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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
āhāvaḥMasculineSingularnipānampond which is near of a well
jalāśayaḥMasculineSingularjalādhāraḥa lake or pond
puṣkariṇīFeminineSingularkhātama square or large pond
akhātam1.10.27NeuterSingulardevakhātama natural pond
veśantaḥMasculineSingularpallavam, alpasaramsmall pond
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abhīpat अभीपत् m. [अभि-पत्-क्विप् दीर्घः] One who goes or resorts to (अभिगमनवान् Sāy.), a pond or any spot in which water collects; a favour.
anūpa अनूप a. [अनु-अप् ऊदनोर्देशे P.VI.3.98, अनुगताः आपः यस्मिन्] Situated near water, watery, rich or abounding in water, wet, marshy. जलप्रायमनूपं स्यात्पुंसि कच्छस्तथा- विधः Amar. -पः, -पम् 1 A watery place or country; स्यन्दनाश्वैः समे युध्येदनूपे नौद्विपैस्तथा Ms.7.192; Y.3.42; शौरेरूपानूपमपाहरन्मनः Śi.12.44. नानाद्रुमलतावीरुन्निर्झरप्रांतशीतलैः । वनैर्व्याप्तमनूपं तत्सस्यैर्व्रीहियवादिभीः -2 N. of a particular country (-पाः pl.); तामग्रतः अनूपराजस्य विधाय R.6.37. -3 A marsh, bog. -4 A pond or tank of water. -5 Bank or side (of a river, mountain); सागरात्पर्वतानूपात् Rām.; नदीं गोयुतानूपां अतरत् ibid. -6 A buffalo. -7 A frog. -8 A kind of partridge. -9 An elephant. -Comp. -जम् moist ginger. -प्राय a. marshy, boggy.
anūpya अनूप्य a. [अनूपे देशे भवः, यत्] Being in a pond or bog.
bilvaḥ बिल्वः A species of tree, Aegle Marmelos or wood-apple; its leaves are used in the worship of Śiva. -ल्वम् 1 The fruit of this tree; बिल्वं बालं कषायोष्णं पाचनं वह्निदीपनम् । संग्राहि तिक्तकटुकं तीक्ष्णं वातकफापहम् ॥ Bhāva. P. -2 A particular weight (= one pala). -3 A small pond or pool. -Comp. -दण्डः an epithet of Śiva. -पेशिका, -पेशी the shell of the Bilva fruit. -मध्यम् the flesh of the बिल्व fruit. -वनम् a thicket or wood of Bilva trees.
deva देव a. (-वी f.) [दिव्-अच्] 1 Divine, celestial; Bg.11. 11; Ms.12.117. -2 Shining; यज्ञस्य देवमृत्विजम् Rv.1.1.1. -3 Fit to be worshipped or honoured. -वः 1 A god, deity; एको देवः केशवो वा शिवो वा Bh.3.12. -2 (a) The god of rain, an epithet of Indra; as in द्वादश वर्षाणि देवो न ववर्ष; अवर्षयद्देवः Rām.1.9.18; काले च देशे च प्रववर्ष देवः Bu. Ch.2.7. (b) A cloud. -3 A divine man, Brāhmaṇa, as in भूदेव. -4 A king, ruler, as in मनुष्यदेव; तां देवसमितिं (अभ्या- गच्छत्) Mb.3.13.22. -5 A title affixed to the names of Bārhmaṇas; as in गोविन्ददेव, पुरुषोत्तमदेव &c. -6 (In dramas) A title of honour used in addressing a king, ('My lord', 'Your majesty'); ततश्च देव Ve.4; यथाज्ञापयति देवः &c. -7 Quicksilver. -8 The Supreme Spirit; हित्वा च देहं प्रविशन्ति देवं दिवौकसो द्यामिव पार्थ सांख्याः Mb.12.31.112. -9 A fool -1 A child. -11 A man following any particular business. -12 A lover. -13 Emulation. -14 Sport, play. -15 A husband's brother (cf. देवृ, देवर). -16 A lancer. -वम् An organ of sense; देवानां प्रभवो देवो मनसश्च त्रिलोककृत् Mb.14.41.3. [cf. L. deus; Gr. deos.]. -Comp. -अंशः a partial incarnation of god. -अगारः, -रम् a temple. -अङ्गना a celestial damsel, an apsaras. -अतिदेवः, -अधिदेवः 1 the highest god. -2 an epithet of (1) Śiva. (2) Buddha. (3) Viṣṇu. देवातिदेवो भगवान् प्रसूतिरंशे हरिर्यस्य जगत्प्रणेता Hariv. -अधिपः 1 an epithet of Indra. -2 the supreme god. -अनीकम् an army of celestials. -अनुचरः, -अनुयायिन् m. an attendant or follower of a god; निशम्य देवानुचरस्य वाचं मनुष्यदेवः पुनरप्युवाच R.2.52. -अन्धस् n., अन्नम् 1 the food of gods, divine food, ambrosia. -2 food that has been first offered to an idol; see Ms.5.7 and Kull. thereon. -अभीष्ट a. 1 liked by or dear to gods. -2 sacred or dedicated to a deity. (-ष्टा) piper betel. -अरण्यम् the garden of gods, the Nandana garden; अलमुद्द्योतयामासुर्देवारण्यमिवर्तवः R.1.8. -अरिः a demon. -अर्चनम्, -ना 1 the worship of gods. -2 idolatry. -अर्पणम् 1 an offering to the god. -2 the Veda; पृथग्- भूतानि चान्यानि यानि देवार्पणानि च Mb.13.86.17 (see com.). -आवसथः a temple. -अश्वः an epithet of उच्चैःश्रवस्, the horse of Indra. -आक्रीडः 'the garden of the gods', Nandana garden. -आजीवः, -आजीविन् m. an attendant upon an idol. -2 a low Brāhmaṇa subsisting by attendance upon an idol and upon the offerings made to it. -आत्मन् a. 1 consecrated, holy, sacred. -2 of a divine nature. (-m.) 1 the divine soul; ते ध्यानयोगानुगता$ पश्यन् देवात्मशक्तिं स्वगुणैर्निगूढाम् Śvet. Up.1.3. -2 the holy fig-tree. -आयतनम् a temple; Ms.4.46; न देवा- यतनं गच्छेत् कदाचिद् वा$प्रदक्षिणम् । न पीडयेद् वा वस्त्राणि न देवा- यतनेष्वपि ॥ Kūrma P. -आयुधम् 1 a divine weapon. -2 rainbow. -आयुष्म् the life-time of a god. -आलयः 1 heaven. -2 a temple. -आवासः 1 heaven. -2 the holy fig-tree (अश्वत्थ). -3 a temple. -4 the Sumeru mountain. -आहारः nectar, ambrosia. -इज् a. (nom. sing. देवेट्-ड्) worshipping the gods. -इज्यः an epithet of Bṛihaspati, preceptor of the gods. -इज्जः 1 an epithet of Indra. -2 of Śiva. -इष्ट a. dear to gods. (-ष्टः) bdellium. (-ष्टा) the wild lime tree. -ईशः an epithet of (1) Indra. (2) Śiva. (3) Viṣṇu. (4) Brahman. (-शी) N. of Durgā also of Devakī mother of Kṛiṣṇa. -ईश्वरः N. of (1) Śiva. (2) Indra. -उद्यानम् 1 divine garden. -2 The Nandana garden. -3 a garden near a temple. -ऋषिः (देवर्षिः) 1 a deified saint, divine sage such as अत्रि, भृगु, पुलस्त्य, अङ्गिरस् &c.; एवंवादिनि देवर्षौ Ku.6.84 (i. e. अङ्गिरस्); अथ देवऋषी राजन् संपरेतं नृपात्मजम् Bhāg.; आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोका देवर्षिपितृमानवाः । तृप्यन्तु पितरः सर्वे मातृमातामहा- दयाः Tarpaṇamantra. -2 an epithet of Narada; देवर्षीणां च नारदः Bg.1.13.26. -ओकस् n. the mountain Meru or Sumeru. -कन्या a celestial damsel, a nymph; also देवकन्यका. -कर्दमाः sandal, aloe wood, camphor, saffron pounded together and made into a paste. -कर्मन् n., -कार्यम् 1 a religious act or rite, divine command; अनुष्ठितदेवकार्यम् R.12.13. -2 the worship of gods. -काष्ठम् the Devadāru tree. -किरी N. of a Rāgiṇī; ललिता मालती गौरी नाटी देवकिरी तथा । मेघरागस्य रागिण्यो भवन्तीमाः सुमध्यमाः ॥ -कुटम् a temple. -कुण़्डम् a natural spring. -कुलम् 1 a temple. -2 a race of gods. -3 a group of gods. -कुल्या the celestial Ganges. -कुसुमम् cloves; एलां च देवकुसुमं त्वक्पत्रं देवदारु च Śiva. B.3.14. -खातम्, -खातकम् 1 a natural hollow among mountains. -2 a natural pond or reservoir; Ms.4.23. -3 a pond near a temple. ˚बिल a cavern, chasm. -गणः a class of gods. -गणिका an apsaras; q. v. -गतिः the path of देवलोक; अनुज्ञातश्च रामेण ययौ देवगतिं मुनिः A. Rām. 2.1.4. -गन्धर्वः an epithet of Nārada. (-र्वम्) a particular mode of singing. -गर्जनम् thunder. -गर्भः see हिरण्यगर्भ; Rām.2.4.23. -गायनः a celestial chorister, a Gandharva. -गान्धारी N. of a Rāgiṇī गान्धारी देवगान्धारी मालवी श्रीश्च सारवी । रामकीर्यपि रागिण्यः श्रीरागस्य प्रिया इमाः ॥ -गिरिः 1 N. of a mountain; cf. Me.44. -2 N. of a town (Daulatabad). -गिरी f. N. of a Rāgiṇī. -गुरुः 1 an epithet of Kaśyapa (the father of gods). -2 of Bṛihaspati (the preceptor of gods). -गुही an epithet of Sarasvatī or of a place situated on it. -गुह्यम् 1 a secret only known by gods. -2 death. -गृहम् 1 a temple. -2 the place of a king. -3 a planetary sphere. -ग्रहः a class of demons who causes harmless madness. -चरितम् the course of action or practices of the gods; न देवचरितं चरेत्. -चर्या the worship or service of gods. -चिकित्सकौ (du.) Aśvins, the twin physicians of gods. -छन्दः a pearl-necklace having 81, 1 or 18 strings; शतमष्टयुतं हारो देवच्छन्दो ह्यशीतिरेकयुता Bṛi. S.81.32. -जनः the gods collectively. ˚विद्या the science of music, dance, other arts &c.; Ch. Up.7.1.2. -जातम् a class of gods. -जामिः f. a sister of the gods; देवजामीनां पुत्रो$सि Av. 6.46.1. -तरुः 1 the holy fig-tree. -2 one of the trees of paradise. (i. e. मन्दार, पारिजात, सन्तान, कल्प and हरि- चन्दन); पञ्चैते देवतरवो मन्दारः पारिजातकः । सन्तानः कल्पवृक्षश्च पुंसि वा हरिचन्दनम् ॥ Ak. -3 the tree in a village (चैत्यवृक्ष) where the villagers usually meet (Mar. पार). -तर्पणम् offerings of water, part of the सन्ध्या ceremony. -ताडः 1 fire. -2 an epithet of Rāhu. -तातः 1 a sacrifice. -2 N. of Kaśyapa. -तातिः 1 a god. -2 divine service; स नो यक्षद् देवताता यजीयान् Rv.3.19.1. -तीर्थम् 1 the right moment for the worship of gods. -2 the tips of the fingers sacred to gods. -दत्त a. 1 god-given, granted by the gods. -2 given to the gods (as a village, &c.). (-त्तः) 1 N. of the conch-shell of Arjuna; देवदत्तं धनञ्जयः (दध्मौ) Bg.1.15. -2 a certain person (used in speaking of men indefinitely); मुक्तस्ततो यदि बन्धाद्देवदत्त उपाच्छिनत्ति Bhāg.5.14.24; देवदत्तः पचति, पिनो देवदत्तो दिवा न भुङ्क्ते &c. -3 one of the vital airs exhaled in yawning; देवदत्तो विजृम्भणे. ˚अग्रजः N. of Buddha. -दर्शन a. visiting the gods. (-नः) N. of Nārada; यथा प्राह नारदो देवदर्शनः Bhāg.2.8.1. -दारु m., n. a species of pine; गङ्गाप्रवाहोक्षित- देवदारु Ku.1.54; R.2.36. -दासः a servant or attendant upon a temple. (-सी) 1 a female in the service of gods or a temple. -2 a courtezan (employed as a dancer in a temple). -3 the wild citron tree. -दीपः the eye. -दुन्दुभिः 1 divine drum; देवदुन्दुभिनिर्घोषो पुष्पवृष्टिश्च खात् पतन् Rām. -2 the holy basil with red flowers. -3 an epithet of Indra. -दूतः a divine envoy or messenger, an angel. -देवः 1 an epithet of Brahman; Rām.1.43.1. -2 of Śiva; अयाचितारं न हि देवदेवमद्रिः सुतां ग्राहयितुं शशाक Ku.1.52. -3 of Viṣṇu; Bg.1.15. -4 of Gaṇeśa; दृष्टप्रभावो वरदो देवदेवो विनायकः Ks.2.55. -दैवत्य a. destined for the god; Ms.2.189. -द्रोणी a procession with idols. -धर्मः a religious duty or office. -धानी the city of Indra; तां देवधानीं स वरुथिनीपतिर्बहिः समन्ताद्रुरुधे पृतन्यया Bhāg. 8.15.23. -धान्यम् a kind of grass-grain (Mar. देवभात). -धिष्ण्यम् a chariot of the gods (विमान); Bhāg.1. 82.7. -नक्षत्रम् N. of the first 14 नक्षत्रs in the southern quarter (opp. to यमनक्षत्रम्). -नदी 1 the Ganges. -2 any holy river; Ms.2.17. -नन्दिन् m. N. of the doorkeeper of Indra. -2 N. of a grammarian. -नागरी N. of the character in which Sanskrit is usually written. -नाथः Śiva. -निकायः 1 'residence of gods', paradise, heaven; तं तुष्टुवुर्देवनिकायकेतवः Bhāg.1.27.25. -2 a host or assembly of gods; Ms.1.36. -निन्दकः a blasphemer, unbeliever, heretic, atheist. -निन्दा heresy, atheism. -निर्माल्यम् 1 a garland remaining from a sacrifice. -निर्मित a. 'god-created', natural. -पतिः an epithet of Indra. -पादाः 'the royal feet or presence', an honorific term for a king; देवपादाः प्रमाणम्. -पथः 1 'heavenly passage', heaven, firmament दिव्यो देवपथो ह्येष नात्र गच्छन्ति मानुषाः Mb. -2 the milky way. -पशुः any animal consecrated to a deity. -पात्रम् an epithet of Agni. -पुर्, -पुरी f. an epithet of Amarāvatī, the city of Indra. -पुरोहितः 1 a domestic priest of the gods. -2 the planet Jupiter (बृहस्पति). -पुष्पम् cloves. -पूज्यः an epithet of Bṛihaspati. -प्रतिकृतिः f., -प्रतिमा an idol, the image of a deity. -प्रश्नः 'consulting deities', astrology, fortune-telling. -प्रसूत a. good-produced (water); Av.6. 1.2. -प्रियः 'dear to the gods', an epithet of Śiva; (देवानांप्रियः an irreg. comp. meaning1 a goat. -2 a fool, idiot like a brute breast, as in ते$प्यतात्पर्यज्ञा देवानांप्रियाः K. P. -3 an ascetic, who renounces the world). -बलिः an oblation to the gods. -बाहुः 1 N. of a king in the Yadu race. -2 N. of a sage; देवबाहुः शतधनुः कृतवर्मेति तत्सुताः Bhāg. -ब्रह्मन् m. an epithet of Nārada. -ब्राह्मणः 1 a Brāhmaṇa who lives on the proceeds of a temple. -2 a venerable Brāhmaṇa. -भक्तिः worship or service of the gods. -भवनम् 1 the heaven. -2> a temple. -3 the holy fig-tree. -भागः the northern hemisphere. -भ m. a god; (-f.) heaven. -भूमिः f. heaven; पितुः प्रदेशा- स्तव देवभूमयः Ku.5.45. -भूतिः f. an epithet of the Ganges. -भूयम् divinity, godhead; विदितमेव भवतां ...... परां निर्वृतिमुपेत्य देवभूयं गताः सर्वे न पूर्वपुरुषा इति Rām. Champū. -भृत् m. an epithet of 1 Viṣṇu. -2 of Indra. -भोगः Pleasure of the gods, heavenly joy; अन्नन्ति दिव्यान् दिवि देवभोगान् Bg.9.2. -भोज्यम् nectar. -मणिः 1 the jewel of Viṣṇu called कौस्तुभ. -2 the sun. -3 a curl of hair on a horse's neck; आवर्तिनः शुभफल- प्रदशुक्तियुक्ताः संपन्नदेवमणयो भृतरन्ध्रभागाः (अश्वाः) Śi.5.4; N.1.58. -मधु n. divine honey; असौ वा आदित्यो देवमधु Ch. Up.3.1.1. -मातृ f. N. of Aditi, mother of gods. -मातृक a. 'having the god of rain or clouds as foster-mother', watered only by the clouds, depending on rain-water and not on irrigation, deprived of every other kind of water (as a country); देशो नद्यम्बुवृष्ट्यम्बु- संपन्नव्रीहिपालितः । स्यान्नदीमातृको देवमातृकश्च यथाक्रमम् ॥ Ak.; cf. also वितन्वति क्षेममदेवमातृकाः (i. e. नदीमातृकाः) चिराय तस्मिन् कुरवश्चकासते Ki.1. 17. -मानकः the jewel of Viṣṇu called कौस्तुभ. -माया the Māyā of gods; ते दुस्तराम- तितरन्ति च देवमायाम् Bhāg. -मार्गः the air or sky. -मासः the eighth month of pregnancy. -मुनिः a divine sage. -यजनम् 1 a sacrificial place, a place where a sacrifice is performed; ततस्ते देवयजनं ब्राह्मणाः स्वर्णलाङ्गलैः (कृष्ट्वा) Bhāg.1.74.12. देवयजनसंभवे सीते U.4. -2 a place of worship; मण्डलं देवयजनं दीक्षासंस्कार आत्मनः Bhāg.12.11.17. -यजि a. making oblations to gods. -यज्ञः a sacrifice to the superior gods made by oblations to fire, or through fire to the gods; (one of the five daily sacrifices of a Brāhmaṇa; see Ms.3.81,85 and पञ्चयज्ञ also). -यज्यम्, -यज्या a sacrifice. -यात्रा 'an idolprocession,' any sacred festival when the idols are carried in procession; केनापि देवयात्रागतेन सिद्धादेशेन साधुना मत्समक्षमादिष्टा M.5.12-13. -यान bestowing मोक्ष; यज्ञस्य देवयानस्य मेध्याय हविषे नृप Bhāg.8.8.2. -नः the path leading to मोक्ष; सत्येन पन्था विततो देवयानः Muṇḍ.3.1.6. -यानम् a celestial car. -युगम् 1 the first of the four ages of the world; also called कृतयुग, सनत्कुमारो भगवान् पुरा देवयुगे प्रभुः Rām.1.11.11. -2 an age of the gods comprising four ages of men. -योनिः 1 a superhuman being, a demigod; विद्याधरो$प्सरोयक्षरक्षोगन्धर्वकिन्नराः । पिशाचो गुह्यकः सिद्धो भूतो$मी देवयोनयः ॥ Ak. -2 a being of divine origin. -3 fuel used in kindling fire (f. also). -योषा an apsaras. -रथः a car for carrying the image of god in procession. -थम् a day's journey for the sun's chariot. -रहस्यम् a divine mystery. -राज्, -राजः 1 an epithet of Indra; Rām.7.6.6. -2 a king. -3 N. of Buddha. -रातः 1 an epithet of Parīkṣit. -2 a kind of swan or crane. -राष्ट्रम् N. of an empire in the Deccan. -लक्ष्मम् the Brāhmanical cord. -लता the Navamallikā or double jasmine plant. -लिङ्गम् the image or statue of a deity; Bhāg.3.17.13. -लोकः heaven, paradise; देवलोकस्य चर्त्विजः (प्रभुः) Ms.4.182. -वक्त्रम् an epithet of fire. -वर्त्मन् n. the sky or atmosphere. -वर्धकिः, -शिल्पिन् m. Viśvakarman, the architect of gods. -वाणी 'divine voice', a voice from heaven. -वाहनः an epithet of Agni. -विद्या 1 divine science; Ch. Up.7.1.2. -2 the science of Nirukta or etymology; ibid. -विभागः the northern hemisphere. -विश् f., -विशा a deity. -वीतिः food of the gods. -वृक्षः the Mandāra tree. -व्यचस् a. Ved. occupied by the gods. -व्रतम् 1 a religious observance, any religious vow. -2 the favourite food of the gods. (-तः) an epithet of 1 Bhīṣma; ततो विनशनं प्रागाद्यत्र देवव्रतो$पतत् Bhāg.1.9.1. -2 Kārtikeya. -व्रतत्वम् celibacy (ब्रह्मचारिव्रत); देवव्रतत्वं विज्ञाप्य Mb.5.172.19. -शत्रुः a demon; स देवशत्रूनिव देवराजः Mb. -शुनी an epithet of Saramā, the bitch of the gods. -शेखर the damanaka tree (Mar. दवणा). -शेषम् the remnants of a sacrifice offered to gods. -श्रीः m. a sacrifice. (f.) Lakṣmī. -श्रुतः an epithet of 1 Viṣṇu. -2 Nārada. -3 a sacred treatise. -4 a god in general. -संसद् f. देवसभा q. v. -सत्यम् divine truth, established order of the gods. -संध a. divine. -सभा 1 an assembly of the gods (सुधर्मन्). -2 a council of a king, council-chamber. -3 a gambling-house. -सभ्यः 1 a gambler. -2 a frequenter of gaming-houses. -3 an attendant on a deity. -4 the keeper of a gambling-house. -सहा 1 rules of begging alms (? भिक्षासूत्र); L. D. B. -2 N. of a plant. -सायुज्यम् identification or unification with a deity, conjunction with the gods, deification. -सिंह an epithet of Śiva. -सुषिः a tube or cavity (in the heart) leading to the gods; cf. उदान, तस्य ह वा एतस्य हृदयस्य पञ्च देवसुषयः Ch. Up.3.13.1. -सू N. of 8 deities (अग्नि, सोम, सवितृ, रुद्र, बृहस्पति, इन्द्र, मित्र and वरुण). -सृष्टा an intoxicating drink. -सेना 1 the army of gods. -2 N. of the wife of Skanda; स्कन्देन साक्षादिव देवसेनाम् R.7.1. (Malli.:-- देवसेना = स्कन्दपत्नी perhaps it merely means 'the army of the gods' personified as Skanda's wife). ˚पतिः, ˚प्रियः an epithet of Kārtikeya. -स्वम् 'property of gods', property applicable to religious purposes or endowments; यद्धनं यज्ञशीलानां देवस्वं तद्विदु- र्बुधाः Ms.11.2,26. ˚अपहरणम् sacrilege. -सावर्णिः the 13th Manu; मनुस्त्रयोदशो भाव्यो देवसावर्णिरात्मवान् Bhāg. 8.13.3. -हविस् n. an animal offered to gods at a sacrifice. -हिंसकः an enemy of gods. -हूः the left ear; Bhāg.4.25.51. -हूतिः f. 1 invocation of the gods. -2 N. of a daughter of Manu Svāyambhuva and wife of Kardama. -हेडनम् an offence against the gods. -हेतिः a divine weapon.
khaṇḍa खण्ड a. [खण्ड्-घञ्] 1 Broken, divided, torn asunder; ˚देवकुलम् Pt.2 a temple in ruins. -2 Having chasms, gaps or breaks. -3 Defective, deficient. -ण़्डः, -ण्डम् 1 A break, chasm, gap, fissure, fracture. -2 A piece, part, fragment, portion; दिवः कान्तिमत्खण्डमेकम् Me.3; काष्ठ˚, मांस˚ &c. -3 A section of a work, chapter. -4 A multitude, an assemblage, group; छित्त्वा कर्पूरखण्डान्वृतिमिह कुरुते कोद्रवाणां समन्तात् Bh.2.1; तरुखण्डस्य K.23; Māl.5.23, 8.1. -5 A term in an equation. -6 A continent. -ण्डः 1 Candied sugar. -2 A flaw in a jewel. -ण्डम् 1 A kind of salt. -2 A sort of sugar-cane. (In comp. -खण्ड means 'partial', 'incomplete'). -Comp. -अभ्रम् 1 scattered clouds. -2 the impression of the teeth in amorous sports; खण्डाभ्रमभ्रवेशे स्यात् तथा दन्तक्षतान्तरे Medinī. -आलिः 1 a measure of oil. -2 a pond or lake. -3 a woman whose husband has been guilty of infidelity. -इन्दुः the crescent moon. ˚मण्डनः the god Śiva; खण्डे- न्दुमण्डनाचार्यां मण्डनत्वमखण्डितम् Rāj. T. 1.28. -कथा a short tale. -कर्णः 1 a kind of bulbous plant. -2 sweet potato. -काव्यम् a small poem, such as the मेघदूत; it is thus defined : खण्डकाव्यं भवेत् काव्यस्यैकदेशानुसारि च S. D. 564. -जः a kind of sugar. -तालः (in music) a kind of measure. -धारा scissors. -परशुः 1 an epithet of Śiva. महश्वर्यं लीलाजनितजगतः खण्डपरशोः G. L.1; येनानेन जगत्सु खण्डपरशुर्देवो हरः ख्याप्यते Mv.2.33. -2 an epithet of Parasurāma, son of Jamadagni. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पशुः 1 N. of Śiva. -2 of Parasurāma. -3 of Rāhu. -4 an elephant with a broken tusk. -पालः a confectioner. -प्रलयः 1 a partial destruction of the universe in which all the spheres beneath Svarga are dissolved in one common ruin. -2 a quarrel. -फलम् canned fruit; Gaṇeśa. P.1.147-57. -मण्डल a. gibbous, not full or round. (-लम्) the segment of a circle. -मोदकः a kind of sugar. -लवणम् a kind of salt. -विकारः sugar. -शर्करा candied sugar; दधिमण्डोदका दिव्याः खण्डशर्करवालुकाः Mb. 12.284.44. -शीला a loose woman, an unchaste wife.
kumudaḥ कुमुदः दम् [कौ भोदते इति कुमुदम्] 1 The white waterlily said to open at moon-rise [Nymphea alba] नोच्छ्वसिति तपनकिरणैश्चन्द्रस्येवांशुभिः कुमुदम् V.3.16; so Ś.5. 28; Ṛs.3.2,21,23; Me.42. कुमुदवनमपश्रि श्रीमदम्भोजषण्डम् Śi.11.64. -2 A red lotus. -दम् Silver. -दः 1 An epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 N. of the elephant supposed to guard the south. -3 Camphor. -4 A species of monkey. -5 N. of a Nāga who gave his younger sister कुमुद्वती to Kuśa, son of Rāma; see R.16.79.86. -दा A form of Durgā. -Comp. -अभिख्यम् silver. -आकरः, -आवासः a pond full of lotuses. कुमुद्वतीनां कुमुदाकरैरिव Śi.12.4. -आनन्द a. The delighter of lotuses; अन्वगात्कुमुदानन्दं शशाङ्कमिव कौमुदी R.17.6. -ईशः the moon. -खण्डम् an assemblage of lotuses. -गन्ध्या f. a woman having the smell of a कुमुद to her body. -नाथः, -पतिः, -बन्धः, -बान्धवः, -सुहृद् m. the moon. ततः कुमुदनाथेन कामिनीगण्डपाण्डुना R.
maṇḍūkaḥ मण्डूकः [मण्डयति वर्षासमयं, मण्ड् ऊकण् Uṇ.4.42.] 1 A frog; निपानमिव मण्डूकाः सोद्योगं नरमायान्ति विवशाः सर्वसंपदः Subhāṣ. -2 N. of a particular breed of horses. -3 A machine like a frog. -4 The sole of a horse's hoof. कम् A kind of coitus or mode of sexual enjoyment. -की 1 A female frog. -2 A wanton or unchaste woman. -3 N. of several plants. -Comp. -अनुवृत्तिः, -गतिः, -प्लुतिः f. 'the leap of a frog', skipping over or omitting at intervals (in grammar the word is used to denote the skipping of several Sūtras and supplying from a previous Sūtra); क्रियाग्रहणं मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवर्तते Sk. -कुलम् a collection of frogs. -पर्णा, -पर्णिका, -पर्णी N. of several plants like मञ्जिष्ठा, ब्राह्मी etc. -योगः a kind of abstract meditation in which the person who meditates sits motionless like a frog; मण्डूकयोगनियतैर्यथान्यायं निषेविभिः Mb.13.142.9. -सरस् n. a pond full of frogs.
nalinī नलिनी 1 A lotus-plant; न पर्वताग्रे नलिनी प्ररोहति Mk.4.17; नलिनीदलगतजलमतितरलम् Moha M.5; Ku.4.6. -2 An assemblage of lotuses. -3 A pond or place abounding in lotuses. राजन्तीं राजराजस्य नलिनीमिव सर्वतः Rām.2.95.4; नलिन्यो यत्र क्रीडन्ति प्रमदाः सुरसेविताः Bhāg.8.15.13. -4 A lotus or the stalk of it. -5 The celestial Ganges. -6 The intoxicating juice of the cocoa-nut. -7 A myst. -8 N. of one of the nostrils. -9 the city of Indra (शक्रपुरी); 'वस्वौकसारा श्रीदस्य शक्रस्य नलिनी पुरी' इति हरिः; Rām.2.94. 26. -Comp. -खण्डम् -षण्डम् a group or assemblage of lotuses. -दलम्, पत्रम् a leaf of the lotus plant. -रुहः an epithet of Brahmā. (-हम्) a lotus-stalk, the fibres of a lotus.
padma पद्म a. [पद्-मन्] Lotus-hued. -द्मम् 1 A lotus (m. also in this sense); Nelumbium Speciosum (variety red); पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम्. -2 A lotus-like ornament. -3 The form or figure of a lotus. -4 The root of a lotus. -5 The coloured marks on the trunk and face of an elephant; कालः किरातः स्फुटपद्मकस्य वधं व्यधा- द्यस्य दिनद्विपस्य N.22.9; -6 An army arrayed in the form of a lotus; पद्मेन चैव व्यूहेन निविशेत सदा स्वयम् Ms.7. 188. -7 A particular high number (one thousand billions). -8 Lead. -9 N. given by the Tāntrikas to the six divisions of the upper part of the body called Chakras. -1 A mark or mole on the human body. -11 A spot. -12 N. of a particular part of a column. -द्मः A kind of temple. -2 N. of a quarter-elephant. ये पद्मकल्पैरपि च द्विपेन्द्रैः Bu. Ch.2.3. -3 A species of serpent. -4 An epithet of Rāma. -5 One of the nine treasures of Kubera; see नवनिधि. -6 A kind of coitus or mode of sexual enjoyment. -7 A particular posture of the body in religious meditation. -8 One of the eight treasures connected with the magical art called पद्मिनी. -द्मा 1 N. of Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune, and wife of Viṣṇu; (तं) पद्मा पद्मातपत्रेण भेजे साम्राज्य- दीक्षितम् R.4.5. -2 Cloves. -Comp. -अक्ष a. lotuseyed; रामं दूर्वादलश्यामं पद्माक्षं पीतवाससम् Rāmarakśā 25, (-क्षः) an epithet of Viṣṇu or the sun; (-क्षम्) the seed of a lotus. -अटः Cassia Tora (Mar. टाकळा). -अन्तरम्, -रः a lotus-leaf. -आकरः 1 a large tank of pond abounding in lotuses. -2 a pond or pool or water in general. -3 a lotus-pool. -4 an assemblage of lotuses; पद्माकरं दिनकरो विकचीकरोति Bh.2.73. -आलयः an epithet of Brahman, the creator. (-या) 1 an epithet of Lakṣmī. -2 cloves. -आसनम् 1 a lotus-seat; प्रणेमतुस्तौ पितरौ प्रजानां पद्मासनस्थाय पितामहाय Ku.7.86. -2 a particular posture in religious meditation; ऊरुमूले वाम- पादं पुनस्तु दक्षिणं पदम् । वामोरौ स्थापयित्वा तु पद्मासनमिति स्मृतम् ॥; ध्यायेदाजानुबाहुं धृतशरधनुषं बद्धपद्मासनस्थम् Rāmaraṣā 1. -3 a kind of coitus. (-नः) 1 an epithet of Brahman, the creator. -2 of Śiva. -3 of the sun. -आह्वम् cloves. -उद्भवः an epithet of Brahman. -कर, -हस्त a. holding a lotus. (-रः, -स्तः) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 a lotus like hand. -3 N. of the sun. (-रा, -स्ता) N. of Lakṣmī. -कर्णिका 1 the pericarp of a lotus. -2 the central part of an army arrayed in the form of a lotus. -कलिका a lotus-bud, an unblown lotus. -काष्ठम् a fragrant wood used in medicine. -केशरः, -रम् the filament of a lotus. -कोशः, -कोषः 1 the calyx of a lotus. -2 a position of the fingers resembling the calyx of a lotus. -खण्डम्, -षण्डम् a multitude of lotuses. -गन्ध, -गन्धि a. lotus-scented, or as fragrant as or smelling like a lotus. (-न्धम्, -गन्धि n.) = पद्मकाष्ठ q. v. -गर्भः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 of Viṣṇu. -3 of Śiva. -4 of Buddha. -5 the sun. -6 the inside or middle of a lotus; पद्मगर्भादिवोद्धृतम् Kāv.2.41. -गुणा, -गृहा 1 an epithet of Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth. -2 cloves. -जः, -जातः, -भवः, -भूः, -योनिः, -संभवः epithets of Brahman, the lotus-born god. -तन्तुः the fibrous stalk of a lotus. -नाभः, -भिः an epithet of Viṣṇu; शान्ताकारं भुजगशयनं पद्मनाभं सुरेशम्. -नाभः 1 N. of the eleventh month (reckoned from मार्गशीर्ष). -2 a magical formula spoken over weapons. -नालम् a lotus-stalk. -निधिः a treasure of the value of a Padma. -पाणिः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 N. of Buddha. -3 N. of the sun. -4 of Viṣṇu. -पुष्पः the Karṇikāra plant. -प्रिया the goddess Manasā, the wife of sage Jaratkāru. -बन्धः a kind of artificial composition in which the words are arranged in the form of a lotus-flower; see K. P.9. ad. loc. -बन्धुः 1 the sun, -2 a bee. -बीजम् the seed of a lotus. -भासः an epithet of Śiva. -मालिनी the goddess of wealth. -मुद्रा (-द्रिका) a particular pose according to Tantraśāstra; हस्तौ तु संमुखौ कृत्वा तदधः प्रोथिताङ्गुली । तलान्तर्मिलिताङ्गुष्ठौ कृत्वैषा पद्ममुद्रिका ॥ Tantrasāra. -रागः, -गम् a ruby; R.13.53;17.23; Ku.3.53; Kau. A.2.11.29; आकरे पद्मरागाणां जन्म काचमणेः कुतः ॥ H. -रूपा an epithet of the goddess of wealth. -रेखा a figure on the palm of the hand (of the form of a lotus-flower) which indicates the acquisition of great wealth. -लाञ्छनः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 Kubera. -3 the sun. -4 a king. (-ना) 1 an epithet of Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth. -2 or of Sarasvatī, the goddess of learning. -3 N. of Tārā. -वनबान्धवः the sun. -वर्चस् a. lotus-hued. -वासा an epithet of Lakṣmī. -समासनः an epithet of Brahman. -स्नुषा 1 an epithet of Gaṅgā. -2 of Lakṣmī. -3 of Durgā. -हस्तः a particular measure of length. -हासः an epithet of Viṣṇu.
padminī पद्मिनी 1 The lotus plant; पद्मिनी नक्तमुन्निद्रा Kāv.4.45; सुरगज इव बिभ्रत् पद्मिनीं दन्तलग्नाम् Ku.3.76; R.16.68; Me.83; M.2.13; निरास भृङ्गं कुपितेव पद्मिनी Bk.2.6. -2 An assemblage of lotus flowers. -3 A pond or lake abounding in lotuses; पुष्पैश्चान्यैः परिक्षिप्तं पद्मिन्या च सपद्मया Rām.3.1.6; क्षीणतोयानिलार्काभ्यां हतत्विडिव पद्मिनी । बभूव पाण्डवी सेना तव पुत्रस्य तेजसा ॥ Mb.7.153.2. -4 The fibrous stalk of a lotus. -5 A female elephant. -6 A woman of the first of the four classes into which writers on erotical science divide women; the रतिमञ्जरी thus defines her:-- भवति कमलनेत्रा नासिकाक्षुद्ररन्ध्रा अविरलकुच- युग्मा चारुकेशी कृशाङ्गी । मृदुवचनसुशीला गीतवाद्यानुरक्ता सकलतनु- सुवेशा पद्मिनी पद्मगन्धा ॥ -Comp. -ईशः, -कान्तः, -वल्लभः the sun. -कण्टकः a. kind of leprosy. -खण्डम्, -षण्डम् a multitude of lotuses; a place abounding in lotuses.
saras सरस् n. [सृ-असुन्] 1 A lake, pond, pool, a large sheet of water; सरसामस्मि सागरः Bg.1.24. -2 Water. -3 Speech; cf. सरस्-वती. -Comp. -काकः (-की) A swan; L. D. B. -जम्, -जन्मन् n., -रुहम् (सरोजम्, सरोजन्मन्, सरोरुहम्) also -सरसिजम्, सरसिरुहम् a lotus; सरसिजमनुविद्धं शैवलेनापि रम्यम् Ś.1.2; [Shri. Kṣītiśachandra Chatterji points out in Mañjūṣā (March, 1958) that the word सरसिजम् has been used in the sense of 'a lotus' probably for the first time by Kālidāsa. According to lexicographers the word सरसिज is met with first in the Suśruta Saṁhitā (1.46. 124) as an adjective qualifying मत्स्याः; Bhāravi uses the word in the sense of 'a land lotus in उत्फुल्लस्थल- नलिनीवनादमुष्मादुद्धूतः सरसिजसंभवः परागः. Three stages of being यौगिक, योगरूढ and रूढ are thus clearly seen in the history of the word.]; सरोरुहद्युतिमुषः पादांस्तवासेवितुम् Ratn. 1.3. -जः (also -सरसिजः) Sārasa bird. (-सरोजिन् m. an epithet of Brahman). -जिनी, -रुहिणी 1 a lotus plant; भ्रमर कथं वा सरोजिनीं त्यजसि Bv.1.1. -2 a pond abounding in lotuses. -3 a multitude of lotuses. -4 a lotus. -रक्षः (सरोरक्षः) the guardian of a pool. -रुह् (सरोरुह्) n. a lotus. -वरः (सरोवरः) a lake.
taṭākaḥ तटाकः कम् A pond (deep enough for the lotus and other aquatic plants); See तडाग.
udānaḥ उदानः [अन्-घञ्] 1 Breathing upwards. -2 Breathing, breath in general. -3 One of the five vital airs or life-winds which rises up the throat and enters into the head); the other four being प्राण, अपान, समान and व्यान; स्पन्दयत्यधरं वक्त्रं गात्रनेत्रप्रकोपनः । उद्वेजयति मर्माणि उदानो नाम मारुतः ॥ -4 (With Buddhists) An expression of praise or joy. -5 The navel. -6 An eye-lash. -7 A kind of snake. 2. उदन् n. [उन्द्-कनिन् P.VI.1.63] Water (usually occurring in compounds either at the beginning or at the end, and as an optional substitute for उदक after the acc. dual. It has no forms for the first five inflections. In comp. it drops its न्); e. g. उदधि, अच्छोद, क्षीरोद &c. -Comp. -आशयः A lake, tank; शरदुदाशये साधुजातसत्सरसिजोदरश्रीमुषा दृशा Bhāg.1.31.2. -ओदनः water-meal. -कीर्णः-र्यः N. of a tree (महाकरंज) the bark of which is rubbed and thrown in water to stun the fishes). -कुम्भः a water-jar; Ms.2.182,3.68. तपःकृशः शान्त्युदकुम्भहस्तः Bk. -ग्राभः Holding water, a cloud (Ved.) उदग्राभस्य नमयन् वधस्नैः Rv.9.97.15. -कोष्ठः A water-jar. -ज a. aquatic, watery, produced in or by water. -जम् A lotus; एतद्धृषीकचषकैरसकृत्पिबामः शर्वादयो$ङजमध्वमृतासवंध्ऱ्यु ते Bhāg.1.14.33. -धानः [उदकं धीयते अत्र] 1 a water-jar. -2 a cloud. -धिः [उदकानि धीयन्ते$त्र धा-कि उदादेशः] 1 the receptacle of waters, ocean; उदधेरिव निम्नगाशतेष्वभवन्नास्य विमानना क्वचित् R.8.8. -2 a cloud. -3 a lake, any large reservoir of water. -4 a water-jar. -5 a symbolical expression for the number 4 or 7. ˚कन्या, तनया, सुता Lakṣmī, the daughter of the ocean (produced from the ocean among the 14 jewels). ˚क्रमः, -क्राः m. a voyager, mariner. ˚मलः 1 cuttle-fish-bone. -2 the foam of the ocean. ˚मेखला or ˚वस्त्रा the earth (girdled by the ocean, sea-girt). ˚राजः the king of waters, i. e. the chief ocean. ˚संभवम् sea-salt. ˚सुता N. of Lakṣmī; and of Dvārakā, the capital of Kṛiṣṇa (said to have been reclaimed from the ocean). -नेमि a. Rimmed by the ocean. -प a. crossing the water (as a boat). -पात्रम्, -त्री a water-jug, vessel; Ms.3.96. -पानः, -नम् a small pool or pond near a well, or the well itself; K.5. यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः संप्लुतोदके Bg.2.46. ˚मण्डूकः (lit.) a frog in a well; (fig.) one who has had no experience of the world at large, a man of limited ideas who knows only his own neighbourhood; cf. कूपमण्डूक. -पीतिः f. A place for drinking water. -पेषम् a paste, anything ground with water. (-पम्) ind. P.III.4.38 and P.VI.3.28. by grinding in water. -प्रुत् a. Ved. causing water to flow; swimming or splashing in water (?). -प्लवः Waterflood (जलप्रलय); Bhāg 12.4.13. (v. l. for उपप्लव). -प्लुत a. swimming in water. उदप्लुतमिव दार्वहीनाम् Av.1.4.3. -बिन्दुः a drop of water; (प्रपेदिरे) चिरेण नाभि प्रथमोद- बिन्दवः Ku.5.24. -भारः 1 a water-carrier, i. e. a cloud. -2 Water current (पूर); यमस्वसुश्चित्र इवोदभारः (रराज) Śi.3.11. -मन्थः barley-water; a particular mixture; Mb.13.64.26. -मानः, -नम् a fiftieth part of an आढक q. v. -मेघः 1 a watery cloud. -2 a shower of rain; तुग्रो ह भुज्युमश्विनोदमेघे Rv.1.116.3. -मेहिन् a. Having watery urine or diabetes. -लाव- णिक a. salted, prepared with brine, briny. -वज्रः 1 a thunder shower; water-spout. -2 thunderbolt in the form of water; भिन्दानो हृदयमसाहि नोदवज्रः Śi.8.39. -वाप one who offers waters to the manes. -वासः standing or residence in water; सहस्यरात्रीरुदवासतत्परा Ku.5.26. (-सम्) a house on the borders of a stream or pond. -वासिन् a. standing in water; K.23. -वाह a. bringing water; दिवा चित् तमः कृण्वन्ति पर्जन्येनोदवाहेन Rv.1.38.9. (-हः) a cloud. -वाहनम् 1 a water-vessel. -2 A cloud. -वावधः a yoke for carrying water. -शरावः a jar filled with water; उदशराव आत्मानवेक्ष्य. -शुद्धः a water-jar. -श्वित् n. [उदकन जलेन श्वयति] butter-milk containing fifty per cent water; (i. e. 2 parts of butter-milk and 1 part of water); श्रेयस्तैलं हि पिण्याकाद् घृतं श्रेय उदश्वितः Mb.12.167.35. -स्थानम् 1 a place full of water. -4 residence in water. -स्थाली a kettle, vessel for holding water. -हरणः a vessel for drawing water. -हार a. fetching or carrying water. (-रः) a cloud (watercarrier).
yaṣṭikā यष्टिका 1 A staff, stick, pole, club. -2 A pearlnecklace (of one string). -3 An oblong pond or tank. -4 Liquorice; also यष्टीकम्.
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dīdhyāna dí̄dhy-āna, pr. pt. Ā. pondering, iv. 50, 1 [dhī think].
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anabhirūpa a. not correspond ing; uneducated; ugly.
anukāṅkṣin a. striving after, eager; -kâmá, m. desire, longing; a. conform ing to one's wish: -m, ad.; -kâra, -ka, a. imitating; resembling; -kârin, a. id.; corre sponding, conforming to, following; -kârya, fp. to be represented; n. subsequent business; -kâlam, ad. at the regular time.
anuga a. following; flying after; corresponding to (--°ree;); m. follower: pl. reti nue; -gati, f. following: -ka, a. following; imitating; conforming to; -gantavya, fp. to be followed or accompanied; -gama, m., -na, n. following; -gara, m. invitation ad dressed to the reciter; -gargita, n. echo; -gâmin, a. following, obedient to (ac.); m. servant; -giram, ad. on the mountain.
anugīta (pp.) n. imitative song; -gîti, f. a metre; -guna, a. of similar quali ties with, corresponding, suitable to (--°ree;): -m, ad. according to merit, -tva, n. abst. n.; -gri hîta, pp. favoured, obliged; -godam, ad. on the river Godâ.
anurūpa a. suitable; conformable to; fit for (g.): -m, -tas, in. ad. in propor tion to (--°ree;); -rûpaka, a. suitable, conformable, corresponding; -rodha, m. compliance, grati fication; regard, consideration; -ródhana, n. compliance; partiality; -rodhin, a. consi dering (--°ree;): (i)-tâ, f. complaisance.
anudeśa m. subsequent enumera tion corresponding to a previous one; injunc tion; -deham, ad. behind; from behind.
apaśyat pr. pt. not seeing, not perceiving; not pondering.
abjinī f. lotus plant; lotus pond; -pati, m. sun.
abja a. aquatic; n. lotus; -bhû, m. Lotus-born (Brahmâ); -saras, n. lotus pond.
ambhoja n. (day) lotus; -ginî, f. lotus plant: -vana, n. pond covered with lotuses; -da, m. cloud; -dhara, m. id.; -dhi, m. sea; -nidhi, m. id.; -bindu, m. drop of water; -muk, m. cloud; -ruha, n. (day) lotus: -maya, a. full of lotuses.
asamāna a. unequal; not shared by others; n. no corresponding condition; -grâma, a. belonging to a different village.
kamalinī f. lotus plant; lotus bed, lotus pond: -kâ, f. dim. small bed or lake of lotuses; -dala, n. lotus leaf (Pr.).
kātara a. cowardly; timid, faint-hearted, despondent; afraid of (lc., inf., --°ree;): -tâ, f., -tva, n. fear.
kāśmalya n. despondency, despair.
kāsāra m. pond, lake.
kulāṅkura m. scion of a family; -½a&ndot;gâra, m. firebrand=destroyer of his own family; -½akala, -½adri, m. chief mtn. or mtn. range; -½anuguna-vat, a. having merits cor responding to his race; -½anta-karana, a. de stroying a race; -½anvaya, m. noble descent; -½anvita, pp. of noble race; -½âpîda, m. orna ment of the family.
krīḍā f. play, sport, jest, dalliance: -kapi-tva, n. jesting imitation of a monkey; -kânana, n. pleasure-grove; -kâsâra, m. plea sure-pond; -kopa, n. simulated anger; -kau tuka, n. wanton curiosity; -kausala, n. art of jesting; -gríha, m. n. pleasure-house; -par vata, m. (artificial) pleasure-hill: -ka, m. id.; -mayûra, m. pet peacock; -markata pota, m. pet young monkey; -mahîdhra, m. pleasure-hill; -rasa, m.enjoyment of sport or fun: -maya, a. consisting in the water of play; -vesman, n. pleasure-house; -sakun ta, m. pet bird; -saila, m. pleasure-hill; -saras, n. pleasure-lake.
khāta pp. √ khan; m. n. trench, pit; well, pond; n. cavity: (a)-ka, n. ditch, pit; -tri, m. digger; -tra, n. breach.
gaṇaya den. P. (Â.) count, enumerate, calculate; reckon among (lc.); consider, account (2 ac.); impute to (lc.); regard, esteem; excogitate: with na, disregard; think nothing of: with bahu, have great regard for: pp. ganita. ava, disregard, pay no attention to. pari, count over, calculate; consider: pp. limited in number. vi, count (ps. amount to); consider, ponder; account (2 ac.); re gard; disregard.
grāhin a. (--°ree;) seizing, holding; catching; containing; receiving, gaining, keeping; buying (with in. of price); searching through; perceiving; pondering; -yã, fp. to be seized, -clasped; -apprehended; -obtained; -accepted; -insisted on; -perceived, -comprehended; -learned; -understood; -recognised, -regarded.
