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327 results for noti
tan cl.8 P. A1. n/oti-, nut/e- (3. plural nv/ate-[ --and vi-tanvat/e- ] ; imperative nu-[ /ava-and v/i-tanuhi- ; see Va1rtt. 1 ] ; nuṣva- ; subjunctive 2. sg. nuthās-, ;1. dual number navāvahai-, ; imperfect tense 3. plural /atanvata-, ; perfect tense P. tat/āna-,once tāt- ;2. sg. tat/antha-[ ],class. tenitha-[ ]; A1.1. 2. 3. sg. [ --] tatane-, [abh/i-]tatniṣe-, [v/i-]tatne- ;3. sg. irregular tate-, ;3. plural tatnir/e-[ v/i-- ] or ten-[ (vi--)etc.; see ]; Aorist P. /atan- ; [/ā-]atān-, ; ;[ p/ari--, v/i--] atanat- ; [anv-/ā]atāṃsīt- ; atānīt- ; tat/anat-, [abh/i-]t/anāma-, t/anan- ;2. plural ataniṣṭa- ;3. dual number atāniṣṭām- ; A1. atata-or ataniṣṭa-, atathās-or ataniṣṭhās- ;3. plural /atnata- ; tat/ananta-, ;1. sg. atasi- plural ataṃsmahi- ; future 2nd taṃsy/ate- ; future 1st [vi-]tāyitā- ; parasmE-pada proper tanv/at-, vān/a-; perfect tense tatanv/as-; ind.p. tatvā-, tv/āya-, -t/atya- ;[ vi--] tāya- ; infinitive mood tantum- ; Passive voice tāy/ate- [ parasmE-pada y/amāna-] etc.; tanyate- ; Aorist atāyi- ) to extend, spread, be diffused (as light) over, shine, extend towards, reach to etc. ; to be protracted, continue, endure ; to stretch (a cord), extend or bend (a bow), spread, spin out, weave etc. ; to emboss ; to prepare (a way for) ; to direct (one's way, gatim-) towards ; to propagate (one's self or one's family, tanūs-, tantum-) ; to (spread id est to) speak (words) ; to protract ; to put forth, show, manifest, display, augment etc. (Passive voice to be put forth or extended, increase ) ; to accomplish, perform (a ceremony) etc. ; to sacrifice ; to compose (a literary work) ; to render (any one thirsty, double accusative) : Desiderative titaniṣati-, taṃsati-, tāṃs- : Intensive tantanyate-, tantanīti-, ; ([ see , etc.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aoccasionally denoting comparison (a-brāhmaṇa-like a brahman- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiind. (a prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing) to, towards, into, over, upon. (As a prefix to verbs of motion) it expresses the notion or going towards, approaching, etc. (As a prefix to nouns not derived from verbs) it expresses superiority, intensity, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiniśam(ind.p. -śāmya-) to perceive, notice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhipaś -paśyati-, to look upon or at, view etc. ; to perceive, notice ; (with genitive case) ; to know View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhisamīkṣyaind. noticing, perceiving, learning from View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhiṣṭambh( stambh-), -ṣṭabhnoti-, or -ṣṭabhnāti- imperfect tense -aṣṭabhnāt-, perf. -taṣṭambha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhivibudh -budhyate-, to notice, learn from. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhivijñaptamfn. notified, made known. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyaś -aśnoti-, (frequently Opt. or preceding 1. sg. -aśyām-,3. sg. -aśyās-[ ] , 1. plural -aśyāma-; Aorist P. -ānaṭ-and A1. -/āṣṭa-; perf. 1. plural -ānaśma-,3. plural -ānaś/uḥ-) to pervade, reach to, gain ; (subjunctive 1. dual number -aśn/avāva-,1. plural -aśn/avāma-) to overpower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyavatan -tanoti-, to send out or spread (as rays instrumental case) towards (accusative) : Passive voice (3. plural -tāyante-) to be sent out or spread (as rays) towards (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupalakṣ(perf. Passive voice p. -lakṣita-) to perceive, notice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abuddhamfn. not seen or noticed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āciP. -cinoti- ([ ]) A1. -cinute- ([ ]) to accumulate ; (perf. -cicāya-,2. dual number A1. -cikyāte-) to cover with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acittamfn. unnoticed, unexpected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādāA1. -datte-, () , Epic also rarely P. (exempli gratia, 'for example' 1. sg. -dadmi-,or -dadāmi-), Ved. generally A1. ([Pot. 1. plural -dadīmahi-; imperfect tense 3. sg. ādatta-; perf. 1. and 3. sg. -dade-; perf. p. -dadān/a- -d/adāna- ]) , but also P. (imperfect tense sg. ādam-, ādas-, ādat-,and 1. plural ādāma- Aorist 3. dual number āttām- ) "to give to one's self", take, accept, receive from (locative case instrumental case or ablative) etc. ; to seize, take away, carry off, rob ; to take back, reclaim ; to take off or out from (ablative), separate from (ablative) ; to take or carry away with one's self, (Potential P.1. sg. -dadīyam -!) ; to seize, grasp, take or catch hold of etc. ; to put on (clothes) ; to take as food or drink (with genitive case) (perf. Passive voice 3. sg. -dade-) ; (with accusative) ; to undertake, begin etc. ; to choose (a path) ; (with vacanam-etc.) to begin to speak etc. ; to begin to speak or to recite (see punar-ādāyam-) ; to offer (as oblations) (irreg. pr. p. -dadāyat-) ; to perceive, notice, feel ; to keep in mind ; to accept, approve of : Causal (ind.p. -dāpya-) to cause one to take : Desiderative A1. (imperfect tense 3. plural ditsanta-) to be on the point of taking or carrying away from (genitive case) ; to be on the point of taking (the hand of) ; to be about to take to one's self
ādaram. respect, regard, notice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhigāP. to obtain ; P. (Aorist subjunctive 2. plural -gāta-,or -gātana-) to remember, notice and ; P. or generally A1. (-jage-, -agīṣṭa-, -agīṣyata- ) to go over, learn, read, study ; to attempt, resolve: Causal P. -gāpayati-, to cause to go over or teach: Desiderative Causal -jigāpayiṣati-, to be desirous of teaching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādhuor -dhū- P. (-dhunoti-[ ]1. sg. -dhūnomi-[ ] Potential 3. sg. -dhūnuyāt-[ ]) A1. (3. plural -dhunvate-[ ],etc.) to stir, agitate. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adyotakamfn. not expressing or denoting, Sch. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agaṇitapratiyātamfn. returned without (or because of not) having been noticed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ah cl.5 P. ahnoti-, to pervade or occupy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājñā -jānāti- (imperative 2. plural -jānīta-; perf. -jajñau-;p. jān/at-) to mind, perceive, notice, understand ; (see /an-ājānat-): Caus. -jñāpayati-, te- (Inf. -jñaptum- ) to order, command, direct etc. ; to assure
ājñānan. noticing, perceiving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājñāya ind.p. having noticed or perceived View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākal(imperfect tense ākalayat-) to tie, fasten ; (ind.p. -kalayya-) to surrender, transfer ; to observe, notice, examine, take into consideration, reckon, consider, suppose, take for
anāveditamfn. not notified, not made known. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aneḍam. (an-being an expletive or denoting comparison) , stupid, foolish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antanāman(/anta--), mfn. denoting"the end", View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anubhūto enclose, embrace ; to be after, attain, equal etc. ; to be useful, to help ; to turn or incline to ; to notice, perceive, understand ; to experience, to attempt.
anupadto follow, attend, be fond of ; to enter ; to enter upon ; to notice, understand ; to handle. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupaśP. A1. -paśyati-, te-, to look at, perceive, notice, discover etc. ; to consider, reflect upon (accusative) etc. ; to look upon as, take as ; (perf. A1. parasmE-pada -paspaśān/a-) to show (as the path) () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuspaṣṭamfn. noticed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anvaścl.5 P. A1. -aśnoti-, -nute-, to reach, come up to, equal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apaci -cinoti-, to gather, collect: Passive voice -cīyate-, to be injured in health or prosperity ; to grow less ; to wane ; (with ablative) to lose anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparādh -rādhyati-or -rādhnoti-, to miss (one's aim, etc.) ; to wrong, offend against (genitive case or locative case) ; to offend, sin. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apās(2. as-), to fling away, throw away or off, discard, to scare, drive away ; to leave behind ; to take no notice of, disregard. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apaśyatmfn. not noticing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apiimparts to numerals the notion of totality exempli gratia, 'for example' caturṇām api varṇānām-, of all the four castes. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthamn. sense, meaning, notion (see artha-śabdau-and arthāt- sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order below and vedatattvārtha-vid-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
(in classical Sanskrit only) A1. aśnute- (Aorist 3. plural āśiṣata- ; perf. ānaśe- Vedic forms are: aśnoti-,etc.; subjunctive aśnavat-,etc.; Aorist P. ānaṭ- (2. & 3. sg.,frequently in )and A1. aṣṭa-or /āṣṭa-,3. plural āśata-(frequently in )or /ākṣiṣur-[ ] subjunctive /akṣat-[ ] Potential 1. plural aśema- preceding aśyās-(2. & 3. sg.) etc. Potential A1.1. sg. aśīya-and plural aśīmahi-, Imper. aṣṭu-[ ]; perf. ānaṃśa-(thrice in )or ānāśa-[ ] or āśa-[ ] , 2. plural ānaś/a-3. plural ānaś/uh-(frequently in )or āśuh-[ ] A1. ānaś/o- subjunctive 1. plural a anaśāmahai-[ ] Potential 1. sg. ānasyām-, parasmE-pada ānaśān/a-[ ];Inf. aṣṭave- ) to reach, come to, reach, come to, arrive at, get, gain, obtain etc. ; (said of an evil, aṃhati-, /aṃhas-, gr/āhi-) to visit ; to master, become master of. ; to offer ; to enjoy ; to pervade, penetrate, fill ; to accumulate : Desiderative aśiśiṣate- Intensive aśāśyate- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asatkṛtya ind.p. not taking notice of (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asvāṅgapūrvapadamfn. (a compound) the first part of which is not (a word denoting) part of the body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atikramto step or go beyond or over or across, (Vedic or Veda infinitive mood ati-kr/ame-,to be walked on ) ; to pass, cross ; to pass time ; to surpass, excel, overcome ; to pass by, neglect ; to overstep, transgress, violate ; to pass on or away ; to step out ; to part from, lose: Caus. -krāmayati-, or -kramayati-, to allow to pass (as time) ; to leave unnoticed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ativilaṅghCaus. -laṅghayati-, to pass by without taking notice of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupadeśikamf(ī-)n. (in grammar) denoting or relating to an originally enunciated grammatical form (See upadeśa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avāci -cinoti- (equals bhogena uyayi-karoti- commentator or commentary) to dissipate what is accumulated, use up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avalokcl.1 A1. -lokate-, to look : cl.10 P. -lokayati- (parasmE-pada -lokayat-; ind.p. -lokya-) to look upon or at, view, behold, see, notice, observe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avamānitamfn. neglected, not taken notice of. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avāp( āp-), -āpnoti- (Imper. 2. sg. āpnuhi-) to reach, attain, obtain, gain, get etc. ; to get by division (as a quotient) ; to suffer (exempli gratia, 'for example' blame or unpleasantness or pain) : Causal to cause to obtain anything (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avarādh(Aorist 2. sg. -arātsīs-) to commit a fault ; -rādhnoti-, to turn out ill, fail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaṣṭambh( stambh-), -ṣṭabhnoti- (etc. ;generally ind.p. -ṣṭabhya- etc.) to lean or rest upon, ; to bar, barricade ; -ṣṭabhnāti- (; infinitive mood -ṣṭabdhum- ; Passive voice Aorist avāṣṭambhi- ) to seize, arrest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avatan -tanoti- (ind.p. -tatya-) to stretch or extend downwards ; to overspread, cover , (Imper. 2. sg. P. -tanu-[ ] or -tanuhi-[four times in ; see commentator or commentary ] A1. -tanuṣva- ) to loosen, undo (especially a bowstring) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avigaṇayyaind. taking no notice of, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avijñātamfn. not noticed, passed unawares (as the time) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvam. (in gram.) the fundamental notion of the verb, the sense conveyed by the abstract noun (especially as a term for an impersonal passive or neuter verb having neither agent nor object expressed exempli gratia, 'for example' pacyate-,"there is cooking"or"cooking is going on") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvagarhāf. censure implied in the notion of a verb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvanāf. (with jaina-s) right conception or notion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvavacanamfn. signifying a state or action, denoting the abstract notion of a verb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvavikāram. a modification of the notion"to be"or"to become" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhuvantim. equals bhuvaṃ tanoti-, bhū-maṇḍa vistāraka- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
boddhavyamfn. ( budh-) to be attended to or noticed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bodhakamf(ikā-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') denoting, indicating, signifying ( bodhakatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bodhanan. denoting, indicating, signifying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddhif. the power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions, intelligence, reason, intellect, mind, discernment, judgement etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddhif. an opinion, view, notion, idea, conjecture etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddhif. impression, belief, notion (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' = considering as, taking for) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddhikṛtmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') one who forms the notion of, supposing, conjecturing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
budh cl.1 P. A1. () bodhati-, te- ; cl.4 A1. b/udhyate- (Epic also P. ti-; perfect tense P. bubodha- ; subjunctive b/ubodhati- ; A1. bubudh/e-, parasmE-pada bubudhān/a- ; Aorist P. subjunctive bodhiṣat- ; imperative bodhi- ; A1.3 plural abudhram-, ran-; parasmE-pada budhān/a- subjunctive budh/anta- ; abhutsi- ; preceding A1. bhutsīṣṭa- ; future bhotsyati-, te- etc.; boddhā- grammar; ind.p. buddhvā- ; -budhya- etc.; infinitive mood b/udhe- ; budh/i- ; boddhum- etc.) , to wake, wake up, be awake etc. ; to recover consciousness (after a swoon) (Aorist Passive voice abodhi-) ; to observe, heed, attend to (with accusative or genitive case) ; to perceive, notice, learn, understand, become or be aware of or acquainted with etc. ; to think of id est present a person ("with" instrumental case) ; to know to be, recognize as (with two accusative) etc. ; to deem, consider or regard as (with two accusative) : Passive voice budhyate- (Aorist abodhi-), to be awakened or restored to consciousness ; See above: Causal bodh/ayati-, te- (Aorist abūbudhat-; Passive voice bodhyate-), to wake up, arouse, restore to life or consciousness etc. ; to revive the scent (of a perfume) ; to cause (a flower) to expand ; to cause to observe or attend, admonish, advise etc. ; to make a person acquainted with, remind or inform of. impart or communicate anything to (with two accusative) etc.: Desiderative bubhutsati-, te- (grammar also bubodhiṣati-, te-,and bubudhiṣati-, te-), to wish to observe, desire to become acquainted with : Desiderative of Causal See bibodhayiṣu- and bubodhayiṣu-: Intensive bobudhīti- (grammar also bobudhyate-, boboddhi-), to have an insight into, understand thoroughly (with accusative) [ confer, compare Zend bud; Greek for () in, Slavonic or Slavonian bu8de8ti,bu8dru8; Lithuanian bude4ti,budru4s; Gothic biudan; German biotan,bieten; Anglo-Saxon be4odan; English bid.]
cagh cl.5. ghnoti-, to smite or slay, kill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakṣ (a reduplicated form of kāś- equals kśā-;in the non-conjugational tenses khyā-is substituted ;some perfect tense forms, however, are found) cl.2 A1. c/aṣṭe- (2. dual number cakṣathe- ; perfect tense parasmE-pada c/akṣāṇa- [ a-- negative ];rarely P. imperfect tense 2. sg. acakṣas- plural acakṣma- ;Ved. infinitive mood c/akṣase- ), to appear, become visible ; to see, look at, observe, notice ; to tell, inform ; to take any one (accusative) for (accusative)
cam cl.1. mati- (perf. cacāma- Aorist acamīt- ; Passive voice acami- ), to sip, drink ; to eat : Vedic or Veda cl.5. camnoti- : Causal cāmayati-, (see ā-, anv-ā--; paryā-cānta-, sam-ā-camya-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
catuṣkalamfn. having 4 marks (on the thumb denoting the proficiency in the 4 veda-s) (varia lectio -kṛṣṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāy (see 2.and3. ci-) cl.1. c/āyati- (imperfect tense acāyat- etc.; Aorist acāyīt-,or acāsīt- ;1. sg. acāyiṣam- ; ind.p. cāyitv/ā-), to observe, perceive, notice (see ) ; to fear, be afraid of (accusative) : A1. (pr. p. 1. c/āyamāna-) to behave respectfully : Intensive cekīyate- ; ([ see c/eru-,, .]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
channamfn. hidden, unnoticed by (dative case), secret, clandestine, disguised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ci Ved. cl.3. (ciketi-,fr. ki- ; imperative ciketu- ; subjunctive A1. c/iketa-; imperfect tense aciket- ; Aorist 2. plural A1. /acidhvam- ;3. sg. acait-; cikayām akaḥ-[fr.4. cit- ], ) to observe, perceive (with accusative or genitive case) ; to fix the gaze upon, be intent upon ; to seek for : Class. cl.5. cinoti- (parasmE-pada nvat-, A1. nvāna-) to seek for, investigate, search through, make inquiries (confer, compare 1. ci-) : Intensive cekite- See 4. cit-; ([ confer, compare Latin scio.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cikitvasmf(t/uṣī-)n. having observed or noticed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cit cl.1. c/etati- (imperfect tense acetat- ; parasmE-pada c/etat- ) cl.2. (A1. Passive voice 3. sg. cit/e-, ; parasmE-pada f. instrumental case citantyā-, ; A1. citāna-, ) cl.3. irreg. cīhetati- (; subjunctive ciketat- ; imperative 2. sg. cikiddhi- ; parasmE-pada cikitān/a- ; perf. cik/eta- etc.; ciceta- ;3. dual number cetatur- ; A1.and Passive voice cikit/e- etc.;3. plural tre- ;for parasmE-pada cikitv/as-See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order; A1. Passive voice cicite- ; Aorist acetīt- ; A1. Passive voice /aceti-and c/eti- ;for acait-See 2. ci-; future 1st c/ettā-, ) to perceive, fix the mind upon, attend to, be attentive, observe, take notice of (accusative or genitive case) ; to aim at, intend, design (with dative case) ; to be anxious about, care for (accusative or genitive case), ; to resolve, ; to understand, comprehend, know (perf. often in the sense of proper) ; P. A1. to become perceptible, appear, be regarded as, be known : Causal cet/ayati-, te- (2. plural cet/ayadhvam- subjunctive cetayat- imperative 2. dual number cetayethām- imperfect tense /acetayat- ;3. plural cit/ayante- ; parasmE-pada cit/ayat- (eleven times); cet/ayat-, ; A1. cetayāna-See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) to cause to attend, make attentive, remind of. ; to cause to comprehend, instruct, teach ; to observe, perceive, be intent upon ; A1. (once P. ) to form an idea in the mind, be conscious of, understand, comprehend, think, reflect upon ; P. to have a right notion of. know ; P. "to recover consciousness", awake ; A1. to remember, have consciousness of (accusative) ; to appear, be conspicuous, shine : Desiderative c/ikitsati- (fr. kit- ;exceptionally A1. ; imperative tsatu- subjunctive tsāt- Aorist 2. sg. /acikitsīs- ; Passive voice parasmE-pada cikitsyamāna- ) to have in view, aim at, be desirous ; to care for, be anxious about, ; ( ) to treat medically, cure ; to wish to appear : Causal of Desiderative (future cikitsayiṣyati-) to cure : Intensive cekite- (fr.2. ci-?,or for tte- ; parasmE-pada c/ekitat-, ; A1. c/ekitāna- eight times) to appear, be conspicuous, shine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cittamfn. "noticed" See a-c/itta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cittan. attending, observing (tir/aś citt/āni-,"so as to remain unnoticed") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūrṇif. "noticing every minute point of difficulty", Name of 's commentator or commentary (mahā-bhāṣya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūrṇīf. "noticing every minute point of difficulty", Name of 's commentator or commentary (mahā-bhāṣya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇamf(ā-)n. (also ṇ/a- ) (declined as a pronoun when denoting relative position ["right"or,"southern"] etc.; see ;but not necessarily in ablative and locative case sg. m. n.[ ṇe- ] and Nominal verb plural m.;except ) able, clever, dexterous (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
darśanan. seeing, observing, looking, noticing, observation, perception etc.
dās cl.1 P. A1. dāsati-, te-, to give () cl.5 P. dāsnoti- (varia lectio for dāś- ), to hurt, injure. (There occurs only dāsati-with abhi-;See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
deśam. institute, ordinance (deśam- ā- vas-,or ni-viś-,to settle in a place ; śe-,in the proper place [ especially with kāle-] Often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' [f(ā-). ] especially after a word denoting a country or a part of the body exempli gratia, 'for example' kāmboja--, magadha--; aṃsa--, kaṇṭha--, skandha--; ātmīya--,one's own country or home) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhenuf. a milch cow or any cow etc. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' of names of animals also denoting the female of any species of khaḍga--, go--, vaḍava--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhi or dhinv- cl.5 P. dhinoti- (Aorist adhinvīt- ; perfect tense didhinva-; future dhinviṣyati-, dhinvitā- grammar) to nourish, satiate, satisfy ; to delight, please View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhīf. notion, opinion, the taking for (compound) etc. (y/athā dhiy/ā-or dhiy/ā n/a-,according to thy wisdom or will; itth/ā dhiy/ā-or dh/iyaḥ-,willingly literally such is thy will ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhū cl.5 P. A1. dhūn/oti-, nut/e- ; dhunoti-, nute- etc. ; cl.6 P. () dhuvati- (confer, compare ni--; Potential dhūvet- ) ; cl.9 P. A1. () Potential dhunīyāt- ; parasmE-pada A1. dhunāna- ; cl.1 P. () dhavati- ; cl.2 A1., 3. plural dhuvate- (dhunv/ate-?) ; parasmE-pada dhuvān/a- (perfect tense dudhāva- , dhuve- ; dudhuvīta-and dūdhot- : Aorist adhūṣṭa-,3. plural ṣata- ; adhoṣṭa-, adhaviṣṭa-; adhauṣīt-, adhāvīt- grammar; future dhaviṣyati-, te- etc.; dhoṣyati-, te-, dhotā-& dhavitā- grammar; ind.p. dhūtvā- , -dh/ūya- etc.; infinitive mood dhavitum- grammar) to shake, agitate, cause to tremble etc. ; to shake down from (exempli gratia, 'for example' fruits [ accusative ] from a tree [ accusative ]) ; (oftener A1.) to shake off, remove, liberate one's self from (accusative) etc. ; to fan, kindle (a fire) etc. ; to treat roughly, hurt, injure, destroy ; to strive against, resist : Passive voice dhūy/ate- etc. (parasmE-pada dhūyat- ): Causal dhāvayati- () and dhūnayati- (See dhūna-): Desiderative dudhūṣati-, te- grammar ; Intensive dodhavīti- (parasmE-pada dodhuvat d/avidhvat- ) ; dodhūyate-, parasmE-pada yamāna-and yat- ; so shake or move violently (trans. and intr.) ; to shake off or down ; to fan or kindle. [ confer, compare dhav-and dhāv-; Greek , .] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dikchabda(for śabda-) m. a word denoting a direction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛś (Pres. forms supplied by paś- q.v; perfect tense P. dad/arśa- etc. [2. sg. dadarśitha-and dadraṣṭha- ]; A1. dadṛś/e- [ d/adṛśe-,3 plural dṛśre- ; śrire- ]; parasmE-pada P. dadṛśv/as- ; sivas- ; darśivas- q.v; A1. d/adṛśāna- ; future P. -drakṣy/ati- etc.; A1. ṣyate-and future 2. draṣṭā- ; Aorist P. adarśam-, śas-, śat-,3 plural śur- ; 1 plural adarśma- ; adṛśma- ; subjunctive darśam-, śat-, śathas- ; A1.3 plural /adṛśran- ; śram- ; parasmE-pada dṛśān/a-or d/ṛśāna-[ confer, compare sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order ] ; P. dṛśan-,3 plural /adṛśan- ; Potential dṛś/eyam- ; śema- ; P. adrākṣit-and adrāk- ; A1.3 plural /adṛkṣata-; subjunctive 2 sg. d/ṛkṣase- ; infinitive mood dṛś/e-and driś/aye- ; dr/aṣṭum- etc.; ind.p. dṛṣṭv/ā- etc.[ also dṛśya-], ṭvāya- ; -d/ṛśya- ; -darśam- ) to see, behold, look at, regard, consider etc. ; to see id est wait on, visit ; to see with the mind, learn, understand etc. ; to notice, care for, look into, try, examine ; to see by divine intuition, think or find out, compose, contrive (hymns, rites, etc.) : Passive voice dṛśy/ate- (Epic also ti-) Aorist ad/arśi- etc. to be seen, become visible, appear etc. ; to be shown or manifested, appear as (iva-), prove etc.: Causal P. A1. darśayati-, te- etc. ; Aorist adīdṛśat- ; adadarśat- , to cause to see or be seen, to show a thing (A1. especially of something belonging to one's self) or person (P.and A1.with or scilicet ātmānam-,also one's self) , to (accusative etc.; genitive case etc.; dative case etc.; instrumental case after A1.refl. ) ; to show = prove, demonstrate etc. ; to produce (money) id est pay ; (a witness) , : Desiderative A1. didṛkṣate- (Epic also ti-) to wish to see, long for (accusative) etc.: Desiderative of Causal didarśayiṣati-, to wish to show ; adidarśayiṣīt- : Intensive darīdṛśyate-, to be always visible ; darīdarṣṭi- or dard- [ confer, compare Greek , ; Gothic tarhjan.]
dṛṣṭamfn. seen, looked at, beheld, perceived, noticed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛṣṭif. view, notion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
du (also written -), cl.5. P. cl.4. A1. ( ) dunoti-, dūyate- (Epic also ti-; perfect tense dudāva-; future doṣyati-; Aorist adauṣīt-; infinitive mood dotum-), to be burnt, to be consumed with internal heat or sorrow (Pres. dunoti- ;but oftener dūyate-,which is at once Passive voice) etc. ; (only dun/oti-) to burn, consume with fire, cause internal heat, pain, or sorrow, afflict, distress : Causal dāvayati- Aorist adūduvat-: Desiderative dudūṣati-: Intensive dodūyate-, dodoti-. ([Cf. . for;, pain;Lit.davyti,to torment;Sl.daviti,to worry.])
(also written du-), cl.5. P. cl.4. A1. ( ) dunoti-, dūyate- (Epic also ti-; perfect tense dudāva-; future doṣyati-; Aorist adauṣīt-; infinitive mood dotum-), to be burnt, to be consumed with internal heat or sorrow (Pres. dunoti- ;but oftener dūyate-,which is at once Passive voice) etc. ; (only dun/oti-) to burn, consume with fire, cause internal heat, pain, or sorrow, afflict, distress : Causal dāvayati- Aorist adūduvat-: Desiderative dudūṣati-: Intensive dodūyate-, dodoti-. ([Cf. . for;, pain;Lit.davyti,to torment;Sl.daviti,to worry.])
durin compound for dus- (p.488), denoting"bad"or"difficult" etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durmatif. false opinion or notions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvivācinmfn. expressing or denoting 2 (a dual suffix) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekārthamfn. having the same meaning, denoting the same thing, synonymous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekārthamfn. expressing one thing, forming only one notion (as a compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekārthatāf. the act of expressing only one thing or notion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekārthatvan. the act of expressing only one thing or notion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekaśeṣam. "the remaining of one", (in grammar) a term denoting that of two or more stems (alike in form and followed by the same termination) only one remains (exempli gratia, 'for example' the plural vṛkṣās-is the only remainder of vṛkṣas- vṛkṣas- vṛkṣas- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekavācakamfn. denoting the same thing, synonymous commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇ cl.10 P. gaṇayati- (Epic also A1. te-: Aorist ajīgaṇat-[ ] or ajag- ; ind.p. gaṇayya- [with a-- negative, ]) , to count, number, enumerate, sum up, add up, reckon, take into account etc. ; to think worth, value (with instrumental case exempli gratia, 'for example' na gaṇayāmi taṃ tṛṇena-,"I do not value him at a straw" ) ; to consider, regard as (with double accusative) ; to enumerate among (locative case) ; to ascribe, attribute to (locative case) ; to attend to, take notice of (accusative;often with na-,not to care about, leave unnoticed) etc. ; to imagine, excogitate ; to count one's number (said of a flock or troop)
gaṇanāf. regarding, taking notice of (genitive case), consideration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandharvam. the soul after death and previous to its being born again (corresponding in some respects to the western notion of a ghost)
gaṇyamfn. to be taken notice of (a-- negative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
garbhinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' with words denoting animals (exempli gratia, 'for example' go-garbhiṇī-,a pregnant cow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gotramind. after a verb denoting repetition and implying a blame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāham. conception, notion of (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grahītṛmfn. one who notices or hears (see pāṇi--.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gūḍhasākṣinm. a concealed witness (placed by the plaintiff so as to hear the defendant without being noticed by him) () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇam. equals upāya- (q.v,denoting the 4 ways of conquering an enemy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇadīpakan. a simile in which a word denoting a quality forms the tertium comparationis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇavācakamfn. denoting a quality (an adjective) (-vacana- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇavacanan. "word denoting a quality", an attributive, adjective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇavacanamfn. denoting a quality, used as an adjective, iv, 1, 42 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
han cl.2 P. () hanti- (3. dual number hat/aḥ-,3. plural ghnanti-;rarely A1. hate-,3. plural ghnate-;and cl.1. hanati-, Vedic or Veda also jighnate-, ti-; Potential hanyāt- also h/anīta-, ghnīta-; imperative jah/i- handh/i-; imperfect tense /ahan-, Vedic or Veda and Epic also ahanat-, ahanan-, aghnanta-; parasmE-pada jaghnat-, ghnamāna- ; perfect tense jagh/āna-, jaghn/uḥ- Epic also jaghne-, nire- subjunctive jagh/anat- ; parasmE-pada jaghniv/as-, Vedic or Veda also jaghanvas-; Aorist ahānīt- [ confer, compare vadh-]; future hantā- ; haṃsyati- ; haniṣy/ati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood h/antum-,Ved. also h/antave-, tav/ai-, toḥ-; ind.p. hatv/ā-,Ved. also tv/ī-, tvāya-, -hatya-; -hanya- ; -gh/ātam- etc.) , to strike, beat (also a drum) , pound, hammer (accusative), strike etc. upon (locative case) etc. ; to smite, slay, hit, kill, mar, destroy ; to put to death, cause to be executed ; to strike off ; to ward off, avert ; to hurt, wound (the heart) ; to hurl (a dart) upon (genitive case) ; (in astronomy) to touch, come into contact ; to obstruct, hinder ; to repress, give up, abandon (anger, sorrow etc.) ; (?) to go, move : Passive voice hany/ate- (Epic also ti-; Aorist avadhi-or aghāni-), to be struck or killed etc. etc.: Causal ghātayati-, te- (properly a ghāta- q.v; Aorist ajīghatat-or ajīghanat-), to cause to be slain or killed, kill, slay, put to death, punish etc. ; to notify a person's death (kaṃsaṃ ghātayati- equals kaṃsa-vadham ācaṣṭe-) Va1rtt. 6 ; to mar, destroy (varia lectio): Desiderative j/ighāṃsati-, te- (Potential jighāṃsīyat- ; imperfect tense ajighāṃsīḥ- ), to wish to kill or destroy etc. etc.: Intensive j/aṅghanti- (; parasmE-pada jaṅghanat-, j/aṅghnat-or gh/anighnat-), jaṅghanyate- (with pass. sense ), jeghnīyate- () , to strike = tread upon (locative case or accusative) ; to slay, kill ; to dispel (darkness) , destroy (evil, harm) ; to hurt, injure, wound [ confer, compare Greek , ; , ; Latin de-fendere,of-fendere; Lit.genu,gi4ti; Slavonic or Slavonian gu8nati.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiind. (used as a particle[ see ha-and gha-]and usually denoting) for, because, on account of (never standing first in a sentence, but generally after the first word and used enclitically, sometimes after pronouns; exempli gratia, 'for example' s/arvo h/i p/ṛtanā jigīṣati-,"for everybody wishes to win battles"; bhavān hi pramāṇam-,"for your honour is the authority"; tahā hi-,"for example","accordingly"; n/a h/i-or nah/ī-,"for not","not at all") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hnu cl.2 A1. () hnut/e- (Vedic or Veda and Epic also hnauti-and hnavati-, te-; perfect tense juhnuve- grammar; Aorist ahnoṣṭa- ; future hnotā-, hnoṣyate- ; infinitive mood hnotum- ; ind.p. hnutya- ; generally with prepositions; see apa--, api--, ni-hnu-etc.) , to hide from (dative case) ; to drive or take away : Passive voice hnūyate- (Aorist ahnāvi-) grammar : Causal hnāvayati- (Aorist ajuhnavat-) : Desiderative juhnūṣate- : Intensive johnūyate-, johnoti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janam. (gaRa vṛṣādi-) creature, living being, man, person, race (p/añca j/anās-,"the five races"equals p kṛṣṭ/ayas- ), people, subjects (the sg. used collectively exempli gratia, 'for example' d/aivya-or divy/ā j-,"divine race", the gods collectively ; mahat j-,many people ;often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' denoting one person or a number of persons collectively, exempli gratia, 'for example' preṣya--, bandhu--, sakhī--etc., qq. vv.;with names of peoples ; ayaṃ- janaḥ-,"this person, these persons", I, we etc.; eṣa j-,id . ) etc.
kal P. (rarely A1.) kalayati- (te-), to impel, incite, urge on etc. ; to bear, carry etc. ; to betake one's self to ; to do, make, accomplish ; to utter a sound, murmur etc. ; (sometimes in connection with nouns merely expressing the verbal conception exempli gratia, 'for example' mūrchāṃ- kal-,to swoon ; culukaṃ jalasya- kal-,to take a draught of water ) ; to tie on, attach, affix ; to furnish with ; to observe, perceive, take notice of ; to consider, count, take for ; (See 1. kalaya-, column 3.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kārakan. "instrumental in bringing about the action denoted by a verb (equals kriyā-hetu-or -nimitta-) ", the notion of a case (but not co-extensive with the term case;there are six such relations according to to karman-, karaṇa-, kartṛ-, sampradāna-, apādāna-, adhikaraṇa-,qq. vv. The idea of the genitive case is not considered a kāraka-,because it ordinarily expresses the relation of two nouns to each other, but not the relation of a noun and verb). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramam. (in dramatic language) attainment of the object desired (or according to to others "noticing of any one's affection") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laa technical term for all the tenses and moods of a finite verb or for the terminations of those tenses and moods (also applied to some forms with kṛt-affixes construed like a finite verb ; see , and when accompanied by certain indicatory letters denoting each tense separatelySee laṭ-; laṅ-; liṅ-; loṭ-; liṭ-; luṭ-; ḷṭ-; luṅ-; ḷṅ-; leṭ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣ cl.1 A1. lakṣate-, to perceive, observe ; (P. ti-), to recognise ; cl.10 P. A1. (;rather lakṣa-below) lakṣayati-, te- (Aorist alalakṣat-, ta-; infinitive mood lakṣayitum-; ind.p. lakṣayitvā-, -lakṣya-), to mark, sign ; to characterize, define (in Comms.) ; to indicate, designate indirectly ; to aim, it (as to aim an arrow at any object), direct towards, have in view, mean on ; to consider or regard any one (accusative) as (accusative with or without iva-) ; to suppose of any one (accusative) that he will etc. (oratio recta with iti-) ; to know, understand, recognise by (instrumental case) or as (accusative) or that etc. (oratio recta with iti-) ; to notice, perceive, observe, see, view etc.: Passive voice lakṣyate-, to be marked etc. ; to be meant or intended on ; to be named or called (with double Nominal verb) ; to be perceived or seen, appear, seem, look like (Nominal verb with or without iva-) : Desiderative See lilakṣayiṣita-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cl.9 P. A1. () lun/āti-, lunīte- (Ved. also lunoti- perfect tense lulāva- ;2. sg. lulavitha- ;2. plural luluvidhve-or viḍhve- ; Aorist alāvīt-, alaviṣṭa- grammar; future lavitā-, laviṣyati-, te- ; infinitive mood lavitum- ; ind.p. lūtvā- ; -lāvam- ), to cut, sever, divide, pluck, reap, gather etc. ; to cut off, destroy, annihilate : Passive voice lūyate- (Aorist alāvi-), to be cut grammar : Causal lāvayati- (Aorist alīlavat-, vata-), to cause to cut grammar : Desiderative of Causal lilāvayiṣati- : Desiderative lulūṣati-, te- : Intensive lauluyate-, loloti- : Desiderative of Intensive lolūyiṣate- (ind.p. yam-) [ confer, compare Greek ; Latin so-luo,solvo;Gothfra-liusan; German vir-lisosan,ver-lieren; Anglo-Saxon for-leo4san; English lose.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānam. ( man-) opinion, notion, conception, idea (see ātma-m-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manasketam. mental perception or conception, idea, notion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manogatan. thought, opinion, notion, idea, wish, desire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
matif. opinion, notion, idea, belief, conviction, view, creed etc. ( matyā matyā- will; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound',"under the idea of" exempli gratia, 'for example' vyāghra-m-,"under the idea of its being a tiger") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cl.9 P. A1. () mīnāti-, mīnīte- (Ved. also min/āti-and minoti-; m/īyate-or mīy/ate-[ ]; mimītas-, mimīyāt-[?]; perfect tense mimāya- ; mīmaya- ; mamau-, mimye- grammar; Aorist amāsīt-, amāsta- grammar; meṣṭa- ; Aorist Passive voice /amāyi- ; preceding mīyāt-, māsīṣṭa- grammar; future mātā-, māsyati-, te- grammar; meṣyate- ; infinitive mood -m/iyam-, -miye- ; m/etos- ; ind.p. mītvā-, -mīya-, māya- grammar), to lessen, diminish, destroy (A. and Passive voice to perish, disappear, die) ; to lose one's way, go astray ; to transgress, violate, frustrate, change, alter : Causal māpayati- Aorist amīmapat-. See pra-- ; Desiderative mitsati-, te- grammar : Intensive memīyate-, memayīti-, memeti- [ confer, compare Greek ; Latin minuere; Slavonic or Slavonian mi8nij; German minniro,minre,minder; Anglo-Saxon min.]
