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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
abhiṣṇātam. pl ( snā-), Name of a family (varia lectio abhi-glāna-and ati-glāna-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agrim. a word invented for the explanation of agn/i- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āhatyavacanan. an explicit or energetic explanation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āhatyavādam. an explicit or energetic explanation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amalātakaor a malānaka- n. (a mlāna- q.v) globe amaranth (Gomphraena Globosa), (see amilātaka-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āmlānamfn. varia lectio for a-mlāna- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānabhimlānam. a descendant of an-abhimlāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
annajitmfn. obtaining food by conquest (explanation of vāja-j/it-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
annapūmfn. (explanation of keta--), purifying food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anūktif. mentioning after, repeated mention, repetition by way of explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anūktitvan. state of requiring repetition or explanation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anusaṃjñaptif. explanation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuvādam. saying after or again, repeating by way of explanation, explanatory repetition or reiteration with corroboration or illustration, explanatory reference to anything already said View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuvādaka mfn. repeating with comment and explanation, corroborative, concurrent, conformable, in harmony with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuvādinmfn. repeating with comment and explanation, corroborative, concurrent, conformable, in harmony with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anvākhyānan. an explanation keeping close to the text View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apavyākhyāf. false explanation, , Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apimantramfn. giving an explanation or an account of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārgayana(fr. ṛgayana- ) or ārgayaṇa- (gaRa girinady-ādi- on ) contained in or explanatory of the book ṛgayana-
arthavādam. explanation of the meaning (of any precept) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāgavatakaumudīf. an explanation of some difficult passages in the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhañjanāf. explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṣyan. an explanatory work, exposition, explanation, commentary (especially on technical sūtra-s) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāṣyabhūtamfn. being an explanation, serving as a commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvam. purport, meaning, sense (iti bhāvaḥ-,"such is the sense"equals ity arthaḥ-or ity abhiprāyaḥ-,constantly used by commentators at the end of their explanations) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmaṇan. Brahmanical explanation, explanations of sacred knowledge or doctrine (especially for the use of the Brahmans in their sacrifices) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmaṇan. the brāhmaṇa- portion of the veda- (as distinct from its mantra- and upaniṣad- portion) and consisting of a class of works called brāhmaṇa-s (they contain rules for the employment of the mantra-s or hymns at various sacrifices, with detailed explanations of their origin and meaning and numerous old legends;they are said by sāyaṇa- to contain two parts: 1. vidhi-,rules or directions for rites;2. artha-vāda-,explanatory remarks;each veda- has its own brāhmaṇa-, that of the is preserved in 2 works, viz. the aitareya-, sometimes called āśvalāyana-, and the kauṣītaki- or śāṅkhāyana-- brāhmaṇa-;the white yajur-veda- has the śata-patha-brāhmaṇa-;the black yajur-veda- has the brāhmaṇa- which differs little from the text of its saṃhitā-;the has 8 brāhmaṇa-s, the best known of which are the prauḍha- or pañca-viṃśa- and the ṣaḍviṃśa-;the has one brāhmaṇa- called go-patha-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brahmavādam. discourse on or explanation of sacred texts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandovivṛtif. explanation of metres View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmākhyānan. explanation of duties, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmavivritif. "explanation of the law", Name of works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmavṛttif. "explanation of the law", Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvāṅkṣanāsā f. Ardisia Solanacea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvāṅkṣanāsikāf. Ardisia Solanacea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvāṅkṣatuṇḍā f. Ardisia Solanacea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvāṅkṣatuṇḍīf. Ardisia Solanacea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvāṅkṣavallīf. Ardisia Solanacea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvājam. son of two fathers (wrong explanation of bharadvāja-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyotanikāf. explanation (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekavyākhyānamfn. having the same explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gālietc. See 2. gālana-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gamakamfn. causing to understand, making clear or intelligible, explanatory, leading to clearness or conviction (exempli gratia, 'for example' hetu-,"a convincing reason") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gamanikāf. explanatory paraphrase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇavyākhyānan. " gaṇa--explanation", Name of a grammatical treatise. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
giraṇan. (equals gilana-) swallowing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hīlanāf. (see helana-) injury, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hīnam. subtraction (= equals vyavakalana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalan. a cow's embryo (go-kalaka-or lana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jambuf. the rose apple tree (Eugenia Jambolana or another species) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jambulam. equals bu-, Eugenia Jambolana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jambūlam. Eugenia Jambolana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jvālāf. equals jvalanā- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalāf. an embryo shortly after conception (see kalana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalalan. (as- m. ) the embryo a short time after conception (see kalana-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālānalam. Name of a son of sabhā-nara- (also called kālānara- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kānalakamfn. (varia lectio kālanaka-.)
kaumudīf. elucidation (the word kaumudī- being metaphorically used like other words of similar import[ see candrikā-]at the end of grammatical commentaries and other explanatory works to imply that the book so designated throws much light on the subject of which it treats exempli gratia, 'for example' padārtha-k-, prakriyā-k-, laghu-k-, vaiṣamya-k-, siddhānta-k-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kilaind. (or of explanation) namely etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kokilākṣam. equals lanayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kosalam. plural (in later texts generally, spelt kośala-), Name of a country and the warrior-tribe inhabiting it (descendants of māṭhavya- videgha- ) etc. (kośalānāṃ-[ varia lectio kauśal- ] nakṣatra-Name of a lunar mansion ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣāla lana-, etc. See 2. kṣal-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudraphalāf. "having small fruits", Name of several plants (Ardisia solanacea, Solanum Jacquini, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṇḍalam. Name of two other plants (sarpiṇī-vṛkṣa- and kuṇḍalī-cālana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuraṇṭam. yellow amaranth (pītāmlāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāḍanan. (and varia lectio for) lālana-, fondling, caressing, cherishing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāla lālaka-, lālana- etc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lalanikāf. (diminutive fr. lalanā-) a little woman, miserable woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
latodgamam. (as an explanation of avaroha-) a shoot or root sent down from a branch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liṅarthavāda m. "explanation of the sense of liṅ-", Name of grammatical treatises. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
liṅarthavicāram. "explanation of the sense of liṅ-", Name of grammatical treatises. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāskandhāf. "having a strong stem", Eugenia Jambolana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
makaralāñchanam. equals -kelana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghamodnīf. Eugenia Jambolana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mlāta mlāna-, mlāyin-, mlāsnu- See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mliṣṭamfn. withered, faded, faint (equals mlāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modamodinīf. Eugenia Jambolana (prob. wrong reading for megha-m-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūladvāravatīf. the original or ancient dvāravatī-, the older part of that city (see laghu-dv-, mūlanagara-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
murum. a species of plant (in explanation of maurvī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nadīkāntāf. Eugenia Jambolana or Leea Hirta View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naimittamfn. (fr. ni-mitta-) relating to or explanatory of signs gaRa ṛgayanādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nidhim. a place for deposits or storing up, a receptacle (especially apāṃ nidhi-, r-of waters, the ocean, sea, also Name of a sāman-; kalānāṃ n-,the full moon) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nigamam. any work auxiliary to and explanatory of the veda-s () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīlapuṣpam. equals nīlāmlāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niruktan. explanation or etymological interpretation of a word View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niruktif. (in rhetoric) an artificial explanation or derivation of a word View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirvacanan. interpretation, explanation, etymology View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niryukti(for 1.See) f. (with jaina-s) explanation of a sacred text (see nir-ukti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padabhañjanan. separation or analysis or explanation of words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padavyākhyānan. explanation of words gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paribhāṣāf. any explanatory rule or general definition, (in gram.) a rule or maxim which teaches the proper interpretation or application of other rules View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pārṣṇam. (with śailāna-) Name (also title or epithet) of a teacher, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paspaśam. ( spaś-) an introduction, preface, any introductory matter explanatory of the plan of a book View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paurvapañcālakamfn. equals pūrvaḥ pañcālānām- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
peṣaṇavatmfn. a word formed for the explanation of pipiṣvat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabhāṣaṇan. explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabhāṣaṇīyamfn. relating to an explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradīpam. a light, lamp, lantern etc. (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound'"the light id est the glory or ornament of " exempli gratia, 'for example' kula-pr- q.v;also in titles of explanatory works = elucidation, explanation, exempli gratia, 'for example' mahābhāṣya-pr-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradīpakamf(ikā-)n. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') explanation, commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prājalam. plural Name of a Vedic school (varia lectio prājvalana-and prāñjali-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prajāpālanan. equals -paripālana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakaraṇan. treatment, discussion, explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakāśam. (figuratively) light, elucidation, explanation (especially at the end of titles of explanatory works exempli gratia, 'for example' kāvya--, tarka--etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakāśakatvan. illustration, explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāñjalim. plural Name of a school of the sāmaveda-, (also -dvaita-bhṛt-; varia lectio prājvalanā- dvaita-bhṛtaḥ-and prājalā- dvaita-bhṛtyāḥ-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāpaṇan. elucidation, explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prarocanan. illustration, explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratibodhanan. instruction, explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratijñāpālanan. equals -paripālana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyayam. analysis, solution, explanation, definition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyāyanan. elucidation, explanation, demonstration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravācakamfn. declaratory, explanatory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purumanasmfn. (formed for the explanation of 2. puṃs-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvapañcālam. sg. equals pūrvaḥ pañcālānām- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṣkaa word formed for the explanation of puṣkala- gaRa sidhmādi- (perhaps also underlying the formation of puṣkara-, puṣpa-and puṣka-jit-; see pauṣka-jiti-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūṣkaran. a word formed for the explanation of puṣkara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājaphalāf. Eugenia Jambolana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājārhāf. Eugenia Jambolana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛṣyan. hurt, violation (for the explanation of ṛśya-da-): ([ see riśya-.]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdānuśāsanan. "word-instruction or explanation", Name of pāṇini-'s grammar and similar works (by śākaṭāyana-, hemacandra- etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahanamf(ā-)n. powerful, strong (in explanation of the etymology of siṃha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailīf. a special or particular interpretation (especially a concise explanation of a grammatical aphorism) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lanaSee śālana-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samākhyāf. explanation, interpretation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmānyaniruktif. explanation of the meaning or idea of samanya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkālanan. carrying out or burning (a corpse) (varia lectio saṃ-kalana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃketam. a short explanation of a grammatical rule (= 2. śailī- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṅkhadharam. Name of various authors (especially of the author of the laṭkamelanaprahasana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satphalan. the pomegranate (-phalānām-,w.v.l. for -kalānām- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
setum. a help to the understanding of a text, an explanatory commentary (also Name of various commentaries) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīlamāvatīf. (applied to the indu-s;of doubtful meaning; according to to sāyaṇa-"rich in plants"[fr. silanā-,"a kind of plant of which ropes are made"]; according to to others "rich in water") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītapallavam. Ardisea Solanacea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphālam. quivering (equals spholana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphāla lana- See above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrautapadārthanirvacanan. an explanation of technical terms occurring in śrauta- sacrifices (compiled about 1880 by Benares Pandits). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāvakam. a disciple of the buddha- (the disciples of the hīna-yāna- school are sometimes so called in contradistinction to the disciples of the mahā-yāna- school;properly only those who heard the law from the buddha-'s own lips have the name śrāvaka-,and of these two, viz. Sariputta and Moggallana, were agra-śrāvaka-s, "chief disciples", while eighty, including kāśyapa-, upāli-, and ānanda-, were mahā-śrāvaka-s or"great disciples") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthir cl.1 P. sthirati-, to stand firmly (in an etymol. explanation) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stobham. disrespect, contumely (equals helana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sucittam. (with śailana-) Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śukapriyāf. Eugenia Jambolana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surabhipattrāf. Eugenia Jambolana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūtran. a short sentence or aphoristic rule, and any work or manual consisting of strings of such rules hanging together like threads (these sūtra- works form manuals of teaching in ritual, philosophy, grammar etc.: exempli gratia, 'for example' in ritual there are first the śrauta-sūtra-s, and among them the kalpa-sūtra-s, founded directly on śruti- q.v; they form a kind of rubric to Vedic ceremonial, giving concise rules for the performance of every kind of sacrifice[ ] ; other kinds of śruti- works are the gṛhya-sūtra-s and sāmayācārika- or dharma-sūtra-s id est"rules for domestic ceremonies and conventional customs", sometimes called collectively smārta-sūtra-s [as founded on smṛti-or"tradition"See smārta-]; these led to the later dharmaśāstra-s or"law-books"[ ] ; in philosophy each system has its regular text-book of aphorisms written in sūtra-s by its supposed founder[ ]; in vyākaraṇa- or grammar there are the celebrated sūtra-s of pāṇini- in eight books, which are the groundwork of a vast grammatical literature; with Buddhists, pāśupata-s etc. the term sūtra- is applied to original text books as opp. to explanatory works; with jaina-s they form part of the dṛṣṭivāda-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svāpyayam. turning into one's self (as an explanation of sv/apna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uddeśam. exemplification, illustration, explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uddeśakamfn. illustrative, explanatory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uddeśatasind. by way of explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udumbharam. (fr. bhṛ-with ud-), a word coined for the etymological explanation of udumb/ara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upacūḍanaor upa-cūlana- n. singeing, searing, heating commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upavyākhyānan. ( khyā-), a supplementary explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vādam. explanation, exposition (of holy texts etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiyākhya(prob.) n. equals vyākhyā-, an explanation ( savaiyākhya sa-vaiyākhya- mfn.furnished with an explanation) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lanamfn. (fr. 1. valana-) relating to the variation of the ecliptic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇanan. delineation, description, explanation etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varṇanāf. delineation, description, explanation etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikamfn. explanatory, glossarial, containing or relating to a critical gloss or annotation (See n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārttikan. an explanatory or supplementary rule, critical gloss or annotation (added to a grammatical or philosophical sūtra- and defined to be"the exposition of the meaning, of that which is said, of that which is left unsaid, and of that which is ill or imperfectly said";the term vārttika- is, however, especially applied to kātyāyana-'s critical annotations on the aphorisms of pāṇini-'s grammar, the object of which is to consider whether pāṇini-'s rules are correct or not, and to improve on them where this may be found to be necessary;and also to similar works on various matters by kumārila-, sureśvara- etc.; see tantra-v-, śloka-v-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varūthinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') surrounded by a quantity or heap of (see lalanā-v-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedam. Name of certain celebrated works which constitute the basis of the first period of the Hindu religion (these works were primarily three, viz. 1. the ṛg-veda-, 2. the yajur-veda- [of which there are, however, two divisionsSee taittirīya-saṃhitā-, vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-],3. the sāma-veda-;these three works are sometimes called collectively trayī-,"the triple vidyā-"or"threefold knowledge", but the ṛg-veda- is really the only original work of the three, and much the most ancient [the oldest of its hymns being assigned by some who rely on certain astronomical calculations to a period between 4000 and 2500 B.C., before the settlement of the Aryans in India;and by others who adopt a different reckoning to a period between 1400 and 1000 B.C., when the Aryans had settled down in the Panjab];subsequently a fourth veda- was added, called the atharva-veda-, which was probably not completely accepted till after manu-, as his law-book often speaks of the three veda-s-calling them trayam brahma sanātanam-,"the triple eternal veda-", but only once [ ] mentions the revelation made to atharvan- and aṅgiras-, without, however, calling it by the later name of atharva-veda-;each of the four veda-s has two distinct parts, viz. 1. mantra-, id est words of prayer and adoration often addressed either to fire or to some form of the sun or to some form of the air, sky, wind etc., and praying for health, wealth, long life, cattle, offspring, victory, and even forgiveness of sins, and 2. brāhmaṇa-, consisting of vidhi- and artha-vāda-, i.e. directions for the detail of the ceremonies at which the mantra-s were to be used and explanations of the legends etc. connected with the mantra-s [see brāhmaṇa-, vidhi-],both these portions being termed śruti-,revelation orally communicated by the Deity, and heard but not composed or written down by men[ see ] , although it is certain that both mantra-s and brāhmaṇa-s were compositions spread over a considerable period, much of the latter being comparatively modern;as the veda-s are properly three, so the mantra-s are properly of three forms, 1. ṛc-, which are verses of praise in metre, and intended for loud recitation;2. yajus-, which are in prose, and intended for recitation in a lower tone at sacrifices;3. sāman-, which are in metre, and intended for chanting at the soma- or Moon-plant ceremonies, the mantra-s of the fourth or atharva-veda- having no special name;but it must be borne in mind that the yajur- and sāma-veda- hymns, especially the latter, besides their own mantra-s, borrow largely from the ṛg-veda-;the yajur-veda- and sāma-veda- being in fact not so much collections of prayers and hymns as special prayer- and hymn-books intended as manuals for the adhvaryu- and udgātṛ- priests respectively [see yajur-veda-, sāma-veda-];the atharva-veda-, on the other hand, is, like the ṛg-veda-, a real collection of original hymns mixed up with incantations, borrowing little from the ṛg- and having no direct relation to sacrifices, but supposed by mere recitation to produce long life, to cure diseases, to effect the ruin of enemies etc.;each of the four veda-s seems to have passed through numerous śākhā-s or schools, giving rise to various recensions of the text, though the ṛg-veda- is only preserved in the śākala- recension, while a second recension, that of the bhāṣkala-s, is only known by name;a tradition makes vyāsa- the compiler and arranger of the veda-s in their present form: they each have an Index or anukramaṇī- [ q.v ], the principal work of this kind being the general Index or sarvānukramaṇī- [ q.v ];out of the brāhmaṇa- portion of the veda- grew two other departments of Vedic literature, sometimes included under the general name veda-, viz. the strings of aphoristic rules, called sūtra-s [ q.v ], and the mystical treatises on the nature of God and the relation of soul and matter, called upaniṣad- [ q.v ], which were appended to the āraṇyaka-s [ q.v ], and became the real veda- of thinking Hindus, leading to the darśana-s or systems of philosophy;in the later literature the name of"fifth veda-"is accorded to the itihāsa-s or legendary epic poems and to the purāṇa-s, and certain secondary veda-s or upa-veda-s [ q.v ] are enumerated;the vedāṅga-s or works serving as limbs [for preserving the integrity] of the veda- are explained under vedāṅga-below: the only other works included under the head of veda- being the pariśiṣṭa-s, which supply rules for the ritual omitted in the sūtra-s;in the bṛhad-āraṇyaka- upaniṣad- the veda-s are represented as the breathings of brahmā-, while in some of the purāṇa-s the four veda-s are said to have issued out of the four mouths of the four-faced brahmā- and in the viṣṇu-purāṇa- the veda- and viṣṇu- are identified)
vedāṅgan. "a limb (for preserving the body) of the veda-", Name of certain works or classes of works regarded as auxiliary to and even in some sense as part of the veda-, (six are usually enumerated [and mostly written in the sūtra- or aphoristic style];1. śikṣā-,"the science of proper articulation and pronunciation", comprising the knowledge of letters, accents, quantity, the use of the organs of pronunciation, and phonetics generally, but especially the laws of euphony peculiar to the veda- [many short treatises and a chapter of the taittirīya-āraṇyaka- are regarded as the representatives of this subject;but other works on Vedic phonetics may be included under itSee prātiśākhya-]:2. chandas-,"metre"[represented by a treatise ascribed to piṅgala-nāga-, which, however, treats of Prakrit as well as Sanskrit metres, and includes only a few of the leading Vedic metres]: 3. vyākaraṇa-,"linguistic analysis or grammar"[represented by pāṇini-'s celebrated sūtra-s]: 4. nirukta-,"explanation of difficult Vedic words"[ see yāska-]:5. jyotiṣa-,"astronomy", or rather the Vedic calendar [represented by a small tract, the object of which is to fix the most auspicious days for sacrifices]: 6. kalpa-,"ceremonial", represented by a large number of sūtra- works[ see sūtra-]:the first and second of these vedāṅga-s are said to be intended to secure the correct reading or recitation of the veda-, the third and fourth the understanding of it, and the fifth and sixth its proper employment at sacrifices: the vedāṅga-s are alluded to by manu-, who calls them, in , pravacana-s, "expositions", a term which is said to be also applied to the brāhmaṇa-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibandham. equals ākalana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhāvanan. causing to appear or become visible, development, creation (Scholiast or Commentator equals pālana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhim. (for 1.See) a rule, formula, injunction, ordinance, statute, precept, law, direction (especially for the performance of a rite as given in the brāhmaṇa- portion of the veda-, which according to to consists of two parts, 1. vidhi-,"precepts or commandments" exempli gratia, 'for example' yajeta-,"he ought to sacrifice", kuryāt-,"he ought to perform";2. artha-vāda-, "explanatory statements"as to the origin of rites and use of the mantra-s, mixed up with legends and illustrations) etc. (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikhyāpanan. explanation, exposition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilola vi-lolana-, vi-lolita-. See column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipralāpam. (for 1.See) discussion, explanation
viś cl.6 P. () viś/ati- (rarely, in later language mostly mc. also A1. viśate-; perfect tense viv/eśa-, viviśe- etc.[ viveśitha-, viveśuḥ- ; viviśyās- ; parasmE-pada -viśiv/as- ; viviśivas-or viviśvas- ; aviveśīs- ]; Aorist /aviśran-, /avikṣmahi-, veśīt- ; avikṣat- etc.; avikṣata- grammar; preceding viśyāt- ; future veṣṭā- ; vekṣyati-, te- etc.; infinitive mood veṣṭum- etc.; veṣṭavai- ; viśam- ; ind.p. -viśya- etc.) , to enter, enter in or settle down on, go into (accusative locative case,or antar-with genitive case), pervade etc. etc. (with punar-or bhūyas-,to re-enter, return, come back) ; to be absorbed into (accusative) ; (in astronomy) to come into conjunction with (accusative) ; (with agnim-, jvalanam-etc.) to enter the fire id est ascend the funeral pyre etc. ; (with apas-) to sink or be immersed in the water ; to enter (a house etc.) ; to appear (on the stage) ; to go home or to rest ; to sit down upon (accusative or locative case) ; to resort or betake one's self to (agratas-, agre-,or accusative) ; to flow into (and, join with,; applied to rivers and armies) ; to flow or redound to, fall to the share of (accusative) etc. ; to occur to (as a thought, with accusative) ; to befall, come to (as death, with accusative) ; to belong to, exist for (locative case) ; to fall or get into any state or condition (accusative) ; to enter upon, undertake, begin ; to mind (any business), attend to (dative case) : Causal veś/ayati-, te- (Aorist avīviśat-; Passive voice veśyate-), to cause to enter into (accusative) ; to cause to sit down on (locative case) : Desiderative vivikṣati-, to wish to enter (accusative) ; (with agnim-or vahnim-) to wish to enter the fire id est to ascend the funeral pyre : Intensive veviśyate-, veveṣṭi-, grammar ([ confer, compare Greek ; Latin vicus; Lithuanian ve0sze8ti; Slavonic or Slavonian vi8si8; Gothic weihs; Anglo-Saxon wi7c; Germ,wi7ch,Weich-bild.])
viśeṣaniruktif. (in the beginning of a compound) "explanation of differences" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśisf. (prob.) explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivaraṇamfn. explanation, exposition, interpretation, gloss, comment, translation, interpretation, specification etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivṛtif. making clear or manifest, explanation, exposition, gloss, comment, interpretation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttamālāf. Name of work on metre. (also with vṛtta-muktā-phalānām-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttif. (in gram.) a complex formation which requires explanation or separation into its parts (as distinguished from a simple or uncompounded form exempli gratia, 'for example' any word formed with kṛt- or taddhita- affixes, any compound and even duals and plurals which are regarded as dvaṃdva- compounds, of which only one member is left, and all derivative verbs such as desideratives etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttif. a commentary, comment, gloss, explanation (especially on a sūtra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākaraṇan. explanation, detailed description View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākhyāf. explanation, exposition, gloss, comment, Paraphrase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākhyāgamyan. anything which can only be understood by explanation, a kind of uttarābhāsa- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākhyāsthānan. "place for explanation", lecture-room, school-room View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyākṛtif. detailed description, explanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāsāśramam. Name of amalānanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyūham. detailed explanation or description View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyutpādanan. etymological explanation, derivation from (ablative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāgakaṇṭakam. "sacrifice-thorn", a bad sacrificer (who does not know the god, metre, glossarial explanation, Brahman, ṛṣi-, kṛt- and taddhita- affixes of the Vedic verses) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvatmf(atī-)n. (fr. 3. ya-;correlative of tāvat- q.v) as great, as large, as much, as many, as often, as frequent, as far, as long, as old etc. (or how great etc. = quantus, quot or qualis) etc. (y/āvantaḥ k/iyantaḥ-,"as many as"; y/āvad vā yāvad vā-,"as much as possible"; yāvat tāvat-,"so much as", in algebra applied to the first unknown quantity [= x] or so much of the unknown as its co-efficient number;in this sense also expressed by the first syllable - see ; iti yāvat-in Comms. "just so much","only so","that is to say","such is the explanation") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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a अ The first letter of the alphabet; अक्षंराणामकारो$स्मि Bg.10.33. -अः [अवति, अतति सातत्येन तिष्ठतीति वा; अव्-अत् वा, ड Tv.] 1 N. of Viṣṇu, the first of the three sounds constituting the sacred syllable ओम्; अकारो विष्णुरुद्दिष्ट उकारस्तु महेश्वरः । मकारस्तु स्मृतो ब्रह्मा प्रणवस्तु त्रयात्मकः ॥ For more explanations of the three syllables अ, उ, म् see ओम्. -2 N. of Śiva, Brahmā, Vāyu, or Vaiśvānara.-- [अः कृष्णः शंकरो ब्रह्मा शक्रः सोमो$निलो$नलः । सूर्यः प्राणो यमः कालो वसन्तः प्रणवः सुखी ॥ Enm. अः स्याद् ब्रह्मणि विष्ण्वीशकूर्माणङ्करणेषु च। गौरवे$न्तःपुरे हेतौ भूषणे$ङ्घ्रावुमेज्ययोः ॥ Nm. अः शिखायां सिद्धमन्त्रे प्रग्राहे$र्के रथार्वणि । चक्रे कुक्कुटमूर्ध्नीन्दुबिम्बे ब्रह्मेशविष्णुषु ॥ ibid. Thus अः means Kṛiṣṇa, Śiva, Brahmā, Indra, Soma, Vāyu, Agni, the Sun, the life-breath, Yama, Kāla, Vasanta, Praṇava, a happy man, a tortoise, a courtyard, a battle, greatness, a female apartment in a palace, an object or a cause, an ornament, a foot, Umā, sacrifice, a flame, a particularly efficacious mantra, reins, the horse of chariot, a wheel, the head of a cock, the disc of the moon]; ind. 1 A Prefix corresponding to Latin in, Eng. in or un, Gr. a or an, and joined to nouns, adjectives, indeclinables (or rarely even to verbs) as a substitute for the negative particle ऩञ्, and changed to अन् before vowels (except in the word अ-ऋणिन्). The senses of न usually enumerated are six--(a) सादृश्य 'likeness' or 'resemblance', अब्राह्मणः one like a Brāhmaṇa (wearing the sacred thread &c.), but not a Brāhmaṇa; a Kṣatriya, or a Vaiśya; अनिक्षुः a reed appearing like इक्षु, but not a true इक्षु. (b) अभाव 'absence', 'negation', 'want', 'privation'; अज्ञानम् absence of knowledge, ignorance; अक्रोधः, अनङ्गः, अकण्टकः, अघटः &c. (c) अन्यत्व 'difference' or 'distinction'; अपटः not a cloth, something different from, or other than, a cloth. (d) अल्पता 'smallness', 'diminution', used as a diminutive particle; अनुदरा having a slender waist (कृशोदरी or तनुमध्यमा). (e) अप्राशस्त्य 'badness', 'unfitness', having a depreciative sense; अकालः wrong or improper time; अकार्यम् not fit to be done, improper, unworthy, bad act. (f) विरोध 'opposition', 'contrariety'; अनीतिः the opposite of morality; immorality; असित not white, black; असुर not a god, a demon &c. These senses are put together in the following verse :-- तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च ऩञर्थाः षट् प्रकीर्तिताः ॥ See न also. With verbal derivatives, such as gerunds, infinitives, participles, it has usually the sense of 'not'; अदग्ध्वा not having burnt; अपश्यन् not seeing; so असकृत् not once; अमृषा, अकस्मात् &c. Sometimes in बहुव्रीहि अ does not affect the sense of the second member : अ-पश्चिम that which has no last, i. e. best, topmost; e. g. विपश्चितामपश्चिमः cf. also R.19.1. अनुत्तम having no superior, unsurpassed, most excellent: (for examples see these words). -2 An interjection of (a) Pity (ah !) अ अवद्यं P.I.1.14 Sk. (b) Reproach, censure (fie, shame); अपचसि त्वं जाल्म P.VI.3.73 Vārt. See अकरणि, अजीवनि also. (c) Used in addressing; अ अनन्त. (d) It is also used as a particle of prohibition. -3 The augment prefixed to the root in the formation of the Imperfect, Aorist and Conditional Tenses. N. B.-- The application of this privative prefix is practically unlimited; to give every possible case would almost amount to a dictionary itself. No attempt will, therefore, be made to give every possible combination of this prefix with a following word; only such words as require a special explanation, or such as most frequently occur in literature and enter into compounds with other words, will be given; others will be found self-explaining when the English 'in', 'un', or 'not', is substituted for अ or अन् before the meaning of the second word, or the sense may be expressed by 'less', 'free from', 'devoid or destitute of' &c; अकथ्य unspeakable; अदर्प without pride, or freedom from pride; अप्रगल्भ not bold; अभग unfortunate; अवित्त destitute of wealth &c. In many cases such compounds will be found explained under the second member. Most compounds beginning with अ or अन् are either Tatpuruṣa or Bahuvrīhi (to be determined by the sense) and should be so dissolved.
adhyāsaḥ अध्यासः [अस्-घञ्] 1 False attribution, wrong supposition (गिथ्याज्ञनम्, अतस्मिंस्तद्बुद्धिः or अयथार्थानुभवः); स्मृतिरूपः परत्र पूर्वदृष्टावभासः; for full explanation see Ś. B.8-22 and अध्यारोप also. -2 An appendage. -3 Putting down upon; पादाध्यासे शतं दमः Y.2.217.
anūkta अनूक्त p. p. Repeated, recited after; occurring in the text studied. यथा वेदो वाननूक्तो$न्यद्वा कर्माकृतम् Bṛi. Up.1. 4.15. -क्तम्, -क्तिः f. 1 Subsequent mention; repetition by way of explanation or illustration. -2 Study of the Vedas.
anuvad अनुवद् 1 P. 1 To imitate in speaking, mock (with acc.); गिरं नः...अनुवदति शुकस्ते मञ्जुवाक् पञ्जरस्थः R.5.74 repeat; उक्तमनुवदति Sk.; (P. & A.) to resound, echo; अनुवदति वीणा P.I.3.49 Sk. अनुवदते कठः कलापस्य ibid.; सभा- भित्तिप्रतिध्वानैर्भयादन्ववदन्निब Śi.2.67 echoed and approved also; घोषस्यान्ववदिष्टेव लङ्का पूतक्रतोः पुरः Bk.8.29. -2 To repeat or say again by way of explanation, illustration or corroboration; see Kull. on Ms.1.74;2.6. -3 To repeat, tell, say (generally); निजमनोरथमनुबदन्त्या Dk.21. -4 To abuse, rail at. -Caus. To cause to resound or echo.
anuvādaḥ अनुवादः 1 Repetition (in general); गुण˚ K.26. -2 Repetition by way of explanation, illustration or corroboration; अनुवादे चरणानाम् P.II.4.3. (सिद्धस्योपन्यासे Sk.) -3 Explanatory repetition or reference to what is already mentioned, such as paraphrase or free translation; particularly, any portion of the Brāhmaṇas which comments on, illustrates, or explains a Vidhi or direction previously laid down and which does not itself lay down any directions; a supplementary repetition, opp. to विधि 'authoritative or direct injunction'; विधिविहितस्य अनुवचनमनुवादः । नानुवादपुनरुक्तयोः विशेषः शब्दाभ्या- सोपपत्तेः Nyāya sūtra; cf. also विध्यनुवादयोर्विधिर्ज्यायान्, अपू- र्वार्थप्रकल्पत्वादिति ŚB. on MS.1.6.3. It is of 3 kinds:- भूतार्थ˚ (सदेव सौम्येदमग्र आसीत्); स्तुत्यर्थ˚ (वायुर्वै क्षेपिष्ठा देवता) and गुण˚ (अग्निहोत्रं जुहोति इत्युक्ते दध्ना जुहोति इति गुणविधानात्); see अर्थवाद also. -4 Corroboration, confirmation. -5 Slander, abuse, reviling. -6 Advertisement, notice; report, rumour. -7 Commencement of speech (वाचारम्भणमात्रम्).
anuvādaka अनुवादक वादिन् a. 1 Explanatory, corroborative, repeating with comment, explanation or illustration; आरम्भश्च साहसानुवादी Dk.95 bespeaks. -2 Conformable to, in harmony with, like; युक्तगीतानुवादिना Rām.; तदनु- वादिगुणः कुसुमोद्गमः R.9.33. -न् m. N. of any one of the three notes of the gamut.
anuśāsanam अनुशासनम् Advice, persuasion, direction, order. command; instruction, laying down rules or precepts; a law, rule, precept; treatment (of a subject), (with the object in comp. or with gen., the agent, if expressed, being put in the instr. or gen.); एतद्वै भद्रमनुशासनस्य Rv.1.32.7. एतदनुशासनम् Tait. Up.7.9.7. भवत्यधिक्षेप इवानुशासनम् Ki.1.28 words of advice; तन्मनोरनुशासनम् Ms.8.139;6.5;2.159; यौवन˚ K.146; नामलिङ्ग˚ laying down rules on the gender of nouns, explanation of gender &c.; शब्दानुशासनम् Sk.; शब्दानामनुशासनमाचार्यस्य आचार्येण वा P.II.3.66 Sk. -Comp. -पर a. obedient. -पर्वन् N. of the 13th book of the Mahābhārata (so called because it lays down precepts of advice).
antarā अन्तरा ind. (fr. अन्तर) 1 (Used adverbially) (a) In the interior, inside, within, inwardly; भवद्भिरन्तरा प्रोत्साह्य कोपितो वृषलः Mu.3 inwardly, secretly. (b) In the middle, between; त्रिशङ्कुरिवान्तरा तिष्ठ Ś.2 stay between the two or in the mid-air; मैनमन्तरा प्रतिबध्नीत Ś.6 do not interrupt him (in the middle); अक्षेत्रे बीजमुत्सृ- ष्टमन्तरैव विनश्यति Ms.1.71 therein; पशुमण्डूकमार्जारश्वसर्पन- कुलाखुभिः । अन्तरा गमने 4.126; अन्तरा शकलीकृतः R.15.2; लाटी तु रीतिर्वैदर्भीपाञ्चाल्योरन्तरास्थिता S. D.629; ˚रा स्था to oppose, to stand to oppose; तत्र यद्यन्तरा मृत्युर्यदि सेन्द्रा दिवौकसः । स्थास्यन्ति तानपि रणे काकुत्स्थो विहनिष्यति ॥ Rām. (c) On the way, en route, midway; विलम्बेथां च मान्तरा Mv.7.28; अन्तरा चारणेभ्यस्त्वदीयं जयोदाहरणं श्रुत्वा त्वामिहस्थमु- पागताः V.1; अन्तरा दृष्टा देवी Ś.6; अन्तरोपलभ्य Dk.52; K.267,34-5; कुमारो ममाप्यन्तिकमुपागच्छन्नन्तरा त्वदीयेनान्त- पालेन अवस्कन्द्य गृहीतः M.1, अन्तरा पतिते पिण्डे सन्देहे वा पुनर्हरेत् Y.2.17. (d) In the neighbourhood, near, at hand; approaching, resembling; न द्रक्ष्यामः पुनर्जातु धार्मिकं राममन्तरा Rām. approaching or resembling Rāma. (e) Nearly, almost. f) In the mean time; नाद्याच्चैव तथान्तरा Ms.2. 56; Y.3.2. (g) At intravals, here and there; now and then, for sometime, now-now (when repeated); अन्तरा पितृसक्तमन्तरा मातृसंबद्धमन्तरा शुकनासमयं कुर्वन्नालापम् K.118; अन्तरान्तरा निपतित here and there, at intervals; 121,127; प्रजानुरागहेतोश्चान्तरान्तरा दर्शनं ददौ 58, Dk.49. -2 (Used as a preposition with acc. P.II,3.4.) (a) Between; पञ्चालास्त इमे ...... कलिन्दतनयां त्रिस्रोतसं चान्तरा B. R.1. 86; यन्दतरा पितरं मातरं च Bṛi. Ār. Up.; ते (नामरूपे) यदन्तरा तद् ब्रह्म Ch. Up.; अन्तरा त्वां च मां च कमण्डलुः Mbh.; rarely with loc.; सुमन्त्रस्य बभूवात्मा चक्रयोरिव चान्तरा Rām.; पादयोः शकटं चक्रुरन्तरोरावुलूखलम् Rām. (b) Through; तिरस्कारिणमन्तरा ibid. (c) During; अन्तरा कथाम् S. D. (d) Without, except; न च प्रयोजनमन्तरा चाणक्यः स्वप्ने$पि चेष्टते Mu.3. -Comp. -अंसः the space between the shoulders, breast; अथ ˚से अभिमृश्य जपति Śat. Br. -˚गर्भिणीन्यायः a position similar to the foetus which resides in the womb of a female; a topic within a topic; an अधिकरण within an अधिकरण (which is not a very desirable or acceptable situation in the explanation of a ग्रन्थ); तत्र एवमन्तरागर्भिणीन्यायो भवतीति अन्यथा सूत्रं वर्ण्यते । ŚB. on MS.1.3.62;9.3.2+3. -भवदेहः -भवसत्त्वम् the soul or embodied soul existing between the two stages of death and birth (यो मरणजन- नयोरन्तराले स्थितः प्राणी सो$न्तराभवसत्त्वः). -दिश् see अन्तरदिश्. -भरः Ved. bringing into the midst or procuring स नः शक्रश्चिदा शकद् दानवाँ अन्तराभरः Rv.8.32.12. -वेदिः -दी f. 1 a veranda resting on columns, porch, portico. -2 a kind of wall जयश्रीरन्तरावेदिर्मत्तवारणयोरिव -शृङ्गम् ind. between the horns.
anvākhyānam अन्वाख्यानम् 1 Subsequent mention or enumeration; an explanation referring to what is mentioned before. -2 Section, chapter.
abhisaṃdhiḥ अभिसंधिः 1 Speech; deliberate declaration, promise. -2 Intention, object, purpose, aim; दम्पत्योः प्राणसश्लेषे यो$- भिसंधिः कृतः किल Mb.12.266.34; तस्या अभिसंधिना विधेयीकृतो$पि Māl.1; Dk.38; स्वर्ग˚ Ku.6.47. -3 Implied sense, the meaning intended, as in अयमभिसन्धिः (frequently occurring in explanatory glosses). -4 Opinion, belief. -5 Special agreement, terms of an agreement, condition, stipulation; अथावश्यमेव माधवसेनः पूज्येन मोचयितव्यः श्रूयतामभिसन्धिः M.1. -6 Deception, Making peace or alliance. -8 Junction, combination. -Comp. -कृत a. done intentionally.
aruciḥ अरुचिः f. 1 Aversion, dislike in general; क्व सा भोगानामुपर्यरुचिः K.146. -2 Want of appetite, disrelish, disgust; सन्निपातक्षयश्वासकासहिक्कारुचिप्रणुत् Suśr. -3 Absence of a satisfactory explanation.
arthaḥ अर्थः [In some of its senses from अर्थ्; in others from ऋ-थन् Uṇ.2.4; अर्थते ह्यसौ अर्थिभिः Nir.] 1 Object, purpose, end and aim; wish, desire; ज्ञातार्थो ज्ञातसंबन्धः श्रोतुं श्रोता प्रवर्तते, सिद्ध˚, ˚परिपन्थी Mu.5; ˚वशात् 5.8; स्मर्तव्यो$स्मि सत्यर्थे Dk.117 if it be necessary; Y.2.46; M.4.6; oft. used in this sense as the last member of compounds and translated by 'for', 'intended for', 'for the sake of', 'on account of', 'on behalf of', and used like an adj. to qualify nouns; अर्थेन तु नित्य- समासो विशेष्यनिघ्रता च Vārt.; सन्तानार्थाय विधये R.1.34; तां देवतापित्रतिथिक्रियार्थाम् (धेनुम्) 2.16; द्विजार्था यवागूः Sk.; यज्ञार्थात्कर्मणो$न्यत्र Bg.3.9. It mostly occurs in this sense as अर्थम्, अर्थे or अर्थाय and has an adverbial force; (a) किमर्थम् for what purpose, why; यदर्थम् for whom or which; वेलोपलक्षणार्थम् Ś.4; तद्दर्शनादभूच्छम्भोर्भूयान्दारार्थ- मादरः Ku.6.13; (b) परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत् H.1.41; गवार्थे ब्राह्मणार्थे च Pt.1.42; मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः Bg.1.9; (c) सुखार्थाय Pt.4.18; प्रत्याख्याता मया तत्र नलस्यार्थाय देवताः Nala.13.19; ऋतुपर्णस्य चार्थाय 23.9. -2 Cause, motive, reason, ground, means; अलुप्तश्च मुनेः क्रियार्थः R. 2.55 means or cause; अतो$र्थात् Ms.2.213. -3 Meaning, sense, signification, import; अर्थ is of 3 kinds:-- वाच्य or expressed, लक्ष्य or indicated (secondary), and व्यङ्ग्य or suggested; तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ K. P.1; अर्थो वाच्यश्च लक्ष्यश्च व्यङ्ग्यश्चेति त्रिधा मतः S. D.2; वागर्थाविव R.1.1; अवेक्ष्य धातोर्गमनार्थमर्थवित् 3.21. -4 A thing, object, substance; लक्ष्मणो$र्थं ततः श्रुत्वा Rām.7.46.18; अर्थो हि कन्या परकीय एव Ś.4.22; that which can be perceived by the senses, an object of sense; इन्द्रिय˚ H.1.146; Ku.7.71; R.2.51; न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुः Nir.; इन्द्रियेभ्यः परा ह्यर्था अर्थेभ्यश्च परं मनः Kaṭh. (the objects of sense are five : रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द); शब्दः स्पर्शो रसो गन्धो रूपं चेत्यर्थजातयः Bhāg.11.22.16. -5 (a) An affair, business, matter, work; प्राक् प्रतिपन्नो$यमर्थो$- ङ्गराजाय Ve.3; अर्थो$यमर्थान्तरभाव्य एव Ku.3.18; अर्थो$र्था- नुबन्धी Dk.67; सङ्गीतार्थः Me.66 business of singing i. e. musical concert (apparatus of singing); सन्देशार्थाः Me. 5 matters of message, i. e. messages; (b) Interest, object; स्वार्थसाधनतत्परः Ms.4.196; द्वयमेवार्थसाधनम् R.1. 19;2.21; दुरापे$र्थे 1.72; सर्वार्थचिन्तकः Ms.7.121; माल- विकायां न मे कश्चिदर्थः M.3 I have no interest in M. (c) Subject-matter, contents (as of letters &c.); त्वामव- गतार्थं करिष्यति Mu.1 will acquaint you with the matter; उत्तरो$यं लेखार्थः ibid.; तेन हि अस्य गृहीतार्था भवामि V.2 if so I should know its contents; ननु परिगृहीतार्थो$- स्मि कृतो भवता V.5; तया भवतो$विनयमन्तरेण परिगृहीतार्था कृता देवी M.4 made acquainted with; त्वया गृहीतार्थया अत्रभवती कथं न वारिता 3; अगृहीतार्थे आवाम् Ś.6; इति पौरान् गृहीतार्थान् कृत्वा ibid. -6 Wealth, riches, property, money (said to be of 3 kinds : शुक्ल honestly got; शबल got by more or less doubtful means, and कृष्ण dishonestly got;) त्यागाय संभृतार्थानाम् R.1.7; धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः Pt.1.163; अर्थानामर्जने दुःखम् ibid.; सस्यार्थास्तस्य मित्राणि1.3; तेषामर्थे नियुञ्जीत शूरान् दक्षान् कुलोद्गतान् Ms.7.62. -7 Attainment of riches or worldly prosperity, regarded as one of the four ends of human existence, the other three being धर्म, काम and मोक्ष; with अर्थ and काम, धर्म forms the well-known triad; cf. Ku.5.38; अप्यर्थकामौ तस्यास्तां धर्म एव मनीषिणः R.1.25. -8 (a) Use, advantage, profit, good; तथा हि सर्वे तस्यासन् परार्थैकफला गुणाः R.1.29 for the good of others; अर्थान- र्थावुभौ बुद्ध्वा Ms.8.24 good and evil; क्षेत्रिणामर्थः 9.52; यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः सांप्लुतोदके Bg.2.46; also व्यर्थ, निरर्थक q. v. (b) Use, want, need, concern, with instr.; को$र्थः पुत्रेण जातेन Pt.1 what is the use of a son being born; कश्च तेनार्थः Dk.59; को$र्थस्तिरश्चां गुणैः Pt.2.33 what do brutes care for merits; Bh.2.48; योग्येनार्थः कस्य न स्याज्ज- नेन Ś.18.66; नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो नाकृतेनेह कश्चन Bg.3.18; यदि प्राणैरिहार्थो वो निवर्तध्वम् Rām. को नु मे जीवितेनार्थः Nala.12. 65. -9 Asking, begging; request, suit, petition. -1 Action, plaint (in law); अर्थ विरागाः पश्यन्ति Rām.2.1. 58; असाक्षिकेषु त्वर्थेषु Ms.8.19. -11 The actual state, fact of the matter; as in यथार्थ, अर्थतः, ˚तत्वविद्, यदर्थेन विनामुष्य पुंस आत्मविपर्ययः Bhāg.3.7.1. -12 Manner, kind, sort. -13 Prevention, warding off; मशकार्थो धूमः; prohibition, abolition (this meaning may also be derived from 1 above). -14 Price (perhaps an incorrect form for अर्घ). -15 Fruit, result (फलम्). तस्य नानुभवेदर्थं यस्य हेतोः स रोपितः Rām.6.128.7; Mb.12.175.5. -16 N. of a son of धर्म. -17 The second place from the लग्न (in astr.). -18 N. of Viṣṇu. -19 The category called अपूर्व (in पूर्वमीमांसा); अर्थ इति अपूर्वं ब्रूमः । ŚB. on MS.7.1.2. -2 Force (of a statement or an expression); अर्थाच्च सामर्थ्याच्च क्रमो विधीयते । ŚB. on MS.5.1.2. [अर्थात् = by implication]. -21 The need, purpose, sense; व्यवधानादर्थो बलीयान् । ŚB. on MS.6.4.23. -22 Capacity, power; अर्थाद्वा कल्पनैकदेशत्वात् । Ms.1.4.3 (where Śabara paraphrases अर्थात् by सामर्थ्यात् and states the rule: आख्यातानामर्थं ब्रुवतां शक्तिः सहकारिणी ।), cf. अर्थो$भिधेयरैवस्तुप्रयोजननिवृत्तिषु । मोक्षकारणयोश्च...... Nm. -Comp. -अतिदेशः Extension (of gender, number &e.) to the objects (as against words), i. e. to treat a single object as though it were many, a female as though it were male. (तन्त्रवार्त्तिक 1.2.58.3;6.3.34.7). -अधिकारः charge of money, office of treasurer ˚रे न नियोक्तव्यौ H.2. -अधिकारिन् m. a treasurer, one charged with financial duties, finance minister. -अनुपपत्तिः f. The difficulty of accounting for or explaining satisfactorily a particular meaning; incongruity of a particular meaning (तन्त्रवार्त्तिक 4.3.42.2). -अनुयायिन् a. Following the rules (शास्त्र); तत्त्रिकालहितं वाक्यं धर्म्यमर्थानुयायि च Rām.5.51.21. -अन्वेषणम् inquiry after a matter. -अन्तरम् 1 another or different meaning. -2 another cause or motive; अर्थो$यम- र्थान्तरभाव्य एव Ku.3.18. -3 A new matter or circumstance, new affair. -4 opposite or antithetical meaning, difference of meaning. ˚न्यासः a figure of speech in which a general proposition is adduced to support a particular instance, or a particular instance, to support a general proposition; it is an inference from particular to general and vice versa; उक्तिरर्थान्तरन्यासः स्यात् सामान्यविशेषयोः । (1) हनूमानब्धिमतरद् दुष्करं किं महात्मनाम् ॥ (2) गुणवद्वस्तुसंसर्गाद्याति नीचो$पि गौरवम् । पुष्पमालानुषङ्गेण सूत्रं शिरसि धार्यते Kuval.; cf. also K. P.1 and S. D.79. (Instances of this figure abound in Sanskrit literature, especially in the works of Kālidāsa, Māgha and Bhāravi). -अन्वित a. 1 rich, wealthy. -2 significant. -अभिधान a. 1 That whose name is connected with the purpose to be served by it; अर्थाभिधानं प्रयोजनसम्बद्धमभिधानं यस्य, यथा पुरोडाश- कपालमिति पुरोडाशार्थं कपालं पुरोडाशकपालम् । ŚB. on MS.4.1. 26. -2 Expression or denotation of the desired meaning (वार्त्तिक 3.1.2.5.). -अर्थिन् a. one who longs for or strives to get wealth or gain any object. अर्थार्थी जीवलोको$यम् । आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी Bg.7.16. -अलंकरः a figure of speech determined by and dependent on the sense, and not on sound (opp. शब्दालंकार). अलंकारशेखर of केशवमिश्र mentions (verse 29) fourteen types of अर्थालंकारs as follows:- उपमारूपकोत्प्रेक्षाः समासोक्तिरपह्नुतिः । समाहितं स्वभावश्च विरोधः सारदीपकौ ॥ सहोक्तिरन्यदेशत्वं विशेषोक्तिर्विभावना । एवं स्युरर्थालकारा- श्चतुर्दश न चापरे ॥ -आगमः 1 acquisition of wealth, income; ˚गमाय स्यात् Pt.1. cf. also अर्थागमो नित्यमरोगिता च H. -2 collection of property. -3 conveying of sense; S. D.737. -आपत्तिः f. [अर्थस्य अनुक्तार्थस्य आपत्तिः सिद्धिः] 1 an inference from circumstances, presumption, implication, one of the five sources of knowledge or modes of proof, according to the Mīmāṁsakas. It is 'deduction of a matter from that which could not else be'; it is 'assumption of a thing, not itself perceived but necessarily implied by another which is seen, heard, or proved'; it is an inference used to account for an apparent inconsistency; as in the familiar instance पीनो देवदत्तो दिवा न भुङ्क्ते the apparent inconsistency between 'fatness' and 'not eating by day' is accounted for by the inference of his 'eating by night'. पीनत्वविशि- ष्टस्य देवदत्तस्य रात्रिभोजित्वरूपार्थस्य शब्दानुक्तस्यापि आपत्तिः. It is defined by Śabara as दृष्टः श्रुतो वार्थो$न्यथा नोपपद्यते इत्यर्थ- कल्पना । यथा जीवति देवदत्ते गृहाभावदर्शनेन बहिर्भावस्यादृष्टस्य कल्पना ॥ Ms.1.1.5. It may be seen from the words दृष्टः and श्रुतः in the above definition, that Śabara has suggested two varieties of अर्थापत्ति viz. दृष्टार्थापत्ति and श्रुता- र्थापत्ति. The illustration given by him, however, is of दृष्टार्थापत्ति only. The former i. e. दृष्टार्थापत्ति consists in the presumption of some अदृष्ट अर्थ to account for some दृष्ट अर्थ (or अर्थs) which otherwise becomes inexplicable. The latter, on the other hand, consists in the presumption of some अर्थ through अश्रुत शब्द to account for some श्रुत अर्थ (i. e. some statement). This peculiarity of श्रुतार्थापत्ति is clearly stated in the following couplet; यत्र त्वपरिपूर्णस्य वाक्यस्यान्वयसिद्धये । शब्दो$ध्याह्रियते तत्र श्रुतार्थापत्ति- रिष्यते ॥ Mānameyodaya p.129 (ed. by K. Raja, Adyar, 1933). Strictly speaking it is no separate mode of proof; it is only a case of अनुमान and can be proved by a व्यतिरेकव्याप्ति; cf. Tarka. K.17 and S. D.46. -2 a figure of speech (according to some rhetoricians) in which a relevant assertion suggests an inference not actually connected with the the subject in hand, or vice versa; it corresponds to what is popularly called कैमुतिकन्याय or दण्डापूपन्याय; e. g. हारो$यं हरिणाक्षीणां लुण्ठति स्तनमण्डले । मुक्तानामप्यवस्थेयं के वयं स्मरकिङ्कराः Amaru.1; अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43.; S. D. thus defines the figure:- दण्डापूपिकन्यायार्थागमो$र्थापत्तिरिष्यते. -उत्पत्तिः f. acquisition of wealth; so ˚उपार्जनम्. -उपक्षेपकः an introductory scene (in dramas); अर्थोपक्षेपकाः पञ्च S. D.38. They are विष्कम्भ, चूलिका, अङ्कास्य, अङ्कावतार, प्रवेशक. -उपमा a simile dependent on sense and not on sound; see under उपमा. -उपार्जनम् Acquiring wealth. -उष्मन् m. the glow or warmth of wealth; अर्थोष्मणा विरहितः पुरुषः स एव Bh.2.4. -ओघः, -राशिः treasure, hoard of money. -कर (-री f.), -कृत a. 1 bringing in wealth, enriching; अर्थकरी च विद्या H. Pr.3. -2 useful, advantageous. -कर्मन् n. 1 a principal action (opp. गुणकर्मन्). -2 (as opposed to प्रतिपत्तिकर्मन्), A fruitful act (as opposed to mere disposal or प्रतिपत्ति); अर्थकर्म वा कर्तृ- संयोगात् स्रग्वत् । MS.4.2.17. -काम a. desirous of wealth. (-˚मौ dual), wealth and (sensual) desire or pleasure; अप्यर्थकामौ तस्यास्तां धर्म एव मनीषिणः R.1.25. ह्रत्वार्थकामास्तु गुरूनिहैव Bg.2.5. -कार्ष्यम् Poverty. निर्बन्धसंजातरुषार्थकार्घ्यमचिन्तयित्वा गुरुणाहमुक्तः R.5.21. -काशिन् a. Only apparently of utility (not really). -किल्बिषिन् a. dishonest in money-matters. -कृच्छ्रम् 1 a difficult matter. -2 pecuniary difficulty; व्यसनं वार्थकृच्छ्रे वा Rām.4.7.9; Mb.3.2.19; cf. also Kau. A.1.15 न मुह्येदर्थकृच्छ्रेषु Nīti. -कृत्यम् doing or execution of a business; अभ्युपेतार्थकृत्याः Me.4. -कोविद a. Expert in a matter, experienced. उवाच रामो धर्मात्मा पुनरप्यर्थकोविदः Rām.6.4.8. -क्रमः due order or sequence of purpose. -क्रिया (a) An implied act, an act which is to be performed as a matter of course (as opposed to शब्दोक्तक्रिया); असति शब्दोक्ते अर्थक्रिया भवति ŚB. on MS.12.1.12. (b) A purposeful action. (see अर्थकर्मन्). -गत a. 1 based on the sense (as a दोष). -2 devoid of sense. -गतिः understanding the sense. -गुणाः cf. भाविकत्वं सुशब्दत्वं पर्यायोक्तिः सुधर्मिता । चत्वारो$र्थगुणाः प्रोक्ताः परे त्वत्रैव संगताः ॥ अलंकारशेखर 21. -गृहम् A treasury. Hariv. -गौरवम् depth of meaning; भारवेरर्थगौरवम् Udb., Ki.2.27. -घ्न a. (घ्नी f.) extravagant, wasteful, prodigal; सुरापी व्याधिता धूर्ता वन्ध्यार्थघ्न्य- प्रियंवदा Y.1.73; व्याधिता वाधिवेत्तव्या हिंस्रार्थघ्नी च सर्वदा Ms.9.8. -चित्रम् 'variety in sense', a pun, Kāvya-prakāśa. -चिन्तक a. 1 thinking of profit. -2 having charge of affairs; सर्वार्थचिन्तकः Ms.7.121. -चिन्ता, -चिन्तनम् charge or administration of (royal) affairs; मन्त्री स्यादर्थचिन्तायाम् S. D. -जात a. 1 full of meaning. -2 wealthy (जातधन). (-तम्) 1 a collection of things. -2 large amount of wealth, considerable property; Dk.63, Ś.6; ददाति च नित्यमर्थजातम् Mk.2.7. -3 all matters; कवय इव महीपाश्चिन्तयन्त्यर्थजातम् Śi.11.6. -4 its own meaning; वहन्द्वयीं यद्यफले$र्थजाते Ki.3.48. -ज्ञ a. knowing the sense or purpose; अर्थज्ञ इत्सकलं भद्रमश्नुते Nir. -तत्त्वम् 1 the real truth, the fact of the matter; यो$र्थतत्त्वमविज्ञाय क्रोधस्यैव वशं गतः H.4.94. -2 the real nature or cause of anything. -द a. 1 yielding wealth; Dk.41. -2 advantageous, productive of good, useful. -3 liberal, munificent Ms.2.19. -4 favourable, compliant. (-दः) N. of Kubera. -दर्शकः 'one who sees law-suits'; a judge. -दर्शनम् perception of objects; कुरुते दीप इवार्थदर्शनम् Ki.2.33; Dk.155. -दूषणम् 1 extravagance, waste; H.3.18; Ms.7.48. -2 unjust seizure of property or withholding what is due. -3 finding fault with the meaning. -4 spoiling of another's property. -दृश् f. Consideration of truth; क्षेमं त्रिलोकगुरुरर्थदृशं च यच्छन् Bhāg.1.86.21. -दृष्टिः Seeing profit; Bhāg. -दोषः a literary fault or blemish with regard to the sense, one of the four doṣas or blemishes of literary composition, the other three being परदोष, पदांशदोष, वाक्यदोष; for definitions &c. see K. P.7. अलंकारशेखर of केशवमिश्र who mentions eight types of doṣas as follows: अष्टार्थदोषाः विरस, -ग्राम्य, -व्याहत, -खिन्नताः । -हीना, -धिका, सदृक्साम्यं देशादीनां विरोधि च ॥ 17 -द्वयविधानम् Injunction of two ideas or senses; विधाने चार्थद्वयविधानं दोषः ŚB. on MS.1.8.7. -नित्य a. = अर्थ- प्रधान Nir. -निबन्धन a. dependent on wealth. -निश्चयः determination, decision. -प्रतिः 1 'the lord of riches', a a king; किंचिद् विहस्यार्थपतिं बभाषे R.2.46;1.59;9.3;18.1; Pt.1.74. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -पदम् N. of the Vārt. on Pāṇini; ससूत्रवृत्त्यर्थपदं महार्थं ससंग्रहं सिद्ध्यति वै कपीन्द्रः Rām.7.36.45. -पर, -लुब्ध a. 1 intent on gaining wealth, greedy of wealth, covetous. -2 niggardly, parsimonious; हिंस्रा दयालुरपि चार्थपरा वदान्या Bh.2.47; Pt.1.425. -प्रकृतिः f. the leading source or occasion of the grand object in a drama; (the number of these 'sources' is five :-- बीजं बिन्दुः पताका च प्रकरी कार्यमेव च । अर्थप्रकृतयः पञ्च ज्ञात्वा योज्या यथाविधि S. D.317.) -प्रयोगः 1 usury. -2 administration of the affairs (of a state) -प्राप्त a. derived or understood from the sense included as a matter of course, implied; परिसमाप्तिः शब्दार्थः । परिसमाप्त्यामर्थप्राप्तत्वादारम्भस्य । ŚB. on MS.6.2.13. -˚त्वम् Inplication. -बन्धः 1 arrangement of words, composition, text; stanza, verse; संचिन्त्य गीतक्षममर्थबन्धम् Ś.7.5; ललितार्थबन्धम् V.2.14 put or expressed in elegant words. -2. connection (of the soul) with the objects of sense. -बुद्धि a. selfish. -बोधः indication of the (real) import. -भाज् a. entitled to a share in the division of property. -भावनम् Deliberation over a subject (Pātañjala Yogadarśana 1.28). -भृत् a. receiving high wages (as a servant). -भेदः distinction or difference of meaning; अर्थभेदेन शब्दभेदः. -मात्रम्, -त्रा 1 property, wealth; Pt.2. -2 the whole sense or object. -युक्त a. significant, full of यस्यार्थयुक्तं meaning; गिरिराजशब्दं कुर्वन्ति Ku.1.13. -लक्षण a. As determined by the purpose or need (as opposed to शब्दलक्षण); लोके कर्मार्थलक्षणम् Ms.11.1.26. -लाभः acquisition of wealth. -लोभः avarice. -वशः power in the form of discrimination and knowledge. अर्थवशात् सप्तरूपविनिवृत्ताम् Sāvk.65. -वादः 1 declaration of any purpose. -2 affirmation, declaratory assertion, an explanatory remark, exegesis; speech or assertion having a certain object; a sentence. (It usually recommends a विधि or precept by stating the good arising from its proper observance, and the evils arising from its omission, and also by adducing historical instances in its support; स्तुतिर्निन्दा परकृतिः पुराकल्प इत्यर्थवादः Gaut. Sūt.; said by Laugākṣi to be of 3 kinds :- गुणवादो विरोधे स्यादनु वादो$वधारिते । भूतार्थवादस्तद्धानादर्थ- वादस्त्रिधा मतः; the last kind includes many varieties.) -3 one of the six means of finding out the tātparya (real aim and object) of any work. -4 praise, eulogy; अर्थवाद एषः । दोषं तु मे कंचित्कथय U.1. -विकरणम् = अर्थ- विक्रिया change of meaning. -विकल्पः 1 deviation from truth, perversion of fact. -2 prevarication; also ˚वैकल्प्यम् -विज्ञानम् comprehending the sense, one of the six exercises of the understanding (धीगुण). -विद् a. sensible, wise, sagacious. भुङ्क्ते तदपि तच्चान्यो मधुहेवार्थविन्मधु Bhāg.11.18.15. विवक्षतामर्थविदस्तत्क्षणप्रतिसंहृताम् Śi. -विद्या knowledge of practical life; Mb.7. -विपत्तिः Failing of an aim; समीक्ष्यतां चार्थविपत्तिमार्गताम् Rām.2.19.4. -विभावक a. money-giver; विप्रेभ्यो$र्थविभावकः Mb.3.33. 84. -विप्रकर्षः difficulty in the comprehension of the sense. -विशेषणम् a reprehensive repetition of something uttered by another; S. D.49. -वृद्धिः f. accumulation of wealth. -व्ययः expenditure; ˚ज्ञ a. conversant with money-matters. -शब्दौ Word and sense. -शालिन् a. Wealthy. -शास्त्रम् 1 the science of wealth (political economy). -2 science of polity, political science, politics; अर्थशास्त्रविशारदं सुधन्वानमुपाध्यायम् Rām.2.1.14. Dk.12; इह खलु अर्थशास्त्रकारास्त्रिविधां सिद्धिमुपवर्णयन्ति Mu.3; ˚व्यवहारिन् one dealing with politics, a politician; Mu.5. -3 science giving precepts on general conduct, the science of practical life; Pt.1. -शौचम् purity or honesty in money-matters; सर्वेषां चैव शौचानामर्थशौचं परं स्मृतं Ms. 5.16. -श्री Great wealth. -संस्थानम् 1 accumulation of wealth. -2 treasury. -संग्रहः, -संचयः accumulation or acquisition of wealth, treasure, property. कोशेनाश्रयणी- यत्वमिति तस्यार्थसंग्रहः R.17.6. कुदेशमासाद्य कुतो$र्थसंचयः H. -संग्रहः a book on Mīmāṁsā by Laugākṣi Bhāskara. -सतत्त्वम् truth; किं पुनरत्रार्थसतत्त्वम् । देवा ज्ञातुमर्हन्ति MBh. or P.VIII.3.72. -समाजः aggregate of causes. -समाहारः 1 treasure. -2 acquisition of wealth. -संपद् f. accomplishment of a desired object; उपेत्य संघर्ष- मिवार्थसंपदः Ki.1.15. -संपादनम् Carrying out of an affair; Ms.7.168. -संबन्धः connection of the sense with the word or sentence. -संबन्धिन् a. Concerned or interested in an affair; Ms.8.64. -साधक a. 1 accomplishing any object. -2 bringing any matter to a conclusion. -सारः considerable wealth; Pt.2.42. -सिद्ध a. understood from the very context (though not expressed in words), inferable from the connection of words. -सिद्धिः f. fulfilment of a desired object, success. द्वारमिवार्थसिद्धेः R.2.21. -हानिः Loss of wealth -हारिन् a. stealing money Ks. -हर a. inheriting wealth. -हीन a. 1 deprived of wealth, poor. -2 unmeaning, nonsensical. -3 failing.