grahaṇīya fp. to be accepted or pondered.
jalārthin a. thirsty; -½ârdra, a. wet, moist: â, f. wet garment; damp cloth (used for fanning); -ârdrikâ, f. id. (--°ree; a.); -½âsaya, m. reservoir, pond, lake; sea; a. rest ing in the water; stupid.
jalāṃśu m. (cool-rayed), moon (= gadâmsu); -½âgama, m. rain; -½añgali, m. two handfuls of water in honour of the dead; fare well for ever (fig.); -½atyaya, m. (cessation of the rain), autumn; -½âdhâra, m. reservoir, pond.
jalayantra n. squirt; water-clock: -ka, n. squirt, -kakra, n. water-wheel, -man dira, n. apartment with shower-bath; -râsi, m. waters; sea, ocean; -ruh, -ruha, m. day lotus (growing in the water); -rekhâ, f. streak on the water; strip of water; -lekhâ, f. id.; -lava-muk, m. (shedding drops of water), cloud; -vat, a. abounding in water; -vâsa, m. abode in the water; a. living in the water; -vâs-in, a. living in the water:(i)-tâ, f. abst. n.; -vâha, a. bearing water: -ka, m. water carrier; -sayyâ, f. lying in the water (as a penance); -samnivesa, m. reservoir, pond; -sûrya: -ka, m. reflection of the sun in the water; -stha, a. being in the water; -sthâna, n. reservoir, lake; -snâna, n. bathe; -hastin, m. (water-elephant), crocodile; -hâra, m. water-carrier; î, f.
taḍāga n. pond, lake: -bhedaka, m. burster of tanks.
taṭāka n. pond, lake.
tadrasa m. essence of it; -râga, m. suffix attached to the name of a people to designate their king; -rûpa, a. of such kind or appearance; of the same kind; -vamsya, m. relative of that ruler; -vaktri, m.propounder of that; -vat, 1. ad. in this way, thus; similarly, likewise, also; 2. a. possess ing or containing that: -tâ, f. conformity, harmony; -vayas, a. of the same age; -víd, a. knowing or versed in that; m. connoisseur; -vidha, a. of such a kind, such, such-like; corresponding thereto: -tva, n. corresponding nature; -vishaya, a. belonging to that cate gory; having that as an object; -vritti, a. living according to that; -vrata, a. fulfilling duties towards him, her, or them.
tāḍāga a. belonging to ponds.
tāmarasa n. day lotus; î, f. lotus pond.
toyāgni m. submarine fire; -½añgali, m. two handfuls of water (in honour of the dead); -½âdhâra, m. reservoir, pond; -½âlaya, m. ocean; -½âsaya, m. reservoir, lake; -½utsarga, m. discharge of water.
toyakaṇa m. drop of water; -kar man, n. libation of water to the dead; -krîdâ, f. sporting in the water; -kara, a. moving in the water; m. aquatic animal; -ga, a. growing or living in the water; n.lotus: -½akshî, f. lotus-eyed maiden; -da, m. rain cloud: -½atyaya, m. autumn; -dhara, a. wa ter-bearing; -dhâra, m., â, f. stream of water; -dhi, m. ocean; -maya, a. (î) consisting of water; -mâtra½avasesha, a. having nothing but water left (in them); -muk, m. cloud; -yantra, n. water-clock; -râg, m. ocean (lord of waters); -râsi, m. pond, lake; sea; -vat, a. supplied with or surrounded by water; -vâha, m. rain-cloud.
dīrghikā f. oblong pond.
dhyāyam abs. pondering (ac.).
padārtha m. thing corresponding to a word, substance, object; subject, topic; category (ph.); meaning of a word.
padmin a. spotted (elephant): -î, f. lotus (nelumbium speciosum: flower & plant); multitude of lotuses; lotus-pond: -khanda, n. group of lotuses.
parīmāṇa n.=parimâna; -ram- bha, m. embrace; -varta, m. exchange, bar ter; change; -vâda, m. detraction; -vâra, m. retinue; -vâha, m. drain or channel for carrying off the overflow of a pond, waste pipe; -sesha, m. remnant.
palvala n. small tank, pond, pool.
puṣkarin a. abounding in blue lotuses; m. elephant: (-ín)-î, f. pool with lotuses; pond.
pratikañcuka m. man armoured against all assaults, obstinate adversary; -kantham, ad. singly, one by one; -kara, a. (î) counteracting (--°ree;); m. compensation (--°ree;); -karkasa, a. equally hard with, of the same hardness as (--°ree;); -kartavya, fp. to be re quited (of good or evil); to be repaid to (g.); to be done by way of compensation; to be paid back (debt); to be opposed or counter acted; n. (impl.) one should requite (d., lc.); -repay as a debt to (d.); -counteract any one (g.); -give medical aid to (g.); -kartri, m. requiter; opponent; -karma, ad. for every act; at every rite or celebration; -karman, n. requital; corresponding action (--°ree;); counter action; (medical) treatment; personal adorn ment; -karsha, m. combination; -kâ&ndot;k shin, a. desiring (--°ree;); -kâmám, ad. accord ing to wish, at pleasure; -kâmin, a. dis agreeable; -kâminî, f. female rival; -kâya, m. (counter body), adversary; -kâra, m. re quital (of good or evil), compensation for (--°ree;); counteraction, employment of remedies; alleviation, remedy: -karman, n.opposition, resistance, -vidhâna, n. medical treatment; -kârin, a. obviating, counteracting (--°ree;); -kâr ya, n. reward (to, g.); -kitava, m. adver sary at play; -kuñgara, m. hostile elephant.
pratidaṇḍa a. (counter to the rod), refractory; -darsa, m. sight; -darsana, n. beholding, perceiving; appearing; sight, appearance; -dâtavya, fp. to be restored; -dâna, n. giving or present in return;-dâ pya, fp. to be forced to be restored; -dinam, ad. every day, daily, day by day; -divasam, ad. id.; -disam, ad. in every quarter or di rection, all round; -d&isharp;van, m. adversary at play; -dúh, (nm. -dhuk), milk fresh from the cow; -dûta, m. return messenger; -drís, a. (or práti-), similar; -drisam, ad. in or for every eye; -drishtânta, m. counter instance: -sama, m. irrelevant objection by adducing a counter instance which ignores one's oppo nent's example; -deya, fp. to be restored; -devatam, ad. for every deity; -devatâ, f. corresponding deity; -desam, ad. in every country; -deham, ad. in every body; -dai vatam, ad. for every deity; -dvandva, m.adversary, rival; -dvandvin, m. id.; --°ree; = rivalling; -dvandvî-bhû, become an adversary; -dvâdasan, a. pl. twelve each; -dvâram, ac., -dvâri, lc. ad. at every door or gate; -dvirada, m. hostile elephant; -dvî pam, ad.in every part of the world.
prativaktavya fp. to be replied to; to be given (answer); to be combated or disputed; to be contradicted (person); -vak ana, n. answer, reply, to (g. or --°ree;): î-kri, give as an answer, reply with (ac.); -vakas, n. answer; -vatsara, m. year; -vatsaram, ad. every year; -vaditavya, fp. to be com bated or disputed; -vanam, ad. in every forest; -vat, a. containing the word &open;prati;&close; -vanitâ, f. female rival; -varna, m. each caste: -m, ad. for every caste; -varnika, a. having a corresponding colour, similar; -var sha, °ree;-or -m, ad. every year; -vallabhâ, f. female rival, concubine; -vasati, ad. in or on every house; -vastu, n. corresponding thing, equivalent, compensation: -½upamâ, f. parallel simile (rh.); -vahni-pradakshi- nam, ad. at every circumambulation of the fire from left to right; -vâkya, n. answer; -vâk, f. yelling orbarking at (pl.); answer; -vâkita, n. answer; -vâta, m. wind blowing in front: -m, ad. against the wind; lc. to the leeward; -vâda, m. refusal, rejection; -vâd in, a. contradicting; refractory; m. oppo nent; defendant (in a lawsuit); -vârana, 1. a. warding off; n. keeping off; 2. hostile elephant; -vârttâ, f. news; -vârya, fp. to be warded off (--°ree;); -vâsaram, m. daily.
pratirāja m. rival or hostile king; -râgan, m. id.; -râtram or -râtri, ad. every night; -ripu, ad. against the enemy; -rûpa, n. (counter-form), effigy, image, likeness; pattern; counterfeit, of (g.); a.resembling; corresponding, suitable; handsome, comely: -ka, a. (ikâ) resembling, having the appear ance of; counterfeit; m. quack, charlatan, -kary&asharp;, f. exemplary conduct.
pratyākalita (pp.) n. counter investigation: judicial consideration as to which of the litigants is to prove his case, after the defendant has pleaded; -kshepaka, a. mocking, deriding; -khyâta,pp. rejected, refused: -tva, n. rejection; -khyâtavya, fp. to be impugned or denied; -khyâtri, m. re fuser; -khyâna, n. rebuff, rejection; refusal; combating (feelings, etc.); impugnment, de nial, disavowal; -khyâyin, a.rejecting (--°ree;); -khyeya, fp. to be repelled or rejected; curable (disease); -gati, f., -gama, m. return; -gamana, n. coming back, return, to (--°ree;); -ghâta, m. repulse; -kakshâna-ka, a. in tending to dispute anything (ac.); -kâra, m. corresponding conduct.
pratyāśraya m. shelter, abode; -srâvá, m., -sr&asharp;vana, n. answering call (ritual formula); -svâsa, m. breathing again, re covery; -svâsana, n. consolation; -samkali ta, (pp.) n. weighing side by side, pondering both sides of a question; -sa&ndot;ga, m. con nexion; proximity (--°ree;); -satti, f. immediate proximity (in time or space); analogy; cheer fulness, good humour; -sanna, pp. near, proximate, close at hand: -tâ, f. proximity; -svara, a. reflecting back.
prādhānika a. pre-eminent, most excellent; relating to or proceeding from primordial matter or nature (pradhâ na); -ya, n. preponderance, predominance, prevalence, prominence; ascendancy, supre macy: °ree;--, in., ab., -tas, chiefly, mainly, with regard to the main or essential points, summarily; m. chief or most distinguished person.
bhāva m. becoming, arising, occur ring; turning into (--°ree;), transformation into (lc.); being, existence; endurance, continu ance; state of being (--°ree;, forming abst. nouns like -tâ and -tva); being orbecoming (as the fundamental notion of the verb, sp. of the int. or imps. vb.); behaviour, conduct; condition, state; rank, position; aspect of a planet (in astrology); true state, reality (°ree;--, in reality); manner of being, nature; mental state, dis position, temperament; way of thinking, thought, opinion, sentiment, feeling; emotion (in rhetoric there are eight or nine primary Bhâvas corresponding to that number of Rasas or sentiments); supposition; meaning, import (iti bhâvah is continually used by commen tators like iti½arthah or iti½abhiprâyah, at the end of an explanation); affection, love; seat of the emotions, heart, soul; substance, thing; being, creature; discreet man (dr.: vc.=re spected sir); astrological house: bhâvo bhâ vam nigakkhati, birds of a feather flock to gether; bhâvam dridham kri, make a firm resolution; bhâvam kri or bandh, conceive affection for (lc.): -ka, a. causing to be, pro ducing (--°ree;); promoting the welfare of (g.); imagining, fancying (g. or --°ree;); having a sense of the beautiful, having a poetic taste; -kar tri-ka, a. having as its agent an abstract noun; -gamya, fp. to be recognised by the imagination.
bhūta pp. become, having been, past; actually happened; existing, present; being (compounded with a predicate, especially a substantive, to form adjectives; adverbs are thus turned into the corresponding adjectives); mixed or joined with (--°ree;); purified; m. n. being (divine, human, animal, and even vege table); good being (V.); created thing; world (V.; gnly. n.); uncanny being, spirit, ghost, goblin (C.); n. past; fact, reality, actual oc currence; welfare; element (esp. the gross elements, earth, water, fire, air, ether; of which the body is supposed to be composed and into which it is dissolved: cp. pañka-tva).
bhūyastva n. preponderance; in crease; multitude, abundance, plentifulness; great extent.
manas n. mind (in its widest sense as the seat of intellectual operations and of emotions), internal organ; understanding, intellect; soul, heart; conscience; thought, conception; imagination; cogitation, reflexion; inclination, desire, will; mood, disposition; in the philosophical systems manas is regarded as distinct from soul (âtman), of which it is only the instrument, and is (except in the Nyâya) considered perishable:-kri, make up one's mind, resolve; fix one's heart or affections upon any one (g.); -kri, pra-kri, dhâ, vi-dhâ, dhri, bandh, and nivesaya, direct the thoughts to, think of (d., lc., prati, or inf.); -sam-â-dhâ, collect oneself; in.mánasâ, in the mind; in thought or imagination; with all one's heart, will ingly; by the leave of (g.); manasâ½iva, as with a thought, in a trice; manasâ man, think of in one's mind, -gam, go to in thought =imagine, remember, -sam-gam, become unanimous; manasi kri, bear or ponder in mind, -ni-dhâ, impress on the mind, trea sure in the heart; meditate, -vrit, be pass ing in one's mind; manas is often used --°ree; a. with an inf. in -tu=wishing or intend ing to (e. g. prashtu-manas, desirous of inquiring).
mandotsāha a. discouraged, despondent; -½udaka, a. deficient in water; -½udarî, f. N. of the eldest wife of Râvana; -½ushman, a. slightly warm, cool; -½autsuk ya, a. having but slight eagerness, disin clined for (prati).
mahāpakṣa a. having many ad herents, having a large following; -pa&ndot;ka, n. (?) deep mud; -pa&ndot;kti, f. a metre of forty-eight syllables; -pandita, a. extremely learned; m. great scholar; -patha, m. prin cipal street; high road; the great journey, pilgrimage to the other world (-m yâ, die); a certain hell; a. having a great path: -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -padma, n. a certain high number; m. one of the eight treasures connected with the magic art padminî; N. of a Nâga: -pati, m. lord of millions, ep. of Nanda, -saras, n. N. of a lake, -salila, n. id.; -padya-shatka, n. T. of a poem (at tributed to Kâlidâsa) consisting of six classi cal verses; -½aparâdha, m. great crime or injury; -parvata, m. high mountain; -pasu, m. large cattle; -pâta, m. long flight; a. flying far (arrow); -pâtaka, n. great crime or sin (of which there are five: killing a Brâhman, drinking spirituous liquor, theft, adultery with a teacher's wife, and asso ciation with persons guilty of those four crimes); -pâtakin, a. guilty of a capital sin; -pâtra, n. prime minister; -pâda, a. large footed; -pâpa, n.great crime; -pâpman, a. very harmful; -pâra, 1. m. a certain per sonification; 2. a. having distant banks, wide (sea); -pârsva, a. having broad sides (leech); N.; -pâsupata, a. with vrata, n. the great vow of a worshipper of Siva Pasupati; m. zealous worshipper of Siva Pasupati; -pîtha, n. high seat; -pumsa, m. great man; -punya, a. very auspicious (day); very good or beau tiful; very holy; -purá, n. great fortress: î, f. great citadel; -purusha, m. great or eminent man; supreme spirit; -pûta, pp. extremely pure; -prishtha, a. broad-backed; -pai&ndot;gya, n. T. of a Vedic text; -prakarana, n. main treatment of a subject; -pragâpati, m. great lord of creatures, ep. of Vishnu; -pratâpa, m. of great dignity, majestic; -pratîhâra, m. head janitor; -pradâna, n. great gift; -prapañka, m. the great world; -prabha, a. of great lustre, very splendid; -prabhâ, f. great brightness;-prabhâva, a. very mighty; -prabhu, m. great lord, sovereign; chief; ep. of Vishnu; -pramâna, a. very exten sive; -pralaya, m. great dissolution of the universe at the end of a cosmic age: -kâla, m. time of the --; -prasna,m. great or im portant question; -prasâda, m. great pre sent; a. very gracious; -prasthâna, n. great departure, decease; -prâgña, a. very wise or prudent (person); -prâna, m. hard breath ing, aspirate sound; great strength; a. pro nounced with a hard breathing, aspirated; of great endurance or physical strength; -plava, m. great flood, deluge; -phala, n. large fruit; great reward; a. producing a great reward; -bala, a. very strong, power ful, or effective; m. N.; -bâdha, a. very in jurious; -bâhu, a. long-armed, strong-armed; m. ep. of Vishnu; N.; -bila, n. deep hole; -buddhi, a. of great intellect, extremely clever; m. N. of an Asura; N.; -brihatî, f. a metre (8+8+8+8+12 syllables); -brah ma: -n, m. the great Brahman (the god); -brâhmaná, m. great Brâhman (also used sarcastically); n. Great (=Tândya) Brâh mana; -bhata, m. great warrior; N.; -bha ya, n. great danger or straits; -bhâga, a. having great good fortune, very lucky, greatly blessed; greatly distinguished, very illus trious (frequently used as a term of address); -bhâgin, a. very fortunate, greatly blessed; -bhâgya, n.high position, great importance or power; a. extremely fortunate: -tâ, f. great good fortune; -bhânda½agâra, n. chief treasury; -bhârata, a. (± a word meaning &open;battle&close;), the Great Battle of the Bharatas; n.(± âkhyâna), the Great Story of the Bharatas, T. of the well-known great Epic (which contains about 100,000 slokas); -bhâshya, n. the Great Commentary of Patañgali on the Sûtras of Pânini and the Vârttikas of Kâtyâyana (probably composed in the second century b. c.); -bhikshu, m. the great mendicant, ep. of Sâkyamuni; -½abhi- gana, m. high descent, noble birth; -½abhi yoga, m. great plaint or charge; -½abhishava, m. N. of a prince; -½abhisheka, m. great inauguration; T. of the fourteenth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara; -bhîta, pp. greatly terrified; -½abhîsu, a. brilliant, lustrous; -bhuga, a. long-armed; -bhûta, pp. being great, large (E.); m. great creature; n. gross element (ether, air, fire, water, earth); -bhû mi, f. great realm; whole territory (of a king); -½âbhoga, a. of great extent, wide spreading; -bhoga, 1. a. having great coils (serpent); m. serpent; -bhoga, 2. m. great enjoyment; -bhoga, m. great prince; -½abhra, n. great or thick cloud; -makha, m. great sacrifice (=-yagña); -mani, m. costly jewel; -mati, a. of great wit, clever; m. N.; (&asharp;) manas, a. lofty-minded, proud, haughty; high-minded, magnanimous; -manushya, m. great man, man of rank; -mantra, m. very efficacious spell (esp. against snake-poison); -mantrin, m. chief counsellor, prime minister; -mahá, a. high and mighty (RV.); -mah as, n. great luminary; -mahiman, m. true greatness; a. truly great; -mahima-sâlin, a. possessed of true greatness; -mahâ½upâ dhyâya, m. very great preceptor (a desig nation applied to great scholars, e.g. Malli nâtha); -mâmsa, n. delicious flesh (esp. human flesh); -½amâtya, m. prime minister; -mâtra, a. of great measure, great; greatest, best (of, --°ree;); m. man of high rank, high state official, king's minister; elephant-driver; -mânin, a. extremely proud; -mâya, a. at tended with great deception; practising great deception; m. N.; -mâyâ, f. the great illu sion (which makes the world appear really existent and thus in a sense creates it); -mây ûra, n. a kind of medicine; kind of prayer (--°ree;); -mârga, m. main road: -pati, m. chief inspector of roads; -mâhesvara, m. great worshipper of Mahesvara or Siva; -mukha,n. large mouth (also of rivers); a. (î) large mouthed; -muni, m. great sage; -mûdha, a. very stupid; m. great simpleton; -mûrkha, m. great fool; -mûrdhan, a. large-headed (Siva); -mriga, m. large wild animal; ele phant;-mridha, n. great battle; -megha, m. great or dense cloud; -medha, m. great sacrifice; (&asharp;)-meru, m. the great Mount Meru; -moha, m. great mental confusion or infatuation; -mohana, a. causing great men tal confusion; -moha-mantra, m. very effi cacious spell: -tva, n. abst. n.; -yaksha, m. great Yaksha, prince of the Yakshas; -yag- ñá, m. great or chief sacrifice (one of the five daily sacrifices of the householder, called bhûta-, manushya-, pitri-, deva-, and brah ma-yagña); -yantra, n. great mechanical work: -pravartana, n. execution of great mechanical works; -yama-ka, n. a great Yamaka (a stanza, all the four lines of which contain identically the same words but differ in meaning, e.g. Kirâtârgunîya XV, 52); -yasas, a. very famous, illustrious (person); -yâna, n. the Great Vehicle (a later form of Buddhistic doctrine originated by Nâgâr guna: opp.hîna-yâna); N. of a prince of the fairies (having a great car); -yuga, n. a great Yuga (equal to four ordinary Yugas or 4,320,000 years); -yuddha, n. great battle; -½âyudha, a. bearing great weapons (Siva); -ragana, n.saffron; a. coloured with saffron; -rana, m. great battle; -½aranya, n. great forest; -ratna, n. precious jewel: -maya, a. consisting of costly jewels, -vat, a. adorned with costly jewels; -rathá, m. great chariot; great warrior; N.; -rathyâ, f. main road; -½ârambha, m. great under taking; a. enterprising, active; -rava, m. great roar or yell; a. making a loud noise, shouting loud; m. N.; -rasa, a. extremely savoury; -râgá, m. great king, reigning prince, sovereign: -½adhirâga, m. lord of great kings, emperor; -râgñî, f. reigning princess, queen; ep. of Durgâ; -râgya, n. sovereign rule; -râtra, n. advanced time of night, end of the night; -râtri, f. id.; great night follow ing the dissolution of the world; -râva, m. loud yell; -râshtra, m. pl. the Mahrattas: î, f. Mahratta language, Mahrattî: a-ka, a. (ikâ) belonging to the Mahrattas; m. pl. the Mahrattas; -rug, -ruga, a. very painful; -roga, m. dangerous disease; -roman, a. very hairy (Siva); -raudra, a. extremely terrible; -½argha, a. of great price, precious, valuable; expensive: -tâ, f. preciousness, great value, -rûpa, a. having a splendid form; -½arghya, a. precious, valuable: -tâ, f. preciousness; -½arnava, m. great sea, ocean; -½artha, m. great matter; a. having great wealth, rich; of great significance, important; m. N. of a Dânava; -½arha, a.valuable, costly, splen did; -lakshmî, f. the Great Lakshmî, Nârâ yana's Sakti; also=Durgâ or Sarasvatî; -li&ndot;ga, n. a great Li&ndot;ga; -vamsya, a. of high lineage; -vanig, m. great merchant; -vada, m. great teacher (i.e. of the most essential Vedic knowledge); (&asharp;)-vadha, a. having a mighty weapon (RV.); -vana, n. great forest; -varâha, m. great boar (i.e. Vishnu's incarnation as a boar); N. of a prince; -vallî, f. great creeper; -vâkya, n. long composition, literary work; great pro position; -vâta, m. violent wind, gale; -vâyu, m. id.; -vârttika, n. the Great Vârttika, N. of Kâtyâyana's Vârttikas to the Sûtras of Pânini; -vâstu, n. great space; a. occupy ing a great space; -vikrama, a. of great courage, very valiant; m. N. of a lion; -vighna, m. n. great obstacle; -vigña, a. very sensible; -vidagdha, pp. very clever; -viraha, m. grievous separation; -visha,a. very poisonous; -vistara, a. very prolix (book); -vîki, m. (having great waves), a certain hell; -vîrá, m. great hero; large earthenware fire-pot (mostly used at the Pravargya cere mony); N. of various princes; N. of an Arhat, founder of the Jain sect: -karita, n. life of the great hero (Râma), T. of a play by Bhavabhûti, -karitra, n. life of Mahâ vîra (the Arhat), T. of a work; (&asharp;)-vîrya, a. mighty, very potent; -vrikshá, m. great tree; -vriddha, pp. very aged; -vrishá, m. great bull: pl. N. of a people in the western Himâlayas; -vega, a. greatly agitated (sea); very swift; -vaipulya, n. great extent; -vaira, n. great enmity; -vairâga, n. N. of a Saman;-vyâdhi, m. serious disease; -vyâhriti, f. the great exclamation (i.e. bh&usharp;r bhúvah svãh); -vratá, n. great or fundamental duty; great vow; great religious observance; N. of a Sâ man or Stotra to be chanted on the last day but one of the Gavâmayana (also applied to the day and the ceremony); rules of the worshippers of Siva Pasupati; a. having undertaken great duties or a great vow, practising great aus terity, very devotional; following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratika, a. following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratin, a., m., id.; a. practis ing the five fundamental duties of the Jains; -vratîya, a. relating to the Mahâvrata cere mony (day); -vrîhi, m. large rice; -sakti, a. very mighty (Siva); -sa&ndot;kha, m. great conch; -½asana, a. eating much, voracious (leech); m. great eater, glutton; -½asani dhvaga, m. flag with a great thunderbolt; -sabda, m. loud sound; title beginning with &open;mahâ&close; or the corresponding office; -½âsaya, 1. m. ocean; 2. a. high-minded, noble; -sayyâ, f. splendid couch; -sarîra, a. having a large body; -salka,m. kind of sea-crab; -salkalin, a. having large scales (fish); -sastra, n. mighty weapon; -sâka, n. kind of vegetable; -sâkya, m. great or distinguished Sâkya; -sânti, f. great appeasement (a kind of rite to avert evil);(&asharp;)-sâla, possessor of a great house, great householder; -sâlîna, a. very modest; -sâsana, n. great sway; a. exer cising great sway; -siras, a. large-headed; m. kind of serpent; -sûdra, m. Sûdra in a high position, upper servant; -saila, m. great rock or mountain; -½asman, m. precious stone; -smâsâna, n. large cemetery; ep. of Benares; -srotriya, m. great theologian or spiritual teacher; -½asva, m. N.: -sâlâ, f. great stable; office of head groom; -svetâ, f. N. of a god dess; N.; -samkata, n. great danger or straits; -satî, f. extremely faithful wife, pattern of wifely fidelity; -sattrá, n. great Soma sacrifice; -sattva, m. great creature; a. strong-minded; high-minded, noble; very courageous; containing large animals: -tâ, f. strength of character and containing large animals; -½âsana, n. splendid seat; -samdhi- -vigraha, m. office of chief minister of peace and war; -sabhâ, f. great dining hall; -samudra, m. ocean; -sarga, m. great crea tion (after a great dissolution); -sâdhana bhâga, m. head of the executive; -sâdhu, a. extremely good: v-î, f. pattern of wifely fidelity; -sâmtâpana,m. kind of penance; -sâmdhi-vigrah-ika, m. chief minister of peace and war; -sâmânya, n. generality in the widest sense; -sâra, a. strong; valuable, costly; -sârtha, m. great caravan; -sâhas ika, a. very daring, excessively rash; m. highwayman, robber: -tâ, f. great energy: in. with the utmost decision; -simha, m. great lion; N.; -siddha, (pp.) m. great saint; -siddhânta, m. great manual of as tronomy, T. of a work by Âryabhata the younger; -siddhi, f. great magical power; -subhiksha, n. great abundance of provisions, very good times (pl.); -sûkta, n. great hymn: pl. the great hymns of the tenth book of the Rig-veda (1 to 128); m. composer of the great hymns of RV. X; -sûkshma, a. extremely minute; -sûki, a. w. vyûha, m. kind of array of troops in battle; (&asharp;)-sena, a. having a large army; m. ep. of Skanda; N. of various princes; -senâ, f. great army; -stoma, a. having a great Stoma (day); -½astra, n. great or mighty missile; -sthâna, n. high place or position; -sthûla, a. very gross; -snâna, n. great ablution; -½âspada, a. mighty; -sva na, m. loud sound; a. loud-sounding, shout ing loud; loud (noise); -½âsvâda, a. very savoury; -hanu, a. having great jaws; -harm ya, n. great palace; -½âhava, m. great battle; -hava, m. great sacrifice; -hasta, a. large handed (Siva); -hâsa, m.loud laughter; a. laughing loud; -½ahí, m. great serpent: -sayana, n. sleep (of Vishnu) on the great serpent (Sesha); -½ahna, m. advanced day time, afternoon; -hrada, m. great pond.
māsa m. month: -m, for a month; mâsam ekam, for one month; in. in the course of a month; lc. in a month=after the lapse of a month. (The twelve months of the Indian calendar, which do not exactly cor respond to ours, are Kaitra, Vaisâkha: March --May; Gyaishtha, Âshâdha: May--July; Srâvana, Bhâdra: July--Sept.; Âsvina, Kârt tika: Sept.--Nov.; Mârgasîrsha, Pausha: Nov.--Jan.; Mâgha, Phâlguna: Jan.--March.)
ya prn. rel. (n. -d) who, that, which, what: nearly always followed by the ordinary correlative tad (± etad or idam) or less frequently idam (m. ayam), adas (m. asau), îdris, tâdrisa, etâvat (tathâ sts. corresponding to the n. yad); occasionally either the rel. or the corr. is dropped. Ya is sts. inaccurately employed in the sense of if any (one). Uses of the relative calling for special mention are the following: 1. Ya is often added (without the copula) to emphasize a subject (e.g. âtma parityâgena yad âsritânam rakshanam, tan nîtividâm na sammatam, protection of dependents at the sacrifice of one's own life is not approved by moralists).Sts. it is thus used without emphasis by the side of a simple subject (e. g. andhah sthaviras ka yah, a blind man and one who is old); rarely a nm. rel. of this kind=an ac. (e.g. sarvân rasân apo heta pasavo ye ka mânushâh, he should avoid selling all sorts of condiments, cattle, and human beings). The n. sg. yad of this emphatic rel. is frequently employed without regard to gender or number, when it may be translated by as for, as regards (e.g. asidhâ râvratam idam manye yad arinâ saha samvâ sah, as for dwelling with an enemy, that I consider as hard as the sword-blade vow); before a noun this yad=that is to say (Br.). Immediately following oratio recta ending with iti yad=at the thought that (cp. cj. yad). 2. Two relatives often occur in the same sentence, when the second may be translated by any (e.g. yad rokate yasmai, bhavet tat tasya sundaram, what pleases any one, that to him is beautiful). 3. The meaning of the rel. when repeated (sts. separated by hi) is generalised, ya ya being=whoever, whichever, whatever (followed by the doubled or single corr. tad). 4. Ya is often combined with other prns.: (a) w. tvam, sa, esha, ayam, asau; (b) w. aham (tvam, etc.): yo &zip; ham, I who=since I, or (after a question) that I; (c) w. tad, any soever: yad vâ tad vâ, any, any kind of; anything; (d) w. tvad=or any other (Br., rare); (e) w. intr. ka + ka (V., C., common), + kid (C., very common), + kid api (C., not common), + kana (E., rare), + vâ (C., rare), or + api (C., late, not yet in Manu), immediately following or sts. sepa rated (m. yah kás ka, kas kid, kas kid api, kas kana, ko vâ, or ko &zip; pi, n. yad kim ka, kim kid, kim kid api, kim kana, kim vâ or kim api), whoever, whatever, any soever, any one, no matter who.
yathātattva ad. °ree;-- or -m, in accordance with truth, truly, accurately; -tatham, ad. as it is really (tathâ), circumstantially, accurately; properly, suitably; -tathyam, -tathyena, ad. in accordance with truth; -½âtmaka, a. having whatever nature; -darsana, ad. °ree;-or -m, at each occurrence, in each individual case; -dik, -disam, ad. in accordance with the cardinal points, ac cording to thecorresponding direction; -½â dishta, pp. according to the direction or statement: (á)-m, ad.; -drishtam, ad. as one has seen it; -devatam, ad. deity by deity; -desam, ad. according to the place; -½âdesam, according to precept; -dharmám, ad. in due order; according to the nature; -½adhikâra, ad. °ree;-or -m, according to au thority; -½adhîta, °ree;-or -m, ad. as learnt, in accordance with the text; -½adhyâpakam, ad. in accordance with the teacher; -nirup tam, ad. as scattered; -nirdishta, pp. as above specified, described, or characterized; -½anu pûrvam, ad. in regular order; -½anupûrvya, °ree;-or â, (in.) ad. id.; -½anubhûtam, ad. ac cording toprevious experience; -½anurûpam, ad. in exact conformity, regularly; -nyastam, ad. in the manner in which deposited; -nyây am, ad. according to rule, duly, fitly; -nyâs am, ad. according to the written wording of a sûtra, as is written; -nyupta, pp. in the order in which laid down.
yathāvakāśam ad. accord ing to space; into the proper place; accord ing to or on the first opportunity; -vakana kârin, a. acting according to orders, obedient; -vakanam, ad. according to the expression; -vat, ad. exactly as it is or should be, accord ing to usage, in due order, suitably, fitly, cor rectly, accurately;=yathâ, as (rare); -vay as, ad. according to age; of the same age; -vasám, ad. according toone's will or pleasure (V.); -½avasaram, ad. at every opportunity; -vastu, ad. in accordance with the facts, ac curately, truly; -½avastham, ad. in accord ance with the condition or circumstances; -½avasthita½artha-kathana, n. description of a matter in accordance with facts; -½âvâs am, ad. to one's respective dwelling; -vit tam, ad. in accordance with the find; in pro portion to property; -vidha, a. of what kind; -vidhânam, ad.according to prescription or rule, duly; -vidhânena, in ad. id.; -vidhi, ad. id.; in due form, suitably; according to the deserts of (g.); -viniyogam, ad. in the order stated; -vibhava, °ree;--, -m, or -tas, ad. in proportion to means or income; -vibhâg am, ad. in accordance with the share; -vi shayam, ad. according to the thing in ques tion; -vîrya, a. having what strength: -m, ad. in proportion or with regard to valour; -vritta, pp. as happened; how conducting oneself: °ree;-or -m, ad. as it happened, in ac cordance with the facts, circumstantially; according to the metre; n. previous event; ac tual facts, details of an event; -vrittânta, m.(?) experience, adventure; -vriddha, °ree;-or -m, according to age, by seniority; -vyavahâram, ad. in accordance with usage; -vyutpatti, ad. according to the degree of culture; -sakti, -saktyâ, ad. according to one's power, to the utmost of one's power, as far as possible; -½âsayam, ad. according to wish; according to the conditions or premises; -sâstra, °ree;-or -m, according to prescribed rules or the in stitutes of the law; -sîlam, ad.according to the character; -sraddhám, ad. according to inclination; -½âsramam, ad. according to the stage of religious life; -½âsrayam, ad. in re gard to the connexion; -srâddham, ad. in accordance with the funeral feast; -srutam, pp. as heard of: -m, ad. as one heard it; in accordance with knowledge; incorr. for -sruti; -sruti, ad. according to the precepts of the Veda; -samstham, ad. according to circum stances; -sakhyam, ad. in proportion to friend ship; -samkalpita, pp. as wished; -sam khyam, -samkhyena, ad. according to num ber, number for number, in such a way that the numbers of two equal series correspond numerically (the first to the first, the second to the second, etc.); -sa&ndot;gam, ad. according to need, adequately; -satyam, ad. in accord ance with truth, truthfully; -samdishtam, ad. as directed; -½âsannam, ad. as soon as come near; -samayam,ad. at the proper time; -samarthitam, ad. as has been con sidered good; -samâmnâtam, ad. as men tioned; -samîhita, pp. as desired: -m, ad. according to wish (Pr.); -samuditám, ad. as agreed; -sampad, ad. as it happens; -sam pratyayam, ad. according to agreement; -sampradâyam, ad. as handed down; -sam bandham, ad. according to the relationship; -sambhava, a. corresponding as far as pos sible: -m, ad. according to the connexion, respectively; -sambhavin, a., -sambhâvita, pp. corresponding; -sâma, ad. according to the sequence of the Sâmans; -sâram, ad. ac cording to the quality; -siddha, pp. as hap pening to be ready; -sukha,°ree;-or -m, ad. at pleasure; at ease, comfortably; pleasantly, conveniently; -sukha-mukha, a. facing any way one pleases; -sûktam, ad. hymn by hymn; -sûkshma, a. pl. according to size from the smallest onwards: -m,ad.; -½astam, ad. to one's respective home; -sthâna, n. proper place (only lc. sg. & pl.); a. being in the proper place: (á)-m, ad. to or in the proper place; -sthitam, ad. according to one's stand; as it stands, certainly, surely; -sthiti, ad. according to custom, as usual; -sthûla, °ree;-or -m, ad. in the rough, without going into detail; -smriti, ad. according to one's recollection; according to the rules of the law-books; -sva, a. one's (his, their) respective: °ree;-or -m, ad. each his own, each individually or in his own way, respectively; -svaira, °ree;-or -m, ad. at pleasure, without restraint; -½âhâra, a. eating whatever comes to hand.
rūpaya den. P. give form to, represent; act on the stage, represent in panto mime, notify by a gesture: pp. rûpita, represented. ni, represent in pantomime, notify by gesture; perceive; ascertain; find out; look into, observe carefully, consider, ponder; examine, investigate, discuss; determine, settle; choose, appoint, as (2 ac.), to (d., lc., inf.); discharge (an arrow): gd. nirûpya, often incorr. for nir-upya (√ vap).pra, explain. vi, disfigure: pp. virûpita, deformed.
vāpī f. [damming up: √ 2. vap] ob long tank, pond: -ka, --°ree; a. id.; -gala, n. lake water.
viklava a. overcome with agitation, confused, bewildered; alarmed, frightened, timid, shy; hesitating; distressed; overcome with (--°ree;); averse from (the chase, --°ree;); troubled, discomposed (face, glance), falter ing (speech), unsteady (gait), impaired (senses); n. confusion, embarrassment; despon dency: -tâ, f., -tva, n. trepidation, timidity, etc.; -klavî-kri, depress, trouble; -klavî bhû, grow despondent; -kleda, m. [√ klid] getting wet; moisture; dissolution, decay.
vijara a. not growing old; -gala, a. waterless: lc. in case of drought; -galpa, m. unjust reproach; -gâta, a. belonging to another class, heterogeneous; -gâtîya, a. id.; -g&asharp;-man, a. [√ gan] related, corresponding (V.); -g&asharp;mi, a. consanguineous, related (RV.1); -gâ-van, a. bodily, own (V.).
viṣaṇa pp. (√ sad) dejected etc.: -tâ, f. despondency, despair; -bhâva, m. id.
