n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇanāvartalipif. a kind of writing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇim. (for ṇin-,only at the end of names) one who is familiar with the sacred writings and the auxiliary sciences View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇikārīf. (equals ṇikā-) Premna spinosa (commonly Ganiyari or also Vada-Ganiyari, a small tree with a very fetid leaf, the wood being used in attrition for the purpose of producing flame) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇikārikāf. (equals ṇikā-) Premna spinosa (commonly Ganiyari or also Vada-Ganiyari, a small tree with a very fetid leaf, the wood being used in attrition for the purpose of producing flame) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇipiṭakan. the twelve sacred writings or aṅga-s of the jaina-s collectively View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauḍīf. with rīti- See before View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gauḍīyamfn. relating to gauḍa- or Bengal (as mārga-[ ]or rīti-[ ],"the Gaudian style"). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇayogam. "contact with a cord"and"contact with any one's peculiarities" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harimantham. Premna Spinosa (the wood of which by attrition produces flame) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāritīf. a patronymic ( hāritīputra -putra- m.a son of harītī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastam. hand-writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāyanamn. (according to to native authorities fr.1.or 2. -;but see hayana-) a year (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ī-).,and according to to on alsof(ā-).) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiṇḍanan. writing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hṛ cl.1 P. A1. () h/arati-, te- (once in harmi-,and once in Scholiast or Commentator on -jiharti-; perfect tense P. jahāra-, jah/artha-, jahruḥ-[ -jaharuḥ-?] etc.; A1. jahre- etc.; Aorist ahār-, ahṛthās- ; ahārṣīt- etc. etc.; 3. plural A1. ahṛṣata- ; preceding hriyāt-, hṛṣīṣṭa- grammar; future hartā- etc.; hariṣyati-, te- ; Conditional ahariṣyat- ; infinitive mood h/artum-, tos-, tave-, tav/ai- ; haritum- ; ind.p. hṛtvā-, -h/āram- etc.; -h/ṛtya- etc.), to take, bear, carry in or on (with instrumental case), carry, convey, fetch, bring etc. ; to offer, present (especially with balim-) etc. ; to take away, carry off, seize, deprive of, steal, rob ; to shoot or cut or hew off, sever (the head or a limb) etc. ; to remove, destroy, dispel, frustrate, annihilate ; to turn away, avert (the face) ; A1. (older and more correct than P.), to take to one's self, appropriate (in a legitimate way), come into possession of (accusative), receive (as an heir), raise (tribute), marry (a girl) etc. ; to master, overpower, subdue, conquer, win, win over (also by bribing) etc. ; to outdo, eclipse, surpass ; to enrapture, charm, fascinate etc. ; to withhold, withdraw, keep back, retain etc. ; to protract, delay (with kālam-,"to gain time") ; (in arithmetic) to divide : Passive voice hriy/ate- (Epic also ti-; Aorist ahāri-), to be taken or seized etc. etc. etc.: Causal hārayati-, te- (Aorist ajīharat-; Passive voice hāryate-), to cause to be taken or carried or conveyed or brought by (instrumental case or accusative; confer, compare ) or to (dative case) etc. ; to cause to be taken away, appropriate, seize, rob ; to have taken from one's self, be deprived of, lose (especially at play) ; (harayate-) See pra-hṛ- ; (hārāpayati-), to lose (at play) : Desiderative j/ihīrṣati-, te- (confer, compare jihīrṣā-, ṣu-), to wish to take to one's self or appropriate, covet, desire, long for etc. ; (with kālam-), to wish to gain time : Intensive jehrīyate-; jarharīti-, jarīharīti-, jarharti-, jarīharti- (confer, compare saṃ-hṛ-) grammar ([ confer, compare Greek .]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indram. (for etymology as given by native authoritiesSee on ;according to fr. in-= inv-with suffix ra-preceded by inserted d-,meaning"to subdue, conquer";according to Muir, S. T. , for sindra-fr. syand-,"to drop";more probably from ind-,"to drop"q.v,and connected with indu-above) , the god of the atmosphere and sky
jahnum. Name of an ancient king and sage (son of aja-mīḍha-, of su-hotra-, of kuru-, of hotraka-;ancestor of the kuśika-s;the Ganges, when brought down from heaven by bhagī-ratha-'s austerities, was forced to flow over the earth and to follow him to the ocean and thence to the lower regions in order to water the ashes of sagara-'s sons;in its course it inundated the sacrificial ground of jahnu-, who drank up its waters but consented at bhagī-ratha-'s prayer to discharge them from his ears;hence the river is regarded as his daughter) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jitākṣaramfn. "one who has mastered his letters", writing well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
juṣamfn. prīti-juṣā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kam. (according to native authorities) Name of prajāpati- or of a prajāpati- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kācanakinm. a writing, manuscript View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kacchālaṃkāram. a kind of reed (used for writing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kadakṣaran. a bad letter, bad writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaiṭabhan. Name of a class of writings (pāli- keṭubha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaiṭabheśvaralakṣaṇan. (equals kaiṭabha- n.) Name of a class of writings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalamam. a reed for writing with; ([ confer, compare Latin calamus; Greek ;and Arabic $]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalyāṇan. Name of the eleventh of the fourteen pūrva-s or most ancient writings of the jaina-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karamam. (equals kalama-) a reed for writing with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karaṇam. a man of a mixed class (the son of an outcast kṣatriya- ;or the son of a śūdra- woman by a vaiśya- ;or the son of a vaiśya- woman by a kṣatriya- ;the occupation of this class is writing, accounts etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmakāramfn. = doing work (but without receiving wages, according to native authorities) on etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmann. office, special duty, occupation, obligation (frequently in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound',the first member of the compound being either the person who performs the action[ exempli gratia, 'for example' vaṇik-k-]or the person or thing for or towards whom the action is performed[ exempli gratia, 'for example' rāja-k-, paśu-k-]or a specification of the action[ exempli gratia, 'for example' śaurya-k-, prīti-k-]) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṣṭatapasm. one who practises severe austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kātyāyanam. "descendant of kati-" (See 2. kati-), Name of the author of several treatises on ritual, grammar, etc. (he is also author of the vārttika-s or critical annotations on the aphorisms of pāṇini-, of the yajur-veda- prātiśākhya-, and of the śrauta-sūtra-s, and is identified with vara-ruci-, the author of the prākṛta-prakāśa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keśoṇḍukam. net-like apparitions seen while the eyes are shut (edition ṇḍraka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ketam. apparition, shape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ketum. () apparition, form, shape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ketum. aruṇ/āḥ ket/avaḥ-,"red apparitions", a class of spirits (a kind of sacrificial fire is called after them āruṇaketuka- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinārilipif. a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
komalamf(ā-)n. (fr. ko- equals ku-, mala-fr. mlai-,"easily fading away"?), tender, soft (opposed to karkaśa-), bland, sweet, pleasing, charming, agreeable etc. (said of the style, rīti- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛ Ved. (I) cl.2 P. 2. sg. k/arṣi- dual number kṛth/as- plural kṛth/a-; A1. 2. sg. kṛṣ/e-; imperfect tense 2. and 3. sg. /akar-, 3. sg. rarely /akat- () ; 3. dual number /akartām-; plural /akarma-, /akarta- (also ), /akran- (Aorist,according to ); A1. /akri- (), /akṛthās- (), /akṛta- (); akrātām- (), /akrata- ( ) : imperative kṛdh/i- (also ), kṛt/am-, kṛt/a-; A1. kṛṣv/a-, kṛdhv/am-; subjunctive 2. and 3. sg. kar- plural k/arma-, k/arta- and kartana-, kran-; A1. 3. sg. kṛta- () , 3. plural kr/anta- () : Potential kriyāma- (); pr. p. P. (Nominal verb plural) kr/antas- A1. krāṇ/a-. (II) cl.1 P. k/arasi-, k/arati-, k/arathas-, k/aratas-, k/aranti-; A1. k/arase-, k/arate-, k/arāmahe-: imperfect tense /akaram-, /akaras-, /akarat- (Aorist,according to ) : imperative k/ara-, k/aratam-, k/aratām-: subjunctive k/aram-, k/arāṇi-, k/aras-, k/arat-, k/arāma-, k/aran-; A1. karāmahai-; pr. p. f. k/arantī- () (III) cl.5 P. kṛṇ/omi-, ṇ/oṣi-, ṇ/oti-, kṛṇuth/as-, kṛṇm/as- and kṛṇmasi-, kṛṇuth/a-, kṛṇv/anti-; A1. kṛṇv/e-, kṛṇuṣ/e-, kṛṇut/e-, 3. dual number kṛṇv/aite- (); plural kṛṇm/ahe-, kṛṇv/ate-: imperfect tense /akṛṇos-, /akṛṇot-, /akṛṇutam-, /akṛṇuta- and ṇotana- (), /akṛṇvan-; A1. 3. sg. /akṛṇuta- plural /akṛṇudhvam-, /akṛṇvata-: imperative kṛṇ/u- or kṛṇuh/i- or kṛṇut/āt-, kṛṇ/otu-, kṛṇut/am-, kṛṇut/ām-, 2. plural kṛṇut/a- or kṛṇ/ota- or kṛṇ/otana-, 3. plural kṛṇv/antu-; A1. kṛṇuṣv/a-, kṛṇut/ām-, kṛṇv/āthām-, kṛṇudhv/am-: subjunctive kṛṇ/avas-, ṇ/avat- or ṇ/avāt-, kṛṇ/avāva-, ṇ/avāma-, ṇ/avātha-, ṇ/avatha-, ṇ/avan-; A1. kṛṇ/avai- (once ṇavā- ), kṛṇavase- (also varia lectio ṇvase-), kṛṇavate-, kṛṇ/avāvahai-, kṛṇ/avāmahai-, 3. plural kṛṇ/avanta- () or kṛṇavante- or kṛṇvata- () : Potential A1. kṛṇvīt/a-; pr. p. P. kṛṇv/at- (f. vat/ī-) A1. kṛṇvāṇ/a-. (IV) cl.8. (this is the usual formation in the brāhmaṇa-s; sūtra-s, and in classical Sanskrit) P. kar/omi- (Epic kurmi- ); kurv/as-, kuruth/as-, kurut/as-, kurm/as- ([ kulmas-in an interpolation after ]), kuruth/a-, kurv/anti-; A1. kurv/e-, etc., 3. plural kurv/ate- () : imperfect tense akaravam-, akaros-, akarot-, akurva-, etc.; A1. 3. sg. akuruta- plural akurvata-: imperative kuru-, karotu- (in the earlier language 2. and 3. sg. kurutāt-,3. sg. also ), kuruta- or kurutana- (); A1. kuruṣva-, kurudhvam-, kurv/atām-: subjunctive karavāṇi-, karavas-, vāt-, vāva- or vāvas- ( ), vāma- or vāmas- (), vātha-, van-; A1. karavai-, kuruthās-, karavāvahai- (; he- ), karavaithe-, vaite- ( , ), vāmahai-(he- ) : Potential P. kuryām- A1. kurvīya- (); pr. p. P. kurv/at- (f. vat/ī-); A1. kurvāṇ/a-: perf. P. cak/āra-, cak/artha-, cakṛv/a-, cakṛm/a-, cakr/a- (); A1. cakr/e-, cakrir/e-; parasmE-pada cakṛvas- (accusative cakr/uṣam- ); A1. cakrāṇa- () : 2nd future kariṣy/ati-; subjunctive 2. sg. kariṣy/ās- (); 1st future k/artā-: preceding kriyāsam-: Aorist P. Ved. cakaram- (), acakrat- (), /acakriran- (); A1. 1. sg. kṛske- (); Class. akārṣīt- ( ;once akāraṣīt- ); Passive voice Aorist reflex. akāri- and akṛta- ( ) : infinitive mood k/artum-, Ved. k/artave-, k/artav/ai-, k/artos- (See ss.vv.); ind.p. kṛtv/ā-, Ved. kṛtv/ī- ([ ]) and kṛtv/āya- ([ ]) ; to do, make, perform, accomplish, cause, effect, prepare, undertake etc. ; to do anything for the advantage or injury of another (genitive case or locative case) etc. ; to execute, carry out (as an order or command) ; to manufacture, prepare, work at, elaborate, build ; to form or construct one thing out of another (ablative or instrumental case) etc. ; to employ, use, make use of (instrumental case) etc. ; to compose, describe ; to cultivate (confer, compare ) ; to accomplish any period, bring to completion, spend (exempli gratia, 'for example' varṣāṇi daśa cakruḥ-,"they spent ten years"; kṣaṇaṃ kuru-,"wait a moment"; confer, compare kritakṣaṇa-) ; to place, put, lay, bring, lead, take hold of (accusative or locative case or instrumental case exempli gratia, 'for example' ardh/aṃ-kṛ-,to take to one's own side or party, cause to share in(genitive case;See 2. ardh/a-); haste-or pāṇau-kṛ-,to take by the hand, marry ; hṛdayena-kṛ-,to place in one's heart, love ; hṛdi-kṛ-,to take to heart, mind, think over, consider ; manasi-kṛ- idem or 'f. (equals kuhī-) a fog ' ;to determine, purpose [ ind.p. si-kṛtvā-or si-kṛtya-] ; vaśe-kṛ-,to place in subjection, become master of ) ; to direct the thoughts, mind, etc. (m/anas-[ etc.] or buddhim-[ ] or matim-[ ]or bhāvam-[ ], etc.) towards any object, turn the attention to, resolve upon, determine on (locative case dative case infinitive mood,or a sentence with iti- exempli gratia, 'for example' mā śoke manaḥ kṛthāḥ-,do not turn your mind to grief ; gamanāya matiṃ cakre-,he resolved upon going ; alābuṃ samutsraṣṭuṃ manaś cakre-,he resolved to create a gourd ; draṣṭā tavāsmīti matiṃ cakāra-,he determined to see him ) ; to think of (accusative) ; to make, render (with two accusative exempli gratia, 'for example' ādityaṃ kāṣṭhām akurvata-,they made the sun their goal ) etc. ; to procure for another, bestow, grant (with genitive case or locative case) etc. ; A1. to procure for one's self, appropriate, assume ; to give aid, help any one to get anything (dative case) ; to make liable to (dative case) ; to injure, violate (exempli gratia, 'for example' kanyāṃ-kṛ-,to violate a maiden) ; to appoint, institute ; to give an order, commission ; to cause to get rid of, free from (ablative or -tas-) ; to begin (exempli gratia, 'for example' cakre śobhayitum purīm-,they began to adorn the city) ; to proceed, act, put in practice etc. ; to worship, sacrifice ; to make a sound (svaram-or śabdam-) ( ), utter, pronounce (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' with the sounds phaṭ-, phut-, bhāṇ-, v/aṣaṭ-, svadh/ā-, sv/āhā-, hiṃ-), pronounce any formula () ; (with numeral adverbs ending in dhā-) to divide, separate or break up into parts (exempli gratia, 'for example' dvidhā-kṛ-,to divide into two parts, ind.p. dvidhā kṛtvā-or dvidhā-kṛtya-or -kāram- ; sahasradhā-kṛ-,to break into a thousand pieces) ; (with adverbs ending in vat-) to make like or similar, consider equivalent (exempli gratia, 'for example' rājyaṃ tṛṇa-vat kṛtvā-,valuing the kingdom like a straw ) ; (with adverbs ending in sāt-) to reduce anything to, cause to become, make subject (See ātma-sāt-, bhasma-sāt-) The above senses of kṛ- may be variously modified or almost infinitely extended according to the noun with which this root is connected, as in the following examples: sakhyaṃ-kṛ-, to contract friendship with ; pūjāṃ-kṛ-, to honour ; rājyaṃ-kṛ-, to reign ; snehaṃ-kṛ-, to show affection ; ājñāṃ- or nideśaṃ- or śāsanaṃ- or kāmaṃ- or yācanāṃ- or vacaḥ- or vacanaṃ- or vākyaṃ-kṛ-, to perform any one's command or wish or request etc. ; dharmaṃ-kṛ-, to do one's duty ; nakhāni-kṛ-,"to clean one's nails" See kṛta-nakha- ; udakaṃ- ([ ]) or salilaṃ- ([ ]) kṛ-, to offer a libation of Water to the dead ; to perform ablutions ; astrāṇi-kṛ-, to practise the use of weapons ; darduraṃ-kṛ-, to breathe the flute ; daṇḍaṃ-kṛ-, to inflict punishment etc. ; kālaṃ-kṛ-, to bring one's time to an end id est to die ; ciraṃ-kṛ-, to be long in doing anything, delay ; manasā- (for si-See above) kṛ-, to place in one's mind, think of, meditate ; śirasā-kṛ-, to place on one's the head ; mūrdhnā-kṛ-, to place on one's head, obey, honour. Very rarely in veda- () , but commonly in the brāhmaṇa-s, sūtra-s, and especially in classical Sanskrit the perf. forms cakāra-and cakre- auxiliarily used to form the periphrastical perfect of verbs, especially of causatives exempli gratia, 'for example' āsāṃ cakre-,"he sat down" ; gamay/āṃ cakāra-,"he caused to go"[see ;in veda- some other forms of kṛ-are used in a similar way, viz. proper karoti- ; imperfect tense akar- and ;3. plural akran- and ; preceding kriyāt- (See );according to , also karotu-with vid-]. Causal kārayati-, te-, to cause to act or do, cause another to perform, have anything made or done by another (double accusative instrumental case and accusative [see ] exempli gratia, 'for example' sabhāṃ kāritavān-,he caused an assembly to be made ; rāja-darśanaṃ māṃ kāraya-,cause me to have an audience of the king; vāṇijyaṃ kārayed vaiśyam-,he ought to cause the vaiśya- to engage in trade ; na śakṣyāmi kiṃcit kārayituṃ tvayā-,I shall not be able to have anything done by thee ) ; to cause to manufacture or form or cultivate etc. ; to cause to place or put, have anything placed, put upon, etc. (exempli gratia, 'for example' taṃ citrapaṭaṃ vāsa-gṛhe bhittāv akārayat-,he had the picture placed on the wall in his house ) . Sometimes the Causal of kṛ- is used for the simple verb or without a causal signification (exempli gratia, 'for example' padaṃ kārayati-,he pronounces a word ; mithyā k-,he pronounces wrongly ; kaikeyīm anu rājānaṃ kāraya-,treat or deal with kaikeyī- as the king does ) : Desiderative c/ikīrṣati- (Aorist 2. sg. acikīrṣīs- ) , Epic also te-, to wish to make or do, intend to do, design, intend, begin, strive after etc. ; to wish to sacrifice or worship : Intensive 3. plural karikrati- (pr. p. k/arikrat-See ), to do repeatedly ; Class. carkarti- or carikarti- or carīkarti- ([ ]) , also carkarīti- or carikarīti- or carīkarīti- or cekrīyate- ([ib. Scholiast or Commentator ]); ([ confer, compare Hibernian or Irish caraim,"I perform, execute";ceard,"an art, trade, business, function";sucridh,"easy"; Old German karawan,"to prepare"; modern German gar,"prepared (as food)"; Latin creo,ceremonia;, .])
kramam. "progressing step by step", a peculiar manner or method of reading and writing Vedic texts (so called because the reading proceeds from the 1st member, either word or letter, to the 2nd, then the 2nd is repeated and connected with the 3rd, the 3rd repeated and connected with the 4th, and so on;this manner of reading in relation to words is called pada--[ ] , in relation to conjunct consonants varṇa--[ib.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛcchrabhojinmfn. undergoing austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kriyāviśālan. Name of the thirteenth of the fourteen pūrva-s or most ancient jaina- writings. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtaśobhamfn. one who has performed purification, purified, free from bodily impurities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛttif. the bark of the birch tree (used for writing upon, for making hooka pipes, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krūram. any frightful apparition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣar cl.1 P. kṣ/arati- (Epic also A1. te-;Ved. cl.2 P. kṣariti- ; subjunctive kṣarat-; imperfect tense /akṣarat-; Aorist 3. sg. akṣār-(see ); akṣārīt- ; parasmE-pada kṣ/arat-; infinitive mood kṣ/aradhyai- ), to flow, stream, glide, distil, trickle etc. ; to melt away, wane, perish ; to fall or slip from, be deprived of (ablative) ; to cause to flow, pour out etc. (with mūtram-,"to urine" ) ; to give forth a stream, give forth anything richly (perfect tense cakṣāra-) : Causal kṣārayati-, to cause to flow (as urine) ; to overflow or soil with acrid substances (see kṣāra-) (see kṣārita-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣatran. the military or reigning order (the members of which in the earliest times, as represented by the Vedic hymns, were generally called rājanya-, not kṣatriya-;afterwards, when the difference between brahman- and kṣatra- or the priestly and civil authorities became more distinct, applied to the second or reigning or military caste) etc.
kṣumatmfn. abounding in food, nourishing, nutritious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuhanamfn. envious, hypocritical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuhanā(am-, ā-) f. hypocrisy, assumed and false sanctity, interested performance of religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumbhakāram. a potter (being according to some authorities the son of a Brahman by a wife of the kṣatriya- caste) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāṭīf. (with or scilicet rīti-) a particular style of speech or composition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāṭikāf. (with or scilicet rīti-) equals lāṭī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekham. (also plural) a writing, letter, manuscript, written document of any kind etc. (see kūṭa-l-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhāf. writing, handwriting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhakan. a writing, written message View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhakamuktāmaṇim. "pearl-gem for scribes", Name of a treatise by hari-dāsa- on letter-writing and on secretarial art. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhakapramādam. error in writing, mistake of a copyist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhākṣaran. writing (opp. to ālekhya-,painting) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhanam. an instrument for writing or painting, reed-pen, painting-brush, pen, pencil (m. Calcutta edition also ni-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhanan. writing down, transcribing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhanan. Betula Bhojpatra (the bark of which is used for writing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhanasādhanan. writing materials (varia lectio lekha-s-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhanīyan. (in law) an accusation or defence (required to be made in writing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhapratilekhalipif. a particular kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhārha m. "fit for writing", a kind of palm-tree (the leaves of which are used for writing on) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhārhyam. "fit for writing", a kind of palm-tree (the leaves of which are used for writing on) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhaśālāf. a writing-school, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhaśālikam. a pupil in a writing-school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhyan. the act or the art of writing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhyan. a writing, letter, manuscript View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhyacūrṇikāf. a pencil for writing or drawing, paint-brush View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhyakṛtamfn. done in writing, signed, executed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhyapattran. a written document, writing, scripture, letter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhyapattran. a leaf or sheet of anything for writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhyāruḍhamfn. committed to writing, recorded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhyasthānan. a writing. place, office View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
likhamfn. scratching, writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
likhanan. writing, inscribing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
likhitan. a writing, written document, scripture () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
limpif. equals lipi-, a writing etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liṅgavṛttimfn. making a livelihood by false appearance or assumed outward marks, hypocritical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipif. writing, letters, alphabet, art or manner of writing
lipijñānan. the science or art of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipikāf. lipi-, a writing, written paper etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipinyāsam. "the act of putting down written characters", writing, transcribing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipiphalakan. a writing-tablet, leaf for writing on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipisajjāf. implements or materials for writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipiśālāf. a writing-school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipisaṃnāham. "writing belt", a belt worn on the fore-arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipiśāstran. the art of art of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipivivekam. Name of work on the art of writing of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokabindusāran. Name of the last of the 14 pūrva-s or most ancient jaina- writings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madacyutmfn. gladdening, exhilarating, inspiriting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
magadhalipif. the writing of magadha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāsāṃtapanam. "greatly tormenting", a kind of severe penance (viz. subsisting for 6 successive days respectively on cow's urine, cow-dung, milk, curds, ghee and water in which kuśa- grass has been boiled, and fasting on the 7th;or instead of 1 day some authorities assign a period of 3 days to each penance, considering the first kind as the common sāṃtapana-[ ];others omit the 6th and 7th penance, making the whole last 15 days) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahātapasmfn. practising severe penance or great religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāvārttikan. "great vārttika- or critical commentary", Name of kātyāyana-'s vārttika-s on the sūtra-s of pāṇini- (see māhāv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahoragalipif. a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
malan. (in med.) any bodily excretion or secretion (especially those of the dhātu-s q.v,described as phlegm from chyle, bile from the blood, nose mucus and ear wax from the flesh, perspiration from the fat, nails and hair from the bones, rheum of the eye from the brain; see also the 12 impurities of the body enumerated in ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
malinamukham. a departed spirit, ghost, apparition. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandinmfn. delighting, exhilarating, inspiriting (said of soma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārgam. a way of speaking or writing, diction, style View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārīmṛta(prob. m.) a spectre, apparition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mathan(only instrumental case mathnā-), a piece of wood for producing fire by attrition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mathanam. Premna Spinosa (the wood of which is used to produce fire by attrition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māyāf. an unreal or illusory image, phantom, apparition (especially = false, unreal, illusory; see compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māyāvacanan. a deceptive or hypocritical speech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
melāf. any black substance used for writing, ink View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithyācāramfn. acting falsely or hypocritically View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛtyusūtif. "dying in parturition", a female crab View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mudrālipif. "printed writing", print, lithograph View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naigamam. an interpreter of the sacred writings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāmākṣaran. plural the syllables forming a name, name-writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandin. (with jaina-s) a class of sacred writings (m.or f.?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandināgarīf. a particular kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanānandam. equals -prīti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niḥsvabhāvamfn. "unpropertied", void of peculiarities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikṣepalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikṣepitamfn. (fr. Causal) caused to be set down in writing, committed to writing, inscribed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣekam. water for washing, dirty water, wash (impurities caused by seminal effusion ?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣṭap( tap-) to singe, scorch ; to heat thoroughly, melt (as gold, according to nis-tap-,if the action is repeated) anneal, purify by heat, free from impurities etc. ; to roast, fry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāsam. putting down or in, placing, fixing, inserting, applying, impressing, drawing, painting, writing down etc. (see akṣara--, khura--, caraṇa--, nakha--, pada--., pāda--., bīja--, rekhā--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padakramam. a particular method of reciting or writing the veda- (See krama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padanyāsam. writing down (quarters of) verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padapāṭham. the pada- method of recitation or writing (a method of arranging each word of a Vedic text separately in its original form[ see pada-]without regard to the rules of saṃdhi-; see krama-and saṃhitā-pāṭha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasaṃdhānan. putting together words (writing them into one word), ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paddhatif. Name of a class of writings (described as guide-books or manuals for particular rites and ceremonies and the texts relating to them) and of several works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāñcālīf. (with or sc. rīti-) Name of a particular poetical style etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇītakam. plural of a people (varia lectio karīti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parāṇ( parā-an-) P. parāṇiti- (Desiderative parāṇiṇiṣati-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimathitamfn. (agni-) produced by attrition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parisaṃcaram. "a very difficult pass or defile", a critical period View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paritapP. -tapati- (future -tapiṣyati- ; -tapsyati- ; ind.p. -t/apya- ), to burn all round, set on fire, kindle ; to feel or suffer pain ; (with tapas-) to undergo penance, practise austerities etc. etc.: Passive voice -tapyate- (ti-), to be purified (as by fire) ; to feel or suffer pain, do penance, practise austerities etc.: Causal -tāpayati-, to scorch, cause great pain, torment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātresamitamfn. sg. a treacherous or hypocritical person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṭṭam. (fr. pattra-?) a slab, tablet (for painting or writing upon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṭṭakam. a board or plate (especially for writing upon). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattran. a leaf for writing on, written leaf, leaf of a book, paper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattrapāṭham. the perusal of a writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattrāyaNom. A1. yate-, to be converted into leaves (for writing), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattrikāf. (of traka-), a leaf (for writing upon), a letter, document etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalakan. a slab or tablet (for writing or painting on;also = page, leaf) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṭakamf(ā-)n. a collection of writings (ci1. tri-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pittalan. Betula Bhojpatra (its bark is used for writing upon; see bhūrja-pattra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajāpati(--) m. lord of creatures, creator etc. etc. (Name of a supreme god above or among the Vedic deities[ ]but in later times also applied to viṣṇu-, śiva-, Time personified, the sun, fire, etc., and to various progenitors, especially to the 10 lords of created beings first created by brahmā-, viz. marīci-, atri-, aṅgiras-, pulastya-, pulaka-, kratu-, vasiṣṭha-, pracetas- or dakṣa-, bhṛgu-, nārada-[ ; see ], of whom some authorities count only the first 7, others the last 3) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praketam. (4. cit-) appearance, apparition, sight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praketanan. appearance, apparition (used to explain prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prākṛtamf(ā-,or ī-)n. provincial, vernacular, Prakritic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṛtif. (with tritīyā-) the third nature, a eunuch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṣepalipif. a particular style of handwriting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramāṇan. right measure, standard, authority etc. (pramāṇam bhavatī-,"your ladyship is the authority or must judge";in this sense also m.and f. sg. and plural exempli gratia, 'for example' vedāḥ pramāṇāḥ-,"the veda-s are authorities"; strī pramāṇī yeṣām-,"they whose authority is a woman") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramukhamfn. (generally in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'; f(ā-).) having as foremost or chief, headed or preceded by, accompanied by or with ([ see prīti-p-; vasiṣṭhap-]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇāvāyan. Name of the 12th of the 14 pūrva-s or ancient writings of the jaina-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. composing, writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāptaprasavāf. a woman who is near parturition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśastif. Name of a guide to letter-writing (also tikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasavam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).;for 1. 2.See above) begetting, procreation, generation, conception, parturition, delivery, birth, origin etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasūtif. (for 1.See pra--1. su-) procreation, generation, bringing forth (children or young), laying (eggs), parturition, birth (-tas-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praticodanāf. prevention, prohibition (= niṣedha-, opp. to vidhi-,or equals smriti-, opp. to śruti- Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikañcukam. (prob.) a critic, a critical work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyānāham. inflammation in the chest, pleuritis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravacanan. sacred writings (especially the brāhmaṇa-s or the vedāṅga-s) etc. (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravacanan. the sacred writings of Buddhists (ninefold) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravacanan. the sacred writings of the jaina-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
protsāhanan. (fr. Causal) the act of inspiriting or inciting, instigation, invitation to (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarlekhanan. writing down again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvan. Name of the most ancient of jaina- writings (of which 14 are enumerated) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvamind. before (also as a preposition with ablative), formerly, hitherto, previously (sometimes with present tense) etc. etc. (often in the beginning of a compound exempli gratia, 'for example' pūrva-kārin-,active before, pūrvokta-,said before;also in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' in the sense of"with" exempli gratia, 'for example' prīti-pūrvam-,with love; mati-pūrvam-with intention, intentionally; mṛdu-pūrva-bhāṣ-,to speak kindly; see above;also with an ind.p. exempli gratia, 'for example' pūrva-bhojam-,or -bhuktvā-,having eaten before ; adya-p-,until now, hitherto;previously -tataḥ-,first-then; pūrva-paścāt-,previously-afterwards; pūrva-upari-,previously-subsequently; pūrva-adhūnā-or adya-,formerly-now) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvavidehalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣkarasārīf. "having the essence of the lotus", a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpalipif. "flower-writing."Name of a particular style of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raitikamf(ī-)n. (fr. rīti-) of or belonging to brass, brazen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājalekham. "kind's writing", a royal letter or edict View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājaputrīf. a kind of metal (equals riti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājarṣim. (for -riṣi-) a royal ṛṣi- or saint, ṛṣi- of royal descent, that holy and superhuman personage which a kind or man of the military class may become by the performance of great austerities (exempli gratia, 'for example' purū-ravas-, viśvā-mitra- etc.; see devarṣi-and brahma-rṣi-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratif. the pleasure of love, sexual passion or union, amorous enjoyment (often personified as one of the two wives of kāma-deva-, together with prīti- q.v) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratiprītif. dual number rati- and prīti- (the wives of kāma-deva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāvaṇam. Name of the ruler of laṅkā- or Ceylon and the famous chief of the rākṣasa-s or demons whose destruction by rāmacandra- forms the subject of the rāmāyaṇa- (as son of viśravas- he was younger brother of kubera-, but by a different mother, ilavila- being the mother of kubera-, and keśinī- of the three other brothers rāvaṇa- vibhīṣaṇa-, and kumbha-karṇa-;he is one of the worst of the many impersonations of evil common in Hindu mythology;he has ten heads and twenty arms, symbolizing strength;this power was, as usual, acquired by self-inflicted austerities, which had obtained from brahmā- a boon, in virtue of which rāvaṇa- was invulnerable by gods and divine beings of all kinds, though not by men or a god in human form;as viṣṇu- became incarnate in rāma-candra- to destroy rāvaṇa-, so the other gods produced innumerable monkeys, bears, and various semi-divine animals to do battle with the legions of demons, his subjects, under khara-, dūṣaṇa-, and his other generals) etc. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
retyan. equals rīti-, bell-metal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rikthabhāgin() ( ) mfn. inheriting or sharing property, an heir. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rikthabhāj( ) mfn. inheriting or sharing property, an heir. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rikthagrāhamfn. receiving an inheritance, inheriting property View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rikthinmfn. or m. inheriting property, an heir View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rirīf. yellow or pale brass, prince's metal (see rīrī-, rīti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rītif. style of speaking or writing, diction (three are usually enumerated, viz. vaidarbhī-, gauḍī-, pañcālī-,to which a fourth is sometimes added, viz. lāṭikā-,and even a fifth and sixth, viz. āvantikā-or yāvantikā-and māgadhī-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛkthagrahaṇan. inheriting property. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛkthinmfn. receiving or inheriting property, an inheritor, heir View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛṣabhīf. a woman with masculine peculiarities (as with a beard etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛtan. sacred or pious action or custom, divine law, faith, divine truth (these meanings are given by and are generally more to be accepted than those of native authorities and marked below) etc.
rudramfn. (prob.) crying, howling, roaring, dreadful, terrific, terrible, horrible (applied to the aśvin-s, agni-, indra-, mitra-, varuṇa-, and the sp/aśaḥ-) (according to to others"red, shining, glittering", fr. a rud-or rudh-connected with rudhira-;others"strong, having or bestowing strength or power", fr. a rud- equals vṛd-, vṛdh-;native authorities give also the following meanings,"driving away evil";"running about and roaring", fr. ru-+ dra-= dru-2;"praiseworthy, to be praised";"a praiser, worshipper"equals stotṛ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabarabhāṣyan. śabara-'s id est śabara-svāmin-'s commentator or commentary on the mīmāṃsā-sūtra- (also called śābara-bh-;it has been critically annotated by the great mīmāṃsā- authority kumārila-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadambhamfn. (for sad-ambha-See) with hypocrisy, hypocritical (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadyaḥprāṇakaramfn. quickly causing vitality or inspiriting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāgaralipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakārilipif. a particular kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śalalacañcum. or n. the quill of porcupine (used for writing)
samadhirūḍhamfn. one who has risen up or mounted (with tulām-,"brought into a critical condition") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdhim. critical juncture, crisis, opportune moment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdigdhalekhyan. a writing or document of doubtful meaning or authority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgharṣam. mutual attrition, rivalry, envy, jealousy in regard to (accusative with prati-or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkaṭamf(ā-)n. dangerous, critical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkaṭan. a narrow passage, strait, defile, pass etc., a strait, difficulty, critical condition, danger to or from (compound; see prāṇa-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkhyālipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃśitatapasmfn. exposed or subjected to painful austerities or mortifications (said of a śūdra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtapP. -tapati-, to heat thoroughly, scorch, parch, dry up etc. ; to feel pain or remorse ; to pain by heat, torture, oppress, afflict, harass etc. etc.: Passive voice -tapyate- (Epic also ti-), to be oppressed or afflicted, suffer pain, undergo penance (3. sg. impersonal or used impersonally with genitive case of Persian) etc. etc.: Causal -tāpayati- (Passive voice -tāpyate-), to cause to be heated, make very hot, burn, inflame, scorch etc. ; to pair by heat, torture, torment (ātmānam-,"one's self. id est to afflict the body by austerities") , afflict, trouble, distress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmudrakamfn. oceanic, maritime gaRa dhumādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sañcam. (perhaps fr. sañcaya-) a collection of leaves for writing, a copy-book, E. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāñjanamfn. having pigment, having impurities, not pure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāram. a chief-ingredient or constituent part of the body (causing the peculiarities of temperament;reckoned to be 7, viz. sattva-, śukra-, majjan-, asthi-, medas-, māṃsa-, rakta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarasvatīf. Name of a river (celebrated in and held to be a goddess whose identity is much disputed;most authorities hold that the name sarasvatī- is identical with the Avestan Haraquaiti river in Afghanistan, but that it usually means the Indus in the , and only occasionally the small sacred rivers in madhya-deśa- [see below];the river-goddess has seven sisters and is herself sevenfold, she is called the mother of streams, the best of mothers, of rivers, and of goddesses;the ṛṣi-s always recognize the connection of the goddess with the river, and invoke her to descend from the sky, to bestow vitality, renown, and riches;elsewhere she is described as moving along a golden path and as destroying vṛtra- etc.;as a goddess she is often connected with other deities exempli gratia, 'for example' with pūṣan-, indra-, the marut-s and the aśvin-s;in the āprī- hymns she forms a triad with the sacrificial goddesses iḍā- and bhāratī-; according to to a myth told in the , sarasvatī- through speech[ vācā-]communicated vigour to indra-;in the brāhmaṇa-s she is identified with vāc-,"Speech", and in later times becomes goddess of eloquenceSee below) etc.
sarasvatīpūjāf. the worship of sarasvatī- (observed as a holiday on the fifth of the light half of the month māgha- and therefore also called vasanta-pañcamī-, on which day books and writing implements are held sacred and not allowed to be used) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarasvatīpūjanan. the worship of sarasvatī- (observed as a holiday on the fifth of the light half of the month māgha- and therefore also called vasanta-pañcamī-, on which day books and writing implements are held sacred and not allowed to be used) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvabhūtarutagrahaṇīf. "comprising the sounds of all beings", a kind of writing (see sarva-ruta-saṃgrahiṇi-lipī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvaharamfn. inheriting a person's whole property View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvarutasaṃgrahiṇilipi(?) f. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasārasaṃgrahaṇīf. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvauṣadhiniṣyandāf. a particular kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāsanan. a writing, deed, written contract or agreement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrāvartalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstravatmfn. having or following sacred books or precepts, skilled in sacred writings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyatapasm. "practising true austerity", Name of a muni- (who was once a hunter, but after performing severe austerities obtained from durvāsas- the boon of great saintship) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvarṇim. metron., of the eighth manu- (son of the Sun by su-varṇā- q.v,and therefore younger brother of the seventh manu- or vaivasvata-;the succeeding manu-s to the twelfth, or according to to other authorities to the fourteenth inclusive, are all called sāvarṇi-; see dakṣa--, brahma--, dharma-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saviśeṣaṇamfn. possessing distinctions or peculiarities or attributes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śilākṣara(k-) n. "stone-letter", writing on stone, lithography View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivam. sacred writings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślāghāvahamfn. meriting praise. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣoḍaśakalāf. plural the 16 digits of the moon (named, 1. a-mṛtā-;2. māna--;3. pūṣā-;4. tuṣṭi-;5. puṣṭi-;6. rati-;7. dhṛti-;3. śaśinī-;9. candrikā-; 10. kānti-; 11. jyotsnā-; 12. śrī-; 13. prīti-; 14. aṅga--; 15. pūrṇā-; 16. pūrṇāmṛtā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāvastīf. Name of a city situated north of the Ganges and founded by king śrāvasta- (it was the ancient capital of kosala- and said to have been the place where the wealthy merchant anātha-piṇḍika- built the buddha- a residence in the jeta-vana- monastery which became his favourite retreat during the rainy seasons: other authorities derive the name from a ṛṣi- called sāvattha-, who is said to have resided there;it has been identified by General Cunningham with a place now called SahetMahet, about 58 miles north of ayodhyā- in Oudh) (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śreyasmfn. (either Comparative degree of śrī-,or rather according to to native authorities of śrī-mat-or praśasya-; confer, compare Greek ) more splendid or beautiful, more excellent or distinguished, superior, preferable, better, better than (with ablative or with na-See below) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīkārinm. "causing increase", a kind of antelope (equals kuraṅga-;the flesh of it is considered highly nutritious;some make the word śrīkārī śrī-kārī- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīpañcamīf. the fifth day of the light half of māgha- (a festival in honour of sarasvatī-, goddess of learning, when books and implements or writing are worshipped) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śritif. approach, recourse, entering (See ucchriti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgāram. (in rhetoric) the erotic sentiment (one of the 8 or 10 rasa-s q.v;it has viṣṇu- for its tutelary deity and black for its colour; according to to most authorities it is of two kinds, viz. sambhoga-,"mutual enjoyment", and vipralambha-,"deception, disappointment", to which by some is added as third a-yoga-,"separation") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutif. that which has been heard or communicated from the beginning, sacred knowledge orally transmitted by the Brahmans from generation to generation, the veda- (id est sacred eternal sounds or words as eternally heard by certain holy sages called ṛṣi-s, and so differing from sm/ṛti-or what is only remembered and handed down in writing by human authorsSee ;it is properly only applied to the mantra- and brāhmaṇa- portion of the veda-s, although afterwards extended to the upaniṣad-s and other Vedic works including the darśana-s; iti śruteḥ-,"because it is so taught in the veda-, according to a śruti-or Vedic text "; plural"sacred texts, the veda-s", also"rites prescribed by the veda-s") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthāṇum. Name of śiva- (who is supposed to remain as motionless as the trunk of a tree during his austerities) etc. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthaviragāthāf. a particular section of Buddhist writings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
strīdhanan. "women's wealth", a wife's peculiar property (said to be of six kinds, adhy-agnika-, adhy-āvāhanika-, ādhi-vedanika-, prīti-datta-, śulka-, anv-ādheya-) etc. (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
strīpramāṇamfn. regarding women as authorities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣum. or ṣū- f(ū-). (fr.4. su-) child-bearing, parturition, delivery (wrong reading for -). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
m. child-bearing, parturition [ confer, compare Greek , ; Latin sus; Anglo-Saxon su7; English sow; German Sau.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sucaturamfn. (according to to native authorities fr. catur-) very clever or skilful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhaprasavanan. easy birth or parturition, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukṛtif. the practice of religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumahātapasmfn. performing very severe penance or austerities, extremely austere View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumatind. (prob. for smat-) together, along with (instrumental case) (according to to native authorities fr. 6. su-+ mat- equals kalyāṇa-, śobhana-,or equals svataḥ-, svayam-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūnan. bringing forth, parturition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suprasavam. easy parturition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutapam. (for suta-pa-See)"practising great austerities" , Name of a class of gods under the eighth manu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūtif. parturition, delivery, lying in View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sutyāf. (for 1.See above) bringing forth a child, parturition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūtyāśaucan. impurity caused by child-birth (continuing for ten days after regular parturition, and after miscarriage for a period of days equal to the number of months since conception) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇamākṣikan. a bright yellow mineral substance (thought to be pyritic iron ore) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svahastam. own handwriting, autograph View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svākṣaram. one's own handwriting, autograph View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvart(or svart-) = or for śvabhr- (according to to some authorities in ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvātramfn. (prob. fr. śvi- equals śū-) invigorating, strengthening, strong (as soma-, the waters etc.; according to to native authorities equals kṣipra-,or mitra-; according to to others,"savoury","dainty", fr. śvad- equals svad-)
svīyākṣaram. one's own handwriting or signature, autograph View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tālāṅkam. a palm-leaf (used for writing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanūnapātm. (t/anū--) "son of himself, self-generated (as in lightning or by the attrition of the araṇi-s see ) ", a sacred Name of Fire (chiefly used in some verses of the āprī- hymns) (accusative pātam-, ) (dative case ptre-;= ) (genitive case ptur-,4, 2, 5 irregular Nominal verb ptā-[only etymological see 4, 2, 5] 4, 2, 11) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tap cl.1. t/apati- (rarely A1.; subjunctive pāti- ; parasmE-pada t/apat- etc.; cl.4. parasmE-pada t/apyat- ; perfect tense 1. sg. tat/apa- ;3. sg. t/āpa-, ; parasmE-pada tepān/a- ; future tapsy/ati- etc.: te-& tapiṣyati- ) to give out heat, be hot, shine (as the sun) etc. ; to make hot or warm, heat, shine upon ; to consume or destroy by heat ; to suffer pain ; (with paścāt-) to repent of ; to torment one's self, undergo self-mortification, practise austerity (tapas-) etc. ; to cause pain to, injure, damage, spoil Passive voice or cl.4 A1. tapy/ate- (;or t/apy- ; parasmE-pada py/amāna- ; t/apy-, ; confer, compare /a--; Aorist atāpi- ; atapta- ; perfect tense tepe- etc.; parasmE-pada pān/a- ;also P. tapyati-, pyet-, atapyat-,etc. ) to be heated or burnt, become hot etc. ; to be purified by austerities (as the soul) ; to suffer or feel pain etc. ; to suffer pain voluntarily, undergo austerity (tapas-) etc.: Causal tāpayati-, te- (parasmE-pada p/ayat- ; Passive voice pyate- etc.; Aorist atītape-& [Subj.] tat/apate- ) to make warm or hot, etc. ; to consume by heat etc. ; to cause pain, trouble, distress etc. ; to torment one's self, undergo penance, : Intensive (parasmE-pada tātapyamāna-) to feel violent pain, be in great anxiety ([ confer, compare Latin tepeoetc.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaḥkleśasahamfn. enduring the pain of austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaḥkṛśamfn. emaciated by austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaḥpātran. a man whose austerities have made him a fit recipient of honour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaḥprabhāvam. supernatural power (acquired by) austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaḥsādhyamfn. to be accomplished by austerities. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaḥśīlamfn. inclined to religious austerities. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāpasamfn. (gaRa chattrādi- ) a practiser of religious austerities (t/apas-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaścaraṇan. the practice of austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaścitm. plural "accumulating merit by austerities", Name of a class of deities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaspati(t/ap-) m. the lord of austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapastakṣam. "destroying the power of religious austerity", indra- (as disturbing the austerities of ascetics lest they should acquire too great power) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapastaṅkam. "afraid of austerities" idem or 'm. "destroying the power of religious austerity", indra- (as disturbing the austerities of ascetics lest they should acquire too great power) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapasvinmfn. practising austerities, (m.) an ascetic (Comparative degree), (superlative degree -vi-tama-) (Comparative degree ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapasyaNom. syati- () to undergo religious austerities (t/ap-) (A1. see 2. tapasya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapīyasmfn. (Comparative degree) most devoted to austerities among (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapobalam. the power acquired by religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapobhaṅgam. interruption of religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapobhṛtmfn. undergoing austerities, (m.) an ascetic
tapodhāmann. "place of austerities", Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapodhanamf(ā-)n. rich in religious austerities, (m.) a great ascetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomayamf(ī-)n. consisting in or composed of religious austerities, 3990; 14430 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapomayamf(ī-)n. practising religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponiṣṭhamfn. practising austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taponityamfn. devoting one's self incessantly to religious austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporājam. the moon (as presiding over austerities) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporāśim. an accumulation of religious austerities (puruṣottama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taporthīyamfn. destined for austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovanan. a grove in which religious austerities are performed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovatmfn. engaged in austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapovrātam. a multitude of austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapoyajñamfn. sacrificing by austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapoyuktamfn. engaged in austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taptamfn. practised (as austerities) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taptamfn. one who has practised austerities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taptatapasmfn. practising austerities, (m.) an ascetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tārārim. "silver-enemy", a pyritic ore of iron View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
toyadhipriyan. "fond of the sea (produced in maritime countries)", cloves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṝ cl.1 P. (rarely A1.) t/arati- (subjunctive t/arat- imperfect tense /atarat-, parasmE-pada t/arat- infinitive mood tar/adhyai-, rīṣ/ani- ) cl.5. tarute- (; Potential 1. plural turyāma-, ) cl.3. titarti- (; parasmE-pada Nominal verb plural t/itratas- ; Potential tutury/āt-, ) , with prepositions Vedic or Veda chiefly cl.6 P. A1. (tir/ate- subjunctive tirāti- imperfect tense /atirat-, parasmE-pada tir/at- infinitive mood t/iram-, t/ire- ; Aorist /atārīt-, ;1. plural riṣma- , rima- ; t/aruṣante- , ta-i, ṣema- [ confer, compare ]; A1.and Passive voice -tāri- ; P. atārṣīt- ; ṣam- ; perfect tense tatāra- etc.;3. plural titirur-, ; teritha-, ratur- ; parasmE-pada titirv/as- genitive case tatar/uṣas- ; future tariṣyati-, rīṣ-, taritā-, rītā-[ confer, compare pra-t/ar-] ; t/arutā- ; preceding tīryāt-, tariṣīṣṭa- ; infinitive mood tartum- ; rīt- rit- ; ind.p. tīrtv/ā- ; -t/ūrya-See vi--) to pass across or over, cross over (a river), sail across etc. ; to float, swim ; to get through, attain an end or aim, live through (a definite period), study to the end etc. ; to fulfil, accomplish, perform ; to surpass, overcome, subdue, escape etc. ; to acquire, gain, ; A1. to contend, compete ; to carry through or over, save, : Causal tārayati- (parasmE-pada r/ayat-) to carry or lead over or across etc. ; to cause to arrive at ; to rescue, save, liberate from (ablative) etc.: Desiderative titīrṣati- (also titariṣati-, rīṣ- ; parasmE-pada A1. titīrṣamāṇa- ) to wish to cross or reach by crossing : Intensive tartarīti- (2. dual number rīthas-; parasmE-pada genitive case t/arilratas-[ ];See also vi--; tātarti-, Scholiast or Commentator) to reach the end by passing or running or living through ; ([ confer, compare t/ara-, tir/as-, tīrṇ/a-; Latin termo,trans; Gothic thairh.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tripiṭakan. the 3 baskets or collections of sacred writings (sūtra--, vinaya--, and abhidharma-piṭaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udover, above. (As implying separation and disjunction) out, out of, from, off, away from, apart. (According to native authorities ud-may also imply publicity, pride, indisposition, weakness, helplessness, binding, loosing, existence, acquisition.) ud- is not used as a separable adverb or preposition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūh cl.1 P. A1. ūhati-, -te- (Ved. ohate-), ūhāṃ-cakāra-, etc. (by native authorities not distinguished from 1. ūh-above ), to observe, mark, note, attend to, heed, regard ; to expect, hope for, wait for, listen for ; to comprehend, conceive, conjecture, guess, suppose, infer, reason, deliberate upon etc.: Causal ūhayati- (Aorist aujihat-), to consider, heed ; to cause to suppose or infer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
umāf. Name of the daughter of himavat- (wife of the god śiva-;also called pārvatī- and durgā-;the name is said to be derived from u mā-,"O [child], do not [practise austerities]"the exclamation addressed to pārvatī- by her mother) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaind. with, together with, at the same time with, according to (with inst. exempli gratia, 'for example' upa dharmabhiḥ-,according to the rules of duty) upa-, besides the meanings given above, is said by native authorities to imply disease, extinction; ornament; command; reproof; undertaking; giving; killing; diffusing; wish; power; effort; resemblance, etc.; ([ confer, compare Zend upa; Greek ; Latin sub; Gothic uf; Old German oba; modern German obinObdach,obliegen,etc.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upadeśam. Name of a class of writings () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upadhātum. a secondary mineral, semi-metal (seven are specified: svarṇa-mākṣika-,pyrites; tāra-mākṣika-,a particular white mineral; tuttha-,sulphate of copper; kāṃsya-,brass; rīti-,calx of brass; sindūra-,red lead; śilājatu-,red chalk) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upagrantham. "minor work", a class of writings. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upalekham. "subordinate writing", Name of a grammatical work connected with the prāti-śākhya-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāṅgan. Name of a class of sacred writings of the jaina-s (eight are enumerated, the last of which includes four subdivisions) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaniṣadf. (according to some) the sitting down at the feet of another to listen to his words (and hence, secret knowledge given in this manner;but according to native authorities upaniṣad-means "setting at rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaniṣadf. a class of philosophical writings (more than a hundred in number, attached to the brāhmaṇa-s [butSee īśopaniṣad-];their aim is the exposition of the secret meaning of the veda-, and they are regarded as the source of the vedānta- and sāṃkhya- philosophies;for the most important of the upaniṣad-sSee ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāsakadaśāf. plural Name of one of the aṅga-s or chief jaina- sacred writings. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavarṣam. Name of a younger brother of varṣa- (and son of śaṃkara-svāmin-;author of writings on the mīmāṃsā- philosophy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavedam. "secondary knowledge", Name of a class of writings subordinate or appended to the four veda-s (viz. the āyur-veda-,or science of medicine, to the ṛg-- veda-;the dhanurveda-or science of archery, to the yajur-veda-;the gāndharva-veda-or science of music, to the sāmaveda-;and the śastra-śāstra-or science of arms, to the atharva-- veda-;this is according to the caraṇavyūha-, but and the make the āyur-veda- belong to the atharva-- veda-;according to others, the sthāpatya-veda-or science of architecture, and śilpa-śāstra-or knowledge of arts, are reckoned as the fourth upa-veda-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrdhvāmnāyam. "a subsequent or further sacred tradition", Name of a sacred writing of the śākta-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpādapūrvan. Name of the first of the fourteen pūrva-s (or older sacred writings of the jaina-s). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttānapadf. (uttān/a-) one whose legs are extended (in parturition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidarbharītif. the vidarbha-s style of composition (see under rīti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidarbhīf. equals bha-rīti- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vajralipif. a particular style of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanāf. the piece of wood used for kindling fire by attrition (= araṇi- q.v;sometimes personified) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṅgalipif. Bengal writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇam. colour, tint, dye, pigment (for painting or writing) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇagrathaṇāf. a particular artificial method of writing verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇakam. a pencil or brush for painting or writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇanan. writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇanāf. writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇavarti f. a writing-pen, pencil etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇavartikāf. a writing-pen, pencil etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikamfn. explanatory, glossarial, containing or relating to a critical gloss or annotation (See n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikan. an explanatory or supplementary rule, critical gloss or annotation (added to a grammatical or philosophical sūtra- and defined to be"the exposition of the meaning, of that which is said, of that which is left unsaid, and of that which is ill or imperfectly said";the term vārttika- is, however, especially applied to kātyāyana-'s critical annotations on the aphorisms of pāṇini-'s grammar, the object of which is to consider whether pāṇini-'s rules are correct or not, and to improve on them where this may be found to be necessary;and also to similar works on various matters by kumārila-, sureśvara- etc.; see tantra-v-, śloka-v-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāyumarullipi(fr. -marut-+ l-) f. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
velikāf. (with bhū-) a country situated on the sea-shore, maritime country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidṝP. -dṛṇāti-, to tear asunder or to pieces, lacerate etc. ; to cleave, open (Aorist subjunctive -darṣasi-) : Passive voice -dīryate- (Epic also ti-), to be torn or rent asunder, split open etc. ; to be torn with grief or anguish : Causal -dārayati-, to cause to burst asunder, rend or tear to pieces, lacerate etc. ; to open ; to scatter, disperse ; to push away : Intensive -dardarīti-, to tear or split in pieces, burst asunder, open View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyādalam. Betula Bhojpatra (whose leaves are used for writing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyānulomālipi(!) f. (n-) a particular manner of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyāpravādan. Name of one of the pūrva-s or oldest writings of the jaina-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñāP. A1. -jānāti-, -jānīte-, to distinguish, discern, observe, investigate, recognize, ascertain, know, understand etc. etc. (with na-and infinitive mood"to know not how to") ; to have right knowledge, ; to become wise or learned ; to hear or learn from (genitive case) ; to recognize in (locative case) ; to look upon or regard or consider as (two accusative) etc. ; to learn or understand that (two accusative or yat-) etc. ; to explain, declare : Passive voice -jñāyate-, to be distinguished or discerned etc. ; (especially 3. sg.,"it is known or understood";"it is recognized or prescribed", scilicet by authorities ;and in gram. mā vi-jñāyi-with preceding Nominal verb,"let this not be considered as") : Causal -jñapayati-, or -jñāpayati- (rarely te-; Aorist vy-ājijñapat-), to make known, declare, report, communicate etc. ; to ask or request anything ; to declare or tell that (two accusative) ; to apprise, teach, instruct, ask, beg (with accusative of Persian;and dative case of thing, or with artham- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound',or prati-and accusative) etc. ; to inform of or about (two accusative) : Passive voice (only Conditional vy-ajñāpayiṣyata-,with varia lectio ṣyat-), to become manifest, appear : Desiderative of Causal See vi-jijñāpayiṣā- below (see also vi-jñīpsu-): Desiderative -jijñāsati-, te-, to wish to understand or know etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikāram. an apparition, spectre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikṛtif. an apparition, phantom, spectre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikṣepalipim. a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimarśam. consideration, deliberation, trial, critical test, examination etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimarśam. (in dramatic language) critical juncture or crisis (one of the 5 saṃdhi-s or junctures of the plot, intervening between the garbha-or germ and the nirvahana-or catastrophe exempli gratia, 'for example' in the śakuntalā- the removal of her veil in the 5th act) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimiśritamfn. mixed, mingled (with lipi- f.a particular mode of writing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśpatnīf. the mistress or protectress of a house (also applied to the fire of attrition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvam. plural (v/iśve-,with or scilicet dev/ās- see viśve-deva-,p.995)"all the gods collectively"or the"All-gods"(a particular class of gods, forming one of the 9 gaṇa-s enumerated under gaṇadevatā- q.v; according to to the viṣṇu- and other purāṇa-s they were sons of viśvā-, daughter of dakṣa-, and their names are as follow, 1. vasu-, 2. satya-, 3. kratu-, 4. dakṣa-, 5. kāla-, 6. kāma-, 7. dhṛti-, 8. kuru-, 9. purū-ravas-, 10. mādravas- [?];two others are added by some, viz. 11. rocaka- or locana-, 12. dhvani- [or dhūri-;or this may make 13]: they are particularly worshipped at śrāddha-s and at the vaiśvadeva- ceremony[ ];moreover according to to manu- [ ], offerings should be made to them daily - these privileges having been bestowed on them by brahmā- and the pitṛ-s, as a reward for severe austerities they had performed on the himālaya-: sometimes it is difficult to decide whether the expression viśve devāḥ-refers to all the gods or to the particular troop of deities described above) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvakarmanm. "all-doer, all-creator, all-maker", Name of the divine creative architect or artist (said to be son of brahmā-, and in the later mythology sometimes identified with tvaṣṭṛ- q.v,he is said to have revealed the sthāpatyaveda- q.v,or fourth upa-veda-, and to preside over all manual labours as well as the sixty-four mechanical arts [whence he is worshipped by kāru-s or artisans];in the Vedic mythology, however, the office of Indian Vulcan is assigned to tvaṣṭṛ- as a distinct deity, viśva-karman- being rather identified with prajā-pati- [ brahmā-] himself as the creator of all things and architect of the universe;in the hymns he is represented as the universal Father and Generator, the one all-seeing God, who has on every side eyes, faces, arms, and feet;in and elsewhere in the brāhmaṇa-s he is called a son of bhuvana-, and viśva-karman- bhauvana- is described as the author of the two hymns mentioned above;in the and he is a son of the vasu- prabhāsa- and yoga-siddhā-;in the purāṇa-s a son of vāstu-, and the father of barhiṣmatī- and saṃjñā-; according to to other authorities he is the husband of ghṛtācī-;moreover, a doubtful legend is told of his having offered up all beings, including himself, in sacrifice;the rāmāyaṇa- represents him as having built the city of laṅkā- for the rākṣasa-s, and as having generated the ape nala-, who made rāma-'s bridge from the continent to the island;the name viśva-karman-, meaning "doing all acts", appears to be sometimes applicable as an epithet to any great divinity) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvāmitram. (prob.)"friend of all", Name of a celebrated ṛṣi- or Sage (having the patronymic gāthina-, gādheya-, and jāhnava-;he was at first a functionary, together with vasiṣṭha-, of su-dās-, king of the tṛtsu-s;seeing vasiṣṭha- preferred by the king, he went over to the bharata-s, but could not prevent their being defeated by su-dās-, although he caused the waters of the rivers vipāś- and śutudrī- to retire and so give the bharata-s free passage ;he was born as a kṣatriya-, deriving his lineage from an ancestor of kuśika-, named purū-ravas-, of the lunar race of kings, and himself sovereign of kanyā-kubja- or Kanoj;his fame rests chiefly on his contests with the great Brahman vasiṣṭha-, and his success in elevating himself. though a kṣatriya-, to the rank of a BrahmanSee : the rāmāyaṇa-, which makes him a companion and counsellor of the young rāma-candra-, records [ ] how viśvāmitra-, on his accession to the throne, visited vasiṣṭha-'s hermitage, and seeing there the cow of plenty [probably typical of go-,"the earth"], offered him untold treasures in exchange for it, but being refused, prepared to take it by force;a long contest ensued between the king and the saint [symbolical of the struggles between the kṣatriya- and Brahmanical classes], which ended in the defeat of viśvāmitra-, whose vexation was such that, in order to become a Brahman and thus conquer his rival, he devoted himself to intense austerities [during which he was seduced by the nymph menakā- and had by her a daughter, śakuntalā-], gradually increasing the rigour of his mortification through thousands of years, till he successively earned the titles of rājarṣi-, ṛṣi-, maharṣi-, and finally brahmarṣi-;he is supposed to be the author of nearly the whole of ;moreover, a law-book, a dhanurveda-, and a medical work are attributed to him) etc.
