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Results for lat
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
atimuktaḥMasculineSingularpuṇḍrakaḥ, vāsantī, mādhavīlatā
gandhāśmani2.9.103MasculineSingular‍kulālī, kulatthikā
gāyatrī2.2.49FeminineSingularlatanayaḥ, khadiraḥ, dantadhāvanaḥ
kṛtāntaḥ3.3.71MasculineSingularlatā, vistāraḥ
latā2.4.11FeminineSingular
latārkaḥMasculineSingulardurdrumaḥ
marunmālāFeminineSingularsamudrāntā, devī, koṭivarṣā, laghuḥ, spṛkkā, vadhūḥ, latā, piśunā, laṅkopikā
nijaḥ3.3.38MasculineSingularkhalatiḥ, duṣcarmā, maheśvaraḥ
pārāvatāṅghriḥFeminineSingularlatā, kaṭabhī, paṇyā, jyotiṣmatī
śākhāFeminineSingularlatā
saptaparṇaḥMasculineSingularviśālatvak, śāradaḥ, viṣamacchadaḥ
śaṣpamNeuterSingularlatṛṇam
sumanāḥFeminineSingularjātiḥ, latī
śuṣirāFeminineSingularvidrumalatā, kapotāṅghriḥ, naṭī, nalī
śyāmā2.2.55FeminineSingulargovandanī, priyakaḥ, viśvaksenā, priyaṅguḥ, latā, kārambhā, phalā, gundrā, mahilāhvayā, gandhaphalī, phalinī
triphalā2.9.112FeminineSingularphalatrikam
vallīFeminineSingularvratatiḥ, latā
mahīlatā1.10.21FeminineSingulargaṇḍūpadaḥ, kiñculakaḥa worm
viśālatā2.6.115FeminineSingularpariṇāhaḥ
kalatram3.3.186NeuterSingularjaṭā, aṃśukam
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Results for lat854 results for lat
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
latāf. a creeper, any creeping or winding plant or twining tendril etc. (the brows, arms, curls, a slender body, a sword-blade, lightning etc. are often compared to the form of a creeper, to express their graceful curves and slimness of outline; see bhrū-l-, bāhu-l-, taḍil-l-etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. the mādhavī- -creeper, Gaertnera Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. Trigonella Corniculata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. Panicum Italicum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. Cardiospermum Halicacabum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. Panicum Dactylon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. equals kaivartikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. = the plant sārivā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. musk-creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. a slender woman, any woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. the thong or lash of a whip, whip View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. a string of pearls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. a streak, line (vārāṃ latāḥ-,thin jets of water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. of a daughter of meru- and wife of ilāvṛta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latābāṇam. Calcutta edition creeper-arrowed, Name of kāma-deva-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latābhadrāf. Paederia Foetida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latābhavanan. equals -gṛha- above, in apa-l-, q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latābṛhatīf. the creeper egg-plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latādrumam. Shorea Robusta View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāgahanavatmfn. thickly overspread with creepers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāgṛhan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a creeper-bower, arbour of creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latājihvam. "creeper-tongued", a snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latākaram. a particular position of the hands in dancing (dual number)
latākarañjam. Guilandina Bonduc View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latākastūrīf. musk-creeper, a kind of aromatic medicinal plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latākastūrīf. (according to to some "Hibiscus Moschatus") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latākastūrikā f. musk-creeper, a kind of aromatic medicinal plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latākastūrikāf. (according to to some "Hibiscus Moschatus") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latākolif. the Jujube creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latākuśam. the sacrificial grass creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latālaka(l-) m. an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latālaya(tal-) m. "creeper-abode", arbour of creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāliṅga(?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāmādhavīf. Gaertnera Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāmaṇḍapam. a creeper-bower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāmaṇim. "creeper-jewel", coral View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāmāriṣam. the Amaranth creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāmarutf. Trigonella Corniculata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāmbuja(m-) n. a kind of cucumber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāmṛgam. an ape, monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latānana(n-) m. a particular position of the hands in dancing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāṅgī(-) f. a kind of gall-nut View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāṅguli(-) f. "creeper-finger", a branch serving as a finger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāṅkura(-) m. the marshy date palm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāntan. (n-) "end of a creeper", a flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāntabāṇam. the god of love View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāpanasam. the water-melon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāparṇam. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāparṇīf. Curculigo Orchioides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāparṇīf. Trigonella Foenum Graecum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāpāśam. a snare or festoon formed of creeper, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāphalan. the fruit of Trichosanthes Dioeca View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāpratānam. the tendril of a creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāpṛkkāf. Trigonella Corniculata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāpūgan. the Areca creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāpuṭakīf. Cardiospermum Halicacabum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāradam. an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latārasanam. "creeper-tongued", a snake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latārka(r-) m. a green onion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāśaṅkham. idem or 'm. Shorea Robusta (correctly latā-taru-and śaṅku-t-).' (wrong reading) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāśaṅkutarum. Shorea Robusta (correctly latā-taru-and śaṅku-t-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latātarum. Name of various trees (Shorea Robusta;Borassus Flabelliformis;the orange tree) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāvalayam. or n. (?) equals -gṛha- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāvalayavatmfn. possessed of bowers made of creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāveṣṭam. Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāveṣṭam. a kind of coitus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāveṣṭanan. "creeper-embrace", an embrace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāveṣṭitam. Name of a mountain (equals -veṣṭa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāveṣṭitakan. the winding (embrace) of a creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāvitānam. or n. a canopy made of creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāvṛkṣam. the cocoa-nut tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāvṛkṣam. Shorea Robusta View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāyaNom. A1. yate-, to resemble a creeping plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāyaṣṭif. Rubia Munjista View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāyāvakan. a shoot, sprout, young or tender pasturage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latikāf. a delicate or slender creeper or small winding tendril (to which the graceful curve of a slim figure is compared) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latikāf. a string of pearls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latodgamam. (as an explanation of avaroha-) a shoot or root sent down from a branch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latodgamam. the upward climbing of a creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lattādinirṇayam. Name of work by govinda-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lattikāf. a kind of lizard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latum. Name of a man (see lātavya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acalatviṣm. the Kokila or Indian cuckoo. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahilatāf. equals -mardanī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahilatāf. the plant Betel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akālatasind. unseasonably. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākulatāf. perplexity, confusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akulatāf. lowness of family. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākulatvan. idem or 'f. perplexity, confusion ' etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākulatvan. multitude, crowd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alatim. a kind of song View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alatikāf. a soil destitute of creeping plants, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alolatva equals alolup-tva- below View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmiślatamamfn. (superl.) readily mixing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amlatāf. sourness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amlatiktakaṣāyamfn. astringent (and) bitter (and) sour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amlatiktakaṣāyam. astringent (and) sour (and) bitter taste, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amṛtalatā f. a creeping plant that gives nectar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amṛtalatikāf. a creeping plant that gives nectar
anaṅgalatikāf. Name (also title or epithet) of nāṭaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuccalatmfn. not moving or going from (ablative), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anukūlatāf. concord, good-will, favour, conformity, consent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anukūlatāf. prosperity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apariślathamind. not loosely, very firmly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aphalatāf. barrenness, unprofitableness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aphalatvan. barrenness, unprofitableness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
araṇyakulathikāf. the plant Glycine Labialis Lin. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arjuṇārcanakalpalatāf. Name of two works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arūḍhamūlatvan. state of not having taken root, insufficient foundation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asālatiprakāśam. Name (also title or epithet) of a dictionary (written under asālati-, king of Kashmir). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asilatāf. the blade of a sword View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āślathA1. -ślathate-, to become loose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aślīlatāf. rustic language View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aślīlatvan. rustic language View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśvāsanaśīlatā(f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avadānakalpalatāf. "storehouse of legends of buddha-'s life and acts", Name (also title or epithet) of a celebrated work, n. 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avicācalatmfn. idem or 'mfn. not staggering, standing firmly ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avicalatmfn. not moving View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baddhamūlatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahalatāf. thickness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahalatvacan. the white flowering lodhra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahucchalatvan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahulatāf. () ( etc.) muchness, multiplicity, abundance, numerousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahulatāf. the being rich in, abounding in (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahulatāf. comprehensiveness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhulatāf. an arm (lithe as a) creeper (also bāhulatikā tikā- f. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhulatāntaran. the space between the arms, the breast, bosom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahulataramfn. thicker, denser (dvi-gnṇo bahula-tarah-,twice as thick) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhulatikāf. bāhulatā
bahulatṛṇamfn. rich in grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahulatvan. ( etc.) muchness, multiplicity, abundance, numerousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahulatvan. the being rich in, abounding in (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahulatvan. comprehensiveness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālagopālatīrtham. Name of the teacher of dhana-pati- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bālalatāf. a young creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. () childhood, boyhood. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latanayam. a young son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latanayam. Acacia Catechu View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latantran. midwifery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latantran. Name of work on midwifery. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latarum. a young tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latṛṇan. young grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latvan. ( ) childhood, boyhood. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadralatāf. Gaertnera Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhairavārcanakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaktikāpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhalatāf. Paederia Foetida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhalatāSee under 4. bha-, p.742. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhalatra(?) n. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṇḍīralatikāf. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvaśabalatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvaśabalatvan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhillatarum. Symplocos Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrūlatāf. "brow-creeper", an arched eyebrow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhrūlatākṣepam. equals bhrū-kṣ- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujagalatāf. betel-pepper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujalatāf. "arm-creeper", a long slender arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujālatāf. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) equals bhuja-latā-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhujaṃgalatāf. betel-pepper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūlatāf. an earth-worm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bījavivṛtikalpalatāvatāram. bījavivṛti
bisalatāf. the lotus-plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bodhisattvāvadānakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhannīlatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhatkalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhattoḍalatantran. Name of a tantra- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakralatāmrafor -talāmra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakrāṅkitapāṇipādatalatāf. having the palms of hands and feet marked with a wheel (one of the 32 signs of perfection), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calat pr. p. cal- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calatāf. shaking, tremulous motion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calatpadamind. so as to move View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calatpūrṇimāf. the fish candraka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calatsaṭamfn. with flying mane, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
calatvan. idem or 'f. shaking, tremulous motion ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
campakalatāf. Name of a woman, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cañcalatāf. unsteadiness, fickleness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cañcalatailan. Liquidambar orientale View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cañcalataramfn. (Comparative degree) extremely unsteady View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cañcalatvan. equals -- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṇḍālatāf. the condition of a caṇḍāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caṇḍālatvan. idem or 'f. the condition of a caṇḍāla- ' , 8. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capalatāf. trembling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capalatāf. fickleness, inconstancy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capalatāf. rudeness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cāpalatāf. idem or 'm. the whizzing of a bow, ' , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
capalatāśayam. indigestion, flatulence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chalatāf. deception View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandaḥkalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cillikālatāf. " cillikā- creeper", the eye-brow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citralatāf. Rubia Munjista View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citralatāf. Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūtalatikāf. a kind of sport View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūtalatikāf. Name of a woman, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dalatarum. Corypha Taliera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dalat gaRa arīhaṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daraślathamfn. a little loose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāvalatāf. a creeper in a burning fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devalatāf. "divine creeper", double jasmine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devīyāmalatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhanurlatāf. a bow (literally bow-creeper) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhanurlatāf. equals soma-vallī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharaṇitalataitilam. a god on earth, a Brahman
dhavalatāf. () whiteness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhavalatvan. () whiteness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīrghalatādrumam. Shorea Robusta View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divyalatāf. "the divine creeper", Sanseviera Zeylanica (equals mūrvā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadaduḥkhaśīlatāf. "tendency to morbid desires", pregnancy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorlatikāf. "arm-creeper" (see -daṇḍa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorlatikābhīmam. Name of the poet bhīma-. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorlatikādarśanīyam. Name of the poet bhīma-. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drākṣālatāf. vine, vine-tendril View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛḍhalatāf. "having strong branches", a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duḥkhaśīlatvan. irritability, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duḥśīlatāf. duḥśīla
durbalabalatāf. weakness, thinness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duṣkulatāf. duṣkula
dvijakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvitīyārcanakalpalatāf. (rc-) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekaśrutimūlatvan. the state of being based on the same Vedic passage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
galatkuṣṭhan. equals galita-k- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhalatāf. "fragrant creeper", the plant priyaṃgu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhamālatīf. a kind of perfume, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇitalatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇitamālatīf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gātralatāf. equals -yaṣṭi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gilatmfn. (pr. p. 2. gṝ-) swallowing
gīrlatāf. Cardiospermum Halicacabum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
golattikāf. a kind of animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopālatāpanīyopaniṣadf. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopālatāpinīf. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gopālatīrtham. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
govatsalatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grahayāmalatantran. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇaśīlatasind. according to virtues and character View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāralatāf. idem or 'f. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(i-or ī-).) a string of pearls, necklace ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāralatāf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hāralatāf. of a work on law by aniruddha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haribhaktikalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haribhaktikalpalatikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haribhaktilatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haribhaktilatikāstavam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haritalatāf. equals pattrikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemalatāf. "golden creeper", a kind of plant (according to to some, Hoya Viridiflora) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemalatāf. Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hīnakulatvan. hīnakula
hlattiSee pra-hl- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalajambukālatāf. Name of an aquatic plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalalatāf. "water-creeper", a wave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatāf. the state of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatāḍanan. "beating water", any fruitless action View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatālam. idem or 'm. the fish Clupea alosa ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalataṇḍulīyan. Name of a pot-herb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatāpikam. equals pin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatāpikam. the fish Cyprinus Cachius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatāpinm. the fish Clupea alosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalataraṃgam. a wave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalataraṃgam. a metal cup filled with water producing musical notes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalataraṃgiṇīf. a series of cups filled with water in varying quantities and played on as a musical inistrument by striking them successively with a wand or light hammer, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalataskaram. "water-thief", the sun, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatiktikāf. Boswellia thurifera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatf. "water-guard", an umbrella View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatrāsam. hydrophobia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatrāsinmfn. hydrophobic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalatumbikānyāyam. the method of the water and the bottle-gourd. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalaturagam. "water-horse", a kind of animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalpakalpalatāf. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaṅghālatvan. the being a good runner (for passing over, laṅghana-) (a-- negative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jihvālatāf. a long tongue , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jvalatmfn. pr. p. jval- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jvalatm. blazing fire, flame View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jvalatprabhāf. equals lantī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jvalattvan. radiance, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyotirlatāf. "light-creeper", Cardiospermum Halicacabum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jyotiṣkalpalatāf. Name of work on astrology View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatamfn. bald-headed (see khalati-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. blackness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. (for 2. kāla--See .) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. seasonableness, timeliness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latālam. Xanthochymus pictorius (equals tamāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latamamfn. quite black, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latantrakavim. an astrologer. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lataram. (Comparative degree) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lataraṅgam. the first part of the smṛty-artha-sāgara- by nṛ-siṃha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latasind. in the course of time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latattvārṇavam. "ocean of the truth of time", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latindukam. a kind of ebony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latoyakaSee -joṣaka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatran. a wife, consort etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatran. the female of an animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatran. the hip and loins View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatran. pudendum muliebre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatran. a royal citadel, a stronghold or fastness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatran. (in astronomy) the seventh lunar mansion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatratāf. the state of being a wife or consort, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatravatmfn. having a wife, united with one's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latrayan. the three times id est past, present, and future. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatrīkṛto make any one one's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatrinmfn. having a wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latritayan. idem or 'n. the three times id est past, present, and future.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatūlikāf. a wanton or lascivious woman (see -kūṇikā-above.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latulyamfn. like death, deadly. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalatvan. melody, music View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kallatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kallatvan. stammering, hoarseness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kallatvan. a sound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kallatvan. deafness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpalatāf. a fabulous creeper granting all desires View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpalatāf. Name of various works ([ see kavik-]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpalatāprakāśam. Name of a comm. on the viṣṇu-bhakti-latā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpalatātantran. Name of a tantra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpalatāvatāram. Name of a comm. of kṛṣṇa- on the bījagaṇita-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpalatikāf. equals -latā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpalatikāf. a kind of magical pill. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalpavṛkṣalatāf. Name of work by lollaṭa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmalatāf. membrum virile, penis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmalatāf. the plant Ipomaea (Quamoclit Pennata). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanakalatāf. Name of a plant (to which the slender figure of a woman is compared), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanakalatikāf. idem or 'f. Name of a plant (to which the slender figure of a woman is compared), ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kandalatāf. Name of a plant with a bulbous root View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṅkalatāf. a species of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakalatāf. Capparis Zeylanica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭakilatāf. a gourd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaṇṭhalatāf. a collar, necklace. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapiromalatāf. idem or 'f. Mucuna Pruritus ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kapolatāḍanan. striking the cheeks (as a token of confession of fault) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karālatripuṭāf. a species of corn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karatalatālam. clapping the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇalatāf. the lobe of the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇalatāmayamfn. representing the lobe of an ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇalatikāf. the lobe of the ear View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karṇatālalatāf. the flap of the ear of an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karuṇākalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaulatthamf(ī- )n. (fr. kul-), made or prepared with Dolichos uniflorus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaulatthan. a drink prepared with kulattha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaulatthīnamfn. sown with Dolichos uniflorus (as a field) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kautūhalatāf. curiosity, interest in anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kavalatāf. the state of being a mouthful, a morsel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kavikalpalatāf. Name of work on rhetoric by devendra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāvyakalpalatāf. Name of work on artificial poems View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāvyakalpalatāvṛttif. a commentator or commentary by amara-candra- on the last work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāvyakalpalatāvṛttiparimalam. another commentator or commentary on the preceding work. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keralatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kevalatasind. only commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kevalatvan. the state of standing by itself or alone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khaḍgalatāf. a sword-blade, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatāf. "creeper in the air", anything impossible, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatāf. wickedness, villainy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatāf. filthiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatimfn. (gaRa bhīmādi-; in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' or in compound gaRa kaḍārādi-; khal- ) bald-headed, bald etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatim. baldness on (see kulva-, khalliṭa-,etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatikam. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatikam. Name of a mountain on Va1rtt. 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatikan. Name of a forest situated near that mountain on Va1rtt. 4. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatulaparṇīf. (perhaps) Name of a plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khalatvan. equals -- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khālatyan. (fr. khalat/i-), morbid baldness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khullatātam. (equals kṣull-) a father's younger brother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
klath cl.1 P. (parasmE-pada kl/athat-) to be formed into clots or lumps ; to hurt, kill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
klathanan. forming into clots or lumps on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kolatāf. the state of a hog, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
komalatāf. softness, tenderness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
komalataṇḍulam. a sort of rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
komalatvan. idem or 'f. softness, tenderness.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kopalatāf. the plant Gynandropsis pentaphylla View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtyakalpalatāf. Name of work by vācaspati-miśra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣīralatāf. equals -kanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣullatātam. (equals kṣudra-t-) the younger brother of a father View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣullatātakam. the father's brother View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuḍmalatāf. the state of being shut like a bud. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kukalatran. a bad wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulākulatithif. kulākula
kulākulatithif. See before. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lataṇḍulam. breakers, surges View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatantum. "the thread coming down from a race", the last representative of a family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatasind. by birth. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatattvavidmfn. knowing the true state of a family. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatilakam. the glory of a family. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatithif. equals kulā- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulattham. (fr. kula-? see aśvattha-, kapittha-), a kind of pulse (Dolichos uniflorus) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulattham. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatthāf. a kind of Dolichos (Glycine labialis) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatthāf. a blue stone used in medicine and applied as a collyrium to the eyes and as an astringent to sores, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatthāf. a species of metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatthikāf. a kind of Dolichos (see araṇyak-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulatthikāf. a blue stone used as a collyrium etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṇḍakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kurupañcālatind. as among the kuru-s and pañcāla-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuśalatāf. cleverness, ability, conversancy with (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuśalatāf. acuteness of sensation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuśalatvan. cleverness, skilfulness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusumalatāf. a creeper in blossom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusumitalatā f. Name of a metre consisting of four lines of eighteen syllables each. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusumitalatāvellikāf. Name of a metre consisting of four lines of eighteen syllables each. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṭilatāf. crookedness, guile, dishonesty. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṭilatvan. idem or 'f. crookedness, guile, dishonesty.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṭilatvan. deviation from (in compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lajjāśīlatvan. lajjāśīla
lakṣmīkulatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lavaṃgalatāf. Limonia Scandens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokapālatā f. () the being a guardian of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lokapālatvan. ( ) the being a guardian of the world View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lolatmf(anti-)n. moving to and fro, rolling etc. (see lul-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lolatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lolatkasāṅgulimfn. having restless or tremulous fingers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lolatvan. movableness, fickleness, restlessness, wantonness, cupidity, eager desire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lomalatādhāram. the belly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhavīlatāf. a spring-creeper (especially Gaertnera Racemosa, bearing white fragrant flowers) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhavīlatāgṛhan. equals mādhavī-maṇḍapa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhulatāf. a kind of liquorice (see madhura-l-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhumālatīnāṭakan. Name of work (mālatī-mādhava-?). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhuralatāf. a kind of liquorice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhurāmlatiktamfn. sweet and subacid and bitter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākālatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahākālatvan. mahākāla
mahānīlatantran. Name of a tantra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahīlatāf. an earthworm, dew-worm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latif. equals mālatī- (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. Jasminum Grandiflorum (plant and blossom;it bears fragrant white flowers which open towards evening) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. Bignonia Suaveolens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. Echites Caryophyllata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. another species of plant (equals viśalyā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. a bud, blossom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. equals kāca-mālī- (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. a maid, virgin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. moonlight or night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. Name of various metres View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. of a woman (the heroine of the drama mālatī-mādhava- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīf. of kalyāṇa-malla-'s comm. on megha-dūta-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latikāf. Name of one of the mātṛ-s attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latikāf. of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīkṣārakam. (prob.) borax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīmādhavan. " mālatī- and mādhava-", Name of a celebrated drama by bhava-bhūti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīmālāf. a garland of jasmine blossoms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīmālāf. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīmālāf. Name of a lexicon. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīpattrikāf. the outer shell of a nutmeg View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latīphalan. a nutmeg View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latītīra(in the beginning of a compound) the banks of the mālatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latītīrajamn. "produced on the banks of the mālatī-", white borax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latītīrasambhavamn. "produced on the banks of the mālatī-", white borax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
malatvan. dirtiness, filthiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mallatālam. (in music) a kind of measure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mallatūryan. a kind of drum beaten during a wrestling match View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mālulatāf. the creeper called malu-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsalatāf. "flesh-tendril", a wrinkle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māṃsapīyūṣalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍalatvan. roundness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandānalatvan. dyspepsia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalatūryan. a musical instrument used at festivals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mañjuśrīmūlatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marālatāf. marāla
meghalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milatmfn. meeting, joining etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milatmfn. appearing, happening, occurring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
milatmfn. (in the beginning of a compound or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') joined or connected with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mohanalatāf. a plant which has the power of fascinating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛdulatāf. a species of grass (equals śūlī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛdutaruṇahustapādatalatāf. having the palms and soles of the feet soft and tender (one of the 32 signs of perfection) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛṇālalatikāf. a lotus-tendril or stalk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukhacapalatvan. mukhacapala
muktāhāralatāf. idem or 'm. (for 1.See under mukta-, column 1) a string of pearls etc.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktālatāf. a string of pearls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktālatāf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktāphalalatāf. a string of pearls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muktāphalatāf. the being a pearl state of a pearls, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. equals -tva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latasind. on the root, on the lower side etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latasind. ā m- from the root upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latasind. from the beginning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latrikoṇan. the third astrological house View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latvan. the state of being a root or foundation or source, the having a foundation (tan-mūlatvāt- prajānāṃ rājā skandhaḥ-,"the king is the stem of his subjects through their being his root"; veda-mūlatva-,"the fact that the veda- is the original source of all knowledge"; śāstra-m-,"the being founded upon the śāstra-s") (see tan-m-).