mṛṣāyaNom. A1. to yate- to err, be mistaken, hold a wrong notion or opinion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛtirekhāf. a line (on the hand) denoting death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūḍhagrāham. confused notion, misconception, infatuation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukharayaNom. P. yati-, to make talkative, cause to speak ; to make noisy or resonant ; to announce, notify, declare View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nabham. (rather fr. nabh-denoting"bursting forth"or"expanding"than fr. nah-"connecting", scilicet heaven and earth) the sky, atmosphere (equals nabhas-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naiṣedhikīf. the obtruding one's self upon a person's notice (to prevent his surprise) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niciP. -ciketi-, (perfect tense -cikāya-,3. plural kyur-), to perceive, notice, observe, recognise : Desiderative -cikīṣate-, to observe, watch, guard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nidhūP. -dhūnoti- (-dhuv/ati- ; Potential -dhūvet- ), to throw down, deliver over ; to shake to and fro, agitate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nimiP. -minoti- (perfect tense -mim/āya- Passive voice -mīyate-), to fix or dig in, erect, raise etc. ; to perceive, notice, understand (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirbhal(only pr. p. f. -bhālayantī-in Prakrit varia lectio -dhyāyantī-), to see, perceive, notice = (and perhaps wrong reading for) ni-bh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirdhūP. A1. -dhūnoti-, nirdhūnute-, to shake, agitate, shake out or off, scatter, remove, destroy, expel, reject View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirūpP. -rūpayati-, to perform, represent on the stage, act, gesticulate, indicate or exhibit by gestures (exempli gratia, 'for example' ratha-vegam-,the swiftness of a carriage; vṛkṣa-secanam-,the watering of a tree ) ; to perceive, notice, find out, ascertain etc. ; to investigate, examine, search, try, consider, reflect upon etc. ; to state, define ; to select, choose, appoint as (double accusative), appoint to (locative case, Latin or infinitive mood) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niściP. -cinoti-, (imperative -cinu- ; perfect tense -cikāya- ; Aorist A1. nir-aceṣṭa- ; Passive voice nir-acāyi- ; ind.p. niś-citya- etc.) , to ascertain, investigate, decide, settle, fix upon, determine, resolve View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nitanP. A1. -tanoti-, -tanute-, to pervade, penetrate, pierce ; cause to go or grow downwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nu cl.1 A1. navate- (nauti-with apa-), to go : Causal nāvayati-, to move from the place, remove View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nu or - cl.2.6. P. () nauti-, nuvati-, (present tense also n/avate-, ti- etc.; parasmE-pada P. nuv/at-, n/avat- A1. n/avamāna- ; perfect tense nunāva- ; Aorist /anūnot-, /anūṣi-, ṣata-, anaviṣṭa- ; anauṣit-, anāvit-, anuvīt- grammar; future naviṣyati-, nuv-; navitā-, nuv- ; ind.p. -nutya-, -nāvam- ; infinitive mood lavitum- varia lectio nuv- ), to sound, shout, exult ; praise, commend etc. etc.: Passive voice nūyate- etc.: Causal nāvayati- Aorist anūnavat- grammar : Desiderative nunūṣati- ; Desiderative of Causal nunāvayiṣati- : Intensive n/onavīti-, nonumas- (imperfect tense anonavur- subjunctive n/avīnot-; perfect tense n/onāva-, nonuvur- ; nonūyate-, nonoti- grammar), to sound loudly, roar, thunder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cl.2 P. () p/āti- (imperative pāh/i-; pr. p. P. p/āt- A1. pān/a- ; perfect tense papau- grammar; Aorist apāsīt- subjunctive pāsati- ; future pāsyati-, pātā- grammar; preceding pāyāt- ; infinitive mood pātum- ), to watch, keep, preserve ; to protect from, defend against (ablative) etc. ; to protect (a country) id est rule, govern ; to observe, notice, attend to, follow : Causal pālayati- See pāl-: Desiderative pīpāsati- grammar : Intensive pāpāyate-, pāpeti-, pāpāti- [ confer, compare Zend pa1,paiti; Greek , , etc.; Latin pa-sco,pa-bulum; Lithuanian pe0-mu4] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paddhatif. a family N. or title (or rather the characteristic word denoting caste or occupation in comps. serving as proper names exempli gratia, 'for example' -gupta-, -dāsa-at the end of vaiśya- and śūdra- names). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṇiṃdhamamfn. crowded (as a path, where a person blows into his hands to make a noise and attract notice) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariciP. A1. -cinoti-, nute-, to pile up ; to surround or enclose with (instrumental case), Sulb. ; to heap up, accumulate, augment, increase etc. etc.: Passive voice -cīyate-, to be increased or augmented, to grow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parijñāP. A1. -jānāti-, nīte- (infinitive mood -jñātum- ind.p. -jñāya-), to notice, observe, perceive, learn, understand, comprehend, ascertain, know or recognise as (2 accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimiP. -minoti-, to set or place or lay round View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariṣṭambh( stambh-) P. -ṣṭabhnoti- or -ṣṭabhnāti- (Causal Aorist pary-astambhat-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paritanP. A1. -tanoti-, nute- (Aorist -atanat-; ind.p. -tatya-), to stretch round, embrace, surround View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryāpP. -āpnoti- (imperative -āpnuhi-; perfect tense -āpa-), to reach, obtain, attain, gain ; to make an end of, be content : Causal -āpayati- (ind.p. -āpya-), to perform, do : Desiderative parīpsati-, to wish to obtain or reach, desire etc. ; to wish to preserve, guard ; to wish to get at, lie in wait or ambush View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryaśP. -aśnoti-, (Potential -aśyāt-), to arrive at, reach, attain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryastavatmfn. containing the notion expressed by the word pary-asta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryātanP. -tanoti-, to spread round, encompass, surround View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryavāp( -ava-āp-) P. -avāpnoti-, to study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryāyavācakamfn. expressing a corresponding notion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paś only present tense P. A1. p/aśyati-, te- (see dṛś-and ), to see (with na-"to be blind"), behold, look at, observe, perceive, notice etc. ; to be a spectator, look on (especially parasmE-pada exempli gratia, 'for example' tasya paśyataḥ-,while he looks on, before his eyes ; paśyantī tiṣṭhati-,she stands ind.p. looks on ) ; to see a person (either"visit"or"receive as a visitor") etc. ; to live to see, experience, partake of. undergo, incur etc. ; to learn, find out ; to regard or consider as, take for (accusative with accusative or adverb in vat-) ; to see with the spiritual eye, compose, invent (hymns, rites etc.) ; (also with sādhu-) to have insight or discernment etc. ; to consider, think over, examine ; to foresee ; (paśyāmi-,"ISee or l am convinced ", and paśya-, śyata-,"see, behold, look here!"often employed parenthetically or interjectionally ) [Orig. identical with spaś-, q.v ] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṭalan. a heap, mass, multitude (especially in compound with a word denoting "cloud") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracetitamfn. (See a-prac-) noticed, observed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praciP. A1. -cinoti-, -cinute-, to collect, gather, pluck etc. ; to mow or cut down (enemies) ; to increase, augment, enhance : Passive voice -cīyate-, to be gathered or collected, to grow, thrive, multiply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradhūP. A1. -dhūnoti-, nute-, to move forward ; to blow away : to blow or shake out (the beard after drinking) : Intensive -dodhuvat-, -dūdhot-, to blow (the beard, accusative) ; to blow into (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praduA1. -dūyate-, to be consumed by fire ; P. -dunoti-, to distress, pain, press hard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramāA1. -mimīte- (Ved. infinitive mood pra-m/e-; Passive voice -mīyate-), to measure, mete out, estimate ; to form, create, make ready, arrange ; to form a correct notion of (accusative), understand, know : Causal -māpayati-, to cause correct knowledge, afford proof or authority View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramāf. right measure, true knowledge, correct notion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramāṇan. a correct notion, right perception (equals pramā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramātṛmfn. (for 2.See column 2) one who has a correct notion or idea, authority, performer of (the mental operation resulting in a) true conception View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prameyamfn. that of which a correct notion should be formed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramiP. A1. -minoti-, -minute-, to erect, build ; to judge, observe, perceive commentator or commentary (ind.p. pra-māya-). 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramitamfn. that about which a correct notion has been formed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramitif. a correct notion, right conception, knowledge gained or established by pramāṇa- or proof View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇetṛmatmfn. containing the notion of leading View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāp( pra-āp-) P. A1. prāpnoti- (irreg. Potential prāpeyam-), to attain to ; reach, arrive at, meet with, find etc. ; to obtain, receive (also as a husband or wife) etc. ; to incur (a fine) ; to suffer (capital punishment) ; (with diśaḥ-) to flee in all directions ; to extend, stretch, reach to (A1.) ; to be present or at hand ; (in gram.) to pass or be changed into (accusative) : to result (from a rule), be in force, obtain (also Passive voice) : Causal prāpayati-, te- (ind.p. prāpayya-,or prāpya- ), to cause to reach or attain (2 accusative), advance, promote, further (P. etc.; A1. ) ; to lead or bring to (dative case) ; to impart, communicate, announce, relate etc. ; to meet with, obtain : Desiderative prepsati-, to try to attain, strive to reach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāś( pra-- 1 -) P. prāśnoti- (Aorist prānaṭ-), to reach, attain ; to fall to the lot or share of (accusative) : Causal prāśāpayati-, to cause to reach or attain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśakP. -śaknoti-, (future also -śakṣye-. ), to be able to (infinitive mood) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasnuP. A1. -snauti-, -snute-, to emit fluid, pour forth, flow, drip, distil ; (A1.) to yield milk (Aorist prāsnoṣṭa-) : Desiderative -susnūṣiṣyate-, Va1rtt. 2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratanP. A1. -tanoti-, -tanute-, to spread (intr.) or extend over, cover, fill etc. ; to spread (trans.), disperse, diffuse, continue, propagate etc. ; to show, display, reveal, ; to undertake, begin, perform, execute, effect, cause, do, make (also with 2 accusative) : Passive voice -tāyate-, to spread or extend from, proceed from (ablative). ; -tanyate-, to be continued or extended or particularized View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratarkP. -tarkayati- ; to form a clear view or notion of (accusative), to gather, conclude ; to regard as, take for (2. accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratidṛś(ind.p. -dṛśya-), to look at, behold, perceive, notice ; A1. and Passive voice -dṛśyate-, to become visible, appear, appear as, be etc. etc.: Causal -darśayati-, to cause to see, show, teach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratijñāP. A1. -jānāti-, -jānīte-, to admit, own, acknowledge, acquiesce in, consent to, approve ; to promise (with genitive case dative case or locative case of Persian,and accusative with or without prati-,or dative case of thing, also with infinitive mood etc.;with vākyam-and genitive case"to promise fulfilment of a person's word" ;with satyam-"to promise verily or truly" ) ; (A1.) to confirm, assert, answer in the affirmative etc. ; to maintain, assert, allege, state etc. (śabdaṃ nityatvena-,"to assert the eternity of sound") ; (A1.) to bring forward or introduce (a topic) ; to perceive, notice, learn, become aware of ; to remember sorrowfully (only in this sense ;but really A1. ). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinuP. -nauti-, to commend, approve View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyakṣapramāf. a correct notion obtained through the senses View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyātanP. A1. -tanoti-, -tanute-, to extend in the direction of, shine upon or against, irradiate ; to bend (a bow) against (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyayam. conception, assumption, notion, idea etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyayam. (with Buddhists and jaina-s) fundamental notion or idea ( pratyayatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyuttambh( stambh-) P. -tabhnāti-, or -tabhnoti- to prop up, support View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praviciP. -cinoti-, to search through, investigate, examine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravilokP. -lokayati-, to look forwards or about ; to perceive, notice, consider ; (in astronomy) to observe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prenv( pra-inv-) P. prenoti-, to send forth, impel forwards or upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūjākarmanmfn. denoting the action of honouring, meaning"to honour"
pūrvacittif. (pūrv/a--) foreboding, presentiment (only dative case"at the first notice, forthwith") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvacittif. (prob.) first notion or conception View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājayogam. a constellation under which princes are born or a configuration of planets etc. at birth denoting a person destined for kingship View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛdh cl. (Potential 1. plural ṛdhema- ; subjunctive 3. sg. ṛdhat- ; present tense parasmE-pada ṛdh/at-; see ṛdh/ad-below) ṛdhyati- ; ṛdhnoti- ; ṛṇaddhi- ; ānardha-, ardhitā-, ardhiṣyati-, etc., to grow, increase, prosper, succeed etc. ; to cause to increase or prosper, promote, make prosperous, accomplish : Passive voice ṛdhyate-, to be promoted, increase, prosper, succeed : Causal ardhayati-, to satisfy : Desiderative ardidhiṣati- or īrtsati- ; ([ see rādh-and vṛdh-.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛṣikulyāf. "the river of the ṛṣi-s", a sacred river, Name of sarasvatī- (also denoting"the river of ṛṣi-s id est sacred hymns ", sarasvatī- being the goddess of speech) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādh (connected with2. sidh-) cl.1 P. A1. s/ādati-, te- ; according to to , cl.4. sādhyati-, cl.5. sādhnoti- (in also sadhnoti-; perfect tense sasādha-; Aorist asātsīt-; future sāddhā-, sātsyati-; infinitive mood sāddhum-,in later language sādhitum-;Ved. infinitive mood s/adhase- q.v), to go straight to any goal or aim, attain an object, to be successful, succeed, prosper ; to bring straight to an object or end, further, promote, advance, accomplish, complete, finish ; to submit or agree to, obey ; (sādhyati-) to be completed or accomplished : Causal sādhayati- (mc. also te-; Aorist asīṣadhat-;Ved. also sīṣadhati-, dhaḥ-, dhema-, dhātu-; Passive voice sādhyate- etc.), to straighten, make straight (a path) ; to guide straight or well, direct or bring to a goal ; to master, subdue, overpower, conquer, win, win over etc. ; to summon, conjure up (a god or spirit) ; (in law) to enforce payment, recover (a debt), collect (taxes) etc. ; to subdue a disease, set right, heal, cure ; to bring to an end or conclusion, complete, make perfect, bring about, accomplish, effect, fulfil, execute, practice (with vākyam-,"to execute any one's [ genitive case ] order";with naiṣkarmyam-,"to practise inactivity";with marum-,"to practise abstinence";with mantram-,"to practise the recitation of spells") etc. ; to attain one's object, be successful ; to produce, make, render (two accusative) ; to establish a truth, substantiate, prove, demonstrate ; to make ready, prepare ; to gain, obtain, acquire, procure etc. ; to find out (by calculation), ; to grant, bestow, yield etc. ; to put or place in (locative case) ; to set out, proceed, go (in dramatic language according to to = gam-) etc.: Desiderative of Causal siṣādhayisati- or sisādhayirhati-, to desire to establish or prove : Desiderative siṣātsati- grammar : Intensive , sāsādhyate-, sāsdidhi-
sādhanamf(ī-or ā-)n. denoting, designating, expressive of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sagh (see sah-) cl.5 P. () saghnoti- (occurring only in imperfect tense /asaghnoḥ /asaghnoḥnot- Potential saghnuyāt- subjunctive s/aghat- preceding saghyāsam-,and infinitive mood sagdhyai-; grammar also perfect tense sasāgha- Aorist asaghīt-,or asāghīt-etc.) , to take upon one's self, be able to bear, be a match for (accusative) ; to hurt, injure, kill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śak cl.5 P. () śaknoti- (perfect tense śaś/āka-, śek/uḥ- etc.; Aorist /aśakat- etc. [Ved. also Potential śakeyam-and śakyām-; imperative śagdhi-, śaktam-]; future śaktā-,or śakitā- grammar; śakṣyati-, te- etc.; śakiṣyate-, te- grammar; infinitive mood -śaktave- ; śaktum-or śakitum- grammar), to be strong or powerful, be able to or capable of or competent for (with accusative dative case or locative case,rarely accusative of a verbal noun, or with an infinitive mood in am-or tum-;or with pr. p. ; exempli gratia, 'for example' with grahaṇāya-or grahaṇe-,"to be able to seize"; vadha-nirṇekam- a-śaknuvan-,"unable to atone for slaughter"; śak/ema vāj/ino y/amam-,"may we be able to guide horses"; kṣitum- na- śaknoti-,"he is not able to see"; pūrayan na śaknoti-,"he is not able to fill") etc. etc. (in these meanings Epic also śakyati-, te-,with inf in tuṃ- confer, compare ) ; to be strong or exert one's self for another (dative case), aid, help, assist ; to help to (dative case of thing) : Passive voice śakyate- (Epic also ti-), to be overcome or subdued, succumb ; to yield, give way ; to be compelled or caused by any one (instrumental case) to (infinitive mood) ; to be able or capable or possible or practicable (with an infinitive mood in pass. sense exempli gratia, 'for example' tat kartuṃ śakyate-,"that can be done";sometimes with pass. p. exempli gratia, 'for example' na śakyate vāryamāṇaḥ-,"he cannot be restrained";or used impersonal or used impersonally,with or with out instrumental case exempli gratia, 'for example' yadi-[ tvayā-] śakyate-,"if it can be done by thee","if it is possible") : Causal śākayati- (Aorist aśīśakat-), grammar : Desiderative See śikṣ-. ([ confer, compare according to to some, Greek , German HagHeckehegen;behagen.])
śākhācandranyāyam. rule of the moon on a bough (a phrase denoting that an object seen or matter discussed has its position or relation assigned to it merely from theappearanceof contiguity) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sākṣ cl.1 P. sākṣati- equals āpnoti- (used in explaining pra-sākṣate-fr. pra-sah-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāciP. A1. -cinoti-, -cinute-, to put together, heap up, accumulate ; to load or cover with (instrumental case) etc. ; to fill up (cavities in a road) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samanuprāp( -pra-āp-) P. -prāpnoti-, to attain or reach or arrive at (accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmānyan. universality, totality, generality, general or fundamental notion, common or generic property (in the beginning of a compound instrumental case,or ablative,"in general", as opp. to viśeṣa-tas-,"in particular") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmānyavacanamfn. expressing a general or a wider notion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāpP. -āpnoti-, to acquire or obtain completely, gain etc. ; to accomplish, fulfil ; to reach : Causal āpayati-, to cause to gain or obtain completely ; to bring to an end, finish, complete, conclude etc. ; to put an end to, put to death, destroy (with or scilicet atmānam-"one's self") : Desiderative of Causal -āpipayithati-, to wish or try to accomplish : Desiderative -ipsati-, to wish to obtain or reach or accomplish, wish for, desire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samarth(in some senses rather sam-artha-below) A1. -arthayate- (rarely P. ti-), to make fit or ready, prepare ; to finish, close ; to connect with (instrumental case) in sense, construe (grammatically) ; to judge, think, contemplate, consider etc. ; to suppose to be, take for (accusative with prati-) ; to notice, perceive, find out ; to fix upon, determine, approve ; to cheer up, comfort, encourage ; samarthaya-, often wrong reading for samarpaya- See sam--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samaśP. A1. -aśnoti-, -aśnute- (in once future aśnuviṣyāmahe-), to reach, attain, gain, obtain etc. ; to accomplish, fulfil (a wish) ; to pervade or penetrate thoroughly (See sam-aṣṭi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samātanP. A1. -tanoti-, -tanute-, to extend, stretch, bend (a bow) ; to effect, produce, cause View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavāp( -ava-āp-) P. A1. -avāpnoti-, pnute-, to meet with, attain, reach, gain, obtain, incur View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavekṣ( -ava-īkṣ-) A1. -avekṣate- (Epic also P., ti-), to look at, behold, observe, perceive, notice ; to reflect or ponder on, consider, mind, heed etc. ; to acknowledge, think fit or necessary : Causal -avekṣayati-, to cause to look at or consider View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sambodhanamfn. perceiving, noticing, observing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sambudhA1. -budhyate- (pr. p. -budhyamāna- q.v), to wake up ; to perceive or understand thoroughly, notice, observe, know etc.: Causal -bodhayati-, to cause to wake up, rouse ; to cause to know, inform, advise, instruct ; teach (two accusative) etc. ; to call to on ; to cause to agree : Desiderative of Causal See sam-bubodhayiṣu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃcakṣA1. -caṣṭe- (perfect tense parasmE-pada cakṣāṇa-;Ved. infinitive mood -c/akṣe-and -c/akṣi-), to look attentively at, observe, notice, consider, survey, examine, reflect upon ; to enumerate ; to report or relate fully ; to call, name ; to avoid, shun (Aorist sam acakṣiṣṭa-) (see ava--and pari-saṃcakṣya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃciP. A1. -cinoti-, -cinute-, to heap together, pile up, heap up ; to arrange, put in order ; to accumulate, gather together, collect, acquire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃcit(only perfect tense parasmE-pada P. -cikitv/as-,and 3. plural perfect tense A1. -cikitre-and -cikitrire-), to observe together, survey, notice ; to agree together, be unanimous : Causal -cetayati- (pr. p. -cetayamāna-), to observe, be aware of. perceive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdhūP. A1. -dhūnoti-, nute-, (P.) to scatter or distribute liberally, bestow on (dative case) ; (A1.) to seize or carry off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgraham. perception, notion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhiP. -hinoti-, to send forth ; to bring about, contrive, compose
saṃjñāf. consciousness, clear knowledge or understanding or notion or conception etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkalpam. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) conception or idea or notion formed in the mind or heart, (especially) will, volition, desire, purpose, definite intention or determination or decision or wish for (with locative case dative case,or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'), sentiment, conviction, persuasion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammiP. A1. -minoti-, -minute-, to fasten at the same time or together, fix, erect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampraciP. A1. -cinoti-, -cinute-, to gather, increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samprāp( -pra-āp-) P. -prāpnoti-, to reach or attain fully to, arrive at, effect, accomplish etc. ; to get, obtain, acquire, partake of, incur, undergo etc. ; to obtain as a wife or in matrimony : Causal -prāpayati- (Aorist -prāpipan-), to cause to get or obtain : Desiderative See sam-prepsu- below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sampratyayam. notion, idea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samṛdhP. -ṛdhyati-, -ṛdhnoti- (Ved. infinitive mood -ṛdhe-), to succeed well, prosper, flourish, increase or grow greatly Passive voice -ṛdhyate-, to be completely successful, be fulfilled or accomplished, succeed, prosper ; to share in abundantly, be amply furnished with (instrumental case) : Causal -ardhayati-, to cause to succeed or prosper, accomplish, fulfil ; to cause to be abundantly furnished with (instrumental case) ; to bestow liberally on (dative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃśakP. -śaknoti-, to be capable, be able to (infinitive mood) ; (with na-) not to succeed with, not to be a match for (instrumental case or locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsanP. -sanoti-, to obtain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsṛṣṭakarmanmfn. denoting mixed or various actions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃstambhP. -stabhnoti-, or nāti-, to make firm ; to support, sustain, encourage etc. ; to make rigid (said of water) ; to restrain, check, stop (especially by magical means) ; to suppress (tears or sorrow) ; A1. (only imperative stambhasva-) to be firm, take heart or courage (in -stambha- idem or '= sas- q.v '; see -stabhya-): Causal -stambhayati-, to confirm, strengthen (ātmānam ātmanā-,"one's self by one's self") , encourage etc. ; to take heart or courage ; to make rigid or solid (water) ; to check, stop, arrest etc. ; to paralyze ; to suppress, restrain (grief or tears) : Desiderative of Causal See saṃ-stambhayiṣu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃsuP. -sunoti-, to press out soma- together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃtanP. -tanoti- (ind.p. -tānam-), to stretch along or over, cover etc. ; to unite or join one's self with (instrumental case or accusative) ; to join or connect or keep together, make continuous etc. ; to add, annex ; to effect, accomplish ; to exhibit, display, evince : Causal -tānayati-, to cause to extend or accomplish, cause to be finished View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samucci(-ud--1. ci-) P. A1. -cinoti-, -cinute- (ind.p. -cayitvā-), to heap or pile up together, accumulate, add together ; to collect, gather, arrange in order : Desiderative See sam-uccicīṣā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samuddhūP. A1. -dhūnoti-, -dhūnute-, to shake up, raise (dust), agitate, move hither and thither View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupaciP. -cinoti-, to heap up, gather : Passive voice -cīyate-, to grow up, increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupekṣ( -upa-īkṣ-) A1. -upekṣate- (Epic also ti-), to look completely over or beyond, take no notice of, disregard, neglect, abandon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstran. any instrument of teaching, any manual or compendium of rules, any bock or treatise, (especially) any religious or scientific treatise, any sacred book or composition of divine authority (applicable even to the veda-, and said to be of fourteen or even eighteen kinds [see under vidyā-];the word śāstra-is often found in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' after the word denoting the subject of the book, or is applied collectively to whole departments of knowledge exempli gratia, 'for example' vedānta-ś-,a work on the vedānta- philosophy or the whole body of teaching on that subject; dharma-ś-,a law-book or whole body of written laws; kāvya-ś-,a poetical work or poetry in general; śilpi-ś-,works on the mechanical arts; kāma-ś-,erotic compositions; alaṃkāra ś-,rhetoric, etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sattāvāpyamfn. included in (the notion of) existence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śi (according to to some = śo-) cl.3 P. śiśāti- (imperative ś/iśīhi-, śādhi-), to grant, bestow (see ) ; to present or satisfy with (instrumental case) ; cl.5 P. A1. () śinoti-, śinute- (parasmE-pada śiṣāya-, śiṣye-; Aorist aśaiṣīt-, aśeṣṭa- future śeṣyati-, te-), to sharpen. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
si (confer, compare 4. -) cl.5.9. P. A1. () sinoti-, sinute-; sin/āti-, sinite- (really occurring only in present tense sin/āti-, imperfect tense asinot-; perfect tense siṣāya- ; Aorist [?] siṣet- ; asaiṣīt-, aseṣṭa- grammar; future setā- ; siṣyati- ; seṣyati-, te- grammar; infinitive mood s/etave- ; setum- grammar), to bind, tie, fetter : Causal sāyayati- (Aorist asīṣayat-) grammar : Desiderative sisīṣati-, te- : Intensive seṣīyate-, seṣayīti-, seṣeti- [ confer, compare Greek ,; Lettish sinu,"to bind"; Anglo-Saxon sa7l; German Seil.]
sku cl.5.9. P. A1. ( ) skunoti-, skunute- ; skunāti-, skunīte- (only -skunoti-and -skauti-[ ] and askunāt-[ ], skutvā-?[ ] and -skāvam-[ ]; see ā-sku-and niḥ-ṣku-[add.]) , to tear, pluck, pick, poke ; to cover : Passive voice skūy/ate-, to be stirred (as fire) : Causal skāvayati- (Aorist acuskavat-) grammar : Desiderative cuskūṣati-, te- : Intensive coṣkūy/ate-, to gather up, collect ; coskūyate-, coskoti- grammar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skumbh (in native lists written skunbh-;connected with skambh-) cl.5.9. P. ( ) skubhnoti-, skubhnoti- (skuptvā- ind.p. [prob. wrong reading for skutvā- ]), to hold, stop, hinder (rodhane-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślokam. a stanza, (especially) a particular kind of common epic metre (also called anu-ṣṭubh- q.v;consisting of 4 pāda-s or quarter verses of 8 syllables each, or 2 lines of 16 syllables each, each line allowing great liberty except in the 5th, 13th, 14th and 15th syllables which should be unchangeable as in the following scheme, 8. 1. 8-8., the dots denoting either long or short;but the 6th and 7th syllables should be long;or if the 6th is short the 7th should be short also) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
snātakavratan. the vows and duties of a snātaka- (ex. plained at full length in the gṛhya-- sūtra-s and giving a clear notion of what was considered good manners in well-educated persons) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
snu (confer, compare 1. snā-) cl.2 P. () snauti- (according to to also snute-;only in present tense base; grammar also perfect tense suṣṇāva-, suṣṇuve-; future snotā-or snavitā-etc.) , to drip, distil, trickle, emit fluid, yield milk (confer, compare pra-snu-): Causal snāvayati- (Aorist asuṣṇavat-) grammar : Desiderative of Causal sisnāvayiṣati- or susnāvayiṣati- : Desiderative susnūṣati- : Intensive soṣṇūyate-, siṣṇavīti-, soṣṇoti- [ confer, compare Greek , ] . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthā cl.1 P. A1. () t/iṣṭhati-, te- (perfect tense tasth/au-, tasthe- etc.; Aorist /asthāt-, /asthita- ;3. plural asthiran- ; āsthat-[?] ; asthiṣi-, ṣata- etc.; subjunctive sthāti-, sth/āthaḥ- ; preceding stheyāt- ; stheṣam-, ṣuḥ-[?] ; sthāsīṣṭa- grammar; future sthātā- etc.; sthāsyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood sth/ātum- ; tos- ; -sthitum- ; ind.p. sthitvā- etc.; -sth/āya- etc.; -sthāyam- ), to stand, stand firmly, station one's self, stand upon, get upon, take up a position on (with pādābhyām-,"to stand on the feet";with jānubhyām-,"to kneel";with agre-or agratas-and genitive case,"to stand or present one's self before";with puras-and with or without genitive case,"to stand up against an enemy etc.") etc. ; to stay, remain, continue in any condition or action (exempli gratia, 'for example' with kanyā-,"to remain a girl or unmarried";with tūṣṇīm-or with maunena- instrumental case"to remain silent";with sukham-,"to continue or feel well") etc. ; to remain occupied or engaged in, be intent upon, make a practice of, keep on, persevere in any act (with locative case; exempli gratia, 'for example' with rājye-,"to continue governing";with śāsane-,"to practise obedience";with bale-,"to exercise power";with sva-dharme-,"to do one's duty";with sva-karmaṇi-,"to keep to one's own business";with saṃśaye-,"to persist in doubting";also with ind.p. exempli gratia, 'for example' dharmam āśritya-,"to practise virtue") etc. ; to continue to be or exist (as opp. to"perish"), endure, last etc. ; to be, exist, be present, be obtainable or at hand etc. ; to be with or at the disposal of, belong to (dative case genitive case,or locative case) etc. ; (A1. mc. also P. confer, compare ) to stand by, abide by, be near to, be on the side of, adhere or submit to, acquiesce in, serve, obey (locative case or dative case) etc. ; to stand still, stay quiet, remain stationary, stop, halt, wait, tarry, linger, hesitate (See under sthitvā-below) etc. ; to behave or conduct one's self (with samam-,"to behave equally towards any one" locative case) ; to be directed to or fixed on (locative case) ; to be founded or rest or depend on, be contained in (locative case) ; to rely on, confide in (locative case exempli gratia, 'for example' mayi sthitvā-,"confiding in me") ; to stay at, resort to (accusative) ; to arise from (ablative or genitive case) ; to desist or cease from (ablative) ; to remain unnoticed (as of no importance), be left alone (only imperative and Potential) : Passive voice sthīyate- (Aorist asthāyi-), to be stood etc. (frequently used impersonal or used impersonally exempli gratia, 'for example' mayā sthīyatām-,"let it be abided by me" id est"I must abide") etc. etc.: Causal sthāpayati-, te- (Aorist /atiṣṭhipat-; ind.p. sthāpayitvā-[ q.v ] and -sth/āpam-: Passive voice sthāpyate-), to cause to stand, place, locate, set, lay, fix, station, establish, found, institute etc. ; to set up, erect, raise, build ; to cause to continue, make durable, strengthen, confirm etc. ; to prop up, support, maintain ; to affirm, assent ; to appoint (to any office locative case) etc. ; to cause to be, constitute, make, appoint or employ as (two accusative;with dhātrīm-,"to employ any one as a nurse";with rakṣārtham-,"to appoint any one as guardian";with sajjam-,"to make anything ready";with su-rakṣitam-,"to keep anything well guarded";with svīkṛtya-,"to make anything one's own";with pariśeṣam-,"to leave anything over or remaining") etc. ; to fix, settle, determine, resolve etc. ; to fix in or on, lead or bring into, direct or turn towards (locative case,rarely accusative;with hṛdi-,"to impress on the heart";with manas-,"to fix the mind on") etc. ; to introduce or initiate into, instruct in (locative case exempli gratia, 'for example' with naye-,"to instruct in a plan or system") ; to make over or deliver up to (locative case or haste-with genitive case,"into the hands of") ; to give in marriage ; to cause to stand still, stop, arrest, check, hold, keep in, restrain (with baddhvā-,"to keep bound or imprisoned") etc. ; to place aside, keep, save, preserve : Desiderative of Causal -sthāpayiṣati- (See saṃ-sthā-): Desiderative t/iṣṭhāsati-, to wish to stand etc. : Intensive teṣṭhīyate- ; tāstheti-, tāsthāti- grammar ([ confer, compare Greek ; Latin stare; Lithuanian sto4ti; Slavonic or Slavonian stati; German sta7n,stehen; English stand.])
stigh cl.5 P. stighnoti- (according to to A1. stighnute-; Potential stighnuyāt- infinitive mood -st/igham-; grammar also perfect tense tiṣṭige-; Aorist asteghiṣṭa-; future steghitā-, ghiṣyate-; infinitive mood steghitum-), to step, stride, step up, mount (especially in ati-stigh-,"to step over, overstep", and in pra-stigh-,"to step up, rise up etc.") : Desiderative tiṣṭighiṣati- (in ati-tiṣṭ/ighiṣan-,"wishing to ascend") [ confer, compare Greek ; Slavonic or Slavonian stignati; Gothic steigan; German sti7gan,steigen; English sty.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stumbh (confer, compare stambh-and stubh-;in native lists written stunbh-) cl.5.9. P. stubhnoti-, stubhn/āti-, to stop, stupefy; expel ( ). ([ confer, compare English stop, stump-.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tācchīlikamfn. (an affix) denoting a particular disposition or custom (śīla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tadarthakamf(ikā-)n. denoting that View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tādātmakamf(ikā-)n. (fr. tad-ātman-) denoting the unity of nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tejastvan. the general notion of tejas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tig cl.5. gnoti- See tik-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tigh cl.5. ghnoti-, to hurt, kill (= tik-) () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tik cl.1. tekate-, to go : cl.5. tiknoti- (also tignoti-fr. tig-) idem or 'for /iti- (after k/ā-) ' (see stigh-), ; to assail ; to wound ; to challenge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tritam. "third"(), Name of a Vedic deity (associated with the marut-s, vāyu-, and indra-;fighting like the latter with tvāṣṭra-, vṛtra-, and other demons;called āptya- [ q.v ],"water-deity", and supposed to reside in the remotest regions of the world, whence[ ]the idea of wishing to remove calamity to tvāṣṭra-, and the view of the trita-s being the keepers of nectar[ ] , similarly [ ]the notion of trita-'s bestowing long life;also conceived as an inferior deity conquering the demons by order and with the help of indra-[ ];fallen into a well he begged aid from the gods [ ];as to this last myth on relates that 3 ṛṣi-s, ekata-, dvita-, and trita-, parched with thirst, looked about and found a well, and when tvāṣṭra- began to draw water, the other two, desirous of his property, pushed him down and closed up the well with a wheel;shut up there, tvāṣṭra- composed a hymn to the gods, and managed miraculously to prepare the sacrificial soma-, that he might drink it himself, or offer it to the deities and so be extricated: this is alluded to in [ confer, compare ] and described in ;also makes him a ṛṣi-, and he is the supposed author of ;in epic legends[ ] ekata-, dvita-, and tvāṣṭra- are described as 3 brothers, sons of gautama- or of prajā-pati- or brahmā-;elsewhere tvāṣṭra- is one of the 12 sons of manu- cākṣuṣa- by naḍvalā- ; confer, compare traitan/a-; Zend Thrita;, , etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṛp cl.4. t/ṛpyati- ([ etc.;metrically also te-]) cl.5. [Subj. 2. sg. tṛpṇ/avas- imperative ṇuhi-, ṇut/am- (See also /a-tṛpṇuvat-); noti- and gaRa kṣubhnādi-] cl.6. [2. sg. tṛmp/asi- imperative p/a-, patu-,etc. ; see Va1rtt. 1 ; tṛpati- ; perfect tense parasmE-pada A1. tātṛpāṇ/a- ; P. tatarpa-;3. plural tātṛpur- ; Aorist atṛpat- or atrāpsīt- vArttika; atarpīt-, atārpsīt- ; future 1st tarpiṣyati-(but see ), tarpsy-, trapsy-; Conditional atrapsyat- ; future 2nd tarpitā-, ptā-, traptā- on ] to satisfy one's self, become satiated or satisfied, be pleased with (genitive case instrumental case,or rarely locative case exempli gratia, 'for example' gnis tṛpyati kāṣṭhānām-,"fire is not satisfied with wood"; /atṛpyan brāhmaṇ/ā dh/anaiḥ-,"the brahman-s were pleased with wealth") etc. ; to enjoy (with ablative) ; to satisfy, please : cl.1. tarpati-, to kindle : Causal tarpayati-, rarely te- (imperfect tense atarpayat- etc.; parasmE-pada tarp/ayat- ; Aorist atītṛpat- ; /atītṛpāma- ; infinitive mood t/arpayitav/ai- ) to satiate, satisfy, refresh, gladden etc. ; A1. to become satiated or satisfied ; to kindle : Desiderative (subjunctive t/itṛpsāt-) to wish to enjoy : Causal Desiderative (Potential titarpayiṣet-) to wish to satiate or refresh or satisfy : Intensive tarītṛpyate-, tarītarpti-, trapti- ; ([ see tṛph-;.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tyaj cl.1. jati- (metrically also te-; perfect tense Ved. tity/āja-,Class. tat- ; tatyaja- ; future tyakṣyati- ; tyajiṣy- ; Aorist atyāhṣīt-; infinitive mood tyaktum-) to leave, abandon, quit etc. ; to leave a place, go away from etc. ; to let go, dismiss, discharge ; to give up, surrender, resign, part from, renounce etc. (tanum-or deham-or kalevaram-,"to abandon the body, die" etc.; prāṇān-or śvāsam-or jīvitam-,"to give up breath or life, risk or lose one's life" etc.) ; P. A1. to shun, avoid, get rid of, free one's self from (any passion etc.) etc. ; to give away, distribute, offer (as a sacrifice or oblation to a deity; tyajate-etymologically = ) etc. ; to set aside, leave unnoticed, disregard ; (ind.p. tyaktvā-) to except ; Passive voice tyajyate-, to be abandoned by, get rid of (instrumental case) : Causal tyājayati- (Aorist atityajat- ) to cause anyone to quit ; to cause anyone to give up ; to expel, turn out, ; to cause any one to lose, deprive of (instrumental case) ; to empty the body by evacuations : Desiderative tityakṣati-, to be about to lose (one's life, prāṇān-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
u cl.5 P. unoti- (See vy-u- ) : cl.2 A1. (1. sg. uv/e- ) : cl.1 A1. avate- ; to call to, hail ; to roar, bellow (See also ota- equals ā-uta-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucci(ud-ci-) P. -cinoti- A1. (perfect tense 3. plural -cikyire- ) to gather, collect. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udaśP. -aśnoti-, (subjunctive -aśnavat- ; perfect tense -ānaṃśa- ; Aorist -/ānaṭ-and -ānaṭ-,etc.) A1. (3. dual number -aśnuvāte- ) to reach, attain, arrive at ; to reach, be equal ; to overtake, surpass ; to master, rule View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udātanP. -tanoti-, to spread, extend View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uddhūP. A1. -dhūnoti- and -dhunoti-, -nute-, to rouse up, shake up, move, cause to rise (dust) etc. ; to throw upwards, lift up etc. ; to kindle ; to disturb, excite ; to shake off, throw off ; to expel. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uktapuṃskaa (feminine or neuter) word of which also a masculine is mentioned or exists (and whose meaning only differs from that of the masculine by the notion of gender; exempli gratia, 'for example' the word gaṅgā-is not ukta-puṃska-,whereas such words as śubhra-and grāma-ṇī-are so; see bhāṣita-puṃska-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaciP. -cinoti-, to gather together ; to heap up, collect, hoard up, accumulate ; to increase, strengthen etc. ; to pour over, cover, overload: Passive voice -cīyate-, to be heaped together or accumulated ; to increase, become strong etc. ; to gain advantage, succeed, be prosperous ; to be covered with ; to cover one's self, furnish one's self with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upādānan. perceiving, noticing, learning, acquiring (knowledge) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upamiP. -minoti-, to stick or fasten on, put into View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāp( upa-- 1 āp-) P. -āpnoti-, to arrive at, reach, obtain : Desiderative P. upepsati-, to endeavour to win over or conciliate
upaprekṣ( upa-pra-īkṣ-) P. (2. sg. prekṣasi-) to overlook, pass over unnoticed, disregard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upāś( upa-- 1 -) P. A1. -aśnoti-, -aśnute-, to reach, obtain, meet with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasaṃtanP. -tanoti-, to bring into close connection or accompaniment with, recite immediately after View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasargam. a nipāta- or particle joined to a verb or noun denoting action, a preposition (See also gati-and karma-pravacanīya-;they are enumerated ;in the veda- they are separable from the verb) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upekṣ( upa-īkṣ-) A1. -īkṣate- (rarely P.) to look at or on ; to perceive, notice ; to wait on patiently, expect ; to overlook, disregard, neglect, abandon etc. ; to connive at, grant a respite to, allow ; to regard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkram(ud-kram-) P. (and rarely A1.) -krāmati-, -kramati- (Ved. imperfect tense 3. plural -akraman- ), -te- (perfect tense 3. plural -cakramus- ) to step up, go up, ascend etc. ; to step out, go out or away ; to pass away, die etc. ; to go over, pass over, omit ; not to notice ; to neglect, transgress etc.: Causal P. -kramayati- and -krāmayati-, to cause to go up or ascend etc.: Desiderative -cikramiṣati-, or -cikramiṣyati-, to wish to go up or out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utsū(ud--1. -) P. -suvati-, to cause to go upwards ; (-sunoti-), to stir up, agitate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vādinmfn. saying, discoursing, speaking, talking, speaking or talking about (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' or sometimes with accusative of object), declaring, proclaiming, denoting, designating (or sometimes = designated as, addressed by a title etc.) etc.
varṇabuddhif. the idea or notion connected with particular letters or sounds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsanāf. fancy, imagination, idea, notion, false notion, mistake (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound', exempli gratia, 'for example' bheda-v-,the mistake that there is a difference) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsanāmayamf(ī-)n. consisting in notions or ideas or in impressions of (compound) ( vāsanāmayatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāyutvan. the notion or idea of air View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viind. (prob. for an original dvi-,meaning"in two parts";and opp. to sam- q.v) apart, asunder, in different directions, to and fro, about, away, away from, off, without etc. etc. In it appears also as a preposition with accusative denoting"through"or"between"(with ellipse of the verb i, 181, 5; x, 86, 20 etc.'>) It is especially used as a prefix to verbs or nouns and other parts of speech derived from verbs, to express"division","distinction","distribution","arrangement","order","opposition", or"deliberation" (see vi-bhid-, -śiṣ-, -dhā-, -rudh-, -car-,with their nominal derivatives) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vici(not always separable from vi--2. ci-) P. A1. -cinoti-, -cinute- (imperative -citana-, -ciyantu- ), to segregate, select, pick out, cull ; to divide, part (hair) ; to take away, remove, disperse ; to clear, prepare (a road) ; to distribute ; to gather, collect ; to pile or heap up in a wrong way, disarrange View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vici(see prec.) P. -ciketi-, -cinoti- etc. (pr. p. -cinvat-and -cinvāna-), to discern, distinguish ; to make anything discernible or clear, cause to appear, illumine ; to search through, investigate, inspect, examine etc. ; to look for, long for, strive after View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vid cl.2 P. () vetti- (vidmahe- ; vedati-, te- ; vid/ati-, te- etc.; vindati-, te- etc.; imperative vidāṃ-karotu- [ confer, compare ];1. sg. imperfect tense avedam-,2. sg. avet-or aves-[ ] etc.;3. plural avidus- [ confer, compare ]; avidan- etc.; perfect tense v/eda-[often substituted for proper vetti- confer, compare ], 3. plural vid/us-or vidre- ; viveda- etc.; vidāṃcak/āra- etc.[ confer, compare ; according to to also vidām-babhūva-]; Aorist avedīt- ; vidām-akran- ; future vedit/ā- ; vettā- future vediṣyati-, te- ; vetsyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood v/editum-, tos- ; vettum- etc.; ind.p. viditv/ā- etc.), to know, understand, perceive, learn, become or be acquainted with, be conscious of, have a correct notion of (with accusative,in older, language also with genitive case;with infinitive mood = to know how to) etc. (viddhi yathā-,"know that"; vidyāt-,"one should know","it should be understood"; ya evam veda-[in ],"who knows thus","who has this knowledge") ; to know or regard or consider as, take for, declare to be, call (especially in 3. plural vidus-,with two accusative or with accusative and Nominal verb with iti-, exempli gratia, 'for example' taṃ sthaviraṃ viduḥ-,"they consider or call him aged"; rājarṣir iti māṃ viduḥ-,"they consider me a rājarṣi-") etc. ; to mind, notice, observe, remember (with genitive case or accusative) ; to experience, feel (accusative or genitive case) etc. ; to wish to know, inquire about (accusative) : Causal ved/ayate- (rarely ti-; Aorist avīvidat-; Passive voice vedyate-), to make known, announce, report, tell etc. ; to teach, explain ; to recognize or regard as, take for (two accusative) etc. ; to feel, experience etc.: Desiderative of Causal in vivedayiṣu- q.v : Desiderative vividiṣati- or vivitsati-, to wish to know or learn, inquire about (acc) : Intensive vevidyate-, vevetti- grammar ([ confer, compare Greek for , for equals veda-; Latin videre; Slavonic or Slavonian ve8de8ti; Gothic witan,wait; German wizzan,wissen; Anglo-Saxon wa7t; English wot.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhūP. A1. -dhūnoti-, -dhūnute- (later also -dhunoti-, -dhunute-; infinitive mood -dhavitum-,or -dhotum-), to shake about, move to and fro, agitate, toss about (A1.also "one's self") etc. ; to fan, kindle (fire) ; to shake off, drive away, scatter, disperse, remove, destroy etc. ; (A1.) to shake off from one's self, relinquish, abandon, give up etc.: Passive voice -dhūyate- (Epic also ti-), to be shaken or agitated : Causal -dhūnayati-, to cause to shake about etc. ; to shake violently, agitate, harass, annoy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidu(or -) P. -dunoti-, to consume or destroy by burning ; A1. -dunute-, -dūyate- (Epic also ti-), to be agitated or afflicted or distressed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vigaṇP. -gaṇayati- (ind.p. -gaṇayya-), to reckon, compute, calculate (Passive voice to be reckoned id est amount to) ; to deliberate, consider, ponder etc. ; to regard as, take for (with double accusative) ; to esteem, regard (a-vigaṇayya-,"not taking notice of") ; to disregard, take no notice of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikalpam. false notion, fancy, imagination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikalpanan. false notion or assumption, fancy, imagination View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilakṣP. A1. -lakṣayati-, te-, to distinguish, discern, observe, perceive, mark, notice ; to lose sight of ones aim or object, become bewildered or perplexed or embarrassed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilakṣitamfn. perceived, observed, noticed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilokanan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') perceiving, noticing, becoming aware of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilokanīyamfn. to be looked at or perceived or noticed or learnt (n. also impersonal or used impersonally) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilokinmfn. looking at, looking, seeing, beholding, perceiving, noticing, becoming aware of (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimiP. -minoti-, -minute-, to fix, build, erect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīn( vi-in-,or inv-) P. noti-, to drive away, scatter, disperse ; to send forth in various ways, bestow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinihnuP. -hnauti-, to deny, disown (wrong reading hnoti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viparyasA1. -asyate-, to turn over, turn round, overturn, reverse, invert ; to change, interchange, exchange ; to have a wrong notion, be in error : Causal -āsayati-, to cause to turn round or to change View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipratipattif. erroneous perception or notion, error, mistake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viruddhamatikārinmfn. suggesting contradictory notions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viruddhamatikāritāf. a figure of speech which (by using ambiguous words) suggests contradictory notions (exempli gratia, 'for example' vidadhāti galagraham-,"she gives an embrace", where the word gala-graha-means also "a disease of the throat") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣakṛminyāyam. the rule of the poison-worm (denoting that what may be fatal to others, is not so to those who are bred in it) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣavṛkṣanyāyam. the rule of the poison-tree (denoting that as a tree ought not to be cut down by the rearer of it so a noxious object should not be destroyed by the producer of it; see , viṣa-vṛkṣo 'pi saṃvardhya svayaṃ chettum asāmpratam-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśeṣatvan. distinction, notion of the particular View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣkambh( skambh-; see ) P. -skabhnoti-, or -skabhnāti- (infinitive mood -ṣk/abhe- ; -ṣkambhitum- ), to fix, support, prop ; to hurl, cast ; to come forth, escape : Causal -ṣkabhāyati- to fix firmly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣkumbh( skumbh-) P. -ṣkubhnāti-, or -ṣkubhnoti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇum. (prob. fr. viṣ-,"All-pervader"or"Worker") Name of one of the principal Hindu deities (in the later mythology regarded as"the preserver", and with brahmā-"the creator"and śiva-"the destroyer" , constituting the well-known tri-mūrti- or triad;although viṣṇu- comes second in the triad he is identified with the supreme deity by his worshippers;in the Vedic period, however, he is not placed in the foremost rank, although he is frequently invoked with other gods [ especially with indra- whom he assists in killing vṛtra- and with whom he drinks the soma- juice; see his later names indrānuja- and upendra-];as distinguished from the other Vedic deities, he is a personification of the light and of the sun, especially in his striding over the heavens, which he is said to do in three paces [See tri-vikrama-and see bali-, vāmana-],explained as denoting the threefold manifestations of light in the form of fire, lightning, and the sun, or as designating the three daily stations of the sun in his rising, culminating, and setting; viṣṇu- does not appear to have been included at first among the āditya-s [ q.v ], although in later times he is accorded the foremost place among them;in the brāhmaṇa-s he is identified with sacrifice, and in one described as a dwarf;in the mahā-bhārata- and rāmāyaṇa- he rises to the supremacy which in some places he now enjoys as the most popular deity of modern Hindu worship;the great rivalry between him and śiva-[ see vaiṣṇava-and śaiva-]is not fully developed till the period of the purāṇa-s: the distinguishing feature in the character of the Post-vedic viṣṇu- is his condescending to become incarnate in a portion of his essence on ten principal occasions, to deliver mankind from certain great dangers[ see avatāra-and ];some of the purāṇa-s make 22 incarnations, or even 24, instead of 10;the vaiṣṇava-s regard viṣṇu- as the supreme being, and often identify him with nārāyaṇa-, the personified puruṣa- or primeval living spirit [described as moving on the waters, reclining on śeṣa-, the serpent of infinity, while the god brahmā- emerges from a lotus growing from his navel; see ];the wives of viṣṇu- are aditi- and sinīvālī-, later lakṣmī- or śrī- and even sarasvatī-;his son is kāma-deva-, god of love, and his paradise is called vaikuṇṭha-;he is usually represented with a peculiar mark on his breast called śrī-vatsa-, and as holding a śaṅkha-,or conch-shell called pāñcajanya-, a cakra-or quoit-like missile-weapon called su-darśana-, a gadā-or club called kaumodakī- and a padma-or lotus;he has also a bow called śārṅga-, and a sword called nandaka-;his vāhana-or vehicle is garuḍa- q.v;he has a jewel on his wrist called syamantaka-, another on his breast called kaustubha-, and the river Ganges is said to issue from his foot;the demons slain by him in his character of "preserver from evil", or by kṛṣṇa- as identified with him, are madhu-, dhenuka-, cāṇūra-, yamala-, and arjuna- [see yamalārjuna-], kāla-nemi-, haya-grīva-, śakaṭa-, ariṣṭa-, kaiṭabha-, kaṃsa-, keśin-, mura-, śālva-, mainda-, dvi-vida-, rāhu-, hiraṇya-kaśipu-, bāṇa-, kāliya-, naraka-, bali-;he is worshipped under a thousand names, which are all enumerated in ;he is sometimes regarded as the divinity of the lunar mansion called śravaṇa-) etc. (see )
viṣṭambh( stambh-) P. -ṣṭabhnoti-, or nāti- (imperfect tense vy-aṣṭabhnot-or nāt- perfect tense vitaṣṭambha- ; ind.p. -ṣṭabhya-or -ṣṭambhitvā-), to fix asunder, hold or keep apart, prop, fix, fasten, support ; to strengthen, encourage ; to settle, ascertain ; to make stiff or rigid ; to stop, check, restrain, suppress ; to press close against (the mouth) ; to plant (the feet) firmly ; to lean on or against (accusative) ; to stiffen id est fill through and through, pervade, permeate ; to stuff (intr.), swell, remain undigested (in the stomach) : Causal -ṣṭham-bhayati-, te- (Aorist vy-atastambhat- ), to cause to stop, check, arrest, obstruct etc. ; to cause or produce (illness) by obstruction ; to paralyse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vitanP. A1. -tanoti-, -tanute- (future -tāyitā- ), to spread out or through or over, cover, pervade, fill etc. ; to spread, stretch, extend (a net, snare, cord etc.) etc. ; to draw or bend (a bow) ; to spread out id est lay on, impose (a yoke) ; to apply (ointment) ; to extend, make wide (with tanv/as-,the bodies, = to oppose or resist boldly ;with padāni-,steps, = to stride ) ; to unfold, display, exhibit, manifest etc. ; to carry out, perform, accomplish (especially a rite or ceremony) ; to sacrifice ; to cause, effect, produce ; to make, render (two accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛkṣatvan. the state or notion of"tree" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyabhimānam. ( man-) a false apprehension or notion, erroneous view View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyādhūP. A1. -dhūnoti-, nute-, to shake off, shake to and fro, move or toss about View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāpP. -āpnoti- (rarely A1. -āpnute-), to reach or spread through, pervade, permeate, cover, fill etc. ; to reach as far as, extend to (see ) : Passive voice vy-āpyate- (See vyāpyamāna-): Causal vy-āpayati- (See vy-āpita-): Desiderative psati- (See psa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapadeśinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') denoting, indicating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāptamfn. comprehended or included under (a general notion), having invariably inherent properties, invariably pervaded or attended or accompanied by (in logic; exempli gratia, 'for example' dhūmo vahninnā vyāptaḥ-,"smoke is invariably attended by fire"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyaśP. A1. -aśnoti-, -aśnute-, to reach, attain ; to obtain, take possession of ; to fall to one's share ; to pervade, interpenetrate, fill, occupy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyavadhūP. A1. -dhūnoti-, nute-, to shake off, ward off, remove ; to shake about, treat roughly or rudely ; to reject, repel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyuP. -unoti-, to urge on, incite, animate
vyūrṇu(see vi-vṛ-) P. A1. -ūrnoti-, -ūrṇute-, to uncover, open, display View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyutpattif. difference of tone or sound (fr. 3. vi-denoting variation) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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acitta अचित्त a. 1 Inconceivable. -2 [नास्ति चित्तं यस्य] Destitute of intellect, senseless, stupid. -3 Unnoticed, unexpected, not thought of. -4 Without consciousness, inanimate, nonsentient. P.IV.2.47.
