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mūrcchana मूर्च्छन a. (-नी f.) 1 Stupefying insensibility or stupor (an epithet applied to one of the five arrows of Cupid). -2 Increasing, augmenting, strengthening. -नम्, -ना [मुर्च्छ-युच्] 1 Fainting, swooning. -2 Prevalence, growth, increase (usually n. in this sense); अनुकर्षं च निष्कर्षं व्याधिपावकमूर्च्छनम् Mb. 2.13.13. -3 A process in metallic preparation, calcining quicksilver with sulphur; cf. मूर्च्छा (3) also. -4 (In music) The rising of sounds, an intonation, a duly regulated rise and fall of sounds conducting the air and the harmony through the keys in a pleasing manner, changing the key or passing from the key to another; modulation, melody; स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छनाम् Si.1.1; भूयो भूयः स्वयमपि कृतां मूर्च्छनां विस्मरन्ती Me.88; वर्णानामपि मूर्च्छनान्तरगतं तारं विरामे मृदु Mk.3.5; सप्त स्वरास्त्रयो ग्रामा मूर्च्छनाश्चैकविंशतिः Pt.5.54; (मूर्च्छा or मूर्च्छना is thus defined:-- क्रमात् स्वराणां सप्तानामारोहश्चावरोहणम् । सा मूर्च्छेत्युच्यते ग्रामस्था एताः सप्त सप्त च ॥ see Malli. on Śi.1.1 for further information); 'यत्रैव स्युः स्वराः पूर्णा मूर्च्छना सेत्युदाहृता' com. on Rām.1.4.1.
pratitālī प्रतिताली The key of a door.
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atiraktatā f. excessive liking for (lc.); -ratita, n. violent shrieking; -ratna, n. precious gem; jewel of the first water; -ratha, m. great champion; -rabhasa, a. very wild, -impetuous; -m, ad.; -ramanîya, fp. extremely charming: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -ramya, fp. id.; -raya, a. running extremely fast; -rasa, a. very palatable; m. too strong a key-note (rh.); violent desire: -tas, ad. too eagerly.
udghāṭa m. opening, displaying; -aka, m. key; -ana, a. opening, thrusting aside; n. opening; -anîya, fp. to be opened; -ita-gña, a. prudent, wise; -in, a. opening.
ṛkṣa a. dire; m. bear; kind of monkey; N.: pl. the Great Bear; m. n. star; lunar mansion: î, f. she-bear; -râga, m. king of the bears or monkeys; king of the stars, moon; -vat, m. N. of a mountain.
kapiśa a. (monkey-coloured), brown ish, reddish; -bhrû, f. N. of a woman.
kapila a. (monkey-coloured), brown ish, reddish; m. species of monkey; N. of an ancient sage; â, f. brown or reddish cow; species of leech; -gata, m. N. of a sage; -dhûsara, a. brownish grey; -½rishi,m. the sage Kapila; -vastu, m. N. of Buddha's birth place; -sarman, m. N. of a Brâhman.
kapittha m. [monkey-stand], a tree; n. its fruit; -pati, m. ep. of Hanumat.
kapi m. monkey; -ketu, m. ep. of Arguna.
kapīndra m. lord of the monkeys; ep. of Vishnu and of Hanumat; -½îsvara, m. ep. of Sugrîva.
kīśa m. monkey.
kuñcikā f. key.
krīḍā f. play, sport, jest, dalliance: -kapi-tva, n. jesting imitation of a monkey; -kânana, n. pleasure-grove; -kâsâra, m. plea sure-pond; -kopa, n. simulated anger; -kau tuka, n. wanton curiosity; -kausala, n. art of jesting; -gríha, m. n. pleasure-house; -par vata, m. (artificial) pleasure-hill: -ka, m. id.; -mayûra, m. pet peacock; -markata pota, m. pet young monkey; -mahîdhra, m. pleasure-hill; -rasa, m.enjoyment of sport or fun: -maya, a. consisting in the water of play; -vesman, n. pleasure-house; -sakun ta, m. pet bird; -saila, m. pleasure-hill; -saras, n. pleasure-lake.
krauñca m. (î) curlew; N. of a moun tain cleft by Kârttikeya; -ripu, -satru, m. ep. of Kârttikeya.
gopitta n. cow's gall (from which a yellow pigment is said to be obtained); -pî thá, m. 1. draught of milk; 2. protection; -pukkha, m. cow's tail; kind of monkey; -pura, n. city-gate; gate.
golāṅgūla m. kind of monkey; -loman, n. cow's hair; -vadha, m. cow-killing; -vardhana, m. N. of a mountain near Mathurâ held up for seven days by Krishna for the purpose of sheltering cows threatened by Indra; N. of an author; ep. of Krishna; -vâta, m. cow-pen; -vâla, m. cow's hair; a. (î) having cow's hair; -vâsa, m. cow-pen; -vid, a. procuring cattle; -vinda, m. ep. of Krishna or Vishnu: -râga, m. N. of a com mentator on Manu, -svâmin, m. N. of a Brâhman; -vrisha, m. bull; -vrishana, m. scrotum of a bull; -vraga, m. cow-pen; -sa krit, n. cow-dung; -sâlâ, f. cow-shed; -sîr sha, m. N. of a serpent demon; n. kind ofsandal-wood: -ka, id.; -sri&ndot;ga, n. cow-horn; m. N. of a mountain.
tuhyādiparibhāṣā f. key-rule as to tu, hi, etc. (i. e. ha, vai, tad), meaning that these particles express occur rence in 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 hymns.
nagarandhrakara m. mountain-cleaver, ep. of Kârtikeya.
piṅgākṣa a. (î) tawny-eyed or red-eyed; m. monkey; ep. of Agni; N. of a Daitya; -½îsvara, m. N. of an attendant of Pârvatî.
plavaṃga a. moving by leaps, ep. of fire; m. monkey, ape; -gama, m. frog; ape, monkey.
plava a. [√ plu] swimming, floating; inclined or sloping, towards (--°ree;); transient; m. n. boat, skiff; m. kind of duck (Kâran dava); swimming; bathing; overflowing of a river, flood; leaping, bound: -ga, m. (moving by leaps), frog; monkey: -½indra, m. Lord of the Monkeys, ep. of Hanumat.
bhāskara a. [making light], shin ing, luminous, brilliant; m. sun; N., esp. of a celebrated astronomer (twelfth century a.d.); kind of breach: -nandin, m. son of the sun; -varman, m. N. and ep. of princes; i, m. pat. of the planet Saturn and of the monkey king Sugrîva; î-ya, a. derived from Bhâs kara; m. disciple of Bhâskara.
markaṭa m. ape, monkey: î, f. female ape; a-ka, m., i-kâ, f. id.
māṇḍūka a. (î) derived from the Mandûkas; m. pl. a certain school; -½âyana, m. pl. a certain school; e-ya, m. pat. N. of a teacher: pl. descendants of Mândukeya.
mārkaṭa a. (î) belonging to the monkey, ape-like.
rakta pp. (√ rañg) coloured; red; nasalized (gr.); charming, lovely, sweet (voice); enraged; impassioned; passionately devoted to (anything, lc., --°ree;; any one, g., --°ree;); attached, fond; enamoured; charmed with (in.); n. blood: -ka, a. red; -kantha, a. sweet-voiced; m. cuckoo; N. of a fairy; -kadamba, m. red Kadamba tree; -kamal inî, f. group of red lotuses; -krishna, a. dark red; -kandana, n. red sandal; -kkha da, a. red-leaved; -kkhardi, f. vomiting blood; -ga, a. derived from the blood; -tara, cpv. greatly attached; -tâ, f. redness; nature of blood; -tva, n. redness; -dant, a. having red (=dirty) teeth; -nayana, a.red-eyed; -netra, a. id.; -pata, m. (wearing red rags), Buddhist monk: -vrata-vâhinî, f. Buddhist nun; -patî-kri, dress in red rags, turn into a Buddhist monk; -patta-maya, a. made of red cloth; -padma, n. red lotus; -pâda,m. red-footed bird; -pushpa, n. red flower; a. having red flowers; -phala, a. bearing red fruit; -bindu, m. drop of blood; -bhâva, a. enamoured; -mandala, a. having a red disc (moon); having loyal subjects: -tâ, f. abst.n.; -mukha, a. red-faced; m. N. of a monkey; -varna, m. red colour; colour of blood; a. red-coloured; -vâsas, a. wearing a red garment; -vâsin, a. id.; -syâma, a. dark red; -sâra, a. in whom blood predominates, of sanguine temperament.
rasa m. [√ 2. ras] sap, juice (of plants), fruit-syrup; fluid, liquid; water; essence, pith (of anything); quicksilver; potion, elixir; poisonous draught; taste, flavour (as distinctive quality of fluids: six kinds are distinguished, viz. sweet, salt, bitter, sour, pungent, astringent); object of taste; organ of taste, tongue; relish, inclination, fondness or love for (lc. ± upari, --°ree;); desire; affection; pleasure, delight; charm; (flavour or key note in poetry), sentiment (eight Rasas are generally distinguished: love, heroism, dis gust, wrath, mirth, terror, pity, wonder, a ninth, quietism, and a tenth, tenderness, being sometimes added); prevailing sentiment in human character; sacred syllable om.
ravidina n. Sunday; -nandana, m. son of the sun, planet Saturn; -bimba, n. disc of the sun; -mani, m. sun-stone; -manda la, n. disc of the sun; -ratna, n. sun-stone; -vamsa, m. solar race; -vâra, m., -vâsara, m. n. Sunday; -samkrânti, f. entrance of the sun into a sign of the zodiac; -suta, m. son of the sun=planet Saturn or the monkey Sugrîva; -soma-sama-prabha, a. having lustre resembling that of the sun and moon.
vanakapi m. wild monkey; -kar in, m. wild elephant; -kâma, a. fond of living in the forest; -kâshthikâ, f. dry twig lying in the forest; -kuñgara, m. wild elephant; -kusuma, n. flower of the forest; -khanda, n. group of trees, copse; -gaga, m. wild ele phant: -mada, m. temple-juice of forest elephants; -gahana, n. thicket; -gulma, n. forest or wild shrub; -gokara, a. dwelling in the forest; m. denizen of the forest (of men or animals); -grâma-ka, m. forest ham let, wretched little forest village; -grâhin, a. searching the forest; -kara, a. roaming in or haunting the forest; m. forest-dweller (of men or animals); -karyâ, f. roaming about in or residence in the forest; -kârin, a., m. = -kara; -kkhid, m. wood-cutter; -ga, a. born in the forest, sylvan; m. forester; n. (produced in the water), blue lotus: -½aksha, a. (î) lotus-eyed; -gâta, pp. produced or growing in the forest, wild; -dâha, m. forest fire; -durga, a. inaccessible owing to forest; n. place --; -devatâ, f. sylvan goddess, dryad; -druma, m. forest tree; -dvipa, m. wild ele phant; -dhânya, n. pl. grains of wild corn; -dhârâ,f. avenue of trees.
vardhita pp. of √ 1. & 2. vridh; n. (?) kind of key; -i-tavya, fp. n. one should increase; -inî, a. f. increasing (--°ree;); -ishnu, a. growing, increasing.
vānara m. [animal belonging to the forest: vanar] monkey, ape: î, f. female monkey; a. (î) belonging or peculiar etc. to the monkey.
vālin m. (having a tail), N. of a monkey, brother of Sugrîva and son of Indra.
vicetana a. unconscious; not hav ing all one's senses about one, absent-minded; lifeless, dead; senseless, stupid; -ketayitri, a. making visible, distinguishing; -ketavya, fp. to be sought; -searched through; -ex amined; -found out (means); (ví)-ketas, a. clearly seen (waters; RV.); discerning, wise (RV.); confounded (C.); senseless, stu pid (C.); -keya, fp. 1. to be distinguished or counted (=few, of stars); 2. to be looked for; -searched through; n. investigation; -kesh- ta, a. motionless; -keshtana, n. kicking, roll ing (on the ground, of horses); -keshtâ, f. behaviour, conduct; -keshtita, (pp.) n. motion (of the body, eyes); gesture, action, working; conduct.
vipina n. [waving: √ vip] forest; quantity (rare); a. dense (forest): â-ya, den. Â. become or seem like a forest; a½okas, m. denizen of the forest, monkey.
śakaṭāra m. N. of a monkey; la, m. N. of the minister of king Nanda.
śarajanman m. (born among reeds), ep. of Kârttikeya; -gâla, n. multi tude of arrows: -maya, a. consisting of a cloud of arrows.
śarabheda m. arrow-wound and failure of cream; -vana, n. thicket of reeds: -bhava, a. born in a thicket of reeds (god, =Kârttikeya), -½udbhava, m. ep. of Kârtti keya; -varsha, n. 1. shower of arrows; 2. shower of water, rain (pl.); -varshin, a. discharging water; -vega, m. (arrow-swift), N. of a steed.
śākhāṅga n. limb of the body; -½âda, a. branch-eating; m. branch-eater (a class of animals such as goats or elephants); -nagara, n. suburb; -½antara, n. another Vedic school: -î-ya, a.belonging to --; -pa- su, m. victim tied to a branch (instead of to a sacrificial post); -prakriti, f. pl. secon dary (eight) kings to be considered in war (opp. mûla-prakriti); -bhrit, m. tree; -ma ya, a. consisting of branches of (--°ree;); -mriga, m. (branch animal), monkey; -rathyâ, f. branch or side road.
śikhitā f. condition of a peacock; -dis, f. Agni's quarter, south-east; -dyut, a. gleaming like fire; -dhvaga, m. (having a peacock as his emblem) ep. of Kârttikeya.
saṃkranda m. lamentation; battle; -krándana, a. shouting, roaring; m. ep. of Indra; n. battle: -nandana, m. pat. of Ar guna and of the monkey Vâlin; -kramá, m. going together (V.); C.: course, progress; tran sition, transference to (lc.); entry of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; bridge (ord. mg.); stair (esp. leading down to water); N. of a fairy prince; -krámana, n. entrance, commencement; transition, entrance into (lc., --°ree;); entry of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; transfer to another world, de cease; -kramî-kri, make a bridge or medium of: gd. by means of (ac.); -krânta, pp. √ kram; -krânti, f. entrance into (lc., --°ree;); transference, communication; passage of the sun to another sign of the zodiac (--°ree;): pa yaso gandûsha-samkrântayah, transfer ence of water to swallowing = water meant for drinking; -krâmin, a.being transferred to others; -krîda, m. play, sport; -krosá, m. shout; -klishta-karman, a. acting with difficulty; -kleda, m. saturation, wetting, with (--°ree;): -bhûta, pp. forming a moist mass (foetus); -klesa, m. pain, suffering; -kshaya, m. decay, loss, complete consump tion or disappearance; drying up (of water); ruin, destruction; end; -kshâlanâ, f. wash ing, ablution; -kshipti: -kâ, f. simple ex pedient (dr.); -kshepa, m. throwing together, destruction (rare); abridgment, compres sion, conciseness, brief exposition; quintes sence of (g.); aggregate (rare): in., ab., °ree;--, -tas, briefly, concisely; in., -tas, in the aggregate; -kshobha, m. jolt, shock, com motion, disturbance; agitation, excitement.
saṃcaya m. sg. & pl. accumulation, hoard, store, wealth, quantity, collection; gathering, collecting (rare): d. in order to have more; -kayana, n. gathering, collecting; -kaya-vat, a. possessed of wealth, rich; -kay ika, a. having provisions (only --°ree;); -kará, a. go ing about (mûrti-, with a body=incarnate); together, simultaneous (V.); m. place for walk ing, road, path, passage; evolution (in Sâ&ndot; khya phil.); -kárana, a. (î) suitable for going on, passable, converging (V.); n. navigation (of the sea: ac.; RV.); motion, from (ab.), in (lc., --°ree;), by means of (--°ree;); -karishnu, a. moving about, roaming; -karvana, n. chew ing; -kalana, n. trembling, quaking; -kâra, m. walking about, wandering, roaming, driv ing; motion; transit, passage; entrance, portal; transition or transference to (--°ree;); track (of wild animals), road (rare): -ka, m.guide; -kâranîya, fp. to be wandered through; -transferred to (lc.); -kârita, cs. pp. (√ kar) set in motion, worked; -kârin, a. (n-î) walk ing about, wandering, roaming, moving, mov able (in, lc., --°ree;); penetrating into (--°ree;); trans mitted, infectious, hereditary (disease); com ing in contact with, contiguous to (in.); carried with one (umbrella); being in, en gaged with (--°ree;); accessory (sentiment, etc.); taking with one (--°ree;);-kârya, fp. accessible (in a-); produced by (--°ree;); -kikîrshu, des. a. intending to perform; -kiti, f. piling; col lecting, saving; -kintya, fp. to be considered; -regarded as (-vat); -kinu½âna-ka, a. oc cupied with collecting(wealth); -keya, fp. to be accumulated; -kodayitavya, fp. to be urged on; -khettri, m. dispeller (of doubts).
samuccaya m. (heaping up to gether), mass, multitude; totality, aggregate; conjunctive sense (of ka; opp. vikalpa, dis junctive sense of vâ): -½upamâ, f. simile with a &open;not only, but also&close;; -kârana, n. simul taneous utterance; -kikîshâ, f. [√ ki] desire to collect or summarise; -kitî-kri, unite; -ketavya, fp. to be taken together (the one as well as the other); -keya, fp. id.; -kheda, m.: -na, n.destruction, extermination; -khra ya, a. growing up (living beings); m. erec tion, elevation (rare); height, length; emi nence, mountain (rare); rise, exaltation, high position; augmentation, stimulation; -khvas ita, pp. √ svas; n. taking breath; (-ug)- gvala, a. shining, radiant, splendid (on, in, with, --°ree;).
sāṃkarya n. [samkara] mixture; confusion; -kalp-ika, a. (î) based on or pro duced by will or imagination (samkalpa); -kritya, m. pat. from Samkriti: -½âyana, m. pat. from Sâmkritya: î, f. N. of a mendi cant nun; -krandan-i, m. son of Indra (sam krandana), pat. of the monkey Vâlin; -krâm ika, a. [samkrama] passing over to others (qualities); -kshep-ika, a. [samkshepa] briefly expressed, concise.
sugama a. easy to traverse; easy of access; easy to find or understand, obvious; m. N. of a Dânava; -gamana, a. easy of access; going well; -galâ, f. (fair-neck), N.; -gávya, n. possession of good cattle (RV.); -gâ&ndot;ga, N. of a palace; -g&asharp;tu, m. welfare; -gâtuy&asharp;, f. desire for prosperity: in. (y&asharp;) through -(RV.1); -gâtra, a. (î) fair-limbed: î, f. beautiful woman; -gîtha, m. N. of a Rishi; -gú, a.having good cattle (V.); -guna, a. virtuous; -gun-in, a. having great merits; (sú)-gupta, pp. well-guarded or looked after; well-concealed, kept very secret (C.): -m, ad. (C.) very carefully; very se cretly: -lekha, m. very secret letter; -gupti, f. great secrecy: -m â-dhâ, observe great se crecy; -guptî-kri, guard carefully; -guru, a. very grave (crime); -gûdha, pp. well-con cealed: -m, ad. very secretly; -grihin, a. well-housed (bird); -grihîta,pp. held firmly; adhered to; well practised or learnt; used auspiciously: -nâman, -nâmadheya, a. bear ing (a well-uttered=) an auspicious name; -gehinî, f. good mistress of the house; -gop&asharp;, m. good protector(RV.); a. well-guarded (RV.); -graha, a. having a good handle; easy to obtain; easy to understand; -grîva, m. (beautiful-necked) N. of a horse of Krish na; N. of a monkey-chief (brother of Vâlin, confederate of Râma); -grîshma, m. beau tiful summer; -ghata, a. easy to accomplish; -ghatita, pp. well put together, -devised: -ghatita, pp. id.; -ghana, a. very dense (forest); -ghora, a. very dreadful; -ghosha, a. making a loud noise; having a pleasant sound; m. N. of Nakula's conch; N. of an Agrahâra.
sūrya m. [svar] sun; sun-god; N. (C.): -ka, m. N.; -kara, m. sunbeam; -kân ta, m. (beloved of the sun), sun-stone, sun crystal; -kandra, m. N.; -tapas, m. N. of a sage; -tegas, n. sunshine;(s&usharp;rya)-tvak, a. having a sun-bright skin or covering (RV.); -pâda, m. sunbeam; -putra, m. son of the sun, pat. of the Asvins, planet Saturn, and Yama: î, f. daughter of the sun, the Yamu nâ; -prabha, a. sun-bright; m. N. among others of the king after whom the eighth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara is called: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -prabhava, a. sprung from the sun (race); -prabhîya, a. belonging to king Sûryaprabha; -prasishya, m. ep. of Ganaka; -bimba, m. or n. disc of the sun; -mandala, n. id.; -matî, f. N. of a princess; -ratha, m. car of the sun; -rasmi, m. sun beam; -ruk, f. sunlight; -vamsa, m. solar race of kings; -vams-ya, a.belonging to the solar race; -varman, m. N. of a Dâmara; -vâra, m. Sunday; -sishya, m. ep. of Yâgña valkya: -½antevâsin, m. ep. of Ganaka; -samkrama, m. entrance of the sun into a new sign of the zodiac; -samkrânti, f. id.; -siddhânta, m. T. of an astronomical trea tise ascribed to the Sun; -suta, m. (son of the sun) planet Saturn; the monkey Sugrîva; -stuti, f., -stotra, n. praise of the sun.
skanda m. hopper (in trina-skandá, grasshopper, N.); effusion, dropping (of, g., --°ree;); destruction; Assailer, god of war, leader of the divine hosts and chief of the demons of disease which attack children, possessed of eternal youth (hence Kumâra), son of Siva or Agni, brought up by Krittikâ (hence Kârtti keya): -ka, n. (?) a metre: -grâma, m. N. of a village; -gupta, m. N. of a prince and of an elephant-keeper;-gananî, f. Skanda's mother, Pârvatî; -tâ, f., -tva, n. condition of Skanda; -dâsa, m. N. of a merchant.
sthāna n. C.: standing (also Br.); continuance, stay; storage (of goods); steadi- ness (of troops); continued existence; middle state (opp. gain or loss); being in or on (lc., --°ree;); state, condition (also U.; --°ree; a. being in a state of); perfect tranquillity (rare); station, position, rank (common mg.); V., C.: abode, dwelling, place, spot, locality, site (ord. mg.); C.: stead, place (lc. instead of, in place of, g., --°ree;); receptacle, of (g., --°ree;); right or suit able place; region, sphere of a god (earth, sky, heaven); stronghold (rare); place in which a sound is produced, organ of speech (gr.); pitch, key of the voice (high, loud, etc.); constituent of a kingdom (army, treasury, capital, territory); case, occurrence; occa sion, of or for (g., --°ree;); cause or object of (g., --°ree;; also said of persons); topic: --°ree; a. tak ing the place of, representing; replaced or represented by: lc. sthâne, instead of (g., --°ree;); in the right place, seasonably, justly; sthâne sthâne, in different places, here and there; ripusthâneshu vrit, occupy the position of an enemy; vînâ kyutâ sthânât, a lute out of tune; vilokana-sthâna-gata, occupying the place of eyes; mânyasthâna, object of regard.
hanu f. [crusher: √ han] jaw: -mat, a. having strong jaws; m. N. of a monkey chief, son of the god of wind, ally of Râma on his expedition to La&ndot;kâ for the recovery of Sîtâ; N. of various men;û-mat, m. Hanumat, the monkey chief.
hari a. [√ 3. hri, be yellow] tawny, yellow (esp. of horses); greenish (rare, C.); m. (C.) steed (sp. of Indra); lion; monkey; N. of Indra and (more commonly) of Vishnu-Krishna; N. of various men;(hári) kesa, a. tawny-haired; -gana, m. troop of horses; N.; -ghosha, m. N.; -kandana, m. (?) Indra's sandal tree (one of the five trees in Indra's paradise); kind of sandal tree; n. yellow sandal; -kandra, m. N.; -kâpa, m. n. Indra's bow, rainbow.
harivat V. a. attended or drawn by tawny steeds (Indra); connected etc. with the yellow Soma; containing the word hari; -vara, a. best of monkeys; m. N. of a king; n. N. of a town; (hári)-varpas, a.having a golden aspect (earth, Indra, RV.2); -vâha na, a. drawn by tawny steeds; m. ep. of Indra: -dis, f. Indra's quarter, east; (hári) vrata, a. whose work is tawny (Agni; RV.1); -sayana, n. Vishnu's sleep; -sarman, m. N.; -sikha, m. N.
haryakṣa a. tawny-eyed (V., C.); m. (C.) lion; monkey; N. of a demon of disease.
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indradyumna bhāllaveya vaiyāghrapadya Is mentioned as a teacher who with others was unable to agree as to the nature of Agni Vaiśvānara, and who was instructed by Aśvapati Kaikeya. As Bhāllaveya he is cited several times in the śatapatha Brāhmana on ritual points.
kapi ‘Monkey,’ occurs only once in the Rigveda with reference to Vrsā-kapi, the ‘ Man-ape,’ in the dialogue of Indra and Indrānī in the presence of Vrsākapi. There the ape is termed the ‘ tawny ’ (harita). In the Atharvaveda the monkey is mentioned several times as hairy, and an enemy of dogs. That the ape was tamed appears from its position in the Vrsākapi hymn, and from the mention, in the Taittirīya Sam­hitā, of a Mayu as belonging to the forest. See also Mayu, Markata, and Purusa Hastin.
kārśakeyīputra (‘son of Kārśakeyī ’) is the name of a man mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadā­ranyaka Upanisad. In the Kānva recension he is a pupil of Prācīnayogīputra; in the Mādhyamdina recension his teacher’s name is Prāśnīputra Asurivāsin.
kekaya Is the name of a tribe which in later days, and probably also in Vedic times, was settled in the north-west, between the Sindhu (Indus) and Vitastā. In the Vedic texts the Kekayas are mentioned indirectly only in the name of their prince Aśvapati Kaikeya.