vitaṇḍāf. criticism View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vītaviṣamfn. free from impurities, clear (as water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitṛṇa vi-tritīya- etc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivecanamf(ī-)n. investigating, examining, treating critically View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivecanan. investigation, examination, discussion, critical treatment etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vrīhim. (of doubtful derivation) rice plural grains of rice (not mentioned in ,butin named together with yava-, mātha-,and tila-;eight principal sorts are enumerated by native authorities) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyājamayamf(ī-)n. simulated, hypocritical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyalīkamfn. very false or untruthful, lying, hypocritical ( vyalīkam am- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yakṣan. a living supernatural being, spiritual apparition, ghost, spirit (according to to some native Comms. equals yajña-, pujā-, pūjita-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yavanānīf. the writing of the yavana-s Va1rtt. 3 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvantikāf. See rīti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogatantran. (with Buddhists) Name of a class of writings. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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akṣara अक्षर a. [न क्षरतीति; क्षर् चलने अच्-न. त.] 1 Imperishable, indestructible, undecaying, epithet of the Supreme as well as the Individual soul; यमक्षरं क्षेत्रविदो विदुस्तमात्मानमात्मन्यवलोकयन्तम् Ku.3.5; द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च । क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थो$क्षर उच्यते Bg.15.16. यस्मात्क्षरमतीतो$हमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः । अतो$स्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः Bg.15.18; the unconcerned (Spirit); अक्षरं ब्रह्म परमभ् Bg.8.3. -2 Fixed, firm, unalterable. -रः 1 Śiva. -2 Viṣṇu. -3 A sword. -रा Sound, word, speech (Ved.). -रम् [अश्-सरः Uṇ.3.7, अशेः सरः; अश्नुते व्याप्नोति वेदादिशास्त्राणि.] 1 (a) A letter of the alphabet; अक्षराणामकारो$स्मि Bg.1.33; मुद्राक्षराणि, मधुर˚, त्र्यक्षर &c. (b) a syllable; एकाक्षरं परं ब्रह्म Ms.2.83 the monosyllable; गिरामस्म्येकमक्षरम् Bg.1.25, Ms. 2.78,84,125 (sacred syllable). Hence (c) a word or words, speech collectively; प्रतिषेधाक्षरविक्लवाभिरामम् Ś.3.24; अहो संदापनान्यक्षराणि U.4; भर्तुरेतानि प्रणयमयान्यक्षराणि M.3 words; ब्राह्मणसंक्रमिताक्षरेण पितामहेन V.3; अक्षंर वर्णनिर्माणं वर्णमप्यक्षरं विदुः । अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यादश्नोतेर्वा सरो$क्षरम् ॥ -2 A document (letter &c.), sacred writing; writing in general (in pl.); तत्र भुक्तिः प्रमाणं स्यान्न साक्षी नाक्षराणि च Pt.3.93; तत्रभवत्या अक्षराणि विसृष्टानि स्युः V.2. -3 The highest deity or Godhead, the indestructible spirit, Brahman (परमब्रह्मन्, मूलकारणम्); अक्षरं ब्रह्म परमम् Bg.8.3; कर्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षरसमुद्भवम् 3.15; यथा सतः पुरुषात्केशलोमानि तथाक्षरात्संभवतीह विश्वम् Chān. Up. -4 Religious austerity, penance. -5 Sacrifice. -6 Water. ततः क्षरति अक्षरम् Rv. 1.164.42. -7 The sky. -8 Final beatitude, emancipation from further transmigration. -9 Continuance, permanence. -1 Right, justice (Ved. in these two senses). -11 N. of a plant, Achyranthes Aspera. (अपामार्ग Mar. अघाडा.) -12 A measure of time, equal to one-fifth of a Kāṣṭhā. -Comp -अक्षरः a kind of religious meditation; Kāraṇḍavyūha (Metrical recension) -अङ्गम् 1. a part of a syllable. -2. alphabet. -अर्थः [ष. त.] meaning (of words); किं तावत् गीत्या अवगतो$क्षरार्थः Ś.5. -च (ञ्चुं) ञ्चुः -ञ्चणः, -नः [अक्षरेण वर्णविन्यासलिप्या वित्तः अक्षर -चणप् or चु (ञ्चुं) ञ्चुप् तेन वित्तश्चुञ्चुप् चणपौ; P. V. 2.26.] a scribe, writer, copyist; so ˚जीवकः, -जीवी, अक्षरेण जीवति; जीव् णिनि or ण्वुल्; also ˚जीविकः. -च्युतकम् [अक्षरं च्युतं लुप्तं यत्र; ब कप्] getting out a different meaning by the omission of a letter (e. g. कुर्वन् दिवाकरश्लेषं दधच्चरणडम्बरम् । देव यौष्माकसेनयोः करेणुः प्रसरत्यसौ where another meaning may be got by omitting क in करेणुः i. e. by taking रेणुः). -छन्दस् n. -वृत्तम् a metre regulated by the number of syllables it contains; छन्दस्तु द्विविधं प्रोक्तं वृत्तं जातिरिति द्विधा । वृत्तमक्षरसंख्यातं जातिर्मात्राकृता भवेत् ॥ unshaken resolve, resolute (अक्षरं निश्चलं छन्दो$भिप्रायो यस्य); -जननी, -तूलिका [अक्षराणां जननीव; तल्लिपिलेखानां तूलिकेव वा साधनत्वात्] a reed or pen. -जीवकः or -जीविन् m. 'One who lives by writing', a scribe. -(वि) न्यासः [ष. त. भावे घञ्] 1 writing, arrangement of letters; भूर्जपत्रगतो ˚सः V.2. -2 the alphabet. -3 scripture. -4 हृदयाद्याधारस्पर्शपूर्वकं तदक्षराणां स्मरणोच्चारणरूपस्तन्त्रप्रसिद्धो वर्णन्यासः - पङ्क्ति a. 1. having 5 syllables (पङ्क्ति = Gr. pentas-five) सु मत् पद् वग दे इत्येष वै यज्ञो$क्षरपङ्क्तिः Ait. Br. (तान्येतान्यक्षराणि होतृज- पादौ प्रयोक्तव्यानि). -2 N. of a metre of four lines (द्विपदा विराज्) each having five syllables (one dactyl and one spondee). -भाज् a. having a share in the syllables (of a prayer ?). -भूमिका tablet; न्यस्ताक्षरामक्षरभूमिकायाम् R.18. 46. -मुखः [अक्षराणि तन्मयानि शास्त्राणि वा मुखे यस्य] a scholar, student. -खम् [ष. त.] the beginning of the alphabet; the letter अ. -मुष्टिका 'finger-speech', speaking by means of finger-signs. -वर्जित a. unlettered, illiterate, not knowing how to read or write. a. of an epithet of परमात्मन्. -व्यक्तिः f. [ष. त.] distinct articulation of syllables. -शिक्षा [ष. त.] the science of (mystic) syllables; theory of ब्रह्म (ब्रह्मतत्त्व); मह्यं ˚क्षां विधाय Dk.11. -संस्थानम् [अक्षराणां संस्थानं यत्र] arrangement of letters, writing, alphabet.
agniḥ अग्निः [अङ्गति ऊर्ध्वं गच्छति अङ्ग्-नि,नलोपश्च Uṇ.4.5., or fr. अञ्च् 'to go.'] 1 Fire कोप˚, चिन्ता˚, शोक˚, ज्ञान˚, राज˚, &c. -2 The God of fire. -3 Sacrificial fire of three kinds (गार्हपत्य, आहवनीय and दक्षिण); पिता बै गार्हपत्यो$ ग्निर्माताग्निर्दक्षिणः स्मृतः । गुरुराहवनीयस्तु साग्नित्रेता गरीयसी ॥ Ms. 2.232. -4 The fire of the stomach, digestive faculty, gastric fluid. -5 Bile (नाभेरूर्ध्व हृदयादधस्तादामाशयमाचक्षते तद्गतं सौरं तेजः पित्तम् इत्याचक्षते). -6 Cauterization (अग्नि- कर्मन्). -7 Gold. -8 The number three. शराग्निपरिमाणम् (पञ्चत्रिंशत्) Mb.13.17.26. -9 N. of various plants: (a) चित्रक Plumbago Zeylanica; (b) रक्तचित्रक; (c) भल्लातक Semicarpus Anacardium; (d) निम्बक Citrus Acida. -1 A mystical substitute for the letter र्. In Dvandva comp. as first member with names of deities, and with particular words अग्नि is changed to अग्ना, as ˚विष्णू, ˚मरुतौ, or to अग्नी, ˚पर्जन्यौ, ˚ वरुणौ, ˚षोमौ -11 पिङगला नाडी; यत्र तद् ब्रह्म निर्द्वन्द्वं यत्र सोमः, (इडा) सहाग्निना (अग्निः पिङ्गला) Mb.14.2.1. -12 Sacrificial altar, अग्निकुण्ड cf. Rām. 1.14.28. -13 Sky. अग्निर्मूर्धा Muṇḍ 2.1.4. [cf. L. ignis.] [Agni is the God of Fire, the Ignis of the Latins and Ogni of the Slavonians. He is one of the most prominent deities of the Ṛigveda. He, as an immortal, has taken up his abode among mortals as their guest; he is the domestic priest, the successful accomplisher and protector of all ceremonies; he is also the religious leader and preceptor of the gods, a swift messenger employed to announce to the immortals the hymns and to convey to them the oblations of their worshippers, and to bring them down from the sky to the place of sacrifice. He is sometimes regarded as the mouth and the tongue through which both gods and men participate in the sacrifices. He is the lord, protector and leader of people, monarch of men, the lord of the house, friendly to mankind, and like a father, mother, brother &c. He is represented as being produced by the attrition of two pieces of fuel which are regarded as husband and wife. Sometimes he is considered to have been brought down from heaven or generated by Indra between two clouds or stones, created by Dyau, or fashioned by the gods collectively. In some passages he is represented as having a triple existence, which may mean his three-fold manifestations as the sun in heaven, lightning in the atmosphere, and as ordinary fire on the earth, although the three appearances are also elsewhere otherwise explained. His epithets are numberless and for the most part descriptive of his physical characteristics : धूमकेतु, हुतभुज्, शुचि, रोहिताश्व, सप्तजिह्व, तोमरधर, घृतान्न, चित्रभानु, ऊर्ध्वशोचिस्, शोचिष्केश, हरिकेश, हिरण्यदन्त, अयोदंष्ट्र &c. In a celebrated passage he is said to have 4 horns, 3 feet, 2 heads, and 7 hands. The highest divine functions are ascribed to Agni. He is said to have spread out the two worlds and _x001F_+ produced them, to have supported heaven, formed the mundane regions and luminaries of heaven, to have begotten Mitra and caused the sun to ascend the sky. He is the head and summit of the sky, the centre of the earth. Earth, Heaven and all beings obey his commands. He knows and sees all worlds or creatures and witnesses all their actions. The worshippers of Agni prosper, they are wealthy and live long. He is the protector of that man who takes care to bring him fuel. He gives him riches and no one can overcome him who sacrifices to this god. He confers, and is the guardian of, immortality. He is like a water-trough in a desert and all blessing issue from him. He is therefore constantly supplicated for all kinds of boons, riches, food, deliverance from enemies and demons, poverty, reproach, childlessness, hunger &c. Agni is also associated with Indra in different hymns and the two gods are said to be twin brothers. Such is the Vedic conception of Agni; but in the course of mythological personifications he appears as the eldest son of Brahmā and is called Abhimānī [Viṣṇu Purāṇa]. His wife was Svāhā; by her, he had 3 sons -Pāvaka, Pavamāna and Śuchi; and these had forty-five sons; altogether 49 persons who are considered identical with the 49 fires. He is also represented as a son of Aṅgiras, as a king of the Pitṛs or Manes, as a Marut and as a grandson of Śāṇḍila, and also as a star. The Harivaṁśa describes him as clothed in black, having smoke for his standard and head-piece and carrying a flaming javelin. He is borne in a chariot drawn by red horses and the 7 winds are the wheels of his car. He is accompanied by a ram and sometimes he is represented as riding on that animal. Agni was appointed by Brahamā as the sovereign of the quarter between the south and east, whence the direction is still known as Āgneyī. The Mahābhārata represents Agni as having exhausted his vigour and become dull by devouring many oblations at the several sacrifices made by king Śvetaki, but he recruited his strength by devouring the whole Khāṇḍava forest; for the story see the word खाण्डव]. -Comp. -अ (आ) गारम् -रः, -आलयः, -गृहम् [अग्निकार्याय अगारम् शाक˚ त.] a fire-sanctuary, house or place for keeping the sacred fire; वसंश्चतुर्थो$ग्निरिवाग्न्यगारे R.5.25. रथाग्न्यगारं चापार्चीं शरशक्तिगदे- न्धनम् Mb.11.25.14. -अस्त्रम् fire-missile, a rocket, -आत्मक a. [अग्निरात्मा यस्य] of the nature of fire सोमा- त्मिका स्त्री, ˚कः पुमान्. -आधानम् consecrating the fire; so ˚आहिति. -आधेयः [अग्निराधेयो येन] a Brāhmana who maintains the sacred fire. (-यम्) = ˚आधानम्. -आहितः [अग्निराहितो येन, वा परनिपातः P.II.2.37.] one who maintains the sacred fire; See आहिताग्नि. -इध् m. (अग्नीध्रः) [अग्निम् इन्द्धे स अग्नीध्] the priest who kindles fire (mostly Ved). -इन्धनः [अग्निरिध्यते अनेन] N. of a Mantra. (नम्) kindling the fire; अग्नीन्धनं भैक्षचर्याम् Ms.2.18. -उत्पातः [अग्निना दिव्यानलेन कृतः उत्पातः] a fiery portent, meteor, comet &c. In Bṛ. S.33 it is said to be of five kinds: दिवि भुक्तशुभफलानां पततां रूपाणि यानि तान्युल्काः । धिष्ण्योल्का- शनिविद्युत्तारा इति पञ्चधा भिन्नाः ॥ उल्का पक्षेण फलं तद्वत् धिष्ण्याशनिस्त्रिभिः पक्षैः । विद्युदहोभिः ष़ड्भिस्तद्वत्तारा विपाचयति ॥ Different fruits are said to result from the appearances of these portents, according to the nature of their colour, position &c. -उद्धरणम्, -उद्धारः 1 producing fire by the friction of two araṇis. -2 taking out, before sun-rise, the sacred fire from its cover of ashes previous to a sacrifice. -उपस्थानम् worship of Agni; the Mantra or hymn with which Agni is worshipped (अग्निरुपस्थीयते$नेन) अग्निस्त्रिष्टुभ् उपस्थाने विनियोगः Sandhyā. -एधः [अग्निमेधयति] an incendiary. -कणः; -स्तोकः a spark. -कर्मन् n. [अग्नौ कर्म स. त.] 1 cauterization. -2 action of fire. -3 oblation to Agni, worship of Agni (अग्निहोत्र); so ˚कार्य offering oblations to fire, feeding fire with ghee &c.; निर्वर्तिताग्निकार्यः K.16.; ˚र्यार्धदग्ध 39, Ms.3.69, अग्निकार्यं ततः कुर्यात्सन्ध्ययोरुभयोरपि । Y.1.25. -कला a part (or appearance) of fire; ten varieties are mentioned धूम्रार्चिरुष्मा ज्वलिनी ज्वालिनी विस्फु- लिङ्गिनी । सुश्री: सुरूपा कपिला हव्यकव्यवहे अपि ॥ यादीनां दश- वर्णानां कला धर्मप्रदा अमूः ।). -कारिका [अग्निं करोति आधत्ते करणे कर्तृत्वोपचारात् कर्तरि ण्वुल्] 1 the means of consecrating the sacred fire, the Ṛik called अग्नीध्र which begins with अग्निं दूतं पुरो दधे. 2. = अग्निकार्यम्. -काष्ठम् अग्नेः उद्दीपनं काष्ठं शाक ˚त.] agallochum (अगुरु) -कुक्कुटः [अग्नेः कुक्कुट इव रक्तवर्णस्फुलिङ्गत्वात्] a firebrand, lighted wisp of straw. -कुण्डम [अग्नेराधानार्थं कुण्डम्] an enclosed space for keeping the fire, a fire-vessel. -कुमारः, -तनयः; सुतः 1 N. of Kārttikeya said to be born from fire; Rām.7. See कार्त्तिकेय. -2 a kind of preparation of medicinal drugs. -कृतः Cashew-nut; the plant Anacardium occidentale. [Mar.काजू] -केतुः [अग्नेः केतुरिव] 1 smoke. -2 N. of two Rākṣasas on the side of Rāvaṇa and killed by Rāma. -कोणः -दिक् the south-east corner ruled over by Agni; इन्द्रो वह्निः पितृपतिर्नौर्ऋतो वरुणो मरुत् । कुबेर ईशः पतयः पूर्वादीनां दिशां क्रमात् ॥ -क्रिया [अग्निना निर्वर्तिता क्रिया, शाक. त.] 1 obsequies, funeral ceremonies. -2 branding; भेषजाग्निक्रियासु च Y.3.284. -क्रीडा [तृ. त.] fire-works, illuminations. -गर्भ a. [अग्निर्गर्भे यस्य] pregnant with or containing fire, having fire in the interior; ˚र्भां शमीमिव Ś 4.3. (--र्भः) [अग्निरिव जारको गर्भो यस्य] 1 N. of the plant Agnijāra. -2 the sun stone, name of a crystal supposed to contain and give out fire when touched by the rays of the sun; cf Ś2.7. -3 the sacrificial stick अरणि which when churned, gives out fire. (-र्भा) 1 N. of the Śamī plant as containing fire (the story of how Agni was discovered to exist in the interior of the Śamī plant is told in chap. 35 of अनु- शासनपर्व in Mb.) -2 N. of the earth (अग्नेः सकाशात् गर्भो यस्यां सा; when the Ganges threw the semen of Śiva out on the Meru mountain, whatever on earth &c. was irradiated by its lustre, became gold and the earth was thence called वसुमती) -3 N. of the plant महा- ज्योतिष्मती लता (अग्निरिव गर्भो मध्यभागो यस्याः सा) [Mar. माल- कांगोणी] -ग्रन्थः [अग्निप्रतिपादको ग्रन्थः शाक. त.] the work that treats of the worship of Agni &c. -घृतम् [अग्न्युद्दीपनं घृतं शाक. त.] a kind of medicinal preparation of ghee used to stimulate the digestive power. -चित् m. अग्निं चितवान्; चि-भूतार्थे क्विप् P.III.2.91] one who has kept the sacred fire; यतिभिः सार्धमनग्निमग्निचित् R.8.25; अध्वरे- ष्वग्निचित्वत्सु Bk.5.11. -चयः, -चयनम्, -चित्या. arranging or keeping the sacred fire (अग्न्याधान); चित्याग्निचित्ये च P.III.1.132. -2 (-यः, -यनः) the Mantra used in this operation. -3 a heap of fire -चित्वत् [अग्निचयनम् अस्त्यस्मिन् मतुप्; मस्य वः । तान्तत्वान्न पद- त्वम् Tv.] having अग्निचयन or अग्निचित्. -चूडः A bird having a red tuft. -चर्णम् gunpowder. कार्यासमर्थः कत्यस्ति शस्त्रगोलाग्निचूर्णयुक् Śukranīti 2.93. -ज, -जात a. produced by or from fire, born from fire. (-जः, -जातः) 1 N. of the plant अग्निजार (अग्नये अग्न्युद्दीपनाय जायते सेवनात् प्रभवति). 1 N. of Kārttikeya पराभिनत्क्रौञ्चमिवाद्रिमग्निजः Mb.8.9. 68.3. Viṣṇu. (-जम्, -जातम) gold; so ˚जन्मन्. -जित् m. God; Bhāg.8.14.4. -जिह्व a. 1 having a fiery tongue. -2 one having fire for the tongue, epithet of a God or of Visṇu in the boar incarnation. (-ह्वा) 1 a tongue or flame of fire. -2 one of the 7 tongues of Agni (कराली धूमिनी श्वेता लोहिता नीललोहिता । सुवर्णा पद्मरागा च जिह्वा: सप्त विभावसोः -3 N. of a plant लाङ्गली (अग्नेर्जिह्वेव शिखा यस्याः सा); of another plant (जलपिप्पली) or गजपिप्पली (विषलाङ्गला) (Mar. जल-गज पिंपळी) -ज्वाला 1 the flame or glow of fire. -2 [अग्नेर्ज्वालेव शिखा यस्याः सा] N. of a plant with red blossoms, chiefly used by dyers, Grislea Tomentosa (Mar. धायफूल, धायटी). -तप् a. [अग्निना तप्यते; तप्-क्विप्] having the warmth of fire; practising austerities by means of fire. -तपस् a. [अग्निभिः तप्यते] 1 practising very austere penance, standing in the midst of the five fires. -2 glowing, shining or burning like fire (तपतीति तपाः अग्निरिव तपाः) hot as fire -तेजस् a. having the lustre or power of fire. (अग्नेरिव तेजो यस्य). (-स् n.) the lustre of fire. (-स् m.) N. of one of the 7 Ṛiṣis of the 11th Manvantara. -त्रयम् the three fires, See under अग्नि. -द a. [अग्निं दाहार्थं गृहादौ ददाति; दा. -क.] 1 giving or supplying with fire -2 tonic, stomachic, producing appetite, stimulating digestion. -3 incendiary; अग्निदान् भक्तदांश्चैव Ms.9.278; अग्निदानां च ये लोकाः Y.2.74; so ˚दायक, ˚दायिन्. यदग्निदायके पापं यत्पापं गुरुतल्पगे. Rām.2.75.45. -दग्ध a. 1 burnt on the funeral pile; अग्निदग्धाश्च ये जीवा ये$प्यदग्धाः कुले मम Vāyu. P. -2 burnt with fire. -3 burnt at once without having fire put into the mouth, being destitute of issue (?); (pl.) a class of Manes or Pitṛis who, when alive, kept up the household flame and presented oblations to fire. -दमनी [अग्निर्दम्यते$नया; दम्-णिच् करणे ल्युट] a narcotic plant, Solanum Jacquini. [Mar. रिंगणी] -दातृ [अग्निं विधानेन ददाति] one who performs the last (funeral) ceremonies of a man; यश्चाग्निदाता प्रेतस्य पिण्डं दद्यात्स एव हि. -दीपन a. [अग्निं दीपयति] stimulating digestion, stomachic, tonic. -दीप्त a. [तृ. त्त.] glowing, set on fire, blazing (-प्ता) [अग्निर्जठरानलो दीप्तः सेवनात् यस्याः सा] N. of a plant ज्योतिष्मती लता (Mar. मालकांगोणी), which is said to stimulate digestion. -दीप्तिः f. active state of digestion. -दूत a. अग्निर्दूत इव यस्मिन् यस्य वा] having Agni for a messenger, said of the sacrifice or the deity invoked; यमं ह यज्ञो गच्छत्यग्निदूतो अरंकृतः Rv.1.14.13. -दूषितः a. branded. -देवः [अग्नि- रेव देवः] Agni; a worshipper of Agni. -देवा [अग्निर्देवो यस्याः] the third lunar mansion, the Pleiades (कृत्तिका). -द्वारम् the door on the south-east of a building; पूर्व- द्वारमथैशाने चाग्निद्वारं तु दक्षिणे । Māna.9.294-95. -धानम् [अग्निर्धियते$स्मिन्] the place or receptacle for keeping the sacred fire, the house of अग्निहोतृ; पदं कृणुते अग्निधाने Rv. 1.165.3. -धारणम् maintaining the sacred fire; व्रतिनां ˚णम् K. 55. -नयनम् = ˚प्रणयनम्. -निर्यासः [अग्नेर्ज- ठरानलस्येव दीपको निर्यासो यस्य] N. of the plant अग्निजार. -नेत्र a. [अग्निर्नेता यस्य] having Agni for the leader or conveyer of oblations, an epithet of a god in general. -पदम् 1 the word Agni. -2 fire-place. -3 N. of a plant. -परिक्रि-ष्क्रि-या care of the sacred fire, worship of fire, offering oblations; गृहार्थो$ग्निपरिष्क्रिया Ms.2.67. -परिच्छदः the whole sacrificial apparatus; गृह्यं चाग्निपरिच्छदम् Ms.6. 4. -परिधानम् enclosing the sacrificial fire with a kind of screen. -परीक्षा [तृ. त.] ordeal by fire. -पर्वतः [अग्निसाधनं पर्वतः] a volcano; महता ज्वलता नित्यमग्निमेवाग्नि- पर्वतः Rām.5.35.43. -पुच्छः [अग्नेः अग्न्याधानस्थानस्य पुच्छ इव]. tail or back part of the sacrificial place; the extinction of fire. -पुराणम् [अग्निना प्रोक्तं पुराणम्] one of the 18 Purāṇas ascribed to Vyāsa. It derives its name from its having been communicated originally by Agni to the sage Vasiṣṭha for the purpose of instructing him in the two-fold knowledge of Brahman. Its stanzas are said to be 145. Its contents are varied. It has portions on ritual and mystic worship, cosmical descriptions, chapters on the duties of Kings and the art of war, a chapter on law, some chapters on Medicine and some treatises on Rhetoric, Prosody, Grammar, Yoga, Brahmavidyā &c. &c. -प्रणयनम् bringing out the sacrificial fire and consecrating it according to the proper ritual. -प्रणिधिः Incendiary. Dk.2.8. -प्रतिष्ठा consecration of fire, especially the nuptial fire. -प्रवेशः; -शनम [स. त.] entering the fire, self-immolation of a widow on the funeral pile of her husband. -प्रस्कन्दनम् violation of the duties of a sacrificer (अग्निहोमाकरण); ˚परस्त्वं चाप्येवं भविष्यसि Mb.1.84.26. -प्रस्तरः [अग्निं प्रस्तृणाति अग्नेः प्रस्तरो वा] a flint, a stone producing fire. -बाहुः [अग्ने- र्बाहुरिव दीर्घशिखत्वात्] 1 smoke. -2 N. of a son of the first Manu; Hariv. N. of a son of Priyavrata and Kāmyā. V. P. -बीजम् 1 the seed of Agni; (fig.) gold (रुद्रतेजः समुद्भूतं हेमबीजं विभावसोः) -2 N. of the letter र्. -भम [अग्नि- रिव भाति; भा-क.] 1 'shining like fire,' gold. -2 N. of the constellation कृत्तिका. -भु n. [अग्नेर्भवति; भू-क्विप् ह्रस्वान्तः] 1 water. -2 gold. -भू a. [अग्नेर्भवतिः भू-क्विप्] produced from fire. (भूः) 1 'fire-born,' N. of Kārttikeya. -2 N. of a teacher (काश्यप) who was taught by Agni. -3 (arith.) six. -भूति a. produced from fire. (-तिः) [अग्निरिव भूतिरैश्वर्यं यस्य] N. of a pupil of the last Tīrthaṅkara. (-तिः) f. the lustre or might of fire. -भ्राजस् a. Ved. [अग्निरिव भ्राजते; भ्राज्-असुन्] shining like fire. अग्निभ्राजसो विद्युतः Ṛv.5.54.11. -मणिः [अग्नेरुत्थापको मणिः शाक. त.] the sunstone. -मथ् m. [अग्निं मथ्नाति निष्पादयति; मन्थ्-क्विप्- नलोपः] 1 the sacrificer who churns the fuel-stick. -2 the Mantra used in this operation, on the अरणि itself. -मन्थः, -न्थनम्, producing fire by friction; or the Mantra used in this operation. (-न्थः) [अग्निर्मथ्यते अनेन मन्थ्-करणे घञ्] N. of a tree गणिकारिका (Mar. नरवेल) Premna Spinosa (तत्काष्ठयोर्घर्षणे हि आशु वह्निरुत्पद्यते), -मान्द्यम् slowness of digestion, loss of appetite, dyspepsia. -मारुतिः अग्निश्च मरुच्च तयोरपत्यं इञ् ततो वृद्धिः इत् च; द्विपदवृद्धौ पृषो. पूर्वपदस्य ह्रस्वः Tv.] N. of the sage Agastya. -मित्रः N. of a king of the Śunga dynasty, son of Puṣypamitra who must have flourished before 15 B. C. -the usually accepted date of Patañjali-as the latter mentions पुष्यमित्र by name. -मुखः a. having Agni at the head. (-खः) [अग्निर्मुखमिव यस्य] 1 a deity, god, (for the gods receive oblations through Agni who is, therefore, said to be their mouth; अग्निमुखा वै देवाः; अग्निर्मुखं प्रथमं देवतानाम् &c; or अग्निर्मुखे अग्रे येषाम्, for fire is said to have been created before all other gods.) -2 [अग्निर्मुखं प्रधानमुपास्यो यस्य] one who maintains the sacred fire (अग्निहोतृद्विज) -3 a Brāhmaṇa in general (अग्निर्दाहकत्वात् शापाग्निर्मुखे यस्य for Brāhmaṇas are said to be वाग्वज्राः). -4 N. of two plants चित्रक Plumbago Zeylanica and भल्लातक Semicarpus Anacardium अग्निरिव स्पर्शात् दुःखदायकं मुखमग्रम् यस्य, तन्निर्यासस्पर्शेन हि देहे क्षतोत्पत्तेस्थयोस्तथात्वम्) -5 a sort of powder or चूर्ण prescribed as a tonic by चक्रदत्त -6 'fire-mouthed, sharp-biting, an epithet of a bug. Pt. 1. (-खी) अग्निरिव मुखमग्रं यस्याः; गौरादि-ङीष्] 1 N. of a plant भल्लातक (Mar. बिबवा, भिलावा) and लाङ्गलिका (विषलाङ्गला). -2 N. of the Gāyatri Mantra (अग्निरेव मुखं मुखत्वेन कल्पितं यस्याः सा, or अग्नेरिव मुखं प्रजापतिमुखं उत्पत्ति- द्वारं यस्याः, अग्निना समं प्रजापतिमुखजातत्वात्; कदाचिदपि नो विद्वान् गायत्रीमुदके जपेत् । गायत्र्याग्निमुखी यस्मात्तस्मादुत्थाय तां जपेत् ॥ गोभिल). -3 a kitchen [पाकशाला अग्निरिव उत्तप्तं मुखं यस्याः सा]. -मूढ a. [तृ. त.] Ved. made insane or stupefied by lightning or fire. -यन्त्रम् A gun अग्नियन्त्रधरैश्चक्रधरैश्च पुरुषैर्वृतः Śivabhārata 12.17. -यानम् An aeroplane. व्योमयानं विमानं स्यात् अग्नियानं तदेव हि । अगस्त्यसंहिता. -योगः See पञ्चाग्निसाधन. अग्नियोगवहो ग्रीष्मे विधिदृष्टेन कर्मणा । चीर्त्वा द्वादशवर्षाणि राजा भवति पार्थिवः ॥ Mb.13.14,2.43. -योजनम् causing the sacrificial fire to blaze up. -रक्षणम् 1 con-secrating or preserving the sacred (domestic) fire or अग्निहोत्र. -2 [अग्निः रक्ष्यते अनेन अत्र वा] a Mantra securing for Agni protection from evil spirits &c. -3 the house of an अग्निहोतृ. -रजः, -रजस् m. [अग्निरिव रज्यते दीप्यते; रञ्ज्-असुन् नलोपः] 1 a scarlet insect by name इन्द्रगोप. -2 (अग्नेः रजः) the might or power of Agni. -3 gold. Mb.3. 16.86.7 -रहस्यम् mystery of (worshipping &c.) Agni; N. of the tenth book of Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. -राशिः a heap of fire, burning pile. -रुहा [अग्निरिव रोहति रुह्-क] N. of the plant मांसादनी or मांसरोहिणी (तदङ्कुरस्य वह्नितुल्य- वर्णतया उत्पन्नत्वात्तथात्वं तस्याः). -रूप a. [अग्नेरिव रूपं वर्णो यस्य] fire-shaped; of the nature of fire. -रूपम् the nature of fire. -रेतस् n. the seed of Agni; (hence) gold. -रोहिणी [अग्निरिव रोहति; रुह्-णिनि] a hard inflammatory swelling in the armpit. -लोकः the world a Agni, which is situated below the summit of Meru; in the Purāṇas it is said to be in the अन्तरिक्ष, while in the Kāśī Khaṇḍa it is said to be to the south of इन्द्रपुरी; एतस्या दक्षिणे भागे येयं पूर्दृश्यते शुभा । इमामर्चिष्मतीं पश्य वीतिहोत्रपुरीं शुभाम् ॥ -वधूः Svāhā, the daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Agni -वर्चस् a. [अग्नेर्वर्च इव वर्चो यस्य] glowing or bright like fire. (n.) the lustre of Agni. (-m.) N. of a teacher of the Purāṇas. -वर्ण a. [अग्नेरिव वर्णो यस्य] of the colour of fire; hot; fiery; सुरां पीत्वा द्विजो मोहादग्निवर्णां सुरां पिबेत् Ms.11.9; गोमूत्रमग्निवर्णं वा पिबेदुदकमेव वा 91. (र्णः) 1 N. of a prince, son of Sudarśana. -2 N. of a King of the solar race, See R.19.1. the colour of fire. (-र्णा) a strong liquor. -वर्धक a. stimulating digestion, tonic. (-कः) 1 a tonic. -2 regimen, diet (पथ्याहार). -वल्लभः [अग्नेर्वल्लभः सुखेन दाह्यत्वात्] 1 the Śāla tree, Shorea Robusta. -2 the resinous juice of it. -वासस् a. [अग्निरिव शुद्धं वासो यस्य] having a red (pure like Agni) garment. (n.) a pure garment. -वाह a. [अग्निं वाहयति अनुमापयति वा] 1 smoke. -2 a goat. -वाहनम् a goat (छाग). -विद् m. 1 one who knows the mystery about Agni. -2 an अग्निहोत्रिन् q. v. -विमोचनम् ceremony of lowering the sacrificial fire. -विसर्पः pain from an inflamed tumour, inflammation. -विहरणम्, -विहारः 1 taking the sacrificial fire from आग्नीध्र to the उत्तरवेदि. -2 offering oblations to fire; प्रत्यासन्ना ˚वेला K.348. -वीर्यम् 1 power or might of Agni. -2 gold. -वेतालः Name of Vetāla (connected with the story of Vikra-māditya). -वेशः [अग्नेर्वेश इव] N. of an ancient medical authority (चरक). -वेश्मन् m. the fourteenth day of the karma-ṃāsa; Sūryaprajñapti. -वेश्यः 1 N. of a teacher, Mbh. -2 Name of the 22nd muhūrta; Sūryapraj-ñapti. धौम्य cf. Mb 14.64.8. -शरणम्, -शाला-लम् a fire-sanctuary; ˚मार्गमादेशय Ś.5; a house or place for keeping the sacred fire; ˚रक्षणाय स्थापितो$हम् V.3. -शर्मन् a. [अग्निरिव शृणाति तीव्रकोपत्वात् शॄ-मनिन्] very passionate. (-m.) N. of a sage. -शिख a. [अग्नेरिव अग्निरिव वा शिखा यस्य] fiery, fire-crested; दहतु ˚खैः सायकैः Rām. (-खः) 1 a lamp. -2 a rocket, fiery arrow. -3 an arrow in general. -4 safflower plant. -5 saffron. -6 जाङ्गलीवृक्ष. (-खम्) 1 saffron. -2 gold. (-खा) 1 a flame; शरैरग्निशिखोपमैः Mb. -2 N. of two plants लाङ्गली (Mar. वागचबका or कळलावी) Gloriosa Superba; of other plants (also Mar. कळलावी) Meni-spermum Cordifolium. -शुश्रूषा careful service or worship of fire. -शेखर a. fire-crested. (-रः) N. of the कुसुम्भ, कुङ्कुम and जाङ्गली trees (-रम्) gold, -शौच a. [अग्नेरिव शौचं यस्य] bright as fire; purified by fire K.252. -श्री a. [अग्नेरिव श्रीर्यस्य] glowing like fire; lighted by Agni -ष्टुत्, -ष्टुभ, -ष्टोम &c. see ˚ स्तुत्, ˚स्तुभ् &c. -ष्ठम् 1 kitchen; अग्निष्ठेष्वग्निशालासु Rām.6.1.16. -2 a fire-pan. -संयोगाः explosives. Kau. A.2.3. -ष्वात्तः see स्वात्तः -संस्कारः 1 consecration of fire. -2 hallowing or con-secrating by means of fire; burning on the funeral pile; यथार्हं ˚रं मालवाय दत्वा Dk.169; नास्य कार्यो$ग्निसंस्कारः Ms.5.69, पितरीवाग्निसंस्कारात्परा ववृतिरे क्रियाः । R.12.56. -सखः; -सहायः 1 the wind. -2 the wild pigeon (smoke-coloured). -3 smoke. -सम्भव a. [प. ब.] sprung or produced from fire. (-वः) 1 wild safflower. -2 lymph, result of digestion. (-वम्) gold. -साक्षिक [अग्निः साक्षी यत्र, कप्] a. or adv. keeping fire for a witness, in the presence of fire; पञ्चबाण˚ M.4.12. ˚मर्यादो भर्ता हि शरणं स्त्रियाः H.1.v. l, R.11.48. -सारम् [अग्नौ सारं यस्य अत्यन्तानलोत्तापनेपि सारांशादहनात् Tv.] रसाञ्जन, a sort of medical preparation for the eyes. (-रः -रम्) power or essence of fire. -सुतः Kārttikeya; त्वामद्य निहनिष्यामि क्रौञ्चमग्निसुतो यथा । Mb.7.156.93. -सूत्रम् a thread of fire. -2 a girdle of sacrificial grass (मौञ्जीमेखला) put upon a young Brāhmaṇa at the time of investiture. -सूनुः (See -सुतः), (सेनानीरग्निभूर्गुहः । Amar.); देव्यङ्कसंविष्ट- मिवाग्निसूनुम् । Bu. ch.1.67. -स्तम्भः 1 stopping the burning power of Agni. -2 N. of a Mantra used in this operation. -3 N. of a medicine so used. -स्तुत् m. (अग्निष्टुत्) [अग्निः स्तूयते$त्र; स्तु-आधारे क्विप् षत्वम्] the first day of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice; N. of a portion of that sacrifice which extends over one day; यजेत वाश्वमेधेन स्वर्जिता गोसवेन वा । अभिजिद्विश्वजिद्भ्यां वा त्रिवृता- ग्निष्टुतापि वा ॥ Ms.11.74. -स्तुभ् (˚ष्टुभ्) m. [अग्निः स्तुभ्यते$त्र; स्तुभ्-क्विप् षत्वम्] 1 = अग्निष्टोम. -2 N. of a son of the sixth Manu. -रतोमः (˚ष्टोमः) [अग्नेः स्तोमः स्तुतिसाधनं यत्र] 1 N. of a protracted ceremony or sacrificeial rite extending over several days in spring and forming an essential part of the ज्योतिष्टोम. -2 a Mantra or Kalpa with reference to this sacrifice; ˚मे भवो मन्त्रः ˚मः; ˚मस्य व्याख्यानम्, कल्पः ˚मः P.IV.3.66. Vārt. -3 N. of the son of the sixth Manu. -4 a species of the Soma plant; ˚सामन् a part of the Sāma Veda chanted at the conclusion of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice. -सावर्णिः Name of Manu. -स्थ a. (ष्ठ) [अग्नौ स्थातुमर्हति; स्था-क षत्वम्] placed in, over, or near the fire. (ष्ठः) an iron frying-pan; in the अश्वमेध sacrifice the 11th Yūpa which of all the 21 is nearest the fire. -स्वात्तः (written both as ˚स्वात्त and ˚ष्वात्त) (pl.) [अग्नितः i. e. श्राद्धीयविप्रकर- रूपानलात् सुष्ठु आत्तं ग्रहणं येषां ते] N. of a class of Pitṛs or Manes who, when living on earth, maintained the sacred or domestic fires, but who did not perform the Agniṣṭoma and other sacrifices. They are regarded as Manes of Gods and Brāhmaṇas and also as descendants of Marīchi; Ms.3.195. अग्निष्वात्ताः पितर एह गच्छत Tsy. (मनुष्यजन्मन्यग्निष्टोमादियागमकृत्वा स्मार्तकर्मनिष्ठाः सन्तो मृत्वा च पितृत्वं गताः इति सायणः). -हुत्, -होतृ Ved. sacrificing to Agni, having Agni for a priest; Rv.1.66.8. -होत्रम् [अग्नये हूयते$त्र, हु-त्र, च. त.] 1 an oblation to Agni (chiefly of milk, oil and sour gruel.). -2 maintenance of the sacred fire and offering oblation to it; (अग्नये होत्रं होमो$स्मिन् कर्मणीति अग्निहोत्रमिति कर्मनाम); or the sacred fire itself; तपोवनाग्निहोत्रधूमलेखासु K.26. होता स्यात् ˚त्रस्य Ms.11.36. ˚त्रमुपासते 42; स्त्रीं दाहयेत् ˚त्रेण Ms.5.167,6.4, दाहयित्वाग्निहोत्रेण स्त्रियं वृत्तवतीम् Y.1.89. The time of throwing oblations into the fire is, as ordained by the sun himself, evening (अग्नये सायं जुहुयात् सूर्याय प्रातर्जुहुयात्). Agnihotra is of two kinds; नित्य of constant obligation (यावज्जीवमग्निहोत्रं जुहोति) and काम्य occasional or optional (उपसद्भिश्चरित्वा मासमेकमग्निहोत्रं जुहोति). (-त्र) a. Ved. 1 destined for, connected with, Agnihotra. -2 sacrificing to Agni. ˚न्यायः The rule according to which the नित्यकर्मन्s (which are to be performed यावज्जीवम्) are performed at their stipulated or scheduled time only, during one's life time. This is discussed and established by जैमिनि and शबर at Ms.6. 2.23-26. in connection with अग्निहोत्र and other कर्मन्s. ˚हवनी (णी) a ladle used in sacrificial libations, or अग्निहोत्रहविर्ग्रहणी ऋक् Tv.; See हविर्ग्रहणी; ˚हुत् offering the अग्निहोत्र; ˚आहुतिः invocation or oblation connected with अग्निहोत्र. -होत्रिन् a. [अग्निहोत्र-मत्वर्थे इनि] 1 one who practises the Agnihotra, or consecrates and maintains the sacred fire. -2 one who has prepared the sacrificial place. -होत्री Sacrificial cow; तामग्निहोत्रीमृषयो जगृहु- र्ब्रह्मवादिनः Bhāg.8.8.2.
atapas अतपस् स्क [न. ब.] One who neglects _x001F_-his religious austerities; अतपास्त्वनधीयानः Ms.4.19; an irreligious or impious man; इदं ते नातपस्काय Bg.18.67.
anagha अनघ a. [न. ब.] 1 Sinless, innocent; अवैमि चैनामन- घेति R.14.4. -2 Free from blame, faultless, handsome; अखण्डं पुण्यानां फलमिव च तद् रूपमनघम् Ś.2.1; यस्य ज्ञानदयासिन्धोरगाधस्यानघा गुणाः Ak.; ˚सर्वगात्री Dk.123. -3 Without mishap or accident, free from danger, calamity &c.; safe, unhurt; यास्त्वामनघमद्राक्ष्म Dk.18; कच्चिन्मृगीणामनघा प्रसूतिः R.5.7; मृगवधूर्यदा अनघप्रसवा भवति S.4 safely delivered or brought to bed; ˚प्रसूतेः R.14.75. -4 Without grief or sorrow; दयालुमनघस्पृष्टम् R.1.19. -5 Free from dirt, impurities &c.; pure, spotless; R. 1.8;13.65; Si 3.31. -6 Tireless, not exhausted; Bhāg.2.7.32. -घः 1 White mustard. -2 N. of Viṣṇu; अनघो विजयो जेता; V. Sah.16. also of Śiva and of several other persons, a Gandharva, Sādhya &c. -Comp. -अष्टमी N. of the eighth day (spoken of in the fiftyfifth Adhyāya of Bhaviṣyottara Purā&na)
anīrṣu अनीर्षु a. Not envious, not conceiving malice; भृतपुत्रा भृतामात्या भृतदारा ह्यनीर्षवः Mb.12.221.31 Poona Critical Edition, B. O. R I.
anutāpaḥ अनुतापः 1 Repentance, remorse, contrition, subsequent regret or sorrow; जातानुतापेव सा V.4.67 stung with remorse; ख्यापनेनानुतापेन (पापकृन्मुच्यते पापात्) Ms. 11.228. -2 Heat.
anuṣṭhānam अनुष्ठानम् 1 Doing, performance, practice, execution, accomplishment &c.; obeying, acting in conformity to; उपरुध्यते तपो$नुष्ठानम् Ś.4. practice of religious austerities; को$पि वधोपायश्चिन्त्यो यस्यानुष्ठानेन Pt.1; नानुष्ठानैर्विहीनाः स्युः कुलजा विधवा इव Pt.2.95; धर्मे स्वयमनुष्ठानं कस्यचित्तु महात्मनः H.1.99; शास्त्रानुष्ठानं वा Kau. A.1.6. -2 Commencing, undertaking, engaging in; यदि समुद्रेण सह वैरानुष्ठानं कार्यम् Pt.1. -3 Commencement or course of conduct, procedure, course of action; कथं न्याय्यमनुष्ठानं मादृशः प्रति- षेधतु U.5.21. -4 Practice of religious rites or ceremonies, any religious rite or ceremony; किंत्वनुष्ठाननित्यत्वं स्वातन्त्र्यमपकर्षति U.1.8; Mv.4.33. -नी Performance, doing &c. -Comp. -शरीरम् 'the body of action'; (according to the Sāṅkhya doctrine) the intermediate body between the सूक्ष्म or subtle and the स्थूल or gross body.
antya अन्त्य a. [अन्ते भवति वसति &c., अन्ताय हितः; अन्त-यत्] 1 Last, final (as a letter, word &c.); last (in time, order or place) P.I.1.47; as ह of letters, Revatī of asterisms, Mīna of the zodiacal signs. &c.; अन्त्ये वयसि in old age R.9.79; अन्त्यं ऋणम् R.1.71 last debt; ˚मण़्डनम् 8.71 last funeral decoration, Ku.4.22. -2 Immediately following (in comp.); अष्टम˚ ninth. -3 perishable, transitory; देहाद्यपार्थमसदन्यमभिज्ञमात्रं (विन्देत) Bhāg.12.8.44. -4 Lowest (in rank, degree or position), undermost, worst, inferior, base, vile, wretched; ˚अवस्थां गतः Pt.4.11 reduced to the worst plight; अन्त्यासु दशासु Pt.1.336 at perilous (critical) times; belonging to the lowest caste; चण्डाल ˚स्त्रियःMs.11.175; ˚स्त्रीनिषेविणः 12.59; अन्त्यादपि वरं रत्नं स्त्रीरत्नं दुष्कुलादपि; शूद्राश्च सन्तः शूद्राणामन्त्यानामन्त्ययोनयः (साक्ष्यं कुर्युः) 8.68, 3.9; 4.79; Y.1.148, 2.294. -न्त्यः 1 A man of the lowest caste; see above. -2 N. of a plant (मुस्ता Mar. नागर- मोथा) (f. also) (the roots of which are prescribed for colic). -3 The last syllable of a word. -4 The last lunar month i. e. Fālguna. -5 A Mlechcha, foreigner, barbarian. अन्त्येषु स विनिक्षिप्य पुत्रान् यदुपुरोगमान् Mb.1.86.12. -6 (In Vaiśeṣika Phil.) A name for the category विशेष; अन्त्यो नित्यद्रव्यवृत्तिर्विशेषः परिकीर्तितः Bhāṣā P. -न्त्या 1 A technical name for त्रिज्या in astronomy. -2 A woman of the lowest tribe. -न्त्यम् 1 A measure of number; 1 billions (1,,,,.) -2 The 12th sign of the zodiac. -3 The last member or term of a progression (series), the last figure; स्थाप्योन्तवर्गो द्विगुणान्त्यनिघ्नः Līlā. -Comp. -अनुप्रासः see under अनुप्रास. -अवसायिन् m., f. (˚यी, ˚यिनी) a man or woman of the lowest caste, begotten by a chāṇḍāla on a Niṣādī woman; निषादस्त्री तु चाण्डालात्पुत्रमन्त्यावसा- यितम् । स्मशानगोचरं सूते बाह्यानामपि गर्हितम् ॥ Ms.1.39; the following 7 are regarded as belonging to this class; चाण्डालः श्वपचः क्षत्ता सूतो वैदेहकस्तथा । मागधायोगवौ चैव सप्तैते$- न्त्यावसायिनः ॥ सो$हमन्त्यावसायानां हराम्येनां प्रतिगृहात् Mb.12.141.41. see अन्तेवसायिन्. -आश्रमिन् m. one who belongs to the last or mendicant order. -आहुतिः -इष्टिः f. -कर्मन्, -क्रिया last or funeral oblations, sacrifices or rites; ˚कर्म Ms.11.197,5.168; अन्त्याहुतिं हावयितुं सविप्राः Bk. -ऋणम् the last of the three debts which every one has to pay, i. e. begetting children; see अनृण. -गमनम् intercourse by a woman of the higher caste with a man of the lowest caste. -ज. a 1 latest born, younger -2 belonging to the lowest caste; ˚जैर्नृभिः Ms.4.61; ˚स्त्री 8.385. (-जः) 1 a śūdra (अन्त्यः सन् जायते, वर्णमध्ये शेषभवत्वात्). -2 one of the 7 inferior tribes; chāṇḍāla &c.; रजकश्चर्मकारश्च नटो वरुड एव च । कैवर्तमेदभिल्लाश्च सप्तैते चान्त्यजाः स्मृता ॥ Yama; also Ms.8.279; Y.1.273. (-जा) a woman of the lowest caste; Ms.11.59.171; Y.3.231. -जन्मन्, -जाति, -जातीय a. 1 one belonging to the lowest caste; प्रतिग्रहस्तु क्रियते शूद्रादप्यन्त्यजन्मनः Ms.1.11. -2 a Śūdra; ˚तिता Ms.12.9. -3 a chāṇḍāla. -धनम् the last term of a progression or series. -पदम्, -मूलम् the last or greatest root (in a square). -भम् 1 the last lunar mansion रेवती. -2 the last sign of zodiac; मीन Pisces.. -युगम् the last or Kali age. -योनि. a. of the lowest origin; अन्त्याना- मन्त्ययोनयः (साक्ष्यम्) Ms.8.68. (-निः) the lowest source or origin. -लोपः dropping of the last letter or syllable of a word. -वर्णः, -वर्णा a man or woman of the lowest caste, a śūdra male or female. -विपुला N. of a metre.
apacchāya अपच्छाय a. [अपगता छाया यस्मात्] 1 Shadowless. -2 Having a bad or unlucky shadow. -3 Devoid of brightness, dim. -यः One that has no shadow, i. e. a god; cf. N.14.21; श्रियं भजन्तां कियदस्य देवाश्छाया नल- स्यास्ति तथापि नैषाम् । इतीरयन्तीव तया निरैक्षि सा (छाया) नैषधे न त्रिदशेषु तेषु N.14.23 ॥ -या An unlucky shadow, apparition, phantom.
apṛthaktvin अपृथक्त्विन् a. One who cannot distinguish (between the पुरुष and the प्रकृति). वर्णाश्रमपृथक्त्वे च दृष्टार्थस्यापृथक्त्विनः । नान्यदन्यदिति ज्ञात्वा नान्यदन्यत्प्रवर्तते ॥ Mb.12.38.177 Critical Edition. 'पृथक्त्वं पुंप्रकृत्योर्विवेकः, तदस्यास्तीति पृथक्त्वी, तदन्यस्य' -नीलकण्ठ.
apsaras अप्सरस् f. (-राः, रा). [अद्भ्यः सरन्ति उद्गच्छन्ति, सृ-असुन् Uṇ.4.236; cf. Rām. अप्सु निर्मथनादेव रसात्तस्माद्वर- स्त्रियः । उत्पेतुर्मनुजश्रेष्ठ तस्मादप्सरसो$भवन् ॥ A class of female divinities or celestial damsels who reside in the sky and are regarded as the wives of the Gandharvas. They are very fond of bathing, can change their shapes, and are endowed with superhuman power (प्रभाव). They are called स्वर्वेश्याः and are usually described as the servants of Indra, who, when alarmed by the rigorous austerities of some mighty sage, sends down one of them to disturb his penance, and her mission is generally successful; मेनका$प्सरसां श्रेष्ठा महर्षिणां पिता च ते Mb.1.74.75. cf. या तपोविशेषपरिशङ्कितस्य सुकुमारं प्रहरणं महेन्द्रस्य V. 1. They are also said to covet heroes who die gloriously on the battle-field; cf. परस्परेण क्षतयोः प्रहर्त्रोरुत्क्रान्तवाय्वोः समकालमेव । अमर्त्यभावे$पि कयोश्चिदासीदेकाप्सरः प्रार्थितयोर्विवादः ॥ R.7.53. Bāṇa mentions 14 different families of these nymphs (see K.136) The word is usually said to be in pl. (स्त्रियां बहुष्वप्सरसः) but the singular, as also the form अप्सराः, sometimes occurs; नियमविघ्नकारिणी मेनका नाम अप्सराः प्रेषिता Ś.1; एकाप्सरः &c. R.7.53 and see Malli. thereon; अनप्सरेव प्रतिभासि V.1. -2 Direction or the intermediate point of the compass (दिक् च उपदिक् च). -Comp. -तीर्थम् N. of a sacred pool in which the Apsarasas bathe; probably it is the name of a place, see Ś.6. -पतिः lord of the Apsarasas, epithet of Indra. N. of the Gandharva शिखण्डिन्; Av.4.37.7.
abhidharmaḥ अभिधर्मः The supreme truth or Metaphysics according to Buddhistic dogmas. -Comp. -पिटकः 'basket of Metaphysics', one of the three sections (पिटक) of Buddhist holy writings which treat of अभिधर्म.
abhibhā अभिभा Ved. [अभिभा-अङ्] 1 Apparition, phenomenon; an inauspicious omen. मा त्वा का चिदभिमा विश्व्या विदत् Rv.2.42.1. -2 A calamity, state of being overpowered. -3 Superiority.
abhilikhita अभिलिखित a. Written, inscribed. -तम्, अभिलेखि- तम्, -नम् 1 Writing, inscribing. -2 A writing; ज्ञातिबन्धु- साक्ष्यभिलेखितैः Y.2.149. A written document.
amala अमल a. [न. ब.] 1 Free from dirt or impurities, pure, undefiled, stainless, spotless; कपालमेवामलशेखरश्रीः । (बभूव) Ku.7.32,33; लोकानमलान् प्रतिपद्यते Bg.14.14. अमलाः सुहृदः Pt.2.171 pure, sincere. -2 White, bright, shining; कर्णावसक्तामलदन्तपत्रम् Ku.7.23; R.6.8. -ला 1 N. of the goddess Lakṣmī. -2 The navel cord. -3 N. of a tree (Mar. आंवळा) Emblica Officinalis Gaertn; also of a plant (सातलावृक्ष) also n. in this sense. यथा वै द्वे वामलके Ch. Up.7.3.1. -लम् 1 Purity. -2 Talc. -3 The Supreme Spirit. -Comp. -आत्मन् a. Of pure or undefiled mind. -गर्भः N. of a Bodhisattva. -पतत्रिन् m. (त्री) the wild goose; माधुर्यादमलपतत्रिणां कुलानि Śi.8. 12. -रत्नम्, -मणिः a crystal.
