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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
cintāFeminineSingularsmṛtiḥ, ādhyānamrecolection
diśFeminineSingularkakup, kāṣṭhā, āśā, haritquarter or region pointed at/ direction
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
recam. the emptying of the lungs by exhalation (See next) , emission of breath, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
reca recaka- etc. See column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakamf(ikā-)n. emptying, purging, aperient, cathartic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakamf(ikā-)n. emptying the lungs, emitting the breath View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. the act of breathing out, exhalation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. (especially) expelling the breath out of one of the nostrils (one of the three prāṇāyāma-s [ q.v ] or breath-exercises performed during saṃdhyā-) , etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. a syringe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. a particular movement of the feet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. saltpetre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. Croton Jamalgota View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. Clerodendrum Phlomoides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. Name of a forester (varia lectio redhaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. plural Name of a people (Bombay edition ārocaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakan. a kind of soil or earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakan. the fruit of the yellow myrobalan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakan. a purge, cathartic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakam. or n. (?) equals bhramaṇa- (see next) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recakitamfn. equals bhramita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanamf(ī-)n. purging, cathartic, aperient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanamf(ī-)n. clearing (the head) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanan. the act of emptying, lessening, exhausting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanan. emission of breath, exhalation (see reca-and recaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanan. purging, evacuation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanan. clearing (the head) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanan. a kind of earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanan. mucus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanakam. a kind of red powder (see recin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recanīf. Name of various plants (Ipomoea Turpethum;Croton Polyandrum; equals kālāñanī-, gundrā-, kāmpilla-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recinm. Alangium Hexapetalum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recinm. a kind of red powder (see recanaka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recitamfn. (fr. Causal) emptied, purged, cleared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recitamfn. left, abandoned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recitam. (scilicet hasta-) Name of a particular position of the hands in dancing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recitāf. contraction of one eye-brow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recitan. Name of one of a horse's paces, cantering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recyam. equals reca- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anatirecan. not abundance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārecinmfn. emptying. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārecitamfn. emptied View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārecitamfn. contracted, mixed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārecitabhrūmfn. having contracted eye-brows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avirecanan. anything which constipates or stops the passage of the food. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avirecaniyamfn. not to be purged, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avirecyamfn. idem or 'mfn. not to be purged, ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bījarecanan. Croton Jamalgota View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
recaramfn. going or being far, distant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durvirecyamfn. difficult to be purged View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kañcukirecakam. dual number the chamberlain and the forester. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūlavirecanan. a purgative prepared from root, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prarecanan. abundance, plenty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrakakumbhakarecakam. plural or n. plural (?) inhaling and then retaining and then exhaling air View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śirovirecanamfn. cleansing the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śirovirecanan. equals -vireka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīrṣavirecanan. a means or remedy for making the head clear (equals śiro-v-; see vir-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tālarecanakam. "distinguishing the measure (in dancing)", a dancer (varia lectio -vec-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udrecakamfn. enhancing or augmenting exceedingly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttānarecitam. (sc. hasta-) a particular position of the hands.
vairecanamfn. (fr. vi-recana-) idem or 'mfn. (fr. vi-reka-) purgative, purging ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairecanikamfn. idem or 'mfn. (fr. vi-recana-) idem or 'mfn. (fr. vi-reka-) purgative, purging ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātarecakam. a gust of wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vātarecakam. an empty boaster, braggart View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecakamfn. purgative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecakamfn. not accompanied by breath-exhalation (in this sense vi- is privative) (in a quotation). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecanamfn. opening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecanam. Careya Arborea or Salvadora Persica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecanan. purging or any purging substance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecanan. a means for making the head clear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecanadravyan. any purging substance or medicine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecinmfn. purgative View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecitamfn. (fr. Causal) purged, emptied, evacuated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virecyamfn. to be purged. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatirecanan. contrasting, pointing out a contrast or difference (in a comparison) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yatrecchakamfn. wherever one likes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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reca रेच See रेचक.
recaka रेचक a. (-चिका f.) [रेचयति रिच्-णिच् ण्वुल्] 1 Emptying, purging. -2 Purgative, aperient. -3 Emptying the lungs, emitting the breath. -कः 1 Emission of breath, breathing out; exhalation, especially through one of the nostrils (opp. पूरक which means 'inhaling breath', and कुम्भक 'suspending breath'); प्राणापानौ संनिरुन्ध्यात् पूरकुम्भकरेचकैः Bhāg.7.15.32. -2 A syringe; सिच्यगानो$च्युतस्ताभिर्हसन्तीभिः स्म रेचकैः Bhāg.1.9.9. -3 Nitre, salt-petre. -कम् A purgative, cathartic.
recanam रेचनम् ना [रिच्-ल्युट्] 1 Emptying. -2 Loosening, diminishing. -3 Emitting the breath. -4 Purging. -5 Evacuation. -नी N. of various plants (such as Ipomoea Turpethus, Mar. तेंडू; Croton Polyandrum, Mar. दंती).
recita रेचित a. Emptied, cleared; किरातसैन्यैरपिधाय रेचिताः Ki.14.33; ववलिरे वलिरेचितमध्यमाः Śi.6.38. -तम् horse's gallop.
atirecakaḥ अतिरेचकः N. of a plant which is excessively purgative. (Mar. कांकोळी.)
udrecaka उद्रेचक a. Enhancing or augmenting exceedingly; Rāj. T.4.
virecanam विरेचनम् See विरेक.
virecita विरेचित a. Purged, evacuated.
vyatirecanam व्यतिरेचनम् Contrasting, pointing out difference.
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uktha uk-thá, n. recitation, iv. 51, 7 [vac speak].
ūrva ūr-vá, n. receptacle, ii. 35, 3; fold, herd, iv. 50, 2 [1. vṛ cover].
kaviśasta kavi-śastá, pp. (Tp.) recited by the sages, x. 14, 4.
kila kíla, adv. emphasizing preceding word, indeed, ii. 12, 15 [180].
garbha gárbh-a, m. germ, ii. 33, 13; v. 83, 1. 7; x. 168, 4 [gṛbh receive].
gṛha gṛh-á, m. house, pl., vi. 54, 2 [grah receive, contain].
pūrvabhāj pūrva-bhá̄j, a. receiving the preference, iv. 50, 7 [bhaj share].
prach prach ask, VI. pṛchá, ii. 12, 5; vii. 86, 3 [sec. root: praś + cha; cp. Lat. posco = porc-sco and prec-or, OG. forsc-ōn].
yoni yó-ni, m. womb, ii. 35, 10; abode, iv. 50, 2; x. 34, 11; receptacle, viii. 29, 2 [holder from yu hold].
viśvatas viśvá-tas, adv on every side, i. 1, 4; viii. 48, 15; x. 90, 1; in all directions, x. 135, 3.
viṣūcī víṣūcī, a. f. turned in various directions, ii. 33, 2 [f. of víṣv-añc].
viṣvañc víṣv-añc, a. turned in all directions, x. 90, 4.
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recaka m. emission of breath (in Yoga); -ana, a. emptying; purging; n. becoming empty, diminution; emission of breath; evacuation; -ita, cs. pp. (√ rik) emptied; n. kind of pace in the horse.
recara a. distant; (é)-bhâ, a. shining afar; (é)-heti, a. whose missile reaches far.
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"rec" has 370 results.
     
