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"lip" has 1 results.
    
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√liplipaaupadehe6141
  
"lip" has 1 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√लिप्lipbesmearing, in anointing, covering / upadeha199/2Cl.6
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
lip (cf rip-) cl.6.1.P. A1. () limp/ati-, te- (perfect tense lilepa-. etc.; Aorist alipat- ; alispata-, alipta- grammar; -alipsata- ; future lepta1-, lepsyati-, te- grammar; infinitive mood leptum- ; ind.p. -lipya- etc.) , to smear, besmear, anoint with (instrumental case), stain, soil, taint, pollute, defile etc. ; to inflame, kindle, burn : Passive voice lipyate- (Epic also ti-; Aorist alepi-), to be smeared etc. ; to be attached to (locative case), stick, adhere : ; Causal lepayati- (Aorist alīlipat-), to cause to smear etc. ; to smear or anoint anything (accusative) with (instrumental case) or on (locative case) ; to cover ; to cast blame on any one ; (limpayati-), to smear anything (accusative) with (instrumental case): Desiderative lilipsati-, te- grammar : Intensive leliyate-, lelepti- [ confer, compare Greek , Latin lippus; Lithuanian li4pti; Gothic bileiban; Germ,bili4ian,bli7ben,bleiben,leben,Leib; Anglo-Saxon libban; English live,life.] View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipam. smearing, anointing, plastering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipif. (according to to also lipī-) smearing, anointing etc. (See -kara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipif. painting, drawing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipif. writing, letters, alphabet, art or manner of writing
lipif. anything written, manuscript, inscription, letter, document View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipif. outward appearance (lipim-āp-,with genitive case,"to assume the appearance of"; citrāṃ lipiṃ- -,"to decorate beautifully") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipijñamfn. one who can write View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipijñānan. the science or art of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipikam. a scribe, clerk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipikāf. lipi-, a writing, written paper etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipikaram. an anointer, whitewasher, plasterer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipikaram. a writer, scribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipikaram. an engraver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipikāram. a writer, scribe, copyist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipikarmann. drawing, painting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipikarmanirmitamfn. painted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipinyāsam. "the act of putting down written characters", writing, transcribing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipiphalakan. a writing-tablet, leaf for writing on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipisajjāf. implements or materials for writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipiśālāf. a writing-school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipisaṃkhyāf. a number of written characters View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipisaṃnāham. "writing belt", a belt worn on the fore-arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipiśāstran. the art of art of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipitvan. the condition of being anything written View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipivivekam. Name of work on the art of writing of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipf. (fr. Desiderative) the desire to gain, wish to acquire or obtain, longing for (locative case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lip lipsu-, lipsya- etc. See .
lipsitamfn. wished to be obtained, desired View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipsitavyamfn. desirable to be obtained, wished for View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipsumfn. wishing to gain or obtain, desirous of, longing for (accusative or compound) ( lipsutā -- f."desire of gaining") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipsutāf. lipsu
lipsyamfn. to be wished to be obtained, desirable to be acquired View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptamfn. smeared, anointed, soiled, defiled etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptamfn. sticking or adhering to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptamfn. joined, connected View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptamfn. envenomed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptamfn. eaten View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipf. See liptā- below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipf. = , a minute, the 60th part of a degree (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptahastamfn. having the hands smeared or stained View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptakamfn. smeared, covered with poison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptakam. a poisoned arrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptāṅgamfn. having the body anointed with unguents etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptavāsitamfn. anointed and perfumed. (see gaRa rājadantādi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptavatmfn. one who has smeared or anointed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptif. ointment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptikāf. See liptikā- below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptikāf. idem or 'f. =, a minute, the 60th part of a degree (see ) .' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liptīkṛP. -karoti-, to reduce to minutes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilipto smear with : Causal idem or 'n. a written document ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhilipf. desire of obtaining. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhraliptamf(ī-)n. partly overspread with clouds View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhraviliptamf(ī-)n. equals -lipta- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājyalipta(/ājya--) mfn. anointed with clarified butter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālipP. -limpati- (Aorist ālipat-) to besmear, anoint etc.: Causal -limpayati- and -lepayati-, to besmear, anoint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alipakam. (= 1 ali-above) a bee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alipakam. the Indian cuckoo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alipakam. a dog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aliparṇīf. the plant Tragia Involacrata Lin. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alipattrikāf. Name of a shrub View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alipimfn. unstained (and"unwritten"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alipriyan. the red lotus, Nymphaea Rubra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alipriyāf. the flower (Bignonia Suaveolens) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alipf. freedom from desire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āliptamfn. anointed, smeared, plastered View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ālipya ind.p. having besmeared or anointed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amedhyaliptamfn. smeared with ordure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgalipif. written character of aṅga-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgulipraṇejanan. water for washing the fingers, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅguliprāśanan. eating with the fingers, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
animittalipif. a particular mode of writing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
añjalipuṭam. n. cavity produced in making the añjali- salutation.
annalipf. desire for food, appetite. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anulipP. to anoint, besmear ; A1. to anoint one's self after (bathing): Causal -lepayati-, to cause to be anointed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuliptamfn. smeared, anointed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuliptāṅgamfn. having the limbs anointed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupaliptam. Name (also title or epithet) of a tathāgata-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpāṭaliputramind. as far as or to pāṭaliputra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ardhacandanaliptamfn. half rubbed with sandal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśuciliptamfn. soiled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avalipP. (indeclinable -lipya-) to smear, : A1. (parasmE-pada -limpamāna-) to smear one's self. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avalipsam. a kind of amulet, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaliptamfn. smeared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaliptamfn. furred (as the tongue) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaliptamfn. (equals /api-ripta- q.v) blind (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaliptamfn. proud, arrogant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaliptatāf. ([ ]) pride, arrogance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaliptatvan. ([ ]) pride, arrogance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baddhāñjalipuṭamfn. forming a cup with the hollowed hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balipīṭhalakṣaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balipodakīf. Basella Cordifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balipratigrāhakamf(ikā-)n. receiving oblations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balipriyamf(ā-)n. fond of offering oblations View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balipriyam. Symplocos Racemosa (fabled to grow faster if presented with oblations consisting of incense, lights etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balipuṣṭam. "nourished by food-offerings", a crow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baliputram. equals -nandana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baliputramokṣaṇan. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaumadevalipif. Name of a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūtalipif. "demon-writing", Name of a particular magical formula View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmavadalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmavallīlipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhadgurugurvāvalipūjāśāntividhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇalipif. the southern way of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇālipi varia lectio for ṇa-l-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāmaliptam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāmaliptafn. Name of a town, (see tāma--,or tāmra--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dambholipāṇim. " d--handed", indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dambholipātam. the falling of indra-'s thunderbolt, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dambholipātāyaNom. yate-, to fall down like indra-'s thunderbolt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daradalipif. writing peculiar to the darada-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūlipaṭalan. cloud of dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūliprakṣepam. the throwing of handful of dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhūlipuṣpikāf. Pandanus Odoratissimus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīpāvaliprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drāviḍalipif. the Dravidian writing or character View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūlālipattra n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durlipim. "the fatal writing"(of Destiny on man's forehead) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekāvaliprakāśam. Name of commentary on the above works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lipradānan. idem or 'n. reviling, .' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇanāvartalipif. a kind of writing, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhaliptamfn. anointed with perfumes, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛhabalipriyam. "fond of domestic oblations", the crane Ardea nivea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
halipriyam. Nauclea Kadamba View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
halipriyāf. spirituous liquor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jālābaddhāṅgulipāṇipādatalstāf. the having the soles of the feet and palms and fingers covered with nets (or cross-lines; one of the 32 signs of perfection), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaladhautalipif. (?) a streak of gold, illumination of a manuscript with gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalipradam. a liquor-shop View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalipriyamfn. fond of quarrelling, quarrelsome, mischievous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalipriyam. Name of nārada-, an ape View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kelipalvalan. a pleasure-pond View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keliparamfn. wanton, sportive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khāsyalipif. (fr. khasa-?), a kind of written character or alphabet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kinārilipif. a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtāñjalipuṭamf(ā-)n. joining the palms of the hands for obeisance or for holding offerings of water etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetralipf. a minute of the ecliptic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetraliptīkaraṇan. reducing to minutes of the ecliptic. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusumāñjaliprakāśam. Name of commentary on the preceding work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusumāñjaliprakāśamakaraṇḍam. Name of commentary on the preceding work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lābhalipf. greediness of gain avarice, covetousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lekhapratilekhalipif. a particular kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyāhāriṇīlipif. Name of a particular kind of written character (Calcutta edition adhyāh-).
madhyākṣaravistaralipif. Name of a particular kind of written character View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
magadhalipif. the writing of magadha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahoragalipif. a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mallipattran. a mushroom or fungus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍalipattrikāf. equals maṇḍala-p- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍalipattrikāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṣīliptamfn. smeared with ink View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maulipṛṣṭhan. the crown of the head View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgalipsumfn. wishing to catch or kill a deer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mudrālipif. "printed writing", print, lithograph View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktāvalipaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktāvaliprabhāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktāvaliprakāśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naliptāṅgamfn. whose body is not anointed (Bombay edition) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nārāyaṇabaliprayogam. nārāyaṇabali
nikṣepalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nilipP. A1. -limpati-, te- (3. plural Aorist A1. -alipsata-), to besmear, anoint (A1.one's self) ; to cause to disappear (A1.to disappear, become invisible) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirliptam. "unsmeared, undefiled", Name of kṛṣṇa-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirliptam. a sage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyakusumāñjaliprakāśam. nyāyakusumāñjali
pādalipta(and -sūri-) m. Name of a scholar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pallipañjakam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parilipP. -limpati-, to smear or anoint all round View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryupalipP. -limpati-, to smear all round View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṭaliputran. Name of the capital of magadha- near the confluence of the śoṇa- and the Ganges (supposed to be the ancient Palibothra and the modern Patna) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṭaliputram. plural the inhabitants of this city View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṭaliputrakamf(ikā-)n. relating to or coming from pāṭaliputra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṭaliputrakan. the city pāṭaliputra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāṭaliputranāmadheyan. (sc. nagara-) a city called pāṭaliputra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pilipiccha m. Name of a demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pilipicchi m. Name of a demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pilipicchika m. Name of a demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pilipiñjam. Name of a demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pilippilamf(-)n. slippery () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakṣepalipif. a particular style of handwriting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pralipP. A1. -limpati-, te-, to smear, besmear, stain (A1. to smear etc. one's self) etc.: Causal -lepayati-, to smear, besmear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pralipamfn. one who smears or plasters View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praliptamfn. cleaving or sticking to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṇalipsumfn. desirous of saving life View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāñjalipragrahamfn. holding the hands joined and outstretched (varia lectio liḥ pragr-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratilipif. a copy, transcript, written reply View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvapāṭaliputran. Name of a city View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvapāṭaliputrakamfn. being in pūrva-pāṭali-putra-(?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvavidehalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣpalipif. "flower-writing."Name of a particular style of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣyalipi varia lectio for puṣpa-l-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājāvalipatākāf. Name of a continuation of the rāja-taraṃgiṇī- by prājya-bhaṭṭa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāgaralipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakārilipif. a particular kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāliparṇīf. Glycine Debilis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāliparṇīf. equals māṣa-parṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālipiṇḍam. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālipiṣṭan. rice-flour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālipiṣṭan. crystal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaliputra varia lectio for śala-putra- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālmalipattrakam. Alstonia Scholaris View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samālipP. A1. -limpati-, te-, to anoint all over (A.,"one's self") : Causal -lepayati-, to anoint or smear over, anoint well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samāliptamfn. well anointed or smeared View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkhyālipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃlipsumfn. (fr. Desiderative) desirous of seizing or taking hold of. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvarutasaṃgrahiṇilipi(?) f. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāstrāvartalipif. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
snātānuliptamfn. one who is both bathed and anointed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaliptamfn. smeared with soma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somaliptan. a soma--utensil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāvaṇakarmasarpabaliprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhalipf. desire of attaining pleasure or happiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svārthalipsumfn. wishing to gain one's own object, self-seeking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmaliptam. plural (equals mral-) Name of a people and its country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmaliptan. Name of a city of that people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmaliptakan. equals ptī- (varia lectio ptika-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmalipf. idem or 'n. Name of a city of that people ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tamolipf. equals tāma-l- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmraliptam. plural Name of a people (living near the western mouth of the Ganges) and its country (vv.ll. tāma-l-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmraliptam. a prince of the tāmra-lipta-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmralipf. their capital View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmraliptakam. plural the tāmra-lipta- people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmraliptarṣim. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmralipf. idem or 'f. their capital ' (equals tāma-l-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmraliptikāf. equals ptī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taṇḍulakusumabaliprakāra m. plural Name of a kalā- (q.v). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tosaliputram. Name of a Jain teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liphalāf. the cotton tree (also tul-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upalipP. -limpati-, to defile, besmear (especially with cow-dung), smear, anoint etc. ; to cover, overlay : Caus -lepayati-, to besmear (especially with cow-dung), smear, anoint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upalipf. (fr. Desiderative), wish to obtain, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upalipsumfn. (fr. idem or 'f. (fr. Desiderative), wish to obtain, '), wishing to learn or hear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upālipsumfn. wishing to reproach or blame, on . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaliptamfn. besmeared, anointed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upalipya ind.p. having besmeared or anointed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utkṣepalipim. a kind of written character, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vajralipif. a particular style of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṅgalipif. Bengal writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāyumarullipi(fr. -marut-+ l-) f. a particular mode of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyānulomālipi(!) f. (n-) a particular manner of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikṣepalipim. a kind of writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilipP. A1. -limpati-, te-, to smear or spread over, anoint (also"to anoint one's self"P.) etc. ; to smear or spread with (instrumental case) : Causal -lepayati-, to smear or anoint with (instrumental case) ; -limpayati- See -limpita-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilip f. a second (= 1/3600 of a degree) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viliptamf(ā-)n. smeared over, anointed etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilipf. See View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilipf. a cow in a particular period after calving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viliptikāf. a second (= 1/3600 of a degree) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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lip लिप् 6 U. (लिम्पति-ते, लिप्त) 1 To anoint, smear, besmear; लिम्पतीव तमो$ङ्गानि Mk.1.34. -2 To cover, overspread; plaster; लिप्तेषु भासा गृहदेहलीनाम् Śi.3.48. -3 To stain, pollute, defile, taint, contaminate; यः करोति स लिप्यते Pt.4.64; न मां कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति Bg.4.14;18.17; Ms.1.16. -4 To inflame, kindle; तस्यालिपत शोकाग्निः स्वान्तं काष्ठमिव ज्वलन् Bk.6.22. -Caus. 1 To cast blame on anyone. -2 To smear anything.
