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     Grammar Search "padas" has 10 results.
padas: masculine nominative singular stem: pada
padas: masculine accusative plural stem: pad
padas: neuter accusative plural stem: pad
padas: feminine accusative plural stem: pad
padas: masculine ablative singular stem: pad
padas: neuter ablative singular stem: pad
padas: feminine ablative singular stem: pad
padas: masculine genitive singular stem: pad
padas: neuter genitive singular stem: pad
padas: feminine genitive singular stem: pad
33 results for padas
padasadhātun. a manner of singing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasamayam. equals -pāṭha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasaṃdarbham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasaṃdhānan. putting together words (writing them into one word), ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasaṃdhim. the euphonic combination of words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasaṃghāṭam. connecting those words together which in the saṃhitā- are separated by a kind of refrain Va1rtt. 3 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasaṃghātam. idem or 'm. connecting those words together which in the saṃhitā- are separated by a kind of refrain Va1rtt. 3 ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasaṃghātam. a writer, an annotator, one who collects or classifies words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasaṃhitāf. equals -pāṭha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasaṃtānam. combination of words, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasamūham. a series of words or parts of verses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasamūham. equals -pāṭha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasthamfn. standing on one's feet, going on foot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasthamfn. equals -sthita- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasthānan. footprint, footmark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padasthitamfn. being in a station or office View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padastobham. Name of several sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padastobham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anūpadasto fail (or become extinct) after (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupadasta([ ]) or an-upadasya- ([ ]) or /an-upadasyat- ([ ]) or /an-upadasvat- ([ ]) or /an upadāsuka- ([ ]) mfn. not drying up, not decaying. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupadasūtran. a commentary explaining the text (of a brāhmaṇa-) word for word. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadas(3. plural -dasyanti-) to fail id est become dry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadasthamfn. not being in its place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadasthamfn. out of office. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturiḍaspadastobham. (see iḍas-pad/e-) Name of a sāman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekapadasthamfn. being in the same word. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramapadasopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śleṣārthapadasaṃgraham. Name of a dictionary of ambiguous words (by śrīharṣa-kavi-).
śvāpadasevitamfn. frequented or infested by wild beasts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upadasP. -dasyati- (subjunctive -dasat- ) to fail, be wanting, be extinguished or exhausted, dry up ; to want, lose, be deprived of (instrumental case) : Causal -dāsayati-, to cause to fail or cease, extinguish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upadastaetc. See an-upadasta-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upapadasamāsam. a compound containing an upa-pada- (exempli gratia, 'for example' kumbha-kāra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedapadastava(prob.) wrong reading for -pādastava-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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ghana घन a. [इन् मूर्तौ अप् घनादेशश्च Tv.] 1 Compact, firm, hard, solid; संजातश्च घनाघनः Māl.9.39.; नासा घनास्थिका Y.3.89; R.11.18. -2 Thick, close, dense; घनविरलभावः U.2.27; R.8.91; Amaru.59. -3 Thick-set, full, fully developed (as breasts); घटयति सुघने कुचयुगगगने मृगमदरुचि रूषिते Gīt.7; अगुरु-चतुष्कं भवति गुरू द्वौ घनकुचयुग्मे शशिवदना$सौ Śrut.8; Bh.1.8; Amaru.31. -4 Deep (as sound); दधानः सौधानामलघुषु निकुञ्जेषु घनताम् Māl.2.12; Mu.1.21. -5 Uninterrupted, permanent. -6 Impenetrable. -7 Great, excessive, violent. -8 Complete; अभ्यङ्गभङ्ग्या पापस्य न्यस्तं घनमपश्यतः Ks.4.53. -9 Auspicious, fortunate. -1 Coarse, gross. -11 Engrossed by, full or replete with; मा ते मलीमसविकारघना मतिर्भूत् Māl.1.32; निर्वृति˚ U.6.11. -नः A cloud; घनोदयः प्राक् तदनन्तरं पयः Ś.7.3; घनरुचिरकलापो निःसपत्नो$स्य जातः V.4.22. -2 An iron club, a mace; प्रतिजघान घनैरिव मुष्टिभिः Ki.18.1. -3 The body. -4 The cube of a number (in math.). -5 Extension, diffusion. -6 A collection, multitude, quantity, mass, assemblage. -7 Talc. -8 Phlegm. -9 Any compact mass or substance. -1 Hardness, firmness. -11 A particular manner of reciting Vedic texts : thus the padas नमः रुद्रेभ्यः ये repeated in this manner would stand thus :-- नमो रुद्रेभ्यो रुद्रेभ्यो नमो नमो रुद्रेभ्यो ये ये रुद्रेभ्यो नमो नमो रुद्रेभ्यो ये. -नम् 1 A cymbal, a bell, a gong. -2 Iron. -3 Tin. -4 Skin, rind, bark. -5 A mode of dancing; (neither quick nor slow). ind. closely; घटयति घनं कण्ठा- श्लेषे रसान्न पयोधरौ Ratn.3.9. -Com. -अत्ययः, -अन्तः 'disappearance of the cloud', the season succeeding the rains, autumn (शरद्); घनव्यपायेन गभस्तिमानिव R.3.37. -अज्ञानी N. of Durgā. -अम्बु n. rain; घनाम्बुभिर्भूरि विलम्बिनो घनाः Subhās. -आकरः the rainy season. -आगमः, -उदयः 'the approach of clouds', the rainy season; घनागमः कामिजनप्रियः प्रिये Ṛs.2.1. -आमयः the date-tree. -आश्रयः the atmosphere, firmament. -उत्तमः the face. -उदधिः a particular sea (hell ?). -उपलः hail. -ऊरू a woman having thick thighs; कुरु घनोरु पदानि शनैः शनैः Ve.2.2. -ओघः gathering of clouds. -कफः hail. -कालः the rainy season. -क्षम a. what may be hammered; Bhāvapr. 5.26.53. -गर्जितम् 1 thunder, peal or thundering noise of clouds, roar of thunder. -2 a deep loud roar. -गोलकः alloy of gold and silver. -घनः the cube of a cube. -जम्बाल thick mire. -ज्वाला lightning. -तालः a kind of bird (सारंग). -तोलः the Chātaka bird. -धातुः lymph. -ध्वनि a. roaring. (-निः) 1 a deep or low tone. -2 the muttering of thunder clouds; अनुहुंकुरुते घनध्वनिं न हि गोमायुरुतानि केशरी Śi.16.25. -नाभिः smoke (being supposed to be a principal ingredient in clouds; Me.5). -नीहारः thick hoar-frost or mist. -पदम् the cube root. -पदवी 'the path of clouds', firmament, sky; क्रामद्भिर्घनपदवीमनेकसंख्यैः Ki.5.34. -पाषण्डः a peacock. -फलम् (in geom.) the solid or cubical contents of a body or of an excavation. -मानम् the measurement by the exterior of a structure; Māna. 39-64. -मूलम् cube root (in math.) -रसः 1 thick juice. -2 extract, decoction. -3 camphor. -4 water (m. or n.). -रूपा candied sugar. -वरम् the face. -वर्गः the square of a cube, the sixth power (in math). -वर्त्मन् n. the sky; घनवर्त्म सहस्रधेव कुर्वन् Ki.5.17. -वल्लिका, -वल्ली lightning. -वाच् a raven. -वातः 1 a thick oppressive breeze or air. -2 N. of a hell; Jaina. -वीथिः the sky; घनवीथिवीथिमवतीर्णवतः Śi.9.32. -शब्दः thunder, peal of thunder. -वासः a kind of pumpkin gourd. -वाहनः 1 Śiva. -2 Indra. -श्याम a. 'dark like a cloud', deep-black, dark. (-मः) an epithet (1) of Rain (2) of Kṛiṣṇa. -संवृत्तिः profound secrecy. -समयः the rainy season. -सारः 1 camphor; घनसारनीहारहार &c. Dk.1 (mentioned among white substances). -2 mercury. -3 water. -4 a big cloud; घनसारस्तु कर्पूरे महामेघे च चन्दने Nm. -स्वनः, -शब्दः, -रवः the roaring of clouds. -हस्त- संख्या the contents of an excavation or of a solid in math.).