āsidhāram आसिधारम् [असिधारा इव अस्त्यत्र अण्] N. of a particular vow; अभ्यस्यतीव व्रतमासिधारम् R.13.67; for explanation see असिधारा.
āhatya आहत्य ind. Having struck or beaten; striking, hitting. -वचनम्, -वादः An explicit or energetic explanation.
uddeśaḥ उद्देशः 1 Pointing to or at, directing; सूर्योद्देशेन तिला दातव्याः Pt.2 in the name of. -2 Mention, specification; सार्धप्रहरद्वयोद्देशे Pt.5; स्वरसंस्कारोद्देशः Nir. -3 Illustration, explanation, exemplification. -4 Ascertainment, determination, inquiry, investigation, search. -5 A brief statement or account; एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर्विस्तरो मया Bg.1.4; Mb.8.69.54. -6 Assignment, allotment. -7 Stipulation, bargain. -8 Object, motive; कृतोद्देशः स बीभत्सुः Mb.3.158.3. -9 A spot, region, place; अहो प्रवातसुभगोयमुद्देशः Ś.3; M.3; वन˚ a part of the forest. -1 Upper region, high position. -11 (In phil.) The enunciation of a thing by its name (which is to be further discussed and explained), the other two processes being लक्षण and परीक्षा. -Comp. -पदम् The term (or terms) which form the subject; नात्रैषा वचनव्यक्तिः ये यजमाना इत्युद्देशपदम्, ऋत्विजः इति विधेयपदम् । ŚB. on MS.6.6.2.
upavyākhyānam उपव्याख्यानम् A supplementary explanation or interpretation; तस्योपव्याख्यानम् Ch. Up.1.1.1.
karabhaḥ करभः [कॄ-अभच् Uṇ.3.122; करे-भाति भा-क Tv.] 1 The back of the hand from the wrist to the root of the fingers; metacarpus, as in करभोपमोरूः R.6.83; see करभोरू below. -2 The trunk of an elephant. -3 A young elephant. -4 A young camel; उष्ट्री च करभश्चेति Mbh. on P.I.2.66. पृथ्वीरजः करभकण्ठकडारमाशाः (संविव्युः) Śi.5.3. -5 A camel in general. -6 A kind of perfume. -7 The hip. -भी A she camel. -Comp. -ऊरूः f. a lady whose thighs resemble the back of the fore-arm; अङ्के निधाय करभोरु यथासुखं ते Ś.3.2; Śi.1.69; Amaru.71; or (according to another explanation), whose thighs resemble the trunk of an elephant; cf. Ku.1.36.
gāndharva गान्धर्व a. (-र्वी f.) [गन्धर्वस्येदम्-अण्] Relating to the Gandharvas. -र्वः 1 A singer, celestial chorister; Rām.7.94.6. -2 One of the eight forms of marriage; गान्धर्वः समयान्मिथः Y.1.61; (for explanation, see गन्धर्व- विवाह); cf. अग्निर्गान्धर्वी पथ्यामृतस्या Rv.1.8.6. -3 A subordinate Veda treating of music attached to the Sāmaveda; see उपवेद. -4 A horse. -र्वम् The art of the Gandharvas; i. e. music, singing; कापि वेला चारुदत्तस्य गान्धर्व श्रोतुं गतस्य Mk.3; अये गान्धर्वध्वनिरिव श्रूयते Avimārakam 3; Ks.12.28. -र्वी 1 Speech. -2 An epithet of Durgā. -Comp. -कला, -विद्या, -शिक्षा, -शास्त्रम् song, music; यद्गन्धर्वकलासु कौशलम् Gīt.12.28; Ks.12.27. -चित्त a. one whose mind is possessed by a Gandharva. -वेदः the Veda of music (considered as an appendix to Sāmaveda and ascribed to Bharata). -शाला a music saloon, concert-hall; तत्र गान्धर्वशालायां वत्सराज उवास सः Ks.12.31. गान्धर्व gāndharva (र्वि rvi) कः kḥ गान्धर्व (र्वि) कः A singer; Ks.63.
go गो m. f. (Nom. गौः) [गच्छत्यनेन, गम् करणे डो Tv.] 1 Cattle, kine (pl.) -2 Anything coming from a cow; such as milk, flesh, leather &c. -3 The stars; वि रश्मिभिः ससृजे सूर्यो गाः Rv.7.36.1. -4 The sky. -5 The thunderbolt of Indra; Ki.8.1. -6 A ray of light; नान्यस्तप्ता विद्यते गोषु देव Mb.1.232.11; बालो$यं गिरिशिखरेषु चारयन् गाः त्रैलोक्यं तिमिरभरेण दुष्टमेतत् (रविः नैर्मल्यं नयति) । Rām. Ch. 7.6. -7 A diamond. -8 Heaven. -9 An arrow. -f. 1 A cow; जुगोप गोरूपधरामिवोर्वीम् R.2.3; क्षीरिण्यः सन्तु गावः Mk.1.6. -2 The earth; दुदोह गां स यज्ञाय R.1.26; गामात्तसारां रघुरप्यवेक्ष्य 5.26;11.36; Bg.15.13; सेको$- नुगृह्णातु गाम् Mu.3.2; Me.3; cf. also the quotation for (-6). -3 Speech, words; कुलानि समुपेतानि गोभिः पुरुषतो$- र्थतः Mb.5.28; रघोरुदारामपि गां निशम्य R.5.12;2.59; Ki.4.2. -4 The goddess of speech, Sarasvatī. -5 A mother. -6 A quarter of the compass. -7 Water; सायं भेजे दिशं पश्चाद्गविष्ठो गां गतस्तदा Bhāg.1.1.36; also pl.; Bhāg.11.7.5. -8 The eye; गोकर्णा सुमुखी कृतेन इषुणा गोपुत्रसंप्रेषिता Mb.8.9.42. -9 A region of the sky. -m. A bull, an ox; असंजातकिणस्कन्धः सुखं स्वपिति गौर्गडिः K. P.1; Ms.4.72; cf. चरद्गव. -2 The hair of the body. -3 An organ of sense; अदान्तगोभिर्विशतां तमिस्रं पुनः पुनश्चर्वितचर्वणानाम् Bhāg..7.5.3. -4 The sign Taurus of the zodiac; Bṛi. S.49. -5 The sun. -6 The number 'nine' (in math.). -7 The moon. -8 A singer. -9 A billion. -1 A cow-sacrifice -11 A house; cf. गौर्वज्रं गौः प्रभा भूमिर्वाणी तोयं त्रिविष्टपम् । धेनुर्बस्तो वृषो दिग्गौर्नेत्रं लज्जा गुरू रमा ॥ इन्द्रियं श्रीरुमा ... Enm. -Comp. -कण्टकः, -कम् 1 a road or spot trodden down by oxen and thus made impassable. -2 the cow's hoof. -3 the print of a cow's hoof. -कर्ण a. having cow's ears. (-र्णः) 1 a cow's ear; गोकर्णसदृशौ कृत्वा करावाबद्धसारणौ Ks.6.57. -2 a mule. -3 a snake; Mb.8.9.42. -4 a span (from the tip of the thumb to that of the ring-finger); गोकर्णशिथिल- श्चरन् Mb.2.68.75; तालः स्मृतो मध्यमया गोकर्णश्चाप्यनामया Brahmāṇḍa P. -5 N. of a place of pilgrimage in the south, sacred to Śiva. श्रितगोकर्णनिकेतमीश्वरम् R.8.33. -6 a kind of deer. -7 a kind of arrow; Mb.8.9.42. -किराटा -किराटिका the Sārikā bird. -किलः, -कीलः 1 a plough -2 a pestle. -कुलम् 1 a herd of kine; वृष्टिव्याकुलगोकुलावनरसादुद्धृत्य गोवर्धनम् Gīt.4; गोकुलस्य तृषा- र्तस्य Mb. -2 a cow-house. -3 N. of a village (where Kṛiṣṇa was brought up). -कुलिक a. 1 one who does not help a cow in the mud. -2 squint-eyed. -कुलोद्भवा an epithet of Durgā. -कृतम् cow-dung. -क्षीरम् cow's milk. -क्षुरम्, -रकम् a cow's hoof. -खरः a beast (पशु); यत्तीर्थबुद्धिः सलिले न कर्हिचिज्जनेष्वभिज्ञेषु स एव गोखरः Bhāg.1.84.13. -खा a nail. -गृष्टिः a young cow which has had only one calf. -गोयुगम् a pair of oxen. -गोष्ठम् a cow-pen, cattle-shed. -ग्रन्थिः 1 dried cowdung. -2 a cow-house. -ग्रहः capture of cattle (गवालम्भ); Mb.12.265.2. -ग्रासः the ceremony of offering a morsel (of grass) to a cow when performing an expiatory rite. -घातः, -घातकः, -घातिन् m. a cow-killer. -घृतम् 1 rain-water. -2 clarified butter coming from a cow. -घ्न a. 1 destructive to cows. -2 one who has killed a cow. -3 one for whom a cow is killed, a guest. -चन्दनम् a kind of sandal-wood. -चर a. 1 grazed over by cattle. -2 frequenting, dwelling, resorting to, haunting पितृसद्मगोचरः Ku.5.77. -3 within the scope, power, or range of; अवाङ्मनसगोचरम् R.1.15; so बुद्धि˚, दृष्टि˚, श्रवण˚ स्वगोचरे दीप्ततरा बभूव Bu. Ch.1.13. -4 moving on earth. -5 accessible to, attainable; त्याग- सूक्ष्मानुगः क्षेम्यः शौचगो ध्यागोचरः Mb.12.236.12. -6 circulating, having a particular meaning, prevalent. (-रः) 1 the range of cattle, pasturage; उपारताः पश्चिम- रात्रिगोचरात् Ki.4.1. -2 (a) a district, department, province, sphere. (b) an abode, dwelling-place, a place of resort; Śi.1.21; Ms.1.39. -3 range of the organs of sense, an object of sense; श्रवणगोचरे तिष्ठ be within ear-shot; नयनगोचरं या to become visible. -4 scope, range, in general; हर्तुर्याति न गोचरम् Bh.2.16. -5 (fig.) grip, hold, power, influence, control; कः कालस्य न गोचरा- न्तरगतः Pt.1.146; गोचरीभूतमक्ष्णोः U.6.26; Māl.5.24; अपि नाम मनागवतीर्णो$सि रतिरमणबाणगोचरम् Māl.1. -6 horizon. -7 field for action, scope; इन्द्रियाणि हयानाहुर्विषयांस्तेषु गोचरान् Kaṭh.3.4. -8 the range of the planets from the Lagna or from each other. ˚पीडा inauspicious position of stars within the ecliptic; गोचर- पीडायामपि राशिर्बलिभिः शुभग्रहैर्दृष्टः (पीडां न करोति) Bṛi.S.41.13. (गोचरीकृ to place within the range (of sight), make current). -चर्मन् n. 1 a cow's hide. -2 a particular measure of surface thus defined by Vasiṣṭha :-- दशहस्तेन वंशेन दशवंशान् समन्ततः । पञ्च चाभ्यधिकान् दद्यादेतद्गोचर्म चोच्यते ॥ ˚वसनः an epithet of Śiva. -चर्या seeking food like a cow; गोचर्यां नैगमश्चरेत् Bhāg.11.18.29. -चारकः cowherd. -चरणम् the tending or feeding of cows; Bhāg.1.38.8. -ज a. 1 born in the earth (rice &c.). -2 produced by milk; अब्जा गोजा ...... Kaṭh.5.2. -जरः an old ox or bull; नाद्रियन्ते यथापूर्वं कीनाशा इव गोजरम् Bhāg.3.3.13. -जलम् the urine of a bull or cow. -जागरिकम् auspiciousness, happiness. (-कः) a preparer of food, baker. -जात a. born in the heaven (gods); गोजाता अप्या मृळता च देवाः Rv.6.5.11. -जिह्वा N. of a plant (Mar. पाथरी). -जिह्विका the uvula. -जीव a. living on cattle (milkman); Hch.1.7. -तल्लजः an excellent bull or cow. -तीर्थम् a cowhouse. -त्रम् [गां भूमिं त्रायते त्रै-क] 1 a cow-pen. -2 a stable in general. -3 a family, race, lineage; गोत्रेण माठरो$स्मि Sk.; so कौशिकगोत्राः, वसिष्ठगोत्राः &c.; Ms.3.19,9.141. -4 a name, appellation; जगाद गोत्र- स्खलिते च का न तम् N.1.3; Ś.6.5; see ˚स्खलित below; मद्गोत्राङ्कं विरचितपदं गेयमुद्गातुकामा Me.88. -5 a multitude. -6 increase. -7 a forest. -8 a field. -9 a road. -1 possessions, wealth. -11 an umbrella, a parasol. -12 knowledge of futurity. -13 a genus, class, species. -14 a caste, tribe, caste according to families. (-त्रः) a mountain; 'गोत्रं नाम्नि कुले$प्यद्रौ' इति यादवः; Śi.9.8. Hence गोत्रोद्दलनः means Indra; cf. इन्द्रे तु गोत्रोद्दलनः कुलघ्ने गिरिदारणे Nm. (-त्रा) 1 a multitude of cows. -2 the earth. ˚उच्चारः recitation of family pedigree. ˚कर्तृ, -कारिन् m. the founder of a family. ˚कीला the earth. ˚ज a. born in the same family, gentile, a relation; Bhāg.3.7.24; Y.2.135. ˚पटः a genealogical table, pedigree. ˚प्रवरः the oldest member or founder of a family. -भिद् m. an epithet of Indra; हृदि क्षतो गोत्रभिदप्यमर्षणः R.3.53;6.73; Ku.2.52. ˚स्खलनम्, ˚स्खलितम् blundering or mistaking in calling (one) by his name, calling by a wrong name; स्मरसि स्मर मेखलागुणैरुत गौत्रस्खलितेषु बन्धनम् Ku.4.8. -द a. giving cows; Ms.4.231. (-दः) brain. (-दा) N. of the river Godāvarī. -दत्र a. Ved. giving cows. (-त्रः) an epithet of Indra. (-त्रम्) a crown (protecting the head). -दन्त a. armed with a coat of mail. (-तम्) 1 yellow orpiment. -2 a white fossil substance. -दानम् 1 the gift of a cow. -2 the ceremony of tonsure or cutting the hair; रामलक्ष्मणयो राजन् गोदानं कारयस्व ह Rām.1.71.23; अथास्य गोदानविधेरनन्तरम् R.3. 33; (see Mallinātha's explanation of the word); कृत- गोदानमङ्गलाः U.1; अतोनं गोदानं दारकर्म च Kau. A.1.5; (Rām. explains the word differently). -3 the part of the head close to the right ear. -दाय a. intending to give cows. -दारणम् 1 a plough. -2 a spade, hoe. -दा, -दावरी N. of a river in the south. -दुह् m., -दुहः 'cow-milker', a cowherd; सुदुघामिव गोदुहे R.1.4.1; चिरं निदध्यौ दुहतः स गोदुहः Śi. -दोहः 1 the milking of cows. -2 the milk of cows. -3 the time of milking cows. -दोहनम् 1 the time of milking cows. -2 the milking of cows; न लक्ष्यते ह्यवस्थानमपि गोदोहनं क्वचित् Bhāg.1.19. 4. -दोहनी a milk-pail. -द्रवः the urine of a bull or cow. -धनम् 1 a herd or multitude of cows, cattle. -2 possession of cows. (-नः) a broad-pointed arrow. -धरः a mountain. -धर्मः the law of cattle, rules relating to cattle; (open and unconcealed intercourse of the sexes); गोधर्मं सौरभेयाच्च सो$धीत्य निखिलं मुनिः । प्रावर्तत तदा कर्तुं श्रद्धावांस्तमशङ्कया ॥ Mb.1.14.26. -धुमः, -धूमः 1 wheat; Bṛi. Up.6.3.13. -2 the orange. ˚चूर्णम् wheat flour; -सम्भवम् a sour paste. -धूलिः 'dust of the cows', the time of sunset or evening twilight (so called because cows, which generally return home at about sunset, raise up clouds of dust by their treading on the earth). -धेनुः a milch-cow with a calf. -भ्रः a mountain. -नन्दा an epithet of the wife of Śiva. -नन्दी the female of the Sārasa bird. -नर्दः 1 the (Indian) crane. -2 an epithet of Śiva (bellowing like a bull). -3 N. of a country. -नर्दीयः an epithet of Patañjali, author of the Mahābhāṣya. -नसः, -नासः 1 a kind of snake. -2 a kind of gem. -नसा the mouth of a cow. -नाथः 1 a bull. -2 an owner of land. -3 a herdsman. -4 an owner of kine. -नायः a cowherd; तद्यथा गोनायो$श्वनायः पुरुषनाय इत्येवं तदप आचक्षते$शनायेति Ch. Up.6.8.3. -नाशनः a wolf. -नासा the projecting snout of a cow or ox. -नासम् a kind of gem. -निष्यन्दः cow's urine. -पः 1 a cowherd (considered as belonging to a mixed tribe); गोपवेशस्य विष्णोः Me.15. -2 the chief of a cowpen. -3 the superintendent of a village. -4 a king. -5 a protector, guardian; Rv.1.61.1. ˚अनसी the wood of a thatch; गोपानसीषु क्षणमास्थितानाम् Śi.3.49. ˚अष्टमी the eighth day of the bright fortnight of Kārttika when Kṛiṣṇa is said to have worn the dress of a cowherd. ˚आटविका a cowherd. ˚कन्या 1 the daughter of a cowherd. -2 a nymph of Vṛindāvana. ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚इन्द्रः, ˚ईशः the chief of herdsmen, an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. ˚चापः the rainbow. ˚दलः the betel-nut tree. ˚भद्रम् the fibrous root of a water-lily. ˚रसः gum myrrh. ˚राष्ट्राः (pl.) N. of a people. ˚वधूः f. a cowherd's wife; Bhāg.1.9.4. ˚वधूटी a young cowherdess, a young wife of a cowherd; गोपवधूटीदुकूलचौराय Bhāṣā P.1. (-पकः) 1 the superintendent of a district. -2 myrrh. (-पिका) 1 a cowherdess; Bhāg.1.9.14-15. -2 protectress. (-पी) a cowherd's wife (especially applied to the cowherdesses of Vṛindāvana, the companions of Kṛiṣṇa in his juvenile sports). -2 a milk-maid. -3 a protectress. -4 Nature, elementary nature. -पतिः 1 an owner of cows. -2 a bull. -3 a leader, chief. -4 the sun; नीहारमिव गोपतिः Bhāg.1.12.1; Mb.1.173.32. -5 Indra; सुराङ्गना गोपतिचापगोपुरं पुरम् (जहुः) Ki.8.1. -6 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -7 N. of Śiva. -8 N. of Varuṇa; एष पुत्रो महाप्रज्ञो वरुणस्येह गोपतेः Mb.5.98.11. -9 a king; नासतो विद्यते राजन् स ह्यरण्येषु गोपतिः Mb.12.135.26. -पथः N. of a Brāhmaṇa of Av. -पर्वतम् the name of the place where Pāṇini is said to have performed penance and propitiated Śiva; गोपर्वतमिति स्थानं शम्भोः प्रख्यापितं मया । यत्र पाणिनिना लेभे वैयाकरणिकाग्ऱ्यता ॥ अरुणाचलमाहात्म्यम्- उत्तरार्धः 2 अ. 68 श्लो. -पशुः a sacrificial cow. -पाः m. Ved. 1 a herdsman. -2 protector, or guardian; मन्द्राग्रे- त्वरी भुवनस्य गोपा Av.2.1.57. -पानसी a curved beam which supports a thatch; गोपानसी तु वलभिच्छादने वक्रदारुणि Ak.2.2.15. -पालः 1 a cowherd; Ms.4.253. -2 a king. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -4 an epithet of Kṛ&iṣṇa. ˚धानी a cow-pen, cow-shed. -पालकः 1 a cowherd. -2 a king. -3 an epithet of Śiva; also of Kṛiṣṇa. -पालिः an epithet of Śiva. -पालिका, -पाली the wife of a cowherd; पार्थः प्रस्थापयामास कृत्वा गोपालिकावपुः Mb.1.221.19. -पालितः N. of a lexicographer. -पित्तम् bile of cows, ox-bile (from which the yellow pigment गोरोचना is prepared; गोपित्ततो रोचना Pt.1.94.). -पीतः a species of wagtail. -पीथः protection; अस्माकमृषीणां गोपीथे न उरुष्यतम् Rv.5.65.6. (-थम्) a holy place, a place of pilgrimage. -पुच्छम् a cow's tail. -2 a particular point of an arrow. (-च्छः) 1 a sort of monkey; Bhāg.8.2.22. -2 a sort of necklace consisting of two or four or thirty-four strings. -3 a kind of drum. -पुटिकम् the head of Śiva's bull. -पुत्रः 1 a young bull. -2 an epithet of Karṇa. -पुरम् 1 a town-gate; उत्तुङ्गसौधसुरमन्दिरगोपुरम् Māl.9.1. -2 a principal gate; दधतमुच्चशिलान्तरगोपुराः Ki.5.5. -3 the ornamental gateway of a temple. -पुरीषम् cowdung. -प्रकाण्डम् an excellent cow or bull. -प्रचारः pasture-ground, pasturage for cattle; ग्राम्येच्छया गोप्रचारो भूमी राजवशेन वा Y.2.166. -प्रत (ता) रः 1 a ford for cattle. -2 a place of pilgrimage on the Śarayū; यद्गोप्रतरकल्पो$भूत्संमर्दस्तत्र मज्जताम् । अतस्तदाख्यया तीर्थं पावनं भुवि पप्रथे ॥ R.15.11. -प्रदानम् same as गोदान. -प्रवेशः the time when cows return home, sunset or evening-twilight; गोप्रवेशसमये Bṛi. S.24.35. -फणा 1 a bandage hollowed out so as to fit the chin or nose &c. -2 a sling. -बालः the hair of cows. -भुज् m. a king; गोभुजां वल्लभा लक्ष्मीः Rāj. T.5.6. -भृत् m. 1 a mountain. -2 a king. -मक्षिका a gadfly. -मघ a. granting cattle or cows कदा गोमघा हवनानि गच्छाः Rv.6.35.3. -मंडलम् 1 the globe. -2 a multitude of cows. -मण़्डीरः a kind of an aquatic bird; L. D. B. -मतम् = गव्यूति q. v. -मतल्लिका a tractable cow, an excellent cow; अरिर्मधोरैक्षत गोमतल्लिकाम् Śi.12.41. -मथः a cowherd. -मध्यमध्य a. slender in the waist. -महिषदा N. of one of the Mātṛis attending on कार्तिकेय. -मांसम् beef. -मायु 1 a kind of frog. -2 a jackal; अनुहंकुरुते घनध्वनिं न हि गोमायुरुतानि केसरी Śi.16. 25. -3 bile of a cow. -4 N. of a Gandharva. -मीनः a kind of fish. -मुखः, -मुखम् [गोर्मुखमिव मुखमस्य] a kind of musical instrument; Bg.1.13; गोमुखानां च शृङ्गाणाम- नीकद्वयवर्तिनाम् Śiva. B.24.55. (-खः) 1 a crocodile, shark. -2 a hole of a particular shape in a wall made by thieves. (-खम्) 1 a house built unevenly. -2 spreading unguents, smearing; 'गोमुखं कुटिलाकारे वाद्यभाण्डे विलेपने' इति विश्वः; यस्यामलिन्देषु न चक्रुरेव मुग्धाङ्गना गोमयगो- मुखानि Śi.3.48. (-खम्, -खी) a cloth-bag of the shape of a gnomon containing a rosary, the beads of which are counted by the hand thrust inside. -2 a house built unevenly. -3 a particular method of sitting (a योगासन) (-खी) the chasm in the Himālaya mountains through which the Ganges flows. -मूढ a. stupid as a bull. -मूत्रम् cow's urine. -मूत्रकः a variety of lapis lazuli (बैदूर्य); Kau. A.2.11. -कम् a particular attitude (मण्डल) in गदायुद्ध; दक्षिणं मण्डलं सव्यं गोमूत्रकमथापि च । व्यचर- त्पाण्डवो राजन्नरिं संमोहयन्निव ॥ Mb.9.58.23. -a. zigzagging, going unevenly. -मूत्रिका 1 an artificial verse, the second of which repeats nearly all the syllables of the first. (Malli. thus defines it :-- वर्णानामेकरूपत्वं यद्येकान्तरमर्धयोः गोमूत्रिकेति तत्प्राहुर्दुष्करं तद्विदो विदुः ॥ see Śi.19.46.) -2 a form of calculation. -मृगः a kind of ox (गवय). -मेदः a gem brought from the Himālaya and Indus, described as of four different colours:-- white, pale-yellow, red, and dark-blue. -मेदकः 1 see गोमेद. -2 a kind of poison (काकोल). -3 smearing the body with unguents. -मेधः, -यज्ञः a cow-sacrifice; Rām.7.25.8. -यानम्, -रथः a carriage drawn by oxen; Rām.2.82.26; Ms. 11.174. -युक्त a. drawn by oxen. -युतम् 1 a cattle station. -2 a measure of two Krośas (गव्यूत); गोयुते गोयुते चैव न्यवसत्पुरुषर्षभः Mb.14.65.22. -रक्षः 1 a cowherd. -2 keeping or tending cattle. -3 the orange. -4 an epithet of Śiva. ˚जम्बू f. wheat. -रक्षणम् tending cattle (with religious faith). -रङ्कुः 1 a water-fowl -2 a prisoner. -3 a naked man, a mendicant wandering about without clothes. -4 a chanter. -रवम् saffron. -रसः cow's milk. -2 curds. -3 buttermilk. -4 the flavour of a sentence; को रसो गोरसं विना Udb. ˚जम् buttermilk. -राजः an excellent bull. -राटिका, -राटी the Sārikā bird. -रुतम् a measure of distance equal to two Krośas. -रूपम् the form of a cow. (-पः) N. of Śiva. -रोचम् yellow orpiment. -रोचना a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of a cow, or found in the head of a cow. -लवणम् a measure of salt given to a cow. -लाङ्गु- (गू) लः a kind of monkey with a dark body, red cheeks and a tail like that of a cow; गोलाङ्गूलः कपोलं छुरयति रजसा कौसुमेन प्रियायाः Māl.9.3. -लोकः a part of heaven, cow-world. -लोभिका, -लोभी 1 a prostitute. -2 white Dūrvā grass. -3 Zedoary. -4 N. of a shrub. -वत्सः a calf. ˚आदिन m. a wolf. -वधः the killing of a cow; Ms.11.59. -वर्धनः a celebrated hill in वृन्दावन the country about Mathurā. ('This hill was lifted up and supported by Kṛiṣṇa upon one finger for seven days to shelter the cowherds from a storm of rain sent by Indra to test Kṛiṣṇa's divinity.') ˚धरः, ˚धरिन् m. an epithet of Kṛiṣṇa. -वरम् pounded cowdung. -वशा a barren cow. -वाटम्, -वासः a cow-pen. -वासन a. covered with an ox-hide. -विकर्तः, -विकर्तृ m. 1 the killer of a cow; Mb.4.2.9. -2 a husbandman. -विततः a horse-sacrifice having many cows. -विन्दः 1 a cowkeeper, a chief herdsman. -2 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -3 Bṛihaspati. ˚द्वादशी the twelfth day in the light half of the month of फाल्गुन -विष् f., -विष्ठा cowdung. -विषाणिकः a kind of musical instrument; Mb.6.44.4. -विसर्गः day-break (when cows are let loose to graze in forests); Rām.7.111.9. -वीथिः f. N. of that portion of the moon's path which contains the asterisms भाद्रपदा, रेवती and अश्विनी, or according to some, हस्त, चित्रा and स्वाती Bṛi. S.9.2. -वीर्यम् the price received for milk. -वृन्दम् a drove of cattle. -वृन्दारकः an excellent bull or cow. -वृषः, -वृषभः an excellent bull; न तां शेकुर्नृपा वोढुमजित्वा सप्त गोवृषान् Bhāg 1.58.33. ˚ध्वजः an epithet of Śiva. -वैद्यः a quack docter. -व्रजः 1 a cow-pen. -2 a herd of cows. -3 a place where cattle graze. -व्रत, -व्रतिन् a. one who imitates a cow in frugality; ...अत्र गोव्रतिनो विप्राः ... ॥ यत्रपत्रशयो नित्यं येन केन- चिदाशितः । येन केनचिदाच्छन्नः स गोव्रत इहोच्यते ॥ Mb.5.99. 13-14. -शकृत् n. cowdung; Ms.2.182. -शतम् a present of a hundred cows to a Brāhmaṇa. -शालम्, -ला a cow-stall. -शीर्षः, -र्षम् a kind of sandal; Kau. A.2.11. -2 a kind of weapon (arrow ?); Mb.7.178. 23. -षड्गवम् three pairs of kine. -षन्, -षा a. Ved. acquiring or bestowing cows. -षा (सा) तिः 1 acquiring cattle; or fighting for cattle. गोषाता यस्य ते गिरः Rv.8.84.7. -2 giving cattle. -ष्टोमः a kind of sacrifice fasting for one day. -संख्यः a cowherd. -सदृक्षः a species of ox (गवय). -सर्गः the time at which cows are usually let loose, day-break; see गोविसर्ग. -सवः a kind of cow-sacrifice (not performed in the Kali age); Mb.3.3.17. -सहस्रम् a kind of present (महादान). (-स्त्री) N. of two holidays on the fifteenth day of the dark half of कार्तिक and ज्येष्ठ. -सावित्री N. of a hymn (cf. गायत्री). -सूत्रिका a rope fastened at both ends having separate halters for each ox or cow. -स्तनः 1 the udder of a cow. -2 a cluster of blossoms, nosegay &c. -3 a pearl-necklace of four strings. -4 a kind of fort. -स्तना, -नी a bunch of grapes. -स्थानम्, -क्रम् a cow-pen. -स्वामिन् m. 1 an owner of cows. -2 a religious mendicant. -3 an honorary title affixed to proper names; (e. g. वोपदेवगोस्वामिन्). -हत्या cow-slaughter. -हल्लम् (sometimes written हन्नम्) cow-dung. -हरः, -हरणम् stealing of cows; गोष्ठमुत्किरति गोहरं वदेत् Bṛi. S.89.9. (v. l.) -हित a. cherishing or protecting kine. (-तः) N. of Viṣṇu.
jambhaḥ जम्भः [जभ्-अच्-नुम्] 1 The jaws (usally in pl.). -2 A tooth. -3 Eating. -4 Biting asunder. -5 A part, portion. -6 A quiver. -7 The chin. -8 Yawning, gaping. -9 N. of a demon killed by Indra. -1 One who devours a demon. -11 Explanation, interpretation. -12 The citron tree. -13 The bellows; L. D. B. -Comp. -अरातिः, -द्विष्, -भेदिन्, -रिपुः epithets of Indra. -अरिः 1 fire. -2 Indra's thunderbolt. -3 Indra. -साधक a. possessing knowledge of medicine; इति ते कथयन्ति स्म ब्राह्मणा जम्भसाधकाः Mb.5.64.2.
tātparyam तात्पर्यम् [तत्परस्य भावः ष्यञ्] 1 Purport, meaning, scope, अत्रेदं तात्पर्यम् &c. -2 Purport of propositions; K. P.2. -3 Aim, object, intended reference to any object, purpose, intention (with loc.); इह यथार्थकथने तात्पर्यम् P. II.3.43 com. -4 The object or intention of the speaker (in using particular words in a sentence); वक्तुरिच्छा तु तात्पर्यं परिकीर्तितम् Bhāṣā P.84; तात्पर्यानुपपत्तितः 82. -5 Explanation. -6 Entire devotion to, absorption in any object. -Comp. -अर्थः the meaning of a sentence. -निर्णयः ascertainment of meaning or purport.
dyotanikā द्योतनिका Explanation, elucidation.
nigamaḥ निगमः The Veda or Vedic text; साढ्यै साढ्वा साढेति निगमे P.VI.3.113; VII.2.64; निगमकल्पतरोर्गलितं फलम् Bhāg.1.1.3; Māl.9.4; निगमशब्दो वेदवाची Sāyaṇa Bhāṣya. -2 Any passage or word quoted from the Vedas, a Vedic sentence; तथापि च निगमो भवति (often found in Nirukta). -3 A work auxiliary to, and explanatory of the Vedas; नित्यं शास्त्राण्यवेक्षेत निगमांश्चैव वैदिकान Ms.4.19. and Kull. thereon. -4 A sacred precept, the words of a god or holy man. -5 A root (as the source of a word). -6 Certainty, assurance. -7 Logic or science of ethics; सर्वे च ये$न्ये धृतराष्ट्रपुत्रा बलप्रधाना निगमप्रधानाः Mb.5.2.6. -8 Trade, traffic. -9 A market, fair. -1 A caravan of wandering merchants; Rām.2.15.2. -11 A road, market-road. -12 A city. -13 Insertion of the name of a deity into a liturgical formula. -14 Resolution; स्वनिगममपहाय मत्प्रतिज्ञाम् Bhāg.1.9.37. -15 Precept, advice; इमं स्वनिगमं ब्रह्मन्नवेत्य मदनुष्ठितम् Bhāg.1.5.39. -16 Obtainment (प्राप्ति); पन्था मन्निगमः स्मृतः Bhāg.11.19.42.
niculaḥ निचुलः 1 A kind of reed. -2 N. of a poet and friend of Kālidāsa; स्थानादस्मात् सरसनिचुलादुत्पतोदङ्मुखः खम् Me.14. (where Malli. observes:-निचुलो नाम महाकविः कालिदासस्य सहाध्यायः; but this explanation is very doubtful). -3 An upper garment, cover; cf. निचोल. -4 The tree called हिज्जल, (Barringtonia Acutangula). -5 A lotus. -6 A cocoa-nut tree; निचुलो हिज्जले पद्मे$प्यस्त्री मधुफले$ पि च Nm.
niyamaḥ नियमः 1 Restraining, checking. -2 Taming, subduing. -3 Confining, preventing. -4 A restraint, check; वाचि नियमः U.2.2; अधर्मानियमः Ms.8.122. -5 Restriction, limitation; Mb.14.13.11. -6 A rule or precept, law (in general), usage; नायमेकान्ततो नियमः Ś. B. -7 Regularity; कुसुमसुकुमारमूर्तिर्दधती नियमेन तनुतरं मध्यम् Ratn. 1.2. -8 Certainty, ascertainment. -9 An agreement, promise, vow, engagement. -1 Necessity, obligation. -11 Any voluntary or self-imposed religious observance (dependent on external conditions); [The earliest explanation of this expression is the one found in the ŚB. on MS.4.2.24. cf. को$यं नियमः । अनियतस्य नियतता । प्रयोगाङ्गतया सर्वे देशाः प्राप्नुवन्ति, न तु समच्चयेन । यदा समो न तदा विषमः । यदा विषमो न तदा समः । स एष समः प्राप्तश्चाप्राप्तश्च । यदा न प्राप्तः स पक्षो विधिं प्रयोजयति. This is very nicely stated in the Vārttika--'नियमः पाक्षिके सति']; R.1.94; Ki.5.4; (see Malli. on Śi.13.23). -12 Any minor observance or lesser vow, a duty prescribed to be done, but which is not so obligatory as a यम q. v. शौचमिज्या तपो दानं स्वाध्यायोपस्थनिग्रहः । व्रतमौनोपवासं च स्नानं च नियमा दशा ॥ Atri. -13 Penance, devotion, religious austerities; नियमविघ्न- कारिणी Ś.1; R.15.74. -14 (In Mīm. phil.) A rule or precept which lays down or specifies something which, in the absence of that rule, would be optional; विधिरत्यन्तमप्राप्तौ नियमः पाक्षिके सति. -15 (In Yoga phil.) Restraint of the mind, the second of the 8 principal steps of meditation in Yoga; दशैते नियमाः प्रोक्ता योगशास्त्र- विशारदैः Tantrasāra. -16 (In Rhet.) A poetical commonp lace or convention, as the description of the cuckoo in spring, peacocks in the rains &c. -17 Defining, definition. -18 Keeping down, lowering (as the voice). -19 Keeping secret; मन्त्रस्य नियमं कुर्याः Mb.5. 141.2. -2 Effort (यत्न); यथैते नियमं पौराः कुर्वन्त्यस्मिन्निवर्तने Mb.2.46.2. (नियमेन as a rule, invariably). -Comp. -उपमा a simile which expressly states that something can be compared only with something else. -धर्मः a law prescribing restraints. -निष्ठा rigid observance of prescribed rites. -पत्रम् a written agreement. -विधिः a religious rite, daily ritual; नियमविधिजलानां बर्हिषां चोप- नेत्री Ku.1.6. -स्थ a. observing penance; Ku.5.13. -स्थितिः f. steady observance of religious obligations, asceticism. -हेतुः a regulating cause.
nirukta निरुक्त a. 1 Expressed, pronounced, explained, defined. -2 Loud, distinct. -3 Enjoined, decided; पात्रं त्वत्र निरुक्तं वै कविभिः पात्रवित्तमैः Bhāg.7.14.34. -4 Interpreted, accomplished (as a word); proved from शब्दप्रमाण (as शब्दैकगम्य); वेदांश्च वेद्यं तु विधिं च कृत्स्नमथो निरुक्तं परमार्थतां च Mb.12.245.3. -क्तम् 1 Explanation, derivation, etymological interpretation. स वा एष आत्मा हृदि तस्यैतदेव निरुक्तं हदयमिति Ch. Up.8.3.3; महत्त्वाद्भारवत्त्वाच्च महाभारत- मुच्यते । निरुक्तमस्य यो वेद सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥ Mb.1.1.274. -2 N. of one of the six Vedāṅgas, that which contains glossarial explanation of obscure words, especially those occurring in the Vedas; नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते Nir. -3 N. of a celebrated commentary on the Nighaṇṭus by Yāska. -Comp. -कारः N. of the sage Yāska. -जः one of the twelve kinds of sons allowed by the old Hindu law (= क्षेत्रजः q. v.); आत्मा पुत्रश्च विज्ञेयस्तस्यानन्त- रजश्च यः । निरुक्तजश्च विज्ञेयः सुतः प्रसृतजस्तथा ॥ Mb.13.49.3. -वृत्तिः N. of a com. on Yāska's निरुक्त by Durgāchārya.
niruktiḥ निरुक्तिः f. 1 Derivation, etymological interpretation of words; जरत्कारुनिरुक्तिं त्वं यथावद्वक्तुमर्हसि Mb.1.4.2. -2 (In Rhet.) An artificial explanation of the derivation of a word; thus defined:-- निरुक्तिर्योगतो नाम्नामन्यार्थत्व- प्रकल्पनम् । ईदृशैश्चरितैर्जाने सत्यं दोषाकरो भवान् ॥ Chandr.5.168 (where दोषाकरः is equal to दोषाणामाकरः). -3 (In drama.) communication of an event that has taken place. -4 N. of Yāska's commentary on the Nighaṇṭus.
paribhāṣā परिभाषा 1 Speech, discourse; ग्राम्यवैदग्ध्यया परिभाषया Bhāg.5.2.17. -2 Censure, reproof, blame, abuse. -3 An explanation. -4 Terminology, technical phraseology, technical terms (used in a work); इति परिभाषाप्रकरणम् Sk.; इको गुणवृद्धीत्यादिका परिभाषा Mbh; cf. also अधिकारशब्देन पारार्थ्यात् परिभाषाप्युच्यते । कश्चित् परिभाषारूप इति Kaiyaṭa. -5 (Hence) Any general rule, precept or definition which is applicable throughout (अनियमनिवारको न्याय- विशेषः); परितः प्रमिताक्षरापि सर्वं विषयं प्राप्तवती गता प्रतिष्ठाम् । न खलु प्रतिहन्यते कदाचित् परिभाषेव गरीयसी यदाज्ञा Śi.16.8. -6 A list of abbreviations or signs used in any work. -7 (In gram.) An explanatory Sūtra mixed up with the other Sūtras of Pāṇini, which teaches the method of applying them. -8 (In medicine) Prognosis.
prakāśa प्रकाश a. 1 Bright, shining, brilliant; प्रकाशश्चाप्रकाशश्च लोकलोक इवाचलः R.1.68; 5.2. -2 Clear, visible, manifest; Śi.12.56; नाहं प्रकाशः सर्वस्य योगमायासमावृतः Bg.7.25. -3 Vivid, perspicuous; नयन्ति तेष्वप्युपपन्ननैपुणा गभीरमर्थं कतिचित् प्रकाशताम् Ki.14.4. -4 Famous, renowned, celebrated, noted; जगत्प्रकाशं यशः R.3.48; पितुः प्रकाशस्य तव द्वितीयः Pratimā4.9. -5 Open, public. -6 Cleared of trees, open; विपिनानि प्रकाशानि शक्तिमत्त्वाच्चकार सः R.4.31. -7 Blown, expanded. -8 (At the end of comp.) Looking like, like, resembling; महावनं चैत्ररथप्रकाशम् Mb. 3.177.17. -शः 1 Light, lustre, splendour, brightness; यथा प्रकाशतमसोः सम्बन्धो नोपपद्यते Smṛiti. -2 (Fig.) Light, elucidation, explanation (mostly at the end of titles of works); काव्यप्रकाश, भावप्रकाश, तर्कप्रकाश &c. -3 Sunshine; मेघान्तरे सूर्य इव प्रकाशः Mb.8.7.16. -4 Display, manifestation; Śi.9.5. -5 Fame, renown, celebrity, glory. -6 Expansion, diffusion. -7 Open spot of air; प्रकाशं निर्गतो$वलोकयामि Ś.4. -8 A golden mirror. -9 A chapter or section (of a book). -1 The gloss on the upper part of a horse's body. -11 Knowledge (ज्ञान); सर्वद्वारेषु देहे$स्मिन् प्रकाश उपजायते Bg.14.11. -12 Laughter. -शम् Bell-metal, brass. -शम् ind. 1 Openly, publicly; प्रतिभू- र्दापितो यत् तु प्रकाशं धनिनो धनम् Y.2.56; Ms.8.193;9.228. -2 Aloud, audibly (used as a stage-direction in drama; opp. आत्मगतम्). -शे ind. Openly, publicly. -2 Visibly. -3 In the presence of. -Comp. -आत्मक a. shining, brilliant. -आत्मन् a. bright, shining. (-m.) an epithet of (1) Viṣṇu; (2) of Śiva; (3) the sun. -इतर a. invisible. -कर a. causing manifestation; करणं त्रयोदशविधं तदाहरणधारणप्रकाशकरम् Sāṅ. K.32. -कर्तृ, -कर्मन् N. of the sun. -क्रयः an open purchase. -नारी a public woman, prostitute, harlot; अलं चतुःशालमिमं प्रवेश्य प्रकाशनारीधृत एष यस्मात् Mk.3.7. -वञ्चकः an open cheat.
prakṛtiḥ प्रकृतिः f. 1 The natural condition or state of anything, nature, natural form (opp. विकृति which is a change or effect); तं तं नियममास्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया Bg. 7.2. प्रकृत्या यद्वक्रम् Ś1.9; उष्णत्वमग्न्यातपसंप्रयोगात् शैत्यं हि यत् सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य R.5.54; मरणं प्रकृतिः शरीरिणां विकृति- र्जीवितमुच्यते बुधैः R.8.87; U.7.19; अपेहि रे अत्रभवान् प्रकृतिमापन्नः Ś.2. 'has resumed his wonted nature'; प्रकृतिम् आपद् or प्रतिपद् or प्रकृतौ स्था 'to come to one's senses', 'regain one's consciousness.' -2 Natural disposition, temper, temperament, nature, constitution; प्रकृतिः खलु सा महीयसः सहते नान्यसमुन्नतिं यया Ki.2.21; कथं गत एव आत्मनः प्रकृतिम् Ś.7. 'natural character'; अपश्यत् पाण्डवश्रेष्ठो हर्षेण प्रकृतिं गतः Mb.39.66 (com. प्रकृतिं स्वास्थ्यम्); so प्रकृतिकृपण, प्रकृतिसिद्ध; see below. -3 Make, form, figure; महानुभावप्रकृतिः Māl.1. -4 Extraction, descent; गोपालप्रकृतिरार्यको$स्मि Mk.7. -5 Origin, source, original or material cause, the material of which anything is made; नार्थानां प्रकृतिं वेत्सि Mb.4.49.1; प्रकृतिश्चोपादानकारणं च ब्रह्माभ्युपगन्तव्यम् Ś. B. (see the full discussion on Br. Sūt.1.4.23); यामाहुः सर्वभूतप्रकृतिरिति Ś.1.1; Bhāg.4.28.24. -6 (In Sāṅ. phil.) Nature (as distinguished from पुरुष,) the original source of the material world, consisting of the three essential qualities सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्. It is also mentioned as one of the four contentments; प्रकृत्युपादानकालभागाख्याः Sāṅ. K.5. -7 (In gram.) The radical or crude form of a word to which case-terminations and other affixes are applied; प्रकृतिप्रत्यययोरिवानुबन्धः Ki.13.19. -8 A model, pattern, standard, (especially in ritualistic works); Bhāg.5.7.5. -9 A woman. -1 The personified will of the Supreme Spirit in the creation (identified with माया or illusion); मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् Bg.9.1. -11 The male or female organ of generation. -12 A mother. -13 (In arith.) A coefficient, or multiplier. -14 (In anatomy) Temperament of the humours; प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि निग्रहः किं करिष्यति Bg.3.33. -15 An animal. -16 An artisan. -17 The Supreme Being; न ह्यस्ति सर्वभूतेषु दुःख- मस्मिन् कुतः सुखम् । एवं प्रकृतिभूतानां सर्वसंसर्गयायिनाम् ॥ Mb.12. 152.16. -18 Eight forms of the Supreme Being; भूमि- रापो$नलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च । अहंकार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृति- रष्टधा ॥ Bg.7.4. -19 The way of life (जीवन); सतां वै ददतो$न्नं च लोके$स्मिन् प्रकृतिर्ध्रुवा Mb.12.18.27. (pl.) 1 A king's ministers, the body of ministers or counsellors, ministry; अथानाथाः प्रकृतयो मातृबन्धुनिवासिनम् R.12.12; Pt.1.48; अशुद्धप्रकृतौ राज्ञि जनता नानुरज्यते 31. -2 The subjects (of a king); प्रवर्ततां प्रकृतिहिताय पार्थिवः Ś.7.35; नृपतिः प्रकृतीरवेक्षितुम् R.8.18,1. -3 The constituent elements of the state (सप्ताङ्गानि), i. e. 1 the king; -2 the minister; -3 the allies; -4 treasure; -5 army; -6 territory; -7 fortresses &c.; and the corporations of citizens (which is sometimes added to the 7); स्वाम्यमात्य- सुहृत्कोशराष्ट्रदुर्गबलानि च Ak. -4 The various sovereigns to be considered in case of war; (for full explanation see Kull. on Ms.7.155 and 157). -5 The eight primary elements out of which everything else is evolved according to the Sāṅkhyas; see Sāṅ. K.3. -6 The five primary elements of creations (पञ्चमहाभूतानि) i. e. पृथ्वी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु and आकाश; प्रकृतिं ते भजिष्यन्ति नष्टप्रकृतयो मयि Mb.5.73.17. -Comp. -अमित्रः an ordinary foe; प्रकृत्यमित्रानुत्थाप्य Dk.2.4. -ईशः a king or magistrate. -कल्याण a. beautiful by nature. -कृपण a. naturally slow or unable to discern; Me.5. -गुणः one of the three constituent qualities of nature; see गुण. -ज a. innate, inborn, natural. -तरल a. fickle by nature, naturally inconsistent; प्रकृतितरले का नः पीडा गते हतजीविते Amaru.3. -पाठः a list of verbal roots (धातुपाठ). -पुरुषः a minister, a functionary (of the state); जानामि त्वां प्रकृतिपुरुषं कामरूपं मघोनः Me.6. -2 a standard or model of a man. -षौ nature and spirit. -भाव a. natural, usual. (-वः) natural or original state. -भोजनम् usual food. -मण्डलम् the whole territory of kingdom; अधिगतं विधिवद्यदपालयत् प्रकृतिमण्डलमात्म- कुलोचितम् R.9.2. -लयः absorption into the Prakṛiti, dissolution of the universe. -विकृतिः mutation of the original form. -श्रैष्ठ्यम् superiority of origin; Ms. 1.3. -सिद्ध a. inborn, innate, natural; सुजनबन्धुजने- ष्वसहिष्णुता प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि दुरात्मनाम् Bh.2.52. -सुभग a. naturally lovely or agreeable. -स्थ a. 1 being in the natural state or condition, natural, genuine; दृष्ट्वा चाप्रकृतिस्थां ताम् Rām.7.58.17. -2 inherent, innate, incidental to nature; रघुरप्यजयद् गुणत्रयं प्रकृतिस्थं समलोष्ट- काञ्चनः R.8.21. -3 healthy, in good health. -4 recovered. -5 come to oneself. -6 stripped of everything, bare.
pratiphal प्रतिफल् 1 P. 1 To be reflected. -2 To rebound, recoil. -3 To requite, return. प्रतिफलः pratiphalḥ प्रतिफलनम् pratiphalanam प्रतिफलः प्रतिफलनम् 1 A reflection, reflected image, an image or shadow. स्फुरन्नानारत्नस्फटिकमयभित्तिप्रतिफलम् Ā. L.14; न बिम्ब त्वद्बिम्बप्रतिफलनलाभादरुणितम् Ā. L. -2 Remuneration, requital. -3 Retaliation, retribution.
pratīpa प्रतीप a. [प्रतिगताः आपो यत्र, प्रतिअप् अच्, अप ईप् च्] 1 Contrary, unfavourable, adverse, opposite; तत्प्रतीप- पवनादि वैकृतम् R.11.62; Ki.14.6. -2 Reverse, inverted, out of order. -3 Backward, retrograde. -4 Disagreeable, displeasing. -5 Refractory, disobedient, obstinate, perverse; प्रेष्यः प्रतीपो$धिकृतः प्रमादी (त्याज्याः) Pt.1.424. -6 Turned away, averted. -7 Meeting, encountering. -8 Hindering. -पः 1 N. of a king, father of Śantanu and grand-father of Bhīṣma. -2 An adversary, opponent; चरति मयि रणे यश्च यश्च प्रतीपः Ve.3.32. -पम् N. of a figure of speech in which the usual form of comparison is inverted, the उपमान being compared with the उपमेय; प्रतीपमुपमानस्याप्युपमेयत्वकल्पनम् । त्वल्लोचनसमं पद्मं त्वद्वक्त्रसदृशो विधुः ॥ Chandr.5.9; (for fuller definitions and explanation see K. P.1 under प्रतीप). -पम् ind. 1 On the contrary. -2 In an inverted order. -3 Against, in opposition to; भर्तृर्विप्रकृतापि रोषणतया मा स्म प्रतीपं गमः Ś.4.18. -Comp. -उक्तिः contradiction. -ग a. 1 going against. -2 adverse, unfavourable; तस्य जातु मरुतः प्रतीपगाः R.11.58. -गमनम्, -गतिः f. retrograde motion; अम्भसामोघसंरोधः प्रतीपगमनादिव Ku.2.25. -तरणम् going or sailing against the stream; स्रोतोजवोह्य- मानस्य प्रतीपतरणं हि तत् V.2.5. -दर्शिनी a woman. -दीपकम् a particular figure of speech. -वचनम् 1 contradiction. -2 a perverse or evasive manner of speaking. -विपाकिन् a. producing the opposite result (recoiling on the doer); फलमनुभवत्युग्रं पापः प्रतीपविपाकिनः Māl.5.26.
pradīpaka प्रदीपक a. 1 Illuminating. -2 Explaining, illustrating. -कः, -प्रदीपिका 1 A small lamp. -2 Explanation, commentary.
prapañcaḥ प्रपञ्चः 1 Display, manifestation; रागप्रायः प्रपञ्चः K.151. -2 Development, expansion, extension; भरतज्ञकविप्रणीत- काव्यग्रथिताङ्का इव नाटकप्रपञ्चाः Śi.2.44. -3 Amplification, expatiation, explanation, elucidation. -4 Prolixity, diffuseness, copiousness; अलं प्रपञ्चेन. -5 Manifoldness, diversity. -6 Heap, abundance, quantity. -7 An appearance, phenomenon. -8 Illusion, fraud. -9 The visible world or universe, which is illusory and the scene of manifold action. -1 Reciprocal false praise. -11 Opposition, inversion. -12 Analysis. -13 (In dram.) Ludicrous dialogue. -14 (In gram.) The repetition of an obscure rule in a clearer form. -Comp. -चतुर a. skilful in assuming different forms; Amaru. -बुद्धि a. cunning, deceitful. -वचनम् a prolix discourse, diffuse talk.
prapañcanam प्रपञ्चनम् 1 Display, development; अरिमध्यस्थमित्राणां सम्यक् चोक्तं प्रपञ्चनम् Mb.12.59.52. -2 Copious exposition, detailed explanation or amplification.
prabhāṣaṇam प्रभाषणम् Explanation, interpretation.
prarocana प्ररोचन a. Exciting or enticing. -नम् 1 Exciting, or stimulating. -2 Illustration, explanation. -3 Seduction. -4 Exhibition (of a person) for being seen and liked (by the people); अलोकसामान्यगुणस्तनूजः प्ररोचनार्थं प्रकटीकृतश्च Māl.1.1 (where Jagaddhara interprets प्ररोचनार्थम् by प्रवृत्तिपाटवार्थम् 'in order to be thoroughly acquainted with the world'). -6 Favourable description of that which is to follow in a play. -6 Representation of the end as all but accomplished; see S. D.388 (प्ररोचना also in the last two senses; प्ररोचना तु विज्ञेया संहारार्थप्रदर्शिनी S. D.396).
pravacanam प्रवचनम् 1 Speaking, declaration, announcement; प्रवचने मान्द्यम् Pt.1.19. -2 Teaching, expounding. -3 Exposition, explanation, interpretation; नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यो न मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन Kaṭh.1.2.22; लब्ध्वा ज्ञानमनेकधा प्रवचनैर्मन्वादयः प्राणयन् Mv.4.25; Bhāg.7.15.1. -4 Eloquence. -5 A sacred treatise or writing; Ms. 3.184. -6 An expression, a term. -7 A system of doctrines (in the form of a treatise). -8 The fundamental doctrine of the Budhists. -नः One who exposes, propounds; Bhāg.1.87.11. -Comp. -पटु a. skilled in talking, eloquent.
pravācaka प्रवाचक a. 1 Explanatory. -2 Eloquent.
prāpaṇam प्रापणम् 1 Reaching, extending to. -2 Obtaining, acquisition, attainment. -3 Bringing to, conveying, leading to. -4 Procuring. -5 Reference. -6 Elucidation, explanation.
preṅkhol प्रेङ्खोल् 1 U. (प्रेङ्खोलयति-ते) To swing, shake, oscillate. प्रेङ्खोलः prēṅkhōlḥ प्रेङ्खोलनम् prēṅkhōlanam प्रेङ्खोलः प्रेङ्खोलनम् 1 Swinging, shaking, oscillating; पौरस्त्यझञ्झानिलप्रेङ्खोलस्खलितेन्द्रनील ...... Māl.9.17. -2 A swing. प्रेत prēta प्रेति prēti प्रेत्य prētya प्रेत प्रेति प्रेत्य &c. See under प्रे.
brāhmaṇa ब्राह्मण a. (-णी f.) [ब्रह्म वेदं शुद्धं चैतन्यं वा वेत्त्वधीते वा अण्] 1 Belonging to a Brāhmaṇa. -2 Befitting a Brāhmaṇa. -3 Given by a Brāhmaṇa. -4 Relating to religious worship. -5 One who knows Brahma. -णः 1 A man belonging to the first of the four original castes of the Hindus, a Brāhmaṇa (born from the mouth of the puruṣa); ब्राह्मणो$स्य मुखमासीत् Rv.1.9. 12; Ms.1.31,96; (जन्मना ब्राह्मणो ज्ञेयः संस्कारैर्द्विज उच्यते । विद्यया याति विप्रत्वं त्रिभिः श्रोत्रिय उच्यते ॥ or जात्या कुलेन वृत्तेन स्वाध्यायेन श्रुतेन च । एभिर्युक्तो हि यस्तिष्ठेन्नित्यं स द्विज उच्यते ॥). -2 A priest, theologian. -3 An epithet of Agni. -4 N. of the twentyeighth Nakṣatra. -णम् 1 An assemblage or society of Brāhmaṇas. -2 That portion of the Veda which states rules for the employment of the hymns at the various sacrifices, their origin and detailed explanation, with sometimes lengthy illustrations in the shape of legends or stories. It is distinct from the Mantra portion of the Veda. -3 N. of that class of the Vedic works which contain the Brāhmaṇa portion (regarded as Śruti or part of the revelation like the hymns themselves). Each of the four Vedas has its own Brāhmaṇa or Brāhmaṇas :-ऐतरेय or आश्व- लायन and कौषीतकी or सांख्यायन belonging to the Ṛigveda; शतपथ to the Yajurveda, पञ्चविंश and षड्विंश and six more to the Sāmaveda, and गोपथ to the Atharvaveda. -4 The Soma vessel of the Brahman priest. -Comp. -अतिक्रमः offensive or disrespectful conduct towards Brāhmaṇas, insult to Brāhmaṇas; ब्राह्मणातिक्रमत्यागो भवता- मेव भूतये Mv.2.1. -अगर्शनम् absence of Brahmanical instruction or guidance; वृषलत्वं गता लोके ब्राह्मणादर्शनेन च Ms.1.43. -अपाश्रयः seeking shelter with Brāhmaṇas. -अभ्युपपत्तिः f. protection or preservation of, or kindness shown to, a Brāhmaṇa; ब्राह्मणाभ्युपपत्तौ च शपथे नास्ति पातकम् Ms.8.112. -आत्मक a. belonging to Brāhmaṇas. -घ्नः the slayer of a Brāhmaṇa; स्त्रीबाल- ब्राह्मणघ्नांश्च हन्याद् द्विट्सेविनस्तथा Ms.9.232. -चाण्डालः 1 a degraded or outcast Brāhmaṇa; यथा ब्राह्मणचाण्डालः पूर्व- दृष्टस्तथैव सः Ms.9.87. -2 the son of a Śūdra father by a Brāhmaṇa woman. -जातम्, -जातिः f. the Brāhmaṇa caste. -जीविका the occupation or means of livelihood prescribed for a Brāhmaṇa; अध्यापनमध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहश्चैव षट्कर्माण्यग्रजन्मनः ॥ षण्णां तु कर्मणामस्य त्रीणि कर्माणि जीविका । याजनाध्यापने चैव विशुद्धाच्च प्रतिग्रहः ॥. -द्रव्यम्, -स्वम् a Brāhmaṇa's property. -निन्दकः a blasphemer or reviler of Brāhmaṇas. -प्रसंगः the applicability of the term Brāhmaṇa. -प्रातिवेश्यः a neighbouring Brāhmaṇa; ब्राह्मणप्रातिवेश्यानामेतदेवानिमन्त्रणे Y.2.263. -प्रियः N. of Viṣṇu. -ब्रुवः one who pretends to be a Brāhmaṇa, one who is a Brāhmaṇa only in name and neglects the duties of his caste; बहवो ब्राह्मणब्रुवा निवसन्ति Dk.; सममब्राह्मणे दानं द्विगुणं ब्राह्मणब्रुवे Ms.7.85;8.2. -भावः the rank or condition of a Brāhmaṇa. -भूयिष्ठ a. consisting for the most part of Brāhmaṇas. -यष्टिका, -यष्टी Clerodendrum Siphonantus (Mar. भारंग). -वधः the murder of a Brāhmaṇa, Brahmanicide. -वाचनम् the recitation of benedictions. -संतर्पणम् feeding or satisfying Brāhmaṇas.
bhañjana भञ्जन a. (-नी f.) [भञ्ज्-ल्यु ल्युट् वा] 1 Breaking, splitting. -2 Arresting, checking. -3 Frustrating. -4 Causing violent pain. -नम् 1 Breaking down, shattering, destroying. -2 Removing, dispelling, driving away; तदुदितभयभञ्जनाय यूनाम् Gīt.1. -3 Routing, vanquishing. -4 Frustrating. -5 Checking, interrupting, disturbing. -6 Afflicting, paining. -7 Smoothing (of hair). -नः Decay of the teeth. -ना Explanation.
mahā महा The substitute of महत् at the beginning of Karmadhāraya and Bahuvrīhi compounds, and also at the beginning of some other irregular words. (Note : The number of compounds of which महा is the first member is very large, and may be multiplied ad infinitum. The more important of them, or such as have peculiar significations, are given below.) -Comp. -अक्षः an epithet of Śiva. ˚पटलिक a chief keeper of archives. -अङ्ग a. huge, bulky. -(ङ्गः) 1 a camel. -2 a kind of rat. -3 N. of Śiva. -अञ्जनः N. of a mountain. -अत्ययः a great danger or calamity. -अध्वनिक a. 'having gone a long way', dead. -अध्वरः a great sacrifice. -अनसम् 1 a heavy carriage. -2 cooking utensils. (-सी) a kitchen-maid. (-सः, -सम्) a kitchen; सूपानस्य करिष्यामि कुशलो$स्मि महानसे Mb.4.2.2. -अनिलः a whirlwind; महानिलेनेव निदाघजं रजः Ki.14.59. -अनुभाव a. 1 of great prowess, dignified, noble, glorious, magnanimous, exalted, illustrious; ग्रहीतुमार्यान् परिचर्यया मुहुर्महानु- भावा हि नितान्तमर्थिनः Śi.1.17; Ś.3. -2 virtuous, righteous, just. (-वः) 1 a worthy or respectable person. -2 (pl.) people of a religious sect in Mahārāṣtra founded by Chakradhara in the 13th century. -अन्तकः 1 death. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -अन्धकारः 1 thick darkness. -2 gross (spiritual) ignorance. -अन्ध्राः (pl.) N. of a people and their country. -अन्वय, -अभिजन a. nobly-born, of noble birth. (-यः, -नः) noble birth, high descent. -अभिषवः the great extraction of Soma. -अमात्यः the chief or prime minister (of a king). -अम्बुकः an epithet of Śiva. -अम्बुजम् a billion. -अम्ल a. very sour. (-म्लम्) the fruit of the tamarind tree. अरण्यम् a great (dreary) forest, large forest. -अर्घ a. very costly, costing a high price; महार्घस्तीर्थानामिव हि महतां को$प्यतिशयः U.6.11. (-र्घः) a kind of quail. -अर्घ्य a. 1 valuable, precious. -2 invaluable; inestimable; see महार्ह below. -अर्चिस् a. flaming high. -अर्णवः 1 the great ocean. -2 N. of Śiva. -अर्थ a. 1 rich. -2 great, noble, dignified. -3 important, weighty. -4 significant. -अर्बुदम् one thousand millions. -अर्ह a. 1 very valuable, very costly; महार्हशय्यापरिवर्तनच्युतैः स्वकेशपुष्पैरपि या स्म दूयते Ku.5.12. -2 invaluable, inestimable; महार्हशयनोपेत किं शेषे निहतो भुवि Rām.6.19. 2. (-र्हम्) white sandal-wood. -अवरोहः the fig-tree. -अशनिध्वजः a great banner in the form of the thunderbolt; जहार चान्येन मयूरपत्रिणा शरेण शक्रस्य महाशनि- ध्वजम् R.3.56. -अशन a. voracious, gluttonous; Mb. 4. -अश्मन् m. a precious stone, ruby. -अष्टमी the eighth day in the bright half of Āśvina sacred to Durgā; आश्विने शुक्लपक्षस्य भवेद् या तिथिरष्टमी । महाष्टमीति सा प्रोक्ता ...... -असिः a large sword. -असुरी N. of Durgā. -अह्नः the afternoon. -आकार a. extensive, large, great. -आचार्यः 1 a great teacher. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -आढ्य a. wealthy, very rich. (-ढ्यः) the Kadamba tree. -आत्मन् a. 1 high-souled, high-minded, magnanimous, noble; अयं दुरात्मा अथवा महात्मा कौटिल्यः Mu.7; द्विषन्ति मन्दाश्चरितं महात्मनाम् Ku.5.75; U.1.49; प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् Bh.1.63. -2 illustrious, distinguished, exalted, eminent; किमाचाराः किमाहाराः क्व च वासो महात्मनाम् Mb.3. 1.4. -3 mighty (महाबल); अथायमस्यां कृतवान् महात्मा लङ्केश्वरः कष्टमनार्यकर्म Rām.5.9.74. (-m.) 1 the Supreme Spirit; युगपत्तु प्रलीयन्ते यदा तस्मिन् महात्मनि Ms.1.54. -2 the great principle, i. e. intellect of the Sāṅkhyas. (महात्मवत् means the same as महात्मन्). -आनकः a kind of large drum. -आनन्दः, -नन्दः 1 great joy or bliss. -2 especially, the great bliss of final beatitude. (-न्दा) 1 spirituous liquor. -2 a festival on the ninth day in the bright half of Māgha. -आपगा a great river. -आयुधः an epithet of Śiva. -आरम्भ a. undertaking great works, enterprizing. (-म्भः) any great enterprize. -आलयः 1 a temple in general. -2 a sanctuary, an asylum. -3 a great dwelling. -4 a place of pilgrimage. -5 the world of Brahman. -6 the Supreme Spirit. -7 a tree &c. sacred to a deity. -8 N. of a particular dark fortnight. -9 पितृश्राद्ध in the month of Bhādrapada. (-या) N. of a particular deity. -आशय a. highsouled, nobleminded, magnanimous, noble; दैवात् प्रबुद्धः शुश्राव वराहो हि महाशयः Ks; राजा हिरण्यगर्भो महाशयः H.4; see महात्मन्. (-यः) 1 a noble-minded or magnanimous person; महाशयचक्रवर्ती Bv.1.7. -2 the ocean. -आस्पद a. 1 occupying a great position. -2 mighty, powerful. -आहवः a great or tumultuous fight. -इच्छ a. 1 magnanimous, noble-minded, high-souled, noble; मही महेच्छः परिकीर्य सूनौ R.18.33. -2 having lofty aims or aspirations, ambitious; विद्यावतां महेच्छानां ...... नाश्रयः पार्थिवं विना Pt.1.37. -इन्द्रः 1 'the great Indra', N. of Indra; इयं महेन्द्रप्रभृतीनधिश्रियः Ku.5.53; R.13.2; Ms.7.7. -2 a chief or leader in general. -3 N. of a mountain range; पतिर्महेन्द्रस्य महोदधेश्च R.6.54;4.39,43. ˚चापः rain-bow. ˚नगरी N. of Amarāvatī, the capital of Indra. ˚मन्त्रिन् m. an epithet of Bṛihaspati. ˚वाहः the elephant Airāvata; महेन्द्रवाहप्रतिमो महात्मा Mb.9.17.52. -इभ्य a. very rich. -इषुः a great archer; अधिरोहति गाण्डीवं महेषौ Ki.13.16. -इष्वासः a great archer, a great warrior; अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भामार्जुनसमा युधि Bg.1.4. -ईशः, -ईशानः N. of Śiva; महेशस्त्वां धत्ते शिरसि रसराजस्य जयिनीम् Udb. ˚बन्धुः the Bilva tree. -ईशानी N. of Pārvatī. -ईश्वरः 1 a great lord, sovereign; महेश्वरस्त्र्यम्बक एव नापरः R.; गोप्तारं न निधीनां कथयन्ति महेश्वरं विबुधाः Pt.2.74. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 a god (opp. प्रकृति). -5 the Supreme Being (परमात्मा); मायां तु प्रकृतिं विद्यान्मायिनं तु महेश्वरम् Śvet. Up.4.1. ˚सखः N. of Kubera; यया कैलासभवने महेश्वरसखं बली Mb.9.11.55. (-री) 1 N. of Durgā. -2 a kind of bell-metal. -उक्षः (for उक्षन्) a large bull; a full grown or strong bull; महोक्षतां वत्सतरः स्पृशन्निव R.3.32;4.22;6.72; Śi.5.63. -उत्पलम् a large blue lotus. (-लः) the Sārasa bird. -उत्सवः 1 a great festival or occasion of joy; नयनविषयं जन्मन्येकः स एव महोत्सवः Māl.1.36. -2 the god of love. -उत्साह a. possessed of great energy, energetic, persevering; अहं च कर्णं जानामि ...... सत्यसंधं महोत्साहं ...... Mb.3.91.2. (-हः) 1 perseverance. -2 great pride; ये जात्यादिमहो- त्साहान्नरेन्द्रान्नोपयान्ति च । तेषामामरणं भिक्षा प्रायश्चितं विनिर्मितम् ॥ Pt.1.38. -उदधिः 1 the great ocean; महोदधेः पूर इवेन्दु- दर्शनात् R.3.17. -2 an epithet of Indra. ˚जः a conchshell, shell. -उदय a. very prosperous or lucky, very glorious or splendid, of great prosperity. (-यः) 1 (a) great elevation or rise, greatness, prosperity; नन्दस्त्वतीन्द्रियं दृष्ट्वा लोकपालमहोदयम् Bhāg.1.28.1; अपवर्ग- महोदयार्थयोर्भुवमंशाविव धर्मयोर्गतौ R.8.16. (b) great fortune or good luck. (c) greatness, pre-eminence. -2 final beatitude. -3 a lord, master. -4 N. of the district called Kānyakubja or Kanouja; see App. -5 N. of the capital of Kanouja. -6 sour milk mixed with honey. -7 = महात्मन् q. v.; संसक्तौ किमसुलभं महोदयानाम Ki.7.27. ˚पर्वन् a time of union of the middle of श्रवण नक्षत्र and the end of व्यतिपात (generally in the month of माघ or पौष at the beginning of अमावास्या). -उदर a. big-bellied, corpulent. -(रम्) 1 a big belly. -2 dropsy. -उदार a. 1 very generous or magnanimous. -2 mighty, powerful. -उद्यम a. = महोत्साह q. v; महोद्यमाः कर्म समा- रभन्ते. -उद्योग a. very industrious or diligent, hardworking. -उद्रेकः a particular measure (= 4 प्रस्थs). -उन्नत a. exceedingly lofty. (-तः) the palmyra tree. -उन्नतिः f. great rise or elevation (fig. also), high rank. -उपकारः a great obligation. -उपाध्यायः a great preceptor, a learned teacher. -उरगः a great serpent; वपुर्महोरगस्येव करालफणमण्डलम् R.12.98. -उरस्क a. broad-chested. (-स्कः) an epithet of Śiva. -उर्मिन् m. the ocean; ततः सागरमासाद्य कुक्षौ तस्य महोर्मिणः Mb.3.2.17. -उल्का 1 a great meteor. -2 a great fire-brand. -ऋत्विज् m. 'great priest', N. of the four chief sacrificial priests. -ऋद्धि a. very prosperous, opulent. (-f.) great prosperity or affluence. -ऋषभः a great bull. -ऋषिः 1 a great sage or saint; यस्मादृषिः परत्वेन महांस्त- स्मान्महर्षयः; (the term is applied in Ms.1.34 to the ten Prajāpatis or patriarchs of mankind, but it is also used in the general sense of 'a great sage'). -2 N. of Sacute;iva. -3 of Buddha. -ओघ a. having a strong current. -घः a very large number; शतं खर्व- सहस्राणां समुद्रमभिधीयते । शतं समुद्रसाहस्रं महौघमिति विश्रुतम् ॥ Rām.6.28.37. -ओष्ठ (महोष्ठ) a. having large lips. (-ष्ठः) an epithet of Śiva. -ओजस् a. very mighty or powerful, possessed of great splendour or glory; महौजसा मानधना धनार्चिताः Ki.1.19. (-m.) a great hero or warrior, a champion. (-n.) great vigour. -ओजसम् the discus of Viṣṇu (सुदर्शन). (-सी) N. of plant (Mar. कांगणी). -ओदनी Asparagus Racemosus (Mar. शतावरी). -ओषधिः f. 1 a very efficacious medicinal plant, a sovereign drug. -2 the Dūrvā grass. -3 N. of various plants ब्राह्मी, श्वेतकण्टकारी, कटुका, अतिविष &c. ˚गणः a collection of great or medicinal herbs:-- पृश्निपर्णी श्यामलता भृङ्गराजः शतावरी । गुड्चा सहदेवी च महौषधिगणः स्मृतः ॥ cf. also सहदेवी तथा व्याघ्री बला चातिबला त्वचा । शङ्खपुष्पी तथा सिंही अष्टमी च सुवर्चला ॥ महौषध्यष्टकं प्रोक्तं... . -औषधम् 1 a sovereign remedy, panacea. -2 ginger. -3 garlic. -4 a kind of poison (वत्सनाभ). -कच्छः 1 the sea. -2 N. of Varuṇa. -3 a mountain. -कन्दः garlic. -कपर्दः a kind of shell. -कपित्थः 1 the Bilva tree. -2 red garlic. -कम्बु a. stark naked. (-म्बुः) an epithet of Śiva. -कर a. 1 large-handed. -2 having a large revenue. -कर्णः an epithet of Śiva. -कर्मन् a. doing great works. (-m.) an epithet of Śiva. -कला the night of the new moon. -कल्पः a great cycle of time (1 years of Brahman); Bhāg.7.15.69. -कविः 1 a great poet, a classical poet, such as कालिदास, भवभूति, बाण, भारवि &c. -2 an epithet of Śukra. -कषायः N. of a plant (Mar. कायफळ). -कान्तः an epithet of Śiva. (-ता) the earth. -काय a. big-bodied, big, gigantic, bulky. (-यः) 1 an elephant. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 of a being attending on Śiva (= नन्दि). -कारुणिक a. exceedingly compassionate. -कार्तिकी the night of full-moon in the month of Kārtika. -कालः 1 a form of Śiva in his character as the destroyer of the world; महाकालं यजेद्देव्या दक्षिणे धूम्रवर्णकम् Kālītantram. -2 N. of a celebrated shrine or temple of Śiva (Mahākāla) (one of the 12 celebrated Jyotirliṅgas) established at Ujjayinī (immortalized by Kālidāsa in his Meghadūta, which gives a very beautiful description of the god, his temple, worship &c., together with a graphic picture of the city; cf. Me.3-38; also R.6.34); महाकालनिवासिनं कालीविलासिनमनश्वरं महेश्वरं समाराध्य Dk.1.1. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -4 N. of a kind of gourd. -5 N. of Śiva's servant (नन्दि). ˚पुरम् the city of Ujjayinī. ˚फलम् a red fruit with black seeds; पक्वं महाकालफलं किलासीत् N.22.29. -काली an epithet of Durgā in her terrific form. -काव्यम् a great or classical poem; (for a full description of its nature, contents &c., according to Rhetoricians see S. D.559). (The number of Mahākāvyas is usually said to be five:-रघुवंश, कुमारसंभव, किरातार्जुनीय, शिशुपालवध and नैषधचरित or six, if मेघदूत-- a very small poem or खण़्डकाव्य-- be added to the list. But this enumeration is apparently only traditional, as there are several other poems, such as the भट्टिकाव्य, विक्रमाङ्कदेवचरित, हरविजय &c. which have an equal claim to be considered as Mahākāvyas). -कीर्तनम् a house. -कुमारः the eldest son of a reigning prince, heir-apparent. -कुल, -कुलीन a. of noble birth or descent, sprung from a noble family, nobly born. (-लम्) a noble birth or family, high descent. -कुहः a species of parasitical worm. -कृच्छ्रम् a great penance. -केतुः N. of Śiva. -केशः, -कोशः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 a large sheath. -क्रतुः a great sacrifice; e. g. a horse-sacrifice; तदङ्गमग्ऱ्यं मघवन् महाक्रतोरमुं तुरङ्गं प्रतिमोक्तुमर्हसि R.3.46. -क्रमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -क्रोधः an epithet of Śiva. -क्षत्रपः a great satrap. -क्षीरः sugar-cane. -क्षीरा f. a She-buffalo; Nighaṇṭaratnākara. -खर्वः, -र्वम् a high number (ten billions ?). -गजः a great elephant; see दिक्करिन्. -गणपतिः a form of the god Gaṇeśa. -गदः fever. -गन्ध a. exceedingly fragrant. (-न्धः) a kind of cane. (-न्धम्) a kind of sandalwood. (-न्धा) N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -गर्तः, -गर्भः -गीतः N. of Śiva. -गर्दभगन्धिका N. of a plant, भारङ्गी. -गल a. longnecked. -गवः Bos gavaeus. -गुण a. very efficacious, sovereign (as a medicine); त्वया ममैष संबन्धः कपिमुख्य महागुणः Rām.5.1.12. (-णः) a chief quality, cardinal virtue. -गुरुः a highly respectable or venerable person; (these are three, the father, mother and preceptor; पिता माता तथाचार्यो महागुरुरिति स्मृतः). -गुल्मा the Soma plant. -गृष्टिः f. a cow with a large hump. -ग्रहः 1 an epithet of Rāhu. -2 the sun; महाग्रहग्राहविनष्टपङ्कः Rām.5.5.6. -ग्रामः N. of the ancient capital of Ceylon, the modern Māgama. -ग्रीवः 1 a camel. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -ग्रीविन् m. a camel. -घूर्णा spirituous liquor. -घृतम् ghee kept for a long time (for medicinal purposes). -घोष a. noisy, loud-sounding. (-षम्) a market, fair. (-षः) a loud noise, clamour. -चक्रम् the mystic circle in the शाक्त ceremonial. -चक्रवर्तिन् m. a universal monarch. -चण्डा N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -चपला a kind of metre. -चमूः f. a large army. -छायः the fig-tree. -जङ्घः a camel. -जटः an epithet of Śiva. -जटा 1 a great braid of hair. -2 the matted hair of Śiva. -जत्रु a. having a great collar-bone. (-त्रुः) an epithet of Śiva. -जनः 1 a multitude of men, a great many beings, the general populace or public; महाजनो येन गतः स पन्थाः Mb.3.313. 117; आगम्य तु ततो राजा विसृज्य च महाजनम् 6.98.25. -2 the populace, mob; विलोक्य वृद्धोक्षमधिष्ठितं त्वया महाजनः स्मेरमुखो भविष्यति Ku.5.7. -3 a great man, a distinguished or eminent man; महाजनस्य संसर्गः कस्य नोन्नतिकारकः । पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम् Pt.3.6. -4 the chief of a caste or trade. -5 a merchant, tradesman. -जवः an antelope. -जातीय a. 1 rather large. -2 of an excellent kind. -जालिः, -ली N. of a plant (Mar. सोनामुखी) -जिह्वः an epithet of Śiva. -ज्ञानिन् m. 1 a very learned man. -2 a great sage. -3 N. of Śiva. -ज्यैष्ठी the day of fullmoon in the month of Jyeṣṭha; ताभिर्दृश्यत एष यान् पथि महाज्यैष्ठीमहे मन्महे N.15.89; पूर्णिमा रविवारेण महाज्यैष्ठी प्रकीर्तिता Agni P.121.63. -ज्योतिस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -ज्वरः great affliction. -ज्वाल a. very brilliant or shining. (-लः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 a sacrificial fire. -डीनम् a kind of flight; 'यानं महाडीनमाहुः पवित्रामूर्जितां गतिम्' Mb.8.41.27 (com.). -तपस् m. 1 a great ascetic. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -तलम् N. of one of the seven lower regions; see पाताल. -तारा N. of a Buddhist goddess. -तिक्तः the Nimba tree. -तिथिः the 6th day of a lunation. -तीक्ष्ण a. exceedingly sharp or pungent. (-क्ष्णा) the markingnut plant. -तेजस् a. 1 possessed of great lustre or splendour. -2 very vigorous or powerful, heroic. (-m.) 1 a hero, warrior. -2 fire. -3 an epithet of Kārtikeya. (-n.) quick-silver. -त्याग, -त्यागिन् a. very generous. (-m.) N. of Śiva. -दंष्ट्रः a species of big tiger. -दन्तः 1 an elephant with large tusks. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -दण्डः 1 a long arm. -2 a severe punishment. -दम्भः an epithet of Śiva. -दशा the influence exercised (over a man's destiny) by a predominant planet. -दानम् the gift of gold equal to one's own weight; अथातः संप्रवक्ष्यामि महादानस्य लक्षणम्. -दारु n. the devadāru tree. -दुर्गम् a great calamity; Pt. -दूषकः a kind of grain. -देवः N. of Śiva. (-वी) 1 N. of Pārvatī. -2 the chief queen. -द्रुमः the sacred fig-tree. -द्वारम् a large gate, the chief or outer gate of a temple. -धन a. 1 rich. -2 expensive, costly; हेमदण्डैर्महाधनैः Rām.7. 77.13. (-नम्) 1 gold. -2 incense. -3 a costly or rich dress. -4 agriculture, husbandry. -5 anything costly or precious. -6 great booty. -7 a great battle (Ved.). -धनुस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -धातुः 1 gold. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 lymph. -4 N. of Meru. -धी a. having a great understanding. -धुर्यः a full-grown draught ox. -ध्वजः a camel. -ध्वनिक a. dead. -नग्नः an athlete; Buddh. -नटः an epithet of Śiva; महानटः किं नु ...... तनोति ...... साम्प्रतमङ्गहारम् N.22.7; महानटबाहुनेव बद्धभुजाङ्केन Vās. -नदः a great river. -नदी 1 a great river, such as Gaṅgā, Kṛiṣṇā; मन्दरः पर्वतश्चाक्षो जङ्घा तस्य महानदी Mb.8.34.2; संभूयाम्भोधिमभ्येति महानद्या नगापगा Śi.2.1. -2 N. of a river falling into the bay of Bengal. -नन्दा 1 spirituous liquor. -2 N. of a river. -3 ninth day of the bright half of the month of Māgha; माघमासस्य या शुक्ला नवमी लोकपूजिचा । महानन्देति सा प्रोक्ता ... . -नरकः N. of one of the 21 hells. -नलः a kind of reed. -नवमी the ninth day in the bright half of Āśvina, sacred to the worship of Durgā ततो$नु नवमी यस्मात् सा महानवमी स्मृता. -नाटकम् 'the great drama', N. of a drama, also called Hanumannāṭaka, (being popularly ascribed to Hanumat); thus defined by S. D. :-- एतदेव यदा सर्वैः पताकास्थानकैर्युतम् । अङ्कैश्च दशभिर्धीरा महानाटकमूचिरे ॥ -नाडी sinew, tendon. -नादः 1 a loud sound, uproar. -2 a great drum. -3 a thunder-cloud. -4 a shell. -5 an elephant. -6 a lion. -7 the ear. -8 a camel. -9 an epithet of Śiva. (-दम्) a musical instrument. -नाम्नी 1 N. of a परिशिष्ट of Sāmaveda. -2 (pl.) N. of 9 verses of Sāmaveda beginning with विदा मघवन् विदा. -नायकः 1 a great gem in the centre of a string of pearls. -2 a great head or chief. -नासः an epithet of Śiva. -निद्र a. fast asleep. (-द्रा) 'the great sleep', death. -निम्नम् intestines, abdomen. -नियमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निर्वाणम् total extinction of individuality (according to the Buddhists). -निशा 1 the dead of night, the second and third watches of the night; महानिशा तु विज्ञेया मध्यमं प्रहरद्वयम् -2 an epithet of Durgā. -नीचः a washerman. -नील a. dark-blue. (-लः) a kind of sapphire or emerald; इन्द्रनीलमहानीलमणिप्रवरवेदिकम् Rām.5.9.16; महा- महानीलशिलारुचः Śi.1.16;4.44; R.18.42; Kau. A.2.11. 29. ˚उपलः a sapphire. -नृत्यः, -नेत्रः an epithet of Śiva. -नेमिः a crow. -न्यायः the chief rule. -पक्ष a. 1 having many adherents. -2 having a large family or retinue; महापक्षे धनिन्यार्थे निक्षेपं निक्षिपेद् बुधः Ms.8.179. (-क्षः) 1 an epithet of Garuḍa. -2 a kind of duck. (-क्षी) an owl. -पङ्क्तिः, -पदपङ्क्तिः a kind of metre. -पञ्चमूलम् the five great roots:-- बिल्वो$ग्निमन्थः श्योनाकः काश्मरी पाटला तथा । सर्वैस्तु मिलितैरेतैः स्यान्महापञ्चमूलकम् ॥ -पञ्चविषम् the five great or deadly poisons:-- शृङ्गी च कालकूटश्च मुस्तको वत्सनाभकः । शङ्खकर्णीति योगो$यं महापञ्चविषाभिधः ॥ -पटः the skin. -पथः 1 chief road, principal street, high or main road; संतानकाकीर्णमहापथं तत् Ku.7.3. -2 the passage into the next world, i. e. death. -3 N. of certain mountain-tops from which devout persons used to throw themselves down to secure entrance into heaven. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -5 the long pilgrimage to mount Kedāra. -6 the way to heaven. -7 the knowledge of the essence of Śiva acquired in the pilgrimage to Kedāra. -पथिक a. 1 undertaking great journeys. -2 one receiving Śulka (toll) on the high way; cf. Mb.12.76.6 (com. महापथिकः समुद्रे नौयानेन गच्छन् यद्वा महापथि शुल्कग्राहकः) -पद्मः 1 a particular high number. -2 N. of Nārada. -3 N. of one of the nine treasures of Kubera. -4 N. of the southernmost elephant supporting the world. -5 an epithet of Nanda. -6 a Kinnara attendant on Kubera. (-द्मम्) 1 a white lotus. -2 N. of a city. ˚पतिः N. of Nanda. -पराकः a. a particular penance; Hch. -पराङ्णः a late hour in the afternoon. -पवित्रः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पशुः large cattle; महापशूनां हरणे ... दण्डं प्रकल्पयेत् Ms.8.324. -पातः a long flight; Pt.2.58. -पातकम् 1 a great sin, a heinous crime; ब्रह्महत्या सुरापानं स्तेयं गुर्वङ्गनागमः । महान्ति पातकान्याहुस्तत्संसर्गश्च पञ्चमम् ॥ Ms.1154. -2 any great sin or transgression. -पात्रः a prime minister. -पादः an epithet of Śiva. -पाप्मन् a. very sinful or wicked. -पुराणम् N. of a Purāṇa; महापुराणं विज्ञेयमेकादशकलक्षणम् Brav. P. -पुंसः a great man. -पुरुषः 1 a great man, an eminent or distinguished personage; शब्दं महापुरुषसंविहितं निशम्य U. 6.7. -2 the Supreme Spirit. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पौरुषिकः a worshipper of Viṣṇu; तदहं ते$भिधास्यामि महापौरुषिको भवान् Bhāg.2.1.1. -पुष्पः a kind of worm. -पूजा great worship; any solemn worship performed on extraordinary occasions. -पृष्ठः a camel. -पोटगलः a kind of large reed. -प्रजापतिः N. of Viṣṇu. -प्रतीहारः a chief door-keeper. -प्रपञ्चः the great universe. -प्रभ a. of great lustre. (-भः) the light of a lamp. -प्रभुः 1 a great lord. -2 a king, sovereign. -3 a chief. -4 an epithet of Indra. -5 of Śiva -6 of Viṣṇu. -7 a great saint or holy man. -प्रलयः 'the great dissolution', the total annihilation of the universe at the end of the life of Brahman, when all the lokas with their inhabitants, the gods, saints &c. including Brahman himself are annihilated; महाप्रलयमारुत ...... Ve.3.4. -प्रश्नः a knotty question. -प्रसादः 1 a great favour. -2 a great present (of food offered to an idol); पादोदकं च निर्माल्यं नैवेद्यं च विशेषतः । महाप्रसाद इत्युक्त्वा ग्राह्यं विष्णोः प्रयत्नतः -प्रस्थानम् 1 departing this life, death. -2 setting out on a great journey for ending life; इहैव निधनं याम महाप्रस्थानमेव वा Rām.2.47.7 (com. महाप्रस्थानं मरणदीक्षा- पूर्वकमुत्तराभिमुखगमनम्); Mb.1.2.365. -प्राणः 1 the hard breathing or aspirate sound made in the pronunciation of the aspirates. -2 the aspirated letters themselves (pl.); they are:-ख्, घ्, छ्, झ्, ठ्, ढ्, थ्, ध्, फ्, भ्, श्, ष्, स्, ह्. -3 a raven. -प्राणता possession of great strength or essence; अन्यांश्च जीवत एव महाप्राणतया स्फुरतो जग्राह K. -प्रेतः a noble departed spirit. -प्लवः a great flood, deluge; ... क्षिप्तसागरमहाप्लवामयम् Śi.14.71. -फल a. 1 bearing much fruit. -2 bringing much reward. (-ला) 1 a bitter gourd. -2 a kind of spear. (-लम्) 1 a great fruit or reward. -2 a testicle. -फेना the cuttle-fish bone. -बन्धः a peculiar position of hands or feet. -बभ्रुः a kind of animal living in holes. -बल a. very strong; नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद्राज्यं महाबलः Rām (-लः) 1 wind, storm. -2 a Buddha. -3 a solid bamboo. -4 a palm. -5 a crocodile. -बला N. of a plant; महाबला च पीतपुष्पा सहदेवी च सा स्मृता Bhāva. P. (-लम्) lead. ˚ईश्वरः N. of a Liṅga of Śiva near the modern Mahābaleśwara. -बाध a. causing great pain or damage. -बाहु a. long-armed, powerful. (-हुः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -बि(वि)लम् 1 the atmosphere. -2 the heart. -3 a water-jar, pitcher. -4 a hole, cave. -बिसी a variety of skin (चर्म), a product of द्वादशग्राम in the Himālayas. -बी(वी)जः an epithet of Śiva. -बी (वी)ज्यम् the perinæum. -बुध्न a. having a great bottom or base (as a mountain). -बुशः barley. -बृहती a kind of metre. -बोधिः 1 the great intelligence of a Buddha. -2 a Buddha. -ब्रह्मम्, -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit. -ब्राह्मणः 1 a great or learned Brāhmaṇa. -2 a low or contemptible Brāhmaṇa. -भटः a great warrior; तदोजसा दैत्यमहाभटार्पितम् Bhāg. -भद्रा N. of the river Gaṅgā. -भाग a. 1 very fortunate or blessed, very lucky or prosperous. -2 illustrious, distinguished, glorious; उभौ धर्मौ महाभागौ Mb.12.268.3; महाभागः कामं नरपतिरभिन्नस्थितिरसौ Ś.5.1; Ms.3.192. -3 very pure or holy, highly virtuous; पतिव्रता महाभागा कथं नु विचरिष्यति Mb.4.3.16. -भागता, -त्वम्, -भाग्यम् 1 extreme good fortune, great good luck, prosperity. -2 great excellence or merit. -भागवतम् the great Bhāgavata, one of the 18 Purāṇas. (-तः) a great worshipper of Viṣṇu. -भागिन् a. very fortunate or prosperous. -भाण्डम् a chief treasury. -भारतम् N. of the celebrated epic which describes the rivalries and contests of the sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu. (It consists of 18 Parvans or books, and is said to be the composition of Vyāsa; cf. the word भारत also); महत्त्वाद्भारतत्वाच्च महाभारतमुच्यते -भाष्यम् 1 a great commentary. -2 particularly, the great commentary of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini. -भासुरः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -भिक्षुः N. of Śākyamuni. -भीता a kind of sensitive plant (लाजाळू). -भीमः an epithet of king Śantanu. -भीरुः a sort of beetle or fly. -भुज a. long-armed, powerful. -भूतम् a great or primary element; see भूत; तस्यैतस्य महाभूतस्य निःश्वसितमेतद्यदृग्वेदः Up.; तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना R.1. 29; Ms.1.6. (-तः) 1 the Supreme Being. -2 a great creature. -भोगः 1 a great enjoyment. -2 a great coil or hood; great winding. -3 a serpent. (-गा) an epithet of Durgā. -मणिः 1 a costly or precious jewel; संस्कारोल्लिखितो महामणिरिव क्षीणो$पि नालक्ष्यते Ś.6.5. -2 N. of Śiva. -मति a. 1 high-minded. -2 clever. (-तिः) N. of Bṛihaspati or Jupiter. -मत्स्यः a large fish, sea-monster. -मद a. greatly intoxicated. (-दः) an elephant in rut. -मनस्, -मनस्क a. 1 high-minded, nobleminded, magnanimous; ततो युधिष्ठिरो राजा धर्मपुत्रो महामनाः Mb.4.1.7. -2 liberal. -3 proud, haughty. (-m) a fabulous animal called शरभ q. v. -मन्त्रः 1 any sacred text of the Vedas. -2 a great or efficacious charm, a powerful spell. -मन्त्रिन् m. the prime-minister, premier. -मयूरी N. of Buddhist goddess. -मलहारी a kind of Rāgiṇi. -महः a great festive procession; Sinhās. -महस् n. a great light (seen in the sky). -महोपाध्यायः 1 a very great preceptor. -2 a title given to learned men and reputed scholars; e. g. महामहो- पाध्यायमल्लिनाथसूरि &c. -मांसम् 'costly flesh', especially human flesh; न खलु महामांसविक्रयादन्यमुपायं पश्यामि Māl.4; अशस्त्रपूतं निर्व्याजं पुरुषाङ्गोपकल्पितम् । विक्रीयते महामांसं गृह्यतां गृह्यतामिदम् 5.12 (see Jagaddhara ad loc.). -माघी the full-moon day in the month of Māgha. -मात्र a. 1 great in measure, very great or large. -2 most excellent, best; वृष्ण्यन्धकमहामात्रैः सह Mb.1.221.27; 5.22.37. (-त्रः) 1 a great officer of state, high stateofficial, a chief minister; (मन्त्रे कर्मणि भूषायां वित्ते माने परिच्छदे । मात्रा च महती येषां महामात्रास्तु ते स्मृताः); Ms. 9.259; गूढपुरुषप्रणिधिः कृतमहामात्रापसर्पः (v. l. महामात्यापसर्पः) पौरजानपदानपसर्पयेत् Kau. A.1.13.9; Rām.2.37.1. -2 an elephant-driver or keeper; मदोन्मत्तस्य भूपस्य कुञ्जरस्य च गच्छतः । उन्मार्गं वाच्यतां यान्ति महामात्राः समीपगाः ॥ Pt.1.161. -3 a superintendent of elephants. (-त्री) 1 the wife of a chief minister. -2 the wife of a spiritual teacher. -मानसी N. of a Jain goddess. -मान्य a. being in great honour with; मकरन्दतुन्दिलानामरविन्दानामयं महामान्यः Bv.1.6. -मायः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -माया 1 worldly illusion, which makes the material world appear really existent. -2 N. of Durgā; महामाया हरेश्चैषा यया संमोह्यते जगत् Devīmāhātmya. -मायूरम् a particular drug. (-री) N. of an amulet and a goddess; Buddh. -मारी 1 cholera, an epidemic. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -मार्गः high road, main street. ˚पतिः a superintendent of roads. -मालः N. of Śiva. -माहेश्वरः a great worshipper of Maheśvara or Śiva. -मुखः a crocodile. -मुद्रा a particular position of hands or feet (in practice of yoga). -मुनिः 1 a great sage. -2 N. of Vyāsa. -3 an epithet of Buddha. -4 of Agastya. -5 the coriander plant. (-नि n.) 1 coriander seed. -2 any medicinal herb or drug. -मूर्तिः N. of Viṣṇu. -मूर्धन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -मूलम् a large radish. (-लः) a kind of onion. -मूल्य a. very costly. (-ल्यः) a ruby. -मृगः 1 any large animal. -2 an elephant, -3 the fabulous animal called शरभ. -मृत्युः, -मेधः N. of Śiva. -मृत्युंजयः a kind of drug. -मृधम् a great battle. -मेदः the coral tree; महामेदाभिधो ज्ञेयः Bhāva. P. -मेधा an epithet of Durgā. -मोहः great infatuation or confusion of mind. (ससर्ज) महामोहं च मोहं च तमश्चाज्ञानवृत्तयः Bhāg.3.12.2. (-हा) an epithet of Durgā. -यज्ञः 'a great sacrifice', a term applied to the five daily sacrifices or acts of piety to be performed by a house-holder; अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः पितृयज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् । होमो दैवो (or देवयज्ञः) बलिर्भौतो (or भूतयज्ञः) नृयज्ञो$तिथिपूजनम् ॥ Ms.3.7,71, (for explanation, see the words s. v.). -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -यमकम् 'a great Yamaka', i. e. a stanza all the four lines of which have exactly the same words, though different in sense; e. g. see Ki.15.52, where विकाशमीयुर्जगतीशमार्गणाः has four different senses; cf. also बभौ मरुत्वान् विकृतः समुद्रः Bk.1.19. -यशस् a. very famous, renowned, celebrated. -यात्रा 'the great pilgrimage', the pilgrimage to Benares. -यानम् N. of the later system of Buddhist teaching, firstly promulgated by Nāgārjuna (opp. हीनयान). -याम्यः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -युगम् 'a great Yuga', consisting of the four Yugas of mortals, or comprising 4,32, years of men. -योगिन् m. 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -3 a cock. -योनिः f. excessive dilation of the female organ. -रक्तम् coral. -रङ्गः a large stage. -रजतम् 1 gold; उच्चैर्महारजतराजिविराजितासौ Śi.4.28. -2 the thorn-apple. -रजनम् 1 safflower. -2 gold. -3 turmeric; तस्य हैतस्य पुरुषस्य रूपं यथा महारजनं वासः Bṛi. Up.2.3.6. -रत्नम् 1 a precious jewel; वज्रं मुक्ता प्रवालं च गोमेदश्चेन्द्रनीलकः ॥ वैडूर्यः पुष्करागश्च पाचिर्माणिक्यमेव च । महारत्नानि चैतानि नव प्रोक्तानि सूरिभिः ॥ Śukra.4.155-56. -रथः 1 a great chariot. -2 a great warrior or hero; द्रुपदश्च महारथः Bg.1.4; कुतः प्रभावो धनंजयस्य महारथजयद्रथस्य विपत्तिमुत्पादयितुम् Ve.2; दशरथः प्रशशास महारथः R.9.1; Śi.3.22; (a महारथ is thus defined:-- एको दशसहस्राणि योधयेद्यस्तु धन्विनाम् ॥ शस्त्रशास्त्र- प्रवीणश्च विज्ञेयः स महारथः ॥). -3 desire, longing; cf. मनोरथ. -रवः a frog. -रस a. very savoury. (-सः) 1 a sugarcane. -2 quicksilver. -3 a precious mineral. -4 the fruit of the date tree. -5 any one of the eight substances given below :-दरदः पारदं शस्ये वैक्रान्तं कान्तमभ्रकम् । माक्षिकं विमलश्चेति स्युरेते$ष्टौ महारसाः ॥ (-सम्) sour ricewater. -राजः 1 a great king, sovereign or supreme ruler; पञ्चाशल्लक्षपर्यन्तो महाराजः प्रकीर्तितः Śukra.1.184. -2 a respectful mode of addressing kings or other great personages (my lord, your majesty, your highness); इति सत्यं महाराज बद्धो$स्म्यर्थेन कौरवैः Mb. -3 a deified Jaina teacher. -4 a fingernail. ˚अधिराजः a universal emperor, paramount sovereign. ˚चूतः a kind of mango tree. -राजिकः N. of Viṣṇu. -राजिकाः (m. pl.) an epithet of a class of gods (said to be 22 or 236 in number.). -राज्यम् the rank or title of a reigning sovereign. -राज्ञी 1 the reigning or chief queen, principal wife of a king. -2 N. of Durgā. -रात्रम् midnight, dead of night. -रात्रिः, -त्री f. 1 see महाप्रलय; ब्रह्मणश्च निपाते च महाकल्पो भवेन्नृप । प्रकीर्तिता महारात्रिः. -2 midnight. -3 the eighth night in the bright half of Āśvina. -राष्ट्रः 'the great kingdom', N. of a country in the west of India, the country of the Marāṭhās. -2 the people of Mahārāṣṭra; the Marāṭhās (pl.). (-ष्ट्री) N. of the principal Prākṛita; dialect, the language of the people of the Mahārāṣṭra; cf. Daṇḍin:-महाराष्ट्राश्रयां भाषां प्रकृष्टं प्राकृतं विदुः Kāv.1.34. -रिष्टः a kind of Nimba tree growing on mountains. -रुज्, -ज a. very painful. -रुद्रः a form of Śiva. -रुरुः a species of antelope. -रूप a. mighty in form. (-पः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 resin. -रूपकम् a kind of drama. -रेतस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -रोगः a dangerous illness, grievous malady; (these are eight :-उन्मादो राजयक्ष्मा च श्वासस्त्वग्दोष एव च । मधुमेहश्चाश्मरी च तथो- दरभगन्दरौ ॥). -रौद्र a. very dreadful. (-द्री) an epithet of Durgā. -रौरवः N. of one of the 21 hells; Ms.4.88-9. -लक्ष्मी 1 the great Lakṣmī, or Śakti of Nārāyaṇa; सेवे सैरिभमर्दिनीमिह महालक्ष्मीं सरोजस्थिताम्. -2 a young girl who represents the goddess Durgā at the Durgā festival. -लयः 1 a great world destruction. -2 the Supreme Being (महदादीनां लयो यस्मिन्). -लिङ्गम् the great Liṅga or Phallus. (-ङ्गः) an epithet of Śiva. -लोलः a crow. -लोहम् a magnet. -वंशः N. of a wellknown work in Pali (of the 5th century). -वक्षस् m. epithet of Śiva. -वनम् a large forest in Vṛindāvana. -वरा Dūrvā grass. -वराहः 'the great boar', an epithet of Viṣṇu in his third or boar incarnation. -वर्तनम् high wages; -वल्ली 1 the Mādhavī creeper. -2 a large creeping plant. -वसः the porpoise. -वसुः silver; Gīrvāṇa. -वाक्यम् 1 a long sentence. -2 any continuous composition or literary work. -3 a great proposition, principal sentence; such as तत्त्वमसि, ब्रह्मैवेदं सर्वम् &c. -4 a complete sentence (opp. अवान्तरवाक्य q. v.); न च महावाक्ये सति अवान्तरवाक्यं प्रमाणं भवति ŚB. on MS.6.4.25. -वातः a stormy wind, violent wind; महावातातैर्महिषकुलनीलैर्जलधरैः Mk.5.22. -वादिन् m. a great or powerful disputant. -वायुः 1 air (as an element). -2 stormy wind, hurricane, tempest. -वार्तिकम् N. of the Vārtikas of Kātyāyana on Pāṇini's Sūtras. -विडम् a kind of factitious salt. -विदेहा N. of a certain वृत्ति or condition of the mind in the Yoga system of philosophy. -विद्या the great lores; काली तारा महाविद्या षोडशी भुवनेश्वरी । भैरवी छिन्नमस्ता च विद्या धूमवती तथा । बगला सिद्धविद्या च मातङ्गी कमला- त्मिका । एता दश महाविद्याः ... ॥ -विपुला a kind of metre. -विभाषा a rule giving a general option or alternative; इति महाविभाषया साधुः. -विभूतिः an epithet of Śiva. -विषः a serpent having two mouths. -विषुवम् the vernal equinox. ˚संक्रान्तिः f. the vernal equinox (the sun's entering the sign Aries). -विस्तर a. very extensive or copious. -वीचिः N. of a hell. -वीरः 1 a great hero or warrior. -2 a lion. -3 the thunderbolt of Indra. -4 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -5 of Garuḍa. -6 of Hanumat. -7 a cuckoo. -8 a white horse. -9 a sacrificial fire. -1 a sacrificial vessel. -11 a kind of hawk. ˚चरितम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti. -वीर्य a. of great valour, very powerful. (-र्यः) 1 N. of Brahman. -2 the Supreme Being. (-र्या) the wild cotton shrub. -2 an epithet of संज्ञा, the wife of the sun. -वृषः a great bull. -वेग a. 1 very sw
mṛtyuḥ मृत्युः [मृ त्युक्] 1 Death, decease; जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च Bg.2.27; मृत्योः स मृत्युमाप्नोति य इह नानेव पश्यति. -2 Yama, the god of death. -3 An epithet of Brahman. -4 Of Viṣṇu. -5 Of Māyā. -6 Of Kali. -7 The god of love. -8 The worldly life (संसार); (नमो) अनात्मने स्वात्मविभक्तमृत्यवे Bhāg.1.86.48. -9 N. of the 8th astrological house. -1 The deity taking away life in the body; यान्येतानि देवत्रा क्षत्राणीन्द्रो वरुणः सोमो रुद्रः पर्जन्यो यमो मृत्युरीशान इति Bri. Up.1.4.11; यमं कालं च मृत्युं च-स्वर्गं संपूज्य चार्हतः Mb.12.2.3. -11 = अशनाया q. v.; Bri. Up.1.2.1. -Comp. -तूर्यम् a kind of drum beaten at obsequial rites. -द a. fatal. -द्वारम् the door leading to death. -नाशकः quicksilver. -नाशनम् the drink of immortality, ambrosia. -पाः an epithet of Śiva. -पाशः the noose of death or Yama. -पुष्पः 1 the sugarcane. -2 the bamboo. -प्रतिबद्ध a. liable to death. -फलम् a kind of poisonous fruit. -फला, -ली the plantain. -बीजः, -वीजः a bamboo-cane. -भृत्यः sickness, disease. -राज् m. Yama, the god of death. -लोकः 1 the world of the dead, the world of Death or Yama. -2 earth, the world of mortals; cf. मर्त्यलोक. -वञ्चनः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 a raven. -सूतिः f. a female crab; for explanation of this word read यथा कर्कटकी गर्भमाधत्ते मृत्यवे निजम् Purāṇam.
meghaḥ मेघः [मेहति वर्षति जलम्, मिह्-घञ् कुत्वम्] 1 A cloud; कुर्वन्नञ्जनमेचका इव दिशो मेघः समुत्तिष्ठते Mk.5.23,2,3 &c. -2 A mass, multitude. -3 N. of one of the six Rāgas (in music). -4 A fragrant grass. -घमू Talc. -Comp. -अध्वन् m., -पथः, -मार्गः 'the path of clouds', atmosphere. -अन्तः the autumn (शरदृतु). -अरिः the wind. -अस्थि n. hail. -आख्यम् talc. -आगमः the approach of rains, the rainy season; नवाम्बुमत्ताः शिखिनो नदन्ति मेघागमे कुन्दसमानदन्ति Ghaṭ. -आच्छादित a. covered with clouds. -आटोपः a dense or thick cloud. -आडम्बरः thunder. -आनन्दा a kind of crane. -आनन्दिन् m. a peacock. -आलोकः the appearance or sight of clouds; मेघालोके भवति सुखिनो$प्यन्यथावृत्ति चेतः Me.3. -आस्पदम् the sky, atmosphere. -उदकम् rain. -उदयः the rising of clouds. -कफः hail. -कालः the rains, rainy season. -गर्जनम्, -गर्जना thunder. -चिन्तकः the Chātaka bird. -जः a large pearl. -जालम् 1 a dense mass of clouds. -2 talc. -जीवकः, -जीवनः the Chātaka bird. -ज्योतिस् m., n. lightning. -डम्बरः thunder. -दीपः lightning. -दूतम् N. of a celebrated poem by Kālidāsa. -द्वारम् the sky, atmosphere. -नादः 1 the roar of clouds, thunder. -2 an epithet of Varuṇa. -3 N. of Indrajit, son of Rāvaṇa; भक्तिप्रह्वं कथमपि यवीयांसमुत्सृज्य चापारोपव्यग्राङ्गुलिकिसलयं मेघनादक्षयाय Mv.6.37. -4 the Palāśa tree. ˚अनुलासिन्, अनुलासकः a peacock. ˚जित् m. an epithet of Lakṣmaṇa. -नामन् m. a kind of grass (Cyperus Rotundus, भद्रमुस्ता). -निर्घोषः thunder. -पङ्क्तिः, -माला, -राजिः f. a line of clouds; प्रथमं मेघराजिः पञ्चाद् बिद्युल्लता V.2. -पथः atmosphere. -पुष्पम् 1 water. -2 hail. -3 river-water. (-ष्पः) N. of one of the 4 horses of Viṣṇu. -प्रसरः, -प्रसवः water. -भूतिः a thunderbolt. -मण्डलम् the firmament, sky. -माल, -मालिन् a. cloud-capt. -मोदिनी Eugenia Jambolana (Mar. जांभूळ). -योनिः fog, smoke. -रवः thunder. -रावः a kind of water-bird. -रेखा, -लेखा a line of clouds. -वर्णा the Indigo plant. -वर्त्मन् n. the atmosphere. -वह्निः lightning. -वाहनः 1 an epithet of Indra; श्रयति स्म मेघमिव मेघवाहनः Śi.13.18. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -विस्फूर्जितम् 1 thunder, rumbling of clouds. -2 N. of a metre; see App. -वेश्मन् n. the atmosphere. -श्याम a. dark as a cloud (epithet of Rāma or Kṛiṣṇa); मेघश्यामं पीतकौशेयवासम्. -संघातः an assemblage of clouds. -सारः a kind of camphor. -सुहृद् m. a peacock. -स्कन्दिन् m. the fabulous animal Śarabha. -स्तनितम् thunder.
rājan राजन् m. [राज्-कनिन् रञ्जयति रञ्ज्-कनिन् नि ˚ वा Uṇ.1.145] A king, ruler, prince, chief (changed to राजः at the end of Tat. comp.); वङ्गराजः, महाराजः &c.; तथैव सो$भूदन्वर्थो राजा प्रकृतिरञ्जनात् R.4.12; पित्रा न रञ्जितास्तस्य प्रजास्तेनानु- रञ्जिताः । अनुरागात्ततस्तस्य नाम राजेत्यभाषत ॥ V. P. -2 A man of the military casts; a Kṣatriya; Śi 14.14. -3 N. of Yudhiṣṭhira. -4 N. of Indra. -5 The moon; राजप्रियाः कैरविण्यो रमन्ते मधुपैःसह Bv.1.126. -6 Lord, master. -7 N. of Pṛithu. -8 A Yakṣa; तं राजराजानु- चरो$स्य साक्षात् Ki.3.3. -9 The Soma plant; ऐन्द्रश्च विधिवद्दत्तो राजा चाभिषुतो$नघः Rām.1.14.6; Bṛi. Up.1.3. 24. -Comp. -अग्निः wrath of a king. -अङ्गनम् a royal court, the court-yard of a palace. -अदनः 1 the Piyāla tree. -2 The seed of the tree Chirongia Sapida; राजादनं कन्दरालम् Śiva B.3.15. -अधिकारिन्, -अधिकृतः 1 a government officer or official. -2 a judge. -अधिराजः, -इन्द्रः a king of kings, a supreme king, paramount sovereign, an emperor. -अधिष्ठानम् the capital of a king, metropolis. -अध्वन् m. a principal or royal road, main street, highway. -अनकः 1 an inferior king, a petty prince. -2 a title of respect formerly given to distinguished scholars and poets. -अन्नम् 1 rice grown in Āndhra. -2 food obtained from a king; राजान्नं तेज आदत्ते Ms.4.218. -अपसदः an unworthy or degraded king. -अभिषेकः coronation of a king. -अम्लः a kind of vegetable plant; Rumex Vesicarius (Mar. चुका). -अर्कः Calotropis Gigantea (मन्दार; Mar. रुई). -अर्हम् 1 aloewood, a species of sandal. -2 a kind of rice (राजान्न). -अर्हणम् a royal gift of honour. -अहिः a large snake (having two mouths). -आज्ञा a king's edict, an ordinance, a royal decree. -आभरणम् a king's ornament. -आम्रः a superior kind of mango. -आवर्तः a diamond of an inferior quality. -2 a diamond from Virāṭa country. -आवलिः, -ली a royal dynasty or genealogy. -आसनम् a throne. -आसन्दी Ved. a stand on which the Soma is placed. -इन्दुः an excellent king; दिलीप इति राजेन्दुरिन्दुः क्षीरनिधाविव R.1.12. -इष्टः a kind of onion. (-ष्टम्) = राजान्न q. v. -उपकरणम् (pl.) the paraphernalia of a king, the insignia of royalty. -उपसेवा royal service; Ms.3.64. -ऋषिः (राजऋषिः or राजर्षिः) a royal sage, a saint-like prince, a man of the Kṣatriya caste who, by his pious life and austere devotion, comes to be regarded as a sage or riṣi; e. g. पुरूरवस्, जनक, विश्वामित्र. -कन्या, -कन्यका a princess. -करः a tax or tribute paid to the king. -करणम् a law-court. -कर्णः an elephant's tusk. -कर्तृ m. a person who assists at a coronation; समेत्य राजकर्तारः सभामीयुर्द्विजातयः Rām.2.67.2. -कर्मन् n. 1 the duty of a king. -2 royal service; cf. Ms.7.125. -कला a crescent of the moon (the 16th part of the moon's disc). -कलिः a bad king; cf. अशरण्यः प्रजानां यः स राजा कलिरुच्यते Mb.12.12.29. -कार्यम्, -कृत्यम् 1 state-affairs. -2 royal command. -कुमारः a prince. -कुलम् 1 a royal family, a king's family; अग्निरापः स्त्रियो मूर्खः सर्पो राजकुलानि च H.; नदीनां शस्त्रपाणीनां नखिनां शृङ्गिणां तथा । विश्वासो नैव कर्तव्यः स्त्रीषु राजकुलेषु च ॥ ibid. -2 the court of a king; आ दास्याः पुत्रि राजकुलं ल्येतत् Nāg.3.12/13. -3 a court of justice; (राजकुले कथ् or निविद् caus. means 'to sue one in a court of law, lodge a complaint against). -4 a royal palace. -5 a king, master (as a respectful mode of speaking). -6 a royal servant; बध्नन्ति घ्नन्ति लुम्पन्ति दृप्तं राजकुलानि वै Bhāg. 1.41.36. -कोशनिघण्टुः also -व्यवहारकोशः N. of a dictionary in Shivaji's time compiled by his minister Raghunātha Paṇḍita. -क्षवकः a kind of mustard. -गामिन् 1 a. escheating to the sovereign (as the property of a person having no heir). -2 brought before the king (as slander); Ms.11.55. -गिरिः N. of a mountain in Magadha. -गुरुः a royal counsellor. -गुह्यम् a royal mystery; राजविद्या राजगुह्यं पवित्रमिदमुत्तमम् Bg.9.2. -गृहम् 1 a royal dwelling, royal palace. -2 N. of a chief city in Magadha (about 75 or 8 miles from Pāṭaliputra). -ग्रीवः a kind of fish. -घ a. sharp, hot. (-घः) a king-killer, regicide. -चिह्नम् 1 insignia of royalty, regalia. -2 the stamp on a coin. -चिह्नकम् the organ of generation (उपस्थ). -जक्ष्मन् = राजयक्ष्मन् q. v. -तरङ्गिणी N. of a celebrated historical poem treating of the kings of Kāśmīra by Kalhaṇa. -तरुः the कर्णि- कार tree, -तालः, ताली the betel-nut tree; राजतालीवनध्वनिः R. -दण्डः 1 a king's sceptre. -2 royal authority. -3 punishment inflicted by a king. -4 fine payable to a king. -दन्तः (for दन्तानां राजा) the front tooth; राजौ द्विजानामिह राजदन्ताः N.7.46; 'राजन्ते सुतनोर्मनोरमतमास्ते राज- दन्ताः पुरः' (शृङ्गारधनदशतकम् 67). -दूतः a king's ambassador, an envoy. -दृशद् f. the larger or lower millstone. -देयम्, -भागम् the royal claim, tax; न वृत्त्या परितुष्यन्ति राजदेयं हरन्ति च Mb.12.56.59. -दौवारिकः 1 = राजद्वारिकः q. v. -2 a royal messenger; Hch.4. -द्रोहः high treason, sedition, rebellion. -द्रोहिन् m. a traitor. -द्वार् f., -द्वारम् the gate of royal palace; राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः Subhāṣ. -द्वारिकः a royal porter. -धर्मः 1 a king's duty. -2 a law or rule relating to kings (oft. in pl.). -धानम्, -धानकम्, -धानिका, -धानी the king's residence, the capital, metropolis, the seat of government; तौ दम्पती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं (प्रस्थापयामास) R.2.7. -धान्यम् Panicum Frumentaceum (Mar. सांवा). -धामन् n. a royal palace. -धुर् f., -धुरा the burden or responsibility of government. -नयः, -नीतिः f. administration of a state, administration of government, politics, statesmanship. -नामन् m. Trichosanthes Dioeca (Mar. पडवळ). -नारायणः (in music) a kind of measure. -निघण्टुः N. of a dictionary of Materia Medica. -नीलम् an emerald. -पट्टः 1 a diamond of inferior quality. -2 a royal fillet. -पट्टिका f. the Chātaka bird. -पदम् royalty, sovereignty. -पथः, -पद्धतिः f. = राजमार्ग q. v. -पिण्डः the maintenance given by a king; अवश्यं राजपिण्डस्तैर्निवेश्य इति मे मतिः Mb.3.36.16. -पिण्डा a species of date. -पुंस् m. a royal servant. -पुत्रः 1 a prince. -2 a Kṣatriya, a man of the military tribe. -3 the planet Mercury. -4 N. of a mixed caste. -5 a Rajpoot. -5 A kind of mango. -पुत्रिका 1 a kind of bird. -2 Princess. -पुत्री 1 a princess. -2 a female of the Rajpoota tribe. -3 N. of several plants:-- जाती, मालती, कटुतुम्बी &c. -4 a kind of perfume (रेणुका). -5 a musk rat. -6 a kind of metal; also राजपत्नी. -पुरम् a royal city. -पुरुषः 1 a king's servant. -2 a minister. -पुष्पः the नागकेसर tree. -पूगः a kind of Areca-nut palm; Bhāg.4.6.17. -पौरुषिकः a royal servant; Mb.13.126.24. -प्रकृतिः a king's minister. -प्रसादः royal favour. -प्रेष्यः a king's servant. (-ष्यम्) royal service (more correctly राजप्रैष्य). -फणिञ्झकः an orange tree. -वदरम् salt. -बीजिन्, -वंश्य a. a scion of royalty, of royal descent. -भट्टिका a species of water-fowl. -भृतः a king's soldier. -भृत्यः 1 a royal servant or minister. -2 any public or government officer. -भोगः a king's meal, royal repast. -भोग्यम् nutmeg. -भौतः a king's fool or jester. -मणिः a royal gem. -मन्त्रधरः, -मन्त्रिन् m. a king's counsellor. -महिषी the chief queen. -मार्गः 1 a highway, high road, a royal or main road, principal street. -2 the way, method or procedure of kings. -मार्तण्डः, -मृगाङ्कः (in music) a kind of measure. -माषः a kind of bean. -मुद्रा the royal seal. -यक्ष्मः, -यक्ष्मन् m. 'consumption of the moon', pulmonary consumption, consumption in general; राजयक्ष्मपरिहानिराययौ कामयानसमवस्थया तुलाम् R.19.5; राजयक्ष्मेव रोगाणां समूहः स महीभृताम् Śi.2.96; (for explanation of the word see Malli. thereon, as well as on Śi. 13.29). -यानम् a royal vehicle, a palanouin. -युध्वन् m. 1 a king's soldier. -2 one who fights with a king; P.III.2.95. -योगः 1 a configuration of planets, asterisms &c. at the birth of a man which indicates that he is destined to be a king. -2 an easy mode of religious meditation (fit for kings to practise), as distinguished form the more rigorous one called हठयोग q. v. -रङ्गम् silver. -राक्षसः a bad king. -राज् m. 1 a supreme king. -2 the moon. -राजः 1 a supreme king, sovereign lord, an emperor. -2 N. of Kubera; अन्तर्बाष्प- श्चिरमनुचरो राजराजस्य दध्यौ Me.3. -3 the moon. -राज्यम् the state or dignity of Kubera; स्वर्लोके राजराज्येन सो$भि- षिच्येत भार्गव Mb.13.85.53. -रीतिः f. bell-metal. -लक्षणम् 1 any mark on a man's body indicating future royalty. royal insignia, regalia. -लक्ष्मन् n. royal insignia. (-m.) N. of Yudhiṣṭhira. -लक्ष्मीः, -श्रीः f. the fortune or prosperity of a king (personified as a goddess), the glory or majesty of a king; स न्यस्तचिह्नामपि राजलक्ष्मीम् R.2.7. -लिङ्गम् a kingly mark. -लेखः a royal edict. -लोकः a. collection of princes or kings. -वंशः a dynasty of kings. -वंशावली genealogy of kings, royal pedigree. -वर्चसम् kingly rank or dignity. -वर्तः cloth of various colours. -वल्लभः 1 a king's favourite. -2 a kind of mango. -3 a kind of Jujube. -वसतिः 1 dwelling in a king's court. -2 a royal palace. -वाहः a horse. -वाह्यः a royal elephant. -विः the bluy jay. -विजयः (in music) a kind of Rāga. -विद्या 'royal policy', kingcraft, state-policy, statesmanship; Bg.9.2; (cf. राजनय); so -राजशास्त्रम्; वीराश्च नियतोत्साहा राजशास्त्रमनुष्ठिताः Rām.1. 7.12. -विहारः a royal convent. -वृक्षः the tree Cassia Fistula; गुच्छैः कृतच्छविरराजत राजवृक्षः Rām. Ch.5.9. -वृत्तम् the conduct or occupation of a king; (कच्चित्) प्रजाः पालयसे राजन् राजवृत्तेन धार्मिक Rām.1.52.7. -वृत्तिः the works of a king; प्रत्यक्षाप्रत्यक्षानुमेया हि राजवृत्तिः Kau. A.1.9. -शफरः a Hilsā fish; L. D. B. -शासनम् a royal edict; दिवा चरेयुः कार्यार्थं चिह्निता राजशासनैः Ms.1.55. -शृङ्गम् a royal umbrella with a golden handle. -शेखरः N. of a poet. -संसद् f., -सभा f. a court of justice. -सदनम् a palace. -सर्पः a kind of snake-devouring snake. -सर्षपः black mustard (the seed used as a weight; त्रसरेणवो$ष्टौ विज्ञेया लिक्षैका परिमाणतः । ता राजसर्षपस्तिस्रस्ते त्रयो गौरसर्षपः ॥ Ms.8.133). -सायुज्यम् sovereignty. -सारसः a peacock. -सूयः, -यम् 1 a great sacrifice performed by a universal monarch (in which the tributary princes also took part) at the time of his coronation as a mark of his undisputed sovereignty; राजा वै राजसूयेनेष्ट्वा भवति Śat Br.; cf. सम्राट् also; राजा तत्र सूयते तस्माद् राजसूयः । राज्ञो वा यज्ञो राजसूयः ŚB. on MS.4.4.1. -2 a lotus. -3 a mountain. - सौधः a king's palace. -स्कन्धः a horse. -स्थानाधिकारः Viceroyalty. -स्थानीयः a viceroy, governor. -स्वम् 1 royal property; राजस्वं श्रोत्रियस्वं च न भोगेन प्रणश्यति Ms.8.149. -2 tribute, revenue. -स्वर्णः a kind of thorn-apple. -स्वामिन् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -हंसः a flamingo (a sort of white goose with red legs and bill); संपत्स्यन्ते नभसि भवतो राजहंसाः सहायाः Me.11; कूजितं राजहंसानां नेदं नूपुरशिञ्जितम् V. -हत्या regicide. -हस्तिन् m. a royal elephant, i. e. a lordly and handsome elephant. -हासकः a kind of fish; L. D. B.
lāghavam लाघवम् [लघोर्भावः अण्] 1 Smallness, littleness. -2 Levity, lightness; अलसग्रहणं प्राप्तो दुर्मेधावी तथोच्यते । बुद्धिलाघवयुक्तेन जनेनादीर्धदर्शिना ॥ Mb.12.166.6. (com. लाघवं नीचता); cf. बुद्धिलाघव. -3 Thoughtlessness, frivolity. -4 Insignificance. -5 Disrespect, contempt, dishonour, degradation; सेवां लाघवकारिणीं कृतधियः स्थाने श्ववृत्तिं विदुः Mu.3.14; यास्यसि लाघवम् Bg.2.35. -6 Quickness, speed, rapidity; गतिर्वेगश्च तेजश्व लाघवं च महाकपे । पितुस्ते सदृशं वीर मारुतस्य महौजसः ॥ Rām.4.44.5. -7 Ease, facility. -8 Health, soundness of constitution. -9 Activity, dexterity; readiness; वियदभिपातलाघवेन Ki.7.21; हस्तलाघवम्. -1 Versatility; बुद्धिलाघवम्. -11 Brevity, conciseness (of expression); प्रसादरम्यमोजस्वि गरीयो लाघवान्वितम् Ki.11.38. -12 An explanation which is in consonance with the principle of economy of nature and involves simplicity of reasoning; (अल्पोपस्थितिसापेक्षत्वं लाघवम्); आकाशो लाघवादेकः Tarka. K. -13 Shortness of a syllable (in prosody). -Comp. -कारिन् disgraceful.
lokaḥ लोकः [लोक्यते$सौ लोक्-घञ्] 1 The world, a division of the universe; (roughly speaking there are three lokas स्वर्ग, पृथ्वी and पाताल, but according to fuller classification the lokas are fourteen, seven higher regions rising from the earth one above the other, i. e. भूर्लोक, भुवर्लोक, स्वर्लोक, महर्लोक, जनर्लोक, तपर्लोक, and सत्यलोक or ब्रह्मलोक; and seven lower regions, descending from the earth one below the other; i. e. अतल, वितल, सुतल, रसातल, तलातल, महातल, and पाताल). -2 The earth, terrestrial world (भूलोक); इह- लोके in this world (opp. परत्र). -3 The human race, mankind, men, as in लोकातिग, लोकोत्तर &c. q. v. -4 The people or subjects (opp. the king); स्वसुखनिरभिलाषः खिद्यसे लोकहेतोः Ś.5.7; R.4.8. -5 A collection, group, class, company; आकृष्टलीलान् नरलोकपालान् R.6.1; or शशाम तेन क्षितिपाल- लोकः 7.3. -6 A region, tract, district, province. -7 Common life, ordinary practice (of the world); लोकवत्तु लीलाकैवल्यम् Br. Sūt.II.1.33; यथा लोके कस्यचिदाप्तैषणस्य राज्ञः &c. S. B. (and diverse other places of the same work). -8 Common or worldly usage (opp. Vedic usage or idiom); वेदोक्ता वैदिकाः शब्दाः सिद्धा लोकाच्च लौकिकाः, प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्या यथा लोके वेदे चेति प्रयोक्तव्ये यथा लौकिक- वैदिकेष्विति प्रयुञ्जते Mbh. (and in diverse other places); अतो$स्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः Bg.15.18. -9 Sight, looking. -1 The number 'seven', or 'fourteen'. -11 Ved. Open space; space, room. -12 One's own nature (निजस्वरूप); नष्टस्मृतिः पुनरयं प्रवृणीत लोकम् Bhāg.3. 31.15. -13 Enlightenment (प्रकाश); इच्छामि कालेन न यस्य विप्लवस्तस्यात्मलोकावरणस्य मोक्षम् Bhāg.8.3.25. -14 Recompense (फल); अग्नावेव देवेषु लोकमिच्छन्ते Bṛi. Up.1.4.15. -15 An object of enjoyment (भोग्यवस्तु); अथो अयं वा आत्मा सर्वेषां भूतानां लोकः Bṛi. Up 1.4.16. -16 Sight, the faculty of seeing (चक्षुरिन्द्रिय); अग्निर्लोकः Bṛi. Up.3.9. 1. -17 An object of sense (विषय); उपपत्त्योपलब्धेषु लोकेषु च समो भव Mb.12.288.11. (In compounds लोक is often translated by 'universally', 'generally', 'popularly'; as लोकविज्ञात so ˚विद्विष्ट). -Comp. -अक्षः space, sky. -अतिग a. extraordinary, supernatural. -अतिशय a. superior to the world, extraordinary. -अधिक a. extraordinary, uncommon; सर्वं पण्डितराजराजितिलकेनाकारि लोकाधिकम् Bv.4.44; Ki.2.47. -अधिपः 1 a king. -2 a god or deity. -अधिपतिः a lord of the world. -अनुग्रहः prosperity of mankind. -अनुरागः 'love of mankind', universal love, general benevolence, philanthropy. -अनुवृत्तम् obedience of the people. -अन्तरम् 'another world', the next world, future life; लोकान्तरसुखं पुण्यं तपोदानसमुद्भवम् R.1.69;6.45; लोकान्तरं गम्-प्राप् &c. 'to die'. -अन्तरित a. dead. -अपवादः public scandal, popular censure; लोकापवादो बलवान् मतो मे R.14.4. -अभि- भाविन् a. 1 overcoming the world. -2 pervading the whole world (as light). -अभिलक्षित a. generally liked. -अभ्युदयः public weal or welfare. -अयनः N. of Nārāyaṇa. -अलोकः N. of a mythical mountain that encircles the earth and is situated beyond the sea of fresh water which surrounds the last of the seven continents; beyond लोकालोक there is complete darkness, and to this side of it there is light; it thus divides the visible world from the regions of darkness; प्रकाशश्चा- प्रकाशश्च लोकालोक इवाचलः R.1.68; लोकालोकव्याहतं धर्मराशेः शालीनं वा धाम नालं प्रसर्तुम् Śi.16.83; Mv.5.1,45; ऊर्ध्व- मालोकयामासुः लोकालोकमिवोच्छ्रितम् Parṇāl.3.3; (for further explanation see Dr. Bhāṇḍārkar's note on l. 79 of Māl. 1th Act). (-कौ) the visible and the invisible world. -आकाशः 1 space, sky. -2 (with Jains) a worldly region. -आचारः common practice, popular or general custom, ways of the world; अपि शास्त्रेषु कुशला लोकाचारविवर्जिताः Pt.5.43. -आत्मन् m. the soul of the universe. -आदिः 1 the beginning of the world. -2 the creator of the world. -आयत a. atheistical, materialistic. (-तः) a materialist, an atheist, a follower of Chārvāka. (-तम्) materialism, atheism; (for some account see the first chapter of the Sarvadarśanasaṁgraha). -आयतिकः an atheist, a materialist; कच्चिन्न लोकायतिकान् ब्राह्मणांस्तात सेवसे Rām. 2.1.38. -ईशः 1 a king (lord of the world). -2 Brahman. -3 quick-silver. -उक्तिः f. 1 a proverb, popular saying; लोके ख्यातिमुपागतात्र सकले लोकोक्तिरेषा यतो दग्धानां किल वह्निना हितकरः सेको$पि तस्योद्भवः Pt.1.371. -2 common talk, public opinion. -उत्तर a. extraordinary, uncommon, unusual; लोकोत्तरा च कृतिः Bv.1.69.7; U.2.7. (-रः) a king. ˚वादिन् m. pl. N. of a Buddhist school. -उपक्रोशनम् circulating evil reports among the people; असारस्य वाक्संतक्षणैर्लोकोपक्रोशनैः ... अपवाहनम् Dk.2.2. -एकबन्धुः an epithet of Śākyamuni. -एषणा 1 desire for heaven; या वितैषणा सा लोकैषणोभे ह्येते एषणे एव भवतः Bṛi. Up.3.5.1. -2 desire for the good opinion of the public. -कण्टकः 1 a troublesome or wicked man, the curse of mankind. -2 an epithet of Rāvaṇa; see कण्टक. -कथा a popular legend, folk-tale. -कर्तृ, -कृत् m. the creator of the world. -कल्प a. 1 resembling the world. -2 regarded by the world. (-ल्पः) a period or age of the world. -कान्त a. liked by the people, popular; भव पितुरनुरूपस्त्वं गुणैर्लोककान्तैः V.5.21. (-न्ता) a kind of medical herb (Mar. मुरुढशेंग). -कारणकारणः an epithet of Śiva. -क्षित् a. inhabiting heaven. -गतिः f. actions of men. -गाथा a song handed down among people, folk-song. -चक्षुस् n. the sun. -चारित्रम् the ways of the world. -जननी an epithet of Lakṣmī. -जित् m. 1 an epithet of Buddha. -2 any conqueror of the world. -3 a sage. -a. winning heaven; तद्धैतल्लोकजिदेव Bṛi. Up.1.3.28. -ज्ञ a. knowing the world. -ज्येष्ठः an epithet of Buddha. -तत्त्वम् knowledge of mankind. -तन्त्रम् course of the world; निर्मितो लोकतन्त्रो$यं लोकेषु परिवर्तते Bhāg.12.11.29. -तुषारः camphor. -त्रयम्, -त्रयी the three worlds taken collectively; उत्खात- लोकत्रयकण्टकेपि R.14.73. -दम्भक a. cheating mankind; Ms.4.195. -द्वारम् the gate of heaven. -धर्मः 1 a worldly matter. -2 (with Buddhists) worldly condition. -धातुः a particular division of the world (जम्बु- द्वीप). -धातृ m. an epithet of Śiva. -धारिणी N. of the earth. -नाथः 1 Brahman. -2 Viṣṇu. -3 Śiva. -4 a king, sovereign. -5 a Buddha -6 the sun. -नेतृ m. an epithet of Śiva. -पः, -पालः 1 a regent or guardian of a quarter of the world; ललिताभिनयं तमद्य भर्ता मरुतां द्रष्टुमनाः सलोकपालः V.2.18; R.2.75;12.89;17.78; (the lokapālas are eight; see अष्टदिक्पाल). -2 a king, sovereign. -पक्तिः f. esteem of mankind, general respectability. -पतिः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 of Viṣṇu. -3 a king, sovereign. -पथः, -पद्धतिः f. the general or usual way, the universally accepted way. -परोक्ष a. hidden from the world. -पितामहः an epithet of Brahman. -प्रकाशनः the sun. -प्रत्ययः universal prevalence. -प्रवादः general rumour, current report, popular talk. -प्रसिद्ध a. well-known, universally known. -बन्धुः, -बान्धवः 1 the sun. -2 Śiva. -बाह्य, -वाह्य 1 excluded from society, excommunicated. -2 differing from the world, eccentric, singular; उन्मादवन्नृत्यति लोकबाह्यः Bhāg.11.2.4. (-ह्यः) an outcast. -भर्तृ a. supporter of the people. -भावन, -भाविन् a. promoting the welfare of the world. -मर्यादा an established or current custom. -मातृ f. an epithet of Lakṣmī. -मार्गः an established custom. -यज्ञः desire for the good opinion of the people (लोकैषणा); Mb.1. 18.5. (com. लोकयज्ञो लोकैषणा सर्वो मां साधुमेव जानात्विति वासनारूपः). -यात्रा 1 worldly affairs, the course of worldly life, business of the world; तस्माल्लोकयात्रार्थी नित्यमुद्यत- दण्डः स्यात् Kau. A.1.4; Mb.3.15.31; Dk.2.8; एवं किलेयं लोकयात्रा Mv.7; यावदयं संसारस्तावत् प्रसिद्धैवेयं लोकयात्रा Ve.3. -2 a popular usage or custom; एषोदिता लोकयात्रा नित्यं स्त्रीपुंसयोः शुभा Ms.9.25 -3 worldly existence, career in life; Māl.4,6. -4 support of life, maintenance. -रक्षः a king, sovereign. -रञ्जनम् pleasing the world, popularity. -रवः popular talk or report. -रावण a. tormentor of the people; रावणं लोकरावणम् Rām.3.33.1; Mb.3.148.12. -लेखः 1 a public document. -2 an ordinary letter. -लोचनम् the sun. -वचनम् a popular rumour or report. -वर्तनम् the means by which the world subsists. -वादः public rumour; common talk, popular report; मां लोकवादश्रवणादहासीः R.14.61. -वार्ता popular report, public rumour; कश्चिदक्षर्धूतः कलासु कवित्वेषु लोकवार्तासु चातिवैचक्षण्यान्मया समसृज्यत Dk.2.2. -विद्विष्ट a. disliked by men, generally or universally disliked. -विधिः 1 a mode of proceeding prevalent in the world. -2 the creator of the world. -विनायकाः a class of deities presiding over diseases. -विभ्रमः see लोकव्यवहार; हृष्यत्तनुर्विस्मृतलोकविभ्रमः Bhāg.1.71.26. -विरुद्ध a. opposed to public opinion; यद्यपि शुद्धं लोकविरुद्धं नाकरणीयम् नाचरणीयम्. -विश्रुत a. farfamed, universally known, famous, renowned. -विश्रुतिः f. 1 world-wide fame. -2 unfounded rumour, mere report. -विसर्गः 1 the end of the world; Mb. -2 the creation of the world; Bhāg. -वृत्तम् 1 the way of the world, a custom prevalent in the world; लोकवृत्तमनुष्ठेयं कृतं वो बाष्पमोक्षणम् Rām.4.25.3. -2 an idle talk or gossip; न लोकवृत्तं वर्तेत वृत्तिहेतोः कथंचन Ms.4.11. -वृत्तान्तः, -व्यवहारः 1 the course or ways of the world, general custom; Ś.5. -2 course of events. -व्यवहार a. commonly used, universally current. -व्रतम् general practice or way of the world. -श्रुतिः f. 1 a popular report. -2 world-wide fame. -संसृतिः f. 1 fate, destiny. -2 course through the world. -संकरः general confusion in the world. -संग्रहः 1 the whole universe. -2 the welfare of the world; लोकसंग्रहमेवापि संपश्यन् कर्तुमर्हसि Bg.3.2. -3 worldly experience. -4 propitiation of mankind. -संपन्न a. possessed of worldly wisdom. -संबाधः a throng of men, going and coming; इतस्ततः प्रवेशनिर्गमप्रवृत्तलोकसंबाधम् Dk.2.3. -साक्षिक a. 1 having the world as a witness; in the face of the world; प्रत्यक्षं फलमश्नन्ति कर्मणां लोकसाक्षिकम् Mb.3.32.6. -2 attested by witnesses. -साक्षिन् m. 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 fire. -साधक a. creating worlds. -साधारण a. common (as a topic); Dk. -सिद्ध a. 1 current among the people, usual, customary. -2 generally received or accepted. -सीमातिवर्तिन् a. extraordinary, supernatural. -सुन्दर a. generally admired. -स्थलम् common occurrence. -स्थितिः f. 1 existence or conduct of the universe, worldly existence; the stability or permanence of the world; ये चैवं पुरुषाः कलासु कुशलास्तेष्वेव लोकस्थितिः Bh.2.22. -2 a universal law. -हास्य a. world-derided, the butt of general ridicule. -हित a. beneficial to mankind or to the world. (-तम्) general welfare.
vācaka वाचक a. [वच्-ण्वुल्] 1 Speaking, declaring, explanatory; उन्नीय मे दर्शय वल्गुवाचकं यद्व्रीडया नाभिमुखं शुचिस्तिते Bhāg.4.25.31. -2 Expressing, signifying, denoting directly (as a word, distinguished from लाक्षणिक and व्यञ्जक); साक्षात् संकेतितं यो$र्थमभिधत्ते स वाचकः K. P.2. -3 Verbal. -कः 1 A speaker. -2 A reader. -3 A significant word. -4 A messenger. -Comp. -पदम् a significant word.
vādaḥ वादः [वद्-घञ्] 1 Talking, speaking. -2Speech, words, talk; वेदवादररताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः Bg.2.42; सामवादाः सकोपस्य तस्य प्रत्युत दीपकाः Śi.2.55; so कैतववादः Gīt.8; सान्त्ववादः &c. -3 A statement, an assertion, allegation; अवाच्यवादांश्च बहून् वदिष्यन्ति तवाहिताः Bg.2.36. -4 Narration, account; शाकुन्तलादीनितिहासवादान् Māl.3.3. -5 Discussion, dispute, controversy; वादयुद्धप्रधानाश्च मध्यमा राजसी गतिः Ms.12.46; वादे वादे जायते तत्त्वबोधः Sūbhāṣ; सीमा˚. -6 A reply. -7 An exposition, explanation; अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानां वादः प्रवदतामहम् Bg.1.32. -3 A demonstrated conclusion, theory, doctrine; इदानीं परमाणुकारण- वादं निराकरोति S. B. (and in diverse other places of the work); परिणामवाद 'the theory of evolution'; so नास्तिक˚. -9 Sounding, sound. -1 Report, rumour. -11 A plaint (in law). -12 Advice, counsel. -13 Agreement. -Comp. -अनुवादौ (m. du.) 1 assertion and reply, plaint and reply, accusation and defence. -2 dispute, controversy. -कर, -कृत् a. causing a dispute. -कर्तृ a player on a musical instrument. -ग्रस्त a. disputed, in dispute; वादग्रस्तो$यं विषयः. -चञ्चु a. clever in repartees or witty replies. -द a. emulating, vying with. -नक्षत्रमाला (मालिका) a defence of the Vedānta against the Mīmāṁsā doctrine. -प्रतिवादः controversy. -युद्धम् a dispute, controversy; Ms.12.46. -रत a. disputatious. -वादिन् m. a Jaina. -विवादः disputation, discussion, debate. -साधनम् establishing an assertion.
vārttika वार्त्तिक a. (-की f.) [वृत्ति-ठक्] 1 Relating to news. -2 Bringing news. -3 Explanatory, glossarial. -कः 1 An emissary, a spy. -2 A husbandman (a man of the third tribe). -3 A mineralogist; L. D. B. -4 A trader, businessman. -5 A physician. -का 1 Business, trade. -2 News; कः पन्थाः का च वार्त्तिका Mb.3.313.114. -कम् [वृत्तिरूपेण कृतो ग्रन्थः] An explanatory or supplementary rule which explains the meaning of that which is said, of that which is left unsaid, of that which is imperfectly said; or a rule which explains what is said or but imperfectly said and supplies omissions; उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तार्थव्यक्ति (or चिन्ता)कारि तु वार्त्तिकम् (the term is particularly applied to the explanatory rules of Kātyāyana on Pāṇini's Sūtras). -Comp. -कारः N. of Kātyāyana.
vikhyāpanam विख्यापनम् 1 Publishing, proclaiming. -2 Explanation. -3 Confessing, acknowledging.
vidhiḥ विधिः [विधा-कि] 1 Doing, performance, practice, an act or action; ब्रह्मध्यानाभ्यसनविधिना योगनिद्रां गतस्य Bh.3.41; योगविधि R.8.22; अस्याः सर्गविधौ V.1.8; लेखाविधि Māl. 1.35. -2 Method, manner, way, means, mode; निः- साराल्पफलानि ये त्वविधिना वाञ्छन्ति दण्डोद्यमैः Pt.1.376. -3 A rule, commandment, any precept which enjoins something for the first time (as distinguished from नियम and परिसंख्या q. q. v. v.); विधिरत्यन्तमप्राप्तौ; चिकीर्षाकृतिसाध्यत्व- हेतुधीविषयो विधिः; वहति विधिहुतं या हविः Ś.1.1. -4 A sacred precept or rule, ordinance, injunction, law, a sacred command, religious commandment (opp. अर्थवाद which means 'an explanatory statement coupled with legends and illustrations'; see अर्थवाद); प्रवृत्तिपरं वाक्यं विधिः, as ज्योतिष्टोमेन स्वर्गकामो यजेत; श्रद्धा वित्तं विधिश्चेति त्रितयं तत् समागतम् Ś.7.29; R.2.16. -5 Any religious act or ceremony, a rite, ceremony; स चेत् स्वयं कर्मसु धर्मचारिणां त्वमन्तरायो भवसि च्युतो विधिः R.3.45;1.34. -6 Behaviour, conduct. -7 Condition; V.4. -8 Creation, formation; सामग्ऱ्यविधौ Ku.3.28; कल्याणी विधिषु विचित्रता विधातुः Ki.7.7. -9 The creator. -1 Fate, destiny, luck; विधौ वामारम्भे मम समुचितैषा परिणतिः Māl.4.4. -11 The food of elephants. -12 Time. -13 A physician. -14 N. of Viṣṇu. -15 Use, application. -16 A means, expedient for; अक्षरं गन्तुमनसो विधिं वक्ष्यामि शीघ्रगम् Mb.12. 236.13. -17 Any act, action. -Comp. -अन्तः The end or the concluding portion of an injunctive text, all the other portion of the प्रयोगविधि (pertaining to an act) except the प्रधान or मुख्य विधि which is called विध्यादि; विध्यन्तो वा प्रकृतिवत्˚ MS.7.4.1; सोमेन यजेत इति विध्यादिः । सौमिकमपि ब्राह्मणं विध्यन्तः ŚB. ibid. Also see विध्यादि. -आदिः m. the beginning of a विधि or injunction; the main or प्रधान injunction; वेदे$पि दर्शपूर्णमासाभ्यां यजेत इति विध्यादिः । विध्यन्तो$पि प्रधानविधिवर्जितं कृत्स्नं पौरोडाशिकं ब्राह्मणम् ŚB. on MS.7.4.1. -कर a. executing commands; विधिकरीरिमा वीर मुह्यतीरधरसीधुनाप्याययस्व नः Bhāg.1.31.8. -m. a servant; सो$यं ते विधिकर ईश विप्रशप्तस्तस्येदं निधन- मनुग्रहाय विद्मः Bhāg.7.8.57. -घ्नः a. disregarding prescribed rites or rules. -ज्ञ a. knowing the ritual. (-ज्ञः) a Brāhmaṇa versed in the ritual, a ritualist. -दर्शकः a priest at a sacrifice who sees that everything is done according to the precepts, and corrects any deviation from them. -दृष्ट, -विहित a. prescribed by rule, enjoined by law. -देशकः 1 = विधिदर्शक above. -2 a preceptor, teacher. -द्वैधम् diversity of rules, variance of precept or commandment. -पूर्वकम् ind. according to rule. -प्रयोगः application of a rule. -यज्ञः 1 a sacrifice performed according to rule; Ms.2. 85-86. -2 a ceremonial act of worship. -योगः 1 the force or influence of fate. -2 the observance of a rule; अनेन विधियोगेन कर्तव्यांशप्रकल्पना Ms.8.211. -लोपः transgression of a commandment. -वधूः f. an epithet of Sarasvatī. -विपर्ययः misfortune. -विभक्तिः f. a potential termination; a termination which lays down an injunction; विधिविभक्तिं हि विधायिकां लिङं मन्यमानाः श्लोकमिमं समामनन्ति ŚB. on MS.4.3.3. The श्लोक referred to here is; कुर्यात् क्रियेत कर्तव्यं भवेत् स्यादिति पञ्चमम् । एतत् स्यात् सर्ववेदेषु नियतं विधिलक्षणम् ॥ This श्लोक speaks of the five forms which the विधिविभक्ति takes in the Vedic literature. -हीन a. devoid of rule, unauthorised, irregular.
vivāhaḥ विवाहः Marriage; (Hindu lawgivers enumerate eight forms of marriage; ब्राह्मो दैवस्तथैवार्षः प्राजापत्यस्तथा$$सुरः । गांधर्वो राक्षसश्चैव पैशाचश्चाष्टमो$धमः ॥ Ms.3.21; see Y.1. 58-61 also; for explanation of these forms see s. v.). -Comp. -चतुष्टयम् marrying four wives. -दीक्षा the marriage ceremony or rite; विवाहदीक्षां निरवर्तयद् गुरुः R.3.33. -नेपथ्यम्, -वेषः a marriage-dress.
vivaraṇam विवरणम् 1 Displaying, expressing, unfolding, opening. -2 Exposing, laying bare or open. -3 Exposition, explanation, gloss, comment, interpretation. -4 Describing, description. -5 A sentence.
vīra वीर [अजेः रक् वीभावश्च Uṇ.2.13] a. 1 Heroic, brave. -2 Mighty, powerful. -3 Excellent, eminent. -रः 1 A hero, warrior, champion; को$प्येष संप्रति नवः पुरुषावतारो वीरो न यस्य भगवान् भृगुनन्दनो$पि U.5.33. -2 The sentiment of heroism (in rhetoric); अस्तोक- वीरगुरुसाहसमद्भुतं च Mv.1.6; it is distinguished under four heads; दानवीर, धर्मवीर, दयावीर and युद्धवीर; for explanation see these words s. v.). -3 An actor. -4 Fire. -5 The sacrificial fire. -6 A son; अस्य कुले वीरो जायते Ch. Up.3.13.6; वीरं मे दत्त पितरः Śrādhamantras. -7 A husband. -8 The Arjuna tree. -9 A Jaina. -1 The Karavīra tree. -11 N. of Viṣṇu. -रम् 1 A reed. -2 Pepper. -3 Rice-gruel. -4 The root of Uśīra q. v. -5 Iron; Gīrvāṇa. -Comp. -अध्वन्, -मार्गः a heroic death. -अम्लः a kind of sorrel. -आशंसनम् 1 keeping watch. -2 the post of danger in battle. -3 a forlorn hope. -4 a field of battle; पयोदजालमिव तद्वीरा- शंसनमाबभौ Śi.19.79. -आसनम् 1 a kind of posture practised in meditation; एकं पादमथैकस्मिन् विन्यस्योरौ तु संस्थितम् । इतरस्मिंस्तथैवोरुं वीरासनमिति स्मृतम् ॥ cf. पर्यङ्क. -2 kneeling on one knee. -3 a field of battle. -4 the station of a sentinel. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः 1 epithets of Śiva. -2 a great hero. -उञ्झः a Brahmaṇa who omits to offer oblations to the sacrificial fire. -काम a. desirous of male offspring. -कीटः an insignificant or contemptible warrior. -गतिः Indra's heaven. -जयन्तिका 1 a war-dance. -2 war, battle. -तरुः 1 the Bilva tree. -2 the Arjuna tree. -धन्वन् m. an epithet of the god of love. -पट्टः a sort of military dress. -पट्टिका a gold band worn by men across the forehead; नलस्य भाले मणिवीरपट्टिकानिभेव लग्नः परिधिर्विधोर्बभौ N.15.61. -पत्नी the wife of a hero. -पानम् (णम्) an exciting or refreshing drink taken by soldiers either before or after a battle; मदो$यं संप्रहारे$स्मिन् वीरपानं समर्थ्यताम् Rām.4.11.38. -बाहुः N. of Viṣṇu. -भद्रः 1 N. of a powerful hero created by Śiva from his matted hair; see दक्ष; महावीरो$पि रे भद्र मम सर्वगणेष्विह । वीरभद्राख्यया हि त्वं प्रथितिं परमं व्रज । कुरु मे सत्वरं कर्म दक्षयज्ञं क्षयं नय ॥ Kāśīkhaṇḍa. -2 a distinguished hero. -3 a horse fit for the Aśvamedha sacrifice. -4 a kind of fragrant grass. -भवन्ती the elder sister; Gīrvāṇa. -भावः heroic nature. -मर्दलः a war-drum. -मुद्रिका a ring worn on the middle toe. -रजस् n. red lead. -रसः 1 the sentiment of heroism. -2 a warlike feeling. -रेणुः N. of Bhīmasena. -लोकः Indra's heaven. -वादः glory. -विप्लावकः a Brāhmaṇa who performs sacrifices by means of money got from the lowest castes. -वृक्षः 1 the Arjuna tree. -2 the marking-nut plant. -व्रत a. adhering to one's purpose; पूर्णः श्रुतधरो राजन्नाह वीरव्रतो मुनिः Bhāg.1.87.45. -तम् heroism. -शङ्कुः an arrow. -शयः, -शयनम्, -शय्या the couch of a dead or wounded hero in a battle; battlefield; कलेवरं योगरतो विजह्याद्यदग्रेणीर्वीरशये$निवृत्तः Bhāg.6.1.33. -2 a particular posture. -सूः f. the mother of a hero; (so -वीरप्रसवा, -प्रसूः, -प्रसविनी); तस्यात्मनो$र्धं पत्न्यास्ते नान्वगाद्वीरसूः कृपी Bhāg.1.7.45. -2 the mother of a male child. -सेनः N. of the father of Nala. -सैन्यम् garlic. -स्कन्धः a buffalo. -स्थानम् = वीरासन (1); स्थाणु- भूतो महातेजा वीरस्थानेन पाण्डव Mb.3.122.2;13.142.8; (= स्वर्ग) heaven; वीरासनं वीरशय्यां वीरस्थानमुपागतम् । अक्षया- स्तस्य वै लोकाः सर्वकामगमास्तथा ॥ Mb.13.7.13. -हत्या the killing of a man; murder of a son; चान्द्रायणं चरेन्मासं वीरत्यासमं हि तत् Ms.11.41; वीरहत्यामवाप्तो$सि वह्नीनुद्वास्य यत्नतः Śāṅkaradigvijaya 8.26. -हन् m. a Brāhmaṇa who has neglected his domestic fire; तेनादृश्यन्त वीरघ्ना न तु वीरहणो जनाः N.17.197; (cf. Note on N.17.197 given by the English translator Handiqui, P.63.). -2 A childmurderer; वीरहा वा एष देवानां भवति यो$ग्निमुद्वासयते Ts.1.5.2. -3 N. of Viṣṇu.
vṛttiḥ वृत्तिः f. [वृत्-क्तिन्] 1 Being, existence. -2 Abiding, remaining, attitude, being in a particular state; as in विरुद्धवृत्ति, विपक्षवृत्ति &c. -3 State, condition; त्रयीं तिस्रो वृत्तीस्त्रिभुवनमथो त्रीनपि सुरान् Śiva-mahimna 27. -4 Action, movement, function, operation; शतैस्तमक्ष्णामनिमेषवृत्तिभिः R.3.43; Ku.3.73; उत्पक्ष्मणोर्नयनयोरुपरुद्धवृत्तिम् (बाष्पम्) Ś.4. 15. -5 Course, method; विनयवारितवृत्तिः Ś.2.12. -6 Conduct, behaviour, course of conduct, mode of action; कुरु प्रियसखीवृत्तं सपत्नीजने Ś.4.18; Me.8; वैतसी वृत्तिः, बकवृत्तिः &c. -7 Profession, occupation, business, employment, mode of leading life (often at the end of comp.); आश्रमांश्च यथासंख्यमसृजत् सहवृत्तिभिः Bhāg.3.12.41; वार्धके मुनिवृत्तीनाम् R.1.8; Ś.5.6; Pt.3.126. -3 Livelihood, maintenance, means of subsistence or livelihood; oft. in com.; सिंहत्वमङ्कागतसत्त्ववृत्तिः R.2.38; Ś.7.12; स्वयं- विशीर्णद्रुमपर्णवृत्तिता Ku.5.28; (for the several means of subsistence, see Ms.4.4-6.) -9 Wages, hire. -1 Cause of activity. -11 Respectful treatment; ब्रह्मचारिणः... आचार्ये प्राणान्तिकी च वृत्तिः Kau. A.1.3; त्रिष्वप्रमाद्यन्नेतेषु त्रील्लँोकांश्च विजेष्यसि । पितृवृत्या त्विमं लोकं मातृवृत्त्या तथा परम् ॥ Mb.12.18.8. -12 Gloss, commentary, exposition; सद्वृत्तिः सन्निबन्धना Śi.2.112; काशिकावृत्तिः &c. -13 Revolving, turning round. -14 The circumference of a wheel or circle. -15 (In gram.) A complex formation requiring resolution or explanation. -16 The power or force of a word by which it expresses, indicates, or suggests a meaning; (these are three अभिधा, लक्षणा and व्यञ्जना q. q. v. v.); general character or force of a word; भ्रमयत भारती त उरुवृत्तिभिरुक्थजडान् Bhāg.1.87.36. -17 A style in composition (these are four; कौ(कै)शिकी, भारती, सात्वती and आरभटी q. q. v. v.); शृङ्गारे कैशिकी वीरे सात्वत्यारभटी पुनः । रसे रौद्रे च बीभत्से वृत्तिः सर्वत्र भारती । चतस्रो वृत्तयो ह्येताः सर्वनाठ्यस्य मातृकाः ॥ S. D. -18 Customary allowance. -19 Manner of thinking. -Comp. -अनुप्रासः a kind of alliteration; see K. P.9. -अर्थम् ind. for the sake of subsistence; यो$ध्यापयति वृत्यर्थमुपाध्यायः स उच्यते Ms.2.141. -उपायः a means of subsistence; यजनाध्यापन- प्रतिग्रहा ब्राह्मणस्यैव वृत्त्युपायाः ŚB. on MS.12.4.36; सर्वेषां ब्राह्मणो विद्याद् वृत्त्युपायान् यथाविधि Ms.1.2. -कर्षित a. badly off or distressed for want of livelihood; क्षत्रियं चैव वैश्यं च ब्राह्मणो वृत्तिकर्षितौ [विमृयात्] Ms.8.411. -चक्रम् the wheel of state; स्वामिसेवकयोरेवं वृत्तिचक्रं प्रवर्तते Pt.1.81. -छेदः deprivation of the means of subsistence. -पक्षः (Mīmāṁsā) the case of a complex formation; वृत्तिपक्षे च समासस्य नित्यत्वात् ŚB. on MS.1.6.4. -भङ्गः, -वैकल्यम् want of a livelihood; वृत्तिभङ्गान्महीपालं त्यक्त्वा यान्ति सुसेवकाः Pt.1.153. -भाज् a. doing usual things (good and evil); कर्तृता तदुपलम्भतो$भवद्वृत्तिभाजि करणे यथ- र्त्विजि Śi.14.19. -मूलम् provision for maintenance. -लाभः (in phil.) ascertainment of the concurrent. -हेतुः = वृत्तिमूलम् q. v.; न लोकवृत्तं वर्तेत वृत्तिहेतोः कथंचन Ms.4.11. -स्थ a. 1 being in any state or employment. -2 well-conducted, of good behaviour. (-स्थः) a lizard, chameleon.
vedaḥ वेदः [विद्-अच् घञ् वा] 1 Knowledge. -2 Sacred knowledge, holy learning, the scripture of the Hindus. (Originally there were only three Vedas :- ऋग्वेद, यजुर्वेद and सामवेद, which are collectively called त्रयी 'the sacred triad'; but a fourth, the अथर्ववेद, was subsequently added to them. Each of the Vedas had two distinct parts, the Mantra or Samhitā and Brāhmaṇa. According to the strict orthodox faith of the Hindus the Vedas are a-pauruṣeya, 'not human compositions', being supposed to have been directly revealed by the Supreme Being, Brahman, and are called Śruti' i. e. 'what is heard or revealed', as distinguished from 'Smṛiti', i. e. 'what is remembered or is the work of human origin'; see श्रुति, स्मृति also; and the several sages, to whom the hymns of the Vedas are ascribed, are, therefore, called द्रष्टारः 'seers', and not कर्तारः or सृष्टारः 'composers'.) -3 A bundle of Kuśa grass; पद्माक्षमालामुत जन्तुमार्जनं वेदं च साक्षात्तप एव रूपिणौ Bhāg. 12.8.34; Ms.4.36. -4 N. of Viṣṇu. -5 A part of a sacrifice (यज्ञांग). -6 Exposition, comment, gloss. -7 A metre. -8 Acquisition, gain, wealth (Ved). -9 N. of the number 'four'. -1 The ritual (वेदयतीति वेदो विधिः); Karma-kāṇda; वेदवादस्य विज्ञानं सत्याभासमिवानृतम् Mb.12.1. 2 (see Nīlakaṇtha's commentary). -11 Smṛiti literature; आम्नायेभ्यः पुनर्वेदाः प्रसृताः सर्वतोमुखाः Mb.12.26.9. -Comp. -अग्रणीः N. of Sarasvatī. -अङ्गम् 'a member of the Veda', N. of certain classes of works regarded as auxiliary to the Vedas and designed to aid in the correct pronunciation and interpretation of the text and the right employment of the Mantras in ceremonials; (the Ved- āṅgas are six in number :-- शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दसां चयः । ज्योतिषामयनं चैव वेदाङ्गानि ष़डेव तु ॥; i. e. 1 शिक्षा 'the science of proper articulation and pronunciation'; 2 छन्दस् 'the science of prosody'; 3 व्याकरण 'grammar'; 4 निरुक्त 'etymological explanation of difficult Vedic words'; 5 ज्योतिष 'astronomy'; and 6 कल्प 'ritual or ceremonical'). A peculiar use of the word 'वेदाङ्ग' in masculine gender may here be noted; वेदांश्चैव तु वेदाङ्गान् वेदान्तानि तथा स्मृतीः । अधीत्य ब्राह्मणः पूर्वं शक्तितो$न्यांश्च संपठेत् ॥ Bṛihadyogiyājña- valkya-Smṛti 12.34. -अधिगमः, -अध्ययनम् holy study, study of the Vedas; काम्यो हि वेदाधिगमः कर्मयोगश्च वैदिकः Ms.2.2. -अधिपः 1 one who presides over the Veda; ऋग्वेदाधिपतर्जीवो यजुर्वेदाधिपो भृगुः । सामवेदाधिपो भौमः शशिजो$- थर्ववेदपः ॥ -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -अध्यापकः a teacher of the Vedas, a holy preceptor. -अनध्ययनम् Remissness in the Vedic study; Ms.3.63. -अन्तः 1 'the end of the Veda', an Upaniṣad (which comes at the end of the Veda). Also -अन्तम् (See quotation from बृहद्योगियाज्ञ- वल्क्यस्मृति under -अङ्ग above). -2 the last of the six principal Darśanas or systems of Hindu philosophy; (so called because it teaches the ultimate aim and scope of the Veda, or because it is based on the Upaniṣads which come at the end of the Veda); (this system of philosophy is sometimes called उत्तरमीमांसा being regarded as a sequel to Jaimini's पूर्वमीमांसा, but it is practically quite a distinct system; see मीमांसा. It represents the popular pantheistic creed of the Hindus, regarding, as it does, the whole world as synthetically derived from one eternal principle, the Brahman or Supreme Spirit; see ब्रह्मन् also). ˚गः, ˚ज्ञः a follower of the Vedanta philosophy. -अन्तिन् m. a follower of the Vedanta philosophy. -अभ्यासः 1 the study of the Vedas; वेदाभ्यासो हि विप्रस्य तपः परमिहोच्यते Ms.2.166. -2 the repetition of the sacred syllable Om. -अर्थः the meaning of the Vedas. -अवतारः revelation of the Vedas. -अश्र a. quadrangular. -आदि n., -आदिवर्णः, -आदिवीजम् the sacred syllable. Om. -उक्त a. scriptural, taught in the Vedas. -उदयः N. of the sun (the Sāma Veda being said to have proceeded from him). -उदित a. scriptural, ordained by the Vedas; वेदोदितं स्वकं कर्म नित्यं कुर्यादतन्द्रितः Ms. 4.14. -कार the composer of the Veda. -कौलेयकः an epithet of Śiva. -गर्भः 1 an epithet of Brahman; कमण्डलुं वेदगर्भः कुशान् सप्तर्षयो ददुः Bhāg.8.18.16. -2 a Brāhmaṇa versed in the Vedas. -3 N. of Viṣṇu. -ज्ञः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the Vedas; तथा दहति वेदज्ञः कर्मजं दोषमात्मनः Ms.12.11. -त्रयम्, -त्रयी the three Vedas collectively. -दर्शिन् a. one who discerns the sense of the Veda; तपोमध्यं बुधैः प्रोक्तं तपो$न्तं वेददर्शिभिः Ms.11.234. -दृष्ट a. sanctioned by the Vedas. -निन्दकः 1 an atheist, a heretic, an unbeliever (one who rejects the divine origin and character of the Vedas). -2 a Jaina or Buddhist. -निन्दा unbelief, heresy; Ms.11.56. -पारगः a Brāhmaṇa skilled in the Vedas. -पुण्यम् a merit acquired by the study of the Veda. वेदपुण्येन युज्यते Ms.2.78. -बाह्य a. contrary to the Veda. (-ह्यः) a sceptic. -मातृ f. 1 N. of a very sacred Vedic verse called Gāyatree q. v. -2 N. of सरस्वती, सावित्री and गायत्री; सूतश्च मातरिश्वा वै कवचं वंदमातरः Mb.5.179.4. -भूतिः (embodiment of the Veda) an honourable title before the names of learned Brāhmaṇas. -वचनम्, -वाक्यम् a Vedic text. -वदनम् grammar. -वादः see वेदः (1); तदुक्तं वेदवादेषु गहनं वेददर्शिभिः Mb.12.238.11 (com.); Vedic discussion; यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः । वेदवादरताः Bg. 2.42. -वासः a Brāhmaṇa. -वाह्य a. contrary to, or not founded on, the Veda. -विद् m. 1 a Brāhmaṇa versed in the Vedas. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -वद्वस् a. conversant with the Vedas; ब्राह्मणान् वेदविदुषो यज्ञार्थं चैव दक्षिणाम् Ms. 11.4. -विहित a. enjoined by the Vedas. -व्यासः an epithet of Vyāsa who is regarded as the 'arranger' of the Vedas in their present form; see व्यास. -शास्त्रम् the doctrine of the Vedas; Ms.4.26. -श्रुतिः Vedic revelation. -संन्यासः givig up the ritual of the Vedas. -संमत, -संमित a. sanctioned by the Vedas.
vaiyākhyam वैयाख्यम् An explanation; इतिहासाः सवैयाख्या विविधाः श्रुतयो$पि च । इह सर्वमनुक्रान्तमुक्तं ग्रन्थस्य लक्षणम् ॥ Mb.1.1.5.
vyākṛtiḥ व्याकृतिः f. Analysis. -2 Exposition, explanation. -3 Change of form, development. -4 Grammar.
vyākhyā व्याख्या 1 Relation, narration. -2 Explanation, exposition, comment, gloss. -Comp. -गम्यम् any obscure statement or passage. -स्थानम् lecture-room, school-room. -स्वरः the middle tone (in speech).