adhi अधि ind. 1 (As a prefix to verbs) over, above; (अधिकार); ˚स्था to stand over; ˚कृ to place over or at the head of; ˚रुह् to grow over or above; over and above, besides, in addition to (आधिक्य); fully, completely (अतिशय, विशेष), to get something in addition to another; अधिगत्य जगत्यधीश्वरात् having obtained fully, अधि intensifying the meaning of the root; इतो वा सातिमीमहे दिवो वा पार्थिवादधि Rv.1.6.1; (अधीमहे आधिक्येन याचामहे). -2 (As a separable adverb) Over, above, from above (mostly Vedic); षष्टिर्वारासो अधि षट् Rv.7.18.14. -3 (As a preposition) with acc. (a) Above, over, upon, in (उपरि); यं दन्तमधिजायते नाडी तं दन्तमुद्धरेत् Suśr. अध्यधि Just above; लोकानुपर्युपर्यास्ते$धो$धो$ध्यधि च माधवः Bopadeva; with gen. also; ये नाकस्याधि रोचने दिवि Rv. 1.19.6 above the sun; ˚विटपि Śi.7.35; ˚त्वत् 7.41; ˚रजनि at night. अधिरजनि जगाम धाम तस्याः 52. (b) with reference to, concerning, in the case of, on the subject of (अधिकृत्य) (mostly in adverbial compounds in this sense); हरौ इति अधिहरि; so अधिस्त्रि; कृष्णमधिकृत्य प्रवृत्ता कथा अधिकृष्णम्; so ˚ज्योतिषम्, ˚लोकम्, ˚दैवम्, ˚दैवतम् treating of stars &c.; ˚पुरन्ध्रि Śi.6.32 in the case of women. (c) (With abl.) Just over, more than (अधिक); सत्त्वादधि महानात्मा Kath.; अविदितादधि (d) (With loc.) Over, on or upon, above (showing lordship or sovereignty over something) (ऐश्वर्य); अधिरीश्वरे P.1.4.97; अधिभुवि रामः P.II.3.9 Sk. Rāma rules over the earth; the country ruled over may be used with loc. of 'ruler'; अधि रामे भूः ibid; प्रहारवर्म- ण्यधि विदेहा जाताः Dk.77 subject to, under the government of, become the property or possession of (अधि denoting स्वत्वं in this case); under, inferior to (हीन); अधि हरौ सुराः (Bopadeva) the gods are under Hari. -4 (As first member of Tatpuruṣa compounds) (a) Chief, supreme, principal, presiding; ˚देवता presiding deity; ˚राजः supreme or soverign ruler; ˚पतिः supreme lord &c. (b) Redundant, superfluous (growing over another); ˚दन्तः = अध्यारूढः (दन्तस्योपरि जातः) दन्तः P.VI.2. 188. (c) Over, excessive; ˚अधिक्षेपः high censure. According to G. M. अधि has these senses. अधिरध्ययनैश्वर्य- वशित्वस्मरणाधिके । e. g.; उपाध्यायादधीते; इङो$ध्ययनार्थकत्वस्य अधिद्योतकः; अधिपतिः (ऐश्वर्ये); अधीनः (वशित्वे) अधिगतः इनं; मातुरध्येति (स्मरणे); अधिकम् (अधिके). -5 Instead of; इदमग्ने सुधितं दुर्धितादधि प्रियादु चिन्मन्मनः प्रेय अस्तु ते Rv.1.14. 11. In the Veda अधि is supposed by B. and R. to have the senses of 'out of', 'from', 'of', 'among', 'before', 'beforehand', 'for', 'in favour of', 'in', 'at'.
adhī अधी [अधिं-इ] 2 A. 1 To study, learn (by heart), read; (with abl. of person) learn from; आख्यातोपयोगे P.I.4.29. उपाध्यायादधीते Sk.; सो$ध्यैष्ट वेदान् Bk.1.2. -2 (P.) (a) To remember, think of, long or care for, mind, (with regret) with gen.; रामस्य दयमानो$सावध्येति तव लक्ष्मणः Bk.8.119;18.38; ममैवाध्येति नृपतिस्तृप्यन्निव जलाञ्जलेः Ki.11.74 thinks of me only. (b) To know or learn by heart, study, learn; गच्छाधीहि गुरोर्मुखात् Mb. (c) To teach, declare. (d) To notice, observe, understand. (e) To meet with, obtain; तेन दीर्घममरत्वमध्यगुः । Śi.14.31. -Caus. [अध्यापयति] to teach, instruct (in); with acc. of the agent of the verb in the primitive sense; (तौ) साङ्गं च वेदमध्याप्य R.15.33; विद्यामथैनं विजयां जयां च... अध्यापिपद् गाधिसुतो यथावत् Bk.2.21,7.34; अध्यापितस्योशनसापि नीतिम् Ku.3.6.
anudātta अनुदात्त a. Grave (accent); not elevated or raised (not pronounced with the Udātta accent); उच्चैरुदात्तः नीचैरनुदात्तः; accentless, having the neutral, general tone; उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः uttered with the grave accent (as a vowel); प्रयत्नप्रेरितो वायुर्यदोर्ध्वभागे प्रति- हतो$चं निष्पादयति स उदात्तः; एवमधोनिष्पन्नो$च् अनुदात्तः; ताल्वा- दिषु सभागेषु स्थानेषु नीचभागे निष्पन्नो$च् अनुदात्तः; ˚त्तं पदमेकवर्जम् Sk. (The term अनुदात्त is used by Pāṇini for the grave accent which immediately precedes the Udātta, and also for the general accentless tone neither high nor low, termed एकश्रुति, the one monotonous intonation belonging to the generality of syllables in a word). -त्तः The grave accent. -Comp. -आदिः a nominal base of which the first syllable is अनुदात्त. -इत् a verbal root having for its अनुबन्ध the grave accent (denoting that it takes the Ātm. terminations only). -उदयम् a syllable followed (immediately) by the grave accent. -तर a. more than अनुदात्त; still lower or graver accent, i. e. that which immediately precedes a syllable having the उदात्त or स्वरित accent and is thus more depressed than the ordinary अनुदात्त accent.
anupad अनुपद् 4 A. (P. in epic poetry) 1 To go after, follow, attend. -2 To be fond of, be attached to (as a wife); उतथ्यस्य यवीयास्तु ममतामन्वपद्यत Mb. -3 To enter, go to or into. -4 To fall down, come down (to the earth); वसुधामन्वपद्येतां वातनुन्नाविव द्रुमौ Mb. -5 To enter upon, betake oneself to; जितमित्येव तानक्षान्पुनरेवान्वपद्यत, ध्यानमेवान्वपद्यत Rām.; पुत्रौ दृष्ट्वा सुसंभ्रान्ता नान्वपद्यत किंचन Mb. did not do anything else. -6 To find, discover, see, notice; दीर्घं दध्यौ. ... निमित्तं सो$न्वपद्यत Bhāg. -7 To lose (with abl.) महत्त्वान्नान्वपद्येताम् Mb. -8 to handle. -9 To fall to the share of (Ved.)
anubhū अनुभू 1 P. 1 To enjoy; taste, experience, feel, have experience or knowledge of, notice, perceive (by the senses &c.); to suffer, bear, undergo (as misery &c.); अन्वभवं च मधुकर इव नवमालिकामार्द्रसुमनसम् Dk. 121; असक्तः सुखमन्वभूत् R.1.21; भुवनालोकनप्रीतिः स्वर्गिभि- र्नानुभूयते Ku.2.45; R.7.28; आत्मकृतानां हि दोषाणामनु- भवितव्यं फलमात्मनैव K.121; अनुभवति हि मूर्ध्ना पादपस्तीव्रमुष्णम् Ś.5.7; Ku.4.41; संवत्सरमात्रं प्रेष्यभावमनुभूय M.5 undergoing the state of a servant; षष्ठमनुभवन् वर्षम् K.77 being in the sixth year, six years old. -2 To learn, hear, understand; वेदान्नानुभवसि Ch. Up. -3 To try, test, put to the test; न त्वं तेनान्वभाविष्ठा नान्वभावि त्वयाप्यसौ । अनुभूता मया चासौ तेन चान्वभविष्यहम् ॥ Bk.5.35. -4 To comprise, include, grasp; द्वे वामलके अनुभवति Ch. Up. -5 To come up with, arrive at, get, obtain (mostly Ved. in these senses). -6 To turn or incline to; यत् त्वा भवतो रोदसी अनु Rv.1.147.1. -7 To act favourably; य एवैतमनुभवति यो वै तमनुभार्यान् बुभूर्षति Bṛi. Up.1.3.18.] -Caus. 1 To cause to enjoy, feel, or experience; अनुभावयितुं मन्ये यत्नः संप्रति मां विधेः Mu.6.15; स्नानभोजना- दिकमनुभावितो$स्मि Dk.125; आमोदो न हि कस्तूर्याः शपथेनानुभाव्यते Bv.1.12. -2 To reflect on, meditate, think of; मनसा तमेव वृत्तान्तमन्वभावयत् K.176,279. -3 To infer, know; तस्मात्परोक्षवृत्तीनां फलैः कर्मानुभाव्यते H.4.11.
anubhavaḥ अनुभवः 1 Direct perception or cognition, knowledge derived from personal observation or experiment, notion, apprehension, the impression on the mind not derived from memory, one of the kinds of knowledge; सर्वव्यवहारहेतुर्ज्ञानं बुद्धिः । सा द्विविधा स्सृतिरनुभवश्च । संस्कारमात्र- जन्यं ज्ञानं स्मृतिः । तद्भिन्नं ज्ञानमनुभवः which again is यथार्थ right & अयथार्थ wrong. See T. S.34. (The Naiyāyikas recognize प्रत्यक्ष, अनुमान, उपमान and शाब्द as the four sources of knowledge; the Vedāntins and Mīmāṁsakas add two more अर्थापत्ति and अनुपलब्धि; the Vaiśeṣikas and Bauddhas admit the first two only, the Sāṅkhyas exclude उपमान, while the Chārvākas admit प्रत्यक्ष only. Other sections of philosophical schools add three more to the six sources of knowledge recognised by the Mīmāṁsakas; -संभव 'equivalence'; ऐतिह्य 'fallible testimony', and चेष्टा 'gesture'.) -2 Experience; अनुभवं वचसा सखि लुम्पसि N.4.15. -3 Understanding. -4 Result, consequence. -Comp. -सिद्ध a. established by experience.
anumānam अनुमानम् 1 Inferring as the instrument of an अनुमिति, conclusion; from given premises; an inference, conclusion, one of the four means of obtaining knowledge according to the Nyāya system; (अनुमितिकरणमनुमानं तच्च धूमो वह्निव्याप्य इति व्याप्तिज्ञानम्. It is of two kinds स्वार्था- नुमानम् & परार्थानुमानम्); प्रत्यक्षं चानुमानं च शास्त्रं च विविधागमम् । त्रयं सुविदितं कार्यं धर्मशुद्धिमभीप्सता ॥ Ms.12.15. -2 A guess, conjecture, sign to know; इङ्गितैरनुमानैश्च मया ज्ञैया भविष्यति Rām. -3 Analogy, similarity; आत्मनो हृदयानुमानेन प्रेक्षसे Ś.5 you judge (of others) by the analogy of your own heart; स्वानुमानात्कादम्बरीमुत्प्रेक्ष्य K.35. -4 (In Rhet.) A figure which consists in a notion, expressed in a peculiarly striking manner, of a thing established by proof; S. D.711; यत्र पतत्यबलानां दृष्टिर्निशिताः पतन्ति तत्र शराः । तच्चापरोपितशरो धावत्यासां पुरः स्मरो मन्ये ॥ अनुमानं तदुक्तं यत्साध्यसाधनयोर्वचः K. P.1. -Comp. -उक्ति f. reasoning; logical inference.
anuvādaḥ अनुवादः 1 Repetition (in general); गुण˚ K.26. -2 Repetition by way of explanation, illustration or corroboration; अनुवादे चरणानाम् P.II.4.3. (सिद्धस्योपन्यासे Sk.) -3 Explanatory repetition or reference to what is already mentioned, such as paraphrase or free translation; particularly, any portion of the Brāhmaṇas which comments on, illustrates, or explains a Vidhi or direction previously laid down and which does not itself lay down any directions; a supplementary repetition, opp. to विधि 'authoritative or direct injunction'; विधिविहितस्य अनुवचनमनुवादः । नानुवादपुनरुक्तयोः विशेषः शब्दाभ्या- सोपपत्तेः Nyāya sūtra; cf. also विध्यनुवादयोर्विधिर्ज्यायान्, अपू- र्वार्थप्रकल्पत्वादिति ŚB. on MS.1.6.3. It is of 3 kinds:- भूतार्थ˚ (सदेव सौम्येदमग्र आसीत्); स्तुत्यर्थ˚ (वायुर्वै क्षेपिष्ठा देवता) and गुण˚ (अग्निहोत्रं जुहोति इत्युक्ते दध्ना जुहोति इति गुणविधानात्); see अर्थवाद also. -4 Corroboration, confirmation. -5 Slander, abuse, reviling. -6 Advertisement, notice; report, rumour. -7 Commencement of speech (वाचारम्भणमात्रम्).
anyonya अन्योन्य a. [अन्य-कर्मव्यतिहारे द्वित्वं, पूर्वपदे सुश्च] One another, each other, mutual (treated like a pronoun). In many cases the use of this word corresponds to the use of the word 'each other' or 'one another' in English; अन्योन्यं ताडयतः Mk.9 they strike each other (अन्यः अन्यं ताडयति). Thus अन्यः may be regarded as the subject and अन्यम् as the object of the verb, as in English. The second अन्य may, therefore, in many cases stand in the instr., gen., or loc. cases; अन्योन्यैराहताः सन्तः सस्वनुर्भीमनिःस्वनाः Rām.; अन्योन्यस्य व्यतिलुनन्ति P.I. 3.16 Sk. But there are several instances, especially when अन्योन्य enters into compound, in which the first अन्य loses all its nominative force and becomes a sort of oblique case, or an irregular compound of अन्य and अन्य, see P.VIII.1.12 Sk.; अन्योन्यस्याव्यभीचारः Ms. 9.11; oft. in comp. and translated by 'mutual', 'reciprocal', 'mutually'; ˚शोभाजननात् Ku.1.42; so ˚कलह, ˚दर्शन, &c. -न्यम् ind. Mutually. -न्यम् (In Rhet.) A figure of speech, the 'Reciprocal', in which two things do the same act to each other; अन्योन्यमुभयो- रेकक्रियायाः करणं मिथः । त्वया सा शोभते तन्वी तया त्वमपि शोभसे ॥ रजन्या शोभते चन्द्रश्चन्द्रेणापि निशीथिनी । S. D.724. -Comp. -अध्यासः reciprocal attribution of identity (अन्योन्य- तादात्म्यारोपः); जलव्योम्ना घटाकाशो यथा सर्वस्तिरोहितः । तथा जीवे च कूटस्थः सो$न्योन्याध्यास उच्यते ॥ -अपहृत a. taken from one another, taken secretly. -अभावः mutual non-existence or negation; one of the two main kinds of अभाव; it is reciprocal negation of identity, essence, or respective peculiarity, and is equivalent to difference (भेद); तादात्म्यसंबन्धावच्छिन्नप्रतियोगिको$न्योन्याभावः, as घटः पटो न भवति; it exists between two notions which have no property in common. -आश्रय a. mutually dependent. (-यः) mutual or reciprocal dependence, support, or connection; reciprocal relation of cause and effect (a term in Nyāya). -उक्तिः f. conversation. -कार्यम् Sexual intercourse (मैथुन); अन्योन्यकार्याणि यथा तथैव न पापमात्रेण कृतं हिनस्ति Mb.12.141.7. -पक्षनयनम् transposition of numbers from one side to another. -भेदः mutual dissension or enmity; so ˚कलह. -मिथुनम् mutual union. -विभागः mutual partition of an inheritance made by the sharers (without the presence of any other party). -वृत्तिः f. mutual effect of one thing upon another. -व्यतिकरः, -संश्रयः reciprocal action or influence; mutual relation of cause and effect.
apa अप ind. [न पाति रक्षति पतनात् पा-ड Tv.] 1 (As a prefix to verbs it means) (a) Away, away from, denoting वियोग; अपयाति, अपनयति; (b) deterioration (विकृति); अपकरोति does wrongly or badly; (c) opposition, negation, contradiction (विपरीत); अपकर्षति, अपचिनोति; (d) direction or mention or illustration (निदर्शन); अपदिशति; (e) exclusion (वर्जन); अपवह्, अपसृ Caus. (f) joy, merriment or laughter (आनन्द); अपहसति; (g) concealment or denial (चौर्य); अपलपति, अपवदते. -2 As first member of Tat. or Bahuvrīhi comp. it has all the above senses; अपयानम्, अपकर्म, अपपाठः; अपशब्दः a bad or corrupt word; ˚भी fearless; ˚कल्मष stainless; अपरागः discontent (opp. to अनुराग); ˚मेघोदयं वर्षम् Ku.6.54 &c. In most cases अप may be translated by 'bad', 'inferior', 'corrupt', 'wrong', 'unworthy', &c. It also means 'going downwards' as in अपानः. -3 As a separable preposition (with a noun in the abl.) (a) away from; यत्संप्रत्यप लोकेभ्यो लङ्कायां वसतिर्भयात् Rām; (b) without, on the outside of; अप हरेः संसारः Sk.; (c) with the exception of, excepting; अप त्रिगर्तेभ्यो वृष्टो देवः Sk. on the outside of, with the exception of. In these senses अप may form adverbial compounds also (P.II.1.12); ˚विष्णु संसारः Sk. without Viṣṇu; ˚त्रिगर्तं वृष्टो देवः excepting त्रिगर्त &c. It also implies negation, contradiction &c.; ˚कामम्, ˚शङ्कम्. The senses of this word as given by G. M. may be thus put in verse; वर्जने विकृतौ चौर्ये विपरीतवियोगयोः । अपकृष्टे च निर्देशे हर्षे चापः प्रयुज्यते. [cf. L. ab; Gr. apo; Goth. af. Eng. of or off; Zend apa].
apaṭī अपटी [अल्पः पटः पटी, न. त.] 1 A screen or wall of cloth, particularly the screen or kanāt surrounding a tent. -2 A curtain. -Comp. -क्षेपः (अपटक्षेपः) tossing aside the curtain; ˚क्षेपेण (= अकस्मात्) 'with a (hurried) toss of the curtain', frequently occurring as a stage direction and denoting precipitate entrance on the stage which arises from fear, hurry, agitation &c., as when a character tossing up the curtain suddenly enters without the usual introduction ततः प्रविशति &c.
apās अपास् [अप्-अस्] 4 P. 1 (a) To throw or fling away, cast away or off, leave, keep or put aside, reject, discard (opinion also); सारं ततो ग्राह्यमपास्य फल्गु Pt.1.5; किमित्यपांस्याभरणानि यौवने धृतं त्वया वार्धकशोभि वल्कलम् Ku.5.44; निरस्तगाम्भीर्यमपास्तपुष्पकम् Śi.1.55; इत्यादीनामपि काव्यलक्षणत्वम- पास्तम् S. D. rejected, discarded. (b) To leave, abandon, desert, quit, retire or withdraw from; यदि समरमपास्य नास्ति मृत्योर्भयम् Ve.3.5. -2 To scare, disperse, drive away; अपास्य चास्य यन्तारम् Mb. -3 To leave behind, leave in a deserted condition; to disregard, take no notice of, condemn.
apekṣā अपेक्षा क्षणम् 1 Expectation, hope, desire. -2 Need, requirement, necessity; निरपेक्ष without hope or need, regardless of; निर्विशङ्का निरुद्विग्ना निरपेक्षा च भैथिली Rām.6. 47.9. द्रोणस्तथोक्तः कर्णेन सापेक्षः फाल्गुनं प्रति (उवाच) Mb.12. 2.12. सापेक्षत्वे$पि गमकत्वात्समासः; अनपेक्षः शुचिर्दक्षः Bg.12.16; or in comp.; स्फुलिङ्गावस्थया वह्निरेधापेक्ष इव स्थितः Ś.7.15 awaiting kindling. -3 Consideration, reference, regard, with the obj. in loc. case; more usually in comp.; मध्यभङ्गानपेक्षम् Ratn.1.15 regardless of; the instr. and sometimes loc. of this word frequently occur in comp. meaning 'with reference to', 'out of regard for', 'with a view to', 'for the sake of'; सा$पि कार्यकरणापेक्षया क्षुरमेकमा- दाय तस्याभिमुखं प्रेषयामास Pt.1; नियमापेक्षया R.1.94; वृषला- पेक्षया Mu.1; पौरजनापेक्षया 2 out of regard for; किमकौश- लादुत प्रयोजनापेक्षया 3 with a view to gain some object; प्रथमसुकृतापेक्षया Me.17; दण़्डं शक्त्यपेक्षम् Y.2.26, in proportion to, in accordance with; अत्र व्यङ्ग्यं गुणीभूतं तदपेक्षया वाच्यस्यैव चमत्कारिकत्वात् K. P.1 as compared with it. -4 Connection, relation, dependence as of cause with effect or of individual with species; शरीरसाधनापेक्षं नित्यं यत्कर्म तद्यमः Ak. -5 Care, attention, heed; देशा$पेक्षास्तथा यूयं यातादायाङ्गुलीयकम् Bk.7.49. -6 respect, reference. -7 (In gram.) = आकाङ्क्षा q. v. -Comp. -बुद्धिः (In Vaiśeṣika Phil.) the distinguishing perception by which we apprehend 'this is one', 'this is one' &c. and which gives rise to the notion of duality; see Sarva. chap. 1 where अपेक्षाबुद्धिः = विनाशकविनाशप्रति- योगिनी बुद्धिः; cf. Bhāshā P. द्वित्वादयः परार्धान्ता अपेक्षाबुद्धिजा मताः । अनेकाश्रयपर्याप्ता एते तु परिकीर्तिताः ॥ अपेक्षाबुद्धिनाशाच्च नाश- स्तेषां निरूपितः । 17-8. अपेक्ष्य apēkṣya क्षितव्य kṣitavya क्षणीय kṣaṇīya अपेक्ष्य क्षितव्य क्षणीय pot. p. To be desired, wanted, hoped for, expected, considered &c.; desirable.
apratisaṃkhya अप्रतिसंख्य a. Unobserved, unnoticed; ˚आख्य(ख्या)- निरोधः unobserved nullity, annihilation of an object; one of the three topics included by the Buddhas under the category of निरूप, the other two being प्रतिसंख्या- निरोध wilful destruction, as of a jar by a mallet, and आकाश the ethereal element.
abhidhāyaka अभिधायक (-यिका f.), अभिधायिन् a. 1 Naming, expressing, denoting; एतेषामभिधायकानि क्लीबे स्युः Sk.; कर्षूः कुल्याभिधायिनी Ak. denotes, means, has the sense of. -2 Saying, speaking, telling; तेनाहमुक्तः प्रेक्ष्यैवं घोरशापाभि- धायिना Rām.3.71.4; लक्ष्मीमित्यभिधायिनि प्रियतमे Amaru. 27; वाच्याभिधायी पुरुषः पृष्ठमांसाद उच्यते Trik.
ayathā अयथा ind. Not as it should be or is intended to be, unfitly, improperly, wrongly. -थम Ved. Without effort; गोधा तस्मा अयथं कर्षदेतत् Rv.1.28.1. -Comp. -अर्थ a. 1 not true to the sense, unmeaning, nonsensical; परित्यक्तस्वार्थो नियतमयथार्थः क्षितिपतिः Mu.3.4. -2 incongruous, unfit, false, द्वयमिदमयथार्थं दृश्यते मद्विधेषु Ś.3.2; incorrect, wrong; अनुभवो द्विविधो यथार्थो$यथार्थश्च T. S.; ˚अनुभवः incorrect or untrue knowledge, wrong notion; तदभाववति तत्प्रकारको$नुभवो$यथार्थानुभवः । यथा शुक्तौ रजतमिदमिति ज्ञानं सैव अप्रमेत्युच्यते. -अभिप्रेताख्यानम् Communicating a news in an undesired manner, i. e. to tell a good news in a whispering tone, and to declare a bad news loudly. P.III.4.59. अयथाभिप्रेताख्यानं नामाप्रियस्योच्चैः, प्रियस्य च नीचैः कथनम् Sk. -इष्ट a. 1 not as wished or desired, disliked. -2 not enough or sufficient. -उचित a. unfit, unworthy. (-तम्) unfitly. -तथ a. 1) not as it should be, unfit, unsuitable, unworthy; इदमयथातथं स्वामिचेष्टितम् Ve.2. -2 vain, useless, profitless. (-थम्) 1 unfitly, unsuitably. -2 in vain, uselessly; तद् गच्छति अ˚ Ms.3.24. -3 wrongly; Ve.5. -तथ्यम् unsuitableness, incongruity, uselessness. -द्योतनम् intimation or occurrence of something or act which is not expected. -पुर, -पूर्व a. unprecedented, unparalleled, unusual; ददृशे सो$यथापूर्वो R.12.88. -मुखीन a. having the face turned away -वृत्त a. acting wrongly. -शास्त्रकारिन् a. not acting according to the Sāstras, irreligious; अयथाशास्त्रकारी च न विभागे पिता प्रभुः Nārada.
ayuta अयुत a. 1 Disjoined, detached, not connected. -2 Uninterrupted, undisturbed. Av.19.51.1. -तम् Ten thousand, a myriad. सूर्याब्धिसंख्यया द्वित्रिसागरैरयुताहतैः Sūrya. शाखानामयुतम् -Comp. -अध्यापकः a good teacher. -ता, -जित् Name of a king (son of Sindhudvīpa and father of Ṛituparṇa) Bṛi. Up. N. of another king (son of Bhajamāna;) V. P. -नायिन् N. of a king in the Mb. -सिद्ध a. (in Vaiś. Phil.) proved to be inseparable and inherent. -सिद्धिः f. proof that certain things or notions are inseparable and inherent. -होम a kind of sacrifice. B. P.
ādṛ आदृ 6 A. (द्रियते) 1 To respect, honour, reverence; सीतां रघूत्तम भवत्स्थितिमाद्रियस्व Mv.7.3 receive respectfully; take or receive respectfully; द्वितीयाद्रियते सदा H. Pr.7; सर्वे तस्यादृता धर्मा यस्यैते त्रय आदृताः Ms.2.234; Bk.6.55. -2 To heed or care for, mind, take notice of; usually with न; न त्यागमाद्रियते K.14,167; वाक्यं नाद्रियते च बान्धवजनः Bh.3.111; अनादृत्य disregarding; मम वचनमनादृत्य in spite of or notwithstanding my words. -3 to feel timid from a feeling of respect, be awed. -4 To apply or devote oneself closely to, have regard for; भूरि श्रुतं शाश्वतमाद्रियन्ते Māl.1.5. -5 To desire, be eager for; यत्किंचिद् दुर्मदाः स्वैरमाद्रियन्ते निरर्गलम् Mv.6.3. -6 To enjoy honour, be honoured.
ādaraḥ आदरः [आ-दृ-कप्] 1 Respect, reverence, honour; निर्माणमेव हि तदादरलालनीयम् Māl.9.5; न जातहार्देन न विद्धि- षादरः Ki.1.33; Ku.6.2. -2 Attention, care, notice, close application; आदरप्रयत्न Māl.7 careful efforts; तां प्रणामादरस्रस्तजाम्बूनदवतंसकाम् Ku.6.91. -3 (a) Eagerness, desire, regard; भूयान्दारार्थमादरः Ku.6.13; आदरादुपसर्पित- तुरंङ्गः K.119 eagerly; यत्किंचनकारितायामादरः 12; अन्वेष्टु- मादरमकरवम् 152 made up my mind; Ki.8.26,41; 13.58. (b) Earnest desire, request; Ś.6. -4 Effort, endeavour; गृहयन्त्रपताकाश्रीरपौरादरनिर्मिता Ku.6.41. -5 Commencement, beginning. -6 Love, attachment. -7 Acceptance; तस्मादेषां व्यर्थहिंसानिवृत्त्यै स्यादुत्कृष्टः पिष्टपश्वा- दरो$पि Viś. Guṇā.182.
ābudh आबुध् 1 P. To perceive, notice, understand (Ved.); Rv.7.22.3.
iva इव ind. 1 Like, as (showing उपमा or comparison); वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ R.1.1; वैनतेय इव विनतानन्दनः K.5. -2 As if, as it were (denoting उत्प्रेक्षा); पश्यामीव पिनाकिनम् Ś.1.6. लिम्पतीव तमोङ्गानि वर्षतीवाञ्जनं नभः Mk.1.34. -3 Little, somewhat, perhaps; कडार इवायम् G. M. -4 (Added to interrogative words), 'Possibly', 'I should like to know', 'indeed'; विना सीतादेव्या किमिव हि न दुःखं रघुपतेः U.6.3; क इव of what sort, what like; क इव कालः Māl.2; what a long time has elapsed. -5 इव is frequently used with adverbs, especially with such as involve restriction, by way of emphasis in the sense of even or just so, just, exactly, quite, indeed, very; मुहूर्तमिव but for a moment; किंचिदिव just a little bit; so ईषदिव, नाचिरादिव, &c.; (इव is considered by grammarians as forming compounds with the word after which it stands; इवेन समासो विभक्त्यलोपश्च Vārt. on P.II.4.71. Sk.). -Comp. -उपमा f. A simile in which इव is used. Bk.1.41 is given as an illustration of इवोपमा.
utkram उत्क्रम् 1 U., 4 P. 1 To go up, step up, ascend; उत्क्रामन्तं स्थितं वापि Bg.15.1. -2 To step beyond; उत्क्रान्तशैशवौ R.15.33; past childhood. -3 To step out, go out or away, depart; ऊर्ध्वं प्राणा ह्युत्क्रामन्ति Ms.2.12; Mv.1. -4 To pass away, die; यच्चाप्युत्क्रामतीश्वरः Bg.15.8. -5 To go or pass over, omit. -6 To disregard, not to notice, neglect; आर्ष प्रमाणमुत्क्रम्य, धर्ममुत्क्रम्य Mb. -7 To transgress, violate; उत्क्रान्तसीमा Dk.11,97. -Caus. (क्रामयति) To cause to go up or ascend.
upekṣ उपेक्ष् 1 Ā. 1 To neglect, overlook, disregard, connive at; किमात्मनिर्वादकथामुपेक्षे R.14.34; उपेक्षते यः श्लघ- लम्बिनीर्जटाः Ku.5.47. -2 To let escape or let go; नोपेक्षेत क्षणमपि राजा साहसिकं नरम् Ms.8.344. -3 To quit, abandon. -4 To despise, slight. -5 To notice, consider, have regard to; एवमुच्चावचानर्थान् प्राहुः ते उपेक्षितव्याः Nir. -6 To look at, regard, perceive; प्रासादस्था हपुपैक्षत Nala.22.5.
ohas ओहस् n. 1 Praise; idea, true notion (?). -2 A vehicle, means; न ये देवास ओहसा न मर्ताः Rv.6.67.9.
karman कर्मन् -m. Viśvakarmā; शक्रस्य नु सभा दिव्या भास्वरा कर्मनिर्मिता Mb.2.7.1. -n. [कृ-मनिन् Uṇ.4.144] 1 Action, work, deed. -2 Execution, performance; प्रीतो$स्मि सो$हं यद् भुक्तं वनं तैः कृतकर्मभिः Rām.5.63.3. -3 Business, office, duty; संप्रति विषवैद्यानां कर्म M.4. -4 A religious rite (it may be either नित्य, नैमित्तिक or काम्य). -5 A specific action, moral duty. -6 (a) Performance of religious rites as opposed to speculative religion or knowledge of Brahman (opp. ज्ञान); अपरो दहृने स्वकर्मणां ववृते R.8.2. (b) Labour, work. -7 Product, result. -8 A natural or active property (as support of the earth). -9 Fate, the certain consequence of acts done in a former life; कर्मायत्तं फलं पुंसां बुद्धिः कर्मानुसारिणी Bh.2.89,94. -1 (In gram.) The object of of an action; कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म P.I.4.49. -11 (In Vaiś. Phil.) Motion considered as one of the seven categories of things; (thus defined:-- एकद्रव्यमगुणं संयोगविभागेष्वनपेक्षकारणं कर्म Vaiś. Sūtra. (It is five-fold:-- उत्क्षेपणं ततो$वक्षेपणमाकुञ्चनं तथा । प्रसारणं च गमनं कर्माण्येतानि पञ्च च ॥ Bhāṣā P.6.) -12 Organ of sense. प्रजापतिर्ह कर्माणि ससृजे Bṛi. Up.1.5.21. -13 Organ of action; कर्माणि कर्मभिः कुर्वन् Bhāg.11.3.6. -14 (In Astr.) The tenth lunar mansion. -15 Practice, training; सर्वेषां कर्मणा वीर्यं जवस्तेजश्च वर्धते Kau. A.2.2. -Comp. -अक्षम a. incapable of doing anything. -अङ्गम् part of any act; part of a sacrificial rite (as प्रयाज of the Darśa sacrifice). -अधिकारः the right of performing religious rites. -अनुरूप a. 1 according to action or any particular office. -2 according to actions done in a previous existence. -अनुष्ठानम् practising one's duties. -अनुसारः consequence of, or conformity to, acts. -अन्तः 1 the end of any business or task. -2 a work, business, execution of business. -3 a barn, a store of grain &c. Ms.7.62 (कर्मान्तः इक्षुधान्यादिसंग्रहस्थानम् Kull.) -4 cultivated ground. -5 a worker; कच्चिन्न सर्वे कर्मान्ताः Rām.2.1.52. -अन्तरम् 1 difference or contrariety of action. -2 penance, expiation. -3 suspension of a religious action. -4 another work or action; कर्मान्तर- नियुक्तासु निर्ममन्थ स्वयं दधि Bhāg.1.9.1. -अन्तिक a. final. (-कः) a servant, workman, Rām.1.13.7. -अपनुत्तिः f. removing, sending away of कर्म; जन्मकर्माप- नुत्तये Bhāg.12.2.17. -अर्ह a. fit or suitable to an act or the rite. (-र्हः) a man. -आख्या f. Name received from the act performed; तस्मात् छिन्नगमनो$श्वो$पि छाग इति कर्माख्या भविष्यति । ŚB. on MS.6.8.37. -आजीवः one who maintains himself by some profession (as that of an artisan &c.) -आत्मन् a. endowed with the principles of action, active; कर्मात्मनां च देवानां सो$सृजत्प्राणिनां प्रभुः Ms.1.22. (-m.) the soul. -आयतनम् see कर्मेन्द्रियम्; शव्दः स्पर्शो रसो गन्धो रूपं चेत्यर्थजातयः । गत्युक्त्युत्सर्गशिल्पानि कर्मायतनसिद्धयः Bhāg.11.22.16. -आशयः receptacle or accumulation of (good and evil) acts; निर्हृत्य कर्माशयमाशु याति परां गतिम् Bhāg.1.46.32. -इन्द्रियम् an organ of action, as distinguished from ज्ञानेन्द्रिय; (they are :- वाक्पाणिपादपायूपस्थानि; Ms.2.99; see under इन्द्रिय also) कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य Bg.3.6,7. -उदारम् any valiant or noble act, magnanimity, prowess. -उद्युक्त a. busy, engaged, active, zealous. -करः 1 a hired labourer (a servant who is not a slave); आ तस्य गोः प्रतिदानात् कर्मकारी आगबीनः कर्मकरः Mbh. on P.V.2.14. कर्मकराः स्थपत्यादयः Pt.1; Śi.14.16. -2 Yama. -कर्तृ m. (in gram.) an agent who is at the same time the object of the action; e. g. पच्यते ओदनः, it is thus defined:- क्रियमाणं तु यत्कर्म स्वयमेव प्रसिध्यति । सुकरैः स्वैर्गुणैः कर्तुः कर्मकर्तेति तद्विदुः ॥ न चान्तरेण कर्मकर्तारं सकर्मका अकर्मका भवन्ति Mbh. on P.I.3.27 -काण्डः, -ण्डम् that department of the Veda which relates to ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites and the merit arising from a due performance thereof. -कारः 1 one who does any business, a mechanic, artisan (technically a worker not hired). -2 any labourer in general (whether hired or not). -3 a black-smith; हरिणाक्षि कटाक्षेण आत्मानमवलोकय । न हि खङ्गो विजानाति कर्मकारं स्वकारणम् ॥ Udb. -4 a bull. -कारिन् m. a labourer, artisan, workman. -कार्मुकः, -कम् a strong bow. -कीलकः a washerman. -कृत्यम् activity, the state of active exertion; यः प्रथमः कर्मकृत्याय जज्ञे Av.4.24.6. -क्षम a. able to perform any work or duty; आत्मकर्मक्षमं देहं क्षात्रो धर्म इवाश्रितः R.1.13. -क्षेत्रम् the land of religious acts, i. e. भरतवर्ष; Bhāg.5.17.11. cf. कर्मभूमि. -गतिः f. the course of fate; अथ कर्मगतिं चित्रां दृष्ट्वा$स्य हसितं मया Ks.59.159. -गृहीत a. caught in the very act (as a thief.). -ग्रन्थिः f. a term in Jaina metaphysics connoting 'weakness in the form of वासनाs produced by अज्ञान'. -घातः leaving off or suspending work. -च(चा)ण्डालः 1 'base in deed', a man of very low acts or deeds; Vasiṣṭha mentions these kinds :-- असूयकः पिशुनश्च कृतघ्नो दीर्घरोषकः । चत्वारः कर्मचाण्डाला जन्मतश्चापि पञ्चमः ॥ -2 one who commits an atrocious deed; अपूर्वकर्मचण्डालमयि मुग्धे विमुच्च माम् U.1.46. -3 N. of Rāhu. -चेष्टा active exertion, action. कर्मचेष्टास्वहः Ms.1.66. -चोदना 1 The motive impelling one to ritual acts. ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना Bg.18.18. -2 any positive rule enjoining a religious act. -च्छेदः The loss caused by absence on duty; Kau. A.2.7. -जः a. resulting from an act; सिद्धिर्भवति कर्मजा Bg.4.12. कर्मजा गतयो नॄणामुत्तमाधममध्यमाः Ms.12.3. (-जः) 1 the holy fig-tree. -2 the Kali age. -3 the banian tree. -4 the effect arising from human acts :-- संयोग, विभाग &c. -5 heaven. -6 hell. -ज्ञ a. one acquainted with religious rites. -त्यागः renunciation of worldly duties or ceremonial acts. -दुष्ट a. corrupt in action, wicked, immoral, disrespectable. -देवः a god through religious action; ये शतं गन्धर्वलोक आनन्दाः स एकः कर्मदेवानामानन्दः Bṛi. Up.4.3.33. -दोषः 1 sin, vice; अवेक्षेत गतीर्नॄणां कर्मदोष- समुद्भवाः Ms.6.61,95. -2 an error, defect, or blunder (in doing an act); कर्मदोषैर्न लिप्यते Ms.1,14. -3 evil consequence of human acts. -4 discreditable conduct. -धारयः N. of a compound, a subdivision of Tatpuruṣa, (in which the members of the compound are in apposition) तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P.I. 2.42. तत्पुरुष कर्म धारय येनाहं स्यां बहुव्रीहिः Udb. -ध्वंसः 1 loss of fruit arising from religious acts. -2 disappointment. -नामन् (in gram.) a participal noun. -नामधेयम् N. of an act or sacrifice. These names are not arbitrary or technical such as गुण and वृद्धि but are always significant; सर्वेष्वेव कर्मनामधेयेषु अर्थसमन्वयेनानुवाद- भूतो नामशद्बो वर्तते, न लौकिकार्थतिरस्कारेण परिभाषामात्रेण वृद्धिगुणवत् ŚB. on MS.1.6.41. -नाशा N. of a river between Kaśi and Bihar. -निश्चयः a decision of action; न लेमे कर्मनिश्चयम् Bm.1.648. -निषद्या a manufactory; Kau. A.2.4. -निष्ठ a. devoted to the performance of religious acts; अग्निर्वीरं श्रुत्यं कर्मनिष्ठाम् Rv.1.8.1; Ms.3.134. -न्यासः renunciation of the result of religious acts. -पथः 1 the direction or source of an action. -2 the path of religious rites (opp. ज्ञानमार्ग). -पाकः ripening of actions, reward of actions done in a former life; Pt.1.372. -प्रवचनीयः a term for certain prepositions, particles, or adverbs when they are not connected with verbs and govern a noun in some case; literally-the term means, 'Concerned with the setting forth of an action'. According to Indian grammarians it means 'that which spoke of an action (क्रियां प्रोक्तवन्तः)' e. g. आ in आ मुक्तेः संसारः is a कर्मप्रवचनीय; so अनु in जपमनु प्रावर्षत् &c; कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीया इति Mbh. on P.I.4.83. cf. उपसर्ग, गति and निपात also. -फलम् 1 fruit or reward of actions done in a former life; (pain, pleasure); न मे कर्मफले स्पृहा Bg.4.14;5.12;6.1; ˚फलत्याग Bg.12.11,18.2; ˚फलत्यागिन् Bg.18.11; ˚फलप्रेप्सुः Bg.18.27; ˚फलसंयोग Bg.5.14; ˚फलहेतु Bg.2.47. एवं संचिन्त्य मनसा प्रेत्य कर्मफलोदयम् Ms.11.231. -2 the fruit of Averrhoa Carambola (Mar. कर्मर); also कर्मरङ्ग. -बन्धः, -बन्धनम् confinement to repeated birth, as the consequence of religious acts, good or bad (by which the soul is attached to worldly pleasures &c.); बुद्ध्या युक्तो यथा पार्थ कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यति Bg.2.39. -भूः, -भूमिः f. 1 the land of religious rites, i. e. भरतवर्ष, this world (a place for man's probation); प्राप्येमां कर्मभूमिम् Bh.2.1; K.174,319. -2 ploughed ground. -मासः the Calendar month of thirty days. -मीमांसा the Mīmāṁsā of ceremonial acts; see मीमांसा. -मूलम् a kind of sacred grass called कुश. -युगम् the fourth (the present) age of the world, i. e. the Kaliyuga. -योगः 1 performance of actions, worldly and religious rites; कर्मयोगेन योगिनाम् Bg.3.3;3.7;5.2;13.24. -2 active exertion, industry; Ms.1.115. -वचनम् (with Buddhists) the ritual. -वज्रः an epithet of a Śūdra. -वशः fate considered as the inevitable result of actions done in a former life. -वाटी a lunar day (तिथि). -विपाक = कर्मपाक. -शाला a work-shop. -शील, -शूर a. assiduous, active, laborious; cf. कर्म- शीलस्तु कर्मठे । Nm. -शौचम् humility. -श्रुतिः f. The word expressive of the act; कर्मश्रुतेः परार्थत्वात् MS.11. 2.6. (read या अत्र कर्मश्रुतिः दर्शपूर्णमासाभ्यामिति सा परार्था तृतीया-योगात् &c. शबर). -सङ्गः attachment to worldly duties and their results. तन्निबध्नाति ... कर्मसङ्गेन Bg.14.7. -सचिवः a minister. -संन्यासिकः, -संन्यासिन् m. 1 a religious person who has withdrawn from every kind of worldly act. -2 an ascetic who performs religious deeds without looking to their reward. -साक्षिन् m. 1 an eyewitness; वह्निर्विवाहं प्रति कर्मसाक्षी Ku.7.83. -2 one who witnesses the good or bad actions of man; आदित्य भो लोककृताकृतज्ञ लोकस्य सत्यानृप- कर्मसाक्षिन् Rām.3.63.16. (There are nine divinities which are said to witness and watch over all human actions; सूर्यः सोमो यमः कालो महाभूतानि पञ्च च । एते शुभाशुभ- स्येह कर्मणो नव साक्षिणः ॥) -सिद्धिः f. accomplishment of any business or desired object; success. स्वकर्मसिद्धिं पुनरा- शशंसे Ku. -स्थानम् a public office, a place of business.