viṣaya m. [working, field of action] sphere of activity; scope, compass, range, reach (of the eye, ear, mind, etc.); duration (of life); province, department, domain, business; restricted sphere (gr.); room, ap propriateness for (g., rare); object of a sense (there are five corresponding to the five senses: sound, touch, form, taste, smell); objects or pleasures of sense, worldly concerns, sensual enjoyments (pl.); object (opp. subject); topic, subject-matter; aim, mark; object suitable for (d., g., --°ree;); subject of comparison (in a trope: e.g. in &open;lotus-eye,&close; &open;eye&close; is the visha ya, &open;lotus&close; the vishayinor object); place, spot; region, district, country, kingdom (pl. lands, possessions): --°ree; a. manifesting itself in or as; restricted to the category of, ex clusively belonging to, invariably; relating to, treating of, concerned with, directed to, aiming at: lc. vishaye, in the sphere of, with regard to, concerning (g., --°ree;); atra vishaye, with regard to this; khandasi vishaye, only in the Veda.
viṣādin a. id.: (-i)-tâ, f., -tva, n. dejection, despondency, dismay, despair.
viṣāda m. relaxation, lassitude (rare); dejection, despondency, dismay, de spair; repugnance, disgust (rare): -vat, a. dismayed, dejected, disconsolate.
veśāntā f. pond (Br.).
vaikalya n. [vikala] frailty, weak ness, imperfection, defectiveness; defect, lack; despondency (rare); confusion, flurry (v. r. vaiklavya).
vaiklava n. [viklava] bewilderment; despondency; -ya, n. id.; frailty, feebleness; mental weakness.
śabdākhyeya fp. that may be said aloud; -½âdambara, m. verbosity; -½âdi mat, a. possessed of sound etc.; -½anurûpa, a. corresponding with one's voice; -½anusâs ana, n. doctrine of words, grammar; -½anu sâra, m. following a sound: in. in the direc tion of the sound (look).
śaryaṇāvat m. (reedy) pond (RV., rare), fig. of Soma-vat (according to comm. N. of a lake or district in Kurukshe tra, RV.).
saṃvadana n. conversation, talk; -vánana, a. (î) V.: conciliating, propitiat ing; C.: encouraging (liberality, --°ree;); n. (V., C.) means of conciliation; subduing spell; -vara, m. n. incorr. for sambara;-várana, 1. m. N. (C.); n. enclosure (as place of sacri fice; V.); concealment, secrecy (C.); 2. n. (C.) choice (of a husband): -srag, f. wreath given by a girl to the man of her choice; -varanîya, fp. to be concealed; -vargá,a. √ vrig] rapacious (Agni; V.); -várgam, abs. snatching up, sweeping together (RV.); -varta, m. [rolling together: √ vrit] dense mass (of people); cloud charged with rain; end or dissolution of the world; N. (C.;á, RV.1): -ka, a. (rolling together), destroying all things at the end of the world (fire etc.); m. fire of universal destruction: pl. fires of hell; -vartikâ, f. (rolled up leaf=) young lotus petal; -vardhana, a. increasing, pro moting; m. N.; n. growing up (of a child); rearing (of a child); success; promoting; -vardhanîya, fp. to be reared (child); to be maintained (servants); to be increased or fos tered (virtue); -valana, n., â, f. (hostile) en counter; mixture, union; -vasati, f. dwell ing together; -vásana, n. dwelling-place (RV.1); (sám)-vasu, m. fellow-dweller (V.); -vaha, m. N. of one of the seven winds; -v&asharp;k, f. colloquy (V.); -vâdá, m. conversation (V., C.), with (in. ± saha, lc., --°ree;); agreement, conformity, correspondence, similarity, equal ity (C.): (a)-ka, a. agreeing; m. N.; -vâd ana, n. agreement; -vâdin, a. conversing; agreeing or harmonizing, with (g., --°ree;); -vâ ra, m. contraction of the vocal chords (in pronouncing a sound), obtuse articulation (opp. vivâra); impediment (v. r.); -vârya, fp. to be concealed; -vâsa, m. dwelling to gether, with (in. ± saha, --°ree;); cohabitation, with (--°ree;); settlement, dwelling; common abode (rare); -vâsin, a. 1. clothed in (--°ree;); 2. dwelling together; --°ree;, dwelling in, inha biting; m. fellow-dweller; -vâha, m. ex tortion, oppression: -ka, a.stroking (--°ree;); m., i-kâ, f. shampooer; -vâhana, n. passage (of clouds); stroking with the hand (±hasta-, of limbs etc., --°ree;); -vâhya, fp. to be borne; to be exhibited (in a-).
saṃkhyānāman n. numeral; -pada, n. id.; -ma&ndot;gala-granthi, m. au spicious ceremony of tying a knot in a cord corresponding to the number of years of one's age; -mâtra, n. mere enumeration; -vat, a. numbered; intelligent, learned.
saṃkhyāta fp. [√ khyâ] enumer ated etc.: -½anudesa, m. subsequent enumera tion the members of which correspond in order to a series previously enumerated; -khyâtri, m. enumerator.
saṃgrāha m. fist; clenching the fist: -ka, a. (î) summarising, epitomising; -grâhin, a. collecting, accumulating; propi tiating (--°ree;); -gr&asharp;hya, fp. to be clasped (Br.); (C.) -checked; -appointed (to an office); propitiated; -accepted or pondered (speech).
sanidra a. sleeping; -ninda, a. ac companied with a reproach: -m, ad. reproach fully; -nimesha, a. winking (eye); -niya ma, a. limited; having undertaken an ob servance; -nirvisesha, a. indifferent; -nir veda, a. betraying weariness (conversation); desponding, despairing: -m, ad. with com plete indifference; -nisvâsam or -nihsvâs am, ad. amid sighs.
veśanta m. pond (V.).
saṃprasatti f. soul during deep sleep; -sava, m. admission (=prati-sava); -sâda, m. mental repose (during deep sleep; Br., rare); grace, favour (C.); soul during deep sleep (V., C.); -sâdhya, fp. to be man aged or regulated; -sârana, n. drawing asun der (rare); change of semi-vowel (followed by a) to the corresponding vowel (the a being dropped, gr.: as in vad to ud); -harsha, m. joy; -hâra, m. conflict, fight, with (in. ± saha, --°ree;); blow, thrust (rare); gait (rare); -hrishta-tanûruha, a. having the hair brist ling, thrilled with joy.
sarastīra n. bank of a pool; (sár as)-vat, a. (C., rare) abounding in or having come into contact with pools; having a taste for, delighting in (lc.); m. N. of a divinity of the upper region, guardian of the waters, bestower of fertility (V.); N. of a male deity corresponding to Sarasvatî (YV.); ocean (C., rare): -î, f. region abounding in pools (E., rare); N. of a large river flowing into the sea and of its tutelary deity (V.); N. of a small sacred river which with the Dri shadvatî forms the boundary of Brahmâvar ta and loses itself in a sandy desert, but is supposed to flow underground and join the Ganges and Yamunâ (V., C.); N. of various other rivers; N. of one of the three goddesses in the Âprî hymns (V.); goddess of speech (V., C.); in C. she is at enmity with Srî (or Lakshmî), wealth and eloquence or learning being rarely combined, wife of Vishnu, also a N. of Durgâ; C.: speech; eloquence; ce lestial or oracular voice; N. of one of the ten mendicant orders traced to Sa&ndot;karâkârya, its members adding the word Sarasvatî to their names: -kantha½âbharana, n.necklace of Sarasvatî; T. of a work on poetics as cribed to Bhogadeva, -vat, V. a. accom panied by Sarasvatî.
salila a. [√ sri] V.: surging, flow ing, fluctuating; n. flood, surge; C.: sg. pl. water; rain (rare); tears (rare): -m kri or dâ, offer the libation of water to a deceased person (g.): -kara, m. aquatic animal: -ket ana, m. god of love; -ga, a. produced or living in water; m. aquatic animal; shell; -da, m. cloud; -dhara, m. id.; -nidhi, m. ocean; -pavana½âsin, a. subsisting on water or air only; -bhara, m. (volume of water), lake; -maya, a. consisting of water; -muk, m. cloud; -râsi, m. ocean; -saraka, m. n. bowl of water; -stambhin, a. bringing the water to a standstill; -sthala-kara, m. (living in water and on land), amphibious animal; -½âkara, m. volume of water; ocean; -½añgali, m. two handfuls of water (as a libation to the Manes); -½âsaya, m. reservoir of water, pond, lake; -½udbhava, a. produced in water; m. shell; n. lotus.
saloka a. living in the same world as (in., g.; V.): (á)-tâ, f. residence in the same world as (in., --°ree;); -lobha, a. avaricious; (sá)-loman, a. following the grain with, cor responding to or co-extensive with (in.).
sāvana a. [savana] determining the three daily oblations, corresponding to the correct solar time (day, month, year); n. cor rect solar time.
suvarṣa m. good rain; a. raining well; -vasanta, m. good spring; -vastu sampad, a. having abundant wealth; -vas tra, a. beautifully-dressed; -vâkya, a. fair spoken; -v&asharp;k, a. id. (V.); -vânta, pp.having thoroughly disgorged the blood it has sucked (leech); -vâsa-kumâra: -ka, m. N. of a son of Kasyapa; -v&asharp;sas, a. beautifully attired, adorned; -vâsita, pp. perfumed, fra grant; -vâsin-î, f. married or singlegirl (not yet grown up) residing in her father's house; -v&asharp;stu, f. N. of a river (now Suwad); -vikrama, m. valour, prowess; -vikrânta, pp. bold, courageous, valiant; n. bold or courageous conduct; -vigraha, a.having a beautiful body or figure; m. N. of a messen ger; -vikakshana, a. very discerning or wise; -vikârita, pp. well-pondered; -vigñâná, a. easy to distinguish (RV.1); very discerning; -vigñeya, fp. easy to distinguish.
stotavya fp. [√ 1. stu] to be praised; -trí, m. praiser, worshipper, believer; -trá, n. hymn of praise, panegyric; N. of chants corresponding to the Sastras (rit.).
hata pp. √ han: -ka, a. (--°ree;) afflicted by (fate); --°ree; (instead of °ree;--, gnly. after names), the accursed, wretched; -kilbisha, a. having one's sins effaced; -ketas, a. dejected in heart; -kkhâya,a. bereft of charm; -gîvana, n., -gîvita, n. accursed life; -gyotir-nisîtha, m. starless night; -tvit-ka, -tvish, a. bereft of light, having its lustre dimmed; (á)-putra, a. whose son or sons have been slain; -buddhi, a. bereft of understanding; -mati, a. whose intellect is lost, mad; -mânasa, a. despondent-minded; -mûrkha, m. great block-head; (á)-varkas, a. bereft of vigour, decayed (AV.); -vidhi, m. accursed fate; a. ill starred; -vritta, a.defective in metre; -sish- ta, pp. left out of the slain; -sesha, a. id.; -hridaya, n. cursed heart; -½âsa, a. bereft of hope, desperate; hopeless=wretched, foolish, wicked (sts. used playfully).
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ātā The framework of the door of a house appears to be denoted by the plural of this word in the Rigveda (though in all passages there it is used only by synecdoche of the doors of the sky), and in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Zimmer compares the Latin antae, to which the word etymologically corresponds.
itihāsa As a kind of literature, is repeatedlymentioned along with Purāna in the later texts of the Vedic period. The earliest reference to both occurs in the late fifteenth book of the Atharvaveda. Itihāsa then appears in the Satapatha Brāhmana, the Jaiminīya, Brhadāranyaka, and Chāndogya Upanisads. In the latter it is expressly declared with Purāna to make up the fifth Veda, while the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra makes the Itihāsa a Veda and the Purāna a Veda. The Itihāsa-veda and the Purāna-veda appear also in the Gopatha Brāhmana, while the śatapatha identifies the Itihāsa as well as the Purāna with the Veda. In one passage Anvākhyāna and Itihāsa are distinguished as different classes of works, but the exact point of distinction is obscure; probably the former was supplementary. The Taittirīya Áranyaka mentions Itihāsas and Purānas in the plural. There is nothing to show in the older literature what dis¬tinction there was, if any, between Itihāsa and Purāna; and the late literature, which has been elaborately examined by Sieg, yields no consistent result. Geldner has conjectured that there existed a single work, the Itihāsa-purāna, a collection. of the old legends of all sorts, heroic, cosmogonic, genealogical; but though a work called Itihāsa, and another called Purāna, were probably known to Patañjali, the inaccuracy of Geldner’s view is proved by the fact that Yāska shows no sign of having known any such work. To him the Itihāsa may be a part of the Mantra literature itself, Aitihāsikas being merely people who interpret the Rigveda by seeing in it legends where others see myths. The fact, however, that the use of the compound form is rare, and that Yāska regularly has Itihāsa, not Itihāsa-purāna, is against the theory of there ever having been one work. The relation of Itihāsa to Akhyāna is also uncertain. Sieg considers that the words Itihāsa and Purāna referred to the great body of mythology, legendary history, and cosmogonic legend available to the Vedic poets, and roughly classed as a fifth Veda, though not definitely and finally fixed. Thus, Anvākhyānas, Anuvyākhyānas, and Vyākhyānas could arise, and separate Ákhyānas could still exist outside the cycle, while an Akhyāna could also be a part of the Itihāsa-purāna. He also suggests that the word Akhyāna has special reference to the form of the narrative. Oldenberg, following Windisch, and followed by Geldner, Sieg, and others, has found in the Akhyāna form a mixture of prose and verse, alternating as the narrative was concerned with the mere accessory parts of the tale, or with the chief points, at which the poetic form was naturally produced to correspond with the stress of the emotion. This theory has been severely criticized by Hertel and von Schroeder. These scholars, in accordance with older suggestions of Max Muller and Levi, see in the so-called Ákhyāna hymns of the Rigveda, in which Oldenberg finds actual specimens of the supposed literary genus, though the prose has been lost, actual remains of ritual dramas. Elsewhere it has been suggested that the hymns in question are merely literary dialogues.
udāja Is the word used in the Maitrāyaṇī Saṃhitā to denote the share of the booty of war taken by the king after a victory (saṃgrāmaṃ jitvā). This interpretation, which is that of Delbriick, is clearly correct, as against the older version,march out,’ given by von Schroeder and accepted by Bohtlingk. The Udāja thus corresponds precisely with the Homeric γe/oαç. This sense also suits Nirāja, the variant of both the Kāthaka and the Kapisthala Samhitās.
upadhāna Denotes the * cushion * of a seat (Ásandī) in the Atharvaveda. It corresponds to the Upabarhana of other texts.
otu In Vedic literature denotes the ‘woof’ in weaving, and corresponds to Tantu, ‘ the warp,’ the roots vā,‘ to weave/ and tan? ‘ to stretch,’ from which these two terms are derived, being used in parallel senses. In the process of weaving a shuttle (Tasara) was used. The ‘ weaver ’ is termed vāya and the ‘ loom ’ veman. A wooden peg (Mayūkha) was used to stretch the web on, while lead was employed as a weight to extend it. The work of weaving was probably the special care of women. A metaphor in the Atharvaveda personifies Night and Day as two sisters weaving the web of the year, the nights serving as warp, the days as woof.
kurukṣetra (‘ land of the Kurus ’) is always regarded in the Brāhmana texts as a particularly sacred country. Within its boundaries flowed the rivers Drsadvatī and Sarasvatī, as well as the Apayā. Here, too, was situated Saryanāvant, which appears to have been a lake, like that known to the Satapatha Brāhmana by the name of Anyatah-plaksā. According to Pischel, there was also in Kuruksetra a stream called Pastyā, which he sees in certain passages of the Rigveda. The boun¬daries of Kuruksetra are given in a passage of the Taittirīya Áranyaka as being Khāndava on the south, the Tūrghna on the north, and the Parīnah on the west. Roughly speaking, it corresponded to the modern Sirhind.
kosala Is the name of a people not occurring in the earliest Vedic literature. In the story of the spread of Aryan culture told in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Kosala-Videhas, as the offspring of Videgha Māthava, appear as falling later than the Kuru-Pañcālas under the influence of Brahminism. The same passage gives the Sadānīrā as the boundary of the two peoples —Kosala and Videha. Elsewhere the Kausalya, or Kosala king, Para Atnāra Hairanyanābha, is described as having performed the great Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice. Connexion with Kāśi and Videha appears also from a passage of the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra. Weber points out that Áśvalāyana, who was very probably a descendant of Aśvala, the Hotr priest of Videha, is called a Kosala in the Praśna Upanisad. The later distinction of North and South Kosala is unknown to both Vedic and Buddhist literature. Kosala lay to the north-east of the Ganges, and corresponded roughly to the modern Oudh.
graha (‘Seizing ’) is a term applied to the sun in the śata­patha Brāhmana, most probably not in the later sense of ‘ planet,’ but to denote a power exercising magical influence. The sense of ‘ planet ’ seems first to occur in the later literature, as in the Maitrāyanī Upanisad. The question whether the planets were known to the Vedic Indians is involved in obscurity. Oldenberg recognizes them in the Adityas, whose number is, he believes, seven : sun, moon, and the five planets. But this view, though it cannot be said to be impossible or even unlikely, is not susceptible of proof, and has been rejected by Hillebrandt, Pischel, von Schroeder,Macdonell, and Bloom­field, among others. Hillebrandt sees the planets in the five Adhvaryus mentioned in the Rigveda, but this is a mere con­jecture. The five bulls (uksānah) in another passage of the Rigveda have received a similar interpretation with equal uncertainty, and Durga, in his commentary on the Nirukta, even explains the term bhūmija, ‘ earth-born,’ which is only men­tioned by Yāska, as meaning the planet Mars.Thibaut, who is generally sceptical as to the mention of planets in the Veda, thinks that Brhaspati there refers to Jupiter; but this is extremely improbable, though in the Taittirīya Samhitā Brhaspati is made the regent of Tisya. A reference to the planets is much more probable in the seven suns (sapta sūryāh) of the late Taittirīya Áranyaka. On the other hand, Ludwig’s efforts to find the five planets with the sun, the moon, and the twenty-seven Naksatras (lunar mansions) in the Rigveda, as corresponding to the number thirty-four used in connexion with light19 (jyotis) and the ribs of the sacrificial horse, is far¬fetched. See also Sukra, Manthin, Vena.
camū Is a term of somewhat doubtful sense occurring repeatedly in the Rigveda, and connected with the preparation of Soma. Zimmer considers that in the dual it denotes the two boards between which, in his opinion, the Soma was crushed (cf. Adhisavana). Roth, however, appears to be right in taking the normal sense to designate a vessel into which the Soma was poured from the press, and Hillebrandt shows clearly that when it occurs in the plural it always has this sense, corresponding to the Graha-pātras of the later ritual, and that sometimes it is so used in the singular or dual also. In some cases, however, he recognizes its use as denoting the mortar in which the Soma was pressed: he may be right here, as this mode of preparation was probably Indo-Iranian. In a derivative sense Camū appears in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana to denote a trough, either of solid stone or consisting of bricks, used by the Eastern people to protect the body of the dead from contact with the earth, like modern stone-lined graves or vaults.
cāturmāsya ‘Four-monthly,’ denotes the festival of the Vedic ritual held at the beginning of the three seasons of four months each, into which the Vedic year was artificially divided. It is clear that the sacrifices commenced with the beginning of each season, and it is certain that the first of them, the Vaiśvadeva, coincided with the Phālgunī full moon, the second, the Varuna-praghāsas, with the AsadhI full moon, and the third, the Sāka-medha, with the Kārttikī full moon. There were, however, two alternative datings: the festivals could also be held in the Caitri, the Srāvanī, and Agrahāyanī (Mārgaśīrsī) full moons, or in the Vaiśākhī, Bhādrapadī, and Pausī full moons. Neither of the later datings is found in a Brāhmana text, but each may well have been known early, since the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana both recognize the full moon in the month Caitra as an alternative to the full moon in the month Phālguna, for the beginning of the year. Jacobi considers that the commencement of the year with the full moon in the asterism Phālgunī, which is supported by other evidence, indicates that the year at one time began with the winter solstice with the moon in Phālgunī, corresponding to the summer solstice when the sun was in Phālgunī. These astronomical conditions, he believes, existed in the time of the Rigveda, and prevailed in the fourth millennium B.C. The alternative dates would then indicate periods when the winter solstice coincided with the Caitrī or the Vaiśākhī full moon. But Oldenberg and Thibaut seem clearly right in holding that the coincidence of Phālgunī with the beginning of spring, which is certain, is fatal to this view, and that there is no difficulty in regarding this date as consistent with the date of the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, which is given by the Kausītaki Brāhmana, and which forms the basis of the calculations of the Jyotisa. The full moon in Phālguna would be placed about one month and a half after the winter solstice, or, say, in the first week of February, which date, according to Thibaut, may reasonably be deemed to mark the beginning of a new season in India about 800 B.C. At the same time it must be remembered that the date was necessarily artificial, inasmuch as the year was divided into three seasons, each of four months, and the Indian year does not in fact consist of three equal seasons. The variations of the other datings would then not be unnatural if any school wished to defer its spring festival, the Vaiśvadeva, to the time when spring had really manifested itself. See also Samvatsara.
cyavana Are variant forms of the name of an ancient Ṛṣi, or seer. The Rigveda represents him as an old decrepit man, to whom the Aśvins restored youth and strength, making him acceptable to his wife, and a husband of maidens. The legend is given in another form in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana, where Cyavana is described as wedding Sukanyā, the daughter of śaryāta. He is there called a Bhrgu or Añgirasa, and is represented as having been rejuvenated by immersion in a pond—the first occurrence of a motive, later very common in Oriental literature. Another legend about Cyavāna is apparently alluded to in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda, where he seems to be opposed to the Paktha prince Tūrvayāna, an Indra worshipper, while Cyavāna seems to have been specially connected with the Aśvins. This explanation of the hymn, suggested by Pischel, is corroborated by the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, which relates that Vidanvant, another son of Bhrgu, supported Cyavana against Indra, who was angry with him for sacrificing to the Aśvins; it is also note¬worthy that the Aśvins appear in the śatapatha Brāhmana as obtaining a share in the sacrifice on the suggestion of Sukanyā. But a reconciliation of Indra and Cyavana must have taken place, because the Aitareya Brāhmana relates the inauguration of śāryāta by Cyavana with the great Indra consecration (aindrena mahābhisekena). In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaça Cyavana is mentioned as a seer of Sāmans or Chants.
jana Besides meaning * man’ as an individual, with a tendency to the collective sense, commonly denotes a * people ’ or tribe ’ in the Rigveda and later. Thus, the five tribes ’(Panca Janāh or Janāsah) are frequently referred to, and in one hymn of the Rigveda the people of Yadu ’ (yādva jana) and the Yadus (yādvāh) are synonymous. Again, the king (rājan) is described as protector (gopā) of the people (janasya),’and there are other references to king and Jana. The people of the Bharatas (bhārata jana) is also mentioned ; there is no ground to assume with Hopkins that Jana in this case means a clan or horde (Grāma), as distinguished from a people. It is difficult to say exactly how a people was divided. Zimmer argues from a passage in the Rigveda that a people was divided into cantons (Viś), cantons into joint families or clans, or village communities (Grāma, Vrjana), and these again into single families. He thinks that the four divisions are reflected in the passage in question by Jana, Viś, Janman, and Putrālj, or sons, and argues that each village community was originally founded on relationship. But it is very doubtful whether this precise division of the people can be pressed. The division of the Jana into several Viś may be regarded as probable, for it is supported by the evidence of another passage of the Rigveda, which mentions the Viś as a unit of the fighting men, and thus shows that, as in Homeric times and in ancient Germany, relationship was deemed a good principle of military arrangement. But the subdivision of the Viś into several Gramas is very doubtful. Zimmer admits that neither Grāma nor Vrjana11 has the special sense of a subdivision of the Viś when used for war, for both words only denote generally an armed host. He finds other designations of the village host in Vrā12 and in Vrāja,13 but it is sufficient to say that the former passage is of extremely doubtful import,14 and that the latter has no reference to war at all. It is therefore impossible to state in what exact relation the Grāma in Vedic times stood to the Viś or to the family (Kula or Gotra). The confusion is increased by the vagueness of the sense of both Grāma and Viś. If the latter be regarded as a local division, then no doubt the Grāma must have been a part of a district; but if a Viś was a unit of relationship, then a Grāma may have contained families of different Viśes, or may have sometimes coincided with a Viś, or have contained only a part of a Viś. But in any case the original state of affairs must have been greatly modified by the rise of the system of caste, and the substitu¬tion of a hierarchical for a political point of view. The elements of the people were represented by the family—either as an individual family inhabiting one home (Kula), and con¬sisting often, no doubt, of a joint family of brothers, or as a patriarchal family of sons who still lived with their father—and by the clan, the later Gotra, which included all those who claimed a common ancestor. The Gotra may be regarded as roughly corresponding to the Latin gens and the Greek yevos, and possibly the Viś may be the equivalent of the curia and φprjτpη, and the Jana of the tribus and φυXov or φv\η.i These three divisions may also be seen in the Viś, Zantu, and Daqyu of the Iranian world, where the use of Viś suggests that in the Indian Viś a relationship based on blood rather than locality is meant—and perhaps even in the vicus, pagus, and ciυitas of the old German polity described in the Germania of Tacitus. The family in some form appears as the third element of the Jana in a passage of the Rigveda, where the house {grha) is contrasted with the Jana and the Viś. Possibly, too, another passage contrasts the adhvam, or family sacrifice, with that of the Jana or Viś, rather than, as Zimmer thinks, the village with the two larger units. But it is significant of the particu¬larism of the Vedic Indians that while the king maintained a fire which might be regarded as the sacred fire of the tribe, there is no sure trace of any intermediate cult between that of the king and that of the individual householder. The real elements in the state are the Gotra and the Jana, just as ultimately the gens and tribtis, the γei>oç and ψv\ov, are alone important. It may be that Viś sometimes represents in the older texts what later was known as the Gotra. See Viś. This appears clearly when the constitution of society in the Brāhmana period is considered. The tribe or people still exists, and is presupposed, but the division into Viś disappears. The real division is now the separate castes (Varna), but the numerous sections into which each of them is divided appear to be based in part on the ancient Gotra.
takman Is a disease repeatedly mentioned in the Athar­vaveda, but later not known under this name. It is the subject of five hymns of the Atharvaveda, and is often mentioned else­where. Weber first identified it with fever,’ and Grohmann showed that all the symptoms pointed to that ailment. Refer­ence is made to the alternate hot and shivering fits of the patient, to the yellow colour of the jaundice which accompanies the fever, and to its peculiar periodicity. The words used to describe its varieties are aηye-dyuh, ubhaya-dyuh, trtīyaka, vi-trtīya, and sadam-di, the exact sense of most of which terms is somewhat uncertain. It is agreed that the first epithet designates the fever known as quotidiaηus, which recurs each day at the same hour, though the word is curious (lit.‘ on the other—i.e., next, day’). The ubhaya-dyuk (‘ on both days ’) variety appears to mean a disease recurring for two suc¬cessive days, the third being free; this corresponds to the rhythmus quartanus complicatus. But Sāyana considers that it means a fever recurring on the third day, the * tertian.’ The tvtīyaka, however,must be the ‘tertian’ fever, though Zimmer suggests that it may mean a fever which is fatal at the third paroxysm. Grohmann regards the vi-trtīyaka as equivalent to the tertiana duplicata, a common form in southern countries, in which the fever occurs daily, but with a correspondence in point of time or severity of attack on alternate days. Bloomfield suggests that it is identical with the ubhaya-dyuh, variety. The sadam-di type appears to be the kind later known as samtata-jvara (‘ continuous fever ’), in which there are attacks of several days’ duration, with an interval followed by a fresh period of attack. Fever occurred at different seasons, in the autumn (śārada), in the hot weather (graisma), in the rains (vārsika) but was especially prevalent in the first, as is indicated by the epithet viśva-śārada, occurring every autumn.’ The disease is said to arise when Agni enters the waters. From this Weber deduced that it was considered to be the result of a chill supervening on heat, or the influence of heat on marshy land. Grohmann preferred to see in this connexion of the origin of the disease with Agni’s entering the waters an allusion to the fact that fever arises in the rainy season, the time when Agni, as lightning, descends to earth with the rain. Zimmer, who accepts this view, further refers to the prevalence of fever in the Terai, and interprets vanya, an epithet of fever found in the Atharvaveda, as meaning ‘ sprung from the forest,’ pointing out that fever is mentioned as prevalent among the Mūjavants and Mahāvrsas, two mountain tribes of the western Himalaya. There is no trace of fever having been observed to be caused by the bite of the anopheles mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water : this theory has without reason been held to be known to classical Indian medicine. Among the symptoms of Takman, or among complications accompanying it, are mentioned ‘itch’ (Pāman), ‘headache’ (§īrsa-śoka),so ‘cough’ (Kāsikā), and ‘consumption,’ or perhaps some form of itch (Balāsa). It is perhaps significant that the Takman does not appear until the Atharvaveda. It is quite possible that the Vedic Aryans, when first settled in India, did not know the disease, which would take some generations to become endemic and recognized as dangerous. What remedies they used against it is quite uncertain, for the Atharvaveda mentions only spells and the Kustha, which can hardly have been an effective remedy, though still used in later times. Fever must, even in the Atharvan period, have claimed many victims, or it would not be mentioned so prominently.
daśamī Denotes in the Atharvaveda and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the period of life between 90 and 100 years which the Rigveda calls the daśama yuga, ‘ the tenth stage of life.’ Longevity seems not to have been rare among the Vedic Indians, for the desire to live a ‘hundred autumns’ (śaradal} śatam) is constantly expressed. Dīrghatamas is said to have lived ioo years, and Mahidāsa Aitareya is credited with 116. Onesikritos reported that they sometimes lived 130 years, a statement with which corresponds the wish expressed in the Jātaka for a life of 120 years. Probably the number was always rather imaginary than real, but the com¬parative brevity of modern life in India9 may be accounted for by the cumulative effect of fever, which is hardly known to the Rigveda. See Takman.
dasyu A word of somewhat doubtful origin, is in many passages of the Rigveda clearly applied to superhuman enemies. On the other hand, there are several passages in which human foes, probably the aborigines, are thus designated. This may be regarded as certain in those passages where the Dasyu is opposed to the Aryan, who defeats him with the aid of the gods. The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion : the former are styled 4 not sacrificing,’ 4 devoid of rites,’ 4 addicted to strange vows,’ ‘ god- hating,’ and so forth. As compared with the Dāsa, they are less distinctively a people: no clans (viśah) of the Dasyus are mentioned, and while Indra’s dasyu-hatya,. slaughter of the Dasyus,’ is often spoken of, there is no corresponding use of dāsa-hatya. That the Dasyus were real people is, however, shown by the epitdet anās applied to them in one passage of the Rigveda. The sense of this word is not absolutely certain : the Pada text and Sāyana both take it to mean 4 without face ’ (an-ās), but the other rendering, 4 noseless ’ (a-nās), is quite possible, and would accord well with the flat-nosed aborigines of the Dravidian type, whose language still persists among the Brahuis, who are found in the north-west. This interpretation would receive some support from Vrtra’s being called * broken-nosed ’ if this were a correct explanation of the obscure word rujānās. The other epithet of the Dasyus is mrdhra-vāc, which occurs with anās, and which has been rendered ‘of stam¬mering, or unintelligible speech.’ This version is by no means certain, and since the epithet is elsewhere applied to Aryans, its correct meaning is more probably ‘of hostile speech.’ Dasyu corresponds with the Iranian dañliu, daqyu, which denotes a ‘ province.’ Zimmer thinks that the original meaning was ‘enemy,’ whence the Iranians developed the sense of ‘hostile country,’ ‘conquered country,’ ‘province,’ while the Indians, retaining the signification of ‘ enemy,’ extended it to include demon foes. Roth considers that the meaning of human enemy is a transfer from the strife of gods and demons. Lassen16 attempted to connect the contrast daqyu: dasyu with that of daeva : deva, and to see in it a result of the religious differences which, according to Haug’s theory, had separated the Iranians and the Indians. The word may have originally meant 4 ravaged land ’ as a result of invasion ;hence ‘enemies’ country,’ then ‘hostile people,’ who as human foes were more usually called by the cognate name of Dāsa. Individual Dasyus are Cumuri, Sambara, Susna, etc. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the word has, as later, the sense of uncivilized peoples generally.
devṛ Is a rare word denoting the wife’s ‘brother-in-law’ (that is, the husband’s brother). He is included with the sisters of the husband among those over whom the wife of the husband—his elder brother—rules ; at the same time the wife is to be devoted to him, and friendly to him. After the death of the husband the Devr could perform the duty of begetting a son for him. No word occurs for the wife’s brother corresponding to Devr.
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
paryaṅka Is the name of the seat of the Brahman in the Kausītaki Upanisad. It seems to correspond to what is else­where called Asandi ; as used in the Upanisad, it can, how­ever, hardly mean a long seat for reclining on, but rather a throne.
pastyāvant Occurs in one passage of the Rigveda in the locative parallel with Susoma, Saryanāvant, and Arjīka. It must apparently denote a place, as Pischel argues, probably corresponding to the locality ‘in the middle of the streams’ (madhye pastyāηām), elsewhere referred to as the home of Soma. Pischel suggests that Patiāla is meant, though he does not lay any stress on the similarity of name. In the north of Patiāla there are hills where the Soma might have grown. Roth thought that something connected with the Soma press was meant.