vyākhyānam व्याख्यानम् 1 Communication, narration. -2 Speech, lecture. -3 Explanation, exposition, interpretation, comment. -Comp. -शाला a school; Inscr.
śaktiḥ शक्तिः f. [शक्-क्तिन्] 1 (a) Power, ability, capacity, strength, energy, prowess; दैवं निहत्य कुरु पौरुषमात्मशक्त्या Pt.1.361; ज्ञाने मौनं क्षमा शक्तौ R.1.22; so यथाशक्ति, स्वशक्ति &c. (b) Faculty, capacity; स्मरण- शक्ति 'retentive faculty or memory'. -2 Regal power; (it has three parts or elements; 1 प्रभुशक्ति or प्रभावशक्ति' the majesty or pre-eminent position of the king himself'; 2 मंत्रशक्ति 'the power of good counsel'; and 3 उत्साहशक्ति 'the power of energy'); राज्यं नाम शक्तित्रयायत्तम् Dk.; त्रिसाधना शक्तिरिवार्थसंचयम् R.3.13;6.33;17.63; Śi.2.26. -3 The power of composition, poetic power or genius; शक्तिर्निपुणता लोकशास्त्रकाव्याद्यवेक्षणात् K.P.1; see explanation ad loc. -4 The active power of a deity, regarded as his wife, female divinity; (these are variously enumerated, 8, 9 or even 5 being mentioned); स जयति परिणद्धः शक्तिभिः शक्तिनाथः Māl.5.1; Ś.7.35. -5 A kind of missile; शक्तिखण्डामर्षतेन गाण्डीविनोक्तम् Ve. 3; ततो विभेद पौलस्त्यः शक्त्या वक्षसि लक्ष्मणम् R.12.77. -6 A spear, dart, pike, lance. -7 (In phil.) The relation of a term to the thing designated. -8 The power inherent in cause to produce its necessary effect. -9 (In Rhet.) The power or signification of a word; (these are three अभिधा, लक्षणा and व्यञ्जना); तिस्रः शब्दस्य शक्तयः S. D.11. -1 The expressive power or denotation of a word (opp. लक्षणा and व्यञ्जना); it is thus defined:-- अस्माच्छब्दादयमर्थो बोद्धव्य इत्याकारको$नादिसंकेतः शक्तिः Tarka. K. -11 The female organ, the counterpart of the Phallus of &Saucte;iva worshipped by a sect of people called Śāktas. -12 A sword. -13 An implement in gambling. -Comp. -अर्धः perspiring and panting through fatigue or exertion. -अपेक्ष, -अपेक्षिन् a. having regard to strength; षाड्गुण्यमुपयुञ्जीत शक्त्यपेक्षो रसायनम् Śi.2.93. -कुण्ठनम् the deadening of a power. -ग्रह a. 1 apprehending the force or meaning. -2 armed with a spear. -(हः) 1 apprehension of the force, meaning, or acceptation of a word. -2 a spearman, lancer. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -4 of Kārtikeya. -ग्राहक a. determining or establishing the meaning of a word. (-कः) epithet of Kārtikeya. -त्रयम् the three constituent elements of regal power; see शक्ति (2) above. -धर a. strong, powerful. -(रः) 1 a spearman. -2 an epithet of Kārtikeya; ततस्तामेव चोत्कृष्य शक्तिं शक्तिधरप्रियः Rām. 7.8.11. -ध्वजः N. of Kārtikeya; शक्तिध्वजशिखरशूलोत्सेधं सौधमागतम् Dk.2.5. -नाथः N. of Śiva; स जयति परिणद्धः शक्तिभिः शक्तिनाथः Māl.5.1. -पर्णः Alstonia Scholaris. (Mar. सातवीण). -पाणिः, -भृत् m. 1 a spearman. -2 an epithet of Kārtikeya. -पातः 1 prostration of strength. -2 In Yoga philosophy, a spiritual procedure, by which the preceptor puts his strength (spiritual power) in his pupil. -पूजकः a Śākta q. v. -पूजा the worship of Śakti. -पूर्वः an epithet of Parāśara. -वैकल्यम् loss of strength, debility, incapacity. -हीन a. powerless, weak, impotent. -हेतिकः a lancer, spearman.
śaphaḥ शफः फम् [शप्-अच् पृषो˚ पस्य फः] 1 A hoof; सुरभे- र्महिषा गावो ये चान्ये द्विशफा नृप Bhāg.6.6.27. -2 A claw; यज्ञायज्ञियं पुच्छं धिष्ण्यां शफाम् Vāj.12.4. -3 The root of a tree. -Comp. -ऊरुः f. a woman having thighs resembling the two divisions of a cow's hoof; see P. IV.1.7. The early commentators of Pāṇini of other schools of grammar evidently think that the word is two well-known to require any explanation. Viṭṭhala, Bhaṭṭojī and others think that the word means 'a woman whose thighs press together like hoofs'. But there is not the slightest doubt that the sense of similitude is present here and the word comes within the purview of the previous rule ऊरूत्तरपदादौपम्ये. Or it may mean a woman whose thighs are marked with the sign of hoofs. Sṛiṣṭidhara the commentator of the Bhāṣāvṛitti gives the correct meaning : शफं खुरः । तच्चह्नुयुक्त ऊरूर्यस्याः । शफरः (-री) f.) [शफं राति रा-क Tv.] A kind of small glittering fish; मोघीकर्तुं चटुलशफरोद्वर्तनप्रेक्षितानि Me. 42; मनो$स्य जह्नुः शफरीविवृत्तयः Ki.4.3; Śi.8.24; Ku. 4.39. -Comp. -अधिपः the fish called llīśa.
śastram शस्त्रम् [शस्-ष्ट्रन्] 1 A weapon, arms; क्षमाशस्त्रं करे यस्य दुर्जनः किं करिष्यति Subhāṣ; R.2.4;3.51,52;5.28. -2 An instrument, a tool in general. -3 Iron; गृहीतशस्त्राः क्रोशन्ति चर्मिणो वाजिपृष्ठगाः Mb.6.2.29. -4 Steel. -5 A hymn of praise (स्तोत्र). -6 Repetition, recitation. -Comp. -अङ्गा a kind of sorrel. -अभ्यासः the practice of arms, military exercise. -अयसम् 1 steel. -2 iron. -अवपातः injury by weapon; शस्त्रावपाते गर्भस्य पातने चोत्तमो दमः Y.2.277. -अस्त्रम् 1 weapons for striking and throwing, arms and missiles; शस्त्रास्त्रभृत्त्वं क्षत्रस्य Ms.1.79. -2 arms or weapons generally. -आख्यम् iron. -आजीवः, -उपजीविन् m. a professional soldier; Kau. A.1.3. -उद्यमः lifting up a weapon (to strike). -उपकरणम् arms or instruments of war, military apparatus. -कर्मन् any surgical operation. -कारः an armourer. -कोपः war, battle. -ककोषः the sheath or scabbard of any weapon. -क्षारः borax. -ग्रहः battle, fight. -ग्राहिन् a. taking up or wearing arms (for battle); शस्त्रग्राही ब्राह्मणो जामदग्न्यः U.5.33. -चिकित्सा surgery. -जीविन्, -वृत्ति m. one living by the use of arms, a professional soldier. -देवता the deity presiding over weapons. -धरः = शस्त्रभृत् q. v. -निपातनम् a surgical operation. -न्यासः laying down arms; so शस्त्र (परि) त्यागः. -पाणि a. bearing arms, armed. (-m.) an armed warrior. -पदम् incision; Suśr. -पूत a. 'purified by arms', rendered pure or absolved from guilt by being killed with a weapon on the battle-field; अशस्त्रपूतं निर्व्याजम् (महामांसम्) Māl.5.12; (see Jagaddhara's explanation of the word); अहमपि तस्य मिथ्याप्रतिज्ञावैलक्ष्यसंपादितमशस्त्रपूतं मरणमुपदशामि Ve.2. -प्रहारः a wound inflicted with a weapon. -भृत् m. 1 a soldier, warrior; रामः शस्त्रभृतामहम् Bg.1.31; न तद् यशः शस्त्रभृतां क्षिणोति R.2.4. -2 an armed man. -मार्जः a weapon-cleaner, an armourer, a furbisher. -विद्या, -शास्त्रम् the science of archery, see धनुर्वेद. -वृत्तिः a professional soldier; पुरुषा शस्त्रवृत्तयः Ms. 12.45. -व्यवहारः practice of weapons. -शास्त्रम् military science. -संहतिः f. 1 a collection of arms. -2 an arsenal. -संपातः a sudden fall of a number of weapons. -हत a. killed by a weapon. ˚चतुर्दशी N. of a particular 14th day sacred to the memory of fallen warriors. -हस्त a. armed. (-स्तः) an armed man.
śailī शैली [शीलमेव स्वार्थे ष्यञ् डीपि यलोपः] 1 A short explanation of a grammatical aphorism. -2 A mode of expression or interpretation; प्रायेणाचार्याणामियं शैली यत् स्वाभिप्रायमपि परोपदेशमिव वर्णयन्ति । Kull. on Ms.1.4; आचार्याणामियं शैली यत् सामान्येनाभिधाय विशेषेण विवृणोति । -3 Behaviour, manner of acting, conduct, course.
śrutiḥ श्रुतिः f. [श्रु-क्तिन्] 1 Hearing; चन्द्रस्य ग्रहणमिति श्रुतेः Mu.1.7; R.1.27. -2 The ear; श्रुतिसुखभ्रमरस्वनगीतयः R.9.35; Śi.1.1; Ve.3.23. -3 Report, rumour, news, oral intelligence. -4 A sound in general; सा तु वेदश्रुतिं श्रुत्वा दृष्ट्वा वै तमसो निधिम् Rām.7.2.17; स वेत्ति गन्धांश्च रसान् श्रुतीश्च Mb.12.187.19. -5 The Veda (known by revelation, opp. स्मृति; see under वेद); श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्रं तु वै स्मृतिः Ms.2.1,14. -6 A Vedic or sacred text; इति श्रुतेः or इति श्रुतिः 'so says a sacred text'. -7 Vedic or sacred knowledge, holy learning; यत्रैषा सात्वती श्रुतिः Bhāg.1.4.7;11.3.46. -8 (In music) A division of the octavo, a quarter tone or interval; रणद्भिरा- घट्टनया नभस्वतः पृथग्विभिन्नश्रुतिमण्डलैः स्वरैः Śi.1.1;11.1; (see Malli. ad loc.). -9 The constellation Śravaṇa. -1 The diagonal of a tetragon, the hypotenuse of a triangle; cf. कर्ण. -11 Direct or expressed signification (opp. लक्षणा); श्रुतिलक्षणाविशये च श्रुतिर्न्याय्या न लक्षणा ŚB. on MS.6.2.2. -12 Speech (वाक्); विविक्तवर्णाभरणा सुखश्रुतिः Ki.14.3. -13 Name, fame (कीर्ति); हैरण्यौ भवतो बाहू श्रुतिर्भवति पार्थिवी Mb.3.35.9. -14 A word, saw, saying; Rām.2.72.25. -15 An explanation of ब्रह्म from the उपनिषद्s; विविधाश्चौपनिषदीरात्मसंसिद्धये श्रुतीः Ms.6.29 (com. श्रुतीरुपनिषत्पठितब्रह्मप्रतिपादकवाक्यानि). -16 Advantage, gain (फलश्रुति); उपोष्य संशितो भूत्वा हित्वा वेदकृताः श्रुतीः Mb.12. 265.7. -17 Name, title; बिभ्रत्यनन्यविषयां लोकपाल इति श्रुतिम् Kāv.2.331. -18 Learning. -19 Scholarship. -Comp. -अनुप्रासः a kind of alliteration; see K. P.9. -अर्थः the sense of a sentence derived on the strength of the श्रुतिप्रमाण as distinguished from लङ्ग, वाक्य and other प्रमाणs; यत्र श्रुत्यर्थो न सम्भवति तत्र वाक्यार्थो गृह्यते ŚB. on MS.6.2.14. -उक्त, -उदित a. enjoined by the Vedas; आचारः परमो धर्मः श्रुत्युक्तः स्मार्त एव च Ms.1.18. -कटः 1 a snake. -2 penance, expiation. -कटु a. harsh to hear. (-टुः) a harsh or unmelodious sound, regarded as a fault of composition. -कथित a. enjoined or prescribed by the Vedas. -चोदनम्, -नः a scriptural injunction, Vedic precept. -जातिविशारद a. familiar with different kinds of quarter tones; वीणावादनतत्त्वज्ञः श्रुतिजातिविशारदः । तालज्ञश्चाप्रयासेन मोक्षमार्गं नियच्छति ॥ Y.3.115. -जीविका a law-book or code of laws. -दूषक a. offending the ear. -द्वैधम् disagreement or contradiction of Vedas or Vedic precepts; श्रुतिद्वैधं तु यत्र स्यात्तत्र धर्माबुभौ स्मृतौ Ms.2.14. -धर a. 1 hearing. -2 having a retentive memory; L. D. B. -निदर्शनम् evidence of the Vedas; कामकार- कृते$प्याहुरेके श्रुतिनिदर्शनात् Ms.11.45. -पथः 1 the range of the ear; तामाश्रित्य श्रुतिपथगतामास्थया लब्धमूलः M.4.1. -2 (pl.) tradition. -प्रसादन a. grateful to the ear. -प्रामाण्यम् authority or sanction of the Vedas. -प्रामाण्यतः ind. on the authority of the Veda; श्रुति- प्रामाण्यतो विद्वान् स्वधर्मे निविशेत वै Ms.2.8. -मण्डलम् 1 the outer ear. -2 the whole circle of the quarter-tones; Śi.1.1. -महत् a. rich in scriptural lore; सरस्वती श्रुतिमहतां महीयताम् Ś.7.35 (v. l. श्रुतमहताम्). -मूलम् 1 the root of the ear; लपितुं किमपि श्रुतिमूले Gīt.1. -2 a Vedic text. -मूलक a. founded on the Veda. -वचनम् a Vedic precept. -वर्जित a. 1 deaf. -2 not knowing the Vedas. -विप्रतिपन्न a. 1 not recognizing the authority of the scriptures, disregarding the Vedas. -2 contrary to the Vedas. -विवरम् the auditory passage. -विशेष- णार्थम् ind. for specialization in the Vedas; Svapna.1. -विषयः 1 the object of the sense of hearing i. e. sound; श्रुतिविषयगुणा या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वम् Ś.1.1. -2 the reach or range of the ear; एतत् प्रायेण श्रुतिविषयमापतितमेव K. -3 the subject matter of the Veda. -4 any sacred ordinance. -वेधः boring the ear. -शिखरम्, -शिरस् 1 Upaniṣad or Vedānta; नमः सर्वेष्टाय श्रुतिशिखरदृष्टाय च नमः Viṣṇu-mahimna 3. -2 a leading text of the Veda. -सुख, -मनोहर a. agreeable to the ear, melodious; श्रुतिसुखमुपवीणितं सहायैः Ki.1.38. -स्फोटा Gynandropsis Pentaphylla (Mar. तिळवण). -स्मृति f. (dual) revelation and legal institutes, Veda and law; श्रुतिस्मृति- पुराणोक्तफलप्राप्त्यर्थम् Pūjā-mantra. -हारिन् a. captivating the ear.
saṃketaḥ संकेतः 1 An intimation, allusion. -2 A sign, gesture, hint; Mu.1. -3 An indicatory sign, mark, token. -4 Agreement, convention; संकेतो गृह्यते जातौ गुणद्रव्यक्रियासु च S. D.12. -5 Engagement, appointment, assignation (made by a mistress or lover); नामसमेतं कृतसंकेतं वादयते मृदु वेणुम् Gīt.5. -6 A place of meeting (for lovers), rendezvous; सा स्वैरिण्येकदा कान्तं संकेतं उपनेष्यति Bhāg.11. 8.23; कान्तार्थिनी तु या याति संकेतं साभिसारिका Ak. -7 Condition, provision. -8 A short explanatory rule (in gram.) -Comp. -गृहम्, -निकेतनम्, -स्थानम् a place of appointment or assignation, rendezvous. -वाक्यम् watchword.
samākhyā समाख्या 1 Fame, reputation, celebrity -2 A name, appellation; दीक्षणीया इति च तादर्थ्यकरी समाख्या भवति । ŚB. on MS.5.3.31. -3 Explanation, interpretation.
savyabhicāraḥ सव्यभिचारः One of the five main divisions of Hetvābhāsa (in logic), a too general middle term; for explanation, see अनैकान्तिक.
siṃhaḥ सिंहः [हिंस्-अच् पृषो˚] 1 A lion; (it is said to be derived from हिंस्, cf. भवेद्वर्णागमाद्धंसः सिंहो वर्णविपर्ययात् Sk.); न हि सुप्तस्य सिंहस्य प्रविशन्ति मुखे मृगाः Subhāṣ. -2 The sign Leo of the Zodiac. e.g. सिंहलग्न. -3 (At the end of comp.) Best, pre-eminent of a class; e.g. रघुसिंहः, पुरुष- सिंहः; उद्योगिनं पुरुषसिंहमुपैति लक्ष्मीः Pt.1.361; U.5.22. -4 A particular place prepared for the building of a house. -5 (In music) A kind of tone. -Comp. -अवलोकनम् the (backward) glance of a lion. ˚न्याय the maxim of the lion's (backward) glance, generally used to mark the connection of a thing with what precedes and follows; (for explanation see under न्याय). -आढ्य a. abounding in lions. -आसनम् a throne, a seat of honour. (-नः) a particular mode of sexual enjoyment. -आस्यः a particular position of the hands. -कर्णः a corner orifice containing lion-figures; यद्वेदिकातोरणसिंह- कर्णै रत्नैर्दधानं प्रतिवेश्म शोभाम् Bu. Ch.1.5. -कर्णी a particular position of the right hand in shooting an arrow. -केशरः, -केसरः 1 the Bakula tree. -2 a lion's mane. -3 a kind of sweet-meat. -गः an epithet of Śiva. -तलम् the palms of the hands opened and joined together. -तुण्डः a kind of fish; Ms.5.16. -दंष्ट्रः an epithet of Śiva. -दर्प a. as proud as a lion. -द्वार् f., -द्वारम् the main or principal gate (of a palace &c.). -ध्वनिः, -नादः 1 the roar of a lion; असोढसिंहध्वनिरुन्ननाद Ku.1.56; सिंह- नादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान् Bg.1.12; Mk.5.29. -2 a war-cry. -नर्दिन् a. one who roars like a lion; Bk. 5.34. -नादः 1 a lion's roar. -2 a war-cry. -3 a confident assertion. -4 N. of Śiva. -मलम् a kind of brass. -याना, -रथा N. of the goddess Pārvatī. -लीलः a kind of coitus. -वाहनः an epithet of Śiva. -वाहिनी an epithet of Durgā. -विक्रमः, -विक्रान्तः a horse. -विष्टरः a throne. -संहनन a. 1 as strong as a lion; प्रांशु कनक- वर्णाभः सिंहसंहननो युवा Mb.3.146.28. -2 handsome, (-नम्) the killing of a lion. -स्थः an epithet of the planet Jupiter when in the constellation Leo.
setuḥ सेतुः [सि-तुन् Uṇ.1.69] 1 A ridge of earth, mound, bank, causeway, dam; नलिनीं क्षतसेतुबन्धनो जलसंघात इवासि विद्रुतः Ku.4.6; R.16.2. -2 A bridge in general; वैदेहि पश्या मलयाद्विभक्तं मत्सेतुना फेनिलमम्बुराशिम् R.13.2; सैन्यैर्बद्धद्विरदसेतुभिः 4.38;12.7; Ku.7.53. -3 A landmark; ज्येष्ठे मासि नयेत् सीमां सुप्रकाशेषु सेतुषु Ms.8.245. -4 A defile, pass, a narrow mountain-road. -5 A boundary, limit. -6 A barrier, limitation, obstruction of any kind; दुष्येयुः सर्ववर्णाश्च भिद्येरन् सर्वसेतवः Subhāṣ. -7 A fixed rule or law, an established institution; सूचकाः सेतुभेत्तारः ...... ते वै निरयगामिनः Mb.13.23.66. -8 The sacred syllable om; मन्त्राणां प्रणवः सेतुस्तत्सेतुः प्रणवः स्मृतः । स्रवत्यनोङ्कृतं पूर्वं परस्ताच्च विदीर्यते ॥ Kālikā P. -9 A reservoir or a lake; सहोदकं आहार्योदकं वा सेतुं बन्धयेत् Kau. A.2.1. -1 A bond, fetter. -11 An explanatory commentary. -Comp. -बन्धः 1 the forming or construction of a bridge, cause-way &c.; Kau. A.2.1; वयोगते किं वनिता- विलासो जले गते किं खलु सेतुबन्धः Subhāṣ.; Ku.4.6. -2 the ridge of rocks extending from the southern extremity of the Coromandel coast towards Ceylon (said to have been built for Rāma's passage to Laṅkā by Nala and the other monkeys); Bhāg.7.14.31. -3 any bridge or cause-way. -भेदिन् a. 1 breaking down barriers. -2 removing obstructions. (-m.) N. of a tree (दन्ती).
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aja a. unborn, existing from the bg.; m. the Unborn, the Eternal One; (C.) N. of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva; kind of grain (by a forced explanation).
atha ad. then, thereupon; now, here begins (at bg. of works or sections, cp. iti); now, so, then (at bg. of sentences); but, however, and yet; if; then, corr. to yadâ; often strengthened by atas, api, ka, tu, punar; sts. mere verse-filler; atha vâ, or, or else, or rather (giving another explanation); however; even; repeated: either--or; atha kim, what else ?= certainly; atha kimu, to say nothing of --.
anādeśa m. absence of an injunc tion; -paribhâshâ, f. explanatory rule re garding non-specification (of deity and metre).
arthanāśa m. loss of property; -nirdesa, m. explanation of the sense.
arthayukta pp. significant; -yukti, f. gain, advantage; -râsi, m. wealth; -ruki, a. avaricious; -lâbha, m. acquisition of wealth; -lubdha, pp. avaricious; -lolupa-tâ, f. love of money; -vat, a. wealthy; significant; in telligible; ad. judiciously: -tâ, f., -tva, n. significance; -vargita, pp. meaningless; -varman, m. N.; -vâda, m. explanation of the purpose; praise; -vâdin, a. reporting facts; -vid, a. knowing the sense; -vinâsana, a. de trimental; -viparyaya, m. impoverishment; poverty; -vriddhi, f. increase of wealth; -vy avahâra, m. pecuniary suit.
alīka a. disagreeable; false; n. dis agreeable thing; untruthfulness, falsehood; forehead; -nimîlana, n. feigned closing of the eyes; -pandita, m. philosophaster; -man trin, m. dishonest minister; -vâda-sîla, a. lying; -supta, -ka, n. feigned sleep.
aśūnya a. not empty; not vain: -m kri, not leave undone, execute; -½artha, m. clearing up: -m, ad. by way of explana tion; a. clear, intelligible.
ākṣepa m. turning up (soil); quiv ering, convulsion; putting on (salve); throw ing off; abandonment; enrapturing (g. or --°ree;); reference to (--°ree;); hint; challenge; abuse, af front; -na, a. (î) ravishing, charming; -rûpaka, n. kind of simile; -valana, n. swaying (of the arms); -sûtra, n. thread for stringing pearls; -½upamâ, f. kind of simile.
ūrdhvakara a. with raised hands or upward rays; -karna, a. pricking up one's ears; -krita, pp. raised upwards; -ga, a. going upwards; -gati, f. going upwards; bounding; a. going upwards or to heaven; -gamana, n. rising, ascending, elevation: -vat, a. moving upwards; -gâmin, a.=-ga; -gvalana, n. flaming up; -ghampa, m. up ward leap; -dris, a. looking upwards; -drishti, a. upward gaze; -pâtra, n. tall vessel; -pâda, a. holding up the feet; m. tip of the foot; -pundra, -ka, m. vertical line marked with sandal &c. on the forehead of a Brâhman, sectarian mark; -bâhu, a. having the arms raised; -brihatî, f. a metre; -bhâga, m.upper part; -mukha, a. with upturned face; having its mouth turned upwards; darting up wards; -munda, a. shaved on the crown; -râgi, f. upward streak; -rekhâ, f. upward line; -retas, a. whose seed remains above, chaste; -loka, m. upper world, heaven; -vâla, a. hair outwards; -vrita, pp. worn above=over the shoulder.
kumārga m. wrong way, evil courses; -mâlana, m. N.; -mitra, n. bad friend: -mi tra, n. bad friend as a friend.
jānucalana n. being tossed on any one's knees; -prakalana, n. id.; -dagh ná, a. (î) reaching to the knee: -½ambhas, a. having water --.
dyotanikā f. explanation.
nidhi m. putting down; food set down; receptacle; fig. embodiment; (hidden) treasure: apâm --, receptacle of waters, ocean; kalânâm --, full moon; -guhyaka½adhipa, m. ep. of Kubera; -datta, m. N. of a mer chant; -pa, m. guardian of treasure; -pati datta, m. N.; -p&asharp;, -pâla, m. guardian of a treasure; -pâlita, m. N.; -maya, a. (î) con sisting of treasures; -vâda, m. art of finding treasure.
nimiṣ f. twinkling of the eye; -misha, n. twinkling of the eye; winking; moment; -mîlana, n. closing of the eyes; closing of a flower; -mîlikâ, f. id. (--°ree;); -mîlin, a. closing the eyes; -meshá, m.winking, closing of the eye; moment.
nirukta pp. √ vak; n. explanation; etymological interpretation; esp. T. of Yâs ka's commentary on the Nighantus; -ukti, f. etymological explanation; -uñkhana, n. = nî-râgana; -uttara, a.having no superior; unable to give an answer; -utsava, a. devoid of festivals; -utsâha, a. destitute of energy, unenterprising, spiritless: -tâ, f. cowardice; -utsuka, a. unconcerned; having no desire for (prati); -utseka, m.modesty; a. unpre tentious, modest; -udara, a. trunkless; -ud desam, ad. without making any statement; -udyama, a. avoiding exertion, indolent; -udyoga, a. id.; -udvigna, pp. untroubled, unagitated: -manas, a. havingone's mind undisturbed; -udvega, a. free from agitation, calm; -unmâda, a. free from arrogance; -upakârin, a. unable to render a service; -upakriya, a. rendering no service; -upa-drava, a. unassailed by mischances orcalami ties, prosperous, faring well; free from danger, safe: -tâ, f. security; -upadhi, a. free from guile, honest; blameless; -upapatti, a. un suitable; -upapada, a. unaccompanied by a secondary word; -upaplava, a.undisturbed, uninterrupted; -upabhoga, a. not enjoying; -upama, a. having no equal; -upayoga, a. useless; -upâkhya, a. indescribable: -tva, n. abst. n.; -upâya, a. futile; -ushna-tâ, f. coldness: -m nî, make cold, kill; -ushnîsha, a. turbanless, bareheaded.
nirdaṃśin a. not biting; -danda, a. not punishing; -danta, a. toothless, tusk less; -daya, a. unmerciful, cruel, ruthless; vehement, ardent (embrace); deserving no mercy: -m, ad. mercilessly; excessively; ardently; -dayatva, n. hard-heartedness, cruelty; -darana, a. free from clefts or holes; -dari, cave; -dalana, n. splitting, cutting down; -dasa, a. more than ten days old; -dasana, a. toothless; -dâkshinya, a. un courteous; -dâtri, m. weeder (of a field); -dâridrya, a. free from poverty, well to do.
nirvaṃśa a. having no family, child less, alone in the world; -vakana, n. ex planation, etymology; a. speechless: -m, ad. without saying a word; -vatsala, a. not tenderly attached to, esp. children (lc.);-váp ana, n. (funeral) offering; -vartaka, a. per forming; -vartana, n. performance; -vart anîya, fp. to be accomplished; -varti, a. wickless; -vartitavya, fp. to be performed (Pr.); -vartin, a. ill-behaved (--°ree;); performing, doing (--°ree;); -vartya, fp. to be accomplished; -produced; -uttered; -vasa, a. possessing no will of one's own, dependent: -tâ, f. depend ence; -vashatkâra-ma&ndot;gala, a. lacking sacri fices and festivities;-vasu, a. poor; -vastrî kri, deprive of one's clothes; -vahana, n. con clusion, issue; final act, catastrophe (dr.)
pañjara n. cage (also fig. of anything that confines); grated enclosure, net (pl.); skeleton; body: -ka, n. (?) cage; -kesarin, m. caged lion; -kâlana-nyâya, m. principle of eleven birds combined though differing in their individual action setting a cage in mo tion; -bhâg, a. caged; -stha, a. id.
parigaṇana n., â, f. complete enumeration, exact statement; counting; -gananîya, fp. to be completely enumerated, -exactly stated; *-ganit-in, a. having fully considered everything; -gata, pp.encom passed, surrounded; overwhelmed: -½artha, a. familiar with a thing; -gantavya, fp. attain able; -gama, m. acquaintance; occupation with (--°ree;); -garvita, pp. very haughty; -garhana, n. censure; -grihîti, f.inclusion; -grahá, m. embracing; inclusion; putting on, as sumption (of a body); taking; laying hold of; acceptance, receipt; deriving from (ab.); obtainment, acquisition, possession; admission, reception; marrying, marriage; selection; taking to mean; undertaking, prac tice of, addiction to (--°ree;); grace, favour, as sistance; claim, to (lc.); amount, sum, total number; property; wife (also coll.); depend ents, household, family, concubines of a king; abode; root, foundation; -grahana, n. put ting on; -graha-tva, n. woman's marriage with (--°ree;); -grahîtri, m. husband; adopted father; -grâhaka, a. doing a favour; -grâh ya, fp. to be kindly treated; -glâna, pp. (√ glai) exhausted.
parimaṇḍala n. circumference; a. circular; globular: -tâ, f. circularity, i-ta, pp. made round; -manthara, a. very slow: -tâ, f. sluggishness; -manda, a. very dim (eye); °ree;--, ad. very slightly: -tâ,f. exhaus tion, ennui; -manyú, a. fierce; -marda, m. wearing out, consumption; destruction (of an enemy); -marsa, m. consideration, con templation; -mala, m. fragrance; fragrant substance; sexual intercourse; -mâna,n. measurement; measure, circumference, ex tent, size; weight; duration; number, a mount: -tas, ad. in weight, -ka, n. mea sure, quantity; -mâthin, a. trying severely, wearing out; -mârga, m. searching around: -na, n.tracing, searching; -mârgitavya, fp. to be sought; -mârgana, n. wiping off, cleansing; removal; -mita-tva, n. limited nature; -miti, f. measure, quantity: -mat, a. limited; -milana, n. touch; -mugdha-tâ, f. silliness; loveliness; -mûdha-tâ, f. confu sion; -meya, fp. measurable; limited in num ber; -moksha, m. deliverance, from (ab., g., --°ree;); divestment: -na, n. liberation; deliver ance from (g.); -moshá, m. theft, robbery; -moshana,n. taking away; -mohana, n. in fatuation; -mohin, a. confused.
paripaṇa n. playing for (--°ree;); -pat ana, n. flying about, hovering; -pantha-ka, m. (obstructor of one's path), adversary, enemy; -pantha-ya, den. P. oppose, resist (ac.); -panthín, a. besetting one'spath; m. waylayer, opponent, enemy; -panthî-bhû, become the adversary of, oppose (g.); -pava na, n. cleansing (of grain), winnowing; flail; -pasavya, a. relating to the sacrificial animal; -pâka, m. becoming fully cooked; digestion; ripening; maturity; perfection; consequence, effect; fulness, fulfilment (of time): -tas, ab. in consequence of; -pâkana, a. cooking fully; maturing; -pâkayitri, a. id.; -pâtala, a. very pale-red; -pât&ibrevcirc;, f. succession; -pâtha, m. complete enumeration: in. (know) com pletely; -p&asharp;na, n. hiding-place; -pândiman, m. extreme whiteness; -pându, a. very white or pale: -ra, a. very white; -pârsva, a.being at the side, close at hand: -vartin, a. remain ing at one's side, standing beside (g.); -pâ laka, a. protecting; maintaining; -pâlana, n. protection; maintenance; nurture: â, f. protection, nurture, î-ya, fp. to be guarded; -maintained; -pâlya, fp. to be protected; -maintained or observed; -pi&ndot;gî-kri, colour deep red-brown; -piñga, a. full of (in.); -piñg ara, a. brownish-red, orange-coloured; -pi pâlayishâ, f. desire to maintain; -pîdana, n. squeezing out; injuring, prejudicing (--°ree;); -pushta-tâ, f. being nourished by, feeding on (--°ree;); -pûti, f. complete purification; -pûra ka, a. fulfilling; bestowing abundance; -pûr ana, n. filling; completion; -pûrin, a. be stowing abundantly; -pûrna, pp. (√ 1. pri) filled with (--°ree;); -pûrnendu, m. full moon; -pûrti, f. becoming full of (--°ree;); completion; -pelava, a. very delicate, tiny; -pothaka, a.furthering, confirming; -poshanîya, fp. to be cherished; -prasna, m. enquiry, after (--°ree;); -prâpti, fp. obtainment; -prepsu, des. a. wishing to reach or obtain, seeking after, de siring (ac.); -plavá, a. running to and fro;m. fluctuation; -pluta, pp. (√ plu) over whelmed; bathed (in tears: --°ree;).
pādānta m. tip of the foot, claw: lc. at any one's feet; -½antara, n. distance of a foot: lc. close beside (g.); -½ambhas, n. water for washing the feet; -½aravinda, m. lotus of a foot (said of the foot of a deity, lover, etc.); -½ardha, n. half a quarter, an eighth; -½arpana, n. placing the foot upon; -½avanâma, m. bowing down before any one's feet; -½avasekana, n. water in which the feet have been washed; -½âsphâlana, n. tram pling or shuffling of the feet; -½âhati, f. blow of the foot, kick; -against (--°ree;).
pādanamra a. bowing down to the feet of any one; -nikrit, a. having a de ficiency of a syllable in each quarter-verse; -nyâsa, m. setting down of the feet, step; footprint; -pa, m. (drinking by the root), plant, esp. tree: -ka, --°ree;, a. id.; -patana, n. throwing oneself at the feet of any one, pros tration; -patita, pp. having thrown oneself at any one's feet; -paddhati, f. line of foot steps, footprints; -padma, m. lotus-foot; -parikâraka, m. humble servant; -pâda dhâvana, n. washing of one foot with the other; -pîtha, n. footstool: î-kri, turn into a footstool; -pûrana, a., n. filling a verse foot; -prakshâlana, n. washing of the feet; -prasârana, n. stretching out the feet; -pra hâra, m. kick; -bhata, m. foot-soldier; -bhâ ga, m. a fourth; -bhâg, a. possessing=equalling only a fourth part of any one (g.) in (lc.); -mudrâ, f. footprint; trace, sign, indication:-pa&ndot;kti, f. line of footprints, track; -mûla, n. root of the foot, tarsus; sometimes used as a respectful designation of a person; foot of a mountain: e ni-pat, fall at the feet of (g.); -yuddha, n. foot-fight; -ragas, n.dust of the feet; -lagna, pp. sticking in the foot (thorn); lying at any one's feet; attached to the foot; -lepa, m. foot-ointment of a peculiarly magical power; -vandana, n. adoration of the feet, reverential salutation;-sabda, m. sound of footsteps; -sas, ad. foot by foot; by a fourth; sauka, n. cleansing of the feet; -stambha, m. supporting beam, pillar.
pāyu m. (SB. p&asharp;yu) anus: -kshâlana- bhûmi, f. privy: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -kshâla na-vesman, n. id.; -½upastha, n. sg. anus and organ of generation.
prakara m. (scattered) heap, quantity, plenty: î, f. kind of song; short interlude (in a drama); -karana, n. production, creation; treatment, discussion, exposition; subject of discussion, topic; section, chapter; special treatise, monograph; kind of drama (in which the plot is invented by the poet): asminn eva prakarane, in regard to this very point, in this connection; na ka prakaranam vetsi, nor do you know what the point in question is: -tas, ad. on a suitable occasion, -tva, n. condition of discussing (--°ree;); -kartavya, fp. to be prepared; to be displayed or cherished; to be appointed to (lc.); -kartri, m. one who causes or occasions; -karsha, m. (preference, advantage), excellence, superiority, pre-eminence; intensity, excess; predominance; --°ree; a. consisting for the most part in: in., ab., °ree;--, highly, strongly, thoroughly; -karshana, m. troubler;n. drawing off; protrusion; extension, long duration; -karsha-vat, a. excellent; --°ree;, distinguished or pre-eminent in; -kalpanâ, f. allotment; -kalp-ita, pp. fitted, arranged, placed; -kalp-ya, to be allotted or settled; -kâ&ndot;kshâ, f. appetite; -kânda, m. n. trunk of a tree (between the root and branches); minor section in a book; --°ree;=pre-eminent, excellent; -kâmá, m. delight, voluptuousness: pl. objects of desire: -m, -tas, or°ree;--, ad. with delight, willingly; according to desire, sufficiently; in very deed; -kâra, m. kind, sort, species; way, manner; --°ree; a. of the nature of, -like: kena prakârena, in what way? how? prakâraih, in one way or another; râmâyanasya bhâratasya vâ pra kârah, a kind of Râmâyana or Mahâbhârata; -kâra-ka, a. (--°ree;) of the nature of, -like; -kâra-tâ, f. speciality; -kâra-vat, a. belonging to a species; -kârya, fp. to be exhibited; -kâlana, a. driving on; m. N. of a Nâga.
prajāpāla m. guardian of creatures, ep. of Krishna; protector of the people, prince, king; N. of a prince; -pâlana, n. protection of the people; -pâlya, n. office of guardian of the people or of king.
prakṣapaṇa n. destruction; -kshaya, m. id. ruin, end; -ksharana, n. flowing; -kshâlaka, a. washing; m. washer;-kshâlana, a. performing frequent ablutions; -kshâlana, a. performing frequentablutions; n. washing, -off, cleansing, purifying; water for washing; means of purifying; -kshîna, pp. √ kshi; -kshepa, m. cast, throw; throwing or scattering upon; setting down (of the feet, pāda-, pl.=steps); interpolation; sum deposited by each member of a commercial company; -kshepana, n. sprinkling or pouring upon; throwing into, -upon (--°ree;); fixing (of a price, --°ree;); -kshepin, a throwing or placing upon (--°ree;); -ksheptavya, pp. to be thrown into (lc.); -thrown or scattered on (lc.); -kshepya, pp. to be put on (ornament).
pracaya m. [√ ki] picking, gathering; accumulation, collection, quantity, multitude; -kayana, n. collecting; -kaya-svara, m. accumulated tone (i. e. tone occurring in a series of syllables), tone of the unaccented syllables following a Svarita; -karana, n. setting to work: &isharp;, f. kind of supplementary wooden ladle (rit.); -karanîya, fp. being in actual use (Br., S.); -karitavya, fp. n. imps. one should set to work;-kala, a. moving, tremulous, shaking; -kalana, n trembling, swaying; fleeing; -kalâyita, (den. pp.), n. nodding while asleep (âsîna-, -in a sitting posture); -kalita, pp. set out, departed, etc.; -kâra, m. walking about, ranging; going in pursuit of (--°ree;); showing oneself, manifestation, appearance; application, employment; currency; conduct, behaviour; pasture-ground; exercising-ground; -kârana, n. scattering; -kârin, a. going about; attaching oneself to (lc., --°ree;); acting, behaving; -kita, pp. (√ ki), pronounced with the Prakaya tone; -kura, a. abundant, ample, much, many, frequent; --°ree;, abounding in, replete with: -gaha&ntod;a,a. having abundance of impervious passages, -tva, n. abundance of (--°ree;), -ratna-dhana½â gama, a. having a large income of gems and money; -kurī-bhû, grow in extent; -kritta- sikha, a. having loosened braids orflowing hair; (á)-ketas, a. heedful, intelligent, wise (V.); m. (C.), ep. of Varuna; N.; -kodana, n. instigation, incitement; command; -kodin, a. driving before one (--°ree;).
prajvalana n. flaming up; -gval ita, (pp.) n. blazing, burning; -gvâra, m. heat of fever; -gvâlana, n. kindling (a fire); -gvâlâ, f. flame.
pratipāṇa a. bartering; m. counter stake; revenge at play; -pâtram, ad. in or on every part (in a play); -pâdaka, a. (ikâ) giving, bestowing (--°ree;); discussing, treating of, teaching; explanatory, illustrative; -pâd ana, n. causing to attain (--°ree;); giving, be stowal, on (lc. or --°ree;); giving back, return ing; bringing back; inauguration in (--°ree;); producing, causing; setting forth, treating of, propounding, illustrating, teaching; com mencement; -pâdanîya, fp. to be given, in marriage (Pr.); to be propounded, dis cussed or treated of; -pâdapam, ad. in every tree; -pâdam, ad. in every verse (pâda); -pâdayitavya, fp. to be bestowed or pre sented; -pâdayitri, m. bestower, on (lc.); propounder, teacher; -pâdukâ, f. pedestal; -pâdya, fp. to be propounded, explained, or discussed; under discussion; -pâna, n. drink ing; drinking water; -pâpa, a.bad in return, requiting any one (lc.) with evil; -pâlana, n. watching, guarding, protection; rearing, nurture (of animals); keeping, observance, maintenance, of (g. or --°ree;); expectation (Pr.); -pâlanîya or -pâlayitavya,fp. to be ex pected or waited for; -pâlin, a. guarding, protecting; -pâlya, fp. to be protected or guarded; to be waited for.
pratyaya m. [going or turning to, recourse], confidence, trust, belief, faith, in (g., lc., --°ree;); conviction, certainty; proof, as certainment; assumption; solution, explana tion; conception, notion, idea; cause; ordeal; following letter (gr.); suffix (gr.): -kâraka, a. causing confidence, trustworthy; -dhâtu, m. (suffix-root), denominative base (gr.).
pratyāyaka (cs.) a. [√ i] causing to know or comprehend; convincing, cre dible; -½â½ayana, 1. n. setting (of the sun); -½âyana [fr. cs. of √ i], 2. a. convincing, credible; n. elucidation, explanation, demon stration: â, f. convincing; consolation; -½âyay itavya, fp. to be elucidated or demonstrated; -½âyita, (cs. pp.) m. agent.
pradīdhyāna pr. pt. radiant; -dîpa, m. lamp; fig.=ornament, of (--°ree;); often --°ree; in the titles of explanatory works= commentary: -ka, m., i-kâ, f. (little) lamp; small commentary; -dîpana, a.inflaming; m. kind of poison; n. kindling; -dîpâ-ya, den. Â. represent or play the part of a lamp; -dîpta, pp. kindled, blazing, burning: -½aksha, m. (flaming-eyed), N. of a Yaksha; -dîpti-mat, a. radiant, luminous; -dîrgha, a. extremely long; -dûshaka, a. defiling, polluting; -dûshana, a. deteriorating, spoiling; (á)-dripti, f. wantonness, madness.
prapakva a. inflamed (med.); -pak sha, m. tip of a wing; -pañka, m. expansion, prolixity, amplification, of (g. or --°ree;); phe nomenon; manifestation or form of (g.); phenomenal world (ph.); mutual flattery (rh.); ludicrous dialogue (dr.): in. or -tas, ad. in detail, -pañka-ka, a. (ikâ) multiply ing (--°ree;); amplifying, explaining in detail; -pañkana, n. detailed or prolix account; -pañka-buddhi, a. crafty, wily; -pañka-ya,den. describe or explain in detail; represent in a false light; -pañka-vakana, n. prolix discourse; -paná, m. trade, barter, purchase; -patana, n. flying away; falling down, from (ab. or --°ree;), into (lc. or --°ree;); -patti, f.pious resignation; (á)-patha, m. onward way, journey; road; -pathín, a. wandering; -pad, f. 1. road; 2. (prá-) fore part of the foot; (prá) pada, n. fore part or tip of the foot; -pada na, n. entry, into (--°ree;); -padam, ad. reciting in such a manner as to cut up verses into sec tions of an equal number of syllables and to interpose between them formulae contain ing the word prapadye (Br.); -panna, pp. (√ pad) reached, arrived; attained, obtained: -pâla, m. protector of suppliants (Krishna); -palâyana, n. flight; -palâyin, a. fleeing, fugitive; -p&asharp;, f. water-tank, reservoir, well; water-hut for travellers; affluent (of a tank etc.); -pâka, m.ripening (of an ulcer etc.); digestion; -pâtha: -ka, m. lesson (subsection in books); -pâni, m. fore-arm: -ka, m. id.; -pându, a. very white: -ra, a. id.; -pâta, m. kind of flight; leaping forward; hasten ing away; fall, from (ab. or --°ree;), into (lc. or --°ree;); falling out (of the hair); effusion (of semen); fall (of a glance on anything); steep declivity, precipice; -pâtana, n. felling, cast ing down; directing or causing (the eye) to alight (--°ree;);-pâna, n. drinking; -pâ-pâlikâ, -pâ-pâlî, f. female watcher of a water-tank, well, or water-hut; -pâ-mandapa, m. water hut (for travellers); -pâlaka, m. protector, guardian; -pâlana, n. guarding, protecting.
prabhā f. (shining forth), splendour, brightness, light; brilliancy, radiant beauty: often --°ree; a. (a) radiant like: -kara, m. sun; N.: du. sun and moon: -deva, m. N., -vardhana, m. N. of a prince,-varman, m. N. of a minister, -svâmin, m. N. of a temple of Vishnu; -bhâga, m. division; -bhâta, pp. (√ bhâ) begun to be light; n. dawn, daybreak: -kalpa, a. nearly grown light, approaching dawn (night), -prâya, a. id.; -bhâ-praroha, m. rising lustre, effulgence; -bhâ-mandala, n. circle or orb of light: -ka, n. id.; -bhâ maya, a. consisting of light, radiant; -bhâ lepin, a. radiant, brilliant; -bhâva, m. might; majesty; dignity; supernatural power; effi cacy; power, over (lc.); splendour: in., ab., -tas,=by means or in consequence of, through; -bhâva-ka, a. prominent, in (lc. or --°ree;); -bhâ vat, a. luminous, splendid: -î, f. N.; -bhâv ana, a. (î) creating, creative; bestowing prosperity; m. creator: â, f. promulgation (of a doctrine); -bhâvayitri, a. raising to power or dignity (ac.); -bhâva-vat, a. power ful; -bhâvita, cs. pp. id.; -bhâvin, a. id.; -bhâsha, n.declaration; doctrine; -bhâsh ana, n. explanation; -bhâshita, (pp.) n. speech; -bhâshin, a. talking, speaking; -bhâsa, m. (radiance), N. of a Vasu; N. of the son of a minister of Kandraprabha; m. n. N. of a place of pilgrimage on the west coast of the Deccan; -bhâsana, n. illumination; -bhâsura, a. of great brilliance; -bhâs-vat, a. brilliant; -bhâs-vara, a. id.
pravigraha m. distinct separation of words euphonically combined; -ghatana, n. breaking in pieces; -kâra, m.: -nâ, f. dis tinction, species; -kintaka, a. foreseeing; -ketana, n. comprehension; -dalana, n. shattering; -dâra, m. bursting asunder.
praskaṇva m. N. of a Vedic Rishi: pl. descendants of Praskanva; -skandana, a. leaping forward, attacking, ep. of Siva; suf fering from diarrh&oe;a; n. bounding over or across (--°ree;); aperient; -skandin, a. leaping into (--°ree;); -skanna, pp. √ skand; -skunda, m. support or (according to a commentator) circular altar; -skhalana, n. stumbling, stag gering.
bhāva m. becoming, arising, occur ring; turning into (--°ree;), transformation into (lc.); being, existence; endurance, continu ance; state of being (--°ree;, forming abst. nouns like -tâ and -tva); being orbecoming (as the fundamental notion of the verb, sp. of the int. or imps. vb.); behaviour, conduct; condition, state; rank, position; aspect of a planet (in astrology); true state, reality (°ree;--, in reality); manner of being, nature; mental state, dis position, temperament; way of thinking, thought, opinion, sentiment, feeling; emotion (in rhetoric there are eight or nine primary Bhâvas corresponding to that number of Rasas or sentiments); supposition; meaning, import (iti bhâvah is continually used by commen tators like iti½arthah or iti½abhiprâyah, at the end of an explanation); affection, love; seat of the emotions, heart, soul; substance, thing; being, creature; discreet man (dr.: vc.=re spected sir); astrological house: bhâvo bhâ vam nigakkhati, birds of a feather flock to gether; bhâvam dridham kri, make a firm resolution; bhâvam kri or bandh, conceive affection for (lc.): -ka, a. causing to be, pro ducing (--°ree;); promoting the welfare of (g.); imagining, fancying (g. or --°ree;); having a sense of the beautiful, having a poetic taste; -kar tri-ka, a. having as its agent an abstract noun; -gamya, fp. to be recognised by the imagination.
retaḥsicya n. effusion of semen; -seka, m. id., carnal intercourse with a woman (lc.); -sektri, m. impregnator; -skandana, n. effusion of semen; -skhalana, n. id.
vajra m. n. [mighty], thunderbolt, esp. Indra's (sts. also of other gods; also applied to mythical weapons, destructive spells etc.); adamant, diamond (gnly. n.); m. kind of military array; N.: -karshana,m. ep. of Indra; -kîta, m. kind of insect (supposed to perforate wood and stone); -kîla, m. thunderbolt: â-ya, den. P. resemble a thunderbolt; -kûta, n. N. of a mythical town; -ghosha, a. roaring like the thunderbolt;-gvalana, m. (flash of the thunderbolt), lightning; -tunda, a. having a beak as hard as adamant; -damsh- tra, a. having fangs as hard as adamant; m. N. of a prince of the fairies; N. of a lion; -datta, m. N.; -dhara, a.wielding the thunderbolt; m. ep. of Indra; N. of a king; -nâ bha, a. having a nave of adamant; m. N. of various kings; -pañgara, m. cage of adamant=secure refuge for, protector of (g., --°ree;); N. of a Dânava; -pâni, a.holding the thunderbolt in his hand; m. ep. of Indra; -pâta, m. fall of the thunderbolt, thunder clap, stroke of lightning; a. descending like a thunderbolt; -prabha, m. N. of a fairy; (vágra)-bâhu, a. holding the thunderbolt in his hand (RV.); -bhrít, a. bearing the thunderbolt; m. ep. of Indra; -mani, m. adamant gem, diamond; -maya, a. (î) adamantine, hard as diamond; -mukuta, m. N.; -mushti, a. holding the thunderbolt in his hand; m. ep. of Indra; N. of two warriors; -râtra, n. N. of a town; -lepa, m. diamond cement; -lepâya, den. Â. adhere like adamant cement; -vriksha, m. kind of tree (Cactus Opuntia); -vega, m. N. of a fairy; -vyûha, m. kind ofmilitary array; -sâra, a. hard as adamant; made of diamond; m. n. diamond; m. N.: -maya, a. hard as diamond, adamantine; -sârî-kri, make as hard as diamond; -sûk&ibrevcirc;, f. diamond needle; (vágra)-hasta, a.holding the thunderbolt in his hand (gnly. of Indra).
vicāra m. [√ kar] procedure (S., E.); consideration, reflexion, deliberation; discrimination, investigation, examination; hesitation: -gña, m. one skilled in discrimina tion, competent judge;-kârana, n. considera tion, reflection; investigation, discussion; hesi tation: â, f. distinction; kind; -kâranîya, fp. needing careful consideration; -kâra-dris, a. employing no spies as eyes and regarding the matter with deliberation; -kâra-mû- dha, pp. deficient in discretion; -kârayitavya, fp. needing careful consideration; -kâra-vat, a. acting with deliberation, circumspect; -kâr ita, cs. pp. √ kar; -kârin, a. (n-î) having wide ways (earth; RV.1); wandering about; acting; dissolute; reflecting, considering, examining; -kârya, fp. needing (long) re flexion; n. imps. one should reflect or hesi tate; -kâlana, a. (î) destroying (--°ree;).
vicakṣaṇa a. conspicuous, visi ble, clear, bright (V.); distinct, perceptible (S.); clear-sighted, discerning, experienced, clever, wary, wise, in (lc., --°ree;; ord. mg.; mostly C.): (a)-tva, n.discernment, wisdom, -m manya, a. considering oneself wise, -vat, a. connected with the word vikakshana; -ka kshus, a. eyeless, blind; -kákshe, d. inf. (√ kaksh) to discern (RV.); -kandra, a. moon less; -kaya, m.search; examination; -kara- na, n. 1. motion; 2. footless; -karanîya, fp. n. imps. one should act; -karita, n. wander ing, roaming; (ví)-karshani, a. very active (RV.); -kalana, n. wandering from place to place; boastfulness.
vidala a. burst, split; expanded, blown (flower); splint; split bamboo; split pea; -dalana, n. cracking (of the earth); cleaving; -dalita, pp. expanded, blown; -dalî-kri, split.
vinikṣepa m. separation; -ni kshepya, fp. to be thrown into (lc.); -nigad î-kri, free from foot-fetters; -nigamaka, a. deciding between two alternatives; -nigam anâ, f. decision between two alternatives; -nigûhitri, m. concealer, keeper (of a secret); -nigraha, m. separation; restraining, curb ing, subduing (ord.mg.); restriction; -nigrâh ya, fp. to be restrained; -nidra, a. sleep less, awake; occurring in the waking condi tion; passed sleeplessly; expanded (flower); opened (eyes): -ka, a. awake, -tâ, f. sleep lessness; -ninîshu, des. a. intending to guide; -ninda, a. surpassing: â, f. reproach ing, abusing; -nindaka, a. blaming; derid ing; surpassing; -nipâta, m. mischance, calamity; death; failure; -nipâtita, cs. pp. √ pat; -nimaya, m. barter, exchange; reci procity (in kârya-); pledging; -nimitta, a. having no real cause; -nimîlana, n.closure (of a bud); -nimesha, m. wink; -niyama, m. limitation, restriction to (lc.); -niyamya, fp. to be limited; -niyukta½âtman, a. hav ing one's soul directed to (ad.); -niyoktri, m. appointer to (lc.); employer; -niyoga,m. apportionment; appointment to a duty (lc.); commission, charge; employment, use, application (ord. mg.; sp. of a verse in ritual); relation, correlation; -niyogya, fp. to be employed, applied, or used.
vipramāthin a. trampling down everything; -mâdin, a. thoroughly heedless; -moksha, m. loosening; deliver ance from (ab., g.); -mokya, fp. to be freed from (ab.); -yoga, m. separation, from (in. ± saha, g., --°ree;); lack, absence; -yogin, a. separated from a loved object; -labdha, pp. (√ labh) deceived, imposed upon; -labhya, fp. to be deceived, -made a fool of; -lam bha, m. deception; (disappointment=) sepa ration of lovers: -ka, a. deceiving, cheating; m. dishonest opponent: -tva, n. deception; -lambhana, n. deception (pl.); -lambhin, a. deceiving, fallacious; -laya, m. absorp tion in (lc.); extinction; -lâpa, m. explana tion; idle chatter; contradiction; -lâpin, a. chattering; m. chatterer; -lumpa-ka, a. rapacious; -vâda, m. divergent statement; -vâsa, m. dwelling or travelling abroad; staying away from (ab., --°ree;); -vâsana, n. banishing.
viloka m. glance; -lokana, n. look ing, gaze; looking at, regarding, observing; looking out for, finding out; perceiving, look ing into, studying; -lokita, (pp.) n. glance, look; -lokin, a. (--°ree;) looking; looking at; perceiving; -lokya, fp. visible; looked at; -lokana, 1. a. causing to see, giving eye-sight; n. eye; 2. a. distorting the eyes; m. N. of a mythical person: -patha, m. range of vision, -pâta, m. glance; -lodana, n. stir ring about, churning; splashing; throwing into confusion; -lopa, m. loss, injury; interruption, disturbance; robbery; -lopa-ka, m. destroyer; plunderer; -lopana, n. destruc tion; omission; pulling to pieces (garland); stealing; -lopin, a. destroying (--°ree;); -loptri, m. thief, robber; -lopya, fp. to be destroyed; -lobhana, n. allurement; -lobhanîya, fp. alluring to (--°ree;); -loma, a. (against the hair or grain), reversed, opposite; refractory: -m, ad. backwards; -loma-ga, a., -loma- gâta, pp. born (against the grain=) in the in verse order, born of a mother belonging to a higher caste than the father; (ví)-loman, a. against the hair orgrain, turned in the oppo site direction, inverted; hairless; -lom-ita, den. pp. inverted; -lola, a. moving to and fro, tossing about, waving, rolling, unsteady; un steadier than (ab.); -lolana, n. moving to and fro; (ví)-lohita, a. deep red.
vivṛta pp. √ 1. vri; n. publicity: lc. in public or straight out (speak): -½ânana, a. open-mouthed (-tva, n. open-mouthed state), -½âsya, a. open-mouthed; -vriti, f. exposition, explanation, comment; -vri ta½ukti, f. unveiled or explicit expression; -vritti, f. development; hiatus; -vriddha, pp. (√ vridh) increased; -vriddhi, f. growth, increase, augmentation, aggrandisement; pros perity; lengthening of a vowel: -bhâg, a. in creasing (age).
vyākṛti f. separation, discrimina tion (Br.); detailed description (C.); explana tion (C.); -kopa, m. contradiction; -kosa, a. expanded, blown; open (hand): -kokanada, a. having expanded red lotuses: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -kriyâ, f. evolution, creation; -krosa, m. revilement, abuse; -krosî, f. id.; screech; -kshepa, m. abuse (rare); distraction (of mind); -kshepin, a. driving away (--°ree;); -khyâ, f. explanation, exposition, comment; -khyâtavya, fp. to be explained; -khyâtri, m. expounder; -khy&asharp;na, a. (î) C.: explain ing, elucidating; reminding of, resembling (g.); n. narration (Br.); recitation (Br.); explanation, exposition, comment (Br., C.); -khyâna-ya, den. P. communicate, narrate (Pr.); -khyâ-sthâna, n. school; -khyeya, fp. to be explained; -ghattanâ, f. friction; -ghâta, m. blow, stroke, shot, impact; defeat; commotion, agitation; hindrance, obstacle; (logical) contradiction; a rhetorical figure in which opposite effects are shown to arise from the same cause; an astronomical Yoga; -ghârana, n. sprinkling around (in ritual).
vyālamba a. hanging down, pen dent; -lambin, a. id.; -lola, a. flickering, waving, tremulous; -lolana, n. moving to and fro; -½avakrosî, f. mutual abuse; -vart aka, a. (ikâ) removing, excluding;n. charac terisation: -tâ, f., -tva, n. exclusion; -várt ana, a. (î) removing, excluding; averting; n. turning (of a road; V.); coil (of a snake); -vartanîya, fp. to be taken back; -vartya, fp. to be removed or excluded.
saṃvadana n. conversation, talk; -vánana, a. (î) V.: conciliating, propitiat ing; C.: encouraging (liberality, --°ree;); n. (V., C.) means of conciliation; subduing spell; -vara, m. n. incorr. for sambara;-várana, 1. m. N. (C.); n. enclosure (as place of sacri fice; V.); concealment, secrecy (C.); 2. n. (C.) choice (of a husband): -srag, f. wreath given by a girl to the man of her choice; -varanîya, fp. to be concealed; -vargá,a. √ vrig] rapacious (Agni; V.); -várgam, abs. snatching up, sweeping together (RV.); -varta, m. [rolling together: √ vrit] dense mass (of people); cloud charged with rain; end or dissolution of the world; N. (C.;á, RV.1): -ka, a. (rolling together), destroying all things at the end of the world (fire etc.); m. fire of universal destruction: pl. fires of hell; -vartikâ, f. (rolled up leaf=) young lotus petal; -vardhana, a. increasing, pro moting; m. N.; n. growing up (of a child); rearing (of a child); success; promoting; -vardhanîya, fp. to be reared (child); to be maintained (servants); to be increased or fos tered (virtue); -valana, n., â, f. (hostile) en counter; mixture, union; -vasati, f. dwell ing together; -vásana, n. dwelling-place (RV.1); (sám)-vasu, m. fellow-dweller (V.); -vaha, m. N. of one of the seven winds; -v&asharp;k, f. colloquy (V.); -vâdá, m. conversation (V., C.), with (in. ± saha, lc., --°ree;); agreement, conformity, correspondence, similarity, equal ity (C.): (a)-ka, a. agreeing; m. N.; -vâd ana, n. agreement; -vâdin, a. conversing; agreeing or harmonizing, with (g., --°ree;); -vâ ra, m. contraction of the vocal chords (in pronouncing a sound), obtuse articulation (opp. vivâra); impediment (v. r.); -vârya, fp. to be concealed; -vâsa, m. dwelling to gether, with (in. ± saha, --°ree;); cohabitation, with (--°ree;); settlement, dwelling; common abode (rare); -vâsin, a. 1. clothed in (--°ree;); 2. dwelling together; --°ree;, dwelling in, inha biting; m. fellow-dweller; -vâha, m. ex tortion, oppression: -ka, a.stroking (--°ree;); m., i-kâ, f. shampooer; -vâhana, n. passage (of clouds); stroking with the hand (±hasta-, of limbs etc., --°ree;); -vâhya, fp. to be borne; to be exhibited (in a-).
saṃśayita pp. √ sî; n. doubt, un certainty; -sayitavya, fp. dubious; -saya½u pamâ, f. comparison expressed in the form of a doubt; -sarana, n. taking refuge with any one; -sânti, f. extinction;-sita, pp. √ sâ: -vâk, a. speaking sharply, -½âtman, a. firmly resolved; -siti, f. sharpening (Br.); -sîta, a. cold; -sîti, f. doubt; -sîlana, n. practice; frequent intercourse with (in.); -suddhi, f. purity; -sushka, a. dried up, dry, withered, sere, emaciated; -soka-ga, a. produced from moist heat; m. vermin pro duced from damp heat; -sodhana, a. (î) purifying; n. purification; -sraya, m. con nexion, association with (g., --°ree;); league for mutual protection; refuge, shelter, protec tion, asylum; residence, habitation; reference, relation; resorting to (lc., --°ree;; rare); recourse, addiction or devotion to: ab. in consequence of (--°ree;); with the help of, by means of (--°ree;): --°ree; a. dwelling, living in, staying with (a teacher), standing in (a boat), being in or on, growing (tree) near; relating or referring to; devoted to, practising; -srayanîya, fp. to be resorted to, -taken refuge with: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -srayitavya, fp. to be sought refuge in (fortress); -srayin, a. having sought the protection or entered the service of any one; dwelling, resting or standing in, being in or on (--°ree;); m.dependent, servant; -srava, m. hearing; ear-shot (lc. within hearing of, g.); promise; -sravana, n. hearing, -about (--°ree;); ear-shot: lc. within hearing, aloud; (sám)- srita, pp. √ sri; m. dependent, servant: -vat, pp. act. clinging to, having wedded (in.); -sri tavya, fp. incorr. for -srayitavya; -slish- ta-karman, a. in whose actions good and evil are not kept apart, indifferent as to the morality of his actions; -slesha, m. con nexion, union, contact, with (in., --°ree;); em brace: -m labh, attain; -sleshana, n. con necting; means of binding together, bond; -sleshin, a. connecting.
saṃkaṭa a. [put together: Pr.= krita] contracted, narrow; dense, impervious (forest); difficult, critical; --°ree;, full of (danger ous things); N.; Slender, N. of a gander; n. contracted space, narrow passage, defile; strait, difficulty, critical condition, distress, danger (to, from, --°ree;): â-ya, den. Â. grow too narrow; become contracted, grow less; -ka thana, n. conversation, with (in. ± saha, --°ree;); -kathâ, f.conversation, talk, with (in. ± saha, --°ree;), about (--°ree;); -kara, m. commingling, mixture; intermixture of castes by unequal marriages (=varna-); action equivalent to the mixture of castes (sts. n. in E.); mixture of figures of speech: -krityâ, f. act degrading to a mixed caste, î-karana, n. act which degrades to the position of a mixed caste; -karshana, m. Plougher, ep. of Halâyudha, elder brother of Krishna, among Vishnu wor shippers identified with the second person in the quaternity of Purushottama (=the soul); n. extraction; means of uniting; -kalana, n. putting or holding together; n., â, f. addi tion; -kalita, pp. added together.
saṃkranda m. lamentation; battle; -krándana, a. shouting, roaring; m. ep. of Indra; n. battle: -nandana, m. pat. of Ar guna and of the monkey Vâlin; -kramá, m. going together (V.); C.: course, progress; tran sition, transference to (lc.); entry of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; bridge (ord. mg.); stair (esp. leading down to water); N. of a fairy prince; -krámana, n. entrance, commencement; transition, entrance into (lc., --°ree;); entry of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; transfer to another world, de cease; -kramî-kri, make a bridge or medium of: gd. by means of (ac.); -krânta, pp. √ kram; -krânti, f. entrance into (lc., --°ree;); transference, communication; passage of the sun to another sign of the zodiac (--°ree;): pa yaso gandûsha-samkrântayah, transfer ence of water to swallowing = water meant for drinking; -krâmin, a.being transferred to others; -krîda, m. play, sport; -krosá, m. shout; -klishta-karman, a. acting with difficulty; -kleda, m. saturation, wetting, with (--°ree;): -bhûta, pp. forming a moist mass (foetus); -klesa, m. pain, suffering; -kshaya, m. decay, loss, complete consump tion or disappearance; drying up (of water); ruin, destruction; end; -kshâlanâ, f. wash ing, ablution; -kshipti: -kâ, f. simple ex pedient (dr.); -kshepa, m. throwing together, destruction (rare); abridgment, compres sion, conciseness, brief exposition; quintes sence of (g.); aggregate (rare): in., ab., °ree;--, -tas, briefly, concisely; in., -tas, in the aggregate; -kshobha, m. jolt, shock, com motion, disturbance; agitation, excitement.
saṃcaya m. sg. & pl. accumulation, hoard, store, wealth, quantity, collection; gathering, collecting (rare): d. in order to have more; -kayana, n. gathering, collecting; -kaya-vat, a. possessed of wealth, rich; -kay ika, a. having provisions (only --°ree;); -kará, a. go ing about (mûrti-, with a body=incarnate); together, simultaneous (V.); m. place for walk ing, road, path, passage; evolution (in Sâ&ndot; khya phil.); -kárana, a. (î) suitable for going on, passable, converging (V.); n. navigation (of the sea: ac.; RV.); motion, from (ab.), in (lc., --°ree;), by means of (--°ree;); -karishnu, a. moving about, roaming; -karvana, n. chew ing; -kalana, n. trembling, quaking; -kâra, m. walking about, wandering, roaming, driv ing; motion; transit, passage; entrance, portal; transition or transference to (--°ree;); track (of wild animals), road (rare): -ka, m.guide; -kâranîya, fp. to be wandered through; -transferred to (lc.); -kârita, cs. pp. (√ kar) set in motion, worked; -kârin, a. (n-î) walk ing about, wandering, roaming, moving, mov able (in, lc., --°ree;); penetrating into (--°ree;); trans mitted, infectious, hereditary (disease); com ing in contact with, contiguous to (in.); carried with one (umbrella); being in, en gaged with (--°ree;); accessory (sentiment, etc.); taking with one (--°ree;);-kârya, fp. accessible (in a-); produced by (--°ree;); -kikîrshu, des. a. intending to perform; -kiti, f. piling; col lecting, saving; -kintya, fp. to be considered; -regarded as (-vat); -kinu½âna-ka, a. oc cupied with collecting(wealth); -keya, fp. to be accumulated; -kodayitavya, fp. to be urged on; -khettri, m. dispeller (of doubts).
samākula a. filled or crowded with, full of, abounding in (in., --°ree;); thrown into confusion, embarrassed, bewildered, by (--°ree;); -krandana, n. crying, shouting: -gir, f. pl. cries for help; -kramana, n. entering, frequenting; -khyâ, f. appellation, name; explanation, interpretation; -khyâna, n. naming, mentioning; narrative; appellation, name; -gantavya, fp. n. one should come together or approach; -gama, m. coming together, union; confluence; assembly; en counter or meeting with (in. ± saha, g., rarely lc., --°ree;); -gamana, n. coming toge ther, encountering, meeting (--°ree;); sexual union; -ghâta, m. collision; -ghrâna, n. smelling at anything.
samudreka m. predominance; -unnati, f. rising (of the breast); height; ex altation, high position, eminence; increase; elevation (of mind): kittam samunnatim asnute, the soul feels elevated; -unneya, fp. to be inferred or concluded; -unmukhî- kri, lift up; -unmûlana, n. eradication, complete destruction.
saṃprakāśana n. disclosure, manifestation; -kâsya, fp. to be disclosed or manifested; -kshâlana, n. (washing away=) destruction (of the world) by flood; -nash- ta, pp. (√ nas) vanished etc.;-netri, m. leader (of an army); wielder of the rod (dandasya), inflicter of punishment; main tainer of (g.); -tâpana, n. heating; a hell.
saṃmukha a. (î, sts. â) confronting, facing (g., --°ree;); favourable, to any one (g.), propitious (fortune); intent on (lc., --°ree;): -m, ad. (come etc.) towards; (draw) to (oneself, âtmanah); (look) intoone's face; face to face; opposite, in the presence of (g.); lc. oppo site, before, in front or the presence of (g.): w. bhû, oppose any one (g.); w. sthâ, look any one (g.) in the face; °ree;--, towards; into one's face; -mukhî-kri, place opposite, make one's aim; -mukhîna, a. confronting, facing, opposite; favourable to (g.): -tva, n. condi tion of facing; presence; -mukhî-bhû, post oneself opposite; -mugdham, (pp.) ad. clandestinely; -mûdha,pp. √ muh: -tâ, f., -tva, n. dazed condition; -mûrkhana, n. congealment, densification, accumulation; -melana, n. meeting together, mixture, union; -mohá, m. stupefaction, swoon; infatuation, delusion; -mohana, a.(î) deluding, infatu ating; m. N. of one of the arrows of the god of love; n. leading astray, deluding, infatu ating; a certain mythical missile.
saṃmata pp. √ man; n. opinion: in., lc. according to the view of (g.); lc. with the consent of (g.); -mati, f. opinion, view (rare); concurrence, approval; reverence, respect: in. with the assent of (g.); -matta, pp. in toxicated; -mada, m. joy, delight, at (--°ree;): -maya, a. (î) full of joy; (sám)-manas, a. unanimous (V.); -marda, m. friction; im pact; concourse, throng; trampling; encoun tering (--°ree;); conflict, with (--°ree;); -mardana, m. N. of a fairy; -mársana, n. (V.) stroking; -mâ, f. symmetry, equality in number; -mâ trí (AV. also sám-), a. having the same mother (V.); -mâna, m. (n.) respect, honour (also pl.; often incorrectly spelt san-); -mânana, n. honouring, showing respect to: â, f. id.; -mânita-vimânita, pp. first honoured and then disgraced; -mânin, a. having a sense of honour; -mârga, m. wiping, cleansing; whisp of grass for tying faggots (S.); -mârgaka, a. sweeping, cleansing; m. sweeper; -m&asharp;rgana, n. wiping, cleansing, sweeping: î, f. broom; (sám)-mita, pp. (√ mâ) commensurate, con formable etc.; m. N. of a mythical being; n.distance: -tva, n. complete parallelism (rh.); -misra, a. commingled, intermixed, joined, or provided with (in., --°ree;); -misrana, n. in termingling; (sám)-misla, a. mixing, united with (in., lc.; RV.); -mîlana, n. closing (of the eyes); cessation of activity.
samyak ad. (n. of samyañk), RV., E.: in one direction, together; C.: rightly, correctly, truly, duly, properly (sts. pred. in stead of a.); entirely, completely (rare; with na, not at all): -kri, make true (a promise); -sthâ, associate with (lc.): -tâ, f. rightness, correct manner; -tva, n. id.; perfection; -pâlana, n. due protection; -prayoga, m. correct employment: in., ab. by the employ ment of proper means; -samkalpa, m.correct will; -sambodha, m. complete enlighten ment (of Buddha).
svāpyaya m. turning into oneself (as an explanation of svapna).
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
48 results
     
