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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
anucaraḥ2.8.73MasculineSingularabhisaraḥ, anuplavaḥ, ‍sahāyaḥ
bhekaḥMasculineSingularmaṇḍūkaḥ, varṣābhūḥ, śālūraḥ, plavaḥ, darduraḥa frog
calanam3.1.73MasculineSingulartaralam, lolam, kampanam, pariplavam, cañcalam, calam, pāriplavam, calācalam, kampram
caṇḍālaḥ2.10.19MasculineSingularantevāsī, janaṅgamaḥ, plavaḥ, pukkasaḥ, śvapacaḥ, divākīrttiḥ, cāṇḍālaḥ, niṣādaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ
ḍimbaḥ3.4.14MasculineSingularviplavaḥ, ḍamaraḥ
gardabhāṇḍaḥ2.2.43MasculineSingularplakṣaḥ, kandarālaḥ, kapītanaḥ, supārśvakaḥ
gulmaḥ2.6.66MasculineSingularplīhā
jaḍulaḥ2.6.49MasculineSingularkālakaḥ, pipluḥ
kapiḥ2.5.4MasculineSingularśākhāmṛgaḥ, valīmukhaḥ, markaṭaḥ, vānaraḥ, plavaṅgaḥ, kīśaḥ, plavagaḥ, vanaukāḥ
kuṭannaṭamNeuterSingulargonardam, dāśapuram, kaivartīmustakam, vāneyam, paripelavam, plavam, gopuram
oṣaḥ3.4.9MasculineSingularploṣaḥ
plakṣaḥMasculineSingularjaṭī, parkaṭī
plavagaḥ3.3.29MasculineSingularcihnam, śephaḥ
plavaṃgamaḥ3.3.145MasculineSingularvaṇikpathaḥ, puram, vedaḥ
praṣṭapluṣṭoṣitā3.1.98MasculineSingulardagdhaḥ, pluṣṭaḥ, uṣitaḥ
rohī2.2.49MasculineSingularrohitakaḥ, plīhaśatruḥ, dāḍimapuṣpakaḥ
snānam2.6.123NeuterSingularāplāvaḥ, āplavaḥ
snātakaḥ2.7.47MasculineSingularāplutaḥ
uḍupamMasculineSingularplavaḥ, kolaḥa raft or float
sopaplavaḥ1.4.10MasculineSingularuparaktaḥeclipsed sun or moon
īṣatplāṇḍuḥ1.5.13MasculineSingulardhūsaraḥgray
praṣṭapluṣṭoṣitā3.1.98MasculineSingulardagdhaḥ, pluṣṭaḥ, uṣitaḥ
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Results for pl502 results for pl
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
plab or plav- cl.1 A1. plabate-, plavate-, to go (varia lectio) (see plu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakaSee kaśa-plak/a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣ cl.1 P. A1. plakṣati-, te-, to eat, consume (varia lectio for blakṣ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣam. the waved-leaf fig-tree, Ficus Infectoria (a large and beautiful tree with small white fruit) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣam. the holy fig-tree, Ficus Religiosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣam. Thespesia Populneoides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣam. a side door or the space at the space of a door View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣam. equals dvīpa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣam. (with prāsravaṇa-) equals -prasravaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣāf. Name of the river sarasvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plākṣamf(ī-)n. belonging or relating to or coming from the Ficus Infectoria View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plākṣam. plural the school of plākṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plākṣan. the fruit of the fig-tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plākṣa(with prasravaṇa-) n. Name of the place where the sarasvatī- rises, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣadvīpam. n. Name of a dvīpa- (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣagāf. Name of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣajātāf. "rising near the fig-tree", Name of the sarasvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plākṣakim. patronymic fr. plakṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣakīyamfn. fr. plakṣa- gaRa naḍādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣanyagrodham. dual number Ficus Infectoria and Ficus Indica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣapraroham. the shoot or sprout of a fig-tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣaprasravaṇan. () "source and king of the fig-tree", Name of the place where the sarasvatī- rises. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣar(for pra-kṣar-,formed to explain plakṣa-), Caus. -kṣārayati-, to cause to stream forth, pour out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣarājm. (A.) "source and king of the fig-tree", Name of the place where the sarasvatī- rises. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣarājam. (),"source and king of the fig-tree", Name of the place where the sarasvatī- rises. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣaśākhāf. a branch of the fig-tree
plakṣaśākhāvatmfn. furnished with it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣasamudbhavāf. equals -jātā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣasamudravācakāf. Name of the river sarasvatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣasravaṇan. equals -prasr- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣatīrthan. Name of a place of pilgrimage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣatvan. the state or condition of being a fig-tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣavatmfn. surrounded by fig-trees View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣāvataraṇan. Name of a place of pilgrimage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣavatīf. Name of a river (prob. the sarasvatī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plākṣāyaṇam. patronymic fr. plākṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plākṣim. patronymic fr. plakṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plākṣīf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plakṣodumbaram. a species of tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāśim. sg. and plural a particular part of the intestines (= śiśna-,or śiśna-mūla-nāḍyaḥ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāśucitmfn. quick, speedy (equals kṣipra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāśukamfn. (fr. pla- equals pra-and āśu-ka-) rapidly growing up again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plātam. patronymic fr. plat/i- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
platim. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plav or plab- cl.1 A1. plabate-, plavate-, to go (varia lectio) (see plu-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plava plavaka- etc. See column 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavamf(ā-)n. swimming, floating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavamf(ā-)n. sloping towards, inclined (in astrology applied to a constellation situated in the quarter ruled by its planetary regent ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavamf(ā-)n. transient View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavamn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a float, raft, boat, small ship etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. a kind of aquatic bird (equals gātra-samplava-, kāraṇḍava-, jala-vāyasa-, jala-kāka-or jala-kukkuṭa- ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. a frog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. a monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. & sheep an arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. a caṇḍāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. an enemy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. Ficus Infectoria View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. a snare or basket of wicker-work for catching fish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. the 35th (or 9th) year in a cycle of Jupiter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. swimming, bathing (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. flooding, a flood, the swelling of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. the prolated utterance of a vowel (equals pluti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. protraction of a sentence through 3 or more śloka-s (equals kulaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. sloping down or towards, proclivity, inclination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. (in astrology) equals plava-tva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. Name of a sāman- (also with vasiṣṭhasya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. jumping, leaping, plunging, going by leaps or plunges (see compound below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. returning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavam. urging on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavan. Cyperus Rotundus or a species of fragrant grass [ confer, compare Greek for , ] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvam. flowing over, filling a vessel till it overflows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvam. leaping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagamfn. equals plava- mfn. (in astrology) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagam. "going by leaps or plunges", a frog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagam. a monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagam. a sort of aquatic bird, the diver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagam. Acacia Sirissa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagam. Name of the charioteer of the Sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagam. of a son of the Sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagāf. the sign of the zodiac Virgo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagatim. "moving by jumps", a frog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavagendram. "monkey chief", Name of hanumat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavakam. a leaper (by profession), a rope-dancer etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavakam. a frog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavakam. a caṇḍāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavakam. Ficus Infectoria View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavākāf. a boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavaṃgamfn. "moving by jumps", flickering (said of fire) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavaṃgam. a monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavaṃgam. a deer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavaṃgam. Ficus Infectoria View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavaṃgam. Name of the 41st (15th) year in a sixty years' cycle of Jupiter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavaṃgamam. (see prec.) a frog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavaṃgamam. a monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavaṃgamāf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavaṃgamendum. "monkey-moon", Name of hanumat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavanamf(ā-)n. inclined, stooping down towards (see prāg-udak-pl-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavanam. a monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavanan. swimming, plunging into or bathing in (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavanan. flying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavanan. leaping, jumping over (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavanan. capering (one of a horse's paces) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavanan. a kind of water Cyperus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvanan. (fr. Causal) bathing, immersion, ablution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvanan. filling a vessel to overflowing (for the purification of fluids) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvanan. inundation, flood, deluge (see jala-pl-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvanan. prolation (of a vowel) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavatvan. (in astrology) the position of a constellation in the quarter ruled by its planetary regent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavavatind. as with a boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavavatmfn. possessing a ship or a boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvayitṛmfn. one who causes to swim, causing to cross or go in a boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavikam. a ferry-man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') spreading, promulgating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvinmfn. flowing from View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvinm. a bird or a deer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavitan. swimming or springing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvitamfn. made to swim or overflow, deluged, soaked, moistened or covered with (compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvitamfn. washed away, removed, destroyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvitamfn. lengthened, prolated (as a vowelSee pluta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvitan. inundation, food, deluge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvitan. a song in which the vowels are prolated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plavitṛm. a leaper (with genitive case of distance) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvyamfn. to be bathed or steeped in (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāvyamfn. to be jumped or leaped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāy (pla- equals pra-and ay- equals i-; see pla-kṣar-and pla-yoga-) A1. plāyate-, to go away, go along View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāyam. equals prāya-, abundance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāyam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') having plenty of (vyādhi--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
playogam. (prob. equals pra-y-) Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plāyogim. patronymic of āsaṅga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pleṅkha(pla-īṅkha-; see preṅkha-) m. a swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plev cl.1 A1. plevate-, to serve, wait upon (see peb-, pev-, sev-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plī cl.9 P. plināti-, to go, move (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plih cl.1 A1. plehate-, to go, move (formed to explain the next words?) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhain compound for plīhan-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhāf. equals plīhan- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhaghnam. "destroying the spleen", Andersonia Rohitaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhāhantrīf. idem or 'm. Adelia Nereifolia (see ha-s-).' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhākarṇa(for ha-k-) mfn. suffering from a particular disease of the ear called plīhan- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plihanm. equals plīhan-, the spleen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhanm. the spleen (from which and from the liver the Hindus suppose the blood to flow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhanm. disease of the spleen (said to be equally applied to enlargement of the mesenteric glands etc.) [Orig. splīhan-; confer, compare Greek , ; Latin lienfor splihen-; Slavonic or Slavonian slezenafor spleśena-; English spleen.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhapuṣāf. Adelia Nereifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhārim. "id.", Ficus Religiosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhaśatrum. "enemy of the spleen", Andersonia Rohitaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīhāśatrum. Adelia Nereifolia (see ha-s-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plihodaran. disease of the spleen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plihodarinmfn. splenetic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plīthāf. plural Name of a particular class of apsaras- (varia lectio plīy/ā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plokind. onomatopoetic (i.e. formed from imitation of sounds) sounds used for a nidhana-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ploṣam. burning, combustion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ploṣam. a burning pain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ploṣaṇa() mfn. burning, scorching, singeing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ploṣin() mfn. burning, scorching, singeing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ploṣṭṛm. one who burns or consumes by fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plotam. or n. (?) cloth, stuff View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plotam. a bandage (see prota-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plotif. thread, connection (in karma-p-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plu cl.1 A1. (; confer, compare ) pl/avate- (rarely P. ti-; perfect tense pupluve- etc., 3. plural vuḥ- ; Aorist aploṣṭa- etc., 2. plural aploḍhvam- ; preceding ploṣīṣṭa-, ; future ploṣyati-, te- etc.; ind.p. -pl/ūya- ; -plutya- etc.) , to float, swim etc. ; to bathe ; to go or cross in a boat, sail, navigate ; to sway to and fro, hover, soar, fly ; to blow (as the wind) ; to pass away, vanish by degrees (varia lectio) ; to be lengthened or prolated (as a vowelSee pluta-) ; (older form pru- q.v) to hop, skip, leap, jump, spring from (ablative) or to or into or over or upon (accusative) etc.: Causal plāvayati- (rarely te-,or plāvayati-; Aorist apiplavat- , apupl- grammar), to cause to float or swim, bathe, wash, inundate, submerge etc. ; to overwhelm id est supply abundantly with (instrumental case) ; to wash away, remove (guilt, sin etc.) ; to purify ; to prolate (a vowel) ; to cause to jump or stagger : Desiderative of Causal piplāvayiṣati- or puplāvayiṣati- : Desiderative puplūṣate- grammar : Intensive poplūyate-, to swim about or rapidly [ confer, compare Greek , ; Old Latin per-plovere; Latin pluit,pluvius; Lithuanian plauti; Anglo-Saxon flovan; German,flawjan,flawe7n,vlouwenetc.]
plugiand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plukṣim. fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plukṣim. the burning of a house (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plukṣim. oil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pluṣ cl.1.4. P. () ploṣati- and pluṣyati- (perfect tense puploṣa- grammar; Aorist aploṣīt- ; future ploṣiṣyati-, ploṣitā- ), to burn, scorch, singe (only pass. pluṣyate-) ; cl.9 P. pluṣṇāti- (imperative pluṣāṇa-) idem or 'and' ; to sprinkle ; to anoint ; to fill (see pruṣ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plus cl.4 P. plusyati-, to burn (varia lectio for pluṣ-) ; to share View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pluṣim. a species of noxious insect (a flying white-ant ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pluṣṭamfn. burned, scorched, singed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pluṣṭamfn. frozen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pluṣṭāyaNom. A1. yate- on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutamfn. floated, floating or swimming in (locative case), bathed, overflowed, submerged, covered or filled with (instrumental case or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutamfn. protracted, prolated or lengthened (as a vowel) to 3 mātrā-s (q.v) etc. (also said of a kind of measure )
plutamfn. flown View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutamfn. leaped, leaping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutan. a flood, deluge (plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutan. leaping, moving by leaps View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutan. capering (one of a horse's paces) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutagatif. moving by leaps View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutagatim. a hare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutamerum. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutatvan. See udagra-pluta-tva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutavatmfn. one who has leaped or jumped View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutif. overflowing, a flood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutif. prolation (of a vowel see pluta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutif. a leap, jump varia lectio (also met.; see maṇḍūka-pl-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
plutif. capering, curvet (one of a horse's paces) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhipariplutamfn. overflowed with (as medasā-, rajasā-[said of a wife during menstruation ; see abhi-pluta-below], etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhipariplutamfn. attacked, afflicted by (instrumental case;as by anger, sorrow, compassion, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiplavam. Name of a religious ceremony (lasting six days and performed five times during the sacrifice gavām-ayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiplavaa kind of aquatic bird, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ābhiplavikamfn. relating to the religious ceremony called abhi-plava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ābhiplavikan. Name of a sāman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhipluto swim or navigate towards, approach etc. ; to overflow, etc. (See abhi-pluta-) ; to jump near to etc.: Caus. (said of the sea) to wash View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiplutamfn. overflowed, overrun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiplutamfn. overwhelmed, affected by, labouring under (instrumental case) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiplutamfn. (rajasā-,said of a wife during menstruation; see abhi-pari-pluta-above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhisamplavam. fluctuation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhisamplu(ind.p. -plutya-) to bathe (an-- negative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhisamplutamfn. poured upon, overflowed with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhisamplutamfn. deeply engaged in (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ābhūtasaṃplavamind. down to the dissolution or destruction of created things or of the universe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādiplutamfn. (a word) whose first vowel is prolated, grammar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākāśaplavāf. Name (also title or epithet) of a kiṃ-narī-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ambusamplavam. a flow of water, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ameghopaplavamfn. not covered with clouds, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amṛtaplavanan. a stream or flow of nectar, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāplutamfn. unbathed, unwashed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāplutāṅgamfn. having an unwashed body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antaplutamfn. pronounced with prolation of the last syllable, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupaplavamfn. free from disaster or overwhelming calamity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupaplutamfn. not overwhelmed (with calamity). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupariplu(Causal - plāvayati-), to wash, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuplavam. a companion or follower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupluto float (as clouds) after ; to follow. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anvavaplu -plavate-, to dive after View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyataḥplakṣāf. Name of a lotus pond in kurukṣetra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apapluto spring down : Causal -plavayati-, to wash off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aplavamf(ā-)n. without a ship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aplavamf(ā-)n. not swimming. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplavam. ablution, bathing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplavam. sprinkling with water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplāvam. (equals ā-plava- ), submerging, wetting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplāvam. flood, inundation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplavanan. immersing, bathing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplavanan. sprinkling with water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aplavatmfn. without a ship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplavavratinm. one whose duty is to perform the samāvartana- ablution (on returning home after completing his studies), an initiated householder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aplaveśamfn. unable to swim. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplāvitamfn. inundated, overflowed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplāvyamfn. to be used as a bath, serving for bathing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplāvyamfn. bathing (any one), to be washed, bathed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplāvyan. washing, bathing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplāvya ind.p. having washed, wetted or sprinkled. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apliṅgan. Name (also title or epithet) of a liṅga-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpluA1. -plavate- (Potential -pluvīta- [ varia lectio ],and -plavet-) to spring or jump towards or over, dance towards or over etc. ; to bathe, wash & etc. ; to immerse one's self etc. ; to bathe, wash another etc. ; to water, bedew, inundate ; to overrun etc.: Causal P. -plāvayati-, to wash or bathe any person or thing, cause to be bathed or washed etc. ; to bathe (one's self) ; to inundate, overwhelm, set in commotion etc. ; to dip, steep : A1. -plāvayate- idem or 'Nom. P. -pruṣāyati-, to besprinkle, bespeckle : A1. (imperfect tense 3. plural -pruṣāy/anta-) idem or '( pru-= plu-) A1. -pravate-, to spring up, jump up.' '
āpluṣṭamfn. a little singed or burnt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutamfn. one who has bathed (himself), bathed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutamfn. wetted, sprinkled, overflowed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' (used figuratively) overrun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutamfn. afflicted, distressed (vyasanā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutamfn. one who has sprung or jumped near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutam. (equals ā-plava-vratin-), an initiated householder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutan. bathing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutan. jumping, springing towards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutāṅgamf(ī-)n. bathed all over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutavratinm. equals ā-plava-vratin- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutif. bathing, a bath View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutya ind.p. having bathed or washed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āplutyahaving jumped up. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asiplavam. a kind of porpoise, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśmaplavam. a boat of stone, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśrupariplutamfn. bathed in tears. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśrupariplutākṣamfn. having the eyes filled with tears, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśruplāvitan. a flood of tears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvaplutan. a horse's leap, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avapluA1. (perf. -pupluve-) to jump down (as from a cart) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaplutamfn. plunged into View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaplutamfn. jumped down from etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaplutamfn. gone away from, departed from View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaplutan. jumping down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaplutya ind.p. jumping down etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaplutyajumping away from (ablative)
avaplutyahastening away or off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aviplavamf(ā-)n. uninterrupted, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aviplavauncorrupted, chaste, MBh, (varia lectio). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aviplutamfn. unviolated, observed without deviation etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aviplutamfn. undeviating, steadily observing (the vow of chastity) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aviplutamanobuddhimfn. idem or 'mfn. whose mind is not deviating ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aviplutamatimfn. whose mind is not deviating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāṣpāplutamfn. idem or 'mfn. dimmed or interrupted by tears ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāgyaviplava() m. ill-luck, misfortune. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhayaviplutamfn. panic-struck View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtasamplavam. the flooding or drowning of all creatures, universal deluge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
busaplāvīf. a beetle (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cittaviplavam. disturbance of mind, insanity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharaṇīplavam. "having the earth as ship", id., View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmaplavam. boat of virtue (a son) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmaviplavam. violation of law or duty, wickedness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūrāplāvamfn. leaping far View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garbhasamplavam. abortion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gātrasamplavam. "body-diver", the bird Pelicanus fusicollis (see plava-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghṛtaplutamfn. sprinkled with ghee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hariṇaplutan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hariṇaplutāf. Name of two metres View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hrasvaplakṣam. a species of small plakṣa- tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalaplavam. equals -plāvana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalaplavam. equals -nakula- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalaplāvanan. "water-immersion", a deluge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaplakamfn. equals kapivad-gamanasamartha- (the text has the reading k/alpaka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmaplotif. the thread of action, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaśaplakam. dual number "parts struck by the whip", the hinder parts (originally of beasts of burden), ([ ;"pudenda muliebria" ]) (see plaka-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khaṭvāpluta(p-) mfn. "mounted on a bed", low, vile, iniquitous ("silly, stupid") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuplavam. a weak or frail raft View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuśaplavam. Name of a hermitage (edition Bomb.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuśaplavanan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhuplutamfn. swimming with honey, mixed with honey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāplavam. a great flood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍūkaplutan. (prob.) equals -pluti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍūkaplutasādhanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍūkaplutif. "frog-leap", (in gram.) the skipping of several sūtra-s and supplying from a previous sūtra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
markaṭotplavanan. the act of springing like an ape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marutplavam. "springing with the rapidity of wind", a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgapiplum. "deer-marked", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūrchāpariplutamfn. overcome with faintness, insensible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanaplavam. swimming of the eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirupaplavamfn. untroubled, unmolested, unharmed (varia lectio upadrava-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirupaplavam. "not causing adversity", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplavamfn. swimming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplavamfn. swaying or moving to and fro View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplavamfn. running about, unsteady, restless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplavam. trembling, restlessness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplavam. bathing, inundation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplavam. oppression, tyranny View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplavam. a ship, boat (varia lectio pāripl-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplavam. Name of a prince (son of sukhī-bala- or sukhī-vala- or sukhī-nala-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplavāf. a sort of spoon used at sacrifices View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavamf(ā-)n. swimming View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavamf(ā-)n. moving to and fro, agitated, unsteady, tremulous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavamf(ā-)n. wavering, irresolute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavamf(ā-)n. (p/āri--),"moving in a circle", Name of particular legends recited at the aśva-medha- and repeated at certain intervals throughout the year View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavam. a boat (varia lectio pari-pl-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavam. a class of gods in the 5th manv-antara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavāf. a small spoon used at sacrifices, (see pari-plavā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavadṛṣṭi () mfn. having tremulous or swimming eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavagatamfn. being in a boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavamatimfn. fickle-minded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavanetra() mfn. having tremulous or swimming eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavaprabhamfn. spreading tremulous lustre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavatāf. unsteadiness, inconstancy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavatvan. unsteadiness, inconstancy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplavīyan. an oblation connected with the recitation of a pāri- legend View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplāvyamfn. to be poured over View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplāvyam. a goose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāriplāvyan. agitation, tremulousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariploṣam. burning, internal heat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripluA1. -plavate- (ind.p. -plutya- ; -plūya- ), to swim or float or hover about or through etc. ; to revolve, move in a circle ; to move restlessly, go astray ; to hasten forward or near : Causal -plāvayati- (ind.p. -plāvya-), to bathe, water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paripluṣṭamfn. ( pluṣ-) burnt, scorched, singed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplutamfn. bathed, one who has bathed in (locative case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplutamfn. flooded, immersed, overwhelmed or visited by (instrumental case or compound) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplutan. a spring, jump View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariplutāf. spirituous liquor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryāplāvam. turning round, revolution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryāpluCaus. -plāvayati-, to make float round View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryāplutamfn. surrounded, encircled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piplum. (pi for api-+ plu-?) a freckle, mark, mole View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piplukarṇamfn. having a mark on the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piplupracchādanamfn. covering or concealing a mole View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
potaplavam. "floating in a ship", a seaman, mariner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāgudakplavamfn. () inclining towards the north-east View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāgudakplavanamfn. ( ) inclining towards the north-east View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praplāvanan. flooding with water, extinguishing (a fire) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prapluA1. -plavate-, to go to sea (samudram-), float or sail away : Causal -plāvayati-, to cause to float or sail away ; to wash or flood with water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prapluta(pr/a--) mfn. dipped in water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prathamaplutamfn. leapt off first View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiplavanan. ( plu-) jumping or leaping back View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyāplavanan. ( plu-) springing or leaping back View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛthivīplavam. "earth-flood", the sea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇḍarīkaplavam. a species of bird = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvodakplavamfn. inclined towards the north-east View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rajaḥplutamfn. filled with (the quality of) passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṅgaplutalakṣaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāṣṭraviplavam. calamity or ruin of a kingdom (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudhiraplāvitamfn. swimming with blood, soaked in blood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādhvasaviplutamfn. overwhelmed with consternation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāgaraplavanan. navigating the ocean, leaping across or traversing the sea (also applied to a particular pace of horses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
salilopaplavam. "a flood of water", inundation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhipluA1. -plavate-, to inundate, wash (See next) ; to overwhelm, cover View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhiplutamfn. inundated, flooded, washed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhiplutamfn. overwhelmed, covered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhiplutamfn. eclipsed (as the moon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samabhiplutamfn. (with rajasā-) covered with menstrual excretions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāplava m. immersion in water, bathing, a bath View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāplāvam. immersion in water, bathing, a bath View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāpluA1. -plavate-, to immerse together, immerse in water, bathe ; to overflow, inundate, overwhelm ; to spring or rush upon (accusative) ; to come into violent collision with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāplutamfn. immersed, flooded, overwhelmed, bathed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavaplutamfn. ( plu-) lept down, jumped off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samparipluA1. -plavate-, to flow quite over, overflow (See past participle) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampariplutamf(ā-)n. overflowed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampariplutamf(ā-)n. overwhelmed (with misfortune), distressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samplavam. flowing together, meeting or swelling (of waters), flood, deluge a dense mass, heap, multitude etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samplavam. conglomeration, taking a form or shape, rise, origin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samplavam. noise, tumult (especially of battle) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samplavam. submersion by water, destruction, ruin etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samplavam. end, close of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampluA1. -plavate-, to flow or stream together, meet (as waters) ; to be heaped or massed together (as clouds) ; to founder, go down (as a ship) ; to fluctuate, waver (as the mind) : Causal -plāvayati- to cause to flow or mass together (as clouds) ; to melt into, mingle or merge with (instrumental case) ; to float over, inundate, submerge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samplutamfn. flowed or streamed together, met View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samplutamfn. one who has bathed in (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samplutamfn. flooded over, overspread, covered or filled with (instrumental case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samplutodakamfn. flooded with water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samudropaplutamfn. inundated or submerged by the ocean View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupaplutamfn. ( plu-) overwhelmed, assailed, distressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samutpluA1. -plavate-, to jump or leap up together, move by jumps View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāntaraplutan. a manner of jumping (= plavanāntaritā gatiḥ- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sānuplavamfn. accompanied by followers or attendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaśaplutakan. a scratch with a finger-nail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sattvasamplavam. universal destruction of beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sattvasamplavam. loss of vigour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sattvaviplavam. loss of consciousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlaviplava() m. ruin of virtue. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śokapariplutamfn. overwhelmed with sorrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopaplavamfn. eclipsed (as the sun or moon)
sopaplavamfn. afflicted with any great calamity, overrun or attacked by enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhaplavamfn. offering a comfortable bath (varia lectio sukhāpl-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhāplavamfn. convenient for bathing (see sukha-pl-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suplanm. Name of a person (having the patronymic sārñjaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
triplakṣam. plural "the 3 fig-trees", a place near the yamunā- where the dṛṣad-vatī- disappears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
triplakṣāvaharaṇan. idem or 'm. plural "the 3 fig-trees", a place near the yamunā- where the dṛṣad-vatī- disappears ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udagraplutatvan. lofty bounding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udaplavam. water-flood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udaplutamfn. swimming in water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udāplutamfn. overflowed, inundated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanipluA1. (3. plural -plavante-) to approach, reach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanyāpluA1. -plavate-, to swim near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavam. affliction, visitation, invasion, inundation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavam. any public calamity, unlucky accident, misfortune, disturbance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavam. a portent or natural phenomenon (as an eclipse etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavam. Name of rāhu- (who is supposed to cause eclipses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavam. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavinmfn. afflicted or visited by a calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavinmfn. under an eclipse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavinmfn. flooded. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavyamfn. to be overflowed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavyamfn. to be afflicted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavyan. Name of the capital of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaple( upa-pla-i-) for upa-pre- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapluP. -plavati-, to overflow, inundate ; to assault, invade, afflict ; to eclipse ; to rush upon, assail : A1. -plavate-, to swim on the surface (as a light object) commentator or commentary on ; to hang over, move aloft : Causal -plāvayati-, to irrigate, flood, water ; to float near (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplutamfn. overflowed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplutamfn. invaded, afflicted, visited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplutamfn. distressed, pained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplutamfn. marked by prodigies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplutamfn. swallowed (as sun and moon by rāhu-), eclipsed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplutāf. (with yoni-) a particular disease of the female organ View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplutekṣaṇamfn. having overflowing eyes, weeping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utplavam. a jump, leap, bound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utplavāf. a boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utplavam. flying up, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utplavanan. jumping or leaping up, springing upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utplavanan. skimming off (impure, oil or ghee, or any dirt floating on a fluid by passing two blades of kuśa- grass over it ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utplu(ud-plu-) A1. -plavate- (rarely P. -ti-), to swim upwards, emerge ; to draw near, approach (as clouds) ; to spring up, jump up or upwards, jump out, leap up etc. ; to jump over ; to bound commentator or commentary on ; to spring upon ; to rise, arise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utplutamfn. jumped up or upon or over, sprung upon suddenly. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utplutya ind.p. having sprung up or jumped upon etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpupluṣāf. (from ut- + Desid, of plu-) the wish to fly up, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiplavam. a particular month (= śrāvaṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakraplutamfn. leaping in curves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanopaplavam. equals vana-dāha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntāvabṛthaplutam. one who performs an ablution after acquiring complete knowledge of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedaplāvinm. one who promulgates or publicly teaches the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedaviplāvakamfn. propagating the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilubhitaplavamfn. going in an agitated manner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavamfn. (for 2.See vi-plu-) having no ship or boat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. (for 1.See) confusion, trouble, disaster, evil, calamity, misery, distress etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. tumult, affray, revolt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. destruction, ruin etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. loss, damage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. violation (of a woman) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. profanation of the veda- by unseasonable study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. shipwreck View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. rust (on a mirror) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. portent, evil omen View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. terrifying an enemy by shouts and gestures View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. spreading abroad, divulging (vaṃ-gam-,to become widely known) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavamfn. confused (as words) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplāvam. a horse's canter or gallop View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplāvam. deluging View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplāvam. devastating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplāvam. causing tumult or public disturbance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplāvaka() mfn. spreading abroad, divulging. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplāvanan. abusing, reviling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavatasind. in consequence of misfortune
viplavāṭṭahāsam. malicious laughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavinmfn. fugitive, transitory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplāvin() mfn. spreading abroad, divulging. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplāvitamfn. (fr. Causal) made to float or drift about, divulged, confused, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplāvitamfn. confounded, ruined, lost View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipluA1. -plavate- (mc. also P.), to float asunder, drift about, be dispersed or scattered ; to fall into disorder or confusion, go astray, be lost or ruined, perish etc.: Causal -plāvayati-, to cause to swim or float about ; to spread abroad, make known, divulge ; to bring to ruin or calamity, waste, destroy ; (-plav-), to perplex, confuse, confound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipluṣm. f. = vi-pruṣ-2, a drop of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipluṣm. plural drops falling from the mouth while speaking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipluṣṭamfn. ( pluṣ-) burned, scorched View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. drifted apart or asunder, scattered, dispersed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. confused, disordered, gone astray, lost, perished etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. suffused, dimmed (as the eyes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. agitated, excited, troubled (as speech or reason) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. broken, violated (as chastity, a vow etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. vicious, immoral View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. committing adultery with (saha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. (with karmaṇā-) wrongly treated, mismanaged (in med.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. (with plava-) drawn out of the water, landed (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. depraved, wicked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. contrary, adverse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutamfn. inundated, immersed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutan. springing or bursting asunder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutabhāṣinmf(iṇī-)n. speaking confusedly, stammering, stuttering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutalocanamfn. having the eyes suffused or bathed (with tears, joy etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutanetramfn. having the eyes suffused or bathed (with tears, joy etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutayonif. (in med.) a particular painful condition of the vagina- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplutif. destruction, ruin, loss View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīraviplāvakam. "disturber of the sacrificial fire", a Brahman who performs oblations with money procured from the lowest or śūdra- caste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvasamplavam. the destruction of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanāplutamfn. involved in or overwhelmed with calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvadābhūtasamplavamind. up to the dissolution of created things, to the end of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvadāhūtasamplavamind. wrong reading for -ābhūta-s- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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plakaḥ प्लकः Ved. Pudendum muliebre (अधोङ्गभेद).