kal कल् I. 1 Ā. (कलते, कलित) 1 To count. -2 To sound. -II. 1 U. (कलयति-ते, कलित) 1 To hold, bear, carry, wield, have, put on; करालकरकन्दलीकलितशस्त्रजालैर्बलैः U.5.5; म्लेच्छनिवहनिधने कलयसि करवालम् Gīt.1; कलित- ललितवनमालः; हलं कलयते ibid.; कलय वलयश्रेणीं पाणौ पदे कुरु नूपुरौ 12; Mb.12.4.18. -2 (a) To count, reckon; कालः कलयतामहम् Bg.1.3. (b) To measure; सदा पान्थः पूषा गगनपरिमाणं कलयति Bh.2.114. -3 To assume, take, have, possess; कलयति हि हिमांशोर्निष्कलङ्कस्य लक्ष्मीम् Māl.1.22. Śi.4.36,9.59. -4 To know, understand, observe, take notice of, think of; कलयन्नपि सव्यथोवतस्थे Śi.9.83; कोपितं विरहखेदितचित्ता कान्तमेव कलयन्त्यनुनिन्ये 1.29; N.2.65, 3.12, Māl.2.9. -5 To think, regard, consider; कलये- दमानमनसं सखि माम् Śi.9.58,6.54,15.55,16.64; Mb.12.4.15; व्यालनिलयमिलनेन गरलमिव कलयति मलयसमीरम् Gīt.4,7; cf. कलयति स कथं ते पाशमुद्बन्धनाय Nag.2.11. -6 To undergo, be influenced by; मदलीलाकलितकामपाल Māl.8; धन्यः को$पि न विक्रियां कलयति प्राप्ते नवे यौवने Bh.1.72. -7 To do, perform. -8 To go. -9 To attach to, tie on; furnish with. -1 To urge on, impel, incite; कलय शिखिनः केकोत्कण्ठान् Māl.9.42. -11 To utter a sound, murmur. -12 To take hold of the die called Kali. -III. 1 P. (कालयति, कालित) 1 To push on, urge, drive forward; गावो न काल्यन्त इदं कुतो रजो Bhāg. 4.5.8. -2 To carry off. -3 To collect. -4 To throw, cast. -5 To proclaim the time.
kalpa कल्प a. [क्लृप्-घञ्] 1 Practicable, feasible, possible, -2 Proper, fit, right. -3 Strong, vigorous; चरन्तं ब्राह्मणं कञ्चित्कल्पचित्तमनामयम् Mb.12.179.3. -4 Able, competent (with a gen., loc.; inf. or at the end of comp.); धर्मस्य, यशसः, कल्पः Bhāg. able to do his duty &c.; स्वक्रियायामकल्पः ibid. not competent to do one's duty; अकल्प एषामधिरोढुमञ्जसा पद्म्द्म् ibid., so स्वभरणाकल्प &c. -ल्पः 1 A sacred precept or rule, law, ordinance. -2 A prescribed rule, a prescribed alternative, optional rule; प्रभुः प्रथमकल्पस्य यो$नुकल्पेन वर्तते Ms.11.3 'able to follow the prescribed rule to be observed in preference to all others'; प्रथमः कल्पः M.1; cf. also Pratimā 4, and Abhiṣekanāṭakam 6 and Ś.4. a very good (or best) alternative; एष वै प्रथमः कल्पः प्रदाने हव्यकव्ययोः Ms. 3.147. -3 (Hence) A proposal, suggestion, resolve, determination; एष मे प्रथमः कल्पः Rām.2.52.63; उदारः कल्पः Ś.7. -4 Manner of acting, procedure, form, way, method (in religious rites); श्रूयते हि पुराकल्पे Mb. 6.43.23; क्षात्रेण कल्पेनोपनीय U.2; कल्पवित्कल्पयामास वन्यामे- वास्य संविधाम् R.1.94; Ms.7.185. -5 End of the world, universal destruction. -6 A day of Brahmā or 1, Yugas, being a period of 432 million years of mortals and measuring the duration of the world; cf. Bhāg.3.11; श्रीश्वेतवाराहकल्पे [the one in which we now live]; कल्पं स्थितं तनुभृतां तनु- भिस्ततः किम् Śānti.4.2. Hence कल्पिक means 'born in the primeval age' Bu. Ch.2.48. -7 Medical treatment of the sick. -8 One of the six Vedāṅgas, i. e. that which lays down the ritual and prescribes rules for ceremonial and sacrificial acts; शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणम् Muṇdtod; 1.1.5 see under वेदाङ्ग. -9 A termination added to nouns and adjectives in the sense of 'a little less than', 'almost like', 'nearly equal to', P.V.3.67 [denoting similarity with a degree of inferiority]; कुमारकल्पं सुषुवे कुमारम् R.5.36; उपपन्नमेतदस्मिन्नृषि- कल्पे राजनि Ś.2; प्रभातकल्पा शशिनेव शर्वरी R.3.2; so मृतकल्पः, प्रतिपन्नकल्पः &c. -1 The doctrine of poisons and antidotes. -11 One of the trees of paradise; cf. कल्पद्रुम. -12 Vigour, strength; लौकिके समयाचारे कृतकल्पो विशारदः Rām.2.1.22. -ल्पा, -ल्पम् A kind of intoxicating liquor. -Comp. -अन्तः end of the world, universal destruction; कल्पान्तेष्वपि न प्रयाति निधनं विद्याख्यमन्तर्धनम् Bh.2.16. कल्पान्तक्रूरकेलिः क्रतुक्रदनकरः कुन्दकर्पूरकान्तिः Udb. ˚स्थायिन् a. lasting to the end of a कल्प; शरीरं क्षणविध्वंसि कल्पान्तस्थायिनो गुणाः H.1.46. -आदिः renovation of all things in the creation; कल्पक्षये पुनस्तानि कल्पादौ विसृजाम्यहम् Bg.9.7; -उपनिषद् pharmacology; Charak 1.4. -कारः 1 author of Kalpasūtra, q. v. -2 a barber. -क्षयः end of the world, universal destruction; e. g. कल्पक्षये पुनस्तानि Bg.9.7. पुरा कल्पक्षये वृत्ते जातं जलमयं जगत् Ks.2.1. -तरुः, -द्रुमः, -पादपः, -वृक्षः 1 one of the trees of heaven or Indra's praradise, fabled to fulfill all desires; आसीत्कल्पतरुच्छायामाश्रिता सुरभिः पथि R.1.75; 17.26; Ku.2.39;6.41. -2 a tree supposed to grant all desires; 'wish-yielding tree'; नाबुद्ध कल्पद्रुमतां विहाय जातं तमात्मन्यसिपत्रवृक्षम् R.14.48; मृषा न चक्रे$- ल्पितकल्पपादपः N.1.15. -3 any productive or bountiful source; निगमकल्पतरोर्गलितं फलम् Bhāg.1.1.3. -4 (fig.) a very generous person; सकलार्थिसार्थकल्पद्रुमः Pt.1. -नृत्यम् a particular kind of dance. -पालः 1 a protector of order. -2 a seller of spirituous liquors. -लता, -लतिका 1 a creeper of Indra's paradise; Bh. 1.9. -2 a creeper supposed to grant all desires; नानाफलैः फलति कल्पलतेव भूमिः Bh.2.46; cf. कल्पतरु above. -वल्ली see कल्पलता; Ks.1.66; कल्पवल्लीगृहेषु 52.21. -विद् a. conversant with sacred precepts; कल्पवित्कल्पया- मास वन्यामेवास्य संविधाम् R.1.94. -स्थानम् 1 the art of preparing drugs; Charak 7. -2 the science of poisons and antidotes; Suśr. -सूत्रम् a manual of ritual in the form of Sūtras. Mb.14.54.9. N. of a sacred Jaina book written by भद्रबाहु sketching the life of महावीर.
kākaḥ काकः [कै शब्दकरणे-कन् Uṇ.3.43] 1 A crow; काको$पि जीवति चिराय बलिं च भुङ्क्ते Pt.1.24. -2 (Fig.) A contemptible fellow, base or impudent person. -3 A lame man. -4 Bathing by dipping the head only into water (as crows do). -5 A sectarial mark (तिलक). -6 A kind of measure. -7 N. of a Dvīpa. -का N. of several plants काकनासा, काकोली &c. -की 1 A female crow. -काकी see Mbh. on IV.1.63. -कम् 1 A multitude of crows. -2 A modus coeundi. -Comp. -अक्षिगोलकन्याय see under न्याय. -अञ्ची = काकजङ्घा q. v. -अदनी The Gunja plant. -अरिः an owl. -इक्षुः A reed. -उडुम्वरः, (-रिका) The fig-tree. -उदरः a snake; काकोदरो येन विनीतदर्पः Kavirāja; काकोदरसोदरः खलो जगति Bv.1.76. -उलूकिका, -उलूकीयम् the natural enmity of the owl and the crow; Mbh. on IV.2.14; Vārt.2. (काकोलूकीयम् is the name of the third Tantra in the Pañchatantra). -कङ्गुः -कङ्गुनी f. A kind of corn. -Comp. -कला N. of a plant. -चिञ्चा, -जङ्घा the Gunja plant. -चरित्रम् A part of the science of Omens based on the sound of crows. -च्छदः, -च्छदिः 1 a wag-tail. -2 a side-lock of hair; see काकपक्ष below. -जम्बुः A kind of rose-apple tree. -जातः the (Indian) cuckoo. -तालीय a. [काकताल-छ Mbh. on V.3.16] (anything) taking place quite unexpectedly and accidentally, an accident; अहो नु खलु भोः तदेतत् काकतालीयं नाम Māl.5; काक- तालीयवत्प्राप्तं दृष्ट्वा$पि निधिमग्रतः H. Pr.3; sometimes used adverbially in the sense of 'accidentally'; फलन्ति काक- तालीयं तेभ्यः प्राज्ञा न बिभ्यति Ve.2.15. ˚न्याय see under न्याय. -तालुकिन a. contemptible, vile. -तिक्रा, -तिन्दुका, -तुण्डिका different kinds of trees. -तुण्डम् A kind of head of an arrow (see फलम्). काकतुण्डेन वेध्यानां वेधं कुर्यात् Dhanur.66. -दन्तः (lit.) the tooth of a crow; (fig.) anything impossible or not existing; ˚गवेषणम् searching after impossibilities (said of any useless and unprofitable task). -ध्वजः the submarine fire; cf. और्व. -नासा, -नासिका, -नासिकी different kinds of trees. -निद्रा a light slumber (easily broken). -पक्षः, -पक्षकः side-locks of hair on the temples of boys and young men (especially of the Kṣatriya caste]; काकपक्षधरमेत्य याचितः R.11.1,31,42;3.28; U.3. -पदम् 1 the sign (^) in Mss. denoting that something has been left out. -2 an incision in the skin. (-दः) a particular mode of sexual intercourse. -पुच्छः, -पुष्टः the [Indian] cuckoo. -पेय a shallow; काकपेया नदी Sk. -भीरुः an owl. -मद्गुः a gallinule water-hen, घृतं हृत्वा तु दुर्बुद्धिः काकमद्गुः प्रजायते Mb.13.111.22. -मर्दः, -मर्दकः a kind of gourd [Mar. कवंडळ]. -माची, -चिका a kind of tree (Mar. कावळी) -मृगगोचरित a. following the manner of the crow in drinking, of the deer in eating and of the cow in making water; एवं गोमृगकाकचर्यया व्रजंस्तिष्ठन्नासीनः शयानः काकमृगगोचरितः पिबति खादत्यवमेहति स्म Bhāg.5.5.34. -यवः barren corn (the ear of which has no grain); यथा काकयवाः प्रोक्ता यथारण्यभवास्तिलाः । नाममात्रा न सिद्धौ हि धनहीनास्तथा नराः ॥ Pt.2.9. तथैव पाण्डवाः सर्वे यथा काकयवा इव Mb; (काकयवाः = निष्फलतृणधान्यम्). -रुतम् the shrill sound of a crow (considered as a sign of future good or evil under different circumstances); -रुहा a. kind of tree (Mar. बांडगूळ). -वन्ध्या a woman that bears only one child. -स्नानम् Bathing like a crow. -स्पर्शः 1 The touching of a crow. -2 A ceremony performed on the tenth day after a death, consisting in the offering of rice to crows. -स्वरः a shrill tone (as that of a crow).
kāra कार a. (-री f.) [कृ-घञ्] (At the end of comp.) Making, doing, performing, working, maker, doer, author; ग्रन्थकारः author; कुम्भकारः, सुवर्णकारः &c. &c. -रः 1 Act, action; as in पुरुषकार. -2 A term denoting a sound or a word which is not inflected; as अकार Ms.2.76,125; ककार, फूत्कार &c. -3 Effort, exertion; 'कारौ वधे निश्चये च बले यत्ने रतावपि' इति विश्वः. Śi.19.27. -4 Religious austerity. -5 A husband, lord; master. -6 Determination. -7 Power, strength. -8 A tax or toll. -9 A heap of snow. -1 The Himālaya mountain. -11 Water produced by hail. -12 Killing, slaughter. -Comp. -अवरः a man of a mixed and low caste, born from a Niṣāda father and Vaidehi mother; a shoemaker; कारावरो निषाद्यां तु चर्मकारः प्रसूयते Mb.13.48.26; cf. Ms.1.36. -कर a. working, acting as agent. -भूः a toll-station.
gaṇ गण् 1 U. (गणयति-ते, गणयाञ्चकार, अजीगणत्-त, अजगणत्- त, गणयितुम्, गणित) 1 To count, number; enumerate; लीला- कमलपत्राणि गणयामास पार्वती Ku.6.84; नामाक्षरं गणय गच्छसि यावदन्तम् Ś.6.12. -2 To calculate, compute; अजगण- न्गणशः प्रियमग्रतः Śi.6.15;15.61. -3 To sum or add up, reckon. -4 To estimate, value at (with instr.); न तं तृणेनापि गणयामि. -5 To class with or among, reckon among; अगण्यतामरेषु Dk.154. -6 To take into account, give consideration to; वाणीं काणभुजीमजीगणत् Malli. -7 To regard, consider, think or take to be; त्वया विना सुखमेतावदजस्य गण्यताम् R.8.69,5.2; पावकस्य महिमा स गण्यते 11.75; जातस्तु गण्यते सो$त्र यः स्फुरत्यन्वयाधिकम् Pt.1.27; किसलयतल्पं गणयति विहितहुताशविकल्पम् Gīt.4. -8 To ascribe or impute to, attribute to (with loc.); जाड्यं ह्रीमति गण्यते Bh.2.54. -9 To attend to, take notice of, mind; प्रणयमगणयित्वा यन्ममापद्गतस्य V.4.27. -1 (With a negative particle) not to care for, not to mind; न महान्तमपि क्लेशमजीगणत् K.64; मनस्वी कार्यार्थी न गणयति दुःखं न च सुखम् Bh.2.81,9; Śānti.1.1; Bk. 2.53;15.5,45; H.2.131; Ś.7.1,4.19. -With अधि 1 to praise; महानुभावाभ्युदयो$धिगण्यताम् Bhāg.1.5.21. -2 to enumerate, count.
guṇaḥ गुणः [गुण्-अच्] 1 A quality (good or bad); सुगुण, दुर्गुण; यदङ्गनारूपसरूपतायाः कञ्चिद्गुणं भेदकमिच्छतीभिः Śi.3.42. -2 (a) A good quality, merit, virtue, excellence; कतमे ते गुणाः Māl.1; वसन्ति हि प्रेम्णि गुणा न वस्तुनि Ki.8.37; R.1.9,22; साधुत्वे तस्य को गुणः Pt.4.18. (b) Eminence. -3 Use, advantage, good (with instr. usually), Pt. 5.; कः स्थानलाभे गुणः 2.21; H.1.49; Mu.1.15. -4 Effect, result, efficacy, good result; संभावनागुणमवेहि तमीश्वराणाम् Ś.7.4; गुणमहतां महते गुणाय योगः Ki.1.25;6. 7. -5 (a) A single thread or string. (b) Thread, string, rope, cord, मेखलागुणैः Ku.4.8;5.1; तृणैर्गुणत्व- मापन्नैर्वध्यन्ते मत्तदन्तिनः H.1.32; यतः परेषां गुणग्रहीतासि Bv.1. 9 (where गुण also means 'a merit'). -6 The bow- string; गुणकृत्ये धनुषो नियोजिता Ku.4.15,29; कनकपिङ्गतडिद्- गुणसंयुतम् R.9.54. -7 The string of a musical instrument; कलवल्लकीगुणस्वानमानम् Śi.4.57. -8 A sinew. -9 A quality, attribute, property in general; यादृग्गुणेन भर्त्रा स्त्री संयुज्येत यथाविधि Ms.9.22. -1 A quality, characteristic or property of all substances, one of the seven categories of padārthas of the Vaiśeṣikas, (the number of these properties is 24). -11 An ingredient or constituent of nature, any one of the three properties belonging to all created things; (these are स्त्व, रजस् and तमस्); गुणत्रयविभागाय Ku.2.4; सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसंभवाः Bg.14.5; R.3.27. -12 A wick, cotton thread; नृपदीपो धनस्नेहं प्रजाभ्यः संहरन्नपि । अन्तर- स्थैर्गुणैः शुभ्रैर्लक्ष्यते नैव केनचित् ॥ Pt.1.221. -13 An object of sense, (these are five रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श, and शब्द); गुणैर्गुणान्स भुञ्जान आत्मप्रद्योतितैः प्रभुः Bhāg.11.3.5. -14 Repetition, multiplication, denoting 'folds' or 'times', usually at the end of comp. after numerals; आहारो द्विगुणः स्त्रीणां बुद्धिस्तासां चतुर्गुणा । ष़ड्गुणो व्यवसायश्च कामश्चाष्टगुणः स्मृतः ॥ Chāṇ.78; so त्रिणुण; शतगुणीभवति becomes a hundred-fold, अध्यर्धगुणमाहुर्यं बले शौर्ये च केशव Mb.11.2.1. -15 A secondary element, a subordinate part (opp. मुख्य); न च गुणानुग्रहार्थं प्रधानस्यावृत्तिर्युक्ता ŚB. on MS.12.1.4. -16 Excess, abundance, superfluity; पराङ्मुखवधं कृत्वा को$त्र प्राप्तस्त्वया गुणः Rām.4.17.16. -17 An adjective, a word subordinate to another in a sentence. -18 The substitution of ए, ओ, अर् and अल् for इ, उ, ऋ (short or long) and लृ, or the vowels अ, ए, ओ and अर् and अल्. -19 (In Rhet.) Quality considered as an inherent property of a Rasa or sentiment. Mammaṭa thus defines गुण. --ये रहस्याङ्गिनो धर्माः शौर्यादय इवात्मनः । उत्कर्ष- हेतवस्ते स्युरचलस्थितयो गुणाः ॥ K. P.8. (Some writers on rhetoric, such as Vāmana, Jagannātha Paṇḍita, Daṇḍin and others, consider Guṇas to be properties both of शब्द and अर्थ, and mention ten varieties under each head. Mammaṭa, however, recognises only three, and, after discussing and criticizing the views of others, says : माधुर्यौजःप्रसादाख्यास्त्रयस्ते न पुनर्दश K. P.8); Ki.17.6. -2 (In gram. and Mīm.) Property considered as the meaning of a class of words; e. g. grammarians recognise four kinds of the meaning of words; जाति, गुण, किया and द्रव्य, and give गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्थः as instances to illustrate these meanings. -21 (In politics) A proper course of action, an expedient. (The expedients to be used by a king in foreign politics are six :-- 1 सन्धि peace or alliance; 2 विग्रह war; 3 यान march or expedition; 4 स्थान or आसन halt; 5 संश्रय seeking shelter; 6 द्वैध or द्वैधीभाव duplicity; सन्धिर्ना विग्रहो यानमासनं द्वैधमाश्रयः Ak.) see Y.1.346; Ms.7.16; Śi.2.26; R.8.21. -22 The number 'three' (derived from the three qualities). -23 The chord of an arc (in geom.). -24 An organ of sense. -25 A subordinate dish; Ms. 3.226,233. -26 A cook. -27 An epithet of Bhīma as in युधिष्टिरो$पि गुणप्रियः Vas. -28 Leaving, abandonment. -29 A multiplier, coefficient (in math.) -3 Division, subdivision, species, kind. -31 The peculiar property of letters which are pronounced with external utterance (बाह्यप्रयत्न); they are eleven. -Comp. -अग्ऱ्यम् a principal quality; ˚वर्तिन्; स्वमूर्तिभेदेन गुणाग्ऱ्यवर्तिना पतिः प्रजानामिव सर्गमात्मनः R.3.27. -अगुणः merit and demerit Ms.3.22;9.331; अनपेक्ष्य गुणागुणौ जनः स्वरुचिं निश्चयतो$नु- धावति Si.16.44. -अतीत a. freed from all properties, being beyond them; सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते Bg.14.25. (-तः) the Supreme Being. -अधिष्ठानकम् the region of the breast where the girdle is fastened. -अनुबन्धित्वम् connection or association with virtues; गुणा गुणानुबन्धित्वात्तस्य सप्रसवा इव R.1.22. -अनुरागः love or appreciation of the good qualities of others; गुणा- नुरागादिव सख्यमीयिवान्न बाधते$स्य त्रिगणः परस्परम् Ki.1.11. -अनुरोधः conformity or suitableness to good qualities. -अन्तरम् a different (higher) quality; गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः M.1.6. -अन्वित, -उपपन्न, -युक्त, -संपन्न a. endowed with good qualities, meritorious, worthy, good, excellent. -अपवादः, -निन्दा disparagement, detraction. -अभिधानम् A subsidiary injunction; द्रव्योपदेशाद्वा गुणा- भिधानं स्यात् M.8.4.5. -आकरः 1 'a mine of merits', one endowed with all virtues; सृजति तावदशेषगुणाकरं पुरुषरत्न- मलङ्करणं मुवः Bh.2.92. -2 N. of Śiva. -आढ्य a. rich in virtues. -आत्मन् a. having qualities. -आधारः 'a receptacle of virtues', a virtuous or meritorious person. -आश्रय a. virtuous, excellent. -ईश्वरः 1 the Supreme Being. -2 the Chitrakūṭa mountain. -उत्कर्षः excellence of merit, possession of superior qualities. -उत्कीर्तनम् panegyric, eulogium. -उत्कृष्ट a. superior in merit; Ms.8.73. -उपेत a. endowed with good qualities; पुत्रमेवङ्गुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि Ś.1.12. -ओघः, -घम् superior or abundant merits. -कथनम् extolling, praising. -2 a condition or state of mind of the hero of a drama to which he is reduced by Cupid. -कर्तृत्वम् the state of an agent of properties; गुणकर्तृत्वे$पि तथा कर्तेव भवत्युदासीनः Sāṅ. K.2. -कर्मन् n. 1 an unessential or secondary action. -2 (in gram.) the secondary or less immediate (i. e. indirect) object of an action; e. g. in the example नेता$श्वस्य स्रुघ्नं स्रुघ्नस्य वा, स्रुघ्नम् is a गुणकर्मन्. ˚विभाग a. distinguishing an action and an attribute. -कल्पना f. imputing a figurative meaning, one of the modes of interpreting a sentence. According to it an expression may be understood as conveying not what is actually expressed by it but the quality or qualities thereof. e. g. सिंहो देवदत्तः means प्रसह्यकरी देवदत्तः; ŚB. on MS.1.2.1. -काण्डः a series of subsidiary (details); एवमेक उत्कृष्यमाणः सर्वं गुणकाण्डमुत्कर्षति ŚB. on MS.5. 1.24. -कार a. productive of good qualities, profitable, salutary. (-रः) 1 a cook who prepares sidedishes or any secondary articles of food. -2 an epithet of Bhīma. -3 (in math.) the multiplier. -कीर्तनम्, -श्लाघा, -स्तुतिः f. praise, extolling. -कृत्यम् the function of a bow-string; गुणकृत्ये धनुषो नियोजिता Ku.4.15. -गणः a number or series of good qualities; Bhāg.5.3.11. -गानम् singing of merits, panegyric, praise. -गृध्नु a. 1 desiring good qualities; ये चान्ये गुणगृध्नवः Bhāg.3.14.2. -2 possessing enviable or good qualities. -गृह्य a. appreciating or admiring merits (wherever they may be), attached to merits; appreciative; ननु वक्तृविशेषनिःस्पृहा गुणगृह्या वचने विपश्चितः Ki.2.5. -गौरी a woman chaste by virtuous conduct; अनृतगिरं गुणगौरि मा कृथा माम् Śi. -ग्रहणम् appreciating merits. -ग्रहीतृ, -ग्राहक, -ग्राहिन् a. appreciating the merits (of others); श्रीहर्षो निपुणः कविः परिषदप्येषा गुणग्राहिणी Ratn.1.4; Śi.2.82; Bv.1.9. -ग्रामः a collection of virtues or merits; गुरुतरगुणग्रामांभोजस्फुटोज्ज्वलचन्द्रिका Bh.3.116; गणयति गुणग्रामम् Gīt.2; Bv.1.13. -घातिन् a. detractor, envious, censorious. -ज्ञ a. knowing how to admire or appreciate merits, appreciative; भगवति कमलालये भृशमगुणज्ञासि Mu.2; गुणा गुणज्ञेषु गुणा भवन्ति H. Pr.47. -त्रयम्, -त्रितयम् the three constituent properties of nature; i. e. सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्. ˚आभासः life. -दोषौ (du.) virtue and vice; ˚कथा; Pt.2.67. -धर्मः the virtue or duty incidental to the possession of certain qualities. -निधिः a store of virtues. -पदी a woman having feet as thin as cords. -पूगम् great merits; भवद्गुणपूगपूरितम् (श्रवणम्) Śi.9.64. -प्रकर्षः excellence of merits, great merit; गुणप्रकर्षादुडुपेन शम्भोरलङ्- घ्यमुल्लङ्घितमुत्तमाङ्गम् Mk.4.23. -भावः being subsidiary to something else; परार्थता हि गुणभावः । ŚB. on MS.4.3.1. -भोक्तृ a. perceiving the properties of things; निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च Bg.13.14. -महत् a superior quality. -मुष्टिः f. a particular method of stringing the bow; cf. पताका वज्रमुष्टिश्च सिंहकर्णस्तथैव च । मत्सरी काकतुण्डी च योजनीया यथा- क्रमम् ॥ Dhanur.84. -रागः delighting in the merits of others; गुणरागगतां तस्य रूपिणीमिव दुर्गतिम् Ks.2.51. -राशिः an epithet of Śiva -लक्षणम् mark or indication of an internal property. -लयनिका, -लयनी a tent. -लुब्ध a. 1 desirous of merits. -2 attached to merits. -वचनम्, -वाचकः a word which connotes an attribute or quality, an adjective, or substantive used attributively; as श्वेत in श्वेतो$श्वः. -वादः 1 pointing out good merits. -2 a statement in a secondary sense; गुणवादस्तु MS. 1.2.1 (Śabara explains this as : गौण एष वादो भवति यत् सम्बन्धिनि स्तोतव्ये सम्बन्ध्यन्तरं स्तूयते । ŚB. on ibid.). -3 a statement contradictory to other arguments; Madhusūdana. -विवेचना discrimination in appreciating the merits of others, a just sense of merit. -विशेषाः external organs, mind and spiritual ignorance; परस्पर- विलक्षणा गुणविशेषाः (बाह्येन्द्रियमनो$हङ्काराश्च) Sāṅ. K.36. -षः a different property. -वृक्षः, -वृक्षकः a mast or a post to which a ship or boat is fastened. -वृत्तिः f. 1 a secondary or unessential condition or relation (opp. मुख्यवृत्ति). -2 the character or style of merits. -वैशेष्यम् pre-eminence of merit; अन्योन्यगुणवैशेष्यान्न किंचिदतिरिच्यते Ms.9.296. -शब्दः an adjective. -संख्यानम् 'enumeration of the three essential qualities', a term applied to the Sāṅkhya (including the Yoga) system of philosophy; ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः प्रोच्यते गुणसंख्याने Bg.18.19. -संगः 1 association with qualities or merits. -2 attachment to objects of sense or worldly pleasures. -संग्रहः a collection of merits or properties; कथं गुणज्ञो विरमेद्विना पशुं श्रीर्यत्प्रवव्रे गुणसंग्रहेच्छया Bhāg.4.2.26. -संपद् f. excellence or richness of merits, great merit, perfection; गुणसंपदा समधिगम्य Ki.5.24. -सागरः 1 'an ocean of merit, a very meritorious man. -2 an epithet of Brahmā. -हीन a. 1 void of merit', meritless; काममामरणात्तिष्ठेद्- गृहे कन्यर्तुमत्यपि । न चैवैनां प्रयच्छेत्तु गुणहीनाय कर्हिचित् Ms.9. 89. -2 poor (as food).
cit चित् 1 P., 1 Ā. (चेतति, चेतयते, चेतित) 1 To perceive, see, notice, observe; नेषूनचेतन्नस्यन्तम् Bk.17.16; चिचेत सामस्तत्कृच्छ्रम् 14.62;15.38;2.29. -2 To know, understand, be aware or conscious of; परैरध्यारुह्य- माणमात्मनं न चेतयते Dk.154; कादम्बरीरसभरेण समस्त एव मत्तो न किंचिदपि चेतयते जनो$यम् K.24. -3 To regain consciousness. -4 To aim at, intend, design (with dat.). -5 To desire or long for. -6 To be anxious about, care for, be intent upon, be engaged in. -7 To resolve upon. -8 To appear, shine. -9 To be regarded as. -1 To make attentive, remind of. -11 To teach, instruct. -12 To form an idea, be conscious of, understand, comprehend think, reflect upon. -13 To be awake; जगत्येकः स चेतति L. D. B.
jñā ज्ञा 9 U. (जानाति, जानीते, जज्ञौ, जज्ञे, अज्ञासीत्-अज्ञास्त, ज्ञातुम्, ज्ञात) 1 To know (in all senses), to learn, become acquainted with; मा ज्ञासीस्त्वं सुखी रामो यदकार्षीत् स रक्षसाम् Bk.15.9. -2 To know, be aware of, be familiar or conversant with; जाने तपसो वीर्यम् Ś.3.1; जानन्नपि हि मेधावी जडवल्लोक आचरेत् Ms.2.11,123;7.148. -3 To find out, ascertain, investigate; ज्ञायतां कः कः कार्यार्थीति Mk.9. -4 To comprehend, apprehend, understand, feel, experience; as in दुःखज्ञ, सुखज्ञ &c. -5 To test, try, know the true character of; आपत्सु मित्रं जानीयात् H.1.72; Chāṇ.21. -6 To recognise; न त्वं दृष्ट्वा न पुनरलकां ज्ञास्यसे कामचारिन् Me.63. -7 To regard, consider, know to be; जानामि त्वां प्रकृतिपुरुषं कामरूपं मघोनः Me.6. -8 To act, engage in (with gen. of the instrument); सर्पिषो जानीते Sk. 'he engages in sacrifice with clarified butter (सर्पिषः = सर्पिषा). -9 Ved. To acknowledge, approve, allow. -1 To recognise as one's own, take possession of. -Caus. (ज्ञापयति, ज्ञपयति) 1 To announce, inform, make acquainted with, make known, notify. -2 To request, ask (Ātm.). -3 To sharpen. -4 To satisfy. -5 To praise. -6 To immolate, kill (as an animal). -Desid. (जिज्ञासते) 1 To desire to know, investigate, ascertain; R.2.26; Bk.8.33;14.91. -2 To conjecture, suppose, guess.
tad तद् pron., a. (Nom. sing. सः m., सा f., तत् n.) 1 That referring to something not present; (तदिति परोक्षे विजानी- यात्) -2 He, she, it; (oft. as corr. of यद्); यस्य बुद्धिर्बलं तस्य Pt.1. -3 That i. e. well-known; सा रम्या नगरी महान्स नृपतिः सामन्तचक्रं च तत् Bh.3.37; Ku.5.71. -4 That (referring to something seen or experienced before, अनुभूतार्थः; उत्कम्पिनी भयपरिस्खलितांशुकान्ता ते लोचने प्रतिदिशं विधुरे क्षिपन्ती K. P.7; Bv.2.5. -5 The same, identical, that, very; usually with एव; तानीन्द्रियाणि सकलानि तदेव नाम Bh.2.4. Sometimes the forms of तद् are used with the first and second personal pronouns, as well as with demonstratives and relatives, for the sake of emphasis; (often translatable by 'therefore', 'then'); सो$हमिज्याविशुद्धात्मा R.1.69; 'I that very person', 'I therefore'; (I who am so and so); स त्वं निवर्तस्व विहाय लज्जाम् 2.4 'thou, therefore, shouldst return', &c. When repeated तद् has the sense of 'several', 'various'; तेषु तेषु स्थानेषु K.369; Bg.7.2; Māl.1.36; ते ते भावाः 1.17. तेन the instr. of तद् is often used with adverbial force in the sense of 'therefore', 'on that account', 'in that case', 'for that reason.' तेन हि if so, well then. -ind. 1 There, thither. -2 Then, in that case, at that time. -3 For that reason, therefore, consequently; तदेहि विमर्दक्षमां भूमिमवतरावः U.5; Me.7,19; R.3.46. -4 Then (corr. of यदि); तथापि यदि महत्कुतूहलं तत्कथयामि K.136; Bg.1.46. -n. 1 The Supreme Spirit or Brahman; तद्भावभावी तद्बुद्धिः Mb.12. 323.29; Bg.17.23. -2 This world. -Comp. -अतिपात a. going beyond the bounds. -अनन्तर a. next to that. (-ind.) immediately after that, thereupon. -अनु ind. after that, afterwards; संदेशं मे तदनु जलद श्रोष्यसि श्रोत्र- पेयम् Me.13; R.16.87; Māl.9.26. -अनुसरणम् going after that. -अन्त a. perishing in that, ending thus. -अन्य a. other than that. -अपेक्ष a. having regard to that. -अर्थ, -अर्थीय a. 1 intended for that. -2 having that meaning. -अर्थम् on that account, with that object, therefore; स्वस्रीयं मम राजेन्द्र द्रष्टुकामो महीपतिः । तदर्थ- मुपयातो$हमयोध्यां रघुनन्दन ॥ Rām.1.73.4. -अर्ह a. meriting that. -अवधि ind. 1 so far; upto that period, till then; तदवधि कुशली पुराणशास्त्रस्मृतिशतचारुविचारजो विवेकः Bv. 2.14. -2 from that time, since then; श्वासो दीर्घस्तदवधि मुखे पाण्डिमा Bv.2.79. -अवस्थ a. so circumstanced. -एकचित्त a. having the mind solely fixed on that; H. -कर a. serving, obeying as servant. -काल 1 the current moment, present time. -2 that time. ˚धी a. having presence of mind. -कालम् ind. 1 instantly, immediately. -2 at that time, at a certain time. -कालीन a. simultaneous; ब्रह्मन्कालान्तरकृतं तत्कालीनं कथं भवेत् Bhāg.1.12.41. -क्षणः 1 present, time being, present or current moment; R.1.51. -2 the same moment. -3 a measure of time. -क्षणम्, -क्षणात् ind. immediately, directly, instantly; सेकान्ते मुनिकन्याभिस्तत्- क्षणोज्झितवृक्षकम् R.3.14; Śi.9.5; Y.2.14; Amaru. 83. -क्रिय a. working without wages. -गत a. gone or directed to that, intent on that, devoted to that, belonging to that; तद्गतेनैव चेतसा Ks.3.68. (-तः) the continued multiplication of four or more like quantities. -गुण a. possessing those qualities. (-णः) 1 the quality or virtue of anything; R.1.9. -2 a figure of speech (in Rhet.); स्वमुत्सृज्य गुणं योगादत्युज्ज्वलगुणस्य यत् । वस्तु तद्गुण- तामेति भण्यते स तु तद्गुणः ॥ K. P.1.137; see Chandr.5.141. ˚संविज्ञानः a term applied to those Bahuvrīhi compounds in which the qualities denoted by the name are perceived along with the thing itself; as लंबकर्ण; cf. अतद्गुणसंविज्ञान also. -ज a. immediate, instantaneous. -ज्ञः a knowing or intelligent man, wise man, philosopher. -तृतीय a. doing that for the third time. -देश्य a. coming from the same country. -देश्यः a fellow countryman. -धन a. miserly, niggardly. -धर्मिन् a. obeying his laws; तद्धर्मिणां निवसतां विषमः स्वभावः Bhāg.3.15.32. -धर्म्य a. of that kind; Bhāg.5.14.2. -पदार्थः the Supreme Being. -पर a. 1 following that, coming after that, inferior. -2 having that as the highest object, closely intent on, exclusively devoted to, eagerly engaged in (usually in comp.); सम्राट् समाराधनतत्परो$भूत् R.2.5;1.66; Me.1; Y.1.83; Ms.3.262. -3 diligent. (-रः) the thirtieth part of a twinkling of the eye. (-रा) one sixtieth of a second of a circle. ˚ता, ˚त्वम् 1 intentness, entire devotion or addiction to a thing. -2 inferiority. -परायण a. solely devoted or attached to anything. -पुरुषः 1 the original or Supreme Spirit. -2 N. of a class of compounds in which the first member determines the sense of the other member, or in which the last member is defined or qualified by the first, without losing its original independence; as तत्पुरुषः; तत्पुरुष कर्मधारय येनाहं स्यां बहुव्रीहिः Udb. उत्तरपदप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः -पूर्व a. 1 happening or occurring for the first time; अकारि तत्पूर्वनिबद्धया तया Ku.5.1;7.3; R.2.42;14.38. -2 prior, former. -पूर्वम् ind. that for the first time; Ki.7.11. -प्रथम a. doing that for the first time; Ku.5.66. -फल a. having that as a fruit or result. (-लः) 1 the white water-lily. -2 a kind of perfume. -बलः a kind of arrow. -भव a. sprung from Sanskṛit &c. (as Prākṛit or other words). -भावः becoming that. -मात्रम् 1 merely that, only a trifle, a very small quantity; तन्मात्रादेव कुपितो राजा Ks.6.15. -2 (in phil.) a subtle and primary element (such as शब्द, स्पर्श, रूप, रस and गन्ध) तन्मात्राण्यविशेषाः Sān. K.38; गणस्तन्मात्रपञ्चकश्चैव Sān. K.24; Bhāg.11.24.7. -मात्रिक a. consisting of rudimentary atoms; अर्थस्तन्मात्रिकाज्जज्ञे Bhāg.11.24.8. -राजः an affix added to some proper names to form from them the names of the 'king' or 'chief'; as from अङ्ग is formed आङ्ग 'king of the Aṅgas' by the affix अण्. -रूप a. thus shaped, so formed; of the same quality. -वाचक a. denoting or signifying that. -विद् a. 1 knowing that. -2 knowing the truth. -विद्य a. a Connoisseur, expert. -विध a. of that kind or sort; भक्त्योपपन्नेषु हि तद्विधानां प्रसादचिह्नानि पुरः फलानि R.2.22; Ku.5.73; Ms.2.112. -संख्याक a. of that number; Y.2.6. com. -समनन्तरम् ind. immediately upon that; Ks.4.24. -स्थ a. being on or in that, connected with it. (-स्थः) a particular mode of multiplication. -हित a. good for that. -(तः) 1 an affix added to primary bases to form derivative or secondary bases from them. -2 a noun formed by a Taddhita affix, a derivative noun.
