Select your preferred input and type any Sanskrit or English word. Enclose the word in “” for an EXACT match e.g. “yoga”.
     Grammar Search "minute" has 1 results.
minute: third person singular present present class 5 ātmanepadami
     Amarakosha Search  
3 results
kākalīFeminineSingularminute tone
122 results for minute
abhijinmuhūrtam. the eighth muhūrta- (the period comprising twenty-four minutes before and twenty-four after midday). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āhārikam. (with jaina-s) one of the five bodies belonging to the soul (a minute form, issuing from the head of a meditative sage to consult an omniscient saint and returning with the desired information, ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpamf(ā-)n. (m. plural e-or ās- ) small, minute, trifling, little etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpakamf(ikā-)n. small, minute, trifling etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpāñjimfn. covered with minute spots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpatāf. smallness, minuteness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpatvan. smallness, minuteness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṃśum. end of a thread, a minute particle
anaṇīyasmfn. not at all minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaṇumfn. not minute or fine coarse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āṇavamfn. (fr. /aṇu-), fine, minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇimanm. (fr. aṇu- q.v), minuteness, fineness, thinness etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇiṣṭhamfn. (fr. aṇu- q.v), most minute. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇīyas an-, as-,, as (fr. aṇu- q.v), ([ ]) mfn. more minute than usual. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇīyaska([ ]) mfn. more minute than usual. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇumf(-)n. fine, minute, atomic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇum. "an atom of time", the 54675000th part of a muhūrta- (of 48 minutes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇuind. minutely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇūbhūto become minute or atomic. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇukamfn. fine, minute, atomic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇuśasind. into or in minute particles. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇutāf. minuteness, atomic nature. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇutaramfn. very fine or minute, gentle. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anutilamind. grain after grain (of Sesamum), by grains, very minutely, (gaRa parimukhādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṇutvan. minuteness, atomic nature. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anvākhyānan. a minute account or statement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arbhakamfn. small, minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asum. (in astronomy)"respiration" , = four seconds of sidereal time or one minute of arc View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asūkṣmamfn. not fine or minute, thick, gross. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanakalāf. plural the correction (in minutes) for ecliptic deviation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūrṇamfn. ( carv-) minute, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūrṇif. "noticing every minute point of difficulty", Name of 's commentator or commentary (mahā-bhāṣya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūrṇīf. "noticing every minute point of difficulty", Name of 's commentator or commentary (mahā-bhāṣya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśanālimfn. 10x24 minutes long View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghaṭakam. a period of time (= 24 [or 48 ]minutes) on (YV) 25 and 40 f. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghaṭīf. (also ṭi- q.v; see ṭī-ghaṭa-) a period of time (= 24 minutes) Scholiast or Commentator on and on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghaṭīkāf. equals ṭikā- (24 minutes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇḍ (see guṇṭh-) cl.10. ḍayati-, to cover, conceal, protect ; to pound, comminute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalāf. a division of time (said to be 1/900 of a day or 1-6 minutes ;or 1/1800 of a day or 0-8 minutes commentator or commentary on ;or 2 minutes and 26 54/201 seconds ;or 1 minute and 35 205/301, seconds, or 8 seconds ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalāf. the sixtieth part of one-thirtieth of a zodiacal sign, a minute of a degree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇam. any minute particle, atom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇāf. a minute particle, atom, drop View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇaśasind. in small parts, in minute particles View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khaṇḍinmfn. divided, comminuted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīlam. a minute particle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kīlāf. a minute particle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiraṇam. dust, very minute dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛśamf(ā-)n. small, little, minute, insignificant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣaṇam. a moment regarded as a measure of time (equal to thirty kalā-s or four minutes ;or (in astronomy) to 48 minutes etc.;or 4/5 or 24/35 seconds ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣaudran. smallness, minuteness gaRa pṛthvādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetraliptāf. a minute of the ecliptic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetraliptīkaraṇan. reducing to minutes of the ecliptic. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣodimanm. minuteness, excessive smallness or inferiority gaRa pṛthv-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣodiṣṭhamfn. very small or minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣodīyasmfn. very fine or minute () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudramf(ā-)n. (Comparative degree kṣodīyas-,superl. diṣṭha-,qq.vv.) minute, diminutive, tiny, very small, little, trifling etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudrakamfn. small, minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudralamfn. minute, small, unimportant (applied to animals and diseases) gaRa sidhmādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudraṃcaramfn. grazing on small or minute herbs (as a deer) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudrāṇḍam. "born from minute eggs", in compound kṣudrāṇḍamatsyasaṃghāta -matsyasaṃghāta- m. small fry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudratāf. minuteness, smallness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣullamfn. (originally a Prakrit form of kṣudr/a-;derived fr. 2. kṣ/udh-and - ) small, little, minute, inferior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laghumf(-,or u-)n. small, minute, slight, little, insignificant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lavam. a minute division of time, the 60th of a twinkling, half a second, a moment (according to to others 1/4000 or 1/5400 or 1/20250 of a muhūrta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lavaśasind. in minute divisions or instants, after some moments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptāf. = , a minute, the 60th part of a degree (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptīkṛP. -karoti-, to reduce to minutes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāsūkṣmamfn. very fine or minute or subtle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātrāf. a minute portion, particle, atom, trifle etc. ( mātrayā trayā-, small portions, in slight measure, moderately ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mi (see 3. -and -) cl.5. P. A1. () min/oti-, minute- (perfect tense P. mimāya-, mimy/uḥ- , mamau-,Gr,; A1. mimye- grammar Aorist amāsīt-, sta- ; preceding mīyāt-, māsīṣṭa- ; future mātā-, māsyati-, te- ; parasmE-pada meṣyat-[?] ; ind.p. -mitya- , -māya- grammar), to fix or fasten in the earth, set up, found, build, construct ; to mete out, measure ; to judge, observe, perceive, know ; to cast, throw, scatter : Passive voice mīy/ate- (Aorist amāyi- grammar), to be fixed etc. : Causal māpayati- (Aorist amīmapat-) grammar : Desiderative mitsati-, te- : Intensive memīyate-, memayīte-, memeti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muhūrtam. a particular division of time, the 3oth part of a day, a period of 48 minutes (in plural personified as the children of muhūrta-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nālī nāli mfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals likā-, a period of 24 minutes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāli nālī mfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals likā-, a period of 24 minutes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nālikāf. a period of 24 minutes, iv, 570 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nālikamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' a period of 24 minutes (see ṣaṇṇ-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcanālimfn. lasting 3 x 24 minutes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paramāṇutāf. infinite minuteness, the state of an atom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalgumf(-,or -)n. small, minute, feeble, weak, pithless, unsubstantial, insignificant, worthless, unprofitable, useless etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakalāf. part of a part, a minute portion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramiP. A1. -minoti-, -minute-, to erect, build ; to judge, observe, perceive commentator or commentary (ind.p. pra-māya-). 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratanumfn. very thin or fine, delicate, minute, slender, small, insignificant (also -ka-; pratanukam -kam- ind.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyavayavavarṇanāf. a detailed or minute description View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravipalam. or n. (?) a particular minute division of time, a small part of a vipala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puruṣam. (with sapta-) Name of the divine or active principles from the minute portions of which the universe was formed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃcūrṇP. -cūrṇayati-, to grind to powder, comminute, pulverize View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃcūrṇitamfn. completely pulverized or comminuted, cut or broken to pieces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammiP. A1. -minoti-, -minute-, to fasten at the same time or together, fix, erect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṇṇālikamfn. lasting six times 24 minutes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarṣapam. a mustard-seed used as a weight, any minute weight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarumfn. (for śaru-fr. śrī-,p.1056) minute, thin, fine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saukṣmyan. minuteness, fineness, subtlety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślakṣṇamf(ā-)n. small, minute, thin, slim, fine (see compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
spandanan. throbbing, pulsation, palpitation, quivering, twitching (twitchings and quiverings of the body are supposed to prognosticate good or bad luck, and are therefore minutely described in certain works;See above ), trembling, agitation etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmamf(ā-)n. (prob. connected with sūci-,) minute, small, fine, thin, narrow, short, feeble, trifling, insignificant, unimportant (with artha- m."a trifling matter") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmamānan. minute or exact measurement, precise computation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmaṣaṭcaraṇam. a minute insect, a sort of tick or louse (said to infest the roots of the eyelashes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmatāf. minuteness, subtlety, fineness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmatamamfn. very subtle or minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmataramfn. more (or most) subtle or minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmībhūtamfn. become subtle or fine, minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmīkṛtamfn. subtilized, made thin or minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumārtsna(s/u--) mfn. (See mṛtsna-) very small or minute or fine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
susūkṣmamf(ā-)n. very minute or small or delicate etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svalpamf(ā-)n. very small or little, minute, very few, short (ena-,"in a short time")
svalpakamf(ik/ā-)n. very small or minute or short View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanīyasmfn. Comparative degree of n/u-, very thin or minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanumf(us-, /ūs-, -)n. thin, slender, attenuated, emaciated, small, little, minute, delicate, fine (texture ) etc. (in compound gaRa kaḍārādi-;also equals -dagdha- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trinālimfn. 3 x 24 minutes long View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tṛṇan. (m. gaRa ardharcādi-; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) grass, herb, any gramineous plant, blade of grass, straw (often symbol of minuteness and worthlessness) (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' accent gaRa ghoṣādi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
truṭif. a very minute space of time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṭuṇṭukamfn. small, minute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udghṛṣP. -gharṣati-, to rub up, rub together, grind, comminute by rubbing ; to rub over ; to strike at, toll (a bell) ; See ud-ghṛṣṭa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upariind. after (with ablative exempli gratia, 'for example' muhūrtād upari-,after a minute;See also tad-upari-etc.) ; ([ confer, compare Zendupairi; Gothic ufar; Old German obar; modern German über; English over; Greek ; Latin super.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavarṇP. -varṇayati-, to tell fully, describe particularly or minutely, communicate, relate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavarṇanan. description, minute description, delineation etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavarṇitamfn. described minutely, delineated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāmanamf(ā-)n. small, minute, short (also of days) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasuṃdharāf. Name of a minute portion of prakṛti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṭakaṇīya(prob.) n. a very minute portion of the Indian fig-tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhūtif. manifestation of might, great power, superhuman power (consisting of eight faculties, especially attributed to śiva-, but supposed also to be attainable by human beings through worship of that deity, viz. aṇiman-,the power of becoming as minute as an atom; laghiman-,extreme lightness; prāpti-,attaining or reaching anything[ exempli gratia, 'for example' the moon with the tip of the finger]; prākāmya-,irresistible will; mahiman-,illimitable bulk; īśitā-,supreme dominion; vaśitā-,subjugating by magic;and kāmāvasāyitā-,the suppressing all desires)
vimiP. -minoti-, -minute-, to fix, build, erect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogam. Name of a variable division of time (during which the joint motion in longitude of the sun and moon amounts to 13 degrees 20 minutes;there are 27 such yoga-s beginning with viṣkambha- and ending with vaidhṛti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
64 results
aṃśuḥ अंशुः [अंश्-मृग˚ कु.] 1 A ray, beam of light; चण्ड˚, घर्मं˚ hot-rayed the sun; सूर्यांशुभिर्भिन्नमिवारविन्दम् Ku.1.32; Iustre, brilliance चण्डांशुकिरणाभाश्च हाराः Rām.5.9.48; Śi.1.9. रत्न˚, नख˚ &c. -2 A point or end. -3 A small or minute particle. - 4 End of a thread. -5 A filament, especially of the Soma plant (Ved.) -6 Garment; decoration. -7 N. of a sage or of a prince. -8 Speed, velocity (वेग). -9 Fine thread -Comp. -उदकम् dew-water. -जालम् a collection of rays, a blaze or halo of light. -धरः -पतिः -भृत्-बाणः -भर्तृ-स्वामिन् the sun, (bearer or lord of rays). -पट्टम् a kind of silken cloth (अंशुना सूक्ष्मसूत्रेणयुक्तं पट्टम्); सश्रीफलैरंशुपट्टम् Y. 1.186; श्रीफलैरंशुपट्टानां Ms.5.12. -माला a garland of light, halo. -मालिन् m. [अंशवो मालेव, ततः अस्त्यर्थे इनि] 1 the sun (wreathed with, surrounded by, rays). -2 the number twelve. -हस्तः [अंशुः हस्त इव यस्य] the sun (who draws up water from the earth by means of his 1 hands in the form of rays).