anuvyākhyāna is a species of writing referred to in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. Sañkara interprets it as ‘explana­tion of the Mantras.’ As the term, in the plural, follows Sūtras, this interpretation is reasonable. Sieg, however, equates the word with Anvākhyāna, ‘ supplementary narrative.’
arya This word is not common in the older literature, in places where the quantity of the first vowel is fixed as short, except in a mere adjectival sense. Geldner, indeed, contends that no other sense is anywhere needed ; but Roth and Zimmer agree in thinking that in several passages of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the word has the same sense as Arya, and this appears probable. Whether it is necessary to ascribe this sense to the word in the compound arya-patnī applied to the waters set free by Indra, is more doubtful. The commentator, Mahīdhara, suggests that the word means a Vaiśya, not an Arya generally. This view is supported by the explanation in the śatapatha Brāhmana of one of the passages of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā.8 But though the use of Arya to denote a Vaiśya became common later it is not clear that it was original.
alina is the name of a people mentioned once only in the Rigveda. Roth thought that the Alinas were allies—possibly a subdivision—of the Trtsus. Ludwig3 more probably thinks that they were defeated by Sudās, together with the Pakthas, Bhalānas, Sivas, and Visānins, with whom they are mentioned, at the Parusnī; and Zimmer suggests that they lived to the north-east of Kafiristan.
āśumga in the Atharvaveda seems to denote some sort of animal. It is qualified by the word ‘young’ (śiśuka), and Roth suggests that it may mean a bird (‘swift-flying’), or that the expression denotes ‘a foal going to its dam’ (ιūśu-ga). Sāyana, however, reads the accompanying word as śuśuka, which he assumes to denote an animal. Bloomfield renders the two words ‘ a swift (aśumga) foal (śiśuka),' thus agreeing with one of Roth’s suggestions in sense, though not in the explanation of Aśumga.
uttāna āṅgirasa Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as a quasi-mythical person who received all good things, and yet was not harmed, as he was really a form of the earth, according to Sāyaṇa’s explanation. His name occurs also in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
ūrṇāvatī In the hymn of the Rigveda which celebrates the rivers Ludwig finds a reference to an affluent of the Indus called Urnāvatī. This interpretation, however, seems certainly wrong. Roth renders the word merely as ‘ woolly,’ and Zimmer rejects Ludwig’s explanation on the ground that it throws the structure of the hymn into confusion. Pischel makes the word an epithet of the Indus, ‘rich in sheep.’
rṣṭiṣeṇa Is mentioned in the Nirukta as an explanation of the patronymic Arstisena, but nothing else is known of him
aurṇavābha ‘Descendant of Urnavābhi.’ This is the ^name of · a pupil of Kaundinya mentioned in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. A teacher of this name is frequently referred to in the Nirukta. His explanations in two passages agree with those of the Nairuktas or etymological school of interpreters of the Rigveda. In other passages3 he appears rather to belong to the school of the Aitihāsikas, who relied on traditional legends. He was thus probably, as Sieg suggests, an eclectic.
aulāna Is a word occurring in a single passage of the Rigveda, where it may possibly be a patronymic of Samtanu as a ‘descendant of Ula.’ Ludwig, however, conjectures that the reading should be ‘ Kaulāna.’ Sieg regards Aulāna as a later descendant4 of śamtanu, who utilized the story of Devapi’s rain-making as an introduction to his rain hymn.
kraya Sale,’ is a word which does not actually occur in the Rigveda, though the verb krī, from which this noun is derived, is found there. Both noun and verb are common in the later Samhitās. Sale appears to have regularly consisted in barter in the Rigveda ten cows are regarded as a possible price for an (image of) Indra to be used as a fetish, while elsewhere not a hundred, nor a thousand, nor a myriad are considered as an adequate price (.śulka) for the purchase of Indra. The Athar­vaveda mentions, as possible objects of commerce, garments (dūrśa), coverlets (pavasta), and goatskins (ajina). The haggling of the market was already familiar in the days of the Rigveda,® and a characteristic hymn of the Atharvaveda is directed to procuring success in trade. The ‘ price ’ was called Vasna, and the ‘merchant Vanij, his greed being well known.There is little evidence of a standard of value in currency having been adopted. When no specific mention is made of the standard, the unit was probably the cow. In a consider¬able number of passages of the Satapatha Brāhmana and elsewhere, however, the expression hiranyam śata-mānam suggests that there must have been some standard other thancows, though it might in all these passages be rendered as ‘gold worth a hundred cows.’ But the use of the Krsnala as a measure of weight suggests that the meaning is ‘ gold weighing a hundred Krsnalas,’ and this seems the more probable explana¬tion. This unit seems not to be known in the Rigveda, where the meaning of the term Manā, which occurs once, is mysterious, and where necklets (Niska) seem to have been one of the more portable forms of wealth, like jewellery in modern India, and may perhaps have served as a means of exchange.
cyavana Are variant forms of the name of an ancient Ṛṣi, or seer. The Rigveda represents him as an old decrepit man, to whom the Aśvins restored youth and strength, making him acceptable to his wife, and a husband of maidens. The legend is given in another form in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana, where Cyavana is described as wedding Sukanyā, the daughter of śaryāta. He is there called a Bhrgu or Añgirasa, and is represented as having been rejuvenated by immersion in a pond—the first occurrence of a motive, later very common in Oriental literature. Another legend about Cyavāna is apparently alluded to in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda, where he seems to be opposed to the Paktha prince Tūrvayāna, an Indra worshipper, while Cyavāna seems to have been specially connected with the Aśvins. This explanation of the hymn, suggested by Pischel, is corroborated by the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, which relates that Vidanvant, another son of Bhrgu, supported Cyavana against Indra, who was angry with him for sacrificing to the Aśvins; it is also note¬worthy that the Aśvins appear in the śatapatha Brāhmana as obtaining a share in the sacrifice on the suggestion of Sukanyā. But a reconciliation of Indra and Cyavana must have taken place, because the Aitareya Brāhmana relates the inauguration of śāryāta by Cyavana with the great Indra consecration (aindrena mahābhisekena). In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaça Cyavana is mentioned as a seer of Sāmans or Chants.
tāyu Was another name for thief, perhaps of a less distinguished and more domestic character than the highway­man, for though he is referred to as a cattle-thief, he is also alluded to as a stealer of clothes (vastra-mathi)u and as a debtor. In one passage the Tāyus are said to disappear at the coming of dawn (which is elsewhere called yāvayad-dvesas driving away hostile beings,’ and rta-pā, ‘ guardian of order ’), like the stars of heaven (naksatra). In the Satarudriya litany of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā Rudra is called lord of assailers (ā-vyādhin), thieves (stena), robbers (taskara), pickpockets (stāyu), stealers (musnant), and cutters (1vi-krnta); and designations of sharpers (grtsa) and bands (gana, vrāta), apparently of robbers, are mentioned. It is therefore not surprising that the Rigveda should contain many prayers for safety at home or on the way, or that the Atharvaveda should devote several hymns to night chiefly for protection against the evil doings of thieves and robbers. Pischel suggests that in one passage of the Rigveda Vasistha is represented as a burglar, but he admits that, since Vasistha was attacking the house of his father Varuna, he was only seeking to obtain what he may have regarded as his own. But the interpretation of the hymn is not certain. Sayana’s explanation of one passage of the Rigveda, as referring to professional cattle-trackers, like the Khojis of the Panjab, seems quite probable.The punishment of thieves appears primarily to have been left to the action of the robbed. The practice of binding them in stocks seems clearly referred to. But later, at any rate— and in all probability earlier also, as in other countries—a more severe penalty could be exacted, and death inflicted by the king. There is no hint in Vedic literature of the mode of conviction; a fire ordeal is not known to the Atharvaveda, and the ordeal known to the Chāndogya Upanisad is not said to be used in the case of theft. No doubt the stolen property was recovered by the person robbed if he could obtain it. Nothing is known as to what happened if the property had passed from the actual thief into the possession of another person.
tugrya Occurs in the Rigveda as a patronymic of Bhujyu, but also in a passage in which no reference to Bhujyu appears to be meant, and in which it may mean ‘ a man of the house of Tugra.’ A similar sense seems to occur in the locative plural feminine in the Rigveda, where (supplying viksu) the meaning must be ‘among the Tugrians.’ This explanation may also apply to the epithet of Indra or Soma, tugryā-vrdh, ‘ rejoicing among the Tugrians.
turvaśa Occurs frequently in the Rigveda as the name of a man or of a people, usually in connexion with Yadu. The two words usually occur in the singular without any connecting particle, Turvaśa Yadu or Yadu Turvaśa. In a plural form the name Turvaśa occurs once with the Yadus, and once alone in a hymn in which the singular has already been used. In one passage the dual Turvaśā-Yadñ actually occurs, and in another Yadus Turvaś ca, ‘Yadu and Turva.’ In other passages Turvaśa appears alone, while in one Turvaśa and Yādva occur. From these facts Hopkins deduces the erroneousness of the ordinary view, according to which Turvaśa is the name of a tribe, the singular denoting the king, and regards Turvaśa as the name of the Yadu king. But the evidence for this is not conclusive. Without laying any stress on the argument based on the theory that the five peoples’ of the Rigveda are the Anus, Druhyus, Turvaśas, Yadus, and Pūrus, it is perfectly reasonable to hold that the Turvaśas and Yadus were two distinct though closely allied tribes. Such they evidently were to the seers of the hymns which mention in the dual the Turvaśā-Yadū and speak of Yadus Turvaś ca. This explanation also suits best the use of the plural of Turvaśa in two Rigvedic hymns. In the Rigveda the chief exploit of Turvaśa was his partici¬pation in the war against Sudās, by whom he was defeated. Hopkins suggests that he may have been named Turvaśa because of his fleet (tura) escape from the battle. His escape may have been assisted by Indra, for in some passages Indra’s aid to Turvaśa (and) Yadu is referred to; it is also significant that the Anu, and apparently the Druhyu, kings are mentioned as having been drowned in the defeat, but not the Turvaśa and Yadu kings, and that Turvaśa appears in the eighth book of the Rigveda as a worshipper of Indra with the Anu prince, the successor, presumably, of the one who was drowned. Griffith, however, proposes to refer these passages to a defeat by Turvaśa and Yadu of Arna and Citraratha on the Sarayu ; but the evidence for this is quite inadequate. Two passages of the Rigveda seem to refer to an attack by Turvaśa and Yadu on Divodāsa, the father of Sudās. It is reasonable to suppose that this was an attack of the two peoples on Divodāsa, for there is some improbability of the references being to the Turvaśa, who was concerned in the attack on Sudās, the son. Zimmer considers that the Turvaśas were also called Vrcī- vants. This view is based on a hymn in which reference is made to the defeat of the Vrcīvants on the Yavyāvatī and Hariyūpīyā in aid of Daivarāta, and of Turvaśa in aid of Srñjaya, the latter being elsewhere clearly the son of Deva- rāta. But as this evidence for the identification of the Turvaśas with the Vrcīvants is not clear, it seems sufficient to assume that they were allies. Later, in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Turvaśas appear as allies of the Pañcālas, Taurvaśa horses, thirty-three in number, and armed men, to the number of 6,ooo, being mentioned. But otherwise the name disappears: this lends probability to Oldenberg’s conjecture that the Turvaśas became merged in the Pañcāla people. Hopkins considers that in the śatapatha passage the horses were merely named from the family of Turvaśa; but this view is less likely, since it ignores the difficulty involved in the reference to the men. It is impossible to be certain regarding the home of the Turvaśas at the time of their conflict with Sudās. They apparently crossed the Parusnī, but from which side is dis¬puted. The view of Pischel and Geldner, that they advanced from the west towards the east, where the Bharatas were (see Kuru), is the more probable.
tṛtsu Occurs in the Rigveda, once in the singular and several times in the plural, as a proper name. The Trtsus were clearly helpers of Sudās in the great battle against the ten kings, Simyu, the Turvaśa, the Druhyu, Kavasa, the Pūru, the Anu, Bheda, Sambara, the two Vaikarnas, and perhaps the Yadu, who led with them as allies the Matsyas, Pakthas, Bhalānas, Alinas, Visānins, Sivas, Ajas, Sigrus, and perhaps Yaksus. The defeat of the ten kings is celebrated in one hymn of the Rigveda, and is evidently alluded to in two others. The great battle took place on the Parusnī, but there was also a fight on the Yamunā with Bheda, the Ajas, Sigrus, and Yaksus. As the Yamunā and the Parusnī represent opposite ends of the territory of the Trtsus (for we cannot with Hopkins safely identify the streams), it is difficult to see exactly how the ten kings could be confederated, but it should be noted that the references to the ten kings occur in the two later hymns, and not in the hymn describing the battle itself; besides, absolute numerical accuracy cannot be insisted upon.It is difficult exactly to determine the character of the Trtsus, especially in their relation to the Bharatas, who under Visvamitra’s guidance are represented as prospering and as advancing to the Vipāś and Sutudrī. Roth ingeniously brought this into connexion with the defeat of his enemies by Sudās, which is celebrated in the seventh book of the Rigveda—a book attributed to the Vasistha family—and thought that there was a reference in one verse to the defeat of the Bharatas by Sudās. But it seems certain that the verse is mistranslated, and that the Bharatas are really represented as victors with Sudās. Ludwig accordingly identifies the Trtsus and the Bharatas. Oldenberg, after accepting this view at first, later expressed the opinion that the Trtsus were the priests of the Bharata people, and therefore identical with the Vasisthas. This view is supported by the fact that in one passage the Trtsus are clearly described as wearing their hair in the peculiar manner affected by the Vasisthas, and would in that passage thus seem to represent the Vasisthas. But Geldner has suggested with great probability that Trtsu, who is once mentioned in the singular, means the Trtsu king—that is, Sudās. This explanation alone justifies the description of the Bharatas as Trtsūnām viśah, ‘ subjects of the Trtsus,’ meaning the Trtsu Gotra or family, for the people could not be said to be subjects of a body of priests. The Vasisthas might be called Trtsus because of their close con¬nexion with the royal house of that people. The reverse process is also quite possible, but is rendered improbable by the fact that the Pratrdah are referred to as receiving Vasistha. This name of the Trtsu dynasty is probably older than its connexion with Vasistha in the time of Sudās, a conclusion supported by the name of Pratardana, who is mentioned later as a descendant of Divodāsa, an ancestor of Sudās. The Trtsu dynasty could therefore hardly have been referred to as Vasisthas. For the further history of the dynasty and its relation with Vasistha and Viśvāmitra, see Sudās. If the Trtsus and their subjects, the Bharatas, were in the Rigvedic period at war with the tribes on either side of the territory between the Parusnī and the Yamunā, it is clear that later on they coalesced with the Pūrus and probably others of those tribes to form the Kuru people. Already in the Rigveda the Trtsus are allied with the Srñjayas, and in the śatapatha Brāhmana one Purohita serves both Kurus and Srñjayas. Hillebrandt considers that the Trtsus cannot be identified with the Bharatas, but that Sudās and the Bharatas represent an invading body, which, however, became allied with the Trtsus and the Vasistha priests. He also thinks that the Rigveda reveals a time when Divodāsa, the grandfather or ancestor of Sudās, was living in Arachosia, on the Sarasvatī, and warring against the Panis, whom he identifies with the Parnians. But this conjecture cannot be regarded as probable. In the Sarasvatī it is not necessary to see any other river than the later Sarasvatī, in the middle country, which flowed within the boundaries of the Trtsus: it is also significant that there are references to contests between Turvaśa Yadu and Atithigva or Divodāsa. Thus there is no reason to doubt that Divodāsa and the Bharatas were in the middle country, and not in Iran.
tsārin Denotes, in one passage of the Rigveda, a hunter ’ engaged in the chase of the takva (an unknown beast), according to Ludwig and Max Muller. But this explanation is quite conjectural.
dasyu A word of somewhat doubtful origin, is in many passages of the Rigveda clearly applied to superhuman enemies. On the other hand, there are several passages in which human foes, probably the aborigines, are thus designated. This may be regarded as certain in those passages where the Dasyu is opposed to the Aryan, who defeats him with the aid of the gods. The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion : the former are styled 4 not sacrificing,’ 4 devoid of rites,’ 4 addicted to strange vows,’ ‘ god- hating,’ and so forth. As compared with the Dāsa, they are less distinctively a people: no clans (viśah) of the Dasyus are mentioned, and while Indra’s dasyu-hatya,. slaughter of the Dasyus,’ is often spoken of, there is no corresponding use of dāsa-hatya. That the Dasyus were real people is, however, shown by the epitdet anās applied to them in one passage of the Rigveda. The sense of this word is not absolutely certain : the Pada text and Sāyana both take it to mean 4 without face ’ (an-ās), but the other rendering, 4 noseless ’ (a-nās), is quite possible, and would accord well with the flat-nosed aborigines of the Dravidian type, whose language still persists among the Brahuis, who are found in the north-west. This interpretation would receive some support from Vrtra’s being called * broken-nosed ’ if this were a correct explanation of the obscure word rujānās. The other epithet of the Dasyus is mrdhra-vāc, which occurs with anās, and which has been rendered ‘of stam¬mering, or unintelligible speech.’ This version is by no means certain, and since the epithet is elsewhere applied to Aryans, its correct meaning is more probably ‘of hostile speech.’ Dasyu corresponds with the Iranian dañliu, daqyu, which denotes a ‘ province.’ Zimmer thinks that the original meaning was ‘enemy,’ whence the Iranians developed the sense of ‘hostile country,’ ‘conquered country,’ ‘province,’ while the Indians, retaining the signification of ‘ enemy,’ extended it to include demon foes. Roth considers that the meaning of human enemy is a transfer from the strife of gods and demons. Lassen16 attempted to connect the contrast daqyu: dasyu with that of daeva : deva, and to see in it a result of the religious differences which, according to Haug’s theory, had separated the Iranians and the Indians. The word may have originally meant 4 ravaged land ’ as a result of invasion ;hence ‘enemies’ country,’ then ‘hostile people,’ who as human foes were more usually called by the cognate name of Dāsa. Individual Dasyus are Cumuri, Sambara, Susna, etc. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the word has, as later, the sense of uncivilized peoples generally.
devāpi arṣṭiṣeṇa (‘Descendant of Rstisena ’) is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda and in the Nirukta. According to the latter source there were two brothers, Devāpi and Santanu, princes of the Kurus. The elder was Devāpi, but śantanu got himself anointed king, whereupon no rain fell for twelve years. The drought being attributed by the Brahmins to his having superseded his elder brother, Santanu offered the kingdom to Devāpi. The latter, however, refused, but acting as Purohita, or domestic priest, for his brother, obtained rain. The Brhad­devatā tells much the same tale, but adds that the reason for Devapi’s exclusion from the throne was the fact that he suffered from a skin disease. The Epic and later legends further develop the story, presenting two somewhat discrepant accounts. According to the one version, the ground of Devāpi's being passed over was leprosy, while in the other his devoting himself to asceticism in his youth was the cause of his brother’s taking his place. The Epic, moreover, treats him as a son of Pratīpa, and names as his brothers Bāhlīka6 and Arstisena, who is a new figure developed from the patronymic of Devāpi. Possibly Sieg is right in holding that two stories, those of Devāpi, Pratlpa’s son, and of Devāpi, Estisena’s son, have been confused; but in any case it is impossible to extract history from them. The Rigvedic hymn certainly appears to represent Devāpi as sacrificing for Santanu, who seems to be called Aulāna. But there is no trace in it of the brotherhood of the two men, nor is there anything to show that Devāpi was not a Brahmin, but a Ksatriya. Sieg, who interprets the hymn by the Nirukta, thinks that he was a Ksatriya, but on this occasion was enabled by the favour of Brhaspati to officiate as priest, and that the hymn shows clear recognition of the unusual character of his action ; but this view seems very improbable.
daidhiṣavya Is mentioned in a Mantra of the Taittirīya Samhitā. Apparently the word (as derived from Didhisū) denotes the son of a younger sister married before the elder sister, rather than the son of a woman twice married, the explanation of the St. Petersburg Dictionary.
dhruva In the Sūtras denotes the pole star, being mentioned in connexion with the marriage ritual, in which the star is constancy. In the Maitrāyanī Upanisad, a late work, the movement of the Dhruvā (dhruvasya pracalanam) is mentioned, but this can hardly be interpreted as referring to an actual observed motion of the nominal pole star, but rather to an extraordinary event, such as a destruction of the world, as Cowell understood the expression. Jacobi sees in the motion of the Dhruvā the possibility of fixing a date, on the ground that the only star which could have been deemed a pole star, as * immovable,’ was one (α Draconis) of the third millenium B.C. But this attempt to extract chronology from the name of the star is of very doubtful validity.
nirukta Explanation ’ of a word or passage, is found in the Chāndogya Upanisad, but does not appear as the name of a work before the later Upanisads. It is, however, probable that Yāska’s Nirukta is not later than the rise of Buddhism. Cf. Nirvacana.
nirvacana In the Taittirīya Áranyaka and the Nirukta means explanation,’ especially etymological. Cf Nirukta.
pakṣa Is, in the Atharvaveda, applied to some part of a house, either the ‘side posts,’ according to Roth,Zimmer, and Grill, or ‘sides,’ as understood by Whitney and Bloom­field. The description of the roof (Chadis) in the Atharvaveda as catus-paksa, ‘ four-sided,’ tells in favour of the second explanation. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Paksa is used of the sides of a chariot. For Paksa as the ‘half’ of a month, see Māsa.
pañcajanāḥ The ‘five peoples,’ are mentioned under various names in Vedic literature. Who are meant by the five is very uncertain. The Aitareya Brāhmana explains the five to be gods, men, Gandharvas and Apsarases, snakes, and the Fathers. Aupamanyava held that the four castes (Varna) and the Nisādas made up the five, and Sāyana is of the same opinion. Yāska thinks that the five are the Gandharvas, fathers, gods, Asuras, and Raksases. No one of these explanations can be regarded as probable. Roth and Geldner think that all the peoples of the earth are meant: just as there are four quarters (Diś), there are peoples at the four quarters (N. E. S. W.), with the Aryan folk in the middle. Zimmer opposes this view on the ground that the inclusion of all peoples in one expression is not in harmony with the distinction so often made between Aryan and Dāsa ; that neither janāsah, ‘ men,’ nor mānusāh, ‘people,’ could be used of non-Aryans; that the Soma is referred to as being among the five tribes; that the five tribes are mentioned as on the Sarasvatī, and that Indra is pāñca- jany a, ‘ belonging to the five peoples.’ Pie concludes that Aryans alone are meant, and in particular the five tribes of the Anus, Druhyus, Yadus, Turvaśas, and Pūrus, who are all mentioned together in one or perhaps two hymns of the Rigveda, and four of whom occur in another hymn. But he admits that the expression might easily be used more generally later. Hopkins has combated Zimmer’s view, but his own opinion rests mainly on his theory that there was no people named Turvaśa, but only a king of the Yadus called Turvaśa, and that theory is not very probable. In the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Aitareya Brāhmana the five peoples are opposed to the Bharatas, and in the former work seven peoples are alluded to.
paṇi In the Rigveda appears to denote a person who is rich, but who does not give offerings to the gods, or bestow Daksinās on the priests, and who is therefore an object of intense dislike to the composers of the Samhitā. Hence the gods are asked to attack the Panis, who are also referred to as being defeated with slaughter. The Pani is opposed to the pious sacrificer as a niggard, and is spoken of as a wolf, the symbol of enmity. In some passages the Panis definitely appear as mythological figures, demons who withhold the cows or waters of heaven, and to whom Saramā goes on a mission from Indra. Among the Panis Brbu was apparently important. In one passage of the Rigveda they are described as Beka- nā^as, or ‘usurers’ (?). In another they are called Dasyus, and styled mrdhra-vāc, probably ‘ of hostile speech,’ and grathin, a word of uncertain meaning. Hillebrandt thinks that the latter epithet refers to the continuous flow of a speech which is not understood, and that mrdhra-vāc means * speaking an enemy’s speech,’ though not necessarily with reference to non-Aryans. In two passages the Panis appear as Dāsas, and in one a Pani is mentioned in connexion with wer- geld (Vaira), being apparently regarded as equal to a man merely in the price put on his life, but in other respects as inferior. It is difficult to be certain exactly who a Pani was. Roth thinks that the word is derived from pan, ‘barter,’ and that the Pani is properly the man who will give nothing without return, hence the niggard, who neither worships the gods nor rewards their priests. This view is accepted by Zimmer and by Ludwig. The latter scholar thinks the apparent references to fights with Panis are to be explained by their having been aboriginal traders who went in caravans—as in Arabia and Northern Africa—prepared to fight, if need be, to protect their goods against attacks which the Aryans would naturally deem quite justified. He supports this explanation by the references to the Panis as Dasyus and Dāsas. It is, however, hardly necessary to do more than regard the Panis generally as non-worshippers of the gods favoured by the singers; the term is wide enough to cover either the aborigines or hostile Aryan tribes, as well as demons. Hillebrandt, however, thinks that a real tribe is meant, the Parnians of Strabo, and that they were associated with the Dahae (Dāsa). Moreover, he finds them associated in one passage with the Pārāvatas, whom he identifies with the Iϊαρουήται of Ptolemy, and with Brsaya, whom he connects with Bapσaevτηç of Arrian; he also con¬siders that the frequent mention of the Panis as opponents of Divodāsa shows that the latter was on the Arachosian Haraqaiti (Sarasvatī) fighting against the Parnians and Dahae, as well as other Iranian tribes. But the identification of Pani and the Parnians is needless, especially as the root pan, which is found also in the Greek πέρνημι, shows a satisfactory derivation, while the transfer of Divodāsa to the Haraqaiti is improbable. See also Divodāsa and Bekanāta.
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
parāvṛj Is a term found in four passages of the Rigveda, in all of which it refers to a person in a forlorn condition, while one of them also speaks of him as going south. Sāyana’s view that the word is a proper name is most unlikely, while Grassmann’s explanation of it as ‘cripple’ is still less probable.
pramaganda Is the name of a prince in the Rigveda, where he is mentioned as the king of the Kīkaṭas, and where he seems to be designated by the epithet naicāśākha, ‘ belonging to a low branch or race.’ On the other hand, Yāska takes Pramaganda to mean the ‘ son of a usurer,’ an explanation that is hardly probable. Hillebrandt thinks that naicāśākha refers not to Pramaganda, but to the Soma plant, the plant being called mcāśākha, ‘ having shoots turned downwards,’ and that the passage refers to a raid against the Kīkatas, who were not observers of the milk cult or the Soma cult, with the intention of winning their lands where the Soma grew and where there were cows. Bohtlingk, however, questions this view, which is not very probable. A place name is possibly meant by Naicāśākha. The name Pramaganda seems un-Aryan.
bekanāṭa Occurs only once in the Rigveda, when Indra is said to overcome all the Bekanātas and the Paṇis. The natural sense, therefore, seems to be ‘ usurer,’ the explanation given by Yāska. The word has a foreign appearance, but its provenance can hardly be determined: it might just as well be aboriginal as Babylonian. Hillebrandt thinks Brunnhofer is right in identifying Bekanāta with Bikanir.
brāhmaṇa Religious explanation,’ is the title of a class of books which as such are only mentioned in the Nirukta and the Taittirīya Aranyaka, and then in the Sūtras, where the names of the Brāhmaṇas occur, showing that literary works were in existence.
bhalānas Plural, is the name in the Rigveda of one of the five tribes, Pakthas, Bhalānases, Alinas, Viçāṇins, and śivas, who are mentioned as ranged on the side of the enemies of Sudās in the battle of the ten kings (Dāśarājña), not opposed to them, as Roth, and at one time Zimmer, thought. Zimmer suggests as their original home East Kabulistan, comparing the name of the Bolan pass. This seems a reasonably probable view.
madhyamavah Occurs in one passage of the Rigveda as an epithet of the chariot. The exact interpretation is doubtful. Roth assigns to it the expression the sense of ‘driving with a single horse between the shafts.’ According to Sāyana's explanation, it means ‘driving with middling speed.’ It might mean ‘driving in the middle’ that is, ‘only half-way.’
mṛgayu Hunter,’ occurs in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas, but not very often. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, however, in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) include a number of names which seem to be those of persons who make a liveli­hood by fishing or by hunting, such as the Mārgāra, ‘ hunter,’ the Kaivarta or Kevarta, Pauñji§tha, Dāśa, Maināla, * fisher-man,’ and perhaps the Bainda and the Ánda, who seem to have been some sort of fishermen. It is not probable that even in the earliest Vedic period hunting formed the main source of livelihood for any of the Vedic tribes: pastoral pursuits and agriculture (Κṛṣί) were, no doubt, the mainstay of their existence. But it would be unreasonable to suppose that not much hunting was done, both for recreation and for purposes of food, as well as for protection of flocks from wild beasts. The Rigveda is naturally our chief source of information in regard to hunting. The arrow was sometimes employed, but, as is usual with primitive man, the normal instruments of capture were nets and pitfalls. Birds were regularly caught in nets (Pāśa, Nidhā, Jāla ), the bird-catcher being called nidhā-pati, ‘master of snares.’ The net was fastened on pegs (as is done with modern nets for catching birds). Another name of net is apparently Mukṣījā. Pits were used for catching antelopes (Rśya), and so were called rśya-da, ‘antelope-catching.’ Elephants were captured as in Greek times, perhaps through the instrumentality of tame females (see Mpga Hastin). Apparently the boar was captured in the chase, dogs being used, but the passage from which this view is deduced is of uncertain mythological content. There is also an obscure reference to the capture of the buffalo (Gaura), but it is not clear whether the reference is to shooting with an arrow or capturing by means of ropes, perhaps a lasso, or a net. The lion was captured in pitfalls, or was surrounded by the hunters and slain ; one very obscure passage refers to the lion being caught by ambuscade, which perhaps merely alludes to the use of the hidden pit. The modes of catching fish are little known, for the only evidence available are the explanations of the various names mentioned in the Yajurveda. Sāyana18 says that Dhaivara is one who takes fish by netting a tank on either side; Dāśa and śauçkala do so by means of a fish-hook (badiśa); Bainda, Kaivarta, and Maināla by means of a net (jāla); Mārgāra catches fish in the water with his hands; Anda by putting in pegs at a ford (apparently by building a sort of dam); Parṇaka by putting a poisoned leaf on the water. But none of these explanations can claim much authority.
yadu Is the name of a tribe and of the king of the tribe. They are mentioned repeatedly in the Rigveda, normally in conjunction with Turvaśa. They seem to have taken part in the great battle against Sudās : the Yadu and the Turvaśa kings seem to have escaped with their lives, while the Anu and the Druhyu kings perished. This is at least the most natural explanation of several passages, though these passages possibly refer to a successful raid across the Sarayu, and a defeat of two princes, Arṇa and Citraratha. That Turvaśa was the Yadu king, as Hopkins holds, is most improbable.
yadu Is the name of a tribe and of the king of the tribe. They are mentioned repeatedly in the Rigveda, normally in conjunction with Turvaśa. They seem to have taken part in the great battle against Sudās : the Yadu and the Turvaśa kings seem to have escaped with their lives, while the Anu and the Druhyu kings perished. This is at least the most natural explanation of several passages, though these passages possibly refer to a successful raid across the Sarayu, and a defeat of two princes, Arṇa and Citraratha. That Turvaśa was the Yadu king, as Hopkins holds, is most improbable.
yuga In the Rigveda frequently denotes a ‘generation’; but the expression daśame yuge applied to Dirg’hatamas in one passage must mean ‘tenth decade’ of life. There is no reference in the older Vedic texts to the five-year cycle (see Samvatsara). The quotation from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa given in the St. Petersburg Dictionary, and by Zimmer and others, is merely a citation from a modern text in the commentary on that work. Nor do the older Vedic texts know of any series of Yugas or ages such as are usual later. In the Atharvaveda6 there are mentioned in order a hundred years, an ayuta (10,000?), and then two, three, or four Yugas: the inference from this seems to be that a Yuga means more than an ayuta, but is not very certain. Zimmer adduces a passage from the Rigveda, but the reference there, whatever it may be, is certainly not to the four ages {cf. also Triyug’a). The Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa recognizes long periods of time—e.g., one of 100,000 years. To the four ages, Kali, Dvāpara, Tretā, and Kṛta, there is no certain reference in Vedic literature, though the names occur as the designations of throws at dice (see Akça). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the names occur, but it is not clear that the ages are really meant. Haug thought that the dice were meant: this view is at least as probable as the alternative explanation, which is accepted by Weber, Roth,Wilson, Max Mūller, and Muir. Roth, indeed, believes that the verse is an inter¬polation ; but in any case it must be remembered that the passage is from a late book of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. Four ages—Puṣya, Dvāpara, Khārvā, and Kṛta—are mentioned in the late Sadvimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Dvāpara in the Gopatha Brāhmana.
rājakartṛ ‘King-maker,’ is the term applied in the Atharvaveda and the Brāhmaṇas to those who, ‘ not themselves kings,’ aid in the consecration of the king. In the śatapatha the persons meant and specified are the Sūta, ‘ charioteer,’ and the Grāmaṇī, ‘village chief,’ probably a repre­sentative chief from the village nearest to the place of consecra­tion, as Eggeling suggests. In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, according to the commentator’s explanation, the father, brother, etc., are meant; in the Atharvaveda, also, the meaning of the expression is not stated in the text.
vadhū Is a frequent word for ‘woman’ in the Rigveda and later. It denotes, according to Delbriick, the woman as either married or as seeking a husband, or as a bride in the wedding ceremony. The word appears to be derived from a form of the root vah, ‘ to carry,’ as is vahatu, ‘ the bridal pro­cession,’ thus meaning ‘ she who is to be or has been conducted home.’ Zimmer, however, objects to this explanation, regarding vadhū as a derivative from a different root meaning 'to marry.’
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vidatha Is a word of obscure sense, confined mainly to the Rigveda. According to Roth, the sense is primarily ‘order,’ then the concrete body which gives orders, then ‘assembly’ for secular or religious ends, or for war. Oldenberg once thought that the main idea is ‘ordinance’ (from υi-dhā, ‘ dispose,’ ‘ordain’), and thence ‘sacrifice.’ Ludwig thinks that the root idea is an ‘ assembly,’ especially of the Mag’havans and the Brahmins. Geldner considers that the word primarily means ‘ knowledge,’ ‘wisdom,’ ‘priestly lore,’ then ‘sacrifice’ and ‘spiritual authority.’ Bloomfield, on the other hand, insists that Vidatha refers to the ‘house’ in the first place (from vid, ‘acquire’), and then to the ‘sacrifice,’ as connected with the house; this interpretation, at any rate, appears to suit all the passages. The term vidathya, once applied to the king (samrāt), might seem to be against this view, but it may refer to his being ‘rich in homesteads and the connexion of the woman with the Vidatha, as opposed to the Sabhā, tells in favour of Bloomfield’s explanation. That the word ever denotes an asylum, like the house of the brahmin, as Ludwig suggests, is doubtful.
vip In several passages of the Rigveda refers, according to Roth, to the rods which form the bottom of the Soma filter, and on which the straining cloth is stretched. But this explanation is very doubtful.
viṣāṇin Occurs once in the Rigveda as the name of a tribe in the list of the enemies of the Tṛtsus, not as Roth thought, of their allies. The word seems to mean ‘ having horns,’ but in what sense is unknown; perhaps their helmets were horn-shaped or ornamented with horns. They may, like their allies, the Alinas, Bhalānas, śivas, and Pakthas, be reckoned as belonging to the tribes of the north-west.
vrātya Is included in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda, where, however, no further explanation of the name is given. Fuller information is furnished by the Atharvaveda, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Sūtras, which describe at length a certain rite intended for the use of Vrātyas. According to the Pañcavimśa Brāh­maṇa, there are four different kinds of ‘outcasts’—viz., the hīna, who are merely described as ‘depressed’; those who have become outcasts for some sin (nindita); those who become out­casts at an early age, apparently by living among outcasts; and those old men who, being impotent (śama-nīcamedhra), have gone to live with outcasts. The last three categories are by no means of the same importance as the first. The motive of the fourth is hard to understand: according to Rājārām Rām- krishṇa Bhāgavat,5 they were men who had enfeebled their constitutions by undue intercourse with women in the lands of the outcasts, and returned home in a debilitated state. But this is not stated in the text. It seems probable that the really important Vrātyas were those referred to as Itlna, and that the other classes were only subsidiary. According to Rāj'ārām,® there were two categories of the first class: (a) The depressed (hīna), who were non- Aryan ; and (6) degraded Aryans (gara-gir). This, however, is a mere guess, and devoid of probability. There seems to have been but one class of Vrātyas. That they were non-Aryan is not probable, for it is expressly said7 that, though unconse¬crated, they spoke the tongue of the consecrated: they were thus apparently Aryans. This view is confirmed by the state-ment that ‘they call what is easy of utterance, difficult to utter’: probable they had already a somewhat Prakritic form of speech (cf. Vāc). The Sūtras mention their Arhants (‘saints’) and Yaudhas (‘warriors’), corresponding to the Brahminical Brāhmana and Kṣatriya. Other particulars accord with the view that they were Aryans outside the sphere of Brahmin culture. Thus they are said not to practise agriculture or commerce (an allusion to a nomadic life), nor to observe the rules of Brahmacarya—i.e., the principle regulating the Brahminic order of life. They were also allowed to become members of the Brahminical community by performance of the ritual prescribed, which would hardly be so natural in the case of non-Aryans. Some details are given of the life and dress of the Vrātyas. Their principles were opposed to those of the Brahmins: they beat those unworthy of correction. Their leader (Gṛhapati) or householder wore a turban (Uçṇīçε), carried a whip (Pratoda), a kind of bow (Jyāhroda), was :lothed in a black (krçnaśa) garment and two skins (Ajina), blxk and white (krsna-valaksa), and owned a rough wagon (Vijatha) covered with planks (phalakāstīrna). The others, subordinate to the leader, had garments with fringes of red (valūkāntāni dāmatūsām), two fringes on each, skins folded double (dvisamhitāny ajinūni), and sandals (Upānah). The leader wore also an ornament (Niçka) of silver, which Rājārām converts into a silver coinage. The Vrātyas, on becoming consecrated, were expected to hand over their goods to the priest. Many other details are given in the Sūtras (e.g., that the shoes or sandals were of variegated black hue and pointed), but these are not authenticated by the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. The locality in which the Vrāiyas lived cannot be stated with certainty, but their nomad life suggests the western tribes beyond the Sarasvatī. But they may equally well have been in the east: this possibility is so far supported by the fact that the Sūtras make the Brahmin receiving the gift of the Vrātya's outfit an inhabitant of Mag’adha. The Atharvaveda does not help, for it treats the Vrātya in so mystical a way that he is represented as being in all the quarters. Indeed, Roth believed that it was here not a case of the Vrātya of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa at all, but of a glorification of the Vrātya as the type of the pious vagrant or wandering religious mendicant (Parivrājaka). This view is clearly wrong, as the occurrence of the words usnīsa, vipatha, and pratoda shows. It is probable that the 15th Book of the Atharvaveda, which deals with the Vrātya, and is of a mystical character, exalts the converted Vrātya as a type of the perfect Brahmacārin, and, in so far, of the divinity.
śiva As the name of a people occurs once in the Rigveda, where they share with the Alinas, Pakthas, Bhalanases, and Viṣāiúns the honour of being defeated by Sudās, not of being, as Roth thought, his allies. There can hardly be any doubt of their identity with the Χίβαι3 or Sιβoi4 of the Greeks, who dwelt between the Indus^nd the Akesines (Asiknī) in Alexander’s time. The village of śiva-pura, mentioned by the scholiast on Pānini6 as situated in the northern country, may also preserve the name. Cf. śibi.
śailina ‘Descendant of śilina,’ is the patronymic of Jitvan in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. Perhaps Sailana should be compared.
sātyayajñi Is the name of a school of teachers mentioned in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa with the śailanas and the Kārīradis.
sudās Is the name of the Tṛtsu king who won a famous victory over the ten kings, as described in a hymn of the Rigveda. At one time Viśvāmitra was his Purohita, and accompanied him in his victorious raids over the Vipāś (Beās) and śutudrī (Sutlej). The Aśvins gave him a queen, Sudevī, and also helped him on another occasion. He appears with Trasadasyu in a late hymn without hint of rivalry, but elsewhere he seems to be referred to as defeated by Pupukutsa, Trasadasyu’s father. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he is recognized as a great king, with Vasiṣha as his Puro­hita, and similarly in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, where his generosity to his priest is related. His exact ancestry is a little uncertain, because he is called Paijavana, ‘son of Pijavana,’ as Yāska explains the patro¬nymic. If this explanation is correct, Divodāsa must have been his grandfather. If he was the son of Divodāsa, Pijavana must be understood as a more remote ancestor. The former alternative seems the more probable. Cf. Turvaśa, Dāśarājña. Paijavana, Bharata, Saudāsa.
svara Denotes in the Upaniṣads the sound of a vowel: these are described as being ghosavant, ‘sonant,’ and also as balavant, ‘ uttered with force.’ The precise word for a mute is sparśa, ‘ contact,’ while ūsman denotes a ‘sibilant,’ and svara a ‘vowel,’ in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Áraṇyakas. The semivowels are there denoted by anta-sthā (‘intermediate’) or aksara. Another division in the Aitareya Aranyaka is into ghosa, ūsman, and vyañjana, apparently ‘vowels,’ ‘ sibilants,’ and ‘consonants’ respectively. Ghosa elsewhere in that Aran­yaka seems to have the general sense of ‘sounds.’ The Taittirlya Upaniṣad refers to mātrā, a ‘ mora ’; bala, ‘ force ’ of utterance, and varna, ‘letter,’ an expression found else­where in the explanation of om, as compacted of a + u -f- in. The Aitareya Araṇyaka and the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka recognize the three forms of the Rigveda text as pratrnna, nirbhuja, and'ubhayain-antarena, denoting respectively the Sarphitā, Pada, and Krama Pāthas of the Rigveda. The same authorities recognize the importance of the distinction of the cerebral and dental n and s, and refer to the Māṇdūkeyas’ mode of recitation. They also discuss Sandhi, the euphonic ‘combination’ of letters. The Prātiśākhyas of the several Samhitās develop in detail the grammatical terminology, and Yāska's Nirukta contains a good deal of grammatical material. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa distinguishes the genders, and the Pañcaviφśa Brāhmana the division of words in the Sāman recitation.
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apy aulānaṃ divi deveṣu dhehi # RV.10.98.11d.
ā pakthāso bhalānaso bhananta # RV.7.18.7a.
upeḍānā (śś. -lānā) iha no adya gacha # Aś.2.14.31b; śś.1.17.19b.
taj jvalanāya vidmahe # MS.2.9.1a: 120.10.
dikto-diktaḥ pañcālānām # śB.13.5.4.8c.
pañcānāṃ tvā salilānāṃ dhartrāya gṛhṇāmi (KS. dhartrāyāgṛhṇāmi) # MS.1.4.4: 52.2; 1.4.9: 57.8; KS.5.6; 32.6; Apś.2.7.9.
yad asyāḥ palpūlanam # AVś.12.4.9a.
yad devā devaheḍanam (VSKṭA.2.3.1a, -lanam) # AVś.6.114.1a; VS.20.14a; VSK.22.1a; MS.3.11.10a: 157.1; 4.14.17a: 244.4; KS.38.5a; śB.12.9.2.2; TB.2.4.4.8a; 6.6.1a; 3.7.12.1a; TA.2.3.1a; 7.1; Vait.22.15; Apś.10.7.14; 14.30.1; 19.10.4; Mś.5.2.11.35; Kauś.67.19; BDh.3.7.10,16; GDh.27.6. P: yad devāḥ śB.10.5.4.17; Vait.30.22; Kś.19.5.13. Designated as kuṣmāṇḍāḥ or kūṣmāṇḍāḥ, q.v.; as devaheḍanam (sc. sūktam) Vait.23.12; Kauś.46.30; 60.7.
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"lana" has 68 results.
     