plakṣ प्लक्ष् 1 U. To eat, consume.
plakṣaḥ प्लक्षः [प्लक्षते कीटैः प्लक्ष्-कर्मणि घञ्] 1 The Indian fig-tree; प्लक्षप्ररोह इव सौधतलं विभेद R.8.93;13.71; कपित्थैः किंशुकैः प्लक्षैः Parṇāl.4.62. -2 One of the seven Dvīpas or continents of the world; प्लक्षो जम्बूप्रमाणो द्वीपः ख्यातिकरो हिरण्मय उत्थितो यत्राग्निरुपास्ते सप्तजिह्वः Purāṇam. -3 A side or back-door, a private entrance. -4 The space at the side of a door. -Comp. -जाता, -समुद्रवाचका an epithet of the river Sarasvatī. -तीर्थम्, -प्रस्रवणम्, -राज् -m. the place where the Sarasvatī rises. -द्वारम् a back-door, a side-entrance; Matsya P.264.15.
plākṣam प्लाक्षम् The fruit of प्लक्ष.
plava प्लव a. [प्लु अच्] 1 Swimming, floating. -2 Jumping, leaping. -3 Ved. Superior, excellent. -वः Swimming, floating. -2 Flood, swelling of a river. -3 A jump, leap; going by leaps or jumps; ते रथैर्देवधिष्ण्याभैर्हयैश्च तरल- प्लवैः Bhāg.1.82.7. -4 A raft, float, canoe, small boat; नावश्चारुरुहुस्त्वन्ये प्लवैस्तेरुस्तथापरे Rām.2.89.2 (com. प्लवा वेणुतृणादिनिर्मिताः); नाशयेच्च शनैः पश्चात् प्लवं सलिलपूरवत् Pt. 2.42; सर्वं ज्ञानप्लवेनैव वृजिनं संतरिष्यसि Bg.4.36; Ms.4.194; 11.19; Ve.3.25. -5 A frog; हंसक्रौञ्चप्लवाकीर्णं सारसैः संप्रसादितम् Rām.3.35.18. -6 A monkey; दधि हृत्वा बक- श्चापि प्लवो मत्स्यानसंस्कृतान् Mb.13.111.99. -7 A declivity, slope. -8 An enemy. -9 A sheep. -1 A man of a low tribe, a Chāṇḍāla. -11 A net or snare for catching fish. -12 The fig-tree. -13 The Kāraṇḍava bird, a kind of duck. -14 Five or more stanzas syntactically connected (= कुलक q. v.). -15 The prolated utterance of a vowel. -16 Returning, return. -17 Urging on, inciting. -18 Sound; L. D. B. -19 A kind of aquatic bird; Ms.5.12. -2 N. of a संवत्सर. -Comp. -कुम्भः a pitcher used as a support in swimming; स्मरयौवनयोः खलु द्वयोः प्लवकुम्भौ भवतः कुचावुभौ N.2.31. -गः 1 a monkey; स सेतुं बन्धयामास प्लवगैर्लवणाम्भसि R.12.7. -2 a frog. -3 an aquatic bird, the diver. -4 the शिरीष tree. -5 N. of the sun's charioteer. ˚इन्द्रः Hanumat; Bhāg. ˚राजः The monkey chief Sugrīva; राघवप्लवगराजयोरिव प्रेम युक्तमितरे- तराश्रयम् Ki.13.57. (-गा) the sign of the zodiac called Virqo. -गतिः a frog.
plāvaḥ प्लावः [प्लु-घञ्] 1 Flowing over. -2 Jumping, leaping, क्वचिच्च दर्दुरप्लावैर्विविधैरुपहासकैः Bhāg.1.18.15. -3 Filling to, overflowing. -4 Straining a liquid (to remove impurities &c.); भस्माद्भिः कांस्यलोहानां शुद्धिः प्लावो द्रवस्य तु Y.1.19. (see Mitā. thereon). -5 Submersion.
plavākā प्लवाका A float, raft.
plavakaḥ प्लवकः [प्लु बाहु˚ अक] 1 A frog. -2 A jumper, tumbler, rope-dancer. -3 The holy fig-tree. -4 A Chāṇḍāla, an outcast. -5 A monkey.
plavana प्लवन [प्लु-ल्युट्] a. Inclined, stooping down; प्रागुदक्- प्लवनां भूमिं कारयेत् यत्नतो नरः Matsya. P. -नम् 1 Swimming. -2 Bathing, plunging into; आनन्दमन्दममृतप्लवना- दिवाभूत् Māl.1.19. -3 Flying. -4 Jumping, leaping. -5 A great flood, deluge. -6 A declivity. -7 One of a horse's paces (capering).
plāvanam प्लावनम् [प्लु णिच् ल्युट्] 1 Bathing, ablution. -2 Overflowing, flooding, inundating. -3 A flood, deluge. -4 Prolation (of a vowel).
plavaṅgaḥ प्लवङ्गः 1 An ape, a monkey. -2 A deer. -3 The fig-tree. -4 N. of a संवत्सर.
plavaṅgamaḥ प्लवङ्गमः 1 A monkey; एवमुक्तस्तु भीमेन स्मितं कृत्वा प्लवङ्गमः Mb.3.15.2; संचेरुरात्मान इवापरं क्षणात् क्षमारुहं देहमिव प्लवङ्गमाः Si.12.55. -2 A frog. -Comp. -इन्दुः an epithet of Hanumat.
plavatvam प्लवत्वम् (In astrol.) The position of a canstellation in the quarter ruled by its planetary regent; Bṛit. S.
plāvayitṛ प्लावयितृ a. One who causes to swim or cross (a boatsman); गुरुः प्लावयिता तस्य ज्ञानं प्लव इहोच्यते Mb. 12.326.23.
plavika प्लविक a. [प्लवेन तरति ठन्] Taking over in a boat, a ferry-man.
plāvin प्लाविन् a. [प्लु-णिनि] 1 Spreading over, deluging, overflowing. -2 Promulgating. -m. A bird.
plāvita प्लावित p. p. [प्लु णिच् क्त] 1 Made to swim, float, or overflow. -2 Deluged, inundated, overflowed. -3 Moistened, wetted, sprinkled; गलन्मधुप्लावितदूरवर्त्मनि Śi. 12.26; विविक्ते$स्मिन्नगे भूयः प्लाविते जह्नुकन्यया Ki.11.36. -4 Covered with, smeared. -5 Lengthened, prolated (as a vowel); प्लावितेन स्वरेणोच्चैराजुहावाकुलेन्द्रियः Bhāg.6.1.29. -तम् 1 Inundation, flood. -2 A song in which the vowels are prolated.
plev प्लेव् 1 Ā. (प्लेवते) To serve, attend or wait upon.
plī प्ली 9 P. (प्लीनाति) To go, move.
plih प्लिह् 1 Ā. (प्लेहते) To go, move.
plīhā प्लीहा The spleen.
plīhan प्लीहन् m. The spleen or its enlargement (प्लिहन् also); Y.3.94; Mv.5.19. -Comp. -अरिः N. of the fig-tree. -उदरम् enlargement of the spleen. -उदरिन् a. suffering from enlargement of the spleen.
ploṣaḥ प्लोषः Burning, combustion (also प्रोष); स्वपक्षाभ्यां प्लोषादविकलमरक्षत् करुणया Mv.5.5; Viṣnupāda S.46.
ploṣaṇa प्लोषण a. (-णी f.) [प्लुष्-ल्यु] Burning, scorching, reducing to ashes; तार्तीयीकं पुरारेस्तदवतु मदनप्लोषणं लोचनं वः Māl.1 (v. l.). -णम् Burning, scorching (प्रोषणम् also).
plotaḥ प्लोतः 1 A bandage. -2 Cloth.
plotiḥ प्लोतिः Thread, connection; Buddh.
plu प्लु 1 Ā. (प्लवते, प्लुत) 1 To float, swim; किं नामैतत् मज्जन्त्यलाबूनि ग्रावाणः प्लवन्त इति Mv.1; क्लेशोत्तरं रागवशात् प्लवन्ते R.16.6; प्लवन्ते धर्मलघवो लोके$म्भसि यथा प्लवाः Subhāṣ. -2 To cross in a boat. -3 To swing to and fro, vibrate. -4 To leap, jump, spring; यथामुखीनः सीतायाः पुप्लुवे बहु लोभयन् Bk.5.48;14.13;15.46. -5 To plunge into, bathe. -6 To fly or haste away. -7 To blow (as the wind). -8 To fade away, disappear. -9 To soar, hover about. -1 To skip. -11 To be prolated or lengthened (as a vowel). -Caus. (प्लावयति-ते) 1 To cause to swim or float. -2 To remove, wash away. -3 To bathe. -4 To inundate, deluge, flood, submerge; यैः प्लावयिष्यन्ति समन्ततो$मी Śi.3.74;7.74. -5 To cause to reel or fluctuate. -6 To lengthen, prolate (a vowel). With अभि 1 to over-flow. -2 to overwhelm, overcome.
plukṣiḥ प्लुक्षिः 1 Fire. -2 The burning of a house. -3 Oil.
pluṣ प्लुष् I. 1, 4, 9 P. (प्लोषति, प्लुष्यति, प्लुष्णाति, प्लुष्ट) To burn, scorch, singe, sear; Ṛs.1.22; रामस्तुष्यतु मे वा$द्य पापां प्लुष्णातु वा$नलः Bk.2.34. -II. 9 P. (प्लुष्णाति) 1 To sprinkle, wet. -2 To anoint. -3 To fill.
plus प्लुस् 4 P. (प्लुस्यति) 1 To burn. -2 To share.
pluṣaḥ प्लुषः Burning, combustion.
pluṣiḥ प्लुषिः A species of noxious insect; यद्वेव समः प्लुषिणा समो मशकेन Bṛi. Up.1.3.22.
pluṣṭa प्लुष्ट p. p. Scorched, burnt, singed; पटुतरदवदाहात् प्लुष्ट सस्यप्ररोहाः Ṛs.1.22.
pluta प्लुत p. p. [प्लु-क्त] 1 Swimming, floating. -2 Inundated, submerged, overflowed. -3 Leaped, jumped. -4 Lengthened, protracted or prolated (as a vowel); अशूद्रविषये प्रत्यभिवादे यद्वाक्यं तस्य टेः प्लुतः स्यात् Sk.; यान्तो$- न्यतः प्लुतकृतस्वरमाशु दूरादुद्बाहुना जुहुविरे मुहुरात्मवर्ग्याः Śi.5.15. -5 Covered with, filled with; मन्थायस्तार्णवाम्भःप्लुतकुहर... Ve.1.22. -6 Bathed in; (see प्लु). -तम् 1 A jump, leap, spring; पश्योदग्रप्लुतत्वाद्वियति बहुतरं स्तोकमुर्व्यां प्रयाति Ś.1.7. -4 Capering, one of the paces of a horse. -3 Bounding, vaulting. -4 A flood, deluge. -Comp. -गतिः a hare. (-f.) 1 going by leaps. -2 a gallop, bounding motion. -मेरुः (in music) a kind of measure.
plutiḥ प्लुतिः f. [प्लु-भावे-क्तिन्] 1 A flood, overflowing, inundation. -2 A leap, jump, spring; as in मण्डूकप्लुति. -3 Capering, one of the paces of a horse. -4 Prolation or protraction of a vowel.
anuplu अनुप्लु 1 A. To run after, follow; इदमन्यतो वानरद्वयं आर्यस्य पार्ष्णिग्राहमिव संश्रयादनुप्लवते A. R.5.
anuplavaḥ अनुप्लवः A follower, servant; सानुप्लवः प्रभुरपि क्षणदाचराणाम् R.18.75; सानुप्लवाः क्वापि यातास्त्रिमूर्धखरदूषणाः । Mv.7.19.
aplava अप्लव a. 1 Without a ship, Av.19.5.31. -2 Not swimming.
apluta अप्लुत a. Not protracted (as a vowel).
abhiparipluta अभिपरिप्लुत a. Overflowed, filled with, inundated; (fig.) overwhelmed, affected; attacked; shaken; शोकेन, मन्युना &c. Mb.3.
abhiplu अभिप्लु 4 A. 1 To go up to, jump or leap towards. -2 To overflow; (fig.) affect, fill with, overwhelm; तमसाभिप्लुते लोके रजसा च Mb.; रजसाभिप्लुतां नारीम् Ms.4.41 being in her courses; व्यसनाभिप्लुते$पि वा Y.2.5. -3 To spring to or over, spring upon. -Caus. To wash or ripple against.
abhiplavaḥ अभिप्लवः 1 Affliction, disturbance. -2 Inundation, overflowing. -3 N. of a religious ceremony performed as part of the sacrifice गवामयन. -4 N. of the Prājāpatya Āditya.
abhipluta अभिप्लुत a. 1 Overwhelmed; तमसा$भिप्लुते लोके Mb. 4.33.1. -2 Affected; रजसाभिप्लुतां नारीं नरस्य ह्युपगच्छतः Ms.4.41.
āplu आप्लु 1 Ā. 1 To jump up, dance, spring; आप्लुत्य पदान्यष्टौ Mb.; (रथं) आपुप्लुवे सिंह इवाचलाग्रम्. -2 To bathe, wash, immerse oneself (fig. also); प्रयागे आप्लुत्य गात्राणि Mb.; आप्लुत्याकाशगङ्गायाम् ibid; Ms.7.216,11.22. -Caus. (प्लावयति) 1 To cause to be washed or bathed; आप्लावयत गात्राणि Mb. -2 To wash, wet, sprinkle; अन्न- माप्लाव्य वारिणा s.3.244,11.98. -3 To overflow, overwhelm, inundate, flood over. -4 To set in commotion. -5 (Ātm.) To bathe.
āplavaḥ आप्लवः प्लवनम् 1 Bathing, immersing. -2 Sprinkling with water (on all sides). -Comp. -व्रतिन् or आप्लुतव्रतिन् m. a house-holder who has passed through the first order (ब्रह्मचर्य) and is admitted into the second (गार्हस्थ्य), an initiated householder; cf. स्नातक.
āplāvaḥ आप्लावः 1 Bathing, immersing, -2 Sprinkling, wetting. -3 Submerging. -4 A flood, an inundation; प्रलयाप्लावमिवाभिदर्शयन्तः Śi.2.7.
āpluta आप्लुत p. p. 1 Bathed; अवभृथाप्लुतो मुनिः R.11.31; Ku.6.5. ततः समुत्सुको$भ्येत्य नृपतिर्द्रुतमाप्लुतः Śiva. B.1.79. -2 Wetted, sprinkled; यावन्नाश्यायते वेदिरभिषेकजलाप्लुता R.17.37. -3 Overflowing with, filled or overcome with; बाष्प˚, व्यसन˚, रुधिर˚ &c. -4 Possessed by, eclipsed; अवाङ्मुखमथो दीनं दृष्ट्वा सोममिवाप्लुतम् Rām.7.16.1. -तः, ˚व्रती An initiated house-holder, see आप्लवव्रतिन्. -तम् Bathing.
āpluṣṭa आप्लुष्ट a. A little singed or burnt. दिवाकराप्लुष्टविभूष- णास्पदाम् Ku.5.48.
ābhiplavika आभिप्लविक a. (-की f.) [अभिप्लव-ढक्] Relating to the religious ceremony called अभिप्लव q. v.
utplu उत्प्लु 1 Ā. 1 To jump or leap up, bound, bound away; दुर्दान्तमुत्प्लुत्य निरस्तसादिनम् Śi.12.22,5.5; leap out of; सपङ्क्रतोयात्सरसो$भितापितः उत्प्लुत्य भेकः Ṛs.1.18. -2 To spring or jump upon; यामुत्प्लुत्य वृको हन्यात् Ms.8.236. -3 To float; K.42. -4 To be fluctuating; K.296.
utplavaḥ उत्प्लवः A jump, leap, bound. -वा A boat.
utplavanam उत्प्लवनम् 1 Jumping or leaping up, springing upon. -2 Skimming off impure oil or ghee or any dirt floating upon a liquid by passing a blade of Kuśa grass over it.
utpluta उत्प्लुत a. Jumped up, upon or over; sprung upon suddenly.
upaplu उपप्लु 1 Ā. 1 To float, swim; यदुपप्लवते तल्लघु Sk. -2 To overwhelm, cover with; उपप्लुतमघौघेन Rām. -3 To assault violently, assail; to trouble, oppress, distress; पौलस्त्योपप्लुता हरिम् R.1.5,14.64; Ms.4.118. -4 To jump or spring upon. -5 To depart from. -Caus. To water.
upaplavaḥ उपप्लवः 1 Misfortune, evil, calamity, distress, adversity; अथ मदनवधूरुपप्लवान्तं ... परिपालयाम्बभूव Ku.4.46; जीवन्पुनः शश्वदुपप्लवेभ्यः प्रजाः पासि R.2.48; -2 (a) An unluky accident, injury, trouble; कच्चिन्न वाय्वादिरुपप्लवो वः R.5.6; Me.17. (b) An obstacle, impediment; तौ (अर्थकामौ) हि तत्त्वावबोधस्य दुरुच्छेदावुपप्लवौ Ki.11.2. -3 Oppression, harassing, troubling; उपप्लवाय लोकानां धूमकेतुरिवोत्थितः Ku. 2.32. -4 Danger, fear; see उपप्लविन् below. -5 Agitation, perturbation; इन्द्रिय˚ K.146. -6 A portent or natural phenomenon foreboding evil. -7 Particularly, an eclipse of the sun or moon; चन्द्रमिवोपप्लवान्मुक्तम् V.I.11. -8 N. of Rāhu, the ascending node, केतूपप्लवभौममन्दगतयः षष्ठे तृतीये शुभाः. -9 Anarchy. -1 N. of Śiva. -11 Doubt, scepticism (with Buddhists). -12 Loss, absence; मायया विभ्रमच्चित्तो न वेद स्मृत्युपप्लवात् Bhāg.1.84.25.
upaplavin उपप्लविन् a. One who has suffered a calamity, distressed, troubled; K.28. -2 Suffering oppression; नृपा इवोपप्लविनः परेभ्यः R.13.7.
upaplavyam उपप्लव्यम् N. of the capital of the Matsyas; Mb.
upapluta उपप्लुत p. p. 1 Violently attacked, beset, distressed, pained &c. -2 Harassed (by Rāhu), eclipsed. -3 Marked by prodigies. -4 Moistened, watered; ˚अक्ष, -नयन weeping; कामानुजेन सहसा त उपप्लुताक्षाः Bhāg.3.15.31. -5 Pressed, squeezed; उपप्लुतास्तत्क्षणशोचनीयतां च्युताधिकाराः सचिवा इवाययुः Ki.8.39. -ता Morbid sensibility of the uterus, a particular disease.
pariplu परिप्लु 1 Ā. 1 To swim, float. -2 To bathe, plunge into. -3 To jump, spring. -4 To deluge, inundate, flood. -5 To cover with. -6 To overwhelm. -7 To fly or hover about. -8 To revolve, move in a circle. -9 To go astray. -1 To hasten forward. -Caus. -1 To bathe, water. -2 To flood, deluge.
pariplava परिप्लव a. 1 Floating. -2 Shaking, trembling, oscillating, undulating, tremulous. -4 Unsteady, restless; मत्कुणाविव पुरा परिप्लवौ Śi.14.68; चञ्चलं चपलं तूर्णं पारिप्लवपरिप्लवे Ak. -वः 1 Inundation. -2 Immersing, wetting. -3 A boat. -4 Oppression, tyranny. -5 Floating, swimming.
paripluta परिप्लुत p. p. 1 Flooded, inundated. -2 Overwhelmed; as in शोक˚. -3 Wetted, bathed. -तम् A spring, jump. -ता Spirituous liquor. -ति f. Overabundance पुरभिदा गमितस्त्वमदृश्यतां त्रिनयनत्वपरिप्लुतिशङ्कया N.4.76.
paripluṣṭa परिप्लुष्ट Burnt, scorched, singed.
pariploṣaḥ परिप्लोषः Internal heat; Charaka.
paryāplāvaḥ पर्याप्लावः 1 Revolution -2 Encircling.
pāriplava पारिप्लव a. [परि-प्लु अच् स्वार्थे अण्] 1 Moving to and fro, rolling, shaking, unsteady, tremulous; ननन्द पारि- प्लवनेत्रया नृपः R.3.11. -2 Swimming, floating; R.13.3; पारिप्लवाः स्रोतसि निम्नगायाः 16.61. -3 Agitated, bewildered, disturbed or perplexed; हा हा दैव किमुप्तथैर्मम मनः पारिप्लवं धावति U.4.22. -वः A boat; पारिप्लवगताश्चापि देवतास्तत्र विष्ठिताः Rām.1.43.19. -वम् Restlessness, uneasiness; प्रतिष्ठामव्याजं व्रजतु मयि पारिप्लवधुरा Māl.4.3. -Comp. -दृष्टि, -नेत्र a. having tremulous eyes. -प्रभ a. spreading lustre. -मति a. fickle-minded.
pāriplāvyaḥ पारिप्लाव्यः A goose. -व्यम् 1 Perplexity, uneasiness, agitation. -2 Tremour, tremulousness.
pipluḥ पिप्लुः A mark, mole, freckle.
poplūyamāna पोप्लूयमान a. Floating often and often; (पुष्पसंचयान्) पोप्लूयमानानपरान् पश्य त्वं तनुमध्यमे Rām.2.95.1.
pratiplavanam प्रतिप्लवनम् Leaping back.
viplu विप्लु 1 Ā. 1 To float about, swing to and fro, fluctuate. -2 To drift (in the sea), be scattered; यदि न स्यान्नरपतिः सम्यङ्नेता ततः प्रजा । अकर्णधारा जलधौ विप्लवेतेह नौरिव ॥ H.3.2; Pt.3.72. -3 To be confused (as mind). -4 To be ruined or destroyed. -5 To fail. -Caus. 1 To cause to float or swim. -2 To divulge, spread abraod. -3 To teach (to unworthy persons); शरणागतं परित्यज्य वेदं विप्लाव्य च द्विजः Ms.11.198. -4 To cause to fail, spoil, mar; गुणानामायथातथ्यादर्थं विप्लावयन्ति ये Śi.2.56. -5 To confound, bewilder.
viplava विप्लव a. Perflexed, confused; मुमूर्षूणां हि मन्दात्मन्ननु स्युर्विप्लवा गिरः Bhāg.7.8.12. -वः 1 Floating or drifting about, floating in different directions. -2 Opposition, contrariety. -3 Confusion, perplexity. -4 Tumult, scuffle, affray; M.1. -5 Devastation, predatory warfare, danger from an enemy. -6 Extortion. -7 Loss, destruction; सत्त्वविप्लवात् R.8.41; तद्वाग्विसर्गो जनताघविप्लवः Bhāg.1.5. 11. -8 Adverseness, evil turn; अथवा मम भाग्यविल्पवात् R. 8.47. -9 The rust on a mirror (dust accumulating on its surface); अपवर्जितविप्लवे शुचौ ... मतिरादर्श इवाभिदृश्यते Ki.2.26 (where विप्लव also means प्रमाणबाधः 'absence of reasoning'). -1 Transgression, violation; गुरूपदिष्टेन रिपौ सुते$पि वा निहन्ति दण्डेन स धर्मविप्लवम् Ki.1.13. -11 An evil, a calamity. -12 Sin, wickedness, sinfulness. -13 Terrifying an enemy by shouts and gestures. -14 Divulging, making public. -15 Profanation of the Veda by unseasonable study. -16 Shipwreck.
viplāvaḥ विप्लावः 1 Deluging, inundating. -2 Causing tumult. -3 A horse's canter or gallop.
viplāvanam विप्लावनम् Abusing, reviling.
viplāvita विप्लावित p. p. Confounded, ruined.
vipluta विप्लुत p. p. 1 Drifted about. -2 Drowned, submerged, deluged, overflowed. -3 Confounded, disturbed. -4 Ravaged, devastated. -5 Lost, disappeared. -6 Disgraced, dishonoured. -7 Ruined. -8 Obscured, disfigured. -9 Depraved, dissolute, profligate, guilty of lewdness; विप्लुतौ शूद्रवद्दण्ड्यौ Ms.8.377. -1 Contrary, reverse. -11 Turning out false; नैते वाचं विप्लुतां व्याहरन्ति U.4.18. -12 Agitated, troubled; भयविप्लुतमीक्षितो नभःस्थै- र्जगतीं ग्राह इवापगां जगाहे Ki.13.24. -तम् Springing, bursting asunder. -Comp. -नेत्र, -लोचन a. having the eyes suffused (with tears, joy etc.). -भाषिन् a. speaking confusedly, stammering.
viplutiḥ विप्लुतिः Destruction, ruin, loss.
vipluṣ विप्लुष् See विप्रुष्.
samabhipluta समभिप्लुत p. p. 1 Inundated. -2 Eclipsed. -3 (With रजसा) Covered with menstrual excretions; तां विवर्जयतस्तस्य रजसा समभिप्लुताम् Ms.4.42.
samāpla समाप्ल (प्ला) वः Bathing, bath; नदीशतानां पञ्चानां मध्ये चक्रे समाप्लवम् Mb.3.114.2.
samāpluta समाप्लुत p. p. 1 Flooded, inundated. -2 Filled with. -3 Bathed in.
saṃplu संप्लु 1 Ā. 1 To fluctuate, float about; दृष्टे जने प्रेयसि दुःसहान स्रोतःसहस्रैरिव संप्लवन्तै U.4.8. -2 To flow together, meet (as waters); यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः संप्लुतोदके Bg.2.46. -Caus. To inundate, flood over, submerge, deluge.
saṃplavaḥ संप्लवः 1 Submersion, inundation. -2 Surge. -3 Flood; संपूर्ण योजनशतं क्षिप्तः सागरसंप्लवे Rām.1.3.18; रूपं च जगृहे मात्स्यं चाक्षुषोदधिसंप्लवे Bhāg.1.3.15. -4 Falling into ruin; नूनमेता न पश्यन्ति कस्यचिद्रोगसंप्लवम् Bu. Ch.4.57; विदधे निदाध इव सत्त्वसंप्लवः Ki.12.51. -5 Subversion. -6 Misarrangement; Kau. A.2.1. -7 Heap, multitude; शारदाभ्रैरिवाकीर्णं गगनं हंससंप्लवैः Rām. 1.43.23. -8 Falling down, shower; विद्युत्स्तनितवर्षेषु महोल्कानां च संप्लवे Ms.4.13. -9 Tumult; चित्रकर्म इवाभाति सर्वेषां रणसंप्लवः Rām.7.28.41. -1 End, close of.
saṃplutiḥ संप्लुतिः f. Jumping up on an elephant from behind; Mātaṅga L.12.26.
sopaplava सोपप्लव a. 1 Afflicted with any great calamity. -2 Invaded or overrun by enemies. -3 Eclipsed (as the sun or moon); ब्रह्मघोषैर्विरहितः पर्वतो$यं न शोभते । रजसा तमसा चैव सोमः सोपप्लवो यथा ॥ Mb.12.328.13.