ṣaṣ षष् num. a. (used in pl., nom. षट्; gen. षण्णाम्) Six; तेषां त्ववयवान् सूक्ष्मान् षण्णामप्यमितौजसाम् Ms.1.16;8.43. -Comp. -अंशः (ष़डंशः) a sixth part. -अक्षीणः (षडक्षीणः) a fish. -अङ्गम् (ष़डङ्गम्) 1 (a) six parts of the body taken collectively : जङ्घे बाहू शिरो मध्यं षडङ्गमिदमुच्यते । (b) The other six parts of the body are 'हृदयशिरःशिखा- नेत्रकवचास्त्राणि' as in Māl.5.2 (नित्यं न्यस्तषडङगचक्रनिहितं हृत्पद्यमध्योदितम्); cf. com. on the verse. -2 the six works auxiliary to the Veda; शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दसां चितिः । ज्योतिषामयनं चैव षडङ्गो वेद उच्यते ॥ see वेदाङ्ग also. ˚विद् knowing the six वेदाङ्गs; Ms.3.145. -3 six auspicious things, i. e. the six things obtained from a cow; गोमूत्रं गोमयं क्षीरं सर्पिर्दधि च रोचना । षडङ्गमेतन्माङ्गल्यं पठितं सर्वदा गवाम् ॥ -3 any set of six articles. ˚जत् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -अङ्घ्रिः (षडङ्घ्रिः) a bee; किमिह बहु षडङ्घ्रे गायसि त्वम् Bhāg.1.47.14.; Śi.1.4. -अधिक a. (-षडधिक) exceeded by six; षडधिकदशनाडीचक्रमध्यस्थितात्मा Māl.5.1. -अभिज्ञः (षडभिज्ञः) a Buddhist deified saint. -अशीत (षडशीत) eighty-sixth. -अशीतिः f. (-ष़डशीतिः) 1 eighty-six. -2 N. of the four passages of the sun from one zodiacal sign to the other; L. D. B. -अष्टकम् (in astr.) a particular Yoga. -अहः (ष़डहः) a period of six days. -आननः, -वक्त्रः, -वदनः, (षडाननः, षड्वक्त्रः, षड्वदनः) epithets of Kārtikeya; षडाननापीतपयोधरासु नेता चमूनामिव कृत्तिकासु R.14.22. -आम्नायः (षडाम्नायः) the six-fold Tantra. -ऊर्मिः the six waves of existence. -ऊषणम् (ष़डूषणम्) six spices taken collectively; पञ्चकोलं समरिचं षडूषणमुदाहृतम्. -ऋतुः m. pl. the six seasons (i. e. वसन्त, ग्रीष्म, वर्षा, शरद्, हेमन्त and शिशिर). -कर्ण a. (-षट्कर्ण) heard by six ears; i. e. by a third person other than the speaker and the person spoken to; told to more than one listener (as a counsel, secret &c.); षट्कर्णो भिद्यते मन्त्रः Pt.1.99. (-र्णः) a kind of lute. -कर्मन् n. (षट्कर्मन्) 1 the six acts or duties enjoined on a Brāhmaṇa; they are अध्यापनमध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहश्चैव षट्कर्माण्यग्र- जन्मनः ॥ Ms.1.75. -2 the six acts allowable to a Brāhmaṇa for his subsistence:- उच्छं प्रतिग्रहो भिक्षा वाणिज्यं पशुपालनम् । कृषिकर्म तथा चेति षट्कर्माण्यग्रजन्मनः ॥. -3 the six acts that may be performed by means of magic :- शान्ति, वशीकरण, स्तम्भन, विद्वेष, उच्चाटन and मरण. -4 the six acts belonging to the practice of Yoga :- धौतिर्वस्ती तथा नेती नौलिकी (नौलिकः) त्राटकस्तथा । कपालभाती चैतानि षट्कर्माणि समाचरेत् ॥ (-m.) 1 a Brāhmaṇa skilled in the above six acts. -2 one well-versed in the Tantra magical rites. -कोण a. (-षट्कोण) hexangular. (-णम्) 1 a hexagon. -2 the thunderbolt of Indra. -3 a diamond. -गया the sixfold gayā; गयागजो गयादित्यो गायत्री च गदाधरः । गया गयासुरश्चैव षड्गया मुक्तिदायकाः ॥ -गवम् (षड्गवम् 1 a team or yoke of six oxen. -2 a yoke of six (sometimes after the names of other animals); i. e. हस्ति˚, अश्व˚ 'six elephants, horses &c.'. -गवीय a. drawn by six oxen; न यद्वहेच्छकटं षड्गवीयम् Mb.8.76.17. -गुण a. (-षड्गुण) 1 sixfold. -2 having six attributes. (-णम्) 1 an assemblage of six qualities. -2 the six expedients to be used by a king in foreign politics; see under गुण (21); cf. षाड्गुण्य also. -ग्रन्थः a kind of Karañja tree. -ग्रन्थि n. (-षड्ग्रन्थि) the root of long pepper. -ग्रन्थिका (षड्- ग्रन्थिका) zedoary (शठी). -चक्रम्, (षट्चक्रम्) the six mystical circles of the body, i. e. मूलाधार, स्वाधिष्ठान, मणिपूर, अनाहत, विशुद्ध and आज्ञाख्य. -चत्वारिंशत् (षट्चत्वारिंशत्) forty-six. -चरणः (षट्चरणः) -1 a bee. -2 a locust. -3 a louse. -जः, (ष़ड्जः) the fourth (or first according to some) of the seven primary notes of the Indian gamut; so called because it is derived from the six organs : नासां कण्ठमुरस्तालु जिह्वां दताञ्श्च संस्पृशन् । षड्जः सञ्जायते (षढ्भ्यः संञ्जायते) यस्मात्तस्मात् षड्ज इति स्मृतः ॥ it is said to resemble the note of peacocks; षड्जं रौति मयूरस्तु Nārada; षड्जसंवादिनीः केकाः द्विधा भिन्नाः शिखण्डिभिः R.1.39. -तन्त्री N. of the six philosophical systems. -त्रिंशत् f. (-षट्त्रिंशत्) thirty-six; (-षट्रत्रिंश a. thirtysixth). -तिलिन् m. one performing six acts with sesamum seeds; तिलोद्वतीं तिलस्नायी तिलहोमी तिलप्रदः । तिलभुक् तिलवापी च षट्तिली नावसीदति ॥ -दर्शनम् (षड्दर्शनम्) the six principal systems of Hindu philosophy; they are: सांख्य, योग, न्याय, वैशेषिक, मीमांसा and वेदान्त. (-नः) one conversant with the above six systems. -दीर्घः the six long vowels : आ, ई, ऊ, ऐ, औ. -दुर्गम्, (षड्दुर्गम्) the six kinds of forts taken collectivelly; धन्वदुर्गं महीदुर्गं गिरिदुर्गं तथैव च । मनुष्यदुर्गं मृद्दुर्गं वनदुर्गमिति क्रमात् ॥ -नवतिः f. (-षण्णवतिः) ninety-six. -पञ्चाशत् f. (-षट्पञ्चाशत्) fifty-six. -पदः (षट्पदः) 1 a bee; न पङ्कजं तद्यदलीनषट्पदं न षट्पदो$सौ न जुगुञ्ज यः कलम् Bk.2.19; Ku.5.9; R.6.69. -2 a louse. -3 a verse consisting of six padas. ˚अथितिः 1 the mango tree. -2 the Champaka tree. ˚आनन्दवर्धनः the Aśoka or Kiṅkirāta tree. ˚ज्य a. having bees for the bow-string (as the bow of Cupid); प्रायश्चापं न वहति भयान्मन्मथः षट्पदज्यम् Me.75. ˚प्रियः the tree called नाग- केशर. -पदी (षट्पदी) 1 a stanza consisting of six lines. -2 a female bee. -3 a louse. -4 the six states ('यो$शनायापिपासे शोकं मोहं जरां मृत्युमत्येति' इति श्रुत्युक्ताः Mb. 3.314.9 Com.):-- hunger, thrist, sorrow, disordered intellect, old age and death; other version is :-- कामक्रोधौ लोभमोहौ मदमानौ च षट्पदी ।. -पादः (षट्पादः) a bee. -प्रज्ञः, (षट्प्रज्ञः) 1 one who is well acquainted with six subjects i. e. the four Puruṣārthas or objects of human existence, the nature of the world, and the nature of the Supreme Sprit; धर्मार्थकाममोक्षेषु लोक- तत्त्वार्थयोरपि । षट्सु प्रज्ञा तु यस्यासौ षट्प्रज्ञः परिकीर्तितः ॥ -2 a lustful or licentious man. -3 a good-hearted neighbour. -बिन्दुः (षड्बिन्दुः ) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -भागः (षड्भागः) a sixth part, one-sixth; तपःषड्भागमक्षय्यं ददत्यारण्यका हि नः Ś.2.14; Ms.7.131;8.33. -भाववादिन् a maintainer of the theory of the six भावs (i. e. द्रव्य, गुण, कर्मन्, सामान्य, विशेष and समवाय). -भुज a. (-षड्भुज) 1 six-armed. -2 six-sided, hexagonal. (-जः) a hexagon. (-जा) 1 an epithet of Durgā. -2 the watermelon. -मतस्थापकः (षण्मतस्थापकः) N. of Śaṁkarāchārya. -मासः (षण्मासः) a period of six months. ˚निचय a. one who has a store (of food) sufficient for six months; Ms.6.18. -मासिक a. (-षण्मासिक) half-yearly, occurring every six months. -मुखः (षण्मुखः) an epithet of Kārtikeya; स गुणानां बलानां च षण्णां षण्मुख- विक्रमः R.17.67; Mv.1.33. (खा) a water-melon. -रसम्, -रसाः (m. pl.) (-षड्रसम् &c.) the six flavours taken collectively; see under रस. -रात्रम् (षड्रात्रम्) a period of six nights. -रेखा, (षड्रेखा) a water-melon. -वर्गः (षड्वर्गः) 1 an aggregate of six things. -2 especially, the six enemies of mankind; (also called षड्रिपु); कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभो मदमोहौ च मत्सरः; कृतारिषड्वर्गजयेन Ki.1 9; व्यजेष्ठ षड्वर्गम् Bk.1.2. -3 the five senses and Manas. -र्विशम् N. of a Brāhmaṇa belonging to the Sāma Veda. -विंशतिः f. (-षड्विंशतिः)twenty-six; (-षड्विंश twentysixth). -विध (षड्विध) a. of six kinds, sixfold; षड्विधं बलमादाय प्रतस्थे दिग्जिगीषया R.4.26. -शास्त्रिन् m. one conversant with the six Śāstras or darśanas. -षष्टिः f. (-षट्षष्टिः) sixty-six. -सप्ततिः (षट्सप्ततिः) seventy-six.
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padasaṃdhi m. euphonic combi nation of words; -stha, a. pedestrian; in vested with office; -sthâna, m. footprint; -sthita, pp. invested with office.
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"padas" has 33 results.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padasphoṭaexpression of the sense by the whole word without any consideration shown to its division into a base and an affix. For instance, the word रामेण means 'by Rama' irrespective of any consideration whether न is the affix or इन is the affix which could be any of the two, or even one, different from the two; confer, compare उपायाः शिक्षमाणानां वालानामपलापनाः Vākyapadīya II.240.