pitāmaha Beside Tatāmaha, denotes from the Atharvaveda onwards the ‘paternal grandfather,’ apparently as a ‘father in a higher sense.’ The great-grandfather is Prapitāmaha and Pratatāmaha. It is significant that there are no corresponding Vedic words for maternal grandparents, and that the words used in the latter language, such as Mātāmaha, are imitations of the terms for paternal relations. In one passage of the Rigveda Delbruck suggests that make pitre means ‘ grandfather,’ a sense which would well suit the napātam, ‘grandson,’ following, but the sense of the whole passage is uncertain. We learn very little from the texts of the position of grandparents. No doubt they were entitled to marks of respect similar to those shown to parents, as the epic expressly testifies. A grandfather might easily be the head of the family, or be living with his eldest son, after he ceased to be able to control the family.The grandmother (Pitāmahī) is not mentioned in the extant Vedic literature.
pitṛyāṇa The ‘ way of the fathers,’ mentioned in the Rigveda and later, is opposed to the Deva-yāna, or ‘way of the gods.’ Tilak considers that the Devayāna corresponds with the Uttarāyana, ‘northern journey’ of the sun, and the Pitryāna with the Daksināyana, its ‘southern journey.’ He concludes from a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana, where three of the seasons spring, summer, and the rains are ascribed to the gods, but the others to the Pitrs, or Fathers, that the Devayāna began with the vernal equinox, and the Pitryāna with the autumnal equinox. With this he connects the curious distinction of Deva- and Yama-Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana. These conclusions are, however, very improbable. C/. Naksatra and Sūrya.
puṇḍra Is the name of a people regarded as outcasts in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Their name occurs in the Sūtras also. In the Epic their country corresponds with Bengal and Bihar.
māya In the śatapatha Brāhmana corresponds to Asuravidyā, magic.’
māsa Denotes a 'month' a period of time repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and lateṛ The Characteristic days (or rather nights) of the month were those of new moon, Amā-vasya, 'home-staying (night),' and 'of the full moon,' Paurṇa-māsi. Two hymns of the Atharvveda celebrate these days respectively. A personification of the phases of the moon is seen in the four names Sinīvālī the day before new moon; Kuhū also called Guṅgū, the new moon day;Anumati, the day before full moon; and Rākā, the day of new mooṇ The importance of the new and full moon days respectively. One special day in the month, the Ekāṣṭakā, or eighth day after full moon, was importanṭ In the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa there stated to be in the year twelve such, mentioned between the twelve days of full moon and twelve days of new moon. But one Ekāṣṭakā is referred to in the Yajurveda Saṃhitas and elsewhere as of quite special importance. This was, in the accordant opinion of most comentators, the eighth day after the full moon of Magha. It marked the end of the year, or the begining of the new year. Though the Kauṣītaki Brāmaṇa places places the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, the latter date probably means the new moon preceding full moon in Māgha, not the new moon following full moon; but it is perhaps possible to account adequately for the importance of the Ekāstakā as being the first Aṣṭakā after the beginning of the new year. It is not certain exactly how the month was reckoned, whether from the day after new moon to new moon—the system known as amānta, or from the day after full moon to full moon—the pūr- nimānta system, which later, at any rate, was followed in North India, while the other system prevailed in the south. Jacobi argues that the year began in the full moon of Phālguna, and that only by the full moon’s conjunction with the Nakṣatra could the month be known. Oldenberg12 points to the fact that the new moon is far more distinctively an epoch than the full moon; that the Greek, Roman, and Jewish years began with the new moon; and that the Vedic evidence is the division of the month into the former (j>ūrva) and latter (apara) halves, the first being the bright (śukla), the second the dark (krsna) period. Thibaut considers that to assume the existence of the pīirnimānta system for the Veda is unnecessary, though possible. Weber assumes that it occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa as held by the scholiasts. But it would probably be a mistake to press that passage, or to assume that the amānta system was rigidly accepted in the Veda: it seems at least as probable that the month was vaguely regarded as beginning with the new moon day, so that new moon preceded full moon, which was in the middle, not the end or. the beginning of the month. That a month regularly had 30 days is established by the conclusive evidence of numerous passages in which the year is given 12 months and 360 days. This month is known from the earliest records, being both referred to directly and alluded to. It is the regular month of the Brāhmaṇas, and must be regarded as the month which the Vedic Indian recognized. No other month is mentioned as such in• the Brāhmaṇa literature ; it is only in the Sūtras that months of different length occur. The Sāmaveda Sūtras10 refer to (i) years with 324 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each; (2) years with 351 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each, plus another month of 27 days; (3) years with 354 days—i.e., 6 months of 30 days, and 6 with 29 days, in other words, lunar synodic years; (4) years with 360 days, or ordinary civil (sāvana) years; (5) years with 378 days, which, as Thibaut clearly shows, are third years, in which, after two years of 360 days each, 18 days were added to bring about correspondence between the civil year and the solar year of 366 days. But even the Sāmasūtras do not mention the year of 366 days, which is first known to the Jyotiṣa and to Garga. That the Vedic period was acquainted with the year of 354 days cannot be affirmed with certainty. Zimmer, indeed, thinks that it is proved by the fact that pregnancy is estimated at ten months, or sometimes a year. But Weber may be right in holding that the month is the periodic month of 27 days, for the period is otherwise too long if a year is taken. On the other hand, the period of ten months quite well suits the period of gestation, if birth takes place in the tenth month, so that in this sense the month of 30 days may well be meant. The year of 12 months of 30 days each being admittedly quite unscientific, Zimmer23 is strongly of opinion that it was only used with a recognition of the fact that intercalation took place, and that the year formed part of a greater complex, normally the five year Yuga or cycle. This system is well known from the Jyotiṣa: it consists of 62 months of 29£4 days each = 1,830 days (two of these months being intercalary, one in the middle and one at the end), or 61 months of 30 days, or 60 months of 30^ days, the unit being clearly a solar year of 366 days. It is not an ideal system, since the year is too long; but it is one which cannot be claimed even for the Brāhmaṇa period, during which no decision as to the true length of the year seems to have been arrived at. The references to it seen by Zimmer in the Rigveda are not even reasonably plausible, while the pañcaka yuga, cited by him from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, occurs only in a quotation in a commentary, and has no authority for the text itself. On the other hand, there was undoubtedly some attempt to bring the year of 360 days—a synodic lunar year—roughly into connexion with reality. A Sāmasūtra27 treats it as a solar year, stating that the sun perambulates each Naxatra in days, while others again evidently interpolated 18 days every third year, in order to arrive at some equality. But Vedic literature, from the Rigveda downwards,29 teems with the assertion of the difficulty of ascertaining the month. The length is variously given as 30 days, 35 days,31 or 36 days. The last number possibly indicates an intercalation after six years (6x6 = 36, or for ritual purposes 35), but for this we have no special evidence. There are many references to the year having 12 or 13 months. The names of the months are, curiously enough, not at all ancient. The sacrificial texts of the Yajurveda give them in their clearest form where the Agnicayana, ‘building of the fire-altar,’ is described. These names are the following: (1) Madhu, (2) Mādhava (spring months, vāsantikāv rtū); (3) Sukra, (4) Suci (summer months, graismāv rtū); (5) Nabha (or Nabhas), (6) Nabhasya (rainy months, vārsikāv rtū); (7) Iṣa, (8) ūrja (autumn months, śāradāυ rtū); (9) Saha (or Sahas),35 (10) Sahasya (winter months, haimantikāυ rtū); (II) Tapa (or Tapas),35 (12) Tapasya (cool months, śaiśirāv rtū). There are similar lists in the descriptions of the Soma sacrifice and of the horse sacrifice, all of them agreeing in essentials. There are other lists of still more fanciful names, but these have no claim at all to represent actual divisions in popular use. It is doubtful if the list given above is more than a matter of priestly invention. Weber points out that Madhu and Mādhava later appear as names of spring, and that these two are mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka as if actually employed; but the evidence is very inadequate to show that the other names of the months given in the list were in ordinary use. In some of these lists the intercalary month is mentioned. The name given to it in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā is Amhasas- pati, while that given in the Taittirīya and Maitrāyaṇī Sarphitās is Sarpsarpa. The Kāthaka Sarphitā gives it the name of Malimluca, which also occurs elsewhere, along with Samsarpa, in one of the lists of fanciful names. The Atharvaveda describes it as sanisrasa, ‘slipping,’ owing no doubt to its unstable condition. The other method of naming the months is from the Nakçatras. It is only beginning to be used in the Brāhmaṇas, but is found regularly in the Epic and later. The Jyotisa mentions that Māgha and Tapa were identical: this is the fair interpretation of the passage, which also involves the identifica¬tion of Madhu with Caitra, a result corresponding with the view frequently found in the Brāhmanas, that the full moon in Citrā, and not that in Phalgunī, is the beginning of the year. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa are found two curious expressions, yava and ayava, for the light and dark halves of the month, which is clearly considered to begin with the light half. Possibly the words are derived, as Eggling thinks, from yu, ‘ ward off,’ with reference to evil spirits. The word Parvan (‘ joint ’ = division of time) probably denotes a half of the month, perhaps already in the Rigveda. More precisely the first half, the time of the waxing light, is called pūrva-paksa, the second, that of the waning light, apara-paka. Either of these might be called a half-month (ardha-ināsa).
yūṣan Occurring in the description of the horse-sacrifice in the Rigveda and the Yajurveda Samhitās, denotes the ‘broth’ which was made from the flesh of the sacrificial animal, and was no doubt used as food. Vessels employed for holding it, Pātra and Ásecana, are mentioned. Another form of the word, found in the Taittirīya Samhitā, is Yūs, which corresponds to the Latin jus.
ratha in the Rigveda and later denotes ‘chariot’ as opposed to Anas, ‘cart,’ though the distinction is not absolute. Of differences in the structure of the two we have no information, except that the Kha, or nave hole, in the wheel of the chariot was greater than in that of the cart. The chariot has, as a rule, two wheels (Cakra), to which reference is frequently made. The wheel consisted of a rim (Pavi), a felly (Pradhi), spokes (Ara), and a nave (Nabhya). The rim and the felly together constitute the Nemi. The hole in the nave is called Kha: into it the end of the axle was inserted; but there is some uncertainty whether Ani denotes the extremity of the axle that was inserted in the nave, or the lynch-pin used to keep that extremity in the wheel. Sometimes a solid wheel was used. The axle (Akṣa) was, in some cases, made of Araψu. wood; round its ends the wheels revolved. To the axle was attached the body of the chariot (Kośa). This part is also denoted by the word Vandhura, which more precisely means the ‘ seat ’ of the chariot. The epithet tri-vandhura is used of the chariot of the Aśvins, seemingly to correspond with another of its epithets, tri-cakra: perhaps, as Weber thinks, a chariot with three seats and three wheels was a real form of vehicle; but Zimmer considers that the vehicle was purely mythical. Garta also denotes the seat of the warrior. At right angles to the axle was the pole of the chariot (īçā, Praiiga). Normally there was, it seems, one pole, on either side of which the horses were harnessed, a yoke (Yuga) being laid across their necks; the pole was passed through the hole in the yoke (called Kha or Tardman ), the yoke and the pole then being tied together. The horses were tied by the neck (grīva), where the yoke was placed, and also at the shoulder, presumably by traces fastened to a bar of wood at right angles to the pole, or fastened to the ends of the pole, if that is to be regarded, as it probably should, as of triangular shape, wide at the foot and coming to a point at the tip. The traces seem to be denoted by Raśmi and Raśanā. These words also denote the ‘ reins,’ which were fastened to the bit (perhaps śiprū) in the horse’s mouth. The driver controlled the horses by reins, and urged them on with a whip (Kaśā). The girths of the horse were called Kakṣyā. The normal number of horses seems to have been two, but three or four10 were often used. It is uncertain whether, in these cases, the extra horse was attached in front or at the side; possibly both modes were in use. Even five steeds could be employed. Horses were normally used for chariots, but the ass (gardabha) or mule (aśvatarī) are also mentioned. The ox was employed for drawing carts, and in fact derived its name, Anadvāh, from this use. Sometimes a poor man had to be content with a single steed, which then ran between two shafts. In the chariot the driver stood on the right, while the warrior was on the left, as indicated by his name, Savyeṣtha or Savyaṣhā. He could also sit when he wanted, for the chariot had seats, and an archer would naturally prefer to sit while shooting his arrows. The dimensions of the chariot are given in the śulba Sūtra of Apastamba at Angulis (finger-breadths) for the pole, for the axle, and 86 for the yoke. The material used in its construction was wood, except for the rim of the wheel. Many other parts of the chariot are mentioned, their names being often obscure in meaning: see Añka, Nyanka, Uddhi, Paksas, Pātalya, Bhurij, Rathopastha, Rathavāhana.
rathavāhana Is the name in the Rigveda and later for a movable stand to hold the chariot. According to Roth, it corresponds to the Greek βωμός, on which the chariot rested when out of use. The word Rathavāhana-vāha is employed in the sense of the two horses that draw the stand. Weber thinks it was used to convey the war chariot to the scene of action.
rājasūya Is the name in the Atharvaveda and the later literature of the ceremony of the ‘royal consecration.’ The rite is described at great length in the Sūtras, but its main features are clearly outlined in the Brāhmaṇas, while the verses used in the ceremony are preserved in the Samhitās of the Yaj'urveda. Besides much mere priestly elaboration, the ritual contains traces of popular ceremonial. For example, the king is clothed in the ceremonial garments of his rank, and provided with bow and arrow as emblems of sovereignty. He is formally anointed; he performs a mimic cow raid against a relative of his; or engages in a sham fight with a Rājanya. A game of dice is played in which he is made to be the victim; he symbolically ascends the quarters of the sky as an indication of his universal rule; and steps on a tiger skin, thus gaining the strength and the pre-eminence of the tiger. A list of the consecrated kings is given in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, where the royal inauguration is called the ‘great unctioni (vtahābhiseka) connected with Indra. It corresponds generally with a list of Aśvamedhins, ‘ performers of the horse sacrifice,’ given in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vār Is found in the Rigveda and later denoting ‘water.’ In some passages 'stagnant water'/ 'pond' is meant.
videha Is the name of a people who are not mentioned before the Brāhmaṇa period. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the legend of Videgha Māthava preserves clearly a tradition that in Videha culture came from the Brahmins of the West, and that Kosala was brahminized before Videha. The Videhas, however, derived some fame later from the culture of their king Janaka,who figures in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad as one of the leading patrons of the Brahman doctrine. In the Kausītaki Upaniṣad the Videhas are joined with the Kāśis ; in the list of peoples in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa the Videhas are passed over, probably because, with Kosala and Kāśi, they are included in the term Prāeyas, easterners.’ Again, in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra it is recorded that the Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha kingdoms had each the one Purohita, Jala Jātūkarṇya; and in another passage of the same text the connexion between the Videha king, Para Átṇāra, and the Kosala king, Hiraṇya- nābha, is explained, while the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa speaks of Para Atṇāra as the Kosala king, descendant of Hiranyanābha. Another king of Videha was Namī Sāpya, mentioned in the Pañcavirpśa Brāhmaṇa. In the Samhitās of the Yajurveda ‘cows of Videha’ seem to be alluded to, though the com¬mentator on the Taittirīya Samhitā merely takes the adjective vaidehī as ‘having a splendid body’ (viśista-deha-sambandhinī), and the point of a place name in the expression is not very obvious. The Videhas also occur in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra in Brāhmana-like passages. The boundary of Kosala and Videha was the Sadānīrā, probably the modern Gandak (the Kondochates of the Greek geographers), which, rising in Nepal, flows into the Ganges opposite Patna. Videha itself corresponds roughly to the modern Tirhut.
vimoktṛ In the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) denotes one who unharnesses horses from the chariot, as opposed to Yoktṛ, one who yokes.’ The corresponding verbal noun Vimocana, ‘unyoking,’ is often found.
veśantā All denote a 'pond' or ‘tank.’ Cf. Vaiśanta.
vaiśya Denotes a man, not so much of the people, as of the subject class, distinct from the ruling noble (Kṣatriya) and the Brāhmaṇa, the higher strata of the Aryan community on the one side, and from the aboriginal śūdra on the other. The name is first found in the Puruṣa-sūkta (‘ hymn of man ’) in the Rigveda, and then frequently from the Atharvaveda onwards, sometimes in the form of Viśya. The Vaiśya plays singularly little part in Vedic literature, which has much to say of Kṣatriya and Brahmin. His characteristics are admirably summed up in the Aitareya Brāh¬maṇa in the adjectives anyasya bali-krt, ‘tributary to another’; anyasyādya, ‘to be lived upon by another’; and yathakāma- jyeyafr, ‘to be oppressed at will.’ He was unquestionably taxed by the king (Rājan), who no doubt assigned to his retinue the right of support by the people, so that the Kṣatriyas grew more and more to depend on the services rendered to them by the Vaiśyas. But the Vaiśya was not a slave: he could not be killed by the king or anyone else without the slayer incurring risk and the payment of a wergeld (Vaira), which even in the Brahmin books extends to 100 cows for a Vaiśya. Moreover, though the Vaiśya could be expelled by the king at pleasure, he cannot be said to have been without property in his land. Hopkins® thinks it is absurd to suppose that he could really be a landowner when he was subject to removal at will, but this is to ignore the fact that normally the king could not remove the landowner, and that kings were ultimately dependent on the people, as the tales of exiled kings show. On the other hand, Hopkins is clearly right in holding that the Vaiśya was really an agriculturist, and that Vedic society was not merely a landholding aristocracy, superimposed upon an agricultural aboriginal stock, as Baden Powell8 urged. Without ignoring the possibility that the Dravidians were agriculturists, there is no reason to deny that the Aryans were so likewise, and the goad of the plougher was the mark of a Vaiśya in life and in death. It would be absurd to suppose that the Aryan Vaiśyas 'did not engage in industry and com¬merce (cf. Paṇi, Vaṇij), but pastoral pursuits and agriculture must have been their normal occupations. In war the Vaiśyas must have formed the bulk of the force under the Kṣatriya leaders (see Kçatriya). But like the Homeric commoners, the Vaiśyas may well have done little of the serious fighting, being probably ill-provided with either body armour or offensive weapons. That the Vaiśyas were engaged in the intellectual life of the day is unlikely; nor is there any tradition, corresponding to that regarding the Kṣatriyas, of their having taken part in the evolution of the doctrine of Brahman, the great philosophic achievement of the age. The aim of the Vaiśya's ambition was, according to the Taittirīya Samhitā, to become a Grāmariī, or village headman, a post probably conferred by the king on wealthy Vaiśyas, of whom no doubt there were many. It is impossible to say if in Vedic times a Vaiśya could attain to nobility or become a Brahmin. No instance can safely be quoted in support of such a view, though such changes of status may have taken place (see Kṣatriya and Varṇa). It is denied by Fick that the Vaiśyas were ever a caste, and the denial is certainly based on good grounds if it is held that a caste means a body within which marriage is essential, and which follows a hereditary occupation (cf. Varṇa). But it would be wrong to suppose that the term Vaiśya was merely applied by theorists to the people who were not nobles or priests. It must have been an early appellation of a definite class which was separate from the other classes, and properly to be compared with them. Moreover, though there were differences among Vaiśyas, there were equally differences among Kṣatriyas and Brāhmaṇas, and it is impossible to deny the Vaiśyas’ claim to be reckoned a class or caste if the other two are such, though at the present day things are different.
vrātya Is included in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda, where, however, no further explanation of the name is given. Fuller information is furnished by the Atharvaveda, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Sūtras, which describe at length a certain rite intended for the use of Vrātyas. According to the Pañcavimśa Brāh­maṇa, there are four different kinds of ‘outcasts’—viz., the hīna, who are merely described as ‘depressed’; those who have become outcasts for some sin (nindita); those who become out­casts at an early age, apparently by living among outcasts; and those old men who, being impotent (śama-nīcamedhra), have gone to live with outcasts. The last three categories are by no means of the same importance as the first. The motive of the fourth is hard to understand: according to Rājārām Rām- krishṇa Bhāgavat,5 they were men who had enfeebled their constitutions by undue intercourse with women in the lands of the outcasts, and returned home in a debilitated state. But this is not stated in the text. It seems probable that the really important Vrātyas were those referred to as Itlna, and that the other classes were only subsidiary. According to Rāj'ārām,® there were two categories of the first class: (a) The depressed (hīna), who were non- Aryan ; and (6) degraded Aryans (gara-gir). This, however, is a mere guess, and devoid of probability. There seems to have been but one class of Vrātyas. That they were non-Aryan is not probable, for it is expressly said7 that, though unconse¬crated, they spoke the tongue of the consecrated: they were thus apparently Aryans. This view is confirmed by the state-ment that ‘they call what is easy of utterance, difficult to utter’: probable they had already a somewhat Prakritic form of speech (cf. Vāc). The Sūtras mention their Arhants (‘saints’) and Yaudhas (‘warriors’), corresponding to the Brahminical Brāhmana and Kṣatriya. Other particulars accord with the view that they were Aryans outside the sphere of Brahmin culture. Thus they are said not to practise agriculture or commerce (an allusion to a nomadic life), nor to observe the rules of Brahmacarya—i.e., the principle regulating the Brahminic order of life. They were also allowed to become members of the Brahminical community by performance of the ritual prescribed, which would hardly be so natural in the case of non-Aryans. Some details are given of the life and dress of the Vrātyas. Their principles were opposed to those of the Brahmins: they beat those unworthy of correction. Their leader (Gṛhapati) or householder wore a turban (Uçṇīçε), carried a whip (Pratoda), a kind of bow (Jyāhroda), was :lothed in a black (krçnaśa) garment and two skins (Ajina), blxk and white (krsna-valaksa), and owned a rough wagon (Vijatha) covered with planks (phalakāstīrna). The others, subordinate to the leader, had garments with fringes of red (valūkāntāni dāmatūsām), two fringes on each, skins folded double (dvisamhitāny ajinūni), and sandals (Upānah). The leader wore also an ornament (Niçka) of silver, which Rājārām converts into a silver coinage. The Vrātyas, on becoming consecrated, were expected to hand over their goods to the priest. Many other details are given in the Sūtras (e.g., that the shoes or sandals were of variegated black hue and pointed), but these are not authenticated by the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. The locality in which the Vrāiyas lived cannot be stated with certainty, but their nomad life suggests the western tribes beyond the Sarasvatī. But they may equally well have been in the east: this possibility is so far supported by the fact that the Sūtras make the Brahmin receiving the gift of the Vrātya's outfit an inhabitant of Mag’adha. The Atharvaveda does not help, for it treats the Vrātya in so mystical a way that he is represented as being in all the quarters. Indeed, Roth believed that it was here not a case of the Vrātya of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa at all, but of a glorification of the Vrātya as the type of the pious vagrant or wandering religious mendicant (Parivrājaka). This view is clearly wrong, as the occurrence of the words usnīsa, vipatha, and pratoda shows. It is probable that the 15th Book of the Atharvaveda, which deals with the Vrātya, and is of a mystical character, exalts the converted Vrātya as a type of the perfect Brahmacārin, and, in so far, of the divinity.
saciva Companion,’ attendant ’ (from sac, 'follow'), later a common word for the comrade of a king, his minister, is found in Vedic literature in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa (iii. 20, 1), where it is used by Indra of the Maruts. It seems to correspond in sense to the German comes or the English gesith.
sarasvatī Is the name of a river frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later. In many passages of the later texts it is certain the river meant is the modern Sarasvatī, which loses itself in the sands of Patiala (see Vinaśana). Even Roth admits that this river is intended in some passages of the Rigveda. With the Drṣadvatī it formed the western boundary of Brahmāvarta (see Madhyadeśa). It is the holy stream of early Vedic India. The Sūtras mention sacrifices held on its banks as of great importance and sanctity. In many other passages of the Rigveda, and even later, Roth held that another river, the Sindhu (Indus), was really meant: only thus could it be explained why the Sarasvatī is called the ‘foremost of rivers’ (nadītamā), is said to go to the ocean, and is referred to as a large river, on the banks of which many kings, and, indeed, the five tribes, were located. This view is accepted by Zimmer and others. On the other hand, Lassen and Max Muller maintain the identity of the Vedic Sarasvatī with the later Sarasvatī. The latter is of opinion that in Vedic times the Sarasvatī was as large a stream as the Sutlej, and that it actually reached the sea either after union with the Indus or not, being the 'iron citadel,’ as the last boundary on the west, a frontier of the Panjab against the rest of India. There is no conclusive evidence of there having been any great change in the size or course of the Sarasvatī, though it would be impossible to deny that the river may easily have diminished in size. But there are strong reasons to accept the identification of the later and the earlier Sarasvatī throughout. The insistence on the divine character of the river is seen in the very hymn which refers to it as the support of the five tribes, and corresponds well with its later sacredness. Moreover, that hymn alludes to the Pārāvatas, a people shown by the later evidence of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa to have been in the east, a very long way from their original home, if Sarasvatī means the Indus. Again, the Pūrus, who were settled on the Sarasvatī, could with great difficulty be located in the far west. Moreover, the five tribes might easily be held to be on the Sarasvatī, when they were, as they seem to have been, the western neighbours of the Bharatas in Kurukçetra, and the Sarasvatī could easily be regarded as the boundary of the Panjab in that sense. Again, the ‘seven rivers’ in one passage clearly designate a district: it is most probable that they are not the five rivers with the Indus and the Kubhā (Cabul river), but the five rivers, the Indus and the Sarasvatī. Nor is it difficult to see why the river is said to flow to the sea: either the Vedic poet had never followed the course of the river to its end, or the river did actually penetrate the desert either completely or for a long distance, and only in the Brāhmaṇa period was its disappear ance in the desert found out. It is said, indeed, in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā21 that the five rivers go to the Sarasvatī, but this passage is not only late (as the use of the word Deśa shows), but it does not say that the five rivers meant are those of the Panjab. Moreover, the passage has neither a parallel in the other Samhitās, nor can it possibly be regarded as an early production; if it is late it must refer to the later Sarasvatī. Hillebrandt,22 on the whole, adopts this view of the Saras¬vatī,23 but he also sees in it, besides the designation of a mythical stream, the later Vaitaraṇī,24 as well as the name of the Arghandab in Arachosia.25 This opinion depends essentially on his theory that the sixth Mandala of the Rigveda places the scene of its action in Iranian lands, as opposed to the seventh Maṇdala: it is as untenable as that theory itself. Brunn-hofer at one time accepted the Iranian identification, but later decided for the Oxus, which is quite out of the question. See also Plakṣa Prāsravaṇa.
sasya In the Atharvaveda and later regularly denotes ‘corn’ generally. It corresponds to the Avestan hahya. See Krṣi.
sūrya The ‘sun,’ plays a great part in Vedic mythology and religion, corresponding with the importance of the sun as a factor in the physical life of the peninsula. In the Rigveda2 the sun is normally regarded as a beneficent power, a not unnatural view in a people which must apparently have issued from the cold regions of the Himālaya mountains. Its heat is, however, alluded to in some passages of the Rigveda, as well as referred to in the Atharvaveda and the literature of the Brāhmaṇas. In one myth Indra is said to have vanquished Sūrya and to have stolen his wheel: this is possibly a reference to the obscuration of the sun by a thunderstorm. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa presents a naive conception of the course of the sun, which it regards„ as bright on one side only, and as returning from west to east by the same road, but with the reverse side turned towards the earth, thus at night illumining the stars in heaven. In the Rigveda wonder is expressed that the sun does not fall. There are several references to eclipses in the Rigveda. In one passage Svarbhānu, a demon, is said to have eclipsed the sun with darkness, while Atri restores the light of the sun, a similar feat being elsewhere attributed to his family, the Atris. In the Atharvaveda Rāhu appears for the first time in connexion with the sun. Indra’s defeat of Sūrya may also be explained as alluding to an eclipse; in two other passages such an interpretation seems at least probable. Ludwig not only argues that the Rigveda knows the theory of eclipses caused by an occultation of the sun by the moon, and regards the sun as going round the earth, but even endeavours to identify an eclipse referred to in the Rigveda with one that occurred in 1029 B.C. These views are completely refuted by Whitney. The sun as a maker of time determines the year of 360 days, which is the civil year and the usual year (Saipvatsara) of Vedic literature. This solar year is divided into two halves— the Uttarāyaṇa, when the sun goes north, and the Dakṣiṇā- yana, when it goes south. There can be no doubt that these periods denote the time when the sun turns north from the winter solstice, and when it turns south from the summer solstice, for the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa says so in perfectly clear language. The alternative theory is to regard the periods as those when the sun is in the north—i.e., when it is north of the equator, and when it is in the south, taking as points of departure the equinoxes, not the solstices; but this view has no support in Vedic literature, and is opposed to the fact that the equinoxes play no part in Vedic astronomical theory. There are only doubtful references to the solstices in the Rigveda. The Brāhmanas, and perhaps the Rigveda, regard the moon as entering the sun at new moon. According to Hillebrandt, the Rigveda recognizes that the moon shines by the borrowed light of the sun, but this seems very doubt-ful. See also Aryamṇalj Panthā, Nakṣatra, and Sapta Sūryāh.
hrada In the Rigveda and later denotes a ‘lake’ or pond
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agnim īḍe rakṣohaṇaṃ yajñavṛdhaṃ ghṛtāhutam # AVP.4.33.4cd. The first two words are put by emendation at the end of pāda b in the corresponding stanza of AVś. See rakṣohaṇaṃ yajñavṛdhaṃ.
agnis tṛpyatu # śG.4.9.3; 6.6.10. Cf. agniṃ tarpayāmi. Cf. also for the series of formulas in śG.4.9.3 the corresponding passage of the śāmbavya-Gṛhya, Ind. Stud. xv. 153.
abhi pra vaḥ surādhasam # RV.8.49 (Vāl.1).1a; AVś.20.51.1a; SV.1.235a; 2.161a; PB.11.9.2; ā.5.2.4.2; Aś.7.4.3; 8.6.16; Vait.31.18,24; 33.7; 41.8. P: abhi pra vaḥ śś.7.23.4; 12.9.11. Designated as vālakhilyāni Aś.8.4.8, and elsewhere. Each stanza of this hymn is to be compared with the corresponding stanza of RV.8.50 (Vāl.2).
pra su śrutaṃ (read pra suśrutaṃ ?) surādhasam # RV.8.50 (Vāl.2).1a; AVś.20.51.3a; Aś.7.4.3; Vait.31.18. P: pra su śrutam śś.7.23.4; 12.9.11. Each stanza of this hymn is to be compared with the corresponding stanza of RV.8.49 (Vāl.1).
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"pond" has 23 results.
     