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121 results
     
akṣa akṣ-á, m. die for playing, pl. dice, x. 34, 2. 4. 6. 7. 13 [perhaps eye = spot]. [222]
aṅgiras Áṅgiras, m. pl. name of a group of ancestors, v. 11, 6; x. 14, 3. 4. 5. 6; s., as an epithet of Agni, i. 1, 6; v. 11, 6 [Gk. ἄγγελο-ς ‘messenger’].
ajāvi ajāví, m. pl. Dv. cd. goats and sheep, x. 90, 10 [ajá + ávi].
atharvan Áthar-van, m. pl. name of a group of ancient priests, x. 14, 6.
adri á-dri, m. rock, i. 85, 5 [not splitting: dṛ pierce].
andhas ándh-as, n. Soma plant; juice, i. 85, 6 [Gk. ἄνθ-ος ‘blossom’].
anna án-na, n. food, ii. 35, 5. 7. 10. 11. 14; pl. 12; x. 90, 2 [pp. of ad eat].
ap áp, f. water, pl. N. á̄pas, ii. 35, 3. 4; vii. 49, 1. 22. 3. 4; 103, 2; A. apás, v. 83, 6; inst. adbhís, x. 14, 9; G. apá̄m, i. 85, 9; ii. 12, 7; 35, 1. 2. 3. 7. 9. 11. 13. 14; vii. 103, 4; x. 168, 3; L. apsú, ii. 35, 4. 5. 7. 8; vii. 103, 5 [Av. ap ‘water’].
abhiṣṭidyumna abhiṣṭí-dyumna, a. (Bv.) splendid in help, iv. 51, 7 [dyumná, n. splendour].
avasāna ava-sá̄na, n. resting place, x. 14, 9 [unbinding, giving rest: áva + sā = si tie].
as as be, II. P.: pr. 2. ási, i. 1, 4; ii. 12, 15; 33, 3; 3. ásti, ii. 12, 5; 33, 7. 10; vii. 71, 4; 86, 6; x. 34, 14; pl. 1. smási, vi. 54, 9; viii. 48, 9; 3. sánti, i. 85, 12; x. 90, 16; ipv. ástu, v. 11, 5; vii. 86, 82; x. 15, 2; sántu, vii. 63, 5; op. syá̄ma, iii. 59, 3; iv. 50, 6; 51, 10. 11; viii. 48, 12. 13; ipf. 3. á̄s, x. 129, 3; āsīt, x. 34, 2; 90, 6. 12. 14; 129, 14. 22. 32. 4. 52; á̄san, x. 90, 15. 16; 129, 52; pf. āsa, vii. 86, 4; x. 129, 2; á̄sur, iv. 51, 7. ápi- be or remain in (lc.); syāma pári be around, celebrate, 2. pl. stha, vii. 103, 7. prá- be pre-eminent, ipv. astu, iii. 59, 2.
asūyant asūyánt, pr. pt. displeased, resentful, x. 135, 2.
asma asmá, prn. stem of 1. prs. pl.; A. asmá̄n us, viii. 48, 3. 11; x. 15, 5; D. asmábhyàm to us, i. 85, 12; x. 14, 12; asmé to us, i. 160, 5; ii. 33, 12; Ab. asmád from us, ii. 33, 2; vii. 71, 1. 2; than us, ii. 33, 11; G. asmá̄kam of us, vi. 54, 6; L. asmé in or on us, ii. 35, 4; iv. 50, 10. 11; viii. 48, 10; asmá̄su on us,iv. 51, 10.
ah ah say: pf. 3. pl. āhur, ii. 12, 5; v. 11, 6; vii. 86, 3; x. 34, 4.
ābhis ā-bhis, I. pl. f. of prn. root a, with these, v. 83, 1.
āsām ā-sām, gen. pl. f. of the prn. root a, of them, iv. 51, 6.
āhita á̄-hita, pp. placed in (lc.), viii. 29, 4; x. 14, 16; with sám placed upon (lc.), x. 135, 4 [dhā put].
idh idh kindle, VII. Ā. inddhé. sám- kindle, 3. pl. indhate, ii. 35, 11; pf. īdhiré, v. 11, 2.
indu índ-u, m. drop, Soma, viii. 48, 2. 4. 8. 12. 13. 15; pl. iv. 50, 10; viii. 48, 5.
ima imá, dem. prn. stem, this, A. m. imám, ii. 35, 2; x. 14, 4; 15, 6; N. m. pl. imé, vi. 54, 2; viii. 48, 5; n. imá̄, ii. 12, 3; x. 15, 4; imá̄ni, vii. 61, 6; 71, 6 [111]. [227]
īḷita īḷ-itá, pp. implored, x. 15, 12 [īḍ praise].
ubhaya ubhá-ya, a. pl. both, ii. 12, 8.
uṣas Uṣ-ás, f. Dawn, ii. 12, 7; vii. 63, 3; 71, 1; x. 127, 3. 7; pl. iv. 51, 1-9; 11 [1. vas shine; cp. Gk. ἠώς (forāus-ōs), Lat. aur-ōr-a].
rkvan ṛ́k-van, m. pl. name of a group of ancestors, x. 14, 3 [singing from arc sing].
ṛbhu Ṛbh-ú, m. pl. name of three divine artificers, iv. 51, 6 [skilful, from rabh take in hand].
eta e-tá, dem. prn. stem, this: n. etád, iii. 59, 5; acc. m. etám this, x. 14, 9; him, [229] x. 34, 4; inst. eténa, v. 83, 6; n. pl. etá̄, x. 15, 14; m. pl. eté these, vii. 103, 9 [prn. root e + tá this].
ena e-na, enc. prn. stem of 3. prs. he, she, it: acc. enam him, ii. 12, 5; iii. 59, 3; vii. 103, 2; x. 14, 11; 34, 4; 168, 2; acc. pl. enān them, vii. 103, 3; gen. du. enos of them two, vii. 103, 4 [prn. root e].
ebhis e-bhis, I. pl. with them, x. 34, 5 [prn. root a].
ebhyas e-bhyas, D. pl. to them, x. 34, 8 [prn. root a].
eṣām e-ṣām, G. pl. m. of them, i. 85, 3; vii. 103, 52. 6; x. 34, 5. 8; 129, 5 [prn. root a].
okas Ók-as, n. abode, iv. 50, 8 [wonted place: uc be wont].
oṣadhī óṣa-dhī, f. plant, v. 83, 1. 4. 5. 10; vii. 61, 3 [áv(a)s-a nurture (av further) + dhī holding, from dhāhold].
ka Ká, inter. prn. who? i. 35, 7; x. 129, 6; 135, 52; G. kásya, x. 129, 1; du. káu, x. 90, 112; with cid: I. kéna cid by any, x. 15, 6; pl. N. ké cid some, viii. 103, 8.
kavya kav-yá, a. wise, x. 15, 9; m. pl. name of a group of Fathers, x. 14, 3.
kṛ kṛ make, V. kṛṇóti, kṛṇuté, iv. 50, 9; v. 83, 3; = hold, x. 34, 12; = raise [230] (voice), 8; pr. sb. 3. s. kṛṇávat, viii. 48, 3; 3. pl. kṛṇávan, iv. 51, 1; vii. 63, 4; 2. pl. Ā. kṛṇúdhvam, x. 34, 14; ipv. kṛṇuhí, x. 135, 3; pf. cakṛmá, vii. 86, 5; x. 15, 4; cakrúr, vii. 63, 5; Ā. cakré, x. 90, 8; cakrá̄te, viii. 29, 9; cakriré, i. 85, 1. 2. 7. 10; ft. kariṣyási, i. 1, 6; root ao. ákar, ii. 12, 4; iii. 59. 9; v. 83, 10; ákran, x. 14, 9; 3. pl. Ā. ákrata, vii. 103, 8; x. 34, 5; sb. kárati, ii. 35, 1; kárāma, x. 15, 6; ao. ps. ákāri, vii. 61, 7 [cp. Gk. κραίνω ‘accomplish’. Lat. creò ‘create’]. úpa á̄- drive up for: rt. ao. ákaram, x. 127, 8. āvís- make manifest, v. 83, 3. nís- turn out: rt. ao. askṛta, x. 127, 3.
kṛṣṭi kṛṣ-ṭí, f. pl. people, i. 160, 5; iii. 59, 1 [tillage, settlement: kṛṣ till].
krīḍ krīḍ play, I. krīḷa, x. 34, 8.
gabhīra gabh-īrá, a. profound, x. 129, 1 [gabh = gāh plunge].
gam gam go, I. gáchati, -te to (acc.), i. 1, 4; x. 14, 13; root ao. 3. pl. ágman, vii. 71, 6; 1. pl. áganma, viii. 48, 3. 11 [Gk. βαίνω, Lat. venio, Eng. come]. á̄- come, i. 1, 5; 85, 11; root ao. ipv. gahí, vi. 54, 7; x. 14, 5; 2. pl. gatá, x. 15, 4; 3. gámantu, x. 15, 52. 11; go to (acc.), x. 168, 2. sám- go with (inst.), a ao. op., vi. 54, 2; unite with (inst.), x. 14, 8.
gahana gáh-ana, a. unfathomable, x. 129, 1 [gāh plunge].
gṛha gṛh-á, m. house, pl., vi. 54, 2 [grah receive, contain].
go gó, f. cow, pl. N. gá̄vas, i. 154, 6; ii. 12, 7; viii. 48, 5 (= straps); x 34, 13; 90. 10; A. gá̄s, ii. 12, 3; vi. 54, 5. 6; 127, 8; G. gávām, iv. 51, 8; vii. 103, 2. 10 [Av. N. gau-s, Gk. βον̂-ς, Lat. bo-s (bov-), OI.bō, Eng. cow].
grāma grá̄ma, m. village, x. 127, 5; pl. = clans, ii. 12, 7.
ghas ghas eat: root ao. 3. pl. ákṣan, x. 15, 12 [= á-gh(a)s-an].
ghṛtanirṇij ghṛtá-nirṇij, a. (Bv.) having a garment of ghee, ii. 35, 4 [nir-níj, f. splendour from nís out + nijwash].
cakṣ cakṣ, see II. cáṣṭe [reduplicated form of kas = kāś shine: = ca-k(a)s]. [232] abhí- regard, iii. 59, 1; vii. 61, 1. prá-, cs. cakṣáya illumine, viii. 48, 6. ví- reveal, x. 34, 13.
citrabhānu citrá-bhānu, a. (Bv.) of brilliant splendour, i. 35, 4; 85, 11.
chand Chand seem, II. P. chántti; pf. cachánda, vii. 63, 3; seem good, please, 3. s. s ao. áchān, x. 34, 1.
jana ján-a, m. mankind, ii. 35, 15; iii. 59, 9; iv. 51, 1; v. 11, 1; pl. men, people, i. 35, 5; ii. 12, 1-14; iii. 59, 1. 8; iv. 51, 11; vii. 49, 3; 61, 5; 63, 2. 4; x. 14, 1 [jan generate; cp. Lat. gen-us, Gk. γέν-ος, Eng.kin].
ta Tá, dem. prn., that; he, she, it; n. tád that, i. 1, 6; 35, 6; 154, 2. 5. 6; ii. 35, 11. 15; iv. 51, 10. 11; vii. 86, 2. 3. 4; 103, 5. 7; x. 34, 12. 13; 90, 12; 129, 2. 3. 4; 135, 5; m. A. tám him, ii. 33, 13; 35, 3. 4; iv. 50, 1. 9; vi. 54, 4; that, x. 90, 7; 135, 4; I. téna with it, viii. 29, 4. 10; with him, x. 90, 7; I. f. táyāwith that, i. 85, 11; D. tásmai to him, iii. 59, 5; iv. 50, 82; x. 34, 12; for him, x. 135, 2; to that, viii. 48, 12. 13 (= as such); x. 168, 4; for that, viii. 48, 10; ab. tásmād from him, x. 90, 5. 8. 93. 103;than that, x. 129, 2; G. tásya of him, ii. 35, 9; iii. 59, 4; of that, viii. 48, 8; x. 15, 7; du. m. táu these two, x. 14, 12; f. té these two, i. 160, 1. 5; D. tá̄bhyām to those two, x. 14, 11; pl. N. m. té they, i. 85, 2. 7. 10; viii. 48, 5; x. 15, 3. 53. 12. 13; those, x. 15, 1; 90, 16; = as such, x. 15, 4. 7; f. tá̄s they,iv. 51, 8; those, iv. 51, 72. 9; vii. 49, 1. 2. 3. 4; n. tá̄ those, i. 154, 6; ii. 33, 13; x. 14, 16; tá̄ni those, i. 85, 12; x. 90, 16; A. tá̄n those = that, x. 90, 8; I. tébhis with them, i. 35, 11; x. 15, 8. 14; f. tá̄bhiswith them, x. 168, 2; G. téṣām of them, x. 14, 6; L. tá̄su in them, ii. 33, 13.
tanū tan-ú̄, f. body, i. 85, 3; ii. 35, 13; iv. 51, 9; viii. 48, 9; x. 14, 8; 15, 14; 34, 6; self, vii. 86, 2. 5 (pl.) [tan stretch: cp. Lat. ten-u-i-s, Gk. ταν-ύ-, Eng. thin].
tṛp tṛp be pleased, IV. P. tṛpṇoti; cs. tarpáya satisfy, i. 85, 11 [cp. Gk. τέρπω].
tya tyá, dem. prn., n. tyád that, iv. 51, 1; pl. tyá̄ those, viii. 48, 11.
trikadruka trí-kadruka, m. pl. three Soma vats, x. 14, 16 [kadrú̄, f. Soma vessel].
triṣadhastha tri-ṣadhasthá, a. (Bv.) occupying three seats, iv. 50, 1; n. threefold abode, v. 11, 2 [sadhá-stha, n.gathering-place]. [235]
div div play, IV. dí̄vya, x. 34, 13.
drti dṛ́-ti, m. water-skin, v. 83, 7; vii. 103, 2 [dṛ split; cp. Gk. δέρω, Eng. tear].
dyo dyó, m. heaven, N. dyáus, iv. 51, 11; x. 90, 14; acc. dyá̄m, i. 35, 7. 9; 154, 4; ii. 12, 2. 12; iii. 59, 1; N. pl. f. dyá̄vas, i. 35, 6 [Gk. Ζεύς, Ζη̂ν, Lat. diem].
dha 1. dhá put, III. dádhāti, v. 83, 1; supply with (inst.), ii. 35, 12; bestow, ipv. dhehí, x. 14, 11; dhattá, i. 85, 12; ii. 12, 5; x. 15, 7; dadhāta, x. 15, 4. [237] 7; dadhātana, x. 15, 11; dhattá̄m, iv. 51, 11; dadhantu, vii. 63, 6; perform, ipf. dhatta, i. 85, 9; bestow, s ao. sb. dhāsathas, i. 160, 5; establish,pf. dadhé, x. 129, 7; ds. desire to bestow, didhiṣanti, ii. 35, 5; support, dídhiṣāmi, ii. 35, 12 [Gk. τἰθημι]. ádhi- put on (acc.): pf. dadhire, i. 85, 2; ao. ádhita, x. 127, 1. á̄- deposit, root ao. sb. dhās, v. 83, 7. ní- deposit, root ao. dhātam, vii. 71, 5; ps. ao. ádhāyi, viii. 48, 10. pári- put around, vi. 54, 10. prá- put from (ab.) into (lc.), vii. 61, 3. ví- impose: pf. dadhur, iv. 51, 6; divide, ipf. ádadhur, x. 90, 11. purás- place at the head, appoint Purohita: pf. dadhire, iv. 50, 1.
navagva Náva-gv-a, m. an ancient priest, iv. 51, 4; pl. a family of ancient priests, x. 14, 6 [having nine cows: gu = gó].
nah nah bind, IV. náhya. sám- knit together: irr. pf. 2. pl. anāha, viii. 48, 5.
nādhamāna ná̄dh-amāna, pr. pt. Ā. seeking aid, suppliant, ii. 12, 6; 33, 6.
niṣkṛta niṣ-kṛtá, n. appointed place, x. 34, 5 [pp. arranged: nís out + kṛ make].
nī lead, I. náya; 2. pl. ipv., x. 34, 4. sám- conjoin with (inst.), vi. 54, 1.
nud nud push, VI. nudá; pf. 3. pl. Ā. nu-nudre, i. 85, 10. 11. prá- push away: pf. vii. 86, 1.
nr nṛ́, m. man, pl. N. náras, i. 85, 8; 154, 5; v. 11, 2. 4; vii. 103, 9 [Gk. ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός].
pati pát-i, m. lord, pl. N. pátayas, iv. 50, 6; 51, 10; viii. 48, 13 [Gk. πόσι-ς].
paridhi pari-dhí, m. pl. sticks enclosing the altar, x. 90, 15 [pári round + dhi reduced form of dhā put].
parivatsariṇa parivatsar-Íṇa, a. yearly, vii. 10, 8 [pári- + vatsará, m. complete year].
paśutṛp paśu-tṛ́p, a. cattle-stealing, vii. 86, 5 [tṛp be pleased with].
pitr pi-tṛ́, m. father, i. 1, 9; 160, 22. 3; ii. 33, 1. 12. 13; iv. 50, 6; v. 83, 6; vii. 103, 3; viii. 48, 4; x. 14, 5. 6; 34, 4; 135, 1; pl. fathers, ancestors, viii. 48, 12. 13; x. 14, 2. 4. 7. 8. 9; 15, 1-13 [Gk. πατήρ, Lat.pater, Go. fadar].
purāṇa purā-ṇá, a., f. í̄, ancient, iv. 51, 6; m. pl. ancients, x. 135, 1. 2 [purá̄ formerly].
purutrā puru-trá̄, adv. in many places, x. 127, 1; in many ways, vii. 103, 6.
purohita puró-hita, pp. placed in front, m. domestic priest, i. 1, 1; v. 11, 2 [purás + hitá, pp. of dhā put].
puṣṭa puṣ-ṭá, n. (pl.) earnings, ii. 12, 4 [pp. of puṣ thrive].
prajā pra-já̄, f. offspring, ii. 33, 1; pl. progeny, ii. 35, 8; = men, v. 83, 10 [cp. Lat. pro-gen-ies].
pratikāmam prati-kāmám, adv. at pleasure, x. 15, 8 [ká̄ma desire].
pratidīvan prati-dí̄van, m. adversary at play, x. 34, 6 [div play].
prayasvant práyas-vant, a. offering oblations, iii. 59, 2 [práy-as enjoyment from prī please].
pravāteja pravāte-já, a. born in a windy place, x. 34, 1 [pra-vātá + ja = jan].
priya priy-á, a. dear, i. 85, 7; 154, 5; ii. 12, 15; viii. 48, 14; x. 15, 5 [prī please].
barhiṣya barhiṣ-yà, a. placed on the sacrificial grass, x. 15, 5 [barhís].
bṛhant bṛh-ánt, a. lofty, i. 35, 4; v. 11, 1; vii. 61, 3; 86, 1; x. 34, 1; ample, i. 160, 5; n. the great world, x. 14, 16 [pr. pt. of bṛh make big].
brū brū speak, II. bravīti, i. 35, 6; sb. bravat, vi. 54, 1. 2; tell, op. x. 135, 5. [242] úpa-, Ā. implore, iv. 51, 11.
bharata Bhar-atá, m. pl. name of a tribe, v. 11, 1.
bhid bhid split, VII. bhinátti [Lat. find-o]. ví- split open, i. 85, 10.
bhrgu Bhṛ́g-u, m. pl. a family of ancient priests, x. 14, 6.
mandrajihva mandrá-jihva, a. (Bv.) pleasant-tongued, iv. 50, 1.
marut Mar-út, m. pl. the storm gods, i. 85, 1. 4-6. 8. 10. 12; ii. 33, 1. 13; v. 83, 6.
mahiman mah-i-mán, m. greatness, i. 85, 2; ii. 35, 9; iii. 59, 7; vii. 86, 1; x. 90, 3. 16; 168, 1; power, x. 129, 3; pl. powers, x. 129, 5.
ya Yá, rel. prn. who, which, that: N. yás, i. 35, 6; 154, 12. 3. 4; 160, 4; ii. 12, 1-7. 9-15; 33, 5. 7; iii. 59, 2. 7; iv. 50, 1. 7. 9; vi. 54, 1. 2. 4; vii. 61, 1; 63, 1. 3; vii. 71, 4; 86, 1; viii. 48, 102. 12; x. 14, 5; 34, 12; 129, 7; f. yá̄, iv. 50, 3; n. yád, i. 1, 6; ii. 35, 15; vii. 61, 2; 63, 2; 103, 5. 7; x. 15, 6; 90, 23. 12; 129, 1. 3. 4; 135, 7; with kíṃ ca whatever, v. 83, 9; A. yám, i. 1, 4; ii. 12, 5. 7. 9; 35, 11; viii. 48, 1; x. 135, 3. 4; I. yéna, i. 160, 5; ii. 12, 4; iv. 51, 4; f. yáyā, iv. 51, 6; Ab. yásmād, ii. 12, 9; G. yásya, i. 154, 2; ii. 12, 1. 74. 142; 35, 7; v. 83, 43; vii. 61, 2; x. 34, 4; f. yásyās, x. 127, 4; L. yásmin, iv. 50, 8; x. 135, 1; du. yáu, x. 14, 11; pl. N. yé, i. 35, 11; 85, 1. 4; iv. 50, 2; x. 14, 3. 10; 15, 1-4. 8-10. 132. 142; 90, 7. 8; with ké whatever, x. 90, 10; f. yá̄s, vii. 49, 1. 2. 3; n. yá̄ni, ii. 33, 13; yá̄, i. 85, 12; ii. 33, 183; iv. 50, 9; vii. 86, 5; A. m. yá̄n, x. 14, 3; 15, 132; G. f. yá̄sām, vii. 49, 3; L. f. yá̄su, iv. 51, 7; vii. 49, 44; 61, 5.
yūyam yūy-ám, prs. prn. pl. N. you, iv. 51, 5; vii. 61, 7; 63, 6; 71, 6; 86, 8 [for yūṣ-ám, Av. yūš, yūšem, Go.yūs].
rā give, II. rá̄ti; 2. ind. rāsi = ipv., ii. [246] 33, 12; III. ipv. 2. pl. rarīdhvam, v. 83, 6.
rudra Rud-rá, m. name of a god, i. 85, i; ii. 33, 1-9. 11-13. 15; pl. = sons of Rudra, the Maruts, i. 85, 2 [rud cry, howl].
retodhā reto-dhá̄, m. impregnator, x. 129, 5 [ré-tas seed + dhā placing].
lakṣa Lak-ṣá, n. stake (at play), ii. 12, 4 [token, mark: lag attach].
loka lok-á, m. place, x. 14, 9; world, x. 90, 14 [bright space = rok-á light; cp. Gk. λευκό-ς ‘white’, Lat.lux, lūc-is].
vayam vay-ám, prs. prn. N. pl. we, i. 1, 7; ii. 12, 15; iii, 59, 3. 4; iv. 50, 6; 51, 11; vi. 54, 8. 9; vii. 86, 5; viii. 48, 9. 13. 14; x. 14, 6; 127, 4 [Av. vaem, Go. wais, Eng. we].
vaś vaś desire, II. váṣṭi, s. 1. váśmi, ii. 33, 13; pl. 1. uśmasi, i. 154, 6.
vas 1. vas shine, VI. P. ucháti: pf. pl. 2. ūsa, iv. 51, 4 [Av. usaiti ‘shines’]..
vasiṣṭha vás-iṣṭha, spv. a. best; m. name of a seer, vii. 86, 5; pl. a family of ancient seers, x. 15, 8 [vasshine].
vāstu vá̄s-tu, n. abode, i. 154, 6 [vas dwell: Gk. ϝάστυ]. ví, m. bird, i. 85, 7; viii. 29, 8; pl. N. váyas, x. 127, 4 [Av. vi-, Lat. avi-s].
vij víj, pl. stake at play, ii. 12, 5.
vid 1. vid know, II. P. vétti; pr. sb. know of (gen.), ii. 35, 2; ipv. viddhi, viii. 48, 8; pf. véda, viii. 29, 6; s. 2. véttha, x. 15, 13; 3. véda, x. 129, 62. 72; pl. 1. vidmá, x. 15, 13 [Gk. οɩ̂̓δα, ἴδμεν; AS. ic wāt, wē witon; Eng. I wot; Lat. vid-ēre ‘see’] .prá- know, x. 15, 13.
vibhīdaka vi-bhí̄daka, m. a nut used as a die for gambling, vii. 86, 6; x. 34, 1 [probably from ví-bhid split asunder, but the meaning here applied is obscure].
viśve devās víśve devá̄s, m. pl. the all-gods, vii. 49, 4; viii. 48, 1.
vīrudh vīrúdh, f. plant, ii. 35, 8 [ví asunder + rudh grow].
vṛkṣa vṛk-ṣá, m. tree, v. 83, 2; x. 127, 4; 135, 1 [vṛk simpler form of vraśc cut, fell].
vṛtra Vṛ-trá, m. name of a demon, i. 85, 9; n. foe (pl.), viii. 29, 4 [encompasser: vṛ cover].
śru śru, V. śṛṇóti, hear, ii. 33, 4; x. 15, 5; pl. 3. śṛṇvire = ps., x. 168, 4.
sajanya sájan-ya, a. belonging to his own people, iv. 50, 9 [sa-jana, kinsman].
sajoṣas sa-jóṣas, a. acting in harmony with (inst.), viii. 48, 15 [jóṣas, n. pleasure].
sadhastha sadhá-stha, n. gathering place, i. 154, 1. 3.
samānatas samāná-tas, adv. from the same place, iv. 51, 8.
sarvahut sarva-hút, a. (Tp.) completely offering, x. 90, 8. 9 [hu-t: hu sacrifice + determinative t].
sādhya Sādh-yá, m. pl. a group of divine beings, x. 90, 7. 16.
suprapāṇa su-prapāṇá, a. (Bv.) giving good drink; n. good drinking place, v. 83, 8.
soma só-ma, m. juice of the Soma plant, i. 85, 10; ii. 12, 14; iv. 50, 10; vii. 49, 4; viii. 48, 3. 42. 7-15; x. 14, 13; 34, 1; Soma sacrifice, vii. 103, 7 [su press: Av. haoma].
sthā sthā stand, I. tiṣṭha; pf. tasthur, i. 35, 5; rt. ao. s. 3. ásthāt, i. 35, 10; iv. 51, 1; pl. 3. ásthur, iv. 51, 2 [Av. hištaiti, Gk. ἵστημι, Lat. sisto].áti- extend beyond, x. 90, 1.ádhi- ascend, x. 135, 3; stand upon, i. 35, 6.ápa- start off, viii. 48, 11.abhí- overcome, iv. 50, 7.á̄- mount, i. 35, 4; mount to (acc.), i. 85, 7; occupy, ii. 35, 9.úd- arise, v. 11, 3. úpa- approach, rt. ao. asthita, x. 127, 7.pári- surround, pf. tasthur, ii. 35, 3. [255]. prá- step forth, x. 14, 14.
svasti sv-astí, f. n. well-being, i. 1, 9; 35, 1; ii. 33, 3; vii. 71, 6; 86, 8; x. 14, 11; inst. s. svastí for welfare,viii. 48, 8; pl. blessings, vii. 61, 7; 63, 6 [sú well + asti being].
hita hi-tá, pp. placed, v. 11, 6 [later form of dhita from dhā put; Gk. θετό-ς set].