aṇu अणु a. (णु-ण्वी f.) [अण्-उन्] Minute, small, little, atomic (opp. स्थूल, महत्); अणोरणीयान् Bg.8.9; सर्वोप्ययं नन्वणुः Bh.3.26. insignificantly small; अण्वपि भयम् Ms.6. 4; अण्वपि याच्यमानः Pt.4.26 asked but an atom, a very small quantity, न कन्यायाः पिता विद्वान् गृह्णीयात् शुल्कमण्वपि Ms.3.51. -णुः 1 An atom, a very small particle (an exceedingly small measure); the mote in a sunbeam, the smallest perceptible quantity; अस्थूलमनण्वह्रस्वमदीर्घं ब्रह्म; अणुं पर्वतीकृ Bh.2.78. to magnify; cf. also 'To make mountains of molehills.' -2 An atom of time (व्यञ्जनमर्ध- मात्रा तदर्धम् अणु); it is said to be 54,675, th part of a Muhūrta (48 minutes). -3 N. of Śiva. -4 N. of very small grain such as सर्षप, चीनक &c., अनणुषु दशमांशो$णुष्वथैकादशांशः Līlā. -णु n. the fourth part of a Mātrā. -Comp. -अन्तः [अणुः अन्तो यस्य] a hair-splitting question; (अण्वन्तः सूक्ष्मान्तः सुक्ष्मवस्तुनिर्णयान्तः प्रश्नः Śaṅkara). किमर्थमचारीः पशूनिच्छन्नण्वन्तानिति Br. up. 4.1.1. -तैलम् N. of a medicinal oil. -भा [अण्वी सूक्ष्मा भा प्रभा यस्याः सा] lightning. -मात्र a. [अणुः परिमाणं यस्य अणु-मात्रच्] of the size of an atom. -रेणुः [कर्म.] atomic dust. -रेवती [अणुः सूक्ष्मा रेवतीतारेव] N. of a plant (दन्तीवृक्ष) Croton Polyandrum. -वादः the doctrine of atoms, atomic theory, the theory that all material substances are primarily atoms and secondarily aggregates, and that all atoms are eternal. -वीक्षणम् [ष. त.] 1. minute observation, observation of very minute parts. -2 [अणुः सूक्ष्मो वीक्ष्यते अनेन करणे ल्युट्] an instrument, like the microscope, enabling one to discern the smallest objects. -व्रतानि N. of the twelve smaller vows of laymen adhering to the Jain faith. -व्रीहिः [कर्म.] a fine sort of grain, rice &c.
aṇiman अणिमन् m. [अणु-इमनिच्], अणुता-त्वम् 1 Minuteness, smallness, thinness, leanness, fineness. -2 Atomic nature. -3 The superhuman power of becoming as small as an atom, one of the 8 powers or Siddhis of Śiva; (अणिमा लघिमा प्राप्तिः प्राकाम्यं महिमा तथा । ईशित्वं च वशित्वं च तथा कामावसायिता).
aṇubhū अणुभू 1 P. To become minute or atomic.
anaṇu अनणु a. [न. त.] Not small or minute or fine, coarse. -णुः Coarse grain, peas &c.
anutila अनुतिल a. Following तिल (as a field). -लम् ind. Grain after grain, i. e. by grains or very minutely.
abhijit अभिजित् a. [अभि-जि-क्विप्] 1 Victorious, conquering completely. पराभिजिद्गन्धनगन्धवाहः Rām.6.19.12. -2 Helping in conquering completely. -3 Born under the constellation अभिजित् P.IV.3.36, see अभिजित. m. 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 N. of a sacrifice, part of the great sacrifice called गवामयन; (यजेत) अभिजिद्विश्वजिद्भ्यां वा Ms. 11.75, also used for अतिरात्र q. v. -3 N. of a star; N. of one of the lunar mansions. -4 Name of a son (Hariv.) or the father (V. P.) of Punarvasu. n. 1 The 8th Muhūrta of the day, mid-day (fit for a Śrāddha ceremony). -2 N. of a लग्न favourable to setting out. -Comp. -मुहूर्तः The 8th Muhūrta or period comprising 24 minutes before and 24 minutes after noon. -विश्वजितौ the two Soma-sacrifices Abhijit and Viśvajit.
ayana अयन a. [अय्-ल्युट्] Going (at the end of comp.); यथेमा नद्यः स्यन्दमानाः समुद्रायणाः Praśn. Up. 1 Going, moving, walking; as in रामायणम्. -2 A walk, path, way, road; आयन्नापो$यनमिच्छमानाः Rv.3.33.7. अगस्त्य- चिह्नादयनात् R.16.44. -3 A place, site, abode, place of resort; Bṛi. Up.2.4.11. ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वम् Ms. 1.1 (occurring in the derivation of the word नारायण). -4 A way of entrance, an entrance (to an array of troops or व्यूह); अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमव- स्थिताः Bg.1.11. -5 Rotation, circulation period; अङ्गिरसां अयनम्; इष्टि˚, पशु˚. -6 A particular period in the year for the performance of particular sacrificial or other religious works; N. of certain sacrificial performances; as गवामयनम्. -7 The sun's passage, north and south of the equator. -8 (Hence) The period of this passage, half year, the time from one solstice to another; see उत्तरायण and दक्षिणायन; cf. also सायन and निरयण. -9 the equinoctial and solstitial points; दक्षिणम् अयनम् winter solstice; उत्तरम् अयनम् summer solstice; -1 Method, manner, way. -11 A Śāstra, scripture or inspired writing. -12 Final emancipation; नान्यः पन्था विद्यते$यनाय Śvet. Up. -13 A commentary; treatise. -14 The deities presiding over the ayanas. -Comp. -अंशः, -भागः the arc between the vernal equinoctial point and beginning of the fixed zodiac or first point of Aries. -कलाः The correction (in minutes) for ecliptic deviation. Sūryasiddhānta. -कालः the interval between the solstices. -ग्रहः A planet's longitude as corrected for ecliptic deviation; ibid. -जः a month caused by ayanāṁśa. -परिवृत्तिः Change of the अयन; sun's passage from one side of the equator to the other; अयनपरिवृत्ति- र्व्यस्तशब्देनोच्यते । ŚB. on MS.6.5.37. -संक्रमः, -संक्रान्तिः f. passage through the zodiac. -वृत्तम् the ecliptic.
arbhaka अर्भक a. [According to Nir. अवहृतं भवति ह्रस्वं तस्मादर्भकः] 1 Small, minute, short; नमो महद्भ्यो नमो अर्भकेभ्यः Rv.1.27.13. -2 Weak, emaciated, lean. परिच्छिन्ना भरता अर्भकासः Rv.7.33.6. -3 Foolish. -4 Young, childish; न हि वो अस्त्यर्भको देवासो न कुमारकः Rv.8.3.1. -5 Like, similar. -कः 1 A boy, child; श्रुतस्य यायादयमन्त- मर्भकः R.3.21,25.7.67. -2 The young of an animal. -3 A fool, idiot.
āṇava आणव a. (-वी f.) Exceedingly small. -वम् Exceeding smallness or minuteness.
ādi आदि a. 1 First, primary, primitive; निदानं त्वादिकारणम् Ak. -2 Chief, first, principal, pre-eminent; oft. at the end of comp. in this sense; see below. -3 First in time existing before. -दीः 1 Beginning, commencement (opp. अन्त); अप एव ससर्जादौ तासु बीजमवासृजत् Ms.1.8; Bg.3.41; अनादि &c.; जगदादिरनादिस्त्वम् Ku.2.9; oft. at the end of comp. and translated by 'beginning with', 'et cætera', 'and others', 'and so on' (of the same nature or kind), 'such like'; इन्द्रादयो देवाः the gods Indra and others (इन्द्रः आदिर्येषां ते); एवमादि this and the like; भ्वादयो धातवः भू and others, or words beginning with भू, are called roots; oft. used by Pāṇini to denote classes or groups of grammatical words; अदादि, दिवादि, स्वादि &c. -2 First part of portion. -3 A firstling, first-fruits. -4 Prime cause. -5 Nearness. -6 One of the seven parts of Sāma; अथ सप्तविधस्य वाचि सप्तविधं सामोपासीत यत्किंच वाचो हुमिति स हिंकारो यत्प्रेति स प्रस्तावो यदेति स आदिः Ch. Up.2.8.1. -Comp. -अन्त a. 1 having beginning and end. -2 first and last. (-तम्) beginning and end. -˚यमकम् N. of a figure in poetry. cf. Bk.1.21. ˚वत् having beginning and end, finite. ˚अन्तर्वर्तिन् a. having a beginning, end and middle; being all-in-all. -उदात्त a. having the acute accent on the first syllable. -उपान्तम् ind. from first to last. -करः, -कर्तृ, -कृत् m. the creator, an epithet of Brahmā or Viṣnu; गरीयसे ब्रह्मणो$प्यादिकर्त्रे Bg.11.37; विशेषणे द्वे य इहादिकर्तुर्वदेदधीती स हि कैयटीयः Śab. Kau. -कर्मन् n. the beginning of an action. -कविः 'the first poet', an epithet of Brahmā and of Vālmīki; the former is so called because he first produced and promulgated the Vedas; (तेने ब्रह्म हृदा य आदिकवये मुह्यन्ति यत्सूरयः Bhāg.1.1.1.) and the latter, because he was the first to show to others 'the path of poets'; when he beheld one of a pair of Krauñcha birds being killed by a fowler, he cursed the wretch, and his grief unconsciously took the form of a verse (श्लोकत्वमापद्यत यस्य शोकः); he was subsequently told by Brahmā to compose the life of Rāma, and he thus gave to the world the first poem in Sanskrit, the Rāmāyaṇa; cf. U.2. Viṣkambhaka. -काण्डम् the first book of the Rāmāyaṇa. -कारणम् the first or primary cause (of the universe), which, according to the Vedāntins, is Brahman; while, according to the Naiyāyikas and particalarly the Vaiśeṣikas, atoms are the first or material cause of the universe, and not God. -2 analysis. -3 algebra. -काव्यम् the first poem; i. e. the Rāmāyaṇa; see आदिकवि. -केशवः N. of Viṣṇu. -जिनः N. of Ṛiṣabha, the first तीर्थंकर. -तालः a sort of musical time or ताल; एक एव लघुर्यत्र आदितालः स कथ्यते. -दीपकम् N. of a figure in rhetoric (the verb standing at the beginning of the sentence). cf. Bk.1.23. -देवः 1 the first or Supreme God; पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यं आदिदेव- मजं विभुम् Bg.1.12,11.38. -2 Nārāyaṇa or Viṣṇu. -3 Śiva. -4 Brahmā; Mb.12.188.2. -5 the sun. -दैत्यः an epithet of Hiraṇyakaśipu. -नाथः N. of Ādibuddha. -पर्वन् n. 'the first section or chapter', N. of the first book of the Mahābhārata. -पुराणम् the first Purāṇa, N. of the Brahma-Purāṇa. N. of a Jaina religious book. -पु (पू) रुषः 1 the first or primeval being, the lord of the creation. -2 Viṣṇu, Kṛiṣṇa, or Nārāyaṇa; ते च प्रापुरुदन्वन्तं बुबुधे चादिपूरुषः R.1.6; तमर्घ्यमर्घ्यादिकयादिपूरुषः Śi.1.14. -बलम् generative power; first vigour. -बुद्ध a. perceived in the beginning. (-द्धः) the primitive Buddha. -भव, -भूत a. produced at first. (-वः, -तः) 1 'the first-born', primeval being, an epithet of Brahmā; इत्युक्त्वादिभवो देवः Bhāg.7.3.22. -2 also N. of Viṣṇu; रसातलादादि. भवेन पुंसा R.13.8. -3 an elder brother. (-तम्) minute five elements (पञ्चमहाभूतानि); नष्टे लोके द्विपरार्धावसाने महा- भूतेष्वादिभूतं गतेषु Bhāg.1.3.25. -मूलम् first foundation, primeval cause. -योगाचार्यः 'the first teacher of devotion', an epithet of Śiva. -रसः the first of he 8 Rasas, i. e. शृङ्गार or love. -राजः the first king पृथु; an epithet of Manu. -रूपम् Symptom (of disease). -वंशः primeval race, primitive family. -वराहः 'the first boar', an epithet of Visṇu, alluding to his third or boar-incarnation. -विद्वस् m. the first learned man; कपिल. -विपुला f. N. of an Āryā metre. -वृक्षः N. of a plant (Mar. आपटा). -शक्तिः f. 1 the power of माया or illusion. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -शरीरम् 1. the primitive body. -2 ignorance. -3 the subtle body. -सर्गः the first creation.