dṛṣṭiḥ दृष्टिः f. [दृश्-भावे-क्तिन्] 1 Seeing, viewing. -2 Seeing with the mental eye. -3 Knowing, knowledge; सम्यग्- दृष्टिस्तस्य परं पश्यति यस्त्वाम् Ki.18.28. -4 The eye, the faculty of seeing, sight; केनेदानीं दृष्टिं विलोभयामि V.2; चलापाङ्गं दृष्टिं स्पृशसि &Sacute.1.23.; दृष्टिस्तृणीकृतजगत्त्रयसत्त्वसारा U.6.19; R.2.28; Ś.4.2; देव दृष्टिप्रसादं कुरु H.1. -5 A look, glance. -6 View, notion; क्षुद्रदृष्टिरेषा K.173; एतां दृष्टिमवष्टभ्य Bg. 16.9. -7 Consideration, regard. -8 Intellect, wisdom; तुभ्यं नमस्ते$स्त्वविषक्तदृष्टये Bhāg.1.4.12. -9 (In Astrol.) Aspect of the stars. -1 Light (प्रकाश). -11 A theory, doctrine, notion; याश्च काश्च कृदृष्टयः (सर्वास्ता निष्फलाः) Ms. 12.95. -Comp. -कृत् n., -कृतम् a kind of lily (स्थलपद्म). -क्षम worth-seeing; V.4.21. -क्षेपः a glance, look. -गतम् a theory, doctrine. -गुणः a mark for archers, butt, target. -गोचर a. within the range of sight, in sight, visible. (-रः) the range of sight. -दानम् appearance. -दोषः the evil influence of the human eye. -पातः 1 a look, glance; मार्गे मृगप्रेक्षिणि दृष्टिपातं कुरुष्व R.13.18; Bh.1.11,94;3.66. -2 act of seeing, function of the eye; रजःकणैर्विघ्नितदृष्टिपाताः Ku.3.31 (Malli. interprets-unnecessarily in our opinion-- पात by प्रभा). -पथः the range of sight. -पूत a. 'kept pure by the sight', watched that no impurity is contracted; दृष्टिपूतं न्यसेत्पादम् Ms.6.46. -प्रसादः the favour of a look. -बन्धुः a firefly. -मण्डलम् 1 the pupil of the eye. -2 the circle of sight. -रागः the expression of the eyes; भवन्तमन्तरेण कीदृशो$स्या दृष्टिरागः Ś.2.11-12. -वादः 1 a Buddhist canon dealing with discussion on other religious views; दृष्टिवादो द्वादशाङ्गी स्याद्गणिपिटकाह्वया । प्रतिकर्मसूत्रपूर्वानुयोगो पूर्व- गतचूलिकाः । पञ्च स्युर्द्दष्टिवादभेदाः पूर्वाणि चतुर्दशापि पूर्वगते । Hem. -2 N. of the 12th Aṅga of the Jainas. -विक्षेपः a side-glance, leer, oblique look. -विद्या optics. -विभ्रमः an amorous glance, a coquettish look; Ś.1.23. -विषः a serpent. -संभेदः mutual glance; त्वयापि न निरूपिता अनयोर्द्दष्टिसंभेदाः Māl.7.
daivata दैवत a. (-ती f.) [देवता-अण्] 1 Divine. -2 (At the end of an adj. comp.) Honouring or worshipping as one's deity, as in सूर्यदैवता जनाः -तम् A god, deity, divinity; मृदं गां दैवतं विप्रं घृतं मधु चतुष्पथं प्रदक्षिणानि कुर्वीत Ms.4.39, 153; U.4.4.; Amaru.3; हन्त प्रिया दैवतमस्य देवी Bhāg. 4.4.28. -2 A number of gods, the whole class of gods; Ve.2. -3 An idol. (The word is said to be m. also, but is rarely used in that gender. Mammata notices it as a fault called अप्रयुक्तत्व; see अप्रयुक्त). -4 N. of the third Kāṇḍa of Yāskas Nirukta. -Comp. -पतिः N. of Indra. -सरित् f. the Ganges.
dhītiḥ धीतिः f. 1 Drinking, sucking. -2 Thirst. -3 Ved. The fingers. -4 Thought, notion. -5 Devotion. -6 Disrespect, disregard.
nir निर् ind. A substitute for निस् before vowels and soft consonants conveying the senses of 'out of', 'away from'. 'without', 'free from', and be frequently expressed by 'less', 'un', used with the noun; see the compounds given below; see निस् and cf. अ also. -Comp. -अंश a. 1 whole, entire. -2 not entitled to any share of the ancestral property. -अक्षः the place of no latitute; i. e. the terrestrial equator (in astronomy). ˚देशः 1 a first meridian, as Laṅkā. -2 a place where the sun is always vertical and the days and nights are equal. -3 the equatorial region. -अक्षर a. Not knowing the letters, illiterate. -अग्नि a. having lost or neglected the consecrated fire; स संन्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः Bg.6.1. -अग्र (क) a. divisible without remainder. -अङ्कुश a. 'not curbed by a hook', unchecked, uncontrolled; unruly, independent, completely free, unfettered; निरङ्कुश इव द्विपः Bhāg.; कामो निकामनिरङ्कुशः Gīt.7; निरङ्कुशाः कवयः Sk.; Bh.3.15; Mv.3.39; विनयरुचयः सदैव निरङ्कुशाः Mu.3.6. ˚ता self-will, independence. -अघ a. sinless, blameless. -अङ्ग a. 1 having no parts. -2 deprived of expedients or resources. -अजिन a. skinless. -अञ्जन a. 1 without collyrium; निरञ्जने साचिविलोलिकं दृशौ Ki.8.52. -2 unstained, untinged. -3 free from falsehood; तदा विद्वान् पुण्यपापे विधूय निरञ्जनं परमं साम्यमुपैति Munda 3.1.3. -4 simple, artless. (-नः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 N. of the Supreme Being. (-ना) 1 the day of full moon. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -अतिशय a. unsurpassed, matchless, unrivalled; निरतिशयं गरिमाणं तेन जनन्याः स्मरन्ति विद्वांसः Pt.1.3. (-यः) the Supreme Being. -अत्यय a. 1 free from danger, secure, safe; तद्भवान् वृत्तसंपन्नः स्थितः पथि निरत्यये Rām.4.29.12; R.17.53. -2 free from fault, unblamable, faultless, disinterested; Ki.1.12, शक्तिरर्थपतिषु स्वयंग्रहं प्रेम कारयति वा निरत्ययम् 13.61. -3 completely successful. -अधिष्ठान a. 1 supportless. -2 independent. -अध्व a. one who has lost one's way. -अनुक्रोश a. pitiless, merciless, hard-hearted. (-शः) mercilessness, hard-heartedness. -अनुग a. having no followers. -अनुग्रह a. Ungracious, unkind; Bhāg.5. 12.7. -अनुनासिक a. not nasal. -अनुमान a. not bound to conclusions or consequences. -अनुयोज्य a. unblamable, faultless. -अनुरोध a. 1 unfavourable, unfriendly. -2 unkind, unamiable; Māl.1. -अन्तर a. -1 constant, perpetual, uninterrupted, incessant; निरन्त- राधिपटलैः Bv.1.16; निरन्तरास्वन्तरवातवृष्टिषु Ku.5.25. -2 having no intervening or intermediate space, having no interval, close, closely contiguous, in close contact; मूढे निरन्तरपयोधरया मयैव Mk.5.15; हृदयं निरन्तरबृहत्कठिनस्तन- मण्डलावरणमप्यभिदन् Śi.9.66. -3 compact, dense; परितो रुद्धनिरन्तराम्बराः Śi.16.76. -4 coarse, gross. -5 faithful, true (as a friend). -6 not hidden from view. -7 not different, similar, identical. -8 sincere, sympathetic; सुहृदि निरन्तरचित्ते (निवेद्य दुःखं सुखीभवति) Pt.1.341. -9 abounding in, full of; निपात्यमानैर्ददृशे निरन्तरम् Rām.7.7. 54; गुणैश्च निरन्तराणि Mv.4.12. (-रम्) ind. 1 without interruption, constantly, continually, incessantly. -2 without intervening space or interval. -3 closely, tightly, firmly; (परिष्वजस्व) कान्तैरिदं मम निरन्तरमङ्गमङ्गैः Ve.3.27; परिष्वजेते शयने निरन्तरम् Ṛs.2.11. -4 immediately. ˚अभ्यासः constant study, diligent exercise or practice. -अन्तराल a. 1 without an intervening space, close. -2 narrow. -अन्धस् a. foodless, hungry. -अन्वय a. 1 having no progeny, childless. -2 unconnected, unrelated; Ms.8.198. -3 not agreeing with the context (as a word in a sentence). -4 without logical connection or regular sequence, unmethodical. -5 without being seen, out of sight; निरन्वयं भवेत् स्तेयम् Ms.8. 332. -6 without retinue, unaccompanied, see अन्वय. -7 sudden, unexpected; U.7. -8 exterminatory, without leaving any species or trace; प्रागाधारनिरन्वयप्रमथनादुच्छेदमे- वाकरोः... Mv.3.13; (com. नाशो द्विविधः--स्वान्वयविनाशः, निरन्वयविनाशश्चेति......निर्वापणादिना सजातीयज्वालोदयानर्हविनाशस्तु निरन्वयविनाशः ।). -अपत्रप a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold. -अपराध a. guiltless, innocent, faultless, blameless. (-धः) innocence. -अपवर्त a. 1 not turning back. -2 (in arith.) leaving no common divisor, reduced to the lowest terms. -अपवाद a. 1 blameless. -2 not admitting of any exception. -अपाय a. 1 free from harm or evil. -2 free from decay, imperishable. -3 infallible; उपायो निरपायो$यमस्माभिरभिचिन्तितः Rām.1.1.2. -अपेक्ष a. 1 not depending on, irrespective or independent of, having no need of (with loc.); न्यायनिर्णीतसारत्वा- न्निरपेक्षमिवागमे Ki.11.39. -2 disregarding, taking no notice of. -3 free from desire, secure; निरपेक्षो न कर्तव्यो भृत्यैः स्वामी कदाचन H.2.82. -4 careless, negligent, indifferent -5 indifferent to worldly attachments or pursuits; समुपोढेषु कामेषु निरपेक्षः परिव्रजेत् Ms.6.41. -6 disinterested, not expecting any reward from another; दिशि दिशि निरपेक्ष- स्तावकीनं विवृण्वन् Bv.1.5. -7 without purpose. (-क्षा) indifference, disregard. -अपेक्षित a. 1 disregarded. -2 regardless. -अपेक्षिन् a. disregarding, indifferent. -अभिभव a. 1 not subject to humiliation or disgrace. -2 not to be surpassed, unrivalled. -अभिमान a. 1 free from self-conceit, devoid of pride or egotism. -2 void of self-respect. -3 unconscious. -अभिलाष a. not caring for, indifferent to; स्वसुखनिरभिलाषः खिद्यसे लोकहेतोः Ś.5.7. -अभिसंधानम् absence of design. -अभ्र a. cloudless. -अमर्ष a. 1 void of anger, patient. -2 apathetic. -अम्बर a. naked. -अम्बु a. 1 abstaining from water. -2 waterless, destitute of water. -अर्गल a. without a bolt, unbarred, unobstructed, unrestrained, unimpeded, completely free; M.5; मरणसमये त्यक्त्वा शङ्कां प्रलापनिरर्गलम् Māl.5.26. (-लम्) ind. freely. -अर्थ a. 1 void of wealth, poor, indigent; स्त्रियः कृतार्थाः पुरुषं निरर्थं निष्पीडितालक्तकवत्त्यजन्ति Pt.1.194. -2 meaningless, unmeaning (as a word or sentence). -3 non-sensical. -4 vain, useless, purposeless. (-र्थः) 1 loss, detriment. -2 nonsense. -अर्थक a. 1 useless, vain, unprofitable. -2 unmeaning, nonsensical, conveying no reasonable meaning; इत्थं जन्म निरर्थकं क्षितितले$रण्ये यथा मालती S. D. -3 (a consonant) not followed by a vowel. (-कम्) an expletive; निरर्थकं तु हीत्यादि पूरणैकप्रयोजनम् Chandr.2.6. -अलंकृतिः (in Rhet.) want of ornament, simplicity. -अवकाश a. 1 without free space. -2 without leisure. -अवग्रह a. 1 'free from restraint', unrestrained, unchecked, uncontrolled, irresistible. -2 free, independent. -3 self-willed, head-strong. (-हम्) ind. 1 uninterruptedly. -2 intensely, strongly. -अवद्य a. 1 blameless, faultless, unblameable, unobjectionable; हृद्य- निरवद्यरूपो भूपो बभूव Dk.1. -2 an epithet of the Supreme Being (having no passions). -अवधि a. having no end, unlimited; कथं तूष्णीं सह्यो निरवधिरयं त्वप्रतिविधः U. 3.44;6.3; Māl.1.6. -2 continuous; महानाधिव्याधि- र्निरवधिरिदानीं प्रसरतु Māl.4.3. -अवयव a. 1 without parts. -2 indivisible. -3 without limbs. -अवलम्ब a. 1 unsupported, without support; Ś.6. -2 not affording support. -3 not depending or relying on. -अवशेष a. whole, complete, entire, (निरवशेषेण ind. completely, entirely, fully, totally). -अवसाद a. cheerful; Gīt. -अव्यय a. eternal, immutable. -अशन a. abstaining from food. (-नम्) fasting. -अश्रि a. even; Kau. A.2.11. -अष्ट a. Ved. driven away, scattered. (-ष्टः) a horse twentyfour years old. -अस्त्र a. weaponless, unarmed. -अस्थि a. boneless. -अहंकार, -अहंकृति a. free from egotism or pride, humble, lowly; Bg.12.13. -अहंकृत a. 1 having no egotism or self-consciousness. -2 without individuality. -3 unselfish. -अहम् a. free from egotism or self-conceit; ह्यनामरूपं निरहं प्रपद्ये Bhāg. 5.19.4. -आकाङ्क्ष a. 1 wishing nothing, free from desire. -2 wanting nothing to fill up or complete (as the sense of a word or sentence). -आकार a. 1 devoid of form, formless, without form. -2 ugly, deformed. -3 disguised. -4 unassuming, modest. (-रः) 1 the universal spirit, Almighty. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. ˚ज्ञानवादः the doctrine that the perception of the outer world does not arise from images impressed on the mind; Sarva. S. -आकृति a. 1 formless, shapeless. -2 deformed. (-तिः) 1 a religious student who has not duly gone through a course of study, or who has not properly read the Vedas. -2 especially, a Brāhmaṇa who has neglected the duties of his caste by not going through a regular course of study; a fool; ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः । यथा हुतमनग्नौ च तथैव स्यान्निराकृतौ ॥ Mb.12.36.48. -3 one who neglects the five great religious duties or yajñas; Ms.3.154. -आकाश a. leaving no free space, completely filled or occupied, -आकुल a. 1 unconfused, unperplexed, unbewildered; Ki.11.38. -2 steady, calm; सुपात्रनिक्षेपनिरा- कुलात्मना (प्रजासृजा) Śi.1.28. -3 clear. -4 perspicuous; अलिकुलसङ्कुलकुसुमसमूहनिराकुलबकुलकलापे Gīt.1. (-लम्) 1 calmness serenity. -2 perspicuity, clearness. -आक्रन्द a. not crying or complaining. (-दः) a place where no sound can be heard. -आक्रोश a. unaccused, unreviled. -आगम a. not founded on revelation or scripture, not derived from the Vedas. -आगस् a. faultless, innocent, sinless; कथमेकपदे निरागसं जनमाभाष्यमिमं न मन्यसे R.8.48. -आचार a. without approved customs or usages, lawless, barbarian. -आडम्बर a. 1 without drums. -2 without show, unostentatious. -आतङ्क a. 1 free from fear; R.1.63; निरातङ्को रङ्को विहरति चिरं कोटिकनकैः Śaṅkara (देव्यपराधक्षमापनस्तोत्रम् 6). -2 without ailment, comfortable, healthy. -3 not causing pain. -4 unchecked, unhampered; निरातङ्कः पङ्केष्विव पिशितपिण्डेषु विलसन् Māl. 5.34. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आतप a. sheltered from heat, shady, not penetrated by the sun's rays. (-पा) the night. -आदर a. disrespectful. -आदान a. 1 taking or receiving nothing; Mb.3. -2 an epithet of Buddha. -आधार a. 1 without a receptacle. -2 without support, supportless (fig. also); निराधारो हा रोदिमि कथय केषामिह पुरः G. L.4.39. -आधि a. secure, free from anxiety. -आनन्द a. cheerless, sad, sorrowful. -आन्त्र a. 1 disembowelled. -2 having the entrails hanging out. -आपद् a. free from misfortune or calamity. (-f.) prosperity. -आबाध a. 1 unvexed, unmolested, undisturbed, free from disturbance. -2 unobstructed. -3 not molesting or disturbing. -4 (in law) frivolously vexatious (as a suit or cause of complaint); e. g. अस्मद्- गृहप्रदीपप्रकाशेनायं स्वगृहे व्यवहरति Mitā. -आमय a. 1 free from disease or illness, sound, healthy, hale. -2 untainted, pure. -3 guileless. -4 free from defects or blemishes. -5 full, complete. -6 infallible. -7 not liable to failure or miscarriage. (-यः, यम्) freedom from disease or illness, health, well-being, welfare, happiness; कुरूणां पाण्डवानां च प्रतिपत्स्व निरामयम् Mb.5.78.8. (-यः) 1 a wild goat. -2 a hog or boar. -आमिष a. 1 fleshless; निरुपमरसप्रीत्या खादन्नरास्थि निरामिषम् Bh. -2 having no sensual desires or covetousness; Ms.6.49. -3 receiving no wages or remuneration. -आय a. yielding no income or revenue, profitless. -यः an idler living from hand to mouth. -आयत a. 1 full-stretched or extended; निरायतपूर्वकायाः Ś.1.8. -2 contracted, compact. -आय- -तत्वम् shortness, compactness; निरायतत्वादुदरेण ताम्यता Ki.8.17. -आयति a. one whose end is at hand; नियता लघुता निरायतेः Ki.2.14. -आयास a. not fatiguing, easy. -आयुध a. unarmed, weaponless. -आरम्भ a. abstaining from all work (in good sense); Mb.3.82.11. -आलम्ब a. 1 having no prop or support (fig. also); ऊर्ध्वबाहुं निरालम्बं तं राजा प्रत्यभाषत Rām.7.89.1; निरालम्बो लोकः कुलमयशसा नः परिवृतम् Mv.4.53. -2 not depending on another, independent. -3 self-supported, friendless, alone; निरालम्बो लम्बोदरजननि कं यामि शरणम् Jag. (-म्बा) spikenard. (-म्बम्) Brahman. -आलोक a. 1 not looking about or seeing. -2 deprived of sight. -3 deprived of light, dark; निरालोकं लोकम् Māl.5.3; Bhāg.8.24.35. -5 invisible. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आवर्ण a. manifest, evident. -आश a. 1 devoid of hope, despairing or despondent of; मनो बभूवेन्दुमतीनिराशम् R.6.2. -2 depriving (one) of all hope. -आशक, -आशिन् a. hopeless; अद्य दुर्योधनो राज्याज्जीविताच्च निराशकः (भविष्यति) Mb.8.74.13. -आशङ्क a. fearless. -आशा hopelessness, despair. -आशिस् a. 1 without a boon or blessing, without virtues; आश्रमा विहिताः सर्वे वर्जयित्वा निराशिषम् Mb.12.63.13. -2 without any desire, wish or hope, indifferent; निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा Bg.4.21; जगच्छ- रण्यस्य निराशिषः सतः Ku.5.76. -आश्रय a. 1 without a prop or support, supportless, unsupported; न तिष्ठति निराश्रयं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.41. -2 friendless, destitute, alone, without shelter or refuge; निराश्रयाधुना वत्सलता. -3 not deep (as a wound). -आस्वाद a. tasteless, insipid, unsavoury. -आहार a. 'foodless', fasting, abstaining from food. (-रः) fasting; कालो$ग्निः कर्म मृद् वायुर्मनो ज्ञानं तपो जलम् । पश्चात्तापो निराहारः सर्वे$मी शुद्धिहेतवः ॥ Y.3.31. -इङ्ग a. immovable, stationary; यथा दीपो निवातस्थो निरिङ्गो ज्वलते पुनः Mb.12.46.6. -इच्छ a. without wish or desire, indifferent. -इन्द्रिय a. 1 having lost a limb or the use of it. -2 mutilated, maimed. -3 weak, infirm, frail; Kaṭh.1.1.3. -4 barren. -5 without प्रमाण or means of certain knowledge; निरिन्द्रिया ह्यमन्त्राश्च स्त्रियो$नृत- मिति स्थितिः Ms.9.18. -6 destitute of manly vigour, impotent (Ved.). -इन्धन a. destitute of fuel. -ईति a. free from the calamities of the season; निरातङ्का निरीतयः R.1.63; see ईति. -ईश्वर a. godless, atheistic. -˚वाद atheistic doctrine. -ईषम् the body of a plough. -ईह a. 1 desireless, indifferent; निरीहाणामीशस्तृणमिव तिरस्कारविषयः Mu.3.16. -2 inactive; निरीहस्य हतद्विषः R.1.24. (-हा), -निरीहता, -त्वम् 1 inactivity. -2 indifference. -उच्छ्वास a. 1 breathless, without breathing; निरुच्छ्वासं हरिं चक्रुः Rām.7.7.6. -2 narrow, contracted; उपेयुषो वर्त्म निरन्तराभिरसौ निरुच्छ्वासमनीकिनीभिः Śi.3.32. -3 dead; निरुच्छ्वासाः पुनः केचित् पतिता जगतीतले Rām.6.58.13. (-सः) absence of breath; लोका निरुच्छ्वासनिपीडिता भृशम् Bhāg.4. 8.8. -उत्तर a. 1 answerless, without a reply. -2 unable to answer, silenced. -3 having no superior. -उत्थ a. irrecoverable. -उद्धति a. not jolting (a chariot); अभूतल- स्पर्शतया निरुद्धतिः Ś.7.1. (v. l.) -उत्सव a. without festivities; विरतं गेयमृतुर्निरुत्सवः R.8.66. -उत्साह a. 1 inactive, indolent. -2 devoid of energy. (-हः) 1 absence of energy. -2 indolence. -उत्सुक a. 1 indifferent. -2 calm, tranquil. -उदक a. waterless. -उदर a. 1 having no belly or trunk. -2 thin (अतुन्दिल); श्रीमान्निरुदरो महान् Rām.3.16.31. -उद्यम, -उद्योग a. effortless, inactive, lazy, idle. उद्विग्न, -उद्वेग a. free from excitement or perturbation, sedate, calm. -उपक्रम a. 1 without a commencement. -2 incurable. -उपद्रव a. 1 free from calamity or affliction, not visited by danger or adversity, lucky, happy, undisturbed, unmolested, free from hostile attacks. -2 free from national distress or tyranny. -3 causing no affliction. -4 auspicious (as a star). -5 secure, peaceful. -उपधि a. guileless, honest; U.2.2. ˚जीवन a. leading an honest life. (v. l.). -उपपत्ति a. unsuitable. -उपपद a. 1 without any title or designation; अरे आर्यचारुदत्तं निरुपपदेन नाम्नालपसि Mk.1.18/19. -2 unconnected with a subordinate word. -उपप्लव a. 1 free from disturbance, obstacle or calamity, unharmed; निरुपप्लवानि नः कर्माणि संवृत्तानि Ś3. -2 not causing any affliction or misery. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -उपभोग a. without enjoyment; संसरति निरुपभोगं भावैरधिवासितं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.4. -उपम a. peerless, matchless, incomparable. -उपसर्ग free from portents. -उपस्कृत a. not corrupted, pure; of self-denying temperament; शमेन तपसा चैव भक्त्या च निरुपस्कृतः । शुद्धात्मा ब्राह्मणो रात्रौ निदर्शनमपश्यत ॥ Mb.12.271.14. -उपहत a. 1 not injured, unhurt. -2 auspicious, lucky. -उपाख्य a. 1 unreal, false, non-existent (as वन्ध्यापुत्र). -2 immaterial. -3 invisible. (-ख्यम्) the supreme Brahman. -उपाधि (क) a. without qualities, absolute. -उपाय a. 1 without expedients, helpless. -2 unsuccessful. -उपेक्ष a. 1 free from trick or fraud. -2 not neglectful. -उष्मन् a. devoid of heat, cold. -गन्ध a. void of smell, scentless, unfragrant, inodorous; निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः. ˚पुष्पी f. the Śālmali tree. -गर्व a. free from pride. -गवाक्ष a. windowless. -गुण a. 1 stringless (as a bow). -2 devoid of all properties. -3 devoid of good qualities, bad, worthless; निर्गुणः शोभते नैव विपुलाड- म्बरो$पि ना Bv.1.115. -4 without attributes; साकारं च निराकारं सगुणं निर्गुणं विभुम् Brahmavai. P. -5 having no epithet. (-णः) the Supreme Spirit. ˚आत्मक a. having no qualities. -गृहः a. houseless, homeless; सुगृही निर्गृही- कृता Pt.39. -गौरव a. 1 without dignity, undignified. -2 devoid of respect. -ग्रन्थ a. 1 freed from all ties or hindrances; आत्मारामाश्च मुनयो निर्ग्रन्था अप्युरुक्रमे । कुर्वन्त्यहैतुकीं भक्तिम् Bhāg.1.7.1. -2 poor, possessionless, beggarly. -3 alone, unassisted. (-न्थः) 1 an idiot, a fool. -2 a gambler. -3 a saint or devotee who has renounced all worldly attachments and wanders about naked and lives as a hermit. -4 A Buddha Muni. -ग्रन्थक a. 1 clever, expert. -2 unaccompanied, alone. -3 deserted, abandoned. -4 fruitless. (-कः 1 a religious mendicant. -2 a naked devotee. -3 a gambler. -ग्रन्थिक a. clever. (-कः) a naked mendicant, a Jaina mendicant of the Digambara class. -घटम् 1 a free market. -2 a crowded market. -घण्टः See निघण्टः. -घृण a. 1 cruel, merciless, pitiless. -2 shameless, immodest. -घृणा cruelty. -घोष a. noiseless, still, calm. -जन a. 1 tenantless, uninhabited, unfrequented, lonely, desolate. -2 without any retinue or attendants; भूयश्चैवाभिरक्षन्तु निर्धनान्निर्जना इव Mb.12.151.7. (-नम्) a desert, solitude, lonely place. -जन्तु a. free from living germs; H. Yoga. -जर a. 1 young, fresh. -2 imperishable, immortal. (-रः) a deity, god; (nom. pl. निर्जराः -निर्जरसः) (-रम्) ambrosia, nectar. -जरायु a. Ved. skinless. -जल a. 1 waterless, desert, destitute of water. -2 not mixed with water. (-लः) a waste, desert. ˚एकादशी N. of the eleventh day in the bright half of Jyeṣṭha. -जाड्य free from coldness. -जिह्वः a frog. -जीव a. 1 lifeless. -2 dead; चिता दहति निर्जीवं चिन्ता दहति जीवितम्. -ज्ञाति a. having no kinsmen, alone. -ज्वर a. feverless, healthy. -दण्डः a Śūdra. -दय a. 1 merciless, cruel, pitiless, unmerciful, unkind. -2 passionate. -3 very close, firm or fast, strong, excessive, violent; मुग्धे विधेहि मयि निर्दयदन्तदंशम् Gīt.1; निर्दयरति- श्रमालसाः R.19.32; निर्दयाश्लेषहेतोः Me.18. -4 unpitied by any; निर्दया निर्नमस्कारास्तन्मनोरनुशासनम् Ms.9.239. -दयम् ind. 1 unmercifully, cruelly. -2 violently, excessively; न प्रहर्तुमलमस्मि निर्दयम् R.11.84. -दश a. more than ten days old; यदा पशुर्निर्दशः स्यादथ मेध्यो भवे- दिति Bhāg.9.7.11. -दशन a. toothless. -दाक्षिण्य a. uncourteous. -दुःख a. 1 free from pain, painless. -2 not causing pain. -दैन्य a. happy, comfortable. -दोष a. 1 faultless, defectless; न निर्दोषं न निर्गुणम् -2 guiltless, innocent. -द्रव्य a. 1 immaterial. -2 without property, poor. -द्रोह a. not hostile, friendly, well-disposed, not malicious. -द्वन्द्व a. 1 indifferent in regard to opposite pairs of feelings (pleasure or pain), neither glad nor sorry; निर्द्वन्द्वो निर्ममो भूत्वा चरिष्यामि मृगैः सह Mb.1.85.16; निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् Bg.2.45. -2 not dependent upon another, independent. -3 free from jealousy or envy. -4 not double. -5 not contested, undisputed. -6 not acknowledging two principles. -धन a. without property, poor, indigent; शशिनस्तुल्यवंशो$पि निर्धनः परिभूयते Chāṇ.82. (-नः) an old ox. ˚ता, ˚त्वम् poverty, indigence. -धर्म a. unrighteous, impious, unholy. -धूम a. smokeless. -धौत a. cleansed, rendered clean; निर्धौत- दानामलगण्डभित्तिर्वन्यः सरित्तो गज उन्ममज्ज R.5.43. -नमस्कार a. 1 not courteous or civil, not respecting any one. -2 disrespected, despised. -नर a. abandoned by men, deserted. -नाणक a. coinless, penniless; Mk.2. -नाथ a. without a guardian or master. ˚ता 1 want of protection. -2 widowhood. -3 orphanage. -नाभि a. going or reaching beyond the navel; निर्नाभि कौशेयमुपात्तबाणम् Ku.7.7. -नायक a. having no leader or ruler, anarchic. -नाशन, -नाशिन् a. expelling, banishing. -निद्र a. sleepless, wakeful. -निमित्त a. 1 causeless. -2 disinterested. -निमेष a. not twinkling. -बन्धु a. without kindred or relation, friendless. -बल n. powerless, weak, feeble. -बाध a. 1 unobstructed. -2 unfrequented, lonely, solitary. -3 unmolested. (-धः) 1 a part of the marrow. -2 a knob. -बीज a. seedless, impotent. (-जा) a sort of grape (Mar. बेदाणा). -बुद्धि a. stupid, ignorant, foolish. -बुष, -बुस a. unhusked, freed from chaff. -भक्त a. taken without eating (as a medicine). -भय a. 1 fearless, undaunted. -2 free from danger, safe, secure; निर्भयं तु भवेद्यस्य राष्ट्रं बाहुबलाश्रितम् Ms.9.255. -भर a. 1 excessive, vehement, violent, much, strong; त्रपाभरनिर्भर- स्मरशर &c. Gīt.12; तन्व्यास्तिष्ठतु निर्भरप्रणयिता मानो$पि रम्यो- दयः Amaru.47. -2 ardent. -3 fast, close (as embrace); कुचकुम्भनिर्भरपरीरम्भामृतं वाञ्छति Gīt.; परिरभ्य निर्भरम् Gīt.1. -4 sound, deep (as sleep). -5 full of, filled with (at the end of comp.); आनन्द˚, गर्व˚ &c. (-रः) a servant receiving no wages. (-रम्) excess. (-रम् ind.) 1 excessively, exceedingly, intensely. -2 soundly. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. -भाज्य a. to be separated; स निर्भाज्यः स्वकादंशात् किंचिद्दत्वोपजीवनम् Ms.9.27. -भृतिः a. without wages, hireless. -भोगः a. not fond of pleasures. -मक्षिक a. 'free from flies', undisturbed, private, lonely. (-कम्) ind. without flies, i. e. lonely, private; कृतं भवतेदानीं निर्मक्षिकम् Ś.2,6. -मज्ज a. fatless, meagre. -मत्सर a. free from envy, unenvious; निर्मत्सरे मत्समे वत्स... वसुन्धराभारमारोप्य Rāmāyaṇachampū. -मत्स्य a. fishless. -मद a. 1 not intoxicated, sober, quiet. -2 not proud, humble. -3 sad, sorry. -4 not in rut (as an elephant). -मनुज, -मनुष्य a. tenantless, uninhabited, deserted by men. -मन्तु a. faultless, innocent. -मन्त्र a. 1 a ceremony, unaccompanied by holy texts. -2 not familiar with holy texts; Mb.12.36.43. -मन्यु, -मन्युक a. free from anger; Mb.5.133.4. -मम a. 1 free from all connections with the outer world, who has renounced all worldly ties; संसारमिव निर्ममः (ततार) R.12.6; Bg.2.71; निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः 3.3. -2 unselfish, disinterested. -3 indifferent to (with loc.); निर्ममे निर्ममो$र्थेषु मथुरां मधुराकृतिः R.15.28; प्राप्तेष्वर्थेषु निर्ममाः Mb. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -मर्याद a. 1 boundless, immeasurable. -2 transgressing the limits of right or propriety, unrestrained, unruly, sinful, criminal; मनुजपशुभिर्निर्मर्यादैर्भवद्भिरुदायुधैः Ve.3.22. -3 confused. -4 insolent, immodest. (-दम्) ind. confusedly, topsyturvy. (-दम्) confusion, disorder. -मल a. 1 free from dirt or impurities, clear, pure, stainless, unsullied (fig. also); नीरान्निर्मलतो जनिः Bv.1.63. -2 resplendent, bright; Bh.1.56. -3 sinless, virtuous; निर्मलाः स्वर्गमायान्ति सन्तः सुकृतिनो यथा Ms.8.318. (-लम्) 1 talc. -2 the remainings of an offering made to a deity. ˚उपलः a crystal. -मशक a. free from gnats. -मांस a. fleshless; स्वल्प- स्नायुवसावशेषमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकम् Bh.2.3. -मान a. 1 without self-confidence. -2 free from pride. -मानुष a. uninhabited, desolate. -मार्ग a. roadless, pathless. -मिथ्य a. not false, true; H. Yoga. -मुटः 1 a tree bearing large blossoms. -2 the sun. -3 a rogue. (-टम्) a large free market or fair. -मूल a. 1 rootless (as a tree). -2 baseless, unfounded (statement, charge &c.). -3 eradicated. -मेघ a. cloudless. -मेध a. without understanding, stupid, foolish, dull. -मोह a. free from illusion. (-हः) an epithet of Śiva. -यत्न a. inactive, lazy, dull. -यन्त्रण a. 1 unrestrained, unobstructed, uncontrolled, unrestricted. -2 unruly, self-willed, independent. (-णम्) 1 squeezing out. -2 absence of restraint, independence. -यशस्क a. without fame, discreditable, inglorious. -युक्त a. 1 constructed, built. -2 directed. -3 (in music) limited to metre and measure. -युक्ति f. 1 disunion. -2 absence of connection or government. -3 unfitness, impropriety. -युक्तिक a. 1 disjoined, unconnected. -2 illogical, unmeaning. -3 unfit, improper. -यूथ a. separated from the herd, strayed from the flock (as an elephant). -यूष = निर्यास. -योगक्षेम a. free from care (about acquisition); Bg.2. 45. -रक्त a. (-नीरक्त) colourless, faded. -रज, -रजस्क a. (-नीरज, नीरजस्क) 1 free from dust. -2 devoid of passion or darkness. (-जः) an epithet of Śiva. -रजस् (नरिजस्) a. see नीरज. (-f.) a woman not menstruating. ˚तमसा absence of passion or darkness. -रत (नीरत) a. not attached to, indifferent. -रन्ध्र a. (नीरन्ध्र) 1 without holes or interstices, very close or contiguous, thickly situated; नीरन्ध्रनीरनिचुलानि सरित्तटानि U.2.23. -2 thick, dense. -3 coarse, gross. -रव a. (-नीरव) not making any noise, noiseless; गतिविभ्रमसाद- नीरवा (रसना) R.8.58. -रस a. (नीरस) 1 tasteless, unsavoury, flavourless. -2 (fig.) insipid, without any poetic charm; नीरसानां पद्मानाम् S. D.1. -3 sapless, without juice, withered or dried up; Ś. Til.9. -4 vain, useless, fruitless; अलब्धफलनीरसान् मम विधाय तस्मिन् जने V.2.11. -5 disagreeable. -6 cruel, merciless. (-सः) the pomegranate. -रसन a. (नीरसन) having no girdle (रसना); Ki.5.11. -रुच् a. (नीरुच्) without lustre, faded, dim; परिमलरुचिराभिर्न्यक्कृतास्तु प्रभाते युवतिभिरुप- भोगान्नीरुचः पुष्पमालाः Śi.11.27. -रुज्, -रुज a. (नीरुज्, नीरुज) free from sickness, healthy, sound; नीरुजस्य किमौषधैः H.1. -रूप a. (नीरूप) formless, shapeless. (-पः) 1 air, wind. -2 a god. (-पम्) ether. -रोग a. (नीरोग) free from sickness or disease, healthy, sound; यथा नेच्छति नीरोगः कदाचित् सुचिकित्सकम् Pt.1.118. -लक्षण a. 1 having no auspicious marks, ill-featured. -2 undistinguished. -3 unimportant, insignificant. -4 unspotted. -5 having a white back. -लक्ष्य a. invisible. -लज्ज a. shameless, impudent. -लाञ्छनम् the marking of domestic animals (by perforating the nose &c.). -लिङ्ग a. having no distinguishing or characteristic marks. -लिप्त a. 1 unanointed. -2 undefiled, unsullied. -3 indifferent to. (-प्तः) 1 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -2 a sage. -लून a. cut through or off. -लेप a. 1 unsmeared, unanointed; निर्लेपं काञ्चनं भाण्डमद्भिरेव विशुध्यति Ms.5.112. -2 stainless, sinless. (-पः) a sage. -लोभ a. free from desire or avarice, unavaricious. -लोमन् a. devoid of hair, hairless. -वंश a. without posterity, childless. -वचन a. 1 not speaking, silent. -2 unobjectionable, blameless; (for other senses see the word separately). -नम् ind. silently; माल्येन तां निर्वचनं जघान Ku.7.19. -वण, -वन a. 1 being out of a wood. -2 free from woods. -3 bare, open. -वत्सल a. not loving or fondling (esp. children); निर्वत्सले सुतशतस्य विपत्तिमेतां त्वं नानुचिन्तयसि Ve.5.3. -वर = निर्दरम् q. v. -वसु a. destitute of wealth, poor. -वाच्य a. 1 not fit to be said. -2 blameless, unobjectionable; सखीषु निर्वाच्य- मधार्ष्ट्यदूषितं प्रियाङ्गसंश्लेषमवाप मानिनी Ki.8.48. -वात a. free or sheltered from wind, calm, still; हिमनिष्यन्दिनी प्रातर्निर्वातेव वनस्थली R.15.66. (-तः) a place sheltered from or not exposed to wind; निर्वाते व्यजनम् H.2.124. -वानर a. free from monkeys. -वायस a. free from crows. -वार्य a. 1 irresistible. -2 acting fearlessly or boldly. -विकल्प, -विकल्पक a. 1 not admitting an alternative. -2 being without determination or resolution. -3 not capable of mutual relation. -4 conditioned. -5 undeliberative. -6 recognizing no such distinction as that of subject and object, or of the knower and the known; as applied to समाधि or contemplation, it is 'an exclusive concentration upon the one entity without distinct and separate consciousness of the knower, the known, and the knowing, and without even self-consciousness'; निर्विकल्पकः ज्ञातृज्ञानादिविकल्पभेद- लयापेक्षः; नो चेत् चेतः प्रविश सहसा निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Bh.3.61; आत्मारामा विहितरतयो निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Ve.1.23. -7 (in phil.) not arising from the relation of the qualifier and the qualified, (विशेषणविशेष्यसंबन्धानवगाहि प्रत्यक्षं ज्ञानम्) said of knowledge not derived from the senses, as घटत्व. (-ल्पम्) ind. without hesitation or wavering. -विकार a. 1 unchanged, unchangeable, immutable. -2 not disposed; तौ स्थास्यतस्ते नृपती निदेशे परस्परावग्रहनिर्विकारौ M.5.14. -3 disinterested; तरुविटपलतानां बान्धवो निर्विकारः Ṛs.2.28. (-रः) the Supreme deity. -विकास a. unblown. -विघ्न a. uninterrupted, unobstructed, free from impediments; निर्विघ्नं कुरु मे देव सर्वकार्येषु सर्वदा. (-घ्नम्) absence of impediment. -विचार a. not reflecting, thoughtless, inconsiderate; रे रे स्वैरिणि निर्विचारकविते मास्मत्प्रकाशीभव Chandr. 1.2. (-रम्) ind. thoughtlessly, unhesitatingly. -वि- चिकित्स a. free from doubt or reflection. -विचेष्ट a. motionless, insensible; यो हि दिष्टमुपासीनो निर्विचेष्टः सुखं शयेत् Mb.3.32.14. -वितर्क a. unreflecting. -विनोद a. without amusement, void of pastime, diversion or solace; शङ्के रात्रौ गुरुतरशुचं निर्विनोदां सखीं ते Me.9. -विन्ध्या N. of a river in the Vindhya hills; निर्विन्ध्यायाः पथि भव रसाभ्यन्तरः सन्निपत्य Me.28. -विमर्श a. 1 void of reflection, thoughtless. -2 not having विमर्श Sandhi. -विवर a. 1 having no opening or cavity. 2 without interstices or interval, close, compact; घटते हि संहततया जनितामिदमेव निर्विवरतां दधतोः Śi.9.44. -विवाद a. 1 not contending or disagreeing. -2 undisputed, not contradicted or disputed, universally acknowledged. -विवेक a. indiscreet, void of judgment, wanting in discrimination, foolish. -विशङ्क a. fearless, undaunted, confident; Ms.7.176; यस्मिन्कृत्यं समावेश्य निर्विशङ्केन चेतसा । आस्यते सेवकः स स्यात् कलत्रमिव चापरम् ॥ Pt.1.85. -विशेष a. showing or making no difference, indiscriminating, without distinction; निर्विशेषा वयं त्वयि Mb.; निर्विशेषो विशेषः Bh.3.5. 'a difference without distinction'. -2 having no difference, same, like, not differing from (oft. in comp.); निर्विशेषाकृति 'having the same form'; प्रवातनीलो- त्पलनिर्विशेषम् Ku.1.46; स निर्विशेषप्रतिपत्तिरासीत् R.14.22. -3 indiscriminate, promiscuous. (-षः) absence of difference. (निर्विशेषम् and निर्विशेषेण are used adverbially in the sense of 'without difference', 'equally', indiscriminately'; क्रुद्धेन विप्रमुक्तो$यं निर्विशेषं प्रियाप्रिये Rām.7.22.41. स्वगृहनिर्विशेषमत्र स्थीयताम् H.1; R.5.6.). -विशेषण a. without attributes. -विष a. poisonless (as a snake); निर्विषा डुण्डुभाः स्मृताः. -विषङ्ग a. not attached, indifferent. -विषय a. 1 expelled or driven away from one's home, residence or proper place; मनोनिर्विषयार्थकामया Ku.5.38; R.9.32; also -निर्विषयीकृत; वने प्राक्कलनं तीर्थं ये ते निर्विषयी- कृताः Rām.2.14.4. -2 having no scope or sphere of action; किंच एवं काव्यं प्रविरलविषयं निर्विषयं वा स्यात् S. D.1. -3 not attached to sensual objects (as mind). -विषाण a. destitute of horns. -विहार a. having no pleasure. -वीज, -बीज a. 1 seedless. -2 impotent. -3 causeless. -वीर a. 1 deprived of heroes; निर्वीरमुर्वीतलम् P. R.1.31. -2 cowardly. -वीरा a woman whose husband and children are dead. -वीर्य a. powerless, feeble, unmanly, impotent; निर्वीर्यं गुरुशापभाषितवशात् किं मे तवेवायुधम् Ve.3.34. -वीरुध, -वृक्ष a. treeless. -वृत्ति f. accomplishment, achievement; अत आसां निर्वृत्त्या अपवर्गः स्यात् । आतण्डुलनिर्वृत्तेः आ च पिष्टनिर्वृत्तेरभ्यास इति ॥ ŚB. on MS.11.1.27. -a. having no occupation, destitute. See निर्वृति. -वृष a. deprived of bulls. -वेग a. not moving, quiet, calm. -वेतन a honorary, unsalaried. -वेद a. not acknowledging the Vedas, an atheist, infidel. -वेष्टनम् a. a weaver's shuttle. -वैर a. free from enmity, amicable, peaceable. (-रम्) absence of enmity. -वैलक्ष्य a. shameless. -व्यञ्जन a. 1 straight-forward. -2 without condiment. (-नम् ind.) plainly, in a straight-forward or honest manner. -व्यथ, -न a. 1 free from pain. -2 quiet, calm. -व्यथनम् a hole; छिद्रं निर्व्यथनम् Ak. -व्यपेक्ष a. indifferent to, regardless of; मृग्यश्च दर्भाङ्कुरनिर्व्यपेक्षास्तवागतिज्ञं समबोधयन् माम् R.13.25;14.39. -व्यलीक a. 1 not hurting or offending. -2 without pain. -3 pleased, doing anything willingly. -4 sincere, genuine, undissembling. -व्यवधान a. (ground) uncovered, bare. -व्यवश्थ a. moving hither and thither. -व्यसन a. free from bad inclination. -व्याकुल a. calm. -व्याघ्र a. not haunted or infested by tigers. -व्याज a. 1 candid, upright, honest, plain. -2 without fraud, true, genuine. -3 got by heroism or daring deeds (not by fraud or cowardly conduct); अशस्त्रपूतनिर्व्याजम् (महामांसम्) Māl.5.12. (v. l.) -4 not hypocritical; धर्मस्य निर्व्याजता (विभूषणम्) Bh.2.82. (-जम् ind.) plainly, honestly, candidly; निर्व्याजमालिङ्गितः Amaru.85. -व्याजीकृत a. made plain, freed from deceit. -व्यापार a. 1 without employment or business, free from occupation; तं दधन्मैथिलीकण्ठनिर्व्यापारेण बाहुना R.15.56. -2 motionless; U.6. -व्यावृत्ति a. not involving any return (to worldly existence). -व्रण a. 1 unhurt, without wounds. -2 without rents. -व्रत a. not observing vows. -व्रीड a. shameless, impudent. -हिमम् cessation of winter. -हेति a. weaponless. -हेतु a. causeless, having no cause or reason. -ह्रीक a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold, daring.