lipaḥ लिपः Smearing, anointing.
lipiḥ लिपिः पी f. [लिप् इक् वा ङीप्] 1 Anointing, smearing. -2 Writing, hand-writing. -3 The written characters, letters, alphabet; यवनाल्लिप्याम् Vārt.; लिपेर्यथावद्ग्रहणेन वाङ्मयं नदीमुखेनेव समुद्रमाविशत् R.3.28;18.46. -4 The art of writing. -5 A writing (as a letter, document, manuscript &c.); अयं दरिद्रो भवितेति वैधसीं लिपिं ललाटे$र्थिजनस्य जाग्रतीम् N.1.15,138. -6 Painting, drawing. -7 Outward appearance. -Comp. -करः 1 a plasterer, whitewasher, mason. -2 a writer, scribe. -3 an engraver (also लिपिंकर). -कर्मन् n. drawing, painting. -ज्ञानम् the art of writing. -कारः a writer, scribe. -ज्ञ a. one who can write. -न्यासः the art of writing or transcribing. -फलकम् a writing tablet or board. -शाला a writing school. -सज्जा writing materials or apparatus. -संनाहः a belt worn on the fore-arm.
lipikā लिपिका See लिपी.
lipikaḥ लिपिकः A scribe, clerk.
lip लिप्सा [लभ्-सन्-भावे अ] 1 Desire of getting or regaining; मृतस्य लिप्सा कृपणस्य दित्सा ...... न हि दृष्टपूर्वा Bv.1.125. -2 Desire in general.
lipsu लिप्सु a. Desirous of getting &c.
lipta लिप्त p. p. [लिप्-क्त] 1 Anointed,smeared, besmeared, covered. -2 Stained, soiled, polluted, defiled. -3 Poisoned, envenomed (as an arrow). -4 Eaten. -5 United, joined. -प्तम् n. Phlegm; the phlegmatic humour of the body. -Comp. -वासित a. anointed and perfumed. -हस्त a. having the hands smeared or stained.
lip लिप्ता लिप्तिका A minute, the sixtieth part of a degree.
liptakaḥ लिप्तकः A poisoned arrow.
anulip अनुलिप् 6 P. To anoint, besmear (with perfumes &c. after bathing); smear, daub, cover over; वपुरन्वलिप्त न वधूः Śi.9.51,9.15; प्रभानुलिप्तश्रीवत्सम् R.1.1 covered with; तच्छायानुलिप्तभूतलाम् K.131; हरिभिरचिरभासा तेजसा चानुलिप्तैः Ś.7.7; so स्नातानुलिप्तः; तिमिरानुलिप्त enveloped in darkness; स्नापितो$नुलेपितश्च Dk.71 besmeared with perfumes &c.
ālip आलिप् 6 P. 1 To anoint, besmear; आलिम्पन्नमृतमयैरिव प्रलेपैः U.3.39; plaster, bedaub. -2 To rub (on the body); आलिप्यते चन्दनमङ्गनाभिः Rs.6.12.
ālipa आलिप a. Anointing.
ālipta आलिप्त a. 1 Anointed. -2 Smeared, plastered.
upalip उपलिप्सा A desire to obtain.
upalip उपलिप् 6 P. 1 To anoint, smear, besmear. -2 To defile, pollute; तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते Bg.13.32. -3 To stick or adhere to; यो वक्त्रमुपलिम्पति Vāgb. -Caus. To besmear (esp. with cow-dung; शुचिं देशं विविक्तं च गोमयेनोप- लेपयेत् Ms.3.26.
vilip विलिप् 6 P. 1 To smear, anoint, rub on; तथा हि नृत्याभिनयक्रियाच्युतं विलिप्यते मौलिभिरम्बरौकसाम् Ku.5.79; Bk.3.2;15.6; Śi.16.62. -2 To pollute, defile, taint, contaminate.
vilipta विलिप्त p. p. 1 Anointed, besmeared, smeared over. -2 Polluted, stained, defiled. विलिप्ता viliptā विलिप्तिका viliptikā विलिप्ता विलिप्तिका A second (= 1/36 of a degree).
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suśipra su-śípra, a. (Bv.) fair-lipped, ii. 12, 6; 33, 5.
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lipi f. besmearing, anointing; writing, handwriting; written line or letter; inscription; outward appearance: -m âp, assume the appearance of (g.); kitrâm lipim nî, garnish beautifully.
lipikara m. plasterer, white-washer; writer, scribe; -karman, n. painting; -karma-nirmita, pp. painted; -nyâsa, m. act of writing; -phalaka, n. writing tablet; -sâlâ, f. writing school; -sâstra, n. art of writing.
lip f. (fr. des. of √ labh) wish to obtain, desire, longing, for (lc., --°ree;); -s-i tavya, fp. desirable; -su, des. a. wishing to obtain, desiring, longing for (ac., --°ree;).
lipti f. ointment.
akaliprasara a. where no quarrelling occurs.
aṅguliparvan n. finger-joint; -pranegana, n. water for washing the fingers; -mukha, n. finger-tip; -mudrâ, f. seal-ring; -sphotana, n. cracking the fingers.
avalipta pp. anointed; proud, haughty: -tâ, f., -tva, n. pride, insolence; -lunthana, n. robbing; -lekhana, n. brush ing, combing; -lepa, m. ointment; pride, -na, n. id., -vat, a. proud, haughty; -leha,m., -na, n. licking off.
upalip (des.) f. desire for (--°ree;); -su, des. a. desirous to learn (ac.).
dambholipātāya den. Â. descend like Indra's thunderbolt.
pāṭaliputra n. N. of the capital of Magadha or Behar, the Palibothra of the Greeks, near the modern Patna at the old confluence of the Sone and Ganges; m. pl. the inhabitants of Pâtaliputra: -ka, n. id., -nâmadheya, a. named Pâtaliputra.
maulipṛṣṭha n. crown of the head; -bandha, m. diadem; -mandana, n. head-ornament: -mâlikâ, f. wreath worn on the head; -mâlâ, -mâlikâ, f. id.; -mukuta, m. diadem.
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aryamṇaḥ panthā Aryaman’s Way,’ an expression which occurs in the Brāhmanas, denotes, according to Weber, ‘ the milky way,’ but, according to Hillebrandt, ‘the ecliptic.
kulīkaya Is the form in the Taittirīya Samhitā of the name of an animal, apparently a kind of fish, as explained by Mahī- dhara in his commentary, which is called Kulīpaya in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and Purīkaya in the Atharvaveda, variants probably due to the faulty tradition of an unfamiliar name.
kṣura Occurs three times in the Rigveda. The word appears to have the general sense of ‘ blade in one passage, possibly also in another, where it is said that the hare swallowed a Ksura, and where the sense ‘ blade ’ is adequate. In the third passage4 there seems to be a reference to the sharpening of a razor on a grindstone (bhurijos, the dual denoting precisely, as Pischel6 points out, the two sides of the apparatus, between which the stone revolved like the modern grindstone). But Muir, following another view of Roth, adopts the sense the edge of scissors/ which, however, hardly suits the other passage, one in the Atharvaveda, where a Ksura is described as moving about on the bhurijos, as the tongue on the lip. The meaning razor ’ is perfectly clear in the Atharvaveda, where shaving by means of it is mentioned; in many other passages either sense is adequate. A ksuro bhrjvān occurs in the Yajur¬veda: it seems to denote, as Bloomfield suggests, a razor with a strop (in the shape of a small grinding apparatus). Ksura-dhār denotes ‘the edge of a razor,’ like ksurasya dhārā. In the Upanisads a razor-case (Ksura-dhāna) is mentioned. See also Smaśru.
candra Are the names of the * moon,’ the latter occurring from the Rigveda onwards, but the former being first used in this sense by the Atharvaveda. Very little is said about the moon in Vedic literature, except -as identified with Soma,3 both alike being described as waxing and waning. Reference is, however, made to the regular changes of the moon, and to its alternation with the sun,[1] to which it, as Soma, is declared in the Rigveda to be married.[2] Mention is also made of its disappearance at the time of new moon,[3] and of its birth from the light of the sun.8 In the Atharvaveda9 reference is made to demons eclipsing the moon (grahās cāndramāsāh). For the phases of the moon, and the month as a measure of time, see Māsa. For the moon and its mansions, see Naksatra.
dhenā Denotes a ‘ milch cow,’ or in the plural, ‘ draughts of milk.’ In two passages Roth takes the word to mean mare,’ and in another the * team’ of Vāyu’s chariot. Benfey, on the other hand, renders it ‘ lips ’ in one passage, with Sāyana and with Durga’s commentary on the Nirukta. Geldner assigns to the word the senses of ‘ lips,’ ‘ speech,’cow,’‘ beloved,’ and ‘ streams.’
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nirāla Occurs once in the Atharvaveda, where Sāyana regards it as the name of a disease. Bloomfield, with the Padapātha, explains it as two words, understanding nir as an elliptical imperative, (go) out,’ with the vocative āla, a kind of weed. Whitney at first took āla to be a verbal form, but finally came to the conclusion that the expression is one word, nirāla, of unknown sense.
niṣtya Means in the Rigveda and later an outsider or stranger. Hence the constellation usually known as Svāti (see Naksatra) is named Nistyā in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, because it occupies a position markedly away from the ecliptic.
pur Is a word of frequent occurrence in the Rigveda and later, meaning ‘rampart,’ foft,’ or stronghold.’ Such fortifi­cations must have been occasionally of considerable size, as one is called ‘broad’ (prthvī) and ‘wide’ (urvī). Elsewhere a fort made of stone’ (aśmamayī) is mentioned. Sometimes strongholds ‘ of iron ’ (<āyasī) are referred to, but these are probably only metaphorical. A fort full of kine ’ (gomatī) is mentioned, showing that strongholds were used to hold cattle. Autumnal ’ (sāradī) forts are named, apparently as belonging to the Dāsas: this may refer to the forts in that season being occupied against Aryan attacks or against inundations caused by overflowing rivers. Forts ‘with a hundred walls (βata- bhuji) are spoken of. It would probably be a mistake to regard these forts as permanently occupied fortified places like the fortresses of the mediaeval barony. They were probably merely places of refuge against attack, ramparts of hardened earth with palisades and a ditch (cf. Dehī). Pischel and Geldner, however, think that there were towns with wooden walls and ditches (περίβολος and τάφρος) like the Indian town of Pātaliputra known to Megas- thenes and the Pāli texts. This is possible, but hardly susceptible of proof, and it is not without significance that the word Nagara is of late occurrence. On the whole it is hardly likely that in early Vedic times city life was much developed. In the Epic, according to Hopkins, there are found the Nagara, ‘city’; Grāma, ‘village’; and Ghosa, ‘ranch.’ Vedic literature hardly seems to go beyond the village, no doubt with modifications in its later period. The siege of forts, is mentioned in the Samhitās and Brāhmanas. According to the Rigveda, fire was used.
purīkaya Is the name of a water animal in the Atharvaveda, being clearly a variant of the name that appears as Pulīkaya in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and as Kulīpaya in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and as Kulīkaya in the Taittirīya Brāhmana. What animal is meant is quite unknown.
marka Is found in one passage of the Rigveda, where Roth sees in the expression sñro markah the ‘eclipse of the sun.’ Sāyaṇa thinks the meaning is ‘purifying.’
māṇḍūkīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Mandūka,’ is mentioned as a teacher, a pupil of śāṇdilīputra, in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad.
māsa Denotes a 'month' a period of time repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and lateṛ The Characteristic days (or rather nights) of the month were those of new moon, Amā-vasya, 'home-staying (night),' and 'of the full moon,' Paurṇa-māsi. Two hymns of the Atharvveda celebrate these days respectively. A personification of the phases of the moon is seen in the four names Sinīvālī the day before new moon; Kuhū also called Guṅgū, the new moon day;Anumati, the day before full moon; and Rākā, the day of new mooṇ The importance of the new and full moon days respectively. One special day in the month, the Ekāṣṭakā, or eighth day after full moon, was importanṭ In the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa there stated to be in the year twelve such, mentioned between the twelve days of full moon and twelve days of new moon. But one Ekāṣṭakā is referred to in the Yajurveda Saṃhitas and elsewhere as of quite special importance. This was, in the accordant opinion of most comentators, the eighth day after the full moon of Magha. It marked the end of the year, or the begining of the new year. Though the Kauṣītaki Brāmaṇa places places the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, the latter date probably means the new moon preceding full moon in Māgha, not the new moon following full moon; but it is perhaps possible to account adequately for the importance of the Ekāstakā as being the first Aṣṭakā after the beginning of the new year. It is not certain exactly how the month was reckoned, whether from the day after new moon to new moon—the system known as amānta, or from the day after full moon to full moon—the pūr- nimānta system, which later, at any rate, was followed in North India, while the other system prevailed in the south. Jacobi argues that the year began in the full moon of Phālguna, and that only by the full moon’s conjunction with the Nakṣatra could the month be known. Oldenberg12 points to the fact that the new moon is far more distinctively an epoch than the full moon; that the Greek, Roman, and Jewish years began with the new moon; and that the Vedic evidence is the division of the month into the former (j>ūrva) and latter (apara) halves, the first being the bright (śukla), the second the dark (krsna) period. Thibaut considers that to assume the existence of the pīirnimānta system for the Veda is unnecessary, though possible. Weber assumes that it occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa as held by the scholiasts. But it would probably be a mistake to press that passage, or to assume that the amānta system was rigidly accepted in the Veda: it seems at least as probable that the month was vaguely regarded as beginning with the new moon day, so that new moon preceded full moon, which was in the middle, not the end or. the beginning of the month. That a month regularly had 30 days is established by the conclusive evidence of numerous passages in which the year is given 12 months and 360 days. This month is known from the earliest records, being both referred to directly and alluded to. It is the regular month of the Brāhmaṇas, and must be regarded as the month which the Vedic Indian recognized. No other month is mentioned as such in• the Brāhmaṇa literature ; it is only in the Sūtras that months of different length occur. The Sāmaveda Sūtras10 refer to (i) years with 324 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each; (2) years with 351 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each, plus another month of 27 days; (3) years with 354 days—i.e., 6 months of 30 days, and 6 with 29 days, in other words, lunar synodic years; (4) years with 360 days, or ordinary civil (sāvana) years; (5) years with 378 days, which, as Thibaut clearly shows, are third years, in which, after two years of 360 days each, 18 days were added to bring about correspondence between the civil year and the solar year of 366 days. But even the Sāmasūtras do not mention the year of 366 days, which is first known to the Jyotiṣa and to Garga. That the Vedic period was acquainted with the year of 354 days cannot be affirmed with certainty. Zimmer, indeed, thinks that it is proved by the fact that pregnancy is estimated at ten months, or sometimes a year. But Weber may be right in holding that the month is the periodic month of 27 days, for the period is otherwise too long if a year is taken. On the other hand, the period of ten months quite well suits the period of gestation, if birth takes place in the tenth month, so that in this sense the month of 30 days may well be meant. The year of 12 months of 30 days each being admittedly quite unscientific, Zimmer23 is strongly of opinion that it was only used with a recognition of the fact that intercalation took place, and that the year formed part of a greater complex, normally the five year Yuga or cycle. This system is well known from the Jyotiṣa: it consists of 62 months of 29£4 days each = 1,830 days (two of these months being intercalary, one in the middle and one at the end), or 61 months of 30 days, or 60 months of 30^ days, the unit being clearly a solar year of 366 days. It is not an ideal system, since the year is too long; but it is one which cannot be claimed even for the Brāhmaṇa period, during which no decision as to the true length of the year seems to have been arrived at. The references to it seen by Zimmer in the Rigveda are not even reasonably plausible, while the pañcaka yuga, cited by him from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, occurs only in a quotation in a commentary, and has no authority for the text itself. On the other hand, there was undoubtedly some attempt to bring the year of 360 days—a synodic lunar year—roughly into connexion with reality. A Sāmasūtra27 treats it as a solar year, stating that the sun perambulates each Naxatra in days, while others again evidently interpolated 18 days every third year, in order to arrive at some equality. But Vedic literature, from the Rigveda downwards,29 teems with the assertion of the difficulty of ascertaining the month. The length is variously given as 30 days, 35 days,31 or 36 days. The last number possibly indicates an intercalation after six years (6x6 = 36, or for ritual purposes 35), but for this we have no special evidence. There are many references to the year having 12 or 13 months. The names of the months are, curiously enough, not at all ancient. The sacrificial texts of the Yajurveda give them in their clearest form where the Agnicayana, ‘building of the fire-altar,’ is described. These names are the following: (1) Madhu, (2) Mādhava (spring months, vāsantikāv rtū); (3) Sukra, (4) Suci (summer months, graismāv rtū); (5) Nabha (or Nabhas), (6) Nabhasya (rainy months, vārsikāv rtū); (7) Iṣa, (8) ūrja (autumn months, śāradāυ rtū); (9) Saha (or Sahas),35 (10) Sahasya (winter months, haimantikāυ rtū); (II) Tapa (or Tapas),35 (12) Tapasya (cool months, śaiśirāv rtū). There are similar lists in the descriptions of the Soma sacrifice and of the horse sacrifice, all of them agreeing in essentials. There are other lists of still more fanciful names, but these have no claim at all to represent actual divisions in popular use. It is doubtful if the list given above is more than a matter of priestly invention. Weber points out that Madhu and Mādhava later appear as names of spring, and that these two are mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka as if actually employed; but the evidence is very inadequate to show that the other names of the months given in the list were in ordinary use. In some of these lists the intercalary month is mentioned. The name given to it in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā is Amhasas- pati, while that given in the Taittirīya and Maitrāyaṇī Sarphitās is Sarpsarpa. The Kāthaka Sarphitā gives it the name of Malimluca, which also occurs elsewhere, along with Samsarpa, in one of the lists of fanciful names. The Atharvaveda describes it as sanisrasa, ‘slipping,’ owing no doubt to its unstable condition. The other method of naming the months is from the Nakçatras. It is only beginning to be used in the Brāhmaṇas, but is found regularly in the Epic and later. The Jyotisa mentions that Māgha and Tapa were identical: this is the fair interpretation of the passage, which also involves the identifica¬tion of Madhu with Caitra, a result corresponding with the view frequently found in the Brāhmanas, that the full moon in Citrā, and not that in Phalgunī, is the beginning of the year. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa are found two curious expressions, yava and ayava, for the light and dark halves of the month, which is clearly considered to begin with the light half. Possibly the words are derived, as Eggling thinks, from yu, ‘ ward off,’ with reference to evil spirits. The word Parvan (‘ joint ’ = division of time) probably denotes a half of the month, perhaps already in the Rigveda. More precisely the first half, the time of the waxing light, is called pūrva-paksa, the second, that of the waning light, apara-paka. Either of these might be called a half-month (ardha-ināsa).
rāhu The demon that eclipses the sun, seems to be referred to in one passage of the Atharvaveda. The reading here is somewhat uncertain, but Rāhu is probably meant.
sūrya The ‘sun,’ plays a great part in Vedic mythology and religion, corresponding with the importance of the sun as a factor in the physical life of the peninsula. In the Rigveda2 the sun is normally regarded as a beneficent power, a not unnatural view in a people which must apparently have issued from the cold regions of the Himālaya mountains. Its heat is, however, alluded to in some passages of the Rigveda, as well as referred to in the Atharvaveda and the literature of the Brāhmaṇas. In one myth Indra is said to have vanquished Sūrya and to have stolen his wheel: this is possibly a reference to the obscuration of the sun by a thunderstorm. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa presents a naive conception of the course of the sun, which it regards„ as bright on one side only, and as returning from west to east by the same road, but with the reverse side turned towards the earth, thus at night illumining the stars in heaven. In the Rigveda wonder is expressed that the sun does not fall. There are several references to eclipses in the Rigveda. In one passage Svarbhānu, a demon, is said to have eclipsed the sun with darkness, while Atri restores the light of the sun, a similar feat being elsewhere attributed to his family, the Atris. In the Atharvaveda Rāhu appears for the first time in connexion with the sun. Indra’s defeat of Sūrya may also be explained as alluding to an eclipse; in two other passages such an interpretation seems at least probable. Ludwig not only argues that the Rigveda knows the theory of eclipses caused by an occultation of the sun by the moon, and regards the sun as going round the earth, but even endeavours to identify an eclipse referred to in the Rigveda with one that occurred in 1029 B.C. These views are completely refuted by Whitney. The sun as a maker of time determines the year of 360 days, which is the civil year and the usual year (Saipvatsara) of Vedic literature. This solar year is divided into two halves— the Uttarāyaṇa, when the sun goes north, and the Dakṣiṇā- yana, when it goes south. There can be no doubt that these periods denote the time when the sun turns north from the winter solstice, and when it turns south from the summer solstice, for the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa says so in perfectly clear language. The alternative theory is to regard the periods as those when the sun is in the north—i.e., when it is north of the equator, and when it is in the south, taking as points of departure the equinoxes, not the solstices; but this view has no support in Vedic literature, and is opposed to the fact that the equinoxes play no part in Vedic astronomical theory. There are only doubtful references to the solstices in the Rigveda. The Brāhmanas, and perhaps the Rigveda, regard the moon as entering the sun at new moon. According to Hillebrandt, the Rigveda recognizes that the moon shines by the borrowed light of the sun, but this seems very doubt-ful. See also Aryamṇalj Panthā, Nakṣatra, and Sapta Sūryāh.
svarbhānu asura Is the name, in the Rigveda and later, of a demon supposed to have eclipsed the sun. See Sūrya.
       Bloomfield Vedic
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17 results
     