ambu अम्बु n. [अम्ब्-शब्दे उण्] 1 Water; गाङ्गमम्बु सितमम्बु यामुनम् K. P.1. -2 The watery element of the blood (cf. imber). -3 N. of a metre. -4 A term in astrology (लग्नावधिकं चतुर्थस्थानम्). -Comp. -कणः a drop of water. -कण्टकः (short-nosed), alligator. -कन्दः An acquatic plant Trapa bispinosa (Mar. शिंगाडा). -किरातः alligator. -कीशः, कूर्मः a tortoise (शिशुमार); particularly Gangetic. -केशरः lemon-tree (छालङ्गवृक्ष). -क्रिया libation of water; Bk.; presentation of water to the Manes of the deceased. -कुक्कुटी An acquatic hen. -ग, -चर, -चारिन् a. moving or living in water, aquatic (as fish &c.); अद्रिं दधाराम्बुचरात्मना Bhāg.8.5. 11; Ms.12.57. -घनः hail. -चत्वरम् a lake. -चामरम् an aquatic plant (शैवाल). -ज a. produced in water, aquatic (opp. स्थलज); सुगन्धीनि च माल्यानि स्थलजान्यम्बु- जानि च Rām. (-जः) 1 the moon. -2 camphor. -3 the Sārasa bird. -4 the conch; दध्मौ तारेण चाम्बुजम् Mb.7.173.9. -5 N. of a tree (हिज्जल). (-जम्) 1 a lotus; इन्दीवरेण नयनं मुखमम्बुजेन Ś. Til.3; A. Rām. 4.1.2. -2 the thunderbolt of Indra. ˚भूः, ˚आसनः 'the lotus-born god' Brahmā; A. Rām. ˚आसना the goddess Lakṣmī. -जन्मन् n. a lotus; -m. 1 the moon. -2 the conch. -3 Sārasa. -तस्करः 'waterthief', the sun (whose heat drinks up water). -तालः = ˚चामर. -द a. giving or yielding water. (-दः) 1 a cloud; नवाम्बुदानीकमुहूर्तलाञ्छने R.3.53; -देवम्, -दैवम् The astronomical mansion पूर्वाषाढा. -धर [धरतीति धरः, अम्बूनां धरः; धृ-अच्] 1 a cloud; वशिनश्चाम्बुधराश्च योनयः Ku.4.43; शरत्प्रमृष्टाम्बुधरोपरोधः R.6.44. -2 the plant मुस्तक. -3 talc. -धिः [अम्बूनि धीयन्ते अत्र; धा-कि] 1 any receptacle of waters; such as a jar; अम्बुधिर्घटः Sk. ˚-स्रवा Aloe perfoliata (Mar. कोरफड). -2 the ocean; क्षार˚ Bh.2.6. -3 the number four (in Math.). ˚प्रसवा N. of a plant (घृतकुमारी). -नाथः The ocean. -नामन् Andropogon muricatum (Mar. वाळा). -निधिः 'treasure of waters', the ocean; देवासुरैरमृतम्बुनिधिर्ममन्थे Ki.5.3. -प a. drinking water. (-पः) 1 the ocean. -2 Varuṇa, the regent of waters; रक्षो$म्बुपानिलशशीशपुराणि चाष्टौ Śid. Śir; शक्राम्बुपयमानां च चतुर्थस्त्वं भविष्यसि Rām.7.4.17. -3 N. of a plant (चक्रमर्दक; Mar.टाकळा). -पतिः Varuṇa; यथाम्बुपतिमित्रौ हि तारकं दैत्यसत्तमम् (अधावताम्) Mb.7.155.36. -पत्रा N. of a plant (उच्चटावृक्ष; Mar. फुरडी). -पद्धतिः f. -पातः current, flow or stream of water, cascade; गङ्गाम्बुपातप्रतिमा गृहेभ्यः Bk.1.8. -प्रसादः -प्रसादनम् [अम्बूनि प्रसादयति] the clearing nut tree (कतक Mar. निवळी). Strychnos Potatorum (the nuts of this tree are used for purifying water; when rubbed on the inner surface of the vessel, they precipitate the impurities which the water contains; (फलं कतकवृक्षस्य यद्यप्यम्बुप्रसादकम् । न नामग्रहणादेव तस्य वारि प्रसीदति) Ms.6.67. -भवम् a lotus. -भृत् m. 1 water-bearer, a cloud. -2 the ocean. -3 = ˚पत्रा q. v. -4 N. of a plant मुस्तक. -5 talc. -मात्रज a. produced only in water. (-जः) a conchshell. -मुच् m. a cloud; ध्वनितसूचितमम्बुमुचां चयम् Ki.5.12. -राजः 1 the ocean. -2 Varuṇa. -राशिः receptacle or store of water, the ocean; त्वयि ज्वलत्यौर्वं इवाम्बुराशौ Ś.3.3; चन्द्रोदयारम्भ इवाम्बुराशिः Ku.3.67, R.6.57;9.82. -रुह् n. 1 a lotus. -2 Sārasa. -रुहः, हम्, a lotus; विपुलिनाम्बुरुहा न सरिद्वधूः Ki.5.1. (-हा) N. of the land-lotus plant (स्थलपद्मिनी). -रोहिणी a lotus. -वाची [अम्बु तद्वर्षणं वाचयति सूचयति] an epithet applied to the earth during four days from the 1th to the 13th in the dark half of the month of Āṣāḍha when it is supposed to be unclean (रजस्वला इव) and agriculture is prohibited; Brav. P.2.77. ˚प्रदः the 1th day; ˚त्यागः 13th day. -वासिनी, -वासी N. of a plant (पाटला), the trumpet flower. -वाहः [अम्बु वहतीति] 1 a cloud; तडित्वन्त- मिवाम्बुवाहम् Ki.3.1; भर्तुर्मित्रं प्रियमविधवे विद्धि मामम्बुवाहम् Me. 11. -2 a lake. -3 water-bearer. -4 the number 17. -5 a sort of grass. -वाहिन् a. carrying or conveying water. -m. 1 a cloud. -2 = मुस्तक. (-नी) 1 a wooden vessel, a sort of bucket. -2 a woman fetching water. -3 N. of a stream. -विहारः sporting in water. -विस्रवा = घृतकुमारी. -वेग a. flowing quickly; यथानदीनां बहवो$म्बुवेगाः Bg.11.28. -वेतसः a kind of cane or reed growing in water. (Mar. लव्हाळा). -शिरीषिका N. of plant. -सरणम् flow or current of water. -सर्पिणी a leech (अम्बुनि सर्पति). -सेचनी a wooden baling vessel.
ayana अयन a. [अय्-ल्युट्] Going (at the end of comp.); यथेमा नद्यः स्यन्दमानाः समुद्रायणाः Praśn. Up. 1 Going, moving, walking; as in रामायणम्. -2 A walk, path, way, road; आयन्नापो$यनमिच्छमानाः Rv.3.33.7. अगस्त्य- चिह्नादयनात् R.16.44. -3 A place, site, abode, place of resort; Bṛi. Up.2.4.11. ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वम् Ms. 1.1 (occurring in the derivation of the word नारायण). -4 A way of entrance, an entrance (to an array of troops or व्यूह); अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमव- स्थिताः Bg.1.11. -5 Rotation, circulation period; अङ्गिरसां अयनम्; इष्टि˚, पशु˚. -6 A particular period in the year for the performance of particular sacrificial or other religious works; N. of certain sacrificial performances; as गवामयनम्. -7 The sun's passage, north and south of the equator. -8 (Hence) The period of this passage, half year, the time from one solstice to another; see उत्तरायण and दक्षिणायन; cf. also सायन and निरयण. -9 the equinoctial and solstitial points; दक्षिणम् अयनम् winter solstice; उत्तरम् अयनम् summer solstice; -1 Method, manner, way. -11 A Śāstra, scripture or inspired writing. -12 Final emancipation; नान्यः पन्था विद्यते$यनाय Śvet. Up. -13 A commentary; treatise. -14 The deities presiding over the ayanas. -Comp. -अंशः, -भागः the arc between the vernal equinoctial point and beginning of the fixed zodiac or first point of Aries. -कलाः The correction (in minutes) for ecliptic deviation. Sūryasiddhānta. -कालः the interval between the solstices. -ग्रहः A planet's longitude as corrected for ecliptic deviation; ibid. -जः a month caused by ayanāṁśa. -परिवृत्तिः Change of the अयन; sun's passage from one side of the equator to the other; अयनपरिवृत्ति- र्व्यस्तशब्देनोच्यते । ŚB. on MS.6.5.37. -संक्रमः, -संक्रान्तिः f. passage through the zodiac. -वृत्तम् the ecliptic.
araṇiḥ अरणिः m., f. -णी f. [ऋ-अनि Uṇ.2.11; अरणिः अग्नेर्योनिः] A piece of wood (of the Śamī tree) used for kindling the sacred fire by attrition, the fire-producing wooden stick; प्रयच्छन्ति फलं भूमिररणीव हुताशनम् Pt.1.216. -णी (dual) The two pieces of wood used in kindling the sacred fire. धरण्योर्निहितो जातवेदाः Kaṭha. 4.8. -णिः 1 The sun. -2 fire. -3 Flint. -4 N. of several fire-producing plants, particularly अग्निमन्थ. -णिः f. 1 A path, way. -2 Ved. Stinginess. -3 Discomfort; निररर्णि सविता साविषक् Av.1.18.2. -Comp. केतुः = अग्निमन्थ Premna Intergrifolia. -सुतः N. of Śuka, a celebrated sage (born from the seed of Vyāsa fallen upon an Araṇi at the sight of the nymph Ghṛitāchī); पितुः पादावगृह्णादरणीसुतः Mb.12.327.31. -2 Fire, agni; चितिं कृत्वा प्रवेक्ष्यामि समिद्धमरणीसुतम् Rām.5.13.39.
arthaḥ अर्थः [In some of its senses from अर्थ्; in others from ऋ-थन् Uṇ.2.4; अर्थते ह्यसौ अर्थिभिः Nir.] 1 Object, purpose, end and aim; wish, desire; ज्ञातार्थो ज्ञातसंबन्धः श्रोतुं श्रोता प्रवर्तते, सिद्ध˚, ˚परिपन्थी Mu.5; ˚वशात् 5.8; स्मर्तव्यो$स्मि सत्यर्थे Dk.117 if it be necessary; Y.2.46; M.4.6; oft. used in this sense as the last member of compounds and translated by 'for', 'intended for', 'for the sake of', 'on account of', 'on behalf of', and used like an adj. to qualify nouns; अर्थेन तु नित्य- समासो विशेष्यनिघ्रता च Vārt.; सन्तानार्थाय विधये R.1.34; तां देवतापित्रतिथिक्रियार्थाम् (धेनुम्) 2.16; द्विजार्था यवागूः Sk.; यज्ञार्थात्कर्मणो$न्यत्र Bg.3.9. It mostly occurs in this sense as अर्थम्, अर्थे or अर्थाय and has an adverbial force; (a) किमर्थम् for what purpose, why; यदर्थम् for whom or which; वेलोपलक्षणार्थम् Ś.4; तद्दर्शनादभूच्छम्भोर्भूयान्दारार्थ- मादरः Ku.6.13; (b) परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत् H.1.41; गवार्थे ब्राह्मणार्थे च Pt.1.42; मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः Bg.1.9; (c) सुखार्थाय Pt.4.18; प्रत्याख्याता मया तत्र नलस्यार्थाय देवताः Nala.13.19; ऋतुपर्णस्य चार्थाय 23.9. -2 Cause, motive, reason, ground, means; अलुप्तश्च मुनेः क्रियार्थः R. 2.55 means or cause; अतो$र्थात् Ms.2.213. -3 Meaning, sense, signification, import; अर्थ is of 3 kinds:-- वाच्य or expressed, लक्ष्य or indicated (secondary), and व्यङ्ग्य or suggested; तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ K. P.1; अर्थो वाच्यश्च लक्ष्यश्च व्यङ्ग्यश्चेति त्रिधा मतः S. D.2; वागर्थाविव R.1.1; अवेक्ष्य धातोर्गमनार्थमर्थवित् 3.21. -4 A thing, object, substance; लक्ष्मणो$र्थं ततः श्रुत्वा Rām.7.46.18; अर्थो हि कन्या परकीय एव Ś.4.22; that which can be perceived by the senses, an object of sense; इन्द्रिय˚ H.1.146; Ku.7.71; R.2.51; न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुः Nir.; इन्द्रियेभ्यः परा ह्यर्था अर्थेभ्यश्च परं मनः Kaṭh. (the objects of sense are five : रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द); शब्दः स्पर्शो रसो गन्धो रूपं चेत्यर्थजातयः Bhāg.11.22.16. -5 (a) An affair, business, matter, work; प्राक् प्रतिपन्नो$यमर्थो$- ङ्गराजाय Ve.3; अर्थो$यमर्थान्तरभाव्य एव Ku.3.18; अर्थो$र्था- नुबन्धी Dk.67; सङ्गीतार्थः Me.66 business of singing i. e. musical concert (apparatus of singing); सन्देशार्थाः Me. 5 matters of message, i. e. messages; (b) Interest, object; स्वार्थसाधनतत्परः Ms.4.196; द्वयमेवार्थसाधनम् R.1. 19;2.21; दुरापे$र्थे 1.72; सर्वार्थचिन्तकः Ms.7.121; माल- विकायां न मे कश्चिदर्थः M.3 I have no interest in M. (c) Subject-matter, contents (as of letters &c.); त्वामव- गतार्थं करिष्यति Mu.1 will acquaint you with the matter; उत्तरो$यं लेखार्थः ibid.; तेन हि अस्य गृहीतार्था भवामि V.2 if so I should know its contents; ननु परिगृहीतार्थो$- स्मि कृतो भवता V.5; तया भवतो$विनयमन्तरेण परिगृहीतार्था कृता देवी M.4 made acquainted with; त्वया गृहीतार्थया अत्रभवती कथं न वारिता 3; अगृहीतार्थे आवाम् Ś.6; इति पौरान् गृहीतार्थान् कृत्वा ibid. -6 Wealth, riches, property, money (said to be of 3 kinds : शुक्ल honestly got; शबल got by more or less doubtful means, and कृष्ण dishonestly got;) त्यागाय संभृतार्थानाम् R.1.7; धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः Pt.1.163; अर्थानामर्जने दुःखम् ibid.; सस्यार्थास्तस्य मित्राणि1.3; तेषामर्थे नियुञ्जीत शूरान् दक्षान् कुलोद्गतान् Ms.7.62. -7 Attainment of riches or worldly prosperity, regarded as one of the four ends of human existence, the other three being धर्म, काम and मोक्ष; with अर्थ and काम, धर्म forms the well-known triad; cf. Ku.5.38; अप्यर्थकामौ तस्यास्तां धर्म एव मनीषिणः R.1.25. -8 (a) Use, advantage, profit, good; तथा हि सर्वे तस्यासन् परार्थैकफला गुणाः R.1.29 for the good of others; अर्थान- र्थावुभौ बुद्ध्वा Ms.8.24 good and evil; क्षेत्रिणामर्थः 9.52; यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः सांप्लुतोदके Bg.2.46; also व्यर्थ, निरर्थक q. v. (b) Use, want, need, concern, with instr.; को$र्थः पुत्रेण जातेन Pt.1 what is the use of a son being born; कश्च तेनार्थः Dk.59; को$र्थस्तिरश्चां गुणैः Pt.2.33 what do brutes care for merits; Bh.2.48; योग्येनार्थः कस्य न स्याज्ज- नेन Ś.18.66; नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो नाकृतेनेह कश्चन Bg.3.18; यदि प्राणैरिहार्थो वो निवर्तध्वम् Rām. को नु मे जीवितेनार्थः Nala.12. 65. -9 Asking, begging; request, suit, petition. -1 Action, plaint (in law); अर्थ विरागाः पश्यन्ति Rām.2.1. 58; असाक्षिकेषु त्वर्थेषु Ms.8.19. -11 The actual state, fact of the matter; as in यथार्थ, अर्थतः, ˚तत्वविद्, यदर्थेन विनामुष्य पुंस आत्मविपर्ययः Bhāg.3.7.1. -12 Manner, kind, sort. -13 Prevention, warding off; मशकार्थो धूमः; prohibition, abolition (this meaning may also be derived from 1 above). -14 Price (perhaps an incorrect form for अर्घ). -15 Fruit, result (फलम्). तस्य नानुभवेदर्थं यस्य हेतोः स रोपितः Rām.6.128.7; Mb.12.175.5. -16 N. of a son of धर्म. -17 The second place from the लग्न (in astr.). -18 N. of Viṣṇu. -19 The category called अपूर्व (in पूर्वमीमांसा); अर्थ इति अपूर्वं ब्रूमः । ŚB. on MS.7.1.2. -2 Force (of a statement or an expression); अर्थाच्च सामर्थ्याच्च क्रमो विधीयते । ŚB. on MS.5.1.2. [अर्थात् = by implication]. -21 The need, purpose, sense; व्यवधानादर्थो बलीयान् । ŚB. on MS.6.4.23. -22 Capacity, power; अर्थाद्वा कल्पनैकदेशत्वात् । Ms.1.4.3 (where Śabara paraphrases अर्थात् by सामर्थ्यात् and states the rule: आख्यातानामर्थं ब्रुवतां शक्तिः सहकारिणी ।), cf. अर्थो$भिधेयरैवस्तुप्रयोजननिवृत्तिषु । मोक्षकारणयोश्च...... Nm. -Comp. -अतिदेशः Extension (of gender, number &e.) to the objects (as against words), i. e. to treat a single object as though it were many, a female as though it were male. (तन्त्रवार्त्तिक; -अधिकारः charge of money, office of treasurer ˚रे न नियोक्तव्यौ H.2. -अधिकारिन् m. a treasurer, one charged with financial duties, finance minister. -अनुपपत्तिः f. The difficulty of accounting for or explaining satisfactorily a particular meaning; incongruity of a particular meaning (तन्त्रवार्त्तिक -अनुयायिन् a. Following the rules (शास्त्र); तत्त्रिकालहितं वाक्यं धर्म्यमर्थानुयायि च Rām.5.51.21. -अन्वेषणम् inquiry after a matter. -अन्तरम् 1 another or different meaning. -2 another cause or motive; अर्थो$यम- र्थान्तरभाव्य एव Ku.3.18. -3 A new matter or circumstance, new affair. -4 opposite or antithetical meaning, difference of meaning. ˚न्यासः a figure of speech in which a general proposition is adduced to support a particular instance, or a particular instance, to support a general proposition; it is an inference from particular to general and vice versa; उक्तिरर्थान्तरन्यासः स्यात् सामान्यविशेषयोः । (1) हनूमानब्धिमतरद् दुष्करं किं महात्मनाम् ॥ (2) गुणवद्वस्तुसंसर्गाद्याति नीचो$पि गौरवम् । पुष्पमालानुषङ्गेण सूत्रं शिरसि धार्यते Kuval.; cf. also K. P.1 and S. D.79. (Instances of this figure abound in Sanskrit literature, especially in the works of Kālidāsa, Māgha and Bhāravi). -अन्वित a. 1 rich, wealthy. -2 significant. -अभिधान a. 1 That whose name is connected with the purpose to be served by it; अर्थाभिधानं प्रयोजनसम्बद्धमभिधानं यस्य, यथा पुरोडाश- कपालमिति पुरोडाशार्थं कपालं पुरोडाशकपालम् । ŚB. on MS.4.1. 26. -2 Expression or denotation of the desired meaning (वार्त्तिक -अर्थिन् a. one who longs for or strives to get wealth or gain any object. अर्थार्थी जीवलोको$यम् । आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी Bg.7.16. -अलंकरः a figure of speech determined by and dependent on the sense, and not on sound (opp. शब्दालंकार). अलंकारशेखर of केशवमिश्र mentions (verse 29) fourteen types of अर्थालंकारs as follows:- उपमारूपकोत्प्रेक्षाः समासोक्तिरपह्नुतिः । समाहितं स्वभावश्च विरोधः सारदीपकौ ॥ सहोक्तिरन्यदेशत्वं विशेषोक्तिर्विभावना । एवं स्युरर्थालकारा- श्चतुर्दश न चापरे ॥ -आगमः 1 acquisition of wealth, income; ˚गमाय स्यात् Pt.1. cf. also अर्थागमो नित्यमरोगिता च H. -2 collection of property. -3 conveying of sense; S. D.737. -आपत्तिः f. [अर्थस्य अनुक्तार्थस्य आपत्तिः सिद्धिः] 1 an inference from circumstances, presumption, implication, one of the five sources of knowledge or modes of proof, according to the Mīmāṁsakas. It is 'deduction of a matter from that which could not else be'; it is 'assumption of a thing, not itself perceived but necessarily implied by another which is seen, heard, or proved'; it is an inference used to account for an apparent inconsistency; as in the familiar instance पीनो देवदत्तो दिवा न भुङ्क्ते the apparent inconsistency between 'fatness' and 'not eating by day' is accounted for by the inference of his 'eating by night'. पीनत्वविशि- ष्टस्य देवदत्तस्य रात्रिभोजित्वरूपार्थस्य शब्दानुक्तस्यापि आपत्तिः. It is defined by Śabara as दृष्टः श्रुतो वार्थो$न्यथा नोपपद्यते इत्यर्थ- कल्पना । यथा जीवति देवदत्ते गृहाभावदर्शनेन बहिर्भावस्यादृष्टस्य कल्पना ॥ Ms.1.1.5. It may be seen from the words दृष्टः and श्रुतः in the above definition, that Śabara has suggested two varieties of अर्थापत्ति viz. दृष्टार्थापत्ति and श्रुता- र्थापत्ति. The illustration given by him, however, is of दृष्टार्थापत्ति only. The former i. e. दृष्टार्थापत्ति consists in the presumption of some अदृष्ट अर्थ to account for some दृष्ट अर्थ (or अर्थs) which otherwise becomes inexplicable. The latter, on the other hand, consists in the presumption of some अर्थ through अश्रुत शब्द to account for some श्रुत अर्थ (i. e. some statement). This peculiarity of श्रुतार्थापत्ति is clearly stated in the following couplet; यत्र त्वपरिपूर्णस्य वाक्यस्यान्वयसिद्धये । शब्दो$ध्याह्रियते तत्र श्रुतार्थापत्ति- रिष्यते ॥ Mānameyodaya p.129 (ed. by K. Raja, Adyar, 1933). Strictly speaking it is no separate mode of proof; it is only a case of अनुमान and can be proved by a व्यतिरेकव्याप्ति; cf. Tarka. K.17 and S. D.46. -2 a figure of speech (according to some rhetoricians) in which a relevant assertion suggests an inference not actually connected with the the subject in hand, or vice versa; it corresponds to what is popularly called कैमुतिकन्याय or दण्डापूपन्याय; e. g. हारो$यं हरिणाक्षीणां लुण्ठति स्तनमण्डले । मुक्तानामप्यवस्थेयं के वयं स्मरकिङ्कराः Amaru.1; अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43.; S. D. thus defines the figure:- दण्डापूपिकन्यायार्थागमो$र्थापत्तिरिष्यते. -उत्पत्तिः f. acquisition of wealth; so ˚उपार्जनम्. -उपक्षेपकः an introductory scene (in dramas); अर्थोपक्षेपकाः पञ्च S. D.38. They are विष्कम्भ, चूलिका, अङ्कास्य, अङ्कावतार, प्रवेशक. -उपमा a simile dependent on sense and not on sound; see under उपमा. -उपार्जनम् Acquiring wealth. -उष्मन् m. the glow or warmth of wealth; अर्थोष्मणा विरहितः पुरुषः स एव Bh.2.4. -ओघः, -राशिः treasure, hoard of money. -कर (-री f.), -कृत a. 1 bringing in wealth, enriching; अर्थकरी च विद्या H. Pr.3. -2 useful, advantageous. -कर्मन् n. 1 a principal action (opp. गुणकर्मन्). -2 (as opposed to प्रतिपत्तिकर्मन्), A fruitful act (as opposed to mere disposal or प्रतिपत्ति); अर्थकर्म वा कर्तृ- संयोगात् स्रग्वत् । MS.4.2.17. -काम a. desirous of wealth. (-˚मौ dual), wealth and (sensual) desire or pleasure; अप्यर्थकामौ तस्यास्तां धर्म एव मनीषिणः R.1.25. ह्रत्वार्थकामास्तु गुरूनिहैव Bg.2.5. -कार्ष्यम् Poverty. निर्बन्धसंजातरुषार्थकार्घ्यमचिन्तयित्वा गुरुणाहमुक्तः R.5.21. -काशिन् a. Only apparently of utility (not really). -किल्बिषिन् a. dishonest in money-matters. -कृच्छ्रम् 1 a difficult matter. -2 pecuniary difficulty; व्यसनं वार्थकृच्छ्रे वा Rām.4.7.9; Mb.3.2.19; cf. also Kau. A.1.15 न मुह्येदर्थकृच्छ्रेषु Nīti. -कृत्यम् doing or execution of a business; अभ्युपेतार्थकृत्याः Me.4. -कोविद a. Expert in a matter, experienced. उवाच रामो धर्मात्मा पुनरप्यर्थकोविदः Rām.6.4.8. -क्रमः due order or sequence of purpose. -क्रिया (a) An implied act, an act which is to be performed as a matter of course (as opposed to शब्दोक्तक्रिया); असति शब्दोक्ते अर्थक्रिया भवति ŚB. on MS.12.1.12. (b) A purposeful action. (see अर्थकर्मन्). -गत a. 1 based on the sense (as a दोष). -2 devoid of sense. -गतिः understanding the sense. -गुणाः cf. भाविकत्वं सुशब्दत्वं पर्यायोक्तिः सुधर्मिता । चत्वारो$र्थगुणाः प्रोक्ताः परे त्वत्रैव संगताः ॥ अलंकारशेखर 21. -गृहम् A treasury. Hariv. -गौरवम् depth of meaning; भारवेरर्थगौरवम् Udb., Ki.2.27. -घ्न a. (घ्नी f.) extravagant, wasteful, prodigal; सुरापी व्याधिता धूर्ता वन्ध्यार्थघ्न्य- प्रियंवदा Y.1.73; व्याधिता वाधिवेत्तव्या हिंस्रार्थघ्नी च सर्वदा Ms.9.8. -चित्रम् 'variety in sense', a pun, Kāvya-prakāśa. -चिन्तक a. 1 thinking of profit. -2 having charge of affairs; सर्वार्थचिन्तकः Ms.7.121. -चिन्ता, -चिन्तनम् charge or administration of (royal) affairs; मन्त्री स्यादर्थचिन्तायाम् S. D. -जात a. 1 full of meaning. -2 wealthy (जातधन). (-तम्) 1 a collection of things. -2 large amount of wealth, considerable property; Dk.63, Ś.6; ददाति च नित्यमर्थजातम् Mk.2.7. -3 all matters; कवय इव महीपाश्चिन्तयन्त्यर्थजातम् Śi.11.6. -4 its own meaning; वहन्द्वयीं यद्यफले$र्थजाते Ki.3.48. -ज्ञ a. knowing the sense or purpose; अर्थज्ञ इत्सकलं भद्रमश्नुते Nir. -तत्त्वम् 1 the real truth, the fact of the matter; यो$र्थतत्त्वमविज्ञाय क्रोधस्यैव वशं गतः H.4.94. -2 the real nature or cause of anything. -द a. 1 yielding wealth; Dk.41. -2 advantageous, productive of good, useful. -3 liberal, munificent Ms.2.19. -4 favourable, compliant. (-दः) N. of Kubera. -दर्शकः 'one who sees law-suits'; a judge. -दर्शनम् perception of objects; कुरुते दीप इवार्थदर्शनम् Ki.2.33; Dk.155. -दूषणम् 1 extravagance, waste; H.3.18; Ms.7.48. -2 unjust seizure of property or withholding what is due. -3 finding fault with the meaning. -4 spoiling of another's property. -दृश् f. Consideration of truth; क्षेमं त्रिलोकगुरुरर्थदृशं च यच्छन् Bhāg.1.86.21. -दृष्टिः Seeing profit; Bhāg. -दोषः a literary fault or blemish with regard to the sense, one of the four doṣas or blemishes of literary composition, the other three being परदोष, पदांशदोष, वाक्यदोष; for definitions &c. see K. P.7. अलंकारशेखर of केशवमिश्र who mentions eight types of doṣas as follows: अष्टार्थदोषाः विरस, -ग्राम्य, -व्याहत, -खिन्नताः । -हीना, -धिका, सदृक्साम्यं देशादीनां विरोधि च ॥ 17 -द्वयविधानम् Injunction of two ideas or senses; विधाने चार्थद्वयविधानं दोषः ŚB. on MS.1.8.7. -नित्य a. = अर्थ- प्रधान Nir. -निबन्धन a. dependent on wealth. -निश्चयः determination, decision. -प्रतिः 1 'the lord of riches', a a king; किंचिद् विहस्यार्थपतिं बभाषे R.2.46;1.59;9.3;18.1; Pt.1.74. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -पदम् N. of the Vārt. on Pāṇini; ससूत्रवृत्त्यर्थपदं महार्थं ससंग्रहं सिद्ध्यति वै कपीन्द्रः Rām.7.36.45. -पर, -लुब्ध a. 1 intent on gaining wealth, greedy of wealth, covetous. -2 niggardly, parsimonious; हिंस्रा दयालुरपि चार्थपरा वदान्या Bh.2.47; Pt.1.425. -प्रकृतिः f. the leading source or occasion of the grand object in a drama; (the number of these 'sources' is five :-- बीजं बिन्दुः पताका च प्रकरी कार्यमेव च । अर्थप्रकृतयः पञ्च ज्ञात्वा योज्या यथाविधि S. D.317.) -प्रयोगः 1 usury. -2 administration of the affairs (of a state) -प्राप्त a. derived or understood from the sense included as a matter of course, implied; परिसमाप्तिः शब्दार्थः । परिसमाप्त्यामर्थप्राप्तत्वादारम्भस्य । ŚB. on MS.6.2.13. -˚त्वम् Inplication. -बन्धः 1 arrangement of words, composition, text; stanza, verse; संचिन्त्य गीतक्षममर्थबन्धम् Ś.7.5; ललितार्थबन्धम् V.2.14 put or expressed in elegant words. -2. connection (of the soul) with the objects of sense. -बुद्धि a. selfish. -बोधः indication of the (real) import. -भाज् a. entitled to a share in the division of property. -भावनम् Deliberation over a subject (Pātañjala Yogadarśana 1.28). -भृत् a. receiving high wages (as a servant). -भेदः distinction or difference of meaning; अर्थभेदेन शब्दभेदः. -मात्रम्, -त्रा 1 property, wealth; Pt.2. -2 the whole sense or object. -युक्त a. significant, full of यस्यार्थयुक्तं meaning; गिरिराजशब्दं कुर्वन्ति Ku.1.13. -लक्षण a. As determined by the purpose or need (as opposed to शब्दलक्षण); लोके कर्मार्थलक्षणम् Ms.11.1.26. -लाभः acquisition of wealth. -लोभः avarice. -वशः power in the form of discrimination and knowledge. अर्थवशात् सप्तरूपविनिवृत्ताम् Sāvk.65. -वादः 1 declaration of any purpose. -2 affirmation, declaratory assertion, an explanatory remark, exegesis; speech or assertion having a certain object; a sentence. (It usually recommends a विधि or precept by stating the good arising from its proper observance, and the evils arising from its omission, and also by adducing historical instances in its support; स्तुतिर्निन्दा परकृतिः पुराकल्प इत्यर्थवादः Gaut. Sūt.; said by Laugākṣi to be of 3 kinds :- गुणवादो विरोधे स्यादनु वादो$वधारिते । भूतार्थवादस्तद्धानादर्थ- वादस्त्रिधा मतः; the last kind includes many varieties.) -3 one of the six means of finding out the tātparya (real aim and object) of any work. -4 praise, eulogy; अर्थवाद एषः । दोषं तु मे कंचित्कथय U.1. -विकरणम् = अर्थ- विक्रिया change of meaning. -विकल्पः 1 deviation from truth, perversion of fact. -2 prevarication; also ˚वैकल्प्यम् -विज्ञानम् comprehending the sense, one of the six exercises of the understanding (धीगुण). -विद् a. sensible, wise, sagacious. भुङ्क्ते तदपि तच्चान्यो मधुहेवार्थविन्मधु Bhāg.11.18.15. विवक्षतामर्थविदस्तत्क्षणप्रतिसंहृताम् Śi. -विद्या knowledge of practical life; Mb.7. -विपत्तिः Failing of an aim; समीक्ष्यतां चार्थविपत्तिमार्गताम् Rām.2.19.4. -विभावक a. money-giver; विप्रेभ्यो$र्थविभावकः Mb.3.33. 84. -विप्रकर्षः difficulty in the comprehension of the sense. -विशेषणम् a reprehensive repetition of something uttered by another; S. D.49. -वृद्धिः f. accumulation of wealth. -व्ययः expenditure; ˚ज्ञ a. conversant with money-matters. -शब्दौ Word and sense. -शालिन् a. Wealthy. -शास्त्रम् 1 the science of wealth (political economy). -2 science of polity, political science, politics; अर्थशास्त्रविशारदं सुधन्वानमुपाध्यायम् Rām.2.1.14. Dk.12; इह खलु अर्थशास्त्रकारास्त्रिविधां सिद्धिमुपवर्णयन्ति Mu.3; ˚व्यवहारिन् one dealing with politics, a politician; Mu.5. -3 science giving precepts on general conduct, the science of practical life; Pt.1. -शौचम् purity or honesty in money-matters; सर्वेषां चैव शौचानामर्थशौचं परं स्मृतं Ms. 5.16. -श्री Great wealth. -संस्थानम् 1 accumulation of wealth. -2 treasury. -संग्रहः, -संचयः accumulation or acquisition of wealth, treasure, property. कोशेनाश्रयणी- यत्वमिति तस्यार्थसंग्रहः R.17.6. कुदेशमासाद्य कुतो$र्थसंचयः H. -संग्रहः a book on Mīmāṁsā by Laugākṣi Bhāskara. -सतत्त्वम् truth; किं पुनरत्रार्थसतत्त्वम् । देवा ज्ञातुमर्हन्ति MBh. or P.VIII.3.72. -समाजः aggregate of causes. -समाहारः 1 treasure. -2 acquisition of wealth. -संपद् f. accomplishment of a desired object; उपेत्य संघर्ष- मिवार्थसंपदः Ki.1.15. -संपादनम् Carrying out of an affair; Ms.7.168. -संबन्धः connection of the sense with the word or sentence. -संबन्धिन् a. Concerned or interested in an affair; Ms.8.64. -साधक a. 1 accomplishing any object. -2 bringing any matter to a conclusion. -सारः considerable wealth; Pt.2.42. -सिद्ध a. understood from the very context (though not expressed in words), inferable from the connection of words. -सिद्धिः f. fulfilment of a desired object, success. द्वारमिवार्थसिद्धेः R.2.21. -हानिः Loss of wealth -हारिन् a. stealing money Ks. -हर a. inheriting wealth. -हीन a. 1 deprived of wealth, poor. -2 unmeaning, nonsensical. -3 failing.
ātap आतप् 1 P. To radiate, heat, blaze; inflame, to cause to glow. -pass. To suffer pain, be afflicted; to inflict (austerities) upon oneself.
āpīta आपीत a. 1 Yellowish. -2 Drunk or sipped a little (as water). -तः 1 Yellowish colour. -2 N. of a plant (Mar. नांदुरकी). -तम् 1 A pyritic mineral (माक्षिकधातु). -2 Filament of the lotus.
āraṇyaka आरण्यक a. [अरण्ये भवः वुञ्] Relating to or produced in a forest, wild, forest-born (usually with the words अध्याय, मनुष्य, न्याय, पथिन्, विहार, and हस्तिन् P.IV.2.129 Vārt.) -कः A forester, an inhabitant of the woods; तपः ष़ड्भागमक्षय्यं ददत्यारण्यका हि नः Ś.2.14; द्वावप्यत्रारण्यकौ Ś.5. आरण्यकोपात्तफलप्रसूतिः R.5.15. -कम् An Āraṇyaka; it is one of a class of religious and philosophical writings (connected with the Brāhmaṇas) which are either composed in forests, or must be studied there; e. g. ऐतरेयारण्यकम्; बृहदारण्यकम् and तैत्तिरीया- रण्यकम्; अरण्ये$नूच्यमानत्वात् आरण्यकम्, Bṛi. Ar. Up.; (अरण्ये$- ध्ययनादेव आरण्यकमुदाहृतम्); वेदवादानतिक्रम्य शास्त्राण्यारण्यकानि च Mb.12.19.17. -Comp. -काण्डम् the title of the third book of the Rāmāyaṇa. -गानम् = अरण्यगानम्.
ālekhaḥ आलेखः 1 Writing. -2 A letter, document.
ālekhanam आलेखनम् a. Scratching, painting. -नी A brush, pencil. -नम् 1 Writing. -2 Painting. -3 Scratching. -नः N. of an old authority quoted by Jaimini; MS.6.5.17.
ālekhya आलेख्य pot. p. To be written, painted &c. -ख्यम् A painting, picture; इति संरम्भिणो वाणीर्बलस्यालेख्यदेवताः Śi.2.67; R.3.15; V.2.1. -2 A writing. -Comp. -लेखा a painting. -शेष a. having nothing left but a painting, i. e. deceased, dead; आलेख्यशेषस्य पितुः R.14.15. समर्पित a. Fixed on a picture, painted; निशीथदीपाः सहसा हतत्विषो बभूबुरालेख्यसमर्पिता इव R.3.15.
āśramaḥ आश्रमः मम् [आ-श्रम् आधारे घञ् वृद्धयभावः] 1 A hermitage, hut, cell, dwelling or abode of ascetics; शरणान्यशरण्यानि आश्रमाणि कृतानि नः Rām.7.6.5. -2 A stage, order, or period of the (religious) life of a Brāhmaṇa (These are four:-ब्रह्मचर्य the life of a student; गार्हस्थ्य the life of a house-holder; वानप्रस्थ the life of an anchorite or hermit, and संन्यास the life of a Bhikṣu or beggar. Kṣatriyas (and Vśiyas also) can enter, upon the first three Āśramas; cf. Ś.7.18; V.5; (according to some authorities they can enter the fourth also; cf. स किलाश्रममन्त्यमाश्रितः R.8.14; पूर्वाश्रमः Ku.5.5. -3 A college, school. -4 A wood or thicket (where ascetics practise penance). -5 N. of Viṣṇu. Comp. -उपनिषद् N. of an upaniṣad -गुरुः the head of a religious order, a preceptor, principal, कर्तुमाश्रमगुरुः स चाश्रमत् Śi. -धर्मः 1 the special duties of each order or life. -2 the duties of one leading a hermit's life; य इमामाश्रमधर्मे नियुङ्क्ते Ś.1. -पदम्, -मण्डलम्, -स्थानम् 1 a hermitage (including the surrounding grounds), a penance forest (तपोवनम्); शान्तमिदमाश्रमपदम् Ś.1.16. -2 a period in the religious life of a Brāhmaṇa. -पर्वन् n. The first section of the fifteenth book of the Mahābhārata. i. e. आश्रमवासिक- पर्वन्. -भ्रष्ट a. fallen from any religious order, apostate. -लक्षणम् An indicatory mark of the religious order, cf. मेखलाजिनदण्डेन ब्रह्मचारीति लक्ष्यते । गृहस्थो दानवेदाद्यैर्नखलोम्ना वनाश्रिताः ॥ त्रिदण्डेन यतिश्चैव लक्षणानि पृथक् पृथक् । यस्यैतल्लक्षणं नास्ति प्रायश्चित्ती न चाश्रमी ॥ (दक्षसंहिता.) -वासः residence in a hermitage. -वासिक a. relating to residence in a hermitage; ˚कं पर्व the 15th book of the Mb. -वासिन्, -आलयः, -सद् m. an ascetic, hermit.
uttāna उत्तान a. 1 Stretched out, spread out, expanded, dilated; उत्तानतारकस्य लोचनयुगलस्य K.143; U.3.23. -2 (a) Lying on the back, with the face upwards, supine; Māl.3; उत्तानोच्छूनमण्डूकपाटितोदरसंनिभे K. P.7; पितृपात्रं तदुत्तानं कृत्वा विप्रान्विसर्जयेत् Y.1.248. (b) Upright, erect. -3 Open, turned upwards; उत्तान आस्येन हविर्जुहोति Mb.12.245.27. उत्तानपाणिद्वयसंनिवेशात् Ku.3.45; ˚रश्मिषु Pt.3.151. -4 Open, unreserved, frank, candid; स्वभावोत्तानहृदयम् Ś5; frank-minded. -5 Elevated; Māl.7. -6 Concave; having the mouth upwards. -7 Shallow -Comp. -अर्थ a. Superficial, shallow. -कूर्मकम् a particular posture in sitting. -पट्टम् A pavement; व्यूढं चोत्तान- पट्टं सकलकनखले ... यश्चकार ... (An Abu inscription in the reign of Bhūmadeva. Ind. Ant. Vol. XI). -पत्रकः a. species of Ricinus (रक्तैरण्ड). -पद् f. 1 vegetation, the whole creation of upward germinating plants (Sāy.). -2 One whose legs are extended (in parturition). -पाद a. with extended legs (children). (-दः) 1 N. of a king, father of Dhruva. -2 the Supreme Spirit. ˚जः N. of Dhruva, the polar star. -शय a. sleeping supinely or on the back, lying with the face upwards; कदा उत्तानशयः पुत्रकः जनयिष्यति मे हृदयाह्लादम् K.62. (-यः, -या) a little child, suckling, infant. -शीवन् a. lying extended; stagnant. आप उत्तानशीवरीः Av.3.21.1. -हस्त a, having the hands stretched out in prayers. (-स्तौ) (du.) the two hands with the fingers stretched out and with the backs turned towards the ground. -हृदय Open-hearted.
utpāda उत्पाद a. With the feet up-lifted. -दः Birth, production, appearance; उत्पादस्याप्रसिद्धत्वात् Gauḍ.4.38; Sarva. S.3.28. दुःखे च शोणितोत्पादे शाखाङ्गाच्छेदने तथा Y.2.225; ˚भङ्गुरम् Pt.2.177. -Comp. -पूर्वम् N. of the first fourteen Pūrvas (ancient writings of the Jainas). -शयः, -शयनः 1 a child. -2 a kind of partridge.
upagranthaḥ उपग्रन्थः A subsidiary writing or a class of such writings.
upajīv उपजीव् 1 P. 1 To live upon, subsist by, derive livelihood from, be supported by; उपजीव्यमानपादच्छायः K.5; कां वृत्तिमार्य उपजीवति Mk.2; संवाहकस्य वृत्तिम् ibid.; शेषास्तमुपजीवेयुर्यथैव पितरं तथा Ms.9.15; Y.2.31. -2 To live under, be dependent on, serve; अम्भसामुपचयाय उपजीवति स्म Śi.9.32. -3 To make use of, derive materials (for writing from); तदेतद्भारतं नाम कविभिस्तूप- जीव्यते Mb. -4 To practise; ते (ब्राह्मणाः) सम्यगुपजीवेयुः षट्- कर्माणि यथाक्रमम् Ms.1.74. -Caus. To use, to make the most of; Ks.
upajīvya उपजीव्य pot. p. 1 Affording a livelihood; उपजीव्यद्रुमाः Y.2.227. -2 Giving patronage, patronizing (as a king &c.). -3 (fig.) Supplying materials for writing, that from which one derives his materials; सर्वेषां कवि- मुख्यानामुपजीव्यो भविष्यति Mb. -व्यः 1 A patron. -2 A source or authority (from which one derives his materials); इत्यलमुपजीव्यानां मान्यानां व्याख्यानेषु कटाक्षनिक्षेपेण S. D.2. -व्यम् A means of subsistence, अन्तपालाश्च यास्यन्ति सदारो यत्र राघवः । सहोपजीव्यं राष्ट्रं च पुरं च सपरिच्छदम् Rām.2.37.26.
upaniṣad उपनिषद् f. [said to be from उपनि-सद् 'knowledge derived from sitting at the feet of the preceptor'; but, according to Indian authorities, it means 'to destroy ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the Supreme Spirit and cutting off the bonds of worldly existence'; यथा य इमां ब्रह्मविद्यामुपयन्त्यात्मभावेन श्रद्धाभक्तिपुरःसराः सन्तस्तेषां गर्भजन्मजरारोगाद्यनर्थपूगं निशातयति परं वा ब्रह्म गमयति अविद्यादि- संसारकारणं चात्यन्तमवसादयति विनाशयतीत्युपनिषद् । उपनिपूर्वस्य सदेरेवमर्थस्मरणात्; Śaṅkara] 1 N. of certain mystical writings attached to the Brāhmaṇas, the chief aim of which is to ascertain the secret meaning of the Vedas; Bv.2.4; Māl 1.7; (other etymologies also are given to explain the name:- (1) उपनीय तमात्मानं ब्रह्मापास्तद्वयं यतः । निहन्त्यविद्यां तज्जं च तस्मादुपनिषद्भवेत् ॥ or (2) निहत्यानर्थमूलं स्वाविद्यां प्रत्यक्तया परम् । नयत्यपास्तसंभेदमतो वोपनिषद्भवेत् ॥ or (3) प्रवृत्तिहेतून्निःशेषास्तन्मूलोच्छेदकत्वतः । यतोवसादयेद्विद्या तस्मा- दुपनिषद्भवेत् ॥ In the मुक्तकोपनिषद् 18 Upaniṣads are mentioned, but some more have been added to this number. They are said to have been the source of the six Darśanas or systems of philosophy, particularly of the Vedānta Philosophy. The more important Upaniṣads are:- ईशकेनकठप्रश्नमुण्डमाण्डूक्यतित्तिरः । ऐतरेयं च छान्दोग्यं बृहदारण्यकं तथा ॥. -2 (a) An esoteric or secret doctrine, mystical meaning, words of mystery; साङ्गोपाङ्गोपनिषदः सरहस्यः प्रदीयताम् Rām.1.55.16. (b) Mystical knowledge or instruction; मन्त्रपारायण˚ U.6; दिव्यामस्त्रोपनिषदमृषेर्यः कृशाश्वस्य शिष्यात् Mv.2.2. -3 True knowledge regarding the Supreme Spirit. -4 Sacred or religious lore. -5 Secrecy, seclusion. -6 A neighbouring mansion. -7 A lonely place. -8 A religious observance. -9 Me- ditation, यदेव विद्यया करोति श्रद्धयोपनिषदा तदेव वीर्यवत्तरं भवति Ch. Up.1.1.1. -1 One that takes to (like a boat); तस्योपनिषत्सत्यस्य सत्यमिति Bṛi. Up.2.1.2.
upavarṣaḥ उपवर्षः N. of a son of Śaṅkara Svāmin, author of several writings on the Mīmāṁsā philosophy.
upavedaḥ उपवेदः 'Inferior knowledge', a class of writings subordinate to the Vedas. There are four such Upavedas, one being attached to each of the four Vedas :-thus आयुर्वेद or Medicine to ऋग्वेद; (according to some authorities such as Suśruta it is a part of the Atharvaveda); धनुर्वेद or military science to यजुर्वेद; गान्धर्ववेद or Music to सामवेद, and स्थापत्य-शास्त्र-वेद or Architecture to अथर्ववेद.
upāṅgaḥ उपाङ्गः A mark of sandal on the forehead. -गम् 1 A subdivision, a sub-head. Mb.1.1.38 -2 Any minor limb or member (of anything); वर्गाः ... साङ्गो- पाङ्गौरिहोदिताः Ak. -3 A supplement of a supplement. -4 A supplementary work (of inferior value). -5 A secondary portion of science; a class of writings sup-] plementary to the Vedāngas; (these are four :-पुराण- न्यायमीमांसाधर्मशास्त्राणि). -6 N. of the class of sacred writings of the Jainas. -Comp. -गीतम् A kind of song; Raj. T. -ललिता A deity, whose व्रत is observed on the fifth of bright half of Āświna month.
upāsakaḥ उपासकः 1 One who waits upon, a worshipper. -2 A servant, follower. -3 A Śūdra, a low fellow. -4 A worshipper of Buddha as distinguished from the Bhikṣu. -Comp. -दशाः N. of one of the Aṅgas or chief Jaina sacred writings.
upāyaḥ उपायः 1 (a) Means, an expedient, remedy; शक्यो- वाप्तुमुपायतः Bg.6.36. उपायं चिन्तयेत्प्राज्ञस्तथापायं च चिन्तयेत् Pt.1.46; मयि क्षीणोपाये प्रणिपतनमात्रैकशरणे Amaru.25; Bhāg.1.48.2; Ms.8.48,7.177. (b) A plan, contrivance; ˚निलया Mu.1.5. (c) A mode, way, stratagem. उपायेन तु यच्छक्यं न तच्छक्यं पराक्रमैः । H. -2 A fact, circumstance; U.7. -3 Beginning, commencement. -4 Effort, exertion; वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्यो$वाप्तुमुपायतः (योगः) Bg.6.36; Ms.9.248;1.2. -5 A means of success against an enemy; (these are four:- सामन् conciliation or negotiation, दानम् bribery; भेदः sowing dissensions; and दण्डः punishment (open attack); some authorities add three more :- माया deceit; उपेक्षा trick, deceit or neglect; इन्द्रजाल conjuring, thus making the total number 7); चतुर्थोपायसाध्ये तु रिपौ सान्त्वमपक्रिया Śi.2.54; सामादीना- मुपायानां चतुर्णामपि पण्डिताः Ms.7.19. -6 Joining (as in singing). -7 Approach. -8 Initiation, thread ceremony (= उपनयन); अपि वा वेदतुल्यत्वाद् उपायेन प्रवर्तेरन् MS.6.2.22 (where शबर explains उपायेन प्रवर्तेरन् as उप- नयनेन सह प्रवर्तेरन् ।). -Comp. -आक्षेपः (In Rhet.) Deprecatory speech making mention of the remedy; Kāv..2.151. -चतुष्टयम् the four expedients against an enemy; see above (5). -चिन्ता devising an expedient or scheme. -ज्ञ a. fertile in expedients. -तुरीयः the 4th expedient, i. e. दण्ड or punishment. -योगः application of means or remedy; एतैरुपाययोगैस्तु शक्यास्ताः परिरक्षितुम् Ms.9.1. -विकल्पः Alternative strategic means; Kau. A.9.
ullekhanam उल्लेखनम् 1 Rubbing, scratching, scraping &c. -2 Digging up; Y.1.188; उल्लेखनेन भूमिः शुध्यति Ms. 5.124. -3 Vomiting. -4 Mention, allusion, utterance. -5 Raising up, elevating. -6 Writing, painting. -7 Marking out by lines (the स्थण्डिल &c. in a sacrifice).
ṛktham ऋक्थम् [ऋच्-थक्] 1 Wealth. -2 (Especially) property, possessions, effects (left at death); see रिक्थ. -3 Gold. -Comp. -आदानः an inheritor, heir. -ग्रहणम् receiving or inheriting property. -ग्राहः an inheritor or receiver of property. -भागः 1 division of property, partition. -2 a share, inheritance. -भागिन्, -हर -हारिन् m. 1 an heir. -2 a co-heir.
kad कद् ind. [कद्-क्विप] Ved. A particle of interrogation, 'where'. This particle which is a substitute for the word कु is often used as the first member of a comp. and expresses the senses of badness, littleness, deterioration, uselessness, defectiveness &c. of anything; नियच्छ मन्युं कददाः स्म मानः Bhāg.7.5.28. -Comp. -अक्षरम् 1 bad letter. -2 bad writing. -अग्निः a little fire. -अध्वन् a bad road. -अन्नम् bad food. -अपत्यम् a bad child, bad posterity. -अभ्यासः a bad habit or custom. -अर्थ a. 1 useless, unmeaning. -2 having what purpose or aim ? कदर्था न आ गृहम् Rv.1.22.6. (-र्थः) a useless thing. -अर्थनम्, -ना troubling, tormenting, torture. -अर्थयति Den. P. 1 to despise, slight. -2 to trouble, torment; रे कन्दर्प करं कदर्थयसि किं कोदण्ड- टङ्कारितैः Bh.3.1; N.8.75. -अर्थित a. 1 despised, disdained, slighted; कदर्थितस्यापि हि धैर्यवृत्तेर्न शक्यते धैर्यगुणः प्रमार्ष्टुम् Bh.2.16. -2 tormented, teased; आः कदर्थितो$- हमेभिर्वारंवारं वीरसंवादविघ्नकारिभिः U.5. -3 insignificant, mean. -4 bad, vile. -अर्थीकृ 8. U. to disdain, despise. -अर्थीकृत a. 1 despised, disdained. क्लेशैः कदर्थीकृतवीर्यसारः Ki.3.47. -2 rendered useless and unavailing. -अर्य a. 1 avaricious, miserly. -2 little, insignificant, mean. -3 bad, disagreeable; जनपदे न कदर्यो न मद्यपः Ch. Up. 5.11.5. निःसंशयं मया मन्ये पुरा वीरकदर्यया Rām.2.43.17. (-र्यः) a miser; Bhāg.11.23.6. Ms.4.21,224; Y.1.161. ˚ता, त्वम् 1 avarice. -2 insignificance. -3 badness. ˚भावः avarice, stinginess. -अश्वः a bad horse. -आकार a. deformed, ugly. -आख्यम् A medicinal plant (कुष्ठ). -आचार a. following evil practices, wicked, depraved. (-रः) bad conduct. -इन्द्रियम् a bad organ of sense; कदिन्द्रियाणामनवाप्यवर्त्मने Bhāg.8.3.28. -उष्ट्रः a bad camel. -उष्ण (also कोष्ण) a. 1 tepid, lukewarm; श्वसन् कदुष्णं पुरमाविवेश Bk.3.17. -2 Harsh, sharp (as a word); प्रियोक्तिरप्याह कदुष्णमक्षरम् N.9.38. (-ष्णम्) lukewarmness. -तृणम् 1 a fragrant grass. -2 the plant कुम्भिका. -तोयम् an intoxicating drink, wine. -त्रि m. (pl.) three inferior articles. -रथः a bad chariot or carriage; युधि कद्रथवद्भीमं बभञ्ज ध्वजशालिनम् Bk.5.13. -वद a. 1 speaking ill or inaccurately or indistinctly; येन जातं प्रियापाये कद्वदं हंसकोकिलम् Bk.6.75; वाग्विदां वरमकद्वदो नृपः Śi.14.1. -2 vile, contemptible. कद a. 1 Giving water. -2 Giving happiness. -दः A cloud.
karcarikā कर्चरिका A sort of wheat cake stuffed with pulsepaste. (a sanskritisation of कचोरी).
karṇa कर्ण a. Ved. 1 Having long ears. -2 Furnished with chaff (as grain). -र्णः 1 The ear; अहो खलभुजङ्गस्य विपरीतवधक्रमः । कर्णे लगति चान्यस्य प्राणैरन्यो वियुज्यते ॥ Pt.1. 35, 34 also; -कर्णे दा to listen; कर्णमागम् to come to the ear, become known; तद्गुणैः कर्णमागत्य R.1.9; कर्णे कृ to put round the ear; Ch. P.1; कर्णे कथयति whispers in the ear; cf. षट्कर्ण, चतुष्कर्ण &c. also. -2 The handle or ear of a vessel; उभा कर्णा हिरण्यया Rv.8.72.12. -3 The helm or rudder of a ship; सेना भ्रमति संख्येषु हत- कर्णेव नौर्जले Rām.6.48.26. -4 The hypotenuse of a triangle. -5 The diameter of a circle; Sūrya. -6 An intermediate region or quarter (उपदिग्भाग); Mb.6. 6.1. -7 (In prosody) A spondee. -8 N. of a tree (Mar. बाहवा, रुइमांदार) Rām.5.56.34. -2 N. of a celebrated warrior on the side of the Kauravas mentioned in the Mahābhārata. भवान् भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च Bg.1.8;11.34. [He was the son of Kuntī begotten on her by the god Sun while she was yet a virgin residing at her father's house (see Kuntī). When the child was born, Kuntī, afraid of the censure of her relatives and also of public scandal, threw the boy into the river where he was found by Adhiratha, charioteer of Dhṛitrāṣṭra, and given over to his wife Rādhā, who brought him up like her own child; whence Karṇa is often called Sūtaputra, Rādheya &c. Karṇa, when grown up, was made king of Aṇga by Duryodhana, and became by virtue of his many generous acts a type of charity. On one occasion Indra (whose care it was to favour his son Arjuna) disguised himself as a Brāhmaṇa and cajoled him out of his divine armour and ear-rings, and gave him in return a charmed javelin. With a desire to make himself proficient in the science of war, he, calling himself a Brāhmaṇa went to Parasurāma and learnt that art from him. But his secret did not long remain concealed. On one occasion when Parasurāma had fallen asleep with his head resting on Karṇa's lap, a worm (supposed by some to be the form assumed by Indra himself to defeat Karṇa's object) began to eat into his lap and made a deep rent in it; but as Karṇa showed not the least sign of pain, his real character was discovered by his preceptor who cursed him that the art he had learnt would avail him not in times of need. On another occasion he was curse by a Brāhmaṇa (whose cow he had unwittingly slain in chase) that the earth would eat up the wheel of his chariot in the hour of trial. Even with such disadvantages as these, he acquitted himself most valiantly in the great war between the Paṇḍavas and Kauravas, while acting as generalissimo of the Kaurava forces after Bhīṣma and Droṇa had fallen. He maintained the field against the Paṇḍavas for three days, but on the last day he was slain by Arjuna while the wheel of his chariot had sunk down into the earth. Karṇa was the most intimate friend of Duryodhana, and with Śakuni joined him in all the various schemes and plots that were devised from time to time for the destruction of the Paṇ&dvas.] -Comp. -अञ्चलः (लम्) Ear-lobe; (Mātaṅga L.5.12.) -अञ्जलिः 1 The auditory passage of the outer ear. -2 The ears pricked up; आपीय कर्णाञ्जलिभिर्भवापहाम् Bhāg.3.13.5. -अनुजः Yudhiṣṭhira. -अन्तिक a. close to the ear; स्वनसि मृदु कर्णान्तिकचरः Ś.1.23. -अन्दुः, -न्दू f. an ornament for the ear, ear-ring. -अर्पणम् giving ear, listening. -आरा (= -वेधनी). -आस्फालः the flapping of the elephant's ears. -इन्दुः f. a semicircular ear-ring. -उत्तंसः an ear-ornament or merely an ornament (according to some authorities). (Mammaṭa says that here कर्ण means कर्णंस्थितत्व; cf. also his remark ad hoc:- कर्णावतंसादिपदे कर्णादिध्वनिनिर्मितः । सन्निधानार्थबोधार्थं स्थितेष्वेत- त्समर्थनम् ॥ K. P.7). -उपकर्णिका rumour; (lit. 'from ear to ear'). प्रागेव कर्णोपकर्णिकया श्रुतापवादक्षुभितहृदयः Pt. -ऊर्णः a kind of deer; कर्णोर्णैकपदं चास्मै निर्जुष्टं वृकनाभिभिः Bhāg. -कषायः Dirt in the ears; आपीयतां कर्णकषायशोषाननुक्रमिष्ये न इमान्सुपेशान् Bhāg.2.6.46. -कीटा, -टी 1 a worm with many feet and of a reddish colour, -2 a small centipede. -कुमारी N. of Bhavānī. -कूटः The tower at the corner of the roof; Māna.19.54-55. -क्ष्वेडः (in Medic.) a constant noise in the ear. -गूथम् earwax. (-थः) -गूथकः hardening of the wax of the ear. -गोचर a. audible. -ग्राहः a helmsman. -चूलिका f. An ear-ring; उत्कृत्तकर्णचूलिकेन मुखेन ...... Svapna.2. -जप a. (also कर्णेजप) a secret traducer, talebearer, informer. कर्णेजपः सूचकः Mbh. on P.III.2.13. -जपः, -जापः slandering, tale-bearing, calumniating. -जलूका a small centipede. (also -जलौकस्, -जलौका) -जाहम् the root of the ear; cf. तस्य पाकमूले पील्वादिकर्णादिभ्यः कुणब्जाह चौ Pān. V.2.24. अपि कर्णजाहविनिवेशिताननः Māl.5.8. -जित् m. 'conqueror of Karṇa', epithet of Arjuna, the third Pāṇḍava prince. -ज्वरः pain to the ear; U.5.6. -तालः the flapping of the elephant's ears, the noise made by it; विस्तारितः कुञ्जरकर्ण- तालैः R.7.39,9.71; Śi.17.37. -दर्पणः an ear-ring. -दुन्दुभिः = कर्णकीटा. -धारः a helmsman, a pilot; अकर्णधारा जलधौ विप्लवेतेह नौरिव H.3.2; अविनयनदीकर्णधार- कर्ण Ve.4. -धारिणी a female elephant. -पत्रकः The lobe of the ear; Y.3.96. -पथः the range of hearing. -परम्परा from ear to ear, hearsay; इति कर्णपरंपरया श्रुतम् Ratn.1. -पर्वन् n. the eighth (i. e. Karṇa) section of the Mahābhārata. -पाकः inflammation of the outer ear. -पालिः, -ली f. 1 the lobe of the ear. -2 the outer edge of the ear. (-ली) an ornament of the ear. -पाशः a beautiful ear; U.6.27. -पिशाची f. a type of goddess. -पुटम् the auditory passage of the ear. -पूरः 1 an ornament (of flowers &c.) worn round the ear, an ear-ring; इदं च करतलं किमिति कर्णपूरतामारोपितम् K.6. प्रचुरसमरशोभासुभ्रुवः कर्णपूरः Śiva. B.3.46. -2 the Aśoka tree. -3 the Śirīṣa tree. -4 the blue lotus. -पूरकः 1 an ear-ring. -2 the Kadamba tree. -3 the Aṣoka tree. -4 the blue lotus. -प्रणादः, -प्रतिनाहः a disease of the ear. -प्रान्तः the lobe of the ear. -फलः a kind of fish. -भूषणम्, -भूषा an ear-ornament. -मुकुरः an ear-ornament. -मूलम् the root of the ear; तं कर्णमूलमागत्य रामे श्रीर्न्यस्यतामिति R.12.2. -मोटी a form of Durgā. -योनि a. having the ear as a source. तस्य साध्वीरिषवो याभिरस्यति नृचक्षसो दृशये कर्णयोनयः Rv.2.24.8. -लता, -लतिका the lobe of the ear; मन्ये$मुना कर्णलतामयेन N.7.64. -वंशः a raised platform or dais of bamboo. -वर्जित a. earless. (-तः) a snake. -विवरम्, -छिद्रम्, -पुरम्, -रन्ध्रम् the auditory passage of the ear. -विष् f. ear-wax; Ms.5.135. -विषम् 'poisoning the ear', slandering, backbiting. -वेधः piercing the ears to put ear-rings on; a religious ceremony (संस्कार). -वेधनी, -वेधनिका an instrument for piercing the ear. -वेष्टः, -वेष्टनम् an ear-ring; सुकृतौ कर्णवेष्टौ च Rām.5.15.42. -शष्कुली the outer part of the ear (leading to the auditory passage); AV.9.8.1. अवलम्बितकर्णशष्कुलीकलसीकं रचयन्नवोचत N.2.8. -शूलः, -लम् ear-ache. -श्रव a. audible, loud; कर्णश्रवे$- निले Ms.4.12. -श्रावः, -संश्रवः 'running of the ear', discharge of pus or ichorous matter from the ear. -सूः f. Kuntī, mother of Karṇa. -स्रोतस् n. excretion of the ear (कर्णमल) कर्णस्रोतोभवं चापि मधुं नाम महासुरम् Mb.6. 67.14. -हर्म्यम् a tower, a side-tower. -हीन a. earless. (-नः) a snake.
