jal cl.1. ( lati- perfect tense jajāla- ),"to be rich"or"to cover"(derived fr. ?) jāla- ; to be sharp ; to be stiff or dull (for ,derived fr. jaḍ- ) jaḍa- : cl.10. , to cover, jālayati- . jala mfn. equals ( jaḍa- see ), stupid ( jal- see , lā- dkipa ) lā- śaya ( varia lectio) jala ( m. gaRa ) a stupid man jvalā- di jala m. Name of a man (with the patronymic ) jātūkarṇya- jala (also n. plural) water, any fluid etc. ( in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ) f( ). ā- jala a kind of Andropogon n. jala the 4th mansion (in n. astrology) jala a cow's embryo ( n. or go- kalaka- ) lana- jala ( n. equals ) frigidity (moral or mental or physical) jaḍa- jalā f. Name of a river jala Nom. , to become water lati- jalabandhaka "water barrier", a dike m. jalabandhu "friend of water", a fish m. jalabhājana n. equals - pātra- jalabhauta one who is infatuated or silly in regard to water, mfn. jalābhiṣeka m. equals la- seka- jalabhṛt "water-bearer", a cloud m. jalabhū aquatic mfn. jalabhū a cloud m. jalabhū m. equals - pippalī- jalabhūṣaṇa "decorating water", wind m. jalabiḍāla "water-cat" m. equals - nakula- jalabilva m. equals - valkala- jalabilva a turtle m. jalabilva a crab m. jalabilva m. equals - catvara- jalabimba equals dimbikā- jalabindu a drop of water m. jalabindu m. Name of a tīrtha- jalabindu f. Name of a virgin nāga- jalabindujā sugar prepared from f. yava- nāla- jalabrahmī Hingcha repens f. jalabṛṃhaṇa flood of water, jalabudbuda a water bubble m. jalacakra n. Name of a mythic region jalacañcala "water-moving", m. Name of a fish jalacandra m. Name of a poet jalacara "water-goer", an aquatic animal m. jalacara a fish m. jalacarajīva m. plural varia lectio for lajā- jīva jalacarājīva "living by fish", a fisherman, m. . jalacārin living in or near water mfn. jalacārin an aquatic animal, fish m. jalacatvara a square tank n. jalada "water-giver", a (rain-) cloud m. etc. jalada the ocean m. jalada Cyperus rotundus m. jalada m. Name of a prince, jalada of a m. in varṣa- śāka- dvīpa- jalada m. plural Name of a school of the jalada n. varia lectio for - ja- q.v jalaḍā f. gaRa ( bāhv- ādi- ) . jaladābha cloud-like, dark mfn. jaladāgama "approach of clouds", id., m. jaladaivatya "having water as its deity", the constellation n. svāti- jaladakāla "cloud-season", the rainy season m. jaladakālakṣaya "cloud-disappearance", autumn m. jaladāna water-offering (festival in n. ) ujjayinī- jaladapaṅkti a line of clouds f. jaladardura a water-pipe (musical instrument) m. jaladasamaya m. equals - kāla- jaladasaṃhati the gathering of clouds f. jaladāśana "cloud-enjoyer", Shorea robusta m. jaladātyaya m. equals da- kṣaya- jaladeva "having water as its deity", the constellation n. , aṣāḍhā- jaladevatā a water-goddess, naiad f. jaladhara "holding water", a (rain-) cloud m. etc. jaladhara the ocean m. jaladhara Cyperus rotundus m. jaladhara Dalbergia ujjeinensis m. jaladhara a metre of 4x32 syllabic instants m. jaladhāra m. Name of a mountain jaladhāra of a m. in varṣa- śāka- dvīpa- jaladhārā a stream of water f. jalādhāra m. equals la- sthāna- jalādhāra m. Name of a mountain jaladharābhyudaya m. equals jaladā- gama jaladharagarjitaghoṣasusvaranakṣatrarājasaṃkusumitābhijña "having a voice musical as the sound of the thunder of the clouds and conversant with the appearance of the regents of the m. s", nakṣatra- Name of a , buddha- jaladharamālā f. equals jalada- paṅkti- jaladharamālā two metres of 4 x 12 syllables each f. jaladhāraṇa "holding water", a ditch n. jaladhenu a cow in the shape of water f. jaladhi ( m. ) "water-receptacle", a lake jaladhi the ocean m. etc.; 100 billions jalādhidaivata n. equals la- deva- jalādhidaivata "water-deity", n. varuṇa- jaladhigā a river flowing into the ocean f. jaladhijā "ocean-daughter", f. lakṣmi- jaladhikanyakā f. equals - jā- jaladhinandinī f. equals - jā- jalādhipa m. equals pati- jalādhipa " m. "and,"lord of the stupid ( varuṇa- ) ", jaḍa- jalādhipati "water-lord", m. varuṇa- jaladhiraśana ocean-girted (the earth) mfn. jaladhisambhava marine mfn. jaladhitā the state of the ocean f. jalādhvan m. equals layātrā- jalāḍhya "rich in water", watery, marshy mfn. jalādhyakṣa m. idem or ' "water-lord", m. varuṇa- ' jaladimba a bivalve shell m. jaladravya n. equals - ja- dr- jaladroṇī a water bucket f. jaladvipa "water-elephant", m. Name of an animal jaladvīpa m. Name of an island ( ,B) . yava- dv- jalagāhana entering the water, n. jalāgama "water-approach", rain m. jalagambu m. Name of a son of sūrya- jalagandhebha "scented water-elephant", a kind of mythic animal m. jalagarbha wet with dew, mfn. jalagarbha m. Name of a son of ( - vāhana- in a former birth) ananda- jalaghaṭi f. equals - kumbha- jalagriha a house built in or near water n. jalagulma a turtle m. jalagulma m. equals - catvara- jalagulma a whirlpool m. jalaha a small n. - yantra- gṛha- jalahāra " m. equals " - vāhaka- jalaharaṇa a metre of 4 x 32 syllabic instants. n. jalahārī a female water-carrier f. jalahāriṇī f. equals - nirgama- jalahāsa "sea-foam (indurated)", cuttle-fish bone m. jalahāsaka m. idem or ' "sea-foam (indurated)", cuttle-fish bone m. ' jalahastin m. equals - dvipa- jalāhati violent rain-fall f. jalahīna waterless, dry, mfn. jalahrada m. Name of a man gaRa . śivā- di jalāhvaya "water-named", a lotus n. jalaja produced or born or living or growing in water, coming from or peculiar to water mfn. jalaja an aquatic animal, fish m. etc. jalaja Barringtonia acutangula m. jalaja sea-salt m. jalaja m. Name of several signs of the zodiac connected with water jalaja (also m. n. ) a conch-shell (used as a trumpet ) jalaja n. equals , - ja- dravya- jalaja n. equals - ruh- jalaja a kind of ebony n. ( varia lectio ) la- da- jalaja n. equals la- kuntala- jalaja n. equals - vetasa- jalajā a kind of Glycyrrhiza f. jalajadravya any sea-product, pearl, shell n. jalajājīva "living on fishes", the inhabitants of the east coast m. plural jalajākṣī a lotus-eyed woman f. jalajakusuma "water-flower", lotus, in n. compound jalajakusumayoni