aṃśugaṇaalso अंश्वादिगण a class of words headed by अंशु which have their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tatpuruṣa, correspond with the word प्रति as the first member. confer, compare P. VI.2.193.
adādiname given to the class of roots belonging to the second conjugation, as the roots therein begin with the root अद्. The word अदिप्रभृति is also used in the same sense; confer, compare अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः p.II. 4.72: confer, comparealso अदाद्यनदाद्योरनदादेरेव given by Hemacandra as a Paribhāṣā corresponding to the maxim लुग्विकरणालुग्विकरणयोरलुग्विकरणस्य Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari.61.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
upācarita(1)sibilation substitution of a sibilant letter for a visarga: confer, compare प्लुतोपाचरिते च R.Pr. XI.19; (2) name of the saṁdhi in which a visarga is changed into a sibilant letter; confer, compare सर्वत्रैवोपाचरितः स संधिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)IV.14 which corresponds to Pāṇini VIII.3.18 and 19.
ghuṭa conventional term for the first five case-affixes; confer, compare घुटि च Kat. II. 1.68. The term घुट् is used in the Katantra Vyakarana and corresponds to the term सर्वनामस्थान of Panini.
dhi(1)a technical term used for sonant consonants in the Pratisakhya and old grammar works; confer, compare धि शेषः V. Pr.I.53, explained by Uvvata as वर्गाणां उत्तरास्त्रय: यरलवहकाराश्च धिः V.Pr. I.53; the term धि corresponds to हश् of Panini; (2) personal ending धि substituted for हि of the imperative 2nd singular. exempli gratia, for example जुहुधि, छिन्द्धि, भिन्द्धि, श्रुधि, रारन्धि et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4.101-103.
dhuṭ(1)the augment ध् prefixed to the consonant स् following upon the consonant ड् or न् occurring at the end of a word; exempli gratia, for example श्वलिट्त्साये, महान्त्साये et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.29; (2) technical short term for धातु (root); the technical term is धुष् , but the nominative case. singular. used is धुट्; (3) a technical term standing for cononants excepting semi-vowels and nasals; confer, compare धुटश्च धुटि Kat. III.6.51. The term is used in the Katantra Vyakarana. It corresponds to the term झर् of Panini.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
pañcapadīa term used in the AtharvaPrātiśākhya for the strong case affixes viz. the nominative case affixes and the accusative singular. and dual affixes; confer, compare चत्वारि क्षैप्रञ्च पञ्चपद्यामन्तोदात्तादीनि यात् Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. I. 3.14. The term corresponds to the Sarvanāmasthāna of Pāņini, which is also termed सुट् ; confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य P. I. 1.43.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
puruṣaa grammatical term in the sense of 'person:' confer, compare करोतिः पचादीनां सर्वान् कालान् सर्वान् पुरुषान्सर्वाणि वचनान्यनुवर्तते, भवतिः पुनर्वर्तमानकालं चैकत्वं च. These persons or Purușas are described to be three प्रथम, मध्यम and उत्तम corresponding to the third second and first persons respectively in English Grammar; confer, compare also Nirukta of Yāska.VII. l and 2.
pratiyeginnegative counterpart;confer, compare न चान्तरेण प्रतियोगिनं स्पर्धा भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.69. Vart. 6; also M.Bh.on VIII. 8.4 Vart. 8; corresponding term; ct. प्रथमग्रहणं च तियोग्यपेक्षत्वान्नोपयुज्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on V. 3.1.
prativarṇafor every letter; corresponding to every letter; confer, compare अनर्थकास्तु वर्णाः प्रतिवर्णमर्थानुपलब्धेः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika 2, Siva sutra 5.
praśleṣa(l)coalescence of two vowels into one, as given in Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.6, and 7, corresponding to the गुण, वृद्वि and दीर्घ substitutes prescribed by the rules आद्गुणः P.IV 1.87; अकः सवर्णे दीर्घः VI.1.101; and वृद्धिरेचि VI. 1.88 which are stated under the jurisdiction of the rule एकः पूर्वपरयोः VI.1.84; (2) finding out the presence of a letter in addition to the letters already present as coalesced, after splitting the combination into its different constituent 1etters. This Practice of finding out an additional letter is resorted to by the commentators only to remove certain difficulties in arriving at some correct forms which otherwise could not be obtained; e. g. see क्ङिति च where क्ङ् is believed to be a combination of ग्, क् and ङ् See प्रश्लिष्ट and प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देश.
prasāraṇaa term used by ancient grammarians for संप्रसारण, i.e, the substitution of a corresponding vowel for a semivowel; exempli gratia, for example इ for य्, उ for व्, ऋ for र् and लृ for ल्: confer, compare रकि ज्यः प्रसारणम् P.I.1.4. Vart. 6.
prātipadikakāryacorresponding to अङ्गकार्य in the case of the declinables, which the Sutrakara mentions specifically with respect to the noun-base.
prādhānyapreponderance, principal nature as opposed to the subordinate one ( विशेषण्त्व ); confer, compare यत्र प्राधान्येन अल् आश्रीयते तत्रैव प्रतिषेधः स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1. 56. confer, compare also प्राधान्येन व्यपदेशा भवन्ति ।
leśasuch a slow or indistinct utterance or pronunciation of the letter य् or व् preceded by अ, as shows that it is almost droppedition This indistinct or slurred utterance of य् or व, which is described as advocated by the Prātiśākhyakāra Vātsapra, corresponds to the utterance of य् or व् with a very low tone as mentioned by Pāņini in the rule व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य; exempli gratia, for example अाप उन्दन्तु; या जाता ओषधयः et cetera, and others; confer, compare लेशो वात्सप्रस्य एतयोः T.Pr. 10.23; confer, compare also लेशेन प्रयत्नशैथिल्येन ब्यञ्जनानां वचनमुच्चारणं क्रियते Uvvața on R.Pr. XIV.5.
vibhajyānvākhyānaa method of forming a word, or of arriving at the complete form of a word by putting all the constituent elements of the word such as the base, the affix, the augment, the modification, the . accent, et cetera, and others one after another and then arriving at the form instead of completing the formation stage by stage; e. g. in arriving at the form स्नौघ्नि the wording स्नौघ्न + अ +ई is to be considered as it stands and not स्नौघ्न + अ = स्नौघ्न and then स्नौघ्न +ई. The विभज्यान्वाख्यानपक्ष in connection with the formation of a word corresponds to the पदसंस्कारपक्ष in connection with the formation of a sentence.
hyastanīimperfect tense; a term used by ancient grammarians for the affixes of the immediate past tense, but not comprising the present day, corresponding to the term लङ् of Panini. The term is found in the Katantra and Haimacandra grammars; confer, compare Kat. III. 1.23, 27; confer, compare Hema. III. 3.9.
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Results for pond
     