kṣatriya As the origin of caste, the relation of the castes, intermarriage, and cognate matters may most conveniently be discussed under Varna, this article will be confined to deter­mining, as far as possible, the real character of the class called Ksatriyas, or collectively Ksatra. The evidence of the Jātakas points to the word Khattiya denoting the members of the old Aryan nobility who had led the tribes to conquest, as well as those families of the aborigines who had managed to maintain their princely status in spite of the conquest. In the epic also the term Ksatriya seems to include these persons, but it has probably a wider signification than Khattiya, and would cover all the royal military vassals and feudal chiefs, expressing, in fact, pretty much the same as the barones of early English history. Neither in the Jātakas nor in the epic is the term co-extensive with all warriors; the army contains many besides the Ksatriyas, who are the leaders or officers, rather than the rank and file.In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas the Ksatriya stands as a definite member of the social body, distinct from the priest, the subject people, and the slaves, Brāhmana, Vaiśya, and Sūdra. It is significant that Rājanya is a variant to Ksatriya, and an earlier one. Hence it is reasonable to suppose that the Ksatriya and Rājanya are both of similar origin, being princely or connected with royalty. Moreover, the early use of Ksatriya in the Rigveda is exclusively con-nected with royal authority or divine authority. It is impossible to say exactly what persons would be in¬cluded in the term Ksatriya. That it covered the royal house and the various branches of the royal family may be regarded as certain. It, no doubt, also included the nobles and their families: this would explain the occasional opposition of Rājanya and Ksatriya, as in the Aitareya Brāhmana,8 where a Rājanya asks a Ksatriya for a place for sacrifice (deυa-yajana). Thus, when strictly applied, Ksatriya would have a wider denotation than Rājanya. As a rule, however, the two expressions are identical, and both are used as evidence in what follows. That Ksatriya ever included the mere fighting man has not been proved: in the Rigveda9 and later10 others than Ksatriyas regularly fought; but possibly if the nobles had retinues as the kings had, Ksatriya would embrace those retainers who had military functions. The term did not apply to all members of the royal entourage; for example, the Grāmanī was usually a Vaiśya. The connexion of the Ksatriyas with the Brahmins was very close. The prosperity of the two is repeatedly asserted to be indissolubly associated, especially in the relation of king (Rājan) and domestic priest (Purohita). Sometimes there was feud between Ksatriya and Brahmin. His management of the sacrifice then gave the Brahmin power to ruin the Ksatriya by embroiling him with the people or with other Ksatriyas. Towards the common people, on the other hand, the Ksa¬triya stood in a relation of well-nigh unquestioned superiority. There are, however, references to occasional feuds between the people and the nobles, in which no doubt the inferior numbers of the latter were compensated by their superior arms and prowess. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Vaiśya is described as tributary to another (anyasya bali-krt), to be devoured by another (anyasyādya), and to be oppressed at will (yathākāma-jyeya). Probably these epithets apply most strictly to the relation of the king and his people, but the passage shows that the people were greatly at the mercy of the nobles. No doubt the king granted to them the right, which may have been hereditary, to be supported by the common people, whose feudal superiors they thus became. In return for these privileges the Kṣatriyas had probably duties of protection to perform, as well as some judicial functions, to judge from an obscure passage of the Kāthaka Samhitā. The main duty of the Ksatriya in the small states of the Vedic period was readiness for war. The bow is thus his special attribute, just as the goad is that of the agriculturist; for the bow is the main weapon of the Veda. Whether the Ksatriyas paid much attention to mental occupations is uncertain. In the latest stratum of the Brāhmana literature there are references to learned princes like Janaka of Videha, who is said to have become a Brahmin (brahmā), apparently in the sense that he had the full knowledge which a Brahmin possessed. Other learned Ksatriyas of this period were Pravāhana Jaivali, Aśvapati Kaikeya, and Ajātaśatru Garbe, Grierson, and others believe they are justified in holding the view that the Ksatriyas developed a special philosophy of their own as opposed to Brahminism, which appears later as Bhakti, or Faith. On the other hand, there is clear evidence that the opinion of Ksatriyas on such topics were held in little respect, and it must be remembered that to attribute wisdom to a king was a delicate and effective piece of flattery. There are earlier references to royal sages (rājan- yarsi) but it is very doubtful if much stress can be laid on them, and none can be laid on the later tradition of Sāyana. Again, the Nirukta gives a tradition relating how Devāpi, a king’s son, became the Purohita of his younger brother Samtanu; but it is very doubtful if the story can really be traced with Sieg in the Rigveda itself. In any case, the stories refer only to a few selected Ksatriyas of high rank, while there is no evidence that the average Ksatriya was concerned with intellectual pursuits. Nor is there any reference to Ksatriyas engaging in agriculture or in trade or commerce. It may be assumed that the duties of administration and war were adequate to absorb his atten¬tion. On the other hand, we do hear of a Rājanya as a lute player and singer at the Aśvamedha or horse sacrifice. Of the training and education of a Ksatriya we have no record; presumably, as in fact if not in theory later on, he was mainly instructed in the art of war, the science of the bow, and the rudimentary administrative functions which would devolve on him. At this early state of the development of the nobility which appears to be represented in the Rigveda, it was probably not unusual or impossible for a Vaiśya to become a Ksatriya; at least, this assumption best explains the phrase ‘claiming falsely a Ksatriya’s rank ’ (ksatriyam mithuyā dhārayantam). The king and the Ksatriyas must have stood in a particularly close relation. The former being the Ksatriya par excellence, it is to him rather than to the ordinary Ksatriya that we must refer passages like that in the Satapatha Brāhmana, where it is said that the Ksatriya, with the consent of the clansmen, gives a settlement to a man : clearly a parallel to the rule found among many peoples that the chief, but only with the consent of the people, can make a grant of unoccupied land. In the same Brāhmana it is said that a Ksatriya consecrates a Ksatriya, a clear reference, as the commentator explains, to the practice of the old king consecrating the prince (kumāra) who is to succeed him ; and again, the Ksatriya and the Purohita are regarded as alone complete in contrast with other people, the parallel with the Purohita here suggesting that the Ksatriya par excellence is meant. On the other hand, the king is sometimes con¬trasted with the Rājanya. The Sūtra literature contains elaborate rules for the education and occupations of Ksatriyas, but their contents cannot always be traced in the Brāhmana literature, and their value is questionable.
jana śārkarākṣya (* descendant of Sarkarāksa ’) is mentioned as a teacher in the śatapatha Brāhmana (x. 6, 1, 1. et seq.) and the Chāndogya Upanisad (v. 11, 1; 15, 1). He was a contemporary of Aśvapati Kaikeya, and of Aruna Aupaveśi and his son Uddālaka Aruni.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
māṇḍūkeya ‘Descendant of Māndūka,’ is the patronymic of several teachers in the Rigveda Áranyakas—viz., śūravīra, Hrasva, Dīrgha, Madhyama Prātībodhīputra. The Māṇ- dūkeyas also occur as a school in the Araṇyakas: a special form of the text of the Rigveda evidently appertained: to them.®
māyu Denotes the ‘lowing’ of a cow and the ‘bleating’ of a sheep or goat in the Rigveda, as well as the ‘chattering’ of a monkey in the Atharvaveda.
varṇa ‘Colour,’ is a common word in the Rigveda and later. A large number of colours are enumerated in Vedic literature, but it is not possible to deduce any clear information as to the accuracy with which the Vedic Indian distinguished colours, or as to the principle on which his distinctions werebased. The Rigveda seems to show that red or yellow colours were the most noticed, but this may be accidental. 'Black' or ‘dark’ is denoted by krsna, 'white' or ‘light-coloured’ by śukla or śveta. 'Black' seems to be meant in one passage of the Rigveda by śyenī also. 'Dark-grey' or 'dusky' is expressed by śyāma. The sense of nīla is doubtful, perhaps ‘dark-blue,’ bluish-black.’ The series of words hart, harina, harit, harita, seems, on the whole, to denote 'yellow,' but 'green' is also a possible rendering, since the epithet is used of the frog. ‘Brown’ is certainly the meaning of babhru, which is used of the Vibhītaka nut (see Akça). ‘Reddish-brown’ seems to be the tinge implied by kapila ('monkey-coloured'), while piūgala appears to denote a shade of brown in which yellow pre-dominates, ‘tawny.’ ‘Yellow ’ is expressed by pita as well as pāiidu. A garment of saffron (māhārajana) is mentioned in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. Rudhira and lohita are red, while aruna is ‘ruddy.’ Kalmāsa means ‘spotted,’ and śilpa dappled,’ while mingled shades like aruna-piśañga, ‘reddish brown,’ also occur.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vaiṭṭabhaṭīputra Is the name in the Kāṇva recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad of a teacher, a pupil of Kārśakeyīputra, Cf. Vaidabhrtīputra.
śitibāhu aiṣakṛta naimiśi Is mentioned as a sacrificer in the Jaiminīya Brāhmaṇa, where it is recorded that a monkey ran off with his sacrificial cake.
saṃvatsara ‘Year,’ is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Its duration was, according to the concurrent evidence of the Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, 360 days, divided into months, being, no doubt, roughly a lunar synodic year, which, however, it exceeded in length by days. As a solar year it appears only in the Nidāna Sūtra of the Sāmaveda, where the sun is stated to spend days in each of the Nakṣatras. The year being obviously out of harmony with the solar year (whether sidereal or tropical), efforts were certainly made to effect an assimilation of the natural and the accepted year. As has been seen (see Māsa), the evidence goes strongly to show that the intercalation was not an easy matter in the Brāh¬maṇa period, though there are traces of what may be re¬garded as a five-yearly or six-yearly intercalation. But there is no conclusive evidence that these periods were really observed. Zimmer,4 indeed, considers that the evidence required is afforded by the lists of the years, which are sometimes enumerated as five : Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Idvatsara, and Vatsara ;δ or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Iduvatsara, Vatsara;® or Samvatsara, Idāvatsara, Iduvat- sara, Idvatsara, Vatsara;7 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Anuvatsara, Udvatsara;8 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Anuvatsara, Idvatsara.9 But it must be noted not merely that the names vary considerably, but that four only are mentioned in some places,10 in others11 three, in others12 two, and in yet others13 six. Moreover, in none of these enumera¬tions is there any reference to the names being connected with a system of intercalation. It is most probable that here we have no more that a mere series of priestly variations of Vatsara, based on the older and more genuine Saipvatsara and Parivatsara as variants of the simple Vatsara, ‘year.’ The key to the invention of the series is probably to be found in passages like that of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, where the several Cāturmāsya ( four-monthly ’) sacrifices are equated with the different years. Particularly unjustifiable is the attempt of Zimmer to see in the two-year series a series of two years of 354 days each, with an intercalary month in the second; for the year of 354 days, as such, is not known to have existed before the Sūtra period. Zimmer ® also finds an attempt at intercalation in the famous 12 days in which the Rbhus are said to have slept in the house of Agohya. He thinks that they represent twelve days added at the winter solstice to equate the lunar year of 354 days and the solar year of 366 days ; and from the rever¬ence paid in German antiquity to the ‘ 12 nights,’ he infers that this mode of intercalation is Indo-Germanic. There can be little doubt that this view is wrong, and that the 12 days are merely the ' reflexion of the year ’ (samvatsarasya pratima) in the sense that they represent the twelve months, and have no relation to chronology at all. A reference to the use of Samvatsara alone as the fifth year of the cycle is seen by Shamasastry in the peculiar dating of certain notices in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra, but this view is improbable.
samudra (Literally ‘gathering of waters’), ‘ocean,’ is a frequent word in the Rigveda and later. It is of importance in so far as it indicates that the Vedic Indians knew the sea. This is, indeed, denied by Vivien de Saint Martin, but not only do Max Muller and Lassen assert it, but even Zimmer, who is inclined to restrict their knowledge of the sea as far as possible, admits it in one passage of the Rigveda, and of course later. He points out that the ebb and flow of the sea are unknown, that the mouths of the Indus are never mentioned, that fish is not a known diet in the Rigveda (cf. Matsya), and that in many places Samudra is metaphorically used, as of the two oceans, the lower and the upper oceans, etc. In other passages he thinks that Samudra denotes the river Indus when it receives all its Panjab tributaries. It is probable that this is to circumscribe too narrowly the Vedic knowledge of the ocean, which was almost inevitable to people who knew the Indus. There are references to the treasures of the ocean, perhaps pearls or the gains of trade, and the story of Bhujyu seems to allude to marine navigation. That there was any sea trade with Babylon in Vedic times cannot be proved : the stress laid on the occurrence in the Hebrew Book of Kings of qof and iukhiīm, ‘monkey’ (kapi) and ‘ peacock,’ is invalidated by the doubtful date of the Book of Kings. There is, besides, little reason to assume an early date for the trade that no doubt developed later, perhaps about 700 B.C. In the later texts Samudra repeatedly means the sea.
sālāvṛka Is found twice in the Rigveda apparently denoting the ‘hyaena’ or 'wild dog.’ This sense also seems appropriate in the later narrative of the destruction of the Yatis by Indra, who is said to have handed them over to the Sālāvṛkas. Sālā- vrkeya is a variant form of the same word, meaning literally ‘ descendant of a Sālāvṛka.’ The feminine is Sālāvrkī, but in the Taittirīya Samhitā it appears as Salāvṛkī. Cf Tarakṣu.
svara Denotes in the Upaniṣads the sound of a vowel: these are described as being ghosavant, ‘sonant,’ and also as balavant, ‘ uttered with force.’ The precise word for a mute is sparśa, ‘ contact,’ while ūsman denotes a ‘sibilant,’ and svara a ‘vowel,’ in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Áraṇyakas. The semivowels are there denoted by anta-sthā (‘intermediate’) or aksara. Another division in the Aitareya Aranyaka is into ghosa, ūsman, and vyañjana, apparently ‘vowels,’ ‘ sibilants,’ and ‘consonants’ respectively. Ghosa elsewhere in that Aran­yaka seems to have the general sense of ‘sounds.’ The Taittirlya Upaniṣad refers to mātrā, a ‘ mora ’; bala, ‘ force ’ of utterance, and varna, ‘letter,’ an expression found else­where in the explanation of om, as compacted of a + u -f- in. The Aitareya Araṇyaka and the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka recognize the three forms of the Rigveda text as pratrnna, nirbhuja, and'ubhayain-antarena, denoting respectively the Sarphitā, Pada, and Krama Pāthas of the Rigveda. The same authorities recognize the importance of the distinction of the cerebral and dental n and s, and refer to the Māṇdūkeyas’ mode of recitation. They also discuss Sandhi, the euphonic ‘combination’ of letters. The Prātiśākhyas of the several Samhitās develop in detail the grammatical terminology, and Yāska's Nirukta contains a good deal of grammatical material. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa distinguishes the genders, and the Pañcaviφśa Brāhmana the division of words in the Sāman recitation.
hastin ‘Having a hand,’ with Mrga, ‘beast,’ denotes in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda the ‘elephant.’ Later the adj'ective alone comes to mean ‘elephant.’ The animal was famed for its strength as well as its virility. It is mentioned with man and monkey as one of the beasts that take hold by the hand (hastādāna), as opposed to those that take hold by the mouth (mukhādāna). It was tamed, as the expression Hastipa,* elephant-keeper,’ shows, and tame elephants were used to catch others (see Vāraṇa). But there is no trace of its use in war, though Ktesias and Megasthenes both record such use for their times. The Atharvaveda alludes to its being pestered by mosquitoes.
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areḍatā manasā tac chakeyam # TS.1.6.3.2. See next.
idaṃ śakeyaṃ yad idaṃ karomi (AVP. kṛṇomi svāhā) # AVP.15.9.6; KS.38.12; TB.3.7.5.1; Apś.4.4.1; 16.1.3. Cf. idaṃ cin me, and tac chakeyam.
idaṃ cin me kṛtam asti # Kauś.89.17a. Cf. under idaṃ śakeyam.
tac chakeyam # VS.1.5; 4.4; TS.1.2.1.2; 5.10.3; 6.1.1.9; KS.2.1,4; 4.14; 23.1; śB.1.1.1.2; 3.1.3.23; TB.1.5.5.2,4,5,7; 3.7.4.7,8; TA.4.41.4 (bis); KA.1.198A; 1.198B; 1.199; Aś.8.14.6; śś.4.8.3; Apś.4.3.4; 8.4.3; Kauś.56.6; SMB.1.6.9--13; JG.1.12 (quater). See tañ śakeyam, and cf. idaṃ śakeyam.
tañ śakeyam # MS.1.2.1: 10.10; 1.4.1: 47.3; 4.9.24 (quater): 137.8,10,11,13; Mś.1.7.2.24. See under tac chakeyam.
tasya te pavitrapate pavitreṇa yajñaṃ śakeyam # MS.3.6.3: 63.1.
tena śakeyam # MS.4.9.24 (ter): 137.9,10,12; TB.1.5.5.2,4,5,7; Aś.8.14.6; Apś.4.3.4; 8.4.3; Mś.1.7.2.24.
devānāṃ tvā pitṛṇām (KA.Apś. pitṝṇām) anumato bhartuṃ śakeyam # TA.4.8.4; 5.7.8; KA.2.128; Apś.15.10.7. P: devānām Mś.4.3.19.
bhartuṃ vaḥ śakeyam # Apś.6.19.7.
yad ud udvata un nivataḥ śakeyam # Kauś.3.8; 137.40. Cf. un nivata.
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kārtikeyathe original instructor of the Kātantra or Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Grammar, to Śarvavarman who composed the Sūtras according to inspiration received by him. The Kātantra, hence, has also got the name Kaumara Vyākaraṇa.
māṇḍūkeyaname of an ancient writer of a Pratisakhya work referred to in the Rk Pratisakhya, confer, compare R.Pr.I.2. मातृकावर्ण letters of the alphabet. See अक्षरसमाम्नाय.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kumāra(1)Kārtikeya who is believed to havegiven inspiration to the Katantra-sūtrakāra to write the Kātantra-sūtras; (2) named Viṣṇumitra who wrote a commentary on the ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य,
kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa(1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also.
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agra-dagdhām which was previously burnt (by the monkey soldier Hanumān)SB 9.10.16
agra-dagdhām which was previously burnt (by the monkey soldier Hanumān)SB 9.10.16
ańgadaḥ the monkey commander named AńgadaSB 9.10.42-43
aśvatara donkeysSB 10.54.8
daṃṣṭrī monkeys and dogsSB 10.8.25
druma-vat like trees (as monkeys jump from one tree to another, the conditioned soul transmigrates from one body to another)SB 5.14.32
druma-vat like trees (as monkeys jump from one tree to another, the conditioned soul transmigrates from one body to another)SB 5.14.32
drumeṣu in the trees (or in houses standing like trees in which monkeys jump from one branch to another)SB 5.13.18
gandhamāda by Gandhamāda, another monkeySB 9.10.19
gaura-mukhaiḥ on white-faced monkeysSB 8.10.9
gaura-mukhaiḥ on white-faced monkeysSB 8.10.9
guha-praharaṇa by the weapons of Kārttikeya, the son of Lord ŚivaSB 5.20.19
guha-praharaṇa by the weapons of Kārttikeya, the son of Lord ŚivaSB 5.20.19
guhaḥ KārttikeyaSB 8.10.28
guham KārttikeyaSB 10.51.16
guham of the name KārttikeyaSB 3.1.30
guru-patnīḥ Kaikeyī and other stepmothersSB 9.10.44
guru-patnīḥ Kaikeyī and other stepmothersSB 9.10.44
harīndra-anujābhyām accompanied by the king of the monkeys, Hanumān, and His younger brother LakṣmaṇaSB 9.10.4
harīndra-anujābhyām accompanied by the king of the monkeys, Hanumān, and His younger brother LakṣmaṇaSB 9.10.4
kaikeyīm the princess of KaikeyaSB 10.58.56
kāleyaiḥ with the KālakeyasSB 8.10.32-34
kapayaḥ the monkeysSB 9.11.20
kapi of the monkeysSB 10.47.17
kapi-indra of powerful monkeysSB 9.10.16
kapi-indra of powerful monkeysSB 9.10.16
kapibhiḥ with the monkey chiefsSB 9.10.12
kapiḥ monkeySB 3.10.24
kapiḥ yathā exactly as done to a monkeySB 9.15.22
kapiḥ yathā exactly as done to a monkeySB 9.15.22
kapīnām like monkeysSB 1.18.45
keyā-patra the leaf of the keyā plantCC Madhya 15.209
keyā-patra the leaf of the keyā plantCC Madhya 15.209
khara donkeysSB 10.71.16
khara upon a donkeySB 10.42.28-31
kimpuruṣa an advanced race of monkeysSB 11.14.5-7
kimpuruṣān the monkey-shaped inhabitants of the Kimpuruṣa planetSB 2.10.37-40
kīśa-bālān the young monkeysSB 10.12.7-11
kīśa-bālān the young monkeysSB 10.12.7-11
kumāraḥ ca also Lord KārttikeyaSB 8.23.26-27
kumāraḥ ca also Lord KārttikeyaSB 8.23.26-27
kumāreṇa with KārttikeyaSB 8.23.20-21
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
māṇḍūkeyam to MāṇḍūkeyaSB 12.6.54-56
marka monkeysSB 7.14.9
markaiḥ by monkeysSB 3.21.44
markān to the monkeysSB 10.8.29
markaṭa like the monkeysSB 10.11.59
markaṭa of a monkeySB 4.2.12
markaṭa vairāgya a renounced life like that of a monkeyCC Antya 2.120
markaṭa vairāgya a renounced life like that of a monkeyCC Antya 2.120
markaṭa-utplavana with the jumping around of monkeysSB 10.14.61
markaṭa-utplavana with the jumping around of monkeysSB 10.14.61
markaṭa-vairāgya monkey renunciationCC Antya 6.14
markaṭa-vairāgya monkey renunciationCC Antya 6.14
CC Madhya 16.238
markaṭa-vairāgya monkey renunciationCC Madhya 16.238
markaṭāḥ monkeysSB 8.2.22
markāya unto a monkeySB 10.9.8
mṛgaiḥ the animals (monkeys)SB 11.29.4
nīla by the monkey named NīlaSB 9.10.19
niṣka-kaṇṭhyaḥ and having little keys and lockets hanging from their necksSB 10.5.11
niṣka-kaṇṭhyaḥ and having little keys and lockets hanging from their necksSB 10.5.11
paulomāḥ kālakeyāḥ ca the Paulomas and KālakeyasSB 6.6.33-36
paulomāḥ kālakeyāḥ ca the Paulomas and KālakeyasSB 6.6.33-36
paulomāḥ kālakeyāḥ ca the Paulomas and KālakeyasSB 6.6.33-36
plavaga-indra-sainyaiḥ with the help of the soldiers of the monkeysSB 9.10.12
plavaga-indra-sainyaiḥ with the help of the soldiers of the monkeysSB 9.10.12
plavaga-indra-sainyaiḥ with the help of the soldiers of the monkeysSB 9.10.12
pradyumna-guhayoḥ between Pradyumna and KārtikeyaSB 10.63.7
pradyumna-guhayoḥ between Pradyumna and KārtikeyaSB 10.63.7
ṛkṣaiḥ on red-faced monkeysSB 8.10.9
sa-sutaḥ together with his son (Kārtikeya, the general of the demigods' army)SB 10.63.6
sa-sutaḥ together with his son (Kārtikeya, the general of the demigods' army)SB 10.63.6
saḥ the monkeySB 10.8.29
śākhā-mṛgaiḥ with monkeysSB 4.6.19-20
śākhā-mṛgaiḥ with monkeysSB 4.6.19-20
sālāvṛkāṇām of monkeys, jackals and dogsSB 8.9.10
skanda daraśana visiting Lord Skanda (Kārttikeya, son of Lord Śiva)CC Madhya 9.21
skanda daraśana visiting Lord Skanda (Kārttikeya, son of Lord Śiva)CC Madhya 9.21
skandaḥ KārtikeyaBG 10.24
SB 10.63.15
SB 11.16.22
skandam Lord Skanda (Kārttikeya)SB 10.79.11-15
sugrīva by the monkey named SugrīvaSB 9.10.19
sugrīvaḥ the monkey king SugrīvaSB 11.12.3-6
tāḥ they, headed by Kauśalyā and KaikeyīSB 9.10.47
taiḥ with the monkeysSB 10.12.7-11
taiḥ with the monkeysSB 10.12.7-11
tasya of him (Maṇḍūkeya)SB 12.6.54-56
tat-sutaḥ the son of MāṇḍūkeyaSB 12.6.57
tat-sutaḥ the son of MāṇḍūkeyaSB 12.6.57
tatra api in that condition (in the society of human beings descended from monkeys)SB 5.14.31
tatra api in that condition (in the society of human beings descended from monkeys)SB 5.14.31
vānara the monkey (Hanumān)SB 10.58.13-14
vānara-indra of the great chiefs of the monkeysSB 9.10.17
vānara-indra of the great chiefs of the monkeysSB 9.10.17
vānara-jāteḥ of the society of monkeys, or the descendants of the monkeySB 5.14.30
vānara-jāteḥ of the society of monkeys, or the descendants of the monkeySB 5.14.30
vānara-sainya monkey soldiersCC Madhya 15.32
vānara-sainya monkey soldiersCC Madhya 15.32
vānaraḥ the monkeySB 5.14.32
vānarān the monkeys, which are all debauchees with no good characterSB 5.13.17
viharan enjoying like monkeysSB 5.14.31
vinoda-mṛgam just like a dancing monkeySB 5.1.37
vinoda-mṛgam just like a dancing monkeySB 5.1.37
agra-dagdhām which was previously burnt (by the monkey soldier Hanumān)SB 9.10.16
ańgadaḥ the monkey commander named AńgadaSB 9.10.42-43
harīndra-anujābhyām accompanied by the king of the monkeys, Hanumān, and His younger brother LakṣmaṇaSB 9.10.4
tatra api in that condition (in the society of human beings descended from monkeys)SB 5.14.31
aśvatara donkeysSB 10.54.8
kīśa-bālān the young monkeysSB 10.12.7-11
paulomāḥ kālakeyāḥ ca the Paulomas and KālakeyasSB 6.6.33-36
kumāraḥ ca also Lord KārttikeyaSB 8.23.26-27
agra-dagdhām which was previously burnt (by the monkey soldier Hanumān)SB 9.10.16
daṃṣṭrī monkeys and dogsSB 10.8.25
skanda daraśana visiting Lord Skanda (Kārttikeya, son of Lord Śiva)CC Madhya 9.21
druma-vat like trees (as monkeys jump from one tree to another, the conditioned soul transmigrates from one body to another)SB 5.14.32
drumeṣu in the trees (or in houses standing like trees in which monkeys jump from one branch to another)SB 5.13.18
gandhamāda by Gandhamāda, another monkeySB 9.10.19
gaura-mukhaiḥ on white-faced monkeysSB 8.10.9
guha-praharaṇa by the weapons of Kārttikeya, the son of Lord ŚivaSB 5.20.19
guhaḥ KārttikeyaSB 8.10.28
guham of the name KārttikeyaSB 3.1.30
guham KārttikeyaSB 10.51.16
pradyumna-guhayoḥ between Pradyumna and KārtikeyaSB 10.63.7
guru-patnīḥ Kaikeyī and other stepmothersSB 9.10.44
harīndra-anujābhyām accompanied by the king of the monkeys, Hanumān, and His younger brother LakṣmaṇaSB 9.10.4
plavaga-indra-sainyaiḥ with the help of the soldiers of the monkeysSB 9.10.12
kapi-indra of powerful monkeysSB 9.10.16
vānara-indra of the great chiefs of the monkeysSB 9.10.17
vānara-jāteḥ of the society of monkeys, or the descendants of the monkeySB 5.14.30
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
kaikeyīm the princess of KaikeyaSB 10.58.56
paulomāḥ kālakeyāḥ ca the Paulomas and KālakeyasSB 6.6.33-36
kāleyaiḥ with the KālakeyasSB 8.10.32-34
niṣka-kaṇṭhyaḥ and having little keys and lockets hanging from their necksSB 10.5.11
kapayaḥ the monkeysSB 9.11.20
kapi-indra of powerful monkeysSB 9.10.16
