rac ( cl.10 P. ) ( racayati- perfect tense racayām- āsa- ; irregular future raciṣyati- [with varia lectio ];and kariṣyati- ind.p. racayitvā- ), to produce, fashion, form, make, construct, complete, cause, effect etc. (with ,or ciṅtām- ,to be anxious cintāḥ- ) ; to make into (with double accusative) ; to compose, write (a book or any literary work) ; to place in or on ( locative case) ; to adorn, decorate ; to cause to make or do (with double accusative) ; to cause to move, put in motion (a horse) racana the act of making, forming, arranging, preparing, composing n. racana mostly n. arrangement, disposition, management, accomplishment, performance, preparation, production, fabrication f( ). ā- etc. racana a literary production, work, composition n. racana style n. racana putting on, wearing (of a garment) n. racana arrangement (of troops), array n. racana contrivance, invention n. racana a creation of the mind, artificial image n. racana fixing the feathers on an arrow n. racana dressing the hair ( n. see ) keśa- r- racana stringing flowers or garlands n. (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' with concrete meaning exempli gratia, 'for example' ,a building nivāsa- recanā- ; ,a song gīti- racanā- ; ,an artifice, trick kūṭa- racanā- ; according to to also equals or pari- spanda- , pari- syanda- , prati- yatna- , granthana- , gumpha- , vyūha- , niveśa- ;also sthiti- equals , pāśa- etc., abundance, quantity bhāra- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' after a word meaning"hair"; see ) racanā f. Name of the wife of tvaṣṭṛ- racayitṛ an author, composer m. racita produced, fashioned, constructed, performed, arranged, prepared, made of ( mfn. instrumental case or compound). racita made or chosen for ( mfn. Nominal verb) racita placed, inserted, inlaid, fixed on or in ( mfn. locative case) racita set out, displayed in ( mfn. locative case or compound) racita directed towards ( mfn. locative case) racita furnished, provided, set or studded with ( mfn. instrumental case or compound) racita ( mfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') occupied with, engaged in racita (with mfn. ) invented mṛṣā- racita m. Name of a man gaRa . bidā- di racitadhī one whose mind is directed to ( mfn. locative case), intent upon racitamaṅgala one who has performed an auspicious ceremony mfn. racitanati one who has made his obeisance mfn. racitapaṅkti forming a line mfn. racitapūrva what has been prepared or performed before mfn. ( varia lectio) racitārtha one who has obtained his object mfn. racitaśikhara having the summit adorned mfn. racitasvāgata one who has offered a welcome mfn. racitātithya one who has shown hospitality mfn. racitatva the being composed or written n. racitotsava one who has celebrated a festival mfn. abhip racakṣ ( Vedic or Veda infinitive mood ) to see - c/akṣe- abhip rach to ask or inquire after abhip racud Caus. , to impel, induce, persuade - codayati- abhip racyu (Imper. 2. sg. A1. ) to move towards, arrive at ( - cyavasva- accusative) abhyanta racārin moving inside, mfn. abhyanup rach to inquire after, ask for ācā racakrin m. plural Name of a sect. vaiṣṇava- ācā racandrikā f. Name of work on the religious customs of the s. śūdra- ādhā racakra n. Name of a mystical circle on the posterior part of the body agho racakṣus ( ) /aghora- - not having an evil eye mfn. ag racchada the point of a leaf, n. āha raceṭā gaRa mayūra- vyaṃsakā- di akṣa racaṇa "clever in writing", a scribe m. akṣa racana "clever in writing", a scribe m. akṣa racañcu "clever in writing", a scribe m. akṣa rachandas metre regulated by the number and quality of syllables. n. akṣa racuñcu "clever in writing", a scribe m. akṣa racyutaka "supplying dropped ( n. ) syllables ", a kind of game cyuta- akut racabhaya having no fear from any quarter, secure. mfn. alaṃkā racandrikā work on rhetoric f. alaṃkā racūḍāmaṇi work on rhetoric m. ama racandra m. Name of the author of the . bāla- bhārata- amba racara mfn. idem or ' sky-going mfn. ' amba racara a bird mfn. amba racara a mfn. vidyādhara- amba racārin a planet. m. anadhikā racarcā unjustifiable interference, intermeddling, officiousness. f. antaḥp racalita inwardly moved, mfn. antaḥpu racara guardian of the women's apartments. m. antaḥpu racārikā a female attendant in the women's apartments, f. antaḥpurap racāra the gossip of the women's apartments. m. anta racakra the whole of the thirty-two intermediate regions of the compass n. anta racakra a technical term in augury. n. anup rach (with accusative of the person and thing) , to ask, to inquire after. ap racaṅkaśa without power of seeing mf( )n. ā- āp racchana expression of civility on receiving or parting with a visitor, welcome, bidding farewell etc. n. ap racchanna courtesy, courteous treatment of a friend or guest, n. ap racchāya shadeless, mfn. ap racchedya inscrutable mfn. ap racchinna not split mfn. ap racetas deficient in understanding, foolish mfn. ap racetita not having been perceived mfn. āp rach A1. , rarely - pṛcchate- ( P. imperative - pṛccha- ) to take leave, bid farewell ; to salute on receiving or parting with a visitor etc. ; to call (on a god), implore ; to ask, inquire for ; to extol ap racodita undesired, not bidden or commanded, unasked mfn. ap racura little, few. mfn. ap racyāva not falling in m. ap racyāvuka not decaying, mf( )n. ā- ap racyuta unmoved mfn. ap racyuta (with mfn. ablative) not fallen or deviating from, observing, following ap racyuti not decaying f. ā rac Causal to arrange. ā racayya ind.p. having prepared or composed ā racayya having furnished or provided ā racita arranged, prepared mfn. ā racita put on mfn. artha racana pursuing an aim, exertion, endeavour, n. āsīnap racalāyita nodding when seated, falling asleep on a seat n. aṣṭā racakravat "having a wheel with eight spokes", a mfn. Name of mañjuśrī- ast racikitsā surgery f. ast racikitsaka a surgeon m. atip rach to go on asking atip racit ( - cekite- equals - cikite- ;= Intensive - cekitte- ), to be clearly distinct or distinguishable atip racyu to pass by : Causal , to cause to pass by - cyāvayati- audumba racchada Croton Polyandrum m. āvī racūrṇa a kind of red powder n. bāhup racālakam shaking the arms ind. bājabahādu racandra m. Name of a son of and patron of nīla- candra- anantadeva- ( see ). bāhādura- bhad racāru m. Name of a son of kṛṣṇa- bhad racūḍa Euphorbia Tirucalli m. bhāgavatacand racandrikā f. Name of work bhāska racaritra n. Name of work bhiṣakcak racittotsava m. Name of work bhrama racchallī a species of creeper f. bhrūkuṭī racanā f. equals - bandha- bhūmip racala an earthquake m. brahmasūt racandrikā f. Name of work bṛhatp racetas "the larger m. ", pracetas- Name of a particular recension of a law-book by . pracetas- cak racara "going in a circle", m. plural Name of a class of superhuman beings, cak racara "a juggler" ( m. see ) or"a potter" ( cakrā- ṭa Scholiast or Commentator) cak racara "circle-goer", one who goes by turns (to the houses of Brahmans, m. s and kṣatriya- s, vaiśya- scilicet for alms), ( Scholiast or Commentator) cak racārin flying in a circle (a bird) mfn. cak racūḍāmaṇi "round jewel (in a coronet)", a honorific m. Name of cak racūḍāmaṇi m. Name of the elder brother of the astronomer (17th century) bala- bhadra- cak racūḍāmaṇi m. Name of a treatise. camatkā racandrikā f. Name of a grammar camatkā racintāmaṇi m. Name of work cand racañcala m. cand racañcalā the fish f. candraka- cand racitra m. plural Name of a people cand racūḍa m. equals - mukuṭa- cand racūḍa a form of m. , bhairava- cand racūḍa m. Name of a hero of kālikā- cand racūḍa of an author (son of m. - śri- bhaṭṭa- ) puruṣo- ttama cand racūḍa of a prince, m. cand racūḍāmaṇi m. Name of work cand racūḍāṣṭaka n. Name of a hymn. candraśekha racampūprabandha m. Name of work cā racakṣus mfn. equals - dṛś- cā racakṣus a spy employed like an eye n. cā racaṇa graceful in gait mfn. cā racuñcu mfn. idem or ' graceful in gait mfn. ' caturviṃśatyavatā racaritra "history of the 24 incarnations", n. Name of a work by naraharadāsa- chatt racakra (in n. astrology) a kind of diagram. cikura racanā f. idem or ' m. idem or ' m. idem or ' m. idem or ' ' m. idem or ' ' a mass of hair, tuft of hair m. ' ' ' ci raceṣṭita long sought for, of rare occurrence mfn. cī racīvara a bark garment, n. cit racāpa "having a variegated bow", m. Name of a son of dhṛta- rāṣṭra- cuk racaṇḍikā the tamarind tree f. dabh racetas ( ) r/a- - little-minded, mfn. . danta racanā f. equals - dhāva- dantu racchada "prickly-leaved", the lime tree m. dardu racchadā the plant f. brāhmī- daśakumā racarita "adventures of the 10 princes", n. Name of work by . daṇḍin- daśakumā racaritra "adventures of the 10 princes", n. Name of work by . daṇḍin- daśāvatā racarita n. Name of work dhārānta racara ( ) rā- nt "moving among swords", daring, audacious, impudent mfn. ( varia lectio and dharā- nt ). hārā- nt dharmap racāra "the course of law or right" m. figuratively = sword dhī racetas strong-minded, self-possessed, courageous mfn. dhūrta racanā rogues' tricks, roguery f. dhūsa racchadā a kind of plant (= f. ) śveta- vuhnā- dū racara walking or being far mfn. dū racara keeping away from ( mfn. ablative) duśca racārin practising very difficult penance mfn. duṣka racaryā hard penance, f. Name of a chapter of dvāpa racchandas n. plural a particular class of metre ekāg racitta having the mind intent on one object mfn. ekām racandrikā f. Name (also title or epithet) of work gajasukumā racaritra n. Name of work gambhī racetas ( ) r/a- - of profound mind mfn. gaṅgādha racūrṇa a particular powder n. gāt raceṣṭa posture of the limbs, n. gau racandra m. Name of caitanya- gāyat racchandas ( mfn. ) one to whom the tr/a- - metre belongs or to whom it is sacred, relating to it gāyatrī- etc. gāyat racchandas a n. metre gāyatrī- ( see ) gho racakṣas ( ) r/a- - of frightful appearance mfn. gop racāra pasturage for cattle m. gṛdh racakra the vulture and the m. dual number cakra- vāka- hammī racarita " n. 's deeds", hammīra- Name of a by mahā- kāvya- . naya- candra- ha racāpāropaṇa N n. ha racāpāropaṇa of a drama. n. ha racaritacintāmaṇi m. Name of a poem. ha racūḍāmaṇi " m. 's crest-gem", the moon śiva- hariścand racaritra n. Name of work hariścandrayaśaścaud racandrikā f. Name of work harivaṃśasā racarita n. Name of work hiṃsāprāṇip racura abounding in noxious animal mfn. ind racandana n. equals hari- candana- ind racāpa m. n. 's bow, the rainbow indra- ind racchanda a necklace consisting of 1008 strings m. ind racirbhiṭī f. Name of a plant jalayant racakra a wheel for raising water n. jānup racalana n. varia lectio for . - cal- jinend racaritra n. Name of work by (also called amara- candra- ) padmānanda- mahākāvya- jīvapattrap racāyikā for f. - putra- pr- jīvaputrap racāyikā "gathering of the f. plant", a kind of game jīva- putra- and jva racikitsā medical treatment of fever. f. ka racchada Trophis Aspera m. ka racchadā a species of tree (commonly called f. ) sindūra- puṣpī- vṛkṣa- ka raculi m. Name of a country karap raceya ( 1. ;for kara- praceya- 2. See) to be held or taken hold of by the hand mfn. karap raceya to be collected by taxes. mfn. karka racchadā f. Name of a plant karṇecu racurā whispering into the ear, tale-bearing f. gaRa . pātre- samitā- di kaṭho racitta hard-hearted, cruel, mfn. kaumā racārin abstinent, chaste (= mfn. ) brahma- c- kaumudīp racāra a kind of game m. keśa racanā arranging or dressing the hair f. khadi racañcu "having a beak hard like m. wood", khadira- Name of a bird ( equals ) vañjulaka- kha racchada "sharp-leaved", m. Name of a tree (= ) bhūmī- saha- kha racchada a kind of grass ( m. ,or ulūka- ) kundara- kha racchada a kind of reed ( m. ,commonly Okera) itkaṭa- kha racchada m. Name of a small shrub ( ) kṣudra- gholī- kṛtasma racarita n. Name of work krū racarita addicted to cruel practices, cruel, ferocious. mfn. krū raceṣṭita mfn. idem or ' addicted to cruel practices, cruel, ferocious.' mfn. kṣet racirbhiṭā a kind of gourd f. kṣī racchada Calotropis gigantea (the leaves of which yield a milky juice). m. kṣud racampaka a variety of the Campaka tree m. kṣud racañcu "having small points", f. Name of a plant kṣud racandana red sandal-wood n. kṣud racirbhitā a variety of Curcumis f. kṣud racūda "having a small tuft", a kind of small bird (commonly m. ) gośālika- kṣu racatuṣṭaya the four things necessary for shaving (viz. n. , kṣura- , nava- kuśa- tṛṇāni- , try- eṇī śalalī- ) āpaḥ- kumā racapala giddy while still a boy mfn. gaRa . śramaṇā- di ku racilla for kuru- c- q.v kūṭa racanā artifice, trick f. kūṭa racanā a laid trap f. kuṭṭap racaraṇa m. plural Name of a people lalitāṅganareśva racarita n. Name of work madhu racārumañjusvaratā the having a sweet and agreeable and pleasant voice (one of the 80 minor marks of a f. ) buddha- madhvatant racapeṭāpradīpa m. Name of work mahāvidyāsā racandrodaya m. Name of work mahāvī racarita "the exploits of the great hero ( n. )", rāma- Name of a celebrated drama by bhavabhūti- mahāvī racaritra n. equals prec. mahāvī racaritra n. Name of another work mahend racāpa "great Inscr's bow", a rainbow m. maheśvaraka racyutā "dropped from the hand of f. ", śiva- Name of the river kara- toyā- mait racitta benevolence n. mait racitta benevolent, kind mfn. mant racandrikā f. Name of work mant racintāmaṇi m. Name of work mant racūḍāmaṇi m. Name of work mā racittā f. Name of a Buddhist deity mayū racaṭaka the domestic cock m. mayū racitraka n. Name of and of another work mayū racūḍa "peacock's crest", a kind of gall-nut n. mayū racūḍā Celosia Cristata f. meḍh racarman the fore-skin, prepuce n. meghakumā racarita n. Name of a jaina- work miś racaturbhuja m. Name of a man miś racaura an adulterator of grain m. miś racora an adulterator of grain m. mṛgend racaṭaka a falcon m. muhūrta racana n. mu racī f. Name of a river ( varia lectio) mu racīpattana n. Name of a town in the Dekhan (also called ). marīci- pattana- naga racatuṣpatha or m. meeting of 4 ways in a town n. nakhap raca n. gaRa . mayūra- vyaṃsakā- di nak racakra a multitude of crocodiles n. nakṣat racakra a n. particular diagram nakṣat racakra the n. s collectively nakṣatra- nakṣat racakra the sphere of the fixed stars n. nakṣat racintāmaṇi m. Name of work nakṣat racūḍāmaṇi m. Name of work na racandra m. Name of a writer jaina- nā racandra m. Name of an author ( see ) nara c- nā racandrapaddhati f. Name of his work na racihna "murdered-sign", moustaches n. nātip racurapadyavat containing not too many verses mfn. navaucityavicā racarcā f. Name of work net racapala restless with the eyes mfn. net racchada the eyelid m. nīhā racakṣus one whose eyes are veiled by mist mfn. nī racara "moving in water", a fish or any aquatic animal m. niścap raca prob. backwards and forwards gaRa ( mayūra- vyaṃsakā- di see and ācaparāca- ). āco- paca niṣp racāra not moving, remaining in one place, fixed or concentrated (as mind) mfn. nivāsa racanā an edifice f. pada racanā arrangement of words, literary composition f. padya racanā f. Name of work pakṣa racanā forming a party or faction f. pakṣa racanānaipuṇya skill in forming etc. n. pañja racālananyāya the rule (exemplified by the story) of shaking the cage (by 11 birds who united their strength for this purpose although they differed in other ways) m. pa racakra the army of a foe