pakṣaḥ पक्षः [पक्ष्-अच्] 1 A wing, pinion; अद्यापि पक्षावपि नोद्भिद्येते K.347; so उद्भिन्नपक्षः fledged; पक्षच्छेदोद्यतं शक्रम् R.4.4;3.42. -2 The feather or feathers on each side of an arrow; अनुसंततिपातिनः पटुत्वं दधतः शुद्धिभृतो गृहीतपक्षाः (शराः) Śi.2.11. -3 The flank or side of a man or animal, the shoulder; स्तम्बेरमा उभयपक्षविनीतनिद्राः R.5.72. -4 The side of anything, a flank; वितत्य पक्षद्वयमायतम् Ki.14.31. -5 The wing or flank of an army; सुपर्णपक्षानिलनुन्नपक्षम् (राक्षसराजसैन्यम्) Rām.7.6. 69. -6 The half of anything. -7 The half of a lunar month, a fortnight (comprising 15 days; there are two such pakṣas, शुक्लपक्षः the bright or light half, and कृष्ण-तमिस्र-पक्षः the dark half); तमिस्रपक्षे$पि सह प्रियाभि- र्ज्योत्स्नावतो निर्विशति प्रदोषान् R.6.34; Ms.1.66; Y.3.5; सीमा वृद्धिं समायाति शुक्लपक्ष इवोडुराट् Pt.1.92; Mb.3.26.5. -8 (a) A party in general, faction, side; प्रमुदितवरपक्षम् R.6.86; Śi.2.117; तुल्यो मित्रारिपक्षयोः Bg.14.25; R.6. 53;18.17. (b) A family, race; रूपान्वितां पक्षवतीं मनोज्ञां भार्यामयत्नोपगतां लभेत् सः Mb.13.57.4; किं क्रन्दसि दुराक्रन्द स्वपक्षक्षयकारक Pt.4.29. -9 One belonging to any party, a follower, partisan; विष्णुपक्षैः प्रतिच्छन्नैर्न भिद्येतास्य धीर्यथा Bhāg.7.5.7; शत्रुपक्षो भवान् H.1. -1 A class, multitude, host, any number of adherents; as अरि˚, मित्र˚. -11 One side of an argument, an alternative, one of two cases; पक्षे 'in the other case, on the other hand' पूर्व एवाभवत् पक्षस्तस्मिन्नाभवदुत्तरः R.4.1;14.34. cf. पूर्वपक्ष and उत्तरपक्ष. -12 A case or supposition in general; as in पक्षान्तरे. -13 A point under discussion, a thesis, an argument to be maintained. -14 The subject of a syllogism or conclusion (the minor term); संदिग्धसाध्य- वान् पक्षः T. S., दधतः शुद्धिभृतो गृहीतपक्षाः Śi.2.11 (where it means 'a feather' also). -15 A symbolical expression for the number 'two'. -16 A bird. -17 A state, condition. -18 The body. -19 A limb of the body. -2 A royal elephant. -21 An army; Mb.2. 16.7. -22 A wall. -23 Opposition. -24 Rejoinder, reply. -25 A mass, quantity (when in composition with words meaning 'hair'); केशपक्षः; cf. हस्त. -26 Place, position. -27 A view, notion, idea. -28 The side of an equation in a primary division. -29 The ash-pit of a fire-place. -3 Proximity, neighbourhood. -31 A bracket. -32 Purity, perfection. -33 A house. -34 The sun (according to Sāyaṇa); सा पक्ष्या नव्यमायु- र्दधाना Rv.3.53.16. -Comp. -अध्यायः logic, casuistry. -अन्तः 1 the 15th day of either half month, i. e. the day of new or full moon. -2 the end of the wings of an army. -अन्तरम् 1 another side. -2 a different side or view of an argument. -3 another supposition. -अवसरः = पक्षान्त q. v. -आघातः 1 palsy or paralysis of one side, hemiplegia. -2 refutation of an argument. -आभासः 1 a fallacious argument. -2 a false plaint. -आहारः eating food only once in a fortnight; सुपुत्रदारो हि मुनिः पक्षाहारो बभूव ह Mb.3.26.5. -उद्ग्राहिन् a. showing partiality, adopting a side. -गम a. flying. -ग्रहणम् choosing a party; taking the side of. -घातः = -पक्षाघातः see above. -घ्न a. (a house) wanting a side. -चरः 1 an elephant strayed from the herd. -2 the moon. -3 an attendant. -छिद् m. an epithet of Indra (clipper of the wings of mountains); क्रुद्धे$पि पक्षच्छिदि वृत्रशत्रौ Ku.1.2. -जः the moon. -द्वयम् 1 both sides of an argument. -2 'a couple of fortnights', i. e. a month. -द्वारम् a sidedoor, private entrance. -धर a. 1 winged. -2 adhering to the party of one, siding with any one. (-रः) 1 a bird. -2 the moon. -3 a partisan. -4 an elephant strayed from the herd. -नाडी a quill. -निक्षेपः the placing on the side of, counting among. -पातः 1 siding with any one; यद् दुर्योधनपक्षपातसदृशं कर्म Ve.3.5. -2 liking, desire, love, affection (for a thing); भवन्ति भव्येषु हि पक्षपाताः Ki.3.12; U.5.17; रिपुपक्षे बद्धः पक्षपातः Mu.1. -3 attachment to a party, partisanship, partiality; पक्षपातमत्र देवी मन्यते M.1; सत्यं जना वच्मि न पक्षपातात् Bh.1.47. -4 falling of wings, the moulting of birds. -5 a partisan. -पातिता, -त्वम् 1 partisanship, adherence to a side or party. -2 friendship, fellowship. -3 movement of the wings; न परं पथि पक्षपातिता$नवलम्बे किमु मादृशे$पि सा N.2.52. -पातिन् a. or subst. 1 siding with, adhering to, a party, attached or partial (to a particular cause); पक्षपातिनो देवा अपि पाण्डवानाम् Ve.3. -2 sympathizing; Ve.3. -3 a follower, partisan, friend; यः सुरपक्षपाती V.1. -पालिः a private door. -पुटः a wing. -पोषण a. factious, promoting quarrels. -प्राप्तानुवादः a case of the description of a thing which admits of two alternatives (cf. Daṇḍaviveka G. O. S.52, p.21.). -बिन्दुः a heron. -भागः 1 the side or flank. -2 especially, the flank of an elephant. -भुक्ति f. the course traversed by the sun in a fortnight. -भेदः a. distinction between two sides of an argument. -रात्रिः a kind of play or sport. -वञ्चितकम् a particular position of hands in dancing. -वधः paralysis of one side. -मूलम् the root of a wing; उल्लास- पल्लवितकोमलपक्षमूलाः (चकोराः) Bv.2.99. -रचना forming a party or faction. -वादः 1 an exparte statement. -2 stating a case, expression of opinion. -वाहनः a bird. -व्यापिन् a. 1 embracing the whole of an argument. -2 pervading the minor term. -हत a. paralysed on one side; दृष्ट्वा कुणीन् पक्षहतान् Mb.12.18.39. -हरः 1 a bird. -2 a recreant, traitor. -होमः 1 a sacrificial rite lasting for a fortnight. -2 a rite to be performed every fortnight.
pad पद् m. [पद्-क्विप्] (This word has no forms for the first five inflections; it is optionally substituted for पद after acc. dual) 1 A foot. -2 A quarter, a fourth part (as of a stanza). -Comp. -काषिन् a. 1 rubbing or scratching the feet. -2 going on foot, pedestrian. (-m.) a footman; पत्काषिणस्तीर्थजला$र्थमाशु Bk.3.4. -गः (पद्गः) a foot-soldier. -जः (-ज्जः) 1 a footman. -2 a Śūdra; cf. पद्भ्यां शूद्रो अजायत. -नद्धा, -नध्री a shoe, boot. -निष्कः one quarter of a Niṣka. -रथः (पद्रथः) a footsoldier, footman; त्वं पद्रथानां किल यूथपाधिपः Bhāg.3.18. 12. -शब्दः noise of footsteps. -हतिः, -ती f. (-पद्धतिः, -ती) 1 a way, path, road, course (fig. also); इयं हि रघुसिंहानां वीरचारित्रपद्धतिः U.5.22; R.3.46;6.55;11.87; कविप्रथमपद्धतिम् 15.33; 'the first way shown to poets'. -2 a line, row, range. -3 a surname, title or epithet, a word denoting caste or profession in compounds which are used as proper names; e. g. गुप्त, दास, दत्त &c. -4 N. of a class of writings. -हिमम् (पद्धिमम्) coldness of the feet.
padam पदम् [पद्-अच्] 1 A foot (said to be m. also in this sense); पदेन on foot; शिखरिषु पदं न्यस्य Me.13; अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि R.9.74 'set foot on (follow) a wrong road'; 3.5;12.52; पदं हि सर्वत्र गुणैर्निधीयते 3.62 'good qualities set foot everywhere' i. e. command notice or make themselves felt; जनपदे न गदः पदमादधौ 9.4. 'no disease stepped into the country'; यदवधि न पदं दधाति चित्ते Bv.2.14; पदं कृ (a) to set foot in, on or over (lit.); शान्ते करिष्यसि पदं पुनराश्रमे$स्मिन् Ś.4.2. (b) to enter upon or into, take possession of, occupy (fig.); कृतं वपुषि नवयौवनेन पदम् K.137; कृतं हि मे कुतूहलेन प्रश्नाशया हृदि पदम् 133; so Ku.5.21; Pt.1.24; कृत्वा पदं नो गले Mu.3.26 'in defiance of us'; (lit. planting his foot on our neck); मूर्ध्नि पदं कृ 'to mount on the head of', 'to humble'; पदं मूर्ध्नि समाधत्ते केसरी मत्तदन्तिनः Pt.1.327; आकृतिविशेषेष्वादरः पदं करोति M.1 'good forms attract attention (command respect); जने सखी पदं कारिता Ś.4; 'made to have dealings with (to confide in)'; धर्मेण शर्वे पार्वतीं प्रति पदं कारिते Ku.6.14. -2 A step, pace, stride; तन्वी स्थिता कतिचिदेव पदानि गत्वा Ś.2.13; पदे पदे 'at every step'; अक्षमालामदत्त्वा पदात् पदमपि न गन्तव्यम् or चलितव्यम् 'do not move even a step' &c.; पितुः पदं मध्यममुत्पतन्ती V.1.19 'the middle pace or stride of Viṣṇu.'; i. e. the sky (for mythologically speaking, the earth, sky, and lower world are considered as the three paces of Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf incarnation वामनावतार); so अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः पदं विमानेन विगाहमानः R.13.1. -3 A foot-step, footprint, foot-mark; पदपङ्क्तिः Ś.3.7; or पदावली foot-prints; पदमनुविधेयं च महताम् Bh.2.28 'the foot-steps of the great must be followed'; पदैगृर्ह्यते चौरः Y.2.286. -4 A trace, mark, impression, vestige; रतिवलयपदाङ्के चापमासज्य कण्ठे Ku.2.64; Me.37,98; M.3. -5 A place, position, station; अधो$धः पदम् Bh.2.1; आत्मा परिश्रमस्य पदमुपनीतः Ś.1, 'brought to the point of or exposed to trouble'; तदलब्धपदं हृदि शोकघने R.8.91, 'found no place in (left no impression on) the heart'; अपदे शङ्कितो$स्मि M.1, 'my doubts were out of place', i. e. groundless; कृशकुटुम्बेषु लोभः पदमधत्त Dk.162; Ku.6.72;3.4; R.2.5;9.82; कृतपदं स्तनयुगलम् U.6.35, 'brought into relief or bursting forth'. -6 Dignity, rank, office, station or position; भगवत्या प्रश्निकपदमध्यासितव्यम् M.1; यान्त्येवं गृहिणीपदं युवतयः Ś.4.18, 'attain to the rank or position, &c.; स्थिता गृहिणीपदे 4.19; so सचिव˚, राज˚ &c. -7 Cause, subject, occasion, thing, matter, business, affair; व्यवहारपदं हि तत् Y.2.5; 'occasion or matter of dispute, title of law, judicial proceeding'; Ms.8.7; सतां हि सन्देहपदेषु वस्तुषु Ś.1.22; वाञ्छितफलप्राप्तेः पदम् Ratn.1.6. -8 Abode, object, receptacle; पदं दृशः स्याः कथमीश मादृशाम् Śi.1.37; 15.22; अगरीयान्न पदं नृपश्रियः Ki.2.14; अविवेकः परमापदां पदम् 2.3; के वा न स्युः परिभवपदं निष्फलारम्भयत्नाः Me.56; संपदः पदमापदाम् H.4.65. -9 A quarter or line of a stanza, verse; विरचितपदम् (गेयम्) Me.88,15; M.5.2; Ś.3.14. -1 A complete or inflected word; सुप्तिडन्तं पदम् P.I. 4.14. वर्णाः पदं प्रयोगार्हानन्वितैकार्थबोधकाः S. D.9; R.8.77; Ku.4.9. -11 A name for the base of nouns before all consonantal case-terminations except nom. singular. -12 Detachment of the Vedic words from one another, separation of a Vedic text into its several constituent words; वेदैः साङ्गपदक्रमोपनिषदैर्गायन्ति यं सामगाः Bhāg.12.13.1. -13 A pretext; अनिभृतपदपातमापपात प्रियमिति कोपपदेन कापि सख्या Śi.7.14. -14 A sqare root. -15 A part, portion or division (as of a sentence); as त्रिपदा गायत्री. -16 A measure of length. -17 Protection, preservation; ते विंशतिपदे यत्ताः संप्रहारं प्रचक्रिरे Mb.7.36.13. -18 A square or house on a chessboard; अष्टापदपदालेख्यैः Rām. -19 A quadrant. -2 The last of a series. -21 A plot of ground. -22 (In Arith.) Any one in a set of numbers the sum of which is required. -23 A coin; माता पुत्रः पिता भ्राता भार्या मित्रजनस्तथा । अष्टापदपदस्थाने दक्षमुद्रेव लक्ष्यते ॥ Mb.12.298.4. (com. अष्टापदपदं सुवर्णकार्षापणः). -24 A way, road; षट्पदं नवसंख्यानं निवेशं चक्रिरे द्विजाः Mb.14.64.1. -25 Retribution (फल); ईहोपरमयोर्नॄणां पदान्यध्यात्मचक्षुषा Bhāg.7.13.2. -दः A ray of light. -Comp. -अङ्कः, चिह्नम् a foot-print. -अङ्गुष्ठः the great toe, thumb (of the foot). -अध्ययनम् study of the Vedas according to the पदपाठ q. v. -अनुग a. 1 following closely, being at the heels of (gen.). -2 suitable, agreeable to. (-गः) a follower, companion; एतान्निहत्य समरे ये चृ तस्य पदानुगाः । तांश्च सर्वान् विनिर्जित्य सहितान् सनराधिपान् ॥ Mb.3.12.6. -अनुरागः 1 a servant. -2 an army. -अनुशासनम् the science of words, grammar. -अनुषङ्गः anything added to a pada. -अन्तः 1 the end of a line of a stanza. -2 the end of a word. -अन्तरम् another step, the interval of one step; पदान्तरे स्थित्वा Ś.1; अ˚ closely, without a pause. -अन्त्य a. final. -अब्जम्, -अम्भोजम्, -अरविन्दम्, -कमलम्, -पङ्कजम्, -पद्मम् a lotus-like foot. -अभिलाषिन् a. wishing for an office. -अर्थः 1 the meaning of a word. -2 a thing or object. -3 a head or topic (of which the Naiyāyikas enumerate 16 subheads). -4 anything which can be named (अभिधेय), a category or predicament; the number of such categories, according to the Vaiśeṣikas, is seven; according to the Sāṅkhyas, twentyfive (or twenty-seven according to the followers of Patañjali), and two according to the Vedāntins. -5 the sense of another word which is not expressed but has to be supplied. ˚अनुसमयः preforming one detail with reference to all things or persons concerned; then doing the second, then the third and so on (see अनुसमय). Hence पदार्थानुसमयन्याय means: A rule of interpretation according to which, when several details are to be performed with reference to several things or persons, they should be done each to each at a time. -आघातः 'a stroke with the foot', a kick. -आजिः a foot-soldier. -आदिः 1 the beginning of the line of a stanza. -2 the beginning or first letter of a word. ˚विद् m. a bad student (knowing only the beginnings of stanzas). -आयता a shoe. -आवली a series of words, a continued arrangement of words or lines; (काव्यस्य) शरीरं तावदिष्टार्थव्यवच्छिन्नापदावली Kāv. 1.1; मधुरकोमलकान्तपदावलीं शृणु तदा जयदेवसरस्वतीम् Gīt.1. -आसनम् a foot-stool. -आहत a. kicked. -कमलम् lotus-like foot. -कारः, -कृत् m. the author of the Padapāṭha. -क्रमः 1 walking, a pace; न चित्रमुच्चैः श्रवसः पदक्रमम् (प्रशशंस) Śi.1.52. -2 a particular method of reciting the Veda; cf. क्रम. -गः a foot-soldier. -गतिः f. gait, manner of going. -गोत्रम् a family supposed to preside over a particular class of words. -छेदः, -विच्छेदः, -विग्रहः separation of words, resolution of a sentence into its constituent parts. -च्युत a. dismissed from office, deposed. -जातम् class or group of words. -दार्ढ्यम् fixedness or security of text. -न्यासः 1 stepping, tread, step. -2 a foot-mark. -3 position of the feet in a particular attitude. -4 the plant गोक्षुर. -5 writing down verses or quarters of verses; अप्रगल्भाः पदन्यासे जननीरागहेतवः । सन्त्येके बहुलालापाः कवयो बालका इव ॥ Trivikramabhaṭṭa. -पङ्क्तिः f. 1 a line of foot-steps; द्वारे$स्य पाण्डुसिकते पदपङ्क्तिर्दृश्यते$भिनवा Ś.3.7; V.4.6. -2 a line or arrangement of words, a series of words; कृतपदपङ्क्तिरथर्वणेव वेदः Ki.1.1. -3 an iṣtakā or sacred brick. -4 a kind of metre. -पाठः an arrangement of the Vedic text in which each word is written and pronounced in its original form and independently of phonetic changes (opp. संहितापाठ). -पातः, विक्षेपः a step, pace (of a horse also). -बन्धः a foot-step, step. -भञ्जनम् analysis of words, etymology. -भञ्जिका 1 a commentary which separates the words and analyses the compounds of a passage. -2 a register, journal. -3 a calendar. -भ्रंशः dismissal from office. -माला a magical formula. -योपनम् a fetter for the feet (Ved.). -रचना 1 arrangement of words. -2 literary composition. -वायः Ved. a leader. -विष्टम्भः a step, footstep. -वृत्तिः f. the hiatus between two words. -वेदिन् a linguist, philologist. -व्याख्यानम् interpretation of words. -शास्त्रम् the science of separately written words. -संघातः (टः) 1 connecting the words which are separated in the संहिता. -2 a writer, an annotator. -संधिः m. the euphonic combination of words. -स्थ a. 1 going on foot. -2 being in a position of authority or high rank. -स्थानम् a foot-print.
para पर a. [पॄ-भावे-अप्, कर्तरि अच्-वा] (Declined optionally like a pronoun in nom. voc. pl., and abl. and loc. sing. when it denotes relative position) 1 Other, different, another; see पर m also. -2 Distant, removed, remote; अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः Bg.4.4. -3 Beyond, further, on the other side of; म्लेच्छदेशस्ततः परः Ms.2.23;7.158. -4 Subsequent, following, next to, future, after (usually with abl.); बाल्यात् परामिव दशां मदनो$ध्युवास R.5.63; Ku.1.31. -5 Higher, superior; सिकतात्वादपि परां प्रपेदे परमाणुताम् R.15.22; इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहु- रिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः । मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ॥ Bg.3.42. -9 Highest, greatest, most distinguished, pre-eminent, chief, best, principal; क्षत्रात् परं नास्ति Bṛi. Up.1.4.11. न त्वया द्रष्टव्यानां परं दृष्टम् Ś.2; Ki.5.18; परतो$पि परः Ku.2.14 'higher than the highest'; 6.19; Ś7.27. -7 Having as a following letter or sound, followed by (in comp.). -8 Alien, estranged, stranger. -9 Hostile, inimical, adverse, -1 Exceeding, having a surplus or remainder, left over; as in परं शतम् 'exceeding or more than a hundred. -11 Final, last. -12 (At the end of comp.) Having anything as the highest object, absorbed or engrossed in, intent on, solely devoted to, wholly engaged or occupied in; परिचर्यापरः R.1.91; so ध्यानपर, शोकपर, दैवपर, चिन्तापर &c. -रः 1 Another person, a stranger, foreigner; oft. in pl. in this sense; यतः परेषां गुणग्रहीतासि Bv.1.9; Śi.2.74; see एक, अन्य also. -2 A foe, an enemy, adversary; उत्तिष्ठमानस्तु परो नोपेक्ष्यः पथ्यभिच्छता Śi.2.1; Pt.2.158; R.3.21. -3 The Almighty; तावदध्यासते लोकं परस्य परचिन्तकाः Bhāg.3.32.8. -रम् 1 The highest point or pitch, culminating point. -2 The Supreme Sprit; तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत् परम् Bg.5.16. -3 Final beatitude; असक्तो ह्याचरन् कर्म परमाप्नोति पूरुषः Bg.3.19. -4 The secondary meaning of a word. -5 (In logic) One of the two kinds of सामान्य or generality of notion; more extensive kind, (comprehending more objects); e. g. पृथ्वी is पर with respect to a घट). -6 The other or future world; परासक्ते च वस्तस्मिन् कथमासीन्मनस्तदा Mb.6.14.55. Note-The acc., instr. and loc. singulars of पर are used adverbially; e. g. (a) परम् 1 beyond, over, out of (with abl.); वर्त्मनः परम् R.1.17. -2 after (with abl.); अस्मात् परम् Ś.6.24; R.1.66;3.39; Me.12; भाग्यायत्त- मतः परम् Ś.4.17; ततः परम् &c. -3 thereupon, thereafter. -4 but, however. -5 otherwise. -6 in a high degree, excessively, very much, completely, quite; परं दुःखितो$स्मि &c. -7 most willingly. -8 only. -9 at the utmost. (b) परेण 1 farther, beyond, more than; किं वा मृत्योः परेण विधास्यति Māl.2.2. -2 afterwards; मयि तु कृतनिधाने किं विदध्याः परेण Mv.2.49. -3 after (with abl.) स्तन्यत्यागात् परेण U.2.7. (c) परे 1 afterwards, thereupon; अथ तेन दशाहतः परे R.8.73. -2 in future. -Comp. -अङ्गम् the hinder part of the body. -अङ्गदः an epithet of Śiva. -अणुः See परमाणु; Bhāg.1.14.11. -अदनः a horse found in the country of Persia or Arabia. -अधिकारचर्चा officiousness, meddlesomeness. -अधीन a. dependent on another, subject, subservient; अन्नमेषां पराधीनं देयं स्याद्भिन्नभाजने Ms.1.54,83; H.1.119. -अन्तः final death. (-ताः) m. (pl.) N. of a people. -अन्तकः an epithet of Śiva. -2 a frontier. -अन्तकालः the time of death; ते ब्रह्मलोकेषु परान्तकाले परामृताः परिमुच्यन्ति सर्वे Muṇḍ.3.2.6. -अन्न a. living or subsisting on another's food. (-न्नम्) the food of another; परगृहललिताः परान्नपुष्टाः Mk.4.28. ˚परिपुष्टता being fed with the food of others; Y.3.241. ˚भोजिन् a. subsisting on the food of others; रोगी चिरप्रवासी परान्नभोजी परावसथशायी । यज्जीवति तन्मरणं यन्मरणं सो$स्य विश्रामः ॥ H.1.12. -अपर a. 1 far and near, remote and proximate. -2 prior and posterior. -3 before and beyond, earlier and later. -4 higher and lower, best and worst. (-रः) a Guru of an intermediate class. (-रम्) (in logic) a property intermediate between the greatest and smallest numbers, a species (as existing between the genus and individual); e. g. पृथ्वी which is पर with _x001F_1respect to a घट is अपर with respect to द्रव्य; द्रव्यत्वादिक- जातिस्तु परापरतयोच्यते Bhāṣā. P.8. -अभिध्यानम् self-conceit; high opinion for self or body (देहाभिमान); स्वयं पराभिध्यानेन विभ्रंशितस्मृतिः Bhāg.5.14.1. -अमृतम् rain. -अयण (अयन) a. 1 attached or devoted to, adhering to. -2 depending on, subject to. -3 intent on, solely devoted to or absorbed in (at the end of comp.); प्रभुर्धनपरायणः Bh.2.56; so मोह˚; अथ मोहपरायणा सती विवशा कामवधूर्विबोधिता Ku.4.1; अग्निहोत्र˚ &c. -4 connected with. -5 being a protector (त्राता); अबर्हाश्चरणैर्हीनाः पूर्वेषां वः परायणाः Mb.1.23.4. -6 leading or conducive to. -(णम्) 1 the principal or highest objest, chief aim, best or last resort; एतत् परायणम् Praśna Up.1.1; तपसश्च परायणम् Rām.1.21.1; Mb.12.179.12. -2 essence, sum. -3 Ved. going away, departure, exit. -4 firm devotion. -5 a universal medicine, panacea. -6 a religious order. -अर्थ a. 1 having another aim or meaning. -2 intended or designed for another, done for another. (-र्थः) 1 the highest interest or advantage. -2 the interest of another (opp. स्वार्थ); स्वार्थो यस्य परार्थ एव स पुमानेकः सतामग्रणीः Subhāṣ.; R.1.29. -3 the chief or highest meaning. -4 the highest object (i.e. sexual intercourse). -5 the supreme good (मोक्ष); ज्ञात्वा प्रजहि कालेन परार्थमनुदृश्य च Mb.12.288.9. -6 Something else. Hence परार्थता or परार्थत्व means 'being subsidiary to something else; परार्थता हि गुणभावः ŚB. on MS.4.3. -7 an object which is meant for another's use (Sāṅ. Phil.); सङ्घातपरार्थत्वात् त्रिगुणादिविपर्ययादधिष्ठानात् Sāṅ. K.17. ˚वादिन् a. speaking for another; mediator, substitute. -अर्थिन् a. striving for the supreme good. (-र्थम् -र्थे) ind. for the sake of another. -अर्धम् 1 the other part (opp. पूर्वार्ध); the latter half; दिनस्य पूर्वार्धपरार्धभिन्ना छायेव मैत्री खलसज्जनानाम् Bh.2.6. -2 a particular high number; i. e. 1,,,,,; एकत्वादिपरार्धपर्यन्ता संख्या T. S. -अर्धक a. One half of anything. -अर्ध्य a. 1 being on the farther side or half. -2 most distant in number; हेमन्तो वसन्तात् परार्ध्यः Śat. Br. -3 most excellent, best, most exalted, highly esteemed, highest, supreme; R.3.27;8.27;1.64;16;39; आबद्धप्रचुरपरार्ध्यकिंकिणीकः Śi.8.45. -4 most costly; Śi.4.11; श्रियं परार्ध्यां विदधद् विधातृभिः Bu. Ch.1.1. -5 most beautiful or lovely, finest; R.6.4; परस्परस्पर्धिपरार्ध्यरूपाः पौरस्त्रियो यत्र विधाय वेधाः Śi.3.58. -6 Divine: असावाटीत् सङ्ख्ये परार्ध्यवत् Bk.9.64. (-र्ध्यम्) 1 a maximum. -2 an infinite number. -अवर a. 1 far and near; परावराणां स्रष्टारं पुराणं परमव्ययम् Mb.1.1.23. -2 earlier and later. -3 prior and posterior or subsequent. -4 higher and lower. -5 traditional; पुनाति पङ्क्तिं वंश्यांश्च सप्त सप्त परावरान् Ms.1. 15. -6 all-including; परावरज्ञो$सि परावरस्त्वम् Mb.3.232. 18. (-रा) descendants. (-रम्) 1 cause and effect. -2 the whole extent of an idea. -3 the universe. -4 totality. ˚ज्ञ, ˚दृश् a. knowing both the past and the future; परावरज्ञो ब्रह्मर्षिः Mb.1.6.5. -अवसथ- शायिन् a. sleeping in another's house; H.1.12. -अहः the next day. -अह्णः the afternoon, the latter part of the day. -आगमः attack of an enemy. -आचित a. fostered or brought up by another. (-तः) a slave. -आत्मन् m. the Supreme Spirit. -आयत्त a. 1 dependent on another, subject, subservient; परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथमिव रसं वेत्तु पुरुषः Mu.3.4. -2 Wholly subdued or overwhelmed by. -आयुस् m. an epithet of Brahman; नाहं परायुर्ऋषयो न मरीचिमुख्या जानन्ति यद्विरचितं खलु सत्त्वसर्गाः Bhāg.8.1.12. -आविद्धः 1 an epithet of Kubera. -2 of Viṣṇu. -आश्रय a. dependent upon another. (-यः) 1 dependence upon another. -2 the retreat of enemies. (-या) a plant growing on another tree. -आसङ्गः dependence upon another. -आस्कन्दिन् m. a thief, robber. -इतर a. 1 other than inimical; i. e. friendly, kind. -2 one's own; विधाय रक्षान् परितः परेतरान् Ki.1.14. -ईशः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 of Viṣṇu. -इष्टिः N. of Brahman. -इष्टुका a cow which has often calved. -उत्कर्षः another's prosperity. -उद्वहः the Indian cuckoo. -उपकारः doing good to others, benevolence, beneficence, charity; परोपकारः पुण्याय पापाय परपीडनम्. -उपकारिन् a. benevolent, kind to others. -उपजापः causing dissension among enemies; परोपजापात् संरक्षेत् प्रधानान् क्षुद्रकान् अपि Kau. A.1.13. -उपदेशः advising others; परोपदेशे पाण्डित्यम्. -उपरुद्ध a. besieged by an enemy. -उपसर्पणम् approaching another; begging. -ऊढा another's wife. -एधित a. fostered or brought up by another. (-तः) 1 a servant. -2 the (Indian) cuckoo. -कर्मन् n. service for another. ˚निरतः a servant. -कलत्रम् another's wife. ˚अभिगमनम् adultery; वरं क्लैब्यं पुसां न च परकलत्राभिगमनम् H.1.116. -कायप्रवेशनम् entering another's body (a supernatural art). -कारः The deeds of the enemy; राज्ञः समीपे परकारमाह प्रज्ञापनैषा विबि- धोपदिष्टा Kau. A.2.1. -कार्यम् another's business or work. ˚निरतः 1 a benevolent man. -2 a slave, servant. -काल a. relating to a later time, mentioned later. -कृतिः an example or precedent, a passage descriptive of the doings of men; MS.6.7.26. -क्रमः doubling the second letter of a conjunction of consonants. -क्रान्तिः f. inclination of the ecliptic. -क्षेत्रम् 1 another's body. -2 another's field; ये$क्षेत्रिणो बीजवन्तः परक्षेत्रप्रवापिणः । ते वै सस्यस्य जातस्य न लभन्ते फलं क्वचित् ॥ Ms.9.49. -3 another's wife; तौ तु जातौ परक्षेत्रे Ms.3.175. -गामिन् a. 1 being with another. -2 relating to another. -3 beneficial to another. -गुण a. beneficial to another. (-णः) the virtue of another; परगुणपरमाणून् पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यम् Bh.2.78. -ग्रन्थिः joint (as of a finger); an articulation. -ग्लानिः f. subjugation of an enemy; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती Śi.2.3. -चक्रम् 1 the army of an enemy. -2 invasion by an enemy, one of the six itis q. v. -3 a hostile prince. -छन्द a. dependent. (-दः) 1 the will of another. -2 dependence. ˚अनुवर्तनम् following the will of another. -छिद्रम् a weak or vulnerable point of another, a defect in another. -ज a. 1 stranger. -2 coming from a foe. -3 inferior. -जनः a stranger (opp. स्वजन); शक्तः परजने दाता Ms.11.9. -जन्मन् n. a future birth. -जात a. 1 born of another. -2 dependent on another for livelihood. (-तः) a servant. -जित a. 1 conquered by another. -2 maintained by another. (-तः) the (Indian) cuckoo. -तन्त्र a. dependent on another, dependent, subservient. -तन्त्रम् (a common group of) subsidiaries belonging to another; जैमिनेः परतन्त्रापत्तेः स्वतन्त्रप्रतिषेधः स्यात् MS.12.1.8. (see तन्त्रम्). -तर्ककः a suppliant, beggar; Dānasāgara, Bibliotheca Indica, 274, Fascicule 1, p.15; also परतर्कुक. -तल्पगामिन् m. One who approaches another man's wife. -तार्थिकः The adherent of another sect. -दाराः m. (pl.) another's wife; ˚अभिगमनम्, ˚अभिमर्षः Adultery. -दारिन् m. an adulterer. -दुःखम् the sorrow or grief of another; विरलः परदुःखदुःखितो जनः; महदपि परदुःखं शीतलं सम्यगाहुः V.4.13. -देवता the Supreme Being. -देशः a hostile or foreign country. -देशिन् m. a foreigner. -द्रोहिन्, -द्वेषिन् a. hating others, hostile, inimical. -धनम् another's property. -धर्मः 1 the religion of another; स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः Bg.3.35. -2 another's duty or business. -3 the duties of another caste; परधर्मेण जीवन् हि सद्यः पतति जातितः Ms.1.97. -ध्यानम् absolute meditation or contemplation; ध्येये मनो निश्चलतां याति ध्येयं विचिन्तयत् । यत् तद् ध्यानं परं प्रोक्तं मुनिभिर्ध्यानचिन्तकैः ॥ Garuḍa P. -निपातः the irregular posteriority of a word in a compound; i. e. भूतपूर्वः where the sense is पूर्वं भूतः; so राजदन्तः, अग्न्याहितः &c. -निर्वाणम् the highest निर्वाण; (Buddh.). -पक्षः the side or party of an enemy. -पदम् 1 the highest position, eminence. -2 final beatitude. -परिग्रह a. see पराधीन; स्ववीर्यविजये युक्ता नैते पर- परिग्रहाः Mb.7.144.22. -हः another's property (as wife &c); यथा बीजं न वप्तव्यं पुंसा परपरिग्रहे Ms.9.42-3. -परिभवः humiliation or injury suffered from others. -पाकनिवृत्त a. One who does not depend on others for his sustenance and performs the पञ्चयज्ञs faultlessly and takes food in his own house. -पाकरत a. one who depends upon others for his sustenance but performs the usual ceremonies before cooking; पञ्चयज्ञान् स्वयं कृत्वा परान्नमुपजीवति । सततं प्रातरुत्थाय परपाकरतस्तु सः ॥ -पाकरुचिः having a liking for others' food; परपाकरुचिर्न स्यादनिन्द्या- मन्त्रणादृते Y.1.112. -पिण्डः another's food, food given by another. ˚अद् a., ˚भक्षक a. one who eats another's food or one who feeds at the cost of another; यादृशो$हं परपिण्डभक्षको भूतः Mk.8.25/26; (-m.) a servant. ˚रत a. feeding upon another's food; परपिण्डरता मनुष्याः Bh. -पुरञ्जयः a conqueror, hero. -पुरुषः 1 another man, a stranger. -2 the Supreme Spirit, Viṣṇu. -3 the husband of another woman. -पुष्ट a. 1 fed or nourished by another. -2 Stranger. (-ष्टः) the (Indian) cuckoo. ˚महोत्सवः the mango tree. -पुष्टा 1 the (Indian) cuckoo. -2 a parasitical plant. -3 a harlot, prostitute. -पूर्वा a woman who has or had a former husband; Ms.3.166; पतिं हित्वा$पकृष्टं स्वमुत्कृष्टं या निषेवते । निन्द्यैव सा भवेल्लोके परपूर्वेति चोच्यते Ms.5.163. -प्रतिनप्तृ m. son of the great grand son. -प्रपौत्रः (see प्रतिनप्तृ). -प्रेष्यः a servant, menial, slave. -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit; cf. लीने परे ब्रह्मणि Bh. परे ब्रह्मणि को$पि न लग्नः Śaṅkara (चर्पटपञ्जरिका 7). -भागः 1 another's share. -2 superior merit. -3 good fortune, prosperity. -4 (a) excellence, superority, supremacy; दुरधिगमः परभागो यावत् पुरुषेण पौरुषं न कृतम् Pt.1.33;5.34. (b) excess, abundance, height; स्थलकमलगञ्जनं मम हृदय- रञ्जनम् जनितरतिरङ्गपरभागम् Gīt.1; आभाति लब्धपरभागतया- धरोष्ठे R.5.7; Ku.7.17; Ki.5.3;8.42; Śi.7.33; 8.51;1.86;12.15. -5 the last part, remainder. -भाव a. loving another. -भावः the being second member in a compound. -भाषा a foreign tongue. -भुक्त a. enjoyed or used by another; परभुक्तां च कान्तां च यो भुङ्क्ते स नराधमः । स पच्यते कालसूत्रे यावच्चन्द्रदिवाकरौ ॥ Brav. P. -भूत a. following, subsequent (as words). -भृत् m. a crow (said to nourish the cuckoo). -भृत a. nourished by another. -भृतः, -ता the (Indian) cuckoo; (so called because she is nourished by another i. e. by a crow); प्रागन्तरिक्षगमनात्- स्वमपत्यजातमन्यैर्द्विजैः परभृताः खलु पोषयन्ति Ś.5.22; Ku.6.2; R.9.43; Ś.4.1. -भतम् 1 another's opinion. -2 different opinion or doctrine; heterodoxy. -मर्मज्ञ a. knowing the secrets of another. -मृत्युः a crow. -रमणः a married woman's gallant or paramour; स्वाधीने पररमणे धन्यास्तारुण्यफलभाजः Pt.1.18. -लोकः the next (or furture) world; परलोकनवप्रवासिनः प्रतिपत्स्ये पदवीमहं तव Ku. 4.1. ˚गमः, ˚यानम् death. ˚विधि funeral rites; परलोक- विधौ च माधव स्मरमुद्दिश्य (निबपेः सहकारमञ्जरीः) Ku.4.38. -वश, -वश्य a. subject to another, dependent, dependent on others; सर्वं परवशं दुःखं सर्वमात्मवशं सुखम्. -वाच्यम् a fault or a defect of another; प्रकटान्यपि नैपुणं महत् परवाच्यानि चिराय गोपितुम् Śi.16.3. -वाणिः 1 a judge. -2 a year. -3 N. of the peacock of Kārtikeya. -वादः 1 rumour, report. -2 Objection, controversy. -वादिन् m. a disputant, controversialist. -वेश्मन् n. the abode of the Supreme Being. -व्रतः an epithet of Dhṛitarāṣṭra. -शब्दः a word expressive of something else; परशब्दस्य परत्र वृत्तौ तद्वद् भावो गम्यते ŚB. on MS.7.2.1. -श्वस् ind. the day after tomorrow. -संगत a. 1 associated with another. -2 fighting with another. -संज्ञकः the soul. -सवर्ण a. homogeneous with a following letter (in gram.). -सात् ind. into the hands of another. ˚कृता a woman given in marriage. -सेवा service of another. -स्त्री another's wife. -स्वम् another's property; व्यावृता यत् परस्वेभ्यः श्रुतौ तस्करता स्थिता R.1.27; Ms.7.123. ˚हरणम् seizing another's property. -हन् a. killing enemies. -हित a. 1 benevolent. -2 profitable to another. -तम् the welfare of another; सन्तः स्वयं परहिताभिहिताभियोगाः Bh.
parākṛ पराकृ 8 U. To reject, disregard, slight, take no notice of; तां हनूमान् पराकुर्वन्नगमत् पुष्पकं प्रति Bk.8.5.
paryāyaḥ पर्यायः 1 Going or winding round, revolution. -2 Lapse, course, expiration (of time) कालपर्याययोगेन राजा मित्रसहो$भवत् Rām.7.65.17. -3 Regular recurrence or repetition. -4 Turn, succession, due or regular order; पर्यायसेवामुत्सृज्य Ku.2.36; Māl 9.32; Ms.4.87; Mu.3.27. -5 Method, arrangement. -6 Manner, way, method of proceeding. -7 A synonym, convertible term; पर्यायो निधनस्यायं निर्धनत्वं शरीरिणाम् Pt.2.99; पर्वतस्य पर्याया इमे &c. -8 An opportunity, occasion. -9 Creation, formation, preparation, manufacture; लोकपर्याय- वृत्तान्तं प्राज्ञो जानाति नेतरः Mb.12.174.3. -1 Comprehensiveness. -11 A strophe of a hymn. -12 Property, quality. -13 A means, stratagem (उपाय); न पर्यायो$स्ति यत् साम्यं त्वयि कुर्युर्विशांपते Mb.5.73.7. -14 End (अन्त); पर्यायकाले धर्मस्य प्राप्ते कलिरजायत Mb.5.74.12. -15 Contrariety, reverse; कालपर्यायमाज्ञाय मा स्म शोके मनः कृथाः Mb.6.2.5. -16 (In Rhet.) A figure of speech; see K. P.1; Chandr.5.18,19; S. D.733. [Note. पर्यायेण is often used adverbially in the sense of : 1 in turn or succession, by regular gradation, (opp. तन्त्रेण); पर्यायेण क्रियायामेवं दोषः । तन्त्रेण तु क्रियायां भवति क्वचित् संभवः । ŚB. on MS.6.2.2. -2 Occassionally, now and then; पर्यायेण हि दृश्यन्ते स्वप्नाः कामं शुभाशुभाः Ve.2.14]. -3 Alternately; मत्सदृशं किमपि पुरूपं मां च पर्यायेण निर्वर्ण- यन्ती Dk.5. -Comp. -अन्नम् food intended for another. -उक्तम् a figure of speech in Rhetoric; it is a circumlocutory or periphrastic way of speaking, when the fact to be intimated is expressed by a turn of speech or periphrasis; e. g. see Chandr.5.66. or S. D.733. -क्रमः order of succession. -च्युत a. supplanted, superseded. -वचनम्, -शब्दः a synonym. -वाचकः a. expressing a corresponding notion. -शयनम् alternate sleeping and watching. -सेवा service by rotation; पर्यायसेवामुत्सृज्य Ku.2.36.