kapi of the monkeysSB 10.47.17
kapibhiḥ with the monkey chiefsSB 9.10.12
kapiḥ monkeySB 3.10.24
kapiḥ yathā exactly as done to a monkeySB 9.15.22
kapīnām like monkeysSB 1.18.45
keyā-patra the leaf of the keyā plantCC Madhya 15.209
khara upon a donkeySB 10.42.28-31
khara donkeysSB 10.71.16
kimpuruṣa an advanced race of monkeysSB 11.14.5-7
kimpuruṣān the monkey-shaped inhabitants of the Kimpuruṣa planetSB 2.10.37-40
kīśa-bālān the young monkeysSB 10.12.7-11
kumāraḥ ca also Lord KārttikeyaSB 8.23.26-27
kumāreṇa with KārttikeyaSB 8.23.20-21
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
māṇḍūkeyam to MāṇḍūkeyaSB 12.6.54-56
marka monkeysSB 7.14.9
markaiḥ by monkeysSB 3.21.44
markān to the monkeysSB 10.8.29
markaṭa of a monkeySB 4.2.12
markaṭa like the monkeysSB 10.11.59
markaṭa-utplavana with the jumping around of monkeysSB 10.14.61
markaṭa-vairāgya monkey renunciationCC Madhya 16.238
markaṭa vairāgya a renounced life like that of a monkeyCC Antya 2.120
markaṭa-vairāgya monkey renunciationCC Antya 6.14
markaṭāḥ monkeysSB 8.2.22
markāya unto a monkeySB 10.9.8
śākhā-mṛgaiḥ with monkeysSB 4.6.19-20
mṛgaiḥ the animals (monkeys)SB 11.29.4
vinoda-mṛgam just like a dancing monkeySB 5.1.37
gaura-mukhaiḥ on white-faced monkeysSB 8.10.9
nīla by the monkey named NīlaSB 9.10.19
niṣka-kaṇṭhyaḥ and having little keys and lockets hanging from their necksSB 10.5.11
guru-patnīḥ Kaikeyī and other stepmothersSB 9.10.44
keyā-patra the leaf of the keyā plantCC Madhya 15.209
paulomāḥ kālakeyāḥ ca the Paulomas and KālakeyasSB 6.6.33-36
plavaga-indra-sainyaiḥ with the help of the soldiers of the monkeysSB 9.10.12
pradyumna-guhayoḥ between Pradyumna and KārtikeyaSB 10.63.7
guha-praharaṇa by the weapons of Kārttikeya, the son of Lord ŚivaSB 5.20.19
ṛkṣaiḥ on red-faced monkeysSB 8.10.9
sa-sutaḥ together with his son (Kārtikeya, the general of the demigods' army)SB 10.63.6
saḥ the monkeySB 10.8.29
vānara-sainya monkey soldiersCC Madhya 15.32
plavaga-indra-sainyaiḥ with the help of the soldiers of the monkeysSB 9.10.12
śākhā-mṛgaiḥ with monkeysSB 4.6.19-20
sālāvṛkāṇām of monkeys, jackals and dogsSB 8.9.10
skanda daraśana visiting Lord Skanda (Kārttikeya, son of Lord Śiva)CC Madhya 9.21
skandaḥ KārtikeyaBG 10.24
skandaḥ KārtikeyaSB 10.63.15
skandaḥ KārtikeyaSB 11.16.22
skandam Lord Skanda (Kārttikeya)SB 10.79.11-15
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
sugrīva by the monkey named SugrīvaSB 9.10.19
sugrīvaḥ the monkey king SugrīvaSB 11.12.3-6
sa-sutaḥ together with his son (Kārtikeya, the general of the demigods' army)SB 10.63.6
tat-sutaḥ the son of MāṇḍūkeyaSB 12.6.57
tāḥ they, headed by Kauśalyā and KaikeyīSB 9.10.47
taiḥ with the monkeysSB 10.12.7-11
taiḥ with the monkeysSB 10.12.7-11
tasya of him (Maṇḍūkeya)SB 12.6.54-56
tat-sutaḥ the son of MāṇḍūkeyaSB 12.6.57
tatra api in that condition (in the society of human beings descended from monkeys)SB 5.14.31
markaṭa-utplavana with the jumping around of monkeysSB 10.14.61
markaṭa-vairāgya monkey renunciationCC Madhya 16.238
markaṭa vairāgya a renounced life like that of a monkeyCC Antya 2.120
markaṭa-vairāgya monkey renunciationCC Antya 6.14
vānara-jāteḥ of the society of monkeys, or the descendants of the monkeySB 5.14.30
vānara-indra of the great chiefs of the monkeysSB 9.10.17
vānara the monkey (Hanumān)SB 10.58.13-14
vānara-sainya monkey soldiersCC Madhya 15.32
vānaraḥ the monkeySB 5.14.32
vānarān the monkeys, which are all debauchees with no good characterSB 5.13.17
druma-vat like trees (as monkeys jump from one tree to another, the conditioned soul transmigrates from one body to another)SB 5.14.32
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
viharan enjoying like monkeysSB 5.14.31
vinoda-mṛgam just like a dancing monkeySB 5.1.37
kuru-sṛñjaya-kaikeya-vidarbha-yadu-kuntayaḥ of the members of the Kuru, Sṛñjaya, Kaikeya, Vidarbha, Yadu and Kunti clansSB 10.54.58
kapiḥ yathā exactly as done to a monkeySB 9.15.22
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aindri noun (masculine) a crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a descendant of Indra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Arjuna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Jayanta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the monkeyking Vālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15585/72933
ambikeya noun (masculine) name of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Gaṇeśa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26605/72933
amogha noun (masculine) a form of Agni name of a minister of an Asura king at war with Karttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sperm (?) the not failing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23169/72933
anala noun (masculine) (in astron.) the fiftieth year of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bile (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
digestive power (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gastric juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the eight Vasus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Vasudeva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Plumbago rosea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Plumbago Zeylanica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Semicarpus Anacardium (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the god of fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the letter r (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the number three (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the third lunar mansion or Kṛttikā (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 967/72933
avānara adjective free of monkeys
Frequency rank 45292/72933
aśmanagara noun (neuter) name of the town in which Kālakeya resided (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45638/72933
aśvapati noun (masculine) name of a Kaikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Madras and father of Sāvitri (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10576/72933
bhalluka noun (masculine) a bear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60591/72933
bhallūka noun (masculine) a bear a dog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a jackal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of shell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of Śyonāka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Bignonia Indica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11742/72933
bhavātmaja noun (masculine) name of Gaṇeśa or Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60601/72933
bhāskari noun (masculine) (patr. from bhās-kara) name of the planet Saturn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the monkey king Sugrīva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60723/72933
brahmaṇya noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the planet Saturn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Saccharum Munjia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mulberry tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15096/72933
bāhuka noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name assumed by Nala upon his becoming charioteer to king Ṛtuparṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vṛka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the arm (?)
Frequency rank 5622/72933
dadhimukha noun (masculine) a kind of snake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey; brother-in-law of Sugrīva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9841/72933
dadhivaktra noun (masculine) name of a monkey
Frequency rank 28304/72933
darīmukha noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Pratyekabuddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21432/72933
dhanada noun (masculine) a Guhyaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Barringtonia Acutangula (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a servant of Padmapāṇi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kubera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] a class of Pitṛs
Frequency rank 3566/72933
dhūmra noun (masculine) (in astrol.) the 28th Yoga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a camel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mixture of red and black (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mosquito incense (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a family of ṣis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey or bear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author and other men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of Skanda's attendants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purple (the colour) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
?
Frequency rank 10978/72933
divyacakṣus noun (masculine) a kind of perfume (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva
Frequency rank 35669/72933
durmukha noun (masculine) a horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a serpent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a general of the Asura Mahisha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince of the Pañcālas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rakṣas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Suhotra name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an astronomer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the 29th year of the cycle of Jupiter (lasting 60 years) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4769/72933
dvivida noun (masculine) name of a monkey (slain by Viṣṇu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6420/72933
dīrghadarśin noun (masculine) a bear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a vulture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a minister (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35695/72933
gandhamāda noun (masculine) the mountain Gandhamādana (?) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śvaphalka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34573/72933
gandhamādana noun (masculine) a large black bee (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (forming the division between Ilāvṛta and Bhadrāśva) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Rāvaṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sulfur [medic.] name of an antidote
Frequency rank 3356/72933
gaura noun (masculine) a kind of buffalo (Bos Gaurus) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of monkey a species of rice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Grislea tomentosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śuka name of a Yoga teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the planet Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
white (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
white mustard (the seed of which is used as a weight) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
yellowish (the colour) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9827/72933
gaurakhara noun (masculine) a wild donkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51654/72933
gaurīputra noun (masculine) Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34753/72933
gavaya noun (masculine) Bos gavaeus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Gayal (a species of ox) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5488/72933
gavākṣa noun (masculine) a window whose polygonal embrasure comprises an odd number of sides an air-hole (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
loop-hole (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a warrior (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
round window (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mesh of a shirt of mail (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5433/72933
gaṅgāsuta noun (masculine) name of Bhīṣma (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the deity Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27772/72933
golāṅgūla noun (masculine) a black kind of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9824/72933
gopuccha noun (masculine) a kind of drum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sort of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sort of necklace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19271/72933
hanumant noun (masculine) a particular sort of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Simia Sinica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 958/72933
hara noun (masculine) (in arithm.) a divisor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a stallion (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an ass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
division (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Siddha name of various authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the denominator of a fraction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mercury
Frequency rank 1175/72933
hari noun (masculine) a frog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a goose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a jackal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a parrot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of gods under Manu Tāmasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a peacock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a ray of light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a snake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular high number (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Akampaua (or Anukampana) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Garuḍa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Parājit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Parāvṛt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Tārakākṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a worshipper of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Brahmā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Indra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu-Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various authors and scholars (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Yama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śukra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Phaseolus Mungo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
steed (esp. of Indra) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Koil or Indian cuckoo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sign of the zodiac Leo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the wind or name of Vāyu (god of the wind) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
yellow or reddish brown or green (the colour) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
haritāla (Ḍhuṇḍhukanātha (2000), 48)
Frequency rank 235/72933
harin noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41370/72933
haryakṣa noun (masculine) a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a demon causing diseases (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Pṛthu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kubera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the zodiacal sign Leo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22755/72933
harī noun (feminine) name of the mythical mother of the monkeys (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22749/72933
hemakūṭa noun (masculine neuter) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the ranges of mountains dividing the known continent into 9 Varshas (situated north of Himālaya and forming with it the boundaries of the Kiṃnara or Kimpuruṣa Varsha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the Varṣa ruled by Kiṃpuruṣa
Frequency rank 8537/72933
indrajānu noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46917/72933
indrasūnu noun (masculine) name of the monkeyking Vālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the tree Terminalia Arjuna
Frequency rank 46945/72933
jyotirmukha noun (masculine) name of one of Rāmas monkey-followers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24042/72933
jāmbavant noun (masculine) name of a bear killed by Kṛṣṇa name of a monkey-chief (son of Pitā-maha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4504/72933
kaikeya noun (masculine) name of a son of Shivi (from whom the Kaikeyas are derived) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Dhṛṣṭaketu (king of the Kaikeyas and father of the five Kaikeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prince of the Kekayas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Kekayas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11603/72933
kalāpa noun (masculine neuter) a bundle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a bundle of arrows (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a clever and intelligent man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a peacock's tail (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a poem written in one metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a quiver with arrows (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a string of bells (worn by women round the waist) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a zone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an ornament in general (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
band (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a grammar also called Kātantra (supposed to be revealed by Kārttikeya to Śarvavarman) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a village (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quiver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the rope round an elephant's neck (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
totality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
whole body or collection of a number of separate things (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5428/72933
kapi noun (masculine) an ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Emblica Officinalis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera) Mucuna pruriens DC. monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a school (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Olibanum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
species of Karañja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 955/72933
kapila adjective brown (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
monkeycoloured (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
red-haired (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reddish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tawny (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4671/72933
karambha noun (masculine) cake or flour or meal mixed with curds (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dish of parched grain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
groats or coarsely-ground oats (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
kind of gruel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mixture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a brother of Rambha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a poisonous plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sakuni and father of Devarāta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Asura Mahisha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13430/72933
kaumudī noun (feminine) a festival in general (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
elucidation (the word Kaumudī being metaphorically used like other words of similar import at the end of grammatical commentaries and other explanatory works to imply that the book so designated throws much light on the subject of which it treats) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
festival in honour of Kārttikeya held on that day (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moonlight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moonshine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the day of full moon in the month Āśvina (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the day of full moon in the month Kārttika (sacred to Kārttikeya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the water-lily (Nymphaea esculenta) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 10924/72933
kesarin noun (masculine) a citron tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a variety of Moringa with red flowers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey; husband of the mother of Hanumat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an aquatic bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the plant Mesua ferrea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the plant Rottleria tinctoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4938/72933
khapura noun (neuter) a city built in the sky (as that of the Kālakeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a water-jar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Areca nut the Fata Morgana (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50830/72933
khara noun (masculine) a crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a Daitya or demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a donkey (so called from his cry) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a heron (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mule (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a place arranged for building a house upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a quadrangular mound of earth for receiving the sacrificial vessels (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a thorny plant (sort of prickly nightshade or perhaps Alhagi Maurorum) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an osprey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a fragrant substance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rakṣas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rudra (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an attendant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the 25th year of the sixty years cycle of Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the Asura Dhenuka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1485/72933
krathana noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17829/72933
krauñcadāraṇa noun (masculine) Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50415/72933
krauñcarandhra noun (neuter) the Krauñca pass (split by the deity Kārttikeya and by Paraśurāma) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50417/72933
krātha noun (masculine) killing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
murder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an attendant in Skanda's retinue (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
patr. from Kratha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[gramm.] verb krāthay
Frequency rank 14122/72933
kumbha noun (masculine) (archit.) the bell capital a jar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a measure of grain (equal to twenty Droṇas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular part of a bed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a religious exercise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an urn in which the bones of a dead person are collected (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bully (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
closing the nostrils and mouth so as to suspend breathing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ewer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flash or fancy man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (a son of Prahlāda and brother of Nikumbha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Mantra (pronounced over a weapon) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a plant (and also of its fruit) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of the nineteenth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the thirty-four Jātakas or former births of Śākyamuni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pitcher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small water-jar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the frontal globe or prominence on the upper part of the forehead of an elephant (there are two of these prominences which swell in the rutting season) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the paramour of a harlot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the root of a plant used in medicine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sign of the zodiac Aquarius (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
waterpot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
img/alchemy.bmp [medic.] a kind of pāṇḍuroga
Frequency rank 1077/72933