nāgalatāf. Piper Betle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgalatāf. the penis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgalatāf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakulatvan. the state of an ichneumon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nartitabhrūlatamfn. a face the eye brows of which are dancing or moving to and fro
nigamakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nigamalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latāf. blueness, a dark colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latālam. Xanthochymus Pictorius or Paludosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latantran. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latārāsarasvatīstotran. Name of a stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latarum. the cocoa-nut tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latoyadam. a dark cloud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nimiślatamamfn. most attached to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nimittakālatāf. Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirantarālatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirjalatoyadābhamfn. of the colour of a waterless cloud id est white, fair View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirmalatāf. () stainlessness, cleanness, purity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirmalatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirmalatvan. ( ) stainlessness, cleanness, purity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirmūlatāf. rootlessness, baselessness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirvyākulatāf. calmness, tranquillity, , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣkalatvan. indivisibility, the state of the absolute brahma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣkulatāf. dying out, perishing, , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣkulatvocmfn. stripped off, husked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣphalatvan. unfruitfulness, uselessness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣpudgalatvan.
nītilatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṭilataṭacumbitamfn. kissed on the forehead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityakarmalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyagrodhaparimaṇḍalatāf. the having a waist like a fig-tree, (with one of the 32 signs of perfection ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyagrodhaparimaṇḍalatāf. the having a waist like a fig-tree (one of the 32 signs of perfection), . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyakalpalatā f. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyāyakalpalatikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palapīyūṣalatāf. Name of work (on the canonical use of various meats). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palvalatīran. the bank or margin of a ploughing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pālvalatīramfn. (fr. palvalatīra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcamīkramakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṇyaphalatvan. prosperity or profit in trade View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāpaśīlatvan. pāpaśīla
parakalatran. another's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parakalatrābhigamanan. approaching another's wife, adultery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paridurbalatvan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parihāsaśīlatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimaṇḍalatāf. whirling about View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimaṇḍalatāf. roundness, rotundity, circularity (also parimaṇḍalatātva -tva- n. ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parimaṇḍalatātvan. parimaṇḍalatā
pariślathamfn. quite loose or relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivihvalatāf. bewilderment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parṇalatāf. the betel plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parṇilatāf. Piper Betle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryākulatvan. confusion, bewilderment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātālatalan. the bottom of pātāla- ( pātālatalam lam- ind.down to pātāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātālatalamind. pātālatala
pātañjalatantran. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattralatāf. idem or 'f. equals -bhaṅga-. ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattralatāf. a long knife or dagger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattralatāf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
payolatāf. Batatas Paniculata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peśalatvan. dexterity, skill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalatāf. the being fruit, the state of fruit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalatantramfn. aiming only at one's own advantage commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalatasind. in relation to the reward or result View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalatasind. consequently, accordingly, virtually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalatrayan. "fruit-triad", the 3 myrobalans ; 3 sorts of fruit collectively (the fruit of the vine, of Grewia Asiatica or Xylacarpus Granatum and Gmelina Arborea) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalatrikan. "fruit-triad", the 3 myrobalans View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalatvan. equals -- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phaṇilatā() . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phullatubarīf. alum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchalatikāf. a tail-feather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilatvan. picchila
picchilatvacm. Grewia Elastica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
picchilatvacm. an orange tree or orange-peel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalatattvaprakāśikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalatattvaprakāśinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalatvan. a tawny or yellow colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
platim. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabalatāf. () strength, power, might, validity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabalataramfn. stronger, very strong or mighty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabalatoyamfn. abounding in water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabalatvan. () strength, power, might, validity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracalalatābhujamfn. having tremulous arm-creepers (= slender arms that tremble) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracalatmfn. moving, trembling, shaking etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracalatmfn. going, proceeding far or much View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracalatmfn. circulating, being current or customary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracalatmfn. prevailing, being recognized (as authority or law) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prahlattif. pleasure, delight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prākkūlatāf. wrong reading for -tūla- etc. q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāktūlatāf. the being turned towards the eastward (of sacrificial vessels) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāktūlatāf. (wrong reading -kūla-, -). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāñjalatāf. straightness, plainness (of meaning) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāptakālatvan. prāptakāla
praskhalatmfn. reeling, tottering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praślathamfn. very loose, greatly relaxed, languid, flaccid (see pra-śratha-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśnakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikūlatāf. ( etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikūlatasind. in contradiction to (-to-vṛt-,to be in contradiction to) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikūlatvan. () adverseness, opposition, hostility View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratikūlatvan. perverseness, contumacy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratimallatāf. rivalry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiṣṭhākalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyakṣaphalatvan. pratyakṣaphala
premalatikāf. the small creeping plant"love" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
premapīyūṣalatākartarīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyakalatram. fond of one's wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyālatālakharjūraharītakīvibhītakam. plural Piyal, palm, date and yellow and beleric myrobalan trees View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛthivīdaṇḍapālatāf. pṛthivīdaṇḍapāla
pṛthvīdaṇḍapālatāf. varia lectio for pṛthivī-a-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūgīlatāf. the Areca-palin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṃskokilatvan. puṃskokila
puṅkhilatīrthan. Name of a place of pilgrimage (= rāma-t-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇyakālatāf. auspiciousness of time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvakalatāf. pūrvakāla
putrakalatranāśabhītamfn. fearful of the destruction of wife and children View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāgalatāf. "Passion-creeper", Name of rati- (wife of kāma-deva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāhulata(?) m. Name of a Buddhist patriarch. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktamaṇḍalatāf. the appearance of red spots on the body caused by a bad state of the blood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ramalatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ramalatattvasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmapañcadaśīkalpalatikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raṅgalatāf. the senna plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasamañjarīsthūlatātparyārtham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
romalatā() () f. a winding line of hair above the navel (in women). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
romalatikā() f. a winding line of hair above the navel (in women). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūḍhamūlatvan. having taken firm root, firmness (a-r-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudralatāf. a species of creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrayāmalatantran. idem or 'n. Name of a tantra- work in the form of a dialogue between bhairava- and bhairavī-' (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūpalatāf. Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabalatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sabalatāf. () power, strength View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabalatvan. mixedness, mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sabalatvan. () power, strength View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādhuśīlatvan. sādhuśīla
sadyaḥphalatvan. sadyaḥphala
sadyaskālatvan. sadyaskāla
sahamakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailatanayāf. equals -kanya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailatanayātātam. "father of pārvatī-", the himālaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailatasind. (equals śailāt-) from or than a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailatvan. () the condition of a mountain. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sajalatvan. wateriness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakalatramfn. accompanied by a wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
salilatvan. the state of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālīnaśīlatvan. śālīnaśīla
samākulatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samākulatvan. great agitation or confusion, great bewilderment or trouble of mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samānabalatvan. samānabala
saṃdhyācalatarpaṇavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śamīlatāf. a branch of the śamī- tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvatsarakalpalatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvatsarotsavakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntikalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saphalatvan. profitableness, successfulness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāpiṇḍyakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāpiṇḍyakalpalatikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāradākalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saralatāf. uprightness, honesty, simplicity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saralatvan. straightness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śārṅkhalatodim. patronymic fr. śṛṅkhala-todin- gaRa bāhv-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarpalatāf. Piper Betle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvaphalatyāgacaturdaśīf. Name of a particular 14th day View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvaphalatyāgacaturdaśīvratan. a particular religious observance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṣṭhānnakālatāf. () eating only at the time of the sixth meal (id est on the evening of every third day) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaṣṭilatāf. a kind of plant (equals bhramara-mārī-; wrong reading for yaṣṭil-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satalatramfn. having leather guards (used in archery) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satkulatāf. satkula
saubhāgyakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saubhāgyalatikāpaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saubhāgyārcanakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvidallatvan. the office of a chamberlain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savalatāf. the plant yielding soma--juice (see soma-l-) on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savṛkṣakihupalatamfn. having trees and bushes and creepers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayyāpālatvan. the office of guardian of the bed-chamber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayyāpālatvan. the office of guardian of the bed-chamber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhāntakalpalatāf. Name of vedānta- work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlatasind. according or in regard to moral character or conduct View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlataṭamfn. (figuratively) having virtue for a bank or shore View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlatulyamfn. resembling or equivalent, to virtue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlatvan. disposition, inclination, customary practice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlatvan. morality, virtuousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śīlatyāgam. abandonment of virtue or honour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhīlatāf. the egg-plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śiñjālatāf. a bow-string. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalatāf. coldness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalatāf. insensibility View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitalatāf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitālatāf. white dūrvā- grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalataramfn. more cool, colder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalatvan. coldness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītalatvan. indifference, apathy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śithilatvan. looseness, laxity, relaxation, want of energy or care, indifference, languor (-tāṃ-gam-or vraj-,"to undergo indifference", be neglected) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandayāmalatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skhalatmfn. (pr.p.) See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślath (collateral form of śrath-) cl.1 P. ślathati- (only pr. p. ślathat-), to be loose or relaxed or flaccid : Causal ślathayati- idem or ' (see śraṅg-) cl.1 P. ślaṅgati-, to go, move ' ; to let loose, relax, loosen ; to hurt, kill View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathamfn. loose, relaxed, flaccid, weak, feeble, languid etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathamfn. untied, unfastened View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathamfn. dishevelled (as hair) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathabandhanamfn. having the muscles relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathādaramfn. having feeble or slight regard to (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathalambinmfn. hanging loosely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathāṅgamfn. having relaxed or languid limbs ( ślathāṅgatā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathāṅgatāf. ślathāṅga
ślathasaṃdhimfn. having weak joints ( ślathasaṃdhitā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathasaṃdhitāf. ślathasaṃdhi
ślathaśilamfn. covered with a loose stone (as a well) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathatvan. looseness, laxity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathāyaNom. A1. yate-, to become loose or relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathīkṛP. -karoti- (past participle -kṛta-), to make loose, relax ; to diminish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślathodyamamfn. relaxing one's effort View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smṛtikālataraṃgam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
snehalatāf. affection, tenderness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatāf. the soma- plant (See 1. s/oma-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatāf. Ruta Graveolens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatāf. equals -vallī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatāf. Name of the river godāvarī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somalatikāf. Cocculus Cordifolius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphoṭalatāf. Gynandropsis Anacardium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāddhakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāvaṇaśuklatṛtīyāf. the fourth and third day in the light half of śrāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīlatāf. (for śrīla--See column 3) a kind of plant (= mahā-jyotiṣmatī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīlatāf. high rank (compared to a creeping plant;for śrī-latā-See column 1) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīśailatātācāryam. Name of a preceptor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīvatsamuktikanandyāvartalakṣitapāṇipādatalatāf. having the palms of the hands and soles of the feet marked with śrī-vatsa- and muktika- (for muktikā-?) and nandy-āvarta- (one of the 80 minor marks of a buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅgāralatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅkhalatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅkhalatodinm. Name of a man gaRa bāhv-ādi- (see śārṅkhalatodi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅkhalatvan. the being chained together, concatenation, connection, order, a series View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śṛṅkhalatvan. restraint View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutikalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalatāf. the state of being dry ground View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalataran. a higher place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalatasind. from dry land View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthirapālatrilakṣam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlatāf. largeness, bigness, bulkiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlatāf. stupidity, clumsiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlatālam. Phoenix Paludosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlataṇḍulam. large rice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlataramfn. more bulky, bigger, larger, very large View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlatomarinmfn. having a thick javelin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlatvan. bigness, bulkiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlatvan. stupidity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlatvan. (in philosophy) grossness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūlatvacāf. Gmelina Arborea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukalatran. a good wife View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuklatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuklatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuklatīrthamāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuklatvan. whiteness etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śuktikhalatimfn. bald like an oyster, completely bald View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukulatāf. id. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sulalitalatāpallavamayamf(ī-)n. consisting of young sprouts of beautiful creepers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sulatānam. a sultan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumālatīf. Name of a metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumanolatāf. a flowering creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supratiṣṭhitapāṇipādatalatāf. the having the palms of the hands and soles of the feet well (and equally) placed (one of the 32 signs of perfection) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suralatāf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūryalatāf. Polanisla Icosandra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūryalatāf. Calotropis Gigantea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suśīlatāf. excellence of temper or disposition, good morals, natural amiability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suśīlatvan. excellence of temper or disposition, good morals, natural amiability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suvarṇalatāf. Cardiospermum Halicacabum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādulatāf. Batatas Paniculata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādvamlatiktatubaramfn. sweet and sour, bitter and astringent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svādvamlatiktatubaram. sweet and sour and bitter and astringent taste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarṇalatāf. "gold creeper", Cardiospermum Halicacabum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarṇalatāf. Hoya Viridiflora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmākalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmākalpalatikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmalatāf. a kind of climbing plant (equals sārivā-or Echites Frutescens ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmalatāf. () () blackness, dark colour. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmālatāf. (prob.) equals śyāma-l- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śyāmalatvan. () blackness, dark colour. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taḍillatāf. forked lightning, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tailatvan. oily state View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talatālam. clapping the hands View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talatasind. from the bottom. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talatram. "arm-guard", a leathern fence worn by archers on the left arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talatrāṇa equals -tra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
talatravatmfn. furnished with that fence, 14465. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanmūlatvan. the being based in that View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanmūlatvan. the being its root View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanulatāf. a slender body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taralatāf. equals -tva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taralatāf. unsteady activity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taralatvan. tremulousness, unsteadiness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilakalatāf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilatailan. ( Va1rtt. 4 ) sesamum-oil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilataṇḍulakan. "agreeable as rice mixed with sesamum", an embrace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tilatejāhvāf. Name of a plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timirākulatāf. See ra--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
toḍalatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tulyakālatvan. contemporariness Va1rtt. 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
turaganīlatālam. Name of a gesture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tyāgaśīlatāf. liberality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ujjvalatāf. splendour, radiance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ujjvalatāf. beauty. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ujjvalatvan. splendour, radiance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ujjvalatvan. beauty. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upakūlatasind. on the shore View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttarakālatasind. afterwards, after View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vācālatāf. ( ) () talkativeness, loquacity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vācālatvan. () talkativeness, loquacity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidyakulatattvan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latuṣam. (of unknown meaning) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanalatāf. a forest-creeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāñchākalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vandhyaphalatāf. vandhyaphala
vartamānakālatāf. vartamānakāla
vasantalatā () f. Name of women. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantalatikā() f. Name of women. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantamālatirasam. a particular mixture View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatsalatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vatsalatvan. affectionateness, tenderness towards or delight in (locative case or compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntakalpalatā f. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntakalpalatikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vetralatāf. "reed-branch", a staff or stick View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vetralatācayam. a heap of sticks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vetralatāmayamf(ī-)n. made of sticks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vicācācalatSee /a-vicācala- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidrumalatāf. equals -daṇḍa- (also -latikā- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidrumalatāf. a kind of fragrant substance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidrumalatāf. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyullatāf. "lightning-creeper", forked lightning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidyullatāf. Name of commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihvalatāf. agitation, perturbation, consternation, anxiety
vihvalatanumfn. one whose body is exhausted by (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihvalatvan. agitation, perturbation, consternation, anxiety
vijayakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijñānalatikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikalatāf. deficiency, infirmity, imperfection etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikalatvan. deficiency, infirmity, imperfection etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikarālatāf. formidableness, dreadfulness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikuñcitabhrūlatamind. with contracted eyebrows, frowning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilolatāf. tremulousness, unsteadiness, rolling (of the eyes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilolatārakamfn. (a face) with rolling (pupils of the) eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilolatvan. tremulousness, unsteadiness, rolling (of the eyes) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimalatāf. stainlessness, cleanliness, brightness, clearness, purity etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimalatvan. stainlessness, cleanliness, brightness, clearness, purity etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viparītamallatailan. a kind of preparation made of oil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viphalatāf. fruitlessness, uselessness, unprofitableness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viphalatvan. fruitlessness, uselessness, unprofitableness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipulatāf. () largeness, greatness, extent, width, magnitude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipulataramfn. larger or very large View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipulatvan. () largeness, greatness, extent, width, magnitude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viralatāf. rareness, scarcity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
visadṛśaphalatāf. visadṛśaphala
viśālatāf. great extent, greatness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśālatāf. eminence, distinction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣalatāf. "poisonous creeper", the colocynth plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśālatailagarbham. Alangium Hexapetalum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśālatvan. equals -- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśālatvacm. Bauhinia Variegata or Alstonia Scholaris View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viślath(only pr. p. -ślathat-and -śathamāna-), to become loose or relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viślathamfn. relaxed, loose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viślathamind. with languid limbs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viślathāṅgamfn. having languid limbs View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viślathitamfn. loose, relaxed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇubhaktikalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇubhaktilatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇuyāmalatantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛkṣamūlatāf. lying or sleeping on roots of trees (as a hermit) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣalatāf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣalatvan. the condition of a śūdra-, state of an outcaste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākulatāf. perturbation, agitation, bewilderment, alarm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākulatvan. perturbation, agitation, bewilderment, alarm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyālatamamf(ā-)n. very fierce or cruel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyālatvan. the state of a vicious elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyamlatāf. vyamla
yaṣṭilatāf. a kind of plant (equals bhramarāri-)
yogakalpalatāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuvakhalatimfn. bald in youth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuvakhalatīf. bald in girlhood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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latā लता [लत्-अच्] 1 A creeper, creeping plant; लताभावेन परिणतमस्या रूपम् V.4; लतेव संनद्धमनोज्ञपल्लवा R.3.7 (often used as the last member of compounds, especially with words meaning 'arm', 'eyebrow', 'lightning', to denote beauty, tenderness, thinness &c.; भुजलता, बाहुलता, भ्रूलता, विद्युल्लता; so खड्ग˚, अलक˚, &c.; cf. Ku.2. 64; Me.49; Ś.3.14; R.9.46. -2 A branch; मधुसुरभिणि षट्पदेन पुष्पे मुख इव शाललतावधूश्चुचुम्बे Ki.1.34; Rām. 2.8.6. -3 The creeper called Priyaṅgu. -4 The Mādhavī creeper. -5 Musk-creeper. -6 A whip or the lash of a whip. -7 A string of pearls. -8 A slender woman. -9 A woman in general. -1 The Dūrvā grass. -Comp. -अङ्गुलिः f. a branch serving as a finger. -अन्तम् a flower. ˚बाणः the god of love; लतान्त- बाणंबाणलक्ष्यतामयासिषम् Dk.1.4. -अम्बुजम् a kind of cucumber. -अर्कः a green onion. -अलकः an elephant. -आननः a particular position of the hands in dancing. -उद्गमः the upward winding or climbing of a creeper. -करः a particular position of the hands in dancing. -कस्तूरिका, कस्तूरी musk-creeper; लताकस्तूरिका तिक्ता हृद्या शीतास्यरोगहृत् Rājavallabha. -गृहः, -हम् a bower surrounded with creepers, an arbour; लतागृहद्वारगतो $थ नन्दी Ku.3.41. -जिह्वः, -रसनः a snake. -तरुः, -द्रुमः 1 the Sāla tree. -2 the Tāla tree. -3 the orange tree. -पनसः the water-melon. -पर्णः N. of Viṣṇu. -प्रतानः the tendril of a creeper; लताप्रतानोद्ग्रथितैः स केशैरधिज्यधन्वा विचचार दावम् R.2.8. -भवनम् an arbour, a bower. -मणिः coral. -मण्डपः a bower, an arbour. -मृगः a monkey. -यष्टिः f. Bengal madder. -यावकम् a shoot, sprout. -रदः an elephant. -वलयः, -यम् an arbour. -वृक्षः 1 the cocoa-nut tree. -2 the Sāla tree. -वेष्टः a kind of coitus or mode of sexual enjoyment; बाहुभ्यां पाद- युग्माभ्यां वेष्टयित्वा स्त्रियं रमेत् । लघुलिङ्गताडनं योनौ तल्लतावेष्टमुच्यते ॥ Rasamañjarī. -वेष्टनम्, -वेष्टितकम् a kind of embrace; अपि भ्रमी भङ्गिभिरावृताङ्गं वासो लतावेष्टितकप्रवीणम् N.7.97 ('उपविष्टं प्रियं कान्ता सुप्ता वेष्टयते यदि । तल्लतावेष्टितं ज्ञेयं कामानुभव- वेदिभिः Narāyaṇa's com.).