n. ( Scholiast or Commentator"a hostile prince") pa racakrasūdana destroyer of it m. pā racara arrived at the opposite shore, emancipated for ever mf( )n. ī- pa racchanda another's will m. ( paracchandānuvartana dā- nuvartana following it n. ) pa racchanda depending on another's will, subservient (also mfn. ) - vat- pa racchandānuvartana n. paracchanda pa racchidra another's fault or defect n. pa racintā thinking of or caring for another f. pa racittajñāna knowing the thoughts of another n. pa racittajñāna knowledge of the thoughts of others, n. parip rach P. A1. , - pṛcchati- ( te- perfect tense ; - papraccha- future ; - prakṣyati- ind.p. ; - pṛcchya- infinitive mood ), to interrogate or ask a person about anything, to inquire about (with 2 - praṣṭum- accusative or with accusative of Persian and accusative with prati- locative case or genitive case of thing) paripūrṇasahas racandravatī "possessing a thousand full moons", f. Name of 's wife indra- pariṣkā racīvara a kind of garment n. pārthiveśva racintāmaṇi m. Name of work pārthiveśva racintāmaṇipaddhati f. Name of work pāt racaya ( m. )the act of putting the sacrificial utensils on the pyre by the side of the deceased pāt racayana ( n. ) the act of putting the sacrificial utensils on the pyre by the side of the deceased patt racārikā a kind of magic f. patt racchaṭā f. equals - bhaṅga- patt raccheda leaf-cutting (a kind of sport or art) m. patt racchedabhakti a piece cut out of a leaf f. patt racchedaka a leaf-cutter (a m. particular trade) patt racchedya n. equals - ccheda- ( equals ?). ālekhya- phakī racandra m. Name of an author phalap racayana gathering fruits n. piplup racchādana covering or concealing a mole mfn. p raca See and acyuta- pr- . nakha- pr- p racakita ( mfn. ) trembling, shuddering, terrified cak- p racakra an army in motion n. p racakṣ A1. , to tell, relate, declare - caṣṭe- ; to suppose, regard or consider as ( accusative) etc. ; to name, call : Causal , to irradiate, illumine - cakṣayati- p racakṣaṇam (after a fin. verb) ind. gaRa . gotrā- di p racakṣas m. Name of the regent of the planet Jupiter, bṛhas- pati- p racal P. (rarely - calati- A1. ), to be set in motion, tremble, quake te- etc. ; to stir, move on, advance, set out, depart ; to start, spring up from (a seat) ; to swerve, deviate from ( ablative) ; to become troubled or confused, be perplexed or bewildered or excited : Causal , to set in motion, move, jog, wag - calayati- ; to remove from ( ablative) ; , to cause to shake or tremble - cālayati- ; to stir up, stir round p racala moving, tremulous, shaking mfn. p racala what goes well or widely mfn. p racala current, circulating, customary mfn. p racāla the neck of the m. or Indian lute vīṇā- ( wrong reading for ). pravāla- p racaladāsa m. Name of a poet p racalaka a species of venomous reptile m. ( see ). calāka- p racalāka shooting with arrows m. p racalāka a peacock's tail or crest m. p racalāka a chameleon m. p racalāka a snake or other venomous animal ( m. see ) calaka- p racalākā springing up f. p racālaka causing to tremble, trembling with ( mf( )n. ikā- compound) p racalakāñcanakuṇḍala (an ear) adorned with golden rings mfn. p racalakin wrong reading for . calākin- p racalākin a peacock m. p racalākin a snake m. p racalalatābhuja having tremulous arm-creepers (= slender arms that tremble) mfn. p racalana trembling, shaking, rocking, swaying n. p racalana retiring, flight n. p racalana going well or widely n. p racalana circulating, being current or customary n. p racālana stirring, stir, noise (?) n. p racalāṅga having tremulous limbs mfn. p racalasiṃha m. Name of a poet p racalat moving, trembling, shaking mfn. etc. p racalat going, proceeding far or much mfn. p racalat circulating, being current or customary mfn. p racalat prevailing, being recognized (as authority or law) mfn. p racalāya Nom. P. , to nod the head (while asleep) yati- p racalāyana nodding the head (on first becoming intoxicated) n. p racalāyita nodding the head (while asleep and in a sitting posture) mfn. p racalāyita rolling about, tumbling, tossed about (as a ship) mfn. p racalāyita n. See under . āsīna- p racalita set in motion, moved, shaken, tremulous, rolling (as the eye) mfn. etc. p racalita one who has set out, proceeded, departed mfn. p racalita confused, bewildered, perplexed mfn. p racalita current, customary, circulating mfn. p racalita prevailing, recognized, received (as authority or law) mfn. p racalita going away, departure n. p racaṇḍa excessively violent, impetuous, furious, fierce, passionate, terrible, direful, formidable mf( )n. ā- etc. p racaṇḍa great, large, hot, burning, sharp ( mf( )n. ā- See compound below) p racaṇḍa a species of oleander with white flowers m. p racaṇḍa m. Name of a dānava- p racaṇḍa of a goblin m. p racaṇḍa of a son of m. and vatsa- prī- su- nandā- p racaṇḍā a species of f. with white flowers dūrvā- p racaṇḍā a form or f. of śakti- durgā- p racaṇḍabhairava (prob.) m. Name of a (kind of drama). vyāyoga- p racaṇḍabhairavarasa m. Name of a particular medicinal preparation p racaṇḍacaṇḍikā a form of f. durgā- p racaṇḍacaṇḍikāsahasranāmastotra n. Name of a . stotra- p racaṇḍadeva m. Name of a prince p racaṇḍaghoṇa large-nosed, having a long or prominent nose mfn. p racaṇḍamādhava (with m. ) kāśmīra- Name of a poet p racaṇḍamūrti Crataeva Roxburghii m. p racaṇḍapāṇḍava "the wrathful sons of n. ", pāṇḍu- Name of a drama by ( rāja- śekhara- equals ). bāla- bhārata- p racaṇḍaśakti m. Name of a man p racaṇḍaśarakārmuka having sharp arrows and a terrible bow (said of the god of love) mfn. p racaṇḍasena m. Name of a prince, of tāmra- liptikā- p racaṇḍaśephas m. Name of a man p racaṇḍasūrya having a hot or burning sun mfn. p racaṇḍatā great violence or passion f. p racaṇḍātapa fierce or stifling heat, m. p racaṇḍatarībhū to become fiercer or more passionate p racaṇḍavadana having a terrible face mf( )n. ā- p racaṇḍavarman m. Name of a prince p racaṇḍogrā f. Name of a yoginī- p racaṅkaśa See . a- pr- p racapala very unsteady or restless mfn. p racar P. ( - carati- Epic also A1. ), to proceed towards, go or come to, arrive at ( te- accusative) etc. ; to come forth, appear etc. ; to roam, wander ; to circulate, be or become current (as a story) ; to set about, perform, discharge ( especially sacred functions, with instrumental case of the object or of the means employed) ; to be active or busy, be occupied or engaged in ( locative case) ; to proceed, behave, act in peculiar manner etc. ; to come off, take place : Causal , to allow to roam, turn out to graze - cārayati- ; to make public p racara a road, way, path m. p racara usage, custom, currency m. p racara going well or widely m. p racara m. plural Name of a people ( varia lectio and praccara- ). pra- stara- p racāra roaming, wandering m. ( see ) bhikṣā- - p racāra coming forth, showing one's self, manifestation, appearance, occurrence, existence m. etc. p racāra application, employment, use m. p racāra conduct, behaviour m. etc. p racāra prevalence, currency, custom, usage m. p racāra a playground, place of exercise m. p racāra pasture-ground, pasturage m. (= , where Scholiast or Commentator"a way or road leading from or to a house") p racaraṇa going to graze n. p racaraṇa proceeding with, beginning, undertaking n. p racaraṇa circulating, being current n. p racaraṇa employing, using n. p racāraṇa (prob.) scattering, strewing n. p racaraṇī (sc. f. ) a wooden ladle employed for want of a better at a sacrifice sruc- p racaraṇīya being in actual use mfn. p racārin coming forth, appearing mfn. p racārin following, adhering or sticking to ( mfn. locative case or compound) p racārin proceeding with, acting, behaving mfn. p racārin going about, wandering mfn. p racarita followed, practised mfn. p racarita arrived at, visited mfn. p racarita current, publicly known mfn. p racārita allowed to wander or roam about mfn. p racārita made public or manifest mfn. ( see gaRa ). tārakā- di p racaritavya to be proceeded with or undertaken, to be performed mfn. p racaritos infinitive mood (with ) before he (the purā- ) sets to work adhvaryu- p racaryā an action, process f. p racaṣāla a n. particular ornament on a sacrificial post p racat Causal A1. , to drive or scare away, remove, destroy - cātayate- p racatā secretly, in secret ind. p racatā according to to others,"away, off". p racaya etc. See pra- - 1. . ci- p racāya etc. See below. p racaya ( m. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ) collecting, gathering f( ). ā- ( see ) puṣpa- - p racaya accumulation, heap, mass, quantity, multitude m. p racaya growth, increase m. p racaya slight aggregation m. p racaya m. equals - svara- p racaya (in m. algebra) the common increase or difference of the terms in a progression p racāya m. p racayakāṣṭhāgata one who has attained the highest degree of intensity mfn. p racayana gathering, collecting ( n. See ). phala- - p racayasvara "accumulated tone", the tone occurring in a series of unaccented syllables following a m. svarita- p racāyikā gathering, plucking, collecting (with the hand or in turn, cf: f. ;the latter also "a female who gathers", A.) puṣpa- - p racchad ( ) chad- P. A1. , - cchādayati- to cover, envelop, wrap up ( te- with A1. instrumental case"to cover one's self with, put on") etc. ; to be in the way, be an obstacle to ( accusative) ; to hide, conceal, disguise, keep secret p racchad a cover, covering f. p racchada a cover, coverlet, wrapper, blanket m. p racchādaka concealing, covering ( mf( )n. ikā- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') p racchādaka the song of a wife deserted by her husband (sung with the accompaniment of a lute and containing a covert description of her sorrows) m. p racchādana concealing, hiding ( mfn. see ) piplu- - p racchādana covering, concealing, concealment n. p racchādana an upper or outer garment n. p racchādanapaṭa a cover, coverlet, wrapper m. p racchadapaṭa (L.) m. idem or ' a cover, coverlet, wrapper, blanket m. ' p racchadavāsas ( n. ) idem or ' (L.) m. idem or ' ' a cover, coverlet, wrapper, blanket m. ' p racchādita covered, wrapped up, clothed, hidden, concealed mfn. p racchādya having covered or hidden ind. p racchādya to be covered or hidden mfn. p racchana See under . prach- p racchāna pra- cchita- See under below. pra- ccho- p racchāna scarifying, making sore n. p racchana asking, inquiring, a question, inquiry nf. p racchanna covered, enveloped, shut up mfn. etc. p racchanna hidden, concealed, unobserved, private, secret, disguised ( mfn. in the beginning of a compound and pracchannam am- "secretly, covertly") ind. etc. p racchanna a private door n. p racchanna a lattice, loop-hole n. p racchannacāraka acting secretly or fraudulently mfn. p racchannacārin acting secretly or fraudulently mfn. p racchannagupta secretly hidden mfn. p racchannam ind. pracchanna p racchannapāpa a secret sinner m. p racchannataskara a secret thief m. p racchannavañcaka a secret rogue or rascal m. p racchannavṛtti a secret manner or way f. p racchannībhū to hide or conceal one's self. p racchardana emitting, exhaling n. p racchardana vomiting, an emetic n. p racchardi ( ) vomiting, sickness. f. p racchardikā ( ) vomiting, sickness. f. p racchāya (prob.) a shadowy place, dense shade n. p raccheda a cutting, slip, strip m. p raccheda a musical division, bar (?) m. p racchedaka a song sung by a wife who thinks her husband false to her m. ( see ). pra- cchādaka- p racchedana dividing into small pieces n. p racchedya See . a- pracchedya- p racchid ( ) chid- P. A1. , - cchinatti- to cut off or through, pierce, split, cleave - cchintte- etc. ; to rend or take away, withdraw : Causal , to cause to cut off etc. - cchedayati- : Causal of Intensive - cecchidayya- p racchid cutting off or to pieces mfn. ( see ) . p racchindyākarṇa whose ear is to be cleft mf( )n. ī- ( see ) . p racchita cut, lanced, scarified mfn. p raccho ( ;only cho- ind.p. ), to bleed by making incisions in the skin, cup, lance, scarify - cchayitvā- p racchṛd ( ), chṛd- Causal to vomit - cchardayati- p racchuḍ ( ), chuḍ- Causal to stretch out - cchoḍayati- p racela ( n. ?) yellow sandalwood cel- p racelaka a horse m. p raceluka a cook m. ( wrong reading for ). paceluka- p racerita (?), . p racetana illumining, illustrating mfn. p racetana etc. See . pra- - cit p racetas ( ) pr/a- - attentive, observant, mindful, clever, wise (said of the gods, mfn. especially of and the agni- s) āditya- p racetas ( ) pr/a- - happy, delighted mfn. p racetas ( ) pr/a- - m. Name of varuṇa- p racetas ( ) pr/a- - m. Name of a (an ancient sage and law-giver) prajā- pati- ( pracetassmṛti - smṛti- f. Name of work) p racetas ( ) pr/a- - m. Name of a prince (son of ) duduha- p racetas ( ) pr/a- - m. Name of a son of duryāman- p racetas ( ) pr/a- - m. Name of a son of dur- mada- p racetas ( ) pr/a- - m. plural ( wrong reading ) prāc- Name of the 10 sons of by a daughter of prācīna- barhis- (they are the progenitors of varuṇa- ) dakṣa- p racetasa mfn. wrong reading for prāc- p racetasī Myrica Sapida f. p racetassmṛti f. pracetas p racetita ( mfn. See ) noticed, observed. a- prac- p racetṛ a charioteer m. ( wrong reading for ). pra- vetṛ- p racetuna affording a wide view or prospect mfn. p raceya to be collected or gathered mfn. p raceya to be increased mfn. p raceya spreading everywhere mfn. p rach ( cl.6 P. ), (Ved. and pṛcchati- Epic also A1. ; pṛcchate- perfect tense papraccha- etc., [?] papṛkṣ/e- ; Aorist /aprākṣīt- etc., /aprāṭ- , apraṣṭa- ; future prakṣyati- etc., praṣṭā- grammar; ind.p. , pṛṣṭvā- - pṛcchya- ; infinitive mood pr/aṣṭum- etc., , - p/ṛccham- cche- ), to ask, question, interrogate ( accusative) ; to ask after inquire about ( accusative) ; to ask or interrogate any one ( accusative) about anything ( accusative dative case locative case, ,or prati- with adhikṛtya- accusative; or arthe- hetoḥ- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') ( pr.p. A1. ,"asking one's self" pṛcchamāna- ) etc. etc. ; (in astrology) to consult the future ; (with ) to inquire about one's ( nāmato mātaram- genitive case) mother's name ; (with ) not to trouble one's self with na- ; to seek, wish, long for ; to ask, demand, beg, entreat ( accusative) : Passive voice , to be asked or questioned about (act. pṛcchy/ate- dative case etc., as above ) etc. etc.: Causal ( pracchayati- Aorist ) apapracchat- grammar : Desiderative pipṛcchiṣati- : Intensive parīpṛcchyate- [Orig. ; pṛk- confer, compare Latin preces,procus;poscereforporscere; Slavonic or Slavonian prositi; Lithuanian praszy4ti; German fra7he7n,fragen;forsko7n,forschen.] p raci P. A1. , - cinoti- , to collect, gather, pluck - cinute- etc. ; to mow or cut down (enemies) ; to increase, augment, enhance : Passive voice , to be gathered or collected, to grow, thrive, multiply - cīyate- p racībala or m. a species of plant n. p racika gaRa ( purohitā- di ) p racikīrṣu ( mfn. 1. kṛ- Desiderative) wishing or intending to requite p racikita ( ) pr/a- - knowing, familiar or conversant with mfn. ( ) p racint P. , to think upon, reflect, consider, find out, devise, contrive - cintayati- p racintya having reflected or considered ind. p racintya to be reflected or considered mfn. p racinvat gathering, collecting, plucking mfn. p racinvat m. Name of a son of janam- ejaya- p racīra m. Name