kumuda noun (masculine) (in music) name of a Dhruvaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of bdellium camphor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a confidant of king Unmattāvanti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-hero (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular comet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a poet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Gada (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an attendant of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the smaller Dvīpas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the elephant of the south-west or southern quarter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5747/72933
kumāra noun (masculine) a child (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a groom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a parrot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
boy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
heir-apparent associated in the kingdom with the reigning monarch (especially in theatrical language) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Prajāpati (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Agni (who is the author of some Vedic hymns) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Mañjuśrī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda (or Kārittikeya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the attendant of the twelfth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the author of a Dharmaśāstra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the Sindhu river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the nine names of Agni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
son (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the tree Capparis trifoliata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
youth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
kumārabandha
Frequency rank 937/72933
kumārasambhava noun (masculine) name of a poem by Kālidāsa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the birth of Skanda or Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49704/72933
kuñcikā noun (feminine) a bawd (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a key (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a plant bearing a red and black seed used as a weight (Abrus precatorius) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a reed (Trigonella foenum graecum) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fennel-flower seed (Nigella indica) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a commentary on the Mañjūshā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Trigonella foenum graecum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the branch or shoot of a bamboo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 15626/72933
kālakā noun (feminine) a kind of bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
daughter of Dakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a female evil spirit (mother of the Kālakeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15619/72933
kālamukha noun (masculine) a kind of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a fabulous people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49290/72933
kālā noun (feminine) Bignonia suaveolens (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Indigofera tinctoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ipomoea atropurpurea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Nigella indica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Dakṣa (the mother of the Kāleyas or Kālakeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a śakti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Physalis flexuosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Piper longum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rubia Munjista (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ruellia longifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fruit of the Kālā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8955/72933
kālī noun (feminine) a form of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of clay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a row or succession of black clouds (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a worm or animalcule generated in the acetous fermentation of milk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abuse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Bignonia suaveolens (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
black colour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
censure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defamation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Ipomoea Turpethum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ink or blacking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a female evil spirit (mother of the Kālakeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Satyavatī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
night (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the Mātṛs or divine mothers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the seven tongues or flames of fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the sixteen Vidyādevīs (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the plant Kālāñjanī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the wife of king Śāntanu and mother of Vyāsa or Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana (after her marriage she had a son Vicitravīrya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[min:] saurāṣṭrā
Frequency rank 4598/72933
kānanaukas noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19142/72933
kāpeya adjective belonging or peculiar to a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49115/72933
kārttikī noun (feminine) the day on which the moon stands in the constellation Kṛttikā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the night of full moon in the month Kārttika (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the night of new moon in the month Kārttika (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the śakti of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7290/72933
kīnāśa noun (masculine) a cultivator of the soil (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Yama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
niggard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14827/72933
kūrcikā noun (feminine) blossom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inspissated milk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
key (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
needle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
painting brush or pencil (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19217/72933
kṛṣṇamukha noun (masculine) a kind of monkey name of a sect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50030/72933
kṛṣṇavānara noun (masculine) black kind of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50036/72933
mahāsena noun (masculine) a general (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain name of Kārttikeya or Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various sovereigns (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the commander of a large force (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the father of the 8th Jina of the present era (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6709/72933
mainda noun (masculine) name of a monkey-demon killed by Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7027/72933
mandurābhūṣaṇa noun (neuter) a species of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61498/72933
mantharā noun (feminine) name of a humpbacked female slave of Bharata's mother Kaikeyī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7853/72933
markaṭa noun (masculine neuter) a kind of bird (the adjutant or Indian crane) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mode of coitus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sort of poison or venom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a spider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9672/72933
markaṭī noun (feminine) a female ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an iron monkey-shaped bolt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Carpopogon pruriens Roxb. Mucuna pruriens D.C. name of various plants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8319/72933
mātṛnandana noun (masculine) name of Karttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Pongamia pinnata Pierre
Frequency rank 72890/72933
nakhāyudha noun (masculine) cock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tiger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28563/72933
nala noun (masculine) Amphidonax Karka (8-12 feet high) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a deified progenitor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a measure of length (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular form of constellation in which all the planets or stars are grouped in double mansions (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of reed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a descendant of the latter Nala; son of Sudhanvan and father of Uktha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a divine being mentioned with Yama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of the Nishadhas (son of Vīrasena and husband of Damayantī) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a medic. author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief; son of Tvaṣṭṛ or Viśvakarman; constructs the bridge to Laṅkā for Rāmas army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Nishadha and father of Nabha or Nabhas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Yadu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the 50th year of the cycle of Jupiter which lasts 60 years (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1823/72933
nalasetu noun (masculine) the causeway constructed by the monkey Nala for Rāma (the modern Adam's Bridge) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19492/72933
nirvānara adjective free from monkeys (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36358/72933
nāḍījaṅgha noun (masculine) a crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a fabulous crane (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55852/72933
nīla noun (masculine) a species of bird the blue or hill Maina (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an ox or bull of a dark colour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Ajamīḍha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Bhuvanarāja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Yadu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an historian of Kaśmīra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Mañjuśrī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the monkey-chiefs attending on Rāma (said to be a son of Agni) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the prince of Māhishmatī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva one of the 9 Nidhis or divine treasures of Kubera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Indian fig-tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mountain Nīla or the blue mountain (immediately north of Ilāvṛta or the central division) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sapphire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] a kind of guggulu; nīlaka
Frequency rank 2613/72933
padma noun (masculine) a species of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of serpent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Brāhman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mythical Buddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mythical elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of another man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the attendants of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of two serpent-demons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11677/72933
panasa noun (masculine) Antiarus toxicaria Lesch. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 571) Artocarpus integrifolia Linn.F. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of serpent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a thorn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey the bread-fruit or Jaka tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5048/72933
parṇamṛga noun (masculine) any animal which frequents the boughs of trees (as a monkey) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24557/72933
plava noun (masculine) (in astrol.) plava-tva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a Caṇḍāla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a flood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a frog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of aquatic bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a snare or basket of wicker-work for catching fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an enemy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bathing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ficus Infectoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flooding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
going by leaps or plunges (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inclination (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
jumping (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
leaping (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Sāman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
plunging (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proclivity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
protraction of a sentence through 3 or more Ślokas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
returning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sheep (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sloping down or towards (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
swimming (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the 35th (or 9th) year in a cycle of Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the prolated utterance of a vowel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the swelling of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
urging on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5052/72933
plavaga noun (masculine) a monkey
Frequency rank 3792/72933
plavana noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59832/72933
plavaṃga noun (masculine) a deer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a frog a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ficus Infectoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people name of the 41st (15th) year in a sixty years" cycle of Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9894/72933
plavaṃgama noun (masculine) a frog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3506/72933
praghasa noun (masculine) a devourer (name of false gods) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey follower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14299/72933
prajaṅgha noun (masculine) name of a monkey and of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24681/72933
pramāthin noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the 13th (47th) year of a 60 years' cycle of Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12138/72933
pravaga noun (masculine) plava-ga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59359/72933
pārvatīnandana noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57863/72933
pārāvata noun (masculine) a kind of snake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a turtle-dove (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Diospyros Embryopteris (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a class of deities under Manu Svārocisha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga of the race of Airāvata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a tribe on the Yamunā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pigeon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4543/72933
pṛthu noun (masculine) a particular measure of length (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a descendant of Ikṣvāku (son of Anaraṇya and father of Triśaṅku) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Anenas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Citraratha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of one of the Manus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Para (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Prastāra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Purujānu name of a son of Rucaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vaṭˆśvara (father of Viśākhadatta) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Veṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Vṛṣṇi and son of Citraka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the Saptarshis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the Viśve Devās (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4392/72933
rabha noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[gramm.] root rabh
Frequency rank 63390/72933
rabhasa noun (masculine) eager desire for (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
haste (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hurry (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
impetuosity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
joy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (son of Rambha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a lexicographer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a magical incantation recited over weapons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
passion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pleasure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
poison (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
regret (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sorrow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
speed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vehemence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
zeal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8328/72933
rambha noun (masculine) a bamboo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a prop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Vajrarātra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Āyu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Viviṃśati (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of the Asura Mahisha and brother of Karambha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the fifth Kalpa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
staff (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
support (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13136/72933
rāsabha noun (masculine) an ass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
donkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
jackass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10482/72933
sampāti noun (masculine) name of a fabulous bird (the eldest son of Aruṇa or Garuḍa and brother of Jaitāyu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Bahugava and father of Ahaṃyāti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7755/72933
saṃnāda noun (masculine) a confused or tumultuous noise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clamour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
din (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shouting together (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uproar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9977/72933
saṃnādana noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69911/72933
senāpati noun (masculine) name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the general of an army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2971/72933
skanda noun (masculine) a clever or learned man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a king prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
anything which jumps or hops (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
destruction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
effusing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
effusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quick-silver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shedding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spilling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spurting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the body (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2240/72933
soma noun (masculine) (esp.) the juice of the Soma plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a day destined for extracting the Soma-juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a drug of supposed magical properties (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of Pitṛs (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular mountain or mountainous range (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a Soma sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
air (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
camphor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
extract (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Monday (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva nectar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon or moon-god (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Soma plant itself (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 525/72933
sthāna noun (neuter) a state of perfect tranquillity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a stronghold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abiding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abode (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any organ of sense (e.g. the eye) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
appearance (as of the moon) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
appointment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
being fixed or stationary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
being in or on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
case (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
condition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuance in the same state (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continued existence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuing as or as long as (with instr.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dignity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
domain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dwelling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
firm bearing (of troops) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fortress (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
locality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
note (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
occasion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
occurrence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
office (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
opportunity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
place for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
place of standing or staying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
place or room (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
position or posture of the body (in shooting etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proper or right place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
province (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
receptacle of (gen.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
region (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
site (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sphere (of gods or virtuous men) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
standing firmly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
state (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
station (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
staying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stead (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
storingplace or storage (of goods) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sustaining a charge (as opp. to yuddha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of standing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the main support or strength or chief constituent of a kingdom (said to be four) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the part or character of an actor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the pitch or key of the voice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the place or organ of utterance of any sound (said to be 8 in number) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 254/72933