latikā लतिका 1 A small creeper; हा कष्टं ललिता लवङ्गलतिका दावाग्निना दह्यते Bv.1.56. -2 A string of pearls.
lattikā लत्तिका [लतेः तिकन् कित् Uṇ.3.147] A kind of lizard.
anukūlatā अनुकूलता त्वम् 1 Favour, conformity, kindness, good will; पवनस्यानुकूलत्वात् R.1.42 the wind being favourable. -2 Prosperity.
ucchalat उच्छलत् pres. a. 1 Shining, moving about; Śi.3. 37; Māl.3; स्वच्छन्दोच्छलदच्छकच्छकुहरच्छातेतराम्बुच्छटा K. P. -2 Appearing, bursting forth; Māl.7. -3 Moving, going on; ibid. -4 Flying up or away, going up high.
ullalat उल्ललत् a. 1 Shaking, trembling. -2 Moving irregularly or convulsively.
kalata कलत a. Bald-headed.
kalatram कलत्रम् 1 A wife; वसुमत्या हि नृपाः कलत्रिणः R.8.83; 1.32;12.34; यद्भर्तुरेव हितमिच्छति तत्कलत्रम् Bh.2.68. -2 The female of an animal. -3 The hip and loins; इन्दुमूर्तिमिवोद्दाममन्मथविलासगृहीतगुरुकलत्राम् K.189 (where क˚ has both senses); Ki.8.9,17. -4 Any royal citadel. -5 The seventh lunar mansion.
kulataḥ कुलतः ind. By birth.
kulatthaḥ कुलत्थः A kind of pulse; Mb.13.111.71. -त्थिका A blue stone used as a collyrium.
kuśalatā कुशलता 1 Cleverness, ability, conversancy with (loc.). -2 Acuteness of sensation; यथा यथा निषेवन्ते विषया- न्विषयात्मकाः । तथा तथा कुशलता तेषां तेषूपजायते ॥ Ms.12.73.
kevalatas केवलतस् ind. Simply, solely, wholly, purely, merely.
kevalatā केवलता The absolute unity of spirit and matter; सांख्याः केवलतां गताः Mb.12.315.19.
klath क्लथ् 1, 9 P. 1 To kill, hurt. -2 To turn round, revolve.
khalati खलति a. Bald-headed, bald; युवखलतिः.
khalatikaḥ खलतिकः A mountain.
khālatyam खालत्यम् Morbid baldness; जरा खालत्यं पालित्यं शरीरमनु- प्राविशन् Av.11.8.19.
gilat गिलत् *** a. Swallowing; गिलन्त्य इव चाङ्गानि Bhāg. 1.13.31.
capalatā चपलता त्वम् 1 Trembling. -2 Fickleness.
calatpūrṇimā चलत्पूर्णिमा f. A kind of fish (L.)
taralatā तरलता त्वम् 1 unsteady activity; tremulousness. -2 Sparkle, glitter; कार्कश्यं स्तनयोर्दृशोस्तरलता Pt.1.19.
talataḥ तलतः ind. From the bottom.
lati नीलति Den. P. 1 To be of a dark-blue colour. -2 To dye blue.
prabalatā प्रबलता त्वम् Strength, power, might.
prabalati प्रबलति Den. P. To become strong.
praślatha प्रश्लथ a. 1 Very loose or flaccid. -2 Spiritless, unnerved.
phalatas फलतस् ind. As a consequence, consequently, virtually.
balatī बलती A turret at the top of a palace; L. D. B.
bahulatā बहुलता त्वम् 1 Abundance, copiousness. -2 Numerousness. -3 Comprehensiveness.
latiḥ मालतिः ती f. 1 A kind of jasmine (with fragrant white flowers); तन्मन्ये क्वचिदङ्ग भृङ्गतरुणेनास्वादिता मालती G. M.; जालकैर्मालतीनाम् Me.1; Ki.1.2. -2 A flower of this jasmine; शिरसि बकुलमालां मालतीभिः समेताम् Ṛs.2.24. -3 A bud, blossom (in general). -4 A virgin, young woman. -5 Night. -6 Moonlight. -Comp. -क्षारकः, तीरजम् borax. -पत्रिका the shell of a nutmeg. -फलम् nutmeg. -माधवम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti. -माला 1 a garland of jasmine flowers. -2 a kind of metre.
milat मिलत् a. 1 Meeting, joining. -2 Happening, occurring. -3 Joined, connected. -Comp. -व्याध a. surrounded or joined by huntsmen; Ks.
lalat ललत् a. 1 Playing, sporting. -2 Shaking, flashing, moving about; ललन्नरजाङ्गलः Māl.5.5. -3 Lolling. -Comp. -अम्बुः the citron tree. -जिह्व a. (ललज्जिह्व) 1 lolling the tongue. -2 savage, fierce. (-ह्वः) 1 a dog. -2 a camel. -डिम्बम् a top (भवरा in Mar.) बालेन नक्तंसमयेन मुक्तं रौप्यं ललड्डिम्बमिवेन्दुबिम्बम् (लसड्डिम्बम् v. l.) N.22.53.
lolatā लोलता 1 Fickleness, restlessness. -2 Cupidity, eager desire.
valatam वलतम् [वल-अतच् Uṇ.3.19] A granary, storeroom.
viśālatā विशालता त्वम् 1 Greatness, magnitude. -2 Eminence.
viślatha विश्लथ a. 1 Loose, relaxed; untied; ऐरावतास्फालन- विश्लथं यः संघट्टयन्नङ्गदमङ्गदेन R.6.73. -2 Languid, drooping.
ślath श्लथ् 1 P. (श्लथति) 1 To be loose or slackened; श्लथद्दुकूलं कबरीं च विच्युताम् Bhāg.8.12.21. -2 To be weak or infirm. -3 To hurt, kill. -Caus. (श्लथयति-ते) To slacken, loosen, relax (fig. also); श्लथयितुं क्षणमक्षमताङ्गना न सहसा सहसा कृतवेपथुः Śi.6.57; परित्राणस्नेहः श्लथयितुमशक्यः खलु यथा G. L.37.
ślatha श्लथ a. 1 Untied, unfastened. -2 Loose, relaxed, loosened, slipped off; वृन्ताच्छ्लथं हरति पुष्पमनोकहानाम् R.5. 69;19.26. -3 Dishevelled (as hair). -Comp. -उद्यम a. relaxing one's efforts. -बन्धनम् having the muscles relaxed; Ṛs. -लम्बिन् a. hanging loosely down; श्लथलम्बिनीर्जटाः Ku.5.47.
sthūlatā स्थूलता त्वम् 1 Largeness, bulkness, bigness; कौटिल्यं कचसंचये प्रवचने मान्द्यं त्रिके स्थूलता (दृश्यते) Pt.1.19. -2 Dulness, stupidity. -3 (In phil.) Grossness. स्थूलंभविष्णु sthūlambhaviṣṇu स्थूलंभावुक sthūlambhāvuka स्थूलंभविष्णु स्थूलंभावुक a. Liable to become large or stout; P.III.2.57.
hlattiḥ ह्लत्तिः f. Joy, gladness; (ह्लन्निः f. also in this sense.)
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avama ava-má, spv. a. lowest; nearest, ii. 35, 12; latest, vii. 71, 3 [áva down].
upara úpa-ra, cpv. a. later, x. 15, 2 [Av. upara ‘upper’, Gk. ὕπερο-ς ‘pestle’, Lat. s-uperu-s ‘upper’].
cit cit perceive, I. cétati, -te; pf. cikéta, i. 35, 7; sb. cíketat, i. 35, 6; cs. citáya stimulate, iv. 51, 3; cetáya cause to think, vii. 86, 7. á̄- observe: pf. ciketa, vii. 61, 1.
jāgṛvi já̄gṛ-vi, a. watchful, v. 11, 1; stimulating, x. 34, 1 [from red. stem of 2. gṛ wake].
pāthas pá̄th-as, n. path, vii. 63, 5; domain, i. 154, 5 [related to páth, m. path].
prayasvant práyas-vant, a. offering oblations, iii. 59, 2 [práy-as enjoyment from prī please].
prasavītr pra-savītṛ́, m. rouser, vii. 63, 2 [sū stimulate].
vāyavyȧ vᾱyav-yȧ, a. relating to the wind, aërial, x. 90, 8 [vāyú].
śīta śī-tá, a. cold, x. 34, 9 [old pp. of śyā coagulate].
savitr Sav-i-tṛ́, m. a solar god, i. 35, 1-6. 8-10; vii. 63, 3; x. 34, 8. 13 [Stimulator from sù stimulate].
ha Ha, enc. emph. pcl., i. 85, 7; vii. 86, 3; x. 14, 13; 90, 10. 16; 129, 2 [later form of gha].
havirad havir-ád, a. (Tp.) eating the oblation, x. 15, 10 [havís + ad].
havispā havis-pá̄, a. drinking the oblation, x. 15, 10 [havís + pā].
havis hav-ís, n. oblation, ii. 33, 5; 35, 12; iii. 59, 5; iv. 50, 6; vi. 54, 4; viii. 48, 12. 13; x. 14, 1. 4. 13. 14; 15, 8. 11. 12; 90, 62; 168, 4 [hu sacrifice].
havya hav-yá, (gdv.) n. what is to be offered, oblation, iii. 59, 1; vii. 63, 5; 86, 2; x. 14, 15; 15, 4 [husacrifice].
havyavāhana havya-vá̄hana, m. carrier of oblations, v. 11, 4 [vá̄hana from vah carry].
havyasūd havya-sú̄d, a. (Tp.) sweetening the oblation, iv. 50, 5 [sūd = svād sweeten].
hita hi-tá, pp. placed, v. 11, 6 [later form of dhita from dhā put; Gk. θετό-ς set].
hotrāvid hotrā-víd, a. (Tp.) knowing oblations, x. 15, 9 [hó-trā, Av. zao-thra; cp. Gk. χύ-τρᾱ ‘pot’].
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latā f. creeping plant, creeper (ord. mg.: often--°ree; with words meaning brow, arm, locks, slender body, sword-blade, lightning, to express leauty, thinness, tenderness etc.); branch; N. of the Mâdhavî creeper (Gaertnera racemosa); lash of a whip; pearl necklace; slender woman; woman: -griha, n. bower of creepers, arbour; -½anta, n. (?) flower: -bâna, m. (flower-arrowed), god of love; -pâsa, m. festoon of creepers;-manda pa, m. bower of creepers, arbour; -mâdhavî, f. the Mâdhavî creeper (Gaertnera racemosa); -½âlaya, m. dwelling of creepers (of an owl); -valaya, m. n. arbour of creepers: -vat, a. provided with arbours; -veshtita-ka, n. em brace of a creeper.
latikā f. small or slender creeper (arms and slim forms are compared with it); string of pearls.
agṛhlat pr. pt. not seizing; not taking (leech).
apalatābhavana a. arbour less; -lapana, n. flattery; -lâpa, m. denial; -lâpin, a. keeping secret, concealing (g.).
arūḍhamūlatva n. nothaving taken firm root.
alatikā f. a. creeperless (soil).
kalatra n. wife; female animal; hip; loin: -tâ, f. wifehood; -vat, a. having a wife; united with his wife or wives.
latā f. 1. seasonableness; 2. blackness; -danda, m. wand of death; -dû ta, m. harbinger of death; -daurâtmya, n. tyranny of time; -dharma, -n, m. law of time=inevitable death; -niyama, m. limita tion of time; determination of the terminus ad quem; -nemi, m. N. of an Asura slain by Krishna; N. of a Brâhman.
kulatantu m. thread on which a family hangs=the last of a race; -deva, m.: -tâ, f. family deity; -daiva: -ta, n. id.; -dha ra, m. N. of a prince; -dharma, m. usage of a family; -dhurya, a. able to bear the burden of a family; m. head of a family; -nandana, a. n. (child) delighting the family; -nârî, f. virtuous woman; -nimnagâ, f. main or noble stream.
khalati a. bald; m. baldness.
khalatā f. abst. n. from khala 1 and 2; 2. kha-latâ, creeper in the air=a chimera.
khālatya khâlatya, khālitya n. bald ness.
cāpalatā f. bowstring; -lekhâ, f. N.; -veda, m. archery; -½adhiropana, n. stringing or drawing a bow; -½âropana, n. id.
nāgalatā f. a tree; N.; -lekhâ, f. N.; -loka, m. world or abode of the Nâgas; coll. the serpents; -vatta, m. N.; -vall&ibrevcirc;, f. the betel plant, piper betel; -vasâ, f. female elephant; -sûra, m. N.; -sthala, n. N. of a village; -svâmin, m. N.
bāhulatā f. creeper-like arms: -½antara, n. interval between the arms, chest, breast-bone.
māṃsalatā f. wrinkle; -lubdha, pp. desirous of meat; -vikraya, m. sale of flesh; -vikrayin, -vikretri, m. vendor of flesh; -½ad, -½âda, -½âdin, a. flesh-eating; -½asana, n. eating of flesh, flesh-food; -½âsin, a. eating or subsisting on flesh; -½âhâra, m. animal food; -½upagîvin, m. dealer in meat.
mādhavīlatā f. spring-creeper (Gaertnera racemosa).
latī f. kind of jasmine with fragrant white flowers which open to wards evening (Jasminum grandiflorum); N.: i-kâ, f. N.; î-mâdhava, n. Mâlatî and Mâdhava (names of the hero and heroine), T. of a play by Bhavabhûti; -mâlâ, f. wreath of jasmine.
vanalatā f. forest-creeper; -le khâ, f. line of forest, far-extending forest; -vahni, m. forest fire; -vâta, m. forest wind; -vâsa, m. dwelling or residence in the forest; a. living in the forest; m. forest-dweller; -vâsin, a., m. id.; -svan, m. (wild dog), jackal.
viślatha a. relaxed, loose: -½a&ndot;gam, ad. with languid limbs; -slesha, m. loosening, severance, falling asunder; hiatus (with sandhau or sandhi-); separation (of lovers); -sleshin, a.loosened; separated (from a beloved object).
śyāmalatā f. kind of creeper.
ślathodyama a. relaxing one's efforts, offering a feeble resistance.
ślatha a. loose, relaxed; slack, feeble (fig.): -lambin, a. hanging loosely; -½a&ndot;ga, a. having languid limbs; -½âdara, a. paying slight regard to (lc.).
savalatā f. plant suitable for the extraction of juice.
haragalagaralatamāla m. Tamâla-like poison on the neck of Siva (i.e. dark like the Tamâla tree); -datta, m. N.; -pura, n. N. of a town; -bala, m. N.; -vrishabha, m. Siva's bull.
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"lat" has 270 results.
     
kalpalatāname of a commentary on Bhaṭṭojī's Praudhamanoramā ' by Kṛṣṇamiśra.
galatpadathe word occurs in the Prātiśākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the kramapātha. The word संक्रम means bringing together two words when they are combined according to rules of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapātha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; confer, compare गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ.
dhātukalpalatikāa short treatise on the roots of the different conjugations written by a grammarian named Dhananjaya.
latvachange of र् into ल्. See ल a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ślathabandhaa loose connection as obtaining between the various words in the Pada recital, as contrasted with श्लिष्टबन्ध in the Samhita text.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akartṛa case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. confer, compare अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् P. III.3.I9.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhyāsasuperimposition : a relation between a word and its sense according to the grammarians; confer, compare Vāk. Pad. II.240. (2) appendage; confer, compare आहुस्त्वेकपदा अन्ये अध्यासानेकपातिनः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XVII.43.
anānantaryanot a close relation; distance: confer, compare क्वचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्य शास्त्रकृतमनान्तर्ये क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
animittaot serving as a cause, not possessing a causal relation; e. g. संनिपातलक्षणे विधिरनिमित्तं तद्विघातस्य Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 85. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.39.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anupasarjananot subordinated in wordrelation, principal member; confer, compare अनुपसर्जनात् P. IV.I.14 and M.Bh. thereon; cf also Par. Śek Pari. 26.
anupradānaan effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु et cetera, and others which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; confer, compare स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articulate sound confer, compare अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.
anvaya(1)construing, construction: arrangement of words according to their mutual relationship based upon the sense conveyed by them, शब्दानां परस्परमर्थानुगमनम् । (2) continuance, continuation;confer, compare घृतघटतैलवट इति ; निषिक्ते घृते तैले वा अन्वयाद्विशेषणं भवति अयं घृतघटः, अयं तैलघट इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 1.1.
ap(1)kṛt affix अ, in the sense of verbal activity (भाव) or any verbal relation (कारक) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ) applied to roots ending in ऋ or उ and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ et cetera, and others mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ. exempli gratia, for example करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः etc, confer, compare P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् preceded by अन्त् or वहिर् e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः confer, compare P. V. 4.116, 117.
apādānadetachment, separation, ablation technical term for अपादानकारक which is defined as ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् in P.I.4.24 and subsequent rules 25 to 3l and which is put in the ablative case; confer, compare अपादाने पञ्चमी P. II.3.28.
apekṣārelation of dependance; confer, compare अयुक्तैवं बहुनोपेक्षा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.92.
abhedānvayarelation of non-difference as stated by the vaiyākaraṇas between an adjective and the substantive qualified by it. e, g. नीलमुत्पलम् is explained as नीलाभिन्नमुत्पलम्.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
alpaprāṇa(1)non-aspirate letters letters requiring little breath from the mouth for their utterance as opposed to mahāprāṇa; (2) non-aspiration; one of the external articulate efforts characterizing the utterance of non-aspirate letters.
avyakta(1)indistinct; inarticulate; confer, compare अव्यक्तानुकरणस्यात इतौ P. VI.1.98 also P.V.4.57; अव्यक्तं अपरिस्फुटवर्णम् Kāś. on P. VI.1.98; (2) a fault of pronunciation confer, compare नातिव्यक्तं न चाव्यक्तमेवं वर्णानुदीरयेत् ।
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
asamartha(1)syntactically not connected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2) unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in connection with a word which cannot be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with another word: confer, compare सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.1.1.; exempli gratia, for example the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
aāt(1)long अा as different from short or protracted अ prescribed by the wofd वृद्धि or दीर्घ in the case of अ, or by the word अात् when substituted for another vowel, as for example in the rule आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following: confer, compare P.VI.1.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ङस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare P. VII.1.12; (3) substitute अात् for a case affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example न ताद् ब्राह्मणाद् निन्दामि Kāś. on VII. 1.39.