akṣāṇāṃ gaṇam upalipsamānāḥ # AVś.6.118.1b. See prec. two.
avir āsīt pilippilā # VS.23.12c,54c; TS.7.4.18.1d; MS.3.12.19c: 166.7; KSA.4.7c.
aśiślikṣuṃ śiślikṣate # AVś.20.134.6b. See chlilīpu.
uṣṇe lohe na līpsethāḥ # AVś.20.134.5b.
etaṃ sthālīpākaṃ sarvam aśāna # Aś.8.14.5.
(TSṭB. kiṃ) svid āsīt pilippilā # VS.23.11c,53c; TS.7.4.18.1d; MS.3.12.19c: 166.5; KSA.4.7c; śB.13.2.6.16; TB.3.9.5.3.
kiṃ svid āsīt pilippilā (also piśaṅgilā, and pūrvacittiḥ) # see kā svid etc.
tāsāṃ viliptyaṃ bhīmām # AVś.12.4.41c.
na karmaṇā lipyate pāpakena # śB.14.7.2.28d; TB.3.12.9.8d; BṛhU.4.4.28d; BDh.2.6.11.30d. Cf. next but one.
na karma lipyate nare # VS.40.2d; īśāU.2d. Cf. prec. but one.
na yac chūdreṣv alapsata (śś. alipsata) # AB.7.17.3b; śś.15.24b.
nākro makaraḥ kulīpayas (TS. kulīkayas; MS. pulīkayas; KSA. pulīrayas) te 'kūpārasya (KSA. kūvarasya, read kūvārasya) # VS.24.35; TS.5.5.13.1; MS.3.14.16: 176.1; KSA.7.3.
ni kroḍādā alipsata # AVP.9.6.6b.
ny adṛṣṭā alipsata # RV.1.191.1d,4d; AVś.6.52.2d.
parimṛṣṭe parilipte ca parvaṇi # Kauś.73.9a.
mitrāya kulīpayān # VS.24.21. See mitrāya pulīkayān.
mitrāya pulīkayān # MS.3.14.2: 173.1. See mitrāya kulīpayān.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"lip" has 8 results.
     