abhyāvṛttiinclination towards an action; tendency to do an act; confer, compare संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणनं कृत्वसुच् । P. V. 4.17 अभिमुखी प्रवृत्तिरभ्यावृत्तिः (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.4.19) is the explanation in the Mahābhāṣya,while पौनः पुन्यमभ्यावृत्तिः (Kāś. on V.4.17) is the one given in Kāśikā
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
ātmanepadaa technical term for the affixes called तड् (त, आताम् et cetera, and others) and the affix अान ( शानच् , चानश्, कानच् ), called so possibly because, the fruit of the activity is such as generally goes to the agent (आत्मने) when these affixes are usedition Contrast this term (Ātmanepada) with the term Parasmaipada when the fruit is meant for another. For an explanation of the terms see P. VI.3.7 and 8.
udāharaṇaa grammatical example in explanation of an interpretation; confer, compare नैकमुदाहरणमसवर्णग्रहणं प्रयोजयति P.VI. 1.11.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
ṛgayanādia class of words headed by ऋगयन to which the taddhita affix अण् (अ) is affixed in the sense of 'produced therein' ( तत्र भवः), or 'explanatory of' ( तस्य व्याख्यानः); confer, compare ऋगयने भव:, ऋगयनस्य व्याख्यानो वा अार्गयनः पादव्याख्यानः, औपनिषदः, शैक्ष: et cetera, and others Kāś. on P.IV. 3.73.
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
kātantrabālabodhinīa short explanatory gloss on the Kātantra Sūtras by Jagaddhara of Kashmir who lived in the fourteenth century and who wrote a work on grammar called Apaśabdanirākaraṇa.
kātantravṛttiname of the earliest commentary on the Kātantra Sūtras ascribed to Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. The commentary was once very popular as is shown by a number of explanatory commentaries written upon it, one of which is believed to have been written by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. himselfeminine. See Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti..
kārikāa verse or a line or lines in metrical form giving the gist of the explanation of a topic; confer, compare संक्षिप्तसूत्रबह्वर्थसूचकः श्लोकः कारिका Padavyavasthāsūtrakārikā of Udayakīrti.
koṇḍabhaṭṭaa reputed grammarian who wrote an extensive explanatory gloss by name Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa on the Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikā of Bhaṭṭoji Dīkṣita. Another work Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra. which is in a way an abridgment of the Bhūṣaṇa, was also written by him. Koṇḍabhaṭṭa lived in the beginning of the l7th century. He was the son of Raṅgojī and nephew of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita. He was one of the few writers on the Arthavicāra in the Vyākaraṇaśāstra and his Bhūṣaṇasāra ranks next to the Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Besides the Bhūṣaṇa and Bhūṣaṇasāra, Koṇḍabhaṭṭa wrote two independent works viz. Vaiyākaraṇsiddhāntadīpika and Sphoṭavāda.
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
candrācāryaa grammarian mentioned by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya as one who took a leading part in restoring the traditional explanation of Panini's Vyakarana which, by the spread of rival easy treatises on grammar, had become almost lost: confer, compare यः पतञ्जलिशिष्येभ्यो भ्रष्टो ब्याकरणागमः । काले स दाक्षिणात्येषु ग्रन्थमात्रे व्यवस्थित: ॥ पर्वतादागमं लब्ध्वा भाष्यबीजानुसारिभि: । स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः ॥ Vakyapadiya II. 488-489. See चन्द्र and चन्द्रगोमिन्.
jahatsvārthā( वृत्ति )a composite expression where the constituent members give up their individual sense. In compound words such as राजपुरुष in the sentence राजपुरुषमानय the word राजन् gives up its sense in as much as he, the king,is not brought; पुरुष also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be noted that although the sense is given up by cach word, it is not completely given up: cf जहदप्यसेो स्वार्थ नात्यन्ताय जहाति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed explanation see Mahabhasya on P. II. I. I. Vart. 2.
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
tattvādarśaname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by M. M. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar in 1889 A. D. The commentary is more critical than explanatory,wherein the author has given the purpose and the gist of the important Paribhasas and has brought out clearly the differences between the school of Bhattoji and the school of Nagesa in several important matters.
doṣa(1)a fault of pronunciation; cf एताः स्वरदोषभावनाः अतोन्ये व्यञ्जनदोषाः M.Bh. on I. 1.1 Vart.18 (2) defect shown in connection with an expression or explanation.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
navāhnikīname given to the first nine Ahnikas or lessons of the Mahabhasya which are written in explanation of only the first pada of the first Adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi and which contain almost all the important theories, statements and problems newly introduced by Patanjali.
navyamataa term used for the differentiation in views and explanations held by the comparatively new school of Bhattoji Diksita, as contrasted with those held by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in contrast with Bhagttoji Diksita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol.VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D.E. Society, Poona.
nirākṛta(1)set aside; answered; the word is frequently used in connection with faults which are stated to occur or present themselves if a particular explanation is given; (2) prevailed over by another; confer, compare तदा न रूपं लभते निराकृतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 30, where Uvvata paraphrases निराकृत as विस्मृत.
pakṣaalternative view or explanation presented by, or on behalf of, a party ; one of the two or more way of presenting a matter. The usual terms for the two views are पूर्वपक्ष and उत्तरपक्ष, when the views are in conflict. The views, if not in conflict, and if stated as alternative views, can be many in number, e. g. there are seven alternative views or Pakșas re : the interpretation of the rule इको गुणवृद्धी; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.3; confer, compare also सर्वेषु पक्षेषु उपसंख्यानं कर्तव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
paribhāṣāvṛttia general name given to an explanatory independent work on Paribhasas of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribhasas,irrespective of the system of grammar, whether it be that of Panini, or of Katantra, or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. The treatises of Vyadi (Panini system), Durgasimha and BhavamiSra (Katantra system), Purusottamadeva and Siradeva (Panini system), Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the name Paribhasavritti.
parokṣaused as an adjective of the word भूत meaning 'past tense'; literally behind the eyes, unnoticed by the eyes. The word is generally used in the sense of remote or long (past) or 'perfect'. For the alternative explanation of the word परोक्ष, confer, compare कथंजातीयकं पुनः परोक्षं नाम । केचित्तावदाहुः वर्षशतवृत्तं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुः क्रटान्तरितं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुर्ह्याहवृत्तं त्र्यहंर्वृत्तं चेति । M.Bh. on परोक्षे लिट् P. III.2.115.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pratītārthawhose sense is clear and which hence does not require any further explanation; confer, compare यथा चापि प्रतीतार्थानि स्युस्तथैनान्याचक्षीरन् । Nirukta of Yāska.I.13.
prapañcaamplification, further explanation,clarification. The expression पूर्वस्यैवायं प्रपञ्चः or तस्यैवायं प्रपञ्चः is very frequently used in the Kasika vrtti; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II. 1.33,37,41, 58, II.4.28, III.2.6I et cetera, and others
pravartakopādhyāyaa grammarian who wrote an explanatory gloss named कैयटप्रकाशिका on the महाभाष्यप्रदीप written by Kaiyatabhatta.
pravādaa grammatical explanation; detailed explanation by citing the gender, number, krt affix, taddhita affix.affix and the like: confer, compare लिङ्गसंख्यातद्धितकृतरूपभेदाः प्रवादाः । पाण्यादिशब्दानां प्रवादेषु प्रथमो (original) नकारो णत्वमाप्नोति स च प्राकृतः । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIII. 9. The word is explained as a change in the form of a word, as for instance, by the substitution of स् for विसर्ग where विसर्ग is, in fact, expected; confer, compare कबन्धं पृथु इत्येतेषां पदानां प्रवादा रूपभेदा उदये परत्रावस्थिताः दिव इत्येतस्य उपचारं जनयन्ति । यथा दिवस्कबन्धम् , दिवस्पृथुः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 22; confer, compare also प्रवादाः षडितः परे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX. 18. In the Nirukta, the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention'; confer, compare एवमन्यासामपि देवतानामादित्यप्रवादाः स्तुतयो भवन्ति ( deities are mentioned under the name of Aditya) Nir II.13; cf also वैश्वानरीयाः प्रवादाः Nir, VII. 23.
pravādinaḥscholars who explain the changes ( प्रवाद ) mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; possibly the Padakaras or writers of the पदपाठ;cf प्रवादिनो दूणाशदूढ्यदूलभान् ... महाप्रदेशं स्वधितीव चानयेन्नुदच्च R Pr. XI. 20. Apparently प्रवादिनः ( nominative case. singular.) seems to be the word in the explanation of Uvvata.
prauḍhamanoramākhaṇḍana(1)a grammatical work written by a grammarian named Cakrapani of the Sesa family of grammarians. The work is meant to refute the arguments of Bhattoji Diksita in his Praudhamanorama; (2) a grammar work written by the famous poet and rhetorician Jagannātha in refutation of the doctrines and explanations given in the Praudhamanorama by the stalwart Grammarian Bhattoji Diksita. The work is not a scholarly one and it has got a tone of banter. It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works on Grammar and the bearded pedant Bhattoji should not be proud of his profound scholarship in Grammar. The work of Jagannatha was named मनोरमाकुचमर्दन possibly by his followers or even by himselfeminine.
barsvya(written as बर्त्स्व्य or बर्त्स्य possibly through mistake in the printed Calcutta Edition)connected with the socket of the teeth. As the utterance of र् proceeds from the socket of the teeth, र् is called बर्स्व्य. confer, compare उपसंहृततरे च जिह्वाग्रमृकारर्कारल्कारेषु बर्स्वेषूपसंहरति T.Pr.II.18.बर्स्व is explained here by the commentator as दन्तपङ्क्तेरुपरिष्टादुच्चप्रदेशेषु ऋकारस्य ॠकारस्य ऌकारस्य च बर्स्वाः स्थानम् । The word उपरिष्टात् in the explanation given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. is questionable;the explanation given by Uvvata in his comment on वर्त्स्यमेकं इच्छन्ति रेफम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20.viz. वर्त्सशब्देन दन्तमूलादुपरिष्टादुच्छूनः प्रदेश उच्यते appears better although apparently वर्त्स is written in the text for बर्स्व or वर्त्स्व.
bahulaliterally variously applicable; the word is used in the rules of Panini in connection with a grammatical rule or affix or the like that is seen necessarily applied in some cases, optionally applied in a few other cases and not at all applied in the other cases still. The word बहुलम् is used by Panini in all such cases. See P. II. 1.32, 57; II. 3.62; II.4.39, 73, 76, 84, III. 1.34 et cetera, and others; confer, compare the usual explanation of बहुलम् given by grammarians in the lines क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः क्वचिद्विभाषा क्वचिदन्यदेव । विधेर्विधानं बहुधा समीक्ष्य चतुर्विधं बाहुलकं वदन्ति Com. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.18.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyavyākhyāname given to each of the explanatory glosses on the Mahabhasya written by grammarians prominent of whom were Purusottamadeva, Narayana Sesa, Visnu, Nilakantha and others whose fragmentary works exist in a manuscript form. महामिश्र name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa. The commentary is known by the name Vyakaranaprakasa. महाविभाषा a rule laying down an option for several rules in a topic by being present in every rule: confer, compare महाविभाषया वाक्यमपि. विभाषा (P.II.1.11) and समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (P. IV.1.82) are some of the rules of this kindeclinable
yathāvatas it is in the original Samahitpaatha without any change of accent, et cetera, and others when cited in the यद्वत lifeminine. a word formed from यत्: a Padapaatha: the word अव्ययवत् (not allowing any change or reduction) is given by Uvvata in explanation of यथावत्: confer, compare दृश्यते पदं यथावत् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.31.
vaktavyathat which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika.
vācya(1)directly expressed (sense) as contrasted with व्यङ्ग्य or ध्वनित: confer, compare शब्देनार्थान् वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात्पौर्वापर्यम् | M.Bh. on P. I.4.109 Vart. 10; (2) which should be stated or which deserves to be stated, The word वाच्य is generally put in connection with the additions or corrections to the sutras by the Varttikakara and the Mahbhasyakara in their explanations: confer, compare तत्रैतावद्वाच्यम्, M.Bh. on P. I.4.1 ; confer, compare also वाच्य ऊर्णोर्णुवद्भावःM.Bh. on P. III.1. 22 Vart. 3; III. I. 36 Vart. 6.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārttikakārabelieved to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः et cetera, and others) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vyākaraṇaGrammar the development of the meaning of the term can be seen by the senses given below in a serial order and the examples after those senses; (a) analysis or explanation by analysis; (b) rules of explanation; (c) specific rules explaining the formation of words; d) explanation of the formation of rules; (e) a treatise in which such an explanation is given; (f) a collection of such treatises and (g) a systematic explanation of the formation of words in a language (व्याकरणशास्त्र or शब्दानुशासन); confer, compare(a) व्यक्रियते अनेन इति व्याकरणम् ; M.Bh.on Ahnika 1, Vart. 12: confer, compare (b) लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम्: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1, Vart. 14; confer, compare (c) न यथा लोके तथा व्याकरणे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.1. Vart. 7; d) सर्वत्रैव हि व्याकरणे पूर्वोच्चारित: संज्ञी परोच्चारिता संज्ञा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. I. 1.1. Vart 7: (e) न तथा लोके यथा व्याकरणे M.Bh. on P, I. 1.23 Vart. 4: confer, compare(f)इह च व्याकरणे शब्दे कार्यस्य संभव:, अर्थं असंभवः | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.68. confer, compare (g) व्याकरणं नाम इयमुत्तरा विद्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.32. The word व्याकरण is mostly used in the sense of ’the Science of Grammar ' in the Mahabhasya. It is explained by modern scholars as 'the law of the corrections of speech and etymological science' and described both as a science and an art.
vyākaraṇamahābhāṣyagūḍhārthadīpinīa brief commentary on the Mahabhasya, written by Sadasiva, son of Nilakantha and pupil of Kamalakara Diksita. The gloss confines itself to the explanations of obscure and difficult passages in the Mahabhasya and criticizes Kaiyata's explanations.
vyākhyāna(1)explanation of a rule, or a line, or a verse by analysing the rule and giving examples and counter-examples; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऎजिति | किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति | M.Bh. Ahnika l Vart.11 ; (2)authoritative decision given in places of doubt by ancient scholars; confer, compare याख्थानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्ति: न हि संदेहादलक्षणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika .1; Par.Sek.Pari.1.
vyāyataseparated; one out of the two | conjoined consonants separated by inserting a vowel in between; confer, compare व्यस्यन्त्यन्तर्महतोs व्यायतं तं दीर्घायु: सूर्यो रुशदीर्त ऊर्जम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 19, where Uvvata gives the explanation-दीर्घात्परं अव्यायतं अपृथग्भूतं रफेण सक्तमित्यर्थः एवंभूतं व्यस्यन्ति पृथक्कुर्वन्ति | यथा | दीरिघायु: ! सूरिय: | रुशदीरिते | ऊरजम्. Rk Samhita I. 85. 39, X. 158. 1, IX. 91.3 and IX. 63. 2. व्यावर्तन reversing the order of words and going back from a subsequent word to the previous one, as in the Krama,.Jata and other artificial recitals of Veda.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śabdāmṛtaa work, explanatory of the Sutras of Panini, written by a grammarian named विप्रराजेन्द्र.
śabdārthavyākaraṇaexplanation of the sense of a word as arising from the word by stating the base, the affixes and the modifications to the base and the affixes.
śivasūtraname given to the fourteen small sutras giving the alphabet which Panini took as the basis of his grammar. The Sivasutras have got a well-known explanation in Verse, named नन्दिकेश्वरकारिका on which there is a commentary of the type of Bhasya by उपमन्यु. The origin of the Sivasutra given by the writer of the Karika is summed up in the stanza नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजो ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम् । उद्धर्तुकामः सनकादिसिद्धानेतद् विमर्शे शिवसूत्रजालम् | Nand. 1.
śiṣṭavyākhyānaexplanation (of doubtful things or expressions) given by the learned people.
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
ṣṭhantad, affix इक (I) added to the word कुसीद in the sense of giving a sum or something on an objectionable rate of interest or profit; confer, compare कुसीदं प्रयच्छति कुसीदिकः, कुसीदिकी: confer, compare P. IV. 4.31 ; (2) added to the words पौरोडाश an पुरोडाश in the sense of 'explanatory book thereon' ; exempli gratia, for example पुरोडाशिकः पौरोडाशिक:, पुरोडाशिकी, पौरोडाशिकी; confer, compare P. IV. 3.70; (3) added to the words पर्प and others as also to श्वगण, भस्त्रा and others, विवध, वीवध किशर and others, the words शलालु पात्र and the words आढक, अाचित and पात्र at the end of Dvigu compounds in the specific senses mentioned; e. g. पर्पिकः, श्वगाणिकः, भास्त्रिकः, शलालुकः ब्याढाकिकी et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 4.10, 11, 16, 17, 53, 54, V. 1.46, 54, 55.
saṃdarbhāmṛtaname of a commentary on the Mugdhabodha Vyakarana of Bopadeva, written by a grammarian, named Bholanatha.
saṃnamanainterpretation, explanation: cf यथायथं विभक्ती: संनमयेत् Nirukta of Yāska.1.
sārasvataparibhāṣāa grammar work of the Sarasvata school written by Dayaratna in explanation of the technical rules giving conventions and maximanuscript.
siddhāntakaumudīvādārthaan explanatory work, discussing the difficult sentences and passages of the Siddhantakaumudi, written by a grammarian named Ramakrisna. सिद्धान्तरत्न a gloss on the Sarasvatisutra written by a grammarian natmed Jinacandra. सिद्धान्तरत्नाङ्कुर name of a commentary on the Katantraparisista by Sivaramacakravartin.
saunāganame of a school of ancient grammarians who composed Varttikas in explanation of the sutras of Panini; confer, compare सौनागाः पठन्ति P. III. 2.56 Vart. 1, IV. 1.74 Vart. 1. confer, compare एतदेव सौनागैर्विस्तरतरकेण पठितम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.18 Vart. 4.
spaṣṭārthaan expression used often by commentators with reference to a line or a passage of the text the meaning of which is clear and no explanation is necessary.
sphoṭaname given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; confer, compare also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare commentary on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; confer, compare स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:||
svatantrapadopasthitipakṣaan alternative view regarding the explanation of the rule 'इको गुणवृद्धी' P. I. 1. 3 by taking an additional word गुणवृद्धी supplied in the sutra. For full explanation see Sabdakaustubha on P. I. 1. 3.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
     Vedabase Search  
282 results
     