abhineduḥ respondedSB 1.2.2
anudhyāyan pondering overSB 10.56.40-42
anurūpa correspondingSB 10.60.9
avasāda despondencyCC Madhya 2.64
avasāde in despondencyCC Madhya 2.35
dhyāyataḥ as he ponderedSB 10.72.15
dhyāyati pondersSB 2.2.2
hā-hā despondencyCC Madhya 2.14
hā-hā despondencyCC Madhya 2.14
hradam to a pondSB 10.39.40
indriyāṇi and the five corresponding sensesSB 11.22.22
kṛta-nyāsaḥ having sanctified his own body (by touching various parts and chanting appropriate mantras while meditating on the corresponding forms of the Supreme Lord)SB 11.27.20
kṛta-nyāsaḥ having sanctified his own body (by touching various parts and chanting appropriate mantras while meditating on the corresponding forms of the Supreme Lord)SB 11.27.20
mātrāṇi the various sense objects (corresponding to each of the five gross elements)SB 10.59.30
mīmāṃsamānam who was deeply ponderingSB 10.81.24
nirveda despondencyCC Madhya 2.76
nirvidyate is despondentSB 5.13.6
nirviṇṇān despondentSB 10.73.8
pāligāna respondersCC Madhya 13.36
paṭhana respondingCC Adi 8.78
pratibodhyamāna respondingSB 5.2.4
pratinanda-yāmaḥ respond by rejoicingSB 10.60.57
pratinanda-yāmaḥ respond by rejoicingSB 10.60.57
sa-varṇāḥ having the same corresponding colorsSB 11.23.43
sa-varṇāḥ having the same corresponding colorsSB 11.23.43
sīdate becomes despondentSB 3.9.8
svabhāva in the position corresponding to his own conditioned natureSB 10.24.18
tādṛśī correspondingBs 5.61
tam tam correspondingBG 7.20
tam tam correspondingBG 7.20
tat-mātre its corresponding subtle sensationSB 11.24.22-27
tat-mātre its corresponding subtle sensationSB 11.24.22-27
vāpīṣu in the pondsSB 3.15.22
vāpyām in the pondSB 3.33.19
vigāhya ponderingSB 3.16.14
viklavitam the despondent expressions ofSB 10.29.42
vimṛśantaḥ pondering overSB 10.74.18
vṛttiḥ and the corresponding activitiesSB 12.12.44
abhineduḥ respondedSB 1.2.2
anurūpa correspondingSB 10.60.9
avasāda despondencyCC Madhya 2.64
avasāde in despondencyCC Madhya 2.35
dhyāyataḥ as he ponderedSB 10.72.15
hā-hā despondencyCC Madhya 2.14
hā-hā despondencyCC Madhya 2.14
hradam to a pondSB 10.39.40
indriyāṇi and the five corresponding sensesSB 11.22.22
kṛta-nyāsaḥ having sanctified his own body (by touching various parts and chanting appropriate mantras while meditating on the corresponding forms of the Supreme Lord)SB 11.27.20
mātrāṇi the various sense objects (corresponding to each of the five gross elements)SB 10.59.30
tat-mātre its corresponding subtle sensationSB 11.24.22-27
mīmāṃsamānam who was deeply ponderingSB 10.81.24
nirveda despondencyCC Madhya 2.76
nirvidyate is despondentSB 5.13.6
nirviṇṇān despondentSB 10.73.8
kṛta-nyāsaḥ having sanctified his own body (by touching various parts and chanting appropriate mantras while meditating on the corresponding forms of the Supreme Lord)SB 11.27.20
pāligāna respondersCC Madhya 13.36
paṭhana respondingCC Adi 8.78
pratibodhyamāna respondingSB 5.2.4
pratinanda-yāmaḥ respond by rejoicingSB 10.60.57
sa-varṇāḥ having the same corresponding colorsSB 11.23.43
sīdate becomes despondentSB 3.9.8
svabhāva in the position corresponding to his own conditioned natureSB 10.24.18
tādṛśī correspondingBs 5.61
tam tam correspondingBG 7.20
tam tam correspondingBG 7.20
tat-mātre its corresponding subtle sensationSB 11.24.22-27
vāpīṣu in the pondsSB 3.15.22
vāpyām in the pondSB 3.33.19
sa-varṇāḥ having the same corresponding colorsSB 11.23.43
viklavitam the despondent expressions ofSB 10.29.42
vṛttiḥ and the corresponding activitiesSB 12.12.44
pratinanda-yāmaḥ respond by rejoicingSB 10.60.57
     DCS with thanks   
Results for pond
     