ativyastaquite apart, used with respect to lips which are widely apart ( विश्लिष्टौ ) in the utterance of long अा and ओ; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II.12, 13.
atyupasaṃhṛtavery closely uttered, uttered with close lips and jaws, (said in connection with the utterance of the vowel अ ); confer, compare T. Pr II. 12. See अतिसंश्लिष्ट.
ambūkṛtautterance (of words) accompanied by water drops coming out of the mouth; a fault of utterance or pronunciation; मुखात् विप्रुषो निर्गमनम् . It is explained differently in the Rk. Prātiśākhya; confer, compare ओष्ठाभ्यां नद्धं अम्बूकृतम्म्वृ (Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2.) held tight between the lips which of course, is a fault of pronunciation; confer, compareग्रस्तं निरस्तमविलम्बितं निर्हतं अम्बूकृतं ध्मात मथो विकम्पितम्. MBh. I. 1. पस्पशाह्निक.
oṣṭhaIit. lip; the place of origin ( स्थान ) of the labial letters called उपध्मानीय वर्ण i.e the vowels उ, ऊ, the consonants प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and the उपध्मानीय letter; confer, compare ऊपूपध्मानीयानामेाष्ठौ Sid. Kau. on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9, also उवोपोपध्मा ओष्ठे V. Pr . I.70.
oṣṭhayaliterally produced upon the lip: a letter ofthe labial class;letters उ,ऊ, ओ, औ, प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and व् are given as ओष्ठय letters in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. See the word ओष्ठ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For the utterance of the letter व् tips of the teeth. are also employed; hence the letter व् is said to have दन्तौष्ठ as its स्थान.. ओस् the case affix ओस् of the genitive case and the loc, dual number
naddhaa fault of pronunciation when a letter, although distinctly pronounced inside the mouth, does not become audible, being held up ( बद्ध ) by the lips or the like. The fault is similar to अम्बूकृत: confer, compare ओष्ठाभ्यामम्बूकृतमाह नद्धम् R.Pr.XIV.2.
prāgdeśadistricts of the east especially districts to the east of Ayodhya and Pataliputra, such as Magadha, Vanga and others; nothing can definitely be said as to which districts were called Eastern by Panini and his followers Katyayana and Patanjali. A Varttika given in the Kasika but not traceable in the Mahabhasya defines Pragdesa as districts situated to the east of शरावती (probably the modern river Ravi or a river near that river ): confer, compare प्रागुदञ्चौ विभजते हंसः क्षीरोदके यथा । विदुषां शब्दसिद्ध्यर्थे सा नः पातु शरावती ॥ Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on एङ् प्राचां देशे P. I. 1.75. There is a reading सरस्वती in some manuscript copies and सरस्वती is a wellknown river in the Punjab near Kuruksetra, which disappears in the sandy desert to the south: a reading इरावती is also found and इरावती may stand for the river Ravi. शरावती in Burma is simply out of consideration. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 202-204 and 141-142 D. E. Society's Edition.
     Vedabase Search  
Results for lip43 results
     
lipsantaḥ desiring stronglySB 8.8.35
lipsavaḥ as they desire (are taken care of)SB 8.16.12
lipset one should feelSB 4.8.34
lipseta one should desireSB 11.17.49
lipsuḥ desirous of obtainingSB 10.86.2-3
lipsunā desiring to obtainCC Madhya 22.158
lipta smearedCC Antya 19.94
CC Madhya 3.104
SB 10.90.1-7
lipta taintedSB 10.83.9
liptaḥ anointedSB 10.65.32
liptāḥ smearedSB 10.75.15
liptam smearedSB 10.56.17
liptam touchedSB 11.21.13
lipyase are contaminatedSB 6.13.8-9
lipyate becomes involvedSB 4.26.7
lipyate can be boundIso 2
lipyate is affectedBG 5.10
lipyate is attachedBG 18.17
lipyate is entangledBG 5.7
āliptāḥ anointedSB 10.84.44-45
āliptam smearedSB 10.33.11
ālipya smearing the bodySB 8.16.26
anulipta-ańgaḥ with sandalwood pulp smeared all over the bodySB 7.13.41
anulipta-ańgaḥ with sandalwood pulp smeared all over the bodySB 7.13.41
anulipta and anointed with (sandalwood pulp)SB 10.34.21
anulipta anointedSB 10.38.28-33
su-anuliptāḥ anointed with auspicious sandalwood pulpSB 10.24.29
naraka-ārti-lipsu desirous to suffer pain in hellSB 2.7.22
avaliptānām who are intoxicatedSB 10.25.6
kāma-liptena decorated with turmeric to incite lusty desiresSB 6.1.61
naraka-ārti-lipsu desirous to suffer pain in hellSB 2.7.22
na liptaḥ You are never touchedSB 11.6.17
kāma-liptena decorated with turmeric to incite lusty desiresSB 6.1.61
na lipyate nor is he entangledBG 13.32
na lipyate nor is he entangledBG 13.32
na liptaḥ You are never touchedSB 11.6.17
naraka-ārti-lipsu desirous to suffer pain in hellSB 2.7.22
su-anuliptāḥ anointed with auspicious sandalwood pulpSB 10.24.29
upalipyate mixesBG 13.33
upalipyate mixesBG 13.33
vipralip cheatingCC Adi 2.86
vipralip cheating purposesCC Adi 7.107
     DCS with thanks   
Results for lip52 results
     