subrahmaṇya noun (masculine) name of one of the three assistants of the Udgātṛ priest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda or Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20327/72933
subāhu noun (masculine) name of a Bodhisattva and a Bhikṣu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a brother of Alarka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Videhā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Citraka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and king of Cedi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Matināra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Pratibāhu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śatrughna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of Skanda's attendants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6471/72933
sudurdhara noun (masculine) name of a monkey
Frequency rank 70854/72933
sugrīva noun (masculine) a conch (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a goose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a hero (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of pavilion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a piece of water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a serpent of Pātāla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sort of weapon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a divine being (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the four horses of Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu (the other three being Balāhaka) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of the ninth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva or Indra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the countenance of a friend (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 775/72933
suhotra noun (masculine) name of a Bārhaspatya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Kaurava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a preceptor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a seat of fire-worshippers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Bhumanyu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kāñcanaprabha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṣatravṛddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sahadeva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sudhanus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sudhanvan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vitatha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Ātreya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the author of RV 6.31, 32 (having the patr. Bhāradvāja) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8210/72933
sumanā noun (feminine) a spotted cow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Chrysanthemum Indicum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
great flowering jasmine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Kaikeyī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a wife of Dama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rosa Glandulifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13862/72933
sumukha noun (masculine) a kind of herb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a learned man or teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular gregarious bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a class of gods (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Haṃsa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (who perished through want of humility) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of the Kiṃnaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Droṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Garuḍa (a mythical bird) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Suhotra name of a Ṛṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Gaṇeśa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ocimum Basilicum Pilosum and another species (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ocimum basilicum Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 608) Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 608)
Frequency rank 6107/72933
sumālin noun (masculine) name of a Brāhman (son of Vedamāli) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9733/72933
sunda noun (masculine) name of a Daitya; son of Nisunda and brother of Upasunda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9514/72933
supāṭala noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 70945/72933
suṣeṇa noun (masculine) Calamus Rotang (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Carissa Carandas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Cāraṇa name of a Gandharva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a grammarian (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Śūrasena (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief; son of Varuṇa or Dhanvantari (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a physician (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Karmasena (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Parīkṣit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of the second Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vasudeva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Viśvagarbha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vṛṣṭimat (or Vṛṣṇi-mat) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śambara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Vidyādhara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4488/72933
sānuprastha noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 70299/72933
sūryākṣa noun (masculine) name of a being accompanying Gaṇeśa name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sūryakānta
Frequency rank 31203/72933
sūryānana noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey
Frequency rank 72051/72933
tālayantra noun (neuter) a lock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular surgical instrument (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lock and key (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small pair of pincers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53496/72933
tāreya noun (masculine) the monkey Aṅgada (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21381/72933
tārā noun (feminine) (in music) name of a Rāga of six notes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
(in Sāṃkhya phil.) one of the 8 Siddhis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a fixed star (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a form of Dākṣāyaṇi (worshipped on the mountain Kishkindha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of meteor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of perfume (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pearl asterism (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a female monkey (daughter of Suṣeṇa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yoginī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Buddha Amoghasiddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the pupil of the eye (chiefly ifc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1935/72933
tārāpati noun (masculine) name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the monkey Bālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19375/72933
tāḍaka noun (masculine) a kind of key (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a murderer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28178/72933
vajrabāhu noun (masculine) name of a king of Orissa and of another person (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief
Frequency rank 38999/72933
valīmukha noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18411/72933
vegadarśana noun (masculine) name of a monkey
Frequency rank 66531/72933
vegadarśin noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22315/72933
vegavant noun (masculine) a leopard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (son of Bandhumat) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Vidyādhara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9064/72933
vinata noun (masculine) a kind of ant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sudyumna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20051/72933
vādin noun (masculine) a disputant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a plaintiff (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a player on any musical instrument (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a speaker (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
accuser (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
adherent of any doctrine or theory (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an alchemist (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
asserter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
musician (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Buddha (as "the disputant") (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prosecutor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the leading or key-note (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the teacher or propounder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5146/72933
vālin noun (masculine) name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (son of Indra and elder brother of the monkeyking Sugrīva) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1854/72933
vālina noun (masculine) the monkey Vālin
Frequency rank 65260/72933
vānara noun (masculine) a kind of incense (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a writer on medicine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Olibanum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 397/72933
vānara adjective belonging to an ape or monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
monkey-like (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10775/72933
vānararāja noun (masculine) a strong or excellent monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 65123/72933
vāsavi noun (masculine) name of Arjuna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the monkey Vālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12207/72933
vīrabāhu noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and various kings and other men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20098/72933
vṛṣaparvan noun (masculine) name of a Dānava (father of Śarmiṣṭhā) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rājarshi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the areca-nut tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the root of Scirpus Kysoor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4749/72933
āmbikeya noun (masculine) a descendant of Ambikā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14036/72933
āñjaneya noun (masculine) name of the monkey Hanumat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46300/72933
śakaṭāra noun (masculine) a bird of prey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67052/72933
śakrasuta noun (masculine) name of Arjuna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the monkey Vālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67102/72933
śarabha noun (masculine) a camel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a grasshopper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of deer or (in later times) a fabulous animal (supposed to have eight legs and to inhabit the snowy mountains) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a locust (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a young elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince of the Aśmakas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Upanishad (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of two serpent-demons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4231/72933
śaragulma noun (masculine) a clump of reeds (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67254/72933
śarajanman noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67257/72933
śarāri noun (feminine) name of a monkey the Śarāli bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25566/72933
śatabali noun (masculine) a kind of fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16171/72933
śikhidhvaja noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
smoke (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67564/72933
śikhivāhana noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30516/72933
śveta noun (masculine) a form of Śiva during the Kaliyuga a kind of poisonous animal name of a king from the Ikṣvāku family name of a monkey name of a mountain name of a people name of a Yogaśiṣya [arch.] a kind of temple
Frequency rank 4873/72933
śākhāmṛga noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a squirrel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8033/72933
śūravīra noun (masculine) name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a teacher (having the patr. Māṇḍūkeya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 68164/72933
ṛkṣarajas noun (masculine) name of a monkey; father of Sugrīva and Vālin
Frequency rank 17740/72933
ṣaṇmukha noun (masculine) name of a Bodhisattva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king and of various other persons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda or Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva
Frequency rank 6826/72933
ṣāṇmātura noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40291/72933
anala noun (masculine) (in astron.) the fiftieth year of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bile (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
digestive power (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gastric juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the eight Vasus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Vasudeva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Plumbago rosea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Plumbago Zeylanica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Semicarpus Anacardium (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the god of fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the letter r (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the number three (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the third lunar mansion or Kṛttikā (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 967/72933
amogha noun (masculine) a form of Agni name of a minister of an Asura king at war with Karttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sperm (?) the not failing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23169/72933
ambikeya noun (masculine) name of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Gaṇeśa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26605/72933
avānara adjective free of monkeys
Frequency rank 45292/72933
aśmanagara noun (neuter) name of the town in which Kālakeya resided (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45638/72933
aśvapati noun (masculine) name of a Kaikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Madras and father of Sāvitri (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10576/72933
āñjaneya noun (masculine) name of the monkey Hanumat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46300/72933
āmbikeya noun (masculine) a descendant of Ambikā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14036/72933
indrajānu noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46917/72933
indrasūnu noun (masculine) name of the monkeyking Vālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the tree Terminalia Arjuna
Frequency rank 46945/72933
ṛkṣarajas noun (masculine) name of a monkey; father of Sugrīva and Vālin
Frequency rank 17740/72933
aindri noun (masculine) a crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a descendant of Indra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Arjuna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Jayanta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the monkeyking Vālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15585/72933
kapi noun (masculine) an ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Emblica Officinalis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hog-plum (Spondias Magnifera) Mucuna pruriens DC. monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a school (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Olibanum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
species of Karañja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 955/72933
kapila adjective brown (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
monkeycoloured (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
red-haired (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reddish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tawny (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4671/72933
karambha noun (masculine) cake or flour or meal mixed with curds (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dish of parched grain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
groats or coarsely-ground oats (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
kind of gruel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mixture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a brother of Rambha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a poisonous plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sakuni and father of Devarāta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Asura Mahisha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13430/72933
kalāpa noun (masculine neuter) a bundle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a bundle of arrows (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a clever and intelligent man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a peacock's tail (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a poem written in one metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a quiver with arrows (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a string of bells (worn by women round the waist) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a zone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an ornament in general (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
band (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a grammar also called Kātantra (supposed to be revealed by Kārttikeya to Śarvavarman) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a village (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quiver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the rope round an elephant's neck (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
totality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
whole body or collection of a number of separate things (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5428/72933
kānanaukas noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19142/72933
kāpeya adjective belonging or peculiar to a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49115/72933
kārttikī noun (feminine) the day on which the moon stands in the constellation Kṛttikā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the night of full moon in the month Kārttika (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the night of new moon in the month Kārttika (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the śakti of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7290/72933
kālī noun (feminine) a form of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of clay (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a row or succession of black clouds (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a worm or animalcule generated in the acetous fermentation of milk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abuse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Bignonia suaveolens (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
black colour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
censure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
defamation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Ipomoea Turpethum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ink or blacking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a female evil spirit (mother of the Kālakeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Satyavatī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
night (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the Mātṛs or divine mothers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the seven tongues or flames of fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the sixteen Vidyādevīs (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the plant Kālāñjanī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the wife of king Śāntanu and mother of Vyāsa or Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana (after her marriage she had a son Vicitravīrya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[min:] saurāṣṭrā
Frequency rank 4598/72933
kālā noun (feminine) Bignonia suaveolens (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Indigofera tinctoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ipomoea atropurpurea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Nigella indica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a daughter of Dakṣa (the mother of the Kāleyas or Kālakeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a śakti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Durgā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Physalis flexuosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Piper longum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rubia Munjista (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ruellia longifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the fruit of the Kālā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8955/72933
kālakā noun (feminine) a kind of bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
daughter of Dakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a female evil spirit (mother of the Kālakeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15619/72933
kālamukha noun (masculine) a kind of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a fabulous people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49290/72933
kīnāśa noun (masculine) a cultivator of the soil (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Yama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
niggard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14827/72933
kuñcikā noun (feminine) a bawd (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a key (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a plant bearing a red and black seed used as a weight (Abrus precatorius) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a reed (Trigonella foenum graecum) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fennel-flower seed (Nigella indica) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a commentary on the Mañjūshā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Trigonella foenum graecum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the branch or shoot of a bamboo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 15626/72933
kumāra noun (masculine) a child (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a groom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a parrot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
boy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
heir-apparent associated in the kingdom with the reigning monarch (especially in theatrical language) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Prajāpati (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Agni (who is the author of some Vedic hymns) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Mañjuśrī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda (or Kārittikeya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the attendant of the twelfth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the author of a Dharmaśāstra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the Sindhu river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the nine names of Agni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
son (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the tree Capparis trifoliata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
youth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
kumārabandha
Frequency rank 937/72933
kumārasambhava noun (masculine) name of a poem by Kālidāsa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the birth of Skanda or Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 49704/72933