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plākṣa a. relating or belonging to the wavy-leaved fig-tree (Ficus infectoria).
plakṣa m. wavy-leaved fig-tree (Fi cus infectoria): (a)-prasravana, -râga, m. N. of a locality where the Sarasvatî rises; -sravana, n. id.
plāśi m. sg. & pl. one of the intestines.
plāśuka a. [=pra½âsu-ka] rapidly growing up again.
plāta m. pat. son of Plati.
plava a. [√ plu] swimming, floating; inclined or sloping, towards (--°ree;); transient; m. n. boat, skiff; m. kind of duck (Kâran dava); swimming; bathing; overflowing of a river, flood; leaping, bound: -ga, m. (moving by leaps), frog; monkey: -½indra, m. Lord of the Monkeys, ep. of Hanumat.
plāva m. [√ plu] flowing over; leaping; -ana, n. ablution, bathing; filling to overflowing (for the purification of fluids); protracted pronunciation of a vowel; -ayi tri, m. ferryman; -ita, cs. pp.√ plu; n. in undation, deluge; -in, a. spreading, divulg ing (--°ree;); flowing from (--°ree;); -ya, fp. to be immersed in (in.).
plavaṃga a. moving by leaps, ep. of fire; m. monkey, ape; -gama, m. frog; ape, monkey.
plavana a. inclined or sloping to wards (--°ree;); n. swimming; bathing, in (--°ree;); flying; leaping, over (--°ree;); trotting (of horses).
plavavat ad. as with a boat; a. possessing a boat.
plavita (pp.) n. swimming or leap ing; -itri, m. one who leaps (with g. of distance).
pleṅkha m. swing.
plīhā f. spleen: -½udara, n. disease of the spleen; -½udarin, a. suffering from disease of the spleen.
plihan m. spleen.
ploṣa m. burning, combustion, con flagration; -ana, a. burning, scorching (--°ree;); -in, a. id. (--°ree;); m. scorcher (--°ree;).
plota m. or n. cloth, bandage, rag.
pluta pp.; n. leap, bound: -gati, f. moving by leaps.
pluti f. overflowing, inundation, flood; protracted pronunciation of a vowel, prolation; leap, bound.
abhipluta pp. overwhelmed, over flowed.
aśruparipluta pp. bathed in tears: -pûrna, pp. filled with tears; -pramâr- gana, n. wiping away of tears,=weeping; -plâvita, n. flood of tears; -lesa, m. tear-drop.
āplāva m. bath.
āplava m. bath; -na, n. bathing.
utplavana n. leaping; overflowing.
upaplava m. disaster, misfortune, visitation; portent; eclipse; -in, a. assailed by calamity; eclipsed.
piplu m. mole, freckle: -prakkhâd ana, a. concealing the mole.
potaplava m. boatman; -banig, m. voyaging merchant; -bha&ndot;ga, m. ship wreck; -½âdhâna, n. fry (of fish).
viplava m. destruction, ruin, loss; disaster, calamity, catastrophe, distress, mi sery (--°ree;, =of or by); tumult, affray, revolt; violation (of a woman); -plavin, a. disap pearing; -plâvaka, -plâvin, a.spreading abroad, publishing; -plush, f. drop (= -prush).
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plakṣa Is the name of the waved leaf fig-tree (Ficus infectoria), a large and beautiful tree with small white fruit. It is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and the Taittirīya Samhitā along with the Nyagrodha and the Parṇa. Its name is altered in the latter Saṃhitā to Prakṣa for the sake of an etymology. It is also mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas.
plakṣa dayyāṃpāti ('Descendant of Dyāmpati' or Dyāmpāta) was a contemporary' of Atyamhas Aruṇi in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa.
plakṣa prāsravaṇa Is the name of a locality, forty-four days’ journey from the spot where the Sarasvatī disappears. It is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmaṇa. In the latter text it is said that the middle of the earth is only a span (Prādeśa) to the north of it. In the Rigveda Sūtras3 the locality is called Plākṣa Prasravaṇa, and is apparently meant to designate the source of the Sarasvatī rather than the place of its reappearance.
plākṣi ‘Descendant of Plakṣa,’ is the name of a man mentioned in the Taittirīya Áraṇyaka and the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. In the same Prātiśākhya3 a Plākçāyana, or ‘ descendant of Plākṣa,’ is mentioned.
plāśuka Is found in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as an epithet of Vrīhi, ‘rice,’ in the sense of ‘shooting up rapidly.’
plata ‘Descendant of Plati,’ is the patronymic of Gaya in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa.
plati Is the name of a man, the father of the seer of two hymns of the Rigveda.
plava (‘Float’) denotes a ‘boat’ in the Rigveda and later.
plava Is the name of an aquatic bird mentioned in the list of- victims at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda Samhitās. Perhaps the ‘ pelican' is meant.
plāyogi ‘Descendant of Playoga,’ is the patronymic of Asanga in the Rigveda. According to the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, Asañga was a woman, but became a man. This version, repeated by Sāyaṇa in his commentary on the Rigveda, is a mere blunder based on the fact that an additional verse, tacked on to the hymn, contains the expression śaśvatl mrī, which has been taken to mean ‘his wife śaśvatī,’ instead of merely * every woman.’
pleṅkha Is a variant form of Preñkha, * swing,’ found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Taittirlya Brāhmaṇa.
plīhākarṇa As an epithet of cattle in the Yajurveda Samhitās probably denotes ‘having a spleen-shaped mark branded on the ear,’ not as Mahīdhara in his commentary on the Vājasaneyi Samhitā takes it, ‘having a disease called Piīhan in the ear.’
pluṣi Is the name of some noxious insect in the Rigveda. It is also included in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda Sainhitās, and is mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad. Possibly a species of ant may be meant.
anyataḥplakṣā ('with wave-leafed fig-trees on one side only ’) is the name of a lake in Kuruksetra according to the śatapatha Brāhmana,where it occurs in the story of Purū- ravas and Urvaśī. Pischel places it somewhere in Sirmor.
āsaṅga plāyogi Is a king who appears in a Dānastuti (‘Praise of Gifts’) in the Rigveda as a generous patron. Owing, however, to the addition of a curious phallic verse to the hymn, and its early misunderstanding, a legend was invented that he lost his manhood and became a woman, but by the intercession of Medhyātithi was transformed into a man, much to the delight of his wife, Saśvatī, whose existence is based on a misunderstanding of the phrase * every woman ’ (saśvatī nārī) in the added verse. Another misunderstanding of the Dānastuti4 gives him a son Svanad-ratha, really a mere epithet, and makes him a descendant of Yadu.
gaya plāta (* son of Plati ’) is referred to in the Rigveda, two hymns of which he clearly claims to have composed, and which are attributed to him in the Sarvānukramanī and the Aitareya Brahmana. In the Atharvaveda he appears with Asita and Kaśyapa as a half-mythical magician.
triplakṣa masc. plur., ‘The three fig-trees,’ is the name of the place where the Drsadvatī disappeared, near the Yamunā, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
pāriplava Cyclic,’ is a term applied to the Akhyana, or ‘tale,’ which is to be recited at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’), and to be repeated at intervals throughout the year. It is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana and in the Sūtras.
suplan sārñjaya Is the name of a prince of the Spηjayas who was taught the Dākṣāyaṇa sacrifice by Pratīdarśa, and took the name of Sahadeva as a token of his success.
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plakṣād brūyāt pramāyukān GG.4.7.23b.
plakṣaṃ dakṣiṇatas tathā GG.4.7.22b.
plakṣo (ca) yamadevataḥ GG.4.7.24b.
plakṣo medhena TS.7.4.12.1; KSA.4.1.
plāśibhyo vi vṛhāmi te RV.10.163.3d; AVś.20.96.19d; ApMB.1.17.3d. See nābhyā vi.
plāśir (TB. -śīr) vyaktaḥ śatadhāra (MS. -rā) utsaḥ VS.19.87c; MS.3.11.9c: 154.1; KS.38.3c; TB.2.6.4.4c.
plavo madgur matsyas te nadīpataye VS.24.34; MS.3.14.15: 175.10. See udro.
plīhākarṇaḥ śuṇṭhākarṇo 'ddhyālohakarṇas (MS. 'dhirūḍhākarṇas) te tvāṣṭrāḥ VS.24.4; MS.3.13.5: 169.9.
udaplutam iva dāru # AVś.10.4.3c,4c.
upaplavada # see upapravada.
tatrāplutāso divam utpatanti # RVKh.10.75.1b.
pariplavebhyaḥ svāhā # VS.22.29; TS.1.8.13.3; MS.3.12.10: 163.12; KS.15.3.
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"pl" has 1156 results.
     
aplutanon-protracted vowel confer, compare अतो रोरप्लुतादप्लुप्ते P.VI.1.113.
plakṣādia class of words headed by the word प्लक्ष to which the taddhita affix. affix अण् is added in the sense of 'a fruit' exempli gratia, for example प्लाक्षम्,ऐङ्गुदम् confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.3.164
plākṣāyaṇaan ancient Vedic scholar who presumably wrote a work on Vedic grammar (of the type of the Pratisakhya works).For a difference of view he is quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya: confer, compareन प्लाक्षिप्लाक्षायणयेाः T.Pr. IX.6.
plākṣian ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya.See प्लाक्षायण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The words प्लाक्षि and प्लाक्षायण as also प्लाक्षी ( feminine ) occur in the Mahabhasya also, but not in the Ganapatha of Panini.
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
plutiprolation or protraction of a vowel when it is possessed of three matras; confer, compare. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.31. See प्लुत a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अविद्वांसः प्रत्यभिवादे नाम्नो ये न प्लुतिं विदुः । कामं तेषु तु विप्रोष्य स्त्रीष्विवायमहं वदेत् M.Bh. on P.I.1 Ahnika 1
maṇḍūkaplutithe same as मण्डूकगति which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अथवा मण्डूकप्लुतयोधिकाराः MB.h. on P. V.2.4.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
a,pೱ,(ೱ)Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an elephants stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nominative case. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 23.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akālaka(1)not limited by any time-factors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. (2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatanī, parokṣā occurring in the ancient Prātiśākhya and grammar works. The term akalika is used by the writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti in connection with the grammar of Pāṇini. confer, compare “पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम्” Kās. on P. II.4.21 explained by the writer of the Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. as पूर्वाणि व्याकरणानि अद्यतनादिकालपरिभाषायुक्तानि तद्रहितम् ।
akṛtliterally non-krt: an affix applied to a root, but different from the conjugational affixes. confer, compare अकृत्सार्वधातुक्रयोर्दीर्ध: P. VII. 4.25.
akṛtnot established; said of a grammatical operation which has not taken place e. g. अकृतसंधिकार्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 2.100, W. 3.84, also कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.4.62.
akṛtakāridoing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the expression is used in connection with grammatical operations like ह्रस्वकरण or दीर्घकरण only in cases where it is necessary i, e. where already there is no hrasva or drgha confer, compare अकृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रमग्निवत् । तद्यथा । अग्निर्यददग्धं तद्दहति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.127. the rules of Grammar, like fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.
akṛtasaṃhitawords ending with a breathing or visarga which are not looked upon as placed immediately before the next word and hence which have no combination with the following vowel e. g. एष देवो अमर्त्यः R. V. 1X.8.1.
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
akṛtsna-akṛtsnāan epithet applied to the pronunciation of Veda words improperly which does not serve any useful purpose. confer, compare अकृत्स्ना अप्रयोजना इत्यर्थ: Uvaṭa on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 68.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
agnaukaravāṇinyāyaanalogy conveyed by the expression अग्नौ करवाणि implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( अग्नौकरण ), by virtue of the reply ' कुरु ' to his request made in the sentence अग्नौ करवाणि. confer, compare अग्नौकरवाणिन्यायेन भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on. II.2.24.
aghoṣaunvoiced, merely breathed; a term applied to the surd consonants, ś, ṣ s, and visarga which are uttered by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. confer, compare T. Pr.I.12; R.Pr.I.11. The term jit ( जित् ) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a class in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्; ऊष्माणश्च हवर्जम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.50.51.
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
ajādigaṇaclass of words headed by अज to which the feminine.affix अा is added, sometimes inspite of the affix ई being applicable by other rules such as जातेरस्त्रीविषयात्o P. IV. 1.63 and other rules in the section. e. अजा, एडका, त्रिफला, उष्णिहा, जेष्ठा, दंष्ट्रा. cf P. IV.1.4.
aḍactaddhita affix. affix अड applied in the sense of pitiable or poor to a word preceded by the word उप when the whole word after उप is dropped, e.g उपड् ( उपेन्द्रदत्त + अड् ) see. p. V. 3. 80.
aṇ(1)token term ( प्रत्याहार ) for all vowels and semivowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divisions as are caused by length, protraction accent or nasalization. cf अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.60;(2) token term for the vowels अ, इ and उ in all Pānini's rules except in the rule I.1.69 given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. e.g see ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोणः P.VI.3. 111, केऽणः P.VII.4.13. and अणोऽ प्रगृह्यस्य. P.VIII.4.57: (3) tad, affix. a ( अ ) prescribed generally in the various senses such as 'the offspring', 'dyed in,' 'belonging to' et cetera, and others except in cases where other specific affixes are prescribed cf प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् P. IV.1.83; (4) kṛ. affix a ( अ ), applied, in the sense of an agent, to a root with an antecedent word (उपपद) standing as its object. e. g. कुम्भकारः, see P.III.2.1: काण्डलावः, see P.III.3.12.
aṇādia term applied to all taddhita suffixes collectively as they begin with अण् confer, compare P.IV.1.83.
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
atasuc(अतस्)taddhita affix. affeminine. अतस् applied to the words दक्षिण, उत्तर, पर and अवर;exempli gratia, for exampleदक्षिणतो वसति; उत्तरत आगतः, परतो रमणीयम्, परस्ताद्रमणीयम् , अवरत आगतः अवरस्ताद्वसति. confer, compare P.V.2.28, 29.
atāmpersonal affix of the third person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Imperative (लोट्). confer, compare P. III.4.90.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
atiprasaṅgaover-application of a definition which is looked upon as a serious fault: e. g. अतिप्रसङ्गो व्रश्चा दिषु P.VI.1.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
atiriktasurplus, redundant: confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.IV.20; see Kaiyaṭa on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). V. 1.131.
ativyāptithe same as अतिप्रसङ्ग, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Extensive application with respect to a rule which applies to places where it should not apply. See Par. Śekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 85; also Padamañj. on Kāś. II.I.32.
atṛnkrt affix अत् applied to the root जॄ in the sense of past time. cf जीर्यतरेतृन् P. III.2.104.
atepersonal ending of present tense. 3rd per. plural substituted for झ ( अन्त ), the अ of झ ( अन्त ) being changed into ए and न being omitted: see झोन्त: (P.VII.1.3) अदभ्यस्तात् (P. VII. 1.4) and टित आत्मनेपदानां टेरे (P. III. 4.79).
atyantagaticomplete contact of the verbal activity ( क्रिया ); confer, compareP. V.4.4.
atyantasaṃyogaconstant contact; complete contact, uninterrupted contact. confer, compare अत्यन्तसंयोगे च P. II.1.29; II.3.5.
atyantāpahnavacomplete or absolute denial or concealment offacts; confer, compare परोक्षे लिट् । अत्यन्तापह्नवे च । 3.2.115, Vārt, 1.
athuckṛt (affix). affix अथु with उ accented, applied to roots marked by Pāṇini with the mute syllable टु in the sense of verbal activity: c. g. वेपथुः श्वयथुः, cf ट्वितोथुच् P.III.3.89.
adantaending with the short vowel अ; confer, compare P. VIII.4.7: a term applied to nouns of that kind, and roots of the tenth conjugation which are given with the letter अ at their end which is not looked upon as mute (इत्) c.g. कथ,गण. et cetera, and others Mark also the root पिच described by पतञ्जलि as अदन्त confer, compare पिबिरदन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56., Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 4.43.
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
adravyavācinnot expressive of any substance which forms a place of residence (of qualities and actions); confer, compare तथा व्याकरणे विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि ( P. II.4.13 ); इत्यद्रव्यवाचीति गम्यते । M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adviyoniliterally not made up of two elements, and hence, produced with a single effort, an expression used for simple vowels ( समानाक्षर ) such as अ, इ, उ, ऋ, लृ and simple consonants क्, ख्, ग् et cetera, and others as distinguished from diphthongs ( सन्ध्यक्षर ) such as ए, ऐ, ओ, औ and conjunct consonants क्व, ध्र , et cetera, and others which appear to have been termed द्वियोनि confer, compare अपृक्तमेकाक्षरमद्वियोनि यत् R.Pr.XI.3.
adhika(1)additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhisparśamincompletely pronounced, referring to a letter so pronouncedition
adhunātaddhita affix. affix applied to the pronoun इदम् which is changed into इ before the affix and then elided by P. VI.4.148, or changed into अ in which case धुना or अधुना could be looked upon as a taddhita affix. affix.
adhyāhārasupplying the necessary element. confer, compare गम्यमानार्थस्य वाक्यस्य स्वरूपेणोपादानं वाक्यस्याध्याहारः Kāś on P.VI.1. 139., cf also Nirukta of Yāska.I.1.13 and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Māheśvarasūtras. 1 Vārt 14.
adhyai,adhyainkṛt affixes substituted in the place of तुम् of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P. III.4.9.), e. g. पिबध्यैः when अध्यैन् is substituted, the initial vowel of the word becomes उदात्त. e. g. कर्मण्युपाचारध्यै ।
anaḍ(1)substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders exempli gratia, for example कुण्डोघ्नी (by applying ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; confer, compare P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि et cetera, and others before the affixes of the instrumental and the following cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative singular. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना confer, compare P. VII.1.93, 94.
anatidiṣṭanot resulting from any extended application or अतिदेश, confer, compare प्रकृत्याश्रयं अनतिदिष्टं भवति M.Bh. on IV. 1.151.
anatyantagatiabsence of the verbal activity in all ways or respects incomplete activity; exempli gratia, for example छिन्नकम् not completely cut, confer, compare अनत्यन्तगतौ क्तात् P. V.4.4.
anantara(1)immediate, contiguous अव्यवहित. confer, compare हलोनन्तराः संयोगः P.1. 1.7, also गतिरनन्तरः P. VI.2.49: confer, compare अनन्तरं संयोगः V. Pr.I.48. ; (2) nearest, as compared with others of the same type; confer, compare अथवा अनन्तरा या प्राप्तिः सा प्रतिषिध्यते M.Bh. on I.1.43; confer, compare Pari. Śek. अनन्तरस्य विधिर्वा भवति प्रतिषेधो वा, which means that a prescriptive or prohibitive rule applies to the nearest and not to the distant one.Par.Śek. 61,Cān. Par.30.
anabhidhānainability to express the meaning desiredition The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; confer, compare तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.
anabhinirvṛttathat which is not applied; literally(an operation or vidhi) which has not taken place or which has not been effective; confer, compare प्रसक्तस्य अनभिनिर्वृत्तस्य प्रतिषेधेन निवृत्तिः शक्या कर्तुं नानभिनिर्वृत्तस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.5; IV. 1.37. Cfeminine. also न चानभिनिर्वृत्ते बहिरङ्गे अन्तरङ्गं प्राप्नोति । तत्र निमित्तमेव बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गस्य M.Bh. on VI.4.22: VIII.3.15.
anabhyāsaa wording which does not contain any reduplicative syllable; an epithet applied to such roots as are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the perfect, as they are already reduplicated; confer, compare लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य P. VI.1.8.
anarthaka(1)without any signification;literally having no meaning of themselves, id est, that ispossessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); exempli gratia, for example अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, confer, compare अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.93; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.3: confer, compare also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).12 confer, compare also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1.
anavakāśahaving no occasion or scope of application; used in connection with a rule the whole of whose province of application is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule: confer, compare अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्तिrules which have no opportunity of taking effect( without setting aside other rules ) supersede those rules; M.Bh. on V.4.154, also Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari. 64.
anavagatasaṃskāra(a word) whose formation and accents have not been ekplained; confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.IV.1 ; V.2.
anavayavaliterally having no parts; impartite; without any concern with the individual component parts; application in totality; confer, compare सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु P. VI. 1.84 Vārt 5 and the Bhāṣya thereon; अस्मिञ् शास्त्रे अनवयवेन शास्त्रार्थसंप्रत्ययः स्यात् । a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possible; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.
anavasthitaundetermined, indefinite; See M.Bh. quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on अनवस्थान; cf also आर्धधातुकीयाः सामान्येन भवन्ति अनवस्थितेषु प्रत्ययेषु । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; III.1.4, VII.2.10, VII.4.9. The substitutes caused by an ārdhadhātuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the ārdhadhātuka affix before its actual application.
anākāṅkṣanot depending on another for the completion of its sense: confer, compare न यद्यनाकाङ्क्षे P. III.4.23, and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. thereon which explains अनाकाङक्षे as न विद्यते आकाङ्क्षा अपेक्षा यस्य तस्मिन्.
anādiṣṭanot replaced as a substitute; e. g. यः अनादिष्टादचः पूर्यस्तस्य निधिं प्रति स्थानिवद्भावः M.Bh. on I.1.57 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, III.2.3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2, and VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).10.
anānupūrvyasaṃhitāthat saṁhitā text which has an order of words in it, which is different from what obtains in the Pada-pāṭha, and which appears appropriate according to the sense intended in the passage. There are three places of such combinations of words which are not according to the succcession of words in the Pada-pāṭha, quoted in the R.Pr. शुनश्चिच्छेपं निदितं सहस्रात् Rk. Saṁ. V.2.7, नरा वा शंसं पूषणमगोह्यम् Rk. Saṁ. X. 64.3; नरा च शंसं दैव्यम् Rk. Saṁh. IX. 86. 42. confer, compare एता अनानुपूर्व्यसंहिताः । न ह्येतेषां त्रयाणां पदानुपूर्व्येण संहितास्ति Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.78.
aniṭ(1)not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhātuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has become customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily because they are possessed of an anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् et cetera, and others as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, et cetera, and others which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhāntakaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient grammarians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10.
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anipātyanot necessary to be specifically or implicitly stated, as it can be brought about or accomplished in the usual way: e. g. द्वन्द्वम् । लिङ्गमशिष्यं लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य । तत्र नपुंसकत्वमनिपात्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.1.15. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.2.27 and VI. 1.207.
aniyatapuṃskawhose sex-especially whether it is a male or a female-is not definitely known from its mere sight; small insects which are so. The term क्षुद्रा in P. IV.1.131 is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as क्षुद्रा नाम अनियतपुंस्का अङ्गहीना वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV.1.131.
anukramaṇaenumeration (in the right order as.opposed to व्युत्क्रम ); e. g. अथ किमर्थमुत्तरत्र एवमादि अनुक्रमणं क्रियते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.58; also on IV. 2.70; verbal forms of the root क्रम् with अनु occur in this sense very frequently; exempli gratia, for example यदित ऊर्ध्वं अनुक्रमिष्यामः; so also the past passive participle. अनुक्रान्तं occurs frequently in the same sense. अनुतन्त्र literally that which follows Tantra id est, that is Śāstra which means the original rules of a Śāstra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartṛhari;confer, compare सूत्राणां सानुतन्त्राणां भाष्याणां च प्रणेतृभिः Vāk. Pad. I.23, where the word अनुतन्त्र is explained as Vārtika by the commentator.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
anudāttetliterally one whose mute significatory letter is uttered with a grave accent: a term applied to a root characterized by an indicatory mute vowel accented grave, the chief feature of such a root being that it takes only the Ātmanepada affixes c. g. आस्ते, वस्ते, et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; such a root, in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix युच् e. g. वर्त्तनः, वर्धन: et cetera, and others provided the root begins with a consonant; confer, compare अनुदात्तेतश्र हलादेः P. III.2.149.
anunāsika(a letter)uttered through the nose and mouth both, as different from anusvāra which is uttered only through the nose. confer, compare मुखनासिकावचनोनुनासिकःP.I.1.8, and Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). thereon. The anunāsika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes ( id est, that is ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न्, म् ) as also vowels अ, इ, उ and semivowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only; ( exempli gratia, for example अँ, आँ, et cetera, and others or य्यँ, व्वँ, ल्लँ et cetera, and others in सय्यँन्ता, सव्वँत्सरः, सँल्लीनः et cetera, and others) The अनुनासिक or nasalized vowels are named रङ्गवर्ण and they are said to be consisting of three mātras. confer, compare अष्टौ आद्यानवसानेsप्रगृह्यान् आचार्या आहुरनुनासिकान् स्वरान् । तात्रिमात्रे शाकला दर्शयन्ति Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.63.64; confer, compare also अप्रग्रहाः समानाक्षराणि अनुनासिकानि एकेषाम् T. Pr XV.6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Sūtras, explains अनुनासिक as अनु पश्चात् नासिकास्थानं उच्चारणं एषां इत्यनुनासिकाः । पूर्वं मुखस्थानमुच्चारणं पश्चान्नासिकास्थानमुच्चारणमित्यर्थः । अनुग्रहणात्केवलनासिकास्थानोच्चारणस्य अनुस्वारस्य नेयं संज्ञा । and remarks further पूर्वाचार्यप्रसिद्धसंज्ञेयमन्वर्था । Com. by Tr. on Kat. I 1.13. Vowels which are uttered nasalized by Pāṇini in his works viz. सूत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ et cetera, and others are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. एध, स्पर्ध et cetera, and others confer, compare उपदेशेSजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2; confer, compare also प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः Kāś on I.3.2.
anupapadyamānāimpossibility of being explained; confer, compare तत्र सिद्धायां अनुपपद्यमानायां इतरथा उपपादयिषेत्, Nir II.2.
anupapannaimpossible to be explained, not consistent , confer, compare अथाप्यनुपपन्नार्था भवन्ति । ओषधे त्रायस्वैनम् । Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anulomain the natural order (opp. to प्रतिलोम ), confer, compare तेऽन्वक्षरसंधयोनुलोमाः in R.Pr.II.8. अनुलोमसंधि is a term applied to Saṁdhis with a vowel first and a consonant afterwards.
anuśāsanatraditional instruction; treatment of a topic; exempli gratia, for example अथ शब्दानुशासनम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.1 where the word is explained as अनुशिष्यन्ते संस्क्रियन्ते व्युत्पाद्यन्ते अनेन इति अनुशासनम्.
anuṣaṅga(1)literally attaching, affixing: augment, अनुषज्यते असौ अनुषङ्गः; (2) a term for the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare अव्यात्पूर्वे मस्जेरनुषङ्गसंयेगादिलोपार्थम् confer, compare P.I.1.47 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 and M.Bh. thereon; confer, compare थफान्तानां चानुषङ्गिणाम् Kat. IV. 1.13. The term अनुषङ्ग is defined in the kātantra grammar as व्यञ्जनान्नः अनुषङ्ग. The term is applied to the nasal consonant न् preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base: Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.1.12.
anusaṃhitaṃaccording to the Saṁhitā text of the Vedas: confer, compareएतानि नोहं गच्छन्ति अध्रिगो अनुसंहितम् Bhartṛihari's Mahābhāṣyadīpikā p. 9; confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.31, also XV.33, where the word is explained as संहिताक्रमेण by Uvaṭa.
anekaśeṣahaving no ekaśeṣa topic in it; a term applied to the Daiva Grammar which does not discuss the ekaśeṣa topic to which Pāṇini has devoted ten rules from I. 2.64 to 73.
anekārtha(1)possessed of a plural sense referring to many things. confer, compare अनेकार्थे युष्मदस्मदी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 2.98 also अनेकार्थाश्रयश्च पुनरेकशेषः P. I. 2.64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15; (2) possessed of many senses, confer, compare अनेकार्था अपि धातवो भवन्ति M. Bh, on P.III.2.48; also confer, compare यान्यनेकार्थानि एकशब्दानि तान्यतोनुक्रमिष्यामः Nirukta of Yāska.IV.1.
antaḥkāryaliterally interior operation; an operation inside a word in its formation-stage which naturally becomes antaraṅga as contrasted with an operation depending on two complete words after their formation which is looked upon as bahiraṅga.
antaḥpādaminside a word; explained as पदस्य मध्ये by उव्वटः confer, compare नुश्रान्तः पदेऽरेफे V.Pr.IV.2 confer, compare also अन्तःपदं विवृत्तयः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)II.13.
antaḥpādaminside the foot of a verse explained as पादस्य मध्ये by Uvvaṭa; confer, compare प्रकृत्याऽन्तः पादमव्यपरे. P.VI.I.113.