lip verb (class 4 ātmanepada) to adhere (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to anoint with (instr.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to besmear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to burn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to defile (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to inflame (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to kindle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to pollute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to smear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to soil (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to stain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to taint (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 759/72933
lipi noun (feminine) alphabet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
anointing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
anything written (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
art or manner of writing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
document (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drawing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inscription (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
letter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
letters (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
manuscript (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
outward appearance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
painting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
smearing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
writing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
?
Frequency rank 16073/72933
lipikara noun (masculine) a writer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an anointer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an engraver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
plasterer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
scribe (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
whitewasher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64196/72933
lips verb to desire to wish to get
Frequency rank 5711/72933
lipsitā noun (feminine) name of a female demon
Frequency rank 64199/72933
lipsu adjective desirous of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wishing to gain or obtain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9459/72933
lip noun (feminine) longing for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the desire to gain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wish to acquire or obtain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8012/72933
liptaka noun (masculine) a poisoned arrow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64197/72933
liptamūṣikā noun (feminine) ?
Frequency rank 64198/72933
liptamūṣā noun (feminine) liptamūṣikā
Frequency rank 11410/72933
lip noun (feminine) a minute (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the 60th part of a degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14411/72933
añjalipuṭa noun (masculine neuter) cavity produced in making the añjali salutation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31487/72933
anavalipta adjective
Frequency rank 42785/72933
anālipta adjective nicht beschmutzt
Frequency rank 42893/72933
anulip verb (class 6 ātmanepada) to anoint (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to anoint one's self after (bathing) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to besmear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6386/72933
abhilipsu adjective desirous of
Frequency rank 44292/72933
abhilip noun (feminine) desire of obtaining (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44293/72933
alipattrikā noun (feminine) name of a shrub (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45036/72933
aliparṇī noun (feminine) the plant Tragia Involacrata Lin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45037/72933
alipsamāna adjective not desiring
Frequency rank 32597/72933
avalip verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to smear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to smear one's self (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7161/72933
avalipta adjective arrogant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
blind (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
furred (as the tongue) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
smeared (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13347/72933
avilipta adjective not smeared
Frequency rank 45445/72933
ālip verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to anoint (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to to besmear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5423/72933
upalip verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to anoint (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to besmear (esp. with cow-dung) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to cover (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to defile (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to overlay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to smear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6863/72933
upalipsu adjective wishing to learn or hear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47622/72933
ullip verb (class 6 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 47830/72933
kalipriyā noun (feminine) [rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 48866/72933
kalipriya noun (masculine) an ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Nārada (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48867/72933
kolipattra noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 50215/72933
tāmralip noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 12967/72933
tāmralipta noun (masculine) name of a people (living near the western mouth of the Ganges) and its country (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53436/72933
tāmraliptaka noun (masculine) the Tāmralipta people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28186/72933
tāmraliptika noun (masculine) an inhabitant of Tāmraliptī
Frequency rank 53437/72933
dhūlipuṣpikā noun (feminine) Pandanus Odoratissimus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55555/72933
nirlip verb (class 6 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 24403/72933
nirlipta noun (neuter) isolation (???)
Frequency rank 36350/72933
parilip verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to smear or anoint all round (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19593/72933
pāṭaliputraka adjective coming from Pāṭaliputra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57657/72933
pāṭaliputra noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 24575/72933
pralip verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to besmear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to smear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to stain (Ā. to smear etc. one's self) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5449/72933
pravilip verb (class 6 ātmanepada) to anoint to smear
Frequency rank 59414/72933
balipuṣṭa noun (masculine) a crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37594/72933
mallipattra noun (neuter) a mushroom or fungus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38087/72933
vilip verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to anoint to smear or spread over to smear or spread with (instr.)
Frequency rank 5288/72933
śāliparṇī noun (feminine) Glycine Debilis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8877/72933
śāliparṇikā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 67509/72933
śālipiṇḍa noun (masculine) name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67510/72933
śālmalipattraka noun (masculine) Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R.Br. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30501/72933
samālip verb (class 6 parasmaipada) to anoint all over
Frequency rank 22518/72933
saṃlip verb (class 6 parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 8365/72933
supralipta adjective
Frequency rank 70986/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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adhara

lip; lower .

amśumatīdvayam

Plant herbs śāliparṅi and priśniparṅi.

anśumati

Go to śāliparṅi.

bhṛṇgarāja

Plant thistles; Eclipta alba, E. prostrata.

bījaka

Plant 1. Indian kino tree, Pterocarpus marsupium; 2. Indian laurel, Terminalia tomentosa, T. ellipta.

daśamūla

Plant ten roots (śāliparṇi, pṛsniparṇi, bṛhati, kanṭakāri, gokṣūra, bilva, agnimantha, śyonāka, pāṭali, gambhāri)

dhruva

1. pole star, 2. stable, 3. Plant śāliparṇi, one of daśamūla or ten roots.

jalārbuda

cyst in the lips.

kampilla

1. Plant monkey face tree, glands and hairs of fruit of Mallotus philippinensis; 2. a mineral substance from north-west of India.

karkaśa

Plant rugged, harsh, Mallotus philippinsesis. male plant of Momordica dioica.

kharjūra

Plant wild date, Phoenix dactyliphera.

lagana

chalazion; meibomian gland lipogranuloma or a cyst in the eyelid caused by inflammation of a blocked meibomian gland. It differs from stye (hordeola), which is subacute and painless.

laghupañcamūla

(laghu.panca.mūla) five small roots: śāliparṇi, priśnaparni, brihati, gokṣūra, kanṭakāri. Eranḍa is also taken in the place of gokṣūra.

lavalīphala

country gooseberry, Phyllathus acidus.

medohara

lipostatic, lypolyti Century

oṣṭha

lip; oṣṭhabheda cracks on lips; oṣṭhaprakopa harelip, oṣṭharanjani

oṣṭadamśa

biting lips.

pāriśa

Plant 1. Thespesia populnea, Indian tulip tree; 2. Indian rock fig, Ficus arnottiana.

pilipiccikā

women whose child dies on the fifteenth day after delivery

plakṣa

Plant Indian tulip tree, Thespesia populnea; white fruited wavy leaf fig, Ficus infectora, F. lacor, F. arnottiana, F. glabella, F. tsiela.

rasauśirika

Go to lavalīphala

saireyaka

Plant crested Philippine violet flower, blue barleria, Barleria cristata, B. prionitis, B. involucrata.

śāliparṇi

Plant salpan, Desmodium gangeticum, D. laxiflorum. (in north India); Pseudarthria viscida is used in south India.

slīpada

elephantiasis or lymphatic filariasis.

sthālīpāka

1. barley or rice boiled in milk; 2. preparing medicine in a pan or culdron.

vākyaśeṣa

one of tantrayuktis; context, part of the sentence ‘implied’; supplying the ellipsis.

valīpalita

winkles and grey hair.

vallipañcamūla

Plant vidārikanda (Indian katju), anantamūla (Indian sarsaparilla), haridra (turmeric), guḍūci (moon creeper), ajāśringi (Odina wodier).

vidārigandha

Go to śāliparṇi.

vūhya

ellipsis, omission of a word or phrase necessary for a complete syntactical construction but not necessary for understanding; fabrication, fiction.

     Wordnet Search "lip" has 115 results.
     

lip

lipī, libī, lipiḥ, likhitam, akṣarasaṃsthānam, libiḥ, likhanam, lekhanam, akṣaravinyāsaḥ, akṣararacanā   

likhitavarṇam।

hindī iti bhāṣā devanāgarī iti lipyāṃ likhyate।

lip

citralipiḥ   

sā lipi yasyāṃ kimapi vastu bhāvo vā citrarūpeṇa sūcayati।

cīnadeśasya prācīnā lipayaḥ citralipeḥ udāharaṇam asti।

lip

brāhmīlipi   

bhāratadeśasya prācīnā lipi yā nāgaryādīnāṃ lipinām udgamasthānam।

brāhmīlipi vāmataḥ dakṣiṇaṃ likhyate।

lip

kharoṣṭrī, kharoṣṭrī-lipiḥ, gāndhāra-lipiḥ   

prācīnā lipiḥ yā dakṣiṇataḥ vāmadiśaṃ gacchati।

adhunā kharoṣṭrī luptaprāyā jātā।

lip

devanāgarīlipiḥ, nāgarīlipiḥ   

bhāratadeśasya rāṣṭralipiḥ yasyāṃ saṃskṛta-hindī-marāṭhī-ityādayaḥ naikāḥ bhāṣāḥ likhyante।

naikāḥ bhāratīyāḥ bhāṣāḥ devanāgarīlipyāṃ likhyante।

lip

garvita, garvin, sagarva, garvara, garvavat, garvitacitta, sadarpa, darpavān, darpī, mānī, ahaṅkārī, ahaṃyu, sāhaṅkāra, ahamānī, pragalbha, uddhata, uddhatacitta, uddhatamanas, samuddhata, prauḍha, unnaddha, samunnaddha, sāṭopa, āṭopī, utsikta, unnataśiraska, unnatamanaska, samunnatacitta, ūrdhvadṛṣṭi, avalipta, darpaghmāta, sāvahela, pradhṛṣṭa   

yaḥ garvaṃ karoti।

rājeśaḥ garvitaḥ।

lip

kalahakārin, kalahakāra, kalahapriya, kalikārī, kalikāraka, kalipriya, vivādārthin, vivādin, vivādaśīla, vivādapriya, yuyutsu   

yaḥ kalahaṃ karoti।

manoharaḥ kalahapriyām bhāryām upāyaṃsta।

lip

darpatā, auddhatyam, uddhatatvam, abhimānatā, avaliptatā, avaliptatvam, āsphālanam   

darpasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

bhavataḥ darpatayā śramikāḥ kāryāt parāvṛttāḥ।

lip

aṅkitaḥ, likhitaḥ, lekhaḥ, patram, granthaḥ, grathitam, racanā, lipiḥ, libiḥ   

akṣaravinyāsaḥ।

adhunā aṅkitāḥ saṃskṛtagranthāḥ upalabdhāḥ santi।

lip

alikhita, alipibaddha   

yad lipibaddhaṃ nāsti।

śyāmaḥ alikhitāḥ lokakathāḥ lipibaddhāḥ karoti।

lip

likhita, lipibaddha, aṅkita   

yad likhitam asti।

asya puṣṭyarthaṃ mama pārśve likhitaṃ pramāṇam asti।

lip

anāsakta, alipta, nirlipta   

yaḥ āsaktaḥ nāsti।

saḥ rūḍhīṃ prati anāsaktaḥ।

lip

lipiśailī   

lekhanasya śailī।

asmin jagati naikāḥ lipiśailyaḥ dṛśyante।

lip

pittam, māyuḥ, palajvalaḥ, tejaḥ, tiktadhātuḥ, uṣmā, agniḥ, analaḥ, śāṇḍilīputraḥ   