āhārikam आहारिकम् (With the Jainas) One of the five bodies belonging to the soul; according to Colebrooke, it is 'a minute form issuing from the head of a meditative sage to consult an omniscient saint and returning with the desired information.
upanyas उपन्यस् 4 P. 1 To lay upon, place or put down, put near, place before. -2 To entrust any one with, commit to the care of. -3 To explain, describe minutely. -4 To propose, suggest, hint, point out, state; मयोपन्यस्तेषु मन्त्रेषु H.3; इत्युभयलोकविरुद्धं वचनमुपन्यस्तं Māl.2 spoken; सदुपन्यस्यति कृत्यवर्त्म यः Ki.2.3 tells or points out; किमिदमपन्यस्तम् Ś.5 what is this that is proposed or said. -5 To prove, establish argumentatively; भूतमप्यनुपन्यस्तं हीयते व्यवहारतः Y.2.19.
upavarṇaḥ उपवर्णः Minute or detailed description.
upavarṇanam उपवर्णनम् Minute description, delineation in detail; अतिशयोपवर्णनं व्याख्यानम् Suśr.; Y.1.32.
kaṇaśaḥ कणशः ind. In small parts or minute particles, grain by grain, little by little, drop by drop &c.; तदिदं कणशो विकीर्यते (भस्म); Ku.4.27.
kaṇikaḥ कणिकः कणीकः 1 A grain. -2 A small particle. -3 An ear of corn. -4 A meal of parched wheat. -5 An enemy. -6 N. of a purificatory ceremony, i. e. waving round lamps at sacrificial rites. -7 An enemy. -का 1 An atom, a small or minute particle; यथा$- श्वत्थकणीकायामन्तर्भूतो महाद्रुमः Mb.12.211.2. -2 A drop (of water); तामुत्थाप्य स्वजलकणिकाशीतलेनानिलेन Me.98. -3 A kind of corn or rice. -4 Cumin seed. -5 The अग्निमन्थ tree (Mar. नरवेल).
kaṇiṣṭha कणिष्ठ a. The smallest, the most minute.
kalā कला [कल्-कच्] A small part of anything; स एष संवत्सरः प्रजापतिः षोडशकलास्तस्य Bṛi. Up.1.5.14; विन्देम देवतां वाचममृतामात्मनः कलाम् U.1.1; a bit, jot; कलामप्यकृतपरि- लम्बः K.34; सर्वे ते मित्रगात्रस्य कलां नार्हन्ति षोडशीम् Pt.2. 59; Ms.2.86,8.36; a sixteenth part; यथा कलं यथा शफं यथा ऋणं संनयामसि Rv.8.47,17; a symbolic expression of the number sixteen; Hch. -2 A digit of the moon (these are sixteen); जगति जयिनस्ते ते भावा नवेन्दु- कलादयः Māl.1.36; Ku.5.71; Me.91. -3 Interest on capital (consideration paid for the use of money); घनवीथिवीथिमवतीर्णवतो निधिरम्भसामुपचयाय कलाः Śi.9.32. (where कला means 'digits' also). -4 A division of time variously computed; one minute, 48 seconds, or 8 seconds. Mb.1.25.14;12.137.21. -5 The 6th part of one thirtieth part of a zodiacal sign, a minute of a degree. -6 Any practical art (mechanical or fine); there are 64 such arts, as music, dancing &c. मातृवदस्याः कलाः Mbh. on P.IV.1.9. (See कामधेनु टीका on काव्यालङ्कारसूत्र 7.) -7 Skill, ingenuity. -8 Fraud, deceit. -9 (In Prosody) A syllabic instant. -1 A boat. -11 The menstrual discharge. -12 A term for the seven substrata of the elements of the human body; (they are :- आद्या मांसधरा प्रोक्ता द्वितीया रक्तधारिणी । मेदोधरा तृतीया तु चतुर्थीं श्लेष्मधारिणी ॥ पञ्चमी च मलं धत्ते षष्टी पित्तधरा मता । रेतोधरा सप्तमी स्यात् इति सप्त कलाः स्मृताः ॥ -13 An atom. -14 A term for the embryo. -15 A fleshy part near the tail of the elephant (also कलाभागः); Mātaṅga L.3.2. -16 Enumeration. -17 A form (स्वरूप); लीलया दधतः कलाः Bhāg. 1.1.17. -18 Prowess (शक्ति); संहृत्य कालकलया कल्पान्त इदमीश्वरः Bhāg.11.9.16. -Comp. -अन्तरम् 1 another digit. -2 interest, profit; मासे शतस्य यदि पञ्च कलान्तरं स्यात् Līlā. -अयनः a tumbler, a dancer (as on the sharp edge of a sword). -आकुलम् deadly poison. -केलि a. gay, wanton. (-लिः) an epithet of Kāma. -क्षयः waning (of the moon); R.5.16. -धरः, -निधिः, -पूर्णः the moon; अहो महत्त्वं महतामपूर्वं विपत्तिकाले$पि परो- पकारः । यथास्यमध्ये पतितो$पि राहोः कलानिधिः पुण्यचयं ददाति ॥ Udb. -न्यासः a tattooing person's body with particular mystical marks. -भृत् m. 1 the moon. कला च सा कान्तिमती कलाभृतः Ku.5.71. -2 an artist &c.
kīlaḥ कीलः [कील्-घञ्] 1 A wedge, a pin; कीलोत्पाटीव वानरः Pt.1.21. -2 A lance; कीलैः सुनिचिताः कृताः Mb.3.15.15. -3 A post, pillar. -4 A weapon; सकीलकवचाः सर्वे वासी- वृक्षादनान्विताः Mb.5.155.8. -5 The elbow. -6 A blow with the elbow. -7 A flame, a lambent flame, halo; बाणवदनमुददीपि भिये जगतः सकीलमिव सूर्यमण्डलम् Śi.15.48. -8 A minute particle. -9 N. of Śiva. -1 A gnomon. -11 A position of the fœtus just before the time of delivery. -12 a gambler; किलो धूर्ते रथाक्षे च शङ्कौ ज्वालाम- हीध्रयोः Nm. -13 handle, brace; Suśr. -Comp. -प्रति- कीलकन्यायः This maxim is explained in the Mahābhāṣya in the passage कीलप्रतिकीलकवत् । तद्यथा कील आहन्य- मानः प्रतिकीलं निर्हन्ति Mbh. on P.II.2.6.
kṛśa कृश a. [कृश्-क्त नि˚] (Compar. क्रशीयस्; superl. क्रशिष्ट) 1 Lean, weak, feeble, emaciated; कृशतनुः, कृशोदरी &c.; कृशः काशः खञ्जः श्रवणरहितः पुच्छविकलः Bh.1.78. -2 Small, little, minute (in size or quantity); सुहृदपि न याच्यः कृश- धनः Bh.2.28. -3 Poor, insignificant; Ms.7.28. -Comp. -अक्षः a spider. -अङ्ग a. lean, thin. (-ङ्गः) an epithet of Śiva. (-ङ्गी) 1 a woman with a slender frame; कृशाङ्ग्याः संतापं वदति नलिनीपत्रशयनम् Ratn. -2 the Priyaṅgu creeper. -अतिथि a. one who keeps his guests short of food; Mb.12.8.24. -उदर a. 1 thin-waisted; सद्यस्त्वया सह कृशोदरि विप्रयोगः V.5.16; Ku.5.42. -2 having the belly reduced in bulk; मेदच्छेदकृशोदरं लघु भवत्युत्थानयोग्यं वपुः Ś.2.5. -गव a. one who has lean cattle; यः कृशार्थः कृश- गवः कृशभृत्यः कृशातिथिः । स वै राजन् कृशो नाम न शरीरकृशः कृशः ॥ Mb.12.8.24. -भृत्य a. one who feeds his servants scantily; see above quotation.
krośaḥ क्रोशः [क्रुश्-घञ्] 1 A cry, yell, shout, scream, noise. -2 A measure of distance equal to 1/4th of a Yojana, a Kośa क्रोशार्धं प्रकृतिपुरःसरेण गत्वा R.13.79; समुद्रात्पुरी क्रोशौ (nom.) or क्रोशयोः (loc.) -3 A measure of time equal to 48 minutes; क्रोशमास्ते । क्रोशं स्वपिति Mbh. on P.1. 4.51. -Comp. -तालः, -ध्वनिः a large drum.
kṣudra क्षुद्र a. [क्षुद्-कर्तरि रक्] (compar. क्षोदीयस्; superl. क्षोदिष्ठ) 1 Minute, small, tiny, little, trifling. -2 Mean, low, vile, base; क्षुद्रे$पि नूनं शरणं प्रपन्ने Ku.1.12. -3 Wicked. -4 Cruel. -5 Poor, indigent. -6 Miserly, niggardly; Me.17. -7 Diminutive, short. -8 Trifling, insignificant. -9 Unimportant, minor. -द्रः 1 A small particle of rice. -2 A bee or wasp. -द्रा 1 A bee; क्षुद्राभिरक्षुद्रतराभि- राकुलम् Śi.12.54. -2 A fly or gnat. -3 A woman maimed or crippled. -4 A quarrelsome woman. -5 A prostitute, whore, harlot; उपसृष्टा इव क्षुद्राधिष्ठितभवनाः K.17. -6 A base or despicable woman. -7 A dancing girl. -द्रम् Ved. A particle of dust, flour, meal; अव क्षुद्रमिव स्रवेत Rv.1.129.6. -Comp. -अञ्जनम् a kind of unguent applied to the eyes in certain diseases. -अन्त्रः the small cavity of the heart. -उलूकः a small owl. -कम्बुः a small shell. -कुलिशः a precious stone. -कुष्ठम् a mild form of leprosy. -घण्टिका 1 small bell. -2 a girdle of small bells. -चूडः N. of a bird. -चन्दनम् red sandal-wood. -जन्तुः any small animal. -तण्डुलः a grain of rice. -तातः a father's brother, uncle. -दंशिका a small gadfly. -पत्रा a kind of sorrel (Oxalis Pusilla). -पदम् a kind of measure of length (equal to 1 Aṅgulas). -बुद्धि a. low-minded, mean. -रसः 1 honey. -2 (pl.) base pleasures; Bhāg.5.13.1. -रोगः a minor disease; (44 are enumerated by Suśruta). -वंशा N. of a plant (Mimosa Pudica). -शर्करा a kind of suger (coming from यवनाल). -शार्दूलः leopard. -शङ्खः a small conch-shell. -सुवर्ण low or bad gold; i. e. brass. -हन् m. an epithet of Śiva.
kṣudrakaḥ क्षुद्रकः 1 One who disregards; तस्माद्राजानो नावमन्तव्याः इति क्षुद्रकान् प्रतिषेधयेत् Kau. A.1.13. -2 A kind of arrow; अथैनं पञ्चविंशत्या क्षुद्रकाणां समार्पयत् Mb.6.45.23. -a. Small, minute; Ms.8.297.
kṣudrala क्षुद्रल a. Minute, small (applied especially to diseases and animals).
kṣodaḥ क्षोदः [क्षुद्-घञ्] 1 Pounding, grinding. -2 The stone on which anything is ground or powdered, a mortar. -3 Any ground substance, flour. -4 Dust, particle, any small or minute particle; वीचीवातैः शीकरक्षोदशीतैः U.3.2. कीर्णैः पिष्टातकौघैः कृतदिवसमुखैः कुङ्कुमक्षोदगौरैः Ratn. 1.9. -5 A drop. -6 A lump, piece. -7 Multiplication. -Comp. -क्षम a. capable of standing a test, scrutiny or investigation. -2 solid, valid; N.6.113.
kṣodīyas क्षोदीयस् a. Very minute, insignificant; बृहत्सहायः कार्यान्तं क्षोदीयानपि गच्छति Śi.2.1. -क्षोद्य a. To be trampled on; Rām.2.8.1.
kṣullaka क्षुल्लक a. 1 Little, minute; अथो ये क्षुल्लका इव सर्वे ते क्रिमयो हताः Av.2.32.5. -2 Low, vile. -3 Insignificant. -4 Wicked, malicious. -5 Poor. -6 Pained, distressed. -7 Hard. -8 Young. -कः Small shell.
kṣetram क्षेत्रम् [क्षि-ष्ट्रन्] A fiield, ground, soil; चीयते बालिश- स्यापि सत्क्षेत्रपतिता कृषिः Mu.1.3. -2 Landed property, land. -3 Place, abode, region, repository; कपटशतमयं क्षेत्रमप्रत्ययानाम् Pt.1.191; Bh.1.77; Me.16. -4 A sacred spot, a place of pilgrimage; क्षेत्रं क्षत्रप्रधनपिशुनं कौरवं तद्भजेथाः Me.5; Bg.1.1. -5 An enclosed spot of ground, portion or space, superficies, circuit. -6 Fertile soil. -7 Place of origin; Bhāg.2.6.1. -8 A wife; अपि नाम कुलपतेरियमसवर्णक्षेत्रसंभवा स्यात् Ś.1; Ms.3.175; वृद्धस्तु व्याधितो वा राजा ... क्षेत्रे बीजमुत्पादयेत् Kau. A.1.17. -9 The sphere of action, the body (regarded as the field of the working of the soul); योगिनो यं विचिन्वन्ति क्षेत्राभ्यन्तर- वर्तिनम् Ku.6.77; Bg.13.1,2,3. -1 The mind. -11 A house; a town. -12 A plane figure, as a triangle. -13 A diagram. -14 A sign of the zodiac. -15 (in chiromancy) A certain portion marked out on the palm; क्षेत्रं मृजां च विधिवत्कुशलो$वलोक्य सामुद्रविद्वदति यातमनागतं च Bṛi. S.68.1. -Comp. -अंशः a degree of the ecliptic. -अधिदेवता the tutelary deity of any sacred piece of ground. -आजीवः, -करः, -कृत m. a cultivator, peasant. -इक्षुः N. of a corn (यवनाल- Mar. जोंधळा). -गणितम् geometry. -गत a. geometrical. ˚उपपत्तिः f. geometrical proof. -ज a. 1 produced in a field. -2 born from the body. (-जः) 1 one of the 12 kinds of sons allowed by the old Hindu Law, the offspring of a wife by a kinsman duly appointed to raise up issue to the husband; Ms.9.167,18; Y.1.69,2.128. -जात a. begotten on the wife of another. -ज्ञ a. 1 knowing places. -2 clever, dexterous; क्षेत्रज्ञवद्भाषसे त्वं हि धर्मान् Mb.1.89.14. (-ज्ञः) 1 the soul; cf. क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत Bg. 13.1,3; Ms.12.12. -2 the Supreme Soul. -3 a libertine. -4 a husbandman. -5 a form of Śiva. -6 a witness. (-ज्ञा) a girl fifteen years old personating Durgā at a festival. -देवता the deity of the fields; N. of a serpant. -पतिः a land-owner, a landlord. -पदम् a place sacred to a deity; पादौ हरेः क्षेत्रपदानुसर्पणे Bhāg. 9.4.2. -पालः 1 a man employed to guard a field. -2 a deity protecting fields. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -फलम् the area or superficial contents of a figure (in math.) -भक्तिः f. the division of a field. -भूमिः f. cultivated land. -राशिः quantity represented by geometrical figures. -लिप्ता a minute of the ecliptic. -विद् a. = क्षेत्रज्ञ q. v. (-m.) 1 a husbandman. -2 a sage, one who has spiritual knowledge; यमक्षरं क्षेत्रविदो विदुः Ku.3.5. -3 the soul; यः क्षेत्रवित्तपतया हृदि विष्वगाविः Bhāg.4.22.37. -व्यवहारः 1 drawing a figure in geometry. -2 geometrical demonstration. -स्थ a. residing at a sacred place.