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
aḥ( : )visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. confer, compare अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.
a,k(ೱ),(ೱ)जिह्वामूलीय, represented by a sign like the वज्र in writing, as stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks वज्राकृतिर्वर्णो जिह्वामूलीयसंज्ञो भवति. the Jihvāmūlīya is only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the guttural letter क् or ख् . It is looked upon as a letter (वर्ण), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e. g. विष्णु ೱ करोति.
a,pೱ,(ೱ)Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an elephants stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nominative case. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 23.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akārakanot causing any verbal activity; different from the kārakas or instruments of action such as the agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (संप्रदान), the separated (अपादान) and the location, (अधिकरण) confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.23, 29 and 5l and on II.3.1.
akitnot marked by the mute letter k ( क् ) and hence not disallowing guṇa or vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, confer, compare सृजिदृशोर्झल्यमकिति P.VI.1.58; दीर्घोऽकित: P. VII. 4.83.
aṅkitanot possessing the mute letter k (क्) or g (ग्) orṅ ( ङ् ) and hence not preventing the guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, if they occur. e. g. मृजेर ङ्कित्सु प्रत्ययेषु मृजिप्रसङगे मार्जिः साधुर्भुवति M.Bh. on P. I.I.I Vart.10.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarāṅgaforming a part of a syllable just as the anusvāra ( nasal utterance ) or svarabhakti (vowelpart) which forms a part of the preceding syllable. confer, compare अनुस्वारो व्यञ्जनं चाक्षराङ्गम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.22, also स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.32.
agati(1)absence of any other recourse or alternative. confer, compare अगत्या हि खलु परिभाषाश्रीयते. Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adevaPari. vṛtti Pari.119;(2) which is not a word termed gati. confer, compare चनचिदिवगोत्रादितद्धिताम्रेडितेष्वगते: P. VII.1.57.
agrathe original Samhita text as opposed to pratṛṇna ( प्रतृण्ण ) or padapāṭha, (पदपाठ) which is the recital of separate words.
aḍactaddhita affix. affix अड applied in the sense of pitiable or poor to a word preceded by the word उप when the whole word after उप is dropped, e.g उपड् ( उपेन्द्रदत्त + अड् ) see. p. V. 3. 80.
atvatpossessing or having a short अ vowel in it; archaic form used by Pāṇini in उपदेशेsत्वतः (P. VII. 2.62) instead of अद्वत् the correct one; confer, compare छन्दोवत्सूत्राणि भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1 and I.4.3.
advyupasargenot preceded by (two or more) prepositions; i. e. preceded by only one preposition. confer, compare छादेर्घेऽद्व्युपसर्गस्य P.VI.4.96 prescribing short अ for the long अा of the root छाद् before the kṛt (affix). affix घ, eg. प्रच्छदः
anantyanon-final confer, compare अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यसदेशस्य when a change does not concern a final letter then it concerns that which immediately precedes the final, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 95. confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.13 Vārt 5.
anabhidhānainability to express the meaning desiredition The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; confer, compare तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.
anikṛt affix in the sense of curse, exempli gratia, for example अजीवनिस्ते शठ भूयात्; confer, compareआक्रोशे नञि अनिः P.III.3.112. This affix अनि gets its न् changed into ण् after ऋ or रेफ of the preceding preposition as in अप्रयाणिः;confer, compare Kāś, on VIII.4.29.
anukarṣaṇadragging (from the preceding rule) to the following rule taking the previous rule or a part of it as understood in the following rule or rules in order; the same as अनुवृत्ति; confer, compare अनुकर्षणार्थश्चकारः Kāś. on II. 4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48: cf also the Paribhāṣā; चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र -that which is attracted from a preceding rule by the particle च is not valid in the rule that follows; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 78.
anukramaright or regular order in a Vedic recital, called क्रम. e. g. वायव: स्थ.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anudeśa(1)reference, mention, statement referring to a preceding element. confer, compare यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् P.I. 3.10; confer, compare आसिद्धवचनात् सिद्धमिति चेद् उत्सर्गलक्षणानामनुदेशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.57, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3. (2) declaration, prescription : the same as अतिदेश. confer, compare स्थान्यादेशपृथक्त्वादेशे स्थानिवद् अनुदेशो गुरुवद् गुरुपुत्र इति यथा P. I.1.56 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; (3) a grammatical operation confer, compare यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् ! समसंबन्धी विधिर्यथासंख्यं स्यात् Sid. Kau. on P.I. 8.10. See the word अनुद्देश in this sense confer, compare संख्यातानामनूद्देशो यथासंख्यम् V, Pr.I.143.
anunādaa fore-sound : a preceding additional sound which is looked upon as a fault: e. g. ह्वयामि whom pronounced as अह्वयामि. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also uttered before initial aspirates or visarga. confer, compare घोषवतामनुनादः पुरस्ताद् आदिस्थानां, क्रियते धारणं वा । सोष्मोष्माणामनुनादोप्यनादः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.18,19.
anupapattidiscord, absence of validity, incorrect interpretation; confer, compareप्रथमानुपपत्तिस्तु M.Bh on I.4.9.
anuvartanacontinuation or recurrence of a word from the preceding to the succeeding rule; the same as anuvṛtti; confer, compare अनुवर्तन्ते नाम विधयः । न चानुवर्तनादेव भवन्ति। किं तर्हि । यत्नाद्भवन्तीति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anuṣaṅga(1)literally attaching, affixing: augment, अनुषज्यते असौ अनुषङ्गः; (2) a term for the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare अव्यात्पूर्वे मस्जेरनुषङ्गसंयेगादिलोपार्थम् confer, compare P.I.1.47 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 and M.Bh. thereon; confer, compare थफान्तानां चानुषङ्गिणाम् Kat. IV. 1.13. The term अनुषङ्ग is defined in the kātantra grammar as व्यञ्जनान्नः अनुषङ्ग. The term is applied to the nasal consonant न् preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base: Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.1.12.
antavadbhāvasupposed condition of being at the end obtained by the single substitute(एकादेश) for the final of the preceding and the initial of the succeeding word. confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च । योयमेकादेशः स पूर्वस्यान्तवत् परस्थादिवत् स्यात् । Sid. Kau. on अन्तादिवच्च P.VI. 1.84.
antādivadbhāvacondition, attributed to a single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding word or as the initial of the succeeding word but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; confer, compare उभयत आश्रये नान्तादिवत् Sīr. Pari 39 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.48.
anyonyasaṃśrayareciprocally dependent and hence serving no purpose; same as इतरेतराश्रय which is looked upon as a fault. cf अन्योन्यसंश्रयं त्वेतत् । स्वीकृतः शब्दः शब्दकृतं च स्त्रीत्वं M.Bh. on IV.1.3.
anvakṣarasaṃdhia combination of letters according to the order of the letters in the Alphabet; a samdhi or euphonic combination of a vowel and a consonant, called अन्वक्षर-अनुलोमसंधि where a vowel precedes a consonant; and अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where a consonant precedes a vowel, the consonant in that case being changed into the third of its class; एष स्य स च स्वराश्च पूर्वे भवति व्यञ्जनमुत्तरं यदेभ्यः। तेन्वक्षरसेधयेानुलोमाः प्रतिलोमाश्च विपर्यये त एव ।। R Pr. II.8.9 e. g. एष देवः, स देवः and others are instances of अन्वक्षरानुलोमसंधि where विसर्ग after the vowel is dropped; while हलव्यवाड् अग्निः is an instance of अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where the consonant ट् precedes the vowel अ.
ap(1)kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ et cetera, and others mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. exempli gratia, for example करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, confer, compare P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117.
apakarṣa(1)deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; confer, compare स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2; (2) drawing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; confer, compare "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः ।
apabhraṃśadegraded utterance of standard correct forms or words: corrupt form: e. g. गावी, गोणी and the like, of the word गो, confer, compare गौः इत्यस्य शब्दस्य गावी गोणी गोता गोपोतलिका इत्येवमादयः अपभ्रंशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.l ; cf शब्दसंस्कारहीनो यो गौरिति प्रयुयुक्षिते । तमपभ्रंशमिच्छन्ति विशिष्टार्थनिवेशिनम् Vāk. Pad I.149: सर्वस्य हि अपभ्रंशस्य साधुरेव प्रकृतिः commentary on Vāk. Pad I. 149.
apaśabdacorrupt form of a correct word, called म्लेच्छ also; confer, compare म्लेच्छो ह वा एष यदपशब्दः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1. अस्तु वापि तरस्तस्माद् नापशब्दो भविष्यति । वाचकश्चेत्प्रयोक्तव्यो वाचक्श्र्चेत्प्रयुज्यताम् ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.55.
apitnot marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.
apūrva(1)not existing before; confer, compare आगमश्च नाम अपूर्वः शब्दोपजनः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-20, I.1.46; (2) not preceded by any letter or so, cf अपूर्वलक्षण अादिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.21: (3) a rule prescribing something not prescribed before; confer, compare तत्र अपूर्वो विधिरस्तु नियमोस्तु इति अपूर्व एव विधिर्भविष्यति न नियमः M.Bh. on I.4.3., III.1.46, III.2. 127, III.3.19.
aprātipatti(1)impossibility to obtain the correct form; (2) absence or want of apprehension, cf शब्दानां चाप्रतिपत्तिः प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8.
abhikramathe first of the two utterances of a word which characterise the krama method of recital; e. g in the krama recital of प्रण इन्दो et cetera, and others प्र णः । न इन्दो । the first recial प्र णः is called अभिक्रम, or प्रथमवचन while न इन्दो is called द्वितीयवचनः confer, compare अभिक्रमे पूर्वविधानमाचरेत् पुनर्ध्रुवंस्तूत्तरकारितं क्रमे Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.21.
abhiprāya(1)अभिप्रायसंधि a kind of euphonic combination where the nasal letter न् is dropped and the preceding vowel ( अ ) is nasalised e. g, दधन्याँ यः । स्ववाँ यातु : (2) view, purpose, intention; confer, compare तद् व्यक्तमाचार्यस्याभिप्रायो गम्येत, इदं न भवतीति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27; confer, compare also स्वरितञितः कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P.1.3.72.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
aśaktiincapacity to pronounce words correctly; confer, compare अशक्त्या कयाचिद् ब्राह्मण्या ऋतक इति प्रयोक्तव्ये लृतक इति प्रयुक्तम् M.Bh. on Śiva-sūtra 2.
aśvaghāsādicompounds like अश्वघास which cannot be strictly correct as चतुथींसमास, but can be षष्ठीसमास if the word तदर्थ in the rule चतुर्थी तदर्थार्थबलिहितसुखरक्षितैः be understood in the sense of 'meant for' a particular thing which is to be formed out of it: confer, compare विकृतिः प्रकृत्येति चेदश्वघासादीनामुपसंख्यानम् M.Bh. on II.1.36.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
astātitaddhita affix. affix अस्तात् in the sense of the base itself, but called विभक्ति, prescribed after words in the sense of 'direction', e. g. पुरस्तात्, अधस्तात् et cetera, and others confer, compare दिक्शब्देभ्यः सप्तमीपञ्चमीप्रथमाभ्येा दिग्देशकालेषु अस्तातिः P. V.3.27.
ākṣarasamāmnāyikadirectly or expressly mentioned in the fourteen Pratyāhāra Sūtras of Pāṇini; a letter actually mentioned by Pāṇini in his alphabet 'अइउण्', 'ऋलृक्' et cetera, and others
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
ācāryapreceptor, teacher; a designation usually given to Pāṇini by Patañjali in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare the usual expression तज्ज्ञापयति आचार्यः as also अाचार्यप्रवृत्तिर्ज्ञापयति; also confer, compare नेदानीमाचार्याः सूत्राणि कृत्वा निवर्तयन्ति; confer, compare also the popular definition of अाचार्य given as 'निशम्य यद्गिरं प्राज्ञा अविचार्यैव तत्क्षणम् । संभावयन्ति शिरसा तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ।"
ācāryadeśīyaa partisan of the preceptor Pāṇini or the Sūtrakāra who is looked upon as having approxmately the same authority as the Sūtrakāra; confer, compare अाचार्यदेशीय अाहन वक्तव्य इति l Kaiyaṭa on I.4.105, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
ācitādia class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा et cetera, and others although they are used as proper nouns. exempli gratia, for example आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; confer, compare Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146.
ātideśikaapplied by extension or transfer of epithet as opposed to औपदेशिक. See the word अतिदेश; the term is often used in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; confer, compare यदि आतिदेशिकेन कित्वेन औपदेशिकं कित्वं बाध्येत. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.1.; confer, compare also अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.6.
ādya(1)premier; confer, compare इदमाद्यं पदस्थानं (व्याकरणनामकं ) सिद्धिसोपानपर्वणाम् Vāk. Pad. I.16; (2) preceding as opposed to succeeding (उत्तर); confer, compare सहाद्यैर्व्यञ्जनैः V.Pr.I.100 (3) original; confer, compare आद्यप्रकृतिः परमप्रकृतिः (original base) Bhāṣā Vṛtti. IV.1.93; (4) first, preceding, आद्ये योगे न व्यवाये तिङः स्यु; M.Bh. on III.1-91.
ādhārareceptacle or abode of an action;confer, compareअाध्रियन्ते अस्मिन् क्रियाः इत्याधारः Kāś. on P.I.4.45 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.121; the Prakriyā Kaumudī mentions four kinds of ādhāras: confer, compare औपश्लेषिकः सामीपिको विषयो व्याप्त इत्याघारश्चतुर्धा Prak. Kau. on II.3.36.
ānupūrvyasaṃhitāthe saṁhitā-pāṭha or recital of the running Vedic text in accordance with the constituent words;exempli gratia, for example शुनः शेपं चित् निदितम् or नरा शंसं वा पूषणम्, as opposed to the अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिता which is actually found in the traditional recital exempli gratia, for example शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितम् Ṛk saṁh. V 2.7 or नरा वा शंसं पूषणम् Ṛk saṁh. X.64.3. See R. Prāt. II 43.
aānpadword ending with अान् which has the consonant dropped and the preceding आ nasalized; e. g. सर्गा इव सृजतम् Ṛk.Saṁ. VIII. 35. 20, महा इन्द्रः Ṛk Saṁ VI.19.1; confer, compare दीर्घादटि समानपादे, अातोऽटि नित्यम् P. VIII.3.9, VIII.3.3; confer, compare also हन्त देवो इति चैता अान्-पदाः पदवृत्तयः R.Pr.IV.26,27.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
āhitad-affix added to the word दक्षिण in the general sense of direction but when distance is specially meant; exempli gratia, for example दक्षिणाहि वसति, दक्षिणाहि रमणीयम्. See Kāś. on आहि च दूरे P. V.3.37.
iṅgyaa separable word as opposed to अनिङ्ग्य; part of a compound word which is separated or may be separated from the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. Generally the word is applied to the first part of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapāṭha. The 'iṅgya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it which is shown in writing by the sign (ऽ): confer, compare इङ्गयेत विभागेन चाल्यते इति इङ्गयम् । इङ्गयमिति विभागपदस्य संशा commentary on Tait. Prāt. 1.48. सावग्रहं पदमिङ्गयम् Com.on T.Pr. I.48.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
in(1)kṛt affix इ applied to the roots कृ, हृ, ग्रह, and भृ when they are preceded by certain words like स्तम्ब et cetera, and others in certain senses; e. g. स्तम्बकरिः, फलेग्रहिः, अात्मंभरिः; confer, compare P.III. 2.24-7;(2) kṛt affix इन् (णिनि) prescribed by P.III.3.170 e. g. अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी
iṣṭaa word frequently used in the Vārttikas and the Mahābhāṣya and other treatises in the senses of (1) a desired object, (2) a desired purpose, (3) a desired statement, (4) a desired form id est, that is the correct form : confer, compare इष्टान्वाख्यानं खल्वपि भवति: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1. योगविभागादिष्टसिद्धिः Pari.Śek. Pari. 114.
iṣṭia word generally used in the statements made in the Mahā bhāṣya, similar to those of the Sūtrakāra and the Vārttikakāras, which are 'desired ones' with a view to arrive at the correct forms of words; confer, compare प्राप्तिज्ञो देवानांप्रियो न त्विाष्टिज्ञः, इष्यत एतद् रूपमिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4.56.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādiprātipadikaword form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; confer, compare उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22.
udgrāhaalleviation, ease, relief; name given to a Saṁdhi in the Prātiśākhya works when a visarga and a short vowel अ preceding it are changed into short अ, (e. g. यः + इन्द्र: = य इन्द्र:), as also when the vowel ए or ओ is changed into अ being followed by a dissimilar vowel; e. g. अग्ने + इन्द्रः = अग्न इन्द्रः; confer, compare R.Pr.II.10.
uddeśadescription; mention of qualities; confer, compare गुणैः प्रापणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I. 3.2: the word is used in contrast with उपदेश or direct mention; confer, compare कः पुनुरुद्देशोपदेशयोर्विशेषः । प्रत्यक्षमाख्यानमुपदेशो गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । प्रत्यक्षं तावदाख्यानमुपदेशः तद्यथा । अगोज्ञाय कश्चिद्गां सक्थनि कर्णे वा गृहीत्वोपदिशति । अयं गौरिति । स प्रत्यक्षमाख्यातमाह । उपदिष्टो मे गौरिति । गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । तद्यथा । कश्चित्कंचिदाह । देवदत्तं मे भवानुद्दिशतु इति । स इहस्थः पाटलिपुत्रस्थं देवदत्तमुद्दिशति । अङ्गदी कुण्डली किरीटी...ईदृशो देवदत्त इति । स गुणैः प्राप्यमाणमाह । उद्दिष्टो मे दवदत्त इति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence: उद्देश उपदेशदेशः; confer, compare यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् Pari.Śek. Pari. 2.
upadeśainstruction; original enunciation; first or original precepts or teaching; confer, compare उपदेश आद्योच्चारणम् S. K. on T the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2. confer, compare वर्णानामुपदेशः कर्तव्यः; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. I. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15. For difference between उपदेश and उद्देश see उद्देश; confer, compare also उपदिश्यतेनेनेत्युपदेशः । शास्त्रवाक्यानि, सूत्रपाठः खिलपाठश्च Kāśikā on P. I.3.2; confer, compare also Vyāḍi. Pari. 5; (2) employment (of a word) for others confer, compare उपेदश: परार्थः प्रयोगः । स्वयमेव तु बुद्धया यदा प्ररमृशति तदा नास्त्युपदेशः Kāś. on अदोनुपदेशे P.I.4.70.
upanyāsaproposition, statement, The remark 'विषम उपन्यासः' is of frequent occurrence in the Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya in connection with statements that are defective and have to be refuted or corrected; confer, compare M.Bh. on P.1.1.21,46,50; I.2.5 et cetera, and others
upavarṣaan ancient grammarian and Mīmāmsaka believed to have been the brother of Varṣa and the preceptor of Pāṇini. He is referred to, many times as an ancient writer of some Vṛttigranthas.
upasaṃgrahainclusion of something, which is not directly mentioned; confer, compare प्रसिद्ध्युपसंग्रहार्थमेतत् Kāś.on P.I.3.48,also इतिकरणं एवंविधानामेप्यन्येषामुपसंग्रहार्थम् Kāś. on P VII.4.65.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasthānaoccurrence: prescnce by virtue of anuvṛtti i. e. recurrence or continuation of a word in the rules that follow; confer, compare शब्देन चाप्यधिकृतेन कोन्यो व्यापारः शक्योवगन्तुमन्यदतो योगे योग उपस्थानात् M.Bh. on 1.3.11 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
upahita(1)with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': confer, compareDurga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: confer, compare आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.15.
ṛktantraa work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 sūtras. It covers the same topics as the Prātiśākhya works and is looked upon as one of the Prātiśākhya works of the Sāma Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Śākaṭāyana according to Nageśa, while औदिव्राज is held as its author by some, and कात्यायन by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of स् and न् to ष् and ण् respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pāṇini's work.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ṛtshort vowel ऋ. before which the preceding vowel is optionally left as it is, i. e. without coalescence and shortened also if long; confer, compare ऋत्यकः P. VI.1.128.
ediphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालुस्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-48; as also the article on.
ekadikin the same direction, given as the sense of the taddhita affix. affix तस् by Pāṇini; confer, compare तेनैकदिक् | तसिश्च । P.IV. .3. 112, 113.
ekadeśānumaticonsent to a part of the whole, admission of one part as correct.
ekaśrutithat which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā id est, that is the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.
oṃkārathe syllable ओं called by the term प्रणव and generally recited at the beginning of Vedic works. Patañjali has commented upon the word briefly as follows; पादस्य वा अर्धर्चस्य वा अन्त्यमक्षरमुपसंहृत्य तदाद्यक्षरशेषस्य स्थाने त्रिमात्रमोंकारं त्रिमात्रमोंकारं वा विदधति तं प्रणव इत्याचक्षते M.Bh. on VIII.2.89.
{{c|-( anusvāra ) ṃanusvāraor nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra id est, that is अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 1.
or विसर्गः literally letting out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escaping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently utteredition Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; confer, compare अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳵjihvāmūlīyaa phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, produced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳶ upadhmānīyaliterally blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w , or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; confer, compare उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा commentary on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I:; : confer, compare also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
yamaa letter called यम which is uttered partly through the nose. A class consonant excepting the fifth, when followed by the fifth viz. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न or म् , gets doubled in the Vedic recital, when the second of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the following nasal consonant is called यम. This यम letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon the following nasal consonant and hence it is called अयोगवाह. The nasalization is shown in script as xx followed by the consonant; e. g. पलिक्क्नी, अगूग्रे, et cetera, and others The pronunciation of this yama or twin letter is seen in the Vedic recital only; confer, compare पलिक्कनी ... कखगघेभ्य; परे तत्सदृशा एव यमाः S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1. confer, compare कु खु गु घु इति यमाः विंशतिसंख्याका भवन्ति Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.24.
kañkṛt, affix ( अ ) affixed to the root दृश् preceded by त्यद्, तद् et cetera, and others by P. IV.2.60 exempli gratia, for example तादृश:, यादृशः et cetera, and others, feminine. तादृशी by P.IV.1.15.
kaṇṭhoktaformally mentioned; directly mentionedition
karmavyatihāraexchange of verbal activity; reciprocity of action; कर्मव्यतिहार means क्रियाव्यतिहार or क्रियाविनिमय; confer, compare कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14.; also कर्मव्यतिहारे णच् स्त्रियाम् । व्यावक्रोशी, व्यात्युक्षी Kāś. on P.III.3.43. The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Ātmanepada terminations; confer, compare P. I. 3.14.
karṣaṇaextension; protraction, defined as kālaviprakarṣa by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronunciation of ट् when followed by च् , or ड् when followed by ज् exempli gratia, for example षट्चै; षड्जात. confer, compare Nār. Śik. I.7.19.
kalaa fault of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utterance of a vowel; a vowel so pronounced; confer, compare संवृतः कलो ध्मात: ... रोमश इति confer, comparealso निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि M.Bh. Āhnika 1.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kārtikeyathe original instructor of the Kātantra or Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Grammar, to Śarvavarman who composed the Sūtras according to inspiration received by him. The Kātantra, hence, has also got the name Kaumara Vyākaraṇa.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