ātiśāyikaa tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ confer, compare P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; confer, compare also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
aānaṅsubstitute आन् in the place of the last letter (ऋ) of the first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which end with the vowel ऋ; exempli gratia, for example होतापोतारौ, मातापितरो confer, compare P.VI.3.25, 26.
aāntaryaproximity; close affinity ; close relationship. There are four kinds of such proximity as far as words in grammar are concerned; Re: the organs of speech (स्थानतः)as in दण्डाग्रम्, regarding the meaning(अर्थतः)as in वातण्ड्ययुवतिः, regarding the quality (गुण) as in पाकः रागः, and regarding the prosodial value (प्रमाण) as in अमुष्मै, अमूभ्याम्; confer, compare अनेकविधं अान्तर्यं स्थानार्थगुणप्रमाणकृतम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.13. confer, compare also Kāś. on I.1.50.
āmreḍita(1)iterative: a repeated word, defined as द्विरुक्तं पदम् confer, compare द्विरुक्तमात्रेडितं पदम् exempli gratia, for example यज्ञायज्ञा वो अग्नये Vāj. Prāt. I. 146; (2). the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pāṇini; c. तस्य (द्विरुक्तस्य) परमाम्रेडितम् P. VIII.1.2. The Āmreḍita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; confer, compare P.VIII.1.3 and VIII. 2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain how the term आम्रेडित means the first member; confer, compare ननु अाम्रेडितशब्दे । निघण्टुषु प्रसिद्धः अाम्रेडितं द्विस्त्रिरुक्तमिति । सत्यमर्थे प्रसिद्धः इह तु शब्दे परिभाष्यते । महासंज्ञाकरणं पूर्वाचार्यानुरोधेन Padamañj. on VIII.1.2.
āśraya(1)relation of dependence; confer, compare अाश्रयात्सिद्धत्वं भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; (2) substratum, place of residence; confer, compare गुणवचनानां शब्दानामाश्रयतो लिङ्गवचनानि भवन्ति । शुद्धं वस्त्रम् । शुक्ला शाटी । शुक्लः कम्बलः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.29.
āsya(1)place of articulation, the mouth, confer, compare अत्यन्त्यनेन वर्णान् इति अास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9; (2) found in the place of articulation; e g. the effort made for the utterance of words confer, compareआस्ये भवमास्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.9, also स्पृष्टादिप्रयत्नपञ्चकमास्यम् Laghuvṛtti on Śāk. I.1.6.
ikantaddhita affix. affix इक applied to compound words with पद as the latter member exempli gratia, for example पूर्वपदिक confer, compare इकन्पदोत्तरपदात् P.IV.2.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).
itaretarayogamutual relationship with each other. Out of the four senses of the indeclinable च viz. समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the Dvandva compound is formed of words connected in the last two ways and not in the first two ways. The instances of द्वन्द्व in the sense of इतरेतरयोग are धवखदिरपलाशाः, प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ etc; confer, compare Kāś.on P. II.2.29 confer, compare also प्लक्षश्च न्यग्रोधश्चेत्युक्ते गम्यत एतत्प्लक्षोपि न्यग्रोधसहायो न्यग्रोधोपि प्लक्षसहाय इति M.Bh. on II.2.29; confer, compare also इतरेतरयोगः स यदा उद्रिक्तावयवभेदो भवति Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 16.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
īśvarānandaauthor of (l) a gloss on Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣya-pradīpa, and (2)an independent treatise Śābdabodhataraṅgiṇī. He is believed to have been a pupil of सत्यानन्द and iived in the latter part of the 16th century A.D.
u(1)labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;confer, compareP.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,exempli gratia, for example कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, confer, compareP.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt (affix). affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,exempli gratia, for example चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; confer, compare P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; exempli gratia, for example कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; confer, compare also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.
uktipadaउक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds et cetera, and others written mostly in Gujarati.
uṇādiaffixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object et cetera, and others is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; confer, compare Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriveditionThe derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; confer, compare उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 et cetera, and others There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work.
uṇādisūtradaśapādīthe text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable.
uttara(1)following, subsequent, e. g. उत्तरपद, the latter part of a compound word; (2) end of a word, पदान्त; confer, compare उत्तरे पदान्ते वर्तमानः Com. on T.Pr. III.1.
uttarapadathe latter member or portion of a compound word as contrasted with पूर्वपद; confer, compare पतिरुत्तरपदमाद्युदात्तम् Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II. 3. 11; cf also अलुगुत्तरपदे P. VI. 3.1.
utsargaa general rule as contrasted with a special rule which is called अपवाद or exception; confer, compare उत्सर्गापवादयोरपवादो बलीयान् Hema. Pari.56; प्रकल्प्य वापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Par.Śek. Pari.63, Sīra. Pari.97; confer, compare also उत्सर्गसमानदेशा अपवादा;. For the बाध्यबाधकभाव relation between उत्सर्ग and अपवाद and its details see Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara on Paribhāṣās 57 to 65: confer, compare also न्यायैर्मिश्रान् अपवादान्प्रतीयात् explained by the commentator as न्याया उत्सर्गा महाविषया विधयः अपवादा अल्पविषया विधयः । तान् उत्सर्गेण भिश्रानेकीकृतान् जानीयात् । अपवादविषयं मुक्त्वा उत्सर्गाः प्रवर्तन्ते इत्यर्थः R.Pr.I.23.
udāttaśrutithe same as एकश्रुति, accentless tone, mentioned in connection with the latter half of a circumflex vowel as also with a grave vowel or vowels, if not followed by another acute or circumflex vowel; confer, compare नोदात्तस्वरितोदयं. P.VIII.4.67.
udāttasamasimilar to Udātta although not exactly acute, which characterizes the latter half of the circumflex vowel; confer, compare उदात्तसमश्शेषः T.Pr.I.42.
uddeśyavidheyabhāvarelationship between the subject and the predicate where generally the subject is placed first in a sentence; confer, compare उद्देश्यवचनं पूर्वं विधेयत्वं ततः परम् । confer, compare also तादात्म्यसंसर्गकस्थले विशेष्यत्वमेव उद्देश्यं विशेषणत्वमेव विधेयम् Padavākyaratnākara.
uddyotanaprabhāname of a commentary on the 'Tantrapradipa' of Maitreya Rakṣita,which latter is a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. which itself is a commentary on Jayāditya's Kāśikā.
upajīvyaa term used by later grammarians in connection with such a rule on which another rule depends confer, compare उपजीव्यादन्तरङ्गाच्व प्रधानं प्रबलम् Pari. Śekh. on Pari. 97, as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on हेतुमति च P. III.1.26. The relationship known as उपजीव्योपजीवकभाव occurs several times in grammar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world.
upabdimatthe fourth out of the seven stages or places in the production of articulate speech, upāṁśu being the first stage; confer, compare सशब्दमुपद्भिमत् Tait. Pr. 23.9 explained by the commentator as: सशब्दं परश्राव्यशब्दसहितम् । यत्र प्रयुज्यमानः शब्दः परैरक्षरव्यञ्जनववेकवर्जे श्रूयते तदुपद्विमत्संज्ञं भवति ।
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upācarita(1)sibilation substitution of a sibilant letter for a visarga: confer, compare प्लुतोपाचरिते च R.Pr. XI.19; (2) name of the saṁdhi in which a visarga is changed into a sibilant letter; confer, compare सर्वत्रैवोपाचरितः स संधिः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)IV.14 which corresponds to Pāṇini VIII.3.18 and 19.
upācārachange of Visarga into s (स्); sibilation of Visarga, e. g. ब्रह्मणः पतिः = ब्रह्मणस्पतिः. The words उपचार and उपाचरित are found used in the same sense by ancient Grammarians. See उपचार; confer, compare समापाद्यं नाम वदन्ति षत्वं, तथा णत्वं सामवशांश्च सन्धीन् । ...उपाचारं लक्षणतश्च सिद्धम् , आचार्या व्यालिशाकल्यगार्ग्याः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII.12.
ūryādia class of words headed by the words ऊरी उररी et cetera, and others ending in the taddhita affix च्वि, which are given the designation गति provided they are related to a verbal activity, and as a result, which can be compounded with kṛdanta words ending in त्वा, तुम्, et cetera, and others cf ऊरीकृत्य, ऊरीकृतम् et cetera, and others: Kāś on P, I.4.61.
ekavibhaktia pada having the same case in the various dissolutions of the compound word; e. g. the word कौशाम्बी in the compound word निष्कौशाम्बिः, which stands only in the ablative case कौशाम्ब्याः, although the word निष्क्रान्त, which stands for the word निस्, could be used in many cases. The word नियतविभक्तिक is also used in the same sense.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
eva(1)a particle in the sense of regulation (नियम) ; confer, compare एवकारः किमर्थः नियमार्थः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.58: (2) . determinant indeclinable; confer, compare एव इत्यवधारणे; confer, compare इष्टतोवधारणार्थस्तर्हि । यथैवं विज्ञायेत । अजादी गुणवचनादेवेति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.3.58.
kaṇṭakoddhāraname of a commentary on Nāgeśa's Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Mannudeva, known also as Mantudeva or Manyudeva, who was a pupil of Pāyaguṇḍe in the latter half of the 18th century.
kaṇṭhatālavyagutturo-palatal. The diphthongs ए and ऐ are called Kaṇṭhatālavya, as they are produced in the Kaṇṭhatalu-sthāna.
kaṇṭhyaproduced at the throat or at the glottis; the vowel अ, visarga and the consonant ह् are called कण्ठ्यं in the Prātiśākhyas, while later grammarians include the guttural consonants क्, ख् ग्, घ् and ङ् among the Kaṇṭhya letters; confer, compare अकुहविसर्जनीयानां कण्ठः Sid. Kau.on तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.I.1.9. See कण्ठ.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakakārikāpossibly another name for the treatise on Kārakas known as कारकचक्र written by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva the reputed grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A. D. See कारकचक्र.
kārakavivekaknown as कारकवाद also; a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by Jayarāmabhaṭṭācārya who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The work forms the concluding portion of a larger work called कारकविवेक which was written by शिरोमणिभट्टाचार्य.. The work कारकवाद has a short commentary written by the author himselfeminine.
kāryakālaalong with the operation; confer, compare कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् , rules laying down technical terms and regulating rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations ( provided the technical terms occur in those rules, or, the regulating rules concern those rules). See Pari. Śek. Pari 3.
kuṭādipādaname given by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiand later grammarians to the second pāda of the first adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī., as the pāda begins with the Sūtra गाङ्कुटादिभ्यो ञ्णिन्डित् P.I.2.1.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛdantathe word ending with a kṛt affix; the term कृत् is found used in the sūtras of Pāṇini for कृदन्त; confer, compare कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I.2.46. The term कृदन्त for root-nouns, or nouns derived from roots, is found in the Atharvaprātiśākhya (I.1.10, II.3.8, II1.2.4), the Mahābhāṣya and all the later works on grammar. See the word कृत्.
kṛdgrahaṇamention of a kṛt id est, that is of a word ending with a kṛt affix. The word mainly occurs in the Paribhāṣā कृद्ग्रहणे गतिकारकपूर्वस्यापि ग्रहणम् which occurs first as an expression of the Vārttikakāra (P.I.4.13 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 9) and has been later on given as a Paribhāṣā by later grammarians (Pari. Śek. Pari.28).The Paribhāṣā is referred to as वृद्ब्रह्मणपरिभाषा in later grammar works especially commentary works.
kṛṣṇamitraa scholar of grammar and nyāya of the 17th century A.D. who wrote many commentary works some of which are (l) a commentary called Ratnārṇava on the Siddhānta-Kaumudī, (2) a commentary named Kalpalata on Bhaṭṭoji's Prauḍhamanoramā, (3) a commentary named Bhāvadīpa on Bhaṭṭoji's Śabdakaustubha of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita., (4) a commentary on Nagojibhaṭṭa's Laghumañjūṣā of Nāgeśa.by name Kuñcikā and (5) a commentary on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
kevalaisolated;a term applied to a letter or a word when it is not combined with another letter or another word in a compound; confer, compare धर्मादनिच् केवलात् । केवलान्न पदसमुदायात् Kāś. on P.V.4.124; (2) simple (word) without an affix added: confer, compare अर्थवत्ता नोपपद्यते केवलेन अवचनात् । P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7, also कृत्तद्धितान्तं चैवार्थवत् । न केवलाः कृतस्तद्धिता बा M.Bh.on P.I.4.14.
kaiyaṭaname of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.out of which Nageśa's Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390.
kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa(1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
klībatvaa word used in the sense of 'neuter gender' by grammarians later than पतञ्जलि and the Vārttikakāra; confer, compare समभागे क्लीबलिङ्गमर्धमेकदेशिना समस्यते Bhāṣā Vr. on P.II.2.2; पक्षे हि क्लीबत्वम् Kaiyaṭa's Pr. on II.1. 51; समाहारद्वन्द्वे क्लीबत्वप्रसङ्गात् Durgh. Vr. on P.II.4.l7.
gaṇaa class of words, as found in the sūtras of Pāṇini by the mention of the first word followed by the word इति; exempli gratia, for example स्वरादि, सर्वादि, ऊर्यादि, भ्वादि, अदादि, गर्गादि et cetera, and others The ten gaṇas or classes of roots given by Pāṇini in his dhātupātha are given the name Daśagaṇī by later grammarians.
gaṇasūtraa statement of the type of a Sūtra in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini where mention of a word or words in the Gaṇapāṭha is made along with certain conditions; e. g. पूर्वपुरावरo, स्वमज्ञातिधनाख्यायाम् , in the सर्वादिगण, and क्त्वातोसुन्कसुनः, तसिलादय: प्राक्पाशपः in the स्वरादिगण. Some of the gaṇasūtras are found incorporated in the Sūtrapāṭha itself Many later grammarians have appended their own gaṇapāṭha to their Sūtrapāṭha.
gati(1)literally motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word is explained in the Prātiśakhya works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel इ or उ after it, exempli gratia, for example हाइ or हायि for हा; similarly आ-इ or अा -यि ; (2) a technical term used by Pāṇini in connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called गति, confer, compare P.I.4.60-79. The words called gati can be compounded with the following word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruṣa e.g, प्रकृतम् , ऊरीकृत्य confer, compare P.II.2.18; the word गति is used by Pāṇini in the masculine gender as seen in the Sūtra गतिरनन्तरः P.VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix क्तिच् to गम्, the word being used as a technical term by the rule क्तिच्क्तौ च संज्ञायाम् P.III.3.174; (3) realization, understanding; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari.9; सांप्रतिकाभावे भूतपूर्वगतिः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 76; अगत्या हि परिभाषा अाश्रीयते Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva Pari. Pāṭha 119.
golḍsṭyūkaraa well known German scholar who made a sound study of Paini's Sanskrit Vyakarana and wrote a very informative treatise entitled 'Panini, his place in Sanskrit Literature.' He lived in the latter half of the 19th century.
ghitaffixes having the mute letter घ्, as for instance, घञ् घ, घच् et cetera, and otherswhich cause the substitution of a guttural in the place of the palatal letter च् or ज् before it: exempli gratia, for example त्याग: राग: confer, compare P.VII.3.52.
ṅasicase-ending of the ablative case, changed into अात् after bases ending in अ and into स्मात् after pronouns; confer, compareP.IV.1.2,VII.1.12,15.
cfirst consonant of palatal class of consonants, possessed of the properties, श्वास, अघोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठविवृतत्व. च् at the beginning of an affix is mute e. g. च्फञ्, confer, compare चुट् P. I. 3.7; words, having the mute letter च् (dropped), have their last vowel accented acute e. g. भङ्गुरम् । भासुरम् । confer, compare चित: VI. 1.163.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
cakrapāṇi( शेष )a grammarian of the Sesa family of the latter half of the 17th century who held views against Bhattoji Diksita and wrote प्रौढमनोरमाखण्डन, कारकतत्व and कारकविचार.
candrakalācalled also कला, a wellknown commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara by Bhairavamisra who lived in the latter half of the 18th century and the first half of the nineteenth century.
cavargathe group of consonants of the palatal class,.wiz.च् , छ् , ज् , झ् , and ञ्. The word च is used in the same sense in the Pratisakhya works.See the word च.
cuthe group of palatal consonants viz. च्,छ्,ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf चुट् P. I. 3. 7, चोः कुः VIII. 2. 30, कुहोश्चु: VII. 4 62.
chthe second consonant of the palatal class of consonants ( चवर्ग ), which is possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, मह्याप्राण and कण्ठविवृतकारित्व. छ् , placed at the beginning of affixes, is mute; while ईय् is substituted for छ् standing at the beginning of taddhita affixes; confer, compare P. I. 3.7 and VII. 1.2. छ् at the end of roots has got ष्, substituted for it: confer, compare P. VIII. 2.36.
chataddhita affix. affix ईय, added ( 1 ) to the words स्वसृ, भ्रातृ and to words ending with the taddhita affix. affix फिञ्: confer, compare P. IV. 1.143,144 and 149; (2) to the dvandva compound of words meaning constellations,to the words अपोनप्तृ, अपांनप्तृ, महेन्द्र, द्यावापृथिवी, शुनासीर et cetera, and others as also to शर्करा, उत्कर , नड et cetera, and others in certain specified senses, confer, compare P. IV. 2.6, 28, 29, 32, 48, 84, 90 &91 ;(3) to words beginning with the vowel called Vrddhi (आ,ऐ or औ),to words ending with गर्त, to words of the गह class, and to युष्मद् and अस्मद् in the शैषिक senses, confer, compare P. IV. 3.114, 137-45 and IV. 3.1 ; (4) to the words जिह्वामूल, अङ्गुलि, as also to words ending in वर्ग in the sense of 'present there '; confer, compare P.IV.3.62-64; (5) to the words शिशुक्रन्द, यमसम, dvandva compounds, इन्द्रजनन and others in the sense of 'a book composed in respect of', confer, compare P.IV. 3.88; (6)to words meaning warrior tribes, to words रैवतिक etc, as also अायुध, and अग्र, in some specified senses: cf P.IV. 3.91, 131, IV. 4.14, 117; (7) to all words barring those given as exceptions in the general senses mentioned in the second. V.I.1-37; (8) to the words पुत्र, कडङ्कर, दक्षिण, words ending in वत्सर, अनुप्रवचन et cetera, and others होत्रा, अभ्यमित्र and कुशाग्र in specified senses; confer, compare P. V. 1. 40, 69,70,91,92, 111,112,135, V. 2.17, V.3.105; (9) to compound words in the sense of इव; e. g. काकतालीयम् , अजाकृपाणीयम् et cetera, and others confer, compare V. 3. 106;and (10) to words ending in जति and स्थान in specified senses; confer, compare P. V.4, 9,10.
jthird consonant of the palatal class of consonants, possessed of the properties नाद, घोष, अल्पप्राण and कण्ठसंवृत्तकारित्व. ज् at the beginning of affixes is mute in Panini's grammar.
jātipakṣathe view that जाति, or genus only, is the denotation of every word. The view was first advocated by Vajapyayana which was later on held by many, the Mimamsakas being the chief supporters of the view. See Mahabhasya on P. I. 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari. 40.
jinendrabuddhia reputed Buddhist Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote a scholarly commentary on the Kasikavrtti ofJayaditya and Vamana. The commentary is called न्यास or काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका and the writer is referred to as न्यासकार in many later grammar works Some scholars identify him with पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् the writer of the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण, but this is not possible as पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् was a Jain Grammarian who flourished much earlier.
jhfourth consonant of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व, and महाप्राणत्व; झ् at the beginning of an affix in Panini Sutras is mute; e. g. the affixes झि, झ et cetera, and others; cf चुटूं P. I. 3.7.