पा I. 1 P. (पिबति, पीत; pass. पीयते) 1 To drink, quaff; पिब स्तन्यं पोत Bv.1.6; दुःशासनस्य रुधिरं न पिबाम्युरस्तः Ve.1.15; R.3.54; Ku.3.36; Māl.8.5; Bk.14.92; 15.6. -2 To kiss; पिबत्यसौ पाययते च सिन्धूः R.13.9; Ś. 1.23. -3 To drink in, inhale; पिबन् यशो मूर्तमिवाबभासे R. 7.63. -4 To drink in (with the eyes or ears); feast on, look at or listen to intently; समदुःखः पीयते नयनाभ्याम् V.1; निवातपद्मस्तिमितेन चक्षुषा नृपस्य कान्तं पिबतः सुताननम् R.3.17; 2.19,93;11.36;13.3; Me.16; Ku.7. -5 To absorb, drink or swallow up; (बाणैः) आयुर्देहातिगैः पीतं रुधिरं तु पतत्रिभिः R.12.48. -6 To drink intoxicating liquors. -Caus. (पाययति-ते) 1 To cause to drink, give to drink; अनन्यसामान्यकलत्रवृत्तिः पिबत्यसौ पाययते च सिन्धूः R.13.9; Bk.8.41,62. -2 To water. -Desid. (पिपासति) To wish to drink &c.; हालाहलं खलु पिपासति कौतुकेन Bv. 1.95. -II.2 P. (पाति, पात) 1 To protect, guard, keep, defend, preserve; (oft. with abl.); पर्याप्तो$सि प्रजाः पातुम् R.1.25; पान्तु त्वां......भूतेशस्य भुजङ्गवल्लिवलयस्रङ्नद्धजूटा जटाः Māl.1.2; जीवन् पुनः शश्वदुपप्लवेभ्यः प्रजाः प्रजानाथ पितेव पासि R.2.48. -2 To rule, govern; पान्तु पृथ्वीं...भूपाः Mk.1. 61. -3 To beware of. -4 Ved. To observe, notice. -5 To keep, observe, tend, take notice of. -Caus. (पालयति- ते) 1 To protect, guard, keep, preserve; कथं दुष्ठुः स्वयं धर्मे प्रजास्त्वं पालयिष्यसि Bk.6.132; Ms.9.18; R.9.2. -2 To rule, govern; तां पुरीं पालयामास Rām. -3 To observe, keep, adhere to, fulfil (as a vow or promise); पालितसङ्गराय R.13.65. -4 To bring up, nourish, maintain. -5 To wait for; अत्रोपविश्य मुहूर्तमार्यः पालयतु कृष्णागम- नम् Ve.1.
pūj पूज् 1 U. (पूजयति-ते, पूजयांचकार-चक्रे, अपूपुजत्-त, अपुपूजत्- त, पूजयितुम्, पूजित) 1 To adore, worship, revere; honour, recieve with respect; यदपूपुजस्त्वमिह पार्थ मुरजितमपूजितं सताम् Śi.15.14; Ms.4.31; BK.2.26; Y.2.14. -2 To present or honour with; रत्नैश्च पूजयेदेनं प्रधानपुरुषैः सह् Ms.7.23. -3 To regard, take notice of. -4 To initiate, consecrate.
pratyayaḥ प्रत्ययः 1 Conviction, settled belief; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः; M.1.2; संजातप्रत्ययः Pt.4. -2 Trust, reliance, faith, confidence; रक्षन् प्रत्ययमात्मनः Rām.3.9.19; बलवदपि शिक्षितानामात्मन्यप्रत्ययं चेतः Ś.1.2; Ku.6.2; Śi.18.63; Bh.3.6; प्रत्ययार्थं हि लोकानामेवमेव मया कृतम् Abhiṣeka. 6.29. -3 Conception, idea, notion, opinion. -4 Surety, certainty; प्रत्ययार्थं ततः सीता विवेश ज्वलनं तदा Rām.7.45. 7. -5 Knowledge, experience, cognition; स्थानप्रत्ययात् Ś.7 'judging by the place'; so आकृतिप्रत्ययात् M.1; Me.8. -6 A cause, ground, means of action; स्वकर्म- प्रत्ययाँल्लोकान् मत्वा$र्जुनमब्रवीत् Mb.13.1.77; अपेक्षते प्रत्ययमुत्तमं त्वाम् Ku.3.18. -7 Celebrity, fame, renown. -8 A termination, an affix or suffix; केवलं दधति कर्तृवाचिनः प्रत्ययानिह न जातु कर्मणि Śi.14.66. -9 An oath. -1 A dependant. -11 A usage, practice. -12 A hole. -13 Intellect, understanding (बुद्धि). -14 An assistant or associate. -15 An epithet of Viṣṇu; नामरूपे भगवती प्रत्यय- स्त्वमपाश्रयः Bhāg.6.19.14. -16 (With Buddhists) A co-operating cause. -17 An instrument, a means of agency. -18 Religious contemplation. -19 A householder who keeps a sacred fire. -2 Function of the organs (इन्द्रियवृत्ति); सर्वेन्द्रियगुणद्रष्ट्रे सर्वप्रत्ययहेतवे Bhāg.8.3. 14. -Comp. -कारकः, -कारिन् a. producing assurance, convincing. (-णी) a seal, signet-ring.
pramā प्रमा 1 Consciousness, perception. -2 (In logic) Correct notion or apprehension, true and certain knowledge, accurate conception; तद्वति तत्प्रकारको$नुभवः प्रमा यथा रजते इदं रजतमिति ज्ञानम् T. S; दोषो$प्रमाया जनकः प्रमायास्तु गुणो भवेत् । प्रत्यक्षे तु विशेष्येण विशेषेणवता समम् ॥ Bhāṣā P. -3 Ved. Basis, foundation. -4 A measure.
pramāṇam प्रमाणम् 1 A measure in general (of length, breadth &c.); न प्रमाणेन नोत्साहात् सत्त्वस्थो भव पाण्डव Mb.3.33.63. ('प्रमाणं नित्यमर्यादासंघवादिप्रमादिषु' Viśva.); Mb.1.222. 31; दृष्टो हि वृण्वन् कलभप्रमाणो$प्याशाः पुरोवातमवाप्य मेघः R.18. 38. -2 Size, extent, magnitude. -3 Scale, standard; पृथिव्यां स्वामिभक्तानां प्रमाणे परमे स्थितः Mu.2.21. -4 Limit, quantity; वञ्चयित्वा तु राजानं न प्रमाणे$वतिष्ठसि Rām.2.37. 22. -5 Testimony, evidence, proof. -6 Authority, warrant; one who judges or decides, one whose word is an authority; श्रुत्वा देवः प्रमाणम् Pt.1 'having heard this your Majesty will decide (what to do)'; आर्यमिश्राः प्रमाणम् M.1; Mu.1.1; सतां हि संदेहपदेषु वस्तुषु प्रमाणमन्तः- करणप्रवृत्तयः Ś.1.22; व्याकरणे पाणिनिः प्रमाणम्; Ms.2.13; Pt.1.24; sometimes in pl.; वेदाः प्रमाणाः. -7 A true or certain knowledge, accurate conception or notion. -8 A mode of proof, a means of arriving at correct knowledge; (the Naiyāyikas recognize only four kinds; प्रत्यक्ष, अनुमान, उपमान and शब्द, the Vedāntins and Mīmāṁsakas add two more, अनुपलब्धि and अर्थापत्ति; while the Sāṅkhyas admit प्रत्यक्ष, अनुमान and शब्द only; cf. अमुभव also.). -9 Principal, capital. -1 Unity. -11 Scripture, sacred authority. -12 Cause, reason. -13 Rule, sanction, precept. -14 The first term in a rule of three. -15 An epithet of Viṣṇu. -16 Freedom from apprehension. -17 The prosodial lengh of a vowel. -18 An eternal matter; L. D. B. -19 (In music) A measure (such as द्रुत, मध्य, विलम्बित); Rām.1.4.8. -2 The measure of a square. -णः, -णी A rule, standard, authority. -Comp. -अधिक a. more than ordinary, inordinate, excessive; श्वासः प्रमाणाधिकः Ś.1.29. -अनुरूप a. corresponding to physical strength. -अन्तरम् another mode of proof. -अभावः absence of authority. -कुशल, -प्रवीण a. skilful in arguing. -कोटिः the point in an argument which is regarded as actual proof. -ज्ञ a. knowing the modes of proof, (as a logician). (-ज्ञः) an epithet of Śiva. -दृष्ट a. sanctioned by authority. -पत्रम् a written warrant. -पथः the way of proof. -पुरुषः an arbitrator, a judge, an umpire. -वाधितार्थकः a kind of Tarka in Nyāyasāstra. -भूत (˚णीभूत) a. authoritative. (-तः) an epithet of Śiva. -राशिः the quantity of the first term in a rule of three sums. -वचनम्, -वाक्यम् an authoritative statement. -शास्त्रम् 1 scripture. -2 the science of logic. -सूत्रम् a measuring cord. -स्थ a. 1 of normal size. -2 unperturbed.
pramātṛ प्रमातृ a. 1 Having a right notion, competent to judge or ascertain. -2 An authority, proof. -3 Demonstrating. -4 A civil judge; EI XVII.321.
pramitiḥ प्रमितिः f. 1 Measurement, a measure. -2 True or certain knowledge, accurate notion or conception. -3 Knowledge obtained by any one of the Pramāṇas or means of knowledge. -4 True inference or analogy. -5 Manifestation; इतिरेशे$तर्क्ये निजमहिमनि स्वप्रमितिके Bhāg. 1.13.57.
budh बुध् 1 U., Ā. (बोधति-ते, बुध्यते, बुद्ध) 1 To know, understand, comprehend; क्रमादमुं नारद इत्यबोधि सः Śi.1. 3;9.24; नाबुद्ध कल्पद्रुमतां विहाय जातं तमात्मन्यसिपत्रवृक्षम् R.14.48; यदि बुध्यते हरिशिशुः स्तनंधयः Bv.1.53. -2 To perceive, notice, recognise, mark; हिरण्मयं हंसमबोधि नैषधः N.1.117; अपि लङ्घितमध्वानं बुबुधे न बुधोपमः R.1.47;12.39. -3 To deem, regard, consider, esteem &c. -4 To heed, attend to. -5 To think, reflect. -6 To wake up, awake, rise from sleep; दददपि गिरमन्तर्बुध्यते नो मनुष्यः Śi.11.4; ते च प्रापुरुदन्वन्तं बुबुधे चादिपूरुषः R.1.6. -7 To regain consciousness, to come to one's senses; शनैरबोधि सुग्रीवः सो$लुञ्चीत्कर्णनासिकम् Bk.15.57. -8 To advise, admonish. -Caus. (बोधयति-ते) 1 To cause to know, make known, inform, acquaint with. -2 To teach, communicate, impart. -3 To advice, admonish; बोधयन्तं हिताहितम् Bk. 8.82; मच्चिता मद्गतप्राणा बोधयन्तः परस्परम् Bg.1.9. -4 To revive, restore to life, bring to senses or consciousness. -5 To remind, put in mind of; स्मरिष्यति त्वां न स बोधितो$पि सन् Ś.4.1. -6 To wake up, rouse, excite (fig.); अकाले बोधितो भ्रात्रा R.12.81;5.75. -7 To revive the scent (of a perfume). -8 To cause to expand, open; मधुरया मधुबोधितमाधवी Śi.6.2; सविता बोधयति पङ्कजान्येव Ś.5.28. -9 To signify, convey, indicate. -Desid. (बुबु-बो-धिषति-ते, बुभुत्सते) To wish to know &c.
bodhana बोधन a. [बुध्-णिच् ल्यु-ल्युट् वा] 1Informing, acquainting. -2 Explaining, indicating. -3 Arousing, waking. -4 Kindling, inflaming. -नः The planet Mercury (बुधः); बुध इव शिशिरांशोर्बोधनस्येव देवः V.5.21. -नम् 1 Informing, teaching, instruction, giving a knowledge of; भयरुषोश्च तदिङ्गितबोधनम् R.9.49. -2 Denoting, signifying. -3 Arousing, awakening; समयेन तेन चिरसुप्तमनोभवबोधनं सममबोधिषत Śi.9.24. -4 Observing, perceiving. -5 Waking, being awake. -6 Making attentive. -7 Burning incence. -नी 1 The eleventh day in the bright half of Kārtika when Viṣṇu rises from his four months' sleep; शयनीबोधनीमध्ये या कृष्णैकादशी भवेत् । सैवोपोष्या गृहस्थेन नान्या कृष्णा कदाचन Tithyādi. -2 Long pepper. -3 Understanding, knowledge.
bhāvaḥ भावः [भू-भावे घञ्] 1 Being, existing, existence; नासतो विद्यते भावः Bg.2.16. -2 Becoming, occurring, taking place. -3 State, condition, state of being; लताभावेन परिणतमस्या रूपम् V.4; U.6.23; so कातरभावः, विवर्णभावः &c. -4 Manner, mode. -6 Rank, station, position, capacity; देवीभावं गमिता K. P.1; so प्रेष्यभावम्, किंकरभावम् &c. -6 (a) True condition or state, truth, reality; परं भावमजानन्तः Bg.7.24; इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधा भावसम- न्विताः 1.8. (b) Sincerity, devotion; त्वयि मे भावनिबन्धना रतिः R.8.52;2.26. -7 Innate property, disposition, nature, temperament; स तस्य स्वो भावः प्रकृतिनियतत्वादकृतकः U.6.14. -8 Inclination or disposition of mind, idea, thought, opinion, supposition; हृदयनिहितभावा गूढमन्त्रप्रचाराः किमपि विगणयन्तो बुद्धिमन्तः सहन्ते Pt.3.43; Ms.8.25;4.65; निकृष्टोत्कृष्टयोर्भावं यास्तु गृह्णन्ति ताः स्त्रियः Bu. Ch.4.23. -9 Feeling, emotion, sentiment; एको भावः Pt.3.66; Ku.6. 95; निर्विकारात्मके चित्ते भावः प्रथमविक्रिया S. D. (In the dramatic science or in poetic compositions generally, Bhāvas are either स्थायिन् primary, or व्यभिचारिन् subordinate. The former are eight or nine, according as the Rasas are taken to be 8 or 9, each rasa having its own स्थायिभाव. The latter are thirty-three of thirty four in number, and serve to develop and strengthen the prevailing sentiment; for definition and enumeration of the several kinds, see R. G. first ānana, or K. P.4). -1 Love, affection; attachment; द्वन्द्वानि भावं क्रियया विवव्रुः Ku.3.35; कुमुद्वती भानुमतीव भावं (बबन्ध) R.6.36. -11 Purport, drift, gist, substance; इति भावः (often used by commentators); जनको$प्युत्स्मयन् राजा भावमस्या विशेषयन् । प्रतिजग्राह भावेन भावमस्या नृपोत्तम Mb.12,32.18. -12 Meaning, intention, sense, import; अन्योन्यभावचतुरेण सखीजनेन मुक्तास्तदा स्मितसुधामधुराः कटाक्षाः Māl.1.25. -13 Resolution, determination. -14 The heart, soul, mind; तयोर्विवृतभावत्वात् Māl.1.12; भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत् तपो मानसमुच्यते Bg.17.16; स्व एव भावे विनिगृह्य मन्मथम् Bu. Ch.4.11. -15 Any existing thing, an object, a thing, substance; पश्यन्ती विविधान् भावान् Rām.2.94.18; जगति जयिनस्ते ते भावा नवेन्दुकलादयः Māl.1.17,36; R.3.41; U.3.32. -16 A being, living creature. -17 Abstract meditation, contemplation (= भावना q. v.). -18 Conduct, movement. -19 (a) Gesture, behaviour; अहिंसा समता... भवन्ति भावा भूतानाम् Bg.1.5. (b) Amorous gesture or expression of sentiment; gesture of love; कामं प्रिया न सुलभा मनस्तु तद्भावदर्शनाश्वासि Ś.2.1. -2 Birth; तवाहं पूर्वके भावे पुत्रः परपुरंजय Rām.7.14.2. -21 The world, universe. -22 The womb. -23 Will; घोरैर्विव्यधतुर्बाणैः कृतभावावुभौ जये Rām.6.9.38. -24 Superhuman power; मिथो घ्नतं न पश्यन्ति भावैर्भावं पृथग्दृशः Bhāg.1.4.27. -25 Advice, instruction. -26 (In dramas) A learned or venerable man, worthy man, (a term of address); भाव अयमस्मि V.1; तां खलु भावेन तथैव सर्वे वर्ग्याः पाठिताः) Māl.1. -27 (In gram.) The sense of an abstract noun, abstract idea conveyed by a word; भावे क्तः. -28 A term for an impersonal passive or neuter verb. -29 (In astr.) An astronomical house. -3 A lunar mansion. -31 An organ of sense. -32 Welfare (कल्याण); भावमिच्छति सर्वस्य नाभावे कुरुते मनः Mb.5.36.16. -33 Protection; द्रोणस्याभावभावे तु प्रसक्तानां यथा$भवत् Mb.7.25.64. -34 Fate, destiny (प्रारब्ध); नातिप्रहीणरश्मिः स्यात्तथा भावविपर्यये Mb.5.77.14. -35 Consciousness of past perceptions (वासना); येभ्यः सृजति भूतानि काले भावप्रचोदितः । महाभूतानि पञ्चेति तान्याहुर्भूतचिन्तिकाः ॥ Mb.12.275.4. -36 Lordship (प्रभुत्व); ते$पि भावाय कल्पन्ते राजदण्डनिपीडिताः Rām.2.67. 32. -37 The six states (अवस्थाषट्क); A, Rām.1.7.31. -Comp. -अनुग a. not forced, natural. (-गा) a shadow. -अन्तरम् a different state. -अद्वैतम् 1 a natural cause. -2 material cause (as thread of a cloth). -3 identity of conception, oneness of view. -अर्थः 1 the obvious meaning or import (of a word, phrase &c.). -2 the subject matter; सर्वेषामपि वस्तूनां भावार्थो भवति स्थितः Bhāg.1.14.57. -आकूतम् (secret) thoughts of the mind; हृदयनिहितं भावाकूतं वमद्भिरिवेक्षणैः Amaru.4. -आख्यः One of the two types of creation according to the Sāṅkhya philosophy; लिङ्गाख्यो भावाख्यस्तस्माद् द्विविधः प्रवर्तते सर्गः Sāṅ. K.52. -आत्मक a. real, actual. -आभासः simulation of a feeling, a feigned or false emotion. -आलीना a shadow. -एकरस a. influenced solely by the sentiment of (sincere) love; ममात्र भावैकरसं मनः स्थितम् Ku.5.82. -कर्तृकः an impersonal verb; Kāśi. on P. II.3.54. -गतिः f. power to convey human feelings; भावगतिराकृतीनाम् Pratimā 3. -गम्भीरम् ind. 1 heartily, from the bottom of the heart. -2 deeply, gravely. -गम्य a. conceived by the mind; ममत्सादृश्यं विरहतनु वा भावगम्यं लिखन्ती Me.87. -ग्राहिन् a. 1 understanding the sense. -2 appreciating the sentiment. -ग्राह्य a. to be conceived with the heart; भावग्राह्यमनीडाख्यं भावाभावकरं शिवम् Śvet. Up.5.14. -चेष्टितम् amorous gesture. -जः 1 love. -2 the god of love. -ज्ञ, -विद् a. knowing the heart. -दर्शिन् a. see भालदर्शिन्. -निर्वृत्तिः the material creation (Sāṅ. phil.); न विना लिङ्गेन भावनिर्वृत्तिः Sāṅ. K.52. -नेरिः a kind of dance. -बन्धन a. enchanting or fettering the heart, linking together the hearts; रथाङ्गनाम्नोरिव भावबन्धनं बभूव यत्प्रेम परस्पराश्रयम् R.3.24. -बोधक a. indicating or revealing any feeling. -मिश्रः a worthy person, a gentleman (used in dramas); प्रसीदन्तु भावमिश्राः Ś.6. -रूप a. real, actual. -वचनम् denoting an abstract idea, conveying the abstract notion of a verb. -वाचकम् an abstract noun. -विकारः a property of a being; षड् भावविकारा भवन्तीति वार्ष्यायणिः । जायते$स्ति विपरिणमते वर्धते$पक्षीयते नश्यति । -वृत्तः an epithet of Brahman. -शबलत्वम् a mixture of various emotions (भावानां बाध्यबाधकभावमापन्नानामुदासीनानां वा व्यामिश्रणम् R. G., vide examples given ad loc.). -शुद्धिः f. purity of mind, honesty, sincerity. -शून्य a. devoid of real love; उपचारविधिर्मनस्विनीनां न तु पूर्वाभ्यधिको$पि भावशून्यः M.3.3. -संधिः the union or co-existence of two emotions (भावसंधिरन्योन्यानभिभूतयोरन्योन्याभिभावनयोग्ययोः सामानाधिकरण्यम् R. G., see the examples there given). -समाहित a. abstracted in mind, devout. -सर्गः the mental or intellectual creation; i. e. the creation of the faculties of the human mind and their affections (opp. भौतिकसर्ग or material creation). -स्थ a. attached; devoted (to one); न वेत्सि भावस्थमिमं कथं जनम् Ku.5.58. -स्थिर a. firmly rooted in the heart; Ś.5.2. -स्निग्ध a. affectionately disposed, sincerely attached; भावस्निग्धैरुपकृतमपि द्वेष्यतां याति किंचित् Pt.1.285. -भावंगम a. charming, lovely.
bhrāntiḥ भ्रान्तिः [भ्रम्-क्तिन्] f. 1 Moving or wandering about. -2 Turning round, rolling. -3 A revolution, circular or rotatory movement; चक्रभ्रान्तिररान्तरेषु वितनोत्यन्यामिवारा- बलीम् V.1.5. -4 An error, a mistake, delusion, wrong notion, false idea impression; श्रितासि चन्दनभ्रान्त्या दुर्विपाकं विषद्रुमम् U.1.47; षाण्मासिके तु संप्राप्ते भ्रान्तिः संजायते नृणाम् । धात्राक्षराणि सृष्टानि पत्रारूढान्यतः पुरा ॥ Jyotistattvam. -5 Confusion, perplexity. -6 Doubt, uncertainty, suspense. -7 Unsteadiness. -Comp. -कर a. confounding, causing delusion. -नाशनः an epithet of Śiva. -हर a. removing doubt or error. (-रः) a counsellor, minister.
matiḥ मतिः f. [मन् भावे क्तिन्] 1 Intellect, understanding, sense, knowledge, judgment; मतिरेव बलाद्गरीयसी H.2.86; अल्पविषया मतिः R.1.2. -2 Mind, heart; मम तु मतिर्न मनागपैतु धर्मात् Bv.4.26; so दुर्मति, सुमति. -3 Thought idea, belief, opinion, notion, supposition, impression, view; ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम Bg.18.78; विधिरहो बलवानिति मे मतिः Bh.2.98; Pt.2.19. -4 Intention, design, purpose; see मत्या. -5 Resolution, determination. -6 Esteem, regard, respect; बहुमतिमधिकां ययावशोकः Ki.1.9. -7 Wish, desire, inclination; तस्य तासु मतिं ज्ञात्वा धर्मात्मा वाक्य- मब्रवीत् Rām.7.25.17; प्रायोपवेशनमतिर्नृपतिर्बभूव R.8.94. -8 Counsel, advice. -9 Remembrance, recollection. -1 Ved. Devotion, prayer. -11 An adviser. -12 = प्राणः q. v.; केन विज्ञानयोगेन मतिश्चित्तं समास्थिता Mb.14.21. 11 (com.). -13 Activity or disposition of the mind; न मतेर्मन्तारं मन्वीथाः Bṛi. Up.3.4.2. -14 Blessing. (मतिं कृ, -धा, -आधा 'to set the heart on', 'resolve upon', 'think of'. मत्या is used adverbially in the sense of 1 knowingly, intentionally, wilfully; मत्या भुक्त्वाचरेत् कृच्छ्रम् Ms.4.222;5.19. -2 under the impression that; व्याघ्रमत्या पलायन्ते). -Comp. -ईश्वरः an epithet of Viṣvakarman. -कर्मन् a matter of the intellect. -गतिः f. mode of thought. -गर्भ a. full of intelligence, intelligent, clever. -दर्शनम् the faculty of seeing into the thoughts (of others). -द्वैधम् difference of opinion. -निश्चयः a settled belief, firm conviction. -पथः the path of reflection. -पूर्व a. intentional, wilful. -पूर्वम्, -पूर्वकम् ind. purposely, intentionally, wilfully, willingly. -प्रकर्षः superiority of intellect, cleverness. -भेदः change of views. -भ्रमः, -भ्रान्तिः, -विपर्यासः 1 delusion, mental illusion, confusion of mind; स्वप्नो नु माया नु मतिभ्रमो नु Ś.6.9. -2 an error, a mistake, misapprehension. -विभ्रमः, -विभ्रंशः confusion or infatuation of mind, madness, frenzy. -शालिन् a. intelligent, clever. -हीन a. stupid, senseless, foolish.
manas मनस् n. [मन्यते$नेन मन् करणे असुन्] 1 The mind, heart, understanding, perception, intelligence; as in सुमनस्, दुमर्नस् &c. -2 (In phil.) The mind or internal organ of perception and cognition, the instrument by which objects of sense affect the soul; (in Nyāya phil. मनस् is regarded as a Dravya or substance, and is distinct from आत्मन् or the soul); तदेव सुखदुःखाद्युपलब्धि- साधनमिन्द्रियं प्रतिजीवं भिन्नमणु नित्यं च Tarka K. -3 Conscience, the faculty of discrimination or judgment. -4 Thought, idea, fancy, imagination, conception; पश्यन्न- दूरान्मनसाप्यधृष्यम् Ku.3.51; R.2.27; कायेन वाचा मनसापि शश्वत् 5.5; मनसापि न विप्रियं मया (कृतपूर्वम्) 8.52. -5 Design, purpose, intention. -6 Will, wish, desire, inclination; in this sense मनस् is frequently used with the infinitive form with the final म् dropped, and forms adjectives; अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने Ku.5.4; cf. काम. -7 Reflection (ध्यान); मनसा जपैः प्रणतिभिः प्रयतः समुपेयिवानधिपतिं स दिवः Ki.6.22. -8 Disposition, temper, mood. -9 Spirit, energy, mettle; मनोवीर्यवरोत्सिक्तमसृण्यमकुतोभयम् Bhag.3. 17.22. -1 N. of the lake called Mānasa. -11 Breath or living soul. -12 Desire, longing after. (मनसा गम् &c. to think of, contemplate, remember; जगाम मनसा रामं धर्मज्ञो धर्मकाङ्क्षया Rām.2.82.9; (अगमत्) मनसा कार्यसंसिद्धौ त्वरादिगुणरंहसा Ku.2.63; मनः कृ to fix the mind upon, direct the thoughts towards, with dat. or loc.; मनो बन्ध् to fix the heart or affection upon; (अभिलाषे) मनो बबन्धान्यरसान् विलङ्ध्य सा R.3.4; मनः समाधा to collect oneself; मनसि उद्भू to cross the mind; मनसि कृ to think, to bear in mind; to resolve, determine, think of.) N. B. In comp. मनस् is changed to मनो before अ and soft consonants, as मनो$नुग, मनोज्ञ, मनोहर &c.). -Comp. -अधिनाथः a lover, husband. -अनवस्थानम् inattention. -अनुग a. suiting the mind, agreeable; ततस्तदग्ऱ्यं वचनं मनोनुगं समस्तमाज्ञाय ततो हि हेतुमत् Mb.12.167.49; Rām.7.72.18. -अप- हारिन् a. captivating the heart. -अभिनिवेशः close application of mind, firmness of purpose, -अभिराम a. pleasing the mind, gratifying to the heart; मनोभिरामाः (केकाः) R.1.39. -अभिलाषः the desire or longing of the heart. -आप a. gaining the heart, attractive, pleasing. -कान्त a. (मनस्कान्त or मनःकान्त) dear to the mind, pleasant, agreeable. -कारः perfect perception, full consciousness (of pleasure or pain), mental concentration, resolution; भवन्मनस्कारलवोद्गमेन क्रमेलकानां निलयः पुरेव N.14.84. (cf. मनसः ऐकाग्ऱ्यकरणं मनस्कारः Nārayaṇa com. on N.) दिदृक्षादत्तदृष्टीनां मनस्कारमनीषयोः । सप्रीतिरससन्तोषं दिशन्तौ देहकान्तितः ॥ Yādavābhyudaya 1.9. -क्षेपः (मनःक्षेपः) distraction of the mind, mental confusion. -गत a. 1 existing or passing in the mind, concealed in the breast, internal, inward, secret; नेयं न वक्ष्यति मनोगतमाधिहेतुम् Ś.3. 11. -2 affecting the mind, desired. (-तम्) 1 a wish, desire; मनोगतं सा न शशाक शंसितुम् Ku.5.51. -2 an idea, thought, notion, opinion. -गतिः f. desire of the heart. -गवी wish, desire. -गुप्त a. hidden in the mind, thought secretly. (-प्ता) red arsenic. -ग्रहणम् captivating the mind. -ग्रहिन् a. captivating or fascinating the mind. -ग्राह्य a. to be grasped by the mind. -ह्यम् the pleasures of sense; यो वृणीते मनोग्राह्यमसत्त्वात् कुमनीष्यसौ Bhāg.1. 48.11. -ग्लानिः depression of mind. -ज, -जन्मन् a. mindborn. (-m.) the god of love. -जल्पः imagination. -जव a. 1 quick or swift as thought; मनोजवं मारुततुल्यवेगम् Rāma-rakṣā Stotra 33. -2 quick in thought or conception. -3 fatherly, paternal. -जवस a. resembling a father, fatherly. -जवा 1 N. of one of the tongues of Agni. -2 N. of one of the शक्तिs of Durgā 'काली कराली च मनोजवा च' Śruti. -जात a. mind-born, arisen or produced in the mind. -जिघ्र a. scenting out, i. e. guessing the thoughts. -ज्ञ a. pleasing, lovely, agreeable, beautiful, charming; इयमधिकमनोज्ञा वल्कलेनापि तन्वी Ś.1.2; R.3.7; 6.1. (-ज्ञः) N. of a Gandharva. (-ज्ञा) 1 red arsenic. -2 an intoxicating drink. -3 a princess. -तापः, -पीडा 1 mental pain or agony, anguish. -तालः the lion of Durgā. -तुष्टिः f. satisfaction of the mind. -तोका an epithet of Durgā. -दण्डः complete control over the mind or thoughts; Ms.12.1; cf. त्रिदण्डिन्. -दत्त a. devoted in thought, mentally dedicated. -दाहः, -दुःखम् mental distress or torment. -दाहिन् the god of love. -दुष्ट a. depraved in mind; रजसा स्त्री मनोदुष्टा संन्यासेन द्विजोत्तम (शुद्ध्यति) Ms.5.18. -धारणम् conciliating the favour of. -नाशः loss of the mind or understanding, dementedness. -नीत a. approved, chosen. -पतिः (-मनःपतिः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पर्यायः (with Jainas) N. of the last but one stage in the perception of truth. -पूत a. (मनःपूत) 1 considered pure by the mind, approved by one's conscience; मनःपूतं समाचरेत् Ms.6.46. -2 of a pure mind, conscientious. -प्रणीत a. (मनःप्रणीत) agreeable or pleasing to the mind. -प्रसादः (मनः- प्रसादः) composure of mind, mental calm. -प्रिय a. dear to the heart. -यः cinammon (Mar. दालचिनी). -प्रीतिः f. (मनःप्रीतिः) mental satisfaction, joy, delight. -भव a. mind-born, created by fancy; दृश्यमाना विनार्थेन न दृश्यन्ते मनोभवाः Bhāg. -भवः, -भूः 1 the god of love, Cupid; रे रे मनो मम मनोभवशासनस्य पादाम्बुजद्वयमनारतमानमन्तम् Bv.4.32; Ku.3.27; R.7.22; श्यामा शुशुभे शशिना तया मनोभूः Kalāvilāsa. -2 love, passion, lust; अत्यारूढो हि नारीणामकालज्ञो मनोभवः R.12.33. -मथनः the god of love. -मय see separately. -यायिन् a. 1 going at will or pleasure. -2 swift, quick as thought; उत्पत्य खं दशग्रीवो मनोयायी शितास्त्रभृत् Bk.5.3. -3 keen desire; अहं हि तस्याद्य मनोभवेन संपीडिता तद्गतसर्वभावा Rām.5.32.12. -योगः close application of the mind, close attention. -योनिः the god of love. -रञ्जनम् 1 pleasing the mind. -2 pleasantness. -रथः 1 'the car of the mind', a wish, desire; अवतरतः सिद्धिपथं शब्दः स्वमनोरथस्येव M.1.22; मनोरथानामगतिर्न विद्यते Ku.5.64; R.2.72;12.59; उत्पद्यन्ते विलीयन्ते दरिद्राणां मनोरथाः Udb.; आशा नाम नदी मनोरथजला Bh.3.45. -2 a desired object; मनोरथाय नाशंसे Ś.7.13. -3 (in dramas) a hint, a wish expressed indirectly or covertly. ˚तृतीया N. of the third day in the bright half of Chaitra. ˚दायक a. fulfilling one's expectations. (-कः) N. of a Kalpa-taru. ˚द्रुमः the god of love. ˚बन्धः cherishing or entertaining of desire. ˚बन्धुः the friend of (who satisfies) desires; तस्या भवानपि मनोरथबन्धबन्धुः Māl.1.34. ˚सिद्धिः f. fulfilment of one's desires. ˚सृष्टिः f. a creation of the fancy, a castle in the air. -रम a. attractive, pleasing, agreeable, lovely, beautiful; अरुण- नखमनोरमासु तस्याः (अङ्गुलीषु) Ś.6.11; पुरस्ताद्विमले पात्रे सुविस्तीर्णे मनोरमे Suśruta. (-मा) 1 a lovely woman. -2 a kind of pigment. -रागः affection, passion (of the heart). -राज्यम् 'kingdom of the fancy', a castle in the air; मनोराज्यविजृम्भणमेतत् 'this is building castles in the air'. -रुज् f. pain or grief of the heart. -लयः loss of consciousness. -लौल्यम् freak, caprice. -वल्लभा a beloved woman. -वहा N. of a particular artery; ('अश्वत्थपत्रनाडीव द्विसप्ततिशताधिका । नाडी मनोवहेत्युक्तं योगशास्त्र- विशारदैः'); मध्ये च हृदयस्यैका शिरा तत्र मनोवहा । शुकं संकल्पजं नॄणां सर्वगात्रैर्विमुञ्चति ॥ Mb.12.214.19. -वाक्कर्मन् n. pl. thoughts, words and deeds. -वाञ्छा, -वाञ्छितम् a wish of the heart, a desire, -विकारः, -विकृतिः f. emotion of the mind. -विनयनम् mental discipline. -विरुद्ध a. 1 incomprehensible. -2 against the dictates of mind or conscience. -वृत्तिः f. 1 working of the mind, volition. -2 disposition, temper. -वेगः quickness of thought. -व्यथा mental pain or anguish. -शल्य a. rankling in the mind; (बाहुः) कुबेरस्य मनःशल्यं शंसतीव पराभवम् Ku.2.22. -शिलः, -ला red arsenic; मनःशिला- विच्छुरिता निषेदुः Ku.1.55; R.12.8; टङ्कैर्मनःशिलगुहैरवदीर्य- माणा Mk.; गन्धाश्मानं मनःशिलाम् Śiva B.3.19; मनःशिला- पङ्कलिखितेन च विद्योतितललाटपट्टाम् K. -शीघ्र a. quick as thought. -संकल्पः desire of the heart. -संगः attachment of the mind (to anything). -संचेतनाहारः (with Buddhists) one of the four kinds of food (in a material and spiritual senses) -संतापः anguish of the mind. -समृद्धिः heart's content; Bhāg. -संवरः coercion of mind. -सुख a. agreeable to the mind. -स्थ a. being in the heart, mental. -स्थैर्यम् firmness of mind. -हत a. disappointed. -हर a. pleasing, charming, attractive, fascinating, lovely; अव्याजमनोहरं वपुः Ś.1.18; Ku.3.39; R.3.32. (-रः) a kind of jasmine. (-रम्) gold. -हर्तृ, -हारिन् a. heart-stealing, captivating, agreeable, pleasing; हितं मनोहारि च दुर्लभं वचः Ki.1.4; गाङ्गं वारि मनोहारि मुरारिचरणच्युतम् Gaṅgāṣṭaka by Vālmīki 7. -हारी an unchaste or unfaithful woman. -ह्लादः gladness of heart. -ह्वा red arsenic; मनःशिला मनोगुप्ता मनोह्वा नागजिह्विका Bhāva. P.
mukharayati मुखरयति Den. P. 1 To make resonant or noisy, cause to sound or echo. -2 To make (one) talk or speak; अत एव शुश्रूषा मां मुखरयति Mu.3. -3 To notify, declare, announce.
mūḍha मूढ p. p. [मुह्-क्त] 1 Stupefied, infatuated; मूढाः शोणितगन्धेन निपेतुर्धरणीतले Rām.6.52.15; प्रत्यासन्नविपत्तिमूढ- मनसां प्रायो मतिः क्षीयते Pt.2.4. -2 Perplexed, bewildered, confounded, at a loss; किंकर्तव्यतामूढः 'being at a loss what to do'; so ह्रीमूढ Me.7. -3 Foolish, silly, dull, stupid, ignorant; अल्पस्य हेतोर्बहु हातुमिच्छन् विचारमूढः प्रतिभासि मे त्वम् R.2.47. -4 Mistaken, erring, deceived, gone astray. -5 Abortive. -6 Confounding. -ढः A fool, blockhead, dolt, an ignorant person; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः M.1.2. -ढाः (m. pl.) An epithet of the elements in the Sāṅkhya philosophy. -ढम् confusion of mind. -Comp. -आत्मन् a. 1 stupefied in mind. -2 foolish, stupid, silly. -गर्भः 1 a dead foetus. -2 difficult delivery. -ग्राहः 1 a wrong notion, misconception, misapprehension. मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत् पीडया क्रियते तपः Bg.17.19. -2 infatuation. -चेतन, -चेतस् a. foolish, silly, ignorant; अवगच्छति मूढचेतनः प्रियनाशं हृदि शल्यमर्पितम् R.8. 88. -धी, -बुद्धि, -मति a. foolish, stupid, silly, simple; व्रजन्ति ते मूढधियः पराभवम् Ki.1.3. -प्रभुः, -श्रेष्ठः the greatest block-head. -वात a. caught in a storm; महार्णवे नौरिव मूढवाता Rām.5.28.8. -सत्त्व a. infatuated, insane.
yāvat यावत् a. (-ती f.) (As a correlative of तावत्) 1 As much as, as many as, (यावत् standing for 'as' and तावत् for 'as much' or 'as many'); पुरे तावन्तमेवास्य तनोति रविरातपम् । दीर्घिकाकमलोन्मेषो यावन्मात्रेण साध्यते Ku.2.33; ते तु यावन्त एवाजौ तावांश्च ददृशे स तैः R.12.45;17.17. -2 As great, as large, how great or large; यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः संप्लुतोदके । तावन् सर्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः ॥ Bg.2.46;18.55. -3 All, whole (where the two together have the sense of totality or साकल्य); यावद् दत्तं तावद् भुक्तम् G. M. -ind. 1 Used by itself यावत् has the following senses:-- (a) as far as, up to, till; (with acc.); स्तन्यत्यागं यावत् पुत्रयोरवेक्षस्व U.7; कियन्तमवधिं यावदस्म- च्चरितं चित्रकारेणालिखितम् U.1; सर्पकोटरं यावत् Pt.1. (b) just, then, in the meantime (denoting an action intended to be done immediately); तद् यावत् गृहिणीमाहूय संगीतक- मनुतिष्ठामि Ś.1; यावदिमां छायामाश्रित्य प्रतिपालयामि Ś.3. (c) As much as. (d) That, in order that (e) Even, just. -2 Used correlatively यावत् and तावत् have these senses:-(a) as long as, so long as; यावद् वित्तोपार्जनशक्तस्ताव- न्निजपरिवारो रक्तः Moha M.8. (b) as soon as, scarcelywhen, no sooner-than; एकस्य दुःखस्य न यावदन्तं गच्छामि... तावद् द्वितीयं समुपस्थितं मे H.1.177; Me.17; Ku.3.72. (c) while, by the time; आश्रमवासिनो यावदेवक्ष्याहमुपावर्ते तावदार्द्रपृष्ठाः क्रियन्तां वाजिनः Ś1; often with न when यावन्न is translated by 'before'; यावदेते सरसो नोत्पतन्ति तावदेतेभ्यः प्रवृत्तिरवगमयितव्या V.4. (d) when, as (= यदा); यावदुत्थाय निरीक्षते तावद् हंसो$वलोकितः H.3. -Comp. -अध्ययनम् ind. during the recitation; अनुव्रज्या च शुश्रूषा यावदध्ययनं गुरोः Ms.2.241. -अन्तम्, -अन्ताय ind. upto the end, to the last. -अन्त्य a. life-long. -अभीक्षम् ind. for a moment's duration. -अर्थ a. corresponding to requirement, as many as may be required to convey the meaning (said of words); न प्रीतियुक्ता यावदर्थाश्च लोके Bhāg. 5.5.3; यावदर्थपदां वाचमेवमादाय माधवः विरराम Śi.2.13. (-र्थम्) ind. 1 as much as useful. -2 in all senses; वयमपि च गिरामीश्महे यावदर्थम् Bh.3.3. v. l. -इष्टम्, -ईप्सितम् ind. as much as is desired. -इत्थम् ind. as much as is necessary. -कालम् ind. as long as. -गमम् ind. as fast as one can go; यावद्गमं रुद्रभयाद् यथा कः Bhāg.1.7.18. -जन्म, -जीवम्, -जीवने ind. for life, throughout life, for the rest of one's life; यावज्जीवं त्रयो वन्द्या वेदान्तो गुरुरीश्वरः Subhāṣ; यावज्जीवं सुखं जीवेत् Subhāṣ. -प्रमाण a. as great or big. -बलम् ind. to the best of one's power. -भाषित or उक्त a. asmuch as said. -मात्र a. 1 as large, extending as far, of which size or extent; दीर्घिकाकमलोन्मेषो यावन्मात्रेण साध्यते Ku.2.33. -2 insignificant, trifling, little. -शक्यम्, -शक्ति ind. as far as possible, to the best of one's power; so यावत्सत्त्वम्. -संपातम् ind. as long as possible.