kṣaudrakyam क्षौद्रक्यम् Minuteness.
ghaṭikā घटिका 1 A small water-jar, bucket, a small earthen vessel; नार्यः श्मशानघटिका इव वर्जनीयाः Pt.1.192; एष क्रीडति कूपयन्त्रघटिकान्यायप्रसक्तो विधिः Mk.1.59. -2 A measure of time equal to 24 minutes. -3 A water-pot used in calculating the Ghaṭikās of the day; -4 The ankle. -Comp. -मण्डलम् the equatorial circle. -यन्त्रम् See घटीयन्त्र.
ghaṭī घटी 1 A small jar. -2 A measure of time equal to 24 minutes. -3 A small water-pot used in calculating the Ghaṭikās or time of the day; घटी चेटी विटः किं स्विज्जानात्यमरकामिनीम् Udb. -Comp. -कारः a potter. -ग्रह, -ग्राह a. See घटग्रह. -यन्त्रम् 1 a machine for raising water (largely used in India), the rope and bucket of a well; see अरघट्ट, घटीयन्त्रगुणोपमः (हारः) Vikr.8.33. -2 a contrivance (like a clepsydra) to ascertain the ghaṭi-kās or time of the day. -3 Diarrhœa; Bhāvapr.7.16.24.
cūrṇībhū चूर्णीभू 1 P. To become dust, fly off into minute particles.
taniman तनिमन् m. [तनु-इमनि च्] Thinness, slenderness, minuteness &c.; नितान्तदीर्घं तनिमानमागताःVikr.13.6. -n. The liver.
taniṣṭha तनिष्ठ a. 1 Thinnest; least. -2 Very minute, or delicate (superl. of तनु q. v.).
tanīyas तनीयस् a. Thinner, more minute, very thin (compar. of तनु q. v.).
tūstam तूस्तम् [तुस् बा˚ तान् दीर्घश्च] 1 Matted hair. -2 Dust. -3 Sin. -4 An atom, any minute particle.
truṭiḥ त्रुटिः टी f. [त्रुट्-इन् वा ङीप्] 1 Cutting, tearing. -2 A small part, an atom. -3 A very minute space of time equal to 1/4 of a Kṣaṇa; or 1/2 of a Lava; Mb. 1.25.14; Bhāg;1.13.4. -4 Doubt, uncertainty. -5 Loss, destruction. -6 Small cardamoms (the plant).
naṃśuka नंशुक a. (-की f.) 1 Injurious, destructive. -2 Going astray, being lost. -3 Small, minute, thin.
nāḍiḥ नाडिः डी f. 1 The tubular stalk of any plant. -2 The hollow stalk of a lotus &c; स इत्थमुद्वीक्ष्य तदब्द- नालनाडीभिरन्तर्जलमाविवेश Bhāg.3.8.19. -3 Any tubular organ of the body (such as an artery, vein); ष़डधिकदशनाडीचक्रमध्यस्थितात्मा Māl.5.1,2. -4 A pipe, flute. -5 A fistulous sore, fistula, sinus. -6 The pulse at the hand or foot. -7 A measure of time equal to twenty-four minutes. -8 A period of time = 1/2 Muhūrta. -9 A sort of bent grass. -1 A juggling trick. -11 A leather-string; L. D. B. -12 A weaver's implement; L. D. B. -Comp. -चक्रम् a group of tubular organs of the body such as: मूलाधार, स्वाधिष्ठान, मणिपुर, अनाहत, विशुद्धि, आज्ञाचक्र, सहस्राधार; Pātañjala; ष़डधिकदशनाडीचक्मध्यस्थितात्मा, Māl.5.1. -चरणः a bird. -चीरम् 1 a small reed. -2 a tube round which the woof is wound. -जङ्घः 1 a crow. -2 a kind of crane; नाडीजङ्घो निजघ्ने कृततदुपकृतिर्यत्कृते गौतमेन Nāg.4.15. -तरङ्गः 1 an astrologer. -2 a debaucher, ravisher. -नक्षत्रम् = जन्मनक्षत्र q. v. -परीक्षा feeling the pulse. -पात्रम् a kind of water-clock. -मण्डलम् the celestial equator. -यन्त्रम् any tubular instrument. -वलयम् equinoctical circle. -व्रणः sinus, an ulcer, a fistula. -स्वेदः steam-bath through tubes.
nāḍikā नाडिका 1 A tubular organ &c.; see नाडि. -2 A Ghaṭikā or 24 minutes; नाडिकाविच्छेदपटहः Māl.7; Bhāg. 3.11.8; K.13.7; दशनाडिकाः पूर्णाः । अतिक्रामति स्नानवेला । Abhiṣeka 1. -3 A hollow stalk in general. -4 A fistulous sore. -5 A ray of the sun. -6 A gong (on which the hours are struck). -7 A measure of length = 1/2 Daṇḍa.
nāliḥ नालिः ली f. [नल्-णिच् इन् बा ङीप्] 1 Any tubular vessel of the body. -2 A hollow stalk, especially that of the lotus. -3 A period of 24 minutes (घटिका). -4 An instrument for boring an elephant's ear. -5 A canal, drain. -6 A lotus flower. -7 A piece of metal on which the hours are struck (घटी). -Comp. -जङ्घः a crow, raven. -व्रणः Fistula, sinus.
nālikaḥ नालिकः [नलमेव नालमस्त्यस्य ठन्] A buffalo. -का 1 The stalk of a lotus. -2 A tube. -3 An instrument for boring an elephant's ear. -4 A period of 24 minutes; विषण्णालिकमुभयतो रात्रं यामतूर्यम् Kau. A. (नागरिकप्रणिधिः) or of 1 hours; नालिकाभिरहरष्टधा रात्रिं च विभजेत् Kau. A.1. 19. -कम् A lotus-flower. -2 A kind of wind-instrument, a flute. -3 Myrrh. नालिकेर nālikēra नालिकेलि nālikēli ली lī नालिकेर नालिकेलि ली See नारिकेर &c.
nipuṇa निपुण a. 1 Clever, sharp, shrewd, skilful; वयस्य निसर्गनिपुणाः स्त्रियः M.3. -2 Proficient or skilled in, conversant or familiar with (with loc. or instr.); वाचि निपुणः; वाचा निपुणः. -3 Experienced. -4 Kindly or friendly towards. -5 Acute, fine, delicate, minute, sharp. -6 Complete, perfect, accurate. -7 Absolute; प्रसन्ननिपुणेन Bhāg.5.4.5. -णम् Skill, proficiency; न चास्य कश्चिन्निपुणेन धातुरवैति जन्तुः कुमनीष ऊतीः Bhāg.1.3.37. -णम् ind. or निपुणेन 1 Skilfully, cleverly. -2 Perfectly, completely, totally, -3 Exactly, carefully, accurately, minutely; निपुणमन्विष्यन्नुपलब्धवान् Dk.59; निपुणमनुपाल्या हि शिशवः Mv.5.14. -4 In a delicate manner.
prakalā प्रकला A minute portion. -Comp. -विद् a. ignorant. (-m.) a merchant.
pratanu प्रतनु a. (-नु or -न्वी) 1 Very thin or minute, delicate; वेणीभूतप्रतनुसलिला Me.29. -2 Very small, limited, narrow; प्रतनुतपसाम् K.43; U.1.2; Me.41. -3 Slender, emaciated; ततः सदर्पं प्रतनुं तपस्यया Ki.14.35. -4 Insignificant, trifling.
phalgu फल्गु a. [फल्-उ गुक् च Uṇ.1.18] 1 Pithless, unessential; unsubstantial; सारं ततो ग्राह्यमपास्य फल्गु Pt.1. -2 Worthless, useless, unimportant; 'फल्गु तुच्छमसारं च' Yādava.; तरीषु तत्रत्यमफल्गु भाण्डम् Śi.3.76. -3 Small, minute; नामरूपविभेदेन फल्ग्व्या च कलया कृताः Bhāg.8.3.22. -4 Vain, unmeaning. -5 Weak, feeble, flimsy; फल्गूनि तत्र महतां जीवो जीवस्य जीवनम् Bhāg.1.13.47. -6 Untrue. -7 Beautiful, lovely. -ल्गुः f. 1 The spring season. -2 The opposite-leaved fig-tree (Mar. बोखाडा). -3 N. of a river at Gayā. -4 A red powder of wild ginger (Mar. गुलाल) thrown by the Hindus over one another at the Holi festival. -5 (du.) (In astrol.) N. of a नक्षत्र. -Comp. -उत्सवः the vernal festival, commonly called Holi. -द a. avaricious. -वाक् a falsehood, lie. -वाटिका the opposite-leaved fig-tree.
muhūrtaḥ मुहूर्तः र्तम् [हुर्छ्-क्त धातोः पूर्वं मुट् च Tv.] 1 A moment, any short portion of time, an instant; नवाम्बुदानीकमुहूर्त- लाञ्छने R.3.53; संध्याभ्ररेखेव मुहूर्तरागाः Pt.1.194; Me.19; Ku.7.5. -2 A period, time (auspicious or otherwise). -3 A period of 48 minutes. -र्तः An astrologer.
muhūrtakaḥ मुहूर्तकः 1 An instant, a moment. -2 A period of 48 minutes.