abdhi noun (masculine) a kind of plant a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the numeral 4 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the ocean (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4971/72933
abhirūpa adjective beautiful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conformable to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding with (dat.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
handsome (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
learned (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pleasing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8073/72933
adhikatā noun (feminine) addition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
redundancy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20498/72933
adhvagabhogya noun (masculine) the tree Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42558/72933
akhāta noun (masculine neuter) a natural pond or lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pool before a temple (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41625/72933
ambarīṣa noun (masculine) a young animal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
battle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
colt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a hell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rājarshi (descendant of Sagara) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rājarshi (son of the king Vṛṣagir) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of the patriarch Pulaha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Gaṇeśa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
remorse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hog-plum plant (Spondias Magnifera) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
war (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4885/72933
amlavāṭaka noun (masculine) hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44740/72933
amlikā noun (feminine) a sour taste in the mouth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
acidity of stomach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Mangifera indica Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 526) Oxalis Corniculata (wood sorrel) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 526) Rumex dentatus Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 525) Spondias mangifera Willd. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 526) the tamarind tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8730/72933
anabhirūpa adjective not corresponding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not handsome (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not pleasing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42709/72933
anirvid adjective free from causes of depression (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
undesponding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unwearied (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42989/72933
anugatārtha adjective having a corresponding meaning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31889/72933
anurūpa adjective according to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
adapted to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conformable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
following the form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
like (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suitable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2087/72933
anuvaṃśa adjective of a corresponding family (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
of equal birth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 43304/72933
anālamba noun (masculine) despondency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
want of support (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42886/72933
anālambana adjective desponding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unsupported (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42887/72933
anūpa noun (masculine) a buffalo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a watery country (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bank of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5414/72933
apartu indeclinable not in correspondence with the season (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 43700/72933
apratirūpa adjective disagreeable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
incomparable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not corresponding with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
odious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
of unequalled form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unfit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11516/72933
avakąp verb (class 1 ātmanepada) to answer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be fit for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be right (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to correspond to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to serve to (dat.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32608/72933
avidāsin adjective not drying up (as a pond) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perennial (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32696/72933
aśoṣya adjective not drying up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
permanent (as a pond) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26788/72933
balavant adjective accompanied by an army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dense (as darkness) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
intense (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mighty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
possessing power (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
powerful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prevailing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
strong (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vehement (as love) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 730/72933
bhādrapada noun (masculine feminine) the month Bhādra (a rainy month corresponding to the period from about the middle of August to the middle of September) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8001/72933
bhāratara adjective heavy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ponderous (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60668/72933
bhūyastva noun (neuter) abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
great extent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
increase (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
multitude (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the becoming or being more or much (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14352/72933
bilva noun (neuter) a kind of vegetable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular weight; 1 Pala (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a small pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Bilva fruit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7217/72933
devakhāta noun (neuter) a cave (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a natural pond or reservoir (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10376/72933
devakhātaka noun (neuter) a natural pond
Frequency rank 54919/72933
dravya adjective derived from or relating to a tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tree-like or corresponding to a tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55111/72933
duranvaya adjective difficult to be accomplished or performed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
difficult to be found out or fathomed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
difficult to be passed along (road) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not corresponding or suitable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19442/72933
dīrghikā noun (feminine) a kind of plant a large oblong pond name of an attendant of Devī (K.R. von Kooji (1972), 50)
Frequency rank 8272/72933
gārā noun (masculine feminine neuter) mud from a pond [tālāb kā kīcaĄ] (Somadeva (1999), 87) earth steeped in water for several hours (tagār, masonry)
Frequency rank 6783/72933
hariṇī noun (feminine) a female deer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a golden image (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of Svarabhakti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
doe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the mother of Hari (Viṣṇu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the four kinds of beautiful women (corresponding to the kind of man termed mṛga) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rubia Munjista (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
yellow jasmine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] name of a Śakti of Śiva
Frequency rank 12300/72933
haṃho indeclinable a vocative particle (corresponding to "ho!" "hollol" accord. to some also expressing haughtiness or contempt) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41418/72933
jalasthāna noun (neuter) a reservoir (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52809/72933
jalāśaya noun (masculine) a fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a reservoir (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ocean (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5833/72933
jalāśraya noun (masculine neuter) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a water-house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a wolf (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the root of the fragrant grass Andropogon Muricatus
Frequency rank 19335/72933
kairaviṇī noun (feminine) a place or pond abounding in water-lilies (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
assemblage of lotuses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water-lily or lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50135/72933
kapi noun (masculine) an ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Emblica Officinalis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera) Mucuna pruriens DC. monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a school (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Olibanum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
species of Karañja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 955/72933
kapicūta noun (masculine) hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera) name of a plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23617/72933
kapipriya noun (masculine) Feronia Elephantum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23618/72933
kapirasāḍhya noun (masculine) hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera)
Frequency rank 48549/72933
kapītana noun (masculine) Acacia Sirissa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Aegle Marmelos (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Areca Faufel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ficus Religiosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Thespesia Populnea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10902/72933
karpūrasaras noun (neuter) name of a lake or pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48776/72933
karṇa noun (masculine) (in prosody) a spondee (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Calotropis Gigantea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Cassia Fistula (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
diameter of a circle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
handle or ear of a vessel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
helm or rudder of a ship (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Aṅga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 239/72933
khāta noun (neuter) a ditch (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an excavation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cavern (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
digging a hole (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fosse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8773/72933
krīḍāsaras noun (neuter) a pleasure-pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50383/72933
kumudvatī noun (feminine) an assemblage of lotuses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a plant bearing a poisonous fruit (Villarsia indica) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a sister of the serpentking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Pradyumna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
place or pond filled with lotuses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the flexible stalk of a waterlily (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15632/72933
kārttika noun (masculine) name of a medical author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a month corresponding to part of October and November (the twelfth month of the year) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Varsha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4672/72933
kāsāra noun (masculine neuter) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19157/72933
kąp verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to accommodate one's self to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be adapted to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be favourable to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be fit for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be well managed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be well ordered or regulated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to bear suitable relation to anything (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to correspond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to effect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to in accordance with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to subserve (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to succeed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to suitable to (instr.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2308/72933
kūlā noun (feminine) heap (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a locality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rear of an army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tope (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50449/72933
kṣipra noun (neuter) a measure of time (1/15 Muhūrta or 15 Etarhis) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] name of a marman; the part of the hand between the thumb and forefinger and the corresponding part of the foot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12921/72933
lagna noun (masculine neuter) (in astrol.) a scheme or figure of the 12 houses or zodiacal signs (used as a horoscope) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an auspicious moment or time fixed upon as lucky for beginning to perform anything (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
decisive measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the decisive moment or time for action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the division of the equator which rises in succession with each sign in an oblique sphere (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moment of the sun's entrance into a zodiacal sign (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the point of contact or intersection (of two lines) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the point of the ecliptic which at a given time is upon the meridian or at the horizon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the point or arc of the equator which corresponds to a given point or arc of the ecliptic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the point where the horizon intersects the ecliptic or path of the planets (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the rising of the sun or of the planets (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the whole of the first astrological house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6630/72933
verb (class 3 parasmaipada) to apportion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to build (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to compare with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to correspond in measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to exhibit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to mete (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to prepare (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to traverse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1682/72933
mādhavadruma noun (masculine) Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mango tree
Frequency rank 62039/72933
māṇḍavyakhāta noun (neuter) name of a pond
Frequency rank 38201/72933
nalinī noun (feminine) a kind of fragrant substance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a myst. name of one of the nostrils (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of women (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an assemblage of lotus flowers or a lotus pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having king Nala (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Nelumbium Speciosum (the plant or its stalk) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of 2 rivers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Ajamīḍha and mother of Nīla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fermented and intoxicating juice of the cocoa-nut (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Ganges of heaven or rather an arm of it (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4187/72933
nirutsāha adjective despondent of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indifferent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indolent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
without energy or courage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7696/72933
nirviṇṇa adjective abused (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
afraid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
certain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
degraded (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
depressed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despondent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disgusted with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
humble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
known (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
loathing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sorrowful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8999/72933
niḥsrāvay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to cause to disappear from or be lost to or from (abl.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to cause to flow out (as a pond) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36457/72933
niṣpratyāśa adjective despondent of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hopeless (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36430/72933
padminī noun (feminine) a female elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus (the whole plant) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus-stalk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a multitude of lotuses or a lotus-pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular magical art (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a woman belonging to the first of the 4 classes into which the sex is divided (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an excellent woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Nelumbium Speciosum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣiṇī name of several women (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4391/72933
padārtha noun (masculine neuter) a category (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a head (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a thing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
material object (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
person (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
predicament (7 with Vaiśeshikas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
subject (16 with Naiyāyikas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
that which corresponds to the meaning of a word (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the meaning of a word (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3266/72933
palvala noun (neuter) a pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9207/72933
parikṛṣ verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to afflict (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be master of (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to carry (as a nurse) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to draw a circle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to draw or drag about (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to draw or make furrows (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to govern (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to harass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to lead (an army) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to plough (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect constantly upon (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to rule (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10997/72933
paryālocay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to attend to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to look after (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57537/72933
parārdha noun (masculine neuter) the highest number (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the number of mortal days corresponding to 50 years of Brahmā's life (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8288/72933
paśuharītakī noun (feminine) the fruit of Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57614/72933
phalaśreṇī noun (feminine) Spondias Mangifera
Frequency rank 59890/72933
pradeśinī noun (feminine) the forefinger (or the corresponding toe) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8827/72933
prakrama noun (masculine) (pl.) a series of oblations corresponding to the movements of a sacrificial horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a step (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
beginning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
commencement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
course (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
discussing any point in question (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
leisure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
method (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
opportunity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
order (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
procedure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proceeding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proportion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
regularity (esp in the position of words and in gram. construction) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stepping (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stride (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the case in question (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the reading of the Krama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13640/72933
pratibhāva noun (masculine) corresponding character or disposition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
counterpart (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37188/72933
pratigraha noun (masculine) a chamber-vessel or any similar convenience for sick persons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a gift (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a grasper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a spittoon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
acceptance of gifts (as the peculiar prerogative of Brāhmans) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
accepting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
favour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
friendly reception (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
grace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
marrying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the objects or functions corresponding to the 8 Grahas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
present (esp. a donation to a Brāhman at suitable periods) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
receiving (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
receiving with the ear i.e. hearing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
seizer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
taking a wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the reserve of an army (a detachment posted with the general 400 yards in the rear of a line) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun near the moon's node (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2856/72933
pratikarman noun (neuter) corresponding action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
counteraction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
decoration (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
medical treatment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
personal adornment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
requital (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
retaliation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
toilet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9414/72933
pratināman adjective having corresponding names (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58787/72933
pratipakṣa noun (masculine) a respondent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an adversary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an obstacle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defendant (in law) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
foe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hostile party (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
opponent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
opposition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the opposite side (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7842/72933
pravimṛś verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to deliberate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to think upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29247/72933
pravāha noun (masculine) a beautiful horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a stream (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
activity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuous train of thought (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuous use or employment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
course of action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
course or direction towards (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
current (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flowing or streaming forth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
met. continuous flow or passage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of chapter in ṣaduktikarṇāmṛta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the attendants of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unbroken series or succession (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6155/72933
praṇāla noun (masculine) (prob.) a row (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a channel from a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
series (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
watercourse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37136/72933
prāvṛttika adjective corresponding to a former mode of action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well acquainted with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59690/72933
puṣkariṇī noun (feminine) a female elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any pool or pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Costus Speciosus or Arabicus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Hibiscus mutabilis Linn. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a temple in Maru or Marwar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the mother of Manu Cākṣuṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Bhumanyn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Cākṣuṣa and mother of Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Ulmuka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Vyuṣṭa and mother of Cakṣus and mother of Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 6074/72933
pālī noun (feminine) a herdsman's wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an oblong pond (as "receptacle" of water?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29002/72933
pītana noun (masculine) a species of tree (Spondias Mangifera Pentaptera Tomentosa or Ficus Infectoria) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36942/72933
pītanaka noun (masculine) Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29041/72933
pūrāmla noun (neuter) the fruit of Spondias Maugifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59668/72933
sad verb (class 1 ātmanepada) to become faint or wearied or dejected or low-spirited to besiege to despair to despond to lie in wait for to perish to pine or waste away to sink down to sink into despondency or distress to sit down (esp. at a sacrifice) to sit down before to sit upon or in or at (acc. or loc.) to watch (acc.)
Frequency rank 2221/72933
sadṛkṣa adjective corresponding or similar to (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
like (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
resembling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20203/72933
salilāśaya noun (masculine) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13227/72933
saliṅga adjective corresponding i.e. directed to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having the same marks or attributes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69532/72933
samanvita adjective completely possessed of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
connected or associated with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding or answering to (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
full of (instr. or comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fully endowed with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
possessing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 540/72933
samavekṣ verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to acknowledge to behold to consider to heed to look at to mind to notice to observe to perceive to reflect or ponder on to think fit or necessary
Frequency rank 6184/72933
sammita adjective consisting of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
destined for (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
equal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
furnished or provided with (instr. or comp.) just so much (no more nor less) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
like (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
measured (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
measured out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
measuring. so much (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
meted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the same measure or extent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
passing for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reaching up to (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
resembling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
same (in length) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
symmetrical (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17352/72933
samparī verb (class 2 parasmaipada) to circumambulate to embrace to ponder
Frequency rank 40486/72933
sampradhāray verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to consider to decide to deliberate or think about (acc.) to deliver over to (dat.) to determine to direct towards to fix the mind or thoughts steadily upon to ponder to reflect to resolve to settle
Frequency rank 7756/72933
samprasāraṇa noun (neuter) (in gram.) the mutual interchange of the vowels i, u, ṛ, ą and their corresponding semivowels y, v, r, l (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drawing asunder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15292/72933
samudreka noun (masculine) preponderance
Frequency rank 40468/72933
saraka noun (neuter) "going" or "the sky" (gamana or gagana) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pearl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a vessel [śarāb] jewel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Tirtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20239/72933
saras noun (neuter) a lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a trough (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
large sheet of water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pail (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
speech (a meaning given to account ) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1242/72933
sarasa noun (neuter) saras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40520/72933
sarasija adjective produced or living in lakes or ponds (as fish) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69367/72933
sarasvant noun (masculine) a buffalo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a divinity belonging to the upper region (considered as offspring of the water and plants) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a male deity corresponding to Sarasvatī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40521/72933
sarasī noun (feminine) a pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16239/72933
sarodaka noun (neuter) the water of a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69380/72933
sarovara noun (neuter) a lake or large pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any piece of water deep enough for the lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13825/72933
sattra noun (neuter) a great Soma sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a wood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an assumed form or disguise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
asylum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clothes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
deception (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
forest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fraud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hospital (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
illusive semblance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
liberality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
munificence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wealth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2657/72933
saṃgam verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to agree to become to come into contact or collision to come together or assemble in to correspond to decease to depart (this life) to die to fit to go away to go or come together to go to or towards to harmonize to join or unite with (instr. with and without saha or sßrdham) to meet (acc.) to meet (either in a friendly or hostile manner) to partake of (instr.) to suit to undergo or get into any state or condition to unite sexually with (acc.) to visit (acc.)
Frequency rank 1786/72933
saṃkalpaka adjective deciding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
determining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pondering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purposing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reflecting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well discriminating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30864/72933
saṃkalpay verb (class 10 ātmanepada) to aim at to arrange to consider as (acc. with iva) to create to destine for to determine to fancy to fix to hesitate to imagine to intend to move or rock to and fro (the head) to perform obsequies to ponder to produce to purpose to put together to resolve to settle to strive after to take for to think about to will
Frequency rank 4664/72933
saṃvādin adjective agreeing or harmonizing with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conversing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to (gen. or comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
talking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15320/72933
svādurasā noun (feminine) Asparagus Racemosus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a grape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spirituous liquor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the root of Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26003/72933
sāda noun (masculine) cleanness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clearness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
decay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despair (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despondency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exhaustion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
going (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
loss (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
motion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
riding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ruin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sinking down (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sinking in (of wheels) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sitting (on horseback) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weariness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] failure (of the voice)
Frequency rank 4103/72933
sārasa adjective relating or belonging to or coming from a pond or lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20296/72933
sāraṇa noun (masculine) diarrhoea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dysentery (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a brother of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of Rāvaṇa's ministers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Paederia Foetida (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind during the autumn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6647/72933
sāvana adjective corresponding to the solar time (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relating to or determining the three daily Soma libations (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20298/72933
talaka noun (neuter) a kind of salt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53371/72933
tanukṣīra noun (masculine) Spondias mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35273/72933
taṭākinī noun (feminine) a large pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53223/72933
tolay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to compare (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to compare by weighing and examining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to counterbalance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to determine the weight of anything by lifting it up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to equal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to examine with distrust (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to lift up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to make equal in weight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to match (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to outweigh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to possess in the same degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to raise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to resemble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to weigh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10368/72933
toyarāśi noun (masculine) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the ocean (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35482/72933
tulay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to compare (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to compare by weighing and examining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to counterbalance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to lift up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to match (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to possess in the same degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7967/72933
tāmarasī noun (feminine) a lotus pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Ghṛtācī and Bhadrāśva
Frequency rank 35348/72933
tāmraparṇī noun (feminine) a kind of pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (rising in Malaya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a town in Ceylon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rubia Munjista (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14182/72933
tāḍāga adjective (water) being in or coming from ponds (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28179/72933
udreka noun (masculine) abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
overplus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
predominance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
superiority (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7392/72933
udrekin adjective abounding in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excessive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
giving preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
violent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47382/72933
udric verb (class 7 parasmaipada) to abound in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be prominent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to exceed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to excel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to increase (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to preponderate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to stand out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6398/72933
vaikalya noun (neuter) confusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defectiveness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despondency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flurry (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
frailty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
imperfection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
incompetency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
insufficiency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weakness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5868/72933
vaiśvadevika adjective belonging to the Vaiśvadeva Parvan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to the deities ceremony (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of particular texts (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relating or sacred to the Viśve Devāh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39741/72933
vara noun (masculine) a kind of grain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sparrow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bdellium (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bridegroom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
husband (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lover (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śvaphalka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera suitor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] a class of Pitṛs
Frequency rank 3692/72933
veśanta noun (masculine) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 66624/72933
vicintay verb (class 10 ātmanepada) to care for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to devise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to discern (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fancy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to find out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to imagine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to investigate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to mind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to observe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to perceive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to regard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to think of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2425/72933
vicāra noun (masculine) a probable conjecture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
change of place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
consideration (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
deliberation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
discussion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dispute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
doubt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
examination (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hesitation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
investigation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mode of acting or proceeding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pondering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
procedure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prudence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reflection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3237/72933
vicāray verb (class 10 ātmanepada) to ascertain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to cause to go astray (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to doubt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to examine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to hesitate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to investigate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to move hither and thither (in the mind) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to seduce (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2594/72933
vigaṇay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to calculate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to compute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to deliberate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to disregard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to esteem (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reckon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to regard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to regard as (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to take for (with double acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to take no notice of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16113/72933
vigāh verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to agitate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to approach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to bathe in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be engrossed by or intent upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to betake one's self into (acc. or loc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to disturb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to enter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fall (as night) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to follow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to obtain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to penetrate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pervade (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pierce (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to plunge or dive into (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to practise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4914/72933
vitarkay verb (denominative parasmaipada) to ascertain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to believe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to conjecture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider as or take for (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to find out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to suppose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to think (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12212/72933
vivecay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to break down (an aggregate etc.) to distinguish to examine to investigate to ponder to separate
Frequency rank 8867/72933
vivic verb (class 7 ātmanepada) to cause to lose to declare to deliberate to deprive of (abl.) to discern to discriminate to distinguish to divide asunder to examine to investigate to manifest to ponder to separate from (instr. or abl.) to show to sift (esp. grain by tossing or blowing)
Frequency rank 5185/72933
viviṃśa noun (masculine) name of a mythical caste in Plakṣadvīpa (corresponding to the Vaiśyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various kings (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30267/72933
viṣad verb (class 1 ātmanepada) to be exhausted or dejected to be immersed in to despair to despond to sink down
Frequency rank 2656/72933
viṣāda noun (masculine) aversion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dejection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
depression (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despair (one of the Vyabhicāras) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despondency (esp. as the result of unrequited love) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disappointment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disgust (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drooping state (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dulness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
insensibility (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
languor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lassitude (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stupidity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weakness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2265/72933
vyavasā verb (class 6 ātmanepada) to ascertain to be convinced or persuaded of take for (acc.) to be willing to to consider to contest to decide to determine to differ (in opinion) to divide to ponder to quarrel to reflect to resolve to separate to settle to settle down or dwell separately
Frequency rank 2814/72933
vyāpanna adjective changed by the substitution of another sound or symbol (esp. applied to the change of Visarga or Visarjanīya to its corresponding sibilants) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corrupted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
destroyed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disappeared (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disordered (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fallen into misfortune (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hurt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
injured (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perished (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spoiled (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30402/72933
vāpya adjective coming from ponds or tanks (as water) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be scattered or sown or cast or thrown (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39200/72933
vāpī noun (feminine) a large oblong pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular constellation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an oblong reservoir of water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any pond (made by scattering or damming up earth) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3797/72933
vār noun (neuter) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stagnant water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the kañcuka called jala
Frequency rank 10191/72933
vāri noun (neuter) pond water ???? the kañcuka called jala
Frequency rank 831/72933
vīkṣ verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to ascertain to behold to consider to discern to look at to look over to look upon to observe to peruse to ponder to regard to see to see in the heart to study to think fit or proper to understand
Frequency rank 1757/72933
vṛkṣāmla noun (masculine) Garcinia indica Choisy (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.F. ex T. Anders (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Oxalis corniculata Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Rhus parviflora Roxb. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Spondias mangifera Willd. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fruit of Tamarindus indica Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) the hog-plum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17250/72933
vṛṣakhāta noun (neuter) name of a pond at Bhṛgutīrtha
Frequency rank 39657/72933
yathartuka adjective corresponding to the season of the year (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38484/72933
yathādiṣṭa adjective corresponding to what has been enjoined or directed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62850/72933
yathārūpa adjective as constituted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exceedingly great (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
extremely beautiful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
of a corresponding form or appearance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
of whatever form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16028/72933
yathāśruta adjective agreeing with a report (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to (what has been) heard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8670/72933
yaṣṭikā noun (masculine feminine) a particular pearl ornament or necklace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a staff (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an oblong pond or tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
club (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
liquorice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stick (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15143/72933
yāvadartha adjective as many as necessary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
as much as is necessary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to requirement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
devoted to anything (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13709/72933
ādhikya noun (neuter) abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
high degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
overweight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
superabundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
superiority (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3458/72933
ādhāra noun (masculine) (in phil. and Gr.) comprehension (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a basin round the foot of a tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a dike (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a reservoir (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a vessel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
aid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dam (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ifc. belonging or relating to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
location (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
patronage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
receptacle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
substratum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
support (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
that which contains (a fluid etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the power of sustaining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sense of the locative case (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the subject in a sentence (of which qualities etc. are affirmed) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the support given (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2258/72933
āmrāta noun (masculine) Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hog-plum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14735/72933
āmrātaka noun (masculine neuter) Buchanania latifolia Roxb. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 527) inspissated mango juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera Willd. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hog-plum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7653/72933
āṣāḍha noun (masculine) a festival (of Indra) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a staff of the wood of the Palāśa; carried by an ascetic during certain religious observances in the month Āshāḍha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a month (corresponding to part of June and July) in which the full moon is near the constellation Ashāḍhā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Malaya mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5201/72933
śrāvaṇa noun (masculine) name of one of the twelve Hindū months (generally rainy and corresponding to July-āugust) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5951/72933
śuṅga noun (masculine) Ficus Infectoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a dynasty which succeeded the Mauryas (a king of the śuṅga dynasty) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a man (his descendants) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the awn of corn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Indian fig-tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sheath or calyx of a bud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17298/72933
śṛṅgin noun (masculine feminine neuter) a bull (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular bulbous plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ficus Infectoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mythical mountain or mountain-range forming one of the boundaries of the earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Ṛṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a poison [geogr.] name of a mountain [medic.] a kind of poisonous insect (kīṭa)
Frequency rank 5579/72933
akhāta noun (masculine neuter) a natural pond or lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pool before a temple (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41625/72933
adhikatā noun (feminine) addition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
redundancy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20498/72933
adhvagabhogya noun (masculine) the tree Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42558/72933
anabhirūpa adjective not corresponding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not handsome (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not pleasing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42709/72933
anālamba noun (masculine) despondency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
want of support (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42886/72933
anālambana adjective desponding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unsupported (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42887/72933
anirvid adjective free from causes of depression (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
undesponding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unwearied (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42989/72933
anugatārtha adjective having a corresponding meaning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31889/72933
anurūpa adjective according to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
adapted to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conformable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
following the form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
like (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
suitable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2087/72933
anuvaṃśa adjective of a corresponding family (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
of equal birth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 43304/72933
anūpa noun (masculine) a buffalo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a watery country (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bank of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5414/72933
apartu indeclinable not in correspondence with the season (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 43700/72933
apratirūpa adjective disagreeable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
incomparable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not corresponding with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
odious (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
of unequalled form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unfit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11516/72933
abdhi noun (masculine) a kind of plant a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the numeral 4 (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the ocean (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4971/72933
abhirūpa adjective beautiful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conformable to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding with (dat.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
handsome (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
learned (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pleasing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8073/72933
ambarīṣa noun (masculine) a young animal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
battle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
colt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a hell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rājarshi (descendant of Sagara) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rājarshi (son of the king Vṛṣagir) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of the patriarch Pulaha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Gaṇeśa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
remorse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hog-plum plant (Spondias Magnifera) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
war (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4885/72933
amlavāṭaka noun (masculine) hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44740/72933
amlikā noun (feminine) a sour taste in the mouth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
acidity of stomach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Mangifera indica Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 526) Oxalis Corniculata (wood sorrel) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 526) Rumex dentatus Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 525) Spondias mangifera Willd. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 526) the tamarind tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8730/72933
avakąp verb (class 1 ātmanepada) to answer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be fit for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be right (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to correspond to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to serve to (dat.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32608/72933
avidāsin adjective not drying up (as a pond) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perennial (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32696/72933
aśoṣya adjective not drying up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
permanent (as a pond) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26788/72933
ādhāra noun (masculine) (in phil. and Gr.) comprehension (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a basin round the foot of a tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a dike (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a reservoir (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a vessel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
aid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dam (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ifc. belonging or relating to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
location (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
patronage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
receptacle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
substratum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
support (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
that which contains (a fluid etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the power of sustaining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sense of the locative case (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the subject in a sentence (of which qualities etc. are affirmed) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the support given (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2258/72933
ādhikya noun (neuter) abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
high degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
overweight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
superabundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
superiority (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3458/72933
āmrāta noun (masculine) Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hog-plum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14735/72933
āmrātaka noun (masculine neuter) Buchanania latifolia Roxb. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 527) inspissated mango juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera Willd. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hog-plum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7653/72933
āṣāḍha noun (masculine) a festival (of Indra) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a staff of the wood of the Palāśa; carried by an ascetic during certain religious observances in the month Āshāḍha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a month (corresponding to part of June and July) in which the full moon is near the constellation Ashāḍhā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Malaya mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5201/72933
udric verb (class 7 parasmaipada) to abound in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be prominent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to exceed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to excel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to increase (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to preponderate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to stand out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6398/72933
udrekin adjective abounding in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excessive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
giving preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
violent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47382/72933
udreka noun (masculine) abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
overplus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
predominance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
superiority (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7392/72933
kapi noun (masculine) an ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Emblica Officinalis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera) Mucuna pruriens DC. monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a school (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Olibanum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
species of Karañja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 955/72933
kapicūta noun (masculine) hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera) name of a plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23617/72933
kapipriya noun (masculine) Feronia Elephantum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23618/72933
kapirasāḍhya noun (masculine) hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera)
Frequency rank 48549/72933
kapītana noun (masculine) Acacia Sirissa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Aegle Marmelos (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Areca Faufel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ficus Religiosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Thespesia Populnea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10902/72933
karṇa noun (masculine) (in prosody) a spondee (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Calotropis Gigantea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Cassia Fistula (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
diameter of a circle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
handle or ear of a vessel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
helm or rudder of a ship (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Aṅga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 239/72933
karpūrasaras noun (neuter) name of a lake or pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48776/72933
kārttika noun (masculine) name of a medical author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a month corresponding to part of October and November (the twelfth month of the year) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Varsha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4672/72933
kāsāra noun (masculine neuter) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19157/72933
kumudvatī noun (feminine) an assemblage of lotuses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a plant bearing a poisonous fruit (Villarsia indica) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a sister of the serpentking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Pradyumna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
place or pond filled with lotuses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the flexible stalk of a waterlily (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15632/72933
kąp verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to accommodate one's self to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be adapted to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be favourable to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be fit for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be well managed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be well ordered or regulated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to bear suitable relation to anything (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to correspond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to effect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to in accordance with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to subserve (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to succeed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to suitable to (instr.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2308/72933
kairaviṇī noun (feminine) a place or pond abounding in water-lilies (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
assemblage of lotuses (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water-lily or lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50135/72933
krīḍāsaras noun (neuter) a pleasure-pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50383/72933
kūlā noun (feminine) heap (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a locality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rear of an army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tope (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50449/72933
kṣipra noun (neuter) a measure of time (1/15 Muhūrta or 15 Etarhis) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] name of a marman; the part of the hand between the thumb and forefinger and the corresponding part of the foot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12921/72933
khāta noun (neuter) a ditch (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an excavation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cavern (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
digging a hole (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fosse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8773/72933
gārā noun (masculine feminine neuter) mud from a pond [tālāb kā kīcaĄ] (Somadeva (1999), 87) earth steeped in water for several hours (tagār, masonry)
Frequency rank 6783/72933
jalasthāna noun (neuter) a reservoir (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52809/72933
jalāśaya noun (masculine) a fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a reservoir (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ocean (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5833/72933
jalāśraya noun (masculine neuter) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a water-house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a wolf (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the root of the fragrant grass Andropogon Muricatus
Frequency rank 19335/72933
taṭākinī noun (feminine) a large pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53223/72933
tanukṣīra noun (masculine) Spondias mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35273/72933
talaka noun (neuter) a kind of salt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53371/72933
tāḍāga adjective (water) being in or coming from ponds (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28179/72933
tāmarasī noun (feminine) a lotus pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Ghṛtācī and Bhadrāśva
Frequency rank 35348/72933
tāmraparṇī noun (feminine) a kind of pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (rising in Malaya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a town in Ceylon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rubia Munjista (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14182/72933
tulay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to compare (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to compare by weighing and examining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to counterbalance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to lift up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to match (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to possess in the same degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7967/72933
toyarāśi noun (masculine) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the ocean (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35482/72933
tolay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to compare (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to compare by weighing and examining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to counterbalance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to determine the weight of anything by lifting it up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to equal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to examine with distrust (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to lift up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to make equal in weight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to match (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to outweigh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to possess in the same degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to raise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to resemble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to weigh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10368/72933
dīrghikā noun (feminine) a kind of plant a large oblong pond name of an attendant of Devī (K.R. von Kooji (1972), 50)
Frequency rank 8272/72933
duranvaya adjective difficult to be accomplished or performed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
difficult to be found out or fathomed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
difficult to be passed along (road) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not corresponding or suitable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19442/72933
devakhāta noun (neuter) a cave (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a natural pond or reservoir (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10376/72933
devakhātaka noun (neuter) a natural pond
Frequency rank 54919/72933
dravya adjective derived from or relating to a tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tree-like or corresponding to a tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55111/72933
nalinī noun (feminine) a kind of fragrant substance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a myst. name of one of the nostrils (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of women (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an assemblage of lotus flowers or a lotus pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having king Nala (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Nelumbium Speciosum (the plant or its stalk) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of 2 rivers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Ajamīḍha and mother of Nīla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fermented and intoxicating juice of the cocoa-nut (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Ganges of heaven or rather an arm of it (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4187/72933
nirutsāha adjective despondent of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indifferent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indolent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
without energy or courage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7696/72933
nirviṇṇa adjective abused (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
afraid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
certain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
degraded (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
depressed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despondent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disgusted with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
humble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
known (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
loathing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sorrowful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8999/72933
niṣpratyāśa adjective despondent of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hopeless (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36430/72933
niḥsrāvay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to cause to disappear from or be lost to or from (abl.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to cause to flow out (as a pond) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36457/72933
padārtha noun (masculine neuter) a category (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a head (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a thing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
material object (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
person (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
predicament (7 with Vaiśeshikas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
subject (16 with Naiyāyikas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
that which corresponds to the meaning of a word (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the meaning of a word (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3266/72933
padminī noun (feminine) a female elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus (the whole plant) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus-stalk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a multitude of lotuses or a lotus-pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular magical art (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a woman belonging to the first of the 4 classes into which the sex is divided (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an excellent woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Nelumbium Speciosum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣiṇī name of several women (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4391/72933
parārdha noun (masculine neuter) the highest number (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the number of mortal days corresponding to 50 years of Brahmā's life (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8288/72933
parikṛṣ verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to afflict (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be master of (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to carry (as a nurse) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to draw a circle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to draw or drag about (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to draw or make furrows (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to govern (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to harass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to lead (an army) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to plough (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect constantly upon (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to rule (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10997/72933
paryālocay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to attend to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to look after (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57537/72933
palvala noun (neuter) a pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9207/72933
paśuharītakī noun (feminine) the fruit of Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57614/72933
pālī noun (feminine) a herdsman's wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an oblong pond (as "receptacle" of water?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29002/72933
pītana noun (masculine) a species of tree (Spondias Mangifera Pentaptera Tomentosa or Ficus Infectoria) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36942/72933
pītanaka noun (masculine) Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29041/72933
puṣkariṇī noun (feminine) a female elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lotus pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any pool or pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Costus Speciosus or Arabicus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Hibiscus mutabilis Linn. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a temple in Maru or Marwar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the mother of Manu Cākṣuṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Bhumanyn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Cākṣuṣa and mother of Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Ulmuka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Vyuṣṭa and mother of Cakṣus and mother of Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 6074/72933
prakrama noun (masculine) (pl.) a series of oblations corresponding to the movements of a sacrificial horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a step (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
beginning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
commencement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
course (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
discussing any point in question (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
leisure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
method (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
opportunity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
order (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
procedure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proceeding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proportion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
regularity (esp in the position of words and in gram. construction) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stepping (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stride (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the case in question (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the reading of the Krama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13640/72933
praṇāla noun (masculine) (prob.) a row (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a channel from a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
series (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
watercourse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37136/72933
pratikarman noun (neuter) corresponding action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
counteraction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
decoration (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
medical treatment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
personal adornment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
requital (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
retaliation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
toilet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9414/72933
pratigraha noun (masculine) a chamber-vessel or any similar convenience for sick persons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a gift (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a grasper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a spittoon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
acceptance of gifts (as the peculiar prerogative of Brāhmans) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
accepting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
favour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
friendly reception (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
grace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
marrying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the objects or functions corresponding to the 8 Grahas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
present (esp. a donation to a Brāhman at suitable periods) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
receiving (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
receiving with the ear i.e. hearing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
seizer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
taking a wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the reserve of an army (a detachment posted with the general 400 yards in the rear of a line) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun near the moon's node (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2856/72933
pratināman adjective having corresponding names (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 58787/72933
pratipakṣa noun (masculine) a respondent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an adversary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an obstacle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defendant (in law) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
foe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hostile party (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
opponent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
opposition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the opposite side (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7842/72933
pratibhāva noun (masculine) corresponding character or disposition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
counterpart (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37188/72933
pradeśinī noun (feminine) the forefinger (or the corresponding toe) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8827/72933
pravāha noun (masculine) a beautiful horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a stream (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
activity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuous train of thought (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuous use or employment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
course of action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
course or direction towards (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
current (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flowing or streaming forth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
met. continuous flow or passage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of chapter in ṣaduktikarṇāmṛta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the attendants of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unbroken series or succession (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6155/72933
pravimṛś verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to deliberate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to think upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29247/72933
pūrāmla noun (neuter) the fruit of Spondias Maugifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59668/72933
prāvṛttika adjective corresponding to a former mode of action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well acquainted with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59690/72933
phalaśreṇī noun (feminine) Spondias Mangifera
Frequency rank 59890/72933
balavant adjective accompanied by an army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dense (as darkness) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
intense (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mighty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
possessing power (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
powerful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prevailing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
strong (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vehement (as love) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 730/72933
bilva noun (neuter) a kind of vegetable (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular weight; 1 Pala (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a small pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Bilva fruit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7217/72933
bhādrapada noun (masculine feminine) the month Bhādra (a rainy month corresponding to the period from about the middle of August to the middle of September) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8001/72933
bhāratara adjective heavy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ponderous (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60668/72933
bhūyastva noun (neuter) abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
great extent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
increase (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
multitude (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the becoming or being more or much (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14352/72933
verb (class 3 parasmaipada) to apportion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to build (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to compare with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to correspond in measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to exhibit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to mete (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to prepare (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to traverse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1682/72933
māṇḍavyakhāta noun (neuter) name of a pond
Frequency rank 38201/72933
mādhavadruma noun (masculine) Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mango tree
Frequency rank 62039/72933
yathartuka adjective corresponding to the season of the year (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38484/72933
yathādiṣṭa adjective corresponding to what has been enjoined or directed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62850/72933
yathārūpa adjective as constituted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exceedingly great (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
extremely beautiful (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
of a corresponding form or appearance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
of whatever form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16028/72933
yathāśruta adjective agreeing with a report (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to (what has been) heard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8670/72933
yaṣṭikā noun (masculine feminine) a particular pearl ornament or necklace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a staff (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an oblong pond or tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
club (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
liquorice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stick (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15143/72933
yāvadartha adjective as many as necessary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
as much as is necessary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to requirement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
devoted to anything (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13709/72933
lagna noun (masculine neuter) (in astrol.) a scheme or figure of the 12 houses or zodiacal signs (used as a horoscope) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an auspicious moment or time fixed upon as lucky for beginning to perform anything (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
decisive measure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the decisive moment or time for action (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the division of the equator which rises in succession with each sign in an oblique sphere (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moment of the sun's entrance into a zodiacal sign (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the point of contact or intersection (of two lines) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the point of the ecliptic which at a given time is upon the meridian or at the horizon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the point or arc of the equator which corresponds to a given point or arc of the ecliptic (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the point where the horizon intersects the ecliptic or path of the planets (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the rising of the sun or of the planets (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the whole of the first astrological house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6630/72933
vara noun (masculine) a kind of grain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sparrow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bdellium (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bridegroom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
husband (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lover (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śvaphalka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera suitor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] a class of Pitṛs
Frequency rank 3692/72933
vāpī noun (feminine) a large oblong pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular constellation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an oblong reservoir of water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any pond (made by scattering or damming up earth) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3797/72933
vāpya adjective coming from ponds or tanks (as water) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be scattered or sown or cast or thrown (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39200/72933
vār noun (neuter) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stagnant water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the kañcuka called jala
Frequency rank 10191/72933
vigaṇay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to calculate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to compute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to deliberate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to disregard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to esteem (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reckon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to regard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to regard as (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to take for (with double acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to take no notice of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16113/72933
vigāh verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to agitate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to approach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to bathe in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to be engrossed by or intent upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to betake one's self into (acc. or loc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to disturb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to enter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fall (as night) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to follow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to obtain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to penetrate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pervade (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pierce (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to plunge or dive into (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to practise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4914/72933
vicāra noun (masculine) a probable conjecture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
change of place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
consideration (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
deliberation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
discussion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dispute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
doubt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
examination (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hesitation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
investigation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mode of acting or proceeding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pondering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
procedure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prudence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reflection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3237/72933
vicāray verb (class 10 ātmanepada) to ascertain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to cause to go astray (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to doubt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to examine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to hesitate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to investigate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to move hither and thither (in the mind) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to seduce (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2594/72933
vicintay verb (class 10 ātmanepada) to care for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to devise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to discern (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to fancy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to find out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to imagine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to investigate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to mind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to observe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to perceive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to regard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to think of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2425/72933
vitarkay verb (denominative parasmaipada) to ascertain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to believe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to conjecture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to consider as or take for (acc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to find out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to ponder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to reflect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to suppose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to think (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12212/72933
vivic verb (class 7 ātmanepada) to cause to lose to declare to deliberate to deprive of (abl.) to discern to discriminate to distinguish to divide asunder to examine to investigate to manifest to ponder to separate from (instr. or abl.) to show to sift (esp. grain by tossing or blowing)
Frequency rank 5185/72933
viviṃśa noun (masculine) name of a mythical caste in Plakṣadvīpa (corresponding to the Vaiśyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various kings (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30267/72933
vivecay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to break down (an aggregate etc.) to distinguish to examine to investigate to ponder to separate
Frequency rank 8867/72933
viṣad verb (class 1 ātmanepada) to be exhausted or dejected to be immersed in to despair to despond to sink down
Frequency rank 2656/72933
viṣāda noun (masculine) aversion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dejection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
depression (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despair (one of the Vyabhicāras) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despondency (esp. as the result of unrequited love) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disappointment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disgust (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drooping state (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dulness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
insensibility (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
languor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lassitude (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stupidity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weakness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2265/72933
vīkṣ verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to ascertain to behold to consider to discern to look at to look over to look upon to observe to peruse to ponder to regard to see to see in the heart to study to think fit or proper to understand
Frequency rank 1757/72933
vṛkṣāmla noun (masculine) Garcinia indica Choisy (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.F. ex T. Anders (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Oxalis corniculata Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Rhus parviflora Roxb. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) Spondias mangifera Willd. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fruit of Tamarindus indica Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 601) the hog-plum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17250/72933
vṛṣakhāta noun (neuter) name of a pond at Bhṛgutīrtha
Frequency rank 39657/72933
veśanta noun (masculine) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 66624/72933
vaikalya noun (neuter) confusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defectiveness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despondency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flurry (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
frailty (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
imperfection (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
incompetency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
insufficiency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weakness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5868/72933
vaiśvadevika adjective belonging to the Vaiśvadeva Parvan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to the deities ceremony (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of particular texts (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relating or sacred to the Viśve Devāh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39741/72933
vyavasā verb (class 6 ātmanepada) to ascertain to be convinced or persuaded of take for (acc.) to be willing to to consider to contest to decide to determine to differ (in opinion) to divide to ponder to quarrel to reflect to resolve to separate to settle to settle down or dwell separately
Frequency rank 2814/72933
vyāpanna adjective changed by the substitution of another sound or symbol (esp. applied to the change of Visarga or Visarjanīya to its corresponding sibilants) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corrupted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
destroyed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disappeared (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
disordered (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fallen into misfortune (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hurt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
injured (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perished (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spoiled (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30402/72933
śuṅga noun (masculine) Ficus Infectoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a dynasty which succeeded the Mauryas (a king of the śuṅga dynasty) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a man (his descendants) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the awn of corn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Indian fig-tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sheath or calyx of a bud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17298/72933
śṛṅgin noun (masculine feminine neuter) a bull (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular bulbous plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ficus Infectoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mythical mountain or mountain-range forming one of the boundaries of the earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Ṛṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a poison [geogr.] name of a mountain [medic.] a kind of poisonous insect (kīṭa)
Frequency rank 5579/72933
śrāvaṇa noun (masculine) name of one of the twelve Hindū months (generally rainy and corresponding to July-āugust) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5951/72933
sattra noun (neuter) a great Soma sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a wood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an assumed form or disguise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
asylum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clothes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
deception (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
forest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fraud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hospital (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
illusive semblance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
liberality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
munificence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wealth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2657/72933
sad verb (class 1 ātmanepada) to become faint or wearied or dejected or low-spirited to besiege to despair to despond to lie in wait for to perish to pine or waste away to sink down to sink into despondency or distress to sit down (esp. at a sacrifice) to sit down before to sit upon or in or at (acc. or loc.) to watch (acc.)
Frequency rank 2221/72933
sadṛkṣa adjective corresponding or similar to (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
like (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
resembling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20203/72933
samanvita adjective completely possessed of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
connected or associated with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding or answering to (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
full of (instr. or comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fully endowed with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
possessing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 540/72933
samavekṣ verb (class 1 parasmaipada) to acknowledge to behold to consider to heed to look at to mind to notice to observe to perceive to reflect or ponder on to think fit or necessary
Frequency rank 6184/72933
samudreka noun (masculine) preponderance
Frequency rank 40468/72933
samparī verb (class 2 parasmaipada) to circumambulate to embrace to ponder
Frequency rank 40486/72933
sampradhāray verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to consider to decide to deliberate or think about (acc.) to deliver over to (dat.) to determine to direct towards to fix the mind or thoughts steadily upon to ponder to reflect to resolve to settle
Frequency rank 7756/72933
samprasāraṇa noun (neuter) (in gram.) the mutual interchange of the vowels i, u, ṛ, ą and their corresponding semivowels y, v, r, l (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drawing asunder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15292/72933
sammita adjective consisting of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
destined for (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
equal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
furnished or provided with (instr. or comp.) just so much (no more nor less) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
like (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
measured (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
measured out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
measuring. so much (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
meted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the same measure or extent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
passing for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reaching up to (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
resembling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
same (in length) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
symmetrical (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17352/72933
saras noun (neuter) a lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a trough (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
large sheet of water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pail (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
speech (a meaning given to account ) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1242/72933
saraka noun (neuter) "going" or "the sky" (gamana or gagana) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pearl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a vessel [śarāb] jewel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Tirtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20239/72933
sarasa noun (neuter) saras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40520/72933
sarasī noun (feminine) a pool (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16239/72933
sarasija adjective produced or living in lakes or ponds (as fish) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69367/72933
sarasvant noun (masculine) a buffalo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a divinity belonging to the upper region (considered as offspring of the water and plants) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a male deity corresponding to Sarasvatī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40521/72933
sarodaka noun (neuter) the water of a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69380/72933
sarovara noun (neuter) a lake or large pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any piece of water deep enough for the lotus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13825/72933
saliṅga adjective corresponding i.e. directed to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
having the same marks or attributes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69532/72933
salilāśaya noun (masculine) a pond (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13227/72933
saṃkalpaka adjective deciding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
determining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pondering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purposing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reflecting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
well discriminating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30864/72933
saṃkalpay verb (class 10 ātmanepada) to aim at to arrange to consider as (acc. with iva) to create to destine for to determine to fancy to fix to hesitate to imagine to intend to move or rock to and fro (the head) to perform obsequies to ponder to produce to purpose to put together to resolve to settle to strive after to take for to think about to will
Frequency rank 4664/72933
saṃgam verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to agree to become to come into contact or collision to come together or assemble in to correspond to decease to depart (this life) to die to fit to go away to go or come together to go to or towards to harmonize to join or unite with (instr. with and without saha or sßrdham) to meet (acc.) to meet (either in a friendly or hostile manner) to partake of (instr.) to suit to undergo or get into any state or condition to unite sexually with (acc.) to visit (acc.)
Frequency rank 1786/72933
saṃvādin adjective agreeing or harmonizing with (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conversing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corresponding to (gen. or comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
talking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15320/72933
sāda noun (masculine) cleanness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clearness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
decay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despair (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
despondency (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exhaustion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
going (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
loss (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
motion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
riding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ruin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sinking down (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sinking in (of wheels) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sitting (on horseback) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weariness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] failure (of the voice)
Frequency rank 4103/72933
sāraṇa noun (masculine) diarrhoea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dysentery (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a brother of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of Rāvaṇa's ministers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Paederia Foetida (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind during the autumn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6647/72933
sārasa adjective relating or belonging to or coming from a pond or lake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20296/72933
sāvana adjective corresponding to the solar time (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
relating to or determining the three daily Soma libations (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20298/72933
svādurasā noun (feminine) Asparagus Racemosus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a grape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spirituous liquor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the root of Spondias Mangifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26003/72933
hariṇī noun (feminine) a female deer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a golden image (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of Svarabhakti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
doe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the mother of Hari (Viṣṇu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the four kinds of beautiful women (corresponding to the kind of man termed mṛga) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rubia Munjista (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
yellow jasmine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] name of a Śakti of Śiva
Frequency rank 12300/72933
haṃho indeclinable a vocative particle (corresponding to "ho!" "hollol" accord. to some also expressing haughtiness or contempt) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41418/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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āmrāta