antaḥstha,antaḥsthāfeminine., also writen as अन्तस्थ, अन्तस्था feminine., semivowel; confer, compare अथान्तस्थाः । यिति रेिन लेिति वितिः; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.14-15: confer, compare चतस्रोन्तस्थाः explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शोषमणामन्तः मध्ये तिष्ठन्तीति अन्तस्थाः R.Pr.I.9, also पराश्चतन्नान्तस्थाः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 8. The ancient term appears to be अन्तस्थाः feminine. used in the Prātiśākhya works. The word अन्तःस्थानाम् occurs twice in the Mahābhāṣya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is अन्तःस्थ m. or अन्तःस्था feminine. The term अन्तस्थ or अन्तस्था is explained by the commentators on Kātantra as स्वस्य स्वस्य स्थानस्य अन्ते तिष्ठन्तीति ।
antarainterval between two phonetic elements when they are uttered one after another; hiatus, pause; वर्णान्तरं परमाणु, R.T. 34; also विरामो वर्णयोर्मध्येप्यणुकालोप्यसंयुते Vyāsaśikṣā; (2) space between two phonetic elements, e. g. स्वरान्तरे explained as स्वरयोरन्तरे (between two vowels) by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.confer, compare अन्तस्थान्तरोपलिङ्गी विभाषितगुणः Nir X.17.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgaparibhāṣāthe phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.
antaratamavery close or very cognate being characterized (l) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or (3) by possessing the same qualities, or (4) by possessing the same dimension ; cf स्थानेन्तरतमः P.I. I.50 and Kāś. thereon अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणुप्रमाणतः स्थानतः दण्डाग्रम् , अर्थतः वतण्डी चासौ युवतिश्च वातण्ड्ययुवतिः । गुणतः पाकः, त्यागः, रागः । प्रमाणतः अमुष्मै अमूभ्याम् ॥
antāmaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plur. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada, substituted for the original affix झ, e. g. एधन्ताम्.
antiaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural Paras, substituted for the original affix झि, e. g. कुर्वन्ति, भवन्ति.
antuaffix of the imperative 3rd person. plural Paras. substituted for the original affix झि. exempli gratia, for example भवन्तु, कुर्वन्तु
anteaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada substituted for the original affix झ, e g. एधन्ते वर्तन्ते.
anvarthakagiven in accordance with the sense; generally applied to a technical term which is found in accordance with the sense conveyed by the constituent parts of it; e. g. सर्वनामसंज्ञा, confer, compare महत्याः संज्ञायाः करणे एतत् प्रयोजनमन्वर्थसंज्ञा यथा विज्ञायेत Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.23.
ap(1)kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ et cetera, and others mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. exempli gratia, for example करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, confer, compare P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117.
apakarṣa(1)deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; confer, compare स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2; (2) drawing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; confer, compare "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः ।
apavṛktathat which has already happened or taken place; confer, compare न्याय्या त्वेषा भूतकालता । कुतः । आद्यपवर्गात् । आदि रत्रापवृक्तः । एष च नाम न्याय्यो भूतकालो यत्र किंचिदपवृक्तं दृश्यते M.Bh. on III.2.102
apitnot marked with the mute letter प्, A Sārvadhātuka affix not marked with mute प् is looked upon as marked with ड् and hence it prevents the guṇa or vṛddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be अ. e. g. कुरुतः तनुतः, कुर्वन्ति where no guṇa takes place for the vowel उ confer, compare सार्वधातुकमपित्. P.I.2.4.
aprayeāga(1)non-employment of a word in spite of the meaning being available: confer, compare संभावनेलमिति चेत्सिद्धाप्रयोगे P.III.3.154; (2) non-employment confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः a standard dictum of grammar not allowing superfluous words which is given in M.Bh. on P.I.1.4 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 16 and stated in Cāndra and other grammars as a Paribhāṣā.
aprayoginnot-found in actual use among the people although mentioned in the śāstra-texts; a mute indicatory letter or letters. confer, compare अप्रयोगी इत् Sāk. I.1.5 Hem I.1.37 Jain.I.2.3 and M.Bh. Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on III.8.31.
aprasaṅganon-application of a rule of grammar or of a technical term; confer, compare अन्यत्र सहवचनात् समुदाये संज्ञाsप्रसङ्गः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 11.
aprāptavikalpasame as अप्राप्तविभाषा one of the three kinds of optional application of a rule; confer, compare त्रिसंशयास्तु भवन्ति प्राप्ते अप्राप्ते उभयत्र चेति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 20; optional application of a rule prescribing an operation; eg; ऊर्णोतेर्विभाषा अनुपसर्गाद्वा I.3.43. हृक्रोरन्यतरस्याम् । अभिवादयति गुरुं माणवकेन पिता । अप्राप्तविकल्पत्वातृतीयैव Kāś. on I.1.53. विभाषा सपूर्वस्य । स्थूलपतिः स्थूलपत्नी । अप्राप्तविभाषेयमयरुसंयोगत्वात् ।
abāghakanot coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Paribhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
abhividhiinclusive extension to a particular limit; inclusive limit confer, compare आङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योः P.II.1.13, अङ् मर्यादाभिविध्योरिति वक्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4.89; (2) full or complete extension confer, compare अभिविधौ भाव इनुण् । अभिविधिरभिव्याप्तिः । सांराविणं वर्तते Kāś on P. III. 3.44.
abhedānvayarelation of non-difference as stated by the vaiyākaraṇas between an adjective and the substantive qualified by it. e, g. नीलमुत्पलम् is explained as नीलाभिन्नमुत्पलम्.
abhyamsubstitute for dative case and ablative case. plural affix भ्यस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् ; cf भसोsभ्यम् P. VII.1.30.
abhyastarepeated, redoubled word or wording or part of a word. The term अभ्यस्त is applied to the whole doubled expression in Pāṇini's grammar, confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् P. VI.1.6; (2) the six roots with जक्ष् placed at the head viz. जक्ष् , जागृ, दरिद्रा , चकास्, शास्, दीधी and वेवी which in fact are reduplicated forms of घस् , गृ, द्रा, कास् , शस् , धी and वी.
abhyāvṛttiinclination towards an action; tendency to do an act; confer, compare संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणनं कृत्वसुच् । P. V. 4.17 अभिमुखी प्रवृत्तिरभ्यावृत्तिः (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.4.19) is the explanation in the Mahābhāṣya,while पौनः पुन्यमभ्यावृत्तिः (Kāś. on V.4.17) is the one given in Kāśikā
abhyāsalit, doubling or reduplication technically the word refers to the first portion of the reduplication, which is called the reduplicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; confer, compare पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; confer, compare दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; confer, compare अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
amutaddhita affix. affix अम् applied in Vedic Literature to किम्, words ending in ए, indeclinables and the affixes तर and तम: e. g. प्रतरं नयामः प्रतरं वस्यः confer, compare अमु च च्छन्दसि P. V. 4. 12.
ambūkṛtautterance (of words) accompanied by water drops coming out of the mouth; a fault of utterance or pronunciation; मुखात् विप्रुषो निर्गमनम् . It is explained differently in the Rk. Prātiśākhya; confer, compare ओष्ठाभ्यां नद्धं अम्बूकृतम्म्वृ (Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2.) held tight between the lips which of course, is a fault of pronunciation; confer, compareग्रस्तं निरस्तमविलम्बितं निर्हतं अम्बूकृतं ध्मात मथो विकम्पितम्. MBh. I. 1. पस्पशाह्निक.
ayuja term applied to the odd feet of a stanza; confer, compare युग्मावष्टाक्षरौ पादवयुजौ द्वादशाक्षरौ । ना सतोबृहती नाम Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 39.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
arthavadgrahaṇaparibhāṣāa well known maxim or Paribha of grammarians fully stated as अर्थवद्ग्रहणे नानर्थकस्य ग्रहणम्, deduced from the phrase अर्थवद्ग्रहणात् frequently used by the Vārttikakāra. The Paribhāṣā lays down that 'when a combination of letters employed in Grammar, is possessed of a sense, it has to be taken as possessed of sense and not such an one as is devoid of sense.'
ardhakaa fault in the utterance of a vowel of the kind of abridgment of a long utterance. अर्धह्रस्वम् explained as ह्रस्वस्यार्धम्-half the utterance of the short vowel; confer, compare तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P. I.2.32. confer, compare also तस्यादिरुच्चैस्तरामुदात्तादनन्तरं यावदर्द्धे ह्रस्वस्य Tai. Pr. I.44.
alakṣaṇathat which is not a proper लक्षण i. e. Sūtra; a Sūtra which does not teach definitely; a Sūtra which cannot be properly applied being ambiguous in sense. cf व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदह्यादलक्षणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. I.
alākṣaṇika(1)not used in a secondary sense; (2) not accomplished by the regular application of a grammar rule: confer, compareनिपातनैः सह निर्देशादत्रापि किंचिदलाक्षणिकं कार्यमस्ति Kāś. on III.2.59.
alontyavidhian operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; confer, compare नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.65, confer, compare अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्यादेशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52.
alpāctarahaving a smaller number of vowels in it; such a word is generally placed first in a Dvandva compound; cf अल्पाच्तरम्, P.II.2.34. अल्पाच्तरे पूर्वं भवति प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ अपाच्तर is the same as अल्पाच्क used in the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी or अल्पस्वरतर in Kātantra (Kāt, II.5.12).
avakāśaoccasion; possibility of application; confer, compare इको गुणवृद्धी इत्यस्यावकाशः। चयनं चायकः लवनं लावकः इति । इहोभयं प्राप्नोति | मेद्यति । मार्ष्टीति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
avaśiṣṭaliṅga(v.1. अविशिष्टलिङ्ग)a term occurring in the liṅgānuśāsana meaning 'possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' id est, that is possessed of all genders.Under अवशिष्टलिङ्ग are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in ष् or न् , adjectives, words ending with kṛtya affixes id est, that is potential passive participles, pronouns, words ending with the affix अन in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words कति and युष्मद् (See पाणिनीय-लिङ्गानुशासन Sūtras 182-188).
avighātārthameant for not preventing the application (of a particular term) to others where it should apply. The word is frequently used in the Kāśikā; cf अजाद्यतष्टाप् । टकारः सामान्यग्रहणाविघातार्थः । Kāś. on P. IV.I.4, also see Kāś. on III.1. 133; III.2,67,73 IV.1.78.
avidhinon-application, non-prescription (अविधान); confer, compare अङ्गवृत्ते पुनर्वृत्तौ अविधिर्निष्ठितस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII.I.30; Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 92.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
avilambitaname of a fault in pronouncing a word where there is the absence of a proper connection of the breath with the place of utterance; 'अविलम्बितः वर्णान्तरासंभिन्नः' Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh I.1.1. There is the word अवलम्बित which is also used in the same sense; confer, compare ग्रस्तं निरस्तमवलम्बितं निर्हतम् ० M. Bh on I.1.1.
avṛddhaliterallynot beginning with the vowel अा, ऐ or औ; a word which has got no अा or ऐ, or औ as its first vowel, as for example ग्लुचुक, अहिचुम्बक et cetera, and others इरावती, नर्मदा यमुना etc; confer, compare प्राचामवृद्धात् फिन् बहुलम् P.IV.1.160. also अवृद्धाभ्यो नदीमानुषीभ्यस्तन्नामिकाभ्यः P.IV. 1.113.
avyayībhāvaname of a compound so called on account of the words forming the compound, being similar to indeclinables: e. g. निर्मक्षिकम् , अधिहरि, यथामति, यावज्जीवम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare अनव्ययं अव्ययं भवतीत्यव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.I.5. The peculiarity of the avyayībhāva compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोऽव्ययीभावः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.6.
avyavasthāabsence of proper disposal; absence of a proper method regarding the application of a rule: confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराडिति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.60 V. 5.
avyāptiinsufficient extension, as opposed to अतिव्याप्ति or over application; confer, compareसर्वौपाधिव्यभिचारार्थम् । अव्याप्त्यतिव्याप्त्यसंभवादिदोषपरिहारार्थम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on II.1.32.
aśmādia class of words headed by the word अश्मन् to which the taddhita affix र is applied in the four senses specified in P.IV.2.67 to 70; exempli gratia, for example अश्मरः, ऊषरम् , नगरम् , पामरः गह्वरम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.2.80.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
asamarthasamāsaa compound of two words, which ordinarily is inadmissible, one of the two words being more closely connected with a third word, but which takes place on the authority of usage, there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed; e. g. देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् । देवदत्तस्य दासभार्या । असूर्यंपश्यानि मुखानि, अश्राद्धभोजी ब्राह्मणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
asukthe augment अस् seen in Vedic Literature added to the nominative case. plural case-affix जस् following a nounbase ending in अ; e.g, जनासः, देवासः et cetera, and others cf आज्जसेरसुक् P. VII.1.50,51.
aspaṣṭaless in contact with the vocal organ than the semi-vowels; the term occurs in Hemacandra's Grammar (Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I.3.25) and is explained by the commentator as 'ईषत्स्पृष्टतरौ प्रत्यासत्तेर्यकारवकारौ. अस्पष्ट stands for the letters य and व which are substituted for the vowels ए ऐ and ओ औ when followed by a vowel; cf, also Śāk I.I.154.
ākamthe substitute आकम् for साम् of the genitive case plural after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद् e. g. युष्माकं, अस्माकम् confer, compare P.VII.1.33.
ākarṣādia class of words headed by the word आकर्ष to which the taddhita affix कन् (क) is applied in the sense of clever or expert; e. g. आकर्षकः, त्सरुकः, शकुनिकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. अाकर्षादिभ्यः कन् P.V.2.64.
ākāṅkṣāexpectancy with regard to sense-completion, generally in compounds such as साकाङ्क्ष, निराकाङ्क्ष et cetera, and others confer, compare अस्त्यस्मिन्नाकाङ्क्षा इत्यतः साकाङ्क्षम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.114.
ākāṅkṣyaa word for which there is expectancy of another word for the completion of sense.
ākṛtiliterally form; individual thing; confer, compare एकस्या अाकृतेश्चरितः प्रयोगो द्वितीयस्यास्तृतीयस्याश्च न भवति M.Bh on III.1.40 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6. The word is derived as आक्रियते सा आकृतिः and explained as संस्थानम्; confer, compare आक्रियते व्यज्यते अनया इति आकृतिः संस्थानमुच्यते Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on IV.1.63; (2) general form which, in a way, is equivalent to the generic notion or genus; confer, compare आकृत्युपदेशात्सिद्धम् । अवर्णाकृतिरुपदिष्टा सर्वमवर्णकुलं ग्रहीष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1; (3) notion of genus; cf also यत्तर्हि तद् भिन्नेष्वभिन्नं छिनेष्वच्छिन्नं सामान्यभूतं स शब्दः । नेत्याह । अाकृतिर्नाम सा. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya.1; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; confer, compare R. Prāt. XVI.56,57.
ākṣipta(1)taken as understood, being required to complete the sense; confer, compare क्विबपि अाक्षिप्तो भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 178;(2) a term used for the circumflex accent or स्वरित as it is uttered by a zig-zag motion of the organ in the mouth caused by the air producing sound; confer, compare आक्षेपो नाम तिर्यग्गमनं गात्राणां वायुनिमित्तं तेन य उच्यते स स्वरितः Uvaṭa on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
āgamaaugment, accrement, a word element which is added to the primitive or basic word during the process of the formation of a complete word or pada. The āgama is an adventitious word element and hence differs from ādeśa, the substitute which wholly takes the place of the original or ( आदेशिन् ). Out of the several āgamas mentioned by Pāṇini, those that are marked with mute ट् are prefixed, those, marked with क्, are affixed, while those, marked with म्, are placed immediately after the last vowel of the word. The augments become a part and parcel of the word to which they are added, and the characteristics of which they possess;confer, compareयदागमास्तद्गुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते, also आगमानां आगमिधर्मिवैशिष्ट्यम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.11. Those grammarians, who hold the view that words are unproduced and eternal, explain the addition of an augment as only the substitution of a word with an augment in the place of a word without an augment; confer, compare आदेशास्तर्हिमे भविष्यन्ति अनागमकानां सागमकाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20; I.1.46. The term āgama is defined as अन्यत्र विद्यमानस्तु यो वर्णः श्रुयतेधिकः । आगम्यमानतुल्यत्वात्स आगम इति स्मृतः Com. on Tait. Prāt.I. 23.
āctaddhita affix. affix आ applied to the word दक्षिणा and उत्तरा; confer, compareP.V. 3.36, 38. e. g. दक्षिणा वसति, उत्तरा रमणीयम् Kāś on V.3.36, 38.
ācāra(1)customary usage of putting or employing words in rules; confer, compare आचार्याचारात्संज्ञासिद्धिः, P.I,1.1, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. (2) behaviour;confer, compare उपमानादाचारे P.III. 1.10; cf also निवासत आचारतश्च M.Bh. on VI.3.109.
ācārakvipdenominative case. affix क्विप् applied to any prātipadika or noun in the sense of behaviour: confer, compare सर्वप्रातिपदिकेभ्य आचारे क्विब् वक्तव्यः अश्वति गर्दभति इत्येवमर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.11; confer, compare हलन्तेभ्य आचाराक्विबभावाच्च Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. on Pari.52.
aāt(1)long अा as different from short or protracted अ prescribed by the wofd वृद्धि or दीर्घ in the case of अ, or by the word अात् when substituted for another vowel, as for example in the rule आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following: confer, compare P.VI.1.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ङस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare P. VII.1.12; (3) substitute अात् for a case affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example न ताद् ब्राह्मणाद् निन्दामि Kāś. on VII. 1.39.
aātitaddhita affix. affix अात् applied to उत्तर, अधर and दक्षिण by P.V.3.34.
ātideśikaapplied by extension or transfer of epithet as opposed to औपदेशिक. See the word अतिदेश; the term is often used in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; confer, compare यदि आतिदेशिकेन कित्वेन औपदेशिकं कित्वं बाध्येत. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.1.; confer, compare also अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.6.
ātiśāyikaa tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ confer, compare P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; confer, compare also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
ātmanepadaa technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् et cetera, and others) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are usedition Contrast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8.
aātmanebhāṣaa technical term used for such roots as speak for the agent himself; the term अात्मनेभाष means the same as the term अात्मनेपदिन्. The term अात्मनेभाष is not mentioned by Pāṇini; but the writer of the Vārtikas explains it, confer, compare आत्मनेभाषपरस्मैभाषयोरुपसंख्यानम् P. VI.3.7 and 8 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; confer, compare also आत्मनेपदिनश्च धातवो वैयाकरणैरात्मनेभाषशब्देन व्यवह्रियन्ते,Kaiyaṭa on VI.3.7.The term is found in the Atharva-Prātiśākhya. III. 4.7. It cannot be said whether the term came in use after Pāṇini or, although earlier, it belonged to some school other than that of Pāṇini or, Pāṇini put into use the terms Ātmanepada and Parasmaipada for the affixes as the ancient terms Ātmanebhāṣa and Parasmaibhāṣa were in use for the roots.
āditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter अा signifying the nonapplication of the augment इ (इट् ) to the past-passive voice. participle. term क्त. e. g. क्ष्विण्ण from the root ञिक्ष्विदाः similarly खिन्न, भिन्न et cetera, and others confer, compare आदितश्र P.VII. 2.16.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
ādhikyasuperfluity, superiority, notion of surplus; cf यदत्राधिक्यं वाक्यार्थः सः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.46, II.3. 50.
ādheyaa thing placed in another or depending upon another, as opposed to ādhāra or the container; confer, compare आधेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.1.44.
āna(1)kṛt affix (शानच् or चानश्) substituted for the lakāra लट् and applied to ātmanepadi roots forming the present participle; (2) kṛt (affix). affix कानच् applied to ātmanepadi roots in the sense of past time forming the perfect participle confer, compare लिटः कानज्वा P.III.2.106.
aānaṅsubstitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; exempli gratia, for example होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो confer, compare P.VI.3.25, 26.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
āp(1)common term for the feminine. endings टाप्, डाप् and चाप् given by Pāṇini in Adhy. IV, Pāda 1; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II.4.82. P.IV.1.1.; P.VI.1.68; confer, compare also P.VI.3.63. P.VII.3.44; P.VII.3.106, 116; P.VII.4.15. et cetera, and others; (2) a brief term for case-affixes beginning with the inst. sing and ending with the locative case plural confer, compare अनाप्यकः P. VII.2.112.
aāpatti(1)production; resulting of something into another; change; cf दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिः नतिः मूर्धन्यापत्तिः मूर्धन्यभावः V. Prāt. I. 42 and Uvaṭa's commentary thereon; cf also यमापत्तिं explained as यमभावं Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 9. (2) modification; confer, compare अापद्यते श्वासतां नादतां वा R.Pr.XIII.1.; (3) contingency, undesired result.
āpuṭaugment ( आप् ) suggested in the place of आपुक् by Patañjali to be prefixed to the affix णिच् confer, compare M Bh on III.1.25.
abhyāsachanges prescribed in connection with the अभ्यास or reduplicative syllable; confer, compare अभ्यासविकार अाभ्यासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.6.
ām(1)augment आ prescribed in connection with the words चतुर् and अनडुह् before the case-affixes called सर्वनामस्थान; confer, compare चतुरनडुहोराम् उदात्तः P.VII.1.98; (2) the affix आम् added before लिट् or a perfect termination by rules कास्प्रत्ययादाम् अमन्त्रे लिटि and the following (P. III 1.35-39), as for instance, in कासांचक्रे, ऊहांचक्रे, दयांचक्रे, जागरांचकार, विभयांचकार et cetera, and others; (3) geni. plural caseaffix आम् as in दृषदाम्, शरदाम्, with न् prefixed in रामाणाम् et cetera, and others, and with स् prefixed in सर्र्वेषाम् et cetera, and others; (4) locative case singular. case-affix अाम् substituted for इ (ङि); confer, compare ङेराम् नद्याम्नीभ्यः P.VI.4.116.
aāmantrita(1)a word in the vocative singular. confer, compare सामन्त्रितम् P.II.3.48: a tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar, the peculiar features of which are पराङ्गवद्भाव (confer, compare P.II.1.2), अविद्यमानवद्भाव (confer, compare P.VIII.1.72), द्वित्व (confer, compare P.VIII. 1.8), अद्युदात्तत्व (confer, compare P.VI.1.198), सर्वानुदात्तत्व(confer, compare P.VIII.1.19), splitting of ए into अा and इ, exempli gratia, for example अग्रे into अग्ना ३ इ (confer, compare P.VIII.2.107 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3); (2) Vocative case, confer, compare ओकार अामन्त्रितजः प्रगृह्यः Ṛk. Prāt. I.28; Vāj. Pr. III.139: II.17: II.24 VI.1.
aāminactaddhita affix. affix अामिन् in the sense of possession, applied to the word स्व; confer, compare स्वामिन्नैश्वर्ये P.V.2.126.
āmiśracompletely mixed; confer, compare आमिश्रस्यायमादेश उच्यते स नैव पूर्वग्रहणेन गृह्यते, नापि परग्रहणेन । तद्यथा । क्षीरोदकं सम्पृक्ते आमिश्रत्वानैव क्षीरग्रहणेन गृह्येते नाप्युदकग्रहणेन Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI.1.85; similarly अामिश्रत्व, आमिश्रीभूत et cetera, and others
aāmutaddhita affix. affix (अाम्) added to the affixes घ id est, that is तर and तम which are placed after indeclinables; exempli gratia, for example किंतराम्, पचतितराम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.4.11.
āmreḍita(1)iterative: a repeated word, defined as द्विरुक्तं पदम् confer, compare द्विरुक्तमात्रेडितं पदम् exempli gratia, for example यज्ञायज्ञा वो अग्नये Vāj. Prāt. I. 146; (2). the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pāṇini; c. तस्य (द्विरुक्तस्य) परमाम्रेडितम् P. VIII.1.2. The Āmreḍita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; confer, compare P.VIII.1.3 and VIII. 2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain how the term आम्रेडित means the first member; confer, compare ननु अाम्रेडितशब्दे । निघण्टुषु प्रसिद्धः अाम्रेडितं द्विस्त्रिरुक्तमिति । सत्यमर्थे प्रसिद्धः इह तु शब्दे परिभाष्यते । महासंज्ञाकरणं पूर्वाचार्यानुरोधेन Padamañj. on VIII.1.2.
āy(1)the affix आय applied to the roots गुप्, धूप् and others ending with which they are looked upon as roots; confer, compare P. III.1.28: P.III.1. 32. The affix is applied optionally when an ārdhadhātuka affix is to follow, exempli gratia, for example गोपायिता, गोप्ता; confer, compare P.III. 1.31; (2) augment; confer, compare असतो वर्णस्य उपजनः R. Prāt. XIV. 1 Uvaṭa.
aāraktaddhita affix.affix (आर) applied to the word गोधा in the sense of off spring according to the Northern Grammarians;exempli gratia, for example गौधारः, (optional forms गौधेय and गौधेर acc. to others); confer, compare P.IV.1.129, 130.
ārakantaddhita affix. affix applied to the words शृङ्ग and वृन्द, exempli gratia, for example शृङ्गारकः, वृन्दारकः;cf P. शृङ्गवृन्दाभ्यामारकन्, P.V. 2.122 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
aāritaddhita affix. affix applied to the word पूर्वतर when the whole word refers to a year, exempli gratia, for exampleपरारि in the last year; confer, compare B.V.3.22 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
ārukṛt (affix). affix applied to the roots शृ and वन्द् in the sense of habituated et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example शरारुः, वन्दारुः, cf P. III. 2.173.
ārdhadhātukaa term used in contrast to the term सार्वधातुक for such verbal and kṛt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter श् confer, compare तिङ्शित् सार्वधातुकम् । आर्धधातुकं शेषः। P.III.4.113 and 114. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive mood are termed ārdhadhātuka, confer, compare P. III. 4.115, 116; while both the terms are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; confer, compare P. III. 4. 117. The main utility of the ārdhadhātuka term is the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to the ārdhadhātuka affixes. The term आर्धधातुका was in use in works of the old Vaiyākaraṇas; confer, compare अथवा आर्धधातुकासु इति वक्ष्यामि कासु आर्धधातुकासु । उक्तिषु युक्तिषु रूढिषु प्रतीतिषु श्रुतिषु संज्ञासु M.Bh. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ārdhadhātuka originatedition Probably such affixes or pratyayas, like the kṛt affixes generally, as could be placed after certain roots only were called ārdhadhātuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sārvadhātuka on account of their being found in use after every root.
ārṣaderived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas;confer, compare कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनिन्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the commentary on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; confer, compare आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; confer, compare also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109.
ārhīyatad-affixes ठक्, ठञ् et cetera, and others as also the senses in which the affixes are applied, given in the section of Pāṇinis grammar P.V.1.19-71.
ālactad-affix (आल्) applied to the word वाच् in the sense of 'talkative' exempli gratia, for example वाचालः; confer, compare P.V.2.124.
āluckṛt (affix). affix (आलु) applied to the roots स्पृह् गृह् पत् et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example स्पृहयालुः. गृहयालुः, निद्रालुः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2.158.
aāvacanaincomplete pronunciation, confer, compare ईषद् वचनम् M.Bh. on I.1.8.
āvattad-affix applied to the word सम, confer, compare समाxद् वसति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.4.30.
āśraya(1)relation of dependence; confer, compare अाश्रयात्सिद्धत्वं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; (2) substratum, place of residence; confer, compare गुणवचनानां शब्दानामाश्रयतो लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति । शुद्धं वस्त्रम् । शुक्ला शाटी । शुक्लः कम्बलः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.29.
āsannanearest, most proximate: confer, compare विकारी यथासन्नम् V.Pr.I.142: confer, compare also the sūtra आसन्नः Śāk.I.1.7, explained as स्थानगुणप्रमाणादिभिर्यथास्वमासन्नः confer, compare also अासन्नः Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. VII.4.120.
aāsthāpita(1)placed after, following, which follow: confer, compare आस्थथितानामनन्तरोव्रतानाम् Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV.1. (2) properly placed at the end exempli gratia, for example सिष्यद् इति सिष्यदे.
āsya(1)place of articulation, the mouth, confer, compare अत्यन्त्यनेन वर्णान् इति अास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9; (2) found in the place of articulation; e g. the effort made for the utterance of words confer, compareआस्ये भवमास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9, also स्पृष्टादिप्रयत्नपञ्चकमास्यम् Laghuvṛtti on Śāk. I.1.6.