of a son of and vatsaprī- su- nandā- p racīrṇa ( mfn. ) come forth, appeared car- p racit P. A1. , - ciketti- , to know or make known - cikitte- ; to become visible or manifest, appear : Causal , to make known, cause to appear - cetayati- ; ( ) to appear A1. : Desiderative , to show, point out - cikitsati- p racita gathered, collected, heaped, accumulated mfn. p racita covered or filled with ( mfn. instrumental case or compound) p racita pronounced with the mfn. tone, accentless pracaya- p racita (also m. ) - ka- Name of a metre p racitasvara m. equals . pracaya- svara- p raciti ( f. 2. ) investigation, examination (= ci- ) vi- citi- p racoda instigation m. p racoda etc. See . pra- - cud p racodaka instigating mf( )n. ikā- p racodana instigating, exciting n. p racodana direction, order, command n. p racodana a rule or law n. p racodana saying n. p racodana sending n. p racodanī Solanum Jacquini f. p racodikā "inflamer", f. Name of the 4 daughters of (daughter of the demon niyojikā- ) duḥsaha- p racodin driving forward, urging mfn. p racodinī Solanum Jacquini f. p racodita (fr. mfn. Causal) driven on, urged, impelled p racodita asked, requested, ordered, directed mfn. ( see ) a- prac- p racodita decreed, determined mfn. p racodita announced, proclaimed mfn. p racodita sent, dispatched mfn. p racṛt P. , to loose, loosen, untie - cṛtati- p racṛtta loose, dishevelled mfn. p racṛttaśikha with dishevelled hair mfn. p racud P. , to set in motion, drive on, urge, impel - codati- : Causal - codayati- idem or ' ( mfn. ) come forth, appeared car- ' ( to hasten, make haste, A1. ) etc. ; to excite, inspire ; to command, summon, request, demand etc. ; to announce, make known, proclaim p racudita ( mfn. mc. for ) hurled, shot off codita- p racupita See . upasthita- p- p racura much, many, abundant ( mf( )n. ā- opp. to ) alpa- p racura plenteous, plentiful, frequent mf( )n. ā- p racura ( mf( )n. ā- in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') abounding in, filled with etc. p racura a thief m. p racu racandana much sandal n. p racu racchala hidden in manifold disguises mfn. p racuraloma having too much hair mfn. p racuranityadhanāgama receiving many and constant supplies of money mfn. p racurapādapa abounding with trees mfn. p racuraparibhava frequent humiliation m. p racurapuruṣa abounding with men, populous mfn. p racurapuruṣa a thief. m. p racuraratnadhanāgama having a large income of gems and money mfn. p racuratā ( f. ) abundance, multitude. p racuratva ( n. etc.) abundance, multitude. p racurī in compound for . ra- p racurībhū to become abundant, increase p racurīkaraṇa making abundant, augmenting, increasing n. p racurīkṛta augmented, increased mfn. p racūrṇ P. (only - cūrṇayati- Aorist ), to crush, grind to dust prā- cucūrṇat p racyava fall, ruin m. p racyava withdrawal m. p racyava advancement, improvement m. p racyavana removing, destroying mfn. ( wrong reading for ?) cyāvana- p racyavana falling down ( n. especially from heaven id est being born again) p racyavana departure, withdrawal n. p racyavana loss, deprivation (with n. ablative) p racyavana oozing, dropping n. p racyāvana means of removing or diminishing, a sedative n. p racyāvana causing to give up, diverting from ( n. ablative) p racyāvanī (with f. ) a large jar used for sprinkling a pyre, kumbhī- p racyāvuka transitory, fragile, mfn. p racyu A1. ( - cyavate- Epic also P. ), to move, proceed, depart ti- ; to swerve or deviate from ( ablative) ; to be deprived of, lose ( ablative) ; to come or stream forth ; to fall down, drop, stumble ; to fall ( scilicet from heaven id est be born again) : Causal , to move, shake - cyāvayati- ; to eject, remove or dispel or divert from ( ablative) etc. ; to cause to fall ( literally and figuratively) p racyuta ( ) pr/a- - routed, put to flight expelled, banished, retreated mfn. p racyuta ( ) pr/a- - streamed forth or issued from ( mfn. ablative) etc. p racyuta ( ) pr/a- - fallen from ( mfn. literally and figuratively), swerved from, deprived of ( ablative or compound) etc. p racyuta ( ) pr/a- - subtracted mfn. p racyutatva ( ) pr/a- - deviation, retreat n. p racyuti going away, withdrawing, departing f. p racyuti loss, deprivation (with f. ablative) p racyuti falling from, giving up ( f. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') p racyuti decay, fall, ruin ( f. ) a- pr- pradyumnotta racarita " n. 's further deeds", pradyumna- Name of a poem. praguṇa racanā f. equals next prastā racintāmaṇi m. Name of work pratip rach P. , to ask, question, inquire of (2 - pṛcchati- accusative) puraṃda racāpa m. 's bow, the rainbow indra- puṣka racūḍa "lotus-crested", m. Name of one of the 4 elephants that support the earth puṣpap racaya plucking flower (to steal them) m. puṣpap racāya plucking or gathering flower m. puṣpap racāyikā f. idem or ' plucking or gathering flower m. ' ( ,it is thy turn to gather flower tava puṣpa- pracāyika- ) puṣpa racana making flower into a garland (one of the 64 arts or n. s) kalā- radh racoda furthering or encouraging the obedient mfn. radh racodana furthering or encouraging the obedient mfn. raghuvī racarita n. Name of work rāmacand racampū f. Name of work rāmacand racandrikā f. Name of work rāmacand racarita n. Name of work rāmacand racaritrasāra m. Name of work rāmacand racatuḥsūtrī f. Name of work rāmacandrakaruṇāsāga racandrikā f. Name of work rasapadmāka racampū f. rasapadmākara rasend racintāmaṇi m. Name of work rasend racūdāmaṇi m. Name of work rathacak racit arranged in the form of a chariots-wheel mfn. etc. rathaṃta racaraṇabhāṣya n. Name of work ratnasā racintāmaṇi m. Name of work rudhi racarcitasarvāṅga having the whole body smeared with blood mf( )n. ī- rud racaṇḍī a form of f. durgā- rud racaṇḍī f. Name of a section in the and of a rudra- yāmala- . stotra- rud racaṇḍika Name of a particular text or formula rud racandra m. Name of a king rud racandradeva m. Name of an author rud racchattra m. Name of a man śāba racintāmaṇi m. Name of work sadācā racandrodaya m. Name of work sadācā racintana n. Name of work sadalaṃkā racandrikā f. Name of work sāga racandra m. Name of a Jain poet sāgaradhī racetas one whose mind is as firm or as deep as the ocean mfn. sahas racakṣas ( ) sah/asra- - thousand-eyed mfn. sahas racakṣas id, mfn. sahas racakṣas m. Name of indra- sahas racakṣu mfn. idem or '( ) sah/asra- - thousand-eyed mfn. ' sahas racaṇḍīśatacaṇḍīvidhāna n. Name of work sahas racaṇḍīvidhāna n. Name of work sahas racaṇḍīvidhi m. Name of work sahas racaṇḍyādiprayogapaddhati f. Name of work sahas racaṇḍyādividhi m. Name of work sahas racaraṇa thousand footed (said of mfn. ) viṣṇu- sahas racetas ( ) sah/asra- - having a thousand aspects or appearances mfn. sahas racitya m. Name of a king sāhas racūḍika (with m. ) loka- dhātu- Name of a particular world śāka racita composed of vegetables etc. mf( )n. ā- śak racāpa n. equals - kārmuka- etc. śak racāpasamudbhavā a kind of cucumber f. śak racāpāya Nom. A1. , to represent a rainbow yate- śālibhad racaritra n. Name of work samantavyūhasāga racaryavyavalokana m. Name of a garuḍa- rāja- samanup rach P. , to ask or inquire about ( - pṛcchati- accusative) samāp rach (only ind.p. ), to take leave of. - pṛcchya- samayabhedopa racanacakra n. Name of work śamba racandana a variety of sandal n. śaṃka racaritra n. Name of work , śaṃka racetovilāsa "the play of m. 's wit", śaṃkara- Name of an artificial poem by (celebrating the glories of śaṃkara- dīkṣita- , vārāṇasī- especially of its kings and yavanāri- or Chet Singh). cetasiṃha- saṃkaṣṭaha racaturthīvrata n. Name of work saṃkaṣṭaha racaturthīvratakālanirṇaya m. Name of work saṃkaṭaha racaturthīvrata n. Name of work samp racakṣ A1. , to explain, expound - caṣṭe- ; to suppose, assume samp racar P. , to advance, begin to move - carati- ; to go on, be carried on, take place : Causal , to dismiss - cārayati- samp racchid ( ) chid- P. A1. , - cchinatti- to cut or split to pieces, cut through - cchintte- samp rach P. A1. , - pṛcchati- (Ved. te- infinitive mood and - pṛccham- ), to ask, question about (with two p/ṛcche- accusative), inquire into the future ; ( ) to make inquiries, consult about, salute or greet one another A1. samp raci P. A1. , - cinoti- , to gather, increase - cinute- samp racodita urged on, impelled, incited mf( )n. ā- samp racodita required mf( )n. ā- samp racud Caus. , to urge on or impel quickly, set in rapid motion, incite, drive on ; to promote, encourage - codayati- samp racyu Caus. , to cause to proceed or come forth from different directions, bring together - cyāvayati- saṃsā racakra the world compared to a wheel n. samud raculuka "holding the ocean in his mouth", m. Name of the sage (fabled to have drunk up the ocean) agastya- śa rac in compound for . śarad- sā racandrikā f. Name of work sā racaturviṃśatikā f. Name of work śa raccandra the autumnal moon m. śa raccandrāya Nom. P. , to resemble the autumnal moon yate- śa raccandrikā autumnal moonshine ( f. pariṇata- candrikāsu kṣapāsu- see ) pariṇata- śa racchāli (for ) - śāli- rice ripening in autumn m. śa racchaśadhara (for - śaśa- - ), śa racchaśin ( ) m. equals . - candra- śa racchikhin (for ) - śikhin- a peacock in autumn (supposed to cease its cries) m. śa racchrī (for ) - śrī- f. Name of the wife of kuṇāla- sā racintāmaṇi m. Name of work śarī racintā care of the body (washing one's self etc.) f. śarīrānta racārin acting in another body mfn. sarvatobhad racakra a n. particular diagram ( See above) sarvatobhad racakra n. Name of various works. sarvatobhad racakravyākhyāna n. Name of work saśa racāpahasta holding a bow with an arrow in the hand mfn. śāst racakṣus "eye of science", grammar n. śāst racakṣus having authoritative works as eyes mfn. śāst racāraṇa mfn. equals - darśin- śāst racaura one who unlawfully promulgates another's system of teaching (as if it were his own) m. śast racikitsā "curing by means of instruments", surgery f. śāst racintaka a learned man m. śast racūrṇa iron-filings n. sasu racāpam with ind. 's bow indra- śatacaṇḍīsahas racaṇḍīprayoga m. Name of work śatacaṇḍīsahas racaṇḍīvidhi m. Name of work śatacaṇḍīsahas racaṇḍyādividhāna n. Name of work śāṭīp racchada n. gaRa . gavā- śvā di satvara racanam quickly, immediately, at once ind. sāvit racayana "arranging or preparing the n. called agni- ", sāvitra- Name of work sāvit racayanapaddhati f. Name of work sāvit racayanaprayoga m. Name of work sāvit raciti f. equals , - cayana- śayana racana the preparation of a bed or couch (one of the 64 arts) n. send racāpa along with mfn. 's bow indra- śīgh racāra mfn. idem or '( (in ) mfn. idem or '( ' ) or' ,"whirling around") maṇḍala- ś- śīgh racetana having quick intellect, very sagacious (as a dog) mfn. śīgh racetana a dog m. sma racakra a kind of sexual union m. sma racandra a kind of sexual union m. sma racchattra the clitoris n. sopāna racanā f. Name of work śṛṅgā racandrodaya m. Name of work śṛṅgā raceṣṭā ( f. ) love-gesture, any outward action indicating love. śṛṅgā raceṣṭita ( n. ) love-gesture, any outward action indicating love. śṛṅgave racūrṇa ginger-powder n. śrot racit accumulated by hearing mfn. sthānap racyuta mfn. equals - cyuta- sthi racakra m. Name of mañju- śrī- sthi racchada Betula Bhojpatra m. sthi racchāya a tree yielding permanent shadow m. sthi racchāya any tree m. sthi racetas ( ) firm-minded, steady, resolute. mfn. sthi racitta ( ) ( ) firm-minded, steady, resolute. mfn. śūdrācā racintāmaṇi m. Name of work sukhaśayitap racchaka inquiring whether any one has slept well mf( )n. ikā- śuk racāra course of the planet Venus m. sup racāra going in a right course (also said of planets) mfn. sup racāra appearing beautifully mfn. sup racchanna well concealed mfn. sup racetas very wise mfn. sū racakṣas ( ) s/ūra- - radiant as the sun mfn. sū racandra m. Name of the Guru of bhānucandra- su racāpa mn. equals - kārmuka- surend racāpa " n. 's bow", the rainbow indra- suṣi raccheda a kind of flute m. sūt racaraṇa n. Name of a class of s or Vedic schools who introduced various caraṇa- works sūtra- suvarṇaratnāka racchattraketu m. Name of a future buddha- suvarṇaratnāka racchattrakūṭa m. Name of a future buddha- svai racārin acting at will, free, independent mfn. sva racchidra the sound-hole of a flute n. sva racintā f. Name of work on vowels svarāṣṭ racintā care for one's own country or people f. śvetāmba racandra m. Name of a man tailayant racakra n. tailayantra tamālapatt racandanagandha "smelling like m. leaves and sandal wood", tamāla- Name of a . buddha- tām racakṣus "red-eyed", a kind of pigeon m. tām racūḍa red-crested (a cock) mfn. tām racūḍa a cock m. tām racūḍa Blumea lacera m. tām racūḍa m. equals daka- tām racūḍa m. Name of a pari- vrājaka- tām racūḍā f. Name of one of the mothers attending on skanda- tām racūḍabhairava a form of m. . bhairava- tām racūḍaka a particular position of the hand. m. taṇḍāp racara ? (a term relating to the m. ) tant racūḍāmaṇi m. Name of work tat racakṣurmanas directing one's eyes and mind on him mfn. timi racchid "darkness-splitter", the sun m. trinet racūḍāmaṇi " m. 