kumuda noun (masculine) (in music) name of a Dhruvaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of bdellium camphor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a confidant of king Unmattāvanti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-hero (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular comet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a poet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Gada (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an attendant of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the smaller Dvīpas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the elephant of the south-west or southern quarter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5747/72933
kumbha noun (masculine) (archit.) the bell capital a jar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a measure of grain (equal to twenty Droṇas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular part of a bed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a religious exercise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an urn in which the bones of a dead person are collected (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bully (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
closing the nostrils and mouth so as to suspend breathing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ewer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flash or fancy man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (a son of Prahlāda and brother of Nikumbha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Mantra (pronounced over a weapon) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a plant (and also of its fruit) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of the nineteenth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
one of the thirty-four Jātakas or former births of Śākyamuni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pitcher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small water-jar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the frontal globe or prominence on the upper part of the forehead of an elephant (there are two of these prominences which swell in the rutting season) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the paramour of a harlot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the root of a plant used in medicine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sign of the zodiac Aquarius (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
waterpot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
img/alchemy.bmp [medic.] a kind of pāṇḍuroga
Frequency rank 1077/72933
kṛṣṇamukha noun (masculine) a kind of monkey name of a sect (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50030/72933
kṛṣṇavānara noun (masculine) black kind of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50036/72933
kesarin noun (masculine) a citron tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a variety of Moringa with red flowers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey; husband of the mother of Hanumat (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an aquatic bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the plant Mesua ferrea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the plant Rottleria tinctoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4938/72933
kaikeya noun (masculine) name of a son of Shivi (from whom the Kaikeyas are derived) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Dhṛṣṭaketu (king of the Kaikeyas and father of the five Kaikeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prince of the Kekayas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Kekayas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11603/72933
kaumudī noun (feminine) a festival in general (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
elucidation (the word Kaumudī being metaphorically used like other words of similar import at the end of grammatical commentaries and other explanatory works to imply that the book so designated throws much light on the subject of which it treats) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
festival in honour of Kārttikeya held on that day (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moonlight (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moonshine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the day of full moon in the month Āśvina (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the day of full moon in the month Kārttika (sacred to Kārttikeya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the water-lily (Nymphaea esculenta) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] name of Devī
Frequency rank 10924/72933
krathana noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17829/72933
krātha noun (masculine) killing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
murder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an attendant in Skanda's retinue (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
patr. from Kratha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[gramm.] verb krāthay
Frequency rank 14122/72933
krauñcadāraṇa noun (masculine) Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50415/72933
krauñcarandhra noun (neuter) the Krauñca pass (split by the deity Kārttikeya and by Paraśurāma) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50417/72933
kūrcikā noun (feminine) blossom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bud (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inspissated milk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
key (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
needle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
painting brush or pencil (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19217/72933
khapura noun (neuter) a city built in the sky (as that of the Kālakeyas) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a water-jar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Areca nut the Fata Morgana (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50830/72933
khara noun (masculine) a crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a Daitya or demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a donkey (so called from his cry) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a heron (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mule (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a place arranged for building a house upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a quadrangular mound of earth for receiving the sacrificial vessels (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a thorny plant (sort of prickly nightshade or perhaps Alhagi Maurorum) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an osprey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a fragrant substance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rakṣas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rudra (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an attendant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the 25th year of the sixty years cycle of Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the Asura Dhenuka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1485/72933
gaṅgāsuta noun (masculine) name of Bhīṣma (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the deity Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27772/72933
gandhamāda noun (masculine) the mountain Gandhamādana (?) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śvaphalka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34573/72933
gandhamādana noun (masculine) a large black bee (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (forming the division between Ilāvṛta and Bhadrāśva) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Rāvaṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sulfur [medic.] name of an antidote
Frequency rank 3356/72933
gavaya noun (masculine) Bos gavaeus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Gayal (a species of ox) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5488/72933
gavākṣa noun (masculine) a window whose polygonal embrasure comprises an odd number of sides an air-hole (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
loop-hole (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a warrior (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
round window (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mesh of a shirt of mail (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5433/72933
gopuccha noun (masculine) a kind of drum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sort of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sort of necklace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19271/72933
golāṅgūla noun (masculine) a black kind of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9824/72933
gaura noun (masculine) a kind of buffalo (Bos Gaurus) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of monkey a species of rice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Grislea tomentosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śuka name of a Yoga teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the planet Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
white (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
white mustard (the seed of which is used as a weight) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
yellowish (the colour) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9827/72933
gaurakhara noun (masculine) a wild donkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51654/72933
gaurīputra noun (masculine) Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34753/72933
jāmbavant noun (masculine) name of a bear killed by Kṛṣṇa name of a monkey-chief (son of Pitā-maha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4504/72933
jyotirmukha noun (masculine) name of one of Rāmas monkey-followers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24042/72933
tāḍaka noun (masculine) a kind of key (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a murderer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28178/72933
tārā noun (feminine) (in music) name of a Rāga of six notes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
(in Sāṃkhya phil.) one of the 8 Siddhis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a fixed star (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a form of Dākṣāyaṇi (worshipped on the mountain Kishkindha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of meteor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of perfume (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a pearl asterism (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a female monkey (daughter of Suṣeṇa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yoginī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the wife of Buddha Amoghasiddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the pupil of the eye (chiefly ifc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1935/72933
tārāpati noun (masculine) name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the monkey Bālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19375/72933
tāreya noun (masculine) the monkey Aṅgada (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21381/72933
tālayantra noun (neuter) a lock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular surgical instrument (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lock and key (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small pair of pincers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53496/72933
dadhimukha noun (masculine) a kind of snake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey; brother-in-law of Sugrīva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9841/72933
dadhivaktra noun (masculine) name of a monkey
Frequency rank 28304/72933
darīmukha noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Pratyekabuddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21432/72933
divyacakṣus noun (masculine) a kind of perfume (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva
Frequency rank 35669/72933
dīrghadarśin noun (masculine) a bear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a vulture (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a minister (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35695/72933
durmukha noun (masculine) a horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a serpent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a general of the Asura Mahisha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince of the Pañcālas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rakṣas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Suhotra name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an astronomer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the 29th year of the cycle of Jupiter (lasting 60 years) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4769/72933
dvivida noun (masculine) name of a monkey (slain by Viṣṇu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6420/72933
dhanada noun (masculine) a Guhyaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Barringtonia Acutangula (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a servant of Padmapāṇi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kubera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[rel.] a class of Pitṛs
Frequency rank 3566/72933
dhūmra noun (masculine) (in astrol.) the 28th Yoga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a camel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mixture of red and black (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mosquito incense (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a family of ṣis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey or bear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author and other men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of Skanda's attendants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
purple (the colour) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
?
Frequency rank 10978/72933
nakhāyudha noun (masculine) cock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tiger (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28563/72933
nala noun (masculine) Amphidonax Karka (8-12 feet high) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a deified progenitor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a measure of length (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular form of constellation in which all the planets or stars are grouped in double mansions (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of reed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a descendant of the latter Nala; son of Sudhanvan and father of Uktha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a divine being mentioned with Yama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of the Nishadhas (son of Vīrasena and husband of Damayantī) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a medic. author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief; son of Tvaṣṭṛ or Viśvakarman; constructs the bridge to Laṅkā for Rāmas army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Nishadha and father of Nabha or Nabhas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Yadu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the 50th year of the cycle of Jupiter which lasts 60 years (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1823/72933
nalasetu noun (masculine) the causeway constructed by the monkey Nala for Rāma (the modern Adam's Bridge) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19492/72933
nāḍījaṅgha noun (masculine) a crow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a fabulous crane (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55852/72933
nirvānara adjective free from monkeys (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36358/72933
nīla noun (masculine) a species of bird the blue or hill Maina (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an ox or bull of a dark colour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Ajamīḍha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Bhuvanarāja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Yadu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an historian of Kaśmīra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Mañjuśrī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the monkey-chiefs attending on Rāma (said to be a son of Agni) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of several authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the prince of Māhishmatī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva one of the 9 Nidhis or divine treasures of Kubera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Indian fig-tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mountain Nīla or the blue mountain (immediately north of Ilāvṛta or the central division) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sapphire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[medic.] a kind of guggulu; nīlaka
Frequency rank 2613/72933
padma noun (masculine) a species of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of serpent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Brāhman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mythical Buddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mythical elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of another man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the attendants of Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of two serpent-demons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11677/72933
panasa noun (masculine) Antiarus toxicaria Lesch. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 571) Artocarpus integrifolia Linn.F. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of serpent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a thorn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey the bread-fruit or Jaka tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5048/72933
parṇamṛga noun (masculine) any animal which frequents the boughs of trees (as a monkey) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24557/72933
pārāvata noun (masculine) a kind of snake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a turtle-dove (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Diospyros Embryopteris (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a class of deities under Manu Svārocisha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga of the race of Airāvata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a tribe on the Yamunā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pigeon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4543/72933
pārvatīnandana noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 57863/72933
pṛthu noun (masculine) a particular measure of length (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a descendant of Ikṣvāku (son of Anaraṇya and father of Triśaṅku) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Anenas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Citraratha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of one of the Manus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Para (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Prastāra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Purujānu name of a son of Rucaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vaṭˆśvara (father of Viśākhadatta) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Veṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Vṛṣṇi and son of Citraka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the Saptarshis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the Viśve Devās (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4392/72933
praghasa noun (masculine) a devourer (name of false gods) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey follower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14299/72933
prajaṅgha noun (masculine) name of a monkey and of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 24681/72933
pramāthin noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the 13th (47th) year of a 60 years' cycle of Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12138/72933
pravaga noun (masculine) plava-ga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59359/72933
plava noun (masculine) (in astrol.) plava-tva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a Caṇḍāla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a flood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a frog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of aquatic bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a snare or basket of wicker-work for catching fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an enemy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bathing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ficus Infectoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flooding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
going by leaps or plunges (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inclination (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
jumping (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
leaping (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Sāman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
plunging (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proclivity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
protraction of a sentence through 3 or more Ślokas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
returning (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sheep (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sloping down or towards (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
swimming (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the 35th (or 9th) year in a cycle of Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the prolated utterance of a vowel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the swelling of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
urging on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5052/72933
plavaga noun (masculine) a monkey
Frequency rank 3792/72933
plavana noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59832/72933
plavaṃga noun (masculine) a deer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a frog a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ficus Infectoria (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people name of the 41st (15th) year in a sixty years" cycle of Jupiter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9894/72933
plavaṃgama noun (masculine) a frog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3506/72933
bāhuka noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name assumed by Nala upon his becoming charioteer to king Ṛtuparṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vṛka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the arm (?)
Frequency rank 5622/72933
brahmaṇya noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the planet Saturn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Saccharum Munjia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mulberry tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15096/72933
bhalluka noun (masculine) a bear (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60591/72933
bhallūka noun (masculine) a bear a dog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a jackal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of shell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a species of Śyonāka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Bignonia Indica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11742/72933
bhavātmaja noun (masculine) name of Gaṇeśa or Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60601/72933
bhāskari noun (masculine) (patr. from bhās-kara) name of the planet Saturn (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Muni (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the monkey king Sugrīva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60723/72933
mantharā noun (feminine) name of a humpbacked female slave of Bharata's mother Kaikeyī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7853/72933
mandurābhūṣaṇa noun (neuter) a species of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61498/72933
markaṭī noun (feminine) a female ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an iron monkey-shaped bolt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Carpopogon pruriens Roxb. Mucuna pruriens D.C. name of various plants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8319/72933
markaṭa noun (masculine neuter) a kind of bird (the adjutant or Indian crane) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a mode of coitus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sort of poison or venom (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a spider (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9672/72933