aniṅgyanot separable into two padas or words by means of avagraha; confer, compare संध्य ऊष्माप्यनिङ्ग्ये: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) V.41; confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX.25, XIII.30. See इङ्ग्य below.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
avagraha(1)separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṁhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṁdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṁhitāpāṭha; exempli gratia, for example पुरोहितम् in the Saṁhitāpāṭha is read as पुरःsहितम्. In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originatedition The AtharvaPrātiśākhya defines अवग्रह as the separation of two padas joined in Saṁhitā. (Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5). (2) The word अवग्रह is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; confer, compare also तस्य ( इङ्ग्यस्य ) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत. Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; confer, compare छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति ।(Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.36); also confer, compare यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. (3) In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (short or long) with the preceding अ (short or long ) or with the preceding ए or ओ exempli gratia, for example शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ. (4) The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; confer, compare समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
udayakīrtiauthor of a treatise giving rules for the determination of the pada or padas of roots; the treatise is named पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिकाटीका He was a Jain grammarian, and one of the pupils of Sādhusundara.
ubhayatobhāṣaliterally speaking or showing both the padas or voices; possessed of both the padas viz. the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada. The word is found commonly used in the Dhātupaṭha of Pāṇini.
uṣṇih(उष्णिक्)name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI 20-26.
ūrdhvabṛhatī( विराज् )a variety of the metre Bṛhatī which has three padas of twelve syllables each; confer, compare त्रयो द्वादशका यस्याः सा होर्ध्ववृहती विराट् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.33.
aikapadikagiven in the group of ekapadas or solitarily stated words as contrasted with anekapadas or synonymanuscript. See एकपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
kyaṣaffix य added to certain nouns like लोहित and others to form denominative roots after which terminations of both the padas are placed exempli gratia, for example लोहितायति, लोहितायते; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.13.
ñ(1)the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the preceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas.
tripadamade up of a collection of three padas or words; the word is used in connection with a Rk or a portion of the kramapatha: confer, compare यथॊक्तं पुनरुक्तं त्रिपदप्रभृति T.Pr.I.61. The word is found used in connection with a bahuvrihi compound made up of three words; confer, compare the term त्रिपदबहुव्रीहि.
nityasamāsaan invariably effective compound; the term is explained as अस्वपदविग्रहो नित्यसमासः i. e. a compound whose dissolution cannot be shown by its component words as such; e. g. the dissolution of कुम्भकारः cannot be shown as कुम्भं कारः, but it must be shown as कुम्भं करोति स: । The upapadasamasa, the gatisamsa and the dative tatpurusa with the word अर्थ are examples of नित्यसमास.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padakāṇḍa(1)a term used in connection with the first section of the Vākyapadīya named ब्रह्मकाण्ड also, which deals with padas, as contrasted with the second section which deals with Vākyas; (2) a section of the Așțadhyāyī of Pāņini, which gives rules about changes and modifications applicable to the pada, or the formed word, as contrasted with the base (अङ्ग) and the suffixes. The section is called पदाधिकार which begins with the rule पदस्य P.VIII.1.16. and ends with the rule इडाया वा VIII. 3. 54.