kuṭādia group of roots headed by the root कुट् of the VIth conjugation after which an affix which is neither ञित् nor णित् becomes ङित्,and as a result prevents the substitution of गुण or वृद्धि for the preceding vowel e. g. कुटिता, कुटितुम् । confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिभ्योञ्णिन्डित् I.2.1.
kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa(1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
kyapkṛt afix य applied to the roots व्रज् and यज् in the sense of 'verbal activity' and to the roots अजू with सम्, षद् with नि et cetera, and others to form proper nouns e. g. व्रज्या, इज्या, समज्या, निषद्या et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III. 3.98 and 99; (2) kṛtya affix य in the sense of 'should be done' applied to the roots वद्, भू and हन् (when preceded by certain words put as upapada), as also to roots with penultimate ऋ and the roots मृज्, इ, स्तु and others; e. g. ब्रह्मोद्यम् , ब्रह्मभूयम् , इत्यम् , स्तुत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1. 106,121.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
kanipkṛt affix वन् in the sense of agent added to (l) a root preceded by an Upasarga or a Subanta Upapada or sometimes even without any preceding word; exempli gratia, for exampleप्रतरित्वा, धीवा, पीवा; (2) to the root दृश्, preceded by an Upapada which is the object of the root दृश्, exempli gratia, for example पारदृश्वा; (3) to roots युध् and कृञ् having राजन् as their object, exempli gratia, for example राजयुध्वा, राजकृत्वा ; confer, compare Pāṇini III.2.94-96.
kvip(1)kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् et cetera, and others, and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; confer, compareP.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति et cetera, and others; confer, compare M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.
kṣubhnādia class of wordings such as क्षुभ्ना, तृप्नु and the like in which the consonant न् is not changed into ण् although the consonant न् is preceded by ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् and intervened by letters which are admissible; e. g. क्षुभ्नाति, तृप्नोति, नृनमनः et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P. VIII. 4.39. This class ( क्षुभ्नादिगण ) is styled as आकृतिगण.
ksa(1)aorist vikaraṇa affix substituted for च्लि; confer, compare P.III.1.45, 46; e. g. अदृक्षत्, आश्लिक्षत्, अधुक्षत् confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.1.45,46; (2) kṛt affix स applied to the root दृश् preceded by a pronoun such as त्यद्, तद् et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example यादृक्षः, तादृक्ष: et cetera, and others confer, compare दृशेः क्सश्च वक्तव्य: P.III.2.60 Vārttika. (3) affix स applied to the root गाह् or ख्या or कव् to form the noun कक्ष; confer, compare कक्षो गाहतेः क्स इति नामकरण: ख्यातेर्वा कषतेर्वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2.
khackṛt affix अ in the sense of 'agent' applied to the roots वद्, ताप् , and यम् when preceded by certain उपपद words standing as objects. Before this affix खच्, the augment मुम् ( म् ) is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable. e. g. प्रियंवदः, वशंवदः, द्विषंतपः परंतपः वाचंयम: et cetera, and others cf P.III. 2.38-47.
khamuñkṛt affix अम् applied to the root कृ when preceded by a word standing as the object of the root, provided an abuse is meant, e. g. चोरंकारं आक्रोशति; confer, compare P. III. 4.25.
khalkṛt afix अ added to any root preceded by the word ईषद्, दुस् or सु, and to the roots भू and कृ preceded by an upapada word forming either the subject or the object of the roots, e. g. ईषत्करः कटो भवता, ईषदाढ्यंभवं भवता; confer, compare P. III. 3.126, 127.
khaśkṛt affix added to the roots यज् (causal), ध्मा, धे,रुज्, वह्, लिह्, पच् , दृश् , तप्, मन् et cetera, and others preceded by certain specified upapada words. The root undergoes all the operations such as the addition of the conjugational sign et cetera, and others before this खश् on account of the mute letter श् which makes खश् a Sārvadhātuka affix, and the augment म् is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable on account of the mute letter ख्; e. g. जनमेजयः, स्तनंधयः, नाडिंधमः, असूयै. पश्यः पण्डितंमन्यः etc,; confer, compare Pāṇ. III2.28-37, 83.
khitcharacterized by the mute letter ख्, applied to kṛt affixes which, by reason of their being खित् , cause (a) the addition of the augment मुम् ( म् ) to the preceding words अरुस् , द्विषद् and words ending in a vowel, and (b) the shortening of the long vowel of the preceding word if it is not an indeclinable; confer, compare P. VI. 3.66-68.
khilapāṭhaa supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadeśa generally in the form of the sūtras. The word is used in the Kāśikā in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadeśa; confer, compare Kāśikā उपदिश्यते अनेनेत्युपदेश: शास्त्रवाक्यानि सूत्रपाठ: खिलपाठश्च (on P.I.3.2); confer, compare also खिलपाठो धातुपाठः प्रातिपदिकपाठो वाक्यपाठश्च Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on Kāśikā I.3.2.
khyunkṛt affix अन applied to the root कृ in the sense of an instrument when preceded by the words अाढ्य, सुभग, स्थूल et cetera, and others provided the whole word is similar in sense to cvi-formation ( च्व्यर्थ ), exempli gratia, for example अाढ्यं करणम् , सुभगंकरणम्; confer, compare P. III. 2.56; feminine. अाढ्यंकरणी, confer, compare नञ्स्नञीकक्ख्युंस्तरुणतलुनानामुपसंख्यानम् P.IV.1.15.Vārttika.
gatisamāsaa compound with the preceding gati word prescribed by the rule कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18; confer, compare गतिसमास । निष्कौशाम्बिः, निर्वाराणसि: M.Bh. on II. 4. 26 .
gahādia class of words headed by the word गह to which the taddhita affix ईय (छ) is added in the Saisika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. गहीयम् , अन्तस्थीयम्; this class called 'gahiya' is looked upon as अाकृतिगण, and hence the words वैणुकीयम् वैत्रकीयम् and the like could be explained as correct; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.138.
gitmarked with the mute letter ग्; affixes that are गित् prevent guna or vrddhi in the preceding word; confer, compare क्क्ङिति च P. I. 1.5; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 3.10; III. 2.I39: confer, compare also गकारोप्यत्र चर्त्वभूतो निर्दिश्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.5.
guṇakarmana term used by the ancient grammarians for the गौणकर्मन् or indirect object of a verb. having two objects.The word is found quoted in the Mahabhaya; confer, compare कथिते लादयश्चेत्स्युः षष्टीं कुर्यात्तदा गुणे । गुणे गुणकर्मणि । confer, compare also गुणकर्मणि लादिविधि: सपरे M.Bh. on I. 4.51.
guṇādia class of words headed by the word गुण, which, when preceded by the word बहु in a Bahuvrihi compound, do not have their last vowel acute; e. g. बहुगुणा रज्जुः; बह्वक्षरं पदम् , et cetera, and others This class of गुणादि words is considered as आकृतिगण; confer, compare Kas, on P. VI. 2.176.
goṇikāputraa grammarian whose wiew in connection with the correctness of the expressions नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नं and नेताश्वस्य स्त्रुघ्नस्य is given by the Mahabhasyakara in the words 'both expressions are justified' ( उभयथा गेणिकापुत्रः ). Nagesa has observed that गेोणिकापुत्र is nobody else but the Mahabhasyakara himself; confer, compare गोणिकापुत्रः भाष्यकार इत्याहुः । NageSa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahabhasyapradipa on P. I. 4.5I.
goṣṭhaca taddhita affix.affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; confer, compare गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.1. varia lectio, another reading,2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently.
grahādia class of roots headed by the root ग्रह् to which the affix इन् (णिनि), causing vrddhi to the preceding vowel of the root, is added in the sense of an agent: exempli gratia, for example ग्राही, उत्साही, स्थायी, मन्त्री et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III. 1.134.
ghañkrt affix अ causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel applied in various senses as specified in P.III.3. 16-42, III.3. 45-55,III.3.120-125, exempli gratia, for example पाद:, रोग:, आयः, भावः, अवग्राहृः प्रावारः, अवतारः, लेखः रागः etc
ghanaa variety of the क्रमपाठ or recital of the Vedic hymns to show the serial order of words there; one of the eight vikrtis of the padapātha.
ghinuṇkrt affix इन् causing the substitution of Vrddhi for the preceding vowel, as also to the penultimate vowel अ, applied to the eight roots शम्,तम्, दम् et cetera, and others, as also to संपृच्, अनुरुध् et cetera, and others and कस्, लष् लप्, et cetera, and others. e. g. शमी,तमी, दमी, संपर्की, संज्वारी, प्रलापी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III.2.141-145.
(1)fifth letter of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व and अानुनासिक्य; (2) the consonant ङ् getting the letter ,क as an augment added to it, if standing at the end of a word and followed by a sibilant, e. g. प्राङ्कूशेते confer, compare ङ्णो: कुक् टुक् शरि P. VIII. 3.28; (3) the consonant ङ् which, standing at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel, causes the vowel following it to get the augment ङ् prefixed to it; e. g, प्रत्यङ्ङास्ते confer, compare ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् P. VIII.3.32.
ṅamudaugment ङम् i. e. ङ्, ण् or न् prefixed to a vowel at the beginning of a word provided that vowel is preceded by ङ्, ण् or न् standing at the end of the preceding word. See ङ् (3).
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
cakrina grammarian who has written a small disquisition on the correctness of the form जाग्रहीता. See जाग्रहीतेतिवाद.
caṅa Vikarana affix of the aorist substituted for च्लि after roots ending in the causal sign णि, as also after the roots श्रि, द्रु and others; this चङ् causes reduplication of the preceding root form; confer, compare P. III 1.48-50, e. g. अचूचुरत्, अशिश्रियत्; confer, compare also P. VII. 4.93.
carcā(1)splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is generalty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separately the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a repeated word; confer, compare इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; confer, compare प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115.
cphañtaddhita affix. affix अायन causing a vrddhi substitute for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, The affix ( च्फञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a descendant except the direct son or daughter’ to words कुञ्ज and others; confer, compare P. IV. I. 98.
jaṭāa kind of Vedic recital wherein each word is repeated six times. जटा is called one of the 8 kinds ( अष्टविकृति) of the Kramapatha, which in its turn is based on the Padapatha; confer, compare जटा माला शिखा रेखा ध्वजो दण्डो रथो घनः। अष्टौ बिकृतय: प्रोक्ताः क्रमपूर्वा मनीषिभिः । जटा is defined as अनुलोमविलोमाभ्यां त्रिवारं हि पठेत् क्रमम् । विलोमे पदवत्संधिः अनुलोमे यथाक्रमम् । The recital of ओषधयः संवदन्ते संवदन्ते सोमेन can be illustrated as ओषधयः सं, समोषधयः, ओषधयः सं, सं वदन्ते, वदन्ते सं, सेवदन्ते, वदन्ते सोमेन,सोमेन वदन्ते , वदन्ते सोमेन ।
jāgrahitetivādaa short disguisition on the correctness of the word जाग्रहीता, written by a grammarian named Cakrin; confer, compare भट्टोजिदीक्षितग्राहग्रस्तं माधवदिग्गजम्। अमूमुचत् सत्यवर्यश्चक्री चक्रिप्रसादभाक्, colophon.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jhaya short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the fourth, third, second and first consonants of the five classes, after which ह् is changed into the cognate of the preceding consonant while श्, is changed into छ् optionally; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.62, 63.
ñ(1)the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the preceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas.
ñiṭhataddhita affix. affix इक added to words headed by काशी as also to words meaning a village in the Vahika country optionally with the affix ठञ् in the Saisika senses;exempli gratia, for example काशिका, काशिकी, बैदिका, बेदिकी, शाकलिकां, शाकलिकी. The affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added to the word काल preceded by आपद् as also by some other words; e. g. आपत्कालिका, अापत्कालिकी तात्कालिका, तात्कालिकी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.2. 116,117,118 and Varttika on IV. 2.116.
ñit(1)an afix marked with the mute letter ञ्; causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, but, causing vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is added in case the affix is a taddhita affix. affix: confer, compare P.VII.2, 115, 116, 117; (2) a root marked with the consonant ञ् , taking verb-endings of both the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada kinds; exempli gratia, for example करोति, कुरुते, बिभर्ति, बिभृते, क्रीणाति, क्रीणीते elc.; confer, compare स्वरितञितः कत्राभिप्राये, क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.
ñyuṭkrt affix added to the root वह् in Vedic Literature preceded by the words कव्य, पुरीष, पुरीष्य or हव्य, exempli gratia, for example कव्यवाहनः, पुरीषवाहनः, हव्यवाहनः confer, compare P. III,2.65, 66.. .
ṭakkrt affix अ, not admitting गुण or वृद्धि to the preceding vowel and causing ङीप् in the feminine ( by P.IV. 1.15), added to the roots गा, पा and हन् under certain conditions; e. g. समग;, सुरापः, पतिघ्नी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2.8, 52, 53, 54, 55.
ṭayultaddhita affix. affix added in the same way as टयु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., making only a difference in the accent. When the affix टयुल् is added, the acute accent is given to the last vowel of the word preceding the affix.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
(1)third letter of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and अल्पप्राण; (2) mute letter applied to affixes by Panini to show the elision of the टि part (confer, compare P. 1. 1.64.) of the preceding word viz. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants following it; cf, टेः ; ( लोप: डिति प्रत्यये परे ) VI.4.143. The syllable ति of विंशति is also elided before an affix markwith the mute letter ड्.
ḍa(1)krt affix अ applied to the root गम् preceded by अन्त, अत्यन्त, अध्वन् et cetera, and others, as also to the roots हन् and जन् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. III.2,48,49, 50, 97-101 and to the root क्रन् to form the word नक्र confer, compare P. VI. 3.75; (2) taddhita affix. affix अ applied to words ending in दशन्, words ending in शत् and the word विंशति in the sense of 'more than' exempli gratia, for example एकादशं शतम्, एकत्रिंशम्, एकविंशम्, cf P.V.2.45, 46.
ḍit(l)possessed of the mute letter ड् added for the purpose of the elision of डि (last vowel and the consonant or consonants after it) of the preceding word. See ड.
(1)fourth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and महृाप्राणत्व; (2) the consonant ढ् which is elided when followed by ढ् and the preceding vowel is lengthened; e. g. गाढा, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111 ; (3) substitute ढ् for ह् at the end of a पद, or, if followed by any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with द् or the roots द्रुह्, मुह् et cetera, and others as also वह् and अाह् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.31, 32, 33, 34; (4) ढ् at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which has got एय् substituted for it; confer, compare गाङ्गेय:, वैनतेयः ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102.
(1)fifth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties, नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्यः (2) the mute letter ण् indicating the substitution of vrddhi ( confer, compare P. VII. 2. 115-117) when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant ण् at the beginning of roots which is changed into न्; the roots, having ण् at the beginning changeable to न्, being called णोपदेशः (4) ण् as a substitute for न् following the letters ऋ, ॠ, र्, and ष् directly, or with the intervention of consonants of the guttural and labial classes, but occurring in the same word, Such a substitution of ण् for न् is called णत्व; confer, compare P.VIII.4. I-39. For णत्व in Vedic Literature; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)V.20-28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. V.Pr.III.84-88;(5) the consonant ण् added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant ण् at the end of the previous word; confer, compare P. VIII. 3. 32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas this augment ण् is added to the preceding ण् and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
ṇackrt affix अ in the sense of reciprocal action, added to any root; the affix णच् is to get necessarily the affix अञ् added to it followed by the feminine. affix ई exempli gratia, for example व्यावकोशी, व्यावहासी; confer, compare Kas, on P.III.3.43 and P. V. 4.14.
ṇamulkrt affix अम्, causing vrddhi to the final vowel or to the penultimate अ, (!) added to any root in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature when the connected root is शक्: exempli gratia, for example अग्निं वै देवा विभाजं नाशक्नुवन; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 4.14; (2) added to any root to show frequency of a past action, when the root form ending with णमुल् is repeated to convey the sense of frequency : exempli gratia, for example भोजं भोजं व्रजति, पायंपायं व्रजति, confer, compare Kas on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a root showing past action and preceded by the word अग्रे, प्रथम or पूर्व, optionally along with the krt affix क्त्वा; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजं or अग्रे भुक्त्वा व्रजति; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.24;(4) added in general to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to 64, showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which णमुल् is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as स्वादुम् or अन्यथा or एवम् or any other given in Panini's rules; confer, compare P. III.4.26 to III.4.64; exempli gratia, for example स्वादुंकारं भुङ्क्ते, अन्यथाकारं भुङ्क्ते, एवंकारं भुङ्क्ते, ब्राह्मणवेदं भोजयति, यावज्जीवमधीते, समूलकाषं कषति, समूलघातं हन्ति, तैलपेषं पिनष्टि, अजकनाशं नष्टः et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.26-64. When णमुल् is added to the roots कष्, पिष्, हन् and others mentioned in P. III. 4. 34 to 45, the same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in णमुल् has the acute accent (उदात) on the first vowel (confer, compare P.VI.I. 94) or on the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare P. VI.1.193.
ṇamultatpuruṣaa term used in connection with the compound of the णमुलन्त with its उपपदं which precedes; exempli gratia, for example अग्रेभोजम् , मूलकोपदंशम् : confer, compare P. II. 2.20, 21.
ṇalpersonal ending अ substituted for तिप् and मिप् in लिट् or the perfect, and in the case of विद् and ,ब्रू in लट् or the present tense. tense optionally; cf P. III, 4. 82, 83, 84. The affix णल् on account of being marked by the mute letter ण् causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st person. ( मिप् ) confer, compare P. VII.1.91. अौ is substituted for णल् after roots ending in आ; confer, compare P. VII .1.34.
ṇit(1)an affix with the mute con.sonant ण् added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate अ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; confer, compare P. VII.2.115117: e. g. अण्, ण, उण्, णि et cetera, and others: (2) an affix not actually marked with the mute letter ण् but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e. g. the Sarvanamasthana affixes after the words गो and सखि, confer, compare P. VII.1.90, 92.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇuṭaugment ण्, prefixed to the initial vowel when it follows upon the consonant ण् at the end of the preceding word; e. g. सुगण्णीशः for सुगण् + ईशः cf P. VIII. 3.82.
ṇvikrt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64.
ṇvinkrt affix व् or zero, seen applied in Vedic Literature to the root वह् preceded by श्वेत, to शंस् preceded by उक्थ, to दाश् preceded by पुरस् and to यज् preceded by अव. e. g. श्वेतवा इन्द्रः, उक्थशा यजमानः, पुरोडाः, अवयाः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2.71, 72.
ṇvul(1)a very general krt affix अक, causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding the affix, applied to a root optionally with तृ (i. e. तृच् ) in the sense of an agent e. g कारकः हारकः also कर्ता, हर्ता ; Cf P. III. 1.33; (2) krt. affix अक applied optionally with the affix तुम् to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the principal verb; e. g. भोजको व्रजति or भोक्तुं व्रजति; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्; P. III. 3.10; (3) krt affix अक, necessarily accompanied by the feminine. affix अा added to it, applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query ; e. g. प्रवाहिका, प्रच्छर्दिका, शालभञ्जिका, तालभञ्जिका, कारिक, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.108, 109, 110.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tasi(1)taddhita affix.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing exempli gratia, for example वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; confer, compare Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) taddhita affix.affix तस् applied in the sense of the ablative case. case and substituted for the ablative case. case affix: exempli gratia, for example ग्रामतः अागच्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumental or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् confer, compare Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.
tāthābhāvyaname given to the grave (अनुदात्त) vowel which is अवग्रह id est, that is which occurs at the end of the first member of a compound and which is placed between two acute vowels id est, that is is preceded by and followed by an acute vowel; exempli gratia, for example तनूSनप्त्रे, तनूSनपत्: confer, compare उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्रहस्ताथाभाव्यः । V.Pr.I.120. The tathabhavya vowel is recited as a kampa ( कम्प ) ; confer, compare तथा चोक्तमौज्जिहायनकैर्माध्यन्दिनमतानुसारिभिः'अवग्रहो यदा नीच उच्चयॊर्मध्यतः क्वचित् । ताथाभाव्यो भवेत्कम्पस्तनूनप्त्रे निदर्शनम्'. Some Vedic scholars hold the view that the ताथाभाव्य vowel is not a grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel, but it is a kind of स्वरित or circumflex vowel. Strictly according to Panini "an anudatta following upon an udatta becomes Svarita": confer, compare P.VIII.4.66, V.Pr. IV. 1.138: cf also R.Pr.III. 16.
tānaone uniform accent or tone एकश्रुति, as observed at the time of sacrifices in the case of the recital of the hymns; confer, compare तानलक्षणमेकं स्वरमाहुर्यज्ञकर्मणि Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.130; confer, compare also P.I. 2.34.
tāra(1)elevated, high; a place for the production of words; confer, compare T.Pr. XVII. 11; (2) recital in a high tone which is recommended in the evening time; confer, compare तारं तु विद्यात्सवने तृतीये, शिरोगतं तत्र सदा प्रयोज्यम् commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 12.
tiṅarthasenses possessed by the personal endings of verbs, viz. कारक ( कर्ता or कर्म ) संख्या and काल. For details see Vaiyakaranabhusanasara. तिङ्निघात the grave accent for the whole word (सर्वेनिघात्) generally possessed by a verbal form when it is preceded by a word form which is not a verb; confer, compare तिङतिङ: P. VIII. 1.28.
tīvrataraextreme sharpness of the nasalization at the time of pronouncing the anusvara and the fifth letters recommended by Saityayana.e. g. अग्नीररप्सुषदः, वञ्चते परिवञ्चते. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
tripādīterm usually used in connection with the last three Padas (ch. VIII. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. 4) of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as also a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1; (2) name of a critical treatise on Panini's grammar ("The Tripadi") written by Dr. H. E. Buiskool recently.
triruktarepeated thrice, occurring thrice; a term used in the PratiSakhya works in respect of a word which is repeated in the krama and other artificial recitations.
tresvarya(1)use of the three accents acute, grave and circumflex at the time of the recital of the Veda; त्रयः स्वरा एव त्रैस्वर्यम्; confer, compare चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनां स्वार्थॆ उपसंख्यानम् । त्रैलोक्यम् , त्रैस्यर्यम् Kas, on P. V. 1. 124. confer, compare also यद्येवं त्रैस्वर्ये न प्रकल्पते तत्र को दोषः। त्रैस्वर्येणाधीमहॆ इत्येतन्नोपपद्यते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31.
tvantaddhita affix. affix त्व before which there is observed the caesura or avagraha in the recital of the Padapatha. e: g. देवत्वमिति देवsत्वम् । confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V. 9.
th()second consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2) augment थ् ( थुक् ) added to the words षष् , कति, कतिपय and चतुर् before the Purana affix डट्. e. g. षण्णां पूरण: षष्ठ:, कतिथः, चतुर्थः; confer, compare Kas, on P. V. 2.51 ; (3) substitute for the consonant ह् of आह् before any consonant except a nasal, and a semivowel as also for the consonant स् of स्था preceded by the preposition उद्: confer, compare P, VIII. 2.35, VIII. 4.61.