ñ(1)the nasal (fifth consonant) of the palatal class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, कण्टसंवृतत्व, अल्पप्राण and अानुनासिक्य; (2) mute letter, characterized by which an affix signifies वृद्धि for the preceding vowel; ञ् of a taddhita affix, however, signifies वृद्धि for the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb-endings of both the padas.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tantrapradīpaname of the learned commentary_written by मैत्रेयरक्षित, a famous Buddhist grammarian of the 12th century A. D. on the काशिकाविवरणपञ्जिका ( न्यास ) of Jinendrabuddhi। The work is available at Present only in a manuscript form, and that too in fragments. Many later scholars have copiously quoted from this work. The name of the work viz. तन्त्रप्रदीप is rarely mentioned; but the name of the author is mentioned as रक्षित, मैत्रेय or even मैत्रेयरक्षित. Ther are two commentaries on the तन्त्रप्रदीप named उद्द्योतनप्रभा and आलोक,
tālavyaliterally produced from तालु the part below the tongue; the vowel इ, चवर्ग, य and श् are called तालव्य, palatal letters; confer, compare इचशेयास्तालौ V.Pr. I. 66. These letters are formed upon the palate by the middle part of the tongue; confer, compare R.Pr. 1.42, R.Pr. II.36.
tālupalate; confer, compare तालुशब्देन जिह्वाया अधस्तनप्रदेश उच्यते । स इवर्णस्य स्थानम् । जिह्वामध्यं करणम् । confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 22.
tulyasimilar in articulation; savarna; confer, compare Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 168.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tripādīterm usually used in connection with the last three Padas (ch. VIII. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. 4) of Panini’s Ashtadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as also a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; confer, compare पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII.2.1; (2) name of a critical treatise on Panini's grammar ("The Tripadi") written by Dr. H. E. Buiskool recently.
dākṣāyaṇaname, by which व्याडि, the author of the grammar work संग्रह is referred to. The word दाक्षायण indicates that व्याडि was a descendant of दक्ष, and, as Panini is called दाक्षीपुत्र, critics say that Panini and Vyadi were relatives; confer, compare शोभना खलु दाक्षायणस्य दाक्षायणेन वा संग्रहस्य कृतिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.66.
dākṣāyaṇaname, by which व्याडि, the author of the grammar work संग्रह is referred to. The word दाक्षायण indicates that व्याडि was a descendant of दक्ष, and, as Panini is called दाक्षीपुत्र, critics say that Panini and Vyadi were relatives; confer, compare शोभना खलु दाक्षायणस्य दाक्षायणेन वा संग्रहस्य कृतिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II.3.66.
dīptiexplained as स्फूर्ति or throbbing in utterance. Out of the seven svaras or yamas क्रुष्ट, प्रथम, द्वितीय, तृतीय, चतुर्थ, मन्द्र and अतिस्वार्य, the throbbing ( दीप्ति ) of the latter and latter tone leads to the perception of the former and former one: confer, compare तेषां दीप्तिजोपलब्धि: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII. 15.
deśaliterally place; (l) original place of articulation: confer, compare अदेशे वा वचनं व्यञ्जनस्य, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 5; (2) place of origin; उच्चारणस्थान: (3) place of inferential establishment of a Paribhasa et cetera, and others परिभाषादेशः उद्देशः Par. Sek. paribhāṣā. 2,3; (4) passage of the Samhita text, confer, compare.Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 59.
ghuatechnical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term उत्तरपद (the latter or the second member of-a compound word ) which is used in Panini's grammar.
dvikarmakaa term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, exempli gratia, for example दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52.
dvitīyāthe second case; the accusative case, mainly prescribed for a word which is related as a karmakaraka to the activity in the sentence; cf P. II. 3.2 to 5,
dhruva(1)fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव) which is termed अपादान and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound ( नाद ) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. II and XI. 24.
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nāda(1)voice; resonance; tone; the sound caused by the vibration of the vocal chords in the open glottis when the air passes through them; confer, compare वर्णाोत्पत्त्यनन्तरभावी अनुरणनरूपः शब्दः नादः Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.9; confer, compare also संवृते कण्ठे यः शब्दः क्रियते स नादसंज्ञो भवति Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 4; (2) sound, articulate sound generally without sense, which is momentary; (3) the highest sound. See परा.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātadyotakatvathe view that the nipatas and the upasargas too, as contrasted with nouns,pronouns and other indeclinables, only indicate the sense and do not denote it; this view, as grammarians say, was implied in the Mahabhasya and was prominently given in the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrhari which was followed by almost all later grammarians. See निपात.
niyata(1)regulated in size or number; definitely fixed; the word नियत is used in grammar in connection with the nimitta or nimittin in a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule, which, or a part of which, is shown to be superfluous unless there is laid down a regulation; confer, compare शेषग्रहणं कर्तव्यम् । शेषनियमार्थम् | प्रकृत्यर्थौ नियतौ प्रत्यया अनियतास्ते शेषेपि प्राप्नुवन्ति M.Bh. on I.3.12 Vart. 6; (2) The grave accent; cf उदात्तपूर्वं नियतं... स्वर्यते RPr.III.9.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niravakāśapossessed of no scope of, or occasion for, application; the word अनवकाश is also used in this sense. The niravakasa rules always set aside the general rules which are always present wherever they i. e. the niravakasa rules are possible to be appliedition Niravakasatva is looked upon as one of the two criteria for बाध or sublation, the other one being सामान्यविशेषभाव as illustrated by the usual maxim, known as तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय. See तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; confer, compare also अनवकाशा हि विधयो बाधका भवन्ति Par. Sek. on Pari. 64.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
pañcamī(1)the fifth case;ending of the fifth or ablative case as prescribed by rules of Pāņini confer, compare अपादाने पञ्चमी, P. II. 3-7, 10, et cetera, and others (2) the imperative mood; confer, compare Kāt.III.1.18.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padapāṭhathe recital of the Veda text pronouncing or showing each word separately as detached from the adjoining word. It is believed that the Veda texts were recited originally as running texts by the inspired sages, and as such, they were preserved by people by oral tradition. Later on after several centuries, their individually distinct words were shown by grammarians who were called Padakāras. The पदपाठ later on had many modifications or artificial recitations such as क्रम, जटा, घन et cetera, and others in which each word was repeated twice or more times, being uttered connectedly with the preceding or the following word, or with both. These artificial recitations were of eight kinds, which came to be known by the term अष्टविकृतयः.
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
paratvanyāyaapplication of the later rule before the former one, according to the dictum laid down by Paanini in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4.2 ; confer, compare परत्वन्यायो 'न लङ्कितो भवति Sira. Pari. 84,
paranipātaliterallyplacing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, confer, compare उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक et cetera, and others can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) confer, compare परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.
pararūpathe form of the subsequent letter (परस्य रूपम्). The word is used in grammar when the resultant of the two coalescing vowels ( एकादेश ) is the latter vowel itself, as for instance ए in प्रेजते ( प्र+एजते ); confer, compare एङि. पररूपम् P.VI.1.94.
paravipratiṣedhathe conflict between two rules (by occurrence together) when the latter prevails over the former and takes place by. Virtue of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I. 4.2; confer, compare कथं ये परविप्रतिषेधाः M.Bh. on I.4.2.
parasavarṇacognate of the latter vowel or consonant. The word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a substitute or आदेश which is specified to be cognate ( सवर्ण ) of the succeeding vowel or consonant: confer, compare अनुस्वरस्य यथि परसवर्ण: P.VIII. 4. 58.
parasmaibhāṣaliterally speaking the activity or क्रिया for another; a term of ancient grammarians for roots taking the first nine personal affixes only viz. ति, तः... मसू. The term परस्मैपदिन् was substituted for परस्मैभाष later on,more commonly. See परस्मैपद a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The term परस्मैभाष along with अात्मनेभाष is found almost invariably used in the Dhaatupaatha attributed to Paanini; confer, compare भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्त: परस्मैभाषः | एघादय उदात्त अनुदात्तेत अात्मनभाषा: Dhatupatha.
parikṛṣṭadragged to the latter: confer, compare Puspasūtra III. 114; the word परि stands for पर here.
paśyantīname of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; confer, compare वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । commentary on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. confer, compare also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
pāṇinisūtracalled also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; confer, compare त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pāyaguṇḍa,pāyaguṇḍeA learned pupil of Nāgeśabhațța who lived in Vārǎņasī in the latter half of the 18th century A.D. He was a renowned teacher of Grammar and is believed to have written commentaries on many works of Nāgeśa, the famous among which are the 'Kāśikā' called also 'Gadā' on the Paribhāșenduśekhara,the'Cidasthimālā' on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara and the 'Chāyā' on the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.Bālambhațța Pāyaguņde, who has written a commentary on the Mitākșarā (the famous commentary on the Yajňavalkyasmŗti), is believed by some as the same as Vaidyanātha: while others say that Bālambhațța was the son of Vaidyanātha.
puruṣottamadevaa famous grammarian believed to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lakșmaņasena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ones among which are the Bhāșāvŗtti and the Paribhāșāvŗtti, the Gaņavŗtti and the Jñapakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahābhāșya called Prāņapaņā of which only a fragment is available. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of which Hārāvalī, Trikāņdaśeșa, Dvirūpakosa, and Ekaaksarakosa are the prominent ones. The Bhasavrtti has got a lucid commentary on it written by Srstidhara.
pūrvarūpasubstitution of the former letter in the place of the two viz. the former and the latter, as a result of the coalescence of the two cf अमि पूर्वः and the following rules P. VI. 1.107-110.
pūrvavipratiṣedhaconflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; confer, compare इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85et cetera, and others confer, comparealso पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
paurvāparya(1)a relation between two operations or rules based upon their anterior and ulterior positions, which is many times taken into consideration for deciding their relative strength; (2) the order of words; cf शब्देनार्थान्वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात् पौर्वापर्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P 1.4.109 Vart. 10 cf also पौर्वापर्यमकालव्यपेतं सेहिता, P. I. 4.109 Vart. 8.
prakaraṇagranthaliterary works in which the treatment is given in the form of topics by arranging the original sutras or rules differently so that all such rules as relate to a particular topic are found together: the Prakriykaumudi, the Siddhantakumudi and others are called प्रकरणग्रन्थs. Such works are generally known by the name प्राक्रयाग्रन्थ as opposed to वृतिग्रन्थ.
prakrutisvarathe accent id est, that is the acute accent ( उदात्त ) possessed by the original word as contrasted with the accent of the afix ( प्रत्ययस्वर ) which (latter) is looked upon as more powerful; confer, compare (बहुव्रीहौ) पूर्वपदं प्रकृतिस्वरं भवति M.Bh, on II.I.24, II. 2.29 Vart. 17, See Panini Sutras VI.2.1 to 63.
prakrama(l)the place of articulation, the place of the production of sound, such as throat, chest, palate and the like; confer, compare प्रक्रम्यन्ते अस्मिन्वर्णा इति प्रक्रमः स्थानमुच्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Pradipa on सिद्धं तु समानप्रक्रमवचनात् P.I.2.30 Vart.2; (2) recital of Veda, described as क्रमपाठ confer, compare उभयथा च प्रक्रमे दोषो भवति M.Bh.on P. VIII. 4.28 confer, compare also "अष्टसु प्रक्रमेषु दोषो भवति"quoted in the Mahabhasya on P.VI. 1.172; (3) regularity in the position of words, regular order of words.
pratiṣiddhaa rule or operation which is prohibited or prevented from application by a specific negation of it by another rule or operation laid down to prohibit it. Generally the prohibited rule does not apply again; confer, compare सकृद्रतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद्वाधितं तद्वाधितमेव Par, Sek.Pari. 40; confer, compareनोत्सहते प्रतिषिद्धा सती बाधितुम् । M.Bh. on P. I. 1.43. The word प्रातिषिद्ध which is generally used in ancient works appears to be an earlier word as compared with निषिद्ध which is used by later grammarians.
pradānamode of articulation, the same as करण.
prayatna(1)effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य and आभ्यन्तर of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters ( सावर्ण्य ); confer, compareअाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते;Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; confer, compare सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्वसूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.22.
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
prācyāvaiyākaraṇaan eastern grammarian; the term प्राच्य (eastern) being a relative term, the east is to be taken with respect to the place in the context. The word प्राचां occurs many times in Panini's Sutras and the term प्राक् may refer to countries east of the river शरावती or सरस्वती in the Punjab. See प्राग्देश a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. प्राचां is understood by some commentators as referring to time, in which case, the word may refer to ancient grammarians आपिशलि, शाकटायन, इन्द्र and others who lived before Panini; confer, compare प्राचीनवैयाकरणतन्त्रे वाचनिकानि ...Par. Sek. Pari. 1. The word प्राचीन is, of course, mostly used in the sense of ancient, rather than the word प्राच्. For specific peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp. 148-149 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
plutiprolation or protraction of a vowel when it is possessed of three matras; confer, compare. Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.31. See प्लुत a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अविद्वांसः प्रत्यभिवादे नाम्नो ये न प्लुतिं विदुः । कामं तेषु तु विप्रोष्य स्त्रीष्विवायमहं वदेत् M.Bh. on P.I.1 Ahnika 1
phiṭsūtraa small work on accents attributed to Santanava,an ancient Vedic scholar who lived before Patanjali if not before Panini, as the latter has not referred to him. There is an anonymous commentary upon it.
balīyastvarelative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1.
bahiraṅgaa rule or operation which is बहिरङ्ग (literally external); the word बहिरङ्ग is used in grammar in connection with a rule or operation, the cause ( निमित्त )of which occurs later in place or time than the cause of the other which is called अन्तरङ्ग. For the various kinds of बहिरङ्गत्व see the word अन्तरङ्ग where the kinds of अन्तरङ्गत्व are given.
bahuvrīhia compound similar in meaning to the word बहुव्रीहि ( possessed of much rice ) which, in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound; a relative or adjective compound. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुव्रीहि, दिग्बहुव्रीहि, सहबहुव्रीहि, नञ्बहुव्रीहि, and अनेकपदबहुव्रीहि which depend upon the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. Panini in his grammar has not given any definition of बहुव्रीहि, but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz. अव्ययीभाव, द्वन्द्व and तत्पुरुष, is बहुव्रीहि and cited under Bahuvrihi all cases mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf शेषो बहुव्रीहिः II. 3.23-28; also confer, compare अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.6; II. 1.20; II. 1.49.
bādhasublation, setting aside; , सामान्यशास्त्रस्य विशेषशास्त्रेण बाध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 51.
bādhakaliterally that which sublates or sets aside; generally a special rule which sets aside a general rule: confer, compare येन नाप्राप्ते यो विधिरारभ्यते स तस्य बाधको भवति, Pari. Patha of पुरुषोत्तमदेव Pari. 51; confer, compare also नैतज्ज्ञापकसाध्यं अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्त इति । बाधकेनानेन भवितव्यं सामान्यविहितस्य विशेषविहितेन । M.Bh. on P. II. 1.24 Vart. 5. बाधक is used as a synonym of अपवाद, confer, compare अपवादशब्दोत्र बाधकपरः Par. Sek. Pari. 58.
bādhakatvathe same as बाध ; sublation; setting aside; this sublation is described to be of two types(1) complete sublation when the rule set aside, is for ever set aside and cannot, by the maxim called तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय, be applied again; confer, compare दधि ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दीयतां तक्रं कौण्डिन्यायेति सत्यपि संभवे दधिदानस्य तक्रदानं निवर्तकं भवति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.47; VI. 1.2. VI. 2.1. et cetera, and others; ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the rule set aside, can be applied, if possible after the special rule has been applied; confer, compare सर्वथा अनवकाशत्वादेव बाधकत्वे स्वस्य (अनवकाशशास्त्रस्य) पूर्वप्रवृत्तिरित्येव बाधः । तत्र बाधके प्रवृत्ते यद्युत्सर्गप्राप्तिर्भवति तदा भवत्येव यथा तत्रैव याडादयः Par.Sek.on Pari.57, The sublation or बाधकत्व is not only in the case of सामान्यविशेषभाव and अनवकाशत्व as given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., but a rule or operation which is पर (cited later), or नित्य, or अन्तरङ्ग sets aside the rule or operation which is पूर्व,or अनित्य,or बहिरङ्ग respectively. This बाध्यबाधकभाव occupies a very important position in respect of the application of grammar rules for arriving at the correct forms (इष्टरूपसिद्धि) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribhasas in the field of बाध्यबाधकभाव.
bāhya(प्रयत्न)external effort; the term is used many times in connection with the external effort in the production of articulate sound, as different from the internal effort अाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न. The external effort is described to be consisting of 11 kinds; confer, compare बाह्यप्रयत्नस्त्वेकादशधा । विवारः संवारः श्वासो नादो घोषोSघोषोSल्पप्राणो महाप्राण उदात्तोनुदात्तः स्वरितश्चेति S.K.on P. I.1.9.
bṛhatsaṃjñāthe same as महत्संज्ञा or महती संज्ञा; a bigger terminology as contrasted with लघुसंज्ञा brief terminology such as टि, घु, भ et cetera, and others for which (latter) Panini is very particular. The bigger terms such as सर्वनाम, अात्मनेपद, परस्मैपद and others are evidently borrowed by Panini from the ancient grammarians who lived before him.
bṛhadṛrpaṇāname of a commentary on Kondabhatta's Vaiyakaranabhusanasara by Mannudeva, who was called also Mantudeva, who lived in the latter half of the eighteenth century.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhāgavṛttione of the oldest commentaries on the Sutras of Panini, which, although not available at present, has been profusely quoted by Purusottamadeva and other Eastern Grammarians of the twelfth and later centuries. The authorship of the work is attributed to Bhartrhari, but the point is doubtful as Siradeva in his Paribhasavrtti on Pari. 76 has stated that the author of the Bhagavrtti has quoted from Maghakavya; confer, compare अत एवं तत्रैव सूत्रे भागवृत्तिः पुरातनमुनेर्मुनितामिति पुरातनीनेदिरिति च प्रमादपाठावेतौ गतानुगतिकतया कवयः प्रयुञ्जते न तेषां लक्षणे चक्षुरिति | Some scholars attribute its authorship to Vimalamati. Whosoever be the author, the gloss ( भागवृत्ति ) was a work of recognised merit; confer, compare काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत् सिद्धान्तं वेत्तुमस्ति धी: | तदा विचिन्त्यतां भातभीषावृत्तिरियं मम Bhasavrtti at the end. सृष्टिघर in his commentary on the Bhasavrtti also says " सा हि द्वयोर्विवरणकर्त्री."
bhāṇḍārakara[ Sir Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar 1837-1925 A. D. ]a well-known scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who has written learned articles on many grammatical topics. He was a distinguished Professor of Sanskrit in the latter half of the nineteenth century. He was one of the pioneers of Sanskrit studies in India.
bhāva(1)becoming; existence. The word is used many times in the sense of धात्वर्थthe sense of a root which is 'incomplete activity' or 'process of evolving'; confer, compare तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातु: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 5; confer, compare also षड् भावविकारा भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 36; पूर्वापरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेन आचष्टे व्रजतिपचतीत्युपक्रमप्रभृति अपवर्गपर्यन्तम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1 ; (2) activity as opposed to instruments ( साधन or कारक ); confer, compare भावगर्हायाम् । धात्वर्थगर्हायाम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.24; confer, compare also भावः क्रिया, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on यस्य च भावेन भावलक्षणम् P. II. 3.37; (3) completed action which is shown, not by a verb, but by a verbal derivative noun; confer, compare धात्वर्थश्च धातुनैवोच्यते | यस्तस्य सिद्धता नाम धर्मस्तत्र घञादयः प्रत्यया विधीयन्ते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on 'भावे' P. III. 3.18; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.19, III. 1.67, IV. 1.3, V. 4.19; confer, compare also भावस्त्वेक: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.67; (4) the radical factor for the use of a word; प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त; confer, compare भवतोत्मादभिधानप्रत्ययौ इति भावः | शब्दस्य प्रवृत्तिनिमित्तं भावशब्देनोच्यते | अश्वत्वम् , अश्वता | Kāś, on P. 5.1.119; (5) thing, object cf सिद्धशब्दः कूटस्थेषु भावेष्वविचालिषु वर्तते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Āhnika l; (6) transformation, substitution; change into the nature of another; confer, compare तत्र प्रथमास्तृतीयभावम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4. confer, compare also the words मूर्धन्यभाव, अभिनिधानभाव et cetera, and others {7) possession of the qualities, nature; तदर्थस्य भाव: तादर्थ्यम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.13; (8) relationship; confer, compare गुणप्रधानभाव, प्रकृतिविकृतिभाव et cetera, and others
bhīmādia class of words headed by the word भीम in which the Uṇādi affixes म and others, as prescribed by specific Uṇādi sūtras, are found added in the sense of the 'apādāna' case-relation; exempli gratia, for example भीमः in the sense 'बिभेति अस्मात्'. Similarly भीष्मः, भूमि:, रज: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.4.74.
bhaimīname of a commentary on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa written by Bhīmabhaṭṭa in the latter half of the eighteenth century.
bhairavamiśraone of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition.
bhyascase-affix of the dative and ablative plural: confer, compare स्वौजसमौट् P.IV. 1. 2.
bhyāmcase-affix of the instrumental, dative and ablative dual; confer, compare स्वौजसमौट् P. IV. 1. 2.