āhitāgnyādia class of compound words headed by the word आहिताग्नि in which the past passive voice. participle. is optionally placed first. exempli gratia, for exampleआहिताग्निः अग्नयाहितः; जातपुत्रः पुत्रजातः The class आहिताम्न्यादि is stated to be आकृतिगण, confer, compare Kāś.on P.II.2.37.
i(1)the vowel इ, representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long protracted, acute, grave, circumflex, pure and nasalised; exempli gratia, for example इ in यस्येति च P.VI.4.128;(2) Uṅādi affix ई(3)tad-affix इच्(इ)applied to Bahuvrihi compounds in the sense of exchange of action or as seen in words like द्विदण्डि exempli gratia, for example केशाकेशि, दण्डादण्डि, द्विमुसलि et cetera, and others confer, compare इच् कर्मव्यतिहारे P.V.4. 127,also V.4.128; (4) kṛt (affix). affix कि (इ) confer, compare उपसर्गे घोः किः P.III.3.92; (5) augment इट् (इ); see इट् (6) conjugational affix इट् of the 1st person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
ik(1)short wording (प्रत्याहार) for the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ; confer, compare इको यणचि P.VI.1.77; एच इग्घ्रस्वादेशे P.I.1.48; इको गुणवृद्धी P.I.1.3 इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. I.1.45, इकोऽसवर्णे शाकल्यस्य ह्रस्वश्च P.VI. 1.127, इको ह्रस्वोऽङ्यो गालवस्य P.VI.3. 61; (2) kṛt (affix). affix इक्(इ) applied to the root form to cite a root e. g. वदि, जनि et cetera, and others confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे P. III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; (3) kṛt (affix). affix इक् applied to the roots कृञ् and others in the sense of verbal activity exempli gratia, for example कृषिः, किरिः, गिरिः confer, compare इक् कृष्यादिभ्यः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).8.
ika(1)substitute for the affix ठ given as ठक्, ठञ् or ञिठ् by Pāṇini; confer, compare ठस्येकः P.VII.3.50; (2) taddhita affix इकक्, इकन् षिकन् mentioned in . the Vārtikas on P.IV.2.60; (3) kṛt (affix). affix इक applied to खन् exempli gratia, for example आखानिकः confer, compare इको वक्तव्यः P.III.3.125 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
ikantaddhita affix. affix इक applied to compound words with पद as the latter member exempli gratia, for example पूर्वपदिक confer, compare इकन्पदोत्तरपदात् P.IV.2.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).
ikabakakṛt (affix). affix applied to खन् exempli gratia, for example अाखनिकबकः cf इकबको वक्तव्यः P. III. 3.125 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4.
iṅgyaa separable word as opposed to अनिङ्ग्य; part of a compound word which is separated or may be separated from the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. Generally the word is applied to the first part of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapāṭha. The 'iṅgya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it which is shown in writing by the sign (ऽ): confer, compare इङ्गयेत विभागेन चाल्यते इति इङ्गयम् । इङ्गयमिति विभागपदस्य संशा commentary on Tait. Prāt. 1.48. सावग्रहं पदमिङ्गयम् Com.on T.Pr. I.48.
(1)kṛt (affix). affix (इ), in the sense of verbal activity applied to any root, the word so formed being used in the feminine. gender and in connection with narration or in interrogation; exempli gratia, for example कां त्वं कारिमकार्षीः । सर्वौ कारिमकार्षम् । confer, compare Pāṇini III.3.110: (2) kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of verbal activity applied to the roots वप् and others exempli gratia, for example वापिः, वासि: et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7;(3) tad-affix इ in the sense of offspring applied to a noun ending in अ; e.g, दाक्षि: confer, compare P.IV.1. 95-7, 153.
(1)short wording or pratyāhāra for all vowels except अ and the consonants ह् ,य् ,व् , र्, ल् confer, compare इणः षः P.VIII.3.39,also P.VIII.3.57,78 (2) kṛt (affix). affix इ applied to roots such as अज् अत् et cetera, and others in the sense of verbal activity.e.g आजिः,अतिः, आदि; confer, compareइणजादिभ्यः P. III.3,108, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
in(1)kṛt affix इ applied to the roots कृ, हृ, ग्रह, and भृ when they are preceded by certain words like स्तम्ब et cetera, and others in certain senses; e. g. स्तम्बकरिः, फलेग्रहिः, अात्मंभरिः; confer, compare P.III. 2.24-7;(2) kṛt affix इन् (णिनि) prescribed by P.III.3.170 e. g. अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी
inactaddhita affix. affix इन in the sense of possession applied to the word नि which is changed into चिक, exempli gratia, for example चिकिनः confer, compare इनच् पिटच् चिकचि च P.V.2.33.
ini(1)kṛt affix इन् applied to the roots क्री with धि, जु with प्र, and the roots जि, दृ, क्षि and others, e. g. सोमविक्रयी, प्रजवी, जयी et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III 2.93 and III.2.156-157: (2) taddhita affix. affix इन् affixed to the word पाण्डुकम्बल in the sense of 'covered with' ( confer, compare P, IV.2.11), in the sense of collection to the word खल exempli gratia, for example खलिनी confer, compare P.IV.2.51, to the word अनुब्राह्मण in sense 'student of' exempli gratia, for example अनुब्राह्मणी confer, compare P.IV.2.62, to the words कर्मन्द and कृशाश्च confer, compare P.IV.3.lll, to the word चूर्ण confer, compare P.IV.4.23 and to the word श्राद्ध confer, compare P.V.2.85 and साक्षात् confer, compare P. V. 2. 91 in specified senses and in the general sense of possession to words ending in अ, cf P. V.2.115-117 and to certain other words confer, compare P.V.2.128-37.
iphataddhita affix. affix applied to र ( letter र् ) in the sense of the consonant र्; e. g. रेफः; confer, compare रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4.
imanor इमनिच् taddhita affix. affix इमन् applied to the words पृथु, मृदु, महत्, लघु, गुरु, words showing colour and words such as दृढ, परिवृढ, भृश, शीत, उष्ण et cetera, and others in the sense of 'quality' or 'attribute': cf Pāṇ. V. 1.122, 123. For changes in the base before the affix इमन् see P. VI.4.154-163.
imapkṛt (affix). affix इम applied to words showing भाव or verbal activity; exempli gratia, for example पाकिमम्, त्यागिमम्;confer, compare भावप्रत्ययान्तादिमब्वक्तव्यः Kāś. on P.IV.4.20.
irmute indicatory ending of roots, signifying the application of the aorist sign अ(अङ्) optionally;e g. अभिदत् or अभैत्सीत् from the root भिद् (भिदिर् in Dhātupāṭha); confer, compare also अच्छिदत्,अच्छैत्सीत् from छिद्(छिदिर्); confer, compare P.III.1.57.
iractaddhita affix. affix ( इर ) in the sense of possession applied in Vedic Literature to रथ exempli gratia, for example रथिरः; confer, compare P.V. 2.109 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
iranataddhita affix. affix ( इर ) in the sense of possession applied in Vedic Literature; to मेघा exempli gratia, for example confer, compare P. मेधिरः V.2.109 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
ire( इरेच् )substitute for the perfect 3rd person. plural or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada affix झ; exempli gratia, for example चक्रिरे, ऊचिरे et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.81.
ilataddhita affix. affix applied to the words काश, अश्वत्थ, पलाश and others in the four senses prescribed in P.IV. 2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example काशिलः, अश्वत्थिल:, पलाशिलः confer, compareP.IV.2.80.
iṣṭādia class of words headed by the word इष्ट to which the taddhita affix इन् ( इनि ) is added in the sense of अनेन i. e. 'by him' i. e. by the agent of the activity denoted by the past passive voice. participles इष्ट and others; confer, compare इष्टी, यज्ञे, पूर्ती श्राद्धे et cetera, and others Kāś, on P.V.2.88.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
iṣṇukṛt affix इष्णुच् applied,in the sense of 'possessed of habitual behaviour action, or splendid accomplishment,' to the roots अलंकृ, निराकृ, प्रजन् , उत्पत् et cetera, and others e.g अलंकरिष्णुः,उत्पतिष्णुः, सहिष्णुः,चरिष्णुः et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.III.2.136-138.
isnucalternative affix mentioned in the Mahābhāṣya in the place of इष्णुच्; cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on III. 2.57. See इष्णुच् .
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
īyaṅ'afix ईय added to the root ऋत्, ङ् showing the application of the Ātmanepada affixes; e. g. ऋतीयते confer, compare P. III.1.29
īṣadasamāptistage of the quality of a thing or of an undertaking which is almost complete,to show which,the tad-affixes कल्प, देश्य and देशीय are applied to a word:exempli gratia, for example पटुकल्पः,पटुदेश्यः; पटुदेशीयः, पचतिकल्पम्, जल्पतिकल्पम्, confer, compare P, V.3.67.
uk(1)the kṛt (affix). affix उकञ् applied to the roots लब्, पत्, पद् and others,exempli gratia, for example लाषुकः, कामुकः et cetera, and others with udātta accent on the first syllable; confer, compareP.III.2.154; (2) taddhita affix.affix उक ( उकञ् ) added to the word कर्मन् exempli gratia, for example कार्मुकं धनुः; confer, compare Kāś, on P.V.I.103.
uktiratnākara'a short grammar work, written by साधुसुन्दर, explaining declension, cases and their meanings, compounds, et cetera, and others and giving a list of Prākṛta words with their Sanskrit equivalents.
ukthādia class of words headed by the word उक्थ to which the taddhita affix इक (ठक् ) is applied in the sense of 'one who studies and understands'; confer, compare उक्थमधीते वेद वा औक्थिकः, similarly लौकायतिकः Kāś. on P.IV.2.60.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādeikośaa metrical work explaining the उणादि words referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. with meanings assigned to them. There are two such compositions one by Rāmatarkavāgīśa or Rāmaśarma and the other by Rāmacandra Dīkṣita.
uṇādiprātipadikaword form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; confer, compare उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
ut(1)Short vowel उ in Pāṇini's terminology cf, P.I.1.70, I,2.21. IV.1.44, V.1.111 ; (2) tad-affix उत् applied to पूर्व and पूर्वतर for which पर् is substituted; exempli gratia, for example परुत्. See P. V.3.22 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).
utpatti(1)production: confer, compare वर्णोत्पत्तिः production of a phonetic element Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.23.1 ; (2) production of a grammatical element such as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or substitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-formation: confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari. Śek. Par. 75; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.19. Vārt, 4.
utpadto be produced, to be placed after to be annexed; (causal) to produce, to get annexed, to add; confer, compare धेनुरनञि कमुत्पादयति Āpiśali's Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). quoted in M; Bh. on P.IV.2.45.
utsargaa general rule as contrasted with a special rule which is called अपवाद or exception; confer, compare उत्सर्गापवादयोरपवादो बलीयान् Hema. Pari.56; प्रकल्प्य वापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Par.Śek. Pari.63, Sīra. Pari.97; confer, compare also उत्सर्गसमानदेशा अपवादा;. For the बाध्यबाधकभाव relation between उत्सर्ग and अपवाद and its details see Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara on Paribhāṣās 57 to 65: confer, compare also न्यायैर्मिश्रान् अपवादान्प्रतीयात् explained by the commentator as न्याया उत्सर्गा महाविषया विधयः अपवादा अल्पविषया विधयः । तान् उत्सर्गेण भिश्रानेकीकृतान् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः R.Pr.I.23.
udayathat which follows; a term frequently used in the Prātiśākhya works in the sense of 'following' or पर; confer, compare उदयस्वरादिसस्थानो हकार एकेषाम् explained by the commentator as आत्मन उपरिस्वरादिसस्थानः T.Pr.II.47: confer, compare also ऋकार उदये कण्ठ्यौ explained by the commentator as ऋकारे उदये परभूते सति R.Pr.II.11;confer, compare also नेादात्तस्वरितेादयं P.V.III.4.67.
udayaṃkarasurnamed pāṭhaka who wrote a commentary on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara named Jyotsna and a very critical work on Paribhāṣās similar to Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti; the work is incomplete.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
udāttanirdeśaconventional understanding about a particular vowel in the wording of a sūtra being marked acute or Udātta, when ordinarily it should not have been so, to imply that a Paribhāṣā is to be applied for the interpretation of that Sūtra: confer, compare उदात्तनिर्देशात्सिद्धम् P.VI.1.13 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).14, also Sīra. Pari. 112.
udāharaṇaa grammatical example in explanation of an interpretation; confer, compare नैकमुदाहरणमसवर्णग्रहणं प्रयोजयति P.VI. 1.11.
uddeśadescription; mention of qualities; confer, compare गुणैः प्रापणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I. 3.2: the word is used in contrast with उपदेश or direct mention; confer, compare कः पुनुरुद्देशोपदेशयोर्विशेषः । प्रत्यक्षमाख्यानमुपदेशो गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । प्रत्यक्षं तावदाख्यानमुपदेशः तद्यथा । अगोज्ञाय कश्चिद्गां सक्थनि कर्णे वा गृहीत्वोपदिशति । अयं गौरिति । स प्रत्यक्षमाख्यातमाह । उपदिष्टो मे गौरिति । गुणैः प्रापणमुद्देशः । तद्यथा । कश्चित्कंचिदाह । देवदत्तं मे भवानुद्दिशतु इति । स इहस्थः पाटलिपुत्रस्थं देवदत्तमुद्दिशति । अङ्गदी कुण्डली किरीटी...ईदृशो देवदत्त इति । स गुणैः प्राप्यमाणमाह । उद्दिष्टो मे दवदत्त इति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence: उद्देश उपदेशदेशः; confer, compare यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् Pari.Śek. Pari. 2.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
uddeśyavidheyabhāvarelationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; confer, compare उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । confer, compare also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशेषणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.
upakādia class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children et cetera, and others ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; confer, compare उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लामकायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upacāra(1)taking a secondary sense; implication; literally moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; confer, compare आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : confer, compare प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
upajanaliterallyorigin; one that originates, augment, उपजायते असौ उपजन: । The word is used in the sense of 'additional phonetic element'; confer, compare उपजन आगमः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5; confer, compare also वर्णव्यत्ययापायोपजनविकारेष्वर्थदर्शनात् । Māheśvarasūtras. 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya gives स् in पुरुश्चन्द्र as an instance ofeminine. उपजन confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 37. In the Nirukta उपजन is given as the sense of the prefix 'उप'; confer, compare उपेत्युपजनम्: The commentary on the Nirukta explains the word उपजन as अाधिक्य.
upadeśainstruction; original enunciation; first or original precepts or teaching; confer, compare उपदेश आद्योच्चारणम् S. K. on T the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् P.I.3.2. confer, compare वर्णानामुपदेशः कर्तव्यः; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. I. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15. For difference between उपदेश and उद्देश see उद्देश; confer, compare also उपदिश्यतेनेनेत्युपदेशः । शास्त्रवाक्यानि, सूत्रपाठः खिलपाठश्च Kāśikā on P. I.3.2; confer, compare also Vyāḍi. Pari. 5; (2) employment (of a word) for others confer, compare उपेदश: परार्थः प्रयोगः । स्वयमेव तु बुद्धया यदा प्ररमृशति तदा नास्त्युपदेशः Kāś. on अदोनुपदेशे P.I.4.70.
upadeśivadbhāvaoccurrence in the original statement before the application of any affixes et cetera, and others, confer, compare एवमप्युपदेशिवद्भावो वक्तव्यः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.56, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 23.
upadhāpenultimate letter, as defined in the rule अलोन्त्यात्पूर्वं उपघा P. I. 1.65, exempli gratia, for example see ह्रस्वोपध, दीर्घोपध, लघूपध, अकारोपध et cetera, and others; literally उपधीयते निधीयते सा that which is placed near the last letter.
upadhmānīyaa letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; confer, compare xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग.
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upabandhaa technical term used in the Prātiśākhya works in the sense of words which proceed from a rule to the following rules upto a particular stated limit; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम् T. Pr I.59 explained by the commentator as उपबध्यते इति उपबन्धः । एतस्मिन्नित्यधिकरणरूपः संख्यानविषयः प्रदेशश्च उपबन्ध उच्यते । उपबन्धे यदुक्तं तदन्यत्र न भवतीति तुशब्दार्थः ।
upabdimatthe fourth out of the seven stages or places in the production of articulate speech, upāṁśu being the first stage; confer, compare सशब्दमुपद्भिमत् Tait. Pr. 23.9 explained by the commentator as: सशब्दं परश्राव्यशब्दसहितम् । यत्र प्रयुज्यमानः शब्दः परैरक्षरव्यञ्जनववेकवर्जे श्रूयते तदुपद्विमत्संज्ञं भवति ।
upamānastandard of comparison. The word is found in the Pāṇinisūtra उपमानानि सामान्यवचनैः P.II.I.55 where the Kāśikāvṛtti explains it as उपमीयतेऽनेनेत्युपमानम् ।
upalakṣaṇaimplication, indication: a thing indicatory of another thing. The term is very frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; confer, compare Kāśikā on भीस्म्योर्हेतुभये P.I.3.68 भयग्रहणमुपलक्षणार्थं विस्मयोपि तत एव । as also मन्त्रग्रहणं तु च्छन्दस उपलक्षणार्थम् Kāś. on II.4.80. The verbal forms of लक्ष् and उपलक्ष् as also the words लक्षयितुम्, लक्षणीय, लक्षित et cetera, and others possess the sense of 'expressing the meaning not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasargayogaconnection with a prefix; joining of the prefix. Some scholars of grammar hold the view that the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and then the verbal form is arrived at by placing the desired terminations after the root, while others hold the opposite view: confer, compare पूर्वं धातुः साधनेनोपयुज्यते पश्चादुपसर्गेण । अन्ये तु पूर्वं धातुरुपसर्गेण युज्यते पश्चात्साधनेनेत्याहुः Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti Pari. 131, 132; cf also vol. VII. Mahābhāṣya edited by the D. E. Society, Poona, pages 371-372.
upasargavivaraṇaa short anonymous work on the nature of upasargas or prepositions explaining their meanings with illustrations.
upasṛṣṭaattended with a prefix, generally used in connection with roots; exempli gratia, for example क्रुधद्रुहोरुपसृष्टयोः कर्म P.I.4.38 where the Kāśikā has explaincd the word as उपसर्गसंबद्ध.
upasthitaa word used father technically in the sense of the word इति which is used in the Krama and other recitals when Vedic reciters show separately the two words compounded together by uttering the compound word first, then the word इति and then the two compound words, exempli gratia, for example सुश्लोक ३ इति सु-श्लोक। विभावसो इति विभा-वसो. The Kāśikā defines the word उपस्थित as समुदायादवच्छिद्य पदं येन स्वरूपे अवस्थाप्यते तद् उपस्थितम् । इतिशब्दः । Kāś.on VI.1.129. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya explains the word rather differently, but in the same context.The word after which इति is placed is called upasthita exempli gratia, for example the word बाहू in बाहू इति or विभावसौ in विभावसो इति as contrasted with स्थित id est, that is the word without इति exempli gratia, for example बाहू or विभावसो, as also contrasted with स्थितोपस्थित id est, that is the whole word विभावसो इति विभाsवसो which is also called संहित or मिलित; (2) occurring, present; cf कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् . यत्र कार्यं तत्रोपस्थितं द्रष्टव्यम् । Par.Śek. Pari.3.
upahita(1)with, preceded by; e g. दीर्घोपहित, ह्रस्वोपहित; (2) sticking to, connected with, 'उपश्लेषित': confer, compareDurga on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word: confer, compare आवोन्तोपहितात् सतः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II.15.
upāṃśuliterally inaudible. The word is explained in the technical sense as the first place or stage in the utterance of speech where it is perfectly inaudible although produced; confer, compare उपांशु इति प्रथमं वाचः स्थानम् Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII, 5.
upottamaliterallyone near or before the last; the term is generally used in connection with words having two or more syllables, where it means the vowel before the last (vowel); confer, compare उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI.1.217 and योपधाद्गुरूपोत्तमाद्वुञ् P.V.1.132 where the writer of the Kāśikā explains it as त्रिप्रभृतीनामन्त्यमुत्तमं तस्य समीपमुपोत्तमम् । giving रमणीय and वसनीय as examples where the long ई is upottama; confer, compare also T.Pr. XI.3. and Nir.I.19 where the word refers to the third out of the four feet of the verse.
ubhayatrain both the ways literally in both the places; confer, compare उभयत्र च P. I. 1. 44 V rt. 22. The word उभयत्रविभाषा is used in grammar referring to the option ( विभाषा) which is प्राप्त as also अप्राप्त; confer, compareM.Bh.on P.1.1.26 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).22.
urasyaproduced at the breast; confer, compareकेचिदेता उरस्या R.Pr.I.18, explained by the commentator as केचिदाचार्याः एतौ हकारविसर्जनीयौ उरःस्थाने इच्छन्ति ।
us(1)substitute for झि ending of the third person.plu., in the perfect tense and in the present tense in the case of the roots विद् and ब्रू, exempli gratia, for example विदुः and आहुः confer, compare P. III.4.82-84 ; (2) substitute जुस् (उस्) for झि in the potential and the benedictive moods, as also after the aorist sign स् and after roots of the third conjugation, roots ending in आ and the root विद्, e. g. पचेयुः भूयासुः अकार्षुः, अबिभयुः अदुः, अविदुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on III.4.108-112.
usiUṇādi afix उस् applied to the root जन् to form जनुस् confer, compare जनेरुसिः Uṇsūtra. 272.
ūkaugment ऊ added to the अभ्यास or the reduplicative syllable of the root पठ् which is doubled before the affix क which is used instead of घ ( घञर्थे कः ); exempli gratia, for example पाटूपटः.
ūlataddhita affix. affix applied to the words वात and बल in the sense of 'unable to bear'; exempli gratia, for example वातूलः बलूल see Kāś. on V.2.122.
fourth vowel in Pāṇini's alphabet; possessed of long and protracted varieties and looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ) with लृ which has no long type in the grammar of Pāṇini; confer, compare R.Pr.I,9: V.Pr.VIII.3. (2) uṇādi suffix च् applied to the root स्था to form the word स्थृ; e. g. सव्येष्ठा सारथिः; confer, compare सव्ये स्थश्छन्दसि Uṇ Sū, II. 101.
ṛgayanādia class of words headed by ऋगयन to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is affixed in the sense of 'produced therein' ( तत्र भवः), or 'explanatory of' ( तस्य व्याख्यानः); confer, compare ऋगयने भव:, ऋगयनस्य व्याख्यानो वा अार्गयनः पादव्याख्यानः, औपनिषदः, शैक्ष: et cetera, and others Kāś. on P.IV. 3.73.
ṛditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter ऋ, signifying in the Grammar of Pāṇini the prevention of the shortening of the long vowel in the reduplicated syllable of the Causal Aorist form of roots which are marked with it; e. g. अशशासत् अबबाधत्, अययाचत् et cetera, and others confer, compare नाग्लोपिशास्वृदिताम् P.VII.4.2.
ṛṣyaṇtaddhita affix अण् in the sense of 'descendant' applied to names of ancient sages, by the rule ऋष्यन्धकवृष्णिकुरुभ्यश्च P.IV.1.114; exempli gratia, for example वासिष्ठः,वैश्वामित्रः.
ediphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालुस्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-48; as also the article on.
eka(1)Singular number, ekavacana: confer, compare नो नौ मे मदर्थं त्रिह्येकेषु. V. Pr.II.3: the term is found used in this sense of singular number in the Jainendra, Śākaṭāyana and Haima grammars ( 2 ) single ( vowel ) substitute (एकादेश) for two (vowels); cf एकः पूर्वपरयोः P.VI. 1.84; अथैकमुभे T.Pr. X.1; ( 3 ) many, a certain number : (used in plural in this sense), confer, compare इह चेत्येके मन्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 4.21 .
ekatiṅpossessed of one verb; given as a definition of a sentence: confer, compare एकतिङ् P.II.1.1 Vārt 10, explained by Patañjali as एकतिङ् वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । ब्रूहि ब्रूहि ।
ekapadāmade up of a single word; confer, compare भवति चैतदकस्मिन्नपि एकवर्ण पदम् एकपदा ऋक् एकर्चं सूक्तमिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; (2) made up of one foot ( चरण or पाद ); confer, compare एक एकपदैतेषां (R.Pr.XVII.24) explained by the commentator as तेषां चतुर्णां पादानामष्टाक्षरादीनां एकः पादः यस्याः सा एकपदा ऋक् इत्युच्यते ।
ekavacanasingular number; affix of the singular numberin Pāṇini's grammar applied to noun-bases ( प्रातिपदिक) and roots when the sense of the singular number is to be conveyed; the singular sense can be of the form of an individual or collection or genus. The word एकवचन in the technical sense of singular number is found used in the Prātiśākhyas and Nirukta also.
ekavattvaor एकवद्भाव use or treatment of the plural sense as if it is singular; confer, compare एकवद्भावोsनर्थक: 1 समाहारैकत्वात् M.Bh. on II. 4.12. Vart. 5.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekaśeṣanirdeśastatement by subsistence of one word out of many. The phrase is very often used in the Mahābhāṣya where the omission of an individual thing is explained by saying that the expression used is a composite one including the omitted thing along with the thing already expressed; confer, compare एकशेषनिर्देशोयम् । सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.27, on I.1.59, I.2.39, as also on I.3.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5,I.4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19 et cetera, and others
ekaśrutithat which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā id est, that is the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.
ekahalmadhya(a vowel)placed between two single consonants; e.g the vowel अ in पच्, रम्, रण्, et cetera, and others
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
ekārathe letter ए; looked upon as a diphthong ( संध्यक्षर ) made up of the letters अ and इ. The combination of the two constituent parts is so complete as cannot allow any of the two parts to be independently working for saṁdhi or any other operation with its adjoining letter; cf नाव्यपवृत्तस्य अवयवे तद्विधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Śivasūtra 3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9.
ekārthīmāvaunion of meanings; one of the two ways in which the word सामर्थ्य is explained; confer, compare एकार्थीभावो वा सामर्थ्यं स्याद् व्यपेक्षा वा । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.1.
eṇīkṛtaA fault in pronunciation when the voice is indistinct, and the word pronounced is not distinctly heard; confer, compare एणीकृतः अविशिष्टः । किमयमोकारः अथौकार इति यत्र संदेहः Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh.I.1.1,explained as अवशिष्ट: संश्लिष्टः संदिग्ध इति यावत् by Nāgeśa in his Uddyota.
eṇyataddhita affix. affix एण्य applied to the word प्रावृष् in the general शैषिक senses; confer, compare प्रावृष एण्यः । प्रावृषेण्यः बलाहकः Kāś. on P.IV.3.17.
etyataddhita affix. affix applied to the indeclinable दूर; e. g. दूरेत्यः पथिकः । confer, compare दूरादेत्यः दूरेत्य: Kāś.on P.IV.2.104: confer, compare also दूरादेत्यो वक्तव्यः । दूरेत्यः M.Bh. on P.IV.2.104.
edyavitaddhita affix. affix एद्यवि applied to the pronoun पर when the word refers to a day;confer, compare परस्मिन्नहनि परेद्यवि Kāś. on P.V.3.22.
pradyusactaddhita affix. affix एद्युस् applied to the pronouns पूर्व, अन्य, अन्यतर, इतर, अपर, अधर, उभय and उत्तर when the words so formed refer to a day; e. g. पूर्वेद्युः, अन्येद्युः et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.V.3.22.
edhāctaddhita affix.affix एधा substituted for the taddhita affix. affix धा optionally,when applied to the words द्वि and त्रि. exempli gratia, for exampleद्विधा, द्वेधा, दैधम्, त्रिधा, त्रेधा, त्रैधम्; confer, compare Kāś. on एधाच्च P.V.3.46.
enaptaddhita affix. affix एन applied to उत्तर, अधर, and दक्षिण optionally instead of the taddhita affix. affix आति in the senses of दिक्, देश and काल, exempli gratia, for example उत्तरेण, उत्तरतः उत्तरात्, Words with this एन at the end govern the acc. case of the word syntactically connected with them. e. g. तत्रागारं धनपतिगूहान् उत्तरेण Kālidāsa: Meghadūta;confer, compareएनपा द्वितीया P.II.3.31.
elima(1)kṛt (affix). afix केलिमर् exempli gratia, for example पचेलिमा माषाः confer, compare P. III.1.96 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1: (2) Uṇādi affix एलिमच् applied to पच् confer, compare पच एलिमच् Uṇ. S.IV.37.