padavidhian operation prescribed in connection with words ending with case or verbal affixes and not in connection with noun-bases or root-bases or with single letters or syllables. पदविधि is in this way contrasted with अङ्गविधि ( including प्रातिपदिकविधि and धातुविधि ), वर्णविधि and अक्षरविधि, Such Padavidhis are given in Pāņini's grammar in Adhyāya2, Pādas l and 2 as also in VI.1.158, and in VIII. 1.16 to VIII.3.54 and include rules in connection with compounds, accents and euphonic combinations. When, however, an operation is prescribed for two or more padas, it is necessary that the two padas or words must be syntactically connectible; confer, compare समर्थः पदविधिः P. II.1.1.
padavyavasthāsūtrakārikāa metrical work on the determination of the pada or padas of the roots attributed to Vimalakīrti.
padādhikārathe topic concerning padas id est, that is words which are regularly formed, as contrasted with words in formation. Several grammatical operations, such as accents or euphonic combinations, are specifically prescribed together by Pāņini at places which are said to be in the Padādhikāra formed by sūtras VIII.1.16 to VIII.3.54.
bṛhatīa Vedic metre consisting of four padas and 36 syllables. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. It has got further subdivisions known as पुरस्ताद्बृहती, उपरिष्टाद्बृहती, न्यङ्कुसारिणी or उरोबृहती, ऊर्ध्वबृहती विष्टारबृहती, पिपीलिकमध्यमा and विषमपदा. For details see R.Pr. XVI. 31-37.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vimalakīrtia Jain grammarian of the sixteenth century who wrote a short metrical work on the padas of roots, known by the name पदव्यवस्थासूत्रकारिका.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
saṃhitāpāṭhathe running text or the original text of the four Vedas as originally composedition This text, which was the original one, was split up into its constituent padas or separate words by ancient sages शौनक, अात्रेय and others,with a view to facilitating the understanding of it, and consequently to preserving it in the oral tradition.The original was called मूलप्रकृति of which the पदपाठ and the क्रमपाठ which were comparatively older than the other artificial recitations such as the जटापाठ, घनपाठ and others, are found mentioned in the Pratisakhya works.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
subantaname given to a word formed with the addition of a case-affix and hence capable of being used in a sentence by virtue of its being called a पद by the rule सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् The ancient grammarians gave four kinds of words or padas viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात which Panini has brought under two heads सुबन्त including नाम, उपसर्ग and निपात and तिङन्त standing for आख्यातः confer, compare सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् P. I. 4. 14.
sthitiutterance of a pada or padas in the Padapatha without इति; the utterance with इति being called उपस्थिति; confer, compare पदं यदा केवलमाह सा स्थितिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.15; (2) established practice or view: confer, compare शाकल्यस्य स्थविरस्येतरा स्थितिः। Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 44.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svaritetmarked with a mute circumflex vowel; the term is used in connection with roots in the Dhatupatha which are said to have been so marked for the purpose of indicating that they are to take personal endings of both the padas; confer, compare स्वरितञित: कर्त्रभिप्राये क्रियाफले P. I.3.72.
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padasya positionMM 17
apadasya which has no perceptible qualitiesSB 10.87.29
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padastoma noun (masculine) name of a Vedic hymn
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sā senā yā padābhyāṃ gacchati।