maṇḍūkagatiliterallythe gait of a frog; jump; the continuation of a word from a preceding Sūtra to the following Sūtra or Sūtras in the manner of a frog by omitting one or more Sūtras in the middle; the word मण्डूकप्लुति is also used in the same sense especially by later grammarians; confer, compare अथवा मण्डूकगतयोधिकाराः | यथा मण्डूका उत्प्लुत्योत्प्लुत्य गच्छन्ति तद्वदधिकाराः || Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.3 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2, II. 3.32, II. 4.34, VI.1.16, VI.3.49,VII. 2.117.
mantraname given to the Samhitā portion of the Veda works especially of the Ṛgveda and the Yajurveda as different from the Brāhmaṇa, Āraṇyaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other Vedas; confer, compare मन्त्रशब्द ऋक्शब्दे च यजु:शब्दे च; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. The word मन्त्र occurs several times in the rules of Pāṇini ( confer, compare P. II. 4. 80, III.2.71, III.3.96, VI. 1. 151, VI.1.210, VI.3.131, VI.4.53, VI. 4.141) and a few times in the Vārttikas. (confer, compare I. 1. 68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4, IV.3.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 and VI. 4. 141 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1). It is, however, doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by Pāṇini and Kātyāyana. Later on, the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula, which was looked upon as sacredition Still later on, the word came to mean a secret counsel. For details see Goldstūcker's Pāṇini p. 69, Thieme's 'Pāṇini and the Veda ' p. 38.
mandraone of the three places of the origination of articulate speech which is described as situated in the throat; confer, compare त्रीणि मन्द्रं मध्यममुत्तमं च | तेषु मन्द्रमुरसि वर्तते Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 17; confer, compare also मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि स्थानानि भवन्ति | T.Pr.XXII.11.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyapradīpaa very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifiedition Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
y(1)a consonant of the palatal class, called semivowel or अन्तःस्थ( spelt as अन्तस्थ also ), possessed of the properties संवृतत्व, नाद, घोष and अनुनासिकत्व in addition; (2) a substitute for म् when that म् is followed by ह् which is followed by य्. e. g.किंय्ह्य: confer, compare यवलपरे यवला वा. P. VIII.3. 26 Vart.l ; (3) य् looked upon as possessed of a very little effort in production i. e. which appears as almost dropped but not completely dropped when its elision is prescribed at the end of a word. e. gभोय् अच्युत; confer, compare व्योर्लधुप्रयत्नतर: शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
yuvanliterally young person; masculine; the word is given as a technical term in grammar in the sense of one, who is the son of the grandson or his descendant, provided his father is alive; the term is also applied to a nephew, brother, or a paternal relative of the grandson or his descendant, provided his elderly relative, if not his his father, is alive; it is also applied to the grandson, in case respect is to be shown to him: confer, compare P. IV. 1.163-167. The affixes prescribed in the sense of युवन् are always applied to a word ending with a taddhita affix. affix applied to it in the sense of an offspring (अपत्य) or grandson (गोत्र), in spite of the ruling that in the sense of grandson or his descendant (गोत्र), one affix only इञ् or अण् or the like is added to the base; exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यस्यापत्यं गार्ग्यायण:, दाक्षेरपत्यं दाक्षाय्ण: गार्ग्ये जीवति तस्य भ्राता सपिण्डो वा गाम्यार्यण: तत्रभवान् गार्ग्यः; गार्ग्यायणो वा.
yenanāprāptanyāyaa term used by grammarians and commentators very frequently for the maxim "येन नाप्राप्ते यो वेधिरारभ्येत स तस्य बाधको भवति " Par. Sek. on Pari. 57. The term अपवादन्याय is used in the Mahabhasya which is the same as येननाप्राप्तन्याय of later grammarians.
ratnapāṇia grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote a short treatise on the Karaka relations named षट्कारकविवरण.
rāmakṛṣṇaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on Karaka relations known by the name शाब्दबोधप्रक्रिया.
rāmacandra(1)रामन्वन्द्राचार्य (son of कृष्णाचार्य) the well-known author of the Prakriyakaumudi. He belonged to the Sesa family and the latter half of the fifteenth century is assigned as his date. He is believed to have been a resident of Andhra. His work, the Prakriyakaumudi, was a popular grammar treatise for some time before Bhattoji's SiddhantaKaumudi got its hold, and it had a number of commentaries written upon it especially by his descendants and members of his family which became well-known as the Sesa family of grammarians. The Prakriyakaumudi is named कृष्णर्किकरप्राक्रिया also. (2) There was a grammarian named Ramacandra who wrote a small treatise on grammar named विदग्धबोध. (3) There was another grammarian of the same name who was a pupil of Nagesabhatta of the eighteenth century and who wrote a small commentary called वृतिसंग्रह on Panini's Astadhyayi. (4) There was also another Ramacandra who was a scholar of Vedic grammar and who wrote the commentary named ज्योत्स्ना on the Vjasaneyi-Pratisakhya.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
rāśiusually used in the sense of a collection or a heap or a lunar constellation; the word is often used after the word वर्ण when it means the traditional collection of letters or the alphabet. The words अक्षरराशि, ब्रह्मराशि and अक्षरसमाम्नाय are also used in the same sense.
lakṣaṇa(1)a rule or a sūtra composed by the ancient Sūtrakāras; the word is very frequently used in this sense by the Bhāşyakāra and later commentators; confer, compare लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्; confer, compare also लक्षणं हि नाम ध्वनति, भ्रमति मुहूर्तमपि नावतिष्ठते M.Bh on P.I.1.3 Vārt 10; (2) characteristic or sign; confer, compare लक्षणेनाभिप्रती आभिमुख्ये P. II. 1. 14; confer, compare also P.I.4.90 and III. 2.12; (3) indirect way of expression; confer, compare लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तत्यैव ग्रहणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 105.
lakṣaṇapratipadoktaa short term used for the well-known Paribhāşā लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तस्यैव ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. I05, laying down that when a question arises as to which of the two words लक्षणोक्त (arrived at by certain changes or modifications) and प्रतिपदोक्त, (directly expressed) be accepted, the latter should be preferredition
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
vartaa term used by ancient grammarians and later on by commentators for compound words confer, compare वर्तनं वर्तः समास: Nyasa on Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. II.4.15.
vākyapadīyaa celebrated work on meanings of words and sentences written by the famous grammarian Bhartrhari ( called also Hari ) of the seventh century. The work is looked upon as a final authority regarding the grammatical treatment of words and sentences,for their interpretation and often quoted by later grammarians. It consists of three chapters the Padakanda or Brahmakanda, the Vakyakanda and the Samkirnakanda, and has got an excellent commentary written by Punyaraja and Helaraja.
vākyasaṃskārapakṣathe grammarian's theory that as the individual words have practically no existence as far as the interpretation or the expression of sense is concerned, the sentence alone being capable of conveying the sense, the formation of individual words in a sentence' is explained by putting them in a sentence and knowing their mutual relationship. The word गाम् cannot be explained singly by showing the base गो and the case ending अम् unless it is seen in the sentence गाम् अानय; confer, compare यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे कृष्णादिसंबुद्धयन्त उपपदे ऋधेः क्तिनि कृते कृष्ण ऋध् ति इति स्थिते असिद्धत्वात्पूर्वमाद्गुणे कृते अचो रहाभ्यामिति द्वित्वं .. Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 99The view is put in alternation with the other view, viz. the पदसंस्कारपक्ष which has to be accepted in connection with the गौणमुख्यन्याय; cf पदस्यैव गौणार्थकत्वस्य ग्रहेण अस्य ( गौणमुख्यन्यायस्य) पदकार्यविषयत्वमेवोचितम् | अन्यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे तेषु तदनापत्तिः Par. Sek. on Pari. 15, The grammarians usually follow the वाक्यसंकारपक्ष.
vākyārthathe meaning of a sentence, which comes as a whole composite idea when all the constituent words of it are heard: confer, compare पदानां सामान्ये वर्तमानानां यद्विशेषेSवस्थानं स वाक्यार्थ:, M.Bh. on P.I.2.45 Vart. 4. According to later grammarians the import or meaning of a sentence ( वाक्यार्थ ) flashes out suddenly in the mind of the hearer immediately after the sentence is completely uttered, The import is named प्रतिभा by Bhartrhari, confer, compare Vakyapadiya II.45; confer, compare also वाक्यार्थश्च प्रतिभामात्रविषय: Laghumanjusa. For details and the six kinds of vakyartha, see Vakyapadiya II.154.
vāṇīspeech; utterance; the same as वाच् which is believed to be of four kinds as cited by the grammarians and explained by Bhartrhari; the four kinds are based upon the four places of origin, the three first places belonging to the inarticulate speech and the fourth belonging to the articulate one: cfचत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि तानि विदुर्ब्राह्मण य मनीषिणः | गुहा त्रीणि निहिता नेङ्गयन्तिं तुरीयं वाचेी मनुष्या वदन्ति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I Ahnika l and the Pradipa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon.
vārttikakārabelieved to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः et cetera, and others) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
vārttikasiddhāntacategorical conclusive statements made by the Varttikakara many of which were cited later on as Paribhasas by later writers For details see pp. 212220 Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahbhasya, D. E. Society's edition.
vāsudeva( शास्त्री)surnamed Abhyankar, who lived from 1863 to l942 and did vigorous and active work of teaching pupils and writing essays, articles, commentary works and original works on various Shastras with the same scholarship, zeal and acumen for fifty years in Poona. He wrote गूढार्थप्रकाश a commentary on the LaghuSabdendusekhara and तत्त्वादर्श a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara in 1889. His edition of the Patanjala Mahabhasya with full translation and notes in Marathi can be called his magnum opus. See अभ्यंकर.
vikṛtamutilated, changed in nature e. g. the word राम into रम् in रामौ which is equivalent to राम् + औ. For technical purposes in grammar a word, although mutilated a little by lopa, agama or varnavikara, is looked upon as the original one for undergoing operations cf एकदेशविकृतमनन्यवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 37.
vikṛtanirdeśautterance of a word in its mutilated form with some object in view; e. g. दीव्यत् for दीव्यति in प्राग्दीव्यतोSण् P. IV. 1. 83; confer, compare किं पुनः कारणं विकृतनिर्दशः क्रियते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV.1.83; confer, compare also कर्ष इति विकृतनिर्देश: कृतार्निवृत्त्यर्थ: Kas on P. VI. 1. 159;. confer, compare also गोह इति विकृतिकरणं विषयार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI. 4. 89.
vighātaimmolation; sacrifice; destruction, as applicable to a word or part of a word or a relation of words confer, compare अनेकाल्त्वस्य तदाश्रयत्वाद् वर्णादेशस्य विधातो न भविष्यति M.Bh. on P. I.1.50 Virt. 15: cf also the famous Paribhasa संनिपातलक्षणो विधिरनिमित्तं तद्विघातस्य Par. Sek. Pari. 85; M.Bh. on P,I.1.24 et cetera, and others
vighnakṛtimpediment to an operation caused by something preceding on account of its coming in the way: a vyavaya or vyavadhana or intervention which is not admissible just as the interruption of palatals, linguals, dentals and sibilants excepting हू for the change of न् into ण् : confer, compare अव्यवेतं विग्रहे विघ्नकृद्भिः R.Pr. V.25.
vicāraविचारणा, examination, question or topic or subject for examination:confer, compare कुतः पुनरियं विचारणा l M.Bh. on P. I. 1.50 Vart. 1. विचाल immolation, destruction: confer, compare वर्णाश्रयः प्रत्ययो बर्णविचालस्यानिमित्तम् । दाक्षिः M.Bh .on, P.I.1.39 Vart. 10; confer, compare also Par. Sek. on Pari. 85.
vidhibalīyastvathe superior strength of an injunctive rule; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in speaking about the relative strength of rules; cf the term लेापाविधिबलीयस्त्व. M.Bh. on P.VII.2.3.
viparīta(1)in the opposite or reverse way: confer, compare विपरीताच्चेति वक्तव्यम् । पारावारीणः M.Bh. on P.IV.2.93 Vart. 2; (2) change of ऋ into इ, seen sometimes in Vedic Literature when that ऋ is preceded or followed by a palatal letter; exempli gratia, for example श्रृङगे into शिङ्गे (Ṛk. Saṁh. V-2.9) बिभृयात् into बिभियात् (Ṛk.Saṁh. x.x.9) विचृत into विचित्त Ṛg. Veda II.27.16; confer, compare अनन्तरे तद्विपरीतमाहुस्तालव्ये श्रृङगे बिभृयाद्विचृत्ताः R.Pr.XIV.17.
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
vibhaktiliterally division, separation; separation of the base id est, that is that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; confer, compareविभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to taddhita affix.affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73.
vibhaktibalīyastvathe relative superior strength possessed by the कारकविभक्ति which takes place in supersession of the उपपदविभक्ति when both become applicable at one and the same time; exempli gratia, for example मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not मुनित्रयाय नमस्कृत्य: confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94.
vibhaktyarthanirṇayaa general term given to a chapter on case-affixes as also to treatises discussing the sense and relations of case-affixes. There is a treatise of this name written by Giridhara and another written by Jayakṛṣna Maunī.
virīsactaddhita affix. affix विरीस or बिरीस applied to the word नि in the sense of flatness of nose. See बिरीस a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: confer, compare P. V. 2.32.
viṣayaviṣayibhāvarelation between the object and thc subject; confer, compare प्रतिलक्ष्यं लक्षणभेदादस्ति विषयविषयिभावः Kaiyaṭa on P. VI. 4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2.
viṣayasaptamīlocative case denoting the domain or province of a particular suffix or a substitute or the like, which could be actually applied later on; this विषयसप्तमी is contrast ed with परसप्तमी when the thing mentioned in the locative case is required, to be present in front; confer, compareअसति पौर्वापर्ये विषयसप्तमी विज्ञास्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.35; confer, compare also अार्धधातुके इति विषयसप्तमी Kāś, on P.II. 4.35; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26 and IV. 1.90.
viṣṇubhadṛ( विष्णुशास्त्री भट )a scholar of grammar of the latter half of the nineteenth century who has written learned commentaries on the works of Nāgeśa Bhaṭṭa, two of which viz. चिच्चन्द्रिका and विष्णुभट्टी are well known to scholars.
vihitaviśeṣaṇaan adjectival word generally in a different case from that of the word to which it is applied as an adjective, and hence, translated as 'prescribed after' and not as 'belonging to' confer, compare विहितविशेषणं धातुग्रहणम् । धातोर्यो विहित इति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.5 Vārt 3: confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.74. Vārt 1.
vuñ(ID taddhita affix. affix अक causing vṛddhi to the vowel of the first syllable of that word to which it is added, as prescribed, (a) to the words denoting an offspring as also to the words उक्ष, उष्ट्र et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'a group'; e. g. अोपगवकम् , औष्ट्रकम् , कैदारकम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.IV.2.39, 40; (b) to the words राजन्य and others in the sense of 'inhabited country' ; e. g. राजन्यकः देवनायकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. IV.2.53, (c) to the words headed by अरीहण such as द्वुघण, खदिर्, मैत्रायण, काशकृत्स्न et cetera, and others in the quadruple senses; exempli gratia, for example अारीहणकम् , द्रौबणकम् , confer, compare P.IV.2.80, (d) to the word धन्व meaning a desert, to words with य् or र for their penultimate, to words ending in प्रस्थ, पुर and वह as also to words headed by धूम, नगर, अरण्य कुरु, युगन्धर et cetera, and others, under certain conditions in the miscellaneous senses; e. g. सांकाश्यकः,पाटलिपुत्रकः, माकन्दकः, आङ्गकः, वाङ्गकः, धौमकः, नागरकः, अारण्यकः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.121-130,134,135, 136; (e) to the words शरद् , आश्वयुजी, ग्रीष्म, वसन्त, संवत्सर,अाग्रहायणी and others in the specific senses given: confer, compare P. IV. 3.27, 45, 46, 49, 50; (f) to words denoting descendence or spiritual relation, words meaning families and warrior clans, words कुलाल and others, words meaning clans, and students learning a specific Vedic branch in specific senses prescribed : e. g. आचार्यक, मातामहक, ग्लौचुकायनक, कालालक, काठक, कालापक et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.77, 99, 118, 126; (g) to the words शाकल, उष्ट्र, उमा and ऊर्णा in the specially given senses; exempli gratia, for example शाकलः, संघः, औप्ट्रकः, औमम् और्णम्, confer, compareP.IV.3.188,157,158; (h) to words with य् as the penultimate, and a long vowel preceding the last one, to words in the dvandva compound, and to the words मनोज्ञ, कल्याण and others in the sense of 'nature' or 'profession';e.g रामणीयकम् गौपालपशुपालिका, गार्गिका, काठिका etc; confer, compare P. V.1.132,133,134: (2) kṛt affix अक added to the roots निन्द् हिंस् and others, and to the roots देव् and कृश् with a prefix before,in the sense of a habituated,professional or skilled agent; exempli gratia, for example. निन्दकः, परिक्षेपकः, असूयकः, परिदेवकः, आक्रोशकः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.III.2. 146, 147.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntaratnākaraname of a commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi by Ramakrsna in the latter half of the seventeenth century.
vyadhikaraṇacharacterized by different case-relations or case-affixes; possessed of different case-affixes; क: प्रसङ्गो यद् व्यधिकरणानां समासः स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.67.
vyapekṣāmutual relationship in sense, as obtaining between two different words ( पद ) connected with each other in a sentence, as contrasted with compositeness of sense as seen in two words joined into a compound word ( समास ) ; व्यपेक्षा is given as an alternative definition of the word सामर्थ्य along with एकार्थीभाव as the other one, in the Mahabhasya: e. g. there is व्यपेक्षा between सर्पिः and पिब in the sentence सर्पिष्पिब, but not in तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुद्कम्: confer, compare तथेदमपरं द्वैतं भवति एकार्थाभावो वा सामर्थ्यं स्याद् व्यपेक्षा वेति ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II,1.1 ; cf, also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VIII.3 44.
vyavasthāliterally definite arrangement; restriction regarding the application of a rule, especially when it seems to overlap, as done by the Varttikakara, and later on by the Paribhashas laid down by grammarians regarding the rules of Panini: confer, compare स्वाभिधेयापेक्षावधिनियमो व्यवस्था S. K. on P. I.1.34; confer, compare also लक्ष्यानुसाराह्यवस्था Par. Sek. Pari. 99, 108.
vyāghrabhūtiname of an old grammarian later than Patanjali who is quoted by later grammarians; confer, compare व्याघ्रभूत्यादयस्त्वेनं नेह पेठुरिति स्थितम् Siddhantakaumudi on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII. 1. 5.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
ś(1)a sibilant letter of the palatal class, possessed of the properties, श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष and कण्ठविवृतत्व; (2) the initial indicatory ( इत् ) letter श् of a non-taddhita affix in Panini's grammar, which is dropped; (3) substitute for च्छ् when followed by an affix beginning with a nasal consonant; e.g प्रश्न:, confer, compare P.VI.4.19;(4) substitute for स् when followed by श् or any palatal letter;exempli gratia, for example वृक्षश्छादयति वृक्षश्शेते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P. VIII. 4.40.
śakandhvādiname of a class of words in which an irregular coalescence of the vowels of the kind of the latter vowel in the place of the former and latter both is observed; exempli gratia, for example शकन्धु:, कुलटा, सीमन्त:,मनीषा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare कन्ध्वादिषु च (पररूपं वाच्यम् ) P.VI.1. 94 Vart. 4.
śabdparavipratiṣedhacl,. comparatively superior strength possessed by a word, which in the text of a particular sutra is later than another word, which is put in earlier in the Sutra. This शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधे is contrasted with the standard शास्त्रपरविप्रतिषेध which is laid down by Panini in his rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् and which lays down the superior strength of that rule which is put by Panini later on in his Astadhyayi: e. g. in the rule विभाषा गमहनविदविशाम्,it is not the word हन् although occuring earlier, but the word विश् occuring later in the rule, which helps us to decide which विद् should be taken confer, compareज्ञानार्तस्य सत्यपि विदरूपत्वे अर्थस्य भेदकत्वेन रूपवदाश्रयणात्प्रतिषेधाभावः | यद्यपि हन्तिना साहचर्ये विदेरस्ति तथापि शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधाद् विशिर्व्यवस्थाहेतुर्न हान्तिः ! Kaiyata on P. VII.2.18:confer, compare also, P.VI.1.158 V.12.
śābdabodhaprakriyāa grammar treatise on the denotation and relation of words written by a grammarian ramed Ramakrsna.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śeṣacakrapāṇia grammarian of the Sesa family who wrote a small treatise on case-relations named कारकतत्त्व.