daṇḍaone of the eight artificial Vedic recitations.
dikśabdaa word denoting a direction such as पूर्व, उत्तर and the like, used as a substantive, e. g. पूर्वो ग्रामात् , or showing the direction of another thing being its adjective, e. g. इयमस्याः पूर्वा; cf Kas, on P. II.3.29.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dyotanaconveyance of sense indirectly or by suggestion, and not directly. See द्योतक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
dyotya(sense)conveyed by suggestion indirectly and not directly expressed, as in the case of karmapravacaniyas, the krt affixes and the tad, affixes: confer, compare अनुशब्दो लक्षणे द्योत्ये कर्मप्रवचनीयसंज्ञो भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 4.84.
drutaliterally rapid; the vice of rapidity in utterance;a fault of speech especially in connection with the utterance of vowels in Vedic recital when on account of haste the utterance of letters becomes indistinct. confer, compare संदृष्टमेणीकृतमर्धकं द्रुतं विकीर्णमेताः स्वरद्रोषभावनाः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 vart. 18.
dvikarmakaa term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, exempli gratia, for example दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52.
dvikhaṇḍaa compound expression or word separated into two by avagraha in the Padapatha; the word is misstated as दुखण्ड by some vedic reciters.
dviguname of a compound with a numeral as the first member. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpurusa comPoundThe dvigu compound, having collection as its general sense, is declined in the neuter gender and singular number; when it ends in अ the feminine. affix ङी is added generally, e. g. पञ्चपात्रम्, त्रिभुवनम्, पञ्चमूली. The Dvigu comPound also takes place when a karmadharaya compound, having a word denoting a direction or a numeral as its first member, (a) has a taddhita affix. affix added to it exempli gratia, for example पञ्चकपाळः (पुरोडाशः), or (b) has got a word placed after it in a compound e. g. पशञ्चगवधनः or (c) has a collective sense exempli gratia, for example पञ्चपूली; confer, compare तद्वितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च ( P. II.1.51 ) also, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. and S. K. om P.II.1.51,52.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dvisandhia kind of विवृत्ति or interval of time in the pronunciation of two consecutive vowels, which as a result of two euphonic changes has a vowel preceded by a vowel and followed also by a vowel: e. g. अभूदुभा उ अंशवे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 44.
dhātūpadeśaenumeration or recital of roots in the Dhatupatha;confer, compare प्रकृत्युपपदोपाधयश्वोपदिष्टः। क्व । धातूपदेशे प्रातिपदिकोपदेशे च । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1 1.
dhāraṇa(1)suppression of a consonant, out of two successive consonants which is looked upon as a fault of recital; exempli gratia, for example ह्वयामि when recited as वयामि; efeminine. धारणमनुपलब्धिः Uvvata on R.Pr.XIV. 6; (2) repetition of a consonant which is also a fault; exempli gratia, for example ज्ज्योतिष्कृत् for ज्योतिष्कृत्: confer, compare Uvvata on XIV.6;confer, compare also धारयन्त; परक्रमं et cetera, and others explained by Uvvata as सान्तस्थस्य संयोगस्य आदौ रक्तं धारयन्तो विलम्बमानाः परक्रमं कुर्वन्ति where धारयन्तः means 'lengthening’ or 'prolonging' confer, compare R.Pr. on XIV.23; (3) the peculiar position of the mouth (मुखसंधारणम् ) by which a double consonant is recited as a single one, confer, compare द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत् ( एकप्रयत्ननिर्वर्त्य ) धारणात् exempli gratia, for example व्यात्तम् , कुक्कुटः, confer, compare V.Pr. IV.144.
dhvānathe second out of the seven Positions of voice in the Veda recital which are-उपांशु, ध्वान, निमद, उपब्दिमत्, मन्द्र, मध्यम and तार.
dhvePersonal-ending of the second. person. Pl. Atmanepada in the present and perfect tenses. न् fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is possessed of the properties घोष, नादानुप्रदान, अल्पप्राणत्व, संवृतकण्ठत्व and अानुनासिक्य. In Panini's grammar the nasal consonant न् (a)is added as an augment prescribed\ \नुट् or नुम् which originally is seen as न्, but afterwards changed into अनुस्वार or परसवर्ण as required, as for example in पयांसि, यशांसि, निन्दति, वन्दति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII. 1.58-73, VII. 1.7983; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed into ण् when it directly follows upon ऋ, ॠ, र् or ष् or even intervened by a vowel, a semivowel except ल् , a guttural consonant, a labial consonant or an anusvara; confer, compare P. VIII. 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the final म् of a root, e. g. प्रशान्, प्रतान् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
niyatasvara(1)an affix whose accent is definitely given by an indicatory mute letter applied to it; confer, compare M.Bh. on I.1.3; (2) the grave accent; a syllable with a grave accent; grave vowel; confer, compare नियतस्वरोदये R.Pr.XI.25; (3) name of a Samdhi when a visarga is changed into रेफ and then omitted and the preceding vowel is lengthened; cf ह्रस्वस्याकामनियता उभाविमौ R.Pr. IV.9; confer, compare also P. VIII.3.14 and VI.3.111.
niyogaan obligatory order or command, such as that of a preceptor, as contrasted with स्वभाव; cf धातोः परः अकारोऽकशब्दो वा नियोगतःकर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति ......... स्वभावतः कर्तारं ब्रुवन्कृत्संज्ञश्च भवति et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 4.67 Vart. 8 where Kaiyata explains नियोग as अाचार्यनियोग.
nivartakaliterally expeller, excluding other forms which are otherwise, that is, incorrect; confer, compare समाने चार्थे शास्त्रान्वितः अशास्त्रान्वितस्य निवर्तको भवति । M.Bh. on I.1. Siva Sutra 2.
nivṛtti(1)cessation of recurrence of a word or words from a rule to a subsequent rule or rules; non-application of a rule consequent upon the cessation of recurrence or anuvrtti cf; न ज्ञायते केनाभिप्रायेण प्रसजति केन निवृत्तिं करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. 1.1.44 Vart.8. confer, compare also एकयोगनिर्दिष्टानां सह वा प्रवृत्तिः सह वा निवृत्तिः Kat. Par. Vr. Pari. 9; (2) cessation or removal; confer, compare न च संज्ञाया निवृत्तिरुच्यते । स्वभावतः संज्ञा संज्ञिन; प्रत्याय्य निवर्तन्ते । तेन अनुबन्धानामपि निवृत्तिर्भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1. Vart. 7; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 3 et cetera, and others; confer, compare also the usual word उदात्तनिवृत्तिस्वरः.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
nyāyamaxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; confer, compare the words अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II 2.24, अपवादन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3.9, अविरविकन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, शालिपलालन्याय M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, confer, compare न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.
nyāyyaproper; fully justified न्यायादनपेतम् confer, compare P.IV.4.92; correct; regular; confer, compare यञञ्भ्यामुक्तत्वादर्थस्य न्याय्योत्पत्तिर्न भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.1 where Kaiyata however, explains the word differently. Kaiyata states that न्याय्य means a general rule; confer, compareउत्सर्गः पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्ध्या न्याय्य उच्यते Kaiyata on P. II. 3.1. By Pūrvācārya he possibly refers to the writers of the Prātiśākhyas and other similar works by ancient grammarians, where the word nyāya is used in the sense of 'a general rule '. See the word न्याय a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
pacādia class of roots headed by the root पच् to which the kŗt. affix अ ( अच् ) is added in the sense of 'an agent'; e. g. श्वपचः, चोरः, देवः et cetera, and others The class पचादि is described as अाकृतिगण and it is usual with commentators to make a remark पचाद्यच् when a kŗt affix अ is seen after a root without causing the vŗddhi substitute to the preceding vowel or to the penultimate vowel अ. confer, compare अज्विधिः सर्वधातुभ्यः पठ्यन्ते च पचादय: । अण्बाधनार्थमेव स्यात् सिध्यन्ति श्वपचादघ: Kāś. on P. III. 1.134.
pañcālapadavṛttithe usage or the method of the Pañcālas; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the retention of the vowel अ after the preceding vowel ओ which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. यो अस्मै; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 12; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19. This vowel अ which is retained, is pronounced like a short ओ or अर्धओकार by the followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāņāyaniya branches of the Sāmavedins; confer, compare commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI. 19 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1.
paṭhanaoral recital, the word is used in connection with the use of words by the author himself in his text which he is supposed to have handed over orally to his disciples, as was the case with the ancient Vedic and Sūtra works; confer, compare the words पठित, पठिष्यते, पठ्यते and the like, frequently used in the Mahābhāșya in connection with the mention of words in the Sūtras of Pāņini.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
paramaprakṛtithe most original base; the original of the original base; the word is used in connection with a base which is not a direct base to which an affix is added, but which is a remote base;confer, compare अापत्यो वा गेात्रम् | परमप्रकृतश्च अापत्यः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.1.89; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om IV.1.93,98,163.
parigrahaalso परिग्रहण. (1) acceptance, inclusion; confer, compare किं प्रयोजनम् | प्रत्ययार्थे परिग्रहार्थम् M.Bh. on P.III.26.1 ; (2) repetition of a Samhita word in the Pada recital, technically named वेष्टक also; repetition of a word with इति interposed; e. g. सुप्राव्या इति सुप्रऽ अव्या: Rg Veda II.13.9, अलला भवन्तीरित्यललाSभवन्तीः Rg. IV.18.6; confer, compare परिग्रहेत्वनार्षान्तात् तेन वैकाक्षरीक्तात् | परेषां न्यास-माचारं व्यालिस्तौ चेत्स्वरौ परौ; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 14. confer, compare also, R.Pr.XI.32,36,42.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
parivartanareversion in the order of words as found in the recital of the Veda at the time of the recital of जटा, घन and other artificial types of recitations.
pāṭha(1)recital of a sacred Vedic or Sastra work; the original recital of an authoritative text;(2) the various artificial ways or methods of such a recital; c.g. पदपाठ, क्रमपाठ et cetera, and others in the case of Vedic Literature: (3) an original recital such as the सुत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ, वार्तिकपाठ and परिभाषापाठ in the case of the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar; the five Paathas are called पञ्चपाठी; (4) recitation; confer, compare नान्तरेण पाठं स्वरा अनुबन्धा वा शक्या विज्ञातुम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.1 Vaart. 13; (5) reading, variant: confer, compare चूर्णादीनि अप्राण्युपग्रहादिति सूत्रस्य पाठान्तरम् Kaas. on P.V.2.134.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
pātresamitādia class of irregular compound words headed by the compound word पात्रेसमित, which are taken correct as they are. This class of words consists mostly of words forming a tatpurușa compound which cannot be explained by regular rules. The class is called आकृतिगण and hence similar irregular words are included in it: e. g. पात्रेसमिताः, गेहेशूरः कूपमण्डूकः etc confer, compare KS. on P. II.1.48.
pāraṇathe same as पारायण, recital of the Veda in any of the various artificial ways prescribed, such as krama, jatā, ghana et cetera, and others, cf ऋते न च द्वैपदसंहृितास्वरौ प्रसिध्यतः पारणकर्म चोत्तमम् R.Pr.XI.37.
pārāyaṇaoral recital of a sacred work. See पारण.
pitmarked with the mute letter प् which is indicative of a grave accent in the case of affixes marked with it, as for example, the affixes तिप् , सिप् and मिप् ; confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III. 1.4. A Sarvadhātuka affix, marked with the mute consonant प्, in Pāņiņi's Grammar has been described as instrumental in causing many operations such as (a) the substitution of guņa; (cf P. VII. 3 84,9l). (b) the prevention of guņa in the case of a reduplicative syllable as also in the case of the roots भू and सू ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.87, 88 ); (c) the substitution of Vŗddhi, (confer, compare P. VII. 3.89, 90 ), (d) the augments इ and ई in the case of the roots तृह् and ब्रू respectively ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.92, 93, 94 ), and (e) acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix in the case of the roots भी, हृी, भृ and others ( confer, compare P. VI. 1.192 ). A short vowel (of a root) gets त् added to it when followed by a kŗt affix marked with प्: exempli gratia, for example, विजित्य​, प्रकृत्य, et cetera, and others:(confer, compare P. VI. 1.71 ).
punaḥprasaṅgavijñānaoccurrence or possibility of the application of a preceding grammatical rule or operation a second time again, after once it has been set aside by a subsequent opposing rule or rules in conflict; confer, compare पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्धम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 39; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 4.2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; confer, comparealso Puru. Pari. 40.
punaruktaa passage which is repeated in the क्रमपाठ and the other Pāțhas or recitals; the word is also used in the sense of the conventional repetition of a word at the end of a chapter. The word पुनर्वचन is used also in the same sense; confer, compare यथोक्तं पुनरुक्तं त्रिपदप्रभृति त्रिपदप्रभृति । T.Pr.I.6l: confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.8 and 10.
punargrahaṇarecital of a word again in the Krama and other Pāțhas for a special purpose, although such a recital after three times is generally discouraged; confer, compare एवमर्थविशेषात् पुनरुक्तस्य ग्रहणं भवति ... Uv Bhāşya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 177.
purastātoccurring beforehand, preceding: confer, compare पुरस्तादपवादा अनन्तरान् विधीन् बाध​न्ते , नोत्तरान् Par. Sek. Pari. 59, also M.Bh. on VII. 2.100; confer, compare also the expression पुरस्तादुपकर्ष which means the same as अपकर्ष which is opposed to अनुवृत्ति.
pūrvatrāsiddhavacanathe dictum of Panini about rules in his second, third and fourth quarters (Padas) of the eighth Adhyaya being invalid to (viz. not seen by) all the previous rules in the first seven chapters and the first quarter of the eighth as laid down by him in the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. The rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् is taken also as a governing rule id est, that is अधिकार laying down that in the last three quarters also of his grammar, a subsequent rule is invalid to the preceding rule. The purpose of this dictum is to prohibit the application of the rules in the last three quarters as also that of a subsequent rule in the last three quarters, before all such preceding rules, as are applicable in the formation of a word, have been given effect to; confer, compare एवमिहापि पर्वेत्रासिद्धवचनं अादेशलक्षणप्रतिषेधार्थमुत्सर्गलक्षणभावार्थं च M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.1 Vart. 8.
pūrvanighātathe grave accent for the preceding acute vowel as a result of the following vowel made acute, and the preceding , as a result, turned into grave by virtue of the rule अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम् VI.1.198: confer, compare मतुब्विभक्त्युदात्तत्वं पूर्वनिघातस्यानिमित्तं स्यात् । अग्निमान् । वायुमान् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.39 Vart. 16.
pūrvavipratiṣedhaconflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; confer, compare इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85et cetera, and others confer, comparealso पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvasthānikaa variety of antarangatva mentioned by Nagesa in the Paribhasendusekhara, where an operation, affecting a part of a word which precedes that portion of the word which is affected by the other operation, is looked upon as antaranga; e. g. the टिलोप in स्रजिष्ठ ( स्रग्विन् + इष्ठ ) is looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग with respect to the elision of विन् which is बहिरङ्ग. This kind of antarangatva is, of course, not admitted by Nagesa although mentioned by him; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 50,
pūrvāntaend of the previous. The word is used in connection with a vowel which is substituted for two vowels (एकादेश.). Such a substitute is looked upon as the ending vowel of the preceding word or the initial vowel of the succeeding word; it cannot be looked upon as both at one and the same time; confer, compare अन्तादिवच्च P. VI. 1. 85 and उभयत अाश्रयेण नान्तादिवत् Sira. Pari. 60; confer, compare also किं पुनरयं पूर्वान्तः अहोस्वित् परादिः अाहोस्विदभक्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1. 47 Vart. 3.
prakṛta(1)in context, in question; the word is frequently used in connection with words in the preceding rules which are drawn on to the following rules by anuvrtti or continuation; confer, compare प्रकृतं गुणवृद्धिग्रहणमनुवर्तते, M.Bh. on I.1.3 Vart. 2: (2) found or available in a large quantity; confer, compare तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् । प्राचुर्येण प्रस्तुतं प्रकृतम् । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 4.21.
prakrama(l)the place of articulation, the place of the production of sound, such as throat, chest, palate and the like; confer, compare प्रक्रम्यन्ते अस्मिन्वर्णा इति प्रक्रमः स्थानमुच्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Pradipa on सिद्धं तु समानप्रक्रमवचनात् P.I.2.30 Vart.2; (2) recital of Veda, described as क्रमपाठ confer, compare उभयथा च प्रक्रमे दोषो भवति M.Bh.on P. VIII. 4.28 confer, compare also "अष्टसु प्रक्रमेषु दोषो भवति"quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.VI. 1.172; (3) regularity in the position of words, regular order of words.
pragītaa fault of utterance or recital where a simple word in conversation or recital is uttered in a tone proper for singing or in a manner suitable for singing; cf प्रगीत: सामवदुच्चारितः Kaiy. on M.Bh.Ahni.1.
pragṛhītapadāa description of the Samhhita text of the Veda in which a pragrhya vowel preceding another vowel is held up ( प्रगृह्य ) id est, that is kept as it is, without any euphonic combination; confer, compare सहोदयास्ताः प्रग्रहीतपदाः सर्वत्रैव त्र्यक्षरान्तास्तु नैव Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 27.
pracaya(1)a specific feature or quality ( धर्म ) of the grave (अनुदात्त) accent when a vowel, accented grave, is preceded by a स्वरित (circumflex . vowel) and is followed upon by another grave-accented vowel. These grave vowels in succession, id est, that is the grave vowels which are not followed by an acute or a circumflex vowel are uttered neither distinctly circumflex nor distinctly grave; cf also R. Pr, III.II-14. They are uttered like the acute, but slightly so; e. g. the vowels after मे and before ति in इमं मे गङ्गे' यमुने सरस्वति; confer, compare स्वरितात्संहितायामनुदात्तानां प्रचय उदात्तश्रुतिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXI.10, 11 also confer, compare P.I.2.39, where the term एकश्रुति is used for the word प्रचय; (2) the connection of one word with many words; exempli gratia, for example राज्ञो गोश्चाश्वश्च पुरुषश्च where राज्ञः is connected with गौ, अश्व and पुरुष; confer, compare प्रचये समासप्रतिषेधो: वक्तव्य: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1 Vart, 6.
pratikrama(1)recital in the reverse order as in some of the artificial recitations of the Samhita text such as जटा, घन et cetera, and others
pratipadapāṭha(1)recital ofeach and every word; (2) enumeration of every word; confer, compare किं शब्दानां प्रतिपत्तौ प्रतिपदपाठः कर्तव्यः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahn. 1.
pratilomaliterally regressive; a kind of Sandhi or euphonic combination, in which the consonant precedes and the vowel comes after it; e. g. हव्यवाडग्निः; confer, compare प्रतिलोमसंधिषु व्यञ्जनानि पूर्वाणि स्वरा उत्तरे; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 4.
pratisaṃskaraṇaediting with improvement, with an attempt to restore the correct version or the original text in the place of the corrupt one sometimes suitable additions and improvements are also made; e. g. चरकप्रतिसंस्करण attributed to Patanjali.
pratṛṇṇaliterally broken or split up; the separated words of the Samhita of the Vedas i. e. the Padapatha; the recitation of the Padapatha.; confer, compare शौद्धाक्षरोच्चारणं च प्रतृण्णम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 3.
pratyādānaliterally taking again; uttering a word already utttered in the Krama and other recitations of the Vedas; confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिकम्य प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयो: । प्रत्यादाय पुनर्गृहीत्वा Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X-1.
pratyāmnāyaliterally, repetition in a contrary way; in the Pratisakhya literature, the word refers to the repetition of a Vedic passage; repetition by pupils after hearing from the preceptor ; confer, compare प्रत्याम्नायः पुनर्वचनं Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV. 9.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
pratyuccārarepetition especially of what has been recited by the preceptor; confer, compare प्रत्युच्चार्यैतद्वचनं परस्य शिष्यस्य स्याद् भो इति चोदना वा, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV. 8.
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
prayogaviṣayasphere or domain of the use of words; the whole Vedic and classical recognized literature: cf महान् हि शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः । सप्तद्वीपा वसुमती त्रयो लोकाः चत्वारो वेदाः साङ्गाः सरहस्याः बहुधा विाभन्नाः, एकशतमध्वर्युशाखाः, सहस्रवर्त्मा सामवेदः, एकविंशतिधा बाह् वृच्यम् , नवधाथर्वणो वेदो वाकोवाक्यामितिहासः पुराणं वैद्यकमित्येतावाञ्शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. Vrt. 5
pravacana(1)recital of Vedic texts; confer, compare अथैके प्राहुरनुसंहितं तत् पारायणे प्रवचनं प्रशस्तम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV. 16; cf also इति प्र बाभ्रव्य उवाच च क्रमं क्रमप्रवक्ता ( बाभ्रव्यः ) प्रथमं शशंस च , Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI 33; (2) the reading of the Samhita text प्रावचनो वा यजुषि । प्रवचने भवः स्वरः प्रावचनः ; प्रवचनशब्देनार्षपाठ उच्यते 1 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 132.
praśleṣa(l)coalescence of two vowels into one, as given in Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.6, and 7, corresponding to the गुण, वृद्वि and दीर्घ substitutes prescribed by the rules आद्गुणः P.IV 1.87; अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः VI.1.101; and वृद्धिरेचि VI. 1.88 which are stated under the jurisdiction of the rule एकः पूर्वपरयोः VI.1.84; (2) finding out the presence of a letter in addition to the letters already present as coalesced, after splitting the combination into its different constituent 1etters. This Practice of finding out an additional letter is resorted to by the commentators only to remove certain difficulties in arriving at some correct forms which otherwise could not be obtained; e. g. see क्ङिति च where क्ङ् is believed to be a combination of ग्, क् and ङ् See प्रश्लिष्ट and प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देश.
prākbefore a particular thing in place, or in recital, or in mention. The word is used generally to show the limit upto which a particular topic extends; confer, compare तसिलादयः प्राक् पाशपः; cf also प्राक् कडारात्समासः P. I. 4.l : confer, compare also अथ आख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 33.
prātipadikagrahaṇaexpress mention by wording of a noun-base as in दित्यदित्यादित्य , सुधातुरकङ् च et cetera, and others, and not by description as अदन्त in अत इञ् (P.IV.1.95) or in a group of words ( गण ) ; confer, compare प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. 71, which recommends the feminine form of the base for an operation, provided the base is specifically expressed and not merely describedition e. g युवतिः खलतिः युवखलतिः, चटकस्यापत्यं चाटकैरः, वह्नीनां पूरणी बहुतिथी et cetera, and others
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
balīyastvarelative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1.