ma- yoni- "lotus-born", m. brahmā- jalajakusumayoni m. jalajakusuma jalajambukā a kind of f. jambu- jalajambukālatā f. Name of an aquatic plant jalajanman "water-born", a lotus n. jalajantu an aquatic animal m. jalajantukā a leech f. jalajāsana "lotus-seated", m. brahmā- jalajasumanā Andropogon aciculatus f. jalajāta m. equals - vetasa- jalajekṣaṇā f. equals jā- kṣī jalajihva "cold-tongued (?)", a crocodile m. jalajinī (fr. f. ) "lotus-group" - ja- jalajinībandhu "lotus-friend", the sun m. jalajīvin living in or near water mfn. jalajīvin a fisherman m. jalajīvinī f. equals - jantukā- jalajñāna n. Name of a Vedantic treatise. jalaka a conch n. jalakāka "water-crow", the diver bird m. jalakalka "water-sediment", mud m. jalakalmaṣa a poisonous fluid m. jalakāmukā "fond of water", the plant f. kuṭumbinī- jalakāṅkṣa "desiring water", an elephant m. jalākāṅkṣa m. equals la- k- jalakāṅkṣin m. idem or ' "desiring water", an elephant m. ' jalakānta "water-lover", wind m. jalakānta m. equals ntā- śman jalakaṇṭaka "water-thorn" m. equals - kubjaka- jalakaṇṭaka a crocodile m. jalakāntāra "whose path is water", m. varuṇa- jalakāntāśman a kind of precious stone, 40. m. jalakapi "water-monkey", Delphinus gangeticus, m. 726. jalakapota "water-pigeon", m. Name of a bird jalakara making or pouring forth water mfn. jalakara tax derived from water ( m. id est from fisheries etc.) jalākara water-source, spring m. jalakaraṅka a conch m. jalakaraṅka a cocoa-nut m. jalakaraṅka a lotus-flower m. jalakaraṅka a cloud m. jalakaraṅka a wave m. jalakeli m. frolicking in water, splashing one another f. jalakelivarṇana n. Name of 's rAma-vilAsa-kAvya iii. hari- nātha- jalakeśa m. equals - kuntala- jalaketu m. Name of a comet, . jalakhaga an aquatic bird m. jalākhu "water-rat", an otter m. jalakirāṭa a shark m. jalakrīḍā f. equals - keli- jalakriyā presenting water to deceased relatives f. jalakṛt causing rain mfn. jalakṣālanavidhi m. Name of work jalākṣī f. equals la- pippalī- jalakubjaka Trapa bispinosa m. jalakukkubha the aquatic bird Parra Jacana or goensis m. jalakukkuṭa a water-fowl m. jalakukkuṭī the black-headed gull f. jalakumāraka m. Name of a disease of women. jalakumbha a water-jar m. jalakumbhikā a jar filled with water f. jalakuntala "water-hair", Blyxa octandra m. jalakūpī a spring, well f. jalakūpī a pond f. jalakūpī a whirlpool f. jalakūrma the Gangetic porpoise m. jalāladīnāhakavarasāha = jala1lu' m. [email protected] ( see .) jallāladīndra- jalalatā "water-creeper", a wave f. jalalekhā a line drawn on water f. jalalohita "having water for blood", m. Name of a rakṣas- jalālokā f. equals lukā- jalāluha n. equals . lūka- jalāluhā f. equals lāyukā- jalāluka a kind of bulbous plant m. jalālūka the esculent root of lotus n. jalamadgu a kingfisher m. jalamadhūka m. Name of a tree jalamagna immersed in water mfn. jalamakṣikā a water-insect f. jalamandira n. equals - yantra- m- jalamānuṣa m. equals - pūruṣa- jalamānuṣa ( m. n. ) equals - nara- jalamānuṣī the female of f. , - pūruṣa- jalamārga m. equals - nirgama- jalamārjāra m. equals - biḍāla- jalamarkaṭa m. equals - kapi- jalamasi "water-ink", a dark cloud m. jalamātaṅga m. equals - dvipa- jalāmatra n. equals la- droṇī- jalamātreṇa instrumental case by mere water ind. jalamaya formed or consisting or full of water mf( )n. ī- jalamaya mf( )n. ī- equals - magna- jalambala a stream n. jalambala collyrium n. jalāmbara m. Name of in a former birth rāhula- bhadra- jalāmbikā a well f. jalāmbugarbhā f. Name of in a former birth, gopā- . jalaṃdhama "water-blower", m. Name of one of 's attendants skanda- jalaṃdhama of a m. dānava- jalaṃdhamā f. Name of a daughter of , 9184. kṛṣṇa- jalaṃdhara ( m. gaRa 1. ) "water-bearer", naḍā- di Name of a man jalaṃdhara of an m. (produced by the contact of a flash from asura- 's eye with the ocean, and adopted by the god of the waters;called from having caught the water which flowed from śiva- 's eye) brahmā- jalaṃdhara m. Name of a particular mudrā- jalaṃdharapura n. Name of a town jalaṃga the colocynth m. jalaṃgama varia lectio for janaṃ- g- jalamitra the moon, m. jalamoda n."water-enjoyer", the root of Andropogon muricatus ( varia lectio ). lā- moda jalāmoda See . la- m- jalāṃśu m. equals jaḍā- ṃśu jalamuc shedding water mfn. jalamuc a (rain-) cloud m. jalamūrti m. in the form of water śiva- jalamūrtikā "water-formed"hail f. jalanāḍī a water-course f. jalanakula an otter m. jalanara "water-man" m. idem or ' an otter m. ' jalāñcala a well n. jalāñcala n. equals lakuntala- jalāṇḍaka "water-eggs", the fry of fish n. jalanidhi "water-treasure", the ocean m. jalanidhi m. Name of a man jalanidhivacas n. plural "ocean-words" equals sāmudrika- śāstra- jalanīlī f. equals - kuntala- jalanīlikā f. equals - kuntala- jalanirgama a water-course, drain m. jalanivaha a quantity of water m. jalāñ jali the hollowed palms filled with water offered to ancestors m. ( in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ). lika- jalāṇṭaka m. Name of a large aquatic animal jalāntaka containing water mfn. jalāntaka m. Name of a son of kṛṣṇa- jalāntam (to dig) till reaching water ind. jalāṇuka n. equals ṇḍaka- jalānusāra going like water m. jalapāda m. Name of a frog-king jalapadavi f. equals - nirgama- jalapaddhati f. idem or ' f. equals - nirgama- ' jalapakṣacara m. equals khaga- jalapakṣin m. idem or ' m. equals khaga- ' jalapālikā lightning, f. jalapāna the drinking of water n. jalapārāvata m. equals - kapota- jalaparṇikā f. Name of a plant jalaparyāya a kind of andropogon m. jalāpasparśana (touching n. id est) using water jalapatha ( m. gaRa devapathā- di ) equals - yātrā- jalapatha m. Name of a mountain himā- laya jalapati "water-lord", m. varuṇa- jalapātra a vessel for water n. jalapattana a water-down (forming an island), Sil. n. jalapavitra a water-strainer, filter, n. jalaphala the nut of Trapa bispinosa n. jalaphena "water-froth", os Sepiae m. jalapīna m. Name of a fish jalapippalī Commelina salicifolia and another species f. ( ,295) . likā- jalapippikā a fish f. jalapitta m. "water-bile", fire