yathā यथा ind. [यद् प्रकारे थाल्] 1 Used by itself यथा has the following senses :-- (a) as, in the manner mentioned; यथाज्ञापयति महाराजः 'as Your Majesty orders;' (b) namely, as follows; तद् यथानुश्रूयते Pt.1; U.2.4; (c) as, like (showing comparison, and used to express the point of similarity); आसीदियं दशरथस्य गृहे यथा श्रीः U.4.6; Ku.4.34; प्रभावप्रभवं कान्तं स्वाधीनपतिका यथा (न मुञ्चति) K. P.1; (d) as, as for example, for instance; यत्र यत्र धूमस्तत्र तत्र वह्निर्यथा महानसे T. S. कुर्युः कृत्यमकृत्यं वा उष्ट्रे काकादयो यथा Pt.1.288; (e) that (used to introduce direct assertions with or without इति at the end); अकथितो$पि ज्ञायत एव यथायमाभोगस्तपोवनस्येति Ś.1; विदितं खलु ते यथा स्मरः क्षणमप्युत्सहते न मां विना Ku.4.36; (f) so that, in order that; दर्शय तं चौरसिंहं यथा व्यापादयामि Pt.1. -2 Used correlatively with तथा, यथा has the following senses :-- (a) as, so (in which case एवम् and तद्वत् often take the place of तथा); यथा वृक्षस्तथा फलम् or यथा बीजं तथाङ्कुरः; Bg.11.29; in this case एव is frequently added to either यथा or तथा or to both to make the equality of relation more marked or striking; वधूचतुष्के$पि यथैव शान्ता प्रिया तनूजास्य तथैव सीता U.4.16; न तथा बाधते स्कन्धो (or शीतम्) यथा बाधति बाधते; (as much-as, as-as); Ku.6.7; U.2.4; V.4.33. In this sense तथा is often omitted, in which case यथा has sense (c) in 1 above. (b) so-that, तथा standing for 'so', and यथा for 'that'; यथा बन्धुजनशोच्या न भवति तथा निर्वाहय Ś.3; तथा प्रयतेथा यथा पहस्यसे जनैः K.19; तस्मान्मुच्ये यथा तात संविधातुं तथार्हसि R.1.72;3.66;14.66;15.68. (c) since-therefore, as (because) -so; यथा इतोमुखागतैरपि कलकलः श्रुतस्तथा तर्कयामि &c. Māl.8; sometimes तथा is omitted; मन्दं मन्दं नुदति पवनश्चानुकूलो यथा त्वां ... सेविष्यन्ते भवन्तं बलाकाः Me.9. (d) if-then, as surely as-so surely (a strong form of assertion or adjuration); वाङ्मनःकर्मभिः पत्यौ व्यभिचारो यथा न मे । तथा विश्वंभरे देवि मामन्तर्धातुमर्हसि R.15.81; यथा यथा- तथा तथा the more-the more, the less-the less; यथा यथा भाषसि धर्मसंमितं तथा तथा मे त्वयि भक्तिरुत्तमा Mb.; Śi.17.43; यथा यथा यौवनमतिचक्राम तथा तथावर्धतास्य संतापः K.59; Ms. 8.286;12.73; यथा तथा in any manner, in whatever way; यथा तथा यापयंस्तु सा ह्यस्य कृतकृत्यता Ms.4.17; यथैव just as; यथा तथा as much as; यथा तथा भवतु whatever may be the case; यथा कथंचित् anyhow, somehow or other. N. B. As the first member of Avyayībhāva comp. यथा is usually translated by 'according to, according as, in accordance with, in conformity to, in proportion to, not exceeding'; see compounds below. -Comp. -अंशम्, -अंशतस् ind. in due proportions, proportionately. -अधिकारम् ind. according to authority. -अधीत a. as read or studied, conformable to the text. (-तम्) ind. according to the text. -अनुपूर्वम्, -अनुपूर्व्यम्, -अनुपूर्व्या ind. in regular order or succession, successively. -अनुभूतम् ind. 1 according to experience. -2 by previous experience. -अनुरूपम् ind. in exact conformity, properly. -अनूक्तम् ind. as said or told; मया यथानूक्तमवादि ते हरेः कृतावतारस्य सुमित्र चेष्टितम् Bhāg.3.19.32. -अभिप्रेत, -अभिमत, -अभिलषित, -अभीष्ट a. as wished, intended or desired, agreeably to desire. (-तम् &c.) ind. according to one's wish, at pleasure, agreeably to one's desire. -अभिरुचित a. pleasant, agreeable. -अर्थ a. 1 conformable to truth, true, real, correct; सौम्येति चाभाष्य यथार्थभाषी R.14.44; so यथार्थानुभवः 'correct or right perception'; यथार्थवक्ता &c. -2 conformable to the true meaning; true to the sense, right, appropriate, significant; करिष्यन्निव नामास्य (i. e. शत्रुघ्न) यथार्थमरिनिग्रहात् R.15.6; (करिष्यते) युधि सद्यः शिशुपालतां यथार्थाम् Śi.16.85; Ki.8.48; Ku.2.16. -3 fit suitable. (-र्थम्, -अर्थतः ind. truly, rightly; fitly, suitably, properly.) ˚अक्षर a. signficant or true to the syllable; यस्मिन्नीश्वर इत्यनन्यविषयः शब्दो यथार्थाक्षरः V.1.1. ˚नामन् a. one whose name is true to its meaning or fully significant (whose deeds are according to his name); ध्रुवसिद्धेरपि यथार्थनाम्नः सिद्धिं न मन्यते M.4; परंतपो नाम यथार्थनामा R.6.21. ˚वर्णः a spy (see यथार्हवर्ण). (यथार्थता 1 suitableness, fitness. -2 propriety. -3 accuracy, genuineness, correctness.) -अर्ह a. 1 according to merit, as deserving. -2 appropriate, suitable, just. -3 as agreeable; यथार्हजलेन हृद्यगन्धेन स्नातः Dk.2.7. ˚वर्णः a spy, an emissary. -अर्हम्, -अर्हतः ind. according to merit or worth; यथार्हमन्यैरनुजीविलोकं संभावयामास यथाप्रधानम् R.16.4. -अर्हणम् ind. 1 according to propriety. -2 according to worth or merit. -अवकाशम् ind. 1 according to room or space. -2 as occasion may occur, according to occasion, leisure or propriety. -3 in the proper place; प्रालम्बमुत्कृष्य यथावकाशं निनाय R.6.14. -अवस्थम् ind. according to the condition or circumstances. -आख्यात a. as mentioned before, before mentioned. -आख्यानम् ind. as before stated. -आगत a. foolish, stupid. (-तम्) ind. as one came, by the same way as one came; यथागतं मातलिसारथिर्ययौ R.3.67. -आगमम् ind. according to tradition, as handed down from generation to generation. -आचारम् ind. as customary or usual. -आम्नातम्, आम्नायम् ind. as laid down in the Vedas. -आरम्भम् ind. according to the beginning, in regular order or succession. -आवासम् ind. according to one's dwelling, each to his own dwelling. -आशयम् ind. 1 according to wish or intention. -2 according to the agreement. -आश्रमम् ind. according to the Āśrama or period in one's religious life. -आश्रयम् ind. according to substratum; चित्रं यथाश्रयमृते Sāṅkhya K.41. -इच्छ, -इष्ट, -ईप्सित a. according to wish or desire, agreeably to one's desire, as much as desired, as desired or wished for. (-च्छम्, -ष्टम्, -तम्) ind. 1 according to wish or desire, at will or pleasure; यथेष्टं चेष्टन्ते स्फुटकुचतटाः पश्य कुलटाः Udb. -2 as much as may be wanted, to the heart's content; यथेष्टं बुभुजे मांसम् Ch. P.3. -ईक्षितम् ind. as personally seen, as actually perceived. -उक्त, -उदित a. as said or told above, aforesaid, above-mentioned; यथोक्ताः संवृत्ताः Pt.1; यथोक्त- व्यापारा Ś.1; R.2.7; ततः स्वगृहमेत्य यथोक्तमर्थत्यागं कृत्वा Dk.2.2. -उचित a. suitable, proper, due, fit. (-तम्) ind. duly, suitably, properly; आगतं तु भयं वीक्ष्य नरः कुर्याद् यथोचितम् H. -उत्तरम् ind. in regular order or succession, one after another; संबन्धो$त्र यथोत्तरम् S. D. 729; श्रैष्ठ्यमेषां यथोत्तरम् Ms.12.38; यथोत्तरेच्छा हि गुणेषु कामिनः Ki.8.4. -उत्साहम् ind. 1 according to one's power or might. -2 with all one's might. -उद्गत a. without sense, stupid. -उद्गमनम् in ascending proportion. -उद्दिष्ट a. as indicated or described. (-ष्टम्) or -उद्देशम् ind. in the manner indicated. -उपचारम् ind. as politeness or courtesy requires. -उपजोषम् ind. according to pleasure or desire; यथोपजोषं वासांसि परिधाया- हतानि ते Bhāg.8.9.15. -उपदिष्ट a. as indicated. -उपदेशम् ind. as advised or instructed. -उपपत्ति ind. 1 as may be fit. -2 as may happen. -उपपन्न a. just as happened to be at hand, natural; यथोपपन्नरज्जुबद्धः Dk.2.4. -उपमा (in Rhet.) a comparison expressed by यथा. -उप- -योगम् ind. according to use or requirements, according to circumstances. -उपाधि ind. according to the condition or supposition. -औचित्यम् propriety, suitableness, fitness. -ऋतु ind. according to the right season; यथर्तुवर्षी भगवान् न तथा पाकशासनः Mb.3.188.5. -कथित a. as already mentioned. -कर्तव्यम् what is right to be done. -कर्म ind. according to one's duties or circumstances. -कल्पम् ind. according to rule or ritual. -काम a. conformable to desire. (-मम्) ind. agreeably to desire, at will or pleasure, to the heart's content; यथाकामार्चितार्थिनाम् R.1.6;4.51. -कामिन् a. free, unrestrained. -कारम् ind. in whatever way; P.III.4.28. -कालः the right or due time, proper time; यथाकालप्रबोधिनाम् R.1.6. (-लम्) ind. at the right time, opportunely, seasonably; सोपसर्पैर्जजागार यथाकालं स्वपन्नपि R.17.51. -कृत a. as agreed upon, done according to rule or custom, customary; स यदि प्रतिपद्येत यथान्यस्तं यथाकृतम् Ms.8.183. (-तम्) ind. according to the usual practice. -क्लृप्ति ind. in a suitable way. -क्रमम्, -क्रमेण ind. in due order or succession, regularly, in due form, properly; यथाक्रमं पुंसवनादिकाः क्रियाः R.3.1;9.26. -क्षमम् ind. according to one's power, as much as possible. -क्षिप्रम् ind. as quickly as possible. -क्षेमेण ind. safely, comfortably. -खेलम् ind. playfully; V. -गुणम् ind. according to qualities or endowments; Ch. Up. -चित्तम् ind. according to will; Māl. -जात a. 1 foolish, senseless, stupid. -2 barbarous, outcast. -ज्ञानम् ind. to the best of one's knowledge or judgment. -ज्येष्ठम् ind. according to rank, by seniority. -तत्त्वम् ind. 1 according to actual facts, actually, as the case really may be. -तथ a. 1 true, right. -2 accurate, exact. (-थम्) a narrative of the particulars or details of anything, a detailed or minute account. (-थम्) ind. 1 exactly, precisely; विभाव्यन्ते यथातथम् Bhāg. -2 fitly, properly, as the case really may be; Mb.3. -तथ्यम्, -तथ्येन ind. truly, really. -तृप्ति ind. to the heart's content. -दर्शनम् ind. according to observation. -दिक्, -दिशम् ind. in all directions. -निकायम् ind. according to body; Śvet. Up. -निर्दिष्ट a. 1 as mentioned before, as specified above; यथानिर्दिष्टव्यापारा सखी. -2 as prescribed or laid down; यथानिर्दिष्टं संपादितं व्रतम् V.3. -न्यायम् ind. justly, rightly, properly; प्रतिपूज्य यथान्यायम् Ms.1.1. -न्यासम् ind. according to the text of a Śūtra, as written down. -न्युप्त a. as placed on the ground or offered; अवजिघ्रेच्च तान् पिण्डान् यथान्युप्तान् समाहितः Ms.3.218. -पण्यम् ind. according to the (value or kind of) commodities; शुल्क- स्थानेषु कुशलाः यथापण्यविचक्षणाः Ms.8.398 (v. l.). -पुरम् ind. as before, as on previous occasions; यथापुरमविज्ञाय स्वार्थलिप्सुमपण्डिताम् Rām.2.1.2. -पूर्व, -पूर्वक a. being as before, former; R.12.41. (-र्वम्) -पूर्वकम् ind. 1 as before; सर्वाणि ज्ञातिकार्याणि यथापूर्वं समाचरेत् Ms.11.187. -2 in due order or succession, one after another; एते मान्या यथापूर्वम् Y.1.35. -प्रत्यर्हम् ind. according to merit. -प्रदिष्टम् ind. as suitable or proper. -प्रदेशम् ind. 1 in the proper or suitable place; यथाप्रदेशं विनिवेशितेन Ku. 1.49; आसञ्जयामास यथाप्रदेशं कण्ठे गुणम् R.6.83; Ku.7.34. -2 according to direction or precept. -3 on all sides. -प्रधानम्, -प्रधानतः ind. according to rank or position, according to precedence; आलोकमात्रेण सुरानशेषान् संभावया- मास यथाप्रधानम् Ku.7.46. -प्रयोगम् ind. 1 according to usage or practice. -2 as found by experiment. -प्रस्तावम् ind. on the first suitable occasion. -प्रस्तुतम् ind. 1 at last, at length. -2 conformably to the circumstances. -प्राणम् ind. according to strength with all one's might. -प्राप्त a. 1 suitable to circumstances. -2 following from a previous grammatical rule; Kāśi. on P.III.2.135. (-प्तम्) ind. regularly, properly. -प्रार्थितम् ind. as requested. -बलम् ind. 1 to the best of one's power, with all one's might; यथाबलं च विभज्य गृह्णीत Dk.2.8. -2 according to the (condition of) army or number of forces; Ms. -बुद्धि, -मति ind. to the best of one's knowledge. -भक्त्या with entire devotion. -भागम्, -भागशः ind. 1 according to the share of each, proportionately; यथाभागशो$मी वो गन्धाः -2 each in his respective place; यथाभागमवस्थिताः Bg.1.11. -3 in the proper place; यथाभागमवस्थिते$पि R.6.19. -भावः 1 destiny. -2 proper relation. -भूतम् ind. according to what has taken place, according to truth, truly, exactly. -भूयस् ind. according to seniority. -मुखीन a. looking straight at (with gen.); (मृगः) यथामुखीनः सीतायाः पुप्लुवे बहु लोभयन् Bk.5.48. -मूल्य a. worth the price, accordant with the price. -यथम् ind. 1 as in fit, fitly, properly; यथायथं ताः सहिता नभश्चरैः Ki.8.2. -2 in regular order, severally, each in its proper place, respectively; असक्तमाराधयतो यथायथम् Ki.1.11; बीजवन्तो मुखाद्यर्था विप्रकीर्णा यथायथम् S. D.337. -3 by degrees, gradually; सर्वे मायामानवा यथायथमन्तर्भावं गताः Dk.1.5. -युक्तम्, -योगम् ind. according to circumstances, fitly, suitably. -योग्य a. suitable, fit, proper, right. -रसम् ind. according to the sentiments. -रुचम्, -रुचि ind. according to one's liking or taste; वदन्ति चैतत् कवयो यथारुचम् Bhāg.2.5.21. -रूपम् ind. 1 according to form or appearance. -2 duly, properly, fitly. -लब्ध a. as actually in hand. -वस्तु ind. as the fact stands, exactly, accurately, truly. -विध a. of such kind or sort. -विधि ind. according to rule or precept, duly, properly; यथाविधि हुताग्नीनाम् R.1.6; संचस्कारोभयप्रीत्या मैथिलेयौ यथाविधि 15.31;3.7; Ms.11.191. -विनियोगम् ind. in the succession or order stated. -विभवम् ind. in proportion to one's income, according to means. -वीर्य a. of whatever strength. (-र्यम्) ind. in respect of manliness or courage. -वृत्त a. as happened, done or acted. (-त्तम्) 1 the actual facts, the circumstances or details of an event.-2 a former event. -वृद्धम् ind. according to age or seniority; गगनादवतीर्णा सा यथावृद्धपुरःसरा Ku.6. 49. -व्युत्पत्ति ind. 1 according to the degree of education or culture. -2 according to the derivation. -शक्ति, -शक्त्या ind. to the best of one's power, as far as possible. -शब्दार्थम् ind. in keeping with or according to the sense conveyed by the (sacred) text; इह शब्द- लक्षणे कर्मणि यथाशब्दार्थं प्रवृत्तिः ŚB. on MS.11.1.26. -शास्त्रम् ind. according to the scriptures, as the law ordains; सर्वे$पि क्रमशस्त्वेते यथाशास्त्रं निषेविताः Ms.6.88. -शीघ्रम् ind. as quickly as possible. -शीलम् ind. in accordance with one's temper. -श्रुत a. according to the report. -श्रुतम् -ति ind. 1 as heard or reported. -2 (यथाश्रुति) according to Vedic precepts; अस्मात् परं बत यथाश्रुति संभृतानि को नः कुले निवपनानि करिष्यतीति Ś.6.25. -श्रेष्ठम् ind. in order of precedence or merit. -श्लक्ष्ण a. behaving in such a way that the weaker is placed first. -संस्थम् ind. according to circumstances. -संख्यम् a figure of speech in Rhetoric; यथासंख्यं क्रमेणैव क्रमिकाणां समन्वयः K. P.1; e. g. शत्रुं मित्रं विपत्तिं च जय रञ्जय भञ्जय Chandr.5.17. (-ख्यम्), -संख्येन ind. according to number, respectively, number for number; हृत्कण्ठतालुगाभिस्तु यथासंख्यं द्विजातयः (शुध्येरन्) Y.1.21. -समयम् ind. 1 at the proper time. -2 according to agreement or established usage. -संभव a. possible. -संभावित a. suitable, appropriate. -सर्वम् ind. in all particulars. -सवनम् ind. according to the time or season. -सारम् ind. according to quality or goodness. -सुखम् ind. 1 at will or pleasure. -2 at ease, comfortably, pleasantly, so as to give pleasure; अङ्के निधाय करभोरु यथासुखं ते संवाहयामि चरणावुत पद्मताम्रौ Ś.3.2; R.9.48; Ms.4.43. -स्थानम् the right or proper place. (-नम्) ind. 1 in the proper place; duly, properly. -2 instantly. -3 according to rank. -स्थित a. 1 according to circumstances or actual facts, as it stands; रामं यथास्थितं सर्वं भ्राता ब्रूते स्म विह्वलः Bk.6.8. -2 right, proper, fit. (-तम्) ind. 1 truly, properly. -2 according to circumstances. -स्थिति ind. as usual, according to state or circumstances. -स्थूलम् ind. without details. -स्व a. each according to (his or her) own; यथास्वान् जग्मुरालयान् Mb.12.44.14. -स्वम् ind. 1 each his own, respectively; अध्यासते चीरभृतो यथास्वम् R.13.22; Ki.14.43. -2 individually; यथास्वमाश्रमैश्चके वर्णैरपि षडंशभाक् R.17.65. -3 duly, properly, rightly; यथास्वं ग्राहकान्येषां शब्दादीनामिमानि तु Mb.3.211.13.