(1)the substitute ए for the perfect affix त, substituted for the whole त by reason of the indicatory letter श् attached to ए; confer, compare लिटस्तझयोरेशिरेच् and अनेकाल्शित्सर्वस्य P. III.4.8l and I.1.55; (2) affix ए applied to the root चक्ष् in Vedic Literature; confer, compare नावचक्षे । नावख्यातव्यमित्यर्थः Kāś. on P.III.4.15.
aikārthyapossession of a single composite sense (by all words together in a compound); cf संंघातस्य ऐकार्थ्यात् सुबभावो वर्णात् M.Bh. on I. 2.45 Vārt 10; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.29 Vārt, 7; confer, compare also नाम नाम्नैकार्थ्ये समासो बहुलम् Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III.1.18 where the commentator explains ऐकार्थ्य as एकार्थीभावः In the commentary on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III 2.8 ऐकार्थ्य is explained as ऐकपद्य
airaktaddhita affix ऐर applied to the word चटका in the sense of offspring to form the word चाटकैर; cf चटकाया ऐरक् P.IV.1.128.
aiṣukāryādia class of words headed by the word एषुकारि to which the taddhita affix भक्त is added in the sense of 'place of residence'; exempli gratia, for example एषुकारिभक्तम्, चान्द्रायणभक्तम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.2.54.
o(1)diphthong vowel made up of the vowels अ and उ, termed as guṇa in Pāṇini's grammar and prescribed sometimes in the place of the vowel उ; ( 2 ) affix ओ applied to the root गम् or गा to form a noun; confer, compare ओकारो नामकरणः Nir.II.5.
oṣṭhaIit. lip; the place of origin ( स्थान ) of the labial letters called उपध्मानीय वर्ण i.e the vowels उ, ऊ, the consonants प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and the उपध्मानीय letter; confer, compare ऊपूपध्मानीयानामेाष्ठौ Sid. Kau. on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9, also उवोपोपध्मा ओष्ठे V. Pr . I.70.
oṣṭhayaliterally produced upon the lip: a letter ofthe labial class;letters उ,ऊ, ओ, औ, प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and व् are given as ओष्ठय letters in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. See the word ओष्ठ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For the utterance of the letter व् tips of the teeth. are also employed; hence the letter व् is said to have दन्तौष्ठ as its स्थान.. ओस् the case affix ओस् of the genitive case and the loc, dual number
aupamikafigurative metaphorical application or statement: confer, compare ( विराट् ) पिपीलिकमध्या इत्यौपमिकम् Nirukta of Yāska.VII. 13. औपश्लेषिक resulting from immediate contact immediately or closely connected; one of the three types of अधिकरण or location which is given as the sense of the locative case; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं-व्यापकम् ओपश्लेषिकम्, वैषयिकमिति ... इको यणचि | अचि उपाश्लिष्टस्येति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI. 1.72.
auśsubstitute औ for the nominative case. and acc. case endings applied to the numeral अष्टन्; confer, compare अष्टाभ्य औश् P.VII. 1.21.
ᳵjihvāmūlīyaa phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, produced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳶ upadhmānīyaliterally blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w , or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; confer, compare उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा commentary on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I:; : confer, compare also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
kaḍārādia class of words headed by the word कडार which, although adjectival,are optionally placed first in the Karmadhāraya compound, exempli gratia, for example कडारजैमिनिः जैमिनिकडारः; confer, compare Kāś. on II.2.38.
karṇādi(1)a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix अायन ( फिञ् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example कार्णायनिः वासिष्ठायनिः et cetera, and others; cf Kāś. on P.IV.2.80; (2) a class of words headed by कर्ण to which the taddhita affix जाह (जाहच्) is added in the sense of a 'root' exempli gratia, for example कर्णजाहम् ; confer, compare Kāś. on P.V.2.24.
kaṇṭhaglottis: cavity in the throat holding vocal cords; the place of the production of the sounds अ, अI and ह; confer, compare अहविसर्जनीयाः कण्ठे V, Pr.I. 71; cf, also कण्ठ्योsकारः प्रथमपञ्चमौ च R.Pr.I.18.
katryādia class of words headed by the word कत्रि to which the taddhita affix. affix एयक (ढकञ्) is applied in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example कात्रेयकः, ग्रामेयकः, कौलेयकः (from कुल्या); confer, compare P. IV.2.75.
kambojādia class of words headed by the word कम्बोज, the affix अञ् placed after which is elided, provided the words कम्बोज and others are names of countries; exempli gratia, for example कम्बोजः चोलः, केरलः, शकः, यवनः et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV.1.175.
karaṇa(1)lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; confer, compare क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति, Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण in दात्रेण लुनाति; (2) effort inside the mouth (अाभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न ) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place ( स्थान ) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; confer, compare स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P, I.1.10 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) disposition of the organ which produces the sound; confer, compare श्वासनादोभयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनिसंमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । Com. on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.3;confer, compare also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.32: confer, compare also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (id est, that is नाद or resonance), संसर्ग (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय and परिमाण; confer, compareअकारस्य तावत् अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत and विवृत; confer, compare द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 11; (4) use of a word exempli gratia, for example इतिकरणं, वत्करणम्; confer, compare किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.
kartṛagent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; confer, compare स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (confer, compare P.II.3.65).
kartṛsādhana(an affix)appplied in the sense of the agent of an activity; भवतीति भावः । कतृसाधनश्चायं प्रत्ययः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kamenāmanliterally noun showing action, participle. कर्मप्रवचनीय a technical term used in connection with a preposition which showed a verbal activity formerly, although for the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes or उपसर्गs which are not used along.with a root, but without it confer, compare कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीयाः इति M.Bh. on P.I.4.83; exempli gratia, for example शाकल्यस्य संहितामनु प्रावर्षत्, अन्वर्जुनं योद्धारः, अा कुमारं यशः पाणिनेः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.4.83 to 98.
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
karmasādhanaprescribed in the sense of an object; a term used in the Mahābhāṣya in the sense of affixes used in the sense of 'object' as contrasted with कर्तृसाधन or भावसाधनः e. g. the affix कि in the word विधि, explained as विधीयते इति विधिः or in the word भाव explained as भाव्यते यः स भावः; confer, compare क्रिया चैव हि भाव्यते, स्वभावसिद्धं तु द्रव्यम् M.Bh. on P. I.3.1. See similarly the words समाहार M.Bh. on II.1.51 and उपधि M.Bh. on V.1.13.
kalaa fault of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utterance of a vowel; a vowel so pronounced; confer, compare संवृतः कलो ध्मात: ... रोमश इति confer, comparealso निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि M.Bh. Āhnika 1.
kalpathe taddhita affix. affix कल्पप् added to any substantive in the sense of slightly inferior, or almost complete; exempli gratia, for example पट्कल्पः, मृदुकल्प; confer, compare P.V.3.67 and Kāśikā thereon.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭhaname given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantrabālabodhinīa short explanatory gloss on the Kātantra Sūtras by Jagaddhara of Kashmir who lived in the fourteenth century and who wrote a work on grammar called Apaśabdanirākaraṇa.
kātantrarūpamālāa work, explaining the various forms of nouns and verbs according to the rules of the Kātantra grammar, ascribed to Bhāvasena of the fifteenth century.
kātantravṛttiname of the earliest commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. The commentary was once very popular as is shown by a number of explanatory commentaries written upon it, one of which is believed to have been written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. himselfeminine. See Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kānacaffix अान forming perfect partciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: exempli gratia, for example सोमं सुषुवाणः; confer, compare P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.
kāmaugment आम् applied to तूष्णीम् just as अकच् is applied, exempli gratia, for example; आसितव्यं किल तूष्णीकाम Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.72.
kāmacāraoption; permission to do as desired liberty of applying any of the rules of grammar that present themselves; confer, compare तत्र कामचारो गृह्यमाणेन वा विभक्तिं विशेषयितुं अङ्गेन वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.27 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
kāmyacaffix in the sense of 'desiring for oneself' applied to nouns to form denominative roots; exempli gratia, for example पुत्रकाम्यति; confer, compare काम्यच्च् P. III.1. 9.
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakavilāsaan anonymous elementary work on syntax explaining the nature and function of the six Kārakas.
kārikāa verse or a line or lines in metrical form giving the gist of the explanation of a topic; confer, compare संक्षिप्तसूत्रबह्वर्थसूचकः श्लोकः कारिका Padavyavasthāsūtrakārikā of Udayakīrti.
kārita(1)ancient term for the causal Vikaraṇa, (णिच् in Pāṇini's grammar and इन् in Kātantra); (2) causal or causative as applied to roots ending in णिच् or words derived from such roots called also 'ṇyanta' by the followers of Pāṇini's grammar; confer, compare इन् कारितं धात्वर्थे Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III.2.9, explained as धात्वर्थक्रियानाम्न इन् परो भवति धात्वर्थे स च कारितसंज्ञक;।
kāryakālaparibhāṣāone of the important Paribhāṣā, regarding the application of the Paribhāṣā rules. See कायैकाल. For details see Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 3.
kāryātideśalooking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake of operations that are caused by the presence of the original;the word is used in contrast with रूपातिदेश where actually the original is restored in the place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see Mahābhāṣya on द्विर्वचनेचि P. 1.1.59.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kāladuṣṭaa word not sanctioned by rules of grammar. The word probably refers to the corruption taking place in connection with the use of a word on account of lapse of time: confer, compare कालदुष्टा अपशब्दाः Durgh. Vr. on II.2.6.
kāśyādia class of words headed by the words काशि, चेदि and others to which the taddhita affixes ठञ् and ञिठ are added in the miscellaneous senses; exempli gratia, for example काशिकी, काशिका; वैदिकी, वैदिका et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P. IV. 2.116. The feminine. afix ई is applied when the affix ठञ् is added to the word काशि; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
ki(1)kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached;exempli gratia, for exampleप्रदिः प्रधिः confer, compare P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplication and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; exempli gratia, for example पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kit(1)marked with the mute letter क् which is applied by Pāṇini to affixes, for preventing guṇa and vṛddhi substitutes to the preceding इक् vowel (इ, उ, ऋ or लृ); confer, compareक्ङिति च, Pāṇ. I.1.5; (2) considered or looked upon as marked with mute indicatory क् for preventing guna; confer, compare असंयोगाल्लिट् कित् and the following P.I.2.5 et cetera, and others The affixes of the first type are for instance क्त, क्त्वा, क्तिन् and others. The affixes of the second type are given mainly in the second pada of the first Adhyāya by Pāṇini. Besides the prevention of guṇa and wrddhi, affixes marked with कु or affixes called कित्, cause Saṁprasāraṇa (see P. VI.1.15,16), elision of the penultimate न् (P.VI.4.24), elision of the penultimate vowel (P. VI.4.98,100), lengthening of the vowel (VI.4.15), substitution of ऊ (VI.4.19,21), elision of the final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution of अI (VI.4.42). The taddhita affixes which are marked with mute क् cause the Vṛddhi substitute for the first vowel in the word to which they are addedition
kiśarādi,kisarādia class of words headed by किसर meaning some kind of scent, which get the taddhita affix इक (ष्टन्) applied to them when the word so formed means 'a dealer of that thing;' exempli gratia, for example किशारिकः, किशारिकी cf; Kāś. on P. IV.4.53.
kuñjādia class of words headed by कुञ्ज to which the taddhita affix अायन (च्फञ्) is applied in the sense of गोत्र i. e. grandchildren etc e. g. कौञ्जायनाः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.1.9.
kumudādiclass of words (१) consisting of कुमुद, शर्करा, न्यग्रोध et cetera, and others to which the taddhita affix ठक् is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2.67-70; exempli gratia, for example कुमुदिकम्,शर्करिकम् etc(2) consisting of कुमुद गोमय, रथकार etc to which the taddhita affix इक ( ठक् ) is applied in the senses referred to in (I): exempli gratia, for example कौमुदिकम् , राथकारिकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.2.80.
kurackṛt (affix). affix उर applied to the roots विद्, भिद् and छिद्: exempli gratia, for example विदुर: । भिदुरम् ! छिदुरम् । confer, compare Kāś.on P.III.2.162.
kurvadrūpaeffective or efficient, as opposed to dormant, as applied to निमित्त (cause); confer, compareनिमित्तशब्दोयमस्ति योग्यतामात्रे । कुसुलस्थेष्वपि बीजेषु वक्तारो भवन्ति अङ्कुरनिमित्तान्येतानीति अस्ति च कुर्वद्रूपे । Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on P.VII.2.36.
kulālādia class of words headed by the word कुलाल to which the taddhita affix अक ( वुञ्) is applied in the sense of 'made by', provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e g.कौलालकम् , वारुडकम्; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.3.118.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛtākṛtaprasaṅgia definition of the term नित्य in the sense of a rule which occurs after certain another rule is applied as well as before that rule is applied: confer, compare कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि नित्यम् । तद्विपरीतमनित्यम् । Pari, Sek. Pari. 42; cf also कंथं पुनरयं नित्यः । कृताकृतप्रसङ्गित्वात् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 4. 62.
kṛtārthalit which has got its purpose served: a term used in connection with a rule that has been possible to be applied (without clash with another rule) in the case of certain instances, although it comes into conflict in the case of other istances confer, compare तत्र कृतार्थत्वाद् दिकशब्दपक्षे परेण ठञ्जतौ स्याताम् Kāś. P.IV. 3.5. The word चरितार्थ is used almost in the same sense.
kṛtvasuctaddhita affix. affix कृत्वम् applied to numerals to convey the sense of repetition, e. g. पंञ्चकृत्वः दशकृत्वः confer, compare संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् P. V. 4.17.
kṛśāśvādia class of words headed by the word कृशाश्वं to which the taddhita affix ईय (छण् ) is applied in the four senses given in P.IV.2. 67-70, exempli gratia, for example कार्शीश्वीयः, आरिष्टीयः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.2.80.
kevalaisolated;a term applied to a letter or a word when it is not combined with another letter or another word in a compound; confer, compare धर्मादनिच् केवलात् । केवलान्न पदसमुदायात् Kāś. on P.V.4.124; (2) simple (word) without an affix added: confer, compare अर्थवत्ता नोपपद्यते केवलेन अवचनात् । P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7, also कृत्तद्धितान्तं चैवार्थवत् । न केवलाः कृतस्तद्धिता बा M.Bh.on P.I.4.14.
kaiyaṭaname of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.out of which Nageśa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
koṇḍabhaṭṭaa reputed grammarian who wrote an extensive explanatory gloss by name Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa on the Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikā of Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita. Another work Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra. which is in a way an abridgment of the Bhūṣaṇa, was also written by him. Koṇḍabhaṭṭa lived in the beginning of the l7th century. He was the son of Raṅgojī and nephew of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita. He was one of the few writers on the Arthavicāra in the Vyākaraṇaśāstra and his Bhūṣaṇasāra ranks next to the Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Besides the Bhūṣaṇa and Bhūṣaṇasāra, Koṇḍabhaṭṭa wrote two independent works viz. Vaiyākaraṇsiddhāntadīpika and Sphoṭavāda.
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
ktavatukṛt affix तवत् which also is called निष्ठा. It is prescribed in the active sense of somebody who has done a thing sometime in the past. A word ending in it is equivalent to the past active participle; exempli gratia, for example भुक्तवान् ब्राह्मणः cf P.I.1.26. The feminine. affix डीप् ( ई ) is added to nouns ending in क्तवतु to form feminine bases; confer, compare P.IV.1.6.
ktāntaa noun base ending in the kṛt affix क्त; past passive participle; confer, compare क्षेपे सप्तम्यन्तं क्तान्तेन सह समस्यते । अवतप्तेनकुलस्थितं त एतत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on II.2. 47.
ktārthaṃsense of क्त id est, that is sense of the past passive voice. participle; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्तार्थे, प्रादयः क्तार्थे ( समस्यन्ते ), P.II.2.18, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4.
ktrikṛt affix त्रि added to the roots marked with the syllable डु by Pāṇini in his Dhātupāṭha; after this affix त्रि, the taddhita affix. affix म ( मप् ) in the sense of निर्वृत्तम् (accomplished) is necessarily added, e. g. पक्त्रिमम्, कृत्रिमम्; confer, compare P. III. 3.88. and P. IV. 4.20.
kyapkṛt afix य applied to the roots व्रज् and यज् in the sense of 'verbal activity' and to the roots अजू with सम्, षद् with नि et cetera, and others to form proper nouns e. g. व्रज्या, इज्या, समज्या, निषद्या et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III. 3.98 and 99; (2) kṛtya affix य in the sense of 'should be done' applied to the roots वद्, भू and हन् (when preceded by certain words put as upapada), as also to roots with penultimate ऋ and the roots मृज्, इ, स्तु and others; e. g. ब्रह्मोद्यम् , ब्रह्मभूयम् , इत्यम् , स्तुत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1. 106,121.
kyaṣaffix य added to certain nouns like लोहित and others to form denominative roots after which terminations of both the padas are placed exempli gratia, for example लोहितायति, लोहितायते; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.13.
krama(1)serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simultaneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a particular order is generally followed in accordance with the general principle laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् et cetera, and others (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with reference to indeclinables like एव, च et cetera, and others which are placed after a noun with which they are connectedition When an indecinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; confer, compare परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kriyāvacanameaning or expressing a verbal activity; a term generally applied to dhātus or roots, or even to verbs. The term is also applied to denominative affixes like क्यच् which produce a sort of verbal activity in the noun to which they are added; confer, compare क्रियावचनाः क्यजादय: M.Bh. on III.1.19.
krukṛt affix रु applied to the root भी, exempli gratia, for example भीरुः, confer, compare P.III.2.174.
kvip(1)kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् et cetera, and others, and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; confer, compareP.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति et cetera, and others; confer, compare M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
ksa(1)aorist vikaraṇa affix substituted for च्लि; confer, compare P.III.1.45, 46; e. g. अदृक्षत्, आश्लिक्षत्, अधुक्षत् confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.1.45,46; (2) kṛt affix स applied to the root दृश् preceded by a pronoun such as त्यद्, तद् et cetera, and others exempli gratia, for example यादृक्षः, तादृक्ष: et cetera, and others confer, compare दृशेः क्सश्च वक्तव्य: P.III.2.60 Vārttika. (3) affix स applied to the root गाह् or ख्या or कव् to form the noun कक्ष; confer, compare कक्षो गाहतेः क्स इति नामकरण: ख्यातेर्वा कषतेर्वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2.
khataddhita affix. affix, always changed into ईन, (l) applied to the word कुल in the sense of a descendant, exempli gratia, for example कुलीनः, आढ्यकुलीन:; confer, compare P. IV. 1.139; (2) applied to the words अवार, पार, पारावार and अवारपार in the Śaīṣika senses, e. g. अवारीणः, पारीणः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.93 and Vārttikas 2, 3 on it; (3) applied to words ending in the word वर्ग ( which does not mean 'sound' or 'letter' ) in the sense of 'present there,' e. g. वासुदेववर्गीणः, युधिष्ठिरवर्गीणः; confer, compare P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words सर्वधुर and एकधुर in the sense of 'bearing,' and to ओजसू , वेशोभग, यशोभग and पूर्व, exempli gratia, for example ओजसीनः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.4.78, 79, 130, 132, 133; (5) applied in the sense of 'favourable to' to the words आत्मन् , विश्वजन, et cetera, and others (P.V.1.9), to विंशतिक, (32) to अाढक, अाचित, पात्र and others (53-55), to समा (85-86), to रात्रि, अहन् , संवत्सर and वर्ष (87-88) and संवत्सर and परिवत्सर (92); e. g. आत्मनीनः, आढकीनः पात्रीणः, समीनः, संवत्सरीणः et cetera, and others; (6) to the words सर्वचर्मन्, यथामुख et cetera, and others e. g. सर्वचर्मीणः confer, compare P.V. 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words अषडक्ष, अशितंगु et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.4.7,8. e. g. अषडक्षीणः. (8) ख is also a technical term in the sense of elision or लोप in the Jainendra Grammar confer, compare Jain I. 1.61. (9) The word ख is used in the sense of 'glottis' or the hole of the throat ( गलबिल ) in the ancient Prātiṣākhya works.
khackṛt affix अ in the sense of 'agent' applied to the roots वद्, ताप् , and यम् when preceded by certain उपपद words standing as objects. Before this affix खच्, the augment मुम् ( म् ) is added to the preceding उपपद if it is not an indeclinable. e. g. प्रियंवदः, वशंवदः, द्विषंतपः परंतपः वाचंयम: et cetera, and others cf P.III. 2.38-47.
khañtaddhita affix. affix ईन, applied to महाकुल in the sense of a descendant; e. g. माहाकुलीनः confer, compare P. IV. 1.141, to ग्राम (P. IV. 2.94), to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the Śaiṣika senses (P.IV.3.1), to प्रतिजन, इदंयुग et cetera, and others (P. IV. 4.99), to माणव and चरक (P. V.1.11), to ऋत्विज् (P.IV.3.71), to मास (P. IV. 3.81), to words meaning corn in the sense of 'a field producing corn' (P.V.2.1), to सर्वचर्मन् (P.V.2.5), and to the words गोष्ठ, अश्व, शाला et cetera, and others in some specified senses (P. V. 3.18-23). A vṛddhi vowel ( अा, ऐ or औ ) is substituted for the first vowel of the word to which this affix खञ् is applied, as ञ् is the mute letter applied in the affix खञ्.
khaṇḍataddhita affix. affix applied to कमल, अम्भोज et cetera, and others in the sense of समूह, e. g. कमलखण्डम, अम्भोजखण्डम, also to the words वृक्ष and its synonyms, e. g. वृक्षखण्डः, तरुखण्डः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś on P. IV.2.38, 51.
khamuñkṛt affix अम् applied to the root कृ when preceded by a word standing as the object of the root, provided an abuse is meant, e. g. चोरंकारं आक्रोशति; confer, compare P. III. 4.25.
khitcharacterized by the mute letter ख्, applied to kṛt affixes which, by reason of their being खित् , cause (a) the addition of the augment मुम् ( म् ) to the preceding words अरुस् , द्विषद् and words ending in a vowel, and (b) the shortening of the long vowel of the preceding word if it is not an indeclinable; confer, compare P. VI. 3.66-68.
khilapāṭhaa supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadeśa generally in the form of the sūtras. The word is used in the Kāśikā in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadeśa; confer, compare Kāśikā उपदिश्यते अनेनेत्युपदेश: शास्त्रवाक्यानि सूत्रपाठ: खिलपाठश्च (on P.I.3.2); confer, compare also खिलपाठो धातुपाठः प्रातिपदिकपाठो वाक्यपाठश्च Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on Kāśikā I.3.2.
khyunkṛt affix अन applied to the root कृ in the sense of an instrument when preceded by the words अाढ्य, सुभग, स्थूल et cetera, and others provided the whole word is similar in sense to cvi-formation ( च्व्यर्थ ), exempli gratia, for example अाढ्यं करणम् , सुभगंकरणम्; confer, compare P. III. 2.56; feminine. अाढ्यंकरणी, confer, compare नञ्स्नञीकक्ख्युंस्तरुणतलुनानामुपसंख्यानम् P.IV.1.15.Vārttika.
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
gaṇapāṭhathe mention individually of the several words forming a class or gaṇa, named after the first word said to have been written by Pāṇini himself as a supplementary work to his great grammar called Aṣṭaka or Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., the Sikṣā,the Dhātupātha and the Lingānuśāsana being the other ones. Other grammarians such as शाकटायन, अापिशलि and others have their own gaṇapāthās. The gaṇapāthā is traditionally ascribed to Pāṇini; the issue is questioned, however, by modern scholars. The text of the gaṇapāṭha is metrically arranged by some scholars. The most scholarly and authoritative treatise on gaṇapāṭha is the Gaṇaratnamahodadhī of Vardhamāna.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
gamyādia class of words headed by the word गमी which are formed by the application of unādi affixes in the sense of future time; e. g. गमी ग्रामम्, अागामी, प्रस्थायी et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 3. 3.
garbhavatliterally just like a foetus. The word is used in connection with affixes that are placed like a foetus in the midst of a word in spite of the rule that affixes are to be placed after; confer, compare परश्च P. III. 1. 2. The affixes अकच् , टाप् et cetera, and others are of this kind; confer, compare गर्भवट्टाबादयो भवन्ति । यथा मध्ये गर्भस्तथा टाबादयः स्त्रीप्रत्ययाः प्रातिपदिकस्वाद्योर्मध्ये भवन्ति Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPar. Vṛ. Pari. 91.
gahādia class of words headed by the word गह to which the taddhita affix ईय (छ) is added in the Saisika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. गहीयम् , अन्तस्थीयम्; this class called 'gahiya' is looked upon as अाकृतिगण, and hence the words वैणुकीयम् वैत्रकीयम् and the like could be explained as correct; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.138.
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
gopavanādia class of eight words headed by the word गोपवन, the taddhita affix in the sense of गोत्र ( i. e. a descendant excepting a son or a daughter) such as the affix यञ् or अञू after which, is not elided in the plural number; c. g. गौपवना:, शौग्रवा: et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.67.
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
goyugaca taddhita affix. affix applied to nouns like अश्व, उष्ट्र, et cetera, and others in the sense of a pair e. g. उष्ट्रगोयुगम्, अश्वयोयुगम्: confer, compare द्वित्वे गोयुगच् Kas on P. V. 2.29.
golḍsṭyūkaraa well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.
goṣṭhaca taddhita affix.affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; confer, compare गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.1. varia lectio, another reading,2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
grahaṇa(1)technical term for a word or प्रातिपदिक in Veda; confer, compare ग्रहणस्य च । गृह्यते इति ग्रहणं वेदस्थः इाब्दः । तत् त्रिविधम् । कार्यभाक्, निमित्तम्, उपबन्ध इति । तस्यापि स्वरूपपूर्वकः अकारः आख्या भवति । Com. on T.Pr.I.22; (2) citing, quoting; confer, compare ग्रहणवता प्रातिपादिकेन न तदन्तविधिः Par.Sek. Pari. 3I ; confer, compare also गृह्णन्तीति ग्रहणाानि Com. on T.Pr.I.24. (3) mention, inclusion; (4) employment in a rule of grammar; confer, compare प्रातिपादिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Par. Sek.Pari.71.
gsnukrt affix स्नु applied to the roots ग्लै, जि and स्था in the sense of an agent: confer, compare ग्लाजिस्थश्व क्स्नुः P.III.1.139.
gh(1)fourth consonant of the guttural class of consonants having the properties कण्ठसंवृतत्व, घोष, नादानुप्रदानत्व and महाप्राणत्व; (2)the consonant घ at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which is always changed into इय्; confer, compare P. VII. 1. 9; (3) substitute for ह् at the end of roots beginning with द्, as also of the root नह् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.VIII.2.32,33,34; (4) substitute for the consonant व् of मतुव् placed after the pronouns किम् and इदम् which again is changed into इय् by VII.1.9: exempli gratia, for example कियान्, इयान्: confer, compare P.V. 2.40.
gha(l)consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compareTai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the taddhita affix. affixes तरप् and तमप्, confer, compare P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) taddhita affix. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) taddhita affix. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; confer, compare P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun id est, that isa noun in a specific sense or a technical term; confer, compare III.3. 118, 119,125.
ghañkrt affix अ causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel applied in various senses as specified in P.III.3. 16-42, III.3. 45-55,III.3.120-125, exempli gratia, for example पाद:, रोग:, आयः, भावः, अवग्राहृः प्रावारः, अवतारः, लेखः रागः etc
ghantaddhita affix. affix अ applied to the words शुक्र, तुग्र, पात्र, and to multisyllabic words in specified senses, causing the acute accent on the first vowel of the word so formed; confer, compareIV.2.26, IV.4. 115, V.1.68, V.3.79, 80.
ghastad, affix इय, occurring in Vedic Literature,applied to the word ऋतु, exempli gratia, for example अयं ते योनिऋत्वीयः; confer, compare Kās on P. V.1.106.
ghi(1)a tech. term applied to noun bases or Prātipadikas ending in इ and उ excepting the words सखि and पति and those which are termed नदी; confer, compare P. I. 4.79; (2) a conventional term for लधु ( a short vowel) found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ghitaffixes having the mute letter घ्, as for instance, घञ् घ, घच् et cetera, and otherswhich cause the substitution of a guttural in the place of the palatal letter च् or ज् before it: exempli gratia, for example त्याग: राग: confer, compare P.VII.3.52.
ghinuṇkrt affix इन् causing the substitution of Vrddhi for the preceding vowel, as also to the penultimate vowel अ, applied to the eight roots शम्,तम्, दम् et cetera, and others, as also to संपृच्, अनुरुध् et cetera, and others and कस्, लष् लप्, et cetera, and others. e. g. शमी,तमी, दमी, संपर्की, संज्वारी, प्रलापी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. III.2.141-145.
ghua tech. term applied to the roots दा and धा, as also to those like दे or दो which become दा by the substitution of अा for the final diphthong vowel, barring the root दाप् (to cut) and दैप् (to purify): दाधा ध्वदाप् P.I. 1.20.
dhurackrt affix उर applied to the roots भञ्ज् ,भास् and भिद् in the sense of habit; exempli gratia, for example भङ्गुरं काष्ठम्,भासुरं ज्योतिः, मेदुर: पशुः: confer, compare Kas on P.III.2.161.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
ṅīṣfeminine. afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः confer, compare P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc exempli gratia, for example इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' confer, compare P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
cakrakaa kind of fault in the application of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps; confer, compare पुनर्ऋच्छिभावः पुनराट् इति चक्रकमव्यवस्था प्राप्नोति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.60 Vart 5.
caṅa Vikarana affix of the aorist substituted for च्लि after roots ending in the causal sign णि, as also after the roots श्रि, द्रु and others; this चङ् causes reduplication of the preceding root form; confer, compare P. III 1.48-50, e. g. अचूचुरत्, अशिश्रियत्; confer, compare also P. VII. 4.93.
caṇaptaddhita affix. affix चण in the sense of वित्त (known by) applied to a word which refers to that thing by which a person is known. e. g. विद्याचणः, केशचण:; confer, compare P. V. 2.26.