n. jalaplava m. equals - plāvana- jalaplava m. equals - nakula- jalaplāvana "water-immersion", a deluge n. jalapradāna "water-offering" n. jalapradānika relating to a water-offering (a mfn. ) parvan- jalapralaya destruction by water m. jalaprānta "water's edge", shore m. jalaprapāta a water-fall m. jalaprasaraṇa "flowing off from water", oil jalapravāha a current of water m. jalaprāya abounding with water mfn. jalaprāya a country abounding with water n. jalapriya "fond of water", a fish m. jalapriya the m. bird cātaka- jalapriya a hog m. jalapriyā f. Name of dākṣāyaṇī- jalapṛkta touching water, swimming, mfn. jalapṛṣṭhajā "water-surface-grower", f. equals - kuntala- jalapūra a full bed (of a river) m. jalapūra m. Name of a mythic hero, jalapūrṇa "full to overflowing", with mfn. yoga- irresistible impulse m. jalapūrṇa filled with tears, jalapūruṣa "waterman", m. Name of a mythic being jalapūrvakam after having poured out water ind. jalapuṣpa an aquatic flower n. jalarākṣasī f. Name of a female demon (mother of the s who tried to prevent nāga- 's crossing the straits between the continent and Ceylon by attempting to swallow him;he escaped by reducing himself to the size of a thumb, darting through her huge body and coming out at her right ear) hanumat- jalarākṣasī (called f. ) su- rasā- jalaraṇḍa a whirlpool m. jalaraṇḍa a drizzle, thin sprinkling of water m. jalaraṇḍa a snake m. jalarañja m. idem or ' a water-fowl m. ' jalaraṅka a water-fowl m. jalaraṅku a water-fowl m. jalarasa sea-salt m. jalarāśi "water-quantity", any running water m. jalarāśi a lake, ocean m. jalārdra wet mfn. jalārdra m. equals drā- jalārdrā a wet garment f. jalārdra a wet cloth (used for cooling) m. jalārdrikā f. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' equals drā- jalarekhā f. equals - lehhā- jalarekhā a stripe or streak of water f. ( ) jalārka m. equals la- sūrya- jalārṇava the rainy season m. jalārṇava m. equals la- samudra- jalārthin desirous of water, thirsty mfn. jalaruh "water-growing", a day-lotus m. jalaruha an aquatic animal m. jalaruha n. equals - ruh- jalaruhakusuma an aquatic flower n. Yogay.vii, 7 jalaruhekṣaṇa lotus-eyed mfn. jalaruṇḍa m. equals , - raṇḍa- jalarūpa m. equals makara- jalarūpaka m. idem or ' m. equals makara- ' jalāṣa appeasing, healing mfn. jalāṣa ( n. ) water ṣ/a- jalāṣa happiness ( n. ), sukha- . jalāṣabheṣaja ( ) j/al- possessed of healing medicines ( mfn. ) rudra- jalāṣah ( Nominal verb - ṣāḍ- on ; accusative - ṣāham- gaRa ), Ved. suṣāmā- di subduing water mfn. jalāsah Ved. mfn. equals , - ṣah- . jalāsāha mfn. equals , - ṣah- jalasambhava "water-born" m. equals - vetasa- jalasaṃdha m. Name of a son of dhṛta- rāṣṭra- jalasaṃniveśa a receptacle of water. m. jalasamparka mixture with water m. jalasaṃsarga mixing with water, dilution m. jalasamudra the sea of fresh water m. jalasarasa n. Name of? jalaśarkarā "water-gravel", hail f. jalasarpiṇī "water-glider", a leech f. jalasāt (with ind. sam- - ,to be turned) into water pad- jalaśaya "reposing on water ( m. id est on his serpent-couch above the waters, during the 4 months of the periodical rains and during the intervals of the submersion of the world)", viṣṇu- jalāśaya lying in water mfn. jalāśaya stupid mfn. jalāśaya a reservoir, pond, lake, ocean m. etc. jalāśaya a fish m. jalāśaya m. equals la- kubjaka- jalāśaya n. equals la- moda- jalāśayā a kind of grass f. jalaśayana "reposing on water ( m. id est on his serpent-couch above the waters, during the 4 months of the periodical rains and during the intervals of the submersion of the world)", viṣṇu- jalāśayāntara another lake n. jalāśayapratiṣṭhā f. Name of work jalaśāyin lying in water mfn. jalaśāyin m. equals - śaya- jalaśāyitīrtha n. Name of a tīrtha- jalāśayotsargatattva n. Name of jalāśayotsargavidhi m. Name of work by . kamalākara- bhaṭṭa- jalaśayyā lying in water (kind of religious austerity) f. jalaseka sprinkling with water m. jalasikta water-sprinkled mfn. jalasnāna a water-bath n. jalaśoṣa drying up of water, drought m. jalasrāva a kind of eye-disease m. jalāśraya for m. , a pond śaya- jalāśraya a water-house m. jalāśraya a wolf. m. jalāśrayā a kind of crane f. jalāśrayā a kind of cane f. jalastambha solidification of water (magical faculty). m. jalastambhana n. idem or ' , GarP. solidification of water (magical faculty).' m. jalastha standing or situated in water mfn. jalasthā a kind of grass f. jalastha m. jalasthāna a reservoir, pond, lake n. jalāṣṭhīlī a pond f. jalaśuci cleansed by water mfn. jalasūci the Gangetic porpoise m. jalasūci a crow m. jalasūci m. equals - vyatha- jalasūci a leech m. jalasūci m. equals - kubjaka- jalaśūka m. Name of an animalcule living in mud jalāsukā f. equals lā- yukā jalasūkara "water-hog", a crocodile m. jalasūkara a hog m. jalaśukti a bivalve shell f. jalaśunaka m. equals - nakula- jalasūrya the sun reflected in water m. jalasūryaka the sun reflected in water m. jalatā the state of water f. jalatāḍana "beating water", any fruitless action n. jalatāla m. idem or ' the fish Clupea alosa m. ' jalāṭana "water-goer", a heron m. jalataṇḍulīya n. Name of a pot-herb jalāṭanī a leech f. jalatāpika m. equals pin- jalatāpika the fish Cyprinus Cachius m. jalatāpin the fish Clupea alosa m. jalataraṃga a wave m. jalataraṃga a metal cup filled with water producing musical notes m. jalataraṃgiṇī a series of cups filled with water in varying quantities and played on as a musical inistrument by striking them successively with a wand or light hammer, f. jalataskara "water-thief", the sun, m. jalatiktikā Boswellia thurifera f. jalātmikā a leech f. jalātmikā f. varia lectio for lā- mbikā jalatrā "water-guard", an umbrella f. jalatrāsa hydrophobia m. jalatrāsin hydrophobic mfn. jalatumbikānyāya the method of the water and the bottle-gourd. m. jalaturaga "water-horse", a kind of animal m. jalātyaya m. equals ladā- ty jalaugha a quantity of water m. jalauka m. equals kasa- jalaukā f. idem or ' m. equals kasa- ' jalaukas living in or near water mfn. jalaukas inhabitant of water, aquatic animal