kalamaḥ कलमः [Uṇ.4.84] 1 Rice which is sown in May-June and ripens in December-January; प्रसूतं कलमक्षेत्रं वर्षेणेव शतक्रतुः Rām.4.14.16. सुतेन पाण्डोः कलमस्य गोपिकाम् Ki.4.9,34; Ku.5.47; आपादपद्मप्रणता कलमा इव ते रघुम् । फलैः संवर्धयामासुरुत्खातप्रतिरोपिताः ॥ R.4.37. कलयता कलमावन- कामिनीकलमनोहरगानममन्यत Rām. Ch.4.72. -2 A pen, a reed for writing with. -3 A thief. -4 A rogue, rascal. -Comp. -गोपवध, -गोपी a woman employed to guard a rice-field; Śi.6.49.
kācanakin काचनकिन् m. A manuscript, writing.
kāvya काव्य a. [कवि-यण्] 1 Possessed of the qualities of a sage or a poet. -2 Praiseworthy, fit to be described -3 Prophetic, inspired, poetical; अशंसीत् काव्यः कविः Rv.8.8.11. -व्यः N. of Śukra, preceptor of the Asuras; Mb.1.76.6; दानवेन्द्रैर्हतं दूरात् काव्यः कचमजीवयत् Bm.1.289. -व्या 1 Intelligence. -2 A female fiend; -व्याः m. (pl.) A class of manes; Ms.3.199. -व्यम् 1 A poem; महाकाव्यम्; मेघदूतं नाम काव्यम् &c. -2 Poetics, poetry, a poetical composition. (काव्य is defined by writers on Poetics in different ways; तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ सगुणावनलङ्कृती पुनः क्वापि K. P.1; वाक्यं रसात्मकं काव्यम् S. D.1; रमणीयार्थप्रतिपादकः शब्दः काव्यम् R. G.; शरीरं तावदिष्टार्थव्यवच्छिन्ना पदावली Kāv.1.1; निर्दोषा लक्षणवती सरीतिर्गुणभूषिता । सालङ्काररसा$नेकवृत्तिर्वाक् काव्यनामभाक् ॥ Chandr.1.7.) -3 Happiness, welfare. -4 Wisdom; काव्यानि वदतां तेषां संयच्छामि वहामि च Mb.12.124.34. -5 Inspiration. (The purposes of a Kāvya as mentioned by Mammaṭa are :-- काव्यं यशसे$र्थकृते व्यवहारविदे शिवेतरक्ष- तये । सद्यःपरनिर्वृतये कान्तासंमिततयोपदेशयुजे ॥ K. P.1.) -Comp. -अर्थः a poetical thought or idea. ˚आपत्तिः Necessary conclusion; a figure of speech; Kuval.59. ˚चौरः a robber of the ideas of another poet, a plagiarist; यदस्य दैत्या इव लुण्ठनाय काव्यार्थचौराः प्रगुणीभवन्ति Vikr.1.11. -अलङ्कारः N. of a work on poetics by Vāmana. -आदर्शः N. of a work on poetics by Daṇḍin. -चौरः a stealer of other men's poems. -प्रकाशः N. of a work on Rhetorics by Mammaṭa. -मीमांसकः a rhetorician, critic. -मीमांसा N. of a work on Rhetorics by Rāja-śekhara. -रसिक a. one who has a taste for and can appreciate the beauties of poetry. -लिङ्गम् Poetic Reason, a figure of speech; thus defined:- काव्यलिङ्गं हेतो- र्वाक्यपदार्थता K. P.1; e. g. जितो$सि मन्द कन्दर्प मच्चित्ते$स्ति त्रिलोचनः Chandr.5.119. -हास्यम् a farce.
kuṭī कुटी 1 A curve. -2 A cottage, hut; प्रासादीयति कुट्याम् Sk.; Ms.11.73; पर्ण˚, अश्व˚ &c. -3 A vessel with openings used for fumigation. -4 A nosegay -5 A kind of perfume (मुरा). -6 Spirituous liquor. -7 A bawd, procuress. -8 A bower (लतागृह); कुटीषु गोपीरुचि- रासु यो$र्कभूतटीषु गोपाल इति श्रुतो$चरत् Viś. Guṇā.461. -Comp. -चकः a religious mendicant of a particular order; चतुर्विधाभिक्षवस्ते कुटीचकबहूदकौ । हंसः परमहंसश्च यो यः पश्चात् स उत्तमः ॥ Mb.; Bhāg.3.12.42. -चरः a kind of ascetic who entrusts the care of his family to his son and devotes himself solely to religious penance and austerities. कुटीरः kuṭīrḥ रम् ram कुटीरकः kuṭīrakḥ कुटीरः रम् कुटीरकः [कुटीशमीशुण्डाभ्यो रः P.V.3.88] A hut, cottage; U.2.29; Amaru.56 (प्रक्षिप्तश्लोक in the note). -रम् 1 Sexual intercourse. -2 Exclusiveness.
kumbhaḥ कुम्भः [कुं भूमिं कुत्सितं वा उम्भति पूरयति उम्भ्-अच् शकं˚ Tv.] 1 A pitcher, water-pot, jar; इयं सुस्तनी मस्तकन्यस्तकुम्भा Jag.; वर्जयेत्तादृशं मित्रं विषकुम्भं पयोमुखम् H.1.74; R.2.36; so कुच˚, स्तन˚. -2 The frontal globe on the forehead of an elephant; इभकुम्भ Māl.5.32; मत्तेभकुम्भदलने भुवि सन्ति शूराः Bh.1.59. -3 Aquarius, the eleventh sign of the zodiac. -4 A measure of grain equal to 2 droṇas; धान्यं दशभ्यः कुम्भेभ्यो हरतो$भ्यधिकं वधः Ms.8.32. -5 (In Yoga phil.) Closing the nostrils and mouth so as to suspend breathing. -6 The paramour of a harlot. -7 An urn in which the bones of dead bodies are collected. -8 A kind of heart-disease. -9 N. of a plant (and also of its fruit); क्वचिद् बिल्वैः क्वचित्कुम्भैः क्वचिच्चा- मलकमुष्टिभिः Bhāg.1.18.14. -भा A harlot, a whore. -भम् A fragrant resin (गुग्गुल). -Comp. -उदरः one of the attendants of Śiva; अवेहि मां किङ्करमष्टमूर्तेः कुम्भोदरं नाम निकुम्भमित्रम् R.2.35. -उलूकः a kind of owl; हृत्वा पिष्ट- मयं पूपं कुम्भोलूकः प्रजायते Mb.13.111.11. -उलूखकम् a medicinal plant (Mar. गुग्गुळ). -कर्णः 'pitcher-eared', N. of a gigantic Rākṣasa, a brother of Rāvaṇa and slain by Rāma. [He is said to have devoured thousands of beings including sages and heavenly nymphs, and the gods were anxiously waiting for an opportunity to retaliate upon the powerful demon. After Brahmā had inflicted on him a curse for the humiliation to which he subjected Indra and his elephant Airāvata, Kumbhakarṇa began to practise the most rigid austerities. Brahmā was pleased and was about to grant him a boon, when the gods requested Sarasvatī to sit on his tongue and to pervert it. Accordingly when he went to the god, instead of asking Indrapada he asked Nidrāpada which was readily granted. It is said that he slept for six months at a time, and, when roused, was awake for only one day. When Lankā was besieged by the monkey-troops of Rāma, Ravāṇa with great difficulty roused Kumbhakarṇa, desirous of availing himself of his gigantic strength. After having drunk 2 jars of liquor, he took Sugrīva prisoner, besides devouring thousands of monkeys. He was ultimately slain by Rāma.] Rām.6; R.12.8. -2 an epithet of Śiva; Mb.12. -कामला a bilious affection. -कारः 1 a potter; मृद्दण्डचक्रसंयोगात्कुम्भकारो यथा घटम् (करोति) Y.3.146. -2 a mixed tribe (वेश्यायां विप्रतश्चौर्यात् कुम्भकारः स उच्यते Uśanas; or मालाकारात्कर्मकर्यां कुम्भकारो व्यजायत Parāśara). -3 a serpent. -4 a kind of wild fowl. (-री), -कारिका 1 the wife of a potter. -2 a kind of collyrium. -घोणः N. of a town. -जः, -जन्मन् m. -योनिः, m. -संभवः 1 epithets of Agastya; एतदाख्याय रामाय महर्षिः कुम्भसंभवः Rām.7.8.1; प्रससादोदयादम्भः कुम्भयोनेर्महौजसः R.4.21;15.55. -2 an epithet of Droṇa, the military preceptor of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. -3 an epithet of Vasiṣṭha. -दासी a bawd, procuress; sometimes used as a term of reproach or abuse. -धरः the sign ef the zodiac called Aquarius. -पञ्जरः a niche in the wall. -राशिः the sign Aquarius. -रेतस् m. a form of Agni. -लग्नम् that time of the day in which Aquarius rises above the horizon. -मण्डूकः 1 (lit.) a frog in a pitcher. -2 (fig.) an inexperienced man; cf. कूपमण्डूक. -शाला pottery. -सन्धिः the hollow on the top of an elephant's head between the frontal globes.
kuhana कुहन a. 1 Envious. -2 Hypocritical. -नः 1 A mouse -2 A snake. -ना 1 Hypocrisy; 'कुहना दम्भचर्यायामीर्ष्यालौ कुहनस्त्रिषु' Medini; Viś. Guṇā.388. -2 Assumed and false sanctity. -3 The interested performance of religious austerities, hypocrisy. -नम् 1 A small earthen vessel; 'कुहनं मृत्तिकाभाण्डविशेषे काचभाजने' Medini. -2 A glass vessel.
kuhanikā कुहनिका Interested performance of religious austerities, hypocrisy (दम्भ).
kṛttiḥ कृत्तिः f. [कृत्-क्तिन्] 1 Skin, hide (in general); Mu.3.2. -2 Especially, the hide of an antelope on which a religious student sits. -3 The bark of the birch-tree used for writing upon &c. -4 The birch-tree. -5 One of the lunar mansions, Pleiades. -6 A house. -Comp. -वासः, -वासस् m. an epithet of Śiva; स कृत्ति- वासास्तपसे यतात्मा Ku.1.54; M.1.1.
kṛṣṇa कृष्ण a. [कृष्-नक्] 1 Black, dark, dark-blue. -2 Wicked, evil; मनो गुणान्वै सृजते बलीयस्ततश्च कर्माणि विलक्षणानि । शुक्लानि कृष्णान्यथ लोहितानि तेभ्यः सवर्णाः सृतयो भवन्ति ॥ Bhāg. 11.23.44. -ष्णः 1 The black colour. -2 The black antelope; Bhāg.1.35.19. -3 A crow. -4 The (Indian) cuckoo. -5 The dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); Bg.8.25. -6 The Kali age. -7 Viṣṇu in his eighth incarnation, born as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī. [Kṛiṣna is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the deities. Though the real son of Vasudeva and Devakī and thus a cousin of Kaṁsa, he was, for all practical purposes, the son of Nanda and Yaśodā, by whom he was brought up and in whose house he spent his childhood. It was here that his divine character began to be gradually discovered, when he easily crushed the most redoubtable demons, such as Baka, Pūtanā &c., that were sent to kill him by Kaṁsa, and performed many other feats of surprising strength. The chief companions of his youth were the Gopis or wives of the cowherds of Gokula, among whom Rādhā was his special favourite (cf. Jayadeva's Gitagovinda). He killed Kaṁsa, Naraka, Keśin, Ariṣṭa and a host of other powerful demons. He was a particular friend of Arjuna, to whom he acted as charioteer in the great war, and his staunch support of the cause of the Pāṇḍavas was the main cause of the overthrow of the Kauravas. On several critical occasions, it was Kṛiṣṇa's assistance and inventive mind that stood the Pāṇḍavas in good stead. After the general destruction of the Yādavas at Prabhāsa, he was killed unintentionally by a hunter named Jaras who shot him with an arrow mistaking him at a distance for a deer. He had more than 16 wives, but Rukmiṇi and Satyabhāmā, (as also Rādhā) were his favourites. He is said to have been of dark-blue or cloud-like colour; cf. बहिरिव मलिनतरं तव कृष्ण मनो$पि भविष्यति नूनं Gīt.8. His son was Pradyumna]. -8 N. of Vyāsa, the reputed author of the Mahābhārata; कुतः सञ्चोदितः कृष्णः कृतवान्संहितां मुनिः Bhāg.1.4.3. -9 N. of Arjuna. -1 Aloe wood. -11 The Supreme spirit. -12 Black pepper. -13 Iron. -14 A Śūdra; कृष्णस्तु केशवे व्यासे कोकिले$र्जुनकाकयोः । शूद्रे तामिस्रपक्षे$ग्निकलिनीलगुणेषु च ॥ Nm. -15 The marking nut (भल्लातक); विरक्तं शोध्यते वस्त्रं न तु कृष्णोपसंहितम् Mb.12.291.1. -ष्णा 1 N. of Draupadī, wife of the Pāṇḍavas; तेजो हृतं खलु मयाभिहतश्च मत्स्यः सज्जीकृतेन धनुषाधिगता च कृष्णा Bhāg.1.15.7; प्रविश्य कृष्णासदनं महीभुजा Ki.1.26. -2 N. of a river in the Deccan that joins the sea at Machhalipaṭṭaṇa. -3 A kind of poisonous insect. -4 N. of several plants. -5 A grape. -6 A kind of perfume. -7 An epithet of Durgā Bhāg.4.6.7. -8 One of the 7 tongues of fire. -9 N. of the river Yamunā; विलोक्य दूषितां कृष्णां कृष्णः कृष्णाहिना विभुः Bhāg.1.16.1. -ष्णी A dark night; रिणक्ति कृष्णीर- रुषाय पन्थाम् Rv.7.71.1. -ष्णम् 1 Blackness, darkness (moral also); शुक्रा कृष्णादजनिष्ट श्वितीची Rv.1.123.9. -2 Iron. -3 Antimony. -4 The black part of the eye. -5 Black pepper. -6 Lead. -7 An inauspicious act. -8 Money acquired by gambling. -Comp. -अगुरु n. a kind of sandal-wood. -अचलः an epithet of the mountain Raivataka. -अजिनम् the skin of the black antelope. -अध्वन्, -अर्चिस् m. an epithet of fire; cf. कृष्ण- वर्त्मन्. -अयस्, n. -अयसम्, -आमिषम् iron, crude or black iron. -कृष्णायसस्येव च ते संहत्य हृदयं कृतम् Mb.5.135. 1; वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं कृष्णायसमित्येव सत्यम् Ch. Up. 6.1.6. -अर्जकः N. of a tree. -अष्टमी, -जन्माष्टमी the 8th day of the dark half of Śrāvaṇa when Kṛiṣṇa, was born; also called गोकुलाष्टमी. -आवासः the holy fig-tree. -उदरः a kind of snake. -कञ्चुकः a kind of gram. -कन्दम् a red lotus. -कर्मन् a. of black deeds, criminal, wicked, depraved, guilty, sinful. -काकः a raven. -कायः a buffalo. -काष्ठम् a kind of sandal-wood, agallochum. -कोहलः a gambler. -गङ्गा the river कृष्णावेणी. -गति fire; ववृधे स तदा गर्भः कक्षे कृष्णगतिर्यथा Mb.13.85.56; आयोघने कृष्णगतिं सहायम् R.6.42. -गर्भाः (f. pl.) 1 the pregnant wives of the demon Kṛiṣṇa; यः कृष्णगर्भा निरहन्नृजिश्वना Rv.1.11.1. -2 waters in the interiors of the clouds. -गोधा a kind of poisonous insect. -ग्रीवः N. of Śiva. -चञ्चुकः a kind of pea. -चन्द्रः N. of Vasudeva. -चर a. what formerly belonged to Kṛiṣṇa. -चूर्णम् rust of iron, iron-filings. -च्छविः f. 1 the skin of the black antelope. -2 a black cloud; कृष्णच्छविसमा कृष्णा Mb.4.6.9. -ताम्रम् a kind of sandal wood. -तारः 1 a species of antelope. -2 an antelope (in general) -तालु m. a kind of horse having black palate; cf. शालिहोत्र of भोज, 67. -त्रिवृता N. of a tree. -देहः a large black bee. -धनम् money got by foul means. -द्वादशी the twelfth day in the dark half of Āṣaḍha. -द्वैपायनः N. of Vyāsa; तमहमरागमकृष्णं कृष्णद्वैपायनं वन्दे Ve.1.4. -पक्षः 1 the dark half of a lunar month; रावणेन हृता सीता कृष्णपक्षे$- सिताष्टमी Mahān. -2 an epithet of Arjuna; -पदी a female with black feet, -पविः an epithet of Agni. -पाकः N. of a tree (Mar. करवंद). -पिङ्गल a. dark-brown. (-ला) N. of Durgā. -पिण्डीतकः (-पिण्डीरः) N. of a tree (Mar. काळा गेळा). -पुष्पी N. of a tree (Mar. काळा धोत्रा). -फलः (-ला) N. of a tree (Mar. काळें जिरें). -बीजम् a watermelon. -भस्मन् sulphate of mecury. -मृगः the black antelope; शृङ्गे कृष्णमृगस्य वामनयनं कण्डूयमानां मृगीम् Ś.6.17. -मुखः, -वक्त्रः, -वदनः the black-faced monkey. -मृत्तिका 1 black earth. -2 the gunpowder. -यजुर्वेदः the Taittirīya or black Yajurveda. -यामः an epithet of Agni; वृश्चद्वनं कृष्णयामं रुशन्तम् Rv.6.6.1. -रक्तः dark-red colour. -रूप्य = ˚चर q. v. -लवणम् 1 a kind of black salt. -2 a factitious salt. -लोहः the loadstone. -वर्णः 1 black colour. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a Śūdra; विडूरुङ्घ्रिश्रितकृष्णवर्णः Bhāg.2.1.37. -वर्त्मन् m. 1 fire; श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42; Ms.2.94. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a low man, profligate, black-guard. -विषाणा Ved. the horns of the black antelope. -वेणी N. of a river. -शकुनिः a crow; Av.19.57.4. -शारः, -सारः, -सारङ्गः the spotted antelope; कृष्णसारे ददच्चक्षुस्त्वयि चाधिज्यकार्मुके Ś.1.6; V.4.31; पीयूषभानाविव कृष्णसारः Rām. Ch.1.3. -शृङ्गः a buffalo. -सखः, -सारथिः an epithet of Arjuna. (-खी) cummin seed (Mar. जिरें). -स्कन्धः N. of a tree (Mar. तमाल).
keta केत a. [कित्-आधारे घञ्) Knowing, learned. -तः 1 A house, abode; अनन्यमेकं जगदात्मकेतं भवापवर्गाय भजाम देवम् Bhāg.1.63.44. -2 Living, habitation. -3 A banner. -4 Will, intention, desire. -5 Summons, invitation. -6 Apparition, form, shape. -7 Wealth. -8 Atmosphere, sky. -9 Intellect, judgment.
ketuḥ केतुः [चाय्-तु की आदेशः Uṇ.1.73] 1 A flag, banner; चीनांशुकमिव केतोः प्रतिवातं नीयमानस्य Ś.1.33; -2 A chief, head, leader, foremost, any eminent person (oft. at the end of comp.); मनुष्यवाचा मनुवंशकेतुम् R.2.33;14.7; कुलस्य केतुः स्फीतस्य (राघवः) Rām. -3 A comet, meteor; Bhāg.2.6.15; Ms.1.38. -4 A sign, mark. -5 Brightness, clearness. -6 A ray of light; प्रययौ कान्तिमिव द्रुमाब्जकेतुम् Bu. Ch.5.3; Bhāg.8.6.15. cf. also 'केतुर्द्युतौ पताकायाम्' इति विश्वः. -7 The descending node considered as the ninth planet, and the body or trunk of the demon सैंहिकेय (the head being regarded as Rāhu); क्रूर- ग्रहः स केतुश्चन्द्रं संपूर्णमण्डलमिदानीम् Mu.1.6. -8 Day-time. -9 Apparition, form, shape. -1 Intellect, judgement; नि केतुना जनानां चिकेथे पूतदक्षसा Rv.5.66.4. -11 A pigmy race. -12 A disease. -13 An enemy. -Comp. -ग्रहः the descending node. -चक्रम् a kind of diagram. -तारा a comet. -भः a cloud. -मालः, -मालम् one of the nine great divisions of the known world (the western portion of जम्बुद्वीप.) -यष्टिः f. a flag-staff; नामाङ्करावणशराङ्कितके- तुयष्टिमूर्ध्वं रथं हरिसहस्रयुजं निनाय R.12.13. -रत्नम् lapis lazuli, (also called वैडूर्य). -वसनम् a flag.
kroḍaḥ क्रोडः [क्रुङ् घनीभावे संज्ञायां घञ्] 1 A hog; भ्रातर्येवं विनि- हते हरिणा क्रोडमूर्तिना Bhāg.7.2.1. -2 The hollow of a tree, cavity; हा हा हन्त तथापि जन्मविटपिक्रोडे मनो धावति Udb. -3 The chest, bosom, breast; क्रोडीकृ to clasp to the bosom; क्रोडीकरोति प्रथमं यथा जातमनित्यता । धात्रीव जननी पश्चा- त्तथा शोकस्य कः क्रमः ॥ Nāg.4; Bh.2.35. -4 The middle part of anything; Vikr.11.75; see क्रोड (n.) -5 An epithet of the planet Saturn. -डम्, -डा 1 The breast, chest, the part between the shoulders; Rām.5.24.4. -2 The interior of anything, a cavity, hollow; उदया- स्ताचलावेतौ यत्क्रोडे बाल्यवार्धके Mv.7.23. -3 The breast of a horse. -4 The lap; U.4. -डी A sow; हा वत्स्यामि कथं क्रोडीगर्भे Ks.53.12. -Comp. -अङ्कः, -अङ्घ्रिः, -पादः a tortoise. -कान्ता the earth. -पत्रम् 1 marginal writing. -2 a post script to a letter. -3 a supplement. -4 a coicil to a will.
kliś क्लिश् 4 Ā. (also P. according to some authorities) (क्लिश्यते, क्लिष्ट or क्लिशित) 1 To be tormented, be afflicted, suffer; अत्युपदेशग्रहणे नातिक्लिश्यते वः शिष्या M.1; त्रयः परार्थे क्लिश्यन्ति साक्षिणः प्रतिभूः कुलम् Ms.8.169. -2 To torment, molest; भक्तं मां मातिचिक्लिशः Bk.6.17. -II 9 P. (क्लिश्नाति, क्लिष्ट, क्लिशित) 1 To torment, afflict, molest, distress; क्लि- श्नाति लब्धपरिपालनवृत्तिरेव Ś.5.6; एवमाराध्यमानो$पि क्लिश्नाति भुवनत्रयम् Ku.2.4; R.11.58. -2 To suffer, feel pain.
gaṇiḥ गणिः f. [गण्-इन्] Counting. -m. One who is wellversed in the sacred writings and the auxiliary sciences; Jain.
garbhaḥ गर्भः [गॄ-भन् Uṇ.3.152] 1 The womb, the belly; गर्भेषु वसतिः Pt.1; पुनर्गर्भे च संभवम् Ms.6.63. -2 A fœtus, embryo; act of conception, pregnancy; conception; नरपतिकुलभूत्यै गर्भमाधत्त राज्ञी P.2.75; गर्भो$भवद्भूधरराज- पत्न्याः Ku.1.19; गर्भं वहति Pt.1.3 bears a child in the womb. -3 The time of conception; गर्भाष्टमे$ब्दे कुर्वित ब्राह्मणस्योपनायनम् Ms.2.36. -4 The child (in the womb); Ś.6; ततः कुमारं सुरगर्भकल्पम् Bu. Ch.2.19; cf. 'गर्भो भ्रूणे$- र्भके कुक्षौ' Medinī. -5 A child, brood or offspring of birds. -6 The inside, middle, or interior of anything (in comp. in this sense and translated by 'full of', 'filled with', 'containing' &c); हिमगर्भैर्मयूखैः Ś.3.4; शुक˚ कोटर 1.14;7.7; ˚पत्रम् U.3.5. inwardly situated; अग्निगर्भां शमीमिव Ś.4.4; R.3.9;5.17;9.55; Śi.9.62; Māl.3.12; Mu.1.12. -7 The offspring of the sky, i. e. the vapours and fogs drawn upwards by the rays of the sun during 8 months and sent down again in the rainy season; cf. Ms.9.35; नवमासधृतं गर्भं भास्करस्य गभस्तिभिः Rām.4.28.3. -8 An inner apartment, a lying-in-chamber. -9 Any interior chamber. -1 A hole. -11 Fire. -12 Food. -13 The rough coat of the jack-fruit (पनसकण्टक). -14 the bed of a river, especially of the Ganges on the fourteenth day of the dark half of Bhādrapada or in the very height of the rains when the river is fullest. -15 The fruit (of plants). -16 Joining, union. -17 The calyx of the lotus. -18 (In dramas) One of the Sandhis q. v. -Comp. -अङ्कः (also गर्भे$ङ्कः) an interlude during an act, as the scene of the birth of Kuśa and Lava in U.7, or the सीतास्वयंवर in Bālarāmāyaṇa. The S. D. thus defines it :-- अङ्कोदर- प्रविष्टो यो रङ्गद्वारामुखादिमान् । अङ्को$परः स गर्भाङ्कः सबीजः फलवानपि ॥ 279. -अवक्रान्तिः f. descent of the soul into the womb. -अवटः see गर्भभाजनम्. -अष्टमः 1 the eighth month from conception. -2 the eighth year from conception. -अस्पन्दनम् non-quickening of the fœtus. -आगारम् 1 uterus. -2 an inner and private room, the female apartments. -3 a lying-in-chamber. -4 the body or sanctuary of a temple, the chamber where the image of a deity is placed; एकैव देवं द्रष्टुं च गर्भागारमथाविशत् Ks.7.71. -आधानम् 1 impregnation; गर्भाधानक्षणपरिच- यान्नूनमाबद्धमालाः (बलाकाः) Me.9. -2 one of the Saṁskāras or purificatory ceremonies performed after menstruation to ensure or facilitate conception; (this ceremony legalizes in a religious sense the consummation of marriage); Y.1.11. -आशयः the uterus, the womb. -आस्रावः mis-carriage, abortion. -ईश्वरः one born rich (cf. 'born in the purple'); a sovereign or rich man by birth. ˚ता sovereignty attained by inheritance; प्राप्तैश्वर्यो भवेन्मूढो गर्भेश्वरतयान्यथा Rāj. T.5.199. -उत्पत्तिः f. the formation of the embryo. -उपघातः miscarriage of the embryo (applied to the sky); Bṛi. S.21.25. -उपघातिनी a cow or female miscarrying from unseasonable gestation. -उपपत्तिः f. formation of the embryo. -कर, -कार a. impregnating, procreative. -कालः 1 time of impregnation. -2 the time when the vapour collected in the air shows the first signs of life. -कोशः, -षः uterus. -क्लेशः pains caused by the embryo, the throes of parturition or childbirth. -क्षयः miscarriage. -गृहम्, -भवनम्, -वेश्मन् n. 1 an inner apartment, the body of a house; Mb.5.118.19; R.19.42. -2 a lying-in-chamber. -3 the sanctuary or body of a temple; निर्गत्य गर्भभवनात् Māl.1. -ग्रहणम् impregnation, conception. -ग्राहिका a midwife; Ks.34. -घातिन् a. causing abortion. -चलनम् quickening, motion of the fœtus in the uterus. -चेटः a servant by birth; नर्मभिर्गर्भचेटानां द्वास्थानां विक्रियाक्रमैः Rāj. T.3.153. -च्युत a. 1 fallen from the womb (as a child). -2 miscarrying. -च्युतिः f. 1 birth; delivery. -2 miscarriage. -दासः, -सी a slave by birth; (often used as a term of abuse or reproach.); यथा गर्भदासः कर्मार्थ एव स्वामिनो$नड्वाँश्च क्रीयते । ŚB. on MS.3.1.2. -दिवसाः certain days on which the vapours collected in the air show signs of life; Bṛi.21.5. -द्रुह् a. (nom. sing. ˚ध्रुक्-ड्) causing abortion. -धम् Ved. semen virile. -धरा pregnant. -धारणम्, -धारणा gestation, impregnation. -धिः Ved. 1 a breeding place, a nest; कपोत इव गर्भधिम् Rv.1.3.4. -2 cohabitation. -ध्वंसः abortion. -नाडी the umbilical cord. -नुद् a. causing abortion. -न्यासः 1 laying the foundation. -2 the foundations. -परिस्रवः secundines or fœtal membranes collectively. -पाकिन् m. rice ripening in sixty days. -पातः miscarriage after the fourth month of pregnancy. -पोषणम्, -भर्मन् n. nourishment of the fœtus, gestation; अनुष्ठिते भिषग्भिराप्तैरथ गर्भभर्मणि R.3.12. -भाजनम् the foundation pit, the excavation. -मण्डपः an inner apartment, a bed-chamber. -मासः month of pregnancy. -मोचनम् delivery, birth. -योपा a pregnant woman; (fig.) the Ganges overflowing its banks. -रक्षणम् protecting the fœtus. -रन्धिः complete cooking; स्थाल्य- ग्नितापात्पयसो$मितापस्तत्तापतस्तण्डुलगर्भरन्धिः Bhāg.5.1.22. -रूप a. childish, youthful, juvenile. -रूपः, -रूपकः a child, an infant, a youth. -लक्षण a. observing the signs of the rainy season. (-णम्) a symptom of pregnancy. -लम्भनम् a ceremony performed for the sake of facilitating and developing pregnancy. -वसतिः f., -वासः 1 the womb; असकृद्गर्भवासेषु वासं जन्म च दारुणम् Ms.12.78. -2 being in the womb. -विच्युतिः f. abortion in the beginning of pregnancy. -विपत्तिः death of the fœtus. -वेदना throes of child-birth. -व्याकरणम् the formation of the embryo. -शङ्कुः a kind of instrument for extracting the dead fœtus. -शय्या the abode of the fœtus or uterus. -संभवः, -संभूतिः f. becoming pregnant; वर्षद्वयं प्रविष्टस्य वर्तत$न्तःपुरे$त्र मे । तदेषा गर्भसंभूतिः कुतः संप्रति कथ्यताम् Ks.5.61. -संभवा a kind of cardamoms (Mar. एलची). -स्थ a. 1 situated in the womb. -2 interior, internal. -स्रावः abortion, miscarriage; वरं गर्भस्रावः Pt.1; Y.3.2; Ms.5.66.
gītā गीता [गै कर्मणि क्त] A name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines; e. g. शिवगीता, रामगीता, भगवद्गीता. But the name appears to be especially confined to the last, the Bhagavadgītā; गीतासुगीता कर्तव्या किमन्यैः शास्त्रविस्तरैः । या स्वयं पद्मनाभस्य मुखपद्माद्विनिःसृता ॥ quoted by Śrīdharasvāmin.
guṇaḥ गुणः [गुण्-अच्] 1 A quality (good or bad); सुगुण, दुर्गुण; यदङ्गनारूपसरूपतायाः कञ्चिद्गुणं भेदकमिच्छतीभिः Śi.3.42. -2 (a) A good quality, merit, virtue, excellence; कतमे ते गुणाः Māl.1; वसन्ति हि प्रेम्णि गुणा न वस्तुनि Ki.8.37; R.1.9,22; साधुत्वे तस्य को गुणः Pt.4.18. (b) Eminence. -3 Use, advantage, good (with instr. usually), Pt. 5.; कः स्थानलाभे गुणः 2.21; H.1.49; Mu.1.15. -4 Effect, result, efficacy, good result; संभावनागुणमवेहि तमीश्वराणाम् Ś.7.4; गुणमहतां महते गुणाय योगः Ki.1.25;6. 7. -5 (a) A single thread or string. (b) Thread, string, rope, cord, मेखलागुणैः Ku.4.8;5.1; तृणैर्गुणत्व- मापन्नैर्वध्यन्ते मत्तदन्तिनः H.1.32; यतः परेषां गुणग्रहीतासि Bv.1. 9 (where गुण also means 'a merit'). -6 The bow- string; गुणकृत्ये धनुषो नियोजिता Ku.4.15,29; कनकपिङ्गतडिद्- गुणसंयुतम् R.9.54. -7 The string of a musical instrument; कलवल्लकीगुणस्वानमानम् Śi.4.57. -8 A sinew. -9 A quality, attribute, property in general; यादृग्गुणेन भर्त्रा स्त्री संयुज्येत यथाविधि Ms.9.22. -1 A quality, characteristic or property of all substances, one of the seven categories of padārthas of the Vaiśeṣikas, (the number of these properties is 24). -11 An ingredient or constituent of nature, any one of the three properties belonging to all created things; (these are स्त्व, रजस् and तमस्); गुणत्रयविभागाय Ku.2.4; सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसंभवाः Bg.14.5; R.3.27. -12 A wick, cotton thread; नृपदीपो धनस्नेहं प्रजाभ्यः संहरन्नपि । अन्तर- स्थैर्गुणैः शुभ्रैर्लक्ष्यते नैव केनचित् ॥ Pt.1.221. -13 An object of sense, (these are five रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श, and शब्द); गुणैर्गुणान्स भुञ्जान आत्मप्रद्योतितैः प्रभुः Bhāg.11.3.5. -14 Repetition, multiplication, denoting 'folds' or 'times', usually at the end of comp. after numerals; आहारो द्विगुणः स्त्रीणां बुद्धिस्तासां चतुर्गुणा । ष़ड्गुणो व्यवसायश्च कामश्चाष्टगुणः स्मृतः ॥ Chāṇ.78; so त्रिणुण; शतगुणीभवति becomes a hundred-fold, अध्यर्धगुणमाहुर्यं बले शौर्ये च केशव Mb.11.2.1. -15 A secondary element, a subordinate part (opp. मुख्य); न च गुणानुग्रहार्थं प्रधानस्यावृत्तिर्युक्ता ŚB. on MS.12.1.4. -16 Excess, abundance, superfluity; पराङ्मुखवधं कृत्वा को$त्र प्राप्तस्त्वया गुणः Rām.4.17.16. -17 An adjective, a word subordinate to another in a sentence. -18 The substitution of ए, ओ, अर् and अल् for इ, उ, ऋ (short or long) and लृ, or the vowels अ, ए, ओ and अर् and अल्. -19 (In Rhet.) Quality considered as an inherent property of a Rasa or sentiment. Mammaṭa thus defines गुण. --ये रहस्याङ्गिनो धर्माः शौर्यादय इवात्मनः । उत्कर्ष- हेतवस्ते स्युरचलस्थितयो गुणाः ॥ K. P.8. (Some writers on rhetoric, such as Vāmana, Jagannātha Paṇḍita, Daṇḍin and others, consider Guṇas to be properties both of शब्द and अर्थ, and mention ten varieties under each head. Mammaṭa, however, recognises only three, and, after discussing and criticizing the views of others, says : माधुर्यौजःप्रसादाख्यास्त्रयस्ते न पुनर्दश K. P.8); Ki.17.6. -2 (In gram. and Mīm.) Property considered as the meaning of a class of words; e. g. grammarians recognise four kinds of the meaning of words; जाति, गुण, किया and द्रव्य, and give गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्थः as instances to illustrate these meanings. -21 (In politics) A proper course of action, an expedient. (The expedients to be used by a king in foreign politics are six :-- 1 सन्धि peace or alliance; 2 विग्रह war; 3 यान march or expedition; 4 स्थान or आसन halt; 5 संश्रय seeking shelter; 6 द्वैध or द्वैधीभाव duplicity; सन्धिर्ना विग्रहो यानमासनं द्वैधमाश्रयः Ak.) see Y.1.346; Ms.7.16; Śi.2.26; R.8.21. -22 The number 'three' (derived from the three qualities). -23 The chord of an arc (in geom.). -24 An organ of sense. -25 A subordinate dish; Ms. 3.226,233. -26 A cook. -27 An epithet of Bhīma as in युधिष्टिरो$पि गुणप्रियः Vas. -28 Leaving, abandonment. -29 A multiplier, coefficient (in math.) -3 Division, subdivision, species, kind. -31 The peculiar property of letters which are pronounced with external utterance (बाह्यप्रयत्न); they are eleven. -Comp. -अग्ऱ्यम् a principal quality; ˚वर्तिन्; स्वमूर्तिभेदेन गुणाग्ऱ्यवर्तिना पतिः प्रजानामिव सर्गमात्मनः R.3.27. -अगुणः merit and demerit Ms.3.22;9.331; अनपेक्ष्य गुणागुणौ जनः स्वरुचिं निश्चयतो$नु- धावति Si.16.44. -अतीत a. freed from all properties, being beyond them; सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते Bg.14.25. (-तः) the Supreme Being. -अधिष्ठानकम् the region of the breast where the girdle is fastened. -अनुबन्धित्वम् connection or association with virtues; गुणा गुणानुबन्धित्वात्तस्य सप्रसवा इव R.1.22. -अनुरागः love or appreciation of the good qualities of others; गुणा- नुरागादिव सख्यमीयिवान्न बाधते$स्य त्रिगणः परस्परम् Ki.1.11. -अनुरोधः conformity or suitableness to good qualities. -अन्तरम् a different (higher) quality; गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः M.1.6. -अन्वित, -उपपन्न, -युक्त, -संपन्न a. endowed with good qualities, meritorious, worthy, good, excellent. -अपवादः, -निन्दा disparagement, detraction. -अभिधानम् A subsidiary injunction; द्रव्योपदेशाद्वा गुणा- भिधानं स्यात् M.8.4.5. -आकरः 1 'a mine of merits', one endowed with all virtues; सृजति तावदशेषगुणाकरं पुरुषरत्न- मलङ्करणं मुवः Bh.2.92. -2 N. of Śiva. -आढ्य a. rich in virtues. -आत्मन् a. having qualities. -आधारः 'a receptacle of virtues', a virtuous or meritorious person. -आश्रय a. virtuous, excellent. -ईश्वरः 1 the Supreme Being. -2 the Chitrakūṭa mountain. -उत्कर्षः excellence of merit, possession of superior qualities. -उत्कीर्तनम् panegyric, eulogium. -उत्कृष्ट a. superior in merit; Ms.8.73. -उपेत a. endowed with good qualities; पुत्रमेवङ्गुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि Ś.1.12. -ओघः, -घम् superior or abundant merits. -कथनम् extolling, praising. -2 a condition or state of mind of the hero of a drama to which he is reduced by Cupid. -कर्तृत्वम् the state of an agent of properties; गुणकर्तृत्वे$पि तथा कर्तेव भवत्युदासीनः Sāṅ. K.2. -कर्मन् n. 1 an unessential or secondary action. -2 (in gram.) the secondary or less immediate (i. e. indirect) object of an action; e. g. in the example नेता$श्वस्य स्रुघ्नं स्रुघ्नस्य वा, स्रुघ्नम् is a गुणकर्मन्. ˚विभाग a. distinguishing an action and an attribute. -कल्पना f. imputing a figurative meaning, one of the modes of interpreting a sentence. According to it an expression may be understood as conveying not what is actually expressed by it but the quality or qualities thereof. e. g. सिंहो देवदत्तः means प्रसह्यकरी देवदत्तः; ŚB. on MS.1.2.1. -काण्डः a series of subsidiary (details); एवमेक उत्कृष्यमाणः सर्वं गुणकाण्डमुत्कर्षति ŚB. on MS.5. 1.24. -कार a. productive of good qualities, profitable, salutary. (-रः) 1 a cook who prepares sidedishes or any secondary articles of food. -2 an epithet of Bhīma. -3 (in math.) the multiplier. -कीर्तनम्, -श्लाघा, -स्तुतिः f. praise, extolling. -कृत्यम् the function of a bow-string; गुणकृत्ये धनुषो नियोजिता Ku.4.15. -गणः a number or series of good qualities; Bhāg.5.3.11. -गानम् singing of merits, panegyric, praise. -गृध्नु a. 1 desiring good qualities; ये चान्ये गुणगृध्नवः Bhāg.3.14.2. -2 possessing enviable or good qualities. -गृह्य a. appreciating or admiring merits (wherever they may be), attached to merits; appreciative; ननु वक्तृविशेषनिःस्पृहा गुणगृह्या वचने विपश्चितः Ki.2.5. -गौरी a woman chaste by virtuous conduct; अनृतगिरं गुणगौरि मा कृथा माम् Śi. -ग्रहणम् appreciating merits. -ग्रहीतृ, -ग्राहक, -ग्राहिन् a. appreciating the merits (of others); श्रीहर्षो निपुणः कविः परिषदप्येषा गुणग्राहिणी Ratn.1.4; Śi.2.82; Bv.1.9. -ग्रामः a collection of virtues or merits; गुरुतरगुणग्रामांभोजस्फुटोज्ज्वलचन्द्रिका Bh.3.116; गणयति गुणग्रामम् Gīt.2; Bv.1.13. -घातिन् a. detractor, envious, censorious. -ज्ञ a. knowing how to admire or appreciate merits, appreciative; भगवति कमलालये भृशमगुणज्ञासि Mu.2; गुणा गुणज्ञेषु गुणा भवन्ति H. Pr.47. -त्रयम्, -त्रितयम् the three constituent properties of nature; i. e. सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्. ˚आभासः life. -दोषौ (du.) virtue and vice; ˚कथा; Pt.2.67. -धर्मः the virtue or duty incidental to the possession of certain qualities. -निधिः a store of virtues. -पदी a woman having feet as thin as cords. -पूगम् great merits; भवद्गुणपूगपूरितम् (श्रवणम्) Śi.9.64. -प्रकर्षः excellence of merits, great merit; गुणप्रकर्षादुडुपेन शम्भोरलङ्- घ्यमुल्लङ्घितमुत्तमाङ्गम् Mk.4.23. -भावः being subsidiary to something else; परार्थता हि गुणभावः । ŚB. on MS.4.3.1. -भोक्तृ a. perceiving the properties of things; निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च Bg.13.14. -महत् a superior quality. -मुष्टिः f. a particular method of stringing the bow; cf. पताका वज्रमुष्टिश्च सिंहकर्णस्तथैव च । मत्सरी काकतुण्डी च योजनीया यथा- क्रमम् ॥ Dhanur.84. -रागः delighting in the merits of others; गुणरागगतां तस्य रूपिणीमिव दुर्गतिम् Ks.2.51. -राशिः an epithet of Śiva -लक्षणम् mark or indication of an internal property. -लयनिका, -लयनी a tent. -लुब्ध a. 1 desirous of merits. -2 attached to merits. -वचनम्, -वाचकः a word which connotes an attribute or quality, an adjective, or substantive used attributively; as श्वेत in श्वेतो$श्वः. -वादः 1 pointing out good merits. -2 a statement in a secondary sense; गुणवादस्तु MS. 1.2.1 (Śabara explains this as : गौण एष वादो भवति यत् सम्बन्धिनि स्तोतव्ये सम्बन्ध्यन्तरं स्तूयते । ŚB. on ibid.). -3 a statement contradictory to other arguments; Madhusūdana. -विवेचना discrimination in appreciating the merits of others, a just sense of merit. -विशेषाः external organs, mind and spiritual ignorance; परस्पर- विलक्षणा गुणविशेषाः (बाह्येन्द्रियमनो$हङ्काराश्च) Sāṅ. K.36. -षः a different property. -वृक्षः, -वृक्षकः a mast or a post to which a ship or boat is fastened. -वृत्तिः f. 1 a secondary or unessential condition or relation (opp. मुख्यवृत्ति). -2 the character or style of merits. -वैशेष्यम् pre-eminence of merit; अन्योन्यगुणवैशेष्यान्न किंचिदतिरिच्यते Ms.9.296. -शब्दः an adjective. -संख्यानम् 'enumeration of the three essential qualities', a term applied to the Sāṅkhya (including the Yoga) system of philosophy; ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः प्रोच्यते गुणसंख्याने Bg.18.19. -संगः 1 association with qualities or merits. -2 attachment to objects of sense or worldly pleasures. -संग्रहः a collection of merits or properties; कथं गुणज्ञो विरमेद्विना पशुं श्रीर्यत्प्रवव्रे गुणसंग्रहेच्छया Bhāg.4.2.26. -संपद् f. excellence or richness of merits, great merit, perfection; गुणसंपदा समधिगम्य Ki.5.24. -सागरः 1 'an ocean of merit, a very meritorious man. -2 an epithet of Brahmā. -हीन a. 1 void of merit', meritless; काममामरणात्तिष्ठेद्- गृहे कन्यर्तुमत्यपि । न चैवैनां प्रयच्छेत्तु गुणहीनाय कर्हिचित् Ms.9. 89. -2 poor (as food).
gūḍha गूढ p. p. [गुह्-क्त] 1 Hidden, concealed, kept secret. -2 Covered. -3 Invisible, latent. -4 Secret, private. -5 Disguised. -ढम् 1 A solitary or private place. -2 A private part. -3 A mystery. -4 One of the शब्दालङ्कारs. ind. Secretly; संवत्सरं तत्र विहृत्य गूढम् Mb.3.176.1. -Comp. -अङ्गः a tortoise. -अङ्घ्रिः a snake. -अर्थ a. having a hidden meaning (cf. ˚चन्द्रिका-तत्त्वदीपिका-दीपिका &c. N. of different commentaries). -र्थः the hidden or mystic sense; A. L. -आत्मन् (the compound word being गूढोत्मन् thus accounted for in Sk.; भवेद् वर्णागमाद् हंसः सिंहो वर्णविपर्ययात् । गूढोत्मा वर्णविकृतेर्वर्णलोपात्पृषोदरः) the Supreme soul. -आलेख्यम् Cipher writing; Kau. A.1.12. -उत्पन्नः, -जः one of the 12 kinds of sons in Hindu-law; he is a son born secretly of a woman, when her husband is absent, the real father being unknown; गृहे प्रच्छन्न उत्पन्नो गूढजस्तु सुतः स्मृतः Y.2.129; Ms.9.159,17. -चार -चारिन् a. going about secretly; Y.2.268. (-m.) a spy, secret emissary. -नीडः the wag-tail. -पथः 1 a hidden path. -2 a by-path. -3 the mind, intellect. -पाद्, -पादः a snake. -पुरुषः a spy, secret emissary, disguised agent; गूढपुरुषोत्पत्तिः Kau. A.1.11. -पुष्पकः the Bakula tree. -भाषितम् secret intelligence, private communication. -मार्गः 1 a passage under-ground. -2 a defile. -मैथुनः a crow. -वर्चस् m. 1 'a concealed witness', one placed to overhear secretly what has been said by the defendant. -2 a frog. -a. of concealed glory; तल्लक्षणज्ञा अपि गूढवर्चसम् Bhāg. 1.19.28.
grathanam ग्रथनम् 1 Coagulation, thickening, becoming obstructed or clogged with knotty lumps. -2 Stringing together. -3 Composing, writing; (ना also in these senses).
granthanam ग्रन्थनम् ना [ग्रन्थ भावे ल्युट्] 1 Stringing or tying together. -2 Composing, writing.
cakram चक्रम् [क्रियते अनेन, कृ घञर्थे< क नि˚ द्वित्वम् Tv.] 1 The wheel of a carriage; चक्रवत्परिवर्तन्ते दुःखानि च सुखानि च H.1.173. -2 A potter's wheel. -3 A sharp circular missile, weapon, a disc (especially applied to the weapon of Viṣṇu). -4 An oil-mill; दशसूनासमं चक्रं दशचक्रसमो ध्वजः Mb.13.125.9. -5 A circle, ring; कलाप- चक्रेषु निवेशिताननम् Ṛs.2.14. -6 A troop, multitude, collection, Śi.2.17. -7 A realm, sovereignty; स्वस्थं स्वचक्रं परचक्रमुक्तम् Bu. Ch.2.15; cf. चक्रं सैन्यथाङ्गयोः । राष्ट्रे दम्भान्तरे ... । Medinī. -8 A province, district, a group of villages. -9 A form of military array in a circle. -1 A circle or depression of the body. -11 A cycle, cycle of years. -12 The horizon; यावदावर्तते चक्रं तावती मे वसुन्धरा Rām.2.1.36. -13 An army, a host. -14 Section of a book. -15 A whirlpool. -16 The winding of a river. -17 An astronomical circle; राशि˚ the zodiac. -18 Circular flight (of birds &c.). -19 A particular constellation in the form of a hexagon. -2 Range, department in general. -21 The convolutions or spiral marks of the शालिग्राम. -22 A crooked or fraudulent contrivance. -क्रः 1 The ruddy goose (also called चक्रवाक); पद्मोल्लासविधायिनि सत्पथदीप्तिकृति चक्रभव्यकरे Viś. Guṇā.274. -2 A multitude, troop, group. -Comp. -अङ्गः 1 a gander having a curved neck. -2 a carriage. _x001F_+-3 the ruddy goose (चक्रवाक); चक्राङ्गान् स च नित्यं वै सर्वतो वनगोच- रान् Mb.12.268.36. (-ङ्गी) a goose. (-ङ्गम्) a parasol. -अटः 1 a juggler, snake-catcher. -2 a rogue, knave, cheat. -3 a particular coin, a dināra. -अधिवासिन् m. the orange tree. -अरः, (-रम्) the spoke of a wheel; चक्रारपङ्क्तिरिव गच्छति भाग्यपङ्क्तिः । Svapna.1.4. -अश्मन् n. a machine to hurl stones at a distance; अयःकणपचक्राश्म- भुशुण्ड्युद्यतबाहवः Mb.1.227.25. -आकार, -आकृति a. circular, round. -आयुधः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -आवर्तः whirling or rotatory motion. -आह्वः, -आह्वयः the ruddy goose; -ईश्वरः 1 'lord of the discus', N. of Viṣṇu. -2 the officer in charge of a district. -ईश्वरी N. of the Jaina goddess of learning. -उपजीविन् m. an oil-man. -कारकम् 1 a nail. -2 a kind of perfume. -गजः the plant Cassia Tora. -गण्डुः a round pillow. -गतिः f. rotation, revolution. -गुच्छः the Aśoka tree. -ग्रहणम्, -णी f. a rampart, an entrenchment. -चक्रम् A flock of चक्रवाक birds; अस्ताद्रिपद्मा- करचक्रचक्रे तत्कालविज्ञातपतङ्गपाते । सद्यो दिदीपे विरहानलः ...... । Rām. Ch.6.19. -चर a. moving in a circle; (-रः) a juggler. -चारिन् m. a chariot. -चूडामणिः a round jewel in a coronet or diadem. -जीवकः, -जीविन् m. a potter. -तीर्थम् N. of a holy place. -तुण्डः a kind of fish; रोहितांश्चक्रतुण्डांश्च नलमीनांश्च राघव Rām.3.73.14. -दंष्ट्रः a hog. -घनः a thunder cloud. -धर a. 1 bearing or having a wheel. -2 carrying a discus. -3 driving in a carriage. (-रः) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu; चक्रघरप्रभावः R. 16.55. -2 a sovereign, governor or ruler of a province; वृद्धानां भारतप्तानां स्त्रीणां चक्रधरस्य च Mb.13.162.38. -3 a village tumbler or juggler. -4 a snake; भवेच्चक्रधरो विष्णौ भुजङ्गे ग्रामजालिनि Viśvalochana. -धारा the periphery of a wheel. -नदी the Gaṇḍakī river. -नाभिः the nave of a wheel. -नामन् m. 1 the ruddy goose (चक्रवाक). -2 a pyritic ore of iron. -नायकः 1 the leader of a troop. -2 a kind of perfume. -नेमिः f. the periphery or circumference of a wheel; नीचैर्गच्छत्युपरि च दशा चक्रनेमिक्रमेण Me.19. -पाणिः an epithet of Viṣṇu; Bg.11.49. -पादः, -पादकः 1 a carriage. -2 an elephant. -पालः 1 the governor of a province. -2 an officer in charge of a division of an army. -3 horizon. -4 a circle. -5 one who carries a discus. -फलम् a kind of discus. -बन्धुः, -बान्धवः the sun. -बालः, -डः, -वालः, -लम्, -डम् 1 a ring, circle. -2 a collection, group, multitude, mass; कैरव- चक्रवालम् Bh.2.74; प्रकटयसि कुमुच्चैरर्चिषां चक्रवालं Rati.4.16; Mv.6.4; Mu.3.21.; K.126,178. -3 horizon. (-लः) 1 a mythical range of mountains supposed to encircle the orb of the earth like a wall and to be the limit of light and darkness. -2 the ruddy goose. -बालधिः a dog. -भृत् m. 1 one who holds a discus. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -भेदिनी night. -भ्रमः, -भ्रमिः f. a lathe or grindstone; आरोप्य चक्रभ्रमिमुष्णतेजास्त्वष्ट्रेव यत्नोल्लिखितो विभाति R.6. 32; चक्रभ्रमीवद्धृतशरीरः Sāṅ. K.67. -भ्रान्तिः f. revolution of wheels; V.1.5. -मण्डलिन् m. a species of cobra. -मुखः a hog. -मुषलः a battle carried on with the discus and club. -यानम् a wheel-carriage. -रदः a hog. -वर्तिन् m. 1 an emperor, universal monarch, sovereign of the world, a ruler whose dominions extend as far as the ocean (आसमुद्रक्षितीश Ak.); पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि Ś.1.12; तव तन्वि कुचावेतौ नियतं चक्रवर्तिनौ । आसमुद्रक्षितीशो$पि भवान् यत्र करप्रदः ॥ Udb. (where there is a pun on the word चक्रवर्तिन्, the other meaning being 'resembling in shape the ruddy goose', 'round'); -2 (hence) head, foremost; आपद्गतः किल महाशयचक्रवर्ती विस्तारयत्यकृतपूर्वमुदार- भावम् Bv.1.7; कवयस्तर्कयाञ्चक्रुरित्थं ते चक्रवर्तिनः Parṇal.5.38. -3 a kind of horse having one or three curls on the shoulder; स्कन्धपार्श्वे यदावर्त एको वा यदि वा त्रयः । चक्रवर्ती स विज्ञेयो वाजी भूपालमन्दिरे ॥ Śālihotra of Bhoj. -वर्मन् m. N. of a king of Kashmir; चक्रवर्माभिधं राज्ये क्षीणपुण्यो व्यपद्यत Rāj. T.5.287. -वाकः 1 (-की f.) the ruddy goose; दूरी- भूते मयि सहचरे चक्रवाकीमिवैकाम् Me.83. ˚बन्धुः the sun. -2 a kind of horse, having white feet and white eyes; श्वेताभः श्वेतपादश्च तथा स्यात् श्वेतलोचनः । चक्रवाकः स विज्ञेयो राजार्हो वाजि सत्तमः ॥ Śālihotra of Bhoj. -वाटः 1 a limit, boundary. -2 a lamp-stand. -3 engaging in an action. -वातः a whirlwind, hurricane; चक्रवातस्वरूपेण जहारासीनमर्भकम् Bhāg.1. 7.2. -वृद्धिः f. 1. interest upon interest, compound interest; Ms.8.153,156. -2 wages for transporting goods in a carriage. -व्यूहः a circular array of troops. -संज्ञम् tin. (-ज्ञः) the ruddy goose. -साह्वयः the ruddy goose. -हस्तः an epithet of Viṣṇu.
cīram चीरम् [चि-क्रन् दीर्घश्च; Uṇ.2.26] 1 A rag, a tattered cloth, a long stripe or garment; Ms.6.6; क्षौमं दुकूलमजिनं चीरं वल्कलमेव वा Bhāg.7.13.39. -2 A bark. -3 A cloth or garment in general; दर्भचीरं निव- स्याथ दण्डाजिनविभूषितः Mb.3.39.23. -4 A necklace of pearls consisting of four strings. -5 A stripe, stroke, line. -6 A manner of writing with strokes. -7 Lead. -8 A crest. -9 The dress of a Buddhist priest. -Comp. -परिग्रह, -वासस् a. 1 clothed in bark; Ku.6.92; Ms.11.12. -2 dressed in rags or tatters. (-m.) an epithet of Śiva. -भवन्ती the elder sister of a wife. -मोचनम् N. of a Tīrtha; चीरमोचनतीर्थान्तर्गणरात्रं तपस्यता Rāj. T.1.149.
cīrakaḥ चीरकः 1 A manner of writing, see चीर above. -2 eye-fly (Mar. केंबरें); क्रौञ्चो जीवति वर्षं तु ततो जायति चीरकः Mb.13.111.88.
chidra छिद्र a. [छिद्-रक्, छिद्र-अच् वा] Pierced, containing holes. -द्रम् 1 A hole, slit, cleft, fissure, rent, pit, opening, crack; नव छिद्राणि तान्येव प्राणस्यायतनानि तु Y.3.99; Ms.8.239; अयं पटश्छिद्रशतैरलङ्कृतः Mk.2.9; so काष्ठ˚, भूमि˚ &c. -2 A defect, flaw, blemish; त्वं हि सर्षपमात्राणि परच्छिद्राणि पश्यसि । आत्मनो बिल्वमात्राणि पश्यन्नपि न पश्यसि ॥ Mb; सुग्रीवेण समं त्वस्य अद्वैधं छिद्रवर्जितम् Rām.7.36.39. -3 A vulnerable or weak point, weak side, imperfection, foible; नास्य छिद्रं परो विद्याद्विद्याच्छिद्रं परस्य तु । गूहेत् कूर्म इवाङ्गानि रक्षेद्विवरमात्मनः ॥ Ms.7.15,12; छिद्रं निरूप्य सहसा प्रविशत्यशङ्कः H.1.81. (where छिद्र means a hole also); Pt.3.39; Pt.2.38; Proverb: छिद्रेष्वनर्था बहुली- भवन्ति 'misfortunes never come single'. -4 (Astr.) N. of the eighth house. -5 Division; भूमिच्छिद्रविधानम् Kau. A.2.2; -6 Space; भूतानां छिद्रदातृत्वं बहिरन्तरमेव च Bhāg.3.26.34. -7 Sky; नानात्वं छिद्रयोर्यद्वज्ज्योतिषोर्वातयोरिव Bhāg.12.4.3. -Comp. -अनुजीविन्, -अनुसंधानिन्, -अनुसारिन्, अन्वेषिन् a. 1 looking out for faults or flaws. -2 seeking the weak points of another, picking holes, censorious; सर्पाणां दुर्जनानां च परच्छिद्रानुजीविनाम् Pt.1. -अन्तर् m. a cane, reed. -आत्मन् a. one who exposes his weak points to the attack of others. -कर्ण a. having the ear pierced. -दर्शन a. 1 exhibiting faults. -2 seeking the weak points. -दर्शिन् a. observing faults, a captious critic.