ścutvathe substitution of the palatal consonants श्,च्,छ्,ज्, झ् and ञ् respectively for the similar consonants स्, त् , थ् , द् , ध् and न् of the dental class; confer, compare स्तोः श्चुना श्चु: P.VIII.4.10.
śrīmaṇikaṇṭhaa famous grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय, प्रगल्भतर्कसिंह and भट्टाचार्य and who has written a systematic work on caserelations named कारकखण्डनमण्डन; the work is also known by the name षट्कारकखण्डनमण्डन.
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on the six case-relations written by a scholar of grammar named श्रीमणिकण्ठ.
ṣaṭkārakabālabodhinīa short work in verses on the six case-relations written by a grammarian Prabhudasa who has added his own commentary to it.
ṣaṭkārakalakṣaṇaa small work in verses on the six case-relations ascribed to Amarasimha, but very likely the author was Amaracandra a Jain grammarian of the fifteenth century. The work is also named षट्कारकविवरण.
ṣaṭkārakavicāraan anonymous small treatise on the six case-relations in verse-form with a commentary.
ṣaṭkārakavivecanaa small treatise on the six case-relations written by a grammarian Bhavananda who held the title Siddhāntavagisa.
ṣaḍgavacliterally a collection of six cows; secondarily 'a collection of six animals or quadrupeds'. The word षड्गव was prescribed by later grammarians as a tad-affix by means of a Vartika when they saw the the word षड्गव used in language after the word अश्व et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वषड्गवम्; confer, compare प्रकृत्यर्थस्य षट्त्वे षङ्गवच् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.29.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
ṣaṣṭyarthasense of the genitive case, which is 'a relation in general. See षष्ठी a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ṣoḍaśakārikāan anonymous work consisting of only 16 stanzas discussing the denotation of words and that of the case-relations with a commentary by the author himselfeminine.
saṃgrahaname of a very vast work on grammar attributed to an ancient grammarian Vyadi who is supposed to have been a relative of Panini; confer, compare सेग्रहेस्तमुपागते Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya confer, compare also संग्रहप्रतिकञ्चुके: confer, compare संग्रहो नाम लक्षश्लोकात्मको त्याडिकृतो ग्रन्थः । Some quotations only are found from the Samgraha in grammar works, but the work is lost long ago.
saṃnipāta(1)a contact or relation of two things. cf संनिपातो द्वयोः संबन्धः । Pari. Sek. Pari. 85; (2) coming together; cf न लक्ष्यते विकृति: संनिपाते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 2.123 Vart 5.
saṃnipātaparibhāṣāthe maxim or canvention that an operation which is based upon, or is caused or occasioned by, a relationship between two things cannot break their relation : in short, such an operation as results in breaking the relationship between two things on which it is based, cannot take placcusative case. This dictum is many times followed in grammar in Preventing the application of such rules as are likely to spoil the formation of the correct word; many times, however, this dictum has to be ignored; For details see Pari. Sek. Pari. 86; also| Mahabhasya on P. I. 1.39.
saṃnipātalakṣaṇaan operation which is characterized by the relationship between two words or two phonetic elements. See संनिपातपरिभाषा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
saṃpradānaa karaka relation or a relation between a noun and the verbal activity with which it is connected, of the type of the donation and the donee; the word is technically used in connection with the bearer of such a relation confer, compare कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स संप्रदानम् P. I.4.32.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
saṃbandhiśibdarelative term; the term refers to words connected in such a way by their meaning that if one of them is uttered, the other has to be anticipated and understood; e. g. पितृ, भ्रातृ, मातृ, भार्या et cetera, and others confer, compare तद्यथा । संबन्धिशब्दाः । मातरि वर्तितव्यम् । पितरि शूश्रूषितव्यम् । न चोच्यते स्वस्यां मातरि स्वस्मिन्वा पितरि इति । confer, compare also M.Bh. on I 1.71 ; confer, compare also प्रधानमुपसर्जनं च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.43 Vart. 5; I. 2.48 Vart, 4,
saṃsargeliterally contact, connection; (1) contact of the air passing up through the gullet and striking the several places which produce the sound, which is of three kinds, hard, middling and soft; confer, compare संसर्गो वायुस्थानसंसर्गः अभिवातात्मकः स त्रिविधः । अयःपिण्डवद्दारुपिण्डवदूर्णापिण्डवदिति । तदुवतमापिशलशिक्षायाम् । स्पर्शयमवर्णकरो वायुः अय:पिण्डवत्स्थानमापीडयति | अन्तस्थावर्णकरो दांरुपिण्डवत् | ऊष्मस्थस्वरवर्णकर ऊर्णापिण्डवत् commentary on. T, Pr. XXIII. 1 ; ,(2) syntactical connection between words themselves which exists between pairs of words as between nouns and adjectives as also between verbs and the karakas, which is necessary for understanding the meaning of a sentence. Some Mimamsakas and Logicians hold that samsarga itself is the meaning of a sentence. The syntactical relation between two words is described to be of two kinds अभेद-संसर्ग of the type of आधाराधेयभाव and भेदसंसर्ग of the type of विषयविषयिभाव, समवाय, जन्यजनकभाव and the like.
saṃskṛtamañjarīa short handbook on declension and case-relations written by a grammarian named Sadhusundara, who lived in the beginning of the eighteenth century.
sadāśivabhaṭṭa(घुले)a prominent grammarian of the latter half of the eighteenth century who was a resident of Nagpur and whose gloss on the Laghusabdendusekhara by name सदाशिवभट्टी is well known to scholars.
samartha(1)having an identical sense; cf प्रोपाभ्या समर्थाभ्याम् । ...तौ चेत् प्रोपौ समर्थौ तुल्यार्थौ भवतः । क्व चानयोस्तुल्यार्थता । आदिकर्मणि । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 3. 42: (2) mutually connected in meaning in such a way that the meanings are connected together or commixed together; समर्थः शक्वः । विग्रहवाक्यार्थाभिधाने यः शक्तः स समर्थो वेदितव्यः । अथवा समर्थपदाश्रयत्वात्समर्थः । समर्थानां पदानां संबद्धार्थानां संसृष्टार्थानां विधिर्वेदितव्यः । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1. I; confer, compare also एकार्थीभावो व्यपेक्षा वा सामर्थ्यम्;। (3) connected with relationship of senses, as between the activity and the subject,object, instrument et cetera, and others, or as between the master and the servant or the Possessor and the possessed; confer, compare राज्ञः पुरुषः or ग्रामं गच्छति,or सर्पिः पिब, but not सर्पिः पिब in the sentence तिष्ठतु सर्पिः पिब त्वमुदकम् । ; (4) capable of expressing the sense e. g. a word with the sandhis well observed; confer, compare समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा । सामर्थ्ये परिनिष्ठितत्वम् । कृतसन्धिकार्यत्वमिति यावत् । S. K. on IV. I. 82; cf also समर्थः पटुः शक्तः इति पर्यायाः। शक्तत्वं च कार्योत्पादनयोम्यत्वम् et cetera, and others Balamanorama on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
samuccayaaccumulation which is one of the four senses of the indeclinable च and which means the anticipation of an allied another by the express mention of one, in which sense the Dvandva compound prescribed by the rule चार्थे द्वन्द्वः does not take place; confer, compare समुच्चय: | प्लक्षश्च इत्युक्ते गम्यत एतन्न्यग्रोधश्चेति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.29 Vart. 15.
sāpekṣawith an expectancy in sense; although in grammar expectancy is at the root of, and forms a sort of a connecting link for, the various kinds of relations which exist between the different words of a sentence which has to give a composite sense, yet, if a word outside a compound is connected with a word inside a compound, especially with a second or further member, the sense becomes ambiguous; and expectancy in such cases is looked upon as a fault; e. g. अप्रविष्टविषयो हि रक्षसाम् Raghu XI. When, however, in spite of the fault of expectancy the sense is clear, the compound is admissible; confer, compare यदि सविशेषणानां वृत्तिर्न वृत्तस्य वा विशेषणं न प्रयुज्यते इत्युच्यते देवदत्तस्य गुरुकुलम् देवदत्तस्य गुरुपुत्रः,अत्र वृत्तिर्न प्राप्नोति। अगुरुकुलपुत्रादीनामिति वक्तव्यम् I Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P II.1.1 ; confer, compare also the expression सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समास: often used by commentators.
sāmānyaviśeṣabhāvathe relationship between the general and the particular, which forms the basis of the type of apavada which is explained by the analogy of तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; the word also refers to the method followed by the Sutras of Panini, or any treatise of grammar for the matter of that, where a general rule is prescribed and, for the sake of definiteness some specific rules laying down exceptions, are given afterwards: confer, compare किंचित्सामान्यविशेषवल्लक्षणं प्रवर्त्यं येनाल्पेन यत्नेन महतः शद्बौघान् प्रतिपद्येरन् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnik 1.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
sup(l)locative case affix सु: (2) short term for case-affixes, as formed by the syllable सु (the nominative case. singular. affix) at the beginning and the final consonant प् of सुप्, the locative plural case-affix in the rule स्वौजसमौट्...ङ्योस्सुप् P. IV. 1.2. These case afixes are called 'vibhakti' also. These सुप् affixes are elided after an indeclinable word; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुप: P. II. 4.82; in Veda स्, शे ( ए ), या, डा, ड्या, याच् and अाल् as seen, are substituted for these case affixes, which sometimes are even dropped or assimilated with the previous vowel of the base: e. g. सन्तु पन्थाः, आर्द्रे चर्मन् et cetera, and others cf, P. VII. 1.39. These caseaffixes are as a rule, grave-accented (अनुदात्त) excepting in such cases as are mentioned in P. VI.1. 166 to 184 and 19l.
sūtrapāṭhathe text of Panini's Sutras handed down by oral tradition from the preceptor to the pupil. Although it is said that the actual text of Panini was modified from time to time, still it can be said with certainty that it was fixed at the time of the Bhasyakara who has noted a few different readings only. The Sutra text approved by the Bhasyakara was followed by the authors of the Kasika excepting in a few cases. It is customary with learned Pandits and grammarians to say that the recital of the Sutras of Panini was originally a continuous one in the form of a Samhitatext and it was later on, that it was split up into the different Sutras, which explains according to them the variation in the number of Sutras which is due to the different ways of splitting the Sutrapatha.
sṛkkanthe place of the articulation or production of the sound व्.
stua term used for the sibilant स् and dental class consonants for thc substitution of the sibilant श् and palatal consonants in respective order confer, compare स्तोः श्चुना श्चुः P. VIII. 4.40.
sthānaplace of articulation; place of the production of sound, which is one of the chief factors in the production of sound; confer, compare अनुप्रदानात् संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् | जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात्, T.Pr. XXIII. 2. Generally there are given five places of the production of sound viz. कण्ठ, तालु, मूर्धन् , दन्त and ओष्ठ, respectively for the articulation of guttural, palatal cerebral, dental and labial letters and नासिका as an additional one for the articulation of the nasal consonants ञू, मू,ङू, णू and नू For the Jihvamuliya sound (क ), जिंह्वामूल is given as a specific one. For details and minor differences of views, see Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) 1.18 to 20,Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 2-10; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 65 to 84 and M. Bh, on P. I. 1. 9. (2) place, substratum, which is generally understood as the sense of the genitive case-affix in rules which prescribe substitutes; confer, compare षष्ठी स्थोनोयागा. P. I. 1. 49.
sthāneyogāa variety of the genitive case when it is connected in sense with the Pratipadika by the relationship of स्थान or place, as contrasted with the relationships of the kind of विषयविषयिभाब, अवयवावयविभाव and others. As grammar is a Science of words,in those places where one word is mentioned for another by the use of the genitive case it should be understood that the word mentioned is to be substituted for the other;cf the rule of Panini for that purpose षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा explained by Bhattoji Diksita as अानिर्धारितसंबन्धविशेषा षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा बोध्या; confer, compare S.K. on P.I.1.49. In some grammars the sthanin and adesa are expressed in the same case, Viz. the nominative case.
sthānyādeśābhāvathe relation between the original and the substitute which is described as of two kinds (1) supposed and actual; confer, compareअानुमानिकस्थान्यादेशभावकल्पनेपि श्रौतस्थान्योदशभावस्य न त्याग: Pari.Sek. Pari.
spṛṣṭaname of one of the four internal efforts when the instrument ( करण) of articulation fully touches the sthana or the place of the production of sound in the mouth. See the word स्पर्श a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: तत्र स्पृष्टं| प्रयतनं स्पर्शानाम् S.K. on P. VI1I.2.1 ; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.I.1.9.
smātcase-ending स्मात् substituted for the ablative singular. case-affix ङसि placed after pronouns; confer, compare ङसिङयोः स्मात्स्मिनौ P. VII. 1. 15, 16.
svasvāmisaṃbangharelationship of the possessor and the possessed; one of the general meanings of the type of relation, expressed by the genitive case;cf अधिरीश्वरे। ईश्वरः स्वामी। स च स्वमपेक्षते तदर्थं स्वस्वामिसंबन्धः क्रमेप्रवचनीयसंञो भवति | Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.4.97.
haria short form used for भर्तृहरि, the stalwart grammarian Bhartrhari,by later grammarians and commentators in their references to him. See the word भर्तृहरि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
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270 results
     
latā and creepersSB 10.50.50-53
SB 12.8.18-20
SB 12.8.21
SB 5.17.13
latā creepersCC Antya 15.38
CC Madhya 24.58
SB 1.11.12
SB 3.10.19
SB 4.24.22
SB 4.25.17
SB 4.6.10
latā of creepersSB 3.21.40
latā the creeper of devotional serviceCC Madhya 19.153
latā vegetablesSB 8.6.22-23
latā with creepersSB 5.2.4
latā avalambi' taking advantage of the growing bhakti-latāCC Madhya 19.162
latā avalambi' taking advantage of the growing bhakti-latāCC Madhya 19.162
latā-ańga-ālińgitānām which are embraced by the limbs of creepersSB 5.24.10
latā-ańga-ālińgitānām which are embraced by the limbs of creepersSB 5.24.10
latā-ańga-ālińgitānām which are embraced by the limbs of creepersSB 5.24.10
latā-bhuja-āśrayaḥ who takes shelter of the soft arms of his beautiful wife which are like creepersSB 5.13.16
latā-bhuja-āśrayaḥ who takes shelter of the soft arms of his beautiful wife which are like creepersSB 5.13.16
latā-bhuja-āśrayaḥ who takes shelter of the soft arms of his beautiful wife which are like creepersSB 5.13.16
latāḥ and creepersSB 10.15.8
latāḥ creepersSB 10.30.13
SB 3.29.41
latāḥ from the creepersSB 10.30.24
latāḥ ca and the creepersCC Antya 1.159
latāḥ ca and the creepersCC Antya 1.159
latāke the creeperCC Madhya 8.210
latām LatāSB 5.2.23
latāra the creeper of devotional serviceCC Madhya 19.158
latāsu on the surrendered soulsCC Adi 3.27
CC Antya 7.15
na acalat He did not moveSB 10.25.23
na acalat He (Lord Kṛṣṇa) did not moveSB 10.44.22-23
taru-latā-ādi the creepers, trees and so onCC Antya 19.82
kalatra-ādiṣu in wife and so onSB 10.84.13
jvalat-agni (like) burning fireSB 4.5.3
jvalat-agni-rāśi large flameCC Madhya 18.113
ailata Brahmā began to offer praiseSB 10.13.64
akālataḥ ripened untimelySB 7.12.18
akālataḥ untimelySB 10.36.3-4
bṛhat-calat-śroṇī-bhara-ākrānta-gatiḥ being overburdened by the weight of her large breasts, she became tired and had to reduce her speedSB 10.9.10
anukūlatā being favorably disposed towards her husbandSB 7.11.25
kalatra-apatya wives and childrenSB 5.24.29
para-vitta-apatya-kalatrāṇi the money, wife and children of anotherSB 5.26.8
apīpalat administered prosperitySB 1.12.4
apuṇya-druma-latā impious trees and creepersSB 5.14.12
askhalatā without being hamperedSB 2.7.40
askhalatā without hindrancesCC Madhya 24.21
āślatheta becomes slackenedSB 5.5.9
galat-aśru-dhārayā by streams of tears running downCC Antya 20.36
gulma-latā-auṣadhīnām among bushes, creepers and herbsCC Antya 7.47
avyartha-kālatvam being free from wasting timeCC Madhya 23.18-19
āyana-śīlatvāt due to refreshingSB 5.22.10
bhakti-latā of the creeper of devotional serviceCC Madhya 19.151
bhālata' kahila he has spoken very wellCC Madhya 16.269
bṛhat-calat-śroṇī-bhara-ākrānta-gatiḥ being overburdened by the weight of her large breasts, she became tired and had to reduce her speedSB 10.9.10
bhrū-latā of the arched eyebrowsCC Antya 1.171
bhuja-latā by beautiful arms, which are compared to tender creepers in the forestSB 5.14.28
bṛhat-calat-śroṇī-bhara-ākrānta-gatiḥ being overburdened by the weight of her large breasts, she became tired and had to reduce her speedSB 10.9.10
calat walkingSB 3.31.12
calat movingSB 4.25.18
calat tremblingSB 7.8.3-4
calat agitatingSB 8.2.14-19
calat-caraṇa-nūpuram moving ankle bellsSB 8.8.41-46
calat moving like thatSB 8.12.19
calat-kucāḥ their developed breasts were movingSB 10.5.10
calat-kańkaṇau the two bangles were movingSB 10.9.3
bṛhat-calat-śroṇī-bhara-ākrānta-gatiḥ being overburdened by the weight of her large breasts, she became tired and had to reduce her speedSB 10.9.10
calat knocking offSB 10.44.37
calat-tāram like moving starsCC Madhya 14.189
calat-cillī of moving eyebrowsCC Madhya 14.194
calat-guḥ making the entire planet trembleCC Madhya 16.145
na calataḥ are not movingSB 10.29.34
calati movesBG 6.20-23
calati he movesSB 3.30.22
calatī movingSB 7.2.23
na calati he does not go awaySB 11.2.53
cañcalatvāt due to being restlessBG 6.33
cāṇḍālatām the quality of a caṇḍāla, lower than a śūdraSB 9.7.5-6
calat-caraṇa-nūpuram moving ankle bellsSB 8.8.41-46
celatuḥ They wentSB 10.52.8
calat-cillī of moving eyebrowsCC Madhya 14.194
dāva-latā iva like burnt leavesSB 4.8.16
galat-aśru-dhārayā by streams of tears running downCC Antya 20.36
divya-latā-parītam surrounded by transcendental creepersCC Antya 1.159
apuṇya-druma-latā impious trees and creepersSB 5.14.12
druma-latā trees and creepersSB 8.2.2-3
druma-latāḥ the creepers and treesCC Madhya 24.206
galat-kuṣṭhī suffering from leprosyCC Antya 4.189
galat-aśru-dhārayā by streams of tears running downCC Antya 20.36
vṛkṣa-latā-gaṇe the trees and creepersCC Madhya 17.200
bṛhat-calat-śroṇī-bhara-ākrānta-gatiḥ being overburdened by the weight of her large breasts, she became tired and had to reduce her speedSB 10.9.10
pracalat-gātraḥ his body tremblingSB 9.4.43
calat-guḥ making the entire planet trembleCC Madhya 16.145
gulma-latā-oṣadhīnām among bushes, creepers and herbsSB 10.47.61
gulma-latā-auṣadhīnām among bushes, creepers and herbsCC Antya 7.47
guṇa-śīlataḥ by good qualities and by characterSB 4.1.65
hema-latā a golden creeperSB 8.8.18
indriya-lolatā addicted to sense enjoymentSB 7.15.38-39
dāva-latā iva like burnt leavesSB 4.8.16
jvalat flamingSB 3.19.13
jvalat-agni (like) burning fireSB 4.5.3
jvalat fierySB 10.18.27
jvalat ablazeSB 10.66.32-33
jvalat-agni-rāśi large flameCC Madhya 18.113
jvalatā which was blazing fireSB 8.11.17
jvalataḥ very brilliantSB 4.1.39
jvalati igniteSB 1.14.18
jvalatīm blazing like fireSB 9.4.47
kabara-vigalat-mālatī and mālatī flowers were dropping from her hairSB 10.9.3
bhālata' kahila he has spoken very wellCC Madhya 16.269
lataḥ by the influence of timeSB 3.7.5
lataḥ from the time factorSB 7.13.33
lataḥ by timeSB 11.23.11
lataḥ by the effect of timeSB 12.6.47
kalatra wifeSB 2.1.4
kalatra-vān a person living with a wifeSB 3.14.18
kalatra wifeSB 3.30.13
kalatra of the wifeSB 5.14.28
kalatra to wifeSB 5.24.8
kalatra-apatya wives and childrenSB 5.24.29
kalatra wivesSB 7.7.4-5
kalatra wivesSB 10.16.10
kalatra his wivesSB 10.16.65-67
kalatra wifeSB 10.48.27
kalatra-ādiṣu in wife and so onSB 10.84.13
kalatra and wivesMM 11
kalatraiḥ with their wivesSB 10.82.7-8
sa-kalatrakāḥ along with their wivesSB 10.17.17
kalatram wifeSB 5.26.29
kalatram one's wife and feminine friendsSB 7.7.39
kalatrāṇām of those who have wivesSB 5.17.12
para-vitta-apatya-kalatrāṇi the money, wife and children of anotherSB 5.26.8
avyartha-kālatvam being free from wasting timeCC Madhya 23.18-19
kalilatām discomfortSB 10.31.11
kalpa-latā a creeperCC Madhya 8.209
kalpa-vṛkṣa-latāra of creepers and kalpa-vṛkṣa, or desire treesCC Madhya 14.222
salilatvāya kalpate becomes waterSB 11.3.13
calat-kańkaṇau the two bangles were movingSB 10.9.3
calat-kucāḥ their developed breasts were movingSB 10.5.10
galat-kuṣṭhī suffering from leprosyCC Antya 4.189
lalita-lavańga-latā beginning with the words lalita-lavańga-latāCC Antya 19.84
dāva-latā iva like burnt leavesSB 4.8.16
apuṇya-druma-latā impious trees and creepersSB 5.14.12
bhuja-latā by beautiful arms, which are compared to tender creepers in the forestSB 5.14.28
druma-latā trees and creepersSB 8.2.2-3
hema-latā a golden creeperSB 8.8.18
gulma-latā-oṣadhīnām among bushes, creepers and herbsSB 10.47.61
kalpa-latā a creeperCC Madhya 8.209
vṛkṣa-latā the trees and creepersCC Madhya 17.45
vṛkṣa-latā-gaṇe the trees and creepersCC Madhya 17.200
vṛkṣa-latā tree and creeperCC Madhya 17.204
bhakti-latā of the creeper of devotional serviceCC Madhya 19.151
manaḥ-ratha-latā the creeper of growing loveCC Antya 1.151
divya-latā-parītam surrounded by transcendental creepersCC Antya 1.159
bhrū-latā of the arched eyebrowsCC Antya 1.171
gulma-latā-auṣadhīnām among bushes, creepers and herbsCC Antya 7.47
vṛkṣa-latā the trees and creepersCC Antya 14.48
prati-taru-latā each tree and creeperCC Antya 15.31
padminī-latā the stems of lotus flowersCC Antya 18.91
taru-latā trees and creepersCC Antya 18.102
taru-latā-ādi the creepers, trees and so onCC Antya 19.82
lalita-lavańga-latā beginning with the words lalita-lavańga-latāCC Antya 19.84
vṛkṣa-latā-pāśe by the side of the trees and creepersCC Antya 19.99
tanu-latā of creeperlike bodiesMM 4
vana-latāḥ the forest creepersSB 10.35.8-11
vana-latāḥ the herbs and plantsCC Madhya 8.276
druma-latāḥ the creepers and treesCC Madhya 24.206
vana-latāḥ the herbs and plantsCC Madhya 24.208
prati-taru-latam on every tree and vineCC Adi 4.125
kalpa-vṛkṣa-latāra of creepers and kalpa-vṛkṣa, or desire treesCC Madhya 14.222
taru-latāya to the trees and creepersCC Antya 19.81
lalita-lavańga-latā beginning with the words lalita-lavańga-latāCC Antya 19.84
lolat movingSB 3.15.38
indriya-lolatā addicted to sense enjoymentSB 7.15.38-39
kabara-vigalat-mālatī and mālatī flowers were dropping from her hairSB 10.9.3
lati O mālatī plant (a kind of white jasmine)SB 10.30.8
latī of mālatī flowersCC Madhya 1.58
latī of mālatī flowersCC Madhya 13.121
latī another flowerCC Madhya 14.30