śarīrasthadhātuviśeṣaḥ yaḥ pittāśaye jāyate tathā ca yaḥ pacanakriyāyāṃ sāhāyyaṃ karoti।

pittaṃ annasya pacanakriyāyāṃ sahāyakam।

lip

icchā, ākāṅkṣā, vāñchā, dohadaḥ, spṛhā, īhā, tṛṭ, lipsā, manorathaḥ, kāmaḥ, abhilāṣaḥ, tarṣaḥ, ruk, iṣā, śraddhā, tṛṣṇā, ruciḥ, matiḥ, dohalam, chandaḥ, iṭ   

manodharmaviśeṣaḥ।

nirduḥkhatve sukhe cecchā tajjñānādeva jāyate। icchā tu tadupāye syādiṣṭopāyatvadhīryadi।।

lip

āmram, cūtam, sahakāram, kāmaśaram, kāmavallabham, kāmāṅgam, kīrevṛḥ, mādhavadrumam, bhṛṅgāmīṣṭam, sīdhurasam, madhūlī, kokilotsavam, vasantadūtam, āmraphalam, modākhyam, manmathālayaḥ, madhvāvāsaḥ, sumadanaḥ, pikarāgaḥ, nṛpapriyaḥ, priyāmbuḥkokilāvāsaḥ, mākandaḥ, ṣaṭpadātithiḥ, madhuvrataḥ, vasantadruḥ, pikaprayaḥ, strīpriyaḥ, gandhabandhuḥ, alipriyaḥ, madirāsakhaḥ   

phalaviśeṣaḥ, āmravṛkṣasya phalam asya guṇāḥ varṇarucimāṃsaśukrabalakāritvam।

rāmāya āmraḥ rocate।

lip

āmraḥ, āmravṛkṣaḥ, cūtaḥ, sahakāraḥ, kāmaśaraḥ, kāmavallabhaḥ, kāmāṅgaḥ, kīrevṛḥ, mādhavadrumaḥ, bhṛṅgāmīṣṭaḥ, sīdhurasaḥ, madhūlī, kokilotsavaḥ, vasantadūtaḥ, amraphalaḥ, modākhyaḥ, manmathālayaḥ, madhvāvāsaḥ, sumadanaḥ, pikarāgaḥ, nṛpapriyaḥ, priyāmbuḥ, kokilāvāsaḥ, mākandaḥ, ṣaṭpadātithiḥ, madhuvrataḥ, vasantadruḥ, pikaprayaḥ, strīpriyaḥ, gandhabandhuḥ, alipriyaḥ, madirāsakhaḥ   

phalavṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ- dīrghajīvī pādapaḥ yasya pītavarṇīyaṃ phalam atīva madhuram।

āmravṛkṣe śukāḥ nivasanti।

lip

āptaḥ, addhātiḥ, tyāgaḥ, nirliptaḥ, śilambaḥ, saṃskṛtātmā   

saḥ puruṣaḥ yaḥ ādhyātmikaḥ bhautikatattvasya jñātā tathā ca paṇḍitaḥ saccaritraḥ tyāgī ca।

āptastu yathārtha vaktā।

lip

kadambaḥ, nīpaḥ, priyakaḥ, halipriyaḥ, kādambaḥ, ṣaṭpadeṣṭaḥ, prāvṛṣeṇyaḥ, haripriyaḥ, jīrṇaparṇaḥ, vṛttapuṣpaḥ, surabhiḥ, lalanāpriyaḥ, kādambaryaḥ, sīdhupuṣpaḥ, mahāḍhyaḥ, karṇapūrakaḥ, vajraḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ। yasya raktavarṇīyāni puṣpāṇi vṛttāni santi asya guṇāḥ tiktatvam kaṭutvam kaṣāyatvam vātapittakaphārtināśitvam śītalatvam śukravardhanañca।

katipayakusumodgamaḥ kadmabaḥ।

lip

vānaraḥ, kapiḥ, plavaṅgaḥ, plavagaḥ, śākhāmṛgaḥ, valīmukhaḥ, markaṭaḥ, kīśaḥ, vanaukāḥ, markaḥ, plavaḥ, pravaṅgaḥ, pravagaḥ, plavaṅgamaḥ, pravaṅgamaḥ, golāṅgulaḥ, kapitthāsya, dadhikṣoṇaḥ, hariḥ, tarumṛgaḥ, nagāṭanaḥ, jhampī, jhampārukalipriyaḥ, kikhiḥ, śālāvṛkaḥ   

vanyapaśuḥ yaḥ vṛkṣe vasati bhramati ca।

vālī nāma vānaraḥ rāmeṇa hataḥ।

lip

kākaḥ, vāyasaḥ, dhmākṣaḥ, dhvāṃkṣaḥ, dhvāṃkṣarāvī, karaṭaḥ, balibhuk, balibhuj, gṛhabalibhuj, gṛhabalibhuk, balipuṣṭaḥ, balipuṣṭā, balipuṣṭam, cirañjīvī, kāṇaḥ, kāṇūkaḥ, maukuliḥ, divāṭanaḥ, śakrajaḥ, sakṛtprajaḥ, malabhuk, malabhuj, prātarbhoktā, kāravaḥ, anyabhṛt, yūkāriḥ, ariṣṭaḥ, ātmaghoṣaḥ   

khagaviśeṣaḥ- kṛṣṇavarṇīyaḥ khagaḥ yasya dhvaniḥ karkaśaḥ।

kākaḥ śākhāyāṃ sthitvā kākadhvaniṃ karoti।

lip

durgā, umā, kātyāyanī, gaurī, brahmāṇī, kālī, haimavatī, īśvarā, śivā, bhavānī, rudrāṇī, sarvāṇī, sarvamaṅgalā, aparṇā, pārvatī, mṛḍānī, līlāvatī, caṇaḍikā, ambikā, śāradā, caṇḍī, caṇḍā, caṇḍanāyikā, girijā, maṅgalā, nārāyaṇī, mahāmāyā, vaiṣṇavī, maheśvarī, koṭṭavī, ṣaṣṭhī, mādhavī, naganandinī, jayantī, bhārgavī, rambhā, siṃharathā, satī, bhrāmarī, dakṣakanyā, mahiṣamardinī, herambajananī, sāvitrī, kṛṣṇapiṅgalā, vṛṣākapāyī, lambā, himaśailajā, kārttikeyaprasūḥ, ādyā, nityā, vidyā, śubhahkarī, sāttvikī, rājasī, tāmasī, bhīmā, nandanandinī, mahāmāyī, śūladharā, sunandā, śumyabhaghātinī, hrī, parvatarājatanayā, himālayasutā, maheśvaravanitā, satyā, bhagavatī, īśānā, sanātanī, mahākālī, śivānī, haravallabhā, ugracaṇḍā, cāmuṇḍā, vidhātrī, ānandā, mahāmātrā, mahāmudrā, mākarī, bhaumī, kalyāṇī, kṛṣṇā, mānadātrī, madālasā, māninī, cārvaṅgī, vāṇī, īśā, valeśī, bhramarī, bhūṣyā, phālgunī, yatī, brahmamayī, bhāvinī, devī, acintā, trinetrā, triśūlā, carcikā, tīvrā, nandinī, nandā, dharitriṇī, mātṛkā, cidānandasvarūpiṇī, manasvinī, mahādevī, nidrārūpā, bhavānikā, tārā, nīlasarasvatī, kālikā, ugratārā, kāmeśvarī, sundarī, bhairavī, rājarājeśvarī, bhuvaneśī, tvaritā, mahālakṣmī, rājīvalocanī, dhanadā, vāgīśvarī, tripurā, jvālmukhī, vagalāmukhī, siddhavidyā, annapūrṇā, viśālākṣī, subhagā, saguṇā, nirguṇā, dhavalā, gītiḥ, gītavādyapriyā, aṭṭālavāsinī, aṭṭahāsinī, ghorā, premā, vaṭeśvarī, kīrtidā, buddhidā, avīrā, paṇḍitālayavāsinī, maṇḍitā, saṃvatsarā, kṛṣṇarūpā, balipriyā, tumulā, kāminī, kāmarūpā, puṇyadā, viṣṇucakradharā, pañcamā, vṛndāvanasvarūpiṇī, ayodhyārupiṇī, māyāvatī, jīmūtavasanā, jagannāthasvarūpiṇī, kṛttivasanā, triyāmā, jamalārjunī, yāminī, yaśodā, yādavī, jagatī, kṛṣṇajāyā, satyabhāmā, subhadrikā, lakṣmaṇā, digambarī, pṛthukā, tīkṣṇā, ācārā, akrūrā, jāhnavī, gaṇḍakī, dhyeyā, jṛmbhaṇī, mohinī, vikārā, akṣaravāsinī, aṃśakā, patrikā, pavitrikā, tulasī, atulā, jānakī, vandyā, kāmanā, nārasiṃhī, girīśā, sādhvī, kalyāṇī, kamalā, kāntā, śāntā, kulā, vedamātā, karmadā, sandhyā, tripurasundarī, rāseśī, dakṣayajñavināśinī, anantā, dharmeśvarī, cakreśvarī, khañjanā, vidagdhā, kuñjikā, citrā, sulekhā, caturbhujā, rākā, prajñā, ṛdbhidā, tāpinī, tapā, sumantrā, dūtī, aśanī, karālā, kālakī, kuṣmāṇḍī, kaiṭabhā, kaiṭabhī, kṣatriyā, kṣamā, kṣemā, caṇḍālikā, jayantī, bheruṇḍā   

sā devī yayā naike daityāḥ hatāḥ tathā ca yā ādiśaktiḥ asti iti manyate।

navarātrotsave sthāne sthāne durgāyāḥ pratiṣṭhāpanā kriyate।

lip

khalīphāḥ   

muhammadasya uttarādhikārī yaḥ yavanānāṃ pradhānaḥ netā asti iti manyate।

khalīphāḥ muhammadasya pratinidhiḥ asti iti manyate।

lip

lip   

lepanānukūlavyāpāraḥ।

sā gomayena bhūmiṃ lipyati।

lip

āsañj, sañj, saṃsañj, samāsañj, anuṣañj, anubandh, anuprasañj, āśliṣ, abhilī, lag, ālag, lip, lī, anvavaso   