mahāsena noun (masculine) a general (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain name of Kārttikeya or Skanda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various sovereigns (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the commander of a large force (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the father of the 8th Jina of the present era (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6709/72933
mātṛnandana noun (masculine) name of Karttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Pongamia pinnata Pierre
Frequency rank 72890/72933
mainda noun (masculine) name of a monkey-demon killed by Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7027/72933
rabha noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[gramm.] root rabh
Frequency rank 63390/72933
rabhasa noun (masculine) eager desire for (comp.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
haste (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hurry (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
impetuosity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
joy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (son of Rambha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a lexicographer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a magical incantation recited over weapons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
passion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pleasure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
poison (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
regret (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sorrow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
speed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vehemence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
zeal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8328/72933
rambha noun (masculine) a bamboo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a prop (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Vajrarātra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Āyu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Viviṃśati (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of the Asura Mahisha and brother of Karambha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the fifth Kalpa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
staff (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
support (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13136/72933
rāsabha noun (masculine) an ass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
donkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
jackass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10482/72933
vajrabāhu noun (masculine) name of a king of Orissa and of another person (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief
Frequency rank 38999/72933
valīmukha noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18411/72933
vādin noun (masculine) a disputant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a plaintiff (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a player on any musical instrument (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a speaker (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
accuser (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
adherent of any doctrine or theory (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an alchemist (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
asserter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
musician (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Buddha (as "the disputant") (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prosecutor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the leading or key-note (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the teacher or propounder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5146/72933
vānara adjective belonging to an ape or monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
monkey-like (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10775/72933
vānara noun (masculine) a kind of incense (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a writer on medicine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Olibanum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 397/72933
vānararāja noun (masculine) a strong or excellent monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 65123/72933
vālin noun (masculine) name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (son of Indra and elder brother of the monkeyking Sugrīva) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1854/72933
vālina noun (masculine) the monkey Vālin
Frequency rank 65260/72933
vāsavi noun (masculine) name of Arjuna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the monkey Vālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12207/72933
vinata noun (masculine) a kind of ant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sudyumna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20051/72933
vīrabāhu noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and various kings and other men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20098/72933
vṛṣaparvan noun (masculine) name of a Dānava (father of Śarmiṣṭhā) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rājarshi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the areca-nut tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the root of Scirpus Kysoor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4749/72933
vegadarśin noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22315/72933
vegadarśana noun (masculine) name of a monkey
Frequency rank 66531/72933
vegavant noun (masculine) a leopard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (son of Bandhumat) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Vidyādhara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9064/72933
śakaṭāra noun (masculine) a bird of prey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67052/72933
śakrasuta noun (masculine) name of Arjuna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the monkey Vālin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67102/72933
śatabali noun (masculine) a kind of fish (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16171/72933
śaragulma noun (masculine) a clump of reeds (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67254/72933
śarajanman noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67257/72933
śarabha noun (masculine) a camel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a grasshopper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of deer or (in later times) a fabulous animal (supposed to have eight legs and to inhabit the snowy mountains) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a locust (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a young elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a prince of the Aśmakas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Upanishad (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of two serpent-demons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4231/72933
śarāri noun (feminine) name of a monkey the Śarāli bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25566/72933
śākhāmṛga noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a squirrel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8033/72933
śikhidhvaja noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
smoke (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67564/72933
śikhivāhana noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 30516/72933
śūravīra noun (masculine) name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a teacher (having the patr. Māṇḍūkeya) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 68164/72933
śveta noun (masculine) a form of Śiva during the Kaliyuga a kind of poisonous animal name of a king from the Ikṣvāku family name of a monkey name of a mountain name of a people name of a Yogaśiṣya [arch.] a kind of temple
Frequency rank 4873/72933
ṣaṇmukha noun (masculine) name of a Bodhisattva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king and of various other persons (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda or Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva
Frequency rank 6826/72933
ṣāṇmātura noun (masculine) name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40291/72933
sampāti noun (masculine) name of a fabulous bird (the eldest son of Aruṇa or Garuḍa and brother of Jaitāyu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Bahugava and father of Ahaṃyāti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7755/72933
saṃnāda noun (masculine) a confused or tumultuous noise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
clamour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
din (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shouting together (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uproar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9977/72933
saṃnādana noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69911/72933
sānuprastha noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 70299/72933
sugrīva noun (masculine) a conch (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a goose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a hero (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of pavilion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a piece of water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a serpent of Pātāla (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a sort of weapon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a divine being (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the four horses of Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu (the other three being Balāhaka) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of the ninth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva or Indra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the countenance of a friend (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 775/72933
sudurdhara noun (masculine) name of a monkey
Frequency rank 70854/72933
sunda noun (masculine) name of a Daitya; son of Nisunda and brother of Upasunda (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9514/72933
supāṭala noun (masculine) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 70945/72933
subāhu noun (masculine) name of a Bodhisattva and a Bhikṣu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a brother of Alarka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Videhā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Citraka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and king of Cedi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Matināra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Pratibāhu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śatrughna (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of Skanda's attendants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6471/72933
subrahmaṇya noun (masculine) name of one of the three assistants of the Udgātṛ priest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Skanda or Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 20327/72933
sumanā noun (feminine) a spotted cow (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Chrysanthemum Indicum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
great flowering jasmine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Kaikeyī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a wife of Dama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rosa Glandulifera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13862/72933
sumālin noun (masculine) name of a Brāhman (son of Vedamāli) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9733/72933
sumukha noun (masculine) a kind of herb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a learned man or teacher (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular gregarious bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a class of gods (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Haṃsa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (who perished through want of humility) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of the Kiṃnaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Droṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Garuḍa (a mythical bird) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Suhotra name of a Ṛṣi (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Gaṇeśa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ocimum Basilicum Pilosum and another species (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Ocimum basilicum Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 608) Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (G.J. Meulenbeld (1974), 608)
Frequency rank 6107/72933
suṣeṇa noun (masculine) Calamus Rotang (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Carissa Carandas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Cāraṇa name of a Gandharva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a grammarian (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of Śūrasena (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief; son of Varuṇa or Dhanvantari (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a physician (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Karmasena (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Parīkṣit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of the second Manu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vasudeva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Viśvagarbha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vṛṣṭimat (or Vṛṣṇi-mat) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śambara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Vidyādhara (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4488/72933
suhotra noun (masculine) name of a Bārhaspatya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Kaurava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a preceptor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a seat of fire-worshippers (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Bhumanyu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kāñcanaprabha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kṣatravṛddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sahadeva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sudhanus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Sudhanvan (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Vitatha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Ātreya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the author of RV 6.31, 32 (having the patr. Bhāradvāja) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8210/72933
senāpati noun (masculine) name of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the general of an army (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2971/72933
soma noun (masculine) (esp.) the juice of the Soma plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a day destined for extracting the Soma-juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a drug of supposed magical properties (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of Pitṛs (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular mountain or mountainous range (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a Soma sacrifice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
air (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
camphor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
extract (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
juice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Monday (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva nectar (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon or moon-god (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Soma plant itself (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
water (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wind (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 525/72933
skanda noun (masculine) a clever or learned man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a king prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
anything which jumps or hops (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
destruction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
effusing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
effusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kārttikeya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
perishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
quick-silver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shedding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spilling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spurting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the body (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2240/72933
sthāna noun (neuter) a state of perfect tranquillity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a stronghold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abiding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
abode (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any organ of sense (e.g. the eye) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
any place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
appearance (as of the moon) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
appointment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
being fixed or stationary (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
being in or on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
case (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
condition (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuance in the same state (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continued existence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
continuing as or as long as (with instr.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dignity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
domain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dwelling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
firm bearing (of troops) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
form (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fortress (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
locality (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
note (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
occasion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
occurrence (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
office (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
opportunity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
place for (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
place of standing or staying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
place or room (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
position or posture of the body (in shooting etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
proper or right place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
province (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rank (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
receptacle of (gen.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
region (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shape (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
site (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sphere (of gods or virtuous men) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
spot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
standing firmly (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
state (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
station (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
staying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stead (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
storingplace or storage (of goods) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sustaining a charge (as opp. to yuddha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of standing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the main support or strength or chief constituent of a kingdom (said to be four) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the part or character of an actor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the pitch or key of the voice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the place or organ of utterance of any sound (said to be 8 in number) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 254/72933
sūryākṣa noun (masculine) name of a being accompanying Gaṇeśa name of a king (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sūryakānta
Frequency rank 31203/72933
sūryānana noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey
Frequency rank 72051/72933
hanumant noun (masculine) a particular sort of monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey-chief (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Simia Sinica (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 958/72933
harin noun (masculine) a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41370/72933
hari noun (masculine) a frog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a goose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a horse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a jackal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a parrot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular class of gods under Manu Tāmasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a peacock (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a ray of light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a snake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
men (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a metre (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a particular high number (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Rākṣasa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Akampaua (or Anukampana) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Garuḍa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Parājit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Parāvṛt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Tārakākṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a world (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a worshipper of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Brahmā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Indra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu-Kṛṣṇa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various authors and scholars (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Yama (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śukra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Phaseolus Mungo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
steed (esp. of Indra) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Koil or Indian cuckoo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the moon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sign of the zodiac Leo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the wind or name of Vāyu (god of the wind) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
yellow or reddish brown or green (the colour) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
haritāla (Ḍhuṇḍhukanātha (2000), 48)
Frequency rank 235/72933
harī noun (feminine) name of the mythical mother of the monkeys (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22749/72933
hara noun (masculine) (in arithm.) a divisor (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a stallion (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an ass (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
division (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Dānava (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Siddha name of various authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the denominator of a fraction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
mercury
Frequency rank 1175/72933
haryakṣa noun (masculine) a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a demon causing diseases (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Pṛthu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kubera (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the zodiacal sign Leo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22755/72933
hemakūṭa noun (masculine neuter) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the ranges of mountains dividing the known continent into 9 Varshas (situated north of Himālaya and forming with it the boundaries of the Kiṃnara or Kimpuruṣa Varsha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the Varṣa ruled by Kiṃpuruṣa
Frequency rank 8537/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