candrācāryaa grammarian mentioned by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya as one who took a leading part in restoring the traditional explanation of Panini's Vyakarana which, by the spread of rival easy treatises on grammar, had become almost lost: confer, compare यः पतञ्जलिशिष्येभ्यो भ्रष्टो ब्याकरणागमः । काले स दाक्षिणात्येषु ग्रन्थमात्रे व्यवस्थित: ॥ पर्वतादागमं लब्ध्वा भाष्यबीजानुसारिभि: । स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः ॥ Vakyapadiya II. 488-489. See चन्द्र and चन्द्रगोमिन्.
caraṇaexplained as a synonym of the word शाखा which means a branch or a school of Vedic Learning; confer, compare चरणशब्दाः कठकलापादय:: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.46.
caritārthawhich has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connection with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it according to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति confer, compare अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.
carcā(1)splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is generalty shown in the Padaptha by अवग्रहं (S). The word, hence means पदपाठ or recital by showing separately the constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahabhasya in respect of showing the words of a sutra separately; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐजिति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on Mahesvara Sutra 1 Wart. 6l ; (2) a repeated word; confer, compare इतिकरणात् पुरतो यत् पुनः पदवचनं तत् चर्चाशब्देनोच्यते. Uvvata on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.20; (3) a discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each single word; confer, compare प्रर्यायशब्दानां लाघवगौरवचर्चा नाद्रियते Par. Sek. Pari. 115.
cāturvarṇyādiwords mentioned in the class headed by चातुर्वर्ण्य where the taddhita affix. affix ष्यञ् is applied although the words चतुर्वर्ण, चतुर्वेद and others are not गुणवचन words to which ष्यञ् is regularly applied by P. V-1-124. confer, compare ब्राह्मणादिषु चातुर्वर्ण्यादीनामुपसंख्यानम् P. V. I. 124 Vart. 1.
cānaśkrt affix अान applied to a root, to signify habit, age or strength; e. g. आत्मानं भूषयमाणाः । कवचं बिभ्राणाः । शत्रून्निघ्राना: confer, compare P. III. 2. 129.
cāpthe feminine. affix आ, applied to words ending in the taddhita affix. affixes ञ्यङ् and ष्यङ्; e. g. कौसल्या, वाराह्या, गौकक्ष्या; cf Kas, on P. IV. 1. 74.
cālutaddhita affix. affix ( आलु ) applied to the word हृदय, in the sense of possession, optionally along with the affixes वत् इन् and इक. exempli gratia, for example हृदयालुः, हृदयवान् , हृदयी and हृदयिकः; confer, compare Kas: on V.2. 122.
ciccandrikāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in reply to the treatise named दूषकरदोद्भेदः See विष्णुशास्त्रिन्. For details see pp. 39, 40 of Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
ciṇsubstitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् et cetera, and others in the active voice before the affix त of the third person. singular. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66.
cidasthimālāname of a commentary on the Laghusabdendusekhara by Vaidyanatha Payagunde,one of the distinguished disciples of Nagesabhatta.
cuñcuptaddhita affix.. affix चुञ्चु applied to a word in the sense of 'well-known by'; e. g. विद्याचुञ्चु:; confer, compare P.V. 2.26.
celutaddhita affix. affix एलु applied to the word हिंम in the sense of 'unable to bear ' e. g, हिमेलुः, confer, compare P. V. 2. 122 Vart. 7.
codaka(1)an objector; the word is common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to making matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with इति interposed: confer, compare चेदकः परिग्रहः इत्यनर्थान्तरम्. See अदृष्टवर्ण and परिग्रह.
cvitaddhita affix. affix ( of which nothing remains ) to signify the taking place of something which was not so before; after the word ending in च्वि the forms of the root कृ, भू or असू have to be placed; e. g. शुक्लीकरोति; confer, compare P. V. 4. 50
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
chakārathe letter छ, the word कार being looked upon as an affix added to the consonant छ् which, by the addition of अ, is made a complete syllable; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 16, 21.
jaśbhāvathe same as जश्त्व, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..जस् case termination अस् of the nominative case. plural: confer, compareP. IV. 1.2.
jasicase termination अस् of the nominative case. plural mentioned as जस् by Panini in IV. 1.2, but referred to as जसि by him; confer, compare P.IV.1.31 and VII.1.50.
jahatsvārthā( वृत्ति )a composite expression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमानय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2.
jātabahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity of a Bahiranga operation that has already taken place by virtue of the Antaranga-paribhasa-असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्ङ्गेthat which is ' bahiranga' is regarded as not having taken effect when that which is 'antarahga' is to take effect. For details see Par. Sek. Paribhasa 50.
jātābhīyāsiddhatvainvalidity of a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule in the अाभीय section (P. VI. 4.22 upto the end of the fourth pada ) which, although it has taken place, is to be looked upon as not having taken place when any other operation in the same section is to take effect. See आभीयासिद्व.
jihvāmūlasthāna(l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its production;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when followed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the guttural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.
jusverbal termination उस् substituted for the original झि of the third person. pl, in certain cases mentioned inP.III.4.108,109,110,111, and 112.
juhotyādigaṇathe class of roots headed by हु after which the vikarana Sap is elided and the root is reduplicated in the four conjugational tenses; third conjugation of roots.
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
jaumārapariśiṣṭaa supplement to the Jaumara Vyakarana written by Goyicandra. See गीयीचन्द्र.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jhi(1)verb-ending of the 3rd person. plural Parasmaipada, substituted for the लकार of the ten lakaras, changed to जुस in the potential and the benedictive moods, and optionally so in the imperfect and after the sign स् of the aorist; confer, compareP,III. 4. 82, 83, 84, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112: (2) a conventional term for अव्यय (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakaraha.
ṭāpfeminine affix अा added to masculine nouns ending in अ by the rule अजाद्यतष्टाप् IV. 1.4 excepting those nouns where any other affix prescribed by subsequent rules becomes applicable.
ṭyaṇtaddhita affix. affix य, causing वृद्धि for the initial vowel and the addition of the feminine. affix ई, applied to the word सोम in the sense of 'having that as a deity,' e. g. सौम्यं हविः, सौमी ऋक्: confer, compare P.IV. 2.30.
ṭyutaddhita affix. affix अन to which the augment त्, is prefixed, making the affix तन, applicable to the words सायं, चिरं, प्राह्वे, प्रगे ,and indeclinable words in the Saisika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. सायंतन:, चिरंतनः दिवातनम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.23, 24.
ṭlañtaddhita affix. affix ल, causing vrddhi for the initial vowel of the word to which it is added and also the addition of the feminine.affix ई,applied to the word शमी in the sense of 'विकार,' e. g. शामीली स्रुक्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.142.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṭhacataddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) with the vowel अ accented acute applied to (1) कुमुद and others as a Caturarthika affix; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with उप which are proper nouns for persons; confer, compare P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word एकशाला in the sense of इव; confer, compare P. V.3.109. The base, to which टच् is added, retains generally two syllables or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ठच् e. g. देविकः, वायुकः, पितृकः शेबलिकः et cetera, and others from the words देवदत्त, वायुदत्त, पितृदत्त, शेवलदत्त et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V,3.83, 84.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
ṭhantaddhita affix. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; confer, compare P.IV.4. 7; exempli gratia, for example नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; confer, compare P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; confer, compare P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(possession); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
(1)third letter of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and अल्पप्राण; (2) mute letter applied to affixes by Panini to show the elision of the टि part (confer, compare P. 1. 1.64.) of the preceding word viz. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants following it; cf, टेः ; ( लोप: डिति प्रत्यये परे ) VI.4.143. The syllable ति of विंशति is also elided before an affix markwith the mute letter ड्.
ḍa(1)krt affix अ applied to the root गम् preceded by अन्त, अत्यन्त, अध्वन् et cetera, and others, as also to the roots हन् and जन् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. III.2,48,49, 50, 97-101 and to the root क्रन् to form the word नक्र confer, compare P. VI. 3.75; (2) taddhita affix. affix अ applied to words ending in दशन्, words ending in शत् and the word विंशति in the sense of 'more than' exempli gratia, for example एकादशं शतम्, एकत्रिंशम्, एकविंशम्, cf P.V.2.45, 46.
ḍaṭtaddhita affix. अ, affix in the sense of पूरण applied to a numeral to form an ordinal numeral; e. g. एकादशः, त्रयोदशः, confer, compare P.V.2.48
ḍaṇtaddhita affix. affix अ, causing vrddhi and टिलोप, applied to त्रिंशत् and चत्वारिंंशत् to show the परिमाण id est, that is measurement or extent of a Brahmana work; exempli gratia, for example त्रैंशानि ब्राह्मणानि, चात्वरिंशानि confer, compare P. V. I.62
ḍatamactaddhita affix. affix अतम in the sense of determination or selection of one out of many, applied to the pronouns किं, यत् and तत्; e,g. कतमः confer, compare P.V.3.93,as also to एक according to Eastern Grammarians; exempli gratia, for example एकतमो भवतां देवदत्तः; confer, compare P.V.3.94.
ḍataractaddhita affix. affix अतर in the sense of 'selection out of two' applied to the words किं, यत् and तत् as also to the word एक; e. g. कतरो भवतोः पटुः confer, compare P. V. 3.92, एकतरो भवतोर्देवदत्तः confer, compare P.V.3.94.
ḍas(1)affix अस् applied to the word श्वेतवाह and others at the end of a pada i.e when the word श्वेतवाह has got the पदसंज्ञा. exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः इन्द्रः । श्वेतवोभ्याम् confer, compareP.III.2.71 Vārt,1 and 2.
ḍāctaddhita affix. affix आ applied to dissyllabic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoetic, when connected with the root कृ or भू or अम्. The word to which डाच् is applied becomes generally doubled; c. g पटपटाकरोति, पटपटाभवति पटपटास्यात्; confer, compare P.V.4.57. The affix डाच् is also applied to द्वितीय, तृतीय, to compound words formed of a numeral and the word गुण, as also to the words सपत्र, निष्पत्र, सुख, प्रिच etc when these words are connected with the root कृ;exempli gratia, for example द्वितीयाकरोति,तृतीया करोति, द्विगुणाकरोति, सपत्राकरोति, सुखाकरोति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4. 58 to 67.
ḍāpfeminine. affix आ added optionally to words ending in मन् and to Bahuvrihi compounds ending in अन् to show feminine gender, the words remaining as they are when the optional affix डाप् is not applied; exempli gratia, for example दामा, सीमा, सुपर्वा; confer, compare P. IV. I.l l, 12, 13.
ḍinitaddhita affix. affix applied to अवान्तरदीक्षा, तिलव्रत et cetera, and others in the sense of चरति (observing); exempli gratia, for example तिलव्रती, confer, compare P. V. 1. 94 Vart 3; (2) applied in the sense of 'having as measurement'applied to numeral words ending in शत् or शिन् and the word विंशति; exempli gratia, for example त्रिंशिनो मासाः, विंशिनोङ्गिरसः; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. V. 2.37.
ḍimactaddhita affix. affix इम applied to the words अग्र, अादि, पश्चात् and अन्त in the Saisika senses; exempli gratia, for example अग्रिमम्, अादिमम् , पश्चिमम् , अन्तिमम्: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.3.23.
ḍulactaddhita affix. affix उल in the sense of 'brother' applied to the word मातृ; exempli gratia, for example मातुलः; confer, compare P. IV. 2.36 Vart 1.
ḍbhatuptaddhita affix. affix मत् as a चातुरर्थिक affix applied to the words कुमुद, नड and वेतत; exempli gratia, for example कुमुद्वान् , नड्वान, वेतस्वान्: confer, compareP. IV. 2.87.
ḍraṭkrt affix र with feminine. affix ई added to it, applied to the root रुत्यै. exempli gratia, for example स्त्री confer, compare संस्त्र्याने स्त्यायतेर्ड्रट् स्त्री Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.3.
ḍvita root marked with the mute syllable डु (at the beginning) to Signify the application of the krt affix त्रि which is invariably followed by the addition of म ( मप् ), in the sense of 'achieved by' e. g. पक्त्रिमम् ; कृत्रिमम्: confer, compare P. III. 3.88 ; and IV. 4.20.
ḍhataddhita affix. affix ढ (1) applied to the word सभा in the sense of 'fit for' ( तत्र साधुः ) in Vedic literature;. e. g. सभेयः; confer, compare IV. 4.106; (2) applied to the word शिला in the sense of इव; e. g. शिलेयं दधि ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102; (3) common term ( ढ ) for the affixes ढक्, ढञ् and ढ also, after the application of which the affix ङीप् (ई) is , added in the sense of feminine gender; confer, compare P. IV. 1.15.
ḍhakañtaddhita affix. affix एयक applied (1) to the word कुल optionally along with यत् and ख, when it is not a member of a compound;.e. g. कौलेयकः, कुल्यः, कुलीनः; confer, compare P.'IV. 1. 140; (2) to the words कत्त्रि and others in the Saisika senses as also to the words कुल, कुक्षि and ग्रीवा, if the words formed with the affix added, respectively mean dog, sword and ornament : e. g. कात्त्रेयकः कौलेयक: (श्वा), कौक्षेयकः (असिः), ग्रैवेयकः (अलंकारः): confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV 2.95,96.
ḍhañtaddhita affix. affix एय causing Vrddhi substituted for the first vowel of the base and the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् (इ), applied (1) to words meaning quadrupeds and words in the class of words headed by गृष्टि in the sense of अपत्य; e. g. कामण्डलेयः, गार्ष्टेयः, हालेय:, बालेयः etc; confer, compare P. IV.1.135,136; (2) to the word क्षीर, words of the class headed by सखि, the words कोश, दृति, कुक्षि, कलशि, अस्ति, अहि,ग्रीवा,वर्मती,एणी,पथि,अतिथि,वसति,स्वपति, पुरुष, छदि्स, उपधि, बलि, परिखा, and वस्ति in the various senses mentioned in connection with these words; exempli gratia, for exampleक्षेरेयः, .साखेयम् कौशेयम् दात्र्ऱेयम् , कौक्षेयम् etc, cf Kas'. on P. IV. 2. 20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, IV.4.1 04, V.1.10,13,17, V.3.101.
ḍhinuktaddhita affix. affix एयिन् applied to the word छगलिन् in the sense of 'students following the text of ' e. g. छागलेयिनः in the sense छगलिना प्रोक्तमधीयते ते; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.109.
ḍhraktaddhita affix. affix एर ( एय् + र ) applied in the sense of offspring to the word गोधा and optionally with ढक् to words meaning persons having a bodily defect or a low social status; e. g. गौधेरः, काणेरः दासेरः; काणेयः, दासेयः, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1. 129, 131.
ṇa(1)krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and ending with कस् in the first conjugation (see ज्वलिति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी without any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; exempli gratia, for exampleन्यादः निघसः; confer, compare P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; confer, compare P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः confer, compare P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; exempli gratia, for example दाण्डा, मौष्टा: confer, compare P. IV.2.57: {7) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habituated to' exempli gratia, for example छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: confer, compare P.IV. 4.62: (8) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified with respect to each ; exempli gratia, for example आन्नः (मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.
ṇastaddhita affix. affix अस् applied to the word पर्शू in the sense of collection. The original Varttika is पर्श्वाः सण् P. IV. 2. 43 Vart. 3. Some scholars read णस् in the place of सण् in the Varttika which is read as पर्श्वा णम् वक्तव्यः by them.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇijantaroots ending in णिच्; the term is generally applied to causal bases of roots. See णिच्.
ṇit(1)an affix with the mute con.sonant ण् added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate अ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; confer, compare P. VII.2.115117: e. g. अण्, ण, उण्, णि et cetera, and others: (2) an affix not actually marked with the mute letter ण् but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e. g. the Sarvanamasthana affixes after the words गो and सखि, confer, compare P. VII.1.90, 92.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇyataddhita affix.affix य (l) applied in the sense of 'descendant' as also in a few other senses, mentioned in rules from IV. 1. 92 to IV.3.168, applied to the words दिति, अदिति, अादित्य and word; with पति as the उत्तरपद in a compound, c. g. दैत्यः, आदित्यः, प्राजापत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. IV.1 84; (2) applied in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) applied to the words कुरु, गर्ग, रथकार, कवि, मति, दर्भ et cetera, and others, e.gकौरव्यः, गार्ग्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kas:, on P. IV. I.15I ; (3) applied in the sense of अपत्य or descendant to words ending in सेना,to the word लक्षण and to words in the sense of artisans, e.gकारिषेण्यः, लाक्षण्यः, तान्तुवाय्यः, कौम्भकार्यः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.152; (4) applied in the Catuararthika senses to the words संकाश, काम्पिल्थ, कश्मीर et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example साङ्काश्यम्, काम्पिल्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.80; (5) applied to the word परिषद् and optionally with the affix ठक् to the word सेना in the specified senses; e. g. परिषदं समवैति, परिषदि साधुर्वा पारिषद्य्ः, सेनां समवेति सैन्यः सैनिको वा; confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 44, 45, 101 ; (6) applied as a taddhita affix. affix called ' tadraja , to the word कुरु and words beginning with न e. g. कौरव्यः नैषध्यः; confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 1.172; कुरवः, निषधाः et cetera, and others are the nominative case. plural formanuscript.
ṇyatkrtya affix य which causes vrddhi and which has the circurmflex accent (1) applied to a root ending with ऋ or any consonant to form the pot. passive voice.participle: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम् , वाक्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kas on P. IV. 1.124; (2) applied to a root ending in उ if a necessity of the activity is to be indicated, e. g. अवश्यलाव्यम् , अवश्यपान्यम् confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.125; (3) taddhita affix. affix य applied to the word षण्मास्र optionally with यप् and ठञ् affixes: e. g. षाण्मास्यः, षण्मास्यः, षाण्मासिकः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 1.84.
ṇyuṭkrt affix अन in the sense of ' skilled agent ' applied (1) to the root गै to singular. exempli gratia, for example गायनः, गायनी, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III 1.147, also गाथकः, गाथिका by P. III. 1.146: (2) to the root हा (III. P. and III.A. also) if ' rice ' or ' time ' be the sense conveyed: e. g. हायना व्रीहयः, हायनः संवत्सरः .confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.148.
ṇvikrt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64.
ṇvinkrt affix व् or zero, seen applied in Vedic Literature to the root वह् preceded by श्वेत, to शंस् preceded by उक्थ, to दाश् preceded by पुरस् and to यज् preceded by अव. e. g. श्वेतवा इन्द्रः, उक्थशा यजमानः, पुरोडाः, अवयाः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2.71, 72.
ṇvuckrt affix अक seen always with the feminine. affix अा applied to a root when the sense conveyed is ' a turn ' or ' a deserving thing ' or ' debt ' or ' occurrence;' e. g. भवतः शायिका, अर्हति भवान् इक्षुभक्षिकाम्, ओदनभोजिकां धारयसि, इक्षुभक्षिका उदपादि ; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.1 1 1.
ṇvul(1)a very general krt affix अक, causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding the affix, applied to a root optionally with तृ (i. e. तृच् ) in the sense of an agent e. g कारकः हारकः also कर्ता, हर्ता ; Cf P. III. 1.33; (2) krt. affix अक applied optionally with the affix तुम् to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the principal verb; e. g. भोजको व्रजति or भोक्तुं व्रजति; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्; P. III. 3.10; (3) krt affix अक, necessarily accompanied by the feminine. affix अा added to it, applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query ; e. g. प्रवाहिका, प्रच्छर्दिका, शालभञ्जिका, तालभञ्जिका, कारिक, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.108, 109, 110.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
takārathe consonant त्, the vowel अ and the word कार being placed after it for facility in understanding; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 17, 21.
takṣaśilādia class of words headed by तक्षशिला to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a native place or a domicile'. The word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel; e. g. ताक्षशिलः वात्सोद्वरणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.93.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tatkālarequiring the same time for utterance as for example one matra for short vowels, two for long ones and three for protracted ones, although those vowels are nasalised or pure, or acute, grave or circumflex. See the word तपर.
tattvādarśaname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by M. M. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar in 1889 A. D. The commentary is more critical than explanatory,wherein the author has given the purpose and the gist of the important Paribhasas and has brought out clearly the differences between the school of Bhattoji and the school of Nagesa in several important matters.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadguṇībhūtaliterally made subordinated to (the principal factor); completely included so as to form a portion The word is used in connection with augments which, when added to.a word are completely included in that word, and, in fact, form a part of the word: cf यदागमास्तद्भुणीभूतास्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यन्ते Par. Sek. Pari. 11.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
tadrājathe taddhita affixes अञ्,अण्,ञ्यङ, ण्य, as also इञ्, छ्, ञ्युट्, ण्य, टेण्यण् and यञ् given in the rules of Panini IV. 1.168-174 and V.3. 112-119. They are called तद्राज as they are applied to such words as mean both the country and the warrior race or clan ( क्षत्त्रिय ): confer, compare तद्राजमाचक्षाणः तद्राजः S. K. on P. IV.l.168. The peculiar feature of these tadraja affixes is that they are omitted when the word to which they have been applied is used in the plural number; e. g. ऐक्ष्वाकः, ऐक्ष्वाकौ, इक्ष्वाकवः; similarly इक्ष्वाकूणाम्; confer, compare P.II.4.62.
tana(1)personal ending for त of the second person. plural Parasmaipada in the imperative in Vedic Literature e.g जुजुष्टन for जुषत confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. On P VII. 1.45; (2) taddhita affix. affixes टयु and टयुल् id est, that is अन which, with the augment त्, in effect becomes तन exempli gratia, for example सायंतन, चिरंतन, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. IV. 3.23.
tanap'Personal ending for त of the Second Pers.. plural e. g. दधातन for धत्त. Cf Kas on P. VII. 1.45. See तन.
tantraa word frequently used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of 'intended ' or विवक्षित. The word is used always in the neuter gender like प्रमाणम्; confer, compare तन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33, II. 2.34, नात्र निर्देशस्तन्त्रम् On P. I. 2.39, III.3.38, III. 4.21,IV.1.92 et cetera, and others The word is also explained in the sense of 'impor. tant'.
tap(1)taddhita affix. affix त added to the words पर्वन् and मरुत् to form the words पर्वतः and मरुत्तः; confer, compare P. V. 2.122 Vart. 10; (2) personal ending in Vedic Literature substitutcd for त of the imperative second. person. plural e. g. श्रुणोत ग्रावाणः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VII. 1.45.
tamaṭtaddhita affix. affix तम added optionally with the affix डट् ( अ ) to विंशति, त्रिंशत् et cetera, and others, as also to words ending with them, in the sense of पूरण (completion), and necessarily (नित्यं) to the words शत, सहस्र, षष्टि, सप्तति et cetera, and others e. g. एकविंशतितमः एकविंशः, त्रिंशत्तमः, त्रिंशः, शततमः, षष्टितम:, विंशी, त्रिंशी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on V. 2.56-58.
tayataddhita affix. affix तयप् applied to a numeral ( संख्या ) in the sense of अवयविन् or 'possessed of parts'; e. g. पञ्च अवयवा अस्य पञ्चतयम् , दशतयम् , चतुष्टयी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 2.42. अय is substituted for तय optionally after the numerals द्वि and त्रि and necessarily after उभ; confer, compare P. V. 2.43-44.
tavyakrtya affix applied to a root to form the pot.passive voice. part, exempli gratia, for example कर्तव्यम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1.96.
tavyatkrtya affix तव्य applied to a root to form the pot. passive voice. participle.; the affix तव्यत् has the circumflex accent on the last syllable; exempli gratia, for example कर्तव्यम् confer, compare Kas on P. III. 1 . 96.
tasi(1)taddhita affix.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing exempli gratia, for example वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; confer, compare Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) taddhita affix.affix तस् applied in the sense of the ablative case. case and substituted for the ablative case. case affix: exempli gratia, for example ग्रामतः अागच्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumental or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् confer, compare Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.
tācchabdya(1)use of a word for that word (of which the sense has been conveyed); the expression तादर्थ्या त्ताच्छब्द्यम् is often used by grammarians just like a Paribhasa; confer, compare अस्ति तादर्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यम् । बहुव्रीह्यर्थानि पदानि बहुव्रीहिरिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.29; similarly तृतीयासमास;for तृतीयार्थानि पदानि M.Bh. on P.I.1.30 or समासार्थे शास्त्रं समासः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.43; (2) use of a word for that word of which there is the vicinity; confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात् ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति। कालसहचरितो वर्णः। वर्णॊपि काल एव; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.27 where the letter उ is taken in the sense of time required for its utterance, the reason being that sound and time go together; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.2.70, IV.3.48, V.2.79; (3) use of a word for that which resides there; confer, compare तात्स्थ्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति M.Bh. on V.4.50 Vart. 3. At all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. places, the use of one word for another is by Laksana.
tāt(1)the same as तातङ् substituted for तु and हि of the imperative second. and third singular. Parasmaipada; confer, compare P.VII.1.35; (2) substitute तात् for त of the imperative 2nd plural in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example गात्रं गात्रमस्यानूनं कृणुतात् confer, compare Kas on P.VII.1.44.
tātiltaddhita affix. affix ताति in the very sense of the word to which it is applied occurring in Vedic Literature after the words सर्व and देव, as also after शिव, शम् and अरिष्ट in the sense of 'bringing about' and in the sense of भाव (presence) after the same words शिव, शम् and अरिष्ट; exempli gratia, for example सर्वतातिः, देवतातिः, शिवतातिः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.4.142-144.
tāthābhāvyaname given to the grave (अनुदात्त) vowel which is अवग्रह id est, that is which occurs at the end of the first member of a compound and which is placed between two acute vowels id est, that is is preceded by and followed by an acute vowel; exempli gratia, for example तनूSनप्त्रे, तनूSनपत्: confer, compare उदाद्यन्तो न्यवग्रहस्ताथाभाव्यः । V.Pr.I.120. The tathabhavya vowel is recited as a kampa ( कम्प ) ; confer, compare तथा चोक्तमौज्जिहायनकैर्माध्यन्दिनमतानुसारिभिः'अवग्रहो यदा नीच उच्चयॊर्मध्यतः क्वचित् । ताथाभाव्यो भवेत्कम्पस्तनूनप्त्रे निदर्शनम्'. Some Vedic scholars hold the view that the ताथाभाव्य vowel is not a grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel, but it is a kind of स्वरित or circumflex vowel. Strictly according to Panini "an anudatta following upon an udatta becomes Svarita": confer, compare P.VIII.4.66, V.Pr. IV. 1.138: cf also R.Pr.III. 16.
tāra(1)elevated, high; a place for the production of words; confer, compare T.Pr. XVII. 11; (2) recital in a high tone which is recommended in the evening time; confer, compare तारं तु विद्यात्सवने तृतीये, शिरोगतं तत्र सदा प्रयोज्यम् commentary on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 12.
tikakitavādia class of compound words headed by the dvandva compound तिककितव in which the taddhita affixes added to the constituent members of the compound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be used in the plural number; तैकायनयश्च कैतवायनयश्च तिककितवाः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 4.68.
tujādiroots such as the root तुज् and the like, which have their vowel of the reduplicative syllable lengthened as seen mostly in Vedic Literature: e. g. तूतुजानः, मामहानः, दाधार et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.1.7.
tuṭaugment त् (1) added to the affix अन substituted for the यु of ट्यु and ट्युल्; e. g. चिरंतनः, सायंतनः, confer, compare P. IV.3.23; (2) added to the taddhita affix. affix इक (ठक्) applied to the word श्वस् in the Saisika senses; e.g, शौवस्तिकः confer, compare P. IV. 3.15.
tṛ(1)substitute prescribed for the last vowel of the word अर्वन् so as to make it declinable like words marked with the mute letter ऋ; (2) common term for the krt affixes तृन् and तृच् prescribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the taddhita affix. affixes ईयस्, and इष्ठ are seen placed after words ending in तृ in Vedic Literature before which the affix तृ is elided; exempli gratia, for example करिष्ठः, दोहीयसी; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.59.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
tailactaddhita affix. affix तैल applied in the sense of oil to a word meaning the substance from which oil is extracted: e. g. तिलतैलं सर्षपतैलम् ; confer, compare विकारे सेनहने तैलच्, Kas on P. V. 2. 29.
taulvalyādia class of words headed by the word तौल्वलि, the taddhita affix in the sense of युवन् ( grandchild ) placed after which is not elided by P. II. 4. 60; exempli gratia, for example तौल्वलिः पिता, तौल्वलायनः पुत्रः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 4.61.
tri(1)krt affix क्त्रि, always having the taddhita affix. affix मप् ( म ) added to it, applied to the roots marked with the mute syllable डु prefixed to them in the Dhatupatha; e. g. कृत्रिमम्, पक्त्रिमम्; (2) a term signifying the plural number; confer, compare ना नौ मे मदर्थे त्रिद्व्येकेषु V.Pr.II.3.
th(1)personal-ending of the 2nd person. plural