lakṣ लक्ष् I. 1 Ā. (लक्षते, लक्षित) To perceive, apprehend, observe, see -II. 1 U. (लक्षयति-ते, लक्षित) 1 To notice, observe, see, find, perceive; आर्यपुत्रः शून्यहृदय इव लक्ष्यते V.2; R.9.72;16.7. -2 To mark, denote, characterize, indicate; सर्वभूतप्रसूतिर्हि बीजलक्षणलक्षिता Ms.9.35. -3 To define; इदानीं कारणं लक्षयति &c. -4 To indicate secondarily, mean or signify in a secondary sense; यथा गङ्गा- शब्दः स्रोतसि सबाध इति तटं लक्षयति तद्वत् यदि तटे$पि सबाधः स्यात्तत् प्रयोजनं लक्षयेत् K. P.2; अत्र गोशब्दो वाहीकार्थं लक्षयति S. D.2. -5 To aim at. -6 To consider, regard, think.
ukta उक्त p. p. 1 Said, spoken. -2 Uttered, spoken (opp. to अनुमित or संभावित). -3 Told, addressed; असावनुक्तो $पि सहाय एव Ku.3.21. -4 Indicated; असता छाययोक्ताय सदाभासाय ते नमः Bhāg.8.3.14. -क्तम् A speech, words collectively; a sentence. -क्तम्, -क्ता A stanza of four lines with one syllabic instant, (there being one long or two short syllables in each). -Comp. -अनुक्त a. spoken and not spoken. -उपसंहारः a brief description, resume, peroration, recapitulation. -निर्वाहः defending an assertion. -पुंस्कः a word (feminine or neuter) of which also a masculine exists, and the meaning of which differs from that of the masculine only by the notion of gender. -प्रत्युक्तम् speech and reply, discourse. -वर्जम् ind. except the case mentioned. -वाक्यम् a dictum, decree.
varṇaḥ वर्णः [वर्ण्-अच् Uṇ.3.1] 1 A colour, hue; अन्तः- शुद्धस्त्वमपि भविता वर्णमात्रेण कृष्णः Me.51. -2 A paint, dye, paint-colour; see वर्ण् (1). -3 Colour, complexion, beauty; विविक्तवर्णाभरणा सुखश्रुतिः Ki.14.3; त्वय्यादातुं जलमवनते शार्ङ्गिणो वर्णचौरे Me.48; R.8.42. -4 Look, countenance; मध्यस्थवर्ण इव दृश्यते Madhyamavyāyoga 1; किं त्वं शङ्कितवर्ण इव Chārudatta 4; अवदातिका परशङ्कितवर्णेव दृश्यते Pratimā 1. -5 A class of men, tribe, caste (especially applied to the four principal castes, ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य and शूद्र); वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण Vārt; न कश्चिद्वर्णानामपथमपकृष्टो$पि भजते Ś.5. 1; R.5.19. -6 A class, race, tribe, kind, species; as in सवर्णम् अक्षरम्; ब्रह्मणा पूर्वसृष्टं हि कर्मभिर्वर्णतां गतम् Mb.12. 188.1. -7 (a) A letter, character, sound; न मे वर्ण- विचारक्षमा दृष्टिः V.5; Ki.14.3. (b) A word, syllable; S. D.9. -8 Fame, glory, celebrity, renown; राजा प्रजा- रञ्जनलब्धवर्णः R.6.21. -9 A good quality, merit, virtue; त्रिवर्णा वर्णिता$स्माभिः किं भूयः श्रोतुमिच्छसि Bhāg.11.3.16. -1 Praise; स्वगुणोच्चगिरो मुनिव्रताः परवर्णग्रहणेष्वसाधवः Śi.16. 29. -11 Dress, decoration. -12 Outward appearance, form, figure. -13 A cloak, mantle. -14 A covering, lid. -15 The order or arrangement of a subject in a song (गीतक्रम); अभिध्यायन्वर्णरतिप्रमोदानतिदीर्घे जीविते को रमेत Kaṭh.1.28; उपात्तवर्णे चरिते पिनाकिनः Ku.5.56 'celebrated in song, made the subject of a song.' -16 The housings of an elephant. -17 A quality, property; जङ्गमानामसंख्येयाः स्थावराणां च जातयः । तेषां विविधवर्णानां कुतो वर्णविनिश्चयः ॥ Mb.12.188.9. -18 A religious observance. -19 An unknown quantity. -2 The number 'one'. -21 Application of perfumed unguents to the body. -22 Gold. -23 A musical mode. -र्णा Cajanus Indicus (Mar. तूर). -र्णम् 1 Saffron. -2 A coloured unguent or perfume. -Comp. -अङ्का a pen. -अधिपः a planet presiding over a caste or class. -अनुप्रासः alliteration. -अन्तरम् 1 another caste. ˚गमनम् the passing into another caste. -2 change of sound. -अपसदः an outcast. -अपेत a. devoid of any cast, outcast, degraded; वर्णा- प्रेतमविज्ञातं ...... कर्मभिः स्वैर्विभावयेत् Ms.1.57. -अवकृष्टः a Śūdra; अपि वर्णावकृष्टस्तु नारी वा धर्मकाङ्क्षिणी Mb.12.24.34. -अर्हः a kind of bean. -अवर a. inferior in caste. -आगमः the addition of a letter; भवेद्वर्णागमाद्धंसः Sk. -आत्मन् m. a word. -आश्रमाः the (four) castes and stages of life; वर्णाश्रमाणां गुरवे स वर्णी विचक्षणः प्रस्तुतमाचचक्षे R.5.19. ˚गुरुः N. of Śiva. ˚धर्मः the duties of caste and order. -उदकम् coloured water; वर्णोदकैः काञ्चनशृङ्गमुक्तै- स्तमायताक्ष्यः प्रणयादसिञ्चन् R.16.7. -कविः N. of a son of Kubera. -कूपिका an ink-stand. -क्रमः 1 the order of castes or colours. -2 alphabetical order or arrangement. -गत a. 1 coloured. -2 algebraical. -गुरुः a king, prince. -ग्रथणा a method (artificial) of writing verses. -चारकः a painter. -ज्येष्ठः a Brāhmaṇa. -तर्णकम्, -तर्णिका woollen cloth used as a mat. -तालः (in music) a kind of measure. -तूलिः, -तूलिका, -तूली f. a pencil, paint-brush. -द a. colouring. (-दम्) a kind of fragrant yellow wood. -दात्री turmeric. -दूतः a letter. -दूषक a. violating the distinctions of castes; यत्र त्वेते परिध्वंसा जायन्ते वर्णदूषकाः Ms.1.61. -धर्मः the peculiar duties of a caste. -नाथः the planetary regent of a caste. -पत्रम् a pallet. -परिचयः skill in song or music. -पातः the omission of a letter. -पात्रम् a paint-box. -पुष्पम् the flower of the globe-amaranth. -पुष्पकः the globeamaranth. -प्रकर्षः excellence of colour. -प्रसादनम् aloe-wood. -बुद्धिः the notion connected with particular letters or sounds. -भेदिनी millet. -मातृ f. a pen, pencil. -मातृका N. of Sarasvatī. -माला, -राशिः the alphabet. -रे(ले)खा, -लेखिका chalk. -वर्तिः, -वर्तिका f. 1 a paint-brush; फलकमादाय मणिसमुद्गकाद्वर्णवर्तिकामुद्धृत्य Dk.2.2. -2 a pencil. -वादिन् m. a panegyrist. -विक्रिया enmity against the castes. -विपर्ययः the substitution or change of letters; (भवेत्) सिंहो वर्णविपर्ययात् Sk. -विलासिनी turmeric. -विलोडकः 1 a house-breaker. -2 a plagiarist (lit. word-stealer). -वृत्तम् a metre regulated by the number of syllables it contains (opp. मात्रावृत्त). -व्यव- -स्थितिः f. the institution of caste, caste-system. -शिक्षा instruction in letters. -श्रेष्ठः a Brāhmaṇa; वर्णश्रेष्ठो द्विजः पूज्यः H.4.21. -संयोगः marriage between persons of the same caste. -संसर्गः confusion of castes, marriage with members of other castes; Ms.8.172. -संहारः an assemblage of different castes. -संकरः 1 confusion of castes through intermarriage; स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्ण- संकरः Bg.1.41. -2 mixture or blending of colours; चित्रेषु वर्णसंकरः K. (where both senses are intended); Śi.14.37. -संघातः, -समाम्नायः the alphabet. -स्थानम् an organ of utterance. -हीन a. outcast.
vācaka वाचक a. [वच्-ण्वुल्] 1 Speaking, declaring, explanatory; उन्नीय मे दर्शय वल्गुवाचकं यद्व्रीडया नाभिमुखं शुचिस्तिते Bhāg.4.25.31. -2 Expressing, signifying, denoting directly (as a word, distinguished from लाक्षणिक and व्यञ्जक); साक्षात् संकेतितं यो$र्थमभिधत्ते स वाचकः K. P.2. -3 Verbal. -कः 1 A speaker. -2 A reader. -3 A significant word. -4 A messenger. -Comp. -पदम् a significant word.
vāsanāmaya वासनामय a. Consisting in notions, ideas or impressions.
vilakṣ विलक्ष् 1 U. 1 To see, observe, perceive, notice. -2 To characterize, distinguish. -3 To be confused, be bewildered; निर्व्यापारविलक्षितानि सान्त्वय बलानि U.6; see विलक्ष below.
vyapadeśaḥ व्यपदेशः 1 Representation, information, notice; अलं वै व्यपदेशेन धनुरायच्छ राघव Mb.3.99.49. -2 Designation by name, naming. -3 A name, an appellation, a title; एवं व्यपदेशभाजः U.6. -4 A family, race; अथ को$स्य व्यपदेशः Ś.7; व्यपदेशमाविलयितुं किमीहसे जनमिमं च पातयितुम् Ś.5.21. -5 Fame, reputation, renown; also in adjectival senses; व्यपदेशकुले जाताः पूजिताश्चाप्यभीक्ष्णशः Rām.4.64.21.; Ms.7 168. -6 A trick, pretext, excuse, device; भारतव्यपदेशेन ह्याम्नायार्थश्च दर्शितः Bhāg.1.4.29. -7 Fraud, craft. -8 Concealment, dissimulation; Māl.7.
vyabhīmānaḥ व्यभीमानः False notion, erroneous view.
vyāvṛttiḥ व्यावृत्तिः f. 1 Covering, screening. -2 Exclusion, separation. -3 Not being found in, absence from; विपक्षाद्व्यावृत्तिः Tarka K. -4 Surrounding. -5 Rolling backwards. -6 Praise, eulogium. -7 Recurrence, repetition; मन्त्रस्य व्यावृत्तिर्न्याय्या ŚB. on MS.12.1.42. -Comp. -बुद्धिः f. the notion of exclusion.
śāstram शास्त्रम् [शिष्यते$नेन शास्-ष्ट्रन्] 1 An order, a command, rule, precept; अतिक्रामति यः शास्त्रं पितुर्धर्मार्थदर्शिनः Mb.5.148. 21. -2 A sacred precept or rule, scriptural injunction; तस्माच्छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते कार्याकार्यव्यवस्थितौ Bg.16.24. -3 A religious or sacred treatise, sacred book, scripture; see comps. below. -4 Any department of knowledege, science; इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रम् Bg.15.2; शास्त्रेष्वकुण्ठिता बुद्धिः R.1.19; often at the end of comp. after the word denoting the subject, or applied collectively to the whole body of teaching on that subject; वेदान्तशास्त्र, न्यायशास्त्र, तर्कशास्त्र, अलंकार- शास्त्र &c. -5 What is learnt, knowledge; Śi.5.47. -6 A work, treatise; तन्त्रैः पञ्चभिरेतच्चकार सुमनोहरं शास्त्रकम् Pt.1. -7 Theory (opp. प्रयोग or practice); इमं मां च शास्त्रे प्रयोगे च विमृशतु M.1. -8 The material and spiritual science together; तत्त्वाभेदेन यच्छास्त्रं तत्कार्यं नान्यथाविधम् Mb. 12.267.9. -Comp. -अतिक्रमः -अननुष्ठानम् violation of sacred precepts, disregard of religious authority. -अनुष्ठानम्, -अनुसारः conformity to or observance of sacred precepts. -अन्वित a. conformable to doctrine or rule. -अभिज्ञ a. versed in the Śāstras. -अर्थः 1 the meaning of the sacred precept. -2 a scriptural precept or statement. -आचरणम् 1 observance of sacred precepts. -2 the study of Śāstras. (-णः) 1 one versed in scriptures. -2 a student of Vedas. -आवर्तलिपिः a particular mode of writing. -उक्त a. prescribed by sacred laws, enjoined by the Śāstras, lawful, legal. -कारः, -कृत् m. 1 the author of a Śāstra or sacred book. -2 an author in general. -3 a sage, saint. -कोविद a. versed in the Śāstras. -गण्डः a superficial reader of books, superficial scholar. -चक्षुस् n. grammar (as being the 'eye', as it were, with which to understand any Śāstra). -चारणः one who deserves sacred precepts. -ज्ञ, -दर्शिन्, -विद् a. 1 well-versed in the Śāstras. -2 a mere theorist. -ज्ञानम् knowledge of sacred books, conversancy with scriptures. -तत्त्वम् truth as taught in the Śāstras, scriptural truth. ˚ज्ञः an astronomer. -दृष्ट a. stated or enjoined in sacred books; तदहं प्रष्टुमिच्छामि शास्त्रदृष्टेन कर्मणा Rām. -दृष्टिः f. scriptural point of view. -m. an astrologer. -प्रसंगः 1 the subject of the Śāstras. -2 any discussion on scriptural points. -योनिः the source of the Śāstras. -वक्तृ an expounder of sacred books or knowledge. -वर्जित a. free from all rule or law. -वादः a precept or statement of the Śāstras. -विधानम्, -विधिः a sacred precept, scriptural injunction. -विप्रतिषेधः, -विरोधः 1 mutual contradiction of sacred precepts, inconsistency of precepts. -2 any act contrary to sacred precepts. -विमुख a. averse from study; Pt.1. -विरुद्ध a. contrary to the Śāstras, illegal, unlawful. -व्युत्पत्तिः f. intimate knowledge of the sacred writings, proficiency in the Śāstras. -शिल्पिन् m. the country of Kāśmīra. -सिद्ध a. established by sacred authority.
saṃlakṣ संलक्ष् 1 U. 1 To observe, perceive, see, notice; आश्चर्यदर्शनः संलक्ष्यते मनुष्यलोकः Ś.7; संलक्ष्यते न च्छिदुरो$पि हारः R.16.62 'is not noticed or known'; 8.42. -2 To test, prove, determine; हेम्रः संलक्ष्यते ह्यग्नौ विशुद्धिः श्यामिकापि वा R.1.1. -3 To hear, learn, understand. -4 To characterize, distinguish.
saṃskāraḥ संस्कारः 1 Making perfect, refining, polishing; (मणिः) प्रयुक्तसंस्कार इवाधिकं बभौ R.3.18. -2 Refinement, perfection, grammatical purity (as of words); संस्कार- वत्येव गिरा मनीषी Ku.1.28 (where Malli, renders the word by व्याकरणजन्या शुद्धिः); R.15.76. -3 Education, cultivation, training (as of the mind); निसर्ग- संस्कारविनीत इत्यसौ नृपेण चक्रे युवराजशब्दभाक् R.3.35; Ku. 7.1. -4 Making ready, preparation. -5 Cooking, dressing (as of food &c.). -6 Embellishment, decoration, ornament; स्वभावसुन्दरं वस्तु न संस्कारमपेक्षते Dṛi. Ś. 49; Ś.7.23; Mu.2.1. -7 Consecration, sanctification, hallowing; संस्कारो नाम स भवति यस्मिञ्जाते पदार्थो भवति योग्यः कस्यचिदर्थस्य ŚB. on MS.3.1.3. -3 Impression, form, mould, operation, influence; यन्नवे भोजने लग्नः संस्कारो नान्यथा भवेत् H. Pr.8; Bh.3.84. -9 Idea, notion, conception. -1 Any faculty or capacity. -11 Effect of work, merit of action; फलानुमेयाः प्रारम्भाः संस्काराः प्राक्तना इव R.1.2. -12 The self-reproductive quality, faculty of impression; one of the 24 qualities or guṇas recognised by the Vaiśeṣikas; it is of three kinds: भावना, वेग, and स्थितिस्थापकता q .q. v. v. -13 The faculty of recollection, impression on the memory; संस्कारमात्रजन्यं ज्ञानं स्मृतिः T. S. -14 A purificatory rite, a sacred rite or ceremony; संस्कारार्थं शरीरस्य Ms.2.66; R.1.78; (Manu mentions 12 such Saṃskāras viz. 1. गर्भाधान, 2. पुंसवन, 3. सीमन्तोन्नयन, 4. जातकर्मन्, 5. नामकर्मन्, 6. निष्क्रमण, 7. अन्नप्राशन, 8. चूडाकर्मन्, 9. उपनयन, 1. केशान्त, 11. समावर्तन, and 12. विवाह; see Ms.2.26 &c.; some writers increase the number to sixteen). -15 Purification, purity. -16 A rite or ceremony in general. -17 Investiture with the sacred thread; मांसं मूत्रं पुरीषं च प्राश्य संस्कारमर्हति Mb.12.165.76. -18 Obsequial ceremonies. -19 A polishing stone; संस्कारोल्लिखितो महामणिरिव क्षीणो$पि नालक्ष्यते Ś.6.5 (where संस्कार may mean 'polishing' also). -Comp. -पूत a. 1 purified by sacred rites. -2 purified by refinement or education. -भूषणम् (speech) adorned by correctness. -रहित, -वर्जित, -हीन a. (a person of one of the three higher castes) over whom the purificatory ceremonies, particularly the threadceremony, have not been performed and who therefore becomes a Vrātya or outcast; cf. व्रात्य. -शब्दः a word which gains its currency owing to संस्कार; संस्कारशब्दा एते आहवनीयादयः ŚB. on MS.5.3.21.
saṃgrahaḥ संग्रहः 1 Seizing, grasping; taking; प्रज्वाल्य तत्र चैवाग्नि- मकरोत् पाणिसंग्रहम् Rām.7.12.2. -2 Clenching the fist, grasp, grip. -3 Reception, admission. -4 Guarding, protection; तथा ग्रामशतानां च कुर्याद्राष्ट्रस्य संग्रहम् Ms.7.114. -5 Favouring, propitiating, entertaining, supporting; धनैः कार्यो$स्य संग्रहः Ms.3.138;8.311. -6 Storing, accumulation, gathering, collecting; स्वधासंग्रहतत्पराः R.1.66; तैः कृतप्रकृतिसंग्रहैः 19.55;17.6. -7 Governing, restraining, controlling; एव वै परमो योगो मनसः संग्रहः स्मृतः Bhāg. 11.2.21. -8 Conglomeration. -9 Conjunction. -1 Agglomeration (a kind of संयोग). -11 Inclusion, comprehension. -12 Compilation. -13 Epitome, summary, abridgment, compendium; संग्रहेण प्रवक्ष्यन्ते Bg.8.11; so तर्कसंग्रहः; मय्यावेशितया युक्त एतावान् योगसंग्रहः Bhāg.11.23.61. -14 Sum, amount, totality; करणं कर्म कर्तेति त्रिविधः कर्मसंग्रहः Bg.18.18. -13 A catalogue, list. -16 A store-room. -17 An effort, exertion. -18 Mention, reference. -19 Greatness, elevation. -2 Velocity. -21 N. of Śiva. -22 A guardian, ruler, manager; ततो निक्षिप्य काकुत्स्थो लक्ष्मणं द्वारि संग्रहम् Rām.7.13.15. -23 The fetching back of discharged weapons by magical means; Mb. -24 Taking to wife, marriage. -25 Perception, notion, -Comp. -श्लोकः a verse summarizing what has been mentioned before.
saṃbudh संबुध् 1 U., 4 Ā. 1 To know, understand, learn; become aware of; संभुत्सीष्ठाः सुनयनयनैर्विद्विषामीहितानि Bk. 19.3. -2 To perceive, observe, notice. -3 To wake up, rise from sleep. -Caus. 1 To inform, acquaint with, give information about; तवागतिज्ञं समबोधयन् माम् R.13.25. -2 To address, call out to. -3 To instruct. -4 To admonish, advise. -5 To wake up, rouse. -6 To explain.
sādhana साधन a. (-नी f.) [साध् णिच् ल्यु ल्युट् वा] 1 Accomplishing, effecting &c. -2 Procuring. -3 Conjuring up (a spirit). -4 Denoting, expresssive of. -नम् 1 Accomplishing, effecting, performing, as in स्वार्थसाधनम्. -2 Fulfilment, accomplishment, complete attiainment of an object; प्रजार्थसाधने तौ हि पर्यायोद्यतकार्मुकौ R.4.16. -3 A means, an expedient, a means of accomplishing anything; असाधना अपि प्राज्ञा बुद्धिमन्तो बहुश्रुताः । साधयन्त्याशु कार्याणि Pt.2.1; शरीरमाद्यं खलु धर्मसाधनम् Ku.5.33,52; R.1.19; 4.36,62. -4 An instrument, agent; कुठारः छिदिक्रिया- साधनम् -5 The efficient cause, source, cause in general. -6 The instrumental case. -7 Implement, apparatus. -8 Appliance, materials. -9 Matter, ingredients, substance. -1 An army or a part thereof; व्यावृत्तं च विपक्षतो भवति यत्तत्साधनं सिद्धये Mu.5.1. -11 Aid, help, assistance (in general). -12 Proof, substantiation, demonstration. -13 The hetu or middle term in a syllogism, reason, that which leads to a conclusion; साध्ये निश्चितमन्वयेन घटितं बिभ्रत् सपक्षे स्थितिं । व्यावृत्तं च विपक्षतो भवति यत्तत् साधनं सिद्धये ॥ Mu.5.1. -14 Subduing, overcoming. -15 Subduing by charms. -16 Accomplishing anything by charms or magic. -17 Healing, curing. -18 Killing, destroying; फलं च तस्य प्रतिसाधनम् Ki.14.17. -19 Conciliating, propitiating, winning over. -2 Going out, setting forward, departure. -21 Going after, following. -22 Penance, self-mortification. -23 Attainment of final beatitude. -24 A medicinal preparation, drug, medicine. -25 (In law) Enforcement of the the delivery of anything, or of the payment of debt, infliction of fine. -26 A bodily organ. -27 The penis. -28 An udder. -29 Wealth. -3 Friendship. -31 Profit, advantage. -32 Burning a dead body. -33 Obsequies. -34 Killing or oxydation of metals. -35 Proof, argument. -36 Conflict, battle. -37 (In gram.) Instrument, agent. -38 Making ready, preparation. -39 Gain, acquisition. -4 Calculation. -Comp. -अध्यक्षः Superintendent or captain of the military forces. -अर्ह a. worthy of being proved or accomplished. -क्रिया 1 a finite verb. -2 an action connected with a Kāraka. -क्षम a. admitting proof. -निर्देशः production of proof. -पत्रम् a document used as evidence.
sāmānya सामान्य a. [समानस्य भावः ष्यञ्] 1 Common, general; सामान्यमेषां प्रथमावरत्वम् Ku.7.44; आहारनिद्राभयमैथुनं च सामान्यमेतत् पशुभिर्नराणाम् Subhāṣ; R.14.67; Ku.2.26. -2 Alike, equal, same; सामान्यप्रतिपत्तिपूर्वकमियं दारेषु दृश्या त्वया Ś.4.17. -3 Ordinary, of an average or middle degree; सामान्यास्तु परार्थमुद्यमभृतः स्वार्थाविरोधेन ये Bh.2.74. -4 Vulgar, commonplace, insignificant. -5 Entire, whole. -न्यम् 1 Community, generality, universality. -2 Common or generic property, general characteristic; नित्यमेकमनेकसमवेतं सामान्यम् Tarka K. -3 Totality, entireness. -4 Kind, sort. -5 Identity. -6 Equanimity, equability. -7 Public affairs. -8 A general proposition; उक्तिरर्थान्तरन्यासः स्यात् सामान्यविशेषयोः Chandr.5.12. -9 (In Rhet.) A figure of speech thus defined by Mammaṭa:- प्रस्तुतस्य यदन्येन गुणसाम्यविवक्षया । ऐकात्म्यं बध्यते योगात्तत् सामान्यमिति स्मृतम् ॥ K. P.1. -1 A general statement or expression; न सामान्यं विशेषानभिवदति ŚB. on MS.1.8.16. -न्यम् ind. jointly, in common; तैः सार्धं चिन्तयेन्नित्यं सामान्यं संधिविग्रहम् Ms.7.56. -न्या A harlot, prostitute. -comp. -ज्ञानम् knowledge or perception of generic properties. -पक्षः the mean. -पदार्थः the category called सामान्य or generality. -प्रतिपत्तिपूर्वकम् ind. with equal respect; Ś.4. 16. -लक्षणम् a generic definition; इति द्रव्यसामान्यलक्षणानि Tarka K. -वचन a. expressing a common property; P.II.1.55. -2 expressing a general notion; III. 4.5. (-नम्) a substantive. -वनिता a common woman, prostitute. -वाचिन् a. expressive of generality or genus; न हि सामान्यवाची शब्दो विशेषानभिवदति ŚB. on MS.1.8. 16. -शासनम् an edict applicable to all. -शास्त्रम् a general rule.
siddhāntin सिद्धान्तिन् m. 1 One who establishes a conclusion after noticing and answering objections (or पूर्वपक्ष). -2 One learned in scientific text-books. -3 A follower of the Mīmāṁsā philosophy.
spaṣṭa स्पष्ट a. [स्पश्-क्त नि˚ इडभावः] 1 Distinctly visible, evident, cleary perceived, clear, plain, manifest; स्पष्टे जाते प्रत्यूषे K. 'when it was broad day-break'; स्पष्टाकृतिः R.18.3; स्पष्टार्थः &c. -2 Real, true. -3 Full-blown. expanded. -4 One who sees clearly. -ष्टम् ind. 1 Clearly, distinctly, plainly. -2 Openly, boldly. (स्पष्टीकृ means 'to make clear or distinct', explain, elucidate.) -Comp. -अक्षर a. distinctly spoken. -अर्थ a. intelligible, clear. -गर्भा a woman who shows evident signs of pregnancy. -प्रतिपत्तिः f. distinct notion, clear perception. -भाषिन्, -वक्तृ a. plain-spoken, outspoken, candid.
svastikaḥ स्वस्तिकः [स्वस्ति शुभाय हितं क] 1 A kind of mystical mark () on persons or things denoting good luck. -2 A lucky object. -3 The meeting of four roads. -4 The crossing of the arms, making a sign like the cross; स्तनविनिहितहस्तस्वस्तिकाभिर्वधूभिः Māl.4.1; Śi.1.43. -5 A palace of particular form. -6 A particular symbol made with ground rice and shaped like a triangle. -7 A kind of cake. -8 A voluptuary, libertine. -9 Garlic. -1 A kind of bard (who utters words of eulogy); पुरःसरैः स्वस्तिकसूतमागधैः Rām.2.16.46 (com. स्वस्तिका जयजयेति वादिनो बन्दिनः). -कः, -कम् 1 A mansion or temple of a particular form with a terrace in front. -2 A particular mode of sitting practised by Yogins (in which the toes are placed in the inner hollow of the knees). -3 A seat (पीठ) prepared for a deity; Mb.12.4.7. (com. स्वस्तिकान् सर्वतोभद्राद्यङ्कितानि देवतापीठानि). -Comp. -कर्ण a. marked on the ear with the figure स्वस्तिक. -पाणि a. 1 crossing hands like स्वस्तिकं. -2 holding auspicious things in hands; श्रुत्वा चेदं वचनं पार्थिवस्य सर्वं पुरं स्वस्तिकपाणिभूतम् Mb.4.68.27 (com. स्वस्तिकं मङ्गलारार्तिकादि दधिदूर्वादि च पाणौ यस्य तत् स्वस्तिकपाणिभूतम्).
hāhā हाहा m. N. of a Gandharva; हा हेति गायन् यदशोचि तेन नाम्नापि हाहा हरिगायनो$भूत् N.2.27; हाहाहूहूभ्यां त्वा गन्धर्वाभ्यां परिददामि Kaus.7.56.13. -ind. An exclamation denoting pain, grief or surprise, (it is simply हा repeated for the sake of emphasis; see हा); हा हा देवि स्फुटति हृदयं ध्वंसते देहबन्धः U.3.38. -Comp. -कारः 1 a grief, lamentation, loud wailing. -2 the din or uproar of battle. -रवः the cry हाहा.
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akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
abhedasaṃsargaa connection of unity, as noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the ending ति of a verb, which produces the sense.
asaṃkhyanot possessing any notion of number; the word is used in connection with avyayas or indeclinables; यथैव हि अलिङ्गमव्ययमेवमसंख्यमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.82.
ākṛtiliterally form; individual thing; confer, compare एकस्या अाकृतेश्चरितः प्रयोगो द्वितीयस्यास्तृतीयस्याश्च न भवति M.Bh on III.1.40 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6. The word is derived as आक्रियते सा आकृतिः and explained as संस्थानम्; confer, compare आक्रियते व्यज्यते अनया इति आकृतिः संस्थानमुच्यते Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on IV.1.63; (2) general form which, in a way, is equivalent to the generic notion or genus; confer, compare आकृत्युपदेशात्सिद्धम् । अवर्णाकृतिरुपदिष्टा सर्वमवर्णकुलं ग्रहीष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 1; (3) notion of genus; cf also यत्तर्हि तद् भिन्नेष्वभिन्नं छिनेष्वच्छिन्नं सामान्यभूतं स शब्दः । नेत्याह । अाकृतिर्नाम सा. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya.1; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; confer, compare R. Prāt. XVI.56,57.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
ādhikyasuperfluity, superiority, notion of surplus; cf यदत्राधिक्यं वाक्यार्थः सः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.3.46, II.3. 50.
aāyāmatension of the limbs or organs producing sound, which is noticed in the utterance of a vowel which is accented acute ( उदात्त ) अायामो गात्राणां दैघ्र्यमाकर्षणं वा; commentary on Tait. Prāt. XXII. 9; confer, compare ऊर्ध्वगमनं गात्राणाम् वायुनिमित्तं U1. varia lectio, another reading,on R. Prāt. III.1; confer, compare also ऊर्ध्वगमनं शरीरस्य commentary on Vāj. Prāt I.31; confer, compare also आयामो दारुण्यमणुता रवत्येत्युच्चैःकराणि शाब्दस्य M.Bh. on P. I.2.29.
āvaśyakanecessary notion or thing; cf ओरावश्यके । आवश्यंभाव आवश्यकम् Kāś. on III.1.125, III.3.170.
upagītaa fault in the pronunciation of letters, noticed sometimes in the utterance of a letter adjoining such a letter as is coloured with a musical tone on account of the proximity of the adjacent letter which is uttered in a musical note and which therefore is called 'प्रगीत'; confer, compare प्रगीतः सामवदुच्चारितः । उपगीतः समीपवर्णान्तरगीत्यानुरक्तः Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh. I. Āhnika 1.
upajīvyaa term used by later grammarians in connection with such a rule on which another rule depends confer, compare उपजीव्यादन्तरङ्गाच्व प्रधानं प्रबलम् Pari. Śekh. on Pari. 97, as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on हेतुमति च P. III.1.26. The relationship known as उपजीव्योपजीवकभाव occurs several times in grammar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world.
ūṅfeminine. affix ऊ prescribed after masculine nouns ending in the vowel ऊ and denoting a human being as also after some other specific masculine bases cf ऊङुतः P.IV. I.66 and the following sūtras. exempli gratia, for example कुरूः, पङ्गूः श्वश्रूः, करभोरूः, भद्रबाहूः et cetera, and others
karaviṇīor कर्विणी name of a svarabhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel लृ, noticed in the case of the consonant ल् when followed by the sibilant ह्; confer, compare करेणू रहयोर्योगे कर्विणी लहकारयोः । हरिणी रशसानां च हारिता लशकारयोः ॥ करेणुः बर् हिः । कर्विणी भलहाः Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXI. 15. See स्वरभक्ति.
kariṇīname of a svarabhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel ऋ noticed in the case of the consonant र्. when it is followed by ह् e. g. बर् हिः करिणी is named करेणु also.
kartṛsthabhāvaka(a root)whose action or happening is noticed functioning in the subject; exempli gratia, for example the root स्मृ. confer, compare कर्तस्थभावकश्चायं (स्मरतिः) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). of I.3.67, कतृस्थभावकश्च शेतिः (शीधातुः) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.55.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
karmavadbhāvathe activity of the agent or kartā of an action represented as object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical operations: e. g. भिद्यते काष्ठं स्वयमेव;. करिष्यते कटः स्वयमेव. To show facility of a verbal activity on the object, when the agent or kartā is dispensed with, and the object is looked upon as the agent, and used also as an agent, the verbal terminations ति, त; et cetera, and others are not applied in the sense of an agent, but they are applied in the sense of an object; consequently the sign of the voice is not अ (शप्), but य (यक्) and the verbal terminations are त, आताम् et cetera, and others (तङ्) instead of ति, तस् et cetera, and others In popular language the use of an expression of this type is called Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III.1.87. Only such roots as are कर्मस्थक्रियक or कर्मस्थभावक id est, that is roots whose verbal activity is noticed in the object and not in the subject can have this Karmakartari-Prayoga.
karmasthabhāvaka(roots)having their verbal action or happening noticed in the object; e. g. the root आस् and शी in बालमासयति शाययति where the function of the root bears effect in the Object boy and not in the movements of the object as in the sentence बालमवरुणद्धि. See कर्मस्थक्रिय a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as also M.Bh. on III.1.87 and Kaiyaṭa on the same.
karṣaṇaextension; protraction, defined as kālaviprakarṣa by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronunciation of ट् when followed by च् , or ड् when followed by ज् exempli gratia, for example षट्चै; षड्जात. confer, compare Nār. Śik. I.7.19.
kaskādia class of compound-words headed by कस्क in which the visarga occurring at the end of the first member is noticed as changed into स् against the usual rules e. g. कस्क:, कौतस्कुतः भ्रातुष्पुत्रः, सद्यस्कालः, धनुष्कपालम् and others; confer, compare P. VIII.3.48. As this कस्कादिगण is said to be अाकृतिगण, similar words can be said to be in the कस्कादिगण although they are not actually mentioned in the गणपाठ.
kālanotion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा or कालमात्रा, literally measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ,& प्लुत measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; confer, compare ऊकालोSझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत), present (वर्तमान), and future (भविष्यत्) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना and भविष्यन्ती were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल; also confer, compare पाणिन्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital ( पाठदेश ) depending on the time of recital, confer, compare न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1.
kaikṛt affix ऐ used in Vedic Literature as noticed in the forms प्रयै रोहिष्यै and अव्यथिष्यै: confer, compare P.III.4.10.
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
gatyarthaa root denoting motion; the word frequently occurs in the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Mahābhāṣya in connection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are गत्यर्थ. There is also a conventional expression सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्था: meaning 'roots denoting motion denote also knowledge'; confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. Pari. 121 .
ṅīṣfeminine. afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः confer, compare P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc exempli gratia, for example इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' confer, compare P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.
jātigenus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kindeclinable The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.
jātisvarathe acute accent for the last vowel of a word ending with क्त of the past passive participle. denoting a genus; confer, compare P. VI. 2.170.
jātyaname of a variety of the Svarita or circumflex accent; the original svarita accent as contrasted with the svarita for the grave which follows upon an acute as prescribed by P. in VIII. 4.67, and which is found in the words इन्द्रः, होता et cetera, and others The jatya svarita is noticed in the words स्वः, क्व, न्यक्, कन्या et cetera, and others; .confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं स्वरितमनुदात्तं पदेक्षरम्। अतोन्यत् स्वरितं स्वारं जात्यमाचक्षते पदे॥ जात्या स्वभावेनैव उदात्तानुदात्तसंगतिं विना जातो जात्यः । तं जात्यमाचक्षतै व्याडिप्रभृयः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) and commentary III. 4.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṭhañtaddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied (1) to महृाराज, प्रोष्ठपद and क्वाचिन् in the specifieditionsenses, confer, compare P. IV.2.35, 4l e. g. माहृाराजिक, प्रौष्ठपदिक et cetera, and others; (2) to words काशि, चेदि, संज्ञा and others, along with ञिठ, e. g. काशिकी, काशिका, also with ञिठ to words denoting villages in the Vahika country exempli gratia, for example शाकलिकी शाकलिका; as also to words ending in उ forming names of countries in all the Saisika senses confer, compare P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to compound words having a word showing direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words शरद्, निशा and प्रदोष in the Saisika senses; cf P. IV.3.6, 7, 1115; (4) to the words वर्षा (1n Vedic Literature), and to हेमन्त and वसन्त in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P.IV.3.1921; (5) to संवत्सर, अाग्रहायणी, words having अन्तः as the first member, to the word ग्राम preceded by परि or अनु, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acute, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming names of sages, to words ending in ऋ and to the word महाराज in the specific senses which are mentioned; confer, compare P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the words गोपुच्छ, श्वगण, आक्रन्द, लवण, परश्वध, compound words having a multisyllabic words as their first member, and to the words गुड et cetera, and others in the specified senses;confer, compareP.IV.4.6,II, 38, 52, 58, 64, 103;(7) to any word as a general taddhita affix. affix (अधिकारविहित), unless any other affix has been specified in the specified senses ' तेन क्रीतम् ' ' तस्य निमित्तम्' ... ' तदर्हम्' mentioned in the section of sutras V. 1. 18. to 117; (8) to the words अय:शूल, दण्ड, अजिन, compound words having एक or गो as their first member as also to the words निष्कशत and निष्कसहस्र; confer, compare P.V.2.76, 118,119.
ḍāverb-ending आ, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd person. sing, affix तिप् of the first future; exempli gratia, for example क्रर्ता ; confer, compare P.II.4.85; (2) case ending आ substituted in Vedic Literature for any case affix as noticed in Vedic usages; exempli gratia, for example नाभा पृथिव्याम्: confer, compare P. VII.1.39
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tulyādhikaraṇahaving got the same substratum; denoting ultimately the same object; expressed in the same case the same as samanadhikarana in the grammar of Panini, confer, compare Kat. II.5.5.
dikśabdaa word denoting a direction such as पूर्व, उत्तर and the like, used as a substantive, e. g. पूर्वो ग्रामात् , or showing the direction of another thing being its adjective, e. g. इयमस्याः पूर्वा; cf Kas, on P. II.3.29.
dravyasubstance, as opposed to गुण property and क्रिया action which exist on dravya. The word सत्त्व is used by Yaska, Panini and other grammarians in a very general sense as something in completed formation or existence as opposed to 'bhava' or kriya or verbal activity, and the word द्रव्य is used by old grammarians as Synonymous with सत्त्व; confer, compare चादयोSसत्वे। चादयो निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति न चेत्सत्वे वर्तन्ते, confer, compare Kas on P. I. 4.57; confer, compare S.K. also on P. I.4.57. (2)The word द्रव्य is also found used in the sense of an individual object, as opposed to the genus or generic notion ( अाकृति ); confer, compare द्रव्याभिधानं व्याडिः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64. Vart. 45.(3)The word द्रव्य is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. confer, compare तत्र शब्दद्रव्याण्युदाहरिष्यामः । शब्दरूपाणि साधनानि वर्णयिष्यामः Tai, Pr. XXII. 8.
dravyavadbhāvabehaviour like a dravya as noticed in the case of the bhava or kriya found in a root after a krt afix is added to it confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.19, III.1.67 et cetera, and others
dviguname of a compound with a numeral as the first member. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpurusa comPoundThe dvigu compound, having collection as its general sense, is declined in the neuter gender and singular number; when it ends in अ the feminine. affix ङी is added generally, e. g. पञ्चपात्रम्, त्रिभुवनम्, पञ्चमूली. The Dvigu comPound also takes place when a karmadharaya compound, having a word denoting a direction or a numeral as its first member, (a) has a taddhita affix. affix added to it exempli gratia, for example पञ्चकपाळः (पुरोडाशः), or (b) has got a word placed after it in a compound e. g. पशञ्चगवधनः or (c) has a collective sense exempli gratia, for example पञ्चपूली; confer, compare तद्वितार्थोत्तरपदसमाहारे च ( P. II.1.51 ) also, cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. and S. K. om P.II.1.51,52.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
padārthameaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padārtha or meaning of a word, and support their view by quoting the sūtras of Pāņini जात्याख्यायामेकस्मिन् बहुवचनमन्यतरस्याम् I. 2.58 and सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ I. 2.64; confer, compare किं पुनराकृतिः पदार्थ अाहोस्विद् द्रव्यम् । उभयमित्याह । कथं ज्ञायते । उभयथा ह्याचार्येण सूत्राणि प्रणीतानि । अाकृतिं पदार्थे मत्वा जात्याख्यायामित्युच्यते | द्रव्यं पदार्थे मत्वा सरूपाणामित्येकशेष अारभ्यते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in I. 1. first Āhnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the wording, as the science of grammar deals with words and their formation; confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा, P. I. 1. 68. The possession of vocal element as the sense is technically termed शब्दपदार्थकता as opposed to अर्थपदार्थकता; confer, compare सोसौ गोशब्दः स्वस्मात्पदार्थात् प्रच्युतो यासौ अर्थपदार्थकता तस्याः शब्दपदार्थकः संपद्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.44 V. 3. The word पदार्थ means also the categories or the predicaments in connection with the different Śāstrās or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Sāmkhyaśāstra or 7 in the Vaiśeșika system or 16 in the NyayaŚāstra. The Vyākaranaśāstra, in this way to state, has only one category the Akhandavākyasphota or the radical meaning given by the sentence in one strok
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
parokṣaused as an adjective of the word भूत meaning 'past tense'; literally behind the eyes, unnoticed by the eyes. The word is generally used in the sense of remote or long (past) or 'perfect'. For the alternative explanation of the word परोक्ष, confer, compare कथंजातीयकं पुनः परोक्षं नाम । केचित्तावदाहुः वर्षशतवृत्तं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुः क्रटान्तरितं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुर्ह्याहवृत्तं त्र्यहंर्वृत्तं चेति । M.Bh. on परोक्षे लिट् P. III.2.115.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
puṃvadbhāvarestoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the taddhita affix. affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पा​श, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition.
punarvacanause of the same word or expression, which, if noticed in the writing of the Sūtrakāra, is indicative of something in the mind of the Sūtrakāra; confer, compare अणः पुनर्वचनमपवादविषये अनिवृत्त्यर्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). of P III. 3. 12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1; cf also पुनर्वचनमनित्यत्वज्ञापनार्थम् । Kāś. on P. I. 41"
pūrvapadaprakṛtisvararetention of the original acute accent of the first member in a compound as is generally noticed in the bahuvrihi compound and in special cases in other compounds; cf बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् and the following rules P. WI. 2.1 to 63.
pūrvapadārthaprādhānyaimportance in sense possessed by the first member of a compound as noticed generally in the case of the avyayibhava com pound, which hence is defined as पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोव्ययीभावः M.Bh on P.I I. I.6, II.1.20, II. 1.49.
prakampadepression of the voice after raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view to show the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly, in spite of the fact that such a depression is generally looked upon as a.fault; confer, compare असन्दिग्धान् स्वरान् ब्रूयादविकृष्टानकाम्पितान् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.18 as also जात्योभिानिहितश्चैव क्षैप्रः प्रश्लिष्ट एव च । एते स्वराः प्रकम्पन्ते यत्रोच्चस्वरितोदयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 19.
pratyakṣakriyaa word in which the verbal activity is actual