m. jalaukas m. Name of a Kashmir king jalaukas (said to be used in f. plural only) equals kasa- jalaukas f. jalaukasa "water-homed", a leech mn. jalaukasā f. idem or ' "water-homed", a leech mn. ' jalaukāvacāraṇīya treating on the application of leeches mfn. jalavādita "water-music", a kind of music in which water is used n. jalavādya a kind of musical instrument played by means of water, 8346; 8427 and 8436. n. jalavāha carrying water mfn. jalavāha a cloud m. jalavāhaka a water-carrier m. jalavāhana "water-carrier", m. Name of a physician ( gautama- in a former birth) buddha- jalavāhana flowing of water n. jalavāhanī a water-course, aqueduct f. jalavālaka "encircled by (water m. id est) clouds ", Name of the range vindhya- jalavālikā lightning f. jalavalkala "water-bark", Pistia Stratiotes n. jalavallī f. equals - kubjaka- jalavāluka m. equals laka- jalavaraṇṭa a watery pustule m. jalāvarta a whirlpool m. jalavartikā "water-quail", a kind of bird f. jalavāsa mfn. equals sin- jalavāsa abiding in water (kind of religious austerity), 9281 m. jalavāsa a kind of bulbous plant m. jalavāsa n. equals - moda- jalavāsā a kind of grass f. jalavāsin living in water mfn. jalavāsin m. Name of a bulbous plant jalavat abounding in water mfn. jalāvatāra a landing-place at a river's side m. jalavāyasa m. equals - kāka- jalavetasa Calamus Rotang m. jalavihaṃgama a water-fowl m. jalāvila stained with water mfn. jalavīrya m. Name of a son of bharata- jalaviṣuva the autumnal equinox n. jalaviṣuva a kind of diagram, n. jalavṛścika "water-scorpion", a prawn m. jalavyadha m. idem or ' the fish Esox Kankila m. ' jalavyāla a water-snake m. jalavyāla a marine monster m. jalavyatha the fish Esox Kankila m. jalāya Nom. , = yate- 2 jala- jalayāna n."water-vehicle", a boat, ship jalayantra n. equals traka- jalayantra a clepsydra n. jalayantracakra a wheel for raising water n. jalayantragṛha a bath-room with douches n. jalayantraka "watering-engine", a douche n. jalayantramandira n. idem or ' n. equals - gṛha- ' jalayantraniketana n. equals - gṛha- jalayātrā a sea voyage f. jalāyukā a leech f. jale locative case of la- q.v jalebha m. equals la- dvipa- jalebhī the female of that animal f. jalecara living in water mf( )n. ī- jalecara an aquatic animal m. ( in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ) f( ). ā- jalecara a fish m. jalecara any kind of water-fowl m. = jalecchayā a kind of Heliotropium f. jalejāta "water-born", lotus n. jalelā f. Name of one of the mothers attending on skanda- jalendhana submarine fire m. jalendra m. equals lā- dhipati jalendra the ocean m. jalendra m. Name of a jina- jaleruha m. Name of an Orissa king jaleruhā "water-grower", a kind of shrub f. jaleśa m. equals lā- dhipati jaleśa the ocean, m. . jaleśaya resting or abiding in water mfn. jaleśaya a fish m. jaleśaya m. equals la- ś- jaleśaya ( m. ) saptā- rṇava - jaleśvara m. equals lā- dhipati ( see ) jaleśvara the ocean m. jaleśvara m. Name of a sanctuary jaleśvara m. jaleśvaratīrtha n. varia lectio for . jvāl- jalevāha a diver m. jaleyu m. Name of a son of raudrā- śva jalhaṇa m. Name (also title or epithet) of a poet (contemporary of ), maṅkha- jalikā f. equals lau- kā jalikā , etc. lukā- See above. jallakin See . acyuta- - jallāladīndra m. [email protected]'ddIn. jalocchvāsa m. equals la- nirgama- jalodara "water-belly", dropsy n. jalodbhava produced in water, aquatic, marine mfn. jalodbhava an aquatic animal m. jalodbhava m. Name of a water-demon (slain by ) kaśyapa- jalodbhava "water-origin", m. Name of a place jalodbhavā the plant f. laghu- brāhmī- jalodbhava benzoin m. jalodbhūta produced from water mfn. jalodbhūtā f. equals , lā- śayā : jaloddhatagati "exulting motion in water", a metre of 4 x 12 syllables. f. jaloka m. Name of a Kashmir king jalokā f. equals laū- kā jalokikā f. equals lokā- jalonnāda m. Name of one of the attendants of śiva- jalopala m. equals la- śarkarā- jaloragī "water-snake", a leech jalp ( lap- reduplicated ?) cl.1. ( j/alpati- Epic also A1. perfect tense jajalpa- ) to speak inarticulately, murmur ; to chatter, prattle ; to say, speak, converse with ( instrumental case or ) sā- rdham etc. ; to speak about ( accusative) ; = , to praise arc- ; (said of the Koil) to sound (its song) : Causal to cause to speak jalpayati- Va1rtt. 3. jalpa ( m. gaRa ) talk, speech, discourse (also uñchā- di plural) jalpa ( m. plural) chatter, gossip, jalpa a kind of disputation (overbearing reply and disputed rejoinder) m. jalpa m. Name of a ṛṣi- jalpa for n. lpya- jalpa n. see , citra- - . bahu- - jalpaka talkative mfn. jalpaka a disputant m. jalpāka ( mfn. ) talkative jalpakalpalatā f. Name (also title or epithet) of work jalpakalpataru m. Name (also title or epithet) of work jalpana speaking mfn. gaRa nandyādi- jalpana ( n. ) saying, speaking jalpana chattering n. jalpeśvaramāhātmya n. Name (also title or epithet) of work jalpi inarticulate or low speech, muttering (prayers or formulas) f. jalpi discourse spoken in a low voice f. jalpin mfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' speaking jalpita said, spoken mfn. jalpita addressed, spoken to, mfn. jalpita ( n. ) talk jalpitṛ mfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' See . bahu- - jalpya gossip, n. . jalukā f. equals lau- kā jalūkā f. idem or ' f. equals lau- kā ' jalūkā f. equals tṛṇa- - ( see .) jāūka- ābaddhāñ jali ( mfn. equals ) joining the palms of the hands kṛtā- ñjali abhi jalp to address ; to accompany with remarks ; to advocate ; to settle by conversation ab jala a horse of very low breed, m. acyuta jallakin m. Name of a commentator of the . amara- koṣa- agādha jala having deep water mfn. agādha jala deep water. n. a jalambana antimony. n. a jaloma goat's hair n. a jaloman Cowage, Carpopogon Pruriens m. a jaloman hairy as a goat, mf( )n. mnī- a jaloman goat's hair n. a jalomī Cowage, Carpopogon Pruriens f. akāla jaladodaya unseasonable rising of clouds or mist. m. anāhūtopa jalpin an uncalled-for boaster. m. ānanda jala tears of joy n. añ jala See and v. below. añ jala