pradyumna miśra-ādi-milana meeting with Pradyumna Miśra and othersCC Madhya 1.129
praskhalana-ādiṣu stumbling and so onSB 5.24.20
tava ājñā-anupālanam to obey Your orderSB 8.23.17
ājñāra pālana execution of the orderCC Antya 6.312
anupālanam giving protection alwaysSB 1.17.16
tava ājñā-anupālanam to obey Your orderSB 8.23.17
kṛṣṇa-anuśīlana cultivation of Kṛṣṇa consciousnessCC Madhya 19.168
kṛṣṇa-anuśīlanam cultivation of service in relationship to KṛṣṇaCC Madhya 19.167
lana-artha for maintenanceCC Madhya 20.314
lana-arthe for maintenanceCC Madhya 20.317
avakalana by sightCC Antya 18.1
vallabha-bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha BhaṭṭaCC Antya 7.172
vallabha bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha Bhaṭṭa with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 20.114
brahma-helanam the result of disobedience to the brāhmaṇasSB 3.16.31
calana-samaya at the time of departureCC Madhya 1.221
ratha-calana-samaya at the time of drawing the carCC Madhya 14.47
lana in movingCC Madhya 24.24
lanaiḥ pushing awaySB 10.44.5
lanam movingSB 3.26.37
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana of trampling the atheistsCC Adi 3.76
dalana subduingCC Madhya 1.106
dalana tramplingCC Madhya 2.64
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana subduing atheistic menCC Antya 3.149
dalanam subduingCC Madhya 17.210
deva-helanam disrespect of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.3.15
deva-helanam offense to the demigodsSB 6.9.4
deva-helanam an offense against Varuṇa and the other godsSB 10.22.19
dīna-paripālanam to give protection to suffering humanitySB 8.7.38
dvitīya-milana the second meeting with Lord CaitanyaCC Antya 20.103
dvitīya-milana visiting for the second timeCC Antya 20.108
guru-helanam disrespect to the spiritual masterSB 6.7.10
ha-ibe milana there will be meetingCC Madhya 19.57
ha-ila milana there was a meetingCC Antya 10.44
nā haila milana there was not a meetingCC Madhya 25.212
helana insultsSB 11.1.2
kṛta-helana because of transgressing the etiquetteSB 7.15.72
kṛta-helana having committed offenseSB 10.27.2
sura-helanam disobeying great demigodsSB 3.15.36
brahma-helanam the result of disobedience to the brāhmaṇasSB 3.16.31
helanam negligenceSB 3.24.29
kṛta-helanam contempt having been shownSB 4.4.9
helanam disrespectful behaviorSB 4.11.33
helanam insult, neglectSB 4.13.28
tat-helanam disrespect to themSB 4.14.22
deva-helanam disrespect of the Supreme Personality of GodheadSB 5.3.15
helanam neglectfullySB 6.2.14
guru-helanam disrespect to the spiritual masterSB 6.7.10
deva-helanam offense to the demigodsSB 6.9.4
helanam negligenceSB 7.15.72
deva-helanam an offense against Varuṇa and the other godsSB 10.22.19
helanam offenseSB 10.25.3
helanam offenseSB 10.57.12-13
ha-ibe milana there will be meetingCC Madhya 19.57
ha-ila milana there was a meetingCC Antya 10.44
jagat-pālana protection of the universeCC Adi 4.8
jagat pālana maintenance of the material worldCC Adi 5.115
jvalana fireSB 3.19.13
jvalana-śikhā like the flames of a blazing fireSB 5.20.29
jvalana lightingCC Adi 2.89
jvalana fireCC Adi 7.116
jvalana fireSB 5.20.13
jvalanam a fireBG 11.29
kaila prakṣālana washedCC Madhya 12.119
prakṣālana kaila washedCC Madhya 12.121
lana the annihilatorSB 12.12.66
lanaraḥ KālanaraSB 9.23.1
kalana by seeingCC Antya 15.97
karāilā milana made introductionCC Antya 4.108-110
karāñā sammilana causing to meet togetherCC Antya 19.47
karaye milana they meetCC Antya 18.94
karena pālana maintain MeCC Madhya 18.184
prakṣālana kari' washingCC Madhya 4.139
milana kari' by the meetingCC Antya 5.150
sabāre pālana kari' maintaining everyoneCC Antya 12.15
pāda prakṣālana kari' after washing His feetCC Antya 12.124
kariba milana I shall combineCC Madhya 24.14
kariha pālana take careCC Madhya 25.183
karila prakṣālana washedCC Madhya 12.120
karilā milana metCC Madhya 25.217
karilā milana metCC Antya 6.242
lana kariyā providing maintenanceCC Madhya 15.97
lana-kartā the maintainerCC Madhya 20.295
khelana sportingCC Adi 14.23
khelana sportingCC Antya 10.47
kṛṣṇa-anuśīlanam cultivation of service in relationship to KṛṣṇaCC Madhya 19.167
kṛṣṇa-anuśīlana cultivation of Kṛṣṇa consciousnessCC Madhya 19.168
kṛta-helanam contempt having been shownSB 4.4.9
kṛta-helana because of transgressing the etiquetteSB 7.15.72
kṛta-helana having committed offenseSB 10.27.2
kṣālana-mārjana rinsing and washingCC Madhya 12.115
mārjana-kṣālana cleansing and washingCC Madhya 25.251
kṣālana washingCC Antya 10.103
kṣālanataḥ by cleansingCC Madhya 12.1
sthiti-pālana-kṣaṇaḥ the time for maintenance, or for establishing His ruleSB 8.5.23
kṣvelana joking or sportingSB 11.17.33
milana lāgi' to meetCC Madhya 12.40
lana raising it or showing love to it by kissing and so onSB 5.8.8
lana in fondlingSB 5.8.26
lana nourishingCC Adi 4.24
lana-pālana maintenanceCC Adi 10.22
lana maintenanceCC Adi 14.87
lana maintenanceCC Madhya 19.231
poṣaṇa-pālana-prīṇana-lālanam raising, maintaining, petting and protectingSB 5.8.9
rāmānanda-milana-līlā the pastimes of the meeting with RāmānandaCC Madhya 8.312
mahat-vicalanam the movement of great personalitiesSB 10.8.4
mahat-vicalanam the wandering of saintly personsCC Madhya 8.40
mandira prakṣālana washing of the templeCC Madhya 12.97
kṣālana-mārjana rinsing and washingCC Madhya 12.115
mārjana-kṣālana cleansing and washingCC Madhya 25.251
maryādā pālana to maintain etiquetteCC Antya 4.129-130
milana meetingCC Adi 4.31
milana conjunctionCC Adi 4.38
milana mixtureCC Adi 5.66
milana meetingCC Adi 10.104
milana meetingCC Adi 10.129
milana meetingCC Adi 17.8
milana meetingCC Adi 17.10
milana meetingCC Madhya 1.53
milana meetingCC Madhya 1.95
milana meetingCC Madhya 1.104
milana meetingCC Madhya 1.111
milana meetingCC Madhya 1.113
pradyumna miśra-ādi-milana meeting with Pradyumna Miśra and othersCC Madhya 1.129
milana meetingCC Madhya 1.130
milana meetingCC Madhya 1.131
milana meetingCC Madhya 1.141
milana meetingCC Madhya 2.51
milana meetingCC Madhya 3.170
milana meetingCC Madhya 3.207
milana meetingCC Madhya 4.3-4
milana meetingCC Madhya 6.32
sārvabhauma-milana meeting with Sārvabhauma BhaṭṭācāryaCC Madhya 6.285
rāmānandera milana meeting with Śrīla Rāmānanda RāyaCC Madhya 8.303
milana mixtureCC Madhya 8.305
rāmānanda-milana-līlā the pastimes of the meeting with RāmānandaCC Madhya 8.312
milana meetingCC Madhya 9.319
milana meetingCC Madhya 10.27
milana meetingCC Madhya 10.127
vaiṣṇava-milana meeting with all the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 10.189
milana meetingCC Madhya 11.34
milana meetingCC Madhya 11.39
vaiṣṇava-milana meeting with the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 11.124
milana-sthāne in the meeting placeCC Madhya 11.163
milana meetingCC Madhya 11.194
milana lāgi' to meetCC Madhya 12.40
prabhura milana meeting with Lord Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 13.188
milana meetingCC Madhya 14.177
milana meetingCC Madhya 16.247
milana meetingCC Madhya 17.71
ha-ibe milana there will be meetingCC Madhya 19.57
rūpera milana of the meeting with Rūpa GosvāmīCC Madhya 19.118
kariba milana I shall combineCC Madhya 24.14
nā haila milana there was not a meetingCC Madhya 25.212
karilā milana metCC Madhya 25.217
sarva-vaiṣṇava-milana meeting of all kinds of devoteesCC Madhya 25.250
sanātanera milana meeting with Sanātana GosvāmīCC Madhya 25.258
milana meetingCC Antya 1.110
milana meetingCC Antya 1.197
rūpera milana the meeting with Śrīla Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.222
karāilā milana made introductionCC Antya 4.108-110
milana kari' by the meetingCC Antya 5.150
raghunātha-milana meeting with Raghunātha dāsa GosvāmīCC Antya 6.12
karilā milana metCC Antya 6.242
raghunāthera milana the meeting of Raghunātha dāsaCC Antya 6.328
vallabha-bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha BhaṭṭaCC Antya 7.172
ha-ila milana there was a meetingCC Antya 10.44
sabāra milana meeting everyoneCC Antya 12.42
prabhura milana meeting with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 16.4
milana combiningCC Antya 17.49
karaye milana they meetCC Antya 18.94
dvitīya-milana the second meeting with Lord CaitanyaCC Antya 20.103
dvitīya-milana visiting for the second timeCC Antya 20.108
vallabha bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha Bhaṭṭa with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 20.114
milana meetingCC Antya 20.122
pradyumna miśra-ādi-milana meeting with Pradyumna Miśra and othersCC Madhya 1.129
nā haila milana there was not a meetingCC Madhya 25.212
pāda-prakṣālana washing the feetCC Madhya 3.40
pāda prakṣālana washing of the lotus feetCC Madhya 7.122
pāda-prakṣālana washing of the feetCC Madhya 9.83
pāda prakṣālana washing the feetCC Madhya 15.223
pāda-prakṣālana washing of the feetCC Madhya 19.85
pāda-prakṣālana washing the feetCC Madhya 20.73
pāda prakṣālana kari' after washing His feetCC Antya 12.124
lana protecting from dangersSB 5.8.8
poṣaṇa-pālana-prīṇana-lālanam raising, maintaining, petting and protectingSB 5.8.9
lana in protectingSB 5.8.26
prajā-pālana of protecting the subjectsSB 5.15.7
sthiti-pālana-kṣaṇaḥ the time for maintenance, or for establishing His ruleSB 8.5.23
lana and protectionSB 10.68.47
lana protectionCC Adi 2.42
jagat-pālana protection of the universeCC Adi 4.8
lana protectingCC Adi 4.24
lana executionCC Adi 5.10
jagat pālana maintenance of the material worldCC Adi 5.115
lana-pālana maintenanceCC Adi 10.22
lana maintenanceCC Adi 10.55
lana maintenanceCC Madhya 1.139
lana of executingCC Madhya 4.46
lana maintainingCC Madhya 6.60
lana kariyā providing maintenanceCC Madhya 15.97
lana maintainingCC Madhya 16.19
karena pālana maintain MeCC Madhya 18.184
lana maintenanceCC Madhya 19.226
lana-kartā the maintainerCC Madhya 20.295
lana-artha for maintenanceCC Madhya 20.314
lana-arthe for maintenanceCC Madhya 20.317
lana the power to ruleCC Madhya 20.372
kariha pālana take careCC Madhya 25.183
lana maintenanceCC Antya 1.16
maryādā pālana to maintain etiquetteCC Antya 4.129-130
ājñāra pālana execution of the orderCC Antya 6.312
lana obedience toCC Antya 9.142
sabāre pālana kari' maintaining everyoneCC Antya 12.15
prajā-pālanam ruling over the general mass of peopleSB 4.20.14
dīna-paripālanam to give protection to suffering humanitySB 8.7.38
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana of trampling the atheistsCC Adi 3.76
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana subduing atheistic menCC Antya 3.149
poṣaṇa-pālana-prīṇana-lālanam raising, maintaining, petting and protectingSB 5.8.9
prabhura milana meeting with Lord Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 13.188
prabhura milana meeting with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 16.4
pradyumna miśra-ādi-milana meeting with Pradyumna Miśra and othersCC Madhya 1.129
prajā-pālanam ruling over the general mass of peopleSB 4.20.14
prajā-pālana of protecting the subjectsSB 5.15.7
prakṣālana washingCC Adi 7.59
prakṣālana washingCC Adi 17.82
pāda-prakṣālana washing the feetCC Madhya 3.40
prakṣālana kari' washingCC Madhya 4.139
pāda prakṣālana washing of the lotus feetCC Madhya 7.122
pāda-prakṣālana washing of the feetCC Madhya 9.83
mandira prakṣālana washing of the templeCC Madhya 12.97
prakṣālana washingCC Madhya 12.100
prakṣālana washingCC Madhya 12.119
kaila prakṣālana washedCC Madhya 12.119
karila prakṣālana washedCC Madhya 12.120
prakṣālana kaila washedCC Madhya 12.121
prakṣālana washingCC Madhya 12.139
pāda prakṣālana washing the feetCC Madhya 15.223
pāda-prakṣālana washing of the feetCC Madhya 19.85
pāda-prakṣālana washing the feetCC Madhya 20.73
prakṣālana washingCC Antya 7.94
pāda prakṣālana kari' after washing His feetCC Antya 12.124
prakṣālanam cleansingSB 6.13.22-23
praskhalana-ādiṣu stumbling and so onSB 5.24.20
poṣaṇa-pālana-prīṇana-lālanam raising, maintaining, petting and protectingSB 5.8.9
raghunātha-milana meeting with Raghunātha dāsa GosvāmīCC Antya 6.12
raghunāthera milana the meeting of Raghunātha dāsaCC Antya 6.328
rāmānanda-milana-līlā the pastimes of the meeting with RāmānandaCC Madhya 8.312
rāmānandera milana meeting with Śrīla Rāmānanda RāyaCC Madhya 8.303
ratha-calana-samaya at the time of drawing the carCC Madhya 14.47
rūpera milana of the meeting with Rūpa GosvāmīCC Madhya 19.118
rūpera milana the meeting with Śrīla Rūpa GosvāmīCC Antya 1.222
sabāra milana meeting everyoneCC Antya 12.42
sabāre pālana kari' maintaining everyoneCC Antya 12.15
calana-samaya at the time of departureCC Madhya 1.221
ratha-calana-samaya at the time of drawing the carCC Madhya 14.47
sammilana meetingCC Madhya 1.250
karāñā sammilana causing to meet togetherCC Antya 19.47
sanātanera milana meeting with Sanātana GosvāmīCC Madhya 25.258
sarva-vaiṣṇava-milana meeting of all kinds of devoteesCC Madhya 25.250
sārvabhauma-milana meeting with Sārvabhauma BhaṭṭācāryaCC Madhya 6.285
jvalana-śikhā like the flames of a blazing fireSB 5.20.29
skhalana stumblingSB 5.3.12
skhalana-vat like jumpingSB 5.14.13
milana-sthāne in the meeting placeCC Madhya 11.163
sthiti-pālana-kṣaṇaḥ the time for maintenance, or for establishing His ruleSB 8.5.23
sura-helanam disobeying great demigodsSB 3.15.36
tat-helanam disrespect to themSB 4.14.22
tava ājñā-anupālanam to obey Your orderSB 8.23.17
unmūlanam causing uprooting ofSB 1.1.2
unmūlanam uprootingSB 2.7.27
unmūlanam causing uprootingCC Adi 1.91
unmūlanam causing uprootingCC Madhya 24.100
unmūlanam causing uprootingCC Madhya 25.149
upalālana of treating them as sonsSB 5.15.7
vaiṣṇava-milana meeting with all the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 10.189
vaiṣṇava-milana meeting with the VaiṣṇavasCC Madhya 11.124
sarva-vaiṣṇava-milana meeting of all kinds of devoteesCC Madhya 25.250
vallabha-bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha BhaṭṭaCC Antya 7.172
vallabha bhaṭṭera milana the meeting of Vallabha Bhaṭṭa with Śrī Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Antya 20.114
skhalana-vat like jumpingSB 5.14.13
mahat-vicalanam the movement of great personalitiesSB 10.8.4
mahat-vicalanam the wandering of saintly personsCC Madhya 8.40
Ayurvedic Medical
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āsphoṭa