jahnuḥ जह्नुः N. of an ancient king, son of Suhotra, who adopted the river Gaṅgā as his daughter. [The river Ganges, when brought down from heaven by the austerities of Bhagīratha, was forced to flow over earth to follow him to the lower regions. In its course it inundated the sacrificial ground of king Jahnu, who being angry drank up its waters. But the gods and sages, and particularly Bhagīratha, appeased his anger, and he consented to discharge those waters from his ears. The river is therefore regarded as his daughter, and is styled जाह्नवी, जह्नुतनया, -कन्या, -सुता, -नन्दिनी &c.; cf. R.8.95. जह्नोः कन्यां सगरतनयस्वर्गसोपान- पङ्क्तिम् Me.52. -सप्तमी The seventh day of the bright half of Vaiśākha.]
jātiḥ जातिः f. [जन्-क्तिन्] 1 Birth, production, सङ्कुलं जल- जातिभिः Rām.3.11.6; Pt.1.38; Ms.2.148; also 'the time of birth'; cf. जातौ बाल्ये च कौमारे यौवने चापि मानवाः Mb.12.158.11. -2 The form of existence fixed by birth. -3 Race, family, lineage, rank. -4 A caste, tribe or class (of men); अरे मूढ जात्या चेदवध्यो$हं एषा सा जातिः परित्यक्ता Ve.3; (the primary castes of the Hindus are only four :-- ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य and शूद्र). -5 A class, genus, kind, species; पशुजातिः, पुष्पजातिः &c. -6 The properties which are peculiar to a class and distinguish it from all others, the essential characteristics of a species; as गोत्व, अश्वत्व of cows, horses &c; see गुण, क्रिया and द्रव्य; जातिक्रियागुणैः Śi.2.47; and cf. K. P.2. -7 A fire-place. -8 Nutmeg. -9 The Jasmine plant or its flower; नागपुन्नागजातिभिः Bhāg.8.2.18; पुष्पाणां प्रकरः स्मितेन रचितो नो कुन्दजात्यादिभिः Amaru.4 (written also as जाती in the last two senses). -1 (In Nyāya) Futile answer. -11 (In music) The seven primary notes of the Indian gamut; जातिभिः सप्तभिर्युक्तं तन्त्रीलयसमन्वितम् Rām.1.4.8. -12 Reduction of fractions to a common denominator. -13 False generalization. -14 A figure of speech (in rhetoric) which consists in so arranging words that they may read the same in Sanskṛit as well as in Prākṛita (संस्कृतप्राकृतयोः समा जातिः); cf. Vb.1.3. -15 A class of metres; see App. -Comp. -अन्ध a. born blind; Bh.1.9. -कोशः, -षः, -षम् nutmeg. -कोशी, -षी the outer skin of the nutmeg. -क्षयः (= जन्मोच्छेदः) the end of birth, spiritual release. जातिक्षयस्यासुलभस्य बोद्धा Bu. Ch.1.74. -गृद्धिः f. to take birth; जातिगृद्धयाभिपन्नाः Mb.5.6.9. -जानपद a. belonging to the castes and to the country; जातिजानपदान् धर्मान् Ms.8.41. -धर्मः 1 the duties of a caste. -2 a generic property. -ध्वंसः loss of caste or its privileges. -पत्री the outer skin of the nutmeg. -फलम् (sometimes जातीफलम् also) a nutmeg; जातीफलं मातुलानीमहिफेनं च पत्रकम् Śiva. B.3.15. -ब्राह्मणः a Brāhmaṇa only by birth, but not by knowledge or religious austerities, an ignorant Brāhmaṇa; (तपः श्रुतं च योनिश्च त्रयं ब्राह्मण्यकारणम् । तपःश्रुताभ्यां यो हीनो जातिब्राह्मण एव सः ॥ --शब्दार्थचिन्तामणि) -भ्रंशः loss of caste; Ms.11.67. -भ्रष्ट a. outcaste. -महः birth-day festival. -मात्रम् 1 'mere birth', position in life obtained by mere birth. -2 caste only (but not the performance of duties pertaining to it); Ms.8.2; 12.114. -3 species, genus. -लक्षणम् generic distinction, a characteristic of a class. -वाचक a. expressing a genus, generic (as a word); गौरश्वः पुरुषो हस्ती. -वैरम् instinctive or natural hostility. -वैरिन् m. a born enemy. -वैलक्षण्यम् inconsistency, incompatibility in kind. -शब्दः a name conveying the idea of a genus, a generic word, common noun; गौः, अश्वः, पुरुषः, हस्ती &c. -संकरः admixture of castes; mixed blood. -संपन्न a. belonging to a noble family. -सारम् nutmeg. -स्मर a. remembering one's condition in a former life; जातिस्मरो मुनिरस्मि जात्या K.355. -स्वभावः generic character or nature. -हीन a. of low birth, outcaste; रूपद्रव्यविहीनांश्च जातिहीनांश्च नाक्षिपेत् Ms.4.141;1.35.
joṭiṅgaḥ जोटिङ्गः 1 An epithet of Śiva. -2 A devotee who practises the most rigid austerities.
tad तद् pron., a. (Nom. sing. सः m., सा f., तत् n.) 1 That referring to something not present; (तदिति परोक्षे विजानी- यात्) -2 He, she, it; (oft. as corr. of यद्); यस्य बुद्धिर्बलं तस्य Pt.1. -3 That i. e. well-known; सा रम्या नगरी महान्स नृपतिः सामन्तचक्रं च तत् Bh.3.37; Ku.5.71. -4 That (referring to something seen or experienced before, अनुभूतार्थः; उत्कम्पिनी भयपरिस्खलितांशुकान्ता ते लोचने प्रतिदिशं विधुरे क्षिपन्ती K. P.7; Bv.2.5. -5 The same, identical, that, very; usually with एव; तानीन्द्रियाणि सकलानि तदेव नाम Bh.2.4. Sometimes the forms of तद् are used with the first and second personal pronouns, as well as with demonstratives and relatives, for the sake of emphasis; (often translatable by 'therefore', 'then'); सो$हमिज्याविशुद्धात्मा R.1.69; 'I that very person', 'I therefore'; (I who am so and so); स त्वं निवर्तस्व विहाय लज्जाम् 2.4 'thou, therefore, shouldst return', &c. When repeated तद् has the sense of 'several', 'various'; तेषु तेषु स्थानेषु K.369; Bg.7.2; Māl.1.36; ते ते भावाः 1.17. तेन the instr. of तद् is often used with adverbial force in the sense of 'therefore', 'on that account', 'in that case', 'for that reason.' तेन हि if so, well then. -ind. 1 There, thither. -2 Then, in that case, at that time. -3 For that reason, therefore, consequently; तदेहि विमर्दक्षमां भूमिमवतरावः U.5; Me.7,19; R.3.46. -4 Then (corr. of यदि); तथापि यदि महत्कुतूहलं तत्कथयामि K.136; Bg.1.46. -n. 1 The Supreme Spirit or Brahman; तद्भावभावी तद्बुद्धिः Mb.12. 323.29; Bg.17.23. -2 This world. -Comp. -अतिपात a. going beyond the bounds. -अनन्तर a. next to that. (-ind.) immediately after that, thereupon. -अनु ind. after that, afterwards; संदेशं मे तदनु जलद श्रोष्यसि श्रोत्र- पेयम् Me.13; R.16.87; Māl.9.26. -अनुसरणम् going after that. -अन्त a. perishing in that, ending thus. -अन्य a. other than that. -अपेक्ष a. having regard to that. -अर्थ, -अर्थीय a. 1 intended for that. -2 having that meaning. -अर्थम् on that account, with that object, therefore; स्वस्रीयं मम राजेन्द्र द्रष्टुकामो महीपतिः । तदर्थ- मुपयातो$हमयोध्यां रघुनन्दन ॥ Rām.1.73.4. -अर्ह a. meriting that. -अवधि ind. 1 so far; upto that period, till then; तदवधि कुशली पुराणशास्त्रस्मृतिशतचारुविचारजो विवेकः Bv. 2.14. -2 from that time, since then; श्वासो दीर्घस्तदवधि मुखे पाण्डिमा Bv.2.79. -अवस्थ a. so circumstanced. -एकचित्त a. having the mind solely fixed on that; H. -कर a. serving, obeying as servant. -काल 1 the current moment, present time. -2 that time. ˚धी a. having presence of mind. -कालम् ind. 1 instantly, immediately. -2 at that time, at a certain time. -कालीन a. simultaneous; ब्रह्मन्कालान्तरकृतं तत्कालीनं कथं भवेत् Bhāg.1.12.41. -क्षणः 1 present, time being, present or current moment; R.1.51. -2 the same moment. -3 a measure of time. -क्षणम्, -क्षणात् ind. immediately, directly, instantly; सेकान्ते मुनिकन्याभिस्तत्- क्षणोज्झितवृक्षकम् R.3.14; Śi.9.5; Y.2.14; Amaru. 83. -क्रिय a. working without wages. -गत a. gone or directed to that, intent on that, devoted to that, belonging to that; तद्गतेनैव चेतसा Ks.3.68. (-तः) the continued multiplication of four or more like quantities. -गुण a. possessing those qualities. (-णः) 1 the quality or virtue of anything; R.1.9. -2 a figure of speech (in Rhet.); स्वमुत्सृज्य गुणं योगादत्युज्ज्वलगुणस्य यत् । वस्तु तद्गुण- तामेति भण्यते स तु तद्गुणः ॥ K. P.1.137; see Chandr.5.141. ˚संविज्ञानः a term applied to those Bahuvrīhi compounds in which the qualities denoted by the name are perceived along with the thing itself; as लंबकर्ण; cf. अतद्गुणसंविज्ञान also. -ज a. immediate, instantaneous. -ज्ञः a knowing or intelligent man, wise man, philosopher. -तृतीय a. doing that for the third time. -देश्य a. coming from the same country. -देश्यः a fellow countryman. -धन a. miserly, niggardly. -धर्मिन् a. obeying his laws; तद्धर्मिणां निवसतां विषमः स्वभावः Bhāg.3.15.32. -धर्म्य a. of that kind; Bhāg.5.14.2. -पदार्थः the Supreme Being. -पर a. 1 following that, coming after that, inferior. -2 having that as the highest object, closely intent on, exclusively devoted to, eagerly engaged in (usually in comp.); सम्राट् समाराधनतत्परो$भूत् R.2.5;1.66; Me.1; Y.1.83; Ms.3.262. -3 diligent. (-रः) the thirtieth part of a twinkling of the eye. (-रा) one sixtieth of a second of a circle. ˚ता, ˚त्वम् 1 intentness, entire devotion or addiction to a thing. -2 inferiority. -परायण a. solely devoted or attached to anything. -पुरुषः 1 the original or Supreme Spirit. -2 N. of a class of compounds in which the first member determines the sense of the other member, or in which the last member is defined or qualified by the first, without losing its original independence; as तत्पुरुषः; तत्पुरुष कर्मधारय येनाहं स्यां बहुव्रीहिः Udb. उत्तरपदप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः -पूर्व a. 1 happening or occurring for the first time; अकारि तत्पूर्वनिबद्धया तया Ku.5.1;7.3; R.2.42;14.38. -2 prior, former. -पूर्वम् ind. that for the first time; Ki.7.11. -प्रथम a. doing that for the first time; Ku.5.66. -फल a. having that as a fruit or result. (-लः) 1 the white water-lily. -2 a kind of perfume. -बलः a kind of arrow. -भव a. sprung from Sanskṛit &c. (as Prākṛit or other words). -भावः becoming that. -मात्रम् 1 merely that, only a trifle, a very small quantity; तन्मात्रादेव कुपितो राजा Ks.6.15. -2 (in phil.) a subtle and primary element (such as शब्द, स्पर्श, रूप, रस and गन्ध) तन्मात्राण्यविशेषाः Sān. K.38; गणस्तन्मात्रपञ्चकश्चैव Sān. K.24; Bhāg.11.24.7. -मात्रिक a. consisting of rudimentary atoms; अर्थस्तन्मात्रिकाज्जज्ञे Bhāg.11.24.8. -राजः an affix added to some proper names to form from them the names of the 'king' or 'chief'; as from अङ्ग is formed आङ्ग 'king of the Aṅgas' by the affix अण्. -रूप a. thus shaped, so formed; of the same quality. -वाचक a. denoting or signifying that. -विद् a. 1 knowing that. -2 knowing the truth. -विद्य a. a Connoisseur, expert. -विध a. of that kind or sort; भक्त्योपपन्नेषु हि तद्विधानां प्रसादचिह्नानि पुरः फलानि R.2.22; Ku.5.73; Ms.2.112. -संख्याक a. of that number; Y.2.6. com. -समनन्तरम् ind. immediately upon that; Ks.4.24. -स्थ a. being on or in that, connected with it. (-स्थः) a particular mode of multiplication. -हित a. good for that. -(तः) 1 an affix added to primary bases to form derivative or secondary bases from them. -2 a noun formed by a Taddhita affix, a derivative noun.
tapa तप a. [तप्-अच्] 1 Burning, warming, consuming by heat. -2 Causing pain or trouble, distressing. -पः 1 Heat, fire, warmth. -2 The sun; तपतपनसहस्रद्योतवद्- दुर्निरीक्ष्यम् (तेजः) Rām. Ch.2.85. -3 The hot season; Śi.1.66. -4 Penance, religious austerities. -Comp. -अत्ययः, -अन्तः the end of the hot season and the beginning of the rainy season; रविपीतजला तपात्यये पुनरोघेन हि युज्यते नदी Ku.4.44;5.23; Ś.3.11. -आत्मक a. practising austerities. -ऋतुः the hot seson; तपर्तुपूर्तावपि मेदसां भरा N.1.41.
tapas तपस् n. [तप्-असुन्] 1 Warmth, heat, fire, light; एकः सूर्यस्तपसो योनिरेका Mb.12.351.1. -2 Pain, suffering; न तपः कुतश्चन Rv.7.82.7. -3 Penance, religious austerity, mortification; तपः किलेदं तदवाप्तिसाधनम् Ku.5.64. -4 Meditation connected with the practice of personal self-denial or bodily mortification; गीरा वा$$शंसामि तपसा ह्यनन्तौ Mb.1.3.57.; Bhāg.12.11.24. -5 Moral virtue, merit. -6 Special duty or observance (of any particular caste); यत्सप्तान्नानि मेधया तपसाजनयत्पिता Bṛi. Up. 1.5.1. -7 One of the seven worlds; i. e. the region above the world called जनस्. -8 The month of religious austerities. -9 A long period of time, Kalpa. -1 (In astrol.) The ninth lunar mansion. -11 Chastisement (दण्ड); आयुः शक्तिं च कालं च निर्दिश्य तप आदिशेत् Mb. 12.267.35. -m. 1 The month of Māgha; तपसि मन्द- गभस्तिरभीषुमान् Śi.6.63. -2 An epithet of Agni. -m., -n. 1 The cold season (शिशिर). -2 The winter (हेमन्त). -3 The hot season (ग्रीष्म). -Comp. -अनुभावः the influence of religious penance. -अर्थीय a. destined for austerities; तपोर्थीयं ब्राह्मणी धत्त गर्भम् Mb.11.26.5. -अवटः the Brahmāvarta country. -कर a. undergoing penance; also तपस्कर> -करः the mango-fish (Polynemus Risua). -कृश a. emaciated by austerities. -क्लेशः the pain of religious austerity. -गच्छः (also तपागच्छः) the 6th गच्छ of the Śvetāmbara Jainas. -चरणम्, -चर्या the practice of penance. -तक्षः, -तङ्कः an epithet of Indra. -धन a. 1 rich in religious penance. -2 pious, ascetic. -3 consisting in penance, (-नः) 'rich in penance', an ascetic, devotee; रम्यास्तपोधनानां क्रियाः Ś.1.13; शमप्रधानेषु तपोधनेषु 2.7;4.1; Śi.1.23; R.14.19; Ms.11.242. -निधिः an eminently pious man, an ascetic; R.1.56. -निष्ठ a. performing penance; Ms.3.134; Y.1.221. -पतिः N. of Viṣṇu; Bhāg.4.24.14. -प्रभावः, -बलम् the power acquired by religious austerities; efficacy or potency of devotion. -भृत् a. ascetic, pious. -मूर्तिः 1 an ascetic. -2 the Supreme spirit. -मूल a. founded on religious austerity; तपोमूलमिदं सर्वं दैवमानुषकं सुखम् Ms.11.234. -यज्ञः sacrificing by austerites; Bg.4.28. -राजः the moon. -राशिः 1 an ascetic. -2 N. of Viṣṇu (पुरुषोत्तम). -लोकः the region above the world called जनस्; Bhāg.2.5.4. -वनम् a penance-grove, a sacred grove in which ascetics practise penance; कृतं त्वयोपवनं तपोवनमिति प्रेक्षे Ś1; R.1.9;2.18. -वासः a place of penance or religious austerities. -विशेषः excellence of devotion, pre-eminent religious austerities. -वृद्ध a. very ascetic or devout. -शील a. inclined to practise penance. -समाधिः the practice of penance or religious austerities; तपःसमाधेः प्रतिकूलवर्ती Ku.3.24;5.6,18. -सुतः N. of Yudhiṣṭhira; Mb.3.313.19. -स्थली 1 a seat of religious austerity. -2 N. of Benares.
tāra तार a. [तॄ-णिच् भावे अच्] 1 High (as a note.) -2 Loud, shrill (as a sound); नादस्तावद्विकलकुररीकूजितस्निग्ध- तारः Māl.5.2. -3 Shining, radiant, clear; हारांस्तारां- स्तरलगुटिकान् (regarded as an interpolation in Me. by Malli.); उरसि निहितस्तारो हारः Amaru.31; R.5.52. -4 Good, excellent, well-flavoured. -5 Clear, clean; 'तारो मुक्तादिसंशुद्धौ' इति विश्वः; Śi.18.44. -रः 1 The bank of a river. -2 The clearness of a pearl. -3 A beautiful or big pearl; हारममलतरतारमुरसि दधतम् Gīt.11. -4 An epithet of (1) Visnu, (2) Śiva. -5 The mystical syllable ओम् (प्रणव). -6 Protection. -7 A high tone or note; दध्मौ शङ्खं च तारेण सिंहनादं ननाद च Mb.7.156.9. -8 Crossing, passing over. -9 A thread, wire (तन्तु); यदा गतोद्वाहमकूजनाक्षं सुवर्णतारं रथमाततायी Mb.5.48.28. -रः, -रम् 1 A star or planet; (said to be f. also). -2 The pupil of the eye; (said to be -m. also). -3 A pearl (said to be f. also). -रम् 1 Silver; तारहेममहारत्नविमानशतसङ्- कुलम् Bhāg.4.6.27. -2 A seed-vessel (esp. of the lotus); शुक्लैः सतारैर्मुकुलीकृतैः स्थुलैः कुमुद्वतीनां कुमुदाकरैरिव Śi.12.4. -Comp. -अभ्रः camphor. -अरिः a pyritic ore of iron. -पतनम् the falling of a star or meteor. -पुष्पः the Kunda or jasmine creeper -माक्षिकम् a kind of inferior metal. -वायुः loud-sounding wind, a whistling breeze. -विमला a kind of mineral substance. -शुद्धि- करम् lead. -स्वर a. having a loud or shrill sound; तारस्वरं तथा साम गायति स्म जडाशयः Ks.6.58. -हारः 1 a necklace of big or beautiful pearls. -2 a shining necklace. -हेमाभम् N. of a metal.
tālaḥ तालः [तल् एव अण्] 1 The palmyra tree, Bhāg. 8.2.12; विधिवशात्तालस्य मूलं गतः Bh.2.9; R.15.23. -2 A banner formed of the palm. -3 Slapping or clapping the hands together, the noise made by it; तलतालांश्च वादयन् Mb.3.178.17; Māl.5.23. -4 Flapping in general; विस्तारितः कुञ्जरकर्णतालैः R.7.39. -5 Flapping of the ears of an elephant. -6 Beating time (in music); करकिसलयतालैर्मुग्धया नर्त्यमानम् U.3.1; Me.81. -7 A musical instrument made of bell-metal, Bhāg. 8.15.21; उषसि स गजयूथकर्णतालैः पटुपटहध्वनिभिर्विनीतनिद्रः R.9.71. -8 The palm of the hand. -9 A lock, bolt. -1 The hilt of a sword. -11 An epithet of Śiva. -12 (In prosody) A trochee. -13 A particular measure of height; Rām.6. -14 A short span; a span measured by the thumb and the middle finger. -15 A dance; S. D.6. -लम् 1 The nut of the palmyra tree. -2 Yellow orpiment. -Comp. -अङ्कः 1 N. of Balarāma; तालाङ्को मुसली हली Ak. ततः शिवमहीपालस्तालाङ्कानुज- बुद्धिमान् Parṇāl.5.47. -2 the plam-leaf used for writing. -3 a book. -4 a saw. -5 N. of Śiva. -6 a man endowed with every fortunate mark or sign. -अव (प) चरः a dancer, an actor; Rām.2.3.17. -केतुः an epithet of Bhīṣma. -क्षीरकम्, -गर्भः the exudation of the palm; toddy. -जटा -प्रलम्बः the fibres of the palm tree (Mar. काथ्या). -ज्ञ a. knowing the measure (in music); Y.3.115. -धारकः a dancer. -ध्वजः, -भृत् m. an epithet of Balarāma. -नवमी The 9th day of the bright half of भाद्रपद. -पत्रम् 1 the palmleaf used for writing. -2 a kind of ear-ornament (hollow cylinder of gold thrust through the lobe of the ear). -पत्री f. A widow; L. D. B. -फलम् the fruit of the plam tree; तालफलादपि गुरुमतिसरसम् । किं विफलीकुरुषे कुचकल- शम् ॥ Gīt.9.2. -बद्ध, -शुद्ध a. measured, rhythmical, regulated by musical time. -भङ्गः The loss of the measure (in music). -मर्दलः a kind of musical instrument, a cymbal. -यन्त्रम् 1 a kind of surgical instrument. -2 a lock, a lock and key. -रेचनकः a dancer, an actor. -लक्षणः an epithet of Balarāma. -वनम् a grove of trees. -वृन्तम् a fan; Ś.3.21; Ku.2.35; तालवृन्तेन किं कार्यं लब्धे मलयमारुते Udb. also तालवृन्तकः.
tri त्रि num. a. [Uṇ.5.66] (declined in pl. only, nom. त्रयः m., तिस्त्रः f., त्रीणि n.) Three; त एव हि त्रयो लोकास्त एव त्रय आश्रमाः &c. Ms.2.229; प्रियतमाभिरसौ तिसृभिर्बभौ R.9.18; त्रीणि वर्षाण्युदीक्षेत कुमार्यृतुमती सती Ms.9.9 [cf. L. tres; Gr. treis; A. S., Zend thri; Eng. three]. -Comp. -अंशः 1 a three-fold share; त्र्यंशं दायाद्धरेद्विप्रः Ms.9.151. -2 a third part. -3 three-fourths. -अक्ष a. triocular. -अक्षः, -अक्षकः an epithet of Śiva; शुष्कस्नायु- स्वराह्लादात्त्र्यक्षं जग्राह रावणः Pt.5.57. -अक्षरः 1 the mystic syllable ओम् consisting of three letters; see under अ. आद्यं यत्त्र्यक्षरं ब्रह्म Ms.11.265. -2 a matchmaker or घटक (that word consisting of three syllables). -3 a genealogist. (-री) knowledge, learning; see विद्या. -अङ्कटम्, -अङ्गटम् 1 three strings suspended to either end of a pole for carrying burdens. -2 a sort of collyrium. (-टः) N. of Śiva. -अङ्गम् (pl.) a tripartite army (chariots, cavalry and infantry). -अङ्गुलम् three fingers' breadth. -अञ्जनम् the three kinds of collyrium; i. e. कालाञ्जन, रसाञ्जन and पुष्पाञ्जन. -अञ्जलम्, -लिः three handfuls taken collectively. -अधिपतिः (the lord of the 3 guṇas or worlds), an epithet of Viṣṇu; Bhāg.3.16.24. -अधिष्ठानः the soul. (नम्) spirit, life (चैतन्य). -a. having three stations; Ms.12.4. -अध्वगा, -मार्गगा, -वर्त्मगा epithets of the river Ganges (flowing through the three worlds). -अनीक a. having the three properties of heat, rain and cold; त्यनीकः पत्यते माहिनावान् Rv.3.56.3. (-का) an army consisting of horses, elephants and chariots. -अब्द a. three years old. -ब्दम् three years taken collectively. -अम्बकः (also त्रियम्बक in the same sense though rarely used in classical literature) 'having three eyes', N. of Śiva.; त्रियम्बकं संयमिनं ददर्श Ku.3.44; जडीकृतस्त्र्यम्बकवीक्षणेन R.2. 42;3.49. ˚सखः an epithet of Kubera; कुबेरस्त्र्यम्बकसखः Ak. -अम्बका an epithet of Pārvatī -अशीत a. eighty-third. -अशीतिः f. eighty-three. -अष्टन् a. twenty-four. -अश्र, -अस्र a. triangular. (-स्रम्) a triangle. -अहः 1 a period of three days. -2 a festival lasting three days. -आर्षेयाः deaf, dumb and blind persons. -आहिक a. 1 performed or produced in three days. -2 recurring after the third day, tertian (as fever). -3 having provision for three days कुशूलकुम्भीधान्यो वा त्र्याहिको$श्वस्तनो$पि वा Y.1.128. -ऋचम् (तृचम् also) three Riks taken collectively; Ms.8.16. -ऐहिक a. having provision for three days. -ककुद् m. 1 N. of the mountain Trikūṭa. -2 N. of Viṣnu or Kṛiṣṇa. -3 the highest, chief. -4 a sacrifice lasting for ten nights. -ककुभ् m. Ved. 1 Indra. -2 Indra's thunderbolt. -कटु dry ginger, black pepper and long pepper taken together as a drug; शिरामोक्षं विधायास्य दद्यात् त्रिकटुकं गुडम् Śālihotra 62. -कण्टः, -कण्टकः a kind of fish. -करणी the side of a square 3 times as great as another. -कर्मन् n. the chief three duties of a Brāhmaṇa i. e. sacrifice, study of the Vedas, and making gifts or charity. (-m.) one who engages in these three duties (as a Brāhmaṇa). -काण्डम् N. of Amarsiṁha's dictionary. -कायः N. of Buddha. -कालम् 1 the three times; the past, the present, and the future; or morning, noon and evening. -2 the three tenses (the past, present, and future) of a verb. (-लम् ind. three times, thrice; ˚ज्ञ, ˚दर्शिन् a. omniscient (m.) 1 a divine sage, seer. -2 a deity. -3 N. of Buddha. ˚विद् m. 1 a Buddha. -2 an Arhat (with the Jainas). -कूटः N. of a mountain in Ceylon on the top of which was situated Laṅkā, the capital of Rāvaṇa.; Śi.2.5. -कूटम् sea-salt. कूर्चकम् a knife with three edges. -कोण a. triangular, forming a triangle. (-णः) 1 a triangle. -2 the vulva. -खम् 1 tin. -2 a cucumber. -खट्वम्, -खट्वी three bedsteads taken collectively. -क्षाराणि n. (pl.) salt-petre, natron and borax. -गणः an aggregate of the three objects of worldly existence; i. e. धर्म, अर्थ and काम; न बाधते$स्य त्रिगणः परस्परम् Ki.1.11; see त्रिवर्ग below. -गत a. 1 tripled. -2 done in three days. -गर्ताः (pl.) 1 N. of a country, also called जलन्धर, in the northwest of India. -2 the people or rulers of that country. -3 a particular mode of calculation. -गर्ता 1 a lascivious woman, wanton. -2 a woman in general. -3 a pearl. -4 a kind of cricket. -गुण a. 1 consisting of three threads; व्रताय मौञ्जीं त्रिगुणां बभार याम् Ku.5.1. -2 three-times repeated, thrice, treble, threefold, triple; सप्त व्यतीयुस्त्रिगुणानि तस्य (दिनानि) R.2. 25. -3 containing the three Guṇas सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्. (-णम्) the Pradhāna (in Sāṅ. phil.); (-ind.) three times; in three ways. -णाः m. (pl.) the three qualities or constituents of nature; त्रयीमयाय त्रिगुणात्मने नमः K.1. (-णा) 1 Māyā or illusion (in Vedānta phil.). -2 an epithet of Durgā. -गुणाकृतम् ploughed thrice. -चक्षुस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -चतुर a. (pl.) three or four; गत्वा जवात्त्रिचतुराणि पदानि सीता B.R.6.34. -चत्वा- रिंश a. forty-third. -चत्वारिंशत् f, forty-three. -जगत् n. -जगती the three worlds, (1) the heaven, the atmosphere and the earth; or (2) the heaven, the earth, and the lower world; त्वत्कीर्तिः ...... त्रिजगति विहरत्येवमुर्वीश गुर्वी Sūkti.5.59. -जटः an epithet of Śiva. -जटा N. of a female demon, one of the Rākṣasa attendants kept by Rāvaṇa to watch over Sītā, when she was retained as a captive in the Aśoka-vanikā. She acted very kindly towards Sītā and induced her companions to do the same; सीतां मायेति शंसन्ति त्रिजटा समजीवयत् R.12.74. -जातम्, जातकम् The three spices (mace, cardamoms, cinnamon). -जीवा, -ज्या the sine of three signs or 9˚, a radius. -णता a bow; कामुकानिव नालीकांस्त्रिणताः सहसामुचन् Śi.19.61. -णव, -णवन् a. (pl.) three times nine; i. e. 27. -णाकः the heaven; तावत्त्रिणाकं नहुषः शशास Bhāg.6.13.16. -णाचिकेतः 1 a part of the Adhvaryu-sacrifice or Yajurveda, or one who performs a vow connected therewith (according to Kull. on Ms.3.185); Mb.13.9.26. -2 one who has thrice kindled the Nāchiketa fire or studied the Nāchiketa section of Kāṭhaka; त्रिणाचिकेत- स्त्रिभिरेत्य सन्धिम् Kaṭh.1.17. -णीता a wife ('thrice married'; it being supposed that a girl belongs to Soma, Gandharva and Agni before she obtains a human husband). -णेमि a. with three fellies; विचिन्वतो$भूत् सुमहांस्त्रिणेमिः Bhāg.3.8.2. -तक्षम्, तक्षी three carpenters taken collectively. -दण्डम् 1 the three staves of a Saṁnyāsin (who has resigned the world) tied togethar so as to form one. -2 the triple subjection of thought, word, and deed. (-ण्डः) the state of a religious ascetic; ज्ञानवैराग्यरहितस्त्रिदण्डमुपजीवति Bhāg.11.18.4. -दण्डिन् m. 1 a religious mendicant or Saṁnyāsin who has renounced all worldly attachments, and who carries three long staves tied together so as to form one in his right hand; तल्लिप्सुः स यतिर्भूत्वा त्रिदण्डी द्वारका- मगात् Bhāg.1.86.3. -2 one who has obtained command over his mind, speech, and body (or thought, word, and deed); cf. वाग्दण्डो$थ मनोदण्डः कायदण्डस्तथैव च । यस्यैते निहिता बुद्धौ त्रिदण्डीति स उच्यते ॥ Ms.12.1. -दशाः (pl.) 1 thirty. -2 the thirty-three gods:-- 12 Ādityas, 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras and 2 Aśvins. (-शः) a god, an immortal; तस्मिन्मघोनस्त्रिदशान्विहाय सहस्रमक्ष्णां युगपत्पपात Ku.3.1. ˚अङ्कुशः (-शम्) the heaven. ˚आयुधम् Indra's thunderbolt; R.9.54. ˚आयुधम् rainbow; अथ नभस्य इव त्रिदशायुधम् R.9.54. ˚अधिपः, ˚ईश्वरः, ˚पतिः epithets of Indra. ˚अधिपतिः N. of Śiva. ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚अयनः an epithet of Viṣṇu. ˚अरिः a demon. ˚आचार्यः an epithet of Bṛihaspati. ˚आधार Nectar. ˚आलयः, ˚आवासः 1 heaven. -2 the mountain Meru. -3 a god. ˚आहारः 'the food of the gods', nectar. ˚इन्द्रः 1 Indra. -2 Śiva. -3 Brahman. ˚गुरुः an epithet of Bṛihaspati, ˚गोपः a kind of insect; (cf. इन्द्रगोप) श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42. ˚दीर्घिका an epithet of the Ganges. ˚पतिः Indra; एषो$प्यैरावतस्थस्त्रिदशपतिः Ratn.4.11. ˚पुङ्गवः Viṣṇu; Rām.1. ˚मञ्जरी the holy basil. ˚वधू, ˚वनिता, an Apsaras or heavenly damsel; कैलासस्य त्रिदशवनितादर्पणस्यातिथिः स्याः Me.6. ˚वर्त्मन् the sky. ˚श्रेष्ठः 1 Agni. -2 Brahman. ˚दशीभूत Become divine; त्रिदशीभूतपौराणां स्वर्गान्तरमकल्पयत् R.15.12. -दिनम् three days collectively. ˚स्पृश् m. concurrence of three lunations with one solar day. -दिवम् 1 the heaven; त्रिमार्गयेव त्रिदिवस्य मार्गः Ku.1.28; Ś.7.3. -2 sky, atmosphere. -3 paradise. -4 happiness. (-वा) cardamoms. ˚अधीशः, ˚ईशः 1 an epithet of Indra. -2 a god. ˚आलयः the heaven; अश्वमेधजिताँल्लोका- नाप्नोति त्रिदिवालये Mb.13.141.53. ˚उद्भवा 1 the Ganges. -2 small cardamoms. ˚ओकस् m. a god; वपुषि त्रिदिवौकसां परं सह पुष्पैरपतत्र्छिलीमुखाः Vikr.15.72. ˚गत dead; त्रिदिवगतः किमु वक्ष्यते पिता मे Vikr.6.62. -दृश् m. an epithet of Śiva. -दोषम् vitiation or derangement of the three humours of the body, i. e. वात, पित्त and कफ. -धा ind. in 3 parts, ways or places; triply, ˚त्वम् tripartition; Ch. Up. -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa; -तुम् 1 the triple world. -2 the aggregate of the 3 minerals or humours. -धामन् m. 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 of Vyāsa; -3 of Śiva. -4 of Agni. -5 death. -n. the heaven; हंसो हंसेन यानेन त्रिधाम परमं ययौ Bhāg.3.24.2. -धारा the Ganges. -नयन, -नेत्रः, -लोचनः epithets of Śiva; R.3. 66; Ku.3.66;5.72. -नवत a. ninety-third. -नवतिः f. ninety three. -नयना Pārvat&imacr. -नाभः Viṣṇu; Bhāg.8. 17.26. -नेत्रचूडामणिः the moon. -नेत्रफलः the cocoa-nut tree. -पञ्च a. three-fold five, i. e. fifteen. -पञ्चाश a. fiftythird. -पञ्चाशत् f. fifty-three. -पुटः glass (काच). -पताकः 1 the hand with three fingers stretched out or erect. -2 the forehead marked naturally with three horizontal lines. -पत्रकः the Palāśa tree. -पथम् 1 the three paths taken collectively, i. e. the sky, atmosphere, and the earth, or the sky, earth and the lower world. -2 a place where three roads meet. (-था) an epithet of Mathura. ˚गा, ˚गामिनी an epithet of the Ganges; गङ्गा त्रिपथगामिनी; धृतसत्पथस्त्रिपथगामभितः स तमारुरोह पुरुहूतसुतः Ki.6.1; Amaru.99. -पद्, -पाद्, -पात् m. Ved. 1 Viṣṇu. -2 fever (personified). -पद a. three-footed. (-दम्) a tripod; त्रिपदैः करकैः स्थालैः ...... Śiva. B.22. 62. -पदिका 1 a tripod. -2 a stand with three feet. -पदी 1 the girth of an elephant; नास्रसत्करिणां ग्रैवं त्रिपदी- च्छेदिनामपि R.4.48. -2 the Gāyatrī metre. -3 a tripod. -4 the plant गोधापदी. -परिक्रान्त a. one who walks thrice round a sacred fire. -पर्णः Kiṁśuka tree. -पाटः 1 intersection of a prolonged side and perpendicular (in a quadrangular figure). -2 the figure formed by such intersection. -पाटिका a beak. पाठिन् a. 1 familiar with Saṁhitā, Pada, and Krama. -2 one who learns a thing after three repetitions. -पादः 1 the Supreme Being. -2 fever. -पाद् a. 1 having three feet. -2 consisting of three parts, having three fourths; राघवः शिथिलं तस्थौ भुवि धर्मस्त्रिपादिव R.15.96. -3 trinomial. (-m.) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu in his dwarf incarnation. -2 the Supreme Being. -पिटकम् the 3 collections of Buddhistic sacred writings (सुत्त, विनय and अभिधम्म). -पुट a. triangular. (-टः) 1 an arrow. -2 the palm of the hand. -3 a cubit. -4 a bank or shore. -पुटकः a triangle. -पुटा an epithet of Durgā. -पुटिन् m. the castor-oil plant. -पुण्ड्रम्, -पुण्ड्रक a mark on the forehead consisting of three lines made with cowdung ashes. -पुरम् 1 a collection of three cities. -2 the three cities of gold, silver, and iron in the sky, air and earth built for demons by Maya; (these cities were burnt down, along the demons inhabiting them, by Śiva at the request of the gods); Ku.7.48; Amaru.2; संरक्ताभिस्त्रिपुरविजयो गीयते किन्नरीभिः Me.56; Bh.3.123; (-रः) N. of a demon or demons presiding over these cities. ˚अधिपतिः N. of Maya, ˚अन्तकः, ˚अरिः, ˚घ्नः, ˚दहनः, ˚द्विष् m., हरः &c. epithets of Śiva; अये गौरीनाथ त्रिपुरहर शम्भो त्रिनयन Bh.3.123; R.17.14. ˚दाहः burning of the three cities; मुहुरनुस्मरयन्तमनुक्षपं त्रिपुरदाहमुमापतिसेविनः Ki.5.14. ˚सुन्दरी Durgā. (-री) 1 N. of a place near Jabalpura, formerly capital of the kings of Chedi. -2 N. of a country. -पुरुष a 1 having the length of three men. -2 having three assistants. (-षम्) the three ancestorsfather, grand-father and great-grand-father. -पृष्ठम् the highest heaven; Bhāg.1.19.23. (ष्ठः) Viṣṇu. -पौरुष a. 1 belonging to, or extending over, three generations of men. 2 offered to three (as oblations). -3 inherited from three (as an estate). -प्रस्रुतः an elephant in rut. -फला (1) the three myrobalans taken collectively, namely, Terminalia Chebula, T. Bellerica, and Phyllanthus (Mar. हिरडा, बेहडा and आंवळकाठी). Also (2) the three sweet fruits (grape, pomegranate, and date); (3) the three fragrant fruits (nutmeg, arecanut, and cloves). -बन्धनः the individual soul. -बलिः, बली, -वलिः, -वली f. 1 the three folds or wrinkles of skin above the navel of a woman (regarded as a mark of beauty); क्षामोदरोपरिलसत्त्रिवलीलतानाम् Bh.1.93,81; cf. Ku.1.39. -2 the anus. -बलीकम् the anus. -बाहुः a kind of fighting with swords. -ब्रह्मन् a. with ब्रह्मा, विष्णु and महेश. -भम् three signs of the zodiac, or ninety degrees. -भङ्गम् a pose in which the image is bent at three parts of the body. -भद्रम् copulation, sexual union, cohabitation. -भागः 1 the third part; त्रिभागं ब्रह्महत्यायाः कन्या प्राप्नोति दुष्यती Mb.12.165.42. -2 the third part of a sign of the zodiac. -भुक्ल a. one possessed of learning, good conduct and good family-descent (Dānasāgara, Bibliotheca Indica,274, Fasc.1, p.29). -भुजम् a triangle. -भुवनम् the three worlds; पुण्यं यायास्त्रिभुवन- गुरोर्धाम चण्डीश्वरस्य Me.35; Bh.1.99. ˚गुरु Śiva. ˚कीर्तिरसः a patent medicine in Āyurveda. ˚पतिः Viṣṇu. -भूमः a palace with three floors. -मद the three narcotic plants; the three-fold haughtiness; Bhāg.3.1.43. -मधु n. -मधुरम् 1 sugar, honey, and ghee. -2 three verses of the Ṛigveda (1.9.6-8; मधु वाता ऋतायते˚). -3 a ceremony based on the same; L. D. B. -4 threefold utterance of a vedic stanza ˚मधु वाता -m. a reciter and performer of the above ceremony; L. D. B. -मार्गा the Ganges; त्रिमार्गयेव त्रिदिवस्य मार्गः Ku.1.28. -मुकुटः the Trikūṭa mountain. -मुखः an epithet of Buddha. -मुनि ind. having the three sages पाणिनि, कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि; त्रिमुनि व्याकरणम्. -मूर्तिः 1 the united form of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Maheśa, the Hindu triad; नमस्त्रिमूर्तये तुभ्यं प्रांक्सृष्टेः केवलात्मने । गुणत्रयविभायाय पश्चाद्भेदमुपेयुषे ॥ Ku.2.4. -2 Buddha, or Jina. -मूर्धन् m. 1 a demon; त्रयश्च दूषण- खरस्त्रिमूर्धानो रणे हताः U.2.15. -2 a world called महर्लोक; G&imac;rvāṇa; cf. अमृतं क्षेममभयं त्रिमूर्ध्नो$धायि मूर्धसु Bhāg.2.6.19. -यव a. weighing 3 barley corns; Ms.8.134. -यष्टिः a necklace of three strings. -यामकम् sin. -यामा 1 night (consisting of 3 watches of praharas, the first and last half prahara being excluded); संक्षिप्येत क्षण इव कथं दीर्घयामा त्रियामा Me.11, Ku.7.21,26; R.9.7; V.3. 22. -2 turmeric. -3 the Indigo plant. -4 the river Yamuṇā. -युगः an epithet of Viṣṇu; धर्मं महापुरुष पासि युगानुवृत्तं छन्नः कलौ यदभवस्त्रियुगो$थ सत्त्वम् Bhāg.7.9.38; the god in the form of यज्ञपुरुष; Bhāg.5.18.35. -योनिः a law-suit (in which a person engages from anger, covetousness, or infatuation). -रसकम् spirituous liquor; see त्रिसरकम्. -रात्र a. lasting for three nights. (-त्रः) a festival lasting for three nights. (-त्रम्) a period of three nights. -रेखः a conch-shell. -लिङ्ग a. having three genders, i. e. an adjective. -2 possessing the three Guṇas. (-गाः) the country called Telaṅga. (-गी) the three genders taken collectively. -लोकम् the three worlds. (-कः) an inhabitant of the three worlds; यद्धर्मसूनोर्बत राजसूये निरीक्ष्य दृक्स्वस्त्ययनं त्रिलोकः Bhāg.3. 2.13. ˚आत्मन् m. the Supreme Being. ˚ईशः the sun. ˚नाथः 'lord of the three worlds', an epithet of 1 Indra; त्रिलोकनाथेन सदा मखद्विषस्त्वया नियम्या ननु दिव्यचक्षुषा R.3.45. -2 of Śiva; Ku.5.77. ˚रक्षिन् a. protecting the 3 worlds; त्रिलोकरक्षी महिमा हि वज्रिणः V.1.6. -लोकी the three worlds taken collectively, the universe; सत्यामेव त्रिलोकीसरिति हरशिरश्चुम्बिनीविच्छटायाम् Bh.3.95; Śānti.4.22. -लोचनः Śiva. (-ना) 1 an unchaste woman. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -लोहकम् the three metals:-- gold, silver, and copper. -वर्गः 1 the three objects of wordly existence, i. e. धर्म, अर्थ, and काम; अनेन धर्मः सविशेषमद्य मे त्रिवर्गसारः प्रतिभाति भाविनि Ku.5.38; अन्योन्यानुबन्धम् (त्रिवर्गम्) Kau. A.1.7; प्राप त्रिवर्गं बुबुधे$त्रिवर्गम् (मोक्षम्) Bu. Ch.2.41. -2 the three states of loss, stability, and increase; क्षयः स्थानं च वृद्धिश्च त्रिवर्गो नीतिवेदिनाम् Ak. -3 the three qualities of nature, i. e. सत्त्व, रजस्, and तमस्. -4 the three higher castes. -5 the three myrobalans. -6 propriety, decorum. -वर्णकम् the first three of the four castes of Hindus taken collectively. -वर्ष a. three years old; Ms.5.7. -वलिः, -ली f. (in comp.) three folds over a woman's navel (regarded as a mark of beauty) -वली the anus. -वारम् ind. three times, thrice. -विक्रमः Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf incarnation. ˚रसः a patent medicine in Āyurveda. -विद्यः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. -विध a. of three kinds, three-fold. -विष्टपम्, -पिष्टपम् 1 the world of Indra, heaven; त्रिविष्टपस्येव पतिं जयन्तः R.6.78. -2 the three worlds. ˚सद् m. a god. -वृत् a. 1 threefold; मौञ्जी त्रिवृत्समा श्लक्ष्णा कार्या विप्रस्य मेखला Ms.2.42. -2 consisting of three parts (as three गुणs, विद्याs); Bhāg.3.24.33;1.23.39; (consisting of three letters- ओङ्कार); हिरण्यगर्भो वेदानां मन्त्राणां प्रणवस्त्रिवृत् Bhāg.11.16.12. (-m.) 1 a sacrifice. -2 a girdle of three strings; Mb.12.47.44. -3 an amulet of three strings. (-f.) a plant possessing valuable purgative properties. ˚करण combining three things, i. e. earth, water, and fire. -वृत्तिः livelihood through 3 things (sacrifice, study and alms). -वेणिः, -णी f. the place near Prayāga where the Ganges joins the Yamunā and receives under ground the Sarasvatī; the place called दक्षिणप्रयाग where the three sacred rivers separate. -वेणुः 1 The staff (त्रिदण्ड) of a Saṁnyāsin; केचित् त्रिवेणुं जगृहुरेके पात्रं कमण्डलुम् Bhāg.11.23.34. -2 The pole of a chariot; अथ त्रिवेणुसंपन्नं ...... बभञ्ज च महारथम् Rām.3. 51.16; Mb.7.156.83; a three bannered (chariot); Bhāg.4.26.1. -वेदः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. -शक्तिः a deity (त्रिकला), Māyā; Bhāg.2.6.31. -शङ्कुः 1 N. of a celebrated king of the Solar race, king of Ayodhyā and father of Hariśchandra. [He was a wise, pious, and just king, but his chief fault was that he loved his person to an inordinate degree. Desiring to celebrate a sacrifice by virtue of which he could go up to heaven in his mortal body, he requested his family-priest Vasiṣṭha to officiate for him; but being refused he next requested his hundred sons who also rejected his absurd proposal. He, therefore, called them cowardly and impotent, and was, in return for these insults, cursed and degraded by them to be a Chāṇḍāla. While he was in this wretched condition, Viśvāmitra, whose family Triśaṅku had in times of famine laid under deep obligations, undertook to celebrate the sacrifice, and invited all the gods to be present. They, however, declined; whereupon the enraged Viśvāmitra. by his own power lifted up Triśaṅku to the skies with his cherished mortal body. He began to soar higher and higher till his head struck against the vault of the heaven, when he was hurled down head-foremost by Indra and the other gods. The mighty Viśvāmitra, however, arrested him in his downward course, saying 'Stay Triśaṅku', and the unfortunate monarch remained suspended with his head towards the earth as a constellation in the southern hemisphere. Hence the wellknown proverb:-- त्रिशङ्कुरिवान्तरा तिष्ठ Ś.2.] -2 the Chātaka bird. -3 a cat. -4 a grass-hopper. -5 a firefly. ˚जः an epithet of Hariśchandra. ˚याजिन् m. an epithet of Viśvāmitra. -शत a. three hundred. (-तम्) 1 one hundred and three. -2 three hundred. -शरणः a Buddha. -शर्करा three kinds of sugar (गुडोत्पन्ना, हिमोत्था, and मधुरा). -शाख a. three-wrinkled; भ्रुकुट्या भीषणमुखः प्रकृत्यैव त्रिशाखया Ks.12.72. -शालम् a house with three halls or chambers. -शिखम् 1 a trident; तदापतद्वै त्रिशिखं गरुत्मते Bhāg.1.59.9. -2 a crown or crest (with three points). -शिरस् m. 1 N. of a demon killed by Rāma. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -3 fever. त्रिशिरस्ते प्रसन्नो$स्मि व्येतु ते मज्ज्वराद्भयम् Bhāg.1.63.29. -शीर्षः Śiva. -शीर्षकम्, -शूलम् a trident. ˚अङ्कः, ˚धारिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -शुक्लम् the holy combination of 'three days' viz. Uttarāyaṇa (day of the gods), the bright half of the moon (day of the manes) and daytime; त्रिशुक्ले मरणं यस्य, L. D. B. -शूलिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -शृङ्गः 1 the Trikūṭa mountain. -2 a triangle. -शोकः the soul. -षष्टिः f. sixty-three. -ष्टुभ् f. a metre of 4 x 11 syllables. -संध्यम्, -संध्यी the three periods of the day, i. e. dawn, noon, and sunset; also -त्रिसवनम् (-षवणम्); Ms.11.216. -संध्यम् ind. at the time of the three Sandhyas; सान्निध्यं पुष्करे येषां त्रिसन्ध्यं कुरुनन्दन Mb. -सप्तत a. seventy-third. -सप्ततिः f. seventy-three. -सप्तन्, -सप्त a. (pl.) three times 7, i. e. 21. -सम a. (in geom.) having three equal sides, equilateral. -सरः milk, sesamum and rice boiled together. -सरकम् drinking wine thrice ('सरकं शीधुपात्रे स्यात् शीधुपाने च शीधुनि' इति विश्वः); प्रातिभं त्रिसरकेण गतानाम् Śi.1.12. -सर्गः the creation of the 3 Guṇas; Bhāg.1.1.1. -साधन a. having a threefold causality; R.3.13. -सामन् a. singing 3 Sāmans (an उद्गातृ); उद्गाता तत्र संग्रामे त्रिसामा दुन्दुभिर्नृप Mb.12.98.27. -साम्यम् an equilibrium of the three (qualities); Bhāg.2.7.4. -सुपर्णः, -र्णम् 1 N. of the three Ṛigvedic verses (Rv.1.114.3-5). -2 N. of T. Ār.1.48-5; -a. familiar with or reciting these verses; Ms.3.185. -स्थली the three sacred places : काशी, प्रयाग, and गया. -स्थानम् the head, neck and chest together; तन्त्रीलयसमायुक्तं त्रिस्थानकरणान्वितम् Rām.7.71.15. -a. 1 having 3 dwelling places. -2 extending through the 3 worlds. -स्रोतस् f. an epithet of the Ganges; त्रिस्रोतसं वहति यो गगनप्रतिष्ठाम् Ś.7.6; R.1.63; Ku.7.15. -सीत्य, -हल्य a. ploughed thrice (as a field). -हायण a. three years old.
dānta दान्त p. p. [दम्-कर्तरि-क्त] 1 Tamed, subdued, overpowered, curbed, restrained, bridled; see दम्. -2 Docile, tame, mild. -3 Self-possessed, self-controlled; U.5. -4 Subdued, conquered, vanquished; तस्मिन्दान्ते का स्तुतिस्तस्य राज्ञः U.5.32. -5 Resigned. -6 Liberal. -7 Dental. -8 Patient of bodily mortifications or austerities &c. -तः 1 A tamed ox. -2 A donor. -3 N. of a tree (दमनक).
dāntiḥ दान्तिः f. [दम्-क्तिन्] 1 Self-restraint, subjection, control. -2 The patient endurance of bodily mortifications, religious austerities &c. -3 Humiliation.
dambhin दम्भिन् a. [दम्भ्-णिनि] 1 Wicked, proud. -2 Hypocritical. -m. A hypocrite, an impostor; दम्भिहैतुकपाखण्ण्डि- बकवृत्तींश्च वर्जयेत् Y.1.13; Bg.13.7.
dāmbhika दाम्भिक a. (-की f.) [दम्भेन चरति धर्मम्-ठक्] 1 Deceitful, hypocritical. -2 Proud, imperious. -3 Ostentatious, sanctimonious. -कः 1 A cheat. -2 A hypocrite.
dūṣaṇa दूषण a. [दुष्-भावे-ल्युट्] 1 Corrupting, spoiling, destroying, &c.; आपदेत्युभयलोकदूषणी Ki.13.64; see दुष्. -2 Dishonouring, violating. -3 Offending against. -4 Opposing, counteracting. -णम् 1 Spoiling, corrupting, vitiating, ruining, polluting &c. -2 Violating, breaking (as an agreement). -3 Seducing, violating, dishonouring (as a woman). -4 Abuse, censure, blame; न चक्षमे शुभाचारः स दूषणमिवात्मनः R.12.46. -5 Detraction, disparagement. -6 Adverse argument or criticism, objection. -7 Refutation. -8 A fault, offence, defect, sin, crime; नोलूको$प्यवलोकते यदि दिवा सूर्यस्य किं दूषणम् Bh.2.93; हाहा धिक् परगृहवासदूषणम् U.1.4; Ms.2. 213; H.1.94,115;2.139. -णः N. of a demon, one of the generals of Rāvaṇa, slain by Rāma; R.12.46. -Comp. -अरिः an epithet of Rāma. -आवह a. involving (one) in blame.
dūṣikā दूषिका 1 A pencil, paint-brush. -2 A kind of rice. -3 Rheum of the eyes [one of the 12 impurities (मल) of man]; Ms.5.135.
dus दुस् A prefix to nouns and sometimes to verbs meaning 'bad, evil, wicked, inferior, hard or difficult, &c.' (N. B. The स् of दुस् is changed to र् before vowels and soft consonants, see दुर्; to a Visarga before sibilants, to श् before च् and छ्, and to ष् before क् and प्.) -Comp. -उपस्थान a. difficult to be approached; यो रणे दुरुपस्थानो हस्तरोधं दधद् धनुः Bk.5.32. -कर a. 1 wicked, acting badly; काँल्लोकांस्तु गमिष्यामि कृत्वा कर्म सुदुष्करम् Mb.12. 27.18. -2 hard to be done or accomplished, arduous, difficult; वक्तुं सुकरं कर्तुं दुष्करम् 'sooner said than done'; Amaru.46; Mk.3.1.; Ms.7.55. (-रम्) 1 a difficult or painful task or act, difficulty. -2 atmosphere, ether. -कर्मन् n. 1 any bad act, sin, crime. -2 any difficult or painful act. -3 A wicked man; ततो वसति दुष्कर्मा नरके शाश्वतीः समाः Mb. -कालः 1 bad times; दुष्काले$पि कलाव- सज्जनरुचौ प्राणैः परं रक्षता Mu.7.5. -2 the time of universal destruction. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -कुलम् a bad or low family; (आददीत) स्त्रीरत्नं दुष्कुलादपि Ms.2.238. -कुलीन a. low-born. -कुह a. hypocritical; अतीन्द्रियेणात्मनि दुष्कुहो$यं मया जनो योजयितुं न शक्यः Bu. Ch.1.18. -कृत्, -कृतिन् m. a wicked person; विनाशाय च दुष्कृताम् Bg.4.8; पुनः पुनर्दुष्कृतिनं निनिन्द R.14.57. -कृतम्, -कृतिः f. a sin, misdeed; उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते Bg.2.5; (ददर्श) ततस्तान् भिद्यमानांश्च कर्मभिः दुष्कृतैः स्वकैः Rām.7.21.21. -क्रम a. ill-arranged, unmethodical, unsystematic. -क्रिया a misdemeanour, bad act. -क्रीत a. not properly purchased; क्रीत्वा मूल्येन यो द्रव्यं दुष्क्रीतं मन्यते क्रयी Nārada Smṛiti. -चर a. 1 hard to be performed or accomplished, arduous, difficult; चरतः किल दुश्चरं तपस्तृण- बिन्दोः परिशङ्कितः पुरा R.8.79; Ku.7.65. -2 inaccessible, unapproachable. -3 acting ill, behaving wickedly. (-रः) 1 a bear. -2 a bi-valve shell. ˚चारिन् a. practising very austere penance. -चरित a. wicked, ill-behaved, abandoned. (-तम्) misbehaviour, ill-conduct; तथा दुश्चरितं सर्वं वेदे त्रिवृति मज्जति Ms.11.263. -चर्मन् a. affected with a disease of the skin, leprous. (-m.) 1 a circumcised man, or one whose prepuce is naturally wanting. -चिकित्स्य a. difficult to be cured, incurable. सुदुश्चिकि- त्स्यस्य भवस्य मृत्योर्भिषक्तमं त्वाद्य गतिं गताः स्म Bhāg.4.3.38. -चिक्यम् the third लग्नराशि; दुश्चिक्यं स्यात्तृतीयकम् Jyotistattvam. -चित्त a. melancholy, sad. -चेष्टितम् misconduct, error. -च्यवनः an epithet of Indra; अत्तुं महेन्द्रियं भागमेति दुश्च्यवनो$धुना Bk.5.11. -च्यावः an epithet of Śiva. -च्छद a difficult to be clothed, tattered. -तर a. (दुष्टर or दुस्तर) 1 difficult to be crossed; तितीर्षुर्दुस्तरं मोहादुडुपेनास्मि सागरम् R.1.2; Ms;4.242; प्रविशेन्मुखमाहेयं दुस्तरं वा महार्णवम् Pt.1.111. -2 difficult to be subdued, insuperable, invincible. -3 not to be surpassed or excelled. -4 difficult to be borne or endured. -तर्कः false reasoning. -पच (दुष्पच) a. difficult to be digested. -पतनम् 1 falling badly. -2 a word of abuse, abusive epithet (अपशब्द). -परिग्रह a. difficult to be seized, taken, or kept; Pt.1.67. लोकाधाराः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहाः Kām. (-हः) a bad wife. -पान a. difficult to be drunk. -पार a. 1 difficult to be crossed. -2 difficult to be accomplished. -पूर a. difficult to be filled or satisfied; दुष्पूरो- दरपूरणाय पिबति स्रोतःपतिं वाडवः Bh.; Bg.3.39. -प्रकाश a. obscure, dark, dim. -प्रक्रिया little authority; Rāj. T.8.4. -प्रकृति a. ill-tempered. evilnatured. -प्रजस् a. having bad progeny. -प्रज्ञ (दुष्प्रज्ञ) a. weakminded, stupid. -प्रज्ञानम् bad intellect. -प्रणीत a. ill-arranged or managed. (-तम्) impolitic conduct; Mb.8.5.2. -प्रतर a. difficult to be overcome or understood; धर्मं सूक्ष्मतरं वाच्यं तत्र दुष्प्रतरं त्वया Mb.12.19.7. -प्रतीक a. difficult to know or recognise; दुष्प्रतीकमरण्ये$स्मिन्किं तात वनमागतः Rām.2.1.5. -प्रद a. causing pain or sorrow; अद्य भीताः पलायन्तु दुष्प्रदास्ते दिशो दश Rām.2.16.29. -प्रधर्ष, -प्रधृष्य 1 un assailable; see दुर्धर्ष; सा दुष्प्रधर्षा मनसापि हिंस्रैः R.2.27. -2 secure from assault, intangible. -प्रमेय a. immeasurable. -प्रवादः slander, calumnious report, scandal. -प्रवृत्तिः f. bad news, evil report; तेषां शूर्पणखैवैका दुष्प्रवृत्तिहराभवत् R.12.51. -प्रसह (दुष्प्रसह) a. 1 irresistible, terrible. -2 hard to bear or endure; M.5.1; R.3.58. -प्राप, -प्रापण a. unattainable, hard to get; R.1.48; असंयता- त्मना योगो दुष्प्राप इति मे मतिः Bg.6.36. -प्रीति f. displeasure. -मरम् a sad demise; अकाले दुर्मरमहो यज्जीवामस्तया विना Bk.6.14. -शंस a. Ved. evil-minded, malevolent, wicked. -शक, -शक्त a.powerless, weak. -शकुनम् a bad omen. -शला N. of the only daughter of धृतराष्ट्र given in marriage to Jayadratha. -शासन a. difficult to be managed or governed, intractable. (-नः) N. of one of the 1 sons of धृतराष्ट्र. [He was brave and warlike, but wicked and intractable. When Yudhiṣṭhira staked and lost even Draupadī, Duhśāsana dragged her into the assembly by her hair and began to strip her of every clothing; but Krisna, ever ready to help the distressed, covered her from shame and ignominy. Bhīma was so much exasperated at this dastardly act of Duhśāsana that he vowed in the assembly that he would not rest till he had drunk the villain's blood. On the 16th day of the great war Bhīma encountered Duhśāsana in a single combat, killed him with ease, and drank, according to his resolution, his blood to his heart's content.] -शील (दुश्शील) a. ill-mannered or ill behaved, reprobate. -शृङ्गी a disloyal wife. -ष्ठु see दुस्थ a. unsettled, in calamity; कथं दुष्ठुः स्वयं धर्मे प्रजास्त्वं पालयिष्यसि Bk.6.132. -संचार a. difficult to be passed; दुःसंचारासु नगरवीथीषु; Pt.1.173. -षम (दुःषम or दुष्षम), -सम (दुःसम or दुस्सम) a. 1 uneven, unlike, unequal. -2 adverse, unfortunate, -3 evil, improper, bad. -षमम्, -समम् ind. ill, wickedly. -सत्त्वम् an evil being. -सथः 1 a dog. -2 a cock; L. D. B. -संधान, -संधेय a. difficult to be united or reconciled. -मृद्धटवत् सुखभेद्यो दुःसन्धानश्च दुर्जनो भवति Subhāṣ. -संस्थित a. very sinful or ugly to look at; Rām.2.9.4. -सह (दुस्सह) a. unbearable, irresistible, insupportable. भवत्यनिष्टादपि नाम दुःसहात् Ku. -साक्षिन् m. a false witness. -साध, -साध्य a. 1 difficult to be accomplished or managed. -2 difficult to be cured. -3 difficult to be conquered. -साधिन् m. door-keeper; L. D. B. -सुप्त a. having bad dreams (in one's sleep). -स्थ, -स्थित a. (written also दुस्थ and दुस्थित) 1 ill-conditioned, poor, miserable. -2 suffering pain, unhappy, distressed; कल्पान्तदुःस्था वसुधा तथोहे Bk. -3 unwell, ill. -4 unsteady, disquieted. -5 foolish, unwise, ignorant. -स्थम् ind. badly, ill, unwell; दुःस्थं तिष्ठसि यच्च पथ्यमधुना कर्तास्मि तच्छ्रो- ष्यसि; Amaru. -स्थितिः f. 1 bad condition or situation, unhappiness, misery. -2 instability. -स्पृष्टम् (दुः-दुस्पृ- ष्टम्) 1 slight touch or contact. -2 slight touch or action of the tongue which produces the sounds य्, र्, ल् and व्; दुस्पृष्टश्चेति विज्ञेयो लृकारः प्लुत एव च. -स्फाटः a kind of weapon; L. D. B. -स्मर a. hard or painful to remember; U.6.34. -स्वप्नः a bad dream.