lavaḥ लवः [ल्-अप्] 1 Plucking, mowing. -2 Reaping, gathering (of corn). -3 A section, piece, fragment, bit; कुशमुष्टिमुपादाय लवं चैव तु स द्विजः Rām.7.66.6. -4 A particle, drop, small quantity; a little; oft. at the end of comp. in this sense; जललवमुचः Me.21,72; आचामति स्वेदलवान् मुखे ते R.13.2;6.57;16.66; अश्रु˚ 15.97; अमृत˚ Ki.5.44; भ्रूक्षेपलक्ष्मीलवक्रीते दास इव Gīt.11; so तृण˚, अपराध˚, ज्ञान˚, सुख˚, धन˚ &c. &c. -5 Wool, hair; धान्ये सदे लवे वाह्ये नातिक्रामति पञ्चताम् Ms.8.151. -6 Sport. -7 A minute division of time (= the sixth part of a twinkling); त्वं मुहूर्तस्तिथिस्त्वं च त्वं लवस्त्वं पुनः क्षणः Mb.1.25.14. -8 The numerator of a fraction. -9 A degree (in astr.). -1 Loss, destruction. -11 N. of a son of Rāma, one of the twins, the other being Kuśa q. v. He with his brother was brought up by the sage Vālmīki, and they were taught by the poet to repeat his Rāmāyaṇa at assemblies &c.; (the derivation of his name, is given as-- स तौ कुशलवोन्मृष्टगर्भक्लेदौ तदाख्यया । कविः कुशलवावेव चकार किल नामतः ॥ R.15.32). -12 A kind of quail. -वम् 1 Cloves. -2 Nutmeg. -वम् ind. A little; लवमपि लवङ्गे न रमते Sar. K.1. -Comp. -अपवाहः (in alg.) subtraction of tractions. -इप्सु a. wishing to cut or reap.
likṣā लिक्षा लिख्या [रिषेः सः कित् Un.3.66] 1 A nit, the egg of a louse. -2 A very minute measure of weight (said to be equal to 4 or 8 trasareṇus); जालान्तरगते भानौ यच्चाणुर्दृश्यते रजः । तैश्चतुर्भिर्भवेल्लिक्षा; or त्रसरेणवो$ष्टौ विज्ञेया लिक्षैका परिमाणतः Ms.8.133; see Y.1.362 also.
liptā लिप्ता लिप्तिका A minute, the sixtieth part of a degree.
vibhū विभू 1 P. 1 To appear, become manifest. -2 To be equal to, suffice for; एकमेव तदेकं सन्न व्यभवत् Bṛi. Up. 1.4.11; Bhāg.5.1.12. -3 To pervade; आत्मन्यदृच्छया प्राप्तं विबुभूषुरुपाददे Bhāg.2.5.21. -4 To be able, be capable of, prevail. -Caus. 1 To think of, reflect, contemplate. -2 To be aware of, know, perceive, discover, see; तामिन्दुसुन्दरमुखीं सुचिरं विभाव्य Māl.1.18; 5.21; न विभाव्यन्ते लघवो वित्तविहीनाः पुरो$पि निवसन्तः Pt.5. 7; U.2.24. -3 To see or observe minutely, perceive carefully; V.4. -4 To decide, settle, make clear. -5 To manifest, show, reveal; यशः परंजगति विभाव्य वर्तिता Mb.7.2.15. -5 To separate. -6 To suppose, imagine. -7 To convince. -8 To establish, prove; तव सुचरितमङ्गुलीय नूनं प्रतनु ममेव विभाव्यते फलेन Ś.6.11. -9 To protect; लोकान् विभावयसि हंसि जगत्प्रतीपान् Bhāg.7.9.38.
viśikhā विशिखा 1 A spade. -2 A spindle. -3 A needle or pin. -4 A minute arrow. -5 A highway; विशिखायां सौवर्णिकप्रचारः Kau. A.2; Śi.15.7. -6 A barber's wife. -7 A sick-room.
vistaraḥ विस्तरः 1 Extension, expansion. -2 Minute details, detailed description, minute particulars; संक्षिप्तस्याप्यतो$- स्यैव वाक्यस्यार्थगरीयसः । सुविस्तरतरा वाचो भाष्यभूता भवन्तु मे Śi. 2.24; (विस्तरेण, विस्तरतः, विस्तरशः 'in detail, at length, fully, with minute details, with full particulars'; अङ्गुलिमुद्राधिगमं विस्तरेण श्रोतुमिच्छामि Mu.1; विस्तरेणात्मनो योगं विभूतिं च जनार्दन (भूयः कथय) Bg.1.18). -3 Prolixity, diffuseness; अलं विस्तरेण. -4 Abundance, quantity, multitude, number; उभे पुरवरे रम्ये विस्तरैरुपशोभिते Rām. 7.11.14. -5 A bed, layer. -6 A seat, stool. -7 Affectionate solicitation. -8 High degree, intensity. -9 (pl.) Great wealth, riches.
vaidarbhaḥ वैदर्भः [विदर्भ-अण्] 1 A king of Vidarbha. -2 A gum-boil. -र्भम् Crafty, ambiguous speech. -र्भी 1 N. of Damayantī धन्यास वैदर्भि गुणैरुदारैः N.3.116. -2 Of Rukmiṇī. -3 A particular style of composition; thus defined in S. D. :-- माधुर्यव्यञ्जकैर्वर्णै रचना ललितात्मिका । अवृत्तिरल्पवृत्तिर्वा वैदर्भी रीतिरिष्यते ॥ 626. Daṇḍin very minutely distinguishes this style from the Gaudiya; see Kāv. 1.41-53. Alaṁkāraśekhara quotes Ku.5.4 as an illustration. -4 N. of the wife of Agastya.
savistara सविस्तर a. Detailed, minute, complete. -रम् ind. In detail, in etenso.
sūkṣma सूक्ष्म a. [सूच्-मन् सुक् च नेट्; Uṇ.4.184] 1 Subtle, minute, atomic; जालान्तरस्थसूर्यांशौ यत् सूक्ष्मं दृश्यते रजः; मुख्य- क्रमेण प्रयोगव वनैकवाक्यता सूक्ष्मा ŚB. on MS.5.1.15. -2 Little, small; इदमुपहितसूक्ष्मग्रन्थिना स्कन्धदेशे Ś.1.19; R.18.49. -3 Fine, thin, delicate, exquisite. -4 Nice. -5 Sharp, acute, penetrating. -6 Crafty, artful, subtle, ingenious. -7 Exact, precise, accurate, correct. -क्षमः 1 An atom. -2 The clearing-nut plant. -3 An epithet of Śiva. -क्ष्मा 1 Sand. -2 Small cardamoms. -क्ष्मम् 1 The subtle all-pervading spirit, the Supreme Soul. -2 Minuteness. -3 One of the three kinds of power attainable by an ascetic; cf. सावद्य. -4 Craft, ingenuity -5 Fraud, cheating. -6 Fine thread &c. -7 N. of a figure of speech, thus defined by Mammaṭa :-- कुतो$पि लक्षितः सूक्ष्मोप्यर्थो$न्यस्मै प्रकाश्यते । धर्मेण केनचिद्यत्र तत्सूक्ष्मं परिचक्षते ॥ K. P.1. -8 The cavity of a tooth. -9 Marrow. -1 The Vedānta philosophy. -Comp. -आत्मन् m. N. of Śiva. -एला small cardamoms. -तण्डुलः the poppy. -तण्डुला 1 long pepper. -2 a kind of grass. -दर्शिता quick-sightedness, acuteness, foresight, wisdom. -दर्शिन्, -दृष्टि a. 1 sharp-sighted, eagle-eyed. -2 of acute discernment. -3 acute, sharpminded. -दलः mustard. -दारु n. a thin plank of wood, a board. -देहः, -शरीरम् the subtile body which is invested by the grosser material frame (= लिङ्गशरीर q. v.). -पत्रः 1 coriander seed. -2 a kind of wild cumin. -3 a sort of red sugar-cane. -4 the gum Arabic tree. -5 a sort of mustard. -पर्णी a kind of basil. -पिप्पली wild pepper. -बीजः the poppy. -बुद्धि a. sharp-witted, acute, shrewd, intelligent. (-द्धिः f.) sharp wit, acute intellect, mental acumen. -भूतम् a subtle element. -मक्षिकम्, -का a mosquito, gnat. -मति, -मतिमत् a. acute-minded. -मानम् a nice or exact measurement, precise computation (opp. सूथूलमान which means 'broad measurement', 'rough calculation'). -शरीरम् (in phil.) a subtle body. -शर्करा small gravel, sand. -शालिः a kind of fine rice. -षट्चरणः a sort of louse. -स्फोटः a kind of leprosy.
sūkṣmatā सूक्ष्मता minuteness, subtlety, fineness; सूक्ष्मतां चान्व- वेक्षेत योगेन परमात्मनः Ms.6.65.
saukṣmyam सौक्ष्म्यम् Minuteness, fineness, subtlety.
svalpa स्वल्प a. [सुष्ठु अल्पं प्रा˚ स˚] (compar. स्वल्पीयस्; superl. स्वल्पिष्ठ) 1 Very small or little, minute. -2 Trifling, insignificant. -3 Brief, short; स्वल्पं तथायुः Pt.1. -4 Very few. -Comp. -अङ्गुलिः the little finger. -आहार a. eating very little, most abstemious. -इच्छ a. unpretentious, unassuming. -कङ्कः a species of heron. -केशरिन् m. the Kovidāra tree. -दृश् a. very short-sighted (lit. and fig.). -बल a. very feeble or weak. -वयस् very young. -विषयः 1 an insignificant matter. -2 a small part. -व्ययः very little expenditure, stinginess. -व्रीड a. having little shame, shameless, impudent. -शरीर a. diminutive, dwarfish. -स्मृति a. having a short memory.
svalpīyas स्वल्पीयस् a. Much less, smaller, more minute (compar. of स्वल्प q. v.); अतः स्वल्पीयसि द्रव्ये यः सोमं पिबति द्विजः Ms.11.8.
svalpiṣṭha स्वल्पिष्ठ a. Smallest, least, most minute (superl. of स्वल्प q. v.).