1. trembling; quivering; 2. Plant Vallaris solanacea. girikarṇika, kovidāra. (Clitoria ternata and Bauhinia variegata) Calotropis gigantea, Echies dichotomoa, Jasminum sambac, Clotorea ternata are also known by this name; breadflower.

bhadra

Plant mountain knot-grass, Aerva lanata.

brāhmaṇa

portion of Veda; explanations of sacred knowledge or doctrine.

lana

1. toothache, 2. tooth crack

ḍālana

pouring of smelted metal into liquids, a process in medicinal alchemy.

lana

filtration; straining fluid.

jambu

Plant black plum, Indian blackberry, Java plum or jambul; Syzygium cumini; Eugenia jambolana.

lana

1. caressing, fondling; 2. a venomous animal resembling a mouse; 3. a kind of rat.

paripavana

Go to gālana.

pāṣāṇabheda

Plant stone-breaker, rhizome of Bergenia ligulata, B. ciliate; Coleus aromatucus; Aerva lanata; Rotula aquatica. exact identity not yet established.

prakṣālana

washing; flushing of wound with water or watery medicine.

skalana

ejaculation (of semen)

     Wordnet Search "lana" has 229 results.
     

lana

apamānaḥ, bhartsanā, nirbhartsanā, avajñā, avajñānam, paribhavaḥ, avalepaḥ, avahelā, avahelanam, anādaraḥ, parivādaḥ, anādarakriyā, apavādaḥ, avamānavākyam, tiraskāravākyam, tiraskāraḥ, tiraskriyā, paribhāvaḥ, parivādaḥ, vākpāruṣyam, paribhāṣaṇam, asūrkṣaṇam, avamānanā, rīḍhā, kṣepaḥ, nindā, durvacaḥ, dharṣaṇam, anāryam, khaloktiḥ, apamānakriyā, apamānavākyam, vimānanā   

sā uktiḥ ācāro vā yena kasyacit pratiṣṭhāyāḥ nyūnatā bhavati।

kasyāpi apamānaḥ na karaṇīyaḥ।

lana

upanāma, kulanāma, upākhyā   

kulasya vṛtteḥ sūcakaṃ nāma yat svanāmnā saha likhyate।

mohanaḥ nāmnaḥ paścāt upanāma na likhati।

lana

vyavakalanam, vyavakalitam, antaram, varjanam   

kasyāḥ api saṅkhyāyāḥ anyasyāḥ saṅkhyāyāḥ nyūnīkaraṇam।

vyavakalanād anantaraṃ catvāraḥ iti uttaraṃ prāptam।

lana

lanam   

lālayanasya kriyā।

lālanāt anantaraṃ bālakaḥ krandanāt virataḥ।

lana

khalanāyikā, kulaṭā   

nāyakasya nāyikāyāḥ vā pramukhā virodhinī।

asya prabandhasya khalanāyikā pāṭhakasya cittam ākarṣati।

lana

khalanāyakaḥ   

nāyakasya pratidvandvī।

asya citrapaṭasya khalanāyakaḥ amarīśapurī mahodayaḥ asti।

lana

sañcalanam, gamanam, yānam, yātrā, gamaḥ, gatiḥ, vrajyā, saraṇam, saṃsaraṇam   

janānāṃ yānānāṃ vā gatiśīlaḥ samudāyaḥ।

ārakṣakāḥ sañcalane kāraṇād vinā daṇḍaprahārān kurvanti।

lana

airāvataḥ, śvetahastī, abhramātaṅgaḥ, airāvaṇaḥ, abhramuvallabhaḥ, caturdantaḥ, mallanāgaḥ, indrakuñjaraḥ, hastimallaḥ, sadādānaḥ, sudāmā, śvetakuñjaraḥ, gajāgraṇīḥ, nāgamallaḥ   

indrasya gajaḥ yaḥ pūrvadiśaḥ diggajaḥ asti।

samudramanthanāt airāvataḥ api prāptaḥ।

lana

śāsanam, rājyam, nīti, rājyādhikāraḥ, rājyadhurā, rājadhurā, rājyanīti, rājyapālanam   

rāṣṭravyavahārasya prabandhaḥ sañcālanam ca।

adhunā rāṣṭrasya śāsanaṃ bhraṣṭācāriṇāṃ haste asti।

lana

harita, śādaharita, amlāna, śādvala   

haritavarṇīyavṛkṣakṣupādibhiḥ paripūrṇaḥ।

vardhatyāṃ janasaṅkhyāyāṃ haritānāṃ vṛkṣāṇāṃ saṅkhyā nyūnībhavati।

lana

śrānta, pariśrānta, klānta, jātaśrama, khinna, khedita, kliṣṭa, kliśita, kleśita, glāna, pariglāna, klamī, śramin, avasanna, avasādita   

yaḥ klāmyati।

śrāntaḥ pathikaḥ vṛkṣacchāyāyāṃ śrāmyati।

lana

gatimat, cala, cara, sara, saraṇa, calat, sarat, carat, calana, jaṅgama, kampana, gāmī, cārī, sārī, yāyī, sarpī, gatvara, sṛtvara   

yasmin gatiḥ asti।

kālaḥ gatimān asti।

lana

nistejas, mandaprabha, hatatejas, mandacchāya, hatakānti, nyūnakānti, nyūnaprabha, malinaprabha, mlānatejas, mlānakānti   

yasmād tejāḥ nirgatam।

cintāyāḥ tasya mukhaṃ nistejaḥ abhavat।

lana

prakṣālanamūlyam   

prakṣālanasya mūlyam।

rajakaḥ prakṣālanamūlyaṃ pañcāśatarūpyakāṇi kathayati।

lana

śaṭha, chalanāpara, bahucchala, bahumāya, bhaṅgasārtha, māyāśīla, vakradhī, vivañciṣu, riṣaṇyu   

yaḥ vañcati।

mohanaḥ śaṭhaḥ asti ataḥ saḥ parihartavyaḥ।

lana

mlāna, klānta, glāna, viṣaṇṇa, avasanna, viṣādin, avasādita, udvignamanas, dīnamanas, vimanas, durmanas   

yasya kāntiḥ dhūsarā।

mātaraṃ dṛṣṭvā mlānaṃ putramukhaṃ prakāśitam।

lana

niyamapālanam, vidhipālanam   

niyamānāṃ pālanam।

niyamapālanena samāje suvyavasthā pravartate tathā ca samājasya vikāsaḥ bhavati।

lana

darpatā, auddhatyam, uddhatatvam, abhimānatā, avaliptatā, avaliptatvam, āsphālanam   

darpasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

bhavataḥ darpatayā śramikāḥ kāryāt parāvṛttāḥ।

lana

nirmala, vimala, pavitra, śuddha, śuci, amalina, pariṣkṛta, akalka, akalmaṣa, vīghra, svaccha, viśuddha, amlāna, avadāta, iddha   

yaḥ malahīnaḥ doṣarahito vā।

nirmalena manasā arcanā kartavyā।

lana

agniḥ, pāvakaḥ, pāvanaḥ, tejaḥ, vahniḥ, jvalanaḥ, analaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, vāyusakhā, vāyusakhaḥ, dahanaḥ, śikhī, śikhāvān, kṛṣṇavartmā, araṇiḥ, ghāsiḥ, dāvaḥ, pacanaḥ, pācanaḥ, pācakaḥ, juhuvān, vāśiḥ, arciṣmān, prabhākaraḥ, chidiraḥ, śundhyuḥ, jaganuḥ, jāgṛviḥ, apāmpitaḥ, jalapittaḥ, apittam, himārātiḥ, phutkaraḥ, śukraḥ, āśaraḥ, samidhaḥ, citrabhānuḥ, jvālājihvā, kapilaḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, tamonud, śuciḥ, śukraḥ, damunaḥ, damīnaḥ, agiraḥ, hariḥ, kaviḥ   

tejaḥpadārthaviśeṣaḥ।

parvate dṛśyamānaḥ dhūmaḥ agneḥ sūcakaḥ।

lana

adhināyikā, dalanāyikā   

dalasya samājasya vā pradhānā strī।

rājñī lakṣmī kuśalā adhināyikā āsīt।

lana

viṣṇuḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, svabhūḥ, daityāriḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, govindaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, acyutaḥ, śārṅgī, viṣvaksenaḥ, janārdanaḥ, upendraḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, madhuripuḥ, vāsudevaḥ, trivikramaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, śauriḥ, śrīpatiḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, vanamālī, balidhvaṃsī, kaṃsārātiḥ, adhokṣajaḥ, viśvambharaḥ, kaiṭabhajit, vidhuḥ, śrīvatsalāñachanaḥ, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, vṛṣṇiḥ, śatadhāmā, gadāgrajaḥ, ekaśṛṅgaḥ, jagannāthaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, sanātanaḥ, mukundaḥ, rāhubhedī, vāmanaḥ, śivakīrtanaḥ, śrīnivāsaḥ, ajaḥ, vāsuḥ, śrīhariḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, nṛhariḥ, vibhuḥ, madhujit, madhusūdanaḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, śrīgarbhaḥ, śrīkaraḥ, śrīmān, śrīdharaḥ, śrīniketanaḥ, śrīkāntaḥ, śrīśaḥ, prabhuḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, ajitaḥ, jitāmitraḥ, ṛtadhāmā, śaśabinduḥ, punarvasuḥ, ādidevaḥ, śrīvarāhaḥ, sahasravadanaḥ, tripāt, ūrdhvadevaḥ, gṛdhnuḥ, hariḥ, yādavaḥ, cāṇūrasūdanaḥ, sadāyogī, dhruvaḥ, hemaśaṅkhaḥ, śatāvarttī, kālanemiripuḥ, somasindhuḥ, viriñciḥ, dharaṇīdharaḥ, bahumūrddhā, vardhamānaḥ, śatānandaḥ, vṛṣāntakaḥ, rantidevaḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, dāśārhaḥ, abdhiśayanaḥ, indrānujaḥ, jalaśayaḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, tārkṣadhvajaḥ, ṣaḍbinduḥ, padmeśaḥ, mārjaḥ, jinaḥ, kumodakaḥ, jahnuḥ, vasuḥ, śatāvartaḥ, muñjakeśī, babhruḥ, vedhāḥ, prasniśṛṅgaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, suvarṇabinduḥ, śrīvatsaḥ, gadābhṛt, śārṅgabhṛt, cakrabhṛt, śrīvatsabhṛt, śaṅkhabhṛt, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, lakṣmīpatiḥ, murāriḥ, amṛtaḥ, ariṣṭanemaḥ, kapiḥ, keśaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, janārdanaḥ, jinaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, vikramaḥ, śarvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ hindudharmānusāraṃ jagataḥ pālanakartā।

ekādaśastathā tvaṣṭā dvādaśo viṣṇurucyate jaghanyajastu sarveṣāmādityānāṃ guṇādhikaḥ।

lana

candraḥ, kalānāthaḥ, kalādharaḥ, himāṃśuḥ, candramāḥ, kumudabāndhavaḥ, vidhuḥ, sudhāṃśuḥ, śubhrāṃśuḥ, oṣadhīśaḥ, niśāpatiḥ, abjaḥ, jaivātṛkaḥ, glauḥ, mṛgāṅkaḥ, dvijarājaḥ, śaśadharaḥ, nakṣatreśaḥ, kṣapākaraḥ, doṣākaraḥ, niśīthinīnāthaḥ, śarvarīśaḥ, eṇāṅkaḥ, śītaraśmiḥ, samudranavanītaḥ, sārasaḥ, śvetavāhanaḥ, nakṣatranāmiḥ, uḍupaḥ, sudhāsūtiḥ, tithipraṇīḥ, amatiḥ, candiraḥ, citrāṭīraḥ, pakṣadharaḥ, rohiṇīśaḥ, atrinetrajaḥ, pakṣajaḥ, sindhujanmā, daśāśvaḥ, māḥ, tārāpīḍaḥ, niśāmaṇiḥ, mṛgalāñchanaḥ, darśavipat, chāyāmṛgadharaḥ, grahanemiḥ, dākṣāyaṇīpati, lakṣmīsahajaḥ, sudhākaraḥ, sudhādhāraḥ, śītabhānuḥ, tamoharaḥ, tuśārakiraṇaḥ, pariḥ, himadyutiḥ, dvijapatiḥ, viśvapsā, amṛtadīdhitiḥ, hariṇāṅkaḥ, rohiṇīpatiḥ, sindhunandanaḥ, tamonut, eṇatilakaḥ, kumudeśaḥ, kṣīrodanandanaḥ, kāntaḥ, kalāvān, yāminījatiḥ, sijraḥ, mṛgapipluḥ, sudhānidhiḥ, tuṅgī, pakṣajanmā, abdhīnavanītakaḥ, pīyūṣamahāḥ, śītamarīciḥ, śītalaḥ, trinetracūḍāmaṇiḥ, atrinetrabhūḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, parijñāḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, valakṣaguḥ, tuṅgīpatiḥ, yajvanāmpatiḥ, parvvadhiḥ, kleduḥ, jayantaḥ, tapasaḥ, khacamasaḥ, vikasaḥ, daśavājī, śvetavājī, amṛtasūḥ, kaumudīpatiḥ, kumudinīpatiḥ, bhūpatiḥ, dakṣajāpatiḥ, oṣadhīpatiḥ, kalābhṛt, śaśabhṛt, eṇabhṛt, chāyābhṛt, atridṛgjaḥ, niśāratnam, niśākaraḥ, amṛtaḥ, śvetadyutiḥ, hariḥ   

khagolīyapiṇḍaḥ yaḥ pṛthvīṃ paribhramati।

adhunā mānavaḥ candrasya pṛṣṭhabhāgaṃ gatvā saṃśodhanaṃ karoti।

lana

kampanam, calanam, kampram, calam, lolam, cañcalam, pāriplavam, pariplavam, vepathuḥ   

kampayuktaḥ।

vyādhigrastasya tasya śarīre kampanāni santi।

lana

amlānaḥ, vimlānaḥ, avikalaḥ, aśuṣkaḥ   

yad na śuṣkam abhavat।

sītayā devālaye amlānāni puṣpāṇi arpitā।

lana

khinna, mlāna, anyamanaska, aprasanna   

yasya cittaṃ śokākulaṃ bhūtvā nirvṛttam।

tava khinnā mudrā eva vadati tvaṃ saṅkaṭagrastaḥ।

lana

tulā, tulanā, upamā, tolanam, sādṛśyam, aupamyam   

guṇādīnām unādhikyasya vicāraḥ।

rāmasya tulāyāṃ śyāmaḥ adhikaḥ caturaḥ asti।

lana

strī, nārī, narī, mānuṣī, manuṣī, mānavī, lalanā, lalitā, ramaṇī, rāmā, vanitā, priyā, mahilā, yoṣā, yoṣitā, yoṣit, yoṣīt, vadhūḥ, bharaṇyā, mahelā, mahelikā, māninī, vāmā, aṅganā, abalā, kāminī, janiḥ, janī, joṣā, joṣitā, joṣit, dhanikā, parigṛhyā, pramadā, pratīpadarśinī, vilāsinī, sindūratilakā, sīmantinī, subhrūḥ, śarvarī   

manuṣyajātīyānāṃ strī-puṃrūpīyayoḥ prabhedadvayayoḥ prathamā yā prajananakṣamā asti।

adhunā vividheṣu kṣetreṣu strīṇām ādhipatyam vartate।

lana

pravṛttiḥ, caritam, caryā, anuśīlanam, ācāraḥ, vyavahāraḥ, svabhāvaḥ, prakṛttiḥ, śīlaḥ, svarūpam, nisargaḥ   

saṃtatābhyāsād janitam ācaraṇam।

prātarutthānaṃ tasya pravṛttiḥ।

lana

āndolanam   

anirṇayātmakasthityāṃ manasi jātā dolā।

parasparavirodhibhāvena tasya manasi āndolanāni jāyante।

lana

anukūlanam, yojanam   

anukūlakaraṇasya kriyā bhāvo vā।

paristhiteḥ anusāreṇa jīveṣu anukūlanasya kṣamatā āgacchati।

lana

lanagītam, bālasvāpakagītam   

gītaprakāraḥ tad gītaṃ yad strīvargaḥ bālakaṃ svāpayituṃ gāyati।

bālye mātāmahī mama kṛte lālanagītam agāyata।

lana

pāl, puṣ, paripuṣ, pratipāl, bhṛ, sambhṛ, saṃvṛdh, vṛdh, parivṛdh, vinī, anunī, poṣaṇaṃ kṛ, pālanaṃ kṛ, pālanapoṣaṇaṃ kṛ   

paśupakṣiṇām annapradānena poṣaṇānukūlavyāpāraḥ।

kecana janāḥ gṛhe mārjāraṃ pālayanti।

lana

pādāghātaḥ, padapātaḥ, caraṇapātaḥ, pādāsphālanam, pādādhyāsaḥ, caraṇaskandanam, pramathanam   

padasya āsphālanam।

kasyacit pādāghātaḥ śrūyate।

lana

paripālanam   

kāryarūpeṇa pracalanasya kriyā।

etasyāḥ śikṣāyāḥ yojanāyāḥ paripālanam agrimāt māsāt ārabhyate।

lana

asantulanam   

santulanasya abhāvaḥ।

mastiṣkasya asantulanena puruṣaḥ mūrkhāyate।

lana

nirvah, pratipālanaṃ kṛ   

kasya api kāryasya uttaradāyitvaṃ svīkaraṇātmakaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saḥ pituḥ vyavasāyaṃ sādhu nirvahati।

lana

palāṇḍuḥ, sukandakaḥ, lohitakandaḥ, tīkṣṇakandaḥ, uṣṇaḥ, mukhadūṣaṇaḥ, śūdrapriyaḥ, kṛmighnaḥ, dīpanaḥ, mukhagandhakaḥ, bahupatraḥ, viśvagandhaḥ, rocanaḥ, palāṇaḍūḥ, sukandukaḥ   

mūlaviśeṣaḥ asya guṇāḥ kaṭutva-kaphapittavāntidoṣanāśitvādayaḥ।

palāṇḍuḥ śītalatvaguṇayuktaḥ।

lana

kadambaḥ, nīpaḥ, priyakaḥ, halipriyaḥ, kādambaḥ, ṣaṭpadeṣṭaḥ, prāvṛṣeṇyaḥ, haripriyaḥ, jīrṇaparṇaḥ, vṛttapuṣpaḥ, surabhiḥ, lalanāpriyaḥ, kādambaryaḥ, sīdhupuṣpaḥ, mahāḍhyaḥ, karṇapūrakaḥ, vajraḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ। yasya raktavarṇīyāni puṣpāṇi vṛttāni santi asya guṇāḥ tiktatvam kaṭutvam kaṣāyatvam vātapittakaphārtināśitvam śītalatvam śukravardhanañca।

katipayakusumodgamaḥ kadmabaḥ।

lana

pramādaḥ, aparādhaḥ, bhṛmaḥ, pātaḥ, bhramiḥ, bhrāntaḥ, skhalanam   

kārye anavadhānāt athavā helāyāḥ bhraṃśaḥ।

daṇḍam arhasi tvam asya pramādasya।

lana

jvālāmukhiparvataḥ, adrivahniḥ, jvalanaparvataḥ, jvālāmukhaḥ, āgneyagiriḥ, agniparvataḥ   

saḥ parvataḥ yasya śikharāt bhūgarbhasthaḥ dhūmaḥ rakṣā tathā ca dravaḥ bahiḥ āgacchati।

jvālāmukhīparvatāt naikānāṃ dvīpānāṃ nirmitiḥ abhavat।

lana

mṛgaḥ, harīṇaḥ, kuraṅgaḥ, vātāyuḥ, ajinayoniḥ, sāraṅgaḥ, calanaḥ, pṛṣat, bhīruhṛdayaḥ, mayuḥ, cārulocanaḥ, jinayoniḥ, kuraṅgamaḥ, ṛṣyaḥ, ṛśyaḥ, riṣyaḥ, riśyaḥ, eṇaḥ, eṇakaḥ, kṛṣṇatāraḥ, sulocanaḥ, pṛṣataḥ   

paśuviśeṣaḥ, catuṣpādaḥ citrāṅgaḥ yaḥ tṛṇādikaṃ mṛgyate।

mṛgasya carma muninā āsanārthe upayujyate।

lana

paribhramakhelanakam, bhamaraḍo   

tarkuvat khelanakaṃ yaṃ bālāḥ sūtrasañjitaṃ kṛtvā kintu sūtrasya antaḥ haste eva dhṛtvā bhūmau nikṣipya paribhrāmayanti।

bālāḥ krīḍāsthāne paribhramakhelanakaṃ khelanti।

lana

jihvā, rasanā, rasajñā, raśanā, rasikā, rasālā, rasanam, lalanā, totā, jihvaḥ, visvāsā, mukhacīrī   

mukhe vartamānaḥ saḥ māṃsapiṇḍaḥ yaḥ rasasya jñānendriyam asti tathā ca yasya sāhāyyena uccāraṇaṃ kriyate।

uccāraṇasamaye jihvāyāḥ sthānaṃ pramukham asti।

lana

mukhaprakṣālanam   

bhojanād anantaraṃ mukhahastasya prakṣālanasya kriyā। bhojanād anantaraṃ mukhaprakṣālanaṃ karaṇīyam।

lana

tamilanāḍuḥ   

bhāratadeśasya dakṣiṇabhāgasthaḥ pradeśaḥ।

tamilanāḍuḥ ityasya pradeśasya rājadhānī cennaī iti asti।

lana

vīkṣā, āndolanam, viceyam   

kasyāpi viṣayādeḥ mūlakāraṇānāṃ rahasyajñānasya kriyā।

asya viṣayasya vīkṣām uccādhikāriṇaḥ kurvanti।

lana

hindolaḥ, hindolakaḥ, dolā, dolī, dolam, dolīkā, preṅkhā, preṅkholanam, kācaḥ   

vṛkṣe ācchāde vā baddhā dolāyamānā sakāṣṭharajjuḥ।

sā udyāne hindolaṃ badhnāti।

lana

cambalanadī, carmāvatī   

madhyabhārate vartamānā nadī।

grīṣmakāle cambalanadyaḥ jalastaraṃ nyūnībhavati।

lana

lanam   

bālakaiḥ saha kṛtaḥ premapūrvakaḥ vyavahāraḥ।

atyādhikena lālanena bālakānāṃ vartane vikṛtiḥ āgacchati।

lana

prakṣālanam, parimārjanam   

anupariplāvanasya kriyā।

gītā vastrāṇāṃ prakṣālanaṃ karoti।

lana

prakṣālanam, kṣālanam   

jalena mārjanasya kriyā।

hastasya prakṣālanād anantarameva bhojanaṃ kartavyam।

lana

lanam, pratipālanam, bharaṇam, sambhṛtiḥ, puṣṭiḥ, saṃvardhanam   

bhojanaṃ vastraṃ vā dattvā paripālanasya kriyā।

kṛṣṇasya sambhṛtiḥ yaśodayā kṛtā।

lana

rakṣaṇam, rakṣā, rakṣṇam, pālanam, trāṇam, guptiḥ, gopanam, avanam   

kasya api vastunaḥ tathā ca vyakteḥ ca anyebhyaḥ trāṇārthe rakṣakāṇāṃ niyojanam।

rakṣakaḥ rakṣaṇe jāgarukaḥ asti।

lana

mūlam, mūlaḥ, mūlanakṣatram   

saḥ kālaḥ yadā candramāḥ aśvinyādiṣu saptaviṃśatiṣu nakṣatreṣu viṃśatitame nakṣatre vartate।

mūle jātasya bālakasya tathā ca tasya pitroḥ rakṣārthe kānican dhārmikāṇi anuṣṭhānāni kriyante।

lana

pracalanam   

sā avasthā yasyāṃ kiñcit vastu sātatyena vyavahāre bhavati।

idānīṃtane kāle nagareṣu pāścātyānāṃ vastrāṇāṃ pracalanaṃ vardhate।

lana

sañcalanam, sainyayātrā   

viśiṣṭaṃ kāryam uddiśya sainikānām athavā tādṛśānāṃ keṣāñcit dalādīnāṃ yātrā।

bālacarāṇāṃ ekaḥ gaṇaḥ sañcalanaṃ karoti।

lana

rugṇaḥ, rogī, vyādhitaḥ, mlānaḥ, abhyāntaḥ, abhyamitaḥ, sāmayaḥ, apaṭuḥ, āmayāvī, rogiṇī, āturaḥ, āturā, rogārtā, rogārtaḥ, sarogaḥ, sarogā   

rogayuktaḥ।

upacārasya abhāvāt grāme adhikāḥ rugṇāḥ mriyante।

lana

vellanacakram, vellanī   

lambākārasya saḥ jaḍaḥ golākhaṇḍaḥ yena kimapi sthānaṃ samānaṃ kriyate athavā pāṣāṇakhaṇḍān cūrṇūkṛtya mārganirmāṇaṃ kriyate।

rolara iti yantre sthitaḥ gharṣaṇālaḥ mārgaṃ samānaṃ karoti।

lana

melanam, samāgamaḥ, saṃmilanam, sammilanam, milanam   

dvau athavā adhikānāṃ puruṣāṇāṃ parasparābhimukhīkaraṇam।

adya sādhunā puruṣeṇa melanaṃ jātam।

lana

garbhaḥ, bhrūṇaḥ, piṇḍaḥ, kalalam, kalalanam   

garbhasthasya jīvasya vikasitā avasthā yasyāṃ saḥ jīvaḥ paripakvatām āpannaḥ dṛśyate।

garbhasya hananam aparādhaḥ asti।

lana

śaktivaikalyam, vaihvalyam, glāniḥ, mlānendriyaḥ, mlānendriyā, mlānendriyam, mlānāṅgaḥ, mlānāṅgā, mlānāṅgam, kṣīṇabalam, kṣīṇabalā, kṣīṇabalaḥ, hṛtabalā, hṛtabalam, hṛtabalaḥ, hṛtaujāḥ, hṛtaujaḥ, sattvakṣayaḥ, balakṣayaḥ, daurbalyam, abalyam, klaibyam, aśaktiḥ, niḥśaktiḥ   

rogaviśeṣaḥ, yasmin śarīrasya tathā ca manasaḥ śaktiḥ pratidinaṃ kṣīyate।

saḥ śaktivaikalyena grastaḥ asti

lana

paśupālana-vijñānam, paśupālana-śāstram   

paśupālanasya vijñānam।

rākeśaḥ paśupālana-vijñānasya chātraḥ asti।

lana

vibhājanam, vibhāgaḥ, vibhaktiḥ, vicchedaḥ, vibhedaḥ, khaṇḍanam, pṛthakkaraṇam, viyogaḥ, viśleṣaḥ, dalanam   

vibhinneṣu bhāgeṣu vastūnāṃ vitaraṇam।

rāmaḥ svaputrayoḥ kṛte gṛhasya vibhājanam akarot।

lana

lanam, saṃvahanam   

gamanaviṣayiṇī preraṇā।

vāhanasya cālanaṃ sāvadhānatayā kriyeta।

lana

apekṣayā, tulana   

tulanāyām।

adhyayane śyāmasya apekṣayā rāmaḥ śreṣṭhaḥ asti।

lana

unmūlanam   

samūlaṃ nāśanasya kriyā।

udyānapālaḥ avāñchitānāṃ kṣupānām unmūlanaṃ karoti।

lana

siñcanam, secanam, avasecanam, kṣālanam, ukṣaṇam, pariṣecanam, āsecanam, abhiṣecanam, āścotanam, āsekaḥ, ghāraḥ, pariṣekaḥ, kṣaraṇam   

dravapadārthān secanasya kriyā।

sasyān rogāt rakṣitum auṣadhasya siñcanam āvaśyakam asti।

lana

udraḥ, jalamārjāraḥ, jalanakulaḥ, pānīyanakulaḥ, nīrajaḥ, nīrākhuḥ   

nirmalajalastha māṃsāhārī sastanajantuḥ।

udrasya lomāḥ kṛṣṇavarṇīyāḥ santi।

lana

vicchedaḥ, sambhedaḥ, khaṇḍaḥ, vibhaṅgaḥ, bhaṅgaḥ, khaḍaḥ, prabhaṅgaḥ, nirdalanam, vicaṭanam, āmoṭanam, dalanam, bhidyam, sambhedanam, avadaraṇam, daraṇam   

khaṇḍanasya kriyā।

rāmaḥ śivadhanuṣaḥ vicchedaṃ cakāra।

lana

paśupālanam   

paśūnāṃ pālanasya kriyā।

gopālakānāṃ mukhyaḥ vyavasāyaḥ paśupālanam asti।

lana

pālakaḥ, pālanakartā, poṣakaḥ   

yaḥ pālayati poṣayati ca।

abhiṣekādiguṇayukto rājā prajāyāḥ pālakaḥ।

lana

andolanam   

hindolanasya dolanam।

hindolasya andolanam atīva unnatam asti।

lana

amlānaḥ, suvarṇapuṣpaḥ   

puṣpaviśeṣaḥ।

udyānapālakaḥ amlānasya mālāṃ karoti।

lana

hiṅguḥ, hiṅgukaḥ, sahasravedhī, sahasravīryā, śūlahṛt, śūlahṛd, śūlanāśinī, śūladviṭ, śālasāraḥ, vāhikaḥ, rāmaṭhaḥ, rāmaṭham, ramaṭhadhvaniḥ, ramaṭham, rakṣoghnaḥ, bhedanam, bhūtāriḥ, bhūtanāśanaḥ, billam, villam, bāhlikam, balhikam, piṇyākaḥ, piṇyākam, pinyāsaḥ, dīptam, ugragandham, ugravīryam, atyugram, agūḍhagandham, jatukam, jantughnam, bālhī, sūpadhūpanam, jatu, jantunāśanam, sūpāṅgam, gṛhiṇī, madhurā, keśaram   

upaskaraviśeṣaḥ- bālhika-pārasya-khorāsāna-mūlatānādi-deśe jāyamānāt kṣupāt niryāsitam ugragandhī dravyam।

hiṅguḥ upaskararūpeṇa vyañjaneṣu tathā ca oṣadhirupeṇa bheṣajeṣu upayujyate।

lana

jalanālikāśilpī   

yaḥ jalamocikāsambandhi kāryaṃ karoti।

jalanālikāśilpī mandirasya samīpe kāryaṃ karoti।

lana

vanonmūlanam   

vane sthitānāṃ vṛkṣāṇāṃ chedanam।

vanonmūlanaṃ sthagayituṃ nāgarikaiḥ yatnaḥ kriyeta।

lana

dāhaḥ, dahanam, ploṣaḥ, tāpaḥ, jvalanam   

śarīre jvalanena jāyamānā pīḍā।

ghṛtalepanena dāhaḥ kiñcit nyūnaḥ bhavati।

lana

sammelanam   

kenacit uddeśena yatra janāḥ sammilanti।

sammelane mahāntaḥ vidvāṃsaḥ āsan।

lana

tulanātmaka, taulanika   

tulanayā yuktaḥ।

pūrvaṃ bhūtānāṃ rāṣṭrapatīnāṃ vyaktitvasya tulanātmakam adhyayanaṃ kṛtam।

lana

śaucālayaḥ, śaucagharam, pāyukṣālanabhūmiḥ, nepathyagṛham, uccāraprasrāvasthānam, varcaḥsthānam   

manuṣyaiḥ malatyāgārthe vinirmitaṃ sthānam।

sulabhāḥ śaucālayāḥ janānāṃ suvidhārthe vinirmitāḥ santi।

lana

calanam, saraṇam, yānam, gatiḥ, vrājaḥ   

ekaṃ sthānaṃ vihāya anyasthānaṃ prāpaṇam।

tasya calanaṃ savegam asti।

lana

santulanam   

dvayoḥ pakṣayoḥ samānā sthitiḥ।

pratikūlāsu paristhitiṣvapi svasya santulanaṃ rakṣitavyam।

lana

santulanam   

bhārasya tolanam।

svarṇakāreṇa nūpuraṃ tolayituṃ tulāyāḥ santulanaṃ kṛtam।

lana

darśanam, ālokanam, īkṣaṇam, nidhyānam, nirvvarṇanam, nibhālanam   

akṣibhyāṃ rūpagrahaṇam।

kāryasya vyagratāyāḥ kāraṇāt ekaṃ māsaṃ yāvat pituḥ darśanam na jātam।

lana

prakampanam, ālolanam, dhūtiḥ, prollolanam, lāsanam, vellanam   

prakampitasya kriyā bhāvo vā।

ahaṃ mārge sthitasya madyapasya mattatāyāṃ prakampanaṃ prapatanañca apaśyam।

lana

calanam   

gamanasya rītiḥ।

bhavataḥ calanaṃ vakraṃ kimartham।

lana

skhalanam, patanam, riṅgaṇam   

sahasā adhaḥ phatanam;

himālayaparvatabhūmeḥ skhalanāt mānasayātrāgaṇaḥ kvacit madhye eva nirvartayate

lana

jvalanaśīla   

yaḥ sahajaṃ prajvalati।

gandhakaḥ jvalanaśīlaḥ padārthaḥ asti।

lana

bhārottolanayantram, bakaḥ   

bhārayuktānāṃ vastūnām avasthāpanasya ekaṃ yantram।

bhārottolanayantreṇa naukāyāṃ sāmagrīḥ sthāpyante।

lana

navatā, navatvam, taruṇatā, tāruṇyam, ārdratā, ārdratvam, akṣīṇatā, akṣīṇatvam, amlānatā, amlānatvam   

nūtanasya avasthā bhāvaḥ vā।

puṣpavikretrī puṣpāṇāṃ navatāyāḥ kṛte teṣu jalaṃ siñcati।

lana

saṃkalanam, saṃgrahaḥ   

vastūnāṃ saṅgrahaṇam।

tasya pārśve granthānāṃ samucitaṃ saṃkalanam asti।

lana

saṃgrahaḥ, saṃkalana   

itastataḥ ākṛṣya ekatra nibandhanaṃ saṃgrahaḥ;

catuṣpādaṃ dhanurvedaṃ śāstragrāmam sasaṃgraham acireṇaiva kālena gurustāvabhyaśikṣayat

[ha 89.7]

lana

sañcālanam   

gatipradānam।

vidyutā bṛhatāṃ yantrāṇāṃ sañcālanaṃ saralatayā bhavati।

lana

saṃcālanam   

kāryasya samyak pracalanārthe kṛtasya prabandhasya kriyā।

asyāḥ saṃsthāyāḥ saṃcālanaṃ samyak pracalati।

lana

saṃyogaḥ, melanam, saṃyojanam, samāyogaḥ, samākṣepaḥ   

sā kriyā yasyām anyam anyena saṃyujya aprāptasya prāptiḥ bhavati।

aprāptayostu yā prāptiḥ saiva saṃyogaḥ īritaḥ।

lana

unmūlanam   

pūrṇataḥ nāśanasya kriyā।

samāje vartamānasya bhraṣṭācārasya unmūlanam āvaśyakam eva।

lana

miśraṇam, saṃmiśraṇam, miśrīkaraṇam, saṃyogaḥ, saṃyojanam, sammelanam, saṃsargaḥ, samparkaḥ, saṃṅkalanam, saṅkiraṇam, ekīkaraṇam   

bhinnavastūnām melanam।

pañjarī iti miśraṇam asti।

lana

kābulanagaram   

aphagāṇisthānasya rājadhānī।

śekha-rahimaḥ kābulanagaraṃ gataḥ।

lana

prajvalanam, uddīpanam   

jvalanasya kriyā।

atra kasyāpi kāryasya śubhārambhaḥ dīpasya prajvalanena bhavati।

lana

ākarṣaṇam, ākṛṣṭiḥ, pralobhanam, vilobhanam, mohanam, vimohanam, mohinī, lālanam   

īpsitakāryasiddhyarthaṃ yena kena prakāreṇa anyajanānām icchāpūrteḥ āśvāsanāt prasthāpitaḥ prabhāvaḥ;

nūtanadvicakrīvāhanasya ākarṣaṇāt yuvakaḥ taddivyaṃ kartum udyataḥ

lana

imphālanagaram   

maṇipurarājyasya rājadhānī।

imphālanagare vasati mama ekaḥ suhṛt।

lana

ākāśatolanayantram, vāyuvegamāpakam   

tāpamāpakavat kintu tataḥ kiñcit bṛhat yantraṃ yena vāyoḥ bhāraḥ mīyate।

ākāśatolanayantre jalasya vāyoḥ pāradasya vā upayogaḥ bhavati।

lana

masūlānaukā   

naukāviśeṣaḥ।

masūlānaukā supeṣā dīrghā ca asti।

lana

lanavamī   

bhādrapadamāsasya śuklapakṣasya navamī।

śaileśaḥ tālanavamyāṃ jātaḥ।

lana

śītalanāthaḥ   

jainadharmiyāṇāṃ caturviṃśatau tīrthaṅkareṣu ekaḥ।

śītalanāthaḥ jainadharmiyāṇāṃ daśamaḥ tīrthaṅkaraḥ āsīt।

lana

vimalanāthaḥ   

jainadharmiyāṇāṃ caturviṃśatau tīrthaṅkareṣu ekaḥ।

vimalanāthaḥ jainadharmiyāṇāṃ trayodaśatamaḥ tīrthaṅkaraḥ āsīt।

lana

dravaṇam, vilayanam, galanam, kṣaraṇam   

drāvaṇasya kriyā।

himasya dravaṇasya nirodhāya tāṃ goṇīm ācchādaya।

lana

bhūskhalanam   

parvatasthāyāḥ mṛttikāyāḥ śilākhaṇḍānāṃ ca svasthānāt prabhraṣya adhogamanaṃ patanaṃ vā।

kadācit bhūskhalanena pracuraḥ vināśaḥ bhavati।

lana

aśvapālanam   

aśvapālasya kāryam।

munnaraḥ aśvapālanaṃ kṛtvā svasya parivāraṃ pālayati।

lana

kṣālanakuṇḍam, dhāvanapātrī   

ādhunike bhavane racitaṃ tat sthānaṃ yatra mukhasya hastayoḥ prakṣālanārthaṃ pātraṃ vartate tathā ca jalasya nālā vartate।

kṣālanakuṇḍe jalaṃ nāsti।

lana

manīlānagaram   

philipīnsadeśasya rājadhānī।

manīlā philipīnsadeśasya mahiṣṭhaṃ nagaram asti।

lana

marīcam, mallajam, ullāghaḥuṣaṇam, ūṣaṇam, auṣaṇaśauṇḍī, kaphavirodhi, kṛṣṇaḥ, kevaladravyam, kolam, kolakam, candrakam, tīkṣṇaḥ, dvāravṛttam, dhārmapattanam, pavitam, maricam, lohākhyam, virāvṛttam, vṛttaphalam, veṇunam, vellajam, vellanam, śanijam, śuddham, śyāmam   

latāprakārakaḥ yasyāḥ kaṭuḥ kṛṣṇavarṇīyā laghugulikā yā bhojane upaskararūpeṇa upayujyate।

kṛṣakaḥ kṛṣīkṣetrāt marīcam āmūlāt udgṛhṇāti।

lana

rajasvalā, ṛtumatī, puṣpitā, ṛtumatī, kusumavatī, udakyā, madhyamikā, puṣpavatī, puṣpahāsā, avi, dṛṣṭapuṣpā, brahmaghātinī, mlānāṅgī   

sā strī yasyāḥ rajaṃ pravahati।

garbhasya dhāraṇāya akṣamā rajasvalā janaiḥ pīḍitā।

lana

ambālānagaram, ambālā   

bhāratasya hariyāṇāprāntasya ekaṃ mukhyam aitihāsikaṃ nagaram।

ambālānagaraṃ tasya vijñānasāmagryāḥ utpādanārthaṃ miśraṇasya udyogārthaṃ ca suprasiddham।

lana

bhopālanagaram   

madhyapradeśasya rājadhānī।

bhopālanagare jāte vāyudurghaṭanāyāṃ prāyaḥ viṃśatisahastrāṇāṃ janānāṃ mṛtyuḥ abhavat।

lana

śimalānagaram   

himācalapradeśasya rājadhānī।

śimalānagaram ekaṃ prasiddhaṃ yātrāsthalam asti।

lana

anusaraṇam, pālanam   

kasyāpi ājñāyāḥ nirdeśasya vacanasya kartavyasya vā anusāreṇa ācaraṇasya kriyā।

rājye rājñaḥ ājñāyāḥ anusaraṇaṃ bhavet।

lana

pramādaḥ, skhalanam, vibhramaḥ, bhrāntam, mithyājñānam   

ajñānena sañjātam doṣapūrṇam ācaraṇam।

bhagini mama pramādaḥ kṣamyatām ।

lana

kṣālanayantram, dhāvitram   

vastrāṇāṃ prakṣālanārtham ekaṃ yantraṃ yat vidyutpravāhena calati।

śīlā sarvāṇi vastrāṇi kṣālanayantre prakṣālayati।

lana

paṭalalānam   

utpīṭhikāviśeṣasya upari madhye jālaṃ sthāpayitvā jālasya upari tāḍanyā kandukasya tāḍanena sampadyamānā ekā krīḍā।

paṭalalāne dvau athavā catvāraḥ krīḍakāḥ bhavanti।

lana

kalana   

gaṇite tarkasya vidheḥ anusāreṇa gaṇanāyāḥ kasyāpi nirdhāraṇasya vā prakriyā।

gaṇakayantreṇa kalanaḥ śīghraṃ bhavati।

lana

kābulanadī, kābulā   

aphagānistānadeśasya ekā pramukhā nadī।

aleksaṇḍaraḥ kābulanadyāḥ mārgeṇa bhāratam āgataḥ।

lana

dāhaḥ, dahanam, jvalanam, ploṣaḥ   

dahanasya dāhanasya vā kriyā athavā bhāvaḥ।

na jāne kathaṃ janāḥ svasya dāhaṃ kurvanti।

lana

bāñjulanagaram   

gāmbiyādeśasya rājadhānī।

bāñjulanagare naukāsthānaṃ vartate।

lana

siyolanagaram   

dakṣiṇa-koriyādeśasya rājadhānī।

siyolanagaram eśiyāmahādvīpasya mahiṣṭhaṃ nagaram।

lana

ulāna-bāṭaranagaram   

maṅgoliyāgaṇarājyasya rājadhānī।

rāṣṭrapatyuḥ ulāna-bāṭaranagarasya yātrā atīva mahatvapūrṇā āsīt।

lana

kampālānagaram   

yugāṇḍādeśasya rājadhānī।

kampālānagaraṃ yugāṇḍādeśasya mahiṣṭhaṃ nagaram।

lana

kulaṃdhara, kulanandana, kulavardhana, kulapālin   

yaḥ kulasya vaṃśasya vā tāraṇaṃ karoti tat pariśodhayati vā।

kulaṃdhareṇa putreṇa bhāgīrathena svasya kulaṃ trātuṃ kaṭhinā tapasyā kṛtā।

lana

porṭa-vilānagaram   

vānuāṭudeśasya rājadhānī।

te dinadvayaṃ porṭa-vilānagare āsan।

lana

vilaniyasanagaram, vilanānagaram, vilanonagaram   

lithuāniyādeśasya rājadhānī।

vilaniyasanagaraṃ lithuāniyādeśasya prāgdakṣiṇāyāṃ sthitam।

lana

akolānagaram   

mahārāṣṭrarājyasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

akolānagagarasya kandarāḥ atīva prasiddhāḥ।

lana

jālanānagaram   

mahārāṣṭrarājyasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

jālanānagaraṃ mahārāṣṭrarājye sthitam ekaṃ paryaṭanasya sthalam asti।

lana

yavatamālanagaram   

mahārāṣṭre vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

yavatamālanagaraṃ vardhānagarasya samīpe asti।

lana

kuḍālanagaram   

mahārāṣṭre vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

sindhudurgasya mukhyālayaḥ kuḍālanagare asti।

lana

baitulanagaram   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

mama agrajā hākī krīḍāprakāraṃ krīḍituṃ baitulanagaram agacchat।

lana

maṇḍalānagaram   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

maṇḍalānagarasya nirmalaḥ ṛtuḥ adyāpi smaryate।

lana

śahaḍolanagaram   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

śahaḍolanagarāt rāyagaḍhanagaraṃ prāptuṃ sandhyāsamayaḥ jātaḥ।

lana

koppalanagaram   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

koppalanagare vṛṣṭiḥ asti।

lana

kurnūlanagaram   

āndhrapradeśasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

relayānasya apaghātasya kāraṇāt kurnūlanagarāt gamanāgamanaṃ ruddham।

lana

oṅgolanagaram   

āndhrapradeśasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

prakāśamamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ oṅgolanagare vartate।

lana

śrīkākulanagaram   

āndhrapradeśasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

ahaṃ śrīkākulanagare kāryaṃ karomi।

lana

vāraṅgalanagaram   

āndhrapradeśasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

vāgaṅgalanagaraṃ ṭrāi-siṭī iti nāmnā api sambodhyate।

lana

erṇākulanagaram   

keralasya nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

bhāratasya erṇākulanagare sarve sākṣarāḥ santi।

lana

nāgarakoīlanagaram   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

kanyākumārīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nāgarakoīlanagare asti।

lana

diṇḍakalanagaram   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

diṇḍakalanagaram ekaṃ audyogikaṃ nagaraṃ vartate।

lana

nāmakkalanagaram   

tamilanāḍoḥ nagaraviśeṣaḥ।

nāmakkalanagarāt dugdhasya utpādanāni tathā ca kukkuṭāḥ ityādi anyebhyaḥ rājyebhyaḥ preṣyante।

lana

āṅgulanagaram   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

āṅgulanagaraṃ uḍīsārājyasya audyogikī rājadhānī kathyate।

lana

kāndhāmalanagaram   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

kāndhāmalanagaraṃ bhuvaneśvaranagarāt ekādaśādhika-dviśataṃ kilomīṭaraṃ parimāṇaṃ yāvat dūre asti।

lana

kāndhāmalanagaram   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kāndhāmalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ phūlabānīnagare asti।

lana

dhekanālanagaram   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

dhekanālanagaram uḍīsārājyasya madhyabhāge asti।

lana

lanapuram   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram। banāsakāṇṭhāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pālanapure vartate।

lana

rājapipalānagaram   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram। narmadāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rājapipalānagare vartate।

lana

karnālanagaram   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

kalpanācāvalāmahodayāyāḥ pālanaṃ karnālanagare jātam।

lana

kaithalanagaram   

bhāratadeśasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

mama sakhī kaithalanagare nivasati।

lana

pañcakulānagaram   

bhāratadeśasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

maṇḍalastarīyā krīḍāpratiyogitā pañcakulānagare bhaviṣyati।

lana

naranaulanagaram   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

mahendragaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nagaranaulanagare asti।

lana

lāhaulanagaram   

himācalapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

lāhaulanagare atīva himavṛṣṭiḥ bhavati।

lana

sonalanagaram   

himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ nagaram।

sonalanagare śreṣṭhinaḥ gṛhe āpātaḥ abhavat।

lana

kapūrathalānagaram   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

saḥ kapūrathalānagarasya rājakulena sambaddhaḥ asti।

lana

paṭiyālānagaram   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

paṭiyālānagaram siddhoḥ paitṛkaṃ nagaram asti।

lana

varāhamūlanagaram   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ nagaram।

varāhamūlanagaraṃ idānīṃ bārāmulā iti nāmnā ucyate।

lana

kāragilanagaram   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ nagaram।

kāragilanagare asyāḥ udyogasaṃsthāyāḥ kāryesya hāniḥ jātā।

lana

nainītālanagaram   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ nagaram।

grīṣmakāle nainītālanagare bahavaḥ paryaṭakāḥ āgacchanti।

lana

bomaḍilānagaram   

aruṇācalaprānte vartamānaṃ nagaram।

paścimakāmeṅgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bomaḍilānagare vartate।

lana

supaulanagaram   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

asmin varṣe grīṣmakāle vayaṃ supaulanagare āsma।

lana

thaubalanagaram   

bhāratadeśasya maṇipurarājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

thaubalanagare matadānaṃ pracalati।

lana

gumalānagaram   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

gumalānagare sāmūhikaḥ vivāhaḥ āyojitaḥ।

lana

karāīkalanagaram   

bhāratadeśasya paṇḍicerīrājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

cennaīnagarāt karāīkalanagaraṃ gantuṃ kimapi kaṣṭaṃ na anubhūtam।

lana

kailānagaram   

bhāratasya tripurārājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

uttaratripurāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kailānagare asti।

lana

agniḥ, vaiśvānaraḥ, vītahotraḥ, agnihotraḥ, huraṇyaretāḥ, saptārci, vibhāvasuḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, svāhāpatiḥ, svāhāprayaḥ, svāhābhuk, agnidevaḥ, agnidevatā, dhanañjayaḥ, jātavedaḥ, kṛpīṭayoniḥ, śociṣkeśaḥ, uṣarbudhaḥ, bṛhadbhānuḥ, hutabhuk, haviraśanaḥ, hutāśaḥ, hutāśanaḥ, havirbhuk, havyavāhanaḥ, havyāśanaḥ, kravyavāhanaḥ, tanunapāt, rohitāśvaḥ, āśuśukṣaṇiḥ, āśrayāśaḥ, āśayāśaḥ, āśrayabhuk, āśrayadhvaṃsī, pāvakaḥ, pāvanaḥ, tejaḥ, vahniḥ, jvalanaḥ, analaḥ, kṛśānuḥ, vāyusakhā, vāyusakhaḥ, dahanaḥ, śikhī, śikhāvān, kṛṣṇavartmā, araṇiḥ, ghāsiḥ, dāvaḥ, pacanaḥ, pācanaḥ, pācakaḥ, juhuvān, vāśiḥ, arciṣmān, prabhākaraḥ, chidiraḥ, śundhyuḥ, jaganuḥ, jāgṛviḥ, apāmpitaḥ, jalapittaḥ, apittam, himārātiḥ, phutkaraḥ, śukraḥ, āśaraḥ, samidhaḥ, citrabhānuḥ, jvālājihvā, kapilaḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, tamonud, śuciḥ, śukraḥ, damunaḥ, damīnaḥ, agiraḥ, hariḥ, bhuvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ-hindudharmānusāram agneḥ devatāsvarūpam।

agneḥ patnī svāhā।

lana

somaḥ, candraḥ, śaśāṅkaḥ, induḥ, mayaṅkaḥ, kalānidhiḥ, kalānāthaḥ, kalādharaḥ, himāṃśuḥ, candramāḥ, kumudabāndhavaḥ, vidhuḥ, sudhāṃśuḥ, śubhrāṃśuḥ, oṣadhīśaḥ, niśāpatiḥ, abjaḥ, jaivātṛkaḥ, somaḥ, glauḥ, mṛgāṅkaḥ, dvijarājaḥ, śaśadharaḥ, nakṣatreśaḥ, kṣapākaraḥ, doṣākaraḥ, niśīthinīnāthaḥ, śarvarīśaḥ, eṇāṅkaḥ, śītaraśmiḥ, samudranavanītaḥ, sārasaḥ, śvetavāhanaḥ, nakṣatranāmiḥ, uḍupaḥ, sudhāsūtiḥ, tithipraṇīḥ, amatiḥ, candiraḥ, citrāṭīraḥ, pakṣadharaḥ, rohiṇīśaḥ, atrinetrajaḥ, pakṣajaḥ, sindhujanmā, daśāśvaḥ, māḥ, tārāpīḍaḥ, niśāmaṇiḥ, mṛgalāñchanaḥ, darśavipat, chāyāmṛgadharaḥ, grahanemiḥ, dākṣāyaṇīpati, lakṣmīsahajaḥ, sudhākaraḥ, sudhādhāraḥ, śītabhānuḥ, tamoharaḥ, tuśārakiraṇaḥ, pariḥ, himadyutiḥ, dvijapatiḥ, viśvapsā, amṛtadīdhitiḥ, hariṇāṅkaḥ, rohiṇīpatiḥ, sindhunandanaḥ, tamonut, eṇatilakaḥ, kumudeśaḥ, kṣīrodanandanaḥ, kāntaḥ, kalāvān, yāminījatiḥ, sijraḥ, mṛgapipluḥ, sudhānidhiḥ, tuṅgī, pakṣajanmā, abdhīnavanītakaḥ, pīyūṣamahāḥ, śītamarīciḥ, śītalaḥ, trinetracūḍāmaṇiḥ, atrinetrabhūḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, parijñāḥ, sudhāṅgaḥ, valakṣaguḥ, tuṅgīpatiḥ, yajvanāmpatiḥ, parvvadhiḥ, kleduḥ, jayantaḥ, tapasaḥ, khacamasaḥ, vikasaḥ, daśavājī, śvetavājī, amṛtasūḥ, kaumudīpatiḥ, kumudinīpatiḥ, bhūpatiḥ, dakṣajāpatiḥ, oṣadhīpatiḥ, kalābhṛt, śaśabhṛt, eṇabhṛt, chāyābhṛt, atridṛgjaḥ, niśāratnam, niśākaraḥ, amṛtaḥ, śvetadyutiḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ;

patitaṃ somamālokya brahmā lokapitāmahaḥ[śa.ka]

lana

sañcālanayantram   

tad yantraṃ kāmapi ūrjāṃ yāntrikyāṃ ūrjāyāṃ parivartayati।

vyañjanasya sañcālanayantraṃ naṣṭam abhavat।

lana

vicalanam   

svasthānaṃ vihāya anyatra bhramaṇam।

rātrau ākāśe tārakāṇāṃ vicalanaṃ bhavān spaṣṭaṃ draṣṭuṃ śaknoti।

lana

āndolanasamītiḥ, lokasaṅghaḥ, janasaṅghaḥ   

lokahitam uddiśya viśiṣṭadhyeyasya pūrtyarthaṃ nirdhāritayojanānusāraṃ kāryaṃ kriyamāṇānāṃ janānāṃ samūhaḥ।

eṣā āndolanasamītiḥ tasyāḥ abhyarthanāyāḥ na vicalati।

lana

abhisāraḥ, saṃmmilanam   

strīpuṃsayoranyatarasya anyatarārthaṃ saṅketasthalagamanam।

abhisārāya gamyamānā nāyikā bharatanāṭyaśāstre abhisārikā proktā।

lana

uṣṭraḥ, karabhaḥ, dāserakaḥ, dīrghagrīvaḥ, dhūsaraḥ, lamboṣṭhaḥ, ravaṇaḥ, mahājaṅghaḥ, javī, jāṅghikaḥ, kramelakaḥ, mayaḥ, mahāṅgaḥ, dīrghagatiḥ, dīrghaḥ, śṛṅkhalakaḥ, mahān, mahāgrīvaḥ, mahānādaḥ, mahādhvagaḥ, mahāpṛṣṭhaḥ, baliṣṭhaḥ, dīrghajaṅghaḥ, grīvī, dhūmrakaḥ, śarabhaḥ, kramelaḥ, kaṇṭakāśanaḥ, bholiḥ, bahukaraḥ, adhvagaḥ, marudvipaḥ, vakragrīvaḥ, vāsantaḥ, kulanāśaḥ, kuśanāmā, marupriyaḥ, dvikakut, durgalaṅghanaḥ, bhūtaghnaḥ, dāseraḥ, kelikīrṇaḥ   

paśuviśeṣaḥ- yaḥ prāyaḥ marusthale dṛśyate।

tena uṣṭraṃ datvā uṣṭrī krītā।

lana

niścalā, niścalānadī   

paurāṇikī nadī।

niścalāyāḥ varṇanaṃ matsyapurāṇe asti।

lana

vināśaḥ, nāśaḥ, vidhvaṃsaḥ, dhvaṃsanam, pradhvaṃsaḥ, nipātaḥ, nibarhaṇam, vicchedaḥ, ucchedanam, upasaṃhāram, kṣayam, dalanam, vimardaḥ, mardanam, samudghātaḥ   

keṣāṃcana vastvādīnāṃ nāśanasya kriyā।

īśvaraḥ śatrūṇāṃ vināśāya eva avatarati।

lana

tolanam   

tolyate iti।

dhānyasya tolanasya anantaram ahaṃ snāsyāmi।

lana

istāmbulaḥ, istāmbulanagaram   

turkistānasya bṛhat nagaram।

istāmbulaḥ tarkistānasya ārthikī rājadhānī asti।

lana

kāṇḍalānagaram   

gujarātarājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

saḥ kāṇḍalānagare sthite vidyālaye paṭhati।

lana

johilānadī, johilā   

bhāratīyā nadī।

johilānadyāḥ prabhavaḥ amarakaṇṭake asti।

lana

unnayanam, tulanam, samuddharaṇam   

udvahanasya kriyā।

udvahanyā kānicana vastūni unnayanena upari ānetuṃ śakyante।

lana

khilanamargaḥ   

kaśmīre vartamānā śobhanā droṇī।

khilanamargasya haritāyāṃ bhūmau vanyāni puṣpāṇi vimohayanti।

lana

bhīnamālanagaram, bhīnamālam   

rājasthānarājyasya jālauramaṇḍale vartamānaṃ nagaram।

bhīnamālanagaram aitihāsikaṃ nagaram asti।

lana

galanam, dravaṇam, viṣyandanam, vidravaṇam   

samyaktayā vidravasya kriyā।

ghṛtasya galanasya anantaraṃ taṃ piṣṭe miśrayatu।

lana

sūryakāntaḥ, sūryamaṇiḥ, sūryāśmā, dahanopamaḥ, tapanamaṇiḥ, tāpanaḥ, ravikāntaḥ, dīptopalaḥ, agnigarbhaḥ, jvalanāśmā, arkopalaḥ   

sphaṭikaviśeṣaḥ।

manaharaḥ sūryakāntena yuktam aṅgulīyakam akrīṇāt।

lana

maṇijalānadī   

paurāṇikī nadī।

maṇijalāyāḥ varṇanaṃ mahābhārate prāpyate।

lana

galanam, praścotanam, avasyandanam, anusiñcanam   

siñcanasya kriyā।

rasasya galanasya saṃrodhānantaraṃ tālarasena yuktaḥ ghaṭaḥ vṛkṣāt avaruhyate।

lana

śatabalānadī   

paurāṇikī nadī।

śatabalānadyāḥ varṇanaṃ mahābhārate prāpyate।

lana

melanam, samāyogaḥ, yogaḥ   

samānānāṃ padārthānām saṃyojanasya kriyā।

melanasya anantaram eteṣāṃ parīkṣaṇaṃ karotu।

lana

prakṣālanamūlyam   

prakṣālanasya mūlyam।

ahaṃ maheśāya śatarūpyakāṇi prakṣālanamūlyaṃ dattavatī।

lana

ājñāpālanam   

ājñayā anusāreṇa kāryasampādanasya kriyā।

guroḥ ājñāpālanena jñānaprāptau sāhāyyaṃ labhate।

lana

mūlānadī   

bhāratīyā nadī।

mūlānadī mahārāṣṭrarājyāt vahati।

lana

andolanam, āndolanam, ālolaḥ   

ūrmīṇāṃ samudvahanam।

samudrataṭe upaviśya andolanasya darśanaṃ sukhadāyakaṃ bhavati।

lana

garaṇam, nigaraṇam, gilanam   

garasya kriyā।

ekasya maṇḍūkasya garaṇasya anantaraṃ sarpaḥ anyaṃ maṇḍūkaṃ saṅgṛhṇāti।

lana

āndolanam, dolanam   

kasyāpi ādhāreṇa lambayitvā pūrvāparam itastataḥ vā gamanasya kriyā।

nidolasya avasthitam āndolanaṃ jñāpayati yat ghaṭī kāryavihīnā jātā।

lana

pracalanam   

kasyāpi vastunaḥ vyavahāre upayogasya kriyā।

udyogasaṃsthāyāḥ nūtanānām utpādanānāṃ pracalane kimartham etāvān vilambaḥ।

lana

lalanā   

varṇavṛttaviśeṣaḥ।

lalanāyāḥ pratyekasmin caraṇe bhagaṇaḥ, magaṇaḥ tathā dvau sagaṇau ca bhavanti।

lana

bhāratolanam   

vyāyāmaprakāraviśeṣaḥ yasmin kāyanirmāṇāya bhāraḥ tulyate।

krīḍakānāṃ kṛte bhāratolanam anivāryam asti।

lana

śikharasammelanam   

tad sammelanaṃ yasmin naikeṣāṃ deśānāṃ pratinidhayaḥ bhāgaṃ gṛhṇanti।

jī-20 iti śikharasammelanaṃ cīnadeśasya rāṣṭrapatiḥ api gacchati।

lana

mahādhiveśanam, mahāsammelanam   

bṛhat adhiveśanam।

kāṃgresa iti pakṣasya mahādhiveśane mahāntaḥ netāraḥ bhāgaṃ grahiṣyati।

lana

ājñāpālanam, kartavyapālanam   

ājñāyāṃ prāptāyāṃ kaṭhinasya api kāryasya yogyarītyā sampādanam।

ājñāpālanam asmākaṃ dharmaḥ asti।

lana

paripālanam   

viniyogasya pracalanasya vā kriyā।

śāsanaḥ etāsāṃ yojanānāṃ paripālanam āvaśyakam manyate।

lana

mosulanagaram, mosūlanagaram   

irākadeśe vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

rameśaḥ mosulanagare nivasati।

lana

śuṣka, parijīrṇa, parimlāna   

satvahīnaḥ।

bhagavate śuṣkaṃ puṣpaṃ na arpaṇīyam।

lana

nimīlanam, nimiṣanam   

akṣisaṅkocanasya kriyā bhāvaḥ vā।

akṣṇoḥ nimīlanam akṣṇoḥ anāvaśyakānāṃ vastūnāṃ praveśaṃ niṣedhayati।

lana

vātānukūlanam   

sā praṇāliḥ yā vāyoḥ śuṣkatvaṃ śītatvañca santulayati।

vātānukūlanasya kṛte prayukte yantre prāyaḥ ekaṃ vāyuśītakaṃ tathā ca ekaṃ vāyutāpakaṃ yantram asti।

lana

kapilana   

nadīviśeṣaḥ ।

kapilanadyāḥ varṇanam mahābhārate vartate

lana

kuṇḍalaḥ, kuṇḍalīcālana   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

kuṇḍalasya varṇanaṃ kośe vartate

lana

viśālanagaram   

nagaraviśeṣaḥ ।

vivaraṇapustikāyāḥ viśālanagarasya ullekhaḥ asti

lana

tulanā   

saṅkhyāviśeṣaḥ ।

tulanā iti mahatī saṅkhyā vartate

lana

kumālana:   

eka: puruṣaḥ ।

kumālanaḥ sūtragranthe ullikhitaḥ

lana

prājalaḥ, prājvalanaḥ, prāñjaliḥ   

ekaṃ vaidika-śāstram ।

āryavidyā-sudhākare uddhṛtā prājala iti sāmaveda-śākhā kośeṣu api ullikhitaḥ

lana

balanagaram   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

bauddhasāhitye balanagaraṃ varṇitaṃ dṛśyate

lana

kumālana:   

eka: puruṣaḥ ।

kumālanaḥ sūtragranthe ullikhitaḥ

lana

lalanā   

vṛttanāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

naikeṣāṃ vṛttānāṃ nāma lalanā iti asti

lana

śrīdharolanagaram   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

śrīdharolanagarasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

lana

sillana   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

sillanasya ullekhaḥ rājataraṅgiṇyām asti

lana

saralana   

ekā nadī ।

saralanadyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

lana

mallanāthaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

mallanāthaḥ kośeṣu varṇitaḥ

lana

mallānakagrāmaḥ   

ekaḥ grāmaḥ ।

kośeṣu mallānakagrāmaḥ nāma grāmaḥ suvikhyātaḥ

lana

kalanāthaḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

kalanāthasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lana

pippalanāthaḥ   

ekā devatā ।

pippalanāthasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

lana

candrasthalanagaram   

ekaṃ nagaram ।

candrasthalanagarasya varṇanaṃ campaka-śreṣṭhi-kathānake vartate

lana

ḍallana   

ekaḥ paṇḍitaḥ ।

ḍallanasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lana

nalabhūmipālanāṭakam   

ekaṃ nāṭakam ।

nalabhūmipālanāṭakasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

lana

tālānaḥ   

ekaḥ kuṭumbaḥ ।

tālānasya ullekhaḥ pravaragrantheṣu asti

Parse Time: 1.215s Search Word: lana Input Encoding: IAST: lana