latī of mālatī flowersCC Antya 1.78
lati O plant of mālatī flowersCC Antya 15.34
lati O mālatīCC Antya 15.40
manaḥ-ratha-latā the creeper of growing loveCC Antya 1.151
lat openingSB 3.2.5
tat-mūlatvāt because of being the root of this treeSB 7.14.36
latvāt because of being the causeSB 11.11.1
na acalat He did not moveSB 10.25.23
na calataḥ are not movingSB 10.29.34
na acalat He (Lord Kṛṣṇa) did not moveSB 10.44.22-23
na calati he does not go awaySB 11.2.53
nimīlati goes to sleepSB 3.11.22
nirmalatvāt being purest in the material worldBG 14.6
niścalati becomes verily agitatedBG 6.26
viślathat-nīvyā whose dress was slackenedSB 6.1.58-60
calat-caraṇa-nūpuram moving ankle bellsSB 8.8.41-46
gulma-latā-oṣadhīnām among bushes, creepers and herbsSB 10.47.61
pāda-talataḥ on the bottom or soles of the feetSB 2.5.40-41
skhalat-padena with symmetrical rhythmSB 3.8.6
padminī-latā the stems of lotus flowersCC Antya 18.91
para-vitta-apatya-kalatrāṇi the money, wife and children of anotherSB 5.26.8
divya-latā-parītam surrounded by transcendental creepersCC Antya 1.159
vṛkṣa-latā-pāśe by the side of the trees and creepersCC Antya 19.99
phalati gives the resultSB 5.9.19
phalati is fruitfulCC Madhya 15.110
phalatvena by the result ofSB 4.21.35
phullatām developed stateCC Antya 13.1
pracalat-gātraḥ his body tremblingSB 9.4.43
pracalatā movingSB 7.2.23
pracalatā moving, agitatedSB 11.22.54-55
pracalate it movesSB 5.21.10
praphullatā the cheerfulnessCC Adi 4.190
prati-taru-latam on every tree and vineCC Adi 4.125
prati-taru-latā each tree and creeperCC Antya 15.31
pronmīlat awakeningCC Madhya 10.119
jvalat-agni-rāśi large flameCC Madhya 18.113
manaḥ-ratha-latā the creeper of growing loveCC Antya 1.151
sa-kalatrakāḥ along with their wivesSB 10.17.17
salilatvāya kalpate becomes waterSB 11.3.13
su-śīlatā good behaviorCC Madhya 17.212
guṇa-śīlataḥ by good qualities and by characterSB 4.1.65
āyana-śīlatvāt due to refreshingSB 5.22.10
skhalat-padena with symmetrical rhythmSB 3.8.6
skhalat slippingCC Antya 1.2
ślathat slipping or slackeningSB 8.12.21
ślathat disarrayedSB 10.16.31
ślathat looseningSB 10.33.10
ślathat slippingSB 10.60.24
ślathat being looseCC Madhya 19.202
ślathat being slackenedCC Antya 14.73
bṛhat-calat-śroṇī-bhara-ākrānta-gatiḥ being overburdened by the weight of her large breasts, she became tired and had to reduce her speedSB 10.9.10
su-śīlatā good behaviorCC Madhya 17.212
pāda-talataḥ on the bottom or soles of the feetSB 2.5.40-41
tanu-latā of creeperlike bodiesMM 4
taralatā unsteadinessCC Madhya 8.182
calat-tāram like moving starsCC Madhya 14.189
prati-taru-latam on every tree and vineCC Adi 4.125
prati-taru-latā each tree and creeperCC Antya 15.31
taru-latā trees and creepersCC Antya 18.102
taru-latāya to the trees and creepersCC Antya 19.81
taru-latā-ādi the creepers, trees and so onCC Antya 19.82
tat-mūlatvāt because of being the root of this treeSB 7.14.36
udgalat overflowingSB 1.10.14
unmīlati manifestsCC Madhya 23.40
unmīlati appearsCC Antya 1.138
unmīlati manifestsCC Antya 19.105
upakūlataḥ near the shoreSB 10.17.20
uru-vatsalatayā with the quality of being very affectionate to the citizensSB 5.7.4
kalatra-vān a person living with a wifeSB 3.14.18
vana-latāḥ the forest creepersSB 10.35.8-11
vana-latāḥ the herbs and plantsCC Madhya 8.276
vana-latāḥ the herbs and plantsCC Madhya 24.208
uru-vatsalatayā with the quality of being very affectionate to the citizensSB 5.7.4
vātulatā crazinessCC Madhya 16.243
vicalat rotatingSB 6.12.3
vigalat was falling downSB 6.14.53
kabara-vigalat-mālatī and mālatī flowers were dropping from her hairSB 10.9.3
viślathat-nīvyā whose dress was slackenedSB 6.1.58-60
viślathita loosenedSB 10.71.33
para-vitta-apatya-kalatrāṇi the money, wife and children of anotherSB 5.26.8
kalpa-vṛkṣa-latāra of creepers and kalpa-vṛkṣa, or desire treesCC Madhya 14.222
vṛkṣa-latā the trees and creepersCC Madhya 17.45
vṛkṣa-latā-gaṇe the trees and creepersCC Madhya 17.200
vṛkṣa-latā tree and creeperCC Madhya 17.204
vṛkṣa-latā the trees and creepersCC Antya 14.48
vṛkṣa-latā-pāśe by the side of the trees and creepersCC Antya 19.99
vyākulatā distressNBS 19
     DCS with thanks   
Results for lat204 results
     
latikā noun (feminine) a delicate or slender creeper or small winding tendril (to which the graceful curve of a slim figure is compared) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a string of pearls (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14406/72933
latā noun (feminine) bhūlatā a creeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a slender woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a streak (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a string of pearls (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any creeping or winding plant or twining tendril (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. Gaertnera Racemosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
line (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
musk-creeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Meru and wife of Ilāvṛta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Panicum Dactylon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Panicum Italicum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Trigonella Corniculata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Mādhavī-creeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the thong or lash of a whip (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
whip (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 1304/72933
latāgra noun (neuter) coral
Frequency rank 64053/72933
latāgṛha noun (neuter) a creeper-bower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29972/72933
latāgṛhaka noun (neuter) latāgṛha
Frequency rank 64052/72933
latāhvā noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 64060/72933
latākarañja noun (masculine) Guilandina Bonduc (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22156/72933
latākarkaṭikā noun (feminine) trapusa
Frequency rank 64051/72933
latākastūrikā noun (feminine) a kind of aromatic medicinal plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
musk-creeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38869/72933
latāmaṇi noun (masculine) coral (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29973/72933
latānta noun (neuter) a flower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64057/72933
latārka noun (masculine) a green onion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64058/72933
latātaru noun (masculine) Borassus Flabelliformis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Shorea Robusta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the orange tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38870/72933
latātāla noun (masculine) Phoenix paludosa
Frequency rank 64056/72933
latāvant adjective
Frequency rank 38871/72933
latāveṣṭitaka noun (neuter) a kind of embrace preceding sexual intercourse the winding (embrace) of a creeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38872/72933
latāśaṅkutaru noun (masculine) Shorea Robusta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64059/72933
latāṅgī noun (feminine) a kind of gall-nut (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64055/72933
latāṅkura noun (masculine) the marshy date palm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64054/72933
acalatā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 41824/72933
atinirmalatva noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 42098/72933
ativiśṛṅkhalatara adjective
Frequency rank 42219/72933
anākulatā noun (feminine) easiness
Frequency rank 42817/72933
anilatāḍitakā noun (feminine) a kind of play
Frequency rank 42996/72933
anīlatva noun (neuter) non-nīlatva
Frequency rank 31878/72933
aphalatā noun (feminine) barrenness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unprofitableness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44022/72933
aphalatva noun (neuter) barrenness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unprofitableness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44023/72933
amalatara adjective very pure
Frequency rank 44591/72933
amṛtalatā noun (feminine) a creeping plant that gives nectar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23166/72933
araṇyakulatthikā noun (feminine) Glycine labialis
Frequency rank 32518/72933
alolatā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 45048/72933
ahilatā noun (feminine) the plant Betel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32956/72933
ākulatā noun (feminine) confusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perplexity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23337/72933
ākulatva noun (neuter) confusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
crowd (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
multitude (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46181/72933
āmūlataḥ indeclinable
Frequency rank 46555/72933
udumbaralatā noun (feminine) name of a divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 33435/72933
kandalatā noun (feminine) name of a plant with a bulbous root (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33789/72933
karavīralatā noun (feminine) name of a divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 33847/72933
karālatama adjective
Frequency rank 48679/72933
kalatra noun (neuter) (in astron.) the seventh lunar mansion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a royal citadel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a stronghold or fastness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
consort (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pudendum muliebre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the female of an animal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the hip and loins (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5905/72933
kalatraka noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 48821/72933
kalatravant adjective having a wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
united with one's wife (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23651/72933
kalpalatā noun (feminine) a fabulous creeper granting all desires (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various works (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48892/72933
latā noun (feminine) seasonableness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
timeliness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23702/72933
latattva noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 49269/72933
latama adjective extremely black
Frequency rank 49270/72933
latas indeclinable in the course of time (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19150/72933
latāla noun (masculine) Xanthochymus pictorius (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49271/72933
latīrtha noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49272/72933
latoyaka noun (masculine) name of a people
Frequency rank 49273/72933
kulattha noun (masculine neuter) Cassia absus Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 545) Dolichos uniflorus Lam. (a kind of pulse) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2107/72933
kulatthā noun (feminine) a blue stone used in medicine and applied as a collyrium to the eyes and as an astringent to sores (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Dolichos uniflorus Lam. (a kind of pulse) Glycine labialis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27597/72933
kulatthaka noun (neuter) Dolichos uniflorus Lam.
Frequency rank 16699/72933
kulatthavant adjective
Frequency rank 34155/72933
kulatthikā noun (feminine) a blue stone used as a collyrium (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of Dolichos (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Glycine labialis kulatthā
Frequency rank 16700/72933
kṛṣṇalatā noun (feminine) a kind of divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 27642/72933
kaulattha noun (neuter) a drink prepared with Kulattha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27682/72933
kaulattha adjective made or prepared with Dolichos uniflorus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8259/72933
kaulatthaka adjective made of kulattha
Frequency rank 17825/72933
kūrmalatā noun (feminine) name of a divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 50437/72933
kṣīralatā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 50610/72933
khalatā noun (feminine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 50868/72933
khalati noun (masculine) baldness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21176/72933
khalati adjective bald (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bald-headed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27760/72933
gandhamālatī noun (feminine) a kind of perfume (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51084/72933
galatkuṣṭha noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 27816/72933
gīrlatā noun (feminine) Cardiospermum Halicacabum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51333/72933
gorocanalatā noun (feminine) name of a divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 34736/72933
cakralatāmra noun (masculine) a kind of mango
Frequency rank 51916/72933
candralatā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 52061/72933
capalatā noun (feminine) fickleness inconstancy rudeness trembling
Frequency rank 27974/72933
capalatva noun (neuter) cāpalya
Frequency rank 12483/72933
calatkoṣṭhī noun (feminine) a class of koṣṭhīs
Frequency rank 23958/72933
calat noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 27981/72933
calatva noun (neuter) tremulous motion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16764/72933
citralatā noun (feminine) name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rubia Munjista (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52332/72933
jyotirlatā noun (feminine) Cardiospermum Halicacabum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24043/72933
taralatara adjective
Frequency rank 53340/72933
taralatva noun (neuter) tremulousness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unsteadiness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53341/72933
talatāla noun (masculine) clapping the hands (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53375/72933
talatra noun (neuter) a leather guard (used in archery)
Frequency rank 21372/72933
latīrtha noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha
Frequency rank 53489/72933
tilataṇḍulaka noun (neuter) a kind of embrace preceding sexual intercourse an embrace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24110/72933
divyalatā noun (feminine) Sanseviera Zeylanica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35671/72933
durbalatara adjective
Frequency rank 54698/72933
dṛḍhalatā noun (feminine) a kind of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35805/72933
devīlatā noun (feminine) a kind of siddhauṣadhī
Frequency rank 54982/72933
dvilatā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 55234/72933
dhanurlatā noun (feminine) a bow (lit. bow-creeper) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Tinospora cordifolia Miers
Frequency rank 35963/72933
nāgalatā noun (feminine) name of a woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Piper Betle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the penis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55821/72933
nirmalatara adjective
Frequency rank 56269/72933
niścalatā noun (feminine) immobility
Frequency rank 56404/72933
latama adjective quite black
Frequency rank 56651/72933
lataru noun (masculine) the cocoa-nut tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56652/72933
latāla noun (masculine) Xanthochymus Pictorius or Paludosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56653/72933
latva noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 28772/72933
paṇyaphalatva noun (neuter) prosperity or profit in trade (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57003/72933
payolatā noun (feminine) Batatas Paniculata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57123/72933
parimaṇḍalatā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 57361/72933
pariślatha adjective quite loose or relaxed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57433/72933
parṇalatā noun (feminine) the betel plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57503/72933
paryākulatā noun (feminine) confusion
Frequency rank 57524/72933
picchilatvac noun (masculine) an orange tree or orange-peel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Grewia Elastica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57952/72933
puṅkhilatīrthamāhātmyavarṇana noun (neuter) name of Skandapurāṇa, Revākhaṇḍa, 210
Frequency rank 58129/72933
puṣpalatī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 58306/72933
priyālatā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 59720/72933
phaṇilatā noun (feminine) Piper Betel
Frequency rank 59865/72933
phalatā noun (feminine) the being fruit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the state of fruit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59873/72933
phalatas indeclinable accordingly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
consequently (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
in relation to the reward or result (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
virtually (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37547/72933
phalatārakā noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 59874/72933
phalatraya noun (neuter) 3 sorts of fruit collectively (the fruit of the vine) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Gmelina Arborea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Grewia Asiatica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the 3 myrobalans (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Xylacarpus Granatum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7997/72933
phalatrika noun (neuter) the 3 myrobalans (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11733/72933
phalatva noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 17034/72933
phullatuvarī noun (feminine) a variety of tuvarī
Frequency rank 24815/72933
phullatorikā noun (feminine) img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 29349/72933
balatā noun (feminine) strength
Frequency rank 29359/72933
balatva noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 24822/72933
bahalatvaca noun (masculine neuter) the white flowering Lodhra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60071/72933
bahulatara adjective denser (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
thicker (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60138/72933
bahulatva noun (neuter) abounding in (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
comprehensiveness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
muchness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
multiplicity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
numerousness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the being rich in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29376/72933
latanaya noun (masculine) Acacia Catechu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a young son (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60183/72933
latṛṇa noun (neuter) young grass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29382/72933
latva noun (neuter) boyhood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
childhood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37639/72933
bodhilatā noun (feminine) name of a divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 60388/72933
bhadralatā noun (feminine) Gaertnera Racemosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
turmeric
Frequency rank 37764/72933
bhāṇḍīralatikā noun (feminine) Rubia Munjista
Frequency rank 60650/72933
bhillataru noun (masculine) Symplocos Racemosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60760/72933
bhujagalatā noun (feminine) betel-pepper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60803/72933
bhūmilatā noun (feminine) a kind of plant [zool.] a kind of earthworm
Frequency rank 24936/72933
bhūlatā noun (feminine) an earth-worm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6707/72933
maṇḍūkalatikā noun (feminine) name of a divyauṣadhī
Frequency rank 61219/72933
madhuralatā noun (feminine) a kind of liquorice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61366/72933
malatā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 61583/72933
mahāphalatā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 61783/72933
mahīlatā noun (feminine) an earthworm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dew-worm (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61940/72933
lati noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 62130/72933
latī noun (feminine) Aganosma calycina A. DC. (Surapāla (1988), 448) Aganosma dichotoma K. Schum. (Surapāla (1988), 448) a bud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a maid (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
another species of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Bignonia Suaveolens (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
blossom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Echites (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Hiptage benghalensis Kurz (Surapāla (1988), 448) Jasminum angustifolium Vahl (Surapāla (1988), 448) Jasminum Grandiflorum Linn. (plant and blossom) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moonlight or night (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a woman (the heroine of the drama Mālatīmādhava) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kalyāṇamalla's comm. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various metres (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
virgin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4910/72933
latījāta noun (masculine) ṭaṅkaṇa
Frequency rank 38247/72933
latīpattrikā noun (feminine) the outer shell of a nutmeg (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38248/72933
latīphala noun (neuter) a nutmeg (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29676/72933
latīrasasambhava noun (masculine) [medic.] ṭaṅkaṇa
Frequency rank 29677/72933
mudrikālatā noun (feminine) name of a woman; Mudrikālatikā
Frequency rank 38328/72933
mudrikālatikā noun (feminine) name of a woman
Frequency rank 25075/72933
mṛdulatā noun (feminine) a species of grass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 62500/72933
mṛdulatara adjective
Frequency rank 62501/72933
latas indeclinable on the lower side (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
on the root (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38452/72933
latāp