only in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' for añjali- q.v añ jali See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order below. añ jali ( m. ), the open hands placed side by side and slightly hollowed (as if by a beggar to receive food;hence when raised to the forehead, a mark of supplication), reverence, salutation, benediction añj- añ jali a libation to the Manes (two hands full of water, m. ) udakā- ñjali añ jali a measure of corn, sufficient to fill both hands when placed side by side, equal to a m. . kuḍava- añ jalibandhana salutation with the n. raised to the forehead. añjali- añ jalika mn. Name of one of 's arrows arjuna- añ jalikā a young mouse f. añ jalikārikā an earthen figure (with the hands joined for salutation) f. añ jalikārikā the plant Mimosa Natans. f. añ jalikarman making the above respectful salutation. n. añ jalīkṛta placed together to form the mfn. salutation. añjali- āñ jalikya fr. n. , ( añjalika- gaRa , purohitā- di q.v) añ jalipuṭa m. cavity produced in making the n. salutation. añjali- anna jala food and water, bare subsistence. n. antar jalacara going in the water. mfn. antar jalaugha an inner mass of water, m. anu jalp to follow in talking ; A1. , to entertain by conversation. - jalpate- asi jala blood dripping from a sword, n. ati jala well watered. mfn. avahitāñ jali with joined hand mfn. baddhāñ jali one who has joined the hollowed palms of the hands ( mfn. see ) añjali- baddhāñ jalipuṭa forming a cup with the hollowed hands mfn. bahu jalpa very talkative, loquacious mfn. bahu jalpitṛ a talker, prattler m. bai jaladeva m. Name of a prince and author ( see under bijala- ). bīja- bhagavatīpadyapuṣpāñ jali m. Name of work bhava jala the water (or ocean) of worldly existence n. bhu jalatā "arm-creeper", a long slender arm f. bī jala furnished with seed or grain, seedy mfn. ( see ). baijala- bī jalīlāvatī f. Name of work -1. bījāñ jali a handful of s. or grain m. brahmāñ jali joining the hollowed hands while repeating the m. veda- brahmāñ jalikṛta one who has joined the hands hands in token of homage to the mfn. veda- citra jalpa talking on various things. m. dānakusumāñ jali m. Name of work dhārā jala blood dripping from the edge of a sword n. dhautāñ jalī a sort of collyrium ( f. equals or try- aṅkaṭa- ) ṅgaṭa- dṛg jala "eye-water", tears n. dur jala bad or noisome water n. dvi jaliṅgin wearing the insignia of a Brahman mfn. dvi jaliṅgin a mfn. kṣatriya- dvi jaliṅgin an impostor, a pretended Brahman mfn. dvyañ jala 2 handfuls n. ekāñ jali a handful. m. ga jalīla (in music) a kind of measure. m. gandha jala fragrant water n. gaṅgā jala the water of the Ganges, holy water by which it is customary to administer oaths n. gharma jala "heat-water", perspiration n. go jala cow's urine n. gopa jalā f. equals go- capalā- hastāñ jali the hands joined together and hollowed ( m. See ) añjali- hata jalpita n. plural useless talk hemakiñ jalka m. golden filaments n. hemakiñ jalka "having golden filaments", the n. flower nāgakesara- hij jala the Hijjal tree m. ( varia lectio) ij jala a small tree growing in wet and saline soil (or on low grounds near the sea), Barringtonia Acutangula Gaertn. m. īṣaj jala ( ) īṣaj- jala- shallow water, a little water. n. jā jala ( m. plural Va1rtt. 1) 's pupils ( jājalin- Name of a school of the ) jā jalāyani m. patronymic fr. or la- li- gaRa (not in tikā- di and ) jā jali m. Name of a teacher jā jalin m. idem or ' m. Name of a teacher ' Va1rtt. 1. jā jalla m. Name of several princes (A.D. 1114 etc.) jaj jala Name of a man, . jaj jalā ( ind. onomatopoetic (i.e. formed from imitation of sounds)) with , to make in an instant kṛ- ( jalgalyamāna- ) . jar jalpa See . n/ir- - kaiñ jalka consisting of lotus fibres, mfn. kā jala ( n. See 2. ) a little water kā- kā jala waterless, mfn. caraka- kā jala unguent (for n. , kajjala- quod vide ?), kaj jala a cloud (in this sense perhaps for m. ) kad- jala- kaj jala a species of fish f( , ā- ). ī- kaj jala lampblack (used as a collyrium and applied to the eyelashes or eyelids medicinally or as an ornament) n. kaj jala sulphuret of lead or antimony (similarly used) n. etc. kaj jala ( n. figuratively) dregs kaj jaladhvaja a lamp m. kaj jalamaya consisting of lampblack mfn. kaj jalarocaka m. the wooden stand or tripod on which a lamp is placed, a candlestick n. kaj jalī Aethiops Mineralis f. kaj jalī ink f. kaj jalikā powder ( f. especially made of mercury) kaj jalita covered with lampblack or with a collyrium prepared from it mfn. gaRa tārakā- di kaj jalita blackened, soiled mfn. kaj jalītīrtha n. Name of a . tīrtha- kakuñ jala the bird m. cātaka- ( see .) kapiñjala- kañ jala the bird Gracula Religiosa m. kapiñ jala ( m. etymology doubtful) the francoline partridge, heathcock etc. kapiñ jala Cuculus Melanoleucus ( m. equals ) caṭaka- kapiñ jala m. Name of a vidyādhara- kapiñ jala of a man m. kapiñ jala of a sparrow m. kapiñ jalā f. Name of a river kāpiñ jala (fr. mfn. ), coming from the francoline partridge kap- kāpiñ jala a m. patronymic fr. ( kap- varia lectio ) kup- gaRa . śivā- di kapiñ jalāda m. Name of a man ( see ) kāpiñjalādi- kāpiñ jalāda the school of m. plural kāpiñjalādya- kāpiñ jalādi a m. patronymic fr. kapiñjalā- da gaRa . kurv- ādi- kāpiñ jalādya a m. patronymic fr. lādi- kapiñ jalanyāya the rule of the m. s (with whom even"three"is a large number), kapiñjala- on . kapiñ jalārma n. Name of an old city ( see ) arma- on kāpiñ jali a m. patronymic fr. kapiñjala- karapuṭaṭāñ jali cavity made in joining the palms of the hands m. karṇa jalaukā f. idem or ' ' n. karṇa jalaukas n. karṇa jalūkā f. equals above - kīṭā- karṇāñ jali the ears pricked up m. kaupiñ jala m. patronymic fr. ku- p- gaRa śivā- di kaupiñ jala mfn. kha jala "air-water" n. id est dew, rain, fog khañ jalekha for - khela- kiñ jala m. equals jalka- kiñ jalka (or mn. ; kiṃ- j- gaRa ) the filament of a plant (especially of a lotus) kiṃśukā- di etc. kiñ jalka the flower of Mesua ferrea n. kiñ jalkin having filaments mfn. kṛmi jalaja an animal living in a