's crest", the moon śiva- udā racarita of generous behaviour, noble-minded, noble mfn. etc. udā racarita m. Name of a king udā racetas high-minded, magnanimous. mfn. udgā racūḍaka a species of bird m. ug racaṇḍā f. Name of a goddess, ug racārin moving impetuously (said of the moon) mfn. ug racāriṇī f. Name of . durgā- ug racaya strong desire. m. upacā racchala a kind of fallacious inference (to be refuted by reference to the real sense of a word used metaphorically n. exempli gratia, 'for example' if any one from the sentence "the platform cries"were to conclude that the platform really cries and not persons on the platform) upap rach (1. A1. plural ) to ask (a person - pṛcchāmahe- accusative) about anything, consult upāp rach P. , to take leave of - pṛcchati- upa rac Causal P. , to construct, form, make, prepare, effect - racayati- upa racita constructed, formed, made, prepared mfn. upasaṃp rach ( P. infinitive mood ) to question about - praṣṭum- upasthitap racupita n. Name of a particular metre. uragasā racandana a kind of sandal-wood n. uragasā racandanacūrṇa the powder of the above n. uragasā racandanamaya made of sandal-wood mfn. utta racchada a cover thrown over anything m. uttarap racchada a cover-lid, quilt m. uttarottarap racchalā f. Name of a section of the sāmaveda- cchalā- vacana racanā skilful arrangement of speech, eloquence f. vaip raciti (fr. mfn. ) vipra- cita- gaRa . sutaṃgamā- di vaip racitta m. patronymic fr. vipra- citti- vaj racañcu "hard-beaked", a vulture m. ( see ). - tuṇḍa- vaj racarman "hard-skinned", a rhinoceros m. vaj racchedakaprajñāpāramitā f. Name of a Buddhist sūtra- work (also ). - cchedikā- vaj racihna a n. -like mark vajra- vajrava racandra m. Name of a king of Orissa vākp racodana a command expressed in words n. vākp racodanāt in consequence of a command, in obedience to an order ind. vak racañcu "having a curved beak", a parrot, m. vakt racchada a cloth covering the face (of an elephant) m. vākya racanā formation of speech, speaking, talking f. vākya racanā the arrangement or construction of sentences, syntax f. vāmanacit racaritra n. Name of work vanānta racara roaming about in a forest mfn. vanānta racarin roaming about in a forest mfn. va racandana a sort of dark sandal-wood n. va racandana Pinus Deodora n. va racandrikā f. Name of a Commentary. vārghatīyant racakra a wheel for drawing water n. vast racchanna clad in clothes mfn. vastu racanā arrangement of matter, elaboration of a plot f. vatsap racetas mindful of mfn. or the vatsa- s vatsa- vāyup racyuta ( ) vāy/u- - driven by the wind mf( )n. ā- veṅkaṭeśva racāturbhadrikā f. Name of work vicā racintāmaṇi m. Name of work vicit racaritra behaving in a wonderful manner mfn. vicit racīnāṃśuka variegated China cloth, shot or watered China silk n. vidyādha racakravartin a supreme lord of the m. s vidyā- dhara- vihitadurga racana one who has enjoined the building of a fortress mfn. vilāsa racikā f. Name of a surāṅganā- vip racchanna ( mfn. ) concealed, hidden, secret chad- vip rach P. (rarely - pṛcchati- ;Ved. te- infinitive mood ), to ask various questions, make various inquiries - p/ṛccham- vip racint (only ind.p. ), to meditate on, think about - cintya- vip racit m. Name of a (father of dānava- ) rāhu- ( see ). - citti- vip racita gaRa . sutaṃ- gamā- di vip racitta wrong reading for next. vip racitti ( mfn. ) sagacious v/ipra- - vip racitti m. Name of a preceptor vip racitti of a m. (father of dānava- ) rāhu- etc. ( see ) - cit- vip racitti f. Name of an apsaras- vip racūdāmaṇi "Brahman-jewel", an excellent Brahman m. vīrabhad racampū f. Name of a poem vi rac P. (rarely - racayati- ; A1. Aorist ,once vy- araracat- ; - arīracat- ind.p. ; vi- racayya- Passive voice ; vi- racyate- Aorist ), to construct, contrive, form, fashion, make, arrange vy- araci- etc. ; to build, erect ; to invent, produce, compose, write etc. ; to put on, don, wear vī racakra (with n. s) tāntrika- Name of a mystic diagram vī racakra an army of heroes ( n. See next) vī racakreśvara "lord of an army of heroes", m. Name of viṣṇu- vī racakṣuṣmat having the eye of a hero (said of mfn. ) viṣṇu- vi racana (and n. ) arrangement, disposition, embellishment f( ). ā- (with ,beautifully arranged locks alakānām- ) vi racana putting on, wearing (ornaments etc.) n. vi racana composition, compilation n. vī racarita "exploits of the hero", n. Name of a celebrated drama by ( bhava- bhūti- equals mahāvīra- carita- q.v) and of a legendary history of . śāli- vāhana- vī racaritra "exploits of the hero", n. Name of a celebrated drama by ( bhava- bhūti- equals mahāvīra- carita- q.v) and of a legendary history of . śāli- vāhana- vī racarya m. Name of a king vī racaryā the deeds of a hero, adventurous exploits f. vi racayitavya to be formed or made mfn. vī racintāmaṇi m. Name of an extract from the śārṅgadhara- . paddhati- vi racita constructed, arranged etc. mfn. vi racita performed mfn. vi racita composed, written, mfn. vi racita put together, spoken, uttered ( mfn. See compound) vi racita put on, worn mfn. vi racita furnished with ( mfn. instrumental case) vi racita put in, inlaid, set mfn. vi racitā f. Name of a woman vi racitapada (a speech or song etc.) the words of which are artificially composed or arranged, rhythmic, poetic mfn. vi racitavāc one who has composed a speech or who has spoken mfn. vi racitavapus one who has his body formed or arranged mfn. vi racitokti mfn. idem or ' one who has composed a speech or who has spoken mfn. ' viṣaha racikitsā f. Name of work vrajanavanāga racandrikā f. Name of work vrajend racarita n. Name of work vyāgh racarmamaya mfn. wrong reading for ma- cchada- vyāgh racarman a tiger's skin n. vyāsasūt racandrikā f. Name of work on the above . sūtra- vyavahā racamatkāra m. Name of work vyavahā racandrodaya m. Name of work vyavahā racintamaṇi ( m. ) Name of work vyūha racanā arrangement of troops ( f. ,"to assume a warlike attitude") naṃ vi- - dhā yant racchedya n. Name of a particular art (prob. wrong reading for ). pattra- cch- yant raceṣṭita anything effected by magical diagrams, enchantment n. yant racintāmaṇi m. Name of various works. yantrarāja racanā f. Name of work yantrarāja racanāprakāra m. Name of work yogasūt racandrikā f. Name of work relating to the yoga- sūtra- yogavāsiṣṭhasā racandrikā f. Name of work
rac रच् 1 U. (रच्यति-ते, रचित) 1 To arrange, prepare, make ready, contrive, plan; पुष्पाणां प्रकरः स्मितेन रचितो नो कुन्दजात्यादिभिः Amaru 45; रचयति शयनं सचकितनयनम् Gīt. 5. -2 To make, form, effect, create, produce; माया- विकल्परचितैः स्यन्दनैः R.13.75; माधुर्यं मधुबिन्दुना रचयितुं क्षाराम्बु- धेरीहते Bh.2.6; मौलौ वा रचयाञ्जलिम् Ve.3.4. -3 To write, compose, put together (as a work); अश्वधाटीं जग- न्नाथो विश्वहृद्यामरीरचत् Aśvad 26; Ś.3.14. -4 To place in or upon, fix on; रचयति चिकुरे कुरबककुसुमम् Gīt.7; Ku.4.18,34; Ś.6.17. -5 To adorn, decorate; Me.68. -6 To direct (the mind &c.) towards. racanam रचनम् ना [रच्-युच्] 1 Arrangement, preparation, disposition; अभिषेक˚, संगीत˚ &c. -2 Formation, creation, production; अन्यैव कापि रचना वचनावलीनाम् Bv.1.69; so भ्रुकुटिरचना Me.52; शृङ्गारोत्तरसत्प्रमेयरचनैराचार्यगोवर्धनः Gīt. -3 performance, completion, accomplishment, effecting; कुरु मम वचनं सत्वररचनम् Gīt.5; R.1.77. -4 A literary work or production, work, composition; संक्षिप्ता वस्तुरचना S. D.422. -5 Dressing the hair. -6 An array or arrangement of troops. -7 A creation of the mind, an artificial fancy. -8 Stringing together (flowers &c.). -9 Contrivance, invention. -1 Fixing the feathers on an arrow. racayitṛ रचयितृ m. f. A composer, author. racita रचित p. p. 1 Arranged. -2 Prepared. -3 Made, formed. -4 Strung together. -5 Composed, written. -6 Adorned. -7 Furnished with. -8 Directed towards (as the mind). -9 Invented. -Comp. -अर्थ a. one who has obtained his object. -धी a. one whose mind is intent upon. -पूर्व a. what has been performed before. ap racaṅkaśa अप्रचङ्कश a. Ved. Without the power of seeing; Av.8.6.16. ap racetas अप्रचेतस् a. Ved. Deficient in understanding, foolish, stupid; Av.2.128.2. ap racodita अप्रचोदित a. unasked, undesired; (भिक्षां) पुरस्ताद- प्रचोदितां...ग्राह्याम् Ms.4.248. ap racchedya अप्रच्छेद्य a. Inscrutable. ap racyuta अप्रच्युत a. Unmoved; पर्वते न श्रितान्यप्रच्युतानि Rv.2. 28.8. not swerving from, following, observing (with abl.); अस्मादप्रच्युतो विप्रः प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् Ms.12.116. āp racch आप्रच्छ् 6 Ā. 1 To bid adieu, bid farewell; आपृच्छस्व प्रियसखममुं तुङ्गमालिङ्ग्य शैलम् Me.12; R.8.49,12.13; Māl.7; Bk.14.63. -2 To salute on receiving, but particularly parting with a visitor (साधो यामि इति वचनम्) -3 To ask. -4 To extol. Irregularly it is used in Parasmaipada also; cf. आपृच्छ पुत्रकृतकान् हरिणान् द्रुमांश्च Pratimā.5.11. āp racchanam आप्रच्छनम् 1 Bidding adieu, taking leave at the time of departure. -2 Welcoming, hailing. āp racchanna आप्रच्छन्न a. Secret, hidden. ā racita आरचित a. Arranged, prepared, formed &c; see रचित. āvī racarṇaḥ आवीरचर्णः The opposite-leaved fig-tree. -र्णम् Red powder used in the Holi festival. u racara उरचर a. Accessory, supplementary. -रः 1 Access, approach. -2 Cure, treatment; त्वग्भेदी व्रणः सूपचरः easily curable. -3 उपचरणम् Approach. karṇecu racurā कर्णेचुरचुरा f. A secret whispering in the ear. ku racillaḥ कुरचिल्लः A crab. kṛka racchaṭaḥ कृकरच्छटः A saw; क्रकचे कृकरच्छटः Nm. parip racch परिप्रच्छ् 6 P. To ask, question, inquire about. p racakita प्रचकित a. Trembling, shuddering. p racakram प्रचक्रम् 1 An army in motion. -2 A foraging army. p racakṣ प्रचक्ष् 2 Ā. 1 To say, speak, lay down; स्वजनाश्रु किलातिसंततं दहति प्रेतमिति प्रचक्षते R.8.86. -2 To tell, relate. -3 To consider, regard, deem. -4 To name, call; यो$स्यात्मनः कारयिता तं क्षेत्रज्ञं प्रचक्षते Ms.12.12;2. 17;3.28;1.14. p racakṣas प्रचक्षस् m. 1 The planet Jupiter. -2 An epithet of Bṛihaspati. p racaṇḍa प्रचण्ड a. 1 Vehement, excessively violent, impetuous. -2 Strong, powerful, fierce. -3 Very hot, stifling (as heat). -4 Furious, wrathful. -5 Bold, confident. -6 Terrible, terrific. -7 Intolerable, unbearable. -ण्डः A species of oleander. -Comp. -आतपः fierce heat. -घोण a. large-nosed. -भैरवः N. of a व्यायोग (kind of drama). -सूर्य a. having a hot or burning sun; प्रचण्डसूर्यः स्पृहणीयचन्द्रमाः Ṛs.1.1,1. p racaṇḍatā प्रचण्डता त्वम् 1 Violence, impetuosity. -2 Boldness. p racapala प्रचपल a. Very unsteady or restless. p raca प्रच (चा) य See under प्रचि. p racar प्रचर् 1 P. 1 To walk about, stalk forth. -2 To go or issue forth, appear. -3 To roam, wander over. -4 To reach, arrive at. -5 To spread, circulate, be prevalent or current. -6 To prevail (as a custom). -7 To undertake, set about (anything), proceed to work; चिकित्सकानां सर्वेषां मिथ्या प्रचरतां दमः Ms.9.284. -8 To do, perform. -9 To behave, act towards, treat. -1 To be engaged in. -11 To thrive, prosper. -Caus. 1 To cause or allow to roam. -2 To turn out to graze. -3 To make public. p racaraḥ प्रचरः 1 A road, path, way. -2 A custom, usage. p racaraṇam प्रचरणम् 1 Going forth, proceeding. -2 Being current, circulating. -3 Undertaking, beginning. -4 Employing, using. -णी A wooden-ladle. p racarita प्रचरित p. p. 1 Gone forth &c. -2 Practised, followed, pursued (as a profession); यैः कर्मभिः प्रचरितैः शुश्रूष्यन्ते द्विजातयः Ms.1.1. -3 Current, publicly known. p racaryā प्रचर्या Action, process. p racāraḥ प्रचारः 1 Going forth, ranging, walking about, wandering; शान्तमृगप्रचारम् (काननम्) Ku.3.42. -3 Appearance, coming in, manifestation; U.1; Mu.1. -4 Currency, prevalence, use, being used or applied; विलोक्य तैरप्यधुना प्रचारम् Trik. -5 Conduct, behaviour; Mb.12.171.15; cf. अध्यक्षप्रचारः (a title of the second book of Arthaśāstra.) -6 Custom, usage. -7 A playground, place of exercise. -8 A pasture-ground, pasturage; गवां प्रचारेष्वासीनम् Mb.1.4.17; ग्राम्येच्छया गोप्रचारो भूमी राजवशेन वा Y.2.166. -9 A passage, path; योगक्षेमं प्रचारं च न विभाज्यं प्रचक्षते Ms.9.219. -1 Proclamation in public; प्रचारे चापघोषयेत्... Kau. A.2.8.26. -11 Movement, activity (संचार); प्रचारं स तु संगृह्य Rām.7.35.49. p racārita प्रचारित a. 1 Allowed to wander. -2 Made public or known, become current. p racārin प्रचारिन् a. 1 Wandering. -2 Showing itself, appearing. -3 Proceeding with, behaving. p racal प्रचल् 1 P. 1 To shake, move, tremble; समुद्रमपि संतरेत् प्रचलदूर्मिमालाकुलम् Bh.2.4. -2 To go, walk, move on; set out, start off, depart. -3 To start up, spring up-4 To be affected, disturbed or agitated. -5 To prevail, be current. -6 To swerve, deviate from (abl.). -Caus. (चाल˚) 1 To shake, stir up. (चल˚) -2 To move, set in motion. -3 To remove from. p racala प्रचल a. 1 Trembling, shaking, tremulous; य उत्पलाक्षि प्रचलैर्विलोचनैस्तवाक्षिसादृश्यमिव प्रयुञ्जते Ku.5.35; Māl.1.38. -2 Current, prevailing, customary. -3 Going well or widely. -लः A peacock; Nigh. Ratn. p racalanam प्रचलनम् 1 Shaking, trembling. -2 Retreat, flight. -3 Circulation, currency.
प्रचलित pracalita (प्रचलत् pracalat)
प्रचलित (प्रचलत्) a. 1 Shaken, moved, set in motion. -2 Moving about; एतस्मिन् प्रचलाकिनां प्रचलतामुद्वेजिताः कूजितैः U.2.29. -3 Wandering, roaming. -4 Having set out or proceeded. -5 Customary, recognized or received as authority. -6 Current, prevalent. -7 confused, bewildered. -तम् Going away, departure. p racālanam प्रचालनम् Stirring, shaking, a stir; किं वृथार्थप्रचालनेन Pt.5 'why discuss this matter in vain'. p racalā प्रचला f. A chamelion (Mar. सऱडा). p racalākaḥ प्रचलाकः 1 Archery. -2 A peacock's tail. -3 A snake. -का Ved. A violent shower of rain. p racalākin प्रचलाकिन् m. A peacock; U.2.29; प्रचलाकिकलापिनौ Trikāṇḍaśeṣa. p racalāyita प्रचलायित a. Rolling about, tossing. -तम् Nodding the head (while asleep in a sitting posture). p racaṣālam प्रचषालम् A particular ornament on a sacrificial post; चषालं प्रचषालं च यस्य यूपे हिरण्मये Mb.7.61.6. p racālaḥ प्रचालः The neck of the Indian lute. p raci प्रचि 5 U. 1 To collect, gather. -2 To add to, increase, develop; to enhance, augment. -3 To cut down; परेषामुत्तमाङ्गानि प्रचिन्वन्तमथेषुभिः Mb.6.14.12. -Pass. 1 To grow, be developed; प्रचीयमानावयवा रराज सा R.3.7. -2 To increase, multiply, thrive, prosper; अपि प्रचीयन्ते संव्यवहाराणां वृद्धिलाभाः Mu.1. p raca प्रच (चा) यः 1 Collecting, gathering (as flowers); P.111.3.4. -2 A multitude, quantity, collection, number; प्रसन्नः पुण्यानां प्रचय इव सर्वस्य सुखदः Mv.2.15. -3 Growth, increase. -4 Slight union. -5 The neutral accentless tone (एकश्रुति). -6 (In alg.) The common difference of terms in a progression. p racayanam प्रचयनम् Collecting, gathering. p racāyikā प्रचायिका 1 Gathering (flowers &c.) in turn. -2 A female who gathers. p racita प्रचित p. p. 1 Gathered, collected, plucked. -2 Amassed, accumulated. -3 Covered, filled. -4 Accentless (अनुदात्त). p raceya प्रचेय a. 1 To be gathered. -2 To be increased. -3 Spreading everywhere. p racud प्रचुद् 1 U. 1 To impel, prompt, urge, incite; धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrī.; चापलाय प्रचोदितः R.1.9. -2 To drive or urge on, push on. -3 To excite, inspire, encourage, incite, stimulate. -4 To enjoin, direct, prescribe. -5 To request, ask. -6 To fix, settle, determine. -7 To proclaim, announce; परिवेषयेत प्रयतो गुणान् सर्वान् प्रचोदयन् Ms.3.228. p racodaḥ प्रचोदः 1 Driving onward, urging, inciting. -2 Instigating. p racodaka प्रचोदक a. Driving onward, urging, inciting. p racodanam प्रचोदनम् 1 Driving onward, urging, inciting. -2 Instigating, setting on. -3 Ordering, enjoining, prescribing. -4 A rule, precept, order, commandment. -5 Saying. -6 Sending, despatching. p racodita प्रचोदित p. p. 1 Urged, incited. -2 Instigated. -3 Directed, ordered, prescribed; चोदितो गुरुणा नित्यमप्रचोदित एव वा । कुर्यादध्ययने यत्नमाचार्यस्य हितेषु च॥ Ms.2.191. -4 Sent, despatched. -5 Decreed, determined. -6 Announced. p racodin प्रचोदिन् a. Driving on, urging &c. -नी 1 A prickly nightshade. -2 N. of a plant; Solanum Indicum or Solanum Jacquini (Mar. रिंगणी). p racura प्रचुर a. 1 Much, ample, abundant, plentiful; नित्य- व्यया प्रचुरनित्यधनागमा च Bh.2.47; Śi.12.72; महात्मनां वः प्रचुरः समागमः Bhāg. -2 Great, large, extensive; प्रचुर- पुरन्दरधनुः Gīt.2. -3 (At the end of comp.) Abounding in, filled or replete with. -रः A thief. -Comp. -परिभवः frequent humiliation. -पुरुष a. populous. (-षः) a thief. p racuratā प्रचुरता त्वम् 1 Abundance, plenty, copiousness. -2 Multitude, quantity. p racurīkaraṇam प्रचुरीकरणम् Adding to, increasing. p racurīkṛta प्रचुरीकृत a. Augmented, increased. p racurībhū प्रचुरीभू 1 P. To become plentiful, increase. p racetas प्रचेतस् m. 1 An epithet of Varuṇa; Ku.2.21. -2 N. of an ancient sage and law-giver; Ms.1.35. p racetṛ प्रचेतृ m. A charioteer, coach-man. p racelam प्रचेलम् Yellow sandal-wood. p racelakaḥ प्रचेलकः A horse. p racch प्रच्छ् 6 P. (पृच्छति, पप्रच्छ, अप्राक्षीत्, प्रक्ष्यति, प्रष्टुम्, पृष्ट; -caus. प्रच्छयति; pass. पृच्छयते; desid. पिप्रच्छिषति) 1 To ask, question, interrogate, inquire of (with two acc.); पप्रच्छ रामां रमणो$भिलाषम् R.14.27; Bk.6.8; R.3.5; पृच्छामि त्वां धर्मसंमूढचेताः Bg.2.7; ब्राह्मणं कुशलं पृच्छेत् Ms.2.127; so महाश्वेता कादम्बरीमनामयं पप्रच्छ K.192; कुशलमबले पृच्छति त्वां वियुक्तः Me.13; R.1.58. -2 To ascertain, learn by inquiry. -3 To seek, seek for. p racchanam प्रच्छनम् ना A question, inquiry, interrogation. p racchad प्रच्छद् 1 U. 1 To cover, wrap up, veil, envelop (वनं) प्राच्छादयदमेयात्मा नीहारेणेव चन्द्रमाः Mb. -2 To hide, conceal, disguise, keep secret; प्रच्छादय स्वान् गुणान् Bh. 2.77; प्रदानं प्रच्छन्नम् 2.64; Ms.4.198;1.4; Ch. P.4. -3 To clothe oneself, put on clothes. -4 To stand in the way, become an obstacle. p racchad प्रच्छद् n. Ved. 1 Food. -2 A cover. p racchadaḥ प्रच्छदः A cover, wrapper, coverlet, bed-clothes, bed-cover; प्रच्छदान्तगलिताश्रुबिन्दुभिः R.19.22. -Comp. -पटः bed-clothes, coverlet. p racchanna प्रच्छन्न p. p. 1 Covered, wrapped, enveloped. -2 Private, secret; विद्या नाम नरस्य रूपमधिकं प्रच्छन्नगुप्तं धनम् Bh.2.64. -3 Concealed, hidden; प्रच्छन्ना वा प्रकाश वा वेदितव्याः स्वकर्मभिः Ms.1.4; Mb.3.35.31. -4 Clothed, clad. -न्नम् 1 A private door. -2 A loop-hole, lattice, window. -न्नम् ind. Secretly, covertly. -Comp. -तस्करः an unseen thief. p racchādaka प्रच्छादक a. Concealing, covering (at the end of comp.). -कः The song of a wife deserted by her husband (containing a covert description of her sorrows); also प्रच्छेदक in this sense. p racchādanam प्रच्छादनम् 1 Covering, concealing. -2 An upper garment. -Comp. -पटः a wrapper, cover, coverlet. p racchādita प्रच्छादित p. p. 1 Covered, enveloped, clothed &c. -2 Hidden, concealed. p racchardaka प्रच्छर्दक a. Anything (drug &c.) causing vomiting. p racchardanam प्रच्छर्दनम् 1 Vomiting. -2 Emitting, sending forth. -3 An emetic; प्रच्छर्दनविधारणाभ्यां वा प्राणस्य Pātañjala S.1.34. p racchardikā प्रच्छर्दिका Vomiting. p racchānam प्रच्छानम् 1 Scarifying. -2 Making sore. p racchāyam प्रच्छायम् [प्रकृष्टा छाया यत्र] Thick or dense shade, a shadowy place; प्रच्छायसुलभनिद्रा दिवसाः परिणामरमणीयाः Ś.1.3; M.3. p racchid प्रच्छिद् 7 U. To cut, cleave. p racchedanam प्रच्छेदनम् Dividing into small pieces. p racchila प्रच्छिल a. Dry, waterless. p racyu प्रच्यु 1 Ā. 1 To move away, go away, withdraw, retreat. -2 To fall off from, drop down, fall down. -3 To forsake, abandon (as religion). -4 To be ejected or driven, be dislodged, be deprived of, lose (with abl.) -5 To flow out, stream forth. -6 To drive, urge on. -Caus. 1 To move, shake. -2 To displace, dislodge, eject, expel. -3 To cause to fall, ruin. p racyavaḥ प्रच्यवः 1 Fall, ruin. -2 Improvement, advancement, growth. -3 Withdrawal. p racyavanam प्रच्यवनम् 1 Departing, retreating, withdrawal. -2 Loss, deprivation. -3 Oozing, dropping (क्षरण). p racyāvanam प्रच्यावनम् 1 Causing to give up. -2 A means of removing, a sedative or palliative. p racyāvita प्रच्यावित p. p. Driven away; ततो निवातकवचैरितः प्रच्याविताः सुराः Mb.3.172.28. p racyāvuka प्रच्यावुक a. Transitory, fragile. p racyuta प्रच्युत p. p. 1 Fallen off or from. -2 Strayed, deviated. -3 Dislodged, displaced, degraded; अस्माद- प्रच्युतो विप्रः प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् Ms.12.116. -4 Displaced, ejected. -5 Banished, expelled. -6 Routed, put to flight. p racyutiḥ प्रच्युतिः f. 1 Departing, withdrawal. -2 Loss, deprivation, falling down from; नित्यं प्रच्युतिशङ्कया क्षणमपि स्वर्गे न मोदामहे Śānti.4.2. -3 Fall, ruin. vi rac विरच् 1 U. 1 To arrange; क्षितिविरचितशय्यं कौतुकागार- मागात् Ku.7.94. -2 To compose, put together, write; इति विरचितवाग्भिर्बन्दिपुत्रैः R.5.75; मद्गोत्राङ्कं विरचितपदं गेयमुद्गातुकामा Me.88,15. -3 To effect, produce, cause, make; मालाकार व्यरचि भवता या तरोरस्य पुष्टिः Bv.1.3. -4 To put on. -5 To set, inlay. vi racanam विरचनम् ना 1 Arrangement, disposition; तारावली- विरचनैर्व्यरुचन्निवासाः Śi.5.21. -2 Contriving, constructing. -3 Formation, creation. -4 Composition, compilation. vi racita विरचित p. p. 1 Arranged, made, formed, prepared. -2 Contrived, constructed. -3 Written, composed. -4 Trimmed, dressed, embellished, ornamented. -5 Put on, worn. -6 Set, inlaid.
ama racandra a Jain grammarian who is believed to be the writer of स्यादिशब्दसमुच्चय, परिमल et cetera, and others i rac affix ( इर ) in the sense of possession applied in Vedic Literature to रथ taddhita affix. रथिरः; exempli gratia, for example P.V. 2.109 confer, compare 3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ī rac tad-affix added to the word अण्ड in the sense of possession: अण्रडीरः; exempli gratia, for example काण्डाण्डादीरन्नीरचौ P.V.2.111. confer, compare u rac tad-affix उर, with udātta accent on the last vowel, affixed to the word दन्त when it refers to protuberant teeth; P.V.2.66; confer, compare दन्तुरः । exempli gratia, for example kātant racandrikā a gloss on the commentary of Vararuci on the कातन्त्रसूत्र ascribed to Hari Dīkṣita of the 17th century if this Hari Dīkṣita is the same as the author of the Śabdaratna. kuṭā rac affix कुटार् added to अव, e.g, अवकुटारम्: cf P. V.2.30. taddhita affix. ku rac affix उर applied to the roots विद्, भिद् and छिद्: kṛt (affix). विदुर: । भिदुरम् ! छिदुरम् । exempli gratia, for example Kāś.on P.III.2.162. confer, compare kma rac kṛt affix मर added in the sense of habituated to the roots सृ, घस् and अद्; e. g. सृमरः, घस्मर:, अद्मर: et cetera, and others P.III.2.134 and 160. confer, compare gadādha racakravartin the reputed Naiyāyika who wrote numerous works on the Navyanyaya; he has written a few works like व्युत्पत्तिवाद, उपसर्गविचार, कारकनिर्णय, सर्वनामविचार, प्रत्ययविचार on Vyākaraṇa themes although the treatment, as also the style, is logical. dhu rac krt affix उर applied to the roots भञ्ज् ,भास् and भिद् in the sense of habit; भङ्गुरं काष्ठम्,भासुरं ज्योतिः, मेदुर: पशुः: exempli gratia, for example Kas on P.III.2.161. confer, compare ḍata rac affix अतर in the sense of 'selection out of two' applied to the words किं, यत् and तत् as also to the word एक; e. g. कतरो भवतोः पटुः taddhita affix. P. V. 3.92, एकतरो भवतोर्देवदत्तः confer, compare P.V.3.94. confer, compare dhṛta or dhṛtap racaya a kind of original grave vowel turned into a circumflex one which is called प्रचय unless followed by another acute or circumflex vowel. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has mentioned seven varieties of this 'pracaya' out of which धृतप्रचय or धृत is one. For details see Bhasya on धृतः प्रचयः कौण्डिन्यस्य, T.Pr.XVIII.3. narend racārya the same as नरेन्द्रसूरि. See नरेन्द्रसूरि. p racaya (1) a specific feature or quality ( धर्म ) of the grave (अनुदात्त) accent when a vowel, accented grave, is preceded by a स्वरित (circumflex . vowel) and is followed upon by another grave-accented vowel. These grave vowels in succession, the grave vowels which are not followed by an acute or a circumflex vowel are uttered neither distinctly circumflex nor distinctly grave; cf also R. Pr, III.II-14. They are uttered like the acute, but slightly so; e. g. the vowels after मे and before ति in इमं मे गङ्गे' यमुने सरस्वति; id est, that is स्वरितात्संहितायामनुदात्तानां प्रचय उदात्तश्रुतिः confer, compare XXI.10, 11 also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. P.I.2.39, where the term एकश्रुति is used for the word प्रचय; (2) the connection of one word with many words; confer, compare राज्ञो गोश्चाश्वश्च पुरुषश्च where राज्ञः is connected with गौ, अश्व and पुरुष; exempli gratia, for example प्रचये समासप्रतिषेधो: वक्तव्य: confer, compare on II.1.1 Vart, 6. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). māt rac a affix in the sense of measure applied optionally with द्वयस and दघ्न to a noun taddhita affix. ऊरुमात्रम् प्रस्थमात्रम् ; exempli gratia, for example प्रमाणे द्वयसज्दघ्नञ्मात्रचः P. V.2.37 and Kasika thereon which remarks that द्वयस and दघ्न are applied in the sense of height, while मात्र is applied in the sense of any measure: confer, compare प्रथमश्च द्वितीयश्च ऊर्ध्वमाने मतौ मम confer, compare on P. V.2.37. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. rāghavend racārya ( गजेन्द्रगडकर) a famous scholar of Grammar in the nineteenth century, who taught many pupils and wrote some commentary works, the well-known being प्रभा on the Sabdakaustubha, विषमपदव्याख्या on the Laghusabdendusekhara and त्रिपथगा on the Paribhisendusekhara. For details see p. 27 Vyakarana Mahbhasya Vol. VII D. E. Society's Edition. ṣṭa rac affix तर added to the words कासू and गोणी in the sense of smallness; cf ह्रस्वा कासू: कासूतरी, गोणीतरी taddhita affix. on P. V, 3.90. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. akāra the letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे confer, compare et cetera, and others I. 4. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. akālaka (1) not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the confer, compare as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् । Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. akṣara a letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compare एकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा confer, compare The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । et cetera, and others Āhnika 2 end. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). akṣarasamāmnāya alphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ，ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । confer, compare Ahnika.2-end. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aṇ (1) token term ( प्रत्याहार ) for all vowels and semivowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divisions as are caused by length, protraction accent or nasalization. cf अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.60;(2) token term for the vowels अ, इ and उ in all Pānini's rules except in the rule I.1.69 given e.g see ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोणः P.VI.3. 111, केऽणः P.VII.4.13. and अणोऽ प्रगृह्यस्य. P.VIII.4.57: (3) tad, affix. a ( अ ) prescribed generally in the various senses such as 'the offspring', 'dyed in,' 'belonging to' a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. except in cases where other specific affixes are prescribed cf प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् P. IV.1.83; (4) kṛ. affix a ( अ ), applied, in the sense of an agent, to a root with an antecedent word (उपपद) standing as its object. e. g. कुम्भकारः, see P.III.2.1: काण्डलावः, see P.III.3.12. et cetera, and others atatkāla not taking that much time only which is shown by the letter (vowel) uttered, but twice or thrice, as required by its long or protracted utterance ; the expression is used in connection with vowels in Pāṇini's alphabet, which, when used in Pāṇini's rules, except when prescribed or followed by the letter त्, includes their long, protracted and nasalized utterances: अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः I.1.69. confer, compare atideśa extended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; taddhita affix. गाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation exempli gratia, for example substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, id est, that is confer, compare VIII.1.90 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). Pari. 101, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 93.6 as also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on P.I.1.123 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). , Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and et cetera, and others on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). Pari. Śek. 93. 6. confer, compare atiprayatna intense effort; characteristic effort as required for uttering a vowel with विक्रमस्वरित. ātisparśa excess of contact, which to a certain extent spoils the pronunciation and leads to.a fault. अतिस्पर्श is the same as दुःस्पर्श, the letter ळ being called दुःस्पृष्ट on account of excess of contact. This excess of contact ( अतिस्पर्श) in the case of the utterance of the letter र् results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering; अतिस्पर्शो बर्बरता च रेफे, confer, compare XIV. 26. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) atyuccanīca characterized by a sharp utterance; a name of the grave accent adhikāra governing rule consisting of a word ( प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः exempli gratia, for example ) or words ( et cetera, and others ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे exempli gratia, for example ) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; et cetera, and others अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeat confer, compare The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if oppo edition These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; singular. सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥ confer, compare aniṭ (1) not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhātuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has become customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily because they are possessed of an anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, et cetera, and others which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhāntakaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient grammarians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10. et cetera, and others anukarṣaṇa dragging (from the preceding rule) to the following rule taking the previous rule or a part of it as understood in the following rule or rules in order; the same as अनुवृत्ति; अनुकर्षणार्थश्चकारः Kāś. on II. 4.18, III.2.26, VII. 1.48: cf also the Paribhāṣā; चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र -that which is attracted from a preceding rule by the particle च is not valid in the rule that follows; confer, compare Pari. 78. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. anukṛṣṭa attracted from a previous rule as is frequently done in Pāṇini's rules. See the word अनुकर्षण . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. anudātta non-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless. अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः id est, that is उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works; confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य confer, compare on I.2.29,30. C Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ feminine. III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ). Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) anudāttet one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, literally ; et cetera, and others अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: confer, compare provided the root begins with a consonant; et cetera, and others अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149. confer, compare anubandha a letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् ) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् ( et cetera, and others going or disappearing) by Pāṇini ( literally उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् confer, compare I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, et cetera, and others अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, confer, compare Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughter Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. edition antaraṅgalakṣaṇa characterized by the nature of an antaraṅga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it. antaratama very close or very cognate being characterized (l) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or (3) by possessing the same qualities, or (4) by possessing the same dimension ; cf स्थानेन्तरतमः P.I. I.50 and Kāś. thereon अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणुप्रमाणतः स्थानतः दण्डाग्रम् , अर्थतः वतण्डी चासौ युवतिश्च वातण्ड्ययुवतिः । गुणतः पाकः, त्यागः, रागः । प्रमाणतः अमुष्मै अमूभ्याम् ॥ anvākarṣaka a word attracting a previous word such as the word च, in the Sūtra texts. anvādeśaka a word capable of attracting a word or words from previous statements; cf चापीत्यन्वादेशकौ T Pr. KKII.5; same as अन्वाकर्षक. apluta non-protracted vowel अतो रोरप्लुतादप्लुप्ते P.VI.1.113. confer, compare abhikrama the first of the two utterances of a word which characterise the krama method of recital; e. g in the krama recital of प्रण इन्दो प्र णः । न इन्दो । the first recial प्र णः is called अभिक्रम, or प्रथमवचन while न इन्दो is called द्वितीयवचनः et cetera, and others अभिक्रमे पूर्वविधानमाचरेत् पुनर्ध्रुवंस्तूत्तरकारितं क्रमे confer, compare XI.21. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) abhidhāna designation, denotation, expression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word. The expression अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् ( denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word ) frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare on 1.2.64 Vārt 93, II.1.1, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). नपुसकं यदूष्मान्तं तस्य बह्वभिधानजः ( confer, compare XIII.7 ) where the word बह्वभिधान means बहुवचन. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ayogavāha the letters or phonetic elements अनुस्वार,विसर्ग,जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय and यम called so,as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as अ or the like, and never independently; अकारादिना वर्णसमाम्नायेन संहिताः सन्तः ये वहन्ति आत्मलाभं ते अयेागवाहाः confer, compare on Vāj.Pr.VIII.18. These अयोगवाह letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consonants; Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works. अयोगवाहानामट्सु उपदेशः कर्तव्यः णत्वं प्रयोजनम् । शर्षु जष्भावत्वे प्रयोजनम् । confer, compare on शिवसूत्र हयवरट्. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). artha (1) signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: literally प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः confer, compare XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् confer, compare III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; id est, that is also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206. confer, compare ardhajaratīya a queer combination of half the character of one and half of another, which is looked upon as a fault; न चेदानीमर्धजरतीयं लभ्यं वृद्धिर्मे भविष्यति स्वरो नेति । तद्यथा । अर्धं जरत्याः कामयते अर्धं नेति; M.Bh. on IV. 1.78; confer, compare also अर्ध जरत्याः पाकाय अर्धं च प्रसवाय । confer, compare alpaprāṇa (1) non-aspirate letters letters requiring little breath from the mouth for their utterance as opposed to mahāprāṇa; (2) non-aspiration; one of the external articulate efforts characterizing the utterance of non-aspirate letters. avagraha (1) separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originat exempli gratia, for example The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. ( edition II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।( confer, compare on IV.2.36); also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् ( confer, compare on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; exempli gratia, for example समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः ( confer, compare V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. avadhi limit,which is either exclusive or inclusive of the particular rule or word which characterizes it: सर्वश्च हल् तं तमवधिं प्रति अन्त्यो भवति confer, compare on I.3.3. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aṣṭamaṅgalā name of a commentary on the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa by Rāmakiśoracakravartin. ā (1) the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् ( exempli gratia, for example on I.1.14.) (4) indeclinable आ in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् confer, compare on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). et cetera, and others confer, compare VI.1.12 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substitute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश taddhita affix. ; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns ending in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः et cetera, and others et cetera, and others ākarṣaka ( a word ) attracting another word stated previously in the context e. g. the word च in the rules of Pāṇini. āgama augment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess; यदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् confer, compare Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः confer, compare on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aāt (1) long अा as different from short or protracted अ prescribed by the wofd वृद्धि or दीर्घ in the case of अ, or by the word अात् when substituted for another vowel, as for example in the rule आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following: P.VI.1.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ङस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare P. VII.1.12; (3) substitute अात् for a case affix in Vedic Literature, confer, compare न ताद् ब्राह्मणाद् निन्दामि Kāś. on VII. 1.39. exempli gratia, for example āmreḍita (1) iterative: a repeated word, defined as द्विरुक्तं पदम् द्विरुक्तमात्रेडितं पदम् confer, compare यज्ञायज्ञा वो अग्नये Vāj. Prāt. I. 146; (2). the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pāṇini; c. तस्य (द्विरुक्तस्य) परमाम्रेडितम् P. VIII.1.2. The Āmreḍita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; exempli gratia, for example P.VIII.1.3 and VIII. 2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain how the term आम्रेडित means the first member; confer, compare ननु अाम्रेडितशब्दे । निघण्टुषु प्रसिद्धः अाम्रेडितं द्विस्त्रिरुक्तमिति । सत्यमर्थे प्रसिद्धः इह तु शब्दे परिभाष्यते । महासंज्ञाकरणं पूर्वाचार्यानुरोधेन Padamañj. on VIII.1.2. confer, compare i (1) the vowel इ, representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long protracted, acute, grave, circumflex, pure and nasalised; इ in यस्येति च P.VI.4.128;(2) Uṅādi affix ई(3)tad-affix इच्(इ)applied to Bahuvrihi compounds in the sense of exchange of action or as seen in words like द्विदण्डि exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि, द्विमुसलि exempli gratia, for example et cetera, and others इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127,also V.4.128; (4) confer, compare affix कि (इ) kṛt (affix). उपसर्गे घोः किः P.III.3.92; (5) augment इट् (इ); see इट् (6) conjugational affix इट् of the 1st confer, compare person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada itthaṃbhūtalakṣaṇa characterization; indication by a mark: e. g. जटाभिस्तापसः इत्थंभूतलक्षणे च ( तृतीया ) P. II.3.21. confer, compare īṣacchvāsa an external effort ( बाह्य-प्रयत्न) in the production of sound charactorized by the emission of breath, when the cavity made by the cords of the throat is kept wide apart, as found in the utterance of the consonants श्, ष् and स. īṣatspṛṣṭa an external effort ( बाह्यप्रयत्न) in the production of sound charactorized by only a slight contact of the cords of the throat, made in the utteranee ofsemi-vowels ईषत्स्पृष्टमन्तःस्थानाम् S.K. on P.I.1.9. confer, compare īṣannāda an external effort characterized by slight resonance or sounding of throat cords when they slightly touch one another. u (1) labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्; P.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ, confer, compare कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, exempli gratia, for example P.VI 4.110; (4) confer, compare affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature, kṛt (affix). चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; exempli gratia, for example P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, confer, compare ; et cetera, and others Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; confer, compare कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; exempli gratia, for example also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133. confer, compare ugita characterized by the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or लृ; see उक्. uṇādi affixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; et cetera, and others Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriv confer, compare The derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; edition उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. confer, compare on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; et cetera, and others confer, compare on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). uṇādiprātipadika word form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22. confer, compare udātta the acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages. udāttasama similar to Udātta although not exactly acute, which characterizes the latter half of the circumflex vowel; उदात्तसमश्शेषः T.Pr.I.42. confer, compare udit characterized by short उ as a mute indicatory vowel, by virtue of which the word कु, for instance, signifies along with क् its cognate consonants ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ् also; अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P.I.I.69. Roots marked with उ as mute get the augment इ optionally added before the kṛt affix क्त्वा; e gशमित्वा and शान्त्वा from the root शम् ( शमु ) by virtue of the rule उदितो वा P.VII.2.56. confer, compare ṛ fourth vowel in Pāṇini's alphabet; possessed of long and protracted varieties and looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ) with लृ which has no long type in the grammar of Pāṇini; R.Pr.I,9: V.Pr.VIII.3. (2) uṇādi suffix च् applied to the root स्था to form the word स्थृ; e. g. सव्येष्ठा सारथिः; confer, compare सव्ये स्थश्छन्दसि Uṇ Sū, II. 101. confer, compare ṛkāra the letter ऋ with its 18 varieties made up of the ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत, and सानुनासिक varieties and characterized by the three accents. ऋ and लृ are looked upon as cognate in Pāṇini's grammar and hence, ऋ could be looked upon as possessed of 30 varieties including 12 varieties of लृ. ekayogalakṣaṇa characterized by mentioned in one and the same rule; id est, that is एकयोगलक्षणे तुग्दीर्घत्वे M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 62. Vart. 10. See also confer, compare on P. VI.1.37. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aic short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for 'the two diphthong vowels ऐ and औ; न य्वाभ्यां पदान्ताभ्यां पूर्वौ तु ताभ्यामैच् P.VII.3.4; confer, compare ऐचोश्चोत्तरभूयस्त्वात् confer, compare on P.I.1.48, The short substitutes of ऐ and औ are इ and उ when prescribed Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). P. I.1.48; so also the protracted forms of ऐ and औ are protracted इ and उ; confer, compare P. III.2.106. They are called द्विस्वर vowels in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. Śākaṭāyana says they are द्विमात्र. confer, compare karmavyatihāra exchange of verbal activity; reciprocity of action; कर्मव्यतिहार means क्रियाव्यतिहार or क्रियाविनिमय; कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14.; also कर्मव्यतिहारे णच् स्त्रियाम् । व्यावक्रोशी, व्यात्युक्षी Kāś. on P.III.3.43. The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Ātmanepada terminations; confer, compare P. I. 3.14. confer, compare karṣaṇa extension; protraction, defined as kālaviprakarṣa by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronunciation of ट् when followed by च् , or ड् when followed by ज् षट्चै; षड्जात. exempli gratia, for example Nār. Śik. I.7.19. confer, compare khit characterized by the mute letter ख्, applied to kṛt affixes which, by reason of their being खित् , cause (a) the addition of the augment मुम् ( म् ) to the preceding words अरुस् , द्विषद् and words ending in a vowel, and (b) the shortening of the long vowel of the preceding word if it is not an indeclinable; P. VI. 3.66-68. confer, compare grahaṇaka citing or instructing the inclusion ( ग्रहण) of certain other things by the mention of a particular thing; e. g. the rule अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः is a ग्रहणक rule as it advises that the citing of the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ includes the long and protracted forms of अ, इ, उ etc; et cetera, and others also ग्रहणकशास्त्रस्य सावर्ण्यविधिनिषेधाभ्यां प्रागनिष्पत्ते; Sid. Kau. on अकः सवर्णे दीर्धः V1. 1. 101. confer, compare ghoṣavat a consonant characterized by the property घोष， at the time of its utterance; तृतीयचतुर्थाः संवृतकण्ठाः नादानुप्रदाना घोषवन्तः M.Bh. on P,I.1.9. confer, compare caturmātra consisting of four matras or moras, a short vowel consisting of one matra, a long vowel of two matras, and a protracted vowel of three matras; आन्तर्यतस्त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्राणां स्थानिनां त्रिमात्रचतुर्मात्रा आदेशा मा भूवन्निति । confer, compare on Siva sutra 3.4. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). cātuḥsvārya the view that there are four accents-the udatta, the anudatta, the svarita and the pracaya held by the Khandikya and the Aukhiya Schools. jāmi tautologous, unnecessarily repeated; the word is defined and illustrated by Yaska as;-तद्यत्समान्यामृचि समानाभिव्याहारं भवति तज्जामि भवतीत्येकं । मधुमन्तं मधुश्चुतमिति यथा Nir.x.16.2. For other definitions of the word जामि conveying practically the same idea, Nir.X. 16. 3 and 4. confer, compare ñ (1) the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the preceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas. ṭit marked or characterized by the mute letter ट्. For the significance of the addition of ट्, see ट्. ṇic affix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; et cetera, and others P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising confer, compare ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others ; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; et cetera, and others P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, confer, compare सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, exempli gratia, for example : (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others : et cetera, and others confer, compare on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे confer, compare ; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others : et cetera, and others P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97. confer, compare tatkāla requiring the same time for utterance as for example one matra for short vowels, two for long ones and three for protracted ones, although those vowels are nasalised or pure, or acute, grave or circumflex. See the word तपर. tadrāja the taddhita affixes अञ्,अण्,ञ्यङ, ण्य, as also इञ्, छ्, ञ्युट्, ण्य, टेण्यण् and यञ् given in the rules of Panini IV. 1.168-174 and V.3. 112-119. They are called तद्राज as they are applied to such words as mean both the country and the warrior race or clan ( क्षत्त्रिय ): तद्राजमाचक्षाणः तद्राजः S. K. on P. IV.l.168. The peculiar feature of these tadraja affixes is that they are omitted when the word to which they have been applied is used in the plural number; e. g. ऐक्ष्वाकः, ऐक्ष्वाकौ, इक्ष्वाकवः; similarly इक्ष्वाकूणाम्; confer, compare P.II.4.62. confer, compare tīkṣṇa utterance with a sharp tone characterizing the pronunciation of the Abhinihita kind of circumflex vowel as opposed to the utterance which is called मृदु when the circumflex, called पादवृत्त, is pronounced; सर्वतीक्ष्णोऽभिनिहितः प्रश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम्, ततो मृदुतरौ स्वारौ जात्यक्षैप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ । ततो मृदुतरः स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते । पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on confer, compare I. 125. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. tairovirāma a kind of स्वरित, or a vowel with a circumflex accent which follows an acute-accented vowel characterized by avagraha i. e. coming at the end of the first member of a compound; गेापताविति गॊSपतौ यज्ञपतिमिति यज्ञSपतिं. Here the vowel अ of प following upon the avagraha is called तैरोविरामस्वरित; exempli gratia, for example उदवग्रहस्तैरोविराम: confer, compare I. 118, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. tailac affix तैल applied in the sense of oil to a word meaning the substance from which oil is extracted: e. g. तिलतैलं सर्षपतैलम् ; taddhita affix. विकारे सेनहने तैलच्, Kas on P. V. 2. 29. confer, compare tripathagā name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Raghavendracarya Gajendragadkar, a resident of Satara and a pupil of Nilakanthasastri Thatte. He lived in the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth century and wrote comentaries on important grammar works. trimātra consisting of three moras or matras. The protracted or प्लुत vowels are said to consist of three matras as contrasted with the short and long vowels which respectively consist of one and two matras; confer, compare on P.I.2.27. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. dāruṇya explained by the commentators on the Pratisakhya works as दृढत्व (firmness) or कठिनता (hardness,) and given as a characteristic of the acute or उदात्त tone; अायामो दारुण्यमणुता खस्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शब्दस्य, confer, compare XXII.9, quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.I. 2.29, where दारुण्य is explained as स्वरस्य दारुणता रूक्षता । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. dṛṣṭāpacāra discrepant, characterized by discrepancy; यद्यपि तावदयं पराशब्दो दृष्टापचार उपसर्गश्चानुपसर्गश्च अयं तु खलु विशब्दोऽदृष्टापचार उपसर्ग एव; confer, compare on P. 1. 3. 19. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). dharma defined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; केवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते confer, compare I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , confer, compare on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. also confer, compare III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) : ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ: et cetera, and others nit an affix possessed of the mute indicatory letter न्, the word characterized by which has the acute accent on the vowel of the first syllable; e. g. गार्ग्यः, वात्स्यः, cf on P.VI.1.197. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. niruktabhāṣya a gloss on Yaska's Nirukta written by a modern scholar of grammar named Ugracarya in the eighteenth century A. D. padavāda or padavādipakṣa view that words are real and have an existence and individuality of their own. The view is advocated by the followers of both the Mīmāmsā schools and the logicians who believe that words have a real existence. Grammarians admit the view for practical purposes, while they advocate that the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट alone is the real sense. Vākyapadīya II.90 and the foll. confer, compare parasmaipada a term used in grammar with reference to the personal affixs ति, त: applied to roots. The term परस्मैपद is given to the first nine afixes ति, त:, अन्ति, सि, थ:, थ, मि, व: and म:, while the term आत्मनेपद is used in connection with the next nine त, आताम् et cetera, and others ; et cetera, and others परस्मै परोद्देशार्थफलकं पदम् Vac. Kosa. The term परस्मैपद is explained by some as representing the Active_Voice as contrasted with the Passive Voice which necessarily is characterized by the Aatmanepada affixes. The term परस्मैभाष in the sense of परस्मैपद was used by ancient grammarians and is also found in the Vaarttika अात्मनेभाषपस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI. 3.8 Vart.1 . The term परस्मैभाष as applied to roots, could be explained as परस्मै क्रियां (or क्रियाफलं) भाषन्ते इति परस्मैभाषाः and originally such roots as had their activity meant for another, used to take the परस्मैपद् affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the अात्मनेपद affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed उभयपदिनः. confer, compare paripanna a kind of Samdhi or coalescence characterized by the change of the consonant म् into an anusvara, as by मोनुस्वारः P. VIII. 3.23, before a sibilant or before रेफ; रेफोष्मणोरुदययोर्मकारः अनुस्वारं तत् परिपन्नमाहुः R.Pr.IV.5; confer, compare also सम्राट्शब्द: परिसंपन्नापवाद: R.Pr.IV.7. confer, compare parimala a work on Grammar attributed to Amaracandra. paśyantī name of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । confer, compare on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. commentary also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । confer, compare on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. Ahnika 1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). pāṇinisūtravṛtti a gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by in his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known. Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti pīḍana compression; a fault in the pronunciation of vowels and consonants caused by the compression or contraction of the place of utterance: विहारसंहारयोर्व्यासपीडने स्थानकरणयोर्विस्तारे व्यासो नाम दोष:, संहारे संकोचने पीडनं नाम । confer, compare XIV. 2; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also व्यञ्जनानामतिप्रयत्नेनोच्चारणं पीडनं confer, compare XIV. 5. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) paurastyavaiyākaraṇa a grammarian of the eastern school which is believed to have been started by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि the writer of the gloss called न्यास on the Kasikavrtti. The school practically terminated with पुरुषोत्तमदेव and सीरदेव at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Such a school existed also at the time of Panini and Patanjali, a reference to which is found made in प्राचां ष्फ ताद्धतः P. IV. 1.17 and प्राचामवृद्धात्फिन् बहुलम् IV.1. 160 and प्राचामुपादेरडज्वुचौ च V.3.80 where the word is explained as प्राचामाचार्याणां by the writer of the Kasika. pratividhāna counteraction; solving a difficulty by taking the necessary action; अयमिदानीं स प्रतिविधानकालः confer, compare on P. VII. 4.60 Vart. 4; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also तत्र प्रातविधानं द्विर्वचननिमित्ते अचीत्युच्यते, confer, compare on P. VI. 1.2; Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. also the usual expression प्रतिविधेयं दोषेषु confer, compare on I. 1.39, I. 3.10, 4.1.l etc, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). pratyāhāra bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; literally प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras. confer, compare prabhā (1) name of a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha by Raghavendracarya Gajendragadkar; (2) name of a commentary on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa. praśśliṣṭa (l) an additional letter (vowel or consonant) read on splitting up a euphonic combination; प्रश्लिष्टा. वर्णावेतौ M.Bh.on P.I.1.9 Vart. 2; (2) ; contracted combination; name of a Samdhi where two vowels coalesce into one single vowel, confer, compare R.Pr. । II. 15-19. confer, compare praśleṣa (l) coalescence of two vowels into one, as given in II.6, and 7, corresponding to the गुण, वृद्वि and दीर्घ substitutes prescribed by the rules आद्गुणः P.IV 1.87; अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः VI.1.101; and वृद्धिरेचि VI. 1.88 which are stated under the jurisdiction of the rule एकः पूर्वपरयोः VI.1.84; (2) finding out the presence of a letter in addition to the letters already present as coalesced, after splitting the combination into its different constituent 1etters. This Practice of finding out an additional letter is resorted to by the commentators only to remove certain difficulties in arriving at some correct forms which otherwise could not be obtained; e. g. see क्ङिति च where क्ङ् is believed to be a combination of ग्, क् and ङ् See प्रश्लिष्ट and प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देश. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) prāgdeśa districts of the east especially districts to the east of Ayodhya and Pataliputra, such as Magadha, Vanga and others; nothing can definitely be said as to which districts were called Eastern by Panini and his followers Katyayana and Patanjali. A Varttika given in the Kasika but not traceable in the Mahabhasya defines Pragdesa as districts situated to the east of शरावती (probably the modern river Ravi or a river near that river ): प्रागुदञ्चौ विभजते हंसः क्षीरोदके यथा । विदुषां शब्दसिद्ध्यर्थे सा नः पातु शरावती ॥ confer, compare on एङ् प्राचां देशे P. I. 1.75. There is a reading सरस्वती in some manuscript copies and सरस्वती is a wellknown river in the Punjab near Kuruksetra, which disappears in the sandy desert to the south: a reading इरावती is also found and इरावती may stand for the river Ravi. शरावती in Burma is simply out of consideration. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 202-204 and 141-142 D. E. Society's Edition. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. prātiśākhya a work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itsel The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindl feminine. Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also. edition pluta protracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll confer, compare I.16. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) pluti prolation or protraction of a vowel when it is possessed of three matras; . confer, compare I.31. See प्लुत Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. अविद्वांसः प्रत्यभिवादे नाम्नो ये न प्लुतिं विदुः । कामं तेषु तु विप्रोष्य स्त्रीष्विवायमहं वदेत् M.Bh. on P.I.1 Ahnika 1 confer, compare bahiraṅgalakṣaṇa an operation or rule which is characterized as बहिरङ्ग; cf असिद्धं बहिरङ्गलक्षणमन्तरङ्गलक्षणे on P. I. 1.57; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also M.Bh. on P. I. 4.2 Vart. 21. confer, compare bhrāja stray or spurious verses or stanzas whose authorship cannot be traced, but which are commonly quoted by scholars; भ्राजा नाम श्लेाका: M.Bh. on I.1 Āhnika 1; the word भ्राज is explained as 'composed by Kātyāyana' by Nāgeśabhaṭṭa in his Uddyota. confer, compare map affix म always added to the taddhita affix. affix त्रि ( क्त्रि) prescribed after roots characterized by the mute syllable डु: kṛt (affix). कृत्रिमम् , पवित्रमम् exempli gratia, for example वत्रेर्मम्नित्यम् P.IV. 4.20. et cetera, and others mahāprāṇa hard breathing, aspirate characteristic (बाह्यप्रयत्न) of consonants possessed by the second and fourth consonants of the five classes, and the sibilants श्, ष् and स् which letters are also called महाप्राण on that account. literally mārdava softness of the voice characterizing the pronunciation of a grave vowel: cf मार्दवं स्वरस्य मृदुता स्निग्धता ; also अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता खस्येतिं नीचैःकरााणे शब्दस्य M.Bh. on P.I.2.29, 30; confer, compare also, confer, compare XXII.10। Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. mit (1) characterized by the mute letter म्; augments So characterized such as नुम् , अम् and the like, are inserted after the last vowel of a word to which they are to be added; मिदचोन्त्यात् परः P. I. 1.47; (2) a technical term applied to the fifty-five roots which are headed by the root घट् and which belong to the first corjugation, to the roots ज्वळ confer, compare , as also to the roots जन्, जू, क्नूस्, रञ्ज् and roots ending in अम्. These roots are not really characterized by the mute letter म्, but they are given the designation मित्. The use of the designation मित् is (a) the shortening of the penultimate vowel which : has been lengthened by Vrddhi , before the causal sign णि and (b) ; the optional lengthening of the ; penultimate vowel before the affix ) चिण् and णमुल्, For a complete list ] of 'mit' roots see Dhaatupaatha. et cetera, and others rit (1) characterized by the mute consonant र् signifying the acute accent for the penultimate vowel; उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI. I. 217; ( 2 ) the same as रिफित or रेफि, a visarga which is changeable into र् when euphonically combined; confer, compare विसर्जनीयो रिफितः V.Pr.I.160; confer, compare also भाव्युपधं च रिद्विसर्जनीयान्तानि रेफेण ; V.Pr. VII.9. The terms रिफित, रेफि and रित् are given in the Padapatha to a पद or word which ends in a Visarga which has originated from र् in the Samhitapatha; e. g. the Visarga in कः, प्रात: confer, compare ; et cetera, and others R.Pr.I.30 to 32. confer, compare rūpa (1) word-form which is complete with प्रकृति ( the base ) and प्रत्यय, the affix which is attached to it; id est, that is रूपनिर्ग्रहश्च शब्दस्य नान्तरेण लौकिकं प्रयोगम् confer, compare on P. I. 1.22 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 3; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). also the usual expression का रूपसिद्धिः in the Mahābhāșya; confer, compare confer, compare on I. 1.51, 1.2.58 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ; the word is also used in the sense of a word-base ( धातु or प्रातिपदिक ); et cetera, and others स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा P. I. 1.68; (2) the word form as characterized by its derivation and properties confer, compare तस्य रूपान्यत्वे वर्णान्यत्वम् explained as तस्य शब्दस्य अनुप्रदानादिभिः कारणौ रूपभेदे जन्यमाने वर्णभेदः संपद्यते confer, compare XXII. 2 Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. lakṣaṇa (1) a rule or a sūtra composed by the ancient Sūtrakāras; the word is very frequently used in this sense by the Bhāşyakāra and later commentators; लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्; confer, compare also लक्षणं हि नाम ध्वनति, भ्रमति मुहूर्तमपि नावतिष्ठते M.Bh on P.I.1.3 Vārt 10; (2) characteristic or sign; confer, compare लक्षणेनाभिप्रती आभिमुख्ये P. II. 1. 14; confer, compare also P.I.4.90 and III. 2.12; (3) indirect way of expression; confer, compare लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तत्यैव ग्रहणम् confer, compare Pari. 105. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. ghumañjūṣā name of an independent work on the meaning of words and their interpretation written by Nāgeśa of which the परमलघुमञ्जूषा is a popular short extract by the author himsel feminine. liṅga (1) sign or characteristic mark; generally the mute letter prefixed or suffixed to roots,affixes, or augments and their substitutes with a specific purpose; किंचिल्लिङ्गमासज्य वक्ष्यामि confer, compare on I.1.1 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 7, अवयवे कृतं लिङ्ग समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). on P.I.3.62 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 5; (2) proof, evidence ( प्रमाण ); the word is often used in the Paribhāșendușekhara and other works in connection with a rule or part of a rule quoted as an evidence to deduce some general dictum or Paribhāșā; (3) gender; Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). लिङ्ग स्त्रीलिङ्गपुंलिङ्गनपुंसकानि Kāś. on P. II. 3. 46; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. confer, compare Pari.71.The gender of a word in Sanskrit language does not depend on any specific properties of a thing; it simply depends on the current usage; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य which is often quoted in the Mahābhāsya; confer, compare confer, compare on P. II. 1.36, II.2.29, II.4.12, IV. 1.3, V.3.66, V.4.68, VIII.1.15. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.IV.1. 3 where after a long enlightening discussīon the definition संस्त्यानप्रसवौ लिङ्गम् is given. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). liṅgaviśiṣṭagrahaṇa inclusion of the feminine form of a word when a word in the masculine gender is used in a rule, for certain operations such as the application of affixes and the like; the usual dictum regarding this practice viz. the Paribhāșā प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् confer, compare Pari. 71. as also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on P. IV. 1. 1 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 5 to Vārt, 15 for places of the application of the dictum and those of its rejection. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). vākyasaṃskārapakṣa the grammarian's theory that as the individual words have practically no existence as far as the interpretation or the expression of sense is concerned, the sentence alone being capable of conveying the sense, the formation of individual words in a sentence' is explained by putting them in a sentence and knowing their mutual relationship. The word गाम् cannot be explained singly by showing the base गो and the case ending अम् unless it is seen in the sentence गाम् अानय; यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे कृष्णादिसंबुद्धयन्त उपपदे ऋधेः क्तिनि कृते कृष्ण ऋध् ति इति स्थिते असिद्धत्वात्पूर्वमाद्गुणे कृते अचो रहाभ्यामिति द्वित्वं .. Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 99The view is put in alternation with the other view, viz. the पदसंस्कारपक्ष which has to be accepted in connection with the गौणमुख्यन्याय; cf पदस्यैव गौणार्थकत्वस्य ग्रहेण अस्य ( गौणमुख्यन्यायस्य) पदकार्यविषयत्वमेवोचितम् | अन्यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे तेषु तदनापत्तिः Par. Sek. on Pari. 15, The grammarians usually follow the वाक्यसंकारपक्ष. confer, compare vikarṣa (1) a fault in the utterance of a vowel with its proper accent (acute,grave or circumflex) which results from the proper accent being mixed with another in the utterance: विकर्षो नामाश्लिष्टता Uvvata ' on confer, compare III. 18: (2) protraction of the accent especially of the circumflex accent. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) vikrama (1) name given to a grave vowel placed between two circumflex vowels, or between a circumflex and an acute, or between an acute and a circumflex; स्वरितयोर्मध्ये यत्र नीचं स्यात्, उदात्तयोर्वा अन्यतरतो वा उदात्तस्वरितयोः स विक्रम: T.Pr. XIX.I ; (2) name given to a grave vowel between a pracaya vowel and an acute or a circumflex vowel: confer, compare प्रचयपूर्वश्च कौण्डिन्यस्य T.Pr.XIX.2: (8) repetition of a word or पद as in the Krama recital of the Veda words; (4) name given to a visarjaniya which has remained intact, as for instance in यः प्रणतो निमिषतः ; confer, compare R.Pr. I.5; VI.1 ; the word विक्रम is sometimes used in the sense of visarjaniya in general: cf also अनिङ्गयन् विक्रममेषु कुर्यात् R.Pr. XIII.11. confer, compare vidhā characteristic feature of an activity; संख्याया विधार्थे धा Í। विधा प्रकारः सर्वक्रियाविषय एव गृह्यते confer, compare on P. V.3.42. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. viśiṣṭ (1) specific; qualified by, characterized by; literally क्तेन नञ्विशिष्टेनानञ् ; P.II.1.60: confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् confer, compare Pari.71 ; (2) different: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. विशिष्टलिङ्गानां भिन्नलिङ्गानां शब्दानां Kāś. on P.II. 4.7. confer, compare viśrambha relaxation, a characteristic of the grave accent as contrasted with अायाम which characterizes the acute accent; उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । आयामविश्रम्भाक्षेपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः । विश्रम्भः अधोगमनं गात्राणाम् confer, compare on R.Pr.III.1.विश्रम्भ is the same as अन्ववसर्ग which is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as अन्ववसर्गो गात्राणां शिथिलता. Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works. on P. I.2.29,30. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). visvara characterized by a faulty or incorrect accent, which is looked upon as a fault of pronunciation. vṛtti (1) treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare confer, compare on P. I.4. 109, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). ll ; ( 5 ) nature Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन confer, compare II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; Nirukta of Yāska. परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar. confer, compare vṛddha (1) a term used in Paninis grammar for such words or nouns ( प्रातिपदिक ) which have for their first vowel a vrddhi vowel, i. e. either अा or ऐ or अौ: शाला, माला exempli gratia, for example ; et cetera, and others वृद्धिर्यस्य अचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् ; (2) a term applied to the eight pronouns headed by त्यत् for purposes of the addition of confer, compare affixes prescribed for the Vrddha words, such as छ by वृद्धाच्छ: P. IV.2.114: (3) a term applied to words having ए or ओ as the first vowel in them, provided such words denote districts of Eastern India, e. g. गोनर्द, भोजकट taddhita affix. et cetera, and others एङ् प्राचां देशे, P.I.1.73, 74 and 75; (4) a term used in the Pratisakhya works for a protracted vowel ( प्लत ) which has three matras; cf तिस्रॊ वृद्धम् confer, compare 44. Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. vṛṣyaṇ affix अण् prescribed by the sutra ऋष्यन्धकवृष्णिकुरुभ्यश्च after words denoting members of the Vrsni race; taddhita affix. वृष्ण्यणेाSवकाशः वासुदेवः। बलदेव: ॥ confer, compare vyadhikaraṇa characterized by different case-relations or case-affixes; possessed of different case-affixes; क: प्रसङ्गो यद् व्यधिकरणानां समासः स्यात् on P. II. 1.67. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). vyayavat (1) possessed of व्यय or inflectional change; a declinable word; cf यस्य पुनर्विभक्त्यादिभिर्विकारः क्रियते स व्ययवान् । आद्युदात्त: स च अन्त:शब्दॊ भवति | V: Pr. II.26; (2) characterized by a loss of accent the loss of the original accent and the presence of another accent: id est, that is पदान्तस्य पदे दृष्टं स्वरितत्वं न दृश्यते | अदृष्टमनुदात्तत्वं च दृश्यते । Uvvata on R. Pr, XI.31. confer, compare vyavacchinna (1) separated; detached from a specific thing by the loss of connection with it; एवमेतास्मिन्नुभयतो व्यवाच्छिन्ने यदि स्वार्थे जहाति जहातु नाम confer, compare on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2; (2) characterized or possessed of an intervention by similar things Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). तद्वा अनेकेन निपातनेन व्यवच्छिन्नं न शक्यमनुवर्तयितुमिति | confer, compare on P. III. 3.83; cf also P. VI. 4.2. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). śabdavyutpatti derivation of a word by tracing it to the root from which it is form edition śit possessed of, or characterized by, the indicatory letter श्; the krt affixes which are marked with the indicatory श् are termed Sarvadhatuka affixes ( P.III.4.113), while, the Adesas or substitutes, marked with the indicatory श्, are substituted for the whole of the Sthanin or the original and not for its final letter according to the rule अलोन्त्यस्य P. I.1.52; e. g. शि is substituted,not for the final स् of जस् and शस् but for the whole जस् and the whole शस्; confer, compare P.I.1.55. confer, compare śīghratara over-rapid; an extra quickness of breath (प्राण) which characterizes the utterance of a sibilant which has got one more property viz. ऊष्मत्व in addition to the three properties (बाह्यप्रयत्न ) possessed by the other consonants: literally शीघ्रतरं सोष्मसु प्राणमेके | confer, compare XIII. 6. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) śluvikaraṇa roots characterized by the addition or application of the conjugational sign which is elided by the use of the term श्लु for elision; roots of the third conjugation; य एते लुग्विकरणा: श्लुविकरणाश्च M.Bh.on P.III. 1.67 Vart. 2, as also on P. III 1. 91. confer, compare śvāsa breath; the voiceless breath required for uttering some letters; the term is used in the Pratisakhya and Vyakarana books in the sense of breath which is prominently required in the utterance of the hard consonants, sibilants, visarga and the Jihvamuliya and Upadhmaniya letters; the term is used in connection with these letters also; the usual term in use is, of course, श्वासानुप्रदान, the term श्वास showing the property of the breath, with which these letters are characteriz literally edition ṣaṭkārakalakṣaṇa a small work in verses on the six case-relations ascribed to Amarasimha, but very likely the author was Amaracandra a Jain grammarian of the fifteenth century. The work is also named षट्कारकविवरण. ṣaṣṭhīnirdiṣṭa a word put in the genitive case; a substitute given as connected with a genitive case which replaces the whole word which is put in the genitive case unless the substitute consists of a single letter or is characterized by the mute letter ङ्, षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा । अलोन्त्यस्य | अनेकाल्शित्सर्वेस्य confer, compare et cetera, and others P. I. 1.49 to 55. confer, compare saṃnipātalakṣaṇa an operation which is characterized by the relationship between two words or two phonetic elements. See संनिपातपरिभाषा . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. saṃvaraṇa concealment; slurring over a consonant by practically merging its sound into that of the following one; the technical term अंभिनिधान is also used in the same sense; e. g. षट् द्वा द्वा; literally संधारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च confer, compare VI. 5. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) saṃvāra one of the external efforts in the production of a sound when the gullet is a little bit contracted as at the time of the utterance of the third, fourth and the fifth of the class-consonants; कण्ठबिलस्य संकोचः संवार: confer, compare on P. I. 1.9. Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. saṃhāra unnecessary contraction of the place (स्थान)as also of the instrument ( करण ), which results into a fault of utterance called पीडन; विहारसंहायोर्व्यासपींडने confer, compare XIV.2. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) sarūpa ( 1) having the same form for practical purposes such as the form अा possessed by टाप्, डाप् and चाप् or the form अ possessed by the affixes अण्, अच्, घ, क, ण and others; (2) having the same form even literally, but possessed of different senses; e. g the words माष, अक्ष, पाद समानानामेकशेष इत्युच्यमाने यत्र सर्वं समानं शब्दोर्थश्च तत्रैव स्यात् | वृक्षाः प्लक्षाः इति | इह न स्यात् । अक्षाः पादाः माषाः इति । रूपग्रहणे पुनः क्रियमाणे न दोषो भवति | et cetera, and others on P. I. 2.64. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). savarṇa cognate, homophonic: a letter belonging to the same technical category of letters possessing an identical place of utterance and internal effort तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, 1. 9. For example, the eighteen varieties of अ, due to its short, long and protracted nature as also due to its accents and nasalization, are savarna to each other. The vowels ऋ and लृ are prescribed to be considered as Savarna although their place of utterance differs. The consonants in each class of consonants are savarna to one another, but by the utterance of one, another cannot be taken except when the vowel उ has been applied to the first. Thus कु stands for क्, ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ्. confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, I. 9 and अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P. I. 1. 69. confer, compare sthiti utterance of a pada or padas in the Padapatha without इति; the utterance with इति being called उपस्थिति; पदं यदा केवलमाह सा स्थितिः confer, compare XI.15; (2) established practice or view: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) शाकल्यस्य स्थविरस्येतरा स्थितिः। confer, compare II. 44. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) svara (l) vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. svarabhakti a vowel part; appearance of a consonant as a vowel; the character of a vowel borne by a consonant. Many times a semivowel which consists of one letter has to be divided especially for purposes of metre, as also for accentuation into two letters or rather, has to be turned into two letters by inserting a vowel before it or after it, for instance य् is to be turned into इय् e. g, in त्रियम्बकं यजामहे, while र् or रेफ is to be turned into र् ऋ as for instance in कर्हि चित् which is to be uttered as कर् ऋ हृि चित्. This prefixing or suffixing of a vowel is called स्वरभक्तिः स्वरभक्तिः पूर्वभागक्षराङ्गं द्राघीयसी सार्धमात्रेतरे च | अधोनान्या ( confer, compare I. 32.35; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also न संयोगं स्वरभाक्तिर्विहृान्ति confer, compare VI. 35; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also रेफात् खरोपहिताद् व्यञ्जनोदयाद् ऋकारवर्णा स्वरभक्तिरुत्तरा: confer, compare VI. 46. In Panini's grammar, however, the word अज्भाक्त, which means the same is used for स्वरभक्ति; cf ऋति ऋ वा लृति लृ वा इत्युभयत्रापि विधेयं वर्णद्वयं द्विमात्रम् | अाद्यस्य मध्ये द्वौ ; रेफौ तयोरेकां मात्रा । अभितेाज्भक्तेरपरा। S. K. on VI. 1.101. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) svarabhinna differing in the matter of accent; words so differing are Practically looked upon as one and the same; स्वरभिन्नानां यस्योत्तरस्वरविधिस्तस्येंकशेषो वक्यव्य: | अक्षश्च अक्षश्च अक्षौ । M. Bh on I. 2. 64 Vart. 24, For technical purposes, they are sometimes looked upon as different; confer, compare स्वरभिन्नस्य च प्राप्नुवन् विधिरनित्यः । Par. Sek. Pari. 49. confer, compare svaritakaraṇa marking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been mark As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; edition प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2. confer, compare svarūpagrahaṇa mention by the verbal form, and not by the description of characteristics; e. g. मृजेर्वृद्धिः P VII. 2.114; सृजिदृशेIर्झल्यमाकिति VI. l. 58; धातोः स्वरूपग्रहणे तत्प्रत्यये कार्यविज्ञानम् M.Bh. on P.VI.1.58. confer, compare svātantrya independence, or autonomy as a characteristic of the agent ( कर्ता ); कर्मकर्तरि कर्तृत्वमास्ति। कुतः। स्वातन्त्र्यस्य विवाक्षितत्वात् | स्वातन्त्र्येणैवात्र कर्ता विवक्षितः | M.Bh. on P. III. 1. 87 Vart.5. confer, compare hemacandra a Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.