bādhakatvathe same as बाध ; sublation; setting aside; this sublation is described to be of two types(1) complete sublation when the rule set aside, is for ever set aside and cannot, by the maxim called तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय, be applied again; confer, compare दधि ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दीयतां तक्रं कौण्डिन्यायेति सत्यपि संभवे दधिदानस्य तक्रदानं निवर्तकं भवति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.47; VI. 1.2. VI. 2.1. et cetera, and others; ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the rule set aside, can be applied, if possible after the special rule has been applied; confer, compare सर्वथा अनवकाशत्वादेव बाधकत्वे स्वस्य (अनवकाशशास्त्रस्य) पूर्वप्रवृत्तिरित्येव बाधः । तत्र बाधके प्रवृत्ते यद्युत्सर्गप्राप्तिर्भवति तदा भवत्येव यथा तत्रैव याडादयः Par.Sek.on Pari.57, The sublation or बाधकत्व is not only in the case of सामान्यविशेषभाव and अनवकाशत्व as given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., but a rule or operation which is पर (cited later), or नित्य, or अन्तरङ्ग sets aside the rule or operation which is पूर्व,or अनित्य,or बहिरङ्ग respectively. This बाध्यबाधकभाव occupies a very important position in respect of the application of grammar rules for arriving at the correct forms (इष्टरूपसिद्धि) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribhasas in the field of बाध्यबाधकभाव.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
bhaṭṭojīsurnamed Diksita; a stalwart grammarian of the Panini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent books and commentaries such as the Siddhantakaumudi, the Praudhamanorama, the Vaiyakaranasiddhantakarika, the Sabdakaustubha and others. The most reputed work out of these, however, is the Siddhantakaumudi which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works of its kind such as the Prakriyakaumudi and others. Bhattoji was a Telagu Brahmana, as generally believed, and although he belonged to the South, he made Varanasi his home where he prepared a school of learned Grammarians. Although he carried on his work silently in Varanasi, he was envied by the reputed rhetorician of his time Pandita Jagannātha, who criticised his work ( Bhattojis work ) named Manorama very severely. See प्रौढमनोरमा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got many commentaries of which the Tattvabodhini written by Bhattoji's pupil Jnanendrasarasvati is appreciated much by learned grammarians.
bhāgavṛttione of the oldest commentaries on the Sutras of Panini, which, although not available at present, has been profusely quoted by Purusottamadeva and other Eastern Grammarians of the twelfth and later centuries. The authorship of the work is attributed to Bhartrhari, but the point is doubtful as Siradeva in his Paribhasavrtti on Pari. 76 has stated that the author of the Bhagavrtti has quoted from Maghakavya; confer, compare अत एवं तत्रैव सूत्रे भागवृत्तिः पुरातनमुनेर्मुनितामिति पुरातनीनेदिरिति च प्रमादपाठावेतौ गतानुगतिकतया कवयः प्रयुञ्जते न तेषां लक्षणे चक्षुरिति | Some scholars attribute its authorship to Vimalamati. Whosoever be the author, the gloss ( भागवृत्ति ) was a work of recognised merit; confer, compare काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत् सिद्धान्तं वेत्तुमस्ति धी: | तदा विचिन्त्यतां भातभीषावृत्तिरियं मम Bhasavrtti at the end. सृष्टिघर in his commentary on the Bhasavrtti also says " सा हि द्वयोर्विवरणकर्त्री."
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhisaffix of the instrumental plural before which the base is looked upon as a Pada and sometimes split up in the Padapāṭha, especially when the preceding word has got no change for its last letter or syllable.
bhairavamiśraone of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition.
maṭtaddhita affix. affix म applied to a numeral, not preceded by another numeral in the sense of completion; e. g. पञ्चम:, सप्तम:; confer, compare नान्तादसंख्यादेर्मट् Pān. V.2.49.
maṇḍūkagatiliterallythe gait of a frog; jump; the continuation of a word from a preceding Sūtra to the following Sūtra or Sūtras in the manner of a frog by omitting one or more Sūtras in the middle; the word मण्डूकप्लुति is also used in the same sense especially by later grammarians; confer, compare अथवा मण्डूकगतयोधिकाराः | यथा मण्डूका उत्प्लुत्योत्प्लुत्य गच्छन्ति तद्वदधिकाराः || Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2, II. 3.32, II. 4.34, VI.1.16, VI.3.49,VII. 2.117.
man(1)the affix मनिन् generally found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा and preceded by a noun; exempli gratia, for example सुदामा, अश्वत्थामा; confer, compare आतो मनिन्कनिब्वनिपश्च P.III.2.74,75; (2) Uṇādi affix in ओद्म; confer, compare औद्म इति उन्देरौणादिके मन्प्रत्यये नलोपो गुणश्च निपात्यते Kāś. on P. VI.4.29.
mācākīyaan ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work, who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya as one, holding the view that य and व् preceded by अ and followed by उ and ओ respectively, are dropped provided they stand at the beginning of a Pada ( word ). माचाकीय, who belonged to the Yajurveda school, is said to have held this view which is generally held by the followers of the Rgveda: confer, compare उकारौकारपरौ लुप्यते माचाकी यस्य(Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.X.29) on which the commentator adds वह्वृचानामयं पक्षः.
mālāa variety of the utterance of the Veda-Samhita ( वेदपाठ): a kind of Krama-Patha, one of the eight artificial recitations.
mṛdu(1)soft in utterance ; the term is used in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya for the क्षैप्र, प्रश्लिष्ट, तैरोव्यञ्जन, and पादवृत्त varieties of the circumflex accent (स्वरित) out of which the पादवृत्त is the softest ( मृदुतम ) and consequently always called मृदु, while the others are called मृदु only with respect to the preceding one in the order given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; viz.अभिनिहत, क्षैप्र et cetera, and othersconfer, compareसर्वतीक्ष्णोभिनिहत:प्राश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम् । ततो मृदुतरौ स्वरौ जात्यक्षेप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ | ततो मृदुतर: स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते | पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on V.Pr. I. !25; (2) soft, as opposed to hard; the term is used in connection with the first,third and fifth consonants of the five classes.
metreyarakṣitaa recognised scholar of Paninis' grammar who belonged to the Eastern part of India and fourished in the beginning of the twelfth century. As it appears from the name Maitreya Raksita he appears to have been a Buddhist grammarian. Subsequent writers in their works refer to him by the name Raksita alone, as also by the name Maitreya, but very rarely by the name Maitreya Raksita.He wrote many works on grammar of which the 'tantrapradipa'a learned commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa on Kasika was a reputed one, which, although available in a fragmentary manuscript form today, has been profusely quoted by prominent grammarians after him.
mleccha(1)a word although correct,yet looked upon as incorrect owing to its faulty utterance; (2) a person like the uncultured people, who is not able to pronounce words correctly confer, compare म्लेच्छा मा भूमेत्यध्येयं व्याकरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1, Ahnika 1.
yathāgṛhītaṃas they are actually found in Vedic recital with some irregularties of euphonic changes,lengthening of the vowel and the like. Specimens of such phrases are given in R.Pr.II.33 to 39.
yam(1)one of pair a twin letter available in pronunciation before a nasal letter and similar to it, when the nasal consonant is preceded by any one of the four consonants of the five classes; a transitional sound intervening between a non-nasal and the following nasal as a counterpart of the n6n-nasal: confer, compare वर्गेष्वाद्यानां चेतुर्णो पञ्चमे पर मध्ये यमो नाम पूर्वसदृशो वर्णः प्रातिशाख्ये प्रसिद्धः S.K. on P.व्व्III. l.1; (2) name given to the seven musical notes, found in the singing of Saaman; confer, compare मन्द्रमध्यमत्राख्येषु त्रिषु वाचः स्थानेषु प्रत्येकं सत स्थरभेदा भवन्ति कुष्टप्रथमद्वितीयतृतीयचतुर्थमन्द्रातित्वार्यः यमाः ' Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 13,14.
yara short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for any consonant except ह् standing at the end of a word is optionally changed to the nasal consonant of its class if followed by a nasal letter; confer, compare यरोनुनासिकेनुनासिकेा वा P. VIII.4.45: and (2) is doubled if preceded by र् or ह् as also if preceded by a vowel but not followed by a vowel; exempli gratia, for example अर्क्कः, दद्धयत्र: confer, compare अन्वॊ रहाभ्यां द्वे; अनचिच P. VIII.4.46,47.
yastaddhita affix. affix य with mute स् to indicate the application of the term पद् to the preceding base as a consequence of which the final म् of the words कम् and शम्, after which यस् is prescribed, gets changed into anusvara e. g. कंयु:, दंयु:: cf P.W.2.138.
yāskaa reputed ancient Niruktakara or etymologist, of the 6th century B.C. or even a few centuries before that, whose work, the Nirukta, is looked upon as the oldest authoritative treatise regarding derivation of Vedic words. Yaska was preceded by a number of etymologists whom he has mentioned in his work and whose works he has utilisedition Yaska's Nirukta threw into the back-ground the older treatises on etymology, all of which disappeared gradually in the course of time.
yuckrt affix यु changed into अन, (1) applied in the sense of 'a habituated agent' to intransitive roots in the sense of movement or utterance, to Atmanepadi roots beginning with a consonant, to the roots जु, चेकम् सृ, शुच्, कुघ्, as also to roots in the sense of decoration: exempli gratia, for example चलन:, शब्दन:: cf P.III. 2. 148-15I: (2) applied to causal roots, as also to the roots आस् श्रन्थ् and others in the sense of verbal activity when the word so formed has always the feminine gender; exempli gratia, for example कारणा, हृरणा, आसना, घट्टना,वेदना et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.3.107 and the Varttikas thereon; (3) applied to roots ending in अा and preceded by the indeclinables ईषद्, दुस् or सु in the sense of easy or difficult for obtainment and, wherever seen to any root in the Vedic language, as also to some other roots as found in actual use in the classical literature; e. g. ईषद्दानो गौर्मवता, दु्ष्पानः, सुपान: et cetera, and others सूपसदन:, दुर्योधनः, दुर्मर्षण: et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.III.8.128-130.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
rathaname of one of the eight kinds of recitals of the Veda Samhita by dividing it into the component words ( पद ) and reciting the component words by repeating them, in their regular order and reverse order too.
ru(1)substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः confer, compare P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् (exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् (exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; confer, compareP.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd person. sing; confer, compare P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example मरुत्व: हरिवः ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter id est, that is the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; exempli gratia, for example भवांश्चिनोति; confer, compare P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12.
rephina term applied(1)to the Visarjasnīya letter preceded by any vowel excepting अ and अा, ( 2 ) to the Visarjanīya preceded by अ in some specified words such as प्रातः, भाः, अविभः, अाद:, क: et cetera, and others under certain conditions, as also, (3) to the Visarjanīya in हातः, सनितः et cetera, and others For details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30-36.
rauḍhīyaa term jocularly used with the word घृत preceding it,for students of a famous scholar named धृतरौढि; confer, compare ओदनपाणिनीया: घृतरौर्ढायाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. 1.1.73.
l(1)a consonant of the dental class which is a semi-vowel ( यण् ) with liquid contact in the mouth, and which is inaspirate ( अल्पप्राण ),voiced ( घोष ) and both nasalised and unnasalised; (2) name in general ( लकार ) given to the personal endings applied to roots in the ten tenses and moods which take different substitutes ति, त:, अन्ति et cetera, and others and have various modifications and augments in the different tenses and moods; (3) substituted as a semi-vowel ( यण् ) for the vowel ऌ followed by any other vowel in the euphonic combinations; (4)applied at the beginning of nontaddhita affixes as a mute letter indicating the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix; confer, compare लिति; P. VI. 1.193; ( 5 ) substituted for त्, थ्, द्, घ् or न् before ल्, confer, compare P.VIII.4. 60; (6) substituted under certain conditions for the consonant र् (a) of the root कृप्, (b) of prefixes प्र and परा before the root अय्, (c) of the root गॄ in frequentative forms and optionally before affixes beginning with a vowel, and (d ) of the word परि before घ and अङ्क; confer, compare P. VIII. 2. 18 to 22. _ ल (1) consonant ल्; see ल् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.' (2) a general term usually used by ancient grammarians to signifyलोप (elision or disappearance) of a letter or a syllable or a word; confer, compare सर्वसादेर्द्विगोश्च ल: | सवार्तिक:, द्वितन्त्र: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.2.60; (3) taddhita affix. affix ल added to the word क्लिन्न when चिल् and पिल् are substituted for the word क्लिन्न; e.g, चिल्लः, पिल्ल: confer, compare P. V. 2.33 Vārt 2.
lakṣaṇa(1)a rule or a sūtra composed by the ancient Sūtrakāras; the word is very frequently used in this sense by the Bhāşyakāra and later commentators; confer, compare लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्; confer, compare also लक्षणं हि नाम ध्वनति, भ्रमति मुहूर्तमपि नावतिष्ठते M.Bh on P.I.1.3 Vārt 10; (2) characteristic or sign; confer, compare लक्षणेनाभिप्रती आभिमुख्ये P. II. 1. 14; confer, compare also P.I.4.90 and III. 2.12; (3) indirect way of expression; confer, compare लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तत्यैव ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 105.
lakṣaṇapratipadoktaa short term used for the well-known Paribhāşā लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तस्यैव ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. I05, laying down that when a question arises as to which of the two words लक्षणोक्त (arrived at by certain changes or modifications) and प्रतिपदोक्त, (directly expressed) be accepted, the latter should be preferredition
lakṣaṇāimplication; potentiality of implication; this potentiality of words viz. लक्षणा is not recognised by grammarians as a potentiality different from the अभिधाशक्ति or the power of denotation. Later grammarians, however, like the Ālamkārikas, have used the word in the sense of potentiality of implication as different from that of denotation; confer, compare अन्त्यशब्द लक्षणा न च Paribhāşenduśekhara.
litan affix marked with the mute letter ल् such as ल्युट्, तातिल्, तल्, तसिल्, विधल्, भक्तल् et cetera, and others where the mute ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel of the base which immediately precedes the affix; e. g. चिकीर्षक:;in which the vowel ई is acute; confer, compare लिति VI.1.193.
litsvarathe acute accent for the vowel immediately preceding the affix caused by that affix being marked with the mute consonant ल्. See लित् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अनुदात्तत्वं क्रियतां लित्स्वर इति किमत्र कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.33.
luelision of an affix or its part in the process of the formation of a word as prescribed by the specific mention of the words लुक्, श्लु and लुप् which have the syllable लु as common. The specific feature of the elision by the use of these letters is the prohibition of any such operation for the preceding base as is conditioned by the elided affix; confer, compare प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् | न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.62,63.
lṛṅgeneral term for the personal affixes of the conditional, which are applied to a root to show the happening of an action only if there was another preceding action, both the actions being expressed by लृङ् or conditional affixes; exempli gratia, for example देवश्चेदवर्षिष्यत् सुभिक्षमभविष्यत्; confer, compare लिङ्निमित्ते लृङ् क्रियातिपत्तौ P. III.3. 139, 140. लृङ् is also used under certain other conditions when some specific partīcles are used; confer, compare P.III.3.141-146, 151.
lekhāone of the varieties or developments of the क्रमपाठ or the artificial recitation of the separate words of the Samhitā.
leśasuch a slow or indistinct utterance or pronunciation of the letter य् or व् preceded by अ, as shows that it is almost droppedition This indistinct or slurred utterance of य् or व, which is described as advocated by the Prātiśākhyakāra Vātsapra, corresponds to the utterance of य् or व् with a very low tone as mentioned by Pāņini in the rule व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य; exempli gratia, for example अाप उन्दन्तु; या जाता ओषधयः et cetera, and others; confer, compare लेशो वात्सप्रस्य एतयोः T.Pr. 10.23; confer, compare also लेशेन प्रयत्नशैथिल्येन ब्यञ्जनानां वचनमुच्चारणं क्रियते Uvvața on R.Pr. XIV.5.
lokaa term used in the Mahābhāșya in contrast with the term वेद, signifying common people speaking the language correctly; the term लोक is also used in contrast with the term शास्त्र or its technique; confer, compare यथा लोके or लोकतः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VII. 1. 9, I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; also confer, compare न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
lyapkrt affix य substituted for the gerund termination क्त्वा when the root,to which त्वा has been applied, is preceded by a prefix with which it (the root with the affix) is comcompounded; confer, compare समासेऽनत्र्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1. 37.
varṣaname of an ancient scholar of grammar and Mimamsa, cited by some as the preceptor of कात्यायन and Panini. If not of Panini, he may have been a preceptor of Katyayana
varsvyaor वर्त्य gingival, produced at the gums; the word वर्स्व is probably the correct word meaning the root of the teeth or gums; the word वर्स was also used in the same sense as वर्स्व from which the word वर्स्य could be derivedition बर्स्व्य and बर्स्य are only the variant pronnnciations of वर्स्व्य and वर्स्य.The word वर्त्स्य, with त् inserted between र् and स् , is given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as explained by Uvvata from वर्त्स. It is very likely that वर्त्स is wrongly written for वर्स्व or वर्स।
vācakaexpressive, as contrasted with द्योतक्र, व्यञ्जक, सूचक and भेदक which ७ mean suggestive; the term is used in connection with words which directly convey their sense by denotation, as opposed to words which convey indirectly the sense or suggest it as the prefixes or Nipatas do.
vācikāexpressing directly, denoting: (feminine. of वाचक ): confer, compare तयेारभिसंबन्धस्य षष्ठी वाचिका भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. I.1 Vart. 4.
vācya(1)directly expressed (sense) as contrasted with व्यङ्ग्य or ध्वनित: confer, compare शब्देनार्थान् वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात्पौर्वापर्यम् | M.Bh. on P. I.4.109 Vart. 10; (2) which should be stated or which deserves to be stated, The word वाच्य is generally put in connection with the additions or corrections to the sutras by the Varttikakara and the Mahbhasyakara in their explanations: confer, compare तत्रैतावद्वाच्यम्, M.Bh. on P. I.4.1 ; confer, compare also वाच्य ऊर्णोर्णुवद्भावःM.Bh. on P. III.1. 22 Vart. 3; III. I. 36 Vart. 6.
vātsapraan ancient writer of Pratisakhya works who believed in the very feeble utterance ( लघुप्रयत्नतर ) of the consonants य and व, when preceded by अ and standing at the end of a word. See लघुप्रयत्न.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārtikapāṭhathe text of the Varttikas as traditionally handed over in the oral recital or in manuscripts As observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.(see वार्त्तिक),although a large number of Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya are ascribed to Katyayana, the genuine Varttikapatha giving such Varttikas only, as were definitely composed by him, has not been preserved and Nagesa has actually gone to the length of making a statement like " वार्तिकपाठ: भ्रष्टः" ; confer, compare . Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P.I.l.I2 Varttika 6.
vikṛtichange, modification as different from the original which is called प्रकृतिः confer, compareप्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं । तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.I.12. विकृतिवल्ली a work on the modified recital of the Veda words, or पदपाठविकृति, ascribed to Vyadi who is believed to have been a pupil of वर्ष.
vikrama(1)name given to a grave vowel placed between two circumflex vowels, or between a circumflex and an acute, or between an acute and a circumflex; confer, compare स्वरितयोर्मध्ये यत्र नीचं स्यात्, उदात्तयोर्वा अन्यतरतो वा उदात्तस्वरितयोः स विक्रम: T.Pr. XIX.I ; (2) name given to a grave vowel between a pracaya vowel and an acute or a circumflex vowel: confer, compare प्रचयपूर्वश्च कौण्डिन्यस्य T.Pr.XIX.2: (8) repetition of a word or पद as in the Krama recital of the Veda words; (4) name given to a visarjaniya which has remained intact, as for instance in यः प्रणतो निमिषतः ; confer, compare R.Pr. I.5; VI.1 ; the word विक्रम is sometimes used in the sense of visarjaniya in general: cf also अनिङ्गयन् विक्रममेषु कुर्यात् R.Pr. XIII.11.
vigrahaṇaenclosure or closure(वेष्टन)by the use of the word इति as done in the Krama and other Veda-recitals.
vighnakṛtimpediment to an operation caused by something preceding on account of its coming in the way: a vyavaya or vyavadhana or intervention which is not admissible just as the interruption of palatals, linguals, dentals and sibilants excepting हू for the change of न् into ण् : confer, compare अव्यवेतं विग्रहे विघ्नकृद्भिः R.Pr. V.25.
viparīta(1)in the opposite or reverse way: confer, compare विपरीताच्चेति वक्तव्यम् । पारावारीणः M.Bh. on P.IV.2.93 Vart. 2; (2) change of ऋ into इ, seen sometimes in Vedic Literature when that ऋ is preceded or followed by a palatal letter; exempli gratia, for example श्रृङगे into शिङ्गे (Ṛk. Saṁh. V-2.9) बिभृयात् into बिभियात् (Ṛk.Saṁh. x.x.9) विचृत into विचित्त Ṛg. Veda II.27.16; confer, compare अनन्तरे तद्विपरीतमाहुस्तालव्ये श्रृङगे बिभृयाद्विचृत्ताः R.Pr.XIV.17.
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
virāgaomission of a consonant, sometimes when it is preceded and also followed by another consonant, as if it were squeezed between the two; this is no doubt looked upon as a fault; exempli gratia, for example the omission of the consonant द् in उपमा षट् द्रा द्वा uttered as उपमा षट् वा द्वा; confer, compareअन्योन्येन व्यञ्जनानां विरागः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.explains विराग as लोप्.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
vilambitā vṛttiretarding or slow manner of speech in which the letters are uttered quite distinctly; this kind of speech is followed by the preceptor while teaching Veda to his pupils; confer, compare अभ्यासार्थे द्रुतां वृत्ति प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्तिं विलम्बिताम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 19. confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 24. See विलम्बित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
viṣamarāgatāincorrect nasalization, mentioned as a fault of pronunciation: confer, compare संदष्टता विषमरागता च । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 4.
vispaṣṭaclear and correct; the term is used in connection with the pronunciation of Vedic words; confer, compare यथो एतत् | अविस्पष्टार्था भवन्तीति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 16.
visvaracharacterized by a faulty or incorrect accent, which is looked upon as a fault of pronunciation.
vuñ(ID taddhita affix. affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न et cetera, and others in the quadruple senses; exempli gratia, for example अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर et cetera, and others, under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; exempli gratia, for example शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, confer, compareP.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; exempli gratia, for example. निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2. 146, 147.
vun(1)kṛt affix अक added to the roots प्रु, सृ, and लू in the sense of 'a skilled agent' and to any root in the sense of 'an agent who is blessed'; exempli gratia, for example प्रवकः, सरकः, लवकः, जीवकः ( meaning जीवतात् ) नन्दकः, ( meaning नन्दतात् ); confer, compare P. III. 1. 149, 150; (2) taddhita affix. affix अक added to(a) the words क्रम and others in the sense of 'a student of'; e.g, क्रमक:, पदकः शिक्षकः मीमांसकः; confer, compare P.IV.2.61; (b) the words पूर्वाह्न, अपराह्ण et cetera, and others as also the words पथिन् and अमावास्या in the sense of 'produced in': exempli gratia, for example पूर्वाह्नक,पन्थक, अमावास्यकः confer, compare P. IV.3. 28, 29, 30; (c) the words कलापि, अश्वत्य, यव and बुस in the sense of 'debt paid at the time of', the words वासुदेव and अर्जुन in the sense of 'devoted to',and the dvandva compounds when the words so formed mean either 'enmity' or 'nuptial ties';exempli gratia, for example कलापकम् (ऋणम्),यवकम् (ऋणम्) वासुदेवकः, अर्जुनकः, काकोलूकिका, कुत्सकुशिकिका; confer, compareP.IV.3.48, 98,125: (d) the words गोषद, इषेत्व et cetera, and others in the sense of 'containing' or 'possessing', and the word पथिन् in the sense of 'expert' exempli gratia, for example इषेत्वकः, पथक:; confer, compareP.V.2.62, 63; and (e) the words पाद and शत preceded by a numeral, in the sense of वीप्सा, as also in the senses of दण्ड (fine) and व्यवसर्ग when those words are preceded by a numeral; exempli gratia, for example द्विपदिकां ( ददाति ), द्विशतिकां ( ददाति ), द्विपदिकां दाडितः confer, compare Kāś. on P. V.4.l and 2.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