śyānadravyeṇa vastudvayānāṃ saṃyogānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

kargajaḥ kāṣṭhe āsajati।

lip

chatram, chatrā, chatrākam, chatrakaḥ, chatrikā, atichatraḥ, atichatrakaḥ, ucchilīndhram, ucchilīndhrakam, śilīndhram, śilīndhrakam, pālaghnam, ūrvyaṅgam, mallipatram, dilīraḥ, ahicchattrakaḥ   

bhūmikandakaviśeṣaḥ।

tatra naikāni chatrāṇi santi।

lip

sūkṣmaguliprakṣepaṇī   

astraviśeṣaḥ- lohanāḍīsadṛśaṃ laghu astram।

ārakṣakeṇa corāt sūkṣmaguliprakṣepaṇī gṛhītā।

lip

bakaḥ, dvārabalibhuk, kakṣeruḥ, śuklavāyasaḥ, dīrghajaṅghaḥ, bakoṭaḥ, gṛhabalipriyaḥ, niśaitaḥ, śikhī, candravihaṅgamaḥ, tīrthasevī, tāpasaḥ, mīnaghātī, mṛṣādhyāyī, niścalāṅgaḥ, dāmbhikaḥ   

khagaviśeṣaḥ-yasya kaṇṭha tathā ca pādau dīrghau।

matsyān bhakṣayituṃ bakaḥ taṭe avasthitaḥ।

lip

vṛścikālī, vṛścipatrī, viṣaghnī, nāgadantikā, sarpadaṃśaṣṭrā, amarā, kālī, uṣṭradhūsarapucchikā, viṣāṇī, netrarogahā, uṣṭrikā, aliparṇī, dakṣiṇāvartakī, kālikā, āgamāvartā, devalāṅgūlikā, karabhī, bhūrīdugdhā, karkaśā, svarṇadā, yugmaphalā, kṣīraviṣāṇikā, bhāsurapuṣpā   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ, yasya tīkṣṇapatrāṇāṃ daṃśaḥ vṛścikavat dāhakaḥ asti (āyurvede asya hṛdraktaśuddhikārīkatvaṃ raktapittavibandhārocakāpahatvam ityādi guṇāḥ proktāḥ);

atra vṛścikālī samudbhūtā/

vṛścikālī viṣaghnī tu kāsamārutanāśinī [rājavallabhaḥ]

lip

madyam, surā, madirā, vāruṇī, halipriyā, hālā, pariśrut, varuṇātmajā, gandhottamā, prasannā, irā, kādambarī, pariśrutā, kaśyam, mānikā, kapiśī, gandhamādanī, mādhavī, kattoyam, madaḥ, kāpiśāyanam, mattā, sītā, capalā, kāminī, priyā, madagandhā, mādhvīkam, madhu, sandhānam, āsavaḥ, amṛtā, vīrā, medhāvī, madanī, supratibhā, manojñā, vidhātā, modinī, halī, guṇāriṣṭam, sarakaḥ, madhūlikā, madotkaṭā, mahānandā, sīdhuḥ, maireyam, balavallabhā, kāraṇam, tatvam, madiṣṭhā, pariplutā, kalpam, svādurasā, śūṇḍā, hārahūram, mārddīkam, madanā, devasṛṣṭā, kāpiśam, abdhijā   

mādakadravapadārthaḥ - yasya sevanaṃ pāpaṃ tathā ca nindanīyam iti manyante।

saḥ pratidinaṃ sāyaṅkāle madyaṃ pītvā gṛham āgacchati।

lip

lipikaḥ, lipikaraḥ   

yaḥ kāryālaye lekhanasya kāryaṃ karoti।

adya asya kāryālayasya lipikasya viśrāmadinam asti।

lip

anulipitram   

tad yantram yad anulipiṃ karoti।

anulipyarthe anulipitraṃ prayujyate।

lip

śyālīpati   

śyālyāḥ patiḥ।

mohanaḥ rameśasya śyālīpatiḥ asti।

lip

viśālā, pūtikā, vṛścikapatrikā, picchilacchadā, balipodakī   

varṣākālikā latā yasyāḥ parṇaiḥ śākam apūpañca nirmīyate।

adya mātā viśālāyāḥ apūpaṃ nirmāti।

lip

apūpaphalakaḥ, pauliphalakaḥ   

paulyādivelanārthe kāṣṭhādibhiḥ vinirmitam upakaraṇam।

mātā paulivelanārthe apūpaphalakaṃ vellanīṃ ca ānayati।

lip

anulip   

vastunaḥ vastuni āstaraṇānukūlavyāpāraḥ।

polikāyāṃ ghṛtam anulipyate।

lip

lepanam, ālepaḥ, ālepanam, lepaḥ, vilepaḥ, vilepanam, lipaḥ, limpaḥ   

limpanasya kriyā।

dhānyasañcayanāt pūrvaṃ kuśūlasya lepanaṃ kriyate।

lip

āśulipiḥ   

saṃkṣepeṇa saṅketarūpeṇa vā lekhanasya kriyā।

āśulipeḥ mahattvam idānīṃ nyūnaṃ jātam।

lip

lip   

prāptum icchā।

kāmasya lipsayā tasya vināśaḥ jātaḥ।

lip

ākāṅkṣā, kāmanā, anukāmaḥ, abhilipsā, abhilāṣaḥ, abhivāñchā, āśaṃsā, icchatā, icchatvam, icchā, iṣṭiḥ, īpsā, īhā, vāsanā, ślāghā, spṛhā   

labdhuṃ spṛhaṇam।

ākāṅkṣāṇām antaḥ kadāpi na bhavati।

lip

pratilipiḥ   

lekhādeḥ pratirūpam।

parīkṣāpramāṇapatrasya anyasyāḥ pratilipeḥ kṛte vidyālaye āvedanaṃ dattam।

lip

likh, parilikh, pratilipiṃ kṛ   

anyasya lekhanasya yathāvat pratirūpakaraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

chātraḥ kṛṣṇaphalake likhitān praśnān pustikāyāṃ likhati।

lip

lipiḥ   

akṣarāṇāṃ varṇānāṃ vā cihnāni।

asyāṃ śīlāyāṃ brāhmī ityākhyāyāṃ lipyāṃ kimapi likhitam।

lip

lipinyāsaḥ   

likhitāni akṣarādīni।

gajānanasya lipinyāsaḥ atīva śobhanīyaḥ asti।

lip

lipinyāsaḥ   

lekhanasya kriyā bhāvo vā।

parīkṣāyāṃ lipinyāsasya śīghratā āvaśyakī asti।

lip

ketakaḥ, ketakī, indukalikā, tīkṣṇapuṣpā, dīrghapatraḥ, pāṃsukā, amarapuṣpaḥ, amarapuṣpakaḥ, kaṇṭadalā, kanakaketakī, kanakapuṣpī, droṇīdalaḥ, karatṛṇam, krakacacchadaḥ, gandhapuṣpaḥ, dalapuṣpā, dalapuṣpī, cakṣuṣyaḥ, cāmarapuṣpaḥ, chinnaruhā, jambālaḥ, jambulaḥ, dhūlipuṣpikā, nṛpapriyā, pharendraḥ, valīnakaḥ, viphalaḥ, vyañjanaḥ, śivadviṣṭā, sugandhinī, sūcipuṣpaḥ, sūcikā, strībhūṣaṇam, sthiragandhaḥ, svarṇaketakī, hanīlaḥ, halīmaḥ, hemaketakī, haimaḥ   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ- yasya savāsikasya puṣpasya patrāṇi krakacasya iva tīkṣṇāni santi।

adhunā udyānasthasya ketakasya puṣpaṃ vikasati।

lip

paṭanānagaram, pāṭaliputram   

vartamānasya bihārarājyasya rājadhānī।

paṭanānagaraṃ bauddhakāle pāṭaliputra iti nāmnā khyātam āsīt।

lip

kaithī, kaithīlipiḥ   

bihāradeśe pracalitā ekā purātanī lipiḥ।

kaithīlipyāṃ śīrṣarekhā na bhavati।

lip

putrañjīvaḥ, putrañjīvakaḥ, yaṣṭīpuṣpaḥ, sutajīvakaḥ, ślīpadāpahaḥ, kumārajīvaḥ, pavitraḥ, garbhadaḥ, sutajīvakaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

putrañjīvasya tvak bījaṃ ca auṣadheṣu upayujyete।

lip

pādavalmīkam, ślīpadam   

rogaviśeṣaḥ yasmin pādau prapyāya hastipādavat dṛśyate।

śyāmā pādavalmīkena pīḍitā asti।

lip

dilīpaḥ   

ikṣvākuvaṃśe jātaḥ rājā yaḥ rāmasya pūrvajaḥ tathā ca aṃśumānasya putraḥ āsīt।

bhagīrathaḥ dilīpasya putraḥ āsīt।

lip

pratilipikṛta   

pratilipikaraṇasya karma।

sohanaḥ pratilipikṛtam āvedanapatraṃ vyadārayat।

lip

siṃhalī, siṃhalīlipiḥ   

lipiviśeṣaḥ, pālī tathā ca siṃhalī bhāṣālekhanārthe upayujyamānā lipiḥ।

milindapraśna iti granthaḥ siṃhalyāṃ lipyām api upalabhyate।

lip

philipīnsadeśaḥ   

praśāntamahāsāgarasya dakṣiṇadiśi paścime bhāge sthitānāṃ dvīpānām ekaḥ samūhaḥ।

philipīnsadeśe saptasahastrāḥ dvīpāḥ santi।

lip

philipīnadeśīya   

philipīnadeśasya bhāṣayā sambaddhaṃ philipīnadeśasya bhāṣāyāḥ vā।

asmin viṣaye kānicana philipīnadeśīyāni śodhapatrāṇi prakāśitāni।

lip

philipīnadeśīya-peso   

philipīnsadeśe pracalitā mudrā।

philipīnsadeśasya ekaḥ peso triṃśat dīnārāṇāṃ tulyam।

lip

rumālīpolikā, rumālīroṭikā   

samīdayā vinā hastābhyāṃ racitā atīva kṛśā roṭikā।

paktā rumālīpolikām upari prakṣipati।

lip

andhalipiḥ   

andhajanānāṃ kṛte nirmitā ekā lipiḥ।

andhalipyāḥ nirmātrī luībrelamahodayā svayaṃ aṃdhā āsīt।

lip

lipensaāmram   

āmrāṇām ekaḥ prakāraḥ।

etat lipensa-āmram।

lip

lipensa-āmraḥ   

lipensa iti nāmakānām āmrāṇāṃ vṛkṣaḥ।

upavanasya madhye ekaḥ lipensa-āmraḥ asti।

lip

abhimānī, garvitaḥ, avaliptaḥ, sagarvaḥ, sadarpaḥ, utsiktaḥ, sāṭopaḥ, sāhaṃkāraḥ, ahaṃmānī, mattaḥ, samunnaddhaḥ, dhṛṣṭaḥ, pratibhāvān, garvitacittaḥ, madoddhataḥ, darpādhmātaḥ, smayākulaḥ, ahaṃkṛtaḥ, abhimāninī, garvitā, avaliptā, sagarvā, sadarpā, utsiktā, sāṭopā, sāhaṃkārī, ahaṃmāninī, mattā, samunnaddhā, dhṛṣṭā, pratibhāvatī, garvitacittā, madoddhatā, darpādhmātā, smayākulā, ahaṃkṛtā   