     Macdonell Search  
15 results
aṇu a. minute, subtile, delicate; m. atom; -tva, n. minuteness; atomic nature; -mâtrika, a. composed of atoms; -mukha, a. small-mouthed.
atisūkṣma a. extremely minute.
anaṇu a. not minute, coarse.
kaṇa m. a grain; drop; flake, spark; little bit; -pa, m. kind of spear; -vâhin, a. wafting drops, moist; -sas, ad. in minute por tions.
kalā f. small part, esp. one-sixteenth; sixteenth part of the moon's disc; interest on capital; small division of time (ranging be tween 8 seconds and about 2 1/2 minutes accord ing to different statements); artistic skill; art (of which there are 64); -keli, a. practising an art as an amusement; -gña, a. understand ing an art or the arts; m. artist; -dhara, a. possessing an art or the arts; m. moon; -nâtha, m. moon;-nidhi, m. id.
ghaṭī f. jar, pot; a measure of time: 24 minutes: -yantra, n. water-wheel: -ka, n. small water-wheel.
nāḍi f. vein: -kâ, f. tube; a mea sure of time=1/2 muhûrta or 24 minutes; a measure of length=1/2 danda; v. l. for nâlikâ.
parilaghu a. extremely light or small; very minute or thin; easily digested; trivial, senseless: -tâ, f. extreme minuteness or thinness; -lamba, m. dilatoriness, delay: -na, n. hesitating, delaying; -lekha,m. out line, sketch; -lopa, m. neglect, omission.
mahāpakṣa a. having many ad herents, having a large following; -pa&ndot;ka, n. (?) deep mud; -pa&ndot;kti, f. a metre of forty-eight syllables; -pandita, a. extremely learned; m. great scholar; -patha, m. prin cipal street; high road; the great journey, pilgrimage to the other world (-m yâ, die); a certain hell; a. having a great path: -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -padma, n. a certain high number; m. one of the eight treasures connected with the magic art padminî; N. of a Nâga: -pati, m. lord of millions, ep. of Nanda, -saras, n. N. of a lake, -salila, n. id.; -padya-shatka, n. T. of a poem (at tributed to Kâlidâsa) consisting of six classi cal verses; -½aparâdha, m. great crime or injury; -parvata, m. high mountain; -pasu, m. large cattle; -pâta, m. long flight; a. flying far (arrow); -pâtaka, n. great crime or sin (of which there are five: killing a Brâhman, drinking spirituous liquor, theft, adultery with a teacher's wife, and asso ciation with persons guilty of those four crimes); -pâtakin, a. guilty of a capital sin; -pâtra, n. prime minister; -pâda, a. large footed; -pâpa, n.great crime; -pâpman, a. very harmful; -pâra, 1. m. a certain per sonification; 2. a. having distant banks, wide (sea); -pârsva, a. having broad sides (leech); N.; -pâsupata, a. with vrata, n. the great vow of a worshipper of Siva Pasupati; m. zealous worshipper of Siva Pasupati; -pîtha, n. high seat; -pumsa, m. great man; -punya, a. very auspicious (day); very good or beau tiful; very holy; -purá, n. great fortress: î, f. great citadel; -purusha, m. great or eminent man; supreme spirit; -pûta, pp. extremely pure; -prishtha, a. broad-backed; -pai&ndot;gya, n. T. of a Vedic text; -prakarana, n. main treatment of a subject; -pragâpati, m. great lord of creatures, ep. of Vishnu; -pratâpa, m. of great dignity, majestic; -pratîhâra, m. head janitor; -pradâna, n. great gift; -prapañka, m. the great world; -prabha, a. of great lustre, very splendid; -prabhâ, f. great brightness;-prabhâva, a. very mighty; -prabhu, m. great lord, sovereign; chief; ep. of Vishnu; -pramâna, a. very exten sive; -pralaya, m. great dissolution of the universe at the end of a cosmic age: -kâla, m. time of the --; -prasna,m. great or im portant question; -prasâda, m. great pre sent; a. very gracious; -prasthâna, n. great departure, decease; -prâgña, a. very wise or prudent (person); -prâna, m. hard breath ing, aspirate sound; great strength; a. pro nounced with a hard breathing, aspirated; of great endurance or physical strength; -plava, m. great flood, deluge; -phala, n. large fruit; great reward; a. producing a great reward; -bala, a. very strong, power ful, or effective; m. N.; -bâdha, a. very in jurious; -bâhu, a. long-armed, strong-armed; m. ep. of Vishnu; N.; -bila, n. deep hole; -buddhi, a. of great intellect, extremely clever; m. N. of an Asura; N.; -brihatî, f. a metre (8+8+8+8+12 syllables); -brah ma: -n, m. the great Brahman (the god); -brâhmaná, m. great Brâhman (also used sarcastically); n. Great (=Tândya) Brâh mana; -bhata, m. great warrior; N.; -bha ya, n. great danger or straits; -bhâga, a. having great good fortune, very lucky, greatly blessed; greatly distinguished, very illus trious (frequently used as a term of address); -bhâgin, a. very fortunate, greatly blessed; -bhâgya, n.high position, great importance or power; a. extremely fortunate: -tâ, f. great good fortune; -bhânda½agâra, n. chief treasury; -bhârata, a. (± a word meaning &open;battle&close;), the Great Battle of the Bharatas; n.(± âkhyâna), the Great Story of the Bharatas, T. of the well-known great Epic (which contains about 100,000 slokas); -bhâshya, n. the Great Commentary of Patañgali on the Sûtras of Pânini and the Vârttikas of Kâtyâyana (probably composed in the second century b. c.); -bhikshu, m. the great mendicant, ep. of Sâkyamuni; -½abhi- gana, m. high descent, noble birth; -½abhi yoga, m. great plaint or charge; -½abhishava, m. N. of a prince; -½abhisheka, m. great inauguration; T. of the fourteenth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara; -bhîta, pp. greatly terrified; -½abhîsu, a. brilliant, lustrous; -bhuga, a. long-armed; -bhûta, pp. being great, large (E.); m. great creature; n. gross element (ether, air, fire, water, earth); -bhû mi, f. great realm; whole territory (of a king); -½âbhoga, a. of great extent, wide spreading; -bhoga, 1. a. having great coils (serpent); m. serpent; -bhoga, 2. m. great enjoyment; -bhoga, m. great prince; -½abhra, n. great or thick cloud; -makha, m. great sacrifice (=-yagña); -mani, m. costly jewel; -mati, a. of great wit, clever; m. N.; (&asharp;) manas, a. lofty-minded, proud, haughty; high-minded, magnanimous; -manushya, m. great man, man of rank; -mantra, m. very efficacious spell (esp. against snake-poison); -mantrin, m. chief counsellor, prime minister; -mahá, a. high and mighty (RV.); -mah as, n. great luminary; -mahiman, m. true greatness; a. truly great; -mahima-sâlin, a. possessed of true greatness; -mahâ½upâ dhyâya, m. very great preceptor (a desig nation applied to great scholars, e.g. Malli nâtha); -mâmsa, n. delicious flesh (esp. human flesh); -½amâtya, m. prime minister; -mâtra, a. of great measure, great; greatest, best (of, --°ree;); m. man of high rank, high state official, king's minister; elephant-driver; -mânin, a. extremely proud; -mâya, a. at tended with great deception; practising great deception; m. N.; -mâyâ, f. the great illu sion (which makes the world appear really existent and thus in a sense creates it); -mây ûra, n. a kind of medicine; kind of prayer (--°ree;); -mârga, m. main road: -pati, m. chief inspector of roads; -mâhesvara, m. great worshipper of Mahesvara or Siva; -mukha,n. large mouth (also of rivers); a. (î) large mouthed; -muni, m. great sage; -mûdha, a. very stupid; m. great simpleton; -mûrkha, m. great fool; -mûrdhan, a. large-headed (Siva); -mriga, m. large wild animal; ele phant;-mridha, n. great battle; -megha, m. great or dense cloud; -medha, m. great sacrifice; (&asharp;)-meru, m. the great Mount Meru; -moha, m. great mental confusion or infatuation; -mohana, a. causing great men tal confusion; -moha-mantra, m. very effi cacious spell: -tva, n. abst. n.; -yaksha, m. great Yaksha, prince of the Yakshas; -yag- ñá, m. great or chief sacrifice (one of the five daily sacrifices of the householder, called bhûta-, manushya-, pitri-, deva-, and brah ma-yagña); -yantra, n. great mechanical work: -pravartana, n. execution of great mechanical works; -yama-ka, n. a great Yamaka (a stanza, all the four lines of which contain identically the same words but differ in meaning, e.g. Kirâtârgunîya XV, 52); -yasas, a. very famous, illustrious (person); -yâna, n. the Great Vehicle (a later form of Buddhistic doctrine originated by Nâgâr guna: opp.hîna-yâna); N. of a prince of the fairies (having a great car); -yuga, n. a great Yuga (equal to four ordinary Yugas or 4,320,000 years); -yuddha, n. great battle; -½âyudha, a. bearing great weapons (Siva); -ragana, n.saffron; a. coloured with saffron; -rana, m. great battle; -½aranya, n. great forest; -ratna, n. precious jewel: -maya, a. consisting of costly jewels, -vat, a. adorned with costly jewels; -rathá, m. great chariot; great warrior; N.; -rathyâ, f. main road; -½ârambha, m. great under taking; a. enterprising, active; -rava, m. great roar or yell; a. making a loud noise, shouting loud; m. N.; -rasa, a. extremely savoury; -râgá, m. great king, reigning prince, sovereign: -½adhirâga, m. lord of great kings, emperor; -râgñî, f. reigning princess, queen; ep. of Durgâ; -râgya, n. sovereign rule; -râtra, n. advanced time of night, end of the night; -râtri, f. id.; great night follow ing the dissolution of the world; -râva, m. loud yell; -râshtra, m. pl. the Mahrattas: î, f. Mahratta language, Mahrattî: a-ka, a. (ikâ) belonging to the Mahrattas; m. pl. the Mahrattas; -rug, -ruga, a. very painful; -roga, m. dangerous disease; -roman, a. very hairy (Siva); -raudra, a. extremely terrible; -½argha, a. of great price, precious, valuable; expensive: -tâ, f. preciousness, great value, -rûpa, a. having a splendid form; -½arghya, a. precious, valuable: -tâ, f. preciousness; -½arnava, m. great sea, ocean; -½artha, m. great matter; a. having great wealth, rich; of great significance, important; m. N. of a Dânava; -½arha, a.valuable, costly, splen did; -lakshmî, f. the Great Lakshmî, Nârâ yana's Sakti; also=Durgâ or Sarasvatî; -li&ndot;ga, n. a great Li&ndot;ga; -vamsya, a. of high lineage; -vanig, m. great merchant; -vada, m. great teacher (i.e. of the most essential Vedic knowledge); (&asharp;)-vadha, a. having a mighty weapon (RV.); -vana, n. great forest; -varâha, m. great boar (i.e. Vishnu's incarnation as a boar); N. of a prince; -vallî, f. great creeper; -vâkya, n. long composition, literary work; great pro position; -vâta, m. violent wind, gale; -vâyu, m. id.; -vârttika, n. the Great Vârttika, N. of Kâtyâyana's Vârttikas to the Sûtras of Pânini; -vâstu, n. great space; a. occupy ing a great space; -vikrama, a. of great courage, very valiant; m. N. of a lion; -vighna, m. n. great obstacle; -vigña, a. very sensible; -vidagdha, pp. very clever; -viraha, m. grievous separation; -visha,a. very poisonous; -vistara, a. very prolix (book); -vîki, m. (having great waves), a certain hell; -vîrá, m. great hero; large earthenware fire-pot (mostly used at the Pravargya cere mony); N. of various princes; N. of an Arhat, founder of the Jain sect: -karita, n. life of the great hero (Râma), T. of a play by Bhavabhûti, -karitra, n. life of Mahâ vîra (the Arhat), T. of a work; (&asharp;)-vîrya, a. mighty, very potent; -vrikshá, m. great tree; -vriddha, pp. very aged; -vrishá, m. great bull: pl. N. of a people in the western Himâlayas; -vega, a. greatly agitated (sea); very swift; -vaipulya, n. great extent; -vaira, n. great enmity; -vairâga, n. N. of a Saman;-vyâdhi, m. serious disease; -vyâhriti, f. the great exclamation (i.e. bh&usharp;r bhúvah svãh); -vratá, n. great or fundamental duty; great vow; great religious observance; N. of a Sâ man or Stotra to be chanted on the last day but one of the Gavâmayana (also applied to the day and the ceremony); rules of the worshippers of Siva Pasupati; a. having undertaken great duties or a great vow, practising great aus terity, very devotional; following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratika, a. following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratin, a., m., id.; a. practis ing the five fundamental duties of the Jains; -vratîya, a. relating to the Mahâvrata cere mony (day); -vrîhi, m. large rice; -sakti, a. very mighty (Siva); -sa&ndot;kha, m. great conch; -½asana, a. eating much, voracious (leech); m. great eater, glutton; -½asani dhvaga, m. flag with a great thunderbolt; -sabda, m. loud sound; title beginning with &open;mahâ&close; or the corresponding office; -½âsaya, 1. m. ocean; 2. a. high-minded, noble; -sayyâ, f. splendid couch; -sarîra, a. having a large body; -salka,m. kind of sea-crab; -salkalin, a. having large scales (fish); -sastra, n. mighty weapon; -sâka, n. kind of vegetable; -sâkya, m. great or distinguished Sâkya; -sânti, f. great appeasement (a kind of rite to avert evil);(&asharp;)-sâla, possessor of a great house, great householder; -sâlîna, a. very modest; -sâsana, n. great sway; a. exer cising great sway; -siras, a. large-headed; m. kind of serpent; -sûdra, m. Sûdra in a high position, upper servant; -saila, m. great rock or mountain; -½asman, m. precious stone; -smâsâna, n. large cemetery; ep. of Benares; -srotriya, m. great theologian or spiritual teacher; -½asva, m. N.: -sâlâ, f. great stable; office of head groom; -svetâ, f. N. of a god dess; N.; -samkata, n. great danger or straits; -satî, f. extremely faithful wife, pattern of wifely fidelity; -sattrá, n. great Soma sacrifice; -sattva, m. great creature; a. strong-minded; high-minded, noble; very courageous; containing large animals: -tâ, f. strength of character and containing large animals; -½âsana, n. splendid seat; -samdhi- -vigraha, m. office of chief minister of peace and war; -sabhâ, f. great dining hall; -samudra, m. ocean; -sarga, m. great crea tion (after a great dissolution); -sâdhana bhâga, m. head of the executive; -sâdhu, a. extremely good: v-î, f. pattern of wifely fidelity; -sâmtâpana,m. kind of penance; -sâmdhi-vigrah-ika, m. chief minister of peace and war; -sâmânya, n. generality in the widest sense; -sâra, a. strong; valuable, costly; -sârtha, m. great caravan; -sâhas ika, a. very daring, excessively rash; m. highwayman, robber: -tâ, f. great energy: in. with the utmost decision; -simha, m. great lion; N.; -siddha, (pp.) m. great saint; -siddhânta, m. great manual of as tronomy, T. of a work by Âryabhata the younger; -siddhi, f. great magical power; -subhiksha, n. great abundance of provisions, very good times (pl.); -sûkta, n. great hymn: pl. the great hymns of the tenth book of the Rig-veda (1 to 128); m. composer of the great hymns of RV. X; -sûkshma, a. extremely minute; -sûki, a. w. vyûha, m. kind of array of troops in battle; (&asharp;)-sena, a. having a large army; m. ep. of Skanda; N. of various princes; -senâ, f. great army; -stoma, a. having a great Stoma (day); -½astra, n. great or mighty missile; -sthâna, n. high place or position; -sthûla, a. very gross; -snâna, n. great ablution; -½âspada, a. mighty; -sva na, m. loud sound; a. loud-sounding, shout ing loud; loud (noise); -½âsvâda, a. very savoury; -hanu, a. having great jaws; -harm ya, n. great palace; -½âhava, m. great battle; -hava, m. great sacrifice; -hasta, a. large handed (Siva); -hâsa, m.loud laughter; a. laughing loud; -½ahí, m. great serpent: -sayana, n. sleep (of Vishnu) on the great serpent (Sesha); -½ahna, m. advanced day time, afternoon; -hrada, m. great pond.