drākṣā द्राक्षा Vine, grape (the creeper or the fruit); द्राक्षे द्रक्ष्यन्ति के त्वाम् G&imarc;t.12; R.4.65; Bv.1.14;4.39. मधुक्षीरद्राक्षामधुमधुरिमा कैरपि पदेर्विशिष्यावाख्येयो भवति रसनामात्र- विषयः Ānandalaharī -Comp. -आसवः, उत्थम् a spiritious liquor drawn from vine. -घृतम् N. of a particular medicinal ghee. -रसः grape-juice, wine. -रिष्टः a particular beverage (in medicine).
dvīpaḥ द्वीपः पम् [द्विर्गता द्वयोर्दिशोर्वा गता आपो यत्र; द्वि-अप्, अप ईप्] 1 An island. -2 A place of refuge, shelter, protection. -3 A division of the terrestrial world; (the number of these divisions varies according to different authorities, being four, seven, nine or thirteen, all situated round the mountain Meru like the petals of a lotus flower, and each being separated from the other by a distinct ocean. [In N. 1.5 the Dvīpas are said to be eighteen; but seven appears to be the usual number :- जम्बु, प्लक्ष, शाल्मलि, कुश, क्रौञ्च, शाक and पुष्कर; cf. Bhāg.5.1.32; R.1.65; and पुरा सप्तदीपां जयति वसुधामप्रतिरथः Ś.7.33. The central one is जम्बुद्वीप in which is included भरतखण्ड or India.] -पम् The skin of a tiger. -Comp. -कर्पूरः camphor from China. -वासिन् The bird खञ्जरीट.
dvaidhībhāvaḥ द्वैधीभावः 1 Duality, double state or nature. -2 Separation into two, difference, diversity. -3 Doubt, uncertainty, vacillation, suspense; धृतद्वैधीभावकातरं मे मनः Ś.1. -4 A dilemma. -5 One of the six Guṇas or modes of foreign policy. (According to some authorities it means 'double dealing', or 'duplicity' 'keeping apparently friendly relations with the enemy'; द्वैधी- भाविकाः सन्धिविग्रहाः Kau. A.7; बलिनोर्द्विषतोर्मध्ये वाचात्मानं समर्पयन् । द्वैधीभावेन तिष्ठेत्तु काकाक्षिवदलक्षितः ॥ According to others it means 'dividing one's army and encountering a superior enemy in detachments', 'harassing the enemy by attacking them in small bands'; द्वैधीभावः स्वबलस्य द्विधाकरणम् Mitā. on Y.1.347; cf. also Ms.7. 173. and 16.) -6 A contest, dispute. -7 Falsehood, duplicity.
dhanam धनम् [धन्-अच्] 1 Property, wealth, riches, treasure, money (gold, chattels &c.); धनं तावदसुलभम् H. 1; (fig. also) as in तपोधन, विद्याधन, &c. -2 (a) Any valued possession, an object of affection or endearment, dearest treasure; कष्टं जनः कुलधनैरनुरञ्जनीयः U.1.14; गुरोरपीदं धनमाहिताग्नेः R.2.44; मानधन, अभिमान˚ &c. (b) A valuable article; Ms.8.21,22. -3 Capital (opp. वृद्धि or interest). -4 A booty, prey, spoil. -5 The reward given to a victor in a combat, the prize won in a game. -6 A contest for prizes, a match. -7 The lunar mansion called धनिष्ठा -8 Surplus, residue. -9 (In math.) The affirmative quantity or plus (opp. ऋण). -1 A sound. -Comp. -अधिकारः right to property, right of inheriting property. -अधिकारिन् m. -अधिकृतः 1 a treasurer. -2 an heir. -अधिगोप्तृ m., -अधिपः, -अधिपतिः, -अध्यक्षः 1 an epithet of Kubera; अनुचेरण धनाधिपते रथो नगविलोकनविस्मितमानसः (स जगदे) Ki.5.16. धना- धिपेन विद्धस्य अनुह्रादस्य संयुगे Hariv.; यदस्माकं धनाध्यक्षः प्रभूतं धनमाहरत् Mb.179.18. -2 a treasurer. -अपहारः 1 fine. -2 plunder. -अर्चित a. 1 honoured with gifts of wealth, kept contented by valuable presents; मानधना धनार्चिताः Ki.1.19. -2 wealthy, opulent. -अर्थिन् a. desiring or seeking for wealth, covetous, miserly. -आढ्य a. opulent, rich. -आदानम् acceptance of money; Ms.11.69. -आधारः a treasury. -आशा f. Desire for wealth; धनाशा जीविताशा च जीर्यतो$पि न जीर्यति Subhāṣ. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः 1 a treasurer. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -उष्मन् m. 1 warmth of wealth; cf. अर्थोष्मन्; -2 burning desire for wealth; Ms.9.231. -एषिन् m. a creditor who claims his money. -काम, -काम्य a. covetous, greedy. -केलिः an epithet of Kubera. -क्षयः loss of wealth; धनक्षये वर्धति जाठराग्निः Pt.2.178. -गर्व, -गर्वित a. purse-proud. -छूः the numidian crane. -जातम् all kinds of valuable possessions, aggregate property; सर्वेषां धनजातानामाददी- ताग्ऱ्यमग्रजः Ms.9.114. -द a. liberal. (-दः) 1 a liberal or munificent man. -2 an epithet of Kubera; जिगमिषुर्ध नदाध्युषितां दिशम् R.9.25;17.8. -3 N. of fire. -4 = धनञ्जय (4) q. v. ˚अनुजः an epithet of Rāvaṇa; R.12.52.88. -दण्डः punishment in the shape of a fine. -दायिन् m. fire. -धानी treasury. -धान्यम् 1 money and grain. -2 a spell for restraining certain magical weapons. -पतिः 1 an epithet of Kubera; तत्रागारं धनपतिगृहानुत्तरेणास्मदीयम् Me.77,7. -2 a treasurer. -3 = धनञ्जय (4) q. v. -पालः 1 a treasurer. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -पिशाचिका, -पिशाची 'the demon of wealth', an avaricious desire of wealth, greed, avarice. -प्रयोगः usury. -मद a. purseproud. (-दः) pride of wealth. -मूलम् principal, capital. -लोभः avarice, cupidity. -व्ययः 1 expenditure. -2 extravagance. -सूः f. 1 mother of daughters; L. D. B. -2 m. the forktailed shrike. -स्थानम् 1 a treasury. -2 the second mansion from लग्न in a horoscope. हरः 1 an heir. -2 a thief. -3 a kind of perfume. -हार्य a. to be won over by wealth; वहसि हि धनहार्यं पण्यभूतं शरीरम् Mk.1.31;5.9. -हीन a. deprived of wealth, poor.
dhātuḥ धातुः [धा-आधारे तुन्] 1 A constituent or essential part, an ingredient. -2 An element, primary or elementary substance, i. e. पृथिवी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु and आकाश; Bhāg.7.15.6. -3 A secretion, primary fluid or juice, essential ingredients of the body (which are considered to be 7:-- रसासृङ्मांसमेदो$स्थिमज्जाशुक्राणि धातवः, or sometimes ten if केश, त्वच् and स्नायु be added); Mb.3.213.1. -4 A humour or affection of the body, (i.e. वात, पित्त and कफ); यस्यात्मबुद्धिः कुणपे त्रिधातुके Bhāg.1.84.13. -5 A mineral, metal, metallic ore; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र Ku.1.7; त्वामालिख्य प्रणयकुपितां धातुरागैः शिलायाम् Me.17; R.4.71; Ku.6.51. -6 A verbal root; भूवादयो धातवः P.I.3.1; पश्चादध्ययनार्थस्य धातोरधिरिवाभवत् R.15.9. -7 The soul. -8 The Supreme Spirit; धातुप्रसादान्महिमानमात्मनः Kaṭha. -9 An organ of sense. -1 Any one of the properties of the five elements, i. e. रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द; तत्र तत्र हि दृश्यन्ते धातवः पाञ्चभौतिकाः । तेषां मनुष्यास्तर्केण प्रमाणानि प्रचक्षते Mb.6.5.11. -11 A bone. -12 A part, portion. -13 A fluid mineral of a red colour. -14 Ved. A supporter. -15 Anything to be drunk, as milk &c. -f. A milch cow. -Comp. -उपलः chalk. -काशीशम्, -कासीसम् red sulphate of iron. -कुशल a. skilful in working in metals, metallurgist. -क्रिया metallurgy, mineralogy -क्षयः waste of the bodily humours, a wasting disease, a kind of consumption. -गर्भः, -स्तपः a receptacle for ashes, Dagoba; Buddh. ˚कुम्भः a relic urn. -ग्राहिन् m. calamine. -घ्नम्, -नाशनम् sour gruel (prepared from the fermentation of rice-water). -चूर्णम् mineral powder. -जम् bitumen -द्रावकः borax. -पः the alimentary juice, the chief of the seven essential ingredients of the body. -पाठः a list of roots arranged according to Pāṇini's grammatical system (the most important of these lists called धातुपाठ being supposed to be the work of Pāṇini himself, as supplementary to his Sūtras). -पुष्टिः f. nutrition of the bodily humours. -प्रसक्त a. devoted to alchemy; -भृत् m. a mountain. -मलम् 1 impure excretion of the essential fluids of the body; कफपित्तमलाः केशः प्रस्वेदो नखरोम च । नेत्रविट् चक्षुषः स्नेहो धातूनां क्रमशो मलाः ॥ Suśruta. -2 lead. -माक्षिकम् 1 sulphuret of iron. -2 a mineral substance. -मारिणी borax. -मारिन् m. sulphur. -रसः a mineral or metalic fluid; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र (भूर्जत्वचः) Ku.1.7. -राजकः, -कम् semen. -वल्लभम् borax. -वादः 1 mineralogy, metallurgy. -2 alchemy. -वादिन् m. a mineralogist. -विष् f. lead. -वैरिन् m. sulphur. -शेखरन् green sulphate of iron, green vitriol. -शोधनम्, -संभवम् lead. -साम्यम् good health, (equilibrium of the three humours). -हन् m. sulphur.
dhruva ध्रुव a. 1 (a) Fixed, firm, immovable, stable, permanent, constant, unchangeable; इति ध्रुवेच्छाम- नुशासती सुताम् Ku.5.5. (b) Perpetual, everlasting, eternal; ध्रुवेण भर्त्रा Ku.7.85; Ms.7.28. -2 Fixed (in astrology). -3 Certain, sure, inevitable; जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च Bg.2.27; यो ध्रुवाणि परित्यज्य अध्रुवं परिषेवते Chāṇ.63; Pt.1.419. -4 Retentive, tenacious; as in ध्रुवा स्मृति Ch. Up.7.26.2. -5 Strong, fixed, settled (as a day). -वः 1 The polar star; शरत्प्रसन्नैर्ज्योतिर्भिर्विभावर्य इव ध्रुवम् (अन्वयुः) R.17.35; 18.34; ध्रुवेण भर्त्रा ध्रुवदर्शनाय प्रयुज्यमाना प्रियदर्शनेन (सा दृष्टा) Ku.7.85. -2 The pole of any great circle. -3 The distance of a planet from the beginning of the sidereal zodiac, polar longitude. -4 The Indian figtree. -5 A post, stake. -6 The stem or trunk (of a tree lopped off). -7 The introductory stanza of a song (repeated as a kind of chorus; see Gīt.). -8 Time, epoch, era. -9 An epithet of Brahmā. -1 Of Viṣṇu. -11 Of Śiva. -12 A constant arc. -13 The tip of the nose. -14 A sacrificial vessel. -15 N. of the son of Uttānapāda and grandson of Manu. [Dhruva is the polar star, but personified in mythology as the son of Uttānapāda. The account of the elevation of an ordinary mortal to the position of the polar star runs thus: Uttānapāda had two wives, Suruchi and Sunīti, but the latter was disliked by him. Suruchi had a son named Uttama, and Sunīti gave birth to Dhruva. One day the boy tried, like his elder brother, to take a seat in his father's lap, but he was contemptuously treated both by the King and his favourite wife. The poor child went sobbing to its mother who told him in consolatory terms that fortune and favour were not attainable without hard exertions. At these words the youth left the paternal roof, retired to the woods, and, though quite a lad, performed such rigorous austerities that he was at last raised by Viṣṇu to the position of the Polar Star.] -16 Peg Nm. -17 N. of an astrological yoga (Nm.). -वम् 1 The sky, atmosphere. -2 Heaven. -3 The fixed point (from which a departure takes place); P.I.4.24. -4 A certain Yoga (अमृतसिद्धि); सेनामाज्ञापयामासुर्नक्षत्रे$हनि च ध्रुवे Mb.14.63.18. (Com. रोहिण्यामुत्तररात्रये च अहनि वारे ध्रुवे रविवारे उत्तरार्के$मृतसिद्धि- योगे). -वा 1 A sacrificial ladle (made of wood); साधारण्यान्न ध्रुवायां स्यात् Jaiminisūtras. -2 A virtuous woman. -3 A cow who stands still when being milked; सहस्रं धारा द्रविणस्य मे दुहां ध्रुवेव धेनुरनपस्फुरन्ती Av.12.1.45. -4 A bow-string. -5 clapping the hands together to show a particular measure of time in music; स्रुचि मौर्व्यां तालभेदे स्त्रियाम् Nm. -6 The upper quarter (ऊर्ध्व); किंदेवतो$स्यां ध्रुवायां दिशि Bṛi. Up.3.9.24. (MW's meaning is अधर- दिशा?) -वम् ind. Certainly, surely, verily; R.8.49; ध्रुवं स नीलोत्पलपत्रधारया समिल्लतां छेत्तुमृषिर्व्यवस्यति Ś.1.18. -Comp. -अक्षरः an epithet of Viṣṇu (ओम्). -आयर्तः the point on the crown of the head from which the hair radiate. -केतुः a kind of meteor. -गतिः a firm position. -तारा, -तारकम् the Polar star. -भागः the unchangeable longitude of fixed stars. -मण्डलम् the polar region. -यष्टिः the axis of the poles. -योनि a. having a firm resting place. -रत्ना N. of one of the मातृकाs (attending on Skanda). -शीलः a. having a fixed residence.
dhvṛ ध्वृ 1 P. (ध्वरति) 1 to bend. -2 To kill [ध्वृ हूर्च्छने । हूच्छी कौटिल्ये]; ध्वृषीष्ठा युधि मायाभिः ...... Bk.9.27. requesting, or commanding, but not in prohibition before the imperative mood. (b) Used with the potential mood न may sometimes have the force of 'lest', 'for fear lest', 'that not'; क्षत्रियैर्धार्यते शस्त्रं नार्तशब्दो भवेदिति Rām. (c) In agrumentative writings न often comes after इति चेत् and means 'not so.' (d) When a negative has to be repeated in successive clauses of the same sentence or in different sentences, न may be simply repeated or may be used with particles like उत, च, अपि, चापि, वा &c.; नाधीयीताश्वमारूढो न वृक्षं न च हस्तिनम् । न नावं न खरं नोष्ट्रं नेरिणत्थो न यानगः ॥ Ms.4.12; प्रविशन्तं न मां कश्चिदपश्यन्नाप्यवारयत् Mb.; Ms.2.195; 3.8,9;4.15; न वा शरच्चन्द्रमरीचिकोमलं मृणालसूत्रं रचितं स्तनान्तरे Ś.16.17. Sometimes न may not be expressed in the second and other clauses, but represented only by च, वा, अपि वा; संपदि यस्य न हर्षो विपदि विषादो रणे च धीरत्वम् Pt.2.175. (c) न is frequently joined with a second न or any other negative particle to intensify or emphasize an assertion; प्रत्युवाच तमृषिर्न तत्त्वतस्त्वां न वेद्मि पुरुषं पुरातनम् R. 11.85; न च न परिचितो न चाप्यगम्यः M.1.11; न पुनरलंकार- श्रियं न पुष्यति Ś1.19/2; नादण्ड्यो नाम राज्ञो$स्ति Ms.8.335; Me.65,18; नासो न काम्यो न च वेद सम्यग् द्रष्टुं न सा R. 6.3; Śi.1.55; Ve.2.1. (f) In a few cases न is retained at the beginning of a negative Tatpuruṣa compound; as नाक, नासत्य, नकुल; see P.VI.3.75. (g) न is often joined with other particles; नच, नवा, नैव, नतु, न चेद्, न खलु &c. (h) It is also used, especially in early Vedic literature, in the sense of 'like', 'as', 'as it were'; यद्वां नरा सनये दंस उग्रमाविष्कृणोमि तन्यतुर्न वृष्टिम् Bṛi. Up.2.5.16; गावो न गव्यूतीरनु; Śi.2.4. (v. l.) -Comp. -अधीत a. unread. -अनुरक्त a. unkind, not loving; Pt.2.46 (v. l.). -आदरः disrespect. -एकः a. 1 'not one', more than one, several, various; नैकः सुप्तेषु जागृयात् Viduranīti. -2 Not anyone, nobody; नैको मुनिर्यस्य वचः प्रमाणम् Pt. (-कः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. ˚आत्मन् a. of a manifold or diverse nature. (-m.) N. of the Supreme Being. ˚चर a. 'not living alone', gregarious, living in society. ˚जः the Supreme Being. ˚धा ind. in many ways, diversely. ˚भेद, ˚रूप a. various, multiform. -माय a. using many artifices or stratagems. ˚शस् ind. repeatedly, often. -किंचन a. very poor, beggarly. सर्वकामरसैर्हीनाः स्थानभ्रष्टा नकिंचनाः Mb.
naraḥ नरः [नॄ-नये-अच्] 1 A man, male person; संयोजयति विद्यैव नीचगापि नरं सरित् । समुद्रमिव दुर्धर्षं नृपं भाग्यमतः परम् ॥ H. Pr.5; Ms.1.96;2.213. -2 A man or piece at chess. -3 The pin of a sun-dial. -4 The Supreme Spirit, the original or eternal man. -5 Man's length (= पुरुष. q. v.). -6 N. of a primitive sage. -7 N. of Arjuna; see नरनारायण below. -8 A horse. -9 (In gram.) A personal termination. -1 The individual soul (जीवात्मा); Mb.12.28.5. -Comp. -अङ्गः 1 the penis. -2 eruption on the face. -अधमः a wretch, miscreant. -अधिपः, अधिपतिः, -ईशः, -ईश्वरः, -देवः, -पतिः, -पालः a king; नरपतिहितकर्ता द्वेष्यतां याति लोके Pt. नराणां च नराधिपम् Bg.1.27; Ms.7.13; R.2.75;3.42;7.62; Me.39; Y.1.311. -अन्तकः death. -अयनः an epithet of Viṣṇu. नराणामयनं यस्मात् तेन नारायणः स्मृतः Brav.P. -अशः a demon, goblin. -आधारः N. of Śiva. (-रा) the earth. -इतरः 1 a being higher than a man, a god; Bhāg.4.6.9. -2 an animal. -इन्द्रः 1 a king; R.2.18. नरेन्द्रकन्यास्तमवाप्य सत्पतिं तमोनुदं दक्षसुता इवाबभुः 3.33;6.8; Ms.9.253. -2 a physician, dealer in antidotes, curer of poisons; तेषु कश्चि- न्नरेन्द्राभिमानी तां निर्वर्ण्य Dk.51; सुनिग्रहा नरेन्द्रेण फणीन्द्रा इव शत्रवः Śi.2.88. (where the word is used in both senses). ˚मार्गः a high street, main road. -3 a mineralogist; L. D. B. -उत्तमः 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 of Buddha. -ऋषभः 'the chief of men', a prince, king. -कपालः a man's skull. -कीलकः the murderer of a spiritual preceptor. -केश(स)रिन् m. 1 Viṣṇu in his fourth incarnation; cf. नरसिंह below. -2 the chief of men. -चिह्नम् the moustaches. -देवः 1 the warrior class (क्षत्रिय); शिष्ट्वा वा भूमि- देवानां नरदेवसमागमे Ms.11.82. -2 a king. -धिः the world. -द्विष् m. a demon, goblin; तेन मूर्धानमध्वंसन्नरद्विषः Bk.15. 94. -नारायणः N. of Kṛiṣṇa. (-णौ dual) originally regarded as identical, but in mythology and epic poetry, considered as distinct beings, Arjuna being identified with Nara and Kṛiṣṇa with Nārāyaṇa. [In some places they are called देवौ, पूर्वदेवौ, ऋषी or ऋषिसत्तमौ. They are said to have been practising very austere penance on the Himālaya, which excited the fear of Indra, and he sent down several damsels to disturb their austerities. But Nārāyaṇa put all of them to shame by creating a nymph called Urvaśī from a flower placed on his thigh who excelled them in beauty; cf. स्थाने खलु नारायणमृषिं विलोभयन्त्यस्तदूरुसंभवामिमां दृष्ट्वा व्रीडिताः सर्वा अप्सरस इति V.1.] -पशुः 'a beast-like man', a beast in human form. -पुङ्गवः 'best of men', an excellent man; शैब्यश्च नरपुङ्गवः Bg.1.5. -बलिः a human sacrifice. -भुज् a. man-eating, cannibal. -भूः f. the Bharatavarṣa, i. e. India. -मानिका, मानिनी, -मालिनी 'manlike woman', a woman with a beard, masculine woman or an amazon. -माला a girdle of skulls. -मेधः a human sacrifice. -यन्त्रम् sun-dial. -यानम्, -रथः, -वाहनम् a vehicle drawn by men, a palanquin; नरयानादवातीर्य Parṇāl.4.17; Bhāg.1.59.37. -लोकः 1 'the world of men', the earth, terrestrial world. -2 mankind. -वाहनः an epithet of Kubera; विजयदुन्दुभितां ययुरर्णवा घनरवा नर- वाहनसंपदः R.9.11. -विष्वणः a demon, goblin. -वीरः a brave man, hero. -व्याघ्रः, -शार्दूलः an eminent man. -शृङ्गम् 'man's horn', an impossibility, a chimera, non-entity. -संसर्गः human society. -सखः an epithet of Nārayaṇa; ऊरूद्भवा नरसखस्य मुनेः सुरस्त्री V.1.3. -सिंहः, -हरिः 'man-lion', Viṣṇu in his fourth incarnation; cf. तव करकमलवरे नखमद्भुतशृङ्गं दलितहिरण्यकशिपुतनुभृङ्गम् । केशव धृत- नरहरिरूप जय जगदीश हरे ॥ Gīt.1. -सिंहद्वादशी the 12th day in the light half of फाल्गुन. -स्कन्धः a multitude or body of men. -हयम् a fight or enmity between man and horse.
nikṣepaḥ निक्षेपः 1 Throwing or casting on (with acc.); अलं मान्यानां व्याख्यानेषु कटाक्षनिक्षेपेण S. D.2. -2 A deposit, pledge, pawn in general; निक्षेपे पतिते हर्म्ये श्रेष्ठी स्तौति स्वदेवताम् । निक्षेपी म्रियते तुभ्यं प्रदास्याम्युपयाचितम् ॥ Pt.1.14; Ms.8.4. -3 Anything deposited without a seal in trust or as a compensation, an open deposit; समक्षं तु निक्षेपणं निक्षेपः Mitā. on Y.2.67. -4 Sending away. -5 Throwing away, abandoning. -6 Wiping, drying. -7 Treasure-trove; निक्षेपस्वर्णसंपूर्णकटाहजठरां धराम् Śiva. B.3.6. -Comp. -लिपिः A particular mode of writing. -वणिक् a merchant with whom goods are left in deposit N.3.43.
nikṣepita निक्षेपित a. 1 Caused to be put down in writing, inscribed. -2 Caused to be deposited.
nibandhaḥ निबन्धः 1 Binding, tying, fastening. -2 Attachment, intentness; दैवी संपद्विमोक्षाय निबन्धायासुरी मता Bg.16.5. -3 Composing, writing down. -4 Literary composition or treatise, work; प्रत्यक्षरश्लेषमयप्रबन्धविन्यासवैदग्ध्यनिधिर्निबन्धं चक्रे Vās. -5 A compendium. -6 Restraint, obstruction, confinement. -7 Suppression of urine. -8 A bond, fetter. -9 A grant of property, an assignment of cattle, money &c. for support; भूर्या पितामहोपात्ता निबन्धो द्रव्यमेव वा Y.2.121. -1 Fixed property. -11 Foundation, origin. -12 Cause, reason. -धम् Song, singing. -Comp. -पुस्तकम् a register; निबन्धपुस्तकस्थानं च कारयेत् Kau. A.2.7.
niyamaḥ नियमः 1 Restraining, checking. -2 Taming, subduing. -3 Confining, preventing. -4 A restraint, check; वाचि नियमः U.2.2; अधर्मानियमः Ms.8.122. -5 Restriction, limitation; Mb.14.13.11. -6 A rule or precept, law (in general), usage; नायमेकान्ततो नियमः Ś. B. -7 Regularity; कुसुमसुकुमारमूर्तिर्दधती नियमेन तनुतरं मध्यम् Ratn. 1.2. -8 Certainty, ascertainment. -9 An agreement, promise, vow, engagement. -1 Necessity, obligation. -11 Any voluntary or self-imposed religious observance (dependent on external conditions); [The earliest explanation of this expression is the one found in the ŚB. on MS.4.2.24. cf. को$यं नियमः । अनियतस्य नियतता । प्रयोगाङ्गतया सर्वे देशाः प्राप्नुवन्ति, न तु समच्चयेन । यदा समो न तदा विषमः । यदा विषमो न तदा समः । स एष समः प्राप्तश्चाप्राप्तश्च । यदा न प्राप्तः स पक्षो विधिं प्रयोजयति. This is very nicely stated in the Vārttika--'नियमः पाक्षिके सति']; R.1.94; Ki.5.4; (see Malli. on Śi.13.23). -12 Any minor observance or lesser vow, a duty prescribed to be done, but which is not so obligatory as a यम q. v. शौचमिज्या तपो दानं स्वाध्यायोपस्थनिग्रहः । व्रतमौनोपवासं च स्नानं च नियमा दशा ॥ Atri. -13 Penance, devotion, religious austerities; नियमविघ्न- कारिणी Ś.1; R.15.74. -14 (In Mīm. phil.) A rule or precept which lays down or specifies something which, in the absence of that rule, would be optional; विधिरत्यन्तमप्राप्तौ नियमः पाक्षिके सति. -15 (In Yoga phil.) Restraint of the mind, the second of the 8 principal steps of meditation in Yoga; दशैते नियमाः प्रोक्ता योगशास्त्र- विशारदैः Tantrasāra. -16 (In Rhet.) A poetical commonp lace or convention, as the description of the cuckoo in spring, peacocks in the rains &c. -17 Defining, definition. -18 Keeping down, lowering (as the voice). -19 Keeping secret; मन्त्रस्य नियमं कुर्याः Mb.5. 141.2. -2 Effort (यत्न); यथैते नियमं पौराः कुर्वन्त्यस्मिन्निवर्तने Mb.2.46.2. (नियमेन as a rule, invariably). -Comp. -उपमा a simile which expressly states that something can be compared only with something else. -धर्मः a law prescribing restraints. -निष्ठा rigid observance of prescribed rites. -पत्रम् a written agreement. -विधिः a religious rite, daily ritual; नियमविधिजलानां बर्हिषां चोप- नेत्री Ku.1.6. -स्थ a. observing penance; Ku.5.13. -स्थितिः f. steady observance of religious obligations, asceticism. -हेतुः a regulating cause.
nir निर् ind. A substitute for निस् before vowels and soft consonants conveying the senses of 'out of', 'away from'. 'without', 'free from', and be frequently expressed by 'less', 'un', used with the noun; see the compounds given below; see निस् and cf. अ also. -Comp. -अंश a. 1 whole, entire. -2 not entitled to any share of the ancestral property. -अक्षः the place of no latitute; i. e. the terrestrial equator (in astronomy). ˚देशः 1 a first meridian, as Laṅkā. -2 a place where the sun is always vertical and the days and nights are equal. -3 the equatorial region. -अक्षर a. Not knowing the letters, illiterate. -अग्नि a. having lost or neglected the consecrated fire; स संन्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः Bg.6.1. -अग्र (क) a. divisible without remainder. -अङ्कुश a. 'not curbed by a hook', unchecked, uncontrolled; unruly, independent, completely free, unfettered; निरङ्कुश इव द्विपः Bhāg.; कामो निकामनिरङ्कुशः Gīt.7; निरङ्कुशाः कवयः Sk.; Bh.3.15; Mv.3.39; विनयरुचयः सदैव निरङ्कुशाः Mu.3.6. ˚ता self-will, independence. -अघ a. sinless, blameless. -अङ्ग a. 1 having no parts. -2 deprived of expedients or resources. -अजिन a. skinless. -अञ्जन a. 1 without collyrium; निरञ्जने साचिविलोलिकं दृशौ Ki.8.52. -2 unstained, untinged. -3 free from falsehood; तदा विद्वान् पुण्यपापे विधूय निरञ्जनं परमं साम्यमुपैति Munda 3.1.3. -4 simple, artless. (-नः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 N. of the Supreme Being. (-ना) 1 the day of full moon. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -अतिशय a. unsurpassed, matchless, unrivalled; निरतिशयं गरिमाणं तेन जनन्याः स्मरन्ति विद्वांसः Pt.1.3. (-यः) the Supreme Being. -अत्यय a. 1 free from danger, secure, safe; तद्भवान् वृत्तसंपन्नः स्थितः पथि निरत्यये Rām.4.29.12; R.17.53. -2 free from fault, unblamable, faultless, disinterested; Ki.1.12, शक्तिरर्थपतिषु स्वयंग्रहं प्रेम कारयति वा निरत्ययम् 13.61. -3 completely successful. -अधिष्ठान a. 1 supportless. -2 independent. -अध्व a. one who has lost one's way. -अनुक्रोश a. pitiless, merciless, hard-hearted. (-शः) mercilessness, hard-heartedness. -अनुग a. having no followers. -अनुग्रह a. Ungracious, unkind; Bhāg.5. 12.7. -अनुनासिक a. not nasal. -अनुमान a. not bound to conclusions or consequences. -अनुयोज्य a. unblamable, faultless. -अनुरोध a. 1 unfavourable, unfriendly. -2 unkind, unamiable; Māl.1. -अन्तर a. -1 constant, perpetual, uninterrupted, incessant; निरन्त- राधिपटलैः Bv.1.16; निरन्तरास्वन्तरवातवृष्टिषु Ku.5.25. -2 having no intervening or intermediate space, having no interval, close, closely contiguous, in close contact; मूढे निरन्तरपयोधरया मयैव Mk.5.15; हृदयं निरन्तरबृहत्कठिनस्तन- मण्डलावरणमप्यभिदन् Śi.9.66. -3 compact, dense; परितो रुद्धनिरन्तराम्बराः Śi.16.76. -4 coarse, gross. -5 faithful, true (as a friend). -6 not hidden from view. -7 not different, similar, identical. -8 sincere, sympathetic; सुहृदि निरन्तरचित्ते (निवेद्य दुःखं सुखीभवति) Pt.1.341. -9 abounding in, full of; निपात्यमानैर्ददृशे निरन्तरम् Rām.7.7. 54; गुणैश्च निरन्तराणि Mv.4.12. (-रम्) ind. 1 without interruption, constantly, continually, incessantly. -2 without intervening space or interval. -3 closely, tightly, firmly; (परिष्वजस्व) कान्तैरिदं मम निरन्तरमङ्गमङ्गैः Ve.3.27; परिष्वजेते शयने निरन्तरम् Ṛs.2.11. -4 immediately. ˚अभ्यासः constant study, diligent exercise or practice. -अन्तराल a. 1 without an intervening space, close. -2 narrow. -अन्धस् a. foodless, hungry. -अन्वय a. 1 having no progeny, childless. -2 unconnected, unrelated; Ms.8.198. -3 not agreeing with the context (as a word in a sentence). -4 without logical connection or regular sequence, unmethodical. -5 without being seen, out of sight; निरन्वयं भवेत् स्तेयम् Ms.8. 332. -6 without retinue, unaccompanied, see अन्वय. -7 sudden, unexpected; U.7. -8 exterminatory, without leaving any species or trace; प्रागाधारनिरन्वयप्रमथनादुच्छेदमे- वाकरोः... Mv.3.13; (com. नाशो द्विविधः--स्वान्वयविनाशः, निरन्वयविनाशश्चेति......निर्वापणादिना सजातीयज्वालोदयानर्हविनाशस्तु निरन्वयविनाशः ।). -अपत्रप a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold. -अपराध a. guiltless, innocent, faultless, blameless. (-धः) innocence. -अपवर्त a. 1 not turning back. -2 (in arith.) leaving no common divisor, reduced to the lowest terms. -अपवाद a. 1 blameless. -2 not admitting of any exception. -अपाय a. 1 free from harm or evil. -2 free from decay, imperishable. -3 infallible; उपायो निरपायो$यमस्माभिरभिचिन्तितः Rām.1.1.2. -अपेक्ष a. 1 not depending on, irrespective or independent of, having no need of (with loc.); न्यायनिर्णीतसारत्वा- न्निरपेक्षमिवागमे Ki.11.39. -2 disregarding, taking no notice of. -3 free from desire, secure; निरपेक्षो न कर्तव्यो भृत्यैः स्वामी कदाचन H.2.82. -4 careless, negligent, indifferent -5 indifferent to worldly attachments or pursuits; समुपोढेषु कामेषु निरपेक्षः परिव्रजेत् Ms.6.41. -6 disinterested, not expecting any reward from another; दिशि दिशि निरपेक्ष- स्तावकीनं विवृण्वन् Bv.1.5. -7 without purpose. (-क्षा) indifference, disregard. -अपेक्षित a. 1 disregarded. -2 regardless. -अपेक्षिन् a. disregarding, indifferent. -अभिभव a. 1 not subject to humiliation or disgrace. -2 not to be surpassed, unrivalled. -अभिमान a. 1 free from self-conceit, devoid of pride or egotism. -2 void of self-respect. -3 unconscious. -अभिलाष a. not caring for, indifferent to; स्वसुखनिरभिलाषः खिद्यसे लोकहेतोः Ś.5.7. -अभिसंधानम् absence of design. -अभ्र a. cloudless. -अमर्ष a. 1 void of anger, patient. -2 apathetic. -अम्बर a. naked. -अम्बु a. 1 abstaining from water. -2 waterless, destitute of water. -अर्गल a. without a bolt, unbarred, unobstructed, unrestrained, unimpeded, completely free; M.5; मरणसमये त्यक्त्वा शङ्कां प्रलापनिरर्गलम् Māl.5.26. (-लम्) ind. freely. -अर्थ a. 1 void of wealth, poor, indigent; स्त्रियः कृतार्थाः पुरुषं निरर्थं निष्पीडितालक्तकवत्त्यजन्ति Pt.1.194. -2 meaningless, unmeaning (as a word or sentence). -3 non-sensical. -4 vain, useless, purposeless. (-र्थः) 1 loss, detriment. -2 nonsense. -अर्थक a. 1 useless, vain, unprofitable. -2 unmeaning, nonsensical, conveying no reasonable meaning; इत्थं जन्म निरर्थकं क्षितितले$रण्ये यथा मालती S. D. -3 (a consonant) not followed by a vowel. (-कम्) an expletive; निरर्थकं तु हीत्यादि पूरणैकप्रयोजनम् Chandr.2.6. -अलंकृतिः (in Rhet.) want of ornament, simplicity. -अवकाश a. 1 without free space. -2 without leisure. -अवग्रह a. 1 'free from restraint', unrestrained, unchecked, uncontrolled, irresistible. -2 free, independent. -3 self-willed, head-strong. (-हम्) ind. 1 uninterruptedly. -2 intensely, strongly. -अवद्य a. 1 blameless, faultless, unblameable, unobjectionable; हृद्य- निरवद्यरूपो भूपो बभूव Dk.1. -2 an epithet of the Supreme Being (having no passions). -अवधि a. having no end, unlimited; कथं तूष्णीं सह्यो निरवधिरयं त्वप्रतिविधः U. 3.44;6.3; Māl.1.6. -2 continuous; महानाधिव्याधि- र्निरवधिरिदानीं प्रसरतु Māl.4.3. -अवयव a. 1 without parts. -2 indivisible. -3 without limbs. -अवलम्ब a. 1 unsupported, without support; Ś.6. -2 not affording support. -3 not depending or relying on. -अवशेष a. whole, complete, entire, (निरवशेषेण ind. completely, entirely, fully, totally). -अवसाद a. cheerful; Gīt. -अव्यय a. eternal, immutable. -अशन a. abstaining from food. (-नम्) fasting. -अश्रि a. even; Kau. A.2.11. -अष्ट a. Ved. driven away, scattered. (-ष्टः) a horse twentyfour years old. -अस्त्र a. weaponless, unarmed. -अस्थि a. boneless. -अहंकार, -अहंकृति a. free from egotism or pride, humble, lowly; Bg.12.13. -अहंकृत a. 1 having no egotism or self-consciousness. -2 without individuality. -3 unselfish. -अहम् a. free from egotism or self-conceit; ह्यनामरूपं निरहं प्रपद्ये Bhāg. 5.19.4. -आकाङ्क्ष a. 1 wishing nothing, free from desire. -2 wanting nothing to fill up or complete (as the sense of a word or sentence). -आकार a. 1 devoid of form, formless, without form. -2 ugly, deformed. -3 disguised. -4 unassuming, modest. (-रः) 1 the universal spirit, Almighty. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. ˚ज्ञानवादः the doctrine that the perception of the outer world does not arise from images impressed on the mind; Sarva. S. -आकृति a. 1 formless, shapeless. -2 deformed. (-तिः) 1 a religious student who has not duly gone through a course of study, or who has not properly read the Vedas. -2 especially, a Brāhmaṇa who has neglected the duties of his caste by not going through a regular course of study; a fool; ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः । यथा हुतमनग्नौ च तथैव स्यान्निराकृतौ ॥ Mb.12.36.48. -3 one who neglects the five great religious duties or yajñas; Ms.3.154. -आकाश a. leaving no free space, completely filled or occupied, -आकुल a. 1 unconfused, unperplexed, unbewildered; Ki.11.38. -2 steady, calm; सुपात्रनिक्षेपनिरा- कुलात्मना (प्रजासृजा) Śi.1.28. -3 clear. -4 perspicuous; अलिकुलसङ्कुलकुसुमसमूहनिराकुलबकुलकलापे Gīt.1. (-लम्) 1 calmness serenity. -2 perspicuity, clearness. -आक्रन्द a. not crying or complaining. (-दः) a place where no sound can be heard. -आक्रोश a. unaccused, unreviled. -आगम a. not founded on revelation or scripture, not derived from the Vedas. -आगस् a. faultless, innocent, sinless; कथमेकपदे निरागसं जनमाभाष्यमिमं न मन्यसे R.8.48. -आचार a. without approved customs or usages, lawless, barbarian. -आडम्बर a. 1 without drums. -2 without show, unostentatious. -आतङ्क a. 1 free from fear; R.1.63; निरातङ्को रङ्को विहरति चिरं कोटिकनकैः Śaṅkara (देव्यपराधक्षमापनस्तोत्रम् 6). -2 without ailment, comfortable, healthy. -3 not causing pain. -4 unchecked, unhampered; निरातङ्कः पङ्केष्विव पिशितपिण्डेषु विलसन् Māl. 5.34. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आतप a. sheltered from heat, shady, not penetrated by the sun's rays. (-पा) the night. -आदर a. disrespectful. -आदान a. 1 taking or receiving nothing; Mb.3. -2 an epithet of Buddha. -आधार a. 1 without a receptacle. -2 without support, supportless (fig. also); निराधारो हा रोदिमि कथय केषामिह पुरः G. L.4.39. -आधि a. secure, free from anxiety. -आनन्द a. cheerless, sad, sorrowful. -आन्त्र a. 1 disembowelled. -2 having the entrails hanging out. -आपद् a. free from misfortune or calamity. (-f.) prosperity. -आबाध a. 1 unvexed, unmolested, undisturbed, free from disturbance. -2 unobstructed. -3 not molesting or disturbing. -4 (in law) frivolously vexatious (as a suit or cause of complaint); e. g. अस्मद्- गृहप्रदीपप्रकाशेनायं स्वगृहे व्यवहरति Mitā. -आमय a. 1 free from disease or illness, sound, healthy, hale. -2 untainted, pure. -3 guileless. -4 free from defects or blemishes. -5 full, complete. -6 infallible. -7 not liable to failure or miscarriage. (-यः, यम्) freedom from disease or illness, health, well-being, welfare, happiness; कुरूणां पाण्डवानां च प्रतिपत्स्व निरामयम् Mb.5.78.8. (-यः) 1 a wild goat. -2 a hog or boar. -आमिष a. 1 fleshless; निरुपमरसप्रीत्या खादन्नरास्थि निरामिषम् Bh. -2 having no sensual desires or covetousness; Ms.6.49. -3 receiving no wages or remuneration. -आय a. yielding no income or revenue, profitless. -यः an idler living from hand to mouth. -आयत a. 1 full-stretched or extended; निरायतपूर्वकायाः Ś.1.8. -2 contracted, compact. -आय- -तत्वम् shortness, compactness; निरायतत्वादुदरेण ताम्यता Ki.8.17. -आयति a. one whose end is at hand; नियता लघुता निरायतेः Ki.2.14. -आयास a. not fatiguing, easy. -आयुध a. unarmed, weaponless. -आरम्भ a. abstaining from all work (in good sense); Mb.3.82.11. -आलम्ब a. 1 having no prop or support (fig. also); ऊर्ध्वबाहुं निरालम्बं तं राजा प्रत्यभाषत Rām.7.89.1; निरालम्बो लोकः कुलमयशसा नः परिवृतम् Mv.4.53. -2 not depending on another, independent. -3 self-supported, friendless, alone; निरालम्बो लम्बोदरजननि कं यामि शरणम् Jag. (-म्बा) spikenard. (-म्बम्) Brahman. -आलोक a. 1 not looking about or seeing. -2 deprived of sight. -3 deprived of light, dark; निरालोकं लोकम् Māl.5.3; Bhāg.8.24.35. -5 invisible. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आवर्ण a. manifest, evident. -आश a. 1 devoid of hope, despairing or despondent of; मनो बभूवेन्दुमतीनिराशम् R.6.2. -2 depriving (one) of all hope. -आशक, -आशिन् a. hopeless; अद्य दुर्योधनो राज्याज्जीविताच्च निराशकः (भविष्यति) Mb.8.74.13. -आशङ्क a. fearless. -आशा hopelessness, despair. -आशिस् a. 1 without a boon or blessing, without virtues; आश्रमा विहिताः सर्वे वर्जयित्वा निराशिषम् Mb.12.63.13. -2 without any desire, wish or hope, indifferent; निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा Bg.4.21; जगच्छ- रण्यस्य निराशिषः सतः Ku.5.76. -आश्रय a. 1 without a prop or support, supportless, unsupported; न तिष्ठति निराश्रयं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.41. -2 friendless, destitute, alone, without shelter or refuge; निराश्रयाधुना वत्सलता. -3 not deep (as a wound). -आस्वाद a. tasteless, insipid, unsavoury. -आहार a. 'foodless', fasting, abstaining from food. (-रः) fasting; कालो$ग्निः कर्म मृद् वायुर्मनो ज्ञानं तपो जलम् । पश्चात्तापो निराहारः सर्वे$मी शुद्धिहेतवः ॥ Y.3.31. -इङ्ग a. immovable, stationary; यथा दीपो निवातस्थो निरिङ्गो ज्वलते पुनः Mb.12.46.6. -इच्छ a. without wish or desire, indifferent. -इन्द्रिय a. 1 having lost a limb or the use of it. -2 mutilated, maimed. -3 weak, infirm, frail; Kaṭh.1.1.3. -4 barren. -5 without प्रमाण or means of certain knowledge; निरिन्द्रिया ह्यमन्त्राश्च स्त्रियो$नृत- मिति स्थितिः Ms.9.18. -6 destitute of manly vigour, impotent (Ved.). -इन्धन a. destitute of fuel. -ईति a. free from the calamities of the season; निरातङ्का निरीतयः R.1.63; see ईति. -ईश्वर a. godless, atheistic. -˚वाद atheistic doctrine. -ईषम् the body of a plough. -ईह a. 1 desireless, indifferent; निरीहाणामीशस्तृणमिव तिरस्कारविषयः Mu.3.16. -2 inactive; निरीहस्य हतद्विषः R.1.24. (-हा), -निरीहता, -त्वम् 1 inactivity. -2 indifference. -उच्छ्वास a. 1 breathless, without breathing; निरुच्छ्वासं हरिं चक्रुः Rām.7.7.6. -2 narrow, contracted; उपेयुषो वर्त्म निरन्तराभिरसौ निरुच्छ्वासमनीकिनीभिः Śi.3.32. -3 dead; निरुच्छ्वासाः पुनः केचित् पतिता जगतीतले Rām.6.58.13. (-सः) absence of breath; लोका निरुच्छ्वासनिपीडिता भृशम् Bhāg.4. 8.8. -उत्तर a. 1 answerless, without a reply. -2 unable to answer, silenced. -3 having no superior. -उत्थ a. irrecoverable. -उद्धति a. not jolting (a chariot); अभूतल- स्पर्शतया निरुद्धतिः Ś.7.1. (v. l.) -उत्सव a. without festivities; विरतं गेयमृतुर्निरुत्सवः R.8.66. -उत्साह a. 1 inactive, indolent. -2 devoid of energy. (-हः) 1 absence of energy. -2 indolence. -उत्सुक a. 1 indifferent. -2 calm, tranquil. -उदक a. waterless. -उदर a. 1 having no belly or trunk. -2 thin (अतुन्दिल); श्रीमान्निरुदरो महान् Rām.3.16.31. -उद्यम, -उद्योग a. effortless, inactive, lazy, idle. उद्विग्न, -उद्वेग a. free from excitement or perturbation, sedate, calm. -उपक्रम a. 1 without a commencement. -2 incurable. -उपद्रव a. 1 free from calamity or affliction, not visited by danger or adversity, lucky, happy, undisturbed, unmolested, free from hostile attacks. -2 free from national distress or tyranny. -3 causing no affliction. -4 auspicious (as a star). -5 secure, peaceful. -उपधि a. guileless, honest; U.2.2. ˚जीवन a. leading an honest life. (v. l.). -उपपत्ति a. unsuitable. -उपपद a. 1 without any title or designation; अरे आर्यचारुदत्तं निरुपपदेन नाम्नालपसि Mk.1.18/19. -2 unconnected with a subordinate word. -उपप्लव a. 1 free from disturbance, obstacle or calamity, unharmed; निरुपप्लवानि नः कर्माणि संवृत्तानि Ś3. -2 not causing any affliction or misery. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -उपभोग a. without enjoyment; संसरति निरुपभोगं भावैरधिवासितं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.4. -उपम a. peerless, matchless, incomparable. -उपसर्ग free from portents. -उपस्कृत a. not corrupted, pure; of self-denying temperament; शमेन तपसा चैव भक्त्या च निरुपस्कृतः । शुद्धात्मा ब्राह्मणो रात्रौ निदर्शनमपश्यत ॥ Mb.12.271.14. -उपहत a. 1 not injured, unhurt. -2 auspicious, lucky. -उपाख्य a. 1 unreal, false, non-existent (as वन्ध्यापुत्र). -2 immaterial. -3 invisible. (-ख्यम्) the supreme Brahman. -उपाधि (क) a. without qualities, absolute. -उपाय a. 1 without expedients, helpless. -2 unsuccessful. -उपेक्ष a. 1 free from trick or fraud. -2 not neglectful. -उष्मन् a. devoid of heat, cold. -गन्ध a. void of smell, scentless, unfragrant, inodorous; निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः. ˚पुष्पी f. the Śālmali tree. -गर्व a. free from pride. -गवाक्ष a. windowless. -गुण a. 1 stringless (as a bow). -2 devoid of all properties. -3 devoid of good qualities, bad, worthless; निर्गुणः शोभते नैव विपुलाड- म्बरो$पि ना Bv.1.115. -4 without attributes; साकारं च निराकारं सगुणं निर्गुणं विभुम् Brahmavai. P. -5 having no epithet. (-णः) the Supreme Spirit. ˚आत्मक a. having no qualities. -गृहः a. houseless, homeless; सुगृही निर्गृही- कृता Pt.39. -गौरव a. 1 without dignity, undignified. -2 devoid of respect. -ग्रन्थ a. 1 freed from all ties or hindrances; आत्मारामाश्च मुनयो निर्ग्रन्था अप्युरुक्रमे । कुर्वन्त्यहैतुकीं भक्तिम् Bhāg.1.7.1. -2 poor, possessionless, beggarly. -3 alone, unassisted. (-न्थः) 1 an idiot, a fool. -2 a gambler. -3 a saint or devotee who has renounced all worldly attachments and wanders about naked and lives as a hermit. -4 A Buddha Muni. -ग्रन्थक a. 1 clever, expert. -2 unaccompanied, alone. -3 deserted, abandoned. -4 fruitless. (-कः 1 a religious mendicant. -2 a naked devotee. -3 a gambler. -ग्रन्थिक a. clever. (-कः) a naked mendicant, a Jaina mendicant of the Digambara class. -घटम् 1 a free market. -2 a crowded market. -घण्टः See निघण्टः. -घृण a. 1 cruel, merciless, pitiless. -2 shameless, immodest. -घृणा cruelty. -घोष a. noiseless, still, calm. -जन a. 1 tenantless, uninhabited, unfrequented, lonely, desolate. -2 without any retinue or attendants; भूयश्चैवाभिरक्षन्तु निर्धनान्निर्जना इव Mb.12.151.7. (-नम्) a desert, solitude, lonely place. -जन्तु a. free from living germs; H. Yoga. -जर a. 1 young, fresh. -2 imperishable, immortal. (-रः) a deity, god; (nom. pl. निर्जराः -निर्जरसः) (-रम्) ambrosia, nectar. -जरायु a. Ved. skinless. -जल a. 1 waterless, desert, destitute of water. -2 not mixed with water. (-लः) a waste, desert. ˚एकादशी N. of the eleventh day in the bright half of Jyeṣṭha. -जाड्य free from coldness. -जिह्वः a frog. -जीव a. 1 lifeless. -2 dead; चिता दहति निर्जीवं चिन्ता दहति जीवितम्. -ज्ञाति a. having no kinsmen, alone. -ज्वर a. feverless, healthy. -दण्डः a Śūdra. -दय a. 1 merciless, cruel, pitiless, unmerciful, unkind. -2 passionate. -3 very close, firm or fast, strong, excessive, violent; मुग्धे विधेहि मयि निर्दयदन्तदंशम् Gīt.1; निर्दयरति- श्रमालसाः R.19.32; निर्दयाश्लेषहेतोः Me.18. -4 unpitied by any; निर्दया निर्नमस्कारास्तन्मनोरनुशासनम् Ms.9.239. -दयम् ind. 1 unmercifully, cruelly. -2 violently, excessively; न प्रहर्तुमलमस्मि निर्दयम् R.11.84. -दश a. more than ten days old; यदा पशुर्निर्दशः स्यादथ मेध्यो भवे- दिति Bhāg.9.7.11. -दशन a. toothless. -दाक्षिण्य a. uncourteous. -दुःख a. 1 free from pain, painless. -2 not causing pain. -दैन्य a. happy, comfortable. -दोष a. 1 faultless, defectless; न निर्दोषं न निर्गुणम् -2 guiltless, innocent. -द्रव्य a. 1 immaterial. -2 without property, poor. -द्रोह a. not hostile, friendly, well-disposed, not malicious. -द्वन्द्व a. 1 indifferent in regard to opposite pairs of feelings (pleasure or pain), neither glad nor sorry; निर्द्वन्द्वो निर्ममो भूत्वा चरिष्यामि मृगैः सह Mb.1.85.16; निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् Bg.2.45. -2 not dependent upon another, independent. -3 free from jealousy or envy. -4 not double. -5 not contested, undisputed. -6 not acknowledging two principles. -धन a. without property, poor, indigent; शशिनस्तुल्यवंशो$पि निर्धनः परिभूयते Chāṇ.82. (-नः) an old ox. ˚ता, ˚त्वम् poverty, indigence. -धर्म a. unrighteous, impious, unholy. -धूम a. smokeless. -धौत a. cleansed, rendered clean; निर्धौत- दानामलगण्डभित्तिर्वन्यः सरित्तो गज उन्ममज्ज R.5.43. -नमस्कार a. 1 not courteous or civil, not respecting any one. -2 disrespected, despised. -नर a. abandoned by men, deserted. -नाणक a. coinless, penniless; Mk.2. -नाथ a. without a guardian or master. ˚ता 1 want of protection. -2 widowhood. -3 orphanage. -नाभि a. going or reaching beyond the navel; निर्नाभि कौशेयमुपात्तबाणम् Ku.7.7. -नायक a. having no leader or ruler, anarchic. -नाशन, -नाशिन् a. expelling, banishing. -निद्र a. sleepless, wakeful. -निमित्त a. 1 causeless. -2 disinterested. -निमेष a. not twinkling. -बन्धु a. without kindred or relation, friendless. -बल n. powerless, weak, feeble. -बाध a. 1 unobstructed. -2 unfrequented, lonely, solitary. -3 unmolested. (-धः) 1 a part of the marrow. -2 a knob. -बीज a. seedless, impotent. (-जा) a sort of grape (Mar. बेदाणा). -बुद्धि a. stupid, ignorant, foolish. -बुष, -बुस a. unhusked, freed from chaff. -भक्त a. taken without eating (as a medicine). -भय a. 1 fearless, undaunted. -2 free from danger, safe, secure; निर्भयं तु भवेद्यस्य राष्ट्रं बाहुबलाश्रितम् Ms.9.255. -भर a. 1 excessive, vehement, violent, much, strong; त्रपाभरनिर्भर- स्मरशर &c. Gīt.12; तन्व्यास्तिष्ठतु निर्भरप्रणयिता मानो$पि रम्यो- दयः Amaru.47. -2 ardent. -3 fast, close (as embrace); कुचकुम्भनिर्भरपरीरम्भामृतं वाञ्छति Gīt.; परिरभ्य निर्भरम् Gīt.1. -4 sound, deep (as sleep). -5 full of, filled with (at the end of comp.); आनन्द˚, गर्व˚ &c. (-रः) a servant receiving no wages. (-रम्) excess. (-रम् ind.) 1 excessively, exceedingly, intensely. -2 soundly. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. -भाज्य a. to be separated; स निर्भाज्यः स्वकादंशात् किंचिद्दत्वोपजीवनम् Ms.9.27. -भृतिः a. without wages, hireless. -भोगः a. not fond of pleasures. -मक्षिक a. 'free from flies', undisturbed, private, lonely. (-कम्) ind. without flies, i. e. lonely, private; कृतं भवतेदानीं निर्मक्षिकम् Ś.2,6. -मज्ज a. fatless, meagre. -मत्सर a. free from envy, unenvious; निर्मत्सरे मत्समे वत्स... वसुन्धराभारमारोप्य Rāmāyaṇachampū. -मत्स्य a. fishless. -मद a. 1 not intoxicated, sober, quiet. -2 not proud, humble. -3 sad, sorry. -4 not in rut (as an elephant). -मनुज, -मनुष्य a. tenantless, uninhabited, deserted by men. -मन्तु a. faultless, innocent. -मन्त्र a. 1 a ceremony, unaccompanied by holy texts. -2 not familiar with holy texts; Mb.12.36.43. -मन्यु, -मन्युक a. free from anger; Mb.5.133.4. -मम a. 1 free from all connections with the outer world, who has renounced all worldly ties; संसारमिव निर्ममः (ततार) R.12.6; Bg.2.71; निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः 3.3. -2 unselfish, disinterested. -3 indifferent to (with loc.); निर्ममे निर्ममो$र्थेषु मथुरां मधुराकृतिः R.15.28; प्राप्तेष्वर्थेषु निर्ममाः Mb. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -मर्याद a. 1 boundless, immeasurable. -2 transgressing the limits of right or propriety, unrestrained, unruly, sinful, criminal; मनुजपशुभिर्निर्मर्यादैर्भवद्भिरुदायुधैः Ve.3.22. -3 confused. -4 insolent, immodest. (-दम्) ind. confusedly, topsyturvy. (-दम्) confusion, disorder. -मल a. 1 free from dirt or impurities, clear, pure, stainless, unsullied (fig. also); नीरान्निर्मलतो जनिः Bv.1.63. -2 resplendent, bright; Bh.1.56. -3 sinless, virtuous; निर्मलाः स्वर्गमायान्ति सन्तः सुकृतिनो यथा Ms.8.318. (-लम्) 1 talc. -2 the remainings of an offering made to a deity. ˚उपलः a crystal. -मशक a. free from gnats. -मांस a. fleshless; स्वल्प- स्नायुवसावशेषमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकम् Bh.2.3. -मान a. 1 without self-confidence. -2 free from pride. -मानुष a. uninhabited, desolate. -मार्ग a. roadless, pathless. -मिथ्य a. not false, true; H. Yoga. -मुटः 1 a tree bearing large blossoms. -2 the sun. -3 a rogue. (-टम्) a large free market or fair. -मूल a. 1 rootless (as a tree). -2 baseless, unfounded (statement, charge &c.). -3 eradicated. -मेघ a. cloudless. -मेध a. without understanding, stupid, foolish, dull. -मोह a. free from illusion. (-हः) an epithet of Śiva. -यत्न a. inactive, lazy, dull. -यन्त्रण a. 1 unrestrained, unobstructed, uncontrolled, unrestricted. -2 unruly, self-willed, independent. (-णम्) 1 squeezing out. -2 absence of restraint, independence. -यशस्क a. without fame, discreditable, inglorious. -युक्त a. 1 constructed, built. -2 directed. -3 (in music) limited to metre and measure. -युक्ति f. 1 disunion. -2 absence of connection or government. -3 unfitness, impropriety. -युक्तिक a. 1 disjoined, unconnected. -2 illogical, unmeaning. -3 unfit, improper. -यूथ a. separated from the herd, strayed from the flock (as an elephant). -यूष = निर्यास. -योगक्षेम a. free from care (about acquisition); Bg.2. 45. -रक्त a. (-नीरक्त) colourless, faded. -रज, -रजस्क a. (-नीरज, नीरजस्क) 1 free from dust. -2 devoid of passion or darkness. (-जः) an epithet of Śiva. -रजस् (नरिजस्) a. see नीरज. (-f.) a woman not menstruating. ˚तमसा absence of passion or darkness. -रत (नीरत) a. not attached to, indifferent. -रन्ध्र a. (नीरन्ध्र) 1 without holes or interstices, very close or contiguous, thickly situated; नीरन्ध्रनीरनिचुलानि सरित्तटानि U.2.23. -2 thick, dense. -3 coarse, gross. -रव a. (-नीरव) not making any noise, noiseless; गतिविभ्रमसाद- नीरवा (रसना) R.8.58. -रस a. (नीरस) 1 tasteless, unsavoury, flavourless. -2 (fig.) insipid, without any poetic charm; नीरसानां पद्मानाम् S. D.1. -3 sapless, without juice, withered or dried up; Ś. Til.9. -4 vain, useless, fruitless; अलब्धफलनीरसान् मम विधाय तस्मिन् जने V.2.11. -5 disagreeable. -6 cruel, merciless. (-सः) the pomegranate. -रसन a. (नीरसन) having no girdle (रसना); Ki.5.11. -रुच् a. (नीरुच्) without lustre, faded, dim; परिमलरुचिराभिर्न्यक्कृतास्तु प्रभाते युवतिभिरुप- भोगान्नीरुचः पुष्पमालाः Śi.11.27. -रुज्, -रुज a. (नीरुज्, नीरुज) free from sickness, healthy, sound; नीरुजस्य किमौषधैः H.1. -रूप a. (नीरूप) formless, shapeless. (-पः) 1 air, wind. -2 a god. (-पम्) ether. -रोग a. (नीरोग) free from sickness or disease, healthy, sound; यथा नेच्छति नीरोगः कदाचित् सुचिकित्सकम् Pt.1.118. -लक्षण a. 1 having no auspicious marks, ill-featured. -2 undistinguished. -3 unimportant, insignificant. -4 unspotted. -5 having a white back. -लक्ष्य a. invisible. -लज्ज a. shameless, impudent. -लाञ्छनम् the marking of domestic animals (by perforating the nose &c.). -लिङ्ग a. having no distinguishing or characteristic marks. -लिप्त a. 1 unanointed. -2 undefiled, unsullied. -3 indifferent to. (-प्तः) 1 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -2 a sage. -लून a. cut through or off. -लेप a. 1 unsmeared, unanointed; निर्लेपं काञ्चनं भाण्डमद्भिरेव विशुध्यति Ms.5.112. -2 stainless, sinless. (-पः) a sage. -लोभ a. free from desire or avarice, unavaricious. -लोमन् a. devoid of hair, hairless. -वंश a. without posterity, childless. -वचन a. 1 not speaking, silent. -2 unobjectionable, blameless; (for other senses see the word separately). -नम् ind. silently; माल्येन तां निर्वचनं जघान Ku.7.19. -वण, -वन a. 1 being out of a wood. -2 free from woods. -3 bare, open. -वत्सल a. not loving or fondling (esp. children); निर्वत्सले सुतशतस्य विपत्तिमेतां त्वं नानुचिन्तयसि Ve.5.3. -वर = निर्दरम् q. v. -वसु a. destitute of wealth, poor. -वाच्य a. 1 not fit to be said. -2 blameless, unobjectionable; सखीषु निर्वाच्य- मधार्ष्ट्यदूषितं प्रियाङ्गसंश्लेषमवाप मानिनी Ki.8.48. -वात a. free or sheltered from wind, calm, still; हिमनिष्यन्दिनी प्रातर्निर्वातेव वनस्थली R.15.66. (-तः) a place sheltered from or not exposed to wind; निर्वाते व्यजनम् H.2.124. -वानर a. free from monkeys. -वायस a. free from crows. -वार्य a. 1 irresistible. -2 acting fearlessly or boldly. -विकल्प, -विकल्पक a. 1 not admitting an alternative. -2 being without determination or resolution. -3 not capable of mutual relation. -4 conditioned. -5 undeliberative. -6 recognizing no such distinction as that of subject and object, or of the knower and the known; as applied to समाधि or contemplation, it is 'an exclusive concentration upon the one entity without distinct and separate consciousness of the knower, the known, and the knowing, and without even self-consciousness'; निर्विकल्पकः ज्ञातृज्ञानादिविकल्पभेद- लयापेक्षः; नो चेत् चेतः प्रविश सहसा निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Bh.3.61; आत्मारामा विहितरतयो निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Ve.1.23. -7 (in phil.) not arising from the relation of the qualifier and the qualified, (विशेषणविशेष्यसंबन्धानवगाहि प्रत्यक्षं ज्ञानम्) said of knowledge not derived from the senses, as घटत्व. (-ल्पम्) ind. without hesitation or wavering. -विकार a. 1 unchanged, unchangeable, immutable. -2 not disposed; तौ स्थास्यतस्ते नृपती निदेशे परस्परावग्रहनिर्विकारौ M.5.14. -3 disinterested; तरुविटपलतानां बान्धवो निर्विकारः Ṛs.2.28. (-रः) the Supreme deity. -विकास a. unblown. -विघ्न a. uninterrupted, unobstructed, free from impediments; निर्विघ्नं कुरु मे देव सर्वकार्येषु सर्वदा. (-घ्नम्) absence of impediment. -विचार a. not reflecting, thoughtless, inconsiderate; रे रे स्वैरिणि निर्विचारकविते मास्मत्प्रकाशीभव Chandr. 1.2. (-रम्) ind. thoughtlessly, unhesitatingly. -वि- चिकित्स a. free from doubt or reflection. -विचेष्ट a. motionless, insensible; यो हि दिष्टमुपासीनो निर्विचेष्टः सुखं शयेत् Mb.3.32.14. -वितर्क a. unreflecting. -विनोद a. without amusement, void of pastime, diversion or solace; शङ्के रात्रौ गुरुतरशुचं निर्विनोदां सखीं ते Me.9. -विन्ध्या N. of a river in the Vindhya hills; निर्विन्ध्यायाः पथि भव रसाभ्यन्तरः सन्निपत्य Me.28. -विमर्श a. 1 void of reflection, thoughtless. -2 not having विमर्श Sandhi. -विवर a. 1 having no opening or cavity. 2 without interstices or interval, close, compact; घटते हि संहततया जनितामिदमेव निर्विवरतां दधतोः Śi.9.44. -विवाद a. 1 not contending or disagreeing. -2 undisputed, not contradicted or disputed, universally acknowledged. -विवेक a. indiscreet, void of judgment, wanting in discrimination, foolish. -विशङ्क a. fearless, undaunted, confident; Ms.7.176; यस्मिन्कृत्यं समावेश्य निर्विशङ्केन चेतसा । आस्यते सेवकः स स्यात् कलत्रमिव चापरम् ॥ Pt.1.85. -विशेष a. showing or making no difference, indiscriminating, without distinction; निर्विशेषा वयं त्वयि Mb.; निर्विशेषो विशेषः Bh.3.5. 'a difference without distinction'. -2 having no difference, same, like, not differing from (oft. in comp.); निर्विशेषाकृति 'having the same form'; प्रवातनीलो- त्पलनिर्विशेषम् Ku.1.46; स निर्विशेषप्रतिपत्तिरासीत् R.14.22. -3 indiscriminate, promiscuous. (-षः) absence of difference. (निर्विशेषम् and निर्विशेषेण are used adverbially in the sense of 'without difference', 'equally', indiscriminately'; क्रुद्धेन विप्रमुक्तो$यं निर्विशेषं प्रियाप्रिये Rām.7.22.41. स्वगृहनिर्विशेषमत्र स्थीयताम् H.1; R.5.6.). -विशेषण a. without attributes. -विष a. poisonless (as a snake); निर्विषा डुण्डुभाः स्मृताः. -विषङ्ग a. not attached, indifferent. -विषय a. 1 expelled or driven away from one's home, residence or proper place; मनोनिर्विषयार्थकामया Ku.5.38; R.9.32; also -निर्विषयीकृत; वने प्राक्कलनं तीर्थं ये ते निर्विषयी- कृताः Rām.2.14.4. -2 having no scope or sphere of action; किंच एवं काव्यं प्रविरलविषयं निर्विषयं वा स्यात् S. D.1. -3 not attached to sensual objects (as mind). -विषाण a. destitute of horns. -विहार a. having no pleasure. -वीज, -बीज a. 1 seedless. -2 impotent. -3 causeless. -वीर a. 1 deprived of heroes; निर्वीरमुर्वीतलम् P. R.1.31. -2 cowardly. -वीरा a woman whose husband and children are dead. -वीर्य a. powerless, feeble, unmanly, impotent; निर्वीर्यं गुरुशापभाषितवशात् किं मे तवेवायुधम् Ve.3.34. -वीरुध, -वृक्ष a. treeless. -वृत्ति f. accomplishment, achievement; अत आसां निर्वृत्त्या अपवर्गः स्यात् । आतण्डुलनिर्वृत्तेः आ च पिष्टनिर्वृत्तेरभ्यास इति ॥ ŚB. on MS.11.1.27. -a. having no occupation, destitute. See निर्वृति. -वृष a. deprived of bulls. -वेग a. not moving, quiet, calm. -वेतन a honorary, unsalaried. -वेद a. not acknowledging the Vedas, an atheist, infidel. -वेष्टनम् a. a weaver's shuttle. -वैर a. free from enmity, amicable, peaceable. (-रम्) absence of enmity. -वैलक्ष्य a. shameless. -व्यञ्जन a. 1 straight-forward. -2 without condiment. (-नम् ind.) plainly, in a straight-forward or honest manner. -व्यथ, -न a. 1 free from pain. -2 quiet, calm. -व्यथनम् a hole; छिद्रं निर्व्यथनम् Ak. -व्यपेक्ष a. indifferent to, regardless of; मृग्यश्च दर्भाङ्कुरनिर्व्यपेक्षास्तवागतिज्ञं समबोधयन् माम् R.13.25;14.39. -व्यलीक a. 1 not hurting or offending. -2 without pain. -3 pleased, doing anything willingly. -4 sincere, genuine, undissembling. -व्यवधान a. (ground) uncovered, bare. -व्यवश्थ a. moving hither and thither. -व्यसन a. free from bad inclination. -व्याकुल a. calm. -व्याघ्र a. not haunted or infested by tigers. -व्याज a. 1 candid, upright, honest, plain. -2 without fraud, true, genuine. -3 got by heroism or daring deeds (not by fraud or cowardly conduct); अशस्त्रपूतनिर्व्याजम् (महामांसम्) Māl.5.12. (v. l.) -4 not hypocritical; धर्मस्य निर्व्याजता (विभूषणम्) Bh.2.82. (-जम् ind.) plainly, honestly, candidly; निर्व्याजमालिङ्गितः Amaru.85. -व्याजीकृत a. made plain, freed from deceit. -व्यापार a. 1 without employment or business, free from occupation; तं दधन्मैथिलीकण्ठनिर्व्यापारेण बाहुना R.15.56. -2 motionless; U.6. -व्यावृत्ति a. not involving any return (to worldly existence). -व्रण a. 1 unhurt, without wounds. -2 without rents. -व्रत a. not observing vows. -व्रीड a. shameless, impudent. -हिमम् cessation of winter. -हेति a. weaponless. -हेतु a. causeless, having no cause or reason. -ह्रीक a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold, daring.