airāvata

1. Plant orange tree, Citrus reticulata; 2. a species of fern; 3. Artocarpus lacucha, monkey jack tree; 4. Mythological white elephant carrying the god Indra.

aśvatara

mule, an offspring of a male donkey and a female horse.

bhalluka

monkey.

golāngūla

black kind of monkey.

kampilla

1. Plant monkey face tree, glands and hairs of fruit of Mallotus philippinensis; 2. a mineral substance from north-west of India.

kārtikeyapura

Assam region.

khara

1. donkey, ass; 2. rough, cutting.

lakuca

Plant monkey jack fruit, wild jack, Arthocarpus locucha, A. hirsutus.

markaṭa

monkey.

turuṣka

1. Turkish or belonging to Turkey; 2. Plant oriental sweet gum, Liquidambar orientalis.

vānara

monkey

     Wordnet Search "key" has 13 results.
     

key

keyūram, aṅgadaḥ, valayaḥ, valayam, kaṭakavalayī, parihāṭakaḥ, parihārakaḥ, parihārakam, bāhubhūṣā   

alaṅkāraviśeṣaḥ hastālaṅkāraḥ।

śyāmaḥ keyūraṃ dhārayati।

key

vāsuki, sarparājaḥ, vāsukeyaḥ   

purāṇeṣu varṇitaḥ ekaḥ sarpaḥ yaḥ kaśyapasya putraḥ āsīt।

aṣṭāsarpanṛpeṣu vāsukiḥ dvitīyaḥ asti iti manyante।

key

viṣam, garam, garaḥ, garalam, garadam, bhūgaram, jīvanāghātam, jaṅgulam, jāṅgulam, halāgalam, halāhalaḥ, hālāhālam, pālahalam, halahalam, hāhalam, hāhalaḥ, kālakūṭam, kālakūṭaḥ, kalākulam, kākolam, kākolaḥ, saurāṣṭrikam, dāradaḥ, pradīpanaḥ, brahmaputraḥ, śauktikeyaḥ, vatsanābhaḥ, dhūlakam, nidaḥ, kṣyeḍaḥ   

saḥ padārthaḥ yasya prāśanena jīvaḥ vyākulo bhavati mriyate vā।

samudramanthanāt prāptaṃ viṣaṃ śivena pītam।

key

rāhuḥ, tamaḥ, svarbhānuḥ, saiṃhikeyaḥ, vidhuntudaḥ, asrapiśācaḥ, grahakallolaḥ, saiṃhikaḥ, upaplavaḥ, śīrṣakaḥ, uparāgaḥ, siṃhikāsūnuḥ, kṛṣṇavarṇaḥ, kabandhaḥ, aguḥ, asuraḥ   

śāstreṣu varṇitaḥ navagraheṣu ekaḥ grahaḥ।

bhavataḥ putrasya janmapatrikāyāṃ saptame sthāne rāhuḥ asti।

key

skandaḥ, ṣaḍānanaḥ, kumāraḥ, kārttikeyaḥ, ṣāṇmāturaḥ, mayūraketuḥ, siddhasenaḥ, viśākhaḥ, agnibhūḥ, āmbikeyaḥ, āgneyaḥ, kāmajitaḥ, gāṅgeyaḥ, candrānanaḥ, tārakāriḥ, devavrataḥ, mayūreśaḥ, śikhīśvaraḥ, kārtikaḥ, harihayaḥ, krauñcāriḥ, mahiṣārdanaḥ, rudratejaḥ, bhavātmajaḥ, śāṅkariḥ, śikhībhūḥ, ṣaṇmukhaḥ, kāntaḥ, jaṭādharaḥ, subrahmaṇyaḥ   

bhagavataḥ śivasya jyeṣṭhaputraḥ।

senānīnāmaham skandaḥ।

key

durgā, umā, kātyāyanī, gaurī, brahmāṇī, kālī, haimavatī, īśvarā, śivā, bhavānī, rudrāṇī, sarvāṇī, sarvamaṅgalā, aparṇā, pārvatī, mṛḍānī, līlāvatī, caṇaḍikā, ambikā, śāradā, caṇḍī, caṇḍā, caṇḍanāyikā, girijā, maṅgalā, nārāyaṇī, mahāmāyā, vaiṣṇavī, maheśvarī, koṭṭavī, ṣaṣṭhī, mādhavī, naganandinī, jayantī, bhārgavī, rambhā, siṃharathā, satī, bhrāmarī, dakṣakanyā, mahiṣamardinī, herambajananī, sāvitrī, kṛṣṇapiṅgalā, vṛṣākapāyī, lambā, himaśailajā, kārttikeyaprasūḥ, ādyā, nityā, vidyā, śubhahkarī, sāttvikī, rājasī, tāmasī, bhīmā, nandanandinī, mahāmāyī, śūladharā, sunandā, śumyabhaghātinī, hrī, parvatarājatanayā, himālayasutā, maheśvaravanitā, satyā, bhagavatī, īśānā, sanātanī, mahākālī, śivānī, haravallabhā, ugracaṇḍā, cāmuṇḍā, vidhātrī, ānandā, mahāmātrā, mahāmudrā, mākarī, bhaumī, kalyāṇī, kṛṣṇā, mānadātrī, madālasā, māninī, cārvaṅgī, vāṇī, īśā, valeśī, bhramarī, bhūṣyā, phālgunī, yatī, brahmamayī, bhāvinī, devī, acintā, trinetrā, triśūlā, carcikā, tīvrā, nandinī, nandā, dharitriṇī, mātṛkā, cidānandasvarūpiṇī, manasvinī, mahādevī, nidrārūpā, bhavānikā, tārā, nīlasarasvatī, kālikā, ugratārā, kāmeśvarī, sundarī, bhairavī, rājarājeśvarī, bhuvaneśī, tvaritā, mahālakṣmī, rājīvalocanī, dhanadā, vāgīśvarī, tripurā, jvālmukhī, vagalāmukhī, siddhavidyā, annapūrṇā, viśālākṣī, subhagā, saguṇā, nirguṇā, dhavalā, gītiḥ, gītavādyapriyā, aṭṭālavāsinī, aṭṭahāsinī, ghorā, premā, vaṭeśvarī, kīrtidā, buddhidā, avīrā, paṇḍitālayavāsinī, maṇḍitā, saṃvatsarā, kṛṣṇarūpā, balipriyā, tumulā, kāminī, kāmarūpā, puṇyadā, viṣṇucakradharā, pañcamā, vṛndāvanasvarūpiṇī, ayodhyārupiṇī, māyāvatī, jīmūtavasanā, jagannāthasvarūpiṇī, kṛttivasanā, triyāmā, jamalārjunī, yāminī, yaśodā, yādavī, jagatī, kṛṣṇajāyā, satyabhāmā, subhadrikā, lakṣmaṇā, digambarī, pṛthukā, tīkṣṇā, ācārā, akrūrā, jāhnavī, gaṇḍakī, dhyeyā, jṛmbhaṇī, mohinī, vikārā, akṣaravāsinī, aṃśakā, patrikā, pavitrikā, tulasī, atulā, jānakī, vandyā, kāmanā, nārasiṃhī, girīśā, sādhvī, kalyāṇī, kamalā, kāntā, śāntā, kulā, vedamātā, karmadā, sandhyā, tripurasundarī, rāseśī, dakṣayajñavināśinī, anantā, dharmeśvarī, cakreśvarī, khañjanā, vidagdhā, kuñjikā, citrā, sulekhā, caturbhujā, rākā, prajñā, ṛdbhidā, tāpinī, tapā, sumantrā, dūtī, aśanī, karālā, kālakī, kuṣmāṇḍī, kaiṭabhā, kaiṭabhī, kṣatriyā, kṣamā, kṣemā, caṇḍālikā, jayantī, bheruṇḍā   

sā devī yayā naike daityāḥ hatāḥ tathā ca yā ādiśaktiḥ asti iti manyate।

navarātrotsave sthāne sthāne durgāyāḥ pratiṣṭhāpanā kriyate।

key

kaikeyī   

rājñaḥ daśarathasya patnī bharatasya mātā ca।

kaikeyī rāmaṃ vanavāse praiṣayat।

key

śaulbikeya, tāmrikeya   

tāmrakārasambandhī।

pātrakrayaṇārthe saḥ śaulbikeye āpaṇe agacchat।

key

śākeyāḥ   

ekaḥ vidyālayaḥ ।

śākeyānām ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

key

śauṇḍikeyaḥ   

bālakānāṃ kṛte ahitakārakaḥ rākṣasaḥ ।

śauṇḍikeyasya ullekhaḥ pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtre asti

key

bālhikeyamiśraḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

kośeṣu bālhikeyamiśraḥ samullikhitaḥ prāpyate

key

bālhikeyamiśraḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

kośeṣu bālhikeyamiśraḥ samullikhitaḥ prāpyate

key

nāṭakeyaḥ   

ekaḥ janasamudāyaḥ ।

nāṭakeyānām ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

Parse Time: 2.152s Search Word: key Input Encoding: IAST: key