veṣṭakalifeminine. enclosure or envelope; the term is used in the sense of परिग्रहं with reference to the repetition of one and the same word more than once in the Krama and other artificial recitals; confer, compare परिग्रहे त्वनाषीन्तात् तेन वैकाक्षरीकृतात् | परॆषां न्यासमाचारं, व्यालिस्तौ चेत् स्वरौ परौ|| on which Uvvata remarks परिग्रहे वेष्टके.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vyaktipadārthavādathe same as द्रव्यपदार्थवाद; the view that a word denotes the individual object and not the generic nature. The oldest grammarian referred to as holding this view, is व्याडि who preceded Patanjali.
vyañjanāvidyamānavadbhāvaconsideration of a consonant being not present as far as the accentuation of a vowel is concerned, the vowel being looked upon as the initial or the final, irrespective of the consonant .or consonants respectively preceding it, or following it; confer, compare स्वरविधौ व्यञ्जनमविद्यमानवद् भवति Par. Sek. Pari. 79.
vyatiṣaṅgareciprocal junction or connection; confer, compare हृल्वानुस्वारव्यतिषङ्गवत् परे; R.Pr. XIII.16.
vyastaseparated into its constituent elements; separated by a new insertion; a recital of the Vedic text by separating a coalesced vowel, which is looked upon as a fault of recital.
vyākaraṇaGrammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र or शब्दानुशासन); confer, compare(a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: confer, compare (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; confer, compare (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारित: संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7: (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4: confer, compare(f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभव:, अर्थं असंभवः | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.68. confer, compare (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याकरण is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar ' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art.
vyāyataseparated; one out of the two | conjoined consonants separated by inserting a vowel in between; confer, compare व्यस्यन्त्यन्तर्महतोs व्यायतं तं दीर्घायु: सूर्यो रुशदीर्त ऊर्जम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 19, where Uvvata gives the explanation-दीर्घात्परं अव्यायतं अपृथग्भूतं रफेण सक्तमित्यर्थः एवंभूतं व्यस्यन्ति पृथक्कुर्वन्ति | यथा | दीरिघायु: ! सूरिय: | रुशदीरिते | ऊरजम्. Rk Samhita I. 85. 39, X. 158. 1, IX. 91.3 and IX. 63. 2. व्यावर्तन reversing the order of words and going back from a subsequent word to the previous one, as in the Krama,.Jata and other artificial recitals of Veda.
vyāvṛtipushing aside; removal; the word is frequently used in connection with the setting aside or removal of the application of such rules, as also of the contingency of such rules as are not desired in the formation of a correct word, by means of applying another rule necessary for the correct formation; cf तद्वि इदं तिष्यपुनर्वसु इत्यत्र तद्वथावृत्त्यर्थम् Par. Sek. on Pari. 34; as also तद्धि असवर्णग्रहणं ईषतुरित्यादौ इयङादिव्यावृत्त्यर्थम् Par.Sek. on Pari.55: cf also the usual statement ब्यावृत्तिः क्रियते ।
vyutpannatvaderivation, correct understanding of the sense by derivation.
vyūha(l)resolution or determination: confer, compare अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः । न कृतो विाशीष्ट ऊहो निश्चयः ,शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिविषये यैः इत्यर्थः Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) separation of the phonetic elements in a word, done especially for the recital of the Vedic texts according to metre:confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने क्षेप्रवणैकंभाविनाम् । व्यूहैः पृथक्करणेन Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII.22.
śā(1)conjugational sign(विकरण) applied to the roots of the sixth conjugation ( तुदादिगण ) in all conjugational tenses and moods ( i, e. the present, the imperfect,the imperative and the potential ) before the personal-endings; confer, compare तुदादिभ्यः शः, P. III.1.77; this sign श ( अ ) has got the initial consonant श्, as an indicatory one, and hence this अ is a Sarvadhatuka affix, but, it is weak and does not cause गुण for the preceding vowel; ( 2 ) taddhita affix. affix श in the sense of possession applied to the words लोमन् and others; e. g. लोमश:, रोमशःconfer, compare P.V.2. 100; (3) krt affix (अ ) applied to the roots पा, घ्रा, ध्मा, धे and दृश् when preceded by a prefix,to the roots लिम्प्, विन्द् et cetera, and othersnot preceded by a prefix, and optionaily to दा and धा of the third conjugation in the sense of an agent'; exempli gratia, for example उत्पिबः, उत्पश्यः, लिम्प:, विन्दः दद:, दायः: confer, compare P.III.1.137-139.
śaktipotentiality of expressing the sense which is possessed by words permanently with them: denotative potentiality or denotation; this potentiality shows the senses,which are permanently possessed by the words, to the hearer and is described to be of one kind by ancient grammarian as contrasted with the two (अभिघा and लक्षणा) mentioned by the modern ones. It is described to be of two kinds-(a) स्मारिका शक्ति or recalling capacity which combines चैत्रत्व with पाक, and अनुभाविका शक्ति which is responsible for the actual meaning of a sentence. For details see Vakyapadiya III.
śakyawhich forms the object pointed out by means of the potentiality to the hearer by the word (id est, that is शब्द) which directly communicates the sense, in which case it is termed वाचक as contrasted with भेदक or द्योतक when the sense,which is of the type of संबन्ध is conveyed rather indirectly. This nice division into वाचकता and भेदकता was introduced clearly by भर्तृहरि: confer, compare Vakyapadtya Kanda 2.
śatṛkrt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes confer, compare लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case.
śabdapārāyaṇarecital or enumeration of one word after another in a language: cf ब्रुहस्पतरिन्द्राय दिव्यं वर्षसहस्रं प्रतिपदोक्तानां शब्दानां शब्दपारायणं प्रोवाच नान्तं जगाम M.Bh. Ahnika 1.
śaraṇadevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school.
śānac(1)krt affix ( अान ) substituted for the Atmanepada लट् affixes, to which म् is prefixed if the base before the affix ends in अ; e. g. एधमान, विद्यमान, etc; cf P. III. 2. 124, 125, 126; (2) Vikarana affix ( अान ) substituted for श्ना before the personal ending हि of the imperative second person singular, if the preceding root ends in a consonant: e. g. पुषाण, मुषाण, confer, compare P. III. 1. 83.
śābdabodhaverbal interpretation; the term is generally used with reference to the verbal interpretation of a sentence as arising from that of the words which are all connected directly or indirectly with the verb-activity. It is defined as पदजन्यपदार्थोपस्थितिजन्यबोध:. According to the grammarians, verbal activity is the chief thing in a sentence and all the other words (excepting the one which expresses verbal activity) are subordinated to the verbal activity and hence are connected with it; confer, compare पदज्ञानं तु करणं द्वारे तत्र पदार्थधीः | शाब्दबोधः फलं तत्र शक्तिधीः सहकारिणी | मुक्तावली III.81.
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śikhāone of the subdivisions of the artificial recitals of the Vedic texts.
śiṣṭa(1)cultured and learned people who want to speak correctly and who therefore have studied gra mmar; confer, compare के पुनः शिष्टा: | वैयाकरणाः | कुत एतत् | शास्त्रपूर्विका हि शिष्टिवैयाकरणाश्च शास्त्रज्ञा: | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.109; (2) enjoined, prescribed; confer, compare विपर्ययो ध्रुवशिष्टेSपरेषाम् | R.Pr.VI.120.
śiṣyahitā(वृत्ति)a work on grammar written by उग्रभूति of which a mention is made by Al Beruni in his work. शी (1) case affix (ई) substituted for the nominative case. plural affix जस् (अस् ) in the declension of the pronouns, when the affix जस् is preceded by the vowel अ; exempli gratia, for example सर्वे, विश्वे; confer, compare kas. on P VII.1.17; (2) case affix (ई ) substituted for औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual after feminine. bases ending in आ, as also after bases in the neuter gender; exempli gratia, for example खट्वे रमे; कुण्डे, वने; confer, compare Kas on P. VII.1.18, 19.
śīghrīa person reciting Vedic passages more rapidly, when his recital results into a fault of utterance.
śūnautterance with a swollen mouth which is looked upon as a fault of Vedic recital: confer, compare दुष्टं मुखेन सुषिरेण शूनम् R.Pr.XIV.2.
śaityāyanaan ancient Grammarian and Vedic scholar who is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya for recommending a sharp and distinct nasalisation of the anusvara and the fifth class-consonants; confer, compare तत्रितरमानुनासिक्यमनुस्वारोत्तमेषु इति शैत्यायन: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
śaiśirīyarecital of the Rgveda in the school named after SiSira, a pupil of Sakalya.
ślathabandhaa loose connection as obtaining between the various words in the Pada recital, as contrasted with श्लिष्टबन्ध in the Samhita text.
śluvadbhāvatreatment as before the elision named श्लु, i. e. reduplication of the preceding root. This श्लुवद्भाव is prescribed in the case of the roots भी, ह्री, भृ and हु; confer, compare भीह्रीभृहुवां श्लुवच्च P. III. 1. 39.
śluvidhithe specific operation caused by श्लु viz. the reduplication for the preceding root; confer, compare तत्र लुकि श्लुविधिप्रतिषेध:, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 62 Vart. 6.
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣa(1)consonant ष् , the vowel अ being added for facility of pronunciation; (2) compound-ending अ, substituted for the final of the word मूर्धन् at the end of a Bahuvrihi compound when the word मूर्धन् is preceded by द्वि or त्रि e. g. द्विमूर्धः, त्रिमूर्धः confer, compare द्वित्रिभ्यां ष मूर्ध्नः P. V. 4.115 (3) a technical term for तत्पुरुषसमास in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ṣikantaddhita affix. affix इक added to the word पथिन् in the sense of ' a student of' or ' a scholar of ' when the word पथिन् is preceded by the word शत or षष्टि. e. g. शतपथिकः, शतपथिकी । confer, compare शतषष्टेः षिकन् पथ: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. [I. 2.60.
saṃkrama(1)joining with a subsequent word after omitting a word or two occurring between; cf, गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम:; e. g. शूद्रे अर्ये for शूर्द्रे यदर्ये where यत् is passed over in the krama and other recitals; cf Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 77, 165, 194; (2) a term used in ancient grammars for such affixes and others which do not allow the substitution of guna or vrddhi for the preceding vowel; the term is also used for the letters क्, ग् and ङ् when they are mute, serving only the purpose of preventing guna or vrddhi; confer, compare मृजेरजादौ संक्रमे विभाषा वृद्धिमारभन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3. Vart. 10.
saṃjñinthe recipient or the bearer or possessor of a technical term; confer, compare संज्ञासंज्ञ्यसंदेहश्च । कुतो ह्येतद् वृद्धिशब्दः संज्ञा, आदैच: संज्ञिन इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.l Vart. 3; confer, comparealso स्वभावात् संज्ञाः संज्ञिनः प्रत्याय्य निवर्तन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I, 1.1. Vart. 7.
saṃtānacontinuity; line; continuous recital.
saṃdehaambiguity; doubt regarding the wording of a rule or its interpretation or regarding the correctness of a word. It is looked upon as the main purpose of grammar to solve doubts regarding the correctness of words; confer, compare व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिप्रत्तिर्नहि संदेहादलक्षणम् Pari. Sekh.Pari.1.
saṃnipātaparibhāṣāthe maxim or canvention that an operation which is based upon, or is caused or occasioned by, a relationship between two things cannot break their relation : in short, such an operation as results in breaking the relationship between two things on which it is based, cannot take placcusative case. This dictum is many times followed in grammar in Preventing the application of such rules as are likely to spoil the formation of the correct word; many times, however, this dictum has to be ignored; For details see Pari. Sek. Pari. 86; also| Mahabhasya on P. I. 1.39.
saṃsṛṣṭavādipakṣathe theory, that the meaning of a sentence is a novel thing ( अपूर्व ), held by some Mimamsakas who believe that words connected with activity display their phenomenal capacity ( अनुभाविकाशक्ति ) after the recalling of the senses of words by the recalling capacity (स्मारिकाशाक्ति ).
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
saṃhitāpāṭhathe running text or the original text of the four Vedas as originally composedition This text, which was the original one, was split up into its constituent padas or separate words by ancient sages शौनक, अात्रेय and others,with a view to facilitating the understanding of it, and consequently to preserving it in the oral tradition.The original was called मूलप्रकृति of which the पदपाठ and the क्रमपाठ which were comparatively older than the other artificial recitations such as the जटापाठ, घनपाठ and others, are found mentioned in the Pratisakhya works.
saṇtaddhita affix. affix सण् prescribed after the word पर्शु in the sense of collection; e. g. पार्श्र्वम् : confer, compare पर्श्वा: सण् P,IV,2.43 Vart, 3 for which there is an alfernative reading पर्श्वा णस् वक्तव्यः; for facility of grammatical operations णस् is recommended with preference in the Mahabhasya , cf एवं तर्हि णस् वक्तव्य; M.Bh. on P. IV.2.43 Vart. 3; (2) सण् is given as a technical term for संयोग in the Pratisakhya works: confer, compare सयुक् सण् । संयुक्तं व्यञ्जनं संयोगसंज्ञं भवति R.T.27.
satiśiṣṭaprescribed subsequently; occurring after the preceding has taken place; confer, compare सति शिष्टोपि विकरणस्वरः सार्वधातुकस्वरं न बाधते; although the words सति and शिष्टः are separate still it is habitual to take them combined in an adjectival sense and make the word सतिशिष्ट an adjective to the word स्वर as in the dictum सतिशिष्टस्वरबलीयस्त्वं च P. VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9.
samayathe omission of words which have already occurred before in the recital of the Pada and other Pathas or recitals, with a view to avoiding an unnecessary repetition; confer, compareदृष्टक्रमत्वात्समयान् संदध्यात् सर्वशः क्रमे। पदेन व पदाभ्यां च प्रागवस्येदतीत्य च R.Pr.X.12.
sarvanighātagrave accent ( अनुदात्त ) for the whole word, generally for a verbal form or a word in the vocative case, if preceded by another word which is not a verb. The term is used in contrast with शेषनिघात the grave accent for the remaining vowels of a word when a particular vowel is definitely fixed as an acute or an independent Svarita or circumflex; confer, compare P.VIII. 1.28 to 74.
sāmavedprātiśākhyaname of a Pratisakhya work on Samaveda. It is probable that there were some Pratisakhya works written dealing with the different branches or Sakhas of the Samaveda, as could be inferred from indirect references to such works. For instance in the Mahabhasya there is a passage "ननु च भोश्छन्दोगानां सात्यमुग्रिराणायनीयाः अर्धमेकारमर्धमोकारं चाधीयते। ..पार्षदकृतिरेषां तत्रभवताम् " which refers to such works At present, however, one such work common to the several branches of the Samaveda, called Rktantra is available, and it is called Samaveda Pratisakhya. It is believed to have been written by औदव्रजि and revised by शाकटायन.
siṃhāvalokitanyāyathe analogy of the backward look peculiar to a lion, who, as he advances, does always look back at the ground coveredition The word is used in grammar with reference to a word taken back from a rule to the preceding rule which technically is called अपकर्षः confer, compare वक्ष्यमाणं विभाषाग्रहणमिह सिंहावलोकितन्यायेन संबध्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.49.
sitan affix marked with the mute letter स् signifying the designation पद for the preceding base to which that affix has been added; for examples where such affixes are noticed, see the words भवदीय:, ऊर्णायु:, ऋत्वियः, पाश्र्वमू: cf सिति च P. I. 4. 16.
siddhakāṇḍathe chapter or portion of Panini's grammar which is valid to the rules inside that portion, as also to the rules enumerated after it. The word is used in connection with the first seven chapters and a quarter of the eighth chapter of Panini's Astadhyayi, as contrasted with the last three guarters called त्रिपादी, the rules in which are not valid to any rule in the preceding portion, called by the name सपासप्ताध्यायी or सपादी as also to any preceding rule in the Tripadi itSelf confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P, VIII.2.1. सिद्धनन्दिन् an ancient Jain sage who is believed to have written an original work on grammar.
siddhāntasārasvataan independent work on grammar believed to have been written by Devanandin. सिद्धान्तिन् a term used in connection with the writer himself of a treatise when he gives a reply to the objections raised by himself or quoted from others,the term पूर्वपाक्षिन् being used for the objector. सिद्धि formation of a word: establishment of the correct view after the removal of the objection; e. g. संज्ञासिद्वि, कार्यसिाद्व, स्वरसिद्धि. सिप् (1) the personal ending ( सि ) of the second person singular (मध्यमपुरुषैकवचन ) substituted for the affix ल्; of the ten tenses and moods लट्, लिट्, लृट् and others; confer, compare P.III.4.78: (2 Vikarana affix स् added to a root before the affixes of लेट् or Vedic Subjunctive. सिम् a technical term used in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya for the first eight vowels of the alphabet, viz. अ, आ, इ, ई, उ, ऊ, ऋ and ऋ: confer, compare सिमादितोष्टौ स्वराणाम् V. Pr.. I.44.
sīradevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern part of India who lived in the twelfth century A. D. He was a very sound scholar of Panini's grammar who wrote a few glosses on prominent works in the system. His Paribhasavrtti is a masterly independent treatise among the recognised works on the Paribhasas in which he has quoted very profusely from the works of his predecessors, such as the Kasika, Nyasa, Anunyasa and others. The reputed scholar Maitreya Raksita is more often guoted than others.
suc(l)taddhita affix. affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107.
sūtrapāṭhathe text of Panini's Sutras handed down by oral tradition from the preceptor to the pupil. Although it is said that the actual text of Panini was modified from time to time, still it can be said with certainty that it was fixed at the time of the Bhasyakara who has noted a few different readings only. The Sutra text approved by the Bhasyakara was followed by the authors of the Kasika excepting in a few cases. It is customary with learned Pandits and grammarians to say that the recital of the Sutras of Panini was originally a continuous one in the form of a Samhitatext and it was later on, that it was split up into the different Sutras, which explains according to them the variation in the number of Sutras which is due to the different ways of splitting the Sutrapatha.
sthānivadbhāvabehaviour of the substitute like the original in respect of holding the qualities of the original and causing grammatical operations by virtue of those qualities. By means of स्थानिवद्भाव,the substitute for a root is,for instance, looked upon as a root; similarly, a noun-base or an affix or so, is looked upon like the original and it can cause such operations or be a recipient of such operations as are due to its being a root or a noun or an affix or the like. This स्यानिवद्भाव cannot be, and is not made also, a universally applicable feature; and there are limitations or restrictions put upon it, the chief of them being अल्विधौ or in the matter of such operations as are caused by the 'property of being a single letter' (अल्विधौ). There are two views regarding this 'behaviour like the original' : (l) supposed behaviour which is only instrumental in causing operations or undergoing them which is called शास्त्रातिदेदा and (2) actual restoration to the form of the original under certain conditions only as prescribed which is called रूपातिदेश. The रूपातिदेश is actually resorted to by some grammarians in the case of the reduplication of roots; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on द्विवेचनेचि P.I.1.59 and M.Bh. on P.I.1.59.See the word रूपातिदेश also. For details see Vol. VII p.p. 241243, Vyākarana Mahabhasya D.E. Society's Edition.
svapāṭhathe original recital of the Veda; the Samhitapatha as opposed to the Padapatha which is looked upon more or less as artificial.
svarasahitoccāraṇarecital of the veda Samhita text with intonation or accents, as contrasted with एकश्रुत्युच्चारण which is specially prescribed in a few cases; tonal system showing distinction between words of different senses although pronounced alike, in the Samhita text. exempli gratia, for example नतेन and न तेन.
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
svaritapratijñāthe conventional dictum that a particular rule or part of a rule, is marked with the accent स्वरित which enables the grammarians to decide that that rule or that part of a rule is to occur in each of the subsequent Sutras, the limit of continuation being ascertained from convention. It is possible that Panini in his original recital of the Astadhyayi recited the words in the rules with the necessary accents; probably he recited every word, which was not to proceed further, with one acute or with one circumflex vowel, while, the words which were to proceed to the next rule or rules, were marked with an actual circumflex accent ( स्वरित ), or with a neutralization of the acute and the grave accents (स्वरितत्व), that is, probably without accents or by एकश्रुति or by प्रचय; cf स्वरितेनाधिकार: P. I.3.II and the Mahabhasya thereon.
svādyutpattithe addition of case-affixes which requires the designation प्रातिपदिक for the preceding base by the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रतिपादिकम् or' कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च ' P.I. 2.45,46. The addition of a case-affix entitles the.word,made up of the base and the case-affix,to be termed a Pada which is fit for use in language;confer, compare अपदं न प्रयुञ्जीत; confer, compare निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा वक्तव्या। किं पुनरत्र पदसंज्ञया प्रार्थ्यते। प्रातिपदिकादिति स्वाद्युत्पति:, सुबन्तं पदमिति पदसंज्ञा, पदस्य पदादिति निघातो यथा स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.45 Virt.12.
hareidīkṣitaa reputed grammarian of the Siddhantakaumudi school of Panini who lived in the end of the seventeenth century. He was the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita and the preceptor of Nagesabhtta. His commentary named लधुशब्दरत्न, but popularly called शब्दरत्न on Bhattoji Diksita's Praudhamanorama, is widely studied by pupils along with the Praudhamanorama in the Vyakaranapathasalas. There is a work existing in a manuscript form but recentlv taken for printing, mamed 'Brhatsabdaratna ' which has been written by Haridiksita, although some scholars beiieve that it was written by Nagesa who ascribed it to his preceptor. For details see लधुशब्दरत्न.
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recaka exhalingSB 4.24.50
recaka His syringeSB 10.90.10
recakaiḥ with syringesSB 10.90.8-9
agrecaraḥ going forwardSB 1.15.15
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by inhaling, retaining and exhalingSB 3.28.9
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by inhaling, exhaling and holding, which are technically known as pūraka, kumbhaka and recakaSB 7.15.32-33
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by the mechanical breathing exercises, or prāṇāyāmaSB 11.14.32-33
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by inhaling, retaining and exhalingSB 3.28.9
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by inhaling, exhaling and holding, which are technically known as pūraka, kumbhaka and recakaSB 7.15.32-33
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by the mechanical breathing exercises, or prāṇāyāmaSB 11.14.32-33
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by inhaling, retaining and exhalingSB 3.28.9
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by inhaling, exhaling and holding, which are technically known as pūraka, kumbhaka and recakaSB 7.15.32-33
pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ by the mechanical breathing exercises, or prāṇāyāmaSB 11.14.32-33
     DCS with thanks   
Results for rec45 results
     