niviś निविश् 6 Ā. 1 To sit down, take a seat; नवाम्बुद- श्यामवपुर्न्यविक्षत (आसने) Śi.1.19. -2 To halt, encamp; R.12.68. -3 To enter; रामशालां न्यविक्षत Bk.4.28;6. 143;8.7; R.9.82;12.38. -4 To be fixed on, be directed towards; सूर्यनिविष्टदृष्टिः R.14.66. -5 To be devoted or attached to, be intent on, to practise; श्रुतिप्रामाण्यतो विद्वान् स्वधर्मे निविशेत वै Ms.2.8. -6 To marry (for निर्विश् q. v.). -7 To alight, descend. -Caus. 1 To fix or direct upon, apply to (as thought, mind &c.); मयि बुद्धिं निवेशय Bg.12.8. -2 To put, place, keep; मनोगतं वाचि निवेशयन्ति Ki.14.4; R.4.39;7.63;6.16. -3 To seat, install; स निवेश्य कुशावत्यां रिपुनागाङ्कुशं कुशम् R.15.97. -4 To cause to settle in life, get married; दौष्यन्तिमप्रतिरथं तनयं निवेश्य Ś.4.2; R.11.57. -5 To encamp (as an army); निवेशयामास विलङ्घिताध्वा क्लान्तं रजोधूसरकेतु सैन्यम् R.5.42;16.37. -6 To draw, paint, portray; चित्रे निवेश्य परिकल्पितसत्त्वयोगा Ś.2.1; M.3.11. -7 To commit to writing, inscribe on; पत्रे निवेशितमुदाहरणं प्रियायाः V.2.14. -8 To intrust or commit to; मित्रं ममाय- मिति निर्वृतचित्तवृत्तिं विश्रम्भतस्त्वयि निवेशितसर्वकार्यम् Mu.5.7; R.19.4. -9 To introduce. -1 To found (a city). -11 To throw, hurl upon, shoot at. -12 To impress (on mind).
niveśanam निवेशनम् 1 Entering, entrance. -2 Halting, encamping. -3 Marrying, marriage; प्रतिलोमनिवेशनम् Bhāg. 3.7.31. -4 Entering in writing, inscribing. -5 An abode, a dwelling, house, habitation. -6 A camp; निवेशयामास मुदा कल्पितान्यनिवेशने Bhāg.1.53.16; Mb.3. 24.1. -7 A town or city; पार्थिवस्य निवेशने Rām.7.62. 18. -8 A nest. -नी The earth.
nis निस् ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs it implies separation (away from, outside of), certainty, completeness or fulness, enjoyment, crossing over, transgressing &c.; (for examples see under (निर्). -2 As a prefix to nouns, not directly derived from verbs, it forms nouns or adjectives, and has the sense of (a) 'out of', 'away from'; as in निर्वन, निष्कौशाम्बि; or (b) more usually, 'not', 'without', 'devoid of' (having a privative force); निःशेष 'without a remainder'; निष्फल, निर्जल, &c. N. B. In compound the स् of निस् is changed to र् before vowels and soft consonants (see निर्), to a visarga before sibilants, to श् before च् and छ्, and to ष् before क् and प्; cf. दुस्. -Comp. -कण्टक (निष्कण्टक) a. 1 thornless. -2 free from thorns or enemies, free from danger or nuisance. (-कः) N. of Śiva. -कन्द (निष्कन्द) a. without edible roots. -कपट (निष्कपट) a. guileless, sincere. -कम्प (निष्कम्प) a. motionless, steady, immovable; निष्कम्पचामरशिखाः Ś.1.8; Ku.3.48. -करुण (निष्करुण) a. merciless, pitiless, cruel. -करूष (निष्क रूष) a. free from dirt. -कर्मन् (निष्कर्मन्) a. inactive. -कल (निष्कल) a. 1 without parts, undivided, whole. -2 waned, decayed, diminished. -3 impotent, barren. -4 maimed. -5 inarticulate (a musical term); N.21.16. -6 Without attributes, or qualities; निष्कलं निष्क्रियं शान्तं निरवद्यं निरञ्जनम् Śvet. Up; Bhāg.1.9.44; तद् ब्रह्म निष्कलमहं (स्मरामि). -(लः) 1 a receptacle. -2 the pudendum muliebre. -3 N. of Brahmā. (-ला, -ली) an elderly woman, one who is past child-bearing, or one in whom menstruation has ceased. -कलङ्क, (निष्कलङ्क) -कल्मष a. stainless, spotless. -कषाय (निष्कषाय) a. free from dirt or impure passions. -कान्त (निष्कान्त) a. not lovely, ugly. -काम (निष्काम) a. 1 free from wish or desire, desireless, disinterested, unselfish. -2 free from all worldly desires; विशिष्टफलदाः पुंसां निष्कामाणां विमुक्तिदाः Viṣṇu. P. (-मम् ind.) 1 without wish or desire. -2 unwillingly. -कारण (निष्कारण) a. 1 causeless, unnecessary. -2 disinterested, free from any motive; निष्कारणो बन्धुः. -3 groundless, not proceeding from any cause. (-णम् ind.) without any cause or reason, causelessly, needlessly. -कालकः (निष्कालकः) a penitent shaven and smeared with clarified butter. -कालिक (निष्कालिक) a. 1 one whose term of life is over or elapsed, whose days are numbered. -2 one who has no conqueror, invincible (अजय्य). -किञ्चन (निष्किञ्चन) a. penniless, poor, indigent; प्रज्ञानं शौचमेवात्र शरीरस्य विशेषतः । तथा निष्कि- ञ्चनत्वं च मनसश्च प्रसन्नता ॥ Mb. -किल्विष (निष्किल्विष) a. sinless, faultless. -कुल (निष्कुल) a. having no kindred, left alone in the world. (निष्कुलं कृ 'to cut off completely, exterminate'; निष्कुला कृ 1 to exterminate one's family -2 to shell, strip off the husk; निष्कुलाकरोति दाडिमम् Sk.; N.22.15.) -कुलीन (निष्कुलीन) a. of low family. -कूज (निष्कूज) a. still, silent; U.2.16. -कूट (निष्कूट) a. pitiless, merciless, cruel. -कैवल्य (निष्कैवल्य) a. 1 mere, pure, absolute. -2 deprived of final beatitude (मोक्षहीन). -कोश (निष्कोश) a. unsheathed. -कौशाम्बि (निष्कौशाम्बि) a. who has gone out of Kauśāmbī. -क्रिय (निष्क्रिय) a. 1 inactive. -2 not performing ceremonial rites; Ms.1.58. -3 knowing higher knowledge as a sage, Saṁnyāsin; न्यासे कुटीचकः पूर्वं बह्वोदो हंस- निष्क्रियौ Bhāg.3.12.43. -यम् the Supreme Spirit (ब्रह्म). -क्षत्र (निःक्षत्र), -क्षत्रिय (निःक्षत्रिय) a. destitute of the military tribe. -क्षेपः (निःक्षेपः) = निक्षेप q. v. -चक्रम् (निश्चक्रम्) ind. completely; निश्चक्रं हतराक्षसः पुनरगाद्ब्रह्मत्व- माद्यं स्थिराम् A. Rām.1.1.1. -चक्रिक (निश्चक्रिक) a. without tricks, honest. -चक्षुस् (निश्चक्षुस्) a. blind, eyeless. -चत्वारिंशः (निश्चत्वारिंश) a. past forty. -चिन्त (निश्चिन्त) a. 1 free from anxiety, unconcerned, secure. -2 thoughtless, unthinking. -चेतन (निश्चेतन) a. unconscious. -चेतस् (निश्चेतस्) a. not in one's right senses, mad. -चेष्ट (निश्चेष्ट) a. motionless, powerless. -चेष्टाकरण (निश्चेष्टाकरण) a. depriving (one) of motion, causing motionlessness (said of one the arrows of Cuhid). -छन्दस् (निश्छन्दस्) a. not studying the Vedas (छन्दस्) Ms.3,7. -छिद्र (निश्छिद्र) a. 1 without holes. -2 without defects or weak points. -3 uninterrupted, unhurt. -तन्तु a. 1 having no offspring, childless. -2 a Brahmachārin; मुण्डा निस्तन्तवश्चापि वस- त्यर्थार्थिनः पृथक् Mb.12.167.16. -तन्द्र, -तन्द्रि a. not lazy, fresh, healthy. -तमस्क -तिमिर a. 1 free from darkness, bright; तस्य द्वितीयहरिविक्रमनिस्तमस्कं वायोरिमं परि- वहस्य वदन्ति मार्गम् Ś.7.6. -2 freed from sin or moral impurities. -तर्क्य a. unimaginable, inconceivable. -तल a. 1 round, globular; मुक्ताकलापस्य च निस्तलस्य Ku.1.42. Kau. A.2.9. -2 moving, trembling, shaking. -3 bottomless. -4 down, below. (-ला) a pill, round ball. -तुल a. matchless, incomparable. -तुष a. 1 freed from chaff. -2 purified, cleansed. -3 simplified. ˚क्षीरः wheat. ˚रत्नम् a crystal. -4 faultless, pure; शशंस गुणैररीणैरुदयास्तनिस्तुषम् N.15.8. -तुषत्वम् faultlessness; कवेः पुष्यति निस्तुषत्वम् Maṅkhaka.2.7. -तुषित a. 1 husked. -2 made thin. -3 abandoned. -तेजस् a. destitute of fire, heat or energy, powerless, impotent; न भेतव्यं भृशं चैते मात्रा निस्ते- जसः कृताः Mārk. P. -2 spiritless, dull. -3 obscure. -त्रप a. impudent, shameless. -त्रिंश a. 1 more than thirty; निस्त्रिंशानि वर्षाणि चैत्रस्य P.V.4.73; Sk. -2 pitiless, merciless, cruel; हे निस्त्रिंश विमुक्तकण्ठकरुणं तावत् सखी रोदितु Amaru.6. (-शः) a sword; निजध्नुः शरनिस्त्रिंशकुन्ततोमरशक्तिभिः Śiva B.3.19; शूरौर्निस्त्रिंशपाणिभिः Parnāl 1.5. ˚भृत् m. a sword-bearer. -त्रैगुण्य a. destitute of the three qualities (सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्); निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन Bg.2.45. -पक्व (निष्पक्व) well cooked, boiled. -पङ्क (निष्पङ्क) a. free from mud, clear, pure. -पताक (निष्पताक) a. having no flag or banner. -पतिसुता (निष्पतिसुता) a woman having no husband and no sons. -पत्र (निष्पत्र) a. 1 leafless. -2 unfeathered, featherless. [निष्पत्राकृ 'to pierce with an arrow so that the feathers come through on the other side'; to cause excessive bodily pain (fig.); निष्पत्राकरोति मृगं व्याधः (सपुङ्खस्य शरस्य अपर- पार्श्वे निर्गमनान्निष्पत्रं करोति Sk.); एकश्च मृगः सपत्राकृतो$न्यश्च निष्पत्राकृतो$पतत् Dk.165; so यान्ती गुरुजनैः साकं स्मयमानानना- म्बुजा । तिर्यग्ग्रीवं यदद्राक्षीत्तन्निष्पत्राकरोज्जगत् Bv.2.132.] -पथ्य (निष्पथ्य) a. unwell, ill -पद (निष्पद) a. having no foot. (-दम्) a vehicle moving without feet (as a ship). -पराक्रम (निष्पराक्रम) a. weak, powerless. -परामर्श (निष्परामर्श) a. without advice, helpless; M.4.2/3 -परिकर (निष्परिकर) a. without preparations. -परिग्रह (निष्परिग्रह) a. having no property or possessions; Mu.2. (-हः) an ascetic without family, dependents, or other belongings. -परिच्छद (निष्परिच्छद) a. having no retinue or train. -परिदाह (निष्परिदाह) a. incombustible. -परिहार्य (निष्परिहार्य) a. To be applied by all means. -परीक्ष (निष्परीक्ष) a. not examining or testing accurately. -परीहार (निष्परीहार) a. 1 not avoiding. -2 not observing caution. -परुष (निष्परुष) a. (in music) soft. -पर्यन्त (निष्पर्यन्त), -पार (निष्पार) a. boundless, unbounded. -पर्याय (निष्पर्याय) a. out of order. -पाप (निष्पाप) sinless, guiltless, pure. -पुत्र (निष्पुत्र) a. sonless, childless. -पुराण (निष्पुराण) a. not existing before, unheard of, new. -पुरुष (निष्पुरुष) 1 unpeopled, tenantless, desolate. -2 without male issue; Ms.3.7. -2 not male, feminine, neuter. -षः 1 a eunuch. -2 a coward. -पुलाक (निष्पुलाक) a. freed from chaff. -पौरुष (निष्पौरुष) a. unmanly. -प्रकम्प (निष्प्रकम्प) a. steady, immovable, motionless. -प्रकारक (निष्प्रकारक) 1 a. without ditinction of species, without specification, absolute. -2 without the relation of the qualifier and the qualified, see निर्विकल्प (7); निष्प्रकारकं ज्ञानं निर्विकल्पकम् T. S. -प्रकाश (निष्प्रकाश) a. not transparent, not clear, dark. -प्रचार (निष्प्रचार) a. 1 not moving away, remaining in one place. -2 concentrated, intently fixed; निष्प्रचारेण मनसा परं तदधिगच्छति Mb.12.215.17. -प्रज्ञ (निष्प्रज्ञ) a. ignorant, stupid. -प्रणय (निष्प्रणय) a. cold. -प्रताप (निष्प्रताप) a. destitute of glory, mean, base; शङ्क- नीया हि सर्वत्र निष्प्रतापा दरिद्रता Pt.2.94. -प्रति(ती)कार (निष्प्रति(ती)कार), -प्रतिक्रिय (निष्प्रतिक्रिय) a. 1 incurable, irremediable; सर्वथा निष्प्रतीकारेयमापदुपस्थिता K. 151. -2 unobstructed, uninterrupted. (-रम्) ind. uninterruptedly. -प्रतिग्रह (निष्प्रतिग्रह) a. not accepting gifts. -प्रतिघ (निष्प्रतिघ) a. unhindered, unobstructed, unimpeded; स हि निष्प्रतिघेन चक्षुषा त्रितयं ज्ञानमयेन पश्यति R.8.78. -प्रतिद्वन्द्व (निष्प्रतिद्वन्द्व) a. without enemies, unopposed. -2 matchless, unrivalled, unequal- led. -प्रतिभ (निष्प्रतिभ) a. 1 devoid of splendour. -2 having no intelligence, not ready-witted, dull, stupid. -3 apathetic. -प्रतिभान (निष्प्रतिभान) a. cowardly, timid. -प्रतीप (निष्प्रतीप) a. 1 looking straightforward, not turned backwards. -2 unconcerned (as a look). -प्रत्याश (निष्प्रत्याश) a. hopeless, despondent. -प्रत्यूह (निष्प्रत्यूह) a. unobstructed, unimpeded; निष्प्रत्यूहाः प्रियसखि यदा दुःसहाः संबभूवुः Māl.9.45; निष्प्र- त्यूहमुपास्महे भगवतः कौमोदकीलक्ष्मणः Murārināṭakam. -प्रपञ्च (निष्प्रपञ्च) a. 1 without extension. -2 without deceit, honest. -प्रभ (निःप्रभ or -निष्प्रभ) a. 1 lustreless, pale-looking; निष्प्रभश्च रिपुरास भूभृताम् R.11.81. -2 powerless. 3 gloomy, obscure, dim, dark. -प्रमाणक (निष्प्रमाणक) a. without authority. -प्रयत्न (निष्प्र- यत्न) a. inactive, dull. -प्रयोजन (निष्प्रयोजन) a. 1 without motive, not influenced by any motive. -2 causeless, groundless, -3 useless. -4 needless, unnecessary. (-नम्) ind. causelessly, without reason, without any object; Mu.3. -प्रवणि, प्रवाण, प्रवाणि (निष्प्रवणि, -ष्प्रवाण, -ष्प्रवाणि) a. fresh from loom, quite new (cloth, &c.) -प्राण (निष्पाण) a. 1 lifeless, dead. -2 Weak (निर्बल); निष्प्राणो नामिहन्तव्यः Mb.12.95.12. -फल (निष्फल) a. 1 bearing no fruit, fruitless (fig. also), unsuccessful, futile; निष्फलारम्भयत्नाः Me.56. -2 useless, profitless, vain; Ku.4.13. -3 barren (as a tree). -4 meaningless (as a word). -5 seedless, impotent. (-ला, -ली) a woman past child-bearing. -फेन (निष्फेन) a. foamless. n. opium. -शङ्क (निःशङ्क) a. free from fear or risk, secure, fearless. (-निःशङ्कः) (in music) a kind of dance. -f. (निःशङ्का) absence of fear. -ind. fearlessly, securely, easily. -शब्द (निःशब्द) a. not expressed in words, inaudible; निःशब्दं रोदितुमारेभे K.135. (-ब्दः, ब्दम्) silence, a calm. -शमः (निःशमः) uneasiness, anxiety. -शरण a. (-निःशरण) helpless, forlorn. -शर्कर (-निःशर्कर) a. free from pebbles (as a bathing place). -शलाक (निःशलाक) a. lonely, solitary, retired. (-कम्) a retired place, solitude; अरण्ये निःशलाके वा मन्त्रयेदविभावितः Ms.7.147. -शल्य a. 1 free from arrows. -2 free from thorns or darts. -शूक (निःशूक) a. merciless, cruel. (-कः) beardless rice. -शेष (निःशेष) a. without remainder (either finished or passed away). -शोध्य (निःशोध्य) a. washed, pure, clean. -श्रीकः a. 1 deprived of lustre, beauty. -2 unhappy. -श्रेयस a. the best, most excellent. (-सः) an epithet of Śiva. (-सम्) final beatitude, absolution; यः करोति वधोदर्का निःश्रेयसकरीः क्रियाः Ki.11.19; see निःश्रेयस also. -2 devotion, faith, belief. -3 apprehension, conception. -4 happiness (in general), welfare; इदं निःश्रेयसं परम् Ms. 1.16. -संशय (निःसंशय) a. 1 undoubted, certain. -2 not doubtful, not suspecting or doubting; कुरु निः- संशयं वत्से स्ववृत्ते लोकमित्यशात् R.15.79. (-यम्) ind. doubtlessly, undoubtedly, surely, certainly. -संस्कार (निःसंस्कार) a. uneducated, ill-mannered. -संख्य (निःसंख्य) a. innumerable. -संग (निःसंग) a. 1 not attached or devoted to, regardless of, indifferent to; यन्निःसंगस्त्वं फलस्यानतेभ्यः Ki.18.24. -2 one who has renounced all worldly attachments; भर्तुर्ये प्रलये$पि पूर्वसुकृता- सङ्गेन निःसङ्गया भक्त्या कार्यधुरं वहन्ति कृतिनस्ते दुर्लभास्त्वादृशाः Mu.1.14. -3 unconnected, separated, detatched. -4 unobstructed; निःसङ्गं प्रतिभिरुपाददे विवृत्तिः Ki.7.12. (-गम्) ind. unselfishly. -संचारः (निःसंचारः) not taking a walk; Māl. -संज्ञ (निःसंज्ञ) a. unconscious. -सत्त्व (निःसत्त्व) a. 1 unenergetic, weak, impotent. -2 mean, insignificant, low. -3 non-existent, unsubstantial. -4 deprived of living beings. (-त्त्वम्) 1 absence of power or energy. -2 non-existence. -3 insignificance. -संतति (निःसंतति), -संतान (निःसंतान) a. childless. -संदिग्ध (निःसंदिग्ध), -संदेह (निःसंदेह) a. see निःसंशय. -संधि (निस्संधि), निःसंधि) a. having no joints perceptible, compact, firm, close, -सपत्न (निःसपत्न) a. 1 having no rival or enemy; घनरुचिरकलापो निःसपत्नो$द्य जातः V.4.1. -2 not claimed by another, belonging exclusively to one possessor. -3 having no foes. -समम् (निःसमम्) ind. 1 unseasonably, at a wrong time. -2 wickedly. -संपात (निःसंपात) a. affording no passage, blocked up. (-तः) the darkness of midnight, thick darkness. -संबाध (निःसंबाध) a. not contracted, spacious, large. -संभ्रम (निःसंभ्रम) a. not perplexed, unembarrassed. -सरणि (निःसरणि) a. pathless. -सह (निःसह) a. 1 Exhausted, powerless; कुसुमावचयपरिश्रमनिःसहं मे शरीरम् Nāg.2. -2 intolerable, irresistible. -सार (निःसार) a. 1 sapless, pithless. -2 worthless, vain, unsubstantial. ˚ता 1 sapless, pithlessness; निःसारत्वाल्लघीयसः (तृणस्य च समा गतिः) Pt.1.16. -2 worthlessness. -3 vanity, unsubstantial or transitory nature. -सीम (निःसीम), -सीमन् (निःसीमन्) a. immeasurable, boundless; अहह महतां निःसीमानश्चरित्रविभूतयः Bh.2.35; निःसीमशर्मप्रदम् 3.97. -स्तम्भ (निःस्तम्भ) a. having no pillars. -2 having no support. -3 not proud; निःस्तम्भो भ्रष्टसंकल्पः स्वान् मेघान् स न्यवारयत् Bhāg.1.25.24. -सूत्र a. helpless; निःसूत्रमास्ते घनपङ्कमृत्सु N.7.69. -स्नेह (निःस्नेह) a. 1 not unctuous or greasy, without unction or oil, dry. -2 not showing affection, unfeeling, unkind, indifferent. -3 not loved, not cared for; केशा अपि विरज्यन्तो निःस्नेहाः किं न सेवकाः Pt.1. 82. -4 not longing for, indifferent to. (-हा) lin-seed. -स्पन्द (निःस्पन्द or निस्स्पन्द) a. motionless, steady; ज्याबन्धनिस्स्पन्दभुजेन यस्य R.6.4. -स्पर्श (निःस्पर्श) a. hard, rough. -स्पृह (निःस्पृह) a. free from desire; निःस्पृहस्य तृणं जगत्. -2 regardless of, indifferent to; ननु वक्तृविशेषनिःस्पृहाः Ki.2.5; R.8.1; भोगेभ्यः स्पृहयालवो न हि वयं का निःस्पृहाणामसि Bh. -3 content, unenvious. -4 free from any worldly ties. -स्व (निःस्व) a. poor, indigent; निस्वो वष्टि शतम् Śānti.2.6; त्यक्त्वा जनयितारं स्वं निःस्वं गच्छति दूरतः Pt.1.9. -स्वन (निःस्वन) a. soundless. -स्वभावः (निःस्वभावः) poverty. -a. void of peculiarities. -स्वादु (निःस्वादु) a. tasteless, insipid.
naigama नैगम a. (-मी f.) [निगम्-अण्] Relating to or occurring in the Veda or holy writings; as in ˚काण्डम्. जपन् वै नैगमान् मन्त्रांस्तस्थौ पर्वतराडिव Rām.7.34.18. -मः 1 An interpreter of the Vedas or sacred writings; ब्राह्मणा नैगमास्तत्र परिवार्योपतस्थिरे Mb.16.7.8; गोचर्यां नैगमश्चरेत् Bhāg.11.18.29; इति नैगमाः -2 An Upaniṣad q. v. -3 A means, an expedient; तेषां प्रतिविघातार्थं प्रवक्ष्याम्यथ नैगमम् Mb.12.1.4. -4 Prudent conduct. -5 A citizen, towns-man. -6 A trader, merchant; धाराहारोप- नयनपरा नैगमाः सानुमन्तः V.4.4. -7 A name given to a collection of 278 Vedic words, commented on by Yāska. -Comp. -काण्डः, -ण्डम् N. of the three chapters of the Nirukta, where the Vedic words are explained by Yāska.
nairdaśya नैर्दश्य a. Getting over dangerous or critical times.
nyāsaḥ न्यासः 1 Placing, putting down or upon, planting, तस्या खुरन्यासपवित्रपांसुम् R.2.2; Ku.6.5; M.2.9; Māl.5.5; चरणन्यास, अङ्गन्यास &c.; सैन्दूरं क्रियते जनेन चरण- न्यासैः पुनः कुट्टिमम् Ratn.1.1. -2 Hence, any impression, mark, stamp, print; अतिशस्त्रनखन्यासः R.12.73; 'where the nail-marks surpassed those of weapons'; दन्तन्यासः. -3 Depositing. -4 A pledge, deposit; प्रत्यर्पित- न्यास इवान्तरात्मा Ś.4.22; R.12.18; Y.2.67. -5 Entrusting, committing, giving over, delivering, consigning. -6 Painting, writing down. -7 Giving up, resigning, abandoning, relinquishing; शस्त्र˚; न्यासो दण्डस्य भूतेषु Bhāg.7.15.8; काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासं कवयो विदुः Bg.18.2. -8 Bringing forward, adducing. -9 Digging in, seizing (as with claws). -1 Assignment of the various parts of the body to different deities, which is usually accompanied with prayers and corresponding gesticulations. -11 Lowering the tone or voice. -12 संन्यास q. v.; एवं वसन् गृहे कालं विरक्तो न्यासमास्थितः Bhāg. 9.6.53. -13 Written or literal text (यथान्यासम्). -14 Bringing forward, introducing (cf. अर्थान्तरन्यास). -Comp. -अपह्नवः repudiation of a deposit. -धारिन् m. the holder of a deposit, a mortgagee.
paṭaḥ पटः टम् [पट् वेष्टने करणे घञर्थे कः] 1 A garment, raiment, cloth, a piece of cloth; अयं पटः सूत्रदरिद्रतां गतो ह्ययं पटश्छिद्रशतैरलंकृतः &c. Mk.2.9; मेघाः स्रवन्ति बलदेवपटप्रकाशाः 5.45. -2 Fine cloth. -3 A veil, screen. -4 A tablet, plate or piece of cloth for writing or painting upon. -टः Anything well made or polished. -टम् A thatch, roof. -Comp. -अञ्चलः the hem of a garment. -उटजम् 1 a tent. -2 a mushroom; L. D. B. -उत्तरीयम् an upper garment. -कर्मन् n. weaving, business of the loom. -कारः 1 a weaver. -2 a painter. -कुटी f., -छिदा a shred of cloth; पटच्छिदाकालिकपुष्पजाः स्रजः N.15.14; -मण्डपः, -वापः, वेश्मन् n. a tent; प्रभोर्निवासाः पटवेश्मभिर्बभुः Śi.12.63. Hch. Uttarabhāga; उल्लोचैः काण्डपटकैः अनेकैः पट मण्डपैः Śiva B.22.61; नवैरुत्तम्भितस्तम्भैर्मण्डितं पटमण्डपैः Śiva B.17.68. -गत a. painted. -भासः the interstices in a lattice-window; पटभाससूक्ष्मच्छिद्रालक्षिता Dk.2. -वासः 1 a tent. -2 a petticoat. -3 perfumed powder; Ratn.1; परागैः पुष्पाणां प्रकटपटवासव्यतिकरः Nāg.3.7. -4 a cover (पिधान); निजरजः पटवासमिवाकिरत् Śi.6.37. -वाद्यम् a kind of cymbal. -वासकः perfumed powder.
paṭṭaḥ पट्टः ट्टम् 1 A slab, tablet (for writing upon), plate in general; शिलापट्टमधिशयाना Ś.3; so भालपट्ट &c. -2 A royal grant or edict; पटे वा ताम्रपट्टे वा स्वमुद्रोपरिचिह्नितम् । अभिलेख्यात्मनो वंश्यानात्मानं च महीपतिः ॥ Y.1.319. -3 A tiara, diadem; निर्वृत्तजाम्बूनदपट्टबन्धे न्यस्तं ललाटे तिलकं दधानः R.18.44; पट्टः शुभदो राज्ञां मध्ये$ष्टावङ्गुलानि विस्तीर्णः । सप्त नरेन्द्रमहिष्याः षड् युवराजस्य निर्दिष्टः ॥ चतुरङ्गुलविरुतारः पट्टः सेनापतेर्भवति मध्ये । द्वे च प्रसादपट्टः पञ्चैते कीर्तिताः पट्टाः ॥ Bṛi. S. -4 A strip; निर्मोकपट्टाः फणिभिर्विमुक्ताः R.16.17; -5 Silk; पट्टोपधानम्; K.17; Bh.3.74; so पट्टांशुकम्. -6 Fine or coloured cloth, cloth in general. -7 An upper garment; गलितमिव भुवो विलोक्य रामं धरणिधरस्तनशुक्लचीनपट्टम् Bk.1.61. -8 A fillet or cloth worn round the head, turban; especially, a coloured silk turban; भारः परं पट्टकिरीटजुष्ट- मप्युत्तमाङ्गं न नमेन्मुकुन्दम् Bhāg.2.3.21; त्रासार्ता ऋत्विजो$ धश्चपलगणहृतोष्णीषपट्टाः पतन्ति Ratn.1.4. -9 A throne. -1 A chair or stool. -11 A shield. -12 A grinding stone. -13 A place where four roads meet. -14 A city, town. -15 A bandage, ligature; बद्धेषु व्रणपट्टकेषु Ve. 5.1. -ट्टी 1 An ornament for the forehead. -2 A horse's girth. -Comp. -अंशुकः 1 a silk cloth. -2 an upper or outer garment. -अभिषेकः the consecration of the tiara. -अर्हा the principal queen. -उपाध्यायः a writer of royal grants and other documents. -कर्मकरः a weaver. -जम् a sort of cloth. -देवी, -महिषी, -राज्ञी the principal queen. -बन्धः, -बन्धनम् 1 wearing dress. -2 binding the head with a crown or turban. -रागः sandal. -वस्त्र, -वासस् a. attired in woven silk or coloured cloth; जीर्णा कन्था ततः किं सितममलवरं पट्टवस्त्रं ततः किम् Bh.3.74. -शाला a tent. -सूत्रकारः a silk-weaver.
patram पत्रम् [पत्-ष्ट्रन्] 1 A leaf (of a tree); पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति Bg.9.26; धत्ते भरं कुसुमपत्रफलावलीनाम् Bv.1. 94. -2 The leaf of a flower, lotus &c.; नीलोत्पलपत्रधारया Ś.1.18. -3 A leaf for writing upon, a paper, a leaf written upon; सुरवरतरुशाखा लेखनी पत्रमुर्वी Mahimna 32. पत्रमारोप्य दीयताम् Ś.6. 'commit to writing', V.2.14. -4 A letter, document; विवादे$न्विष्यते पत्रं पत्राभावे तु साक्षिणः Pt.1.43. -5 A challenge; आत्मनः पूजाख्यात्यर्थं गुणोत्कर्ष- प्रतिपादको लेखो यद्विपक्षोपरि दीयते तत्पत्रम् N.7.93; विद्याधर com. -6 Any thin leaf or plate of metal, a goldleaf. -7 The wing of a bird, a pinion, feather of an arrow; यावद्वा मक्षिकायाः पत्रम् Bṛi. Up.3.3.2; R.2.31; सद्यः प्रवालोद्गमचारुपत्रे नीते समाप्तिं नवचूतबाणे Ku.3.27. -8 A vehicle in general (car, horse, camel &c.); दिशः पपात पत्रेण वेगनिष्कम्पकेतुना R.15.84; N.3.16; Mb.12. 67.25; Śi.12.2. -9 Painting the person (particularly the face) with musk, sandal-juice or other fragrant substances; रचय कुचयोः पत्रं चित्रं कुरुष्व कपोलयोः Gīt.12; R.13.55. -1 The blade of a sword, knife &c. -11 A knife, dagger. -Comp. -अङ्गम् 1 the Bhūrja tree. -2 red sanders. -अङ्गुलिः drawing lines of painting with the finger on the person (throat, forehead &c.) with coloured sandal, saffron, or any other fragrant substance. -अञ्जनम् 1 ink. -2 blacking. -आढ्यम् the root of long pepper. -आलम्बनम् a challenge; cf. पत्रा- लम्बनं करोति 'to challenge to a controversy'. -आरूढ a. written down. -आवलिः f. 1 red chalk. -2 a row of leaves. -3 the lines of painting drawn on the body with cosmetics as a decoration. -आवली 1 a row of leaves. -2 = ˚आवलि (3). -3 mixture of young Aśvattha leaves with barley and honey. -आहारः feeding on leaves. -ऊर्णम् wove-silk, a sik-garment; स्नानीयवस्त्र- क्रियया पत्रोर्णं वोपयुज्यते M.5.12. -उल्लासः the bud or eye of a plant. -काहला the noise or sound made by the flapping of wings or rustling of leaves. -कृच्छ्रम् a sort of penance, drinking the infusion of leaves of various plants. -गर्भा a small cake with very thin layers inside (Mar. चिरोटा). -घना a plant with full leaves (सातल). -झङ्कारः the current of a river. -तण्डुला a woman. -दारकः a saw. -नाडिका the fibre of a leaf. -न्यासः inserting feathers (into an arrow). -परशुः a file. -पालः a long dagger, large knife. (-ली) 1 the feathered part of an arrow. -2 a pair or scissors. -पाश्या an ornament (a gold-leaf) on the forehead. -पिशाचिका An umbrella or a kind of cap made of leaves. -पुटम् a vessel of leaves; दुग्ध्वा पयः पत्रपुटे मदीयं पुत्रोपभुङ्क्ष्वेति तमादिदेश R.2.65. -पुष्पा the holy basil. -बन्धः adorning with flowers. -बा(वा)लः an oar. -भङ्गः, -भङ्गिः, -ङ्गी f. 1 drawing lines or figures of painting on the face and person with fragrant and coloured substances, such as musk, saffron, sandal-juice, yellow pigment &c., as a mark of decoration; कस्तूरीवरपत्रभङ्गनिकरो मृष्टो न गण्डस्थले Ś. Til.7. (used frequently in K.). -2 leaves or leafy branches fed to elephants; Mātaṅga L.9.1. -मालः Calamus Rotung (Mar. वेत). -यौवनम् a young leaf or sprout. -रञ्जनम् embellishing a page. -रथः a bird; Rām.3.19. 1; ज्वलन्तमग्निं तममित्रतापनः समास्तरत्पत्ररथो नदीभिः Mb.1. 32.25; व्यर्थीकृतं पत्ररथेन तेन N.3.6. ˚इन्द्रः N. of Garuḍa. ˚इन्द्रकेतुः N. of Viṣṇu; R.18.13. -लता a long knife or poniard. -रे (ले) -खा, -वल्लरी, -वल्लि:, -वल्ली f. see पत्रभङ्ग above; R.6.72;16.67; Ṛs.6.7; Śi.8.56,59; विपत्रलेखा निरलक्तकाधरा निरञ्जनाक्षीरपि विभ्रतीः श्रियम् Ki.8.4. -वाज a. furnished with feathers (as an arrow). -वाहः 1 a bird; अध्याकाशं बभ्रमुः पत्रवाहाः Śi.18.73. -2 an arrow; प्रमुखे$भिहताश्च पत्रवाहाः प्रसन्नं माधवमुक्तवत्सदन्तैः Śi.2.25. -3 a letter-carrier. -विशेषकः lines of painting &c.; see पत्रभङ्ग; स्वेदोद्गमः किंपुरुषाङ्गनानां चक्रे पदं पत्रविशेषकेषु Ku.3.33; R.3.55;9.29. -वेष्टः a kind of ear-ring; विश्लेषिमुक्ताकल- पत्रवेष्टः R.16.67. -शाकः a vegetable consisting chiefly of leaves; पत्रशाकं तु बर्हिणः Ms.12.65; Y.3.213. -शिरा the vein or fibre of a leaf. -श्रेष्ठः the Bilva tree. -सूचिः f. a thorn. -हिमम् wintry or snowy weather.
patrikā पत्रिका 1 A leaf for writing upon. -2 A letter, document. -3 Mace (जातिपत्री; Mar. जायपत्री). -4 A kind of ear-ring.
patrī पत्री Writing.
pad पद् m. [पद्-क्विप्] (This word has no forms for the first five inflections; it is optionally substituted for पद after acc. dual) 1 A foot. -2 A quarter, a fourth part (as of a stanza). -Comp. -काषिन् a. 1 rubbing or scratching the feet. -2 going on foot, pedestrian. (-m.) a footman; पत्काषिणस्तीर्थजला$र्थमाशु Bk.3.4. -गः (पद्गः) a foot-soldier. -जः (-ज्जः) 1 a footman. -2 a Śūdra; cf. पद्भ्यां शूद्रो अजायत. -नद्धा, -नध्री a shoe, boot. -निष्कः one quarter of a Niṣka. -रथः (पद्रथः) a footsoldier, footman; त्वं पद्रथानां किल यूथपाधिपः Bhāg.3.18. 12. -शब्दः noise of footsteps. -हतिः, -ती f. (-पद्धतिः, -ती) 1 a way, path, road, course (fig. also); इयं हि रघुसिंहानां वीरचारित्रपद्धतिः U.5.22; R.3.46;6.55;11.87; कविप्रथमपद्धतिम् 15.33; 'the first way shown to poets'. -2 a line, row, range. -3 a surname, title or epithet, a word denoting caste or profession in compounds which are used as proper names; e. g. गुप्त, दास, दत्त &c. -4 N. of a class of writings. -हिमम् (पद्धिमम्) coldness of the feet.
padam पदम् [पद्-अच्] 1 A foot (said to be m. also in this sense); पदेन on foot; शिखरिषु पदं न्यस्य Me.13; अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि R.9.74 'set foot on (follow) a wrong road'; 3.5;12.52; पदं हि सर्वत्र गुणैर्निधीयते 3.62 'good qualities set foot everywhere' i. e. command notice or make themselves felt; जनपदे न गदः पदमादधौ 9.4. 'no disease stepped into the country'; यदवधि न पदं दधाति चित्ते Bv.2.14; पदं कृ (a) to set foot in, on or over (lit.); शान्ते करिष्यसि पदं पुनराश्रमे$स्मिन् Ś.4.2. (b) to enter upon or into, take possession of, occupy (fig.); कृतं वपुषि नवयौवनेन पदम् K.137; कृतं हि मे कुतूहलेन प्रश्नाशया हृदि पदम् 133; so Ku.5.21; Pt.1.24; कृत्वा पदं नो गले Mu.3.26 'in defiance of us'; (lit. planting his foot on our neck); मूर्ध्नि पदं कृ 'to mount on the head of', 'to humble'; पदं मूर्ध्नि समाधत्ते केसरी मत्तदन्तिनः Pt.1.327; आकृतिविशेषेष्वादरः पदं करोति M.1 'good forms attract attention (command respect); जने सखी पदं कारिता Ś.4; 'made to have dealings with (to confide in)'; धर्मेण शर्वे पार्वतीं प्रति पदं कारिते Ku.6.14. -2 A step, pace, stride; तन्वी स्थिता कतिचिदेव पदानि गत्वा Ś.2.13; पदे पदे 'at every step'; अक्षमालामदत्त्वा पदात् पदमपि न गन्तव्यम् or चलितव्यम् 'do not move even a step' &c.; पितुः पदं मध्यममुत्पतन्ती V.1.19 'the middle pace or stride of Viṣṇu.'; i. e. the sky (for mythologically speaking, the earth, sky, and lower world are considered as the three paces of Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf incarnation वामनावतार); so अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः पदं विमानेन विगाहमानः R.13.1. -3 A foot-step, footprint, foot-mark; पदपङ्क्तिः Ś.3.7; or पदावली foot-prints; पदमनुविधेयं च महताम् Bh.2.28 'the foot-steps of the great must be followed'; पदैगृर्ह्यते चौरः Y.2.286. -4 A trace, mark, impression, vestige; रतिवलयपदाङ्के चापमासज्य कण्ठे Ku.2.64; Me.37,98; M.3. -5 A place, position, station; अधो$धः पदम् Bh.2.1; आत्मा परिश्रमस्य पदमुपनीतः Ś.1, 'brought to the point of or exposed to trouble'; तदलब्धपदं हृदि शोकघने R.8.91, 'found no place in (left no impression on) the heart'; अपदे शङ्कितो$स्मि M.1, 'my doubts were out of place', i. e. groundless; कृशकुटुम्बेषु लोभः पदमधत्त Dk.162; Ku.6.72;3.4; R.2.5;9.82; कृतपदं स्तनयुगलम् U.6.35, 'brought into relief or bursting forth'. -6 Dignity, rank, office, station or position; भगवत्या प्रश्निकपदमध्यासितव्यम् M.1; यान्त्येवं गृहिणीपदं युवतयः Ś.4.18, 'attain to the rank or position, &c.; स्थिता गृहिणीपदे 4.19; so सचिव˚, राज˚ &c. -7 Cause, subject, occasion, thing, matter, business, affair; व्यवहारपदं हि तत् Y.2.5; 'occasion or matter of dispute, title of law, judicial proceeding'; Ms.8.7; सतां हि सन्देहपदेषु वस्तुषु Ś.1.22; वाञ्छितफलप्राप्तेः पदम् Ratn.1.6. -8 Abode, object, receptacle; पदं दृशः स्याः कथमीश मादृशाम् Śi.1.37; 15.22; अगरीयान्न पदं नृपश्रियः Ki.2.14; अविवेकः परमापदां पदम् 2.3; के वा न स्युः परिभवपदं निष्फलारम्भयत्नाः Me.56; संपदः पदमापदाम् H.4.65. -9 A quarter or line of a stanza, verse; विरचितपदम् (गेयम्) Me.88,15; M.5.2; Ś.3.14. -1 A complete or inflected word; सुप्तिडन्तं पदम् P.I. 4.14. वर्णाः पदं प्रयोगार्हानन्वितैकार्थबोधकाः S. D.9; R.8.77; Ku.4.9. -11 A name for the base of nouns before all consonantal case-terminations except nom. singular. -12 Detachment of the Vedic words from one another, separation of a Vedic text into its several constituent words; वेदैः साङ्गपदक्रमोपनिषदैर्गायन्ति यं सामगाः Bhāg.12.13.1. -13 A pretext; अनिभृतपदपातमापपात प्रियमिति कोपपदेन कापि सख्या Śi.7.14. -14 A sqare root. -15 A part, portion or division (as of a sentence); as त्रिपदा गायत्री. -16 A measure of length. -17 Protection, preservation; ते विंशतिपदे यत्ताः संप्रहारं प्रचक्रिरे Mb.7.36.13. -18 A square or house on a chessboard; अष्टापदपदालेख्यैः Rām. -19 A quadrant. -2 The last of a series. -21 A plot of ground. -22 (In Arith.) Any one in a set of numbers the sum of which is required. -23 A coin; माता पुत्रः पिता भ्राता भार्या मित्रजनस्तथा । अष्टापदपदस्थाने दक्षमुद्रेव लक्ष्यते ॥ Mb.12.298.4. (com. अष्टापदपदं सुवर्णकार्षापणः). -24 A way, road; षट्पदं नवसंख्यानं निवेशं चक्रिरे द्विजाः Mb.14.64.1. -25 Retribution (फल); ईहोपरमयोर्नॄणां पदान्यध्यात्मचक्षुषा Bhāg.7.13.2. -दः A ray of light. -Comp. -अङ्कः, चिह्नम् a foot-print. -अङ्गुष्ठः the great toe, thumb (of the foot). -अध्ययनम् study of the Vedas according to the पदपाठ q. v. -अनुग a. 1 following closely, being at the heels of (gen.). -2 suitable, agreeable to. (-गः) a follower, companion; एतान्निहत्य समरे ये चृ तस्य पदानुगाः । तांश्च सर्वान् विनिर्जित्य सहितान् सनराधिपान् ॥ Mb.3.12.6. -अनुरागः 1 a servant. -2 an army. -अनुशासनम् the science of words, grammar. -अनुषङ्गः anything added to a pada. -अन्तः 1 the end of a line of a stanza. -2 the end of a word. -अन्तरम् another step, the interval of one step; पदान्तरे स्थित्वा Ś.1; अ˚ closely, without a pause. -अन्त्य a. final. -अब्जम्, -अम्भोजम्, -अरविन्दम्, -कमलम्, -पङ्कजम्, -पद्मम् a lotus-like foot. -अभिलाषिन् a. wishing for an office. -अर्थः 1 the meaning of a word. -2 a thing or object. -3 a head or topic (of which the Naiyāyikas enumerate 16 subheads). -4 anything which can be named (अभिधेय), a category or predicament; the number of such categories, according to the Vaiśeṣikas, is seven; according to the Sāṅkhyas, twentyfive (or twenty-seven according to the followers of Patañjali), and two according to the Vedāntins. -5 the sense of another word which is not expressed but has to be supplied. ˚अनुसमयः preforming one detail with reference to all things or persons concerned; then doing the second, then the third and so on (see अनुसमय). Hence पदार्थानुसमयन्याय means: A rule of interpretation according to which, when several details are to be performed with reference to several things or persons, they should be done each to each at a time. -आघातः 'a stroke with the foot', a kick. -आजिः a foot-soldier. -आदिः 1 the beginning of the line of a stanza. -2 the beginning or first letter of a word. ˚विद् m. a bad student (knowing only the beginnings of stanzas). -आयता a shoe. -आवली a series of words, a continued arrangement of words or lines; (काव्यस्य) शरीरं तावदिष्टार्थव्यवच्छिन्नापदावली Kāv. 1.1; मधुरकोमलकान्तपदावलीं शृणु तदा जयदेवसरस्वतीम् Gīt.1. -आसनम् a foot-stool. -आहत a. kicked. -कमलम् lotus-like foot. -कारः, -कृत् m. the author of the Padapāṭha. -क्रमः 1 walking, a pace; न चित्रमुच्चैः श्रवसः पदक्रमम् (प्रशशंस) Śi.1.52. -2 a particular method of reciting the Veda; cf. क्रम. -गः a foot-soldier. -गतिः f. gait, manner of going. -गोत्रम् a family supposed to preside over a particular class of words. -छेदः, -विच्छेदः, -विग्रहः separation of words, resolution of a sentence into its constituent parts. -च्युत a. dismissed from office, deposed. -जातम् class or group of words. -दार्ढ्यम् fixedness or security of text. -न्यासः 1 stepping, tread, step. -2 a foot-mark. -3 position of the feet in a particular attitude. -4 the plant गोक्षुर. -5 writing down verses or quarters of verses; अप्रगल्भाः पदन्यासे जननीरागहेतवः । सन्त्येके बहुलालापाः कवयो बालका इव ॥ Trivikramabhaṭṭa. -पङ्क्तिः f. 1 a line of foot-steps; द्वारे$स्य पाण्डुसिकते पदपङ्क्तिर्दृश्यते$भिनवा Ś.3.7; V.4.6. -2 a line or arrangement of words, a series of words; कृतपदपङ्क्तिरथर्वणेव वेदः Ki.1.1. -3 an iṣtakā or sacred brick. -4 a kind of metre. -पाठः an arrangement of the Vedic text in which each word is written and pronounced in its original form and independently of phonetic changes (opp. संहितापाठ). -पातः, विक्षेपः a step, pace (of a horse also). -बन्धः a foot-step, step. -भञ्जनम् analysis of words, etymology. -भञ्जिका 1 a commentary which separates the words and analyses the compounds of a passage. -2 a register, journal. -3 a calendar. -भ्रंशः dismissal from office. -माला a magical formula. -योपनम् a fetter for the feet (Ved.). -रचना 1 arrangement of words. -2 literary composition. -वायः Ved. a leader. -विष्टम्भः a step, footstep. -वृत्तिः f. the hiatus between two words. -वेदिन् a linguist, philologist. -व्याख्यानम् interpretation of words. -शास्त्रम् the science of separately written words. -संघातः (टः) 1 connecting the words which are separated in the संहिता. -2 a writer, an annotator. -संधिः m. the euphonic combination of words. -स्थ a. 1 going on foot. -2 being in a position of authority or high rank. -स्थानम् a foot-print.