muhūrta m. n. [den. pp. fr. muhur, past in a trice], moment, instant; hour of forty-eight minutes (one-thirtieth of a day): °ree;--, in a moment; for a moment; in. in a moment, presently; ab. after a moment, in stantly: -ka, m. or n. (?) moment; hour; -kovida, m. (skilled in auspicious moments), astrologer; -râga, a. red or attached for a moment.
vāmana a. small in stature, dwarf ish; minute (light), short (days); bent down, bending low; m. dwarf; dwarf-incarnation of Vishnu (who on being promised by the Daitya Bali as much land as he could mea sure in three steps, strode through the three worlds); N. of the world-elephant of the south or west; N., esp. of the author of the Kâvyâ lamkâra-vritti and of the Kâsikâ-vritti: -ka, m. dwarf; -tâ, f., -tva, n.dwarfishness.
vistara a. [√ stri] extensive (very rare); m. extent; multitude; large company; number of things, -connected with athg.; detail, minute particulars, detailed descrip tion, diffuseness (ord. mg.): --°ree; sts.=exten sive; in., ab., -tas, -sas, in detail, with full particulars: -tâ, f. extension.
susukha a. very agreeable or com fortable: °ree;-or -m, ad.; -sûkshma, a. very minute, small, or insignificant; very subtile (mind, sense); -sevita, pp. well-served (king); -saindhavî, f. beautiful mare from the In dus country (Sindh); -stambha, m. good pillar; -strî, f. good woman; -stha, a. (well situated), faring well, healthy, being at ease, prosperous, well off; full (moon): -tâ, f. health; -sthâna, n. beautiful place; -sthita, pp. (√ sthâ) firmly established; following the right path, innocent; faring well, pros perous, well off, being at ease (ord. mg.): -tva, n. ease, comfort, prosperity, -m-manya, a. considering oneself well off; -sthiti, f. excellent position; welfare; -sthira, a. very steadfast, lasting, or durable: -m-manya, a. considering oneself firmly established, -var man, m. N.; -snâta, pp. perfectly cleansed by bathing; -snigdha-gambhîra, a.very soft and deep (voice); -spashta, pp. [√ spas] very clear, evident, or distinct: -m, ad. most manifestly; -svapna, m. beautiful dream; -svara, m. correct accent; a. hav ing a beautiful voice; melodious; loud: -m,ad. melodiously; loudly; -svâda, a. having a good taste, well-flavoured, sweet; -svâdu, a. very well-flavoured (water); -svâmin, m. good leader (of an army).
sūkṣma a. minute, fine, small; thin; narrow (path); short; trifling; delicate, scarcely audible (sound); acute, subtle (intellect, mental operation); nice, exact; intangible, atomic: w. artha, m. trifling matter: -m, ad. penetratingly, keenly, hard (look); -tikka, m. N.; -tâ, f. subtle nature; -tva, n. id.; -darsi-tâ, f. keen-sightedness, acuteness (of mind); -darsin, a. acute (mind); -drishti, f. keen glance; -pâda, a. having smallor delieate feet; -tva, n. delicacy of one's feet; -bhûta, n. subtile element; -mati, a. acute-minded: -mat, a. id.; -sarîra, n. subtile or ideal body; -½aksha, a. eagle-eyed, acute (mind): -tâ, f. acuteness (perh. incorr. for -½îkshi-tâ); -½îkshikâ, f. keen sight, acuteness (perhaps incorr. for -½îkshitâ).
saukṣmya n. [sûkshma] fineness, minuteness, subtilty.
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
3 results
daśan ‘Ten,’ forms the basis of the numerical system of the Vedic Indians, as it does of the Aryan people generally. But it is characteristic of India that there should be found at a very early period long series of names for very high numerals, whereas the Aryan knowledge did not go beyond 1,000. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the list is 1 ; 10; 100; 1,000 ; ιο,οοο {ayuta) \ ιοο,οοο (ηiyuta); ι,οοο,οοο(prayuta); 10,000,000 {arbuda); 100,000,000 (ηyarbuda)', 1,000,000,000 (samudra); 10,000,000,000 (madhya); ιοο,οοο,οοο,οοο (aηta); 1,000,000,000,000 {parārdha). In the Kāthaka Samhitā the list is the same, but ηiyuta and prayuta exchange places, and after ηyarbuda a new figure (badva) intervenes, thus increasing samudra to ιο,οοο,οοο,οοο, and so on. The Taittirīya Samhitā has in two places exactly the same list as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The Maitrāyanī Samhitā has the list ayuta, prayuta, then ayuta again, arbuda, ηyarbuda, samudra, madhya, aηta, parārdha. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmana has the Vājasaneyi list up to ηyarbuda inclusive, then follow ηikharvaka, badva, aksita, and apparently go = ι,οοο,οοο,οοο,οοο. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana list replaces nikharvaka by nikharva, badva by padma, and ends with aksitir vyomāntah. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra con¬tinues the series after nyarbuda with nikharvāda, samudra, salila, antya, ananta (=10 billions).But beyond ayuta none of these numbers has any vitality. Badva, indeed, occurs in the Aitareya Brāhmana, but it cannot there have any precise numerical sense j and later on the names of these high numerals are very much confused. An arithmetical progression of some interest is found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, where occurs a list of sacrificial gifts in which each successive figure doubles the amount of the preceding one. It begins with dvādaśa-mānam hiranyam, * gold to the value of 12 ’ (the unit being uncertain, but probably the Krsnala18), followed by ‘to the value of 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1,536, 3072/ then dve astāvimśati-śata-māne, which must mean 2 x 128 X 24 (the last unit being not a single māna, but a number of 24 mānas) = 6,144, then 12,288, 24,576, 49,152, 98,304, 196,608, 393,216. With these large numbers may be compared the minute theoretical subdivision of time found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where a day is divided into 15 muhūrtas—1 muhūrta =15 ksipras, 1 ksipra =15 etarhis, I etarhi = 15 idānis, 1 idāni =15 prānas. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra15 has a decimal division of the day into 15 muhūrtas—• i muhūrta = 10 nimesas, 1 nimesa = 10 dhvamsis. Few fractions are mentioned in Vedic literature. Ardha, pāda, śapha, and kalā denote J, J, TV respectively, but only the first two are common. Trtīya denotes the third part.16 In the Rigveda Indra and Visnu are said to have divided ι,οοο by 3, though how they did so is uncertain. Tri-pād denotes 4 three-fourths.’ There is no clear evidence that the Indians of the Vedic period had any knowledge of numerical figures, though it is perfectly possible.
muhūrta Denotes a division of time, one-thirtieth of a day, or an hour of forty-eight minutes, in the Brāhmaṇas. In the Rigveda the sense of ‘moment' only is found. Cf. Ahan.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
     Vedabase Search  
53 results
aṇu minuteSB 11.22.11
SB 4.13.28
bhāgaḥ minute portionCC Madhya 19.141
sūkṣmam minuteSB 8.3.20-21
paramāṇu-ādi beginning from the time of minute atomsSB 5.14.29
lava-ādi consisting of seconds, moments, minutes and hoursSB 7.3.31
nimeṣa-ādiḥ beginning with minute parts of timeSB 10.3.26
aṇu-kalpaḥ like a minute atomSB 6.16.37
bhūteṣu ucca-avaceṣu in the minute and giganticSB 2.9.35
ucca-avaceṣu both gigantic and minuteCC Adi 1.55
ucca-avaceṣu both gigantic and minuteCC Madhya 25.126
daṇḍa-dui ba-i after about forty-five minutesCC Antya 10.91
bhṛśam endlessly (every hour and every minute)SB 8.2.33
bhūteṣu ucca-avaceṣu in the minute and giganticSB 2.9.35
bindu-bindutayā with a very minute quantityCC Madhya 23.77
bindu-bindutayā with a very minute quantityCC Madhya 23.77
cāri daṇḍa four daṇḍas (one daṇḍa equals twenty-four minutes)CC Madhya 19.130
daṇḍa-cāri four daṇḍas (ninety-six minutes)CC Antya 6.159-160
cāri daṇḍa four daṇḍas (one daṇḍa equals twenty-four minutes)CC Antya 6.310
daṇḍa a duration of twenty-four minutesCC Madhya 6.206
cāri daṇḍa four daṇḍas (one daṇḍa equals twenty-four minutes)CC Madhya 19.130
daṇḍa-cāri four daṇḍas (ninety-six minutes)CC Antya 6.159-160
daśa-daṇḍa ten daṇḍas (240 minutes)CC Antya 6.255
cāri daṇḍa four daṇḍas (one daṇḍa equals twenty-four minutes)CC Antya 6.310
daṇḍa-dui ba-i after about forty-five minutesCC Antya 10.91
daṇḍeke khāilā ate within twenty-four minutesCC Antya 10.127
daśa-daṇḍa ten daṇḍas (240 minutes)CC Antya 6.255
daṇḍa-dui ba-i after about forty-five minutesCC Antya 10.91
ghaṭikābhiḥ half hours (actually twenty-four minutes)SB 5.21.10
daṇḍa-dui ba-i after about forty-five minutesCC Antya 10.91
jīvaḥ the minute living entitySB 11.10.31
kālaḥ time (minutes, hours, seconds)SB 10.3.26
aṇu-kalpaḥ like a minute atomSB 6.16.37
daṇḍeke khāilā ate within twenty-four minutesCC Antya 10.127
kṣaṇam for a minuteSB 10.88.29
yāma-kṣaṇam every hour and every minuteSB 12.12.59
laghūni such laghus (each of two minutes)SB 3.11.8
lava-ādi consisting of seconds, moments, minutes and hoursSB 7.3.31
muhūrta-trayam for three minutesSB 5.8.1
muhūrta for a span of minutesSB 10.84.12
muhūrtam for a muhūrta (forty-eight minutes)SB 5.24.3
muhūrtena in a muhūrta (forty-eight minutes)SB 5.21.12
nimeṣa-ādiḥ beginning with minute parts of timeSB 10.3.26
paramāṇu-ādi beginning from the time of minute atomsSB 5.14.29
samālokya observing minutelySB 8.19.8
sūkṣmāṇām of the minute particlesCC Madhya 19.142
varāha-tokaḥ a minute form of Varāha (a boar)SB 3.13.18
muhūrta-trayam for three minutesSB 5.8.1
bhūteṣu ucca-avaceṣu in the minute and giganticSB 2.9.35
ucca-avaceṣu both gigantic and minuteCC Adi 1.55
ucca-avaceṣu both gigantic and minuteCC Madhya 25.126
varāha-tokaḥ a minute form of Varāha (a boar)SB 3.13.18
yāma-kṣaṇam every hour and every minuteSB 12.12.59
Ayurvedic Medical
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     Purchase Kindle edition


comminuted fracture; the bone shattered into fragments.


a measurement of time equal to 24 minutes.


1. membrane, sheaths, layers; a liquid layer between the dhātus that is solidified by body temperature, māmsadharā kalā, sukradharā kalā; 2. a measurement of time equal to 2 minutes and 20 seconds


1. time measurement equal to 48 minutes or 30th part of the day; 2. a moment of time or blink of an eye.


a unit of time equal to one half of muhūrta; 24 minutes.


Plant 1. small water clover, Marselia minute, M. quadrifolia; 2. rohida tree, Blepheris persica; 3. plumed cockscomb, Celosia argentea.

Parse Time: 0.888s Search Word: minute Input Encoding: IAST: minute