reca noun (masculine) emission of breath (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the emptying of the lungs by exhalation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22137/72933
recaka noun (masculine) (esp.) expelling the breath out of one of the nostrils (one of the three Prāṇāyāmas or breath-exercises performed during Saṃdhyā) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular movement of the feet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a syringe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Clerodendrum Phlomoides (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Croton Jamalgota (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exhalation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a forester (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
saltpetre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of breathing out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9686/72933
recaka noun (neuter) a kind of soil or earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a purge (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cathartic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fruit of the yellow myrobolan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
kaṅkuṣṭha
Frequency rank 25210/72933
recana noun (neuter) a kind of earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clearing (the head) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
emission of breath (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
evacuation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exhalation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exhausting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lessening (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mucus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purging (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of emptying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8673/72933
recana adjective aperient (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cathartic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clearing (the head) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purging (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7336/72933
recanaka noun (masculine) a kind of red powder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] virecana
Frequency rank 38795/72933
recanī noun (masculine feminine) Croton Polyandrum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gundrā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ipomoea Turpethum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
kāmpilla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mahauṣadhī kaṅkuṣṭha
Frequency rank 18377/72933
recanīyaka adjective
Frequency rank 63784/72933
recay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to abandon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to discharge (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to emit (as breath) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to give up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to make empty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6014/72933
recikā noun (feminine) [rel.] name of a kalā
Frequency rank 63785/72933
recin noun (masculine) Alangium Hexapetalum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of red powder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29935/72933
recin adjective cathartic purging
Frequency rank 29934/72933
atirecay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to do superfluously (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to do too much (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42192/72933
ativirecay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) [medic.] to treat someone excessively with virecanas
Frequency rank 26186/72933
avirecana noun (neuter) anything which constipates or stops the passage of the food (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45434/72933
avirecanīya adjective not to be purged (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32718/72933
avirecya adjective not to be purged (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26748/72933
avirecya indeclinable
Frequency rank 45435/72933
ārecita adjective contracted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
emptied (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mixed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33158/72933
durvirecya adjective difficult to be purged (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21470/72933
durvirecyatama adjective
Frequency rank 54761/72933
bījarecaka noun (masculine) recaka
Frequency rank 60293/72933
bījarecanī noun (feminine) Croton Jamalgota
Frequency rank 60294/72933
mūrdhavirecana noun (neuter) [medic.] śirovirecana
Frequency rank 29754/72933
mūlavirecana noun (neuter) a purgative prepared from root (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62733/72933
yatrecchaka adjective wherever one likes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62834/72933
vamanavirecanavyāpaccikitsita noun (neuter) name of Suśrutasaṃhitā, Cik. 34
Frequency rank 64647/72933
vamanavirecanavyāpatsiddhi noun (masculine) name of Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā, Kalp. 3
Frequency rank 64648/72933
vamanavirecanasādhyopadravacikitsita noun (neuter) name of Suśrutasaṃhitā, Cik. 33
Frequency rank 64649/72933
virecin noun (masculine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 65998/72933
virecin adjective purgative (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30252/72933
virecaka adjective not accompanied by breath-exhalation (in this sense vi is priv.)(in a quotation) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purgative (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39461/72933
virecana noun (neuter) a means for making the head clear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purging or any purging substance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1738/72933
virecana noun (masculine) Careya Arborea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Salvadora Persica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39462/72933
virecana adjective abführend opening (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13178/72933
virecanakalpa noun (masculine) name of Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā, Kalp. 2
Frequency rank 65999/72933
virecanadravyavikalpavijñānīya noun (masculine) name of Suśrutasaṃhitā, Sū. 44
Frequency rank 66000/72933
virecanaphala noun (masculine) Salvadora persica Linn.
Frequency rank 66001/72933
virecay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to drain to emit to empty to purge
Frequency rank 4328/72933
vairecana adjective
Frequency rank 15239/72933
vairecanika adjective
Frequency rank 11802/72933
vairecanīya adjective
Frequency rank 66736/72933
śirovirecana noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 6271/72933
ṣaḍvirecanaśatāśritīya noun (masculine neuter) name of Carakasaṃhitā, Sū. 4
Frequency rank 30655/72933
suvirecita adjective well purged
Frequency rank 71278/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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abhīru