paścāt पश्चात् ind. (Used by itself or with gen. or abl.) 1 From behind; from the back; पश्चाद् बद्धपुरुषमादाय Ś.6; पश्चादुच्चैर्भवति हरिणः स्वाङ्गमायच्छमानः Ś.4. 1/2 (v. l.) -2 Behind, backwards, towards the back (opp. पुरः); गच्छति पुरः शरीरं धावति पश्चादसंस्तुतं चेतः Ś.1.33;3.7. -3 After (in time or space), then, afterwards, subsequently; लघ्वी पुरा वृद्धिमती च पश्चात् Bh.2.6; तस्य पश्चात् 'after him'; R.4.3;12.7;16.29; Me.38,46. -4 At last, lastly, finally. -5 From the west. -6 Towards the west, westward. -Comp. -अहस् ind. in the afternoon. -उक्तिः repetition. -कृत a. left behind, surpassed, thrown into the back-ground; पश्चात् कृताः स्निग्धजनाशिषो$पि Ku.7.28; R.17.18. -घाटः the neck. -तापः 1 repentance, contrition; ˚पं कृ to repent. -2 (In dram.) repentance at something rejected or omitted from want of judgment. -भागः a. whose conjunction with the moon begins in the afternoon. -गः 1 hind-part. -2 west side. -वातः a west-wind.
pātrīraḥ पात्रीरः रम् An oblation. पात्रेबहुलः pātrēbahulḥ पात्रेसमितः pātrēsamitḥ पात्रेबहुलः पात्रेसमितः 1 'Constant at meals or dinner-time', a parasite; वृतस्त्वं पात्रेसमितैः Bk.5.1. -3 A treacherous or hypocritical fellow.
piṭakaḥ पिटकः कम् 1 A box, basket; सशूर्पपिटकाः सर्वे Mb.5. 155.7. -2 A granary. -3 A pimple, pustule, small boil or ulcer; (also पिटका or पिटिका in this sense); ततो गण्डस्योपरि पिटका संवृत्ता Ś.2; सितरक्तपीतकृष्णा विप्रादीनां क्रमेण पिटका ये । ते क्रमशः प्रोक्तफला वर्णानामग्रजादीनाम् ॥ Bṛi. S.52.1. -4 A kind of ornament on the banner of Indra. -5 A collection of writings; as विनयपिटकम्. -का 1 A small boil or pimple; -2 A box, basket; खनित्रपिटके चोभे समानयत गच्छत Rām.2.37.5.
puṣkam पुष्कम् Nourishment, nutrition.
puṣṭiḥ पुष्टिः f. [पुष् भावे-क्तिन्] 1 Nourishing, breeding, or rearing -2 Nourishment, growth, increase, advance; यत् पिंषतामपि नृणां पिष्टो$पि तनोपि परिमलैः पुष्टिम् Bv.1.12. -3 Strength, fatness, fulness, plumpness; अन्धस्य दृष्टिरिव पुष्टिरिवातुरस्य Mk.1.49. -4 Prosperity, thriving. -5 Maintenance, support. -6 Wealth, property, means of comfort; तस्मिन्नपुष्यन्नुदिते समग्रां पुष्टिं जनाः पुष्य इव द्वितीये R.18.32. -7 Richness, magnificence. -8 Development, perfection. -9 N. of a ceremony, performed for the attainment of welfare; also पुष्टिकर्मन् q. v. -Comp. -कर a. nourishing, nutritive. -कर्मन् n. a religious ceremony performed for the attainment of worldly prosperity. -कान्तः an epithet of Gaṇeśa. -द a. 1 nourishing. -2 causing growth or prosperity. -दः N. of a medicinal plant (Mar. आसंध). -मार्गः N. of the doctrine of a Vaiṣṇava sect founded by Vallabhāchārya. -वर्धन a. promoting welfare, causing prosperity. (-नः) a cock.
puṣkaram पुष्करम् [पुष्कं पुष्टिं राति, रा-क; cf. Uṇ.4.4] 1 A blue lotus; Nelumbium speciosum; ताः कान्तैः सह करपुष्करे- रिताम्बुव्यात्युक्षीमभिसरणग्लहामदीव्यन् Śi.8.32. -2 The tip of an elephant's trunk; आलोकपुष्करमुखोल्लसितैरभीक्ष्णमुक्षां- बभूवुरभितो वपुरम्बुवर्षैः Śi.5.3. -3 The skin of a drum, i. e. the place where it is struck; पुष्करेष्वाहतेषु Me.68; R.17.11. -4 The blade of a sword; क्रोधेनान्धाः प्राविशन् पुष्कराणि Śi.18.17. -5 The sheath of a sword. -6 An arrow. -7 Air, sky, atmosphere; पुष्करं पूरयामासुः सिंह- नादेन भूयसा Śiva B.18.5. -8 A cage. -9 Water. -1 Intoxication. -11 The art of dancing. -12 War. battle. -13 Union. -14 N. of a celebrated place of pilgrimage in the district of Ajmere. -15 The bowl of a spoon. -16 A part, portion. -17 The tip of the elephant's trunk; Mātaṅga L.2.2;3.1;5.8;6.9. -रः 1 A lake, pond; पुष्करे दुष्करं वारि ... Jyotistattvam. -2 A kind of serpent. -3 A kind of drum, kettledrum; अवादयन् दुन्दुभींश्च शतशश्चैव पुष्करान् Mb.6.43.13. -4 The sun. -5 An epithet of a class of clouds said to cause dearth or famine; Me.6. (v. l. पुष्कल); तदीया- स्तोयदेष्वद्य पुष्करावर्तकादिषु । अभ्यस्यन्ति तटाघातम् Ku.2.5. -6 An epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. -7 An epithet of Śiva. -8 The Sārasa bird. -9 An inauspicious conjunction of planets. -रः, -रम् N. of one of the seven great divisions of the universe. -Comp. -अक्षः an epithet of Viṣṇu; ध्वजाग्रे पुष्कराक्षस्य तार्क्ष्यः संनिहितो$भवत् Bm.2.18. -आख्यः, -आह्वः the (Indian) crane. -आवर्तकः an epithet of a class of clouds said to cause dearth or famine; जातं वंशे भुवनविदिते पुष्करावर्तकानाम् Me.6; Ku.2.5, Ve.3.2. -तीर्थः N. of a sacred bathing-place; see पुष्कर above. -नाभः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पत्रम् a lotus-leaf. -प्रियः wax. -बीजम् lotus-seed. -विष्टरः the god Brahmā; जगाम लोकं स्वमखण्डितोत्सवं समीडितः पुष्करविष्टरादिभिः Bhāg. 3.19.31. -व्याघ्रः an alligator. -शिखा the root of a lotus. -सारी a kind of writing; L. V. -स्थपतिः an epithet of Śiva. -स्रज् f. a garland of lotuses. -m. (du.) N. of the two Aśvinīkumāras.
puṣpam पुष्पम् [पुष्प् विकाशे-अच्] 1 A flower, blossom; पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति Bg.9.26. -2 The menstrual discharge; as in पुष्पवती q. v. -3 A topaz (पुष्पराग); Rām.2.94.6. -4 A disease of the eyes (albugo). -5 The car or vehicle of Kubera; see पुष्पक. -6 Gallantry, politeness (in love language). -7 Expanding, blooming, blossoming (said to be m. in this sense). -Comp. -अग्रम् pistil. -अञ्जनम् 1 calx of brass used as a collyrium. -2 A white flower-like substance which appears when zinc is mixed with copper and heated for preparing brass. -3 Zinc oxide (Mar. जस्तफूल). -अञ्जलिः a handful of flowers. -अनुगम् a powder promoting menstruation. -अभिषेक = ˚स्नान q. v. -अम्बु the honey of flowers. -अम्बुजम् the sap of flowers. -अवचयः collecting or gathering flowers. -अवचायिन् = पुष्पाजीव q. v. -अस्त्रः an epithet of the god of love. -आकर a. rich or abounding in flowers; मासो नु पुष्पाकरः V.1.9. -आगमः the spring. -आजीवः a florist, garland-maker. -आननः a kind of liquor. -आपीडः a chaplet of flowers. -आयुधः, -इषुः the god of love; पुष्पायुधं दुराधर्षम् Mb.1. 172.17; Mahimna 23. -आसवम् honey. -आसारः a shower of flowers; पुष्पासारैः स्नपयतु भवान् व्योमगङ्गाजलार्द्रैः Me.45. -आस्तरकः, -आस्तरणम् the art of strewing flowers (one of the 64 Kalās). -उद्गमः appearance of flowers. -उद्यानम् a flower-garden. -उपजीविन् m. a florist, gardener, garland-maker. -करण्डकम् N. of the garden of Ujjayinī. -करण्डिनी N. of the city, Ujjayinī. -कालः 1 'flower-time', the spring. -2 the time of the menses. -कासीसम् green (or black) sulphate of iron. -कीटः a large black bee. -केतनः, -केतुः the god of love. (-n.) 1 calx of flowers. -2 vitriol (used as a collyrium). -गण्डिका N. of a kind of farce (in which men act as women and women as men); S. D. -गृहम् a flowerhouse, conservatory. -घातकः the bamboo. -चयः 1 gathering flowers -2 a quantity of flowers. -चापः the god of love. -चामरः a kind of cane. -जम् the juice of flowers. -दः a tree. -दन्तः 1 N. of an attendant of Śiva. -2 N. of the author of the Mahimnastotra. -3 N. of the elephant presiding over the northwest; शुद्धाक्षमैन्द्रं भल्लाटं पुष्पदन्तं तथैव च Hariv. -4 the sun and moon (dual). -दामन् n. a garland of flowers. -द्रवः 1 the sap or exudation of flowers. -2 an infusion of flowers. -द्रुमः a flowering tree. -धः the offspring of an outcast Brāhmaṇa; cf. व्रात्यात् तु जायते विप्रात् पापात्मा भूर्जकण्टकः । आवन्त्यवाटधानौ च पुष्पधः शैख एव च ॥ Ms.1.21. -धनुस्, -धन्वन् m. the god of love; द्रुतमेत्य पुष्पधनुषो धनुषः Śi.9.41; शतमखमुपतस्थे प्राञ्जलिः पुष्पधन्वा Ku.2.64. -धरः a. bearing flowers. -धारणः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -ध्वजः the god of love. -निक्षः a bee. -निर्यासः, -निर्यासकः the sap, nectar, or juice of flowers. -नेत्रम् the tube of a flower. -पत्रिन् m. the god of love. -पथः, -पदवी the vulva. -पुटः the calyx of a flower. -2 (in music) a particular position in dancing. -पुरम् N. of Pāṭaliputra; प्रासादवातायनसंश्रितानां नेत्रोत्सवं पुष्पपुराङ्गनानाम् R.6.24. -प्रचयः, -प्रचायः the plucking or gathering of flowers. -प्रचायिका gathering of flowers. -प्रस्तारः a bed or couch of flowers. -फलः the wood-apple tree. -बटुकः a courtier, gallant; (v. l. for पुष्पनाटक), -बलिः an offering of flowers. -बाणः, -वाणः an epithet of the god of love. -भद्रः a kind of pavilion with 62 columns. -भवः the nectar or juice of flowers. -मञ्जरिका a blue lotus. -माला a garland of flowers. -मासः 1 the month of Chaitra; मम त्वयं विना वासः पुष्पमासे सुदुःसहः Rām.4.1. 41. -2 the spring; अजितभुवनस्तथा हि लेभे सिततुरगे विजयं न पुष्पमासः Ki.1.35. -यमकम् a kind of Yamaka; cf. Bk.1.14. -रजस् n. the pollen. -रथः a carriage for travelling or for pleasure (but not for war); मुख्यः पुष्परथो युक्तः किं न गच्छति ते$ग्रतः Rām.2.26.15. -रसः the nectar or juice of flowers. ˚आह्वयम् honey. -रागः, -राजः a topaz. -रेणुः pollen; वायुर्विधूनयति चम्पकपुष्पपेणून् Kavirahasya; R.1.38. -पुष्परोचनः the Nāgakesara tree. -लावः a flower-gatherer. (-वी) a female flowergatherer; Me.26. -लिक्षः, -लिह् m. a bee. -लिपिः A particular style of writing. -वर्षः, -वर्षणम् a shower of flowers; सुरभि सुरविमुक्तं पुष्पवर्षं पपात R.12.12; पुष्पवर्षो महानभूत् Rām. -वाटिका, -वाटी f. a flower-garden. -वृक्षः a tree bearing flowers. -वृष्टिः f. a shower of flowers; परस्परशरव्राताः पुष्पवृष्टिं न सेहिरे R.12.94. -वेणी a garland of flowers. -शकटिका, -शकटी a heavenly voice, voice from heaven. ˚निमित्तज्ञानम् Knowledge of the omens which result from heavenly voices (one of the 64 Kalās). -शय्या a flowery bed, a couch of flowers. -शरः, -शरासनः, -सायकः the god of love. -समयः the spring. -सारः, -स्वेदः the nectar or honey of flowers. -सारा the holy basil. -सिता a kind of sugar. -स्नानम् a kind of inauguration. -हासः 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 the blooming of flowers. -हासा a woman in her courses. -हीना a woman past child-bearing.
pauṣṭika पौष्टिक a. (-की f.) 1 Promoting growth or welfare; मन्त्रवर्जं न दुष्यन्ति कुर्वाणाः पौष्टिकीः क्रियाः Mb.12.296.29. -2 Nourishing, nutritive, nutritious, invigorating. -3 Preservative. -कम् A cloth worn during the tonsure ceremony.
praṇayanam प्रणयनम् 1 Bringing, fetching. -2 Conducting, conveying. -3 Carrying out, executing, performing; सर्गशेष- प्रणयनाद्विश्वयोनेरनन्तरम् Ku.6.9. -4 Writing, composing. -5 Decreeing, sentencing, awarding; as दण्डस्य प्रणयनम्. -6 Bringing forward, adducing. -7 Distributing. -8 Infliction of (punishment). -9 Founding (of a school).
prati प्रति ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs it means (a) towards, in the direction of; (b) back, in return, again; तष्ठेदानीं न मे जीवन् प्रतियास्यसि दुर्मते Rām.7.18.13; (c) in opposition to, against, counter; (d) upon, down upon; (see the several roots with this preposition). -2 As a prefix to nouns not directly derived from verbs it means (a) likeness, resemblance, equality; (b) opposite, of the opposite side; प्रतिबल Ve.3.5. 'the opposing force'; so प्रतिद्विपाः Mu.2.13; (c) rivalry; as in प्रतिचन्द्रः 'a rival moon'; प्रतिपुरुषः &c. -3 As a separable preposition (with acc.) it means (a) towards, in the direction of, to; तौ दम्पती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं प्रस्थापयामास वशी वसिष्ठः R.2.7;1. 75; प्रत्यनिलं विचेरु Ku.3.31; वृक्षं प्रति विद्योतते विद्युत् Sk.; (b) against, counter, in opposition to, opposite; तदा यायाद् रिपुं प्रति Ms.7.171; प्रदुदुवुस्तं प्रति राक्षसेन्द्रम् Rām.; ययावजः प्रत्यरिसैन्यमेव R.7.55; (c) in comparison with, on a par with, in proportion to, a match for; त्वं सहस्राणि प्रति Ṛv.2.1.8; (d) near, in the vicinity of, by, at, in, on; समासेदुस्ततो गङ्गां शृङ्गवेरपुरं प्रति Rām.; गङ्गां प्रति; (e) at the time, about, during; आदित्यस्योदयं प्रति Mb; फाल्गुनं वाथ चैत्रं वा मासौ प्रति Ms.7.182; (f) on the side of, in favour of, to the lot of; यदत्र मां प्रति स्यात् Sk.; हरं प्रति हलाहलं (अभवत्) Vop.; (g) in each, in or at every, severally (used in a distributive sense); वर्षं प्रति, प्रतिवर्षम्; यज्ञं प्रति Y.1.11; वृक्षं वृक्षं प्रति सिञ्चति Sk.; (h) with regard or reference to, in relation to, regarding, concerning, about, as to; न हि मे संशीतिरस्या दिव्यतां प्रति K.132; चन्द्रोपरागं प्रति तु केनापि विप्रलब्धासि Mu.1; धर्मं प्रति Ś.5.18; मन्दौत्सुक्यो$स्मि नगरगमनं प्रति Ś.1; Ku.6.27; 7.83; त्वयैकमीशं प्रति साधु भाषितम् 5.81; Y.1.218; R.6. 12;1.29;12.51; (i) according to, in conformity with; मां प्रति in my opinion; (j) before, in the presence of; (k) for, on account of. -4 As a separable preposition (with abl.) it means either (a) a representative of, in place of, instead of; प्रद्युम्नः कृष्णात् प्रति Sk.; संग्रामे यो नारायणतः प्रति Bk.8.89; or (b) in exchange or return for; तिलेभ्यः प्रति यच्छति माषान् Sk.; भक्तेः प्रत्यमृतं शंभोः Vop. -5 As the first member of Avyayībhāva compound it usually means (a) in or at every; as प्रतिसंवत्सरम् 'every year', प्रतिक्षणम्, प्रत्यहम् &c.; (b) towards, in the direction of; प्रत्यग्नि शलभा डयन्ते. -6 प्रति is sometimes used as the last member of Avyayī. comp. in the sense of 'a little'; सूपप्रति, शाकप्रति. [Note:-In the compounds given below all words the second members of which are words not immediately connected with verbs, are included; other words will be found in their proper places.] -Comp. -अंशम् ind. on the shoulders. -अक्षरम् ind. in every syllable or letter; प्रत्यक्षरश्लेषमयप्रबन्ध Vās. -अग्नि ind. towards the fire. -अग्र = प्रत्यग्र q. v. -अङ्गम् 1 a secondary or minor limb (of the body), as the nose. -2 a division, chapter, section. -3 every limb. -4 a weapon. (-ङ्गम्) ind. 1 on or at every limb of the body; as in प्रत्यङ्ग- मालिङ्गितः Gīt.1. -2 for every subdivision. -3 in each case (in grammar). -अधिदेवता a tutelary deity who stays in front or near one; Hch. -अधिष्ठानम्, -आधानम् the principal place of residence; Bṛi. Up.2.2.1. -2 repository. -अनन्तर a. 1 being in immediate neighbourhood; दानमानादिसत्कारैः कुरुष्व प्रत्यनन्तरम् Rām.4.15.27. (com. प्रत्यनन्तरं स्वाधीनम्). -2 standing nearest (as an heir). -3 immediately following, closely connected with; जीवेत् क्षत्रियधर्मेण स ह्यस्य (ब्राह्मणस्य) प्रत्यनन्तरः; Ms.1. 82;8.185. (-रम्) ind. 1 immediately after. -2 next in succession. -रीभू to betake oneself close to; P. R. -अनिलम् ind. towards or against the wind. -अनीक a 1 hostile, opposed, inimical. -2 resisting, opposing. -3 opposite. -4 equal, vying with. (-कः) an enemy. (-कम्) 1 hostility, enmity, hostile attitude or position; न शक्ताः प्रत्यनीकेषु स्थातुं मम सुरासुराः Rām. -2 a hostile army; यस्य शूरा महेष्वासाः प्रत्यनीकगता रणे Mb.; ये$वस्थिताः प्रत्यनीकेषु योधाः Bg.11.32. (प्र˚ may have here sense 1 also). -3 (in Rhet.) a figure of speech in which one tries to injure a person or thing connected with an enemy who himself cannot be injured; प्रतिपक्षमशक्तेन प्रतिकर्तुं तिरस्क्रिया । या तदीयस्य तत्स्तुत्यै प्रत्यनीकं तदुच्यते K. P.1. -अनुप्रासः a kind of alliteration. -अनुमानम् an opposite conclusion. -अन्त a. contiguous, lying close to, adjacent, bordering. (-न्तः) 1 a border, frontier; स गुप्तमूलप्रत्यन्तः R.4.26. -2 a bordering country; especially, a country occupied by barbarian or Mlechchhas. ˚देशः a bordering country. ˚पर्वतः an adjacent hill; पादाः प्रत्यन्तपर्वताः Ak. -अन्धकार a. spreading shadow; Buddh. -अपकारः retaliation, injury in return; शाम्येत् प्रत्यप- कारेण नोपकारेण दुर्जनः Ku.2.4. -अब्दम् ind. every year -अमित्र a. hostile. (-त्रः) an enemy. (-त्रम्) ind. towards as enemy. -अरिः 1 a well-matched opponent. -2 the 9th, 14th or 23rd asterism from the जन्मनक्षत्र. -3 a particular asterism; दारुणेषु च सर्वेषु प्रत्यरिं च विवर्जयेत् Mb.13.14.28 (com. प्रत्यरिं स्वनक्षत्राद् दिननक्षत्रं यावद् गणयित्वा नवभिर्भागे हृते पञ्चमी तारा प्रत्यरिः ।). -अर्कः a mock sun; parhelion. -अर्गलम् the rope by which a churning stick is moved. -अवयवम् ind. 1 in every limb. -2 in every particular, in detail. -अवर a. 1 lower, less honoured; पुरावरान् प्रत्यवरान् गरीयसः Mb.13.94.12. -2 very low or degrading, very insignificant; Ms.1.19. -अश्मन् m. red chalk. -अष्ठीला a kind of nervous disease. -अहम् ind. every day, daily; day by day; गिरिशमुपचचार प्रत्यहं सा सुकेशी Ku.1.6. -आकारः a scabbard, sheath. -आघातः 1 a counter-stroke. -2 reaction. -आचारः suitable conduct or behaviour. -आत्मम् ind. singly, severally. -आत्मक a. belonging to oneself. -आत्म्यम् similarity with oneself. -आत्मेन ind. after one's own image; स किंनरान् कुंपुरुषान् प्रत्यात्म्येना- सृजत् प्रभुः Bhāg.3.2.45. -आदित्यः a mock sun. -आरम्भः 1 recommencement, second beginning. -2 prohibition. -आर्द्र a. fresh. -आशा 1 hope, expectation; न यत्र प्रत्याशामनुपतति नो वा रहयति Māl.9.8. -2 trust, confidence. -आसङ्गः Connection, contact; अथ प्रत्यासङ्गः कमपि महिमानं वितरति Mv.1.12. -आस्वर 1 returning. -2 reflecting; Ch.Up.1.3.2. -आह्वयः echo, resonance; छाया प्रत्याह्वयाभासा ह्यसन्तो$प्यर्थकारिणः Bhāg.11.28.5. -उत्तरम् a reply, rejoinder. -उलूकः 1 a crow; मृत्युदूतः कपोतो$यमुलूकः कम्पयन्मनः । प्रत्युलूकश्च कुह्वानैरनिद्रौ शून्यमिच्छतः ॥ Bhāg.1.14.14. -2 a bird resembling an owl. -ऋचम् ind. in each Rik. -एक a. each, each one, every single one. (-कम्) ind. 1 one at a time, severally; singly, in every one, to every one; oft. with the force of an adjective; विवेश दण्डकारण्यं प्रत्येकं च सतां मनः R.12.9. 'entered the mind of every good man'; 12.3;7.34; Ku.2.31. -एनस् m. 1 an officer of justice (who punishes criminals); Bṛi. Up.4.3.7. -2 a heir responsible for the debts of the deceased; surety. -कञ्चुकः 1 an adversary. -2 a critic. -कण्ठम् ind. 1 severally, one by one. -2 near the throat. -कलम् ind. constantly, perpetually. -कश a. not obeying the whip. -कष्ट a. comparatively bad. -कामिनी a female rival; Śi. -कायः 1 an effigy, image, picture, likeness. -2 an adversary; स वृषध्वजसायकावभिन्नं जयहेतुः प्रतिकाय- मेषणीयम् Ki.13.28. -3 a target, butt, mark. -कितवः an opponent in a game. -कुञ्जरः a hostile elephant. -कूपः a moat, ditch. -कूल a. 1 unfavourable, adverse, contrary, hostile, opposite, प्रतिकूलतामुपगते हि विधौ विफलत्व- मेति बहुसाधनता Śi.9.6; Ku.3.24. -2 harsh, discordant. unpleasant, disagreeable; अप्यन्नपुष्टा प्रतिकूलशब्दा Ku.1. 45. -3 inauspicious. -4 contradictory. -5 reverse, inverted. -6 perverse, cross, peevish, stubborn. ˚आचार- णम्, ˚आचरितम् any offensive or hostile action or conduct; प्रतिकूलाचरितं क्षमख मे R.8.81. ˚उक्तम्, -क्तिः f. a contradiction. ˚कारिन्, -कृत, -चारिन्, -वत्ति a. opposing. ˚दर्शन a. having an inauspicious or ungracious appearance. ˚प्रवर्तिन्, -वर्तिन् a. acting adversely, taking an adverse course. ˚भाषिन् a. opposing, contradicting. ˚वचनम् disagreeable or unpleasant speech. ˚वादः contradiction. (प्रतिकूलता, -त्वम् adverseness, opposition, hostility. प्रति- कूलयति 'to oppose'.). -कूल ind. 1 adversely, contrarily. -2 inversely, in inverted order. -कूलय Den. P. to resist, oppose. -कूलिक a. hostile, inimical. -क्षणम् ind. at every moment or instant, constantly; प्रतिक्षणं संभ्रमलोलदृष्टि- र्लीलारविन्देन निवारयन्ती Ku.3.56. -क्षपम् ind. everynight. -गजः a hostile elephant -गात्रम् ind. in very limb. -गिरिः 1 an opposite mountain. -2 an inferior mountain. -गृहम्, -गेहम् ind. in every house. -ग्रामम् ind. in every village. -चक्रम् a hostile army. -चन्द्रः a mock moon; paraselene. -चरणम् ind. 1 in every (Vedic) school or branch. -2 at every foot-step. -छाया, -यिका 1 a reflected image, reflection, shadow; रूपं प्रतिच्छायिक- योपनीतम् N.6.45. -2 an image, picture. -जङ्घा the forepart of the leg. -जिह्वा, -जिह्विका the soft palate, -तन्त्रम् ind. according to each Tantra or opinion. -तन्त्र- सिद्धान्तः a conclusion adopted by one of the disputants only; (वादिप्रतिवाद्येकतरमात्राभ्युपगतः). -त्र्यहम् ind. for three days at a time. -दण्ड a. Ved. disobedient. -दिनम् ind. every day; राशीभूतः प्रतिदिनमिव त्र्यम्बकस्याट्टहासः Me.6. -दिशम् ind. in every direction, all round, everywhere. -दूतः a messenger sent in return. -देवता a corresponding deity; गताः कलाः पञ्चदश प्रतिष्ठा देवाश्च सर्वे प्रतिदेवतासु Muṇḍa.3.2.7. -देशम् ind. in every country. -देहम् ind. in every body. -दैवतम् ind. for every deity. -द्वन्द्वः 1 an antagonist, opponent, adversary, rival. -2 an enemy. (-द्वम्) opposition, hostility. -द्वन्द्विन् a. 1 hostile, inimical. -2 adverse (प्रतिकूल); कृतान्तदुर्वृत्त इवापरेषां पुरः प्रतिद्वन्द्विनि पाण्डवास्त्रे Ki.16.29. -3 rivalling, vying with; किसलयोद्भेदप्रतिद्वन्दिभिः (करतलैः) Ś.4.5. (-m.) an opponent, adversary, rival; तुल्यप्रति- द्वन्द्वि बभूव युद्धम् R.7.37.;15.25. -द्वारम् ind. at every gate. -धुरः a horse harnessed by the side of another. -नप्तृ m. great-grandson, a son's grandson. -नव a. 1 new, young, fresh. -2 newly blown budded; सान्ध्यं तेजः प्रतिनवजपापुष्परक्तं दधानः Me.38. -नाडी a branch-vein. -नायकः the adversary of the hero of any poetic composition; धीरोद्धतः पापकारी व्यसनी प्रतिनायकः S. D., as रावण in the Rāmāyaṇa, शिशुपाल in Māgha-Kāvya &c. -नारी, -पत्नी, -युवतिः a female rival; Śi.7.45. -निनादः = प्रतिध्वनिः q. v. -न्यायम् ind. in inverted order; पुनः प्रतिन्यायं प्रतियोन्याद्रवति स्वप्नायैव Bṛi. Up.4.3.15. -पक्ष a. like, similar. (-क्षः) 1 the opposite side, party or faction, hostility; विमृश्य पक्षप्रतिपक्षाभ्यामवधारणं नियमः Gaut. S, -2 an adversary, enemy, foe, rival; प्रति- पक्षकामिनी, -लक्ष्मी 'a rival wife'; Bv.2.64; दासीकृतायाः प्रति- पक्षलक्ष्याः Vikr.1.73; प्रतिपक्षमशक्तेन प्रतिकर्तुम् K. P.1; Vikr.1.7; often used in comp. in the sense of 'equal' or 'similar'. -3 remedy, expiation; यादवस्य पापस्य प्रतिपक्षमुपदिशामि Nāg.5. -4 a defendant or respondent (in law). ˚ता 1 hostility, opposition. -2 obstacle. -पक्षित a. 1 containing a contradiction. -2 nullified by a contradictory premise; (as a hetu in न्याय); cf. सत्प्रतिपक्ष. -पक्षिन् m. an opponent, adversary. -पण्यम् merchandise in exchange; Buddh. -प्रथम् ind. along the road, towards the way; प्रतिपथगतिरासीद् वेगदीर्घीकृताङ्गः Ku.3.76. -पदम् ind. 1 at evry stop. -2 at every place, everywhere. -3 expressly. -4 in every word; प्रतिपदाख्याने तु गौरवं परिहरद्भिर्वृत्तिकारैः सर्वसामान्यः शब्दः प्रति- गृहीतः प्रकृतिवदिति ŚB. on MS.8.1.2. -पल्लवः an opposite or outstretched branch; R. -पाणः 1 a stake. -2 a counter-pledge. -3 a counter-stake; Mb.3. -पादम् ind. in each quarter. -पात्रम् ind. with regard to each part, of each character; प्रतिपात्रमाधीयतां यत्नः Ś.1 'let care be taken of each character'. -पादपम् ind. in every tree. -पाप a. returning sin for sin, requiting evil for evil. -पु(पू)रुषः 1 a like or similar man. -2 a substitute, deputy. -3 a companion. -4 the effigy of a man pushed by thieves into the interior of a house before entering it themselves (to ascertain if any body is awake). -5 an effigy in general. (-षम्) ind. man by man, for each man. -पुस्तकम् a copy of an original manuscript. -पूर्वाह्णम् ind. every forenoon. -प्रति a. counter-balancing, equal to. -प्रभातम् ind. every morning. -प्रसवः 1 (As opposed to अनुप्रसव) tracing causes back to the origin as -a pot, a lump of mud, mud, clay, Pātañjala Yogadarśana. -2 Negation of (or exception to) a negation. The force of a प्रतिप्रसव is positive, limiting as it does the scope of a प्रतिषेध or negation. Hence it is just the opposite of परिसंख्या whose force is negative or exclusive since it limits the scope of a positive statement. प्रतिप्रसवो$यं न परिसंख्या ŚB. on MS.1.7.45. -प्रकारः an outer wall or rampart. -प्रियम् a kindness or service in return; प्रतिप्रियं चेद् भवतो न कुर्यां वृथा हि मे स्यात् स्वपदोपलब्धिः R.5.56. -बन्धुः an equal in rank or station; Mb.5.121.13. -बलः a. 1 able, powerful. -2 equal in strength, equally matched or powerful. (-लम्) 1 a hostile army; अस्त्रज्वालावलीढप्रतिबलजलधेरन्तरौर्वायमाणे Ve.3.7. -2 strength. -बाहु 1 the forepart of the arm. -2 an opposite side (in a square or polygon). -बि (वि) म्बः, -म्बम् 1 a reflection, reflected image; ज्योतिषां प्रतिबिम्बानि प्राप्नु- वन्त्युपहारताम् Ku.6.42; Śi.9.18. -2 an image, a picture. -बीजम् a rotten seed. -भट a. vying with, rivalling; घटप्रतिभटस्तनि N.13.5. (-टः) 1 a rival, an opponent; निवासः कन्दर्पप्रतिभटजटाजूटभवने G. L.21. -2 a warrior on the opposite side; समालोक्याजौ त्वां विदधति विकल्पान् प्रतिभटाः K. P.1. -भय a. 1 fearful, formidable, terrible, frightful. -2 dangerous; स्वगृहोद्यानगते$पि स्निग्धैः पापं विशङ्क्यते मोहात् । किमु दृष्टबह्वपायप्रतिभयकान्तारमध्यस्थे ॥ Pt.2.171; Nāg.5.1.; Bhāg.1.6.14. (-यम्) a danger; सुनन्द, श्रुतं मया संनिहितगरुडप्रतिभयमुद्देशं जामाता जीमूतवाहनो गतः Nāg.5. -भैरव a. dreadful. -मञ्चः a kind of measure (in music.) -मञ्चाः Platforms opposite to each other; दशभागिकौ द्वौ प्रतिमञ्चौ Kau. A.2.3.21. -मण्डलम् 1 a secondary disc (of the sun &c.). -2 an eccentric orbit. -मन्दिरम् ind. in every house. -मल्लः an antagonist, a rival; उपेयिवांसं प्रतिमल्लतां रयस्मये जितस्य प्रसभं गरुत्मतः N.1.63; पातालप्रतिमल्लगल्ल &c. Māl.5.22. -मानना worship (पूजा); स्पर्शमशुचिवपुरर्हति न प्रतिमाननां तु नितरां नृपोचिताम् Śi.15.35. -माया a counter-spell or charm; प्रतिमाया कृतं च तत् Mb.1.34.22. -मार्गः the way back; Mb.4. -मार्गम् ind. back, backwards. -माला capping verses (Mar. भंडी). -मासम् ind. every month, monthly. -मित्रम् an enemy, adversary. -मुख a. standing before the face, facing; प्रतिमुखागत Ms.8.291. -2 near, present. (-खम्) a secondary plot or incident in a drama which tends either to hasten or retard the catastrophe; see S. D.334 and 351-364. (-खम्) ind. 1 towards. -2 in front, before. -मुखरी a particular mode of drumming. -मुद्रा 1 a counterseal. -2 the impression of a seal. -मुहूर्तम् ind. every moment. -मूर्तिः f. an image, a likeness. -मूषिका f. a musk-rat (Mar. चिचुंदरी). -यूथपः the leader of a hostile herd of elephants. -रथः an adversary in war (lit. in fighting in a war-chariot); दौष्यन्तिमप्रतिरथं तनयं निवेश्य Ś.4.2. -रथ्यम् in every road; अस्मिन् नगरे प्रतिरथ्यं भुजङ्गबद्धसंचारे Udb. -रवः, -ध्वनिः 1 an echo; प्रतिरवविततो वनानि चक्रे Ki.1.4. -2 quarrel; controversy. -3 (Ved.) life (प्राण). -रसितम् an echo; केनास्मत् सिंह- नादप्रतिरसितसखो दुन्दुभिस्ताड्यते$यम् Ve.1.22. -राजः a hostile king. -रात्रम् ind. every night. -रूप a. 1 corresponding, similar, having a counter-part in; अग्निर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव Kaṭh.2.2.9. -2 beautiful. -3 suitable, proper; इदं न प्रतिरूपं ते स्त्रीष्वदाक्षिण्यमीदृशम् Bu. Ch.4.66; आत्मनः प्रतिरूपं सा बभाषे चारुहासिनी Rām.4. 19.17. -4 facing (अभिमुख); प्रतिरूपं जनं कुर्यान्न चेत् तद् वर्तते यथा Mb.12.97.16 (com. प्रतिरूपं युद्धाभिमुखम्). (-पम्) 1 a picture, an image, a likeness. -2 a mirror-like reflecting object; अदर्शनं स्वशिरसः प्रतिरूपे च सत्यपि Bhāg. 1.42.28. -4 an object of comparison (उपमान); भवान्मे खलु भक्तानां सर्वेषां प्रतिरूपधृक् Bhāg.7.1.21. -रूपक a. resembling, similar (at the end of comp.); जहीमान् राक्षसान् पापानात्मनः प्रतिरूपकान् Mb.3.29.11; चेष्टाप्रतिरूपिका मनोवृत्तिः Ś.1. (-कम्) 1 a picture, an image; अग्निदैर्गर- दैश्चैव प्रतिरूपककारकैः Mb.12.59.49. -2 a forged edict; जर्जरं चास्य विषयं कुर्वन्ति प्रतिरूपकैः Mb.12.56.52. -3 a reflection. -लक्षणम् a mark, sign, token. -लिपिः f. a transcript, a written copy. -लेखः a writ of reply; प्रावृत्तिकश्च प्रतिलेख एव Kau. A.2.1.28. -लोम a. 1 'against the hair or grain', contray to the natural order, inverted, reverse (opp. अनुलोम); नववर्षसहस्राक्षः प्रतिलोमो$भवद् गुरुः Bhāg.12.14.15. -2 contrary to caste (said of the issue of a woman who is of a higher caste than her husband). -3 hostile. -4 low, vile, base. -5 left (वाम). -6 obstinate, perverse; अपरिचितस्यापि ते$प्रतिलोमः संवृत्तः Ś.7. -7 disagreeable, unpleasant. (-मम्) any injurious or unpleasant act. (-मम्) ind. 'against the hair or grain', inversely, invertedly. ˚ज a. born in the inverse order of the castes; i. e. born of a mother who is of a higher caste than the father; cf. Ms.1.16,25. -लोमक a. reverse, inverted; राजन्यविप्रयोः कस्माद् विवाहः प्रतिलोमकः Bhāg.9.18.5. -कम् inverted order. -लोमतः ind. 1 in consequence of the inverted order or course; Ms.1.68. -2 in an unfriendly manner; यदा बहुविधां वृद्धिं मन्येत प्रतिलोमतः Mb.12.13.39. -वत्सरम् ind. every year. -वनम् ind. in every forest. -वर्णिक a. similar, corresponding. -वर्धिन् a. being a match for. -वर्षम् ind. every year. -वस्तु n. 1 an equivalent, a counterpart. -2 anything given in return. -3 a parallel. ˚उपमा a figure of speech thus defined by Mammaṭa:-- प्रतिवस्तूपमा तु सा ॥ सामान्यस्य द्विरेकस्य यत्र वाक्यद्वये स्थितिः । K. P.1; e. g. तापेन भ्राजते सूर्यः शूरश्चापेन राजते Chandr.5. 48. -वातः a contrary wind; प्रतिवाते$नुवाते च नासीत गुरुणा सह Ms.2.23. (-तम्) ind. against the wind; चीनांशुक- मिव केतोः प्रतिवातं नीयमानस्य Ś.1.33. -वारणः a hostile elephant. -वासरम् ind. every day. -विटपम् ind. 1 on every branch. -2 branch by branch. -विषम् an antidote. (-षा) a birch tree. -विष्णुकः a Muchakunda tree. -वीरः an opponent, antagonist. -वीर्यम् being equal to or a match for. -वृषः a hostile bull. -वेलम् ind. at each time, on every occasion. -वेशः 1 a neighbouring house, neighbourhood. -2 a neighbour. -वेशिन् a. a neighbour; दृष्ट्वा प्रभातसमये प्रतिवेशिवर्गः Mk.3.14. -वेश्मन् n. a neighbour's house. -वेश्यः a neighbour. -वैरम् requital of hostilities revenge. -शब्दः 1 echo, reverberation; वसुधाधरकन्दराभिसर्पी प्रतिशब्दो$पि हरेर्भिनत्ति नागान् V. 1.16; Ku.6.64; R.2.28. -2 a roar. -शशिन् m. a mock-moon. -शाखम् ind. for every branch or school (of the Veda). -शाखा a side-branch; महाभूतविशेषश्च विशेषप्रतिशाखवान् Mb.14.35.21. -संवत्सरम् ind. every year. -सङ्गक्षिका 1 a cloak to keep off the dust; Buddh. -संदेशः a reply to the message; दर्पसारस्य प्रति- संदेशमावेदयत् D. K.2.1. -सम a. equal to, a match for. -सव्य a. in an inverted order. -सामन्तः an enemy. -सायम् ind. every evening. -सूर्यः, -सूर्यकः 1 a mock-sun. -2 a lizard, chameleon; 'कृकलासस्तु सरटः प्रतिसूर्यः शयानकः ।' Hemchandra; तृष्यद्भिः प्रतिसूर्यकैरजगरस्वेदद्रवः पीयते U.2.16. -सेना, सैन्यम् a hostile army; निहतां प्रतिसैन्येन वडवामिव पातिताम् Rām.2.114.17. -स्थानम् ind. in every place, everywhere. -स्मृतिः N. of particular kind of magic; गृहाणेमां मया प्रोक्तां सिद्धिं मूर्तिमतीमिव । विद्यां प्रतिस्मृतिं नाम Mb.3.36.3. -स्रोतस् ind. against the stream; सरस्वतीं प्रतिस्रोतं ययौ ब्राह्मणसंवृतः Bhāg.1.78. 18. -a. going against the stream; अथासाद्य तु कालिन्दी प्रतिस्रोतः समागताम् Rām.2.55.5. -हस्तः, -हस्तकः a deputy, an agent, substitute, proxy; आश्रितानां भृतौ स्वामिसेवायां धर्मसेवने । पुत्रस्योत्पादने चैव न सन्ति प्रतिहस्तकाः ॥ H.2.33. -हस्तीकृ to take; Pratijñā 3. -हस्तिन् the keeper of a brothel; Dk.2.2.
pratyānāhaḥ प्रत्यानाहः Pleuritis.
prayata प्रयत p. p. 1 Restrained, self-subdued, holy, pious, devout, purified by austerities or religious observances; keeping the organs of sense under restraint; प्रयतपरिग्रह- द्वितीयः R.1.95;8.11;13.7; समादिदेश प्रयतां तनूजाम् Ku.1.58;3.16; शुचिः प्रयतवाक्चित्तः स्तुत्वा माद्रीसुतो$थ तम् Bm.2.133; प्रयते केरलदेशे प्रथितं राराष्टि कोटिलिङ्गपुरम् Rām. Ch.1.1. -2 Zealous, intent; प्रयतोपचराम्यहम् Mb.3.233. 19. -3 Submissive. -4 Careful, prudent. -तः A holy or pious person. -Comp. -आत्मन् -मानस pious-minded, devout, ascetic; प्रयतात्मनः Bg.9.26. -पाणि folding palms together (in नमस्कार); यश्चिन्त्यते प्रयतपाणिभिः Bhāg. 11.6.11.
pravacanam प्रवचनम् 1 Speaking, declaration, announcement; प्रवचने मान्द्यम् Pt.1.19. -2 Teaching, expounding. -3 Exposition, explanation, interpretation; नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यो न मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन Kaṭh.1.2.22; लब्ध्वा ज्ञानमनेकधा प्रवचनैर्मन्वादयः प्राणयन् Mv.4.25; Bhāg.7.15.1. -4 Eloquence. -5 A sacred treatise or writing; Ms. 3.184. -6 An expression, a term. -7 A system of doctrines (in the form of a treatise). -8 The fundamental doctrine of the Budhists. -नः One who exposes, propounds; Bhāg.1.87.11. -Comp. -पटु a. skilled in talking, eloquent.
praśastiḥ प्रशस्तिः f. 1 Praise, eulogy, laudation. -2 Description; U.7. -3 A panegyric or small poem written in praise of any one (e. g. a patron). -4 Excellence, eminence. -5 Benediction. -6 Guidance, instruction, rule for guidance; as in लेखप्रशस्तिः 'a form of writing'. -7 Publicity, advertising; दशाननतिरस्कारप्रशस्तिमिव Mv.5.12.
prasādana प्रसादन a. (-नी f.) 1 Purifying, clearing, rendering pure or clear. -2 Soothing, calming. -3 Cheering, gladdening. -नः A royal tent. -नम् 1 Clearing from impurities, purifying. -2 Soothing, calming, tranquillizing, composing. -3 Pleasing, gratifying. -4 Propitiating, courting fovour. -ना, -नी 1 Service, worship. -2 Purifying.
prahasanam प्रहसनम् 1 Loud or violent laughter, laughing, mirth. -2 Ridicule, mockery, irony, joke; धिक् प्रहसनम् U.4. -3 Satire, satirical writing, -4 A farce, a kind of low comedy; S. D. thus defines it :-- भाणवत्संधिसंध्यङ्ग- लास्याङ्गाङ्कैर्विनिर्मितम् । भवेत् प्रहसनं वृत्तं निन्द्यानां कविकल्पितम् ॥ 533 et seq. e. g. कन्दर्पकेलि.
prāc प्राच् प्राञ्च् a. (-ची f.) 1 Turned towards the front, in front, foremost. -3 Eastern, easterly. -3 Prior, previous, former. -m. (pl.) The people of the east. -2 Eastern grammarians. -Comp. -अग्र a. (प्रागग्र) having the point turned towards the east. -अनुरागः (प्रागनुरागः) former affection. -अभावः (प्रागभावः) 1 antecedent non-existence, non-existence of a thing previous to its production, as of an effect previous to its production; प्रागभावस्तथा ध्वंसो$प्यत्यन्ताभाव एव च । एवं त्रैविध्यमापन्नः संसर्गाभाव इष्यते ॥ Bhāṣā. P. -2 (in law) non-possession of property (that may be possessed). -अभिहित (प्रागभिहित) a. mentioned before. -अवस्था (प्रागवस्था) the former state; न तर्हि प्रागवस्थायाः परिहीयसे Māl.4. 'you are none the worse for it'. -आयत (प्रागायत) a. extending towards the east. -उक्तिः f. (प्रागुक्तिः) previous utterance. -उत्तर (प्रागुत्तर) a. north-eastern. -उत्पत्तिः (प्रागुत्पत्तिः) first appearance (of a disease). -उदञ्च् a. (प्रागुदञ्च्) north-eastern. -उदीची (प्रागुदीची) f. the north-east. -कर्मन् (प्राक्- कर्मन्) n. 1 an action done in a former life. -2 a preliminary medical treatment. -3 a preliminary action in general. -कालः (प्राक्कालः) a former age. -कालीन (प्राक्कालीन) a. belonging to the former times, old, ancient. -कूल (प्राक्कूल) a. having the points turned towards the east (said of Kuśa grass); प्राक्कूलान् पर्युपासीनः पवित्रैश्चैव पावितः Ms.2.75. (-लम्) the point of a blade of such Kuśa grass. -कृतम् (प्राक्कृतम्) an act done in a former life. -केवल a. (प्राक्केवल) manifested from the first in a distinct form. -गामिन् a. (प्राग्- गामिन्) 1 going before, preceding. -2 a precursor, forerunner. -3 going eastward. -चरणा a. (प्राक्चरणा) the female organ of generation. -चिरम् (प्राक्चिरम्) ind. in due or good time, before too late. -जन्मन् (प्राग्जन्मन्) n., -जातिः (प्राग्जातिः) f. a former birth. -ज्योतिषः (प्राग्ज्योतिषः) 1 N. of country, also called Kāmarūpa. -2 (pl.) the people of this country (-षम्) N. of a city. ˚ज्येष्ठः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -दक्षिण a. (प्राग्दक्षिण) south-eastern. -देशः (प्राग्देशः) the eastern country. -द्वार, -द्वारिक a. (प्राग्द्वार &c.) having doors facing the east. -न्यायः (प्राङ्न्यायः) the plea of a former trial, res judicata; आचारेणावसन्नो$पि पुनर्लेखय- ते यदि । सो$भिधेयो जितः पूर्वं प्राङ्न्यायस्तु स उच्यते ॥ -पदम् (प्राक्पदम्) the first member of a compound. -प्रहारः (प्राक्प्रहारः) the first blow. -फलः (प्राक्फलः) the bread-fruit tree. -फ(फा)ल्गुनी (प्राक्फल्गुनी) the eleventh lunar mansion, (पूर्वा). ˚भवः 1 the planet Jupiter. -2 N. of Bṛihaspati. -फाल्गुनः, -फाल्गुनेयः (प्राक्फाल्गुनः &c.) the planet Jupiter. -भक्तम् (प्राग्- भक्तम्) taking medicine before meals. -भवः (प्राग्भवः) a previous life. -भागः (प्राग्भागः) 1 the front. -2 the fore-part. -भारः (प्राग्भारः) 1 the top summit of a mountain; प्राग्भारेषु शिखण्डिताण्डवविधौ मेघैर्वितानाय्यते Māl.9. 15. -2 the front part, fore-part or end (of anything); क्रन्दत्फेरवचण्डडात्कृतिभृतप्राग्भारभीमैस्तटैः Māl.5.19. -3 a large quantity, heap, multitude, flood; तिमिरप्राग्भार- मुच्चाटयन्......विजयते ज्ञानप्रदीपो हरः Bh.3.129; Māl.5.29. -भावः (प्राग्भावः) 1 previous existence. -2 excellence, superiority. -मुख (प्राङ्मुख) a. 1 turned towards or facing the east; तां प्राङ्मुखीं तत्र निवेश्य तन्वीम् Ku.7.13; Ms.2.51;8.87. -2 inclined towards, wishing, desirous of. -रूपम् (प्राग्रूपम्) Previous symptom (of disease). -लग्नम् (प्राग्लग्नम्) horoscope. -वंशः (प्राग्वंशः) 1 a kind of sacrificial room having its columns turned towards the east; श्लाघ्यस्त्यागो$पि वैदेह्याः पत्युः प्राग्वंशवासिनः R.15.61. (प्राचीनस्थूणो यज्ञशालाविशेषः Malli.; but some interpret the word to mean 'a room in which the friends and family of the sacrificer assemble'); केचिद् बभञ्जुः प्राग्वंशं पत्नीशालां तथा$परे Bhāg.4.5.14. -2 a former dynasty or generation. -वचनम् (प्राग्वचनम्) anything formerly decided; statement by the ancient authorities; प्रागिदं वचनं पोक्तम् अतः प्रग्वचनं विदुः Mb. -वृत्तम् = प्राङ्न्यायः q. v. -वृत्तान्तः (प्राग्वृत्तान्तः) a former event. -शिरस्, -स, -शिरस्क (प्राक्शिरस् &c.) a. having the head turned towards the east. -संध्या (प्राक्संध्या) the morning twilight. -सवनम् (प्राक्सवनम्) a morning libation or sacrifice. -स्रोतस् (प्राक्स्रोतस्) a. flowing eastward. (-f.) a river.
plāvaḥ प्लावः [प्लु-घञ्] 1 Flowing over. -2 Jumping, leaping, क्वचिच्च दर्दुरप्लावैर्विविधैरुपहासकैः Bhāg.1.18.15. -3 Filling to, overflowing. -4 Straining a liquid (to remove impurities &c.); भस्माद्भिः कांस्यलोहानां शुद्धिः प्लावो द्रवस्य तु Y.1.19. (see Mitā. thereon). -5 Submersion.
phalakam फलकम् 1 A board, plank, slab, tablet; कालः काल्या भुवनफलके क्रीडति प्राणिशारैः Bh.3.39; द्यूत˚, चित्र˚ &c. -2 Any flat surface; चुम्ब्यमानकपोलफलकाम् K.218; धृत- मुग्धगण्डफलकैर्विबभुः Śi.9.47,37; cf. तट. -3 A shield; Rām.1. -4 A slab, tablet, leaf or page for writing upon. -5 The buttocks, hips. -6 The palm of the hand. -7 Fruit, result, consequence. -8 Profit, gain. -9 Menstruation. -1 The head of an arrow. -11 The pericarp of a lotus. -12 A broad and flat bone (of the forehead). -13 A wooden seat; तवार्हते तु फलकं कूर्चं वा$प्यथवा बृसी Mb.5.35.15. -14 Bark (as material for clothes). -Comp. -परिधानम् putting on a bark-garment. -पुरम् N. of a town in the east of India; P. VI.2.11; cf. फलपुर. -पाणि a. armed with a shield (as a warrior). -यन्त्रम् an astronomical instrument invented by Bhāskarāchārya. -सक्थ a. having a thigh as broad as a board.
babhru बभ्रु a. [भृ-कु द्वित्वम्; बभ्र्-उ वा Uṇ.1.21] 1 Deepbrown, tawny, reddish-brown; ज्वालाबभ्रुशिरोरुहः R.15. 16;19.25; बबन्ध बालारुणबभ्रु वल्कलम् Ku.5.8. -2 Baldheaded through disease. -भ्रुः 1 Fire. -2 An ichneumon; सखिभिर्न्यवसत् सार्धं व्याघ्राखुवृकबभ्रुभिः Mb.1.14.27. -3 The tawny colour. -4 A man with tawny hair. -5 N. of a Yādava; आलप्यालमिदं बभ्रोर्यत् स दारानपाहरत् Śi.2.1. -6 An epithet of Śiva. -7 Of Viṣṇu. -8 The Chātaka bird. -9 A sweeper, cleaner. -1 N. of a country. -n. 1 A tawny or brown colour. -2 Any object of a brown colour. -भ्रूः f. A reddish-brown cow (कपिला); अजानन्नहनद्बभ्रोः शिरः शार्दूलशङ्कया Bhāg.9.2.6. -Comp. -धातुः 1 gold. -2 red chalk (गौरिक), a kind of ochre. -वाहनः N. of a son of Arjuna by Chitrāṅgadā. [The sacrificial horse let loose by king Yudhiṣṭhira and guarded by Arjuna entered, in the course of its wanderings, the country of Maṇipura, which was then ruled by Babhruvāhana, unequalled in prowess. The horse was taken to the king; but when he read the writing on the plate on its head, he knew that it belonged to the Pāṇḍavas, and that his father Arjuna had arrived in the kingdom; and, hastening to him, respectfully offered his kingdom and his treasures along with the horse. Arjuna, in an evil hour, struck the head of Babhruvāhana and upbraided him for his cowardice saying that if he had possessed true valour and had been his true son, he should not have been afraid of his father and submitted to him so meekly. At these words the brave youth was exceedingly irritated and discharged a crescent-shaped arrow at Arjuna which severed his head from his body. He was, however, restored to life by Ulūpī who happened to be then with Chitrāṅgadā; and having acknowledged Babhruvāhana as his true son, he resumed his journey.]
biḍālaḥ बिडालः 1 A cat. -2 The eyeball. -ली A female cat. -Comp. -पदः, -पदकम् a measure of weight equal to sixteen Māṣas. -व्रतिक a. false, hypocritical.
brahman ब्रह्मन् n. [बृंह्-मनिन् नकारस्याकारे ऋतो रत्वम्; cf. Uṇ.4.145.] 1 The Supreme Being, regarded as impersonal and divested of all quality and action; (according to the Vedāntins, Brahman is both the efficient and the material cause of the visible universe, the all-pervading soul and spirit of the universe, the essence from which all created things are produced and into which they are absorbed; अस्ति तावन्नित्यशुद्धबुद्धमुक्तस्वभावं सर्वज्ञं सर्वशक्तिसमन्वितं ब्रह्म Ś. B.); ... यत्प्रयन्त्यभिसंविशन्ति । तद् विजिज्ञा- सस्व । तद् ब्रह्मेति Tai. Up.3.1; समीभूता दृष्टिस्त्रिभुवनमपि ब्रह्म मनुते Bh.3.84; Ku.3.15; दर्शनं तस्य लाभः स्यात् त्वं हि ब्रह्ममयो निधिः Mb. -2 A hymn of praise. -3 A sacred text; मैवं स्याद् ब्रह्मविक्रिया Bhāg.9.1.17. -4 The Vedas; ब्रह्मणः प्रणवं कुर्यात् Ms.2.74; यद् ब्रह्म सम्यगाम्नातम् Ku.6.16; U.1.15; समस्तवदनोद्गीतब्रह्मणे ब्रह्मणे नमः Bm.1.1; Bg.3.15. -5 The sacred and mystic syllable om; एकाक्षरं परं ब्रह्म Ms.2.83. -6 The priestly of Brahmanical class (collectively); तदेतद् ब्रह्म क्षत्रं विट् शूद्रः Bṛi. Up.1.4.15; ब्रह्मैव संनियन्तृ स्यात् क्षत्रं हि ब्रह्मसंभवम् Ms.9.32. -7 The power or energy of a Brāhmaṇa; पवनाग्निसमागमो ह्ययं सहितं ब्रह्म यदस्त्रतेजसा R.8.4. -8 Religious penance or austerities. -9 Celibacy, chastity; शाश्वते ब्रह्मणि वर्तते Ś.1. -1 Final emancipation or beatitude. -11 Theology, sacred learning, religious knowledge. -12 The Brāhmaṇa portion of the Veda. -13 Wealth. -14 Food. -15 A Brāhmaṇa. -16 Truth. -17 The Brāhmaṇahood (ब्राह्मणत्व); येन विप्लावितं ब्रह्म वृषल्यां जायतात्मना Bhāg.6.2.26. -18 The soul (आत्मा); एतदेषां ब्रह्म Bṛi. Up.1.6.1-3. -19 See ब्रह्मास्त्र. अब्राह्मणे न हि ब्रह्म ध्रुवं तिष्ठेत् कदाचन Mb.12.3.31. -2 The गायत्री mantra; उभे सन्ध्ये च यतवाग्जपन् ब्रह्म समाहितः Bhāg.7. 12.2. -m. 1 The Supreme Being, the Creator, the first deity of the sacred Hindu Trinity, to whom is entrusted the work of creating the world. [The accounts of the creation of the world differ in many respects; but, according to Manu Smṛiti, the universe was enveloped in darkness, and the self-existent Lord manifested himself dispelling the gloom. He first created the waters and deposited in them a seed. This seed became a golden egg, in which he himself was born as Brahmā-the progenitor of all the worlds. Then the Lord divided the egg into two parts, with which he constructed heaven and earth. He then created the ten Prajāpatis or mind-born sons who completed the work of creation. According to another account (Rāmāyaṇa) Brahmā sprang from ether; from him was descended marīchi, and his son was Kaśyapa. From Kaśyapa sprang Vivasvata, and Manu sprang from him. Thus Manu was the procreator of all human beings. According to a third account, the Supreme deity, after dividing the golden egg, separated himself into two parts, male and female, from which sprang Virāj and from him Manu; cf. Ku.2.7. and Ms.1.32 et seq. Mythologically Brahman is represented as being born in a lotus which sprang from the navel of Viṣṇu, and as creating the world by an illicit connection with his own daughter Sarasvatī. Brahman had originally five heads, but one of them was cut down by Śiva with the ring-finger or burnt down by the fire from his third eye. His vehicle is a swan. He has numerous epithets, most of which have reference to his birth, in a lotus.] -2 A Brāhmaṇa; Ś.4.4. -3 A devout man. -4 One of the four Ritvijas or priests employed at a Soma sacrifice. -5 One conversant with sacred knowledge. -6 The sun. -7 Intellect. -8 An epithet of the seven Prajāpatis :-मरीचि, अत्रि, अङ्गिरस्, पुलस्त्य, पुलह, क्रतु and वसिष्ठ. -9 An epithet of Bṛihaspati; ब्रह्मन्नध्ययनस्य नैष समयस्तूष्णीं बहिः स्थीयताम् Hanumannāṭaka. -1 The planet Jupiter; ब्रह्मराशिं समावृत्य लोहिताङ्गो व्यवस्थितः Mb. 3.6.18. -11 The world of Brahmā (ब्रह्मलोक); दमस्त्यागो- $प्रमादश्च ते त्रयो ब्रह्मणो हयाः Mb.11.7.23. -1 Of Śiva. -Comp. -अक्षरम् the sacred syllable om. -अङ्गभूः 1 a horse. -2 one who has touched the several parts of his body by the repetition of Mantras; स च त्वदेकेषुनिपात- साध्यो ब्रह्माङ्गभूर्ब्रह्मणि योजितात्मा Ku.3.15 (see Malli. thereon). -अञ्जलिः 1 respectful salutation with folded hands while repeating the Veda. -2 obeisance to a precepto