shell, shell-fish m. kṛtāñ jali one who joins the hollowed palms in reverence or to solicit a favour (holding the hollowed palms together as if to receive alms or an offering), standing in a reverent or respectful posture mfn. kṛtāñ jali a shrub used in medicine and in magical potions m. kṛtāñ jalipuṭa joining the palms of the hands for obeisance or for holding offerings of water etc. mf( )n. ā- kṣapā jala night-dew n. kub jalīḍha m. Name of the founder of a sect ( varia lectio ). kubjā- l kulakaj jala disgrace of the family. m. kuñ jala m. Name of one of 's attendants skanda- kuñ jala sour gruel ( n. see ) kāñjika- kūpa jala well-water, spring-water n. kūpa jalodvāhana n. equals kūpa- cakra- kupiñ jala m. Name of a man gaRa . śivā- di kupiñ jala etc. See 1. . ku- kusumāñ jali a handful of flowers (properly as much as will fill both hands), f. kusumāñ jali f. Name of a philosophical work (written by udayana- to prove the existence of a Supreme Being, and consisting of seventy-two ācārya- s divided into five chapters) kārikā- kusumāñ jalikārikāvyākhyā f. Name of commentary on the preceding work kusumāñ jalimakaraṇḍa m. Name of commentary on the preceding work kusumāñ jaliprakāśa m. Name of commentary on the preceding work kusumāñ jaliprakāśamakaraṇḍa m. Name of commentary on the preceding work kusumāñ jaliṭīkā f. Name of commentary on the preceding work kusumāñ jalivṛtti f. Name of commentary on the preceding work kusumāñ jalivyākhyā f. Name of commentary on the preceding work lavaṇa jala having salt water mfn. lavaṇa jala the sea, ocean m. lavaṇa jaladhi ( m. ) "receptacle of sea water", sea, ocean lavaṇa jalanidhi ( m. ) "receptacle of sea water", sea, ocean lavaṇa jalodbhava "sea-born", a muscle, shell m. mada jala the temple juice (of a ruttish elephant) n. madhye jalāt from out of the middle of the water ind. mahāga jalakṣaṇa n. Name of work mā jala the blue roller m. mā jalapura n. Name of a city. maj jala m. Name of one of 's attendants skanda- ( varia lectio ; majjāna- see ). majjana- maṇi jalā "having jewel-holed-like water", f. Name of a river mano jalpa "mind-talk", imagination m. mantra jala water consecrated by charms or sacred text n. mantrapuṣpāñ jali m. Name of work manu jaloka "world of men", the earth m. maṣi jala ink n. maṣī jala ink n. mīmāṃsākusumāñ jali m. Name of work mithyā jalpita a false report or rumour n. mṛga jala "deer-water", mirage ( n. See ) - tṛṣ- mṛga jalasnāna bathing in the waters of a mirage (a term for any impossibility) n. , mṛgarā jalakṣman having the mark or name of lion or the moon mfn. muktāphala jala n. equals ( muktā- j- q.v) nāgakiñ jalka the blossom of Mesua Roxburghii n. nāti jalpaka not too garrulous mfn. nayana jala "eye-water", tears n. nayanāñ jala wrong reading for . nā- ñcala netra jala n. equals prec. n. netra jalasrava a flood of tears m. ni jalābhapūrṇa engrossed in self-interest, self-satisfied mfn. nikāma jala (a river) yielding abundant water mfn. nir jala waterless, dry ( mf( )n. ā- or m. a dry country, desert, waste n. ) nir jala not mixed with water (as buttermilk) mf( )n. ā- nir jalada cloudless mf( )n. ā- nir jalaikādaśī the 11th day in the light half of the month f. (on which even the drinking of water is forbidden) jyaiṣṭha- nir jalamīnāya Nom. A1. , to be like a fish without water, yate- nir jalatoyadābha of the colour of a waterless cloud mfn. id est white, fair nirjar jalpa ( ) n/ir- - tattered mfn. ( ; varia lectio ). - jalmaka- niśā jala "night-water", dew n. nivāpāñ jali two handfuls of water as a libation to deceased ancestors m. nivāpāñ jalidāna n. niyatāñ jali putting the joined hands to the forehead mfn. nṛ jala "man-water", human urine m. nyañ jalikā an f. which is directed downwards añjali- nyāyakusumāñ jali ( m. nyāyakusumāñjalikārikā - kārikā- f. nyāyakusumāñjaliprakāśa - prakāśa- m. nyāyakusumāñjalivikāśa - vikāśa- m. nyāyakusumāñjaliviveka , - viveka- ) m. Name of work nyāyakusumāñ jalikārikā f. nyāyakusumāñjali nyāyakusumāñ jaliprakāśa m. nyāyakusumāñjali nyāyakusumāñ jalivikāśa m. nyāyakusumāñjali nyāyakusumāñ jaliviveka m. nyāyakusumāñjali nyāyapuṣpāñ jali m. Name of work pāda jala water for (washing) the feet n. pāda jala containing ( mfn. id est mixed with) one fourth of water padmapuṣpāñ jalistotra n. Name of a . stotra- padyaprasūnāñ jali m. Name of work palyakathāpuṣpāñ jali m. Name of work pañ jala a kind of bulbous plant m. pañjarakapiñ jala a partridge in a cage m. paṅka jalāvam (fr. ind. ) cutting off like a lotus-flower lū- pāre jalam on the other side of the water, on the opposite bank of a river ind. parihāsavi jalpita uttered in jest mfn. pari jalp P. , to chatter, talk about, speak of ( - jalpati- accusative) pari jalpita the covert reproaches of a mistress neglected by her lover n. pariṣvañ jalya ( ) p/ari- - or m. a n. particular domestic utensil patañ jala m. Name of a man patañ jala m. plural his family gaRa . upakā- di pātañ jala composed by mf( )n. ī- patañjali- pātañ jala a follower of the m. system of yoga- patañjali- pātañ jala the Yoga system of n. patañjali- (also pātañjalīya līya- ) n. pātañ jala the n. of mahā- bhāṣya- patañjali- pātañ jalabhāṣya ( n. pātañjalabhāṣyavarttika - varttika- ) n. Name of work pātañ jalabhāṣyavarttika n. pātañjalabhāṣya pātañ jaladarśana n. pātañ jalarahasya n. Name of work pātañ jalasūtrabhāṣyavyakhyā f. Name of work pātañ jalasūtravṛttibhāṣyacchāyā f. Name of work pātañ jalatantra n. patañ jali (fr. m. + pata- ?; añj- see Va1rtt. 4 gaRa ) śakandhv- ādi- Name of a celebrated grammarian (author of the ) mahābhāṣya- patañ jali of a philosopher (the propounder of the m. philosophy) yoga- patañ jali of a physician etc. m. patañ jalicarita n. Name of work patañ jalikāvya n. Name of work patañ jalisūtra n. Name of work pātañ jalīya n. pātañjala patañ jaliyoga m. Name of work piñ jala (fr. mfn. ) extremely confused or disordered ( piñja- see ) ut- piñjala- piñ jalā f. Name of a river piñ jala ( f. ). a bunch of stalks or grass ī- ( see ) piñjula- piñ jala ( n. ) idem or ' ( f. ). a bunch of stalks