prācīne kāle yuddhe padasenā pradhānā āsīt।


vākyam, padasamūhaḥ   

parasparaiḥ sambaddhānāṃ padānāṃ samūhaḥ yena svābhiprāyāḥ prakaṭīkriyante।

asya lekhasya prathame vākye kecana doṣāḥ santi।


dvitīya, dvitīyaka, dvitīyīka, dvitīyapadastha   

gaṇanāyāṃ prathamāt anantaraṃ tṛtīyasmāt pūrvaṃ vartamānaḥ।

uttīrṇa-chātrāṇāṃ sūcyāṃ mama putrasya nāma dvitīyam asti।


hā, vihā, viyujya, apaci, cyu, pracyu, upadas, virādh   

nāśānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

dhanasya lipsāyāḥ kāraṇāt saḥ prāṇān ajihīta।


padastha, padasthita   

svapāde sthitaḥ।

atra padasthaḥ tapasvī vasati।



yaḥ svapadbhayāṃ calati।

mātā vātsalyena padasthaṃ bālakam aṅke utthāpitavatī।



pade niyuktaḥ।

padasthasya adhikāriṇaḥ sthānāntaram abhavat।



uccapade vartamānaḥ।

rāmasya pitā senāyām uccapadasthaḥ adhikārī asti।

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