1. pl . śatāvari ; wild asparagus, Asparagus recemosus; 2. fearless.

ācārya

a teacher or preceptor; professor .

akṣibheṣaja

Plant red lodh, Symplocos recemosa.

annamayakoṣa

food sheath, receptacle of food in the body.

apīnasa

dry nose and inability to recognise smell with a feeling of hot fumes; rhinitis.

ārjava

sincere; honest; frankness; rectitude.

āśaya

receptacle, pouchy structures.

aśmantaka

Plant mountain ebody, Bauhinia tomentosa, B. recemosa.

āśvāsa

breathing again or freely; recovery.

aśvaśāstra

a text written by Abhinavcandra in the 15th Century AD about science of horses; it was published recently.

āvāpa

1. addition of herbs to smelted metals; 2. ingredients which are added latter to the recipe in small quantities.

avaṣṭambha

obstruction, impediment, have recourse to.

bhagandara

fistula-in-ano; rectal fistula.

brahmakāya

divine body; a person with godly traits like adhering to cleanliness and good conduct, belief in existence of god, reverence of elders and preceptors, hospitality and celebration of religious sacrifices and reader of vedas.

bṛṃhaṇa

restorative; to make heavy; bṛṃhaṇavasti administration of oily medicine through rectum.

cūḍāmaṇi

Plant guñja, Abrus precatorius.

dhvajabhaṅga

failure of penile erection; erectile dysfunction.

ḍimba

an egg; recently formed embryo.

ekatva

unity; charecterstic of mind.

guda

anus; rectum; gudabhramśa anal prolapse; prolapse of rectum; gudavasti rectal enema.

gudavali

anal folds, folds of rectum.

guñja

1. a measurement of weight equivalent to 125mg.; 2. Plant jequirity seeds, dried root of Abrus precatorius, rosary pea.

jagala

thick precipitate of alcoholic beverage.

kādambari

the precipitate of alcoholic beverage.

kākajaṇgha

Plant 1. dried root of Peristrophe bicalyculala; 2. jequirity, Abrus precatorius; 3. Leea hirta.

kākatikta

Plant jequitiry, rosary pea, Abrus precatorius.

kaphajābhiṣyanda

vernal keratoconjunctivitis or spring catarrh: a recurrent, bilateral, and selflimiting inflammation of conjunctiva, having a periodic seasonal incidence.

kelūṭa

Plant kind of potherb; Ficus recemosa.

kembuka

Plant crepe ginger, rhizome of Costus speciosus. Inula recemosa is used in north India as kembuka.

kramuka

Plant 1. red areca nut; betel nut tree; 2. fruit of cotton tree; 3. red variety of lodhra tree.

kṣārasūtra

alkali thread; treatment procedures for anorectal disorders.

kuṭaja

1. born in pitcher; 2. Plant coral swirl, Wrighte antidysenterica; Holorrhena antidysentirecia.

kuvara

1. astringent in flavour; 2. Plant Areca catechu.

medaka

thick precipitate of spirituous liquid, liquor used for distillation.

mṛdu

soft, gentle, mṛduvirecaka aperients, laxative

nava

nine, young, recent.

navaratna

nine precious stones, diamond or adamantine (vajra), pearl (mauktika), ruby (māṇikya), sapphire (nilam), emerald (marakatam), garnet (gomedikam), ruby (padmarāgam), cat’s eye, beryl (vaiḍhūrya), coral (pravāla).

nīlameha

indicanuria or bluish urination. excess indole may be present in the urine in patients suffering from duodenal ulcer, toxic headache et Century leading to indicanuria. It can also be caused by autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in decreased tryptophan absorption. This is known as ‘blue diaper syndrome’.

padmarāga

ruby, a precious stone with aluminum oxide from pink to bloodred in colour due to presence of chromium.

pakvāśaya

receptacle for digestion; gut, intestines.

pañcakarma

five purifying therapatic procedures: emesis vamana, errhine nasya, enema vasti, purgation virecana, blood-letting raktamokṣaṇa.

pauṣkalāvata

one of the six disciples of Dhanvantari; fragments of the his treatise were recovered.

pratyakṣa

direct perception.

pravāhini

one of the three rectal folds that allow defecation /furthering.

pūga

Plant areca nut, betel nut, ripe seed of Areca catechu

puṣkara,puṣkaramūla

Plant orris root, dried root of Inula racemosa, I. helenium; Inula recemosa; Costus speciosus; Saussurea lappa.

rājāvarta

lapis lazuli or any other precious stone, like amethyst.

rodhra

Plant lotus bark tree (Symplocos recemosa).

ruddhaguda

stenosis of the rectum.

sadāphala

Plant always fruit-bearing tree; bael tree (bilva), Aegle marmelos. Ficus glomerata; Ficus recemosa and Cocos nucifera are also considered sadāphala.

samvaraṇi

one of the three rectal folds that helps holding back feces.

sannirudhaguda

rectal stricture and difficulty in defecation.

śepha

male organ, penis; śephastambha loss of erection.

sūtika

1. women, who just delivered a baby; 2. cow that has recently calved.

tāmbūla

Plant betel leaf with areca nut chewed after meal.

tūni-pratitūni

radiating pain from intestine to rectum and vice versa.

udadhi

water-receptacle, sea.

vaiḍhūrya

precious stone, cat’s eye, beryl, (lapis lazuli is also considered by some as vaiḍhūrya)

varti

suppository, applied to produce a local action on the rectum or vagina, wick, bougie; roll of cloth.

veda

a large body of texts in pre-Panini Sanskrit belonging to ancient Indian literature. The vedic verses were divided into 4 sections Ṛgveda, Yajurveḍa, Sāmaveda and Atharvaveḍa. Some verses are recited in religious functions.

viḍhvighāta

urinary obstruction and inflammation with smelling urine; impacted faeces in the rectum.

vidruma

precious stone, coral.

visarjini

one of the three rectal folds that helps excrete feces.

     Wordnet Search "rec" has 13 results.
     

rec

īśvarecchā, daivecchā, devecchā   

īśvarasya icchā।

īśvarecchayā eva sarvaṃ bhavati iti manyante santaḥ।

rec

bījarecanam   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ yasya bījāni recanārthe upayujyante।

malāvarodhaṃ dūrīkartuṃ śyāmaḥ bījarecanaṃ khādati।

rec

bījarecanaḥ   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ yasya bījāni recakāni santi।

rāmaḥ recanārthe bījarecanasya bījāni cūrṇīkṛtya atti।

rec

nartakaḥ, naṭaḥ, poṭagalaḥ, cāraṇaḥ, kelakaḥ, sarvaveśaḥ, layālambaḥ, tālarecanakaḥ, laṣvaḥ, vīkṣyaḥ, kekalaḥ, valgakaḥ, lāsyaḥ, tāladhārakaḥ, vṛṣalaḥ, kuśīlavaḥ, śailūṣaḥ, sudantaḥ, śailālī, kelikośaḥ, kalāyanaḥ, dharṣakaḥ, bharataḥ, prahāsaḥ   

yaḥ nṛtyati saḥ।

birajūmahārājaḥ ekaḥ prasiddhaḥ nartakaḥ asti।

rec

ucchvāsaḥ, recakaḥ, śuṣmaḥ, recanam, viniśvasitaḥ, ucchvasitaḥ   

nāsikāyāḥ mukhāt vā vāyoḥ tyāgaḥ।

ucchvāsaṃ kartuṃ śyāmaḥ kāṭhinyam anubhavati।

rec

virecakaḥ, virecakam, virecakī, recakaḥ, recakam, recakī, koṣṭhavisraṃsanam, koṣṭhavisraṃsanaḥ, koṣṭhavisraṃsanā, malasārakam, auṣadhīyadravyam   

gadyaviśeṣaḥ, virekakārakaḥ।

paṭolapatraṃ pittaghnam nāḍī tasya kaphāpahā phalaṃ tasya tridoṣaghnaṃ mūlaṃ tasya virecakam

rec

virecaka, recaka   

sārakaḥ malabhedakaḥ vā।

tena malāvarodhena pīḍitāya virecakaṃ bheṣajaṃ dattam।

rec

aṅkolaḥ, aṅkoṭaḥ, nikocakaḥ, aṅkoṭhaḥ, nikoṭhakaḥ, likocakaḥ, aṅkolakaḥ, bodhaḥ, nediṣṭhaḥ, dīrghakīlakaḥ, rāmaṭhaḥ, koṭharaḥ, recī, gūḍhapatraḥ, guptasnehaḥ, pītasāraḥ, madanaḥ, gūḍhavallikā, pītaḥ, tāmraphalaḥ, dīrghakīlaḥ, guṇāḍhyakaḥ, kolakaḥ, lambakarṇaḥ, gandhapuṣpaḥ, rocanaḥ, viśānatailagarbhaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

aṅkolasya bījaiḥ nirmitasya tailasya śarīre ālepanaṃ kriyate cet saḥ puruṣaḥ adṛśyaḥ bhaviṣyati iti lokoktiḥ vartate।

rec

kṛṣṇābhā, kālāñjanī, kālī, añjanī, recanī, śilāñjanī, nīlāñjanī   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ- asyāḥ guṇāḥ kaṭutvaṃ uṣṇatvaṃ amalatvaṃ kṛmiśodhanatvaṃ jāṭharamayanāśitvaṃ ca ।

kṛṣṇābhāyāḥ varṇanaṃ kośe vartate

rec

kṛṣṇābhā, kālāñjanī, kālī, añjanī, recanī, śilāñjanī, nīlāñjanī   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ- asyāḥ guṇāḥ kaṭutvaṃ uṣṇatvaṃ amalatvaṃ kṛmiśodhanatvaṃ jāṭharamayanāśitvaṃ ca ।

kṛṣṇābhāyāḥ varṇanaṃ kośe vartate

rec

recakaḥ   

ekaḥ vanarakṣakaḥ ।

recakasya ullekhaḥ vikramorvaśīye vartate

rec

recakaḥ   

ekā jātiḥ ।

recakasya ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

rec

cakradantī, dantī, śīghrā, śyenaghaṇṭā, nikumbhī, nāgasphotā, dantinī, upacitrā, bhadrā, rūkṣā, recanī, anukūlā, niḥśalyā, viśalyā, madhupuṣpā, eraṇḍaphalā, taruṇī, eraṇḍapatrikā, aṇurevatī, viśodhanī, kumbhī, uḍumbaradalā   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ asyā guṇāḥ kaṭutvam uṣṇatvam śūlāmatvagdoṣārśovraṇāśmarī-śalyaśodhanatvam dīpanatvañca ।

cakradantī kośe varṇitā asti









Parse Time: 1.027s Search Word: rec Input Encoding: IAST: rec