Plant wild mango; Indian hog plum; dried stem bark of Spondius pinnata, S. mangifera, S.acuminata.

aṅga

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to some areas of Bihar and Bengal.

aśmaka,assaka

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh.

avanti

a geographical region of ancient India corresponding to Malwa region of north India.

bharaṇi

second star in the path of moon corresponding to 35, 39, and 41 Arietis in Aries constellation.

chedi

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to Bundelkhand region in Madhya Pradesh.

dhyeya

to be pondered or imagined; to be meditated on.

gāndhāra

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to present day Pakistan and Afghanistan.

grīva

neck; nape; grīvastambha stiff neck; cervical spondylosis.

kambhoja

1. a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to present day Afghanistan; 2. Plant ironweed plant, Veronia anthelminthica.

kapītana

Plant Thespesia populnea, Ficus arnottiana, Ficus religiosa, Aegle marmelos, Spondias mangifera.

kāśi

a geographical region and a city in ancient India corresponding to present day Varanasi.

kosala

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to awadh region in Uttar Pradesh.

kuru

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to Haryana.

magadha

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to present day Bihar.

māgha

1. lunar month corresponding to February; 2. a bright star Regulus in Leo constellation.

malla

a geographical region in ancient India correspondin to northeast Uttar Pradesh.

matsya

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to part of Rajasthan.

palvalajala

water from tank, pond, pool, puddle et Century

pāñcāla

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to Punjab region.

paśuharītaki

Plant fruit of hogplum tree, wild mango, Spondius mangifera.

rājayoga

the royal yoga, an eight step technique of yoga proponded by Patanjali in Yogasūtra.

surasena,saurasena

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to Braj region of Uttar Pradesh.

tūda

mulberry tree and fruit; cotton tree; Thespesia populneoides; Spondium mangifera.

vāpyajala

water from ponds, tanks and wells with steps.

vatsa

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to Ganga Yamura confluence region.

videha

a geographical region in ancient India corresponding to southern Nepal; Mithila region.

Parse Time: 2.236s Search Word: pond Input Encoding: IAST: pond