yasya abhimānaḥ vartate।

ahaṃ tasya abhimāninaḥ chāyāyāḥ api dūraṃ sthātum icchāmi।

lip

moḍīlipiḥ   

mahārāṣṭrasya ekā purātanī lipiḥ।

moḍīlipiḥ prāyaḥ unaviṃśaśatakasya pañcāśatavarṣaṃ yāvat prayuktā।

lip

ślīpadin   

yasya ślīpadaṃ jātam।

ślīpadī manuṣyaḥ śanaiḥ śanaiḥ calati।

lip

pratilipiḥ   

kasyāpi bhāṣaṇasya vyākhyānasya abhilikhitasya lekhasya mūlapāṭhaḥ।

asyāṃ patrikāyāṃ mahataḥ netuḥ sākṣātkārasya pratilipiḥ vartate।

lip

macilīpaṭananagaram   

āndhrapradeśasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

kṛṣṇāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ macilīpaṭananagare asti।

lip

alipuranagaram   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

dakṣiṇacaubīsaparaganāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ alipuranagare asti।

lip

abhilekhanam, pratilipinyāsaḥ   

kasyāpi viṣayasya pratyekavacanasya viśiṣṭoddeśena lekhanakriyā।

te abhilekhane niyuktāḥ।

lip

pratikṛtiḥ, pratilekhaḥ, pratilipiḥ   

śabdaṃ vākyaṃ lekhaṃ vā dṛṣṭvā tasyaiva tathaiva anukaraṇam।

pratilipi-adhikārād vinā pratikṛtiḥ na kartavyā।

lip

pratilekhakaḥ, pratilipikaḥ, pratikṛtikartā   

yaḥ pratilekhaṃ likhati।

praśāsakīyādhikāriḥ pratilekhakaṃ śatapratilekhān kartum ādiṣṭavān।

lip

kitānalipiḥ   

lipiviśeṣaḥ।

maṅgolabhāṣā kitānalipyāṃ likhyate।

lip

gothikalipī   

lipīviśeṣaḥ।

gothikalipī pañcadaśataḥ aṣṭādaśavarṣaśataparyantaṃ pracalitā āsīt।

lip

dilīpaḥ   

candravaṃśīyaḥ rājā yaḥ kurūṇāṃ vaṃśajaḥ āsīt।

dilīpasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

lip

vānaraḥ, kapiḥ, plavaṅgaḥ, plavagaḥ, śākhāmṛgaḥ, valīmukhaḥ, markaṭaḥ, kīśaḥ, vanaukāḥ, markaḥ, plavaḥ, pravaṅgaḥ, pravagaḥ, plavaṅgamaḥ, pravaṅgamaḥ, golāṅgulaḥ, kapitthāsya, dadhikṣoṇaḥ, hariḥ, tarumṛgaḥ, nagāṭanaḥ, jhampī, jhampārukalipriyaḥ, kikhiḥ, śālāvṛkaḥ   

puṃjātiviśiṣṭavānaraḥ।

saḥ manuṣyaḥ vānaraṃ vānarīṃ ca nartayati।

lip

māṣaparṇī, hayapucchī, kāmbojī, mahāsahā, siṃhapucchī, ṛṣiproktā, kṛṣṇavṛntā, pāṇḍulomaśaparṇinī, ārdramāṣā, māṃsamāṣā, maṅgalyā, hayapucchikā, haṃsamāṣā, aśvapucchā, pāṇḍurā, māṣaparṇikā, kalyāṇī, vajramūlī, śāliparṇī, visāriṇī, ātmodbhavā, bahuphalā, svayambhūḥ sulabhā, ghanā, siṃhavinnā, viśācikā   

vanamāṣaḥ।

māṣaparṇyāḥ upayogaḥ bheṣajarūpeṇa bhavati।

lip

lipikāraḥ, lekhakaḥ, vorakaḥ, akṣaracaṇaḥ, akṣaracañcuḥ   

yaḥ vaidharūpeṇa lekhaṃ pratilikhati।

kāryālaye lipikārasya anupasthityā naikāni kāryāṇi na abhavan।

lip

tālīśapatram, tālīśam, patrākhyam, śukodaram, dhātrīpatram, arkavedham, karipatram, karicchadam, nīlam, nīlāmbaram, tālam, tālīpatram, tamāhvayam, tālīśapatrakam   

tejaḥpatrasya jāteḥ vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

tālīśapatrasya parṇāni kāṇḍasya bhāgadvaye api bhavanti।

lip

tālīśapatram, tālīśam, patrākhyam, śukodaram, dhātrīpatram, arkavedham, karipatram, karicchadam, nīlam, nīlāmbaram, tālam, tālīpatram, tālīśapatrakam   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

tālīśapatram uttarabhāratadeśe, baṅgālarājye tathā samudrataṭavartiṣu kṣetreṣu dṛśyate।

lip

arthalipsu, dhanakāma, dhanakāmya, arthakāma, arthacitta   

dhanam icchati iti।

arthalipsuḥ vaṇik keṣucit eva varṣeṣu dhanikaḥ jātaḥ।

lip

avalipta   

yat lipyate।

bhasmena avaliptān pātrān sā prakṣālayati।

lip

liptaka   

viṣeṇa liptam।

ākheṭakaḥ liptakena bāṇena mṛgayāṃ praharati।

lip

liptakaḥ   

viṣajuṣṭaḥ bāṇaḥ।

ākheṭakaḥ vyāghraṃ liptakena prāharat।

lip

lip   

jyotiḥśāstrānusāreṇa kālasya parimāṇaviśeṣaḥ।

liptā prāyaḥ nimeṣeṇa samānaṃ bhavati।

lip

nirliptatā, aliptatā, asaṃsaktiḥ   

nirliptasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

nirliptatā iti ekā mahatī sādhanā।

lip

āśulipikaḥ   

anyena uktāni vākyāni yaḥ tasminneva samaye śīghragatyā likhati।

adhikāriṇā uktāni vākyāni āśulipikaḥ alikhat।

lip

ailiphenṭādvīpaḥ   

mumbaīnagaryāḥ pūrvasyāṃ diśi daśakilomīṭaraṃ yāvat vartamānaḥ dvīpaḥ।

ailiphenṭādvīpasya kandarāḥ prasiddhāḥ santi।

lip

kailiphorniyārājyam   

praśāntamahāsāgarasya taṭe sthitam amerikādeśasya rājyam।

kailiphorniyārājyam amerikādeśasya darśanīyaṃ rājyam asti।

lip

saṃliptatā   

keṣucit kāryādiṣu liptasya avasthā bhāvaḥ kriyā vā।

hīne karmaṇi saṃliptatā ayogyā।

lip

balipratipadā   

kārtikaśuddhapratipadā।

balipratipadāyāḥ dine baliḥ pūjyate।

lip

mahānagaraṭelīphonanigamalimiṭeḍam   

yā udyogasaṃsthā antarjālasya sevāṃ pradadāti।

saḥ mahānagaraṭelīphonanigamalimiṭeḍe kāryaṃ karoti।

lip

kailīphorniyārājyam, kelīphorniyārājyam   

praśāntamahāsāgarasya taṭe sthitam amerikādeśe vartamānam ekaṃ rājyam।

kailīphorniyārājyam amerikādeśasya tṛtīyakramāṅkasya bṛhad rājyam asti।

lip

pūrvapāṭaliputraḥ   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

pāṇininā pūrvapāṭaliputram samullikhitam

lip

śālaparṇī, śālaparṇaḥ, triparṇī, triparṇikā, sarivanā, śāliparṇī, dhavaniḥ, śālapatrā, tṛṇagandhā, pītinī, pītanī, rudrajaṭā, saumyā, śālānī, dīrghamūlā, niścalā, vātaghnī, dhruvā, granthaparṇī, kukuraḥ, pīlumūlaḥ, pīvarī, śālikā, śubhapatrikā, nīlapuṣpaḥ, parṇī, astamatī, pālindī, pālindhī   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

śālaparṇī bheṣajyarūpeṇa upayujyate

lip

śāṇḍilīputraḥ   

ekaḥ ācāryaḥ ।

śāṇḍilīputrasya ullekhaḥ śatapathabrāhmaṇe asti

lip

kusumāñjaliprakāśaḥ   

ekaḥ ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

kusumāñjaliprakāśaḥ kusumāñjaligranthaṃ vivṛṇute

lip

kusumāñjaliprakāśamakaraṇḍa:   

ekaḥ ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

kusumāñjaliprakāśamakaraṇḍasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lip

pūrvapāṭaliputraḥ   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

pāṇininā pūrvapāṭaliputram samullikhitam

lip

prāyaścittamuktāvalīprakāśaḥ   

ekā kṛtiḥ ।

saṃskṛta-vāṅmaye prāyaścittamuktāvalīprakāśaḥ iti prasiddhā racanā

lip

kusumāñjaliprakāśaḥ   

ekaḥ ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

kusumāñjaliprakāśaḥ kusumāñjaligranthaṃ vivṛṇute

lip

kusumāñjaliprakāśamakaraṇḍa:   

ekaḥ ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

kusumāñjaliprakāśamakaraṇḍasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lip

bhadrakālīpūjāyantram   

ekam adbhuta-yantram ।

bauddhasāhitye bhadrakālīpūjāyantrasya nirdeśaḥ asti

lip

bhadrakālīpūjāyantraḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

bauddhasāhitye bhadrakālīpūjāyantrasya nirdeśaḥ asti

lip

siddhāntamuktāvalīprakāśaḥ   

ekaḥ ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

siddhāntamuktāvalīprakāśasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lip

marakatavallīpariṇayaḥ   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

saṃskṛtanāṭyavāṅmaye marakatavallīpariṇayaḥ nāma nāṭakaṃ prasiddham

lip

pallipañjakaḥ   

ekaḥ janasamudāyaḥ ।

pallipañjakasya ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe asti

lip

tosaliputraḥ   

ekaḥ jainācāryaḥ ।

tosaliputraḥ hemacandreṇa parigaṇitaḥ

lip

ekāvalīprakāśaḥ   

ekaḥ ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

ekāvalīprakāśasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lip

ekāvaliprakāśaḥ   

ekaḥ ṭīkāgranthaḥ ।

ekāvaliprakāśasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lip

pilipicchaḥ   

ekaḥ rākṣasaḥ ।

pilipicchasya ullekhaḥ hemādreḥ caturvarga-cintāmaṇiḥ ityasmin granthe agnipurāṇe ca asti

lip

tāmaliptaḥ   

tāmaliptānām janānāṃ nagaram ।

tāmaliptasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lip

tāmraliptarṣiḥ   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

tāmraliptarṣeḥ ullekhaḥ siṃhāsanadvātriṃśikāyām asti

lip

tosaliputraḥ   

ekaḥ jainācāryaḥ ।

tosaliputraḥ hemacandreṇa parigaṇitaḥ

lip

dāmaliptaḥ   

janasamūhaviśeṣaḥ ।

dāmaliptasya ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe vartate

lip

dāmaliptaḥ   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

dāmaliptasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lip

devapallīpaṭṭanam   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

devapallīpaṭṭanasya ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lip

devapallīpaṭṭanam   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

devapallīpaṭṭanasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

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