or grass ī- ( see )' piñjula- piñ jala Curcuma Zerumbet n. piñ jala yellow orpiment. n. piñ jalaka mfn. See , ut- piñjalaka- . samut- p- prahvāñ jali mfn. prahva prā jala m. plural Name of a Vedic school ( varia lectio and prājvalana- ) prā- ñjali pra jalp P. , to talk, speak, tell, communicate, announce, proclaim - jalpati- pra jalpa prattle, gossip, heedless or frivolous words ( m. especially words used in greeting a lover) pra jalpana talking, speaking n. pra jalpita talked, spoken mfn. pra jalpita one who has begun to talk mfn. pra jalpita spoken words, talk n. pralaya jaladharadhvāna the rumbling or muttering of clouds at the dissolution of the world m. praṇāmāñ jali reverential salutation with the hands opened and hollowed m. prāñ jala (prob. fr. mfn. + pra- and = añjali- ) straight prā- ñjali prāñ jala upright, honest, sincere mfn. prāñ jala level (as a road) mfn. prāñ jalatā straightness, plainness (of meaning) f. prāñ jali joining and holding out the hollowed open hands (as a mark of respect and humility or to receive alms; mf( , i- )n. ī- see , añjali- ) kṛtā- ñj and etc. prāñ jali m. plural Name of a school of the , sāmaveda- (also ; - dvaita- bhṛt- varia lectio prājvalanā- and dvaita- bhṛtaḥ- prājalā- ). dvaita- bhṛtyāḥ- prāñ jalībhū to stand holding out the joined and hollowed open hands prāñ jalika ( ) equals . prā- ñjali prāñ jalin ( ) equals . prā- ñjali prāñ jalipragraha holding the hands joined and outstretched mfn. ( varia lectio ). liḥ pragr- prāñ jalisthita standing with joined and outstretched hands mfn. prasanna jala containing clear water mfn. prasravaṇa jala spring-water n. prasūnāñ jali presenting a nosegay held in both hands opened and hollowed ( mfn. equals ) puṣpā- ñjali prasveda jala sweat-water n. prati jalp P. , to answer, reply - jalpati- prati jalpa an answer, reply m. prati jalpaka a polite but evasive answer m. prauḍha jalada a dense cloud m. prayatāñ jali closely joining the hands, mfn. puṇya jala having pure water mfn. pūrṇāñ jali "full m. "two handfuls, añjali- pūrvasaṃ jalpa an introduction in the form of a dialogue m. puṣpāñ jali two handfuls of flower m. puṣpāñ jali m. Name of several works puṣpāñ jali ( m. puṣpāñjalistotra - stotra- n. Name of work) puṣpāñ jali ( m. puṣpāñjalyaṣṭaka lyaṣṭaka- n. Name of work) puṣpāñ jali presenting flower or a nosegay in both hands opened and hollowed mfn. puṣpāñ jalistotra n. puṣpāñjali puṣpāñ jalyaṣṭaka n. puṣpāñjali puṭāñ jali the two hollowed hands put together ( m. see ) añjali- rā jalakṣaṇa a royal sign or token, any mark on the body etc. indicating a future kind n. rā jalakṣaṇa royal insignia, regalia n. rā jalakṣman a royal token, sign of royalty (in n. ) a- r- rā jalakṣman "having the marks of royalty", m. Name of yudhi- ṣṭhira- rā jalakṣmī the Fortune or Prosperity of a king (personified as a goddess), royal majesty or sovereignty f. etc. rā jalakṣmī f. Name of a princess rā jalekha "kind's writing", a royal letter or edict m. rā jalīlānāman n. plural Name of 's collection of epithets borne by vallabhā- cārya (having reference to 118 of his diversions when he had attained to royal rank) kṛṣṇa- rā jaliṅga a kingly mark, royal token n. rā jaloka an assemblage of kind m. rajanī jala "night-dew", hoar-frost n. rasarā jalakṣmī f. Name of medical work rātri jala "night-water", dew, mist n. saha jalalita m. Name of a man sahasra jaladhāra "having a thousand clouds", m. Name of a mountain sa jala possessing or containing water, watery, wet, humid mfn. sa jalanayana watery-eyed mfn. sa jalapṛṣata containing water-drops mfn. sa jalatva wateriness n. saj jala m. Name of a man saj jala m. Name of a man salilāñ jali two handfuls of water (as a libation) m. saṃgītapuṣpāñ jali m. Name of work saṃhatāñ jali joining the hollowed hands (as a mark of supplication) mfn. samīpa jala having water close by, being near the water mfn. saṃ jalp P. ( - jalpati- pr. p. ,or - jalpat- ), to speak or talk together, converse, chatter pamāna- saṃ jalpa talking together, conversation, chattering, uproar, confusion m. saṃ jalpita spoken together, spoken, uttered mfn. saṃ jalpita spoken words, talk n. saṃsakta jala joining or mingling its waters with ( mf( )n. ā- compound) samupacita jala having accumulated waters (as the ocean) mfn. samutpiñ jala ( ) ( ) m. idem or ' complete confusion m. ' samutpiñ jalaka ( ) m. idem or '( ) ( ) m. idem or ' ' complete confusion m. ' saṃyatāñ jali having the hands joined together in entreaty (= mfn. ) baddho- ñjali sāñ jali with hands hollowed and joined (in supplication mfn. See ) añjali- śānti jala n. equals śāntyuda- saptārṇava jaleśaya mfn. saptārṇava sarasī jalocana lotus-eyed mfn. saro jala the water of a pond or lake n. sarvamātrikāpuṣpāñ jali m. Name of work śāstra jaladhiratna n. Name of work sayantra jalaśaila having engines and water and a rock mfn. sevāñ jali ( ) vā- ñj a servant's reverential salutation with hollowed hands ( m. See ) añjali- siddha jala "cooked water", the fermented water of boiled rice, sour rice-gruel n. siddhakaj jala magical lamp-black n. śītala jala cold water n. śītala jala a lotus flower n. śivakusumāñ jali m. Name of a . stotra- śrama jala "toil water", perspiration n. sravatsveda jala streaming with perspiration mfn. sruta jala having the water flowed off, dried up mfn. stutikusumāñ jali "handful of flowers" m. Name of a poem in praise of . śiva- su jala having good or sweet water mf( )n. ā- su jala a lotus n. su jala good water n. su jalpa good speech, a m. particular kind of speech (sincere, earnest, full of meaning and vivacity) svāñ jalyaka the joining of one's hands in supplication, supplication n. sveda jala ( n. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' ) "sweat-water", perspiration f( ). ā- sveda jalakaṇa ( m. ) equals next. sveda jalakaṇikā ( f. ) equals next. śveta jala Name of a lake taj jalān mfn. according to to some, - taj- jāneī- ,"thinking, may I know that" nsti- confer, compare taj jalān See . - ja- tañ jala the m. bird cātaka- tejo jala "light-water", the lens of the eye n. toyāñ jali the hollowed hands joined and filled with water (offered to the dead) m. tṛṇa jalāyukā a caterpillar f. tṛṇa jalūkā f. idem or ' a caterpillar f. ' tryañ jala 3 handfuls n. tryañ jali a handful belonging to 3 persons, 102 m. tryañ jali bought for 3 handfuls mfn. tvag jala "skin-water", sweat n. ubhāñ jali ( ) ubhā- ñjali ind. gaRa dvidaṇḍy- ādi- ubhayāñ jali ( ) ubhayā- ñjali ind. gaRa dvidaṇḍy- ādi- udadhi jalamaya made or formed out of sea-water mfn. uda jalaka m. Name of a wheel-wright udakāñ jali a handful of water m. udañ jali hollowing the palms and then raising them mfn. unmārga jalavāhin carrying water by a wrong way. mfn. upa jalā f. Name of a river upa jalp upa jalpin talking to a person, giving advice mfn. upa jalpita talk n. upakūpa jalāśaya a trough near a well for watering cattle. m. uṣo jala n. plural "the Dawn's tears", dew utpiñ jala let loose, unfolded, unrolled mfn. utpiñ jalaka disordered, tumultuous (as a battle) mfn. vaibhrā jaloka m. Name of a world ( equals ) vaibhrāja- vai jaladeva or la- bhūpati- See . baijala- deva- vāpī jala lake-water n. vastrapañ jala m. Name of a bulbous plant vedāntasiddhāntaratnāñ jali m. vedāntasiddhānta velā jala n. sg. and plural flood-tide ( opp. to"ebb") vihitāñ jali making a respectful obeisance mfn. vi jala waterless, dry mfn. vi jala drought n. vi jala sauce etc. mixed with rice-water or gruel, mfn. vi jalpa ( m. ) an unjust reproach jalp- vi jalpa speech, talk m. vi jalpita spoken, uttered mfn. vij jala ( mfn. also ,or vijjana- ) slimy, smeary vijjila- vij jala the root of Bombax Heptaphyllum m. vij jalā f. Name of a woman vij jala a kind of arrow n. vij jala sauce etc. mixed with rice-gruel n. vij jalapura n. Name of a town vij jalaviḍa n. idem or ' ( n. Name of a town ' see ). vijila- bindu- vilāpakusumāñ jali m. Name of a poem. 1. vira jaloka m. Name of a particular world, viṣa jala poisoned water n. vra jalāla m. Name of a king vra jalāla of an author m. vyati jalp P. , to chatter together, gossip - jalpati- Va1rtt. 1 yogapātañ jala a follower of m. as teacher of the patañjali- doctrine yoga-
jal जल् I. 1 P. (जलति) 1 To be rich or wealthy. -2 To cover, hide, screen. -3 To cover (as with a net), encircle, entangle. -4 To be sharp. -5 To be cold, stiff, dull, or dumb. -II. 1 P. (जालयति) To cover, screen &c. jala जल a. [जल् अच् डस्य लो वा] 1 Dull, cold, frigid = जड q. v. -2 Stupid, idiotic. -लम् 1 Water; तातस्य कूपो$-
यमिति ब्रुवाणाः क्षारं जलं कापुरुषाः पिबन्ति । Pt.1.322. -2 A kind of fragrant medicinal plant or perfume (ह्रीवेर). -3 The embryo or uterus of a cow. -5 The constellation called पूर्वाषाढा. -Comp. -अञ्चलम् 1 a spring. -2 a natural water-course. -3 moss. -अञ्जलिः 1 a handful of water. -2 a libation of water presented to the manes of a deceased person; कुपुत्रमासाद्य कुतो जलाञ्जलिः Chāṇ 69; मानस्यापि जलाञ्जलिः सरभसं लोके न दत्तो यथा Amaru. 97 (where, जलाञ्जलिं दा means 'to leave or give up'). -अटनः a heron. -अटनी a leech. -अणुकम्, -अण्डकम् the fry of fish. -अण्टकः a shark. -अत्ययः autumn (शरद्); पृष्ठतो$नुप्रयातानि मेघानिव जलात्यये Rām.2.45.22. -अधिदैवतः, -तम् an epithet of Varuṇa. (-तम्) the constellation called पूर्वाषाढा. -अधिपः an epithet of Varuṇa. -अम्बिका a well. -अर्कः the image of the sun reflected in water. -अर्णवः 1 the rainy season. -2 the ocean of sweet water. -अर्थिन् a. thirsty. -अवतारः a landing-place at a river-side. -अष्ठीला a large square pond. -असुका a leech. -आकरः a spring, fountain, well. -आकाङ्क्षः, -काङ्क्षः, -काङ्क्षिन् m. an elephant. -आखुः an otter. -आगमः rain; तपति प्रावृषि सुतरामभ्यर्ण- जलागमो दिवसः Ratn.3.1. -आढ्य a. watery, marshy. -आत्मिका a leech. -आधारः a pond, lake, reservoir of water. -आयुका a leech. -आर्द्र a. wet. (-र्द्रम्) wet garment or clothes. (-र्द्रा) a fan wetted with water. -आलोका a leech. -आवर्तः eddy, whirl-pool. -आशय a. 1 resting or lying in water. -2 stupid, dull, apathetic. (-यः) 1 a pond, lake, reservoir. -2 a fish. -3 the ocean. -4 the fragrant root of a plant (उशीर). -आश्रयः 1 a pond. -2 water-house. -आह्वयम् a lotus. -इन्द्रः 1 an epithet of Varuṇa. -2 N. of Mahādeva. -3 the ocean; जलेन्द्रः पुंसि वरुणे जम्भले च महोदधौ Medinī. -इन्धनः the submarine fire. -इभः a water-elephant. -ईशः, -ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of Varuṇa; भीमोद्भवां प्रति नले च जलेश्वरे च N. -2 the ocean. -उच्छ्वासः 1 a channel made for carrying off excess of water, drain, (cf. परीवाह). -2 overflow of a river. -उदरम् dropsy. -उद्भव a. aquatic. (-वा) benzoin. -उरगा, -ओकस् m., -ओकसः a leech. -कण्टकः a crocodile. -कपिः the Gangetic porpoise. -कपोतः a water-pigeon. -कर a. making or pouring forth water. (-रः) tax for water. -करङ्कः 1 a shell. -2 a cocoa-nut. -3 a cloud. -4 a wave. -5 a lotus. -कल्कः mud. -कल्मषः the poison produced at the churning of the ocean; तस्यापि दर्शयामास स्ववीर्यं जलकल्मषः Bhāg.8. 7.44. -काकः the diver-bird. -कान्तः the wind. -कान्तारः an epithet of Varuṇa. -किराटः a shark. -कुक्कुटः a water-fowl; जलकुक्कुटकोयष्टिदात्यूहकुलकूजितम् Bhāg.8.2.16. (-टी) the black-headed gull. -कुन्तलः, -कोशः moss. -कूपी 1 a spring, well. -2 a pond. -3 a whirlpool; जलकूपी कूपगर्ते पुष्करिण्यां च योषिति Medinī. -कूर्मः the porpoise. -कृत् a. Causing rain; दिवसकृतः प्रतिसूर्यो जलकृत् (मेघः) Bṛi. S. -केलिः, m. or f., -क्रीडा playing in water, splashing one another with water. -केशः moss. -क्रिया presenting libations of water to the manes of the deceased. -गुल्मः 1 a turtle. -2 a quadrangular tank. -3 a whirlpool. -चर a. (also जलेचर) aquatic. (-रः) 1 an aquatic animal. -2 a fish. -3 any kind of water-fowl. ˚आजीवः, ˚जीवः a fisherman. -चत्वरम् a square tank. -चारिन् m. 1 an aquatic animal. -2 a fish. -ज a. born or produced in water. (-जः) 1 an aquatic animal. -2 a fish; स्वयमेव हतः पित्रा जलजेनात्मजो यथा Rām.2.61.22. -3 sea-salt. -4 a collective name for several signs of the zodiac. -5 moss. -6 the moon. (-जः, जम्) 1 a shell. -2 the conch-shell; अधरोष्ठे निवेश्य दघ्मौ जलजं कुमारः R.7. 63,1.6; इत्यादिश्य हृषीकेशः प्रध्माय जलजोत्तमम् Bhāg.8.4. 26. -3 (-जः) The Kaustubha gem; जलजः कौस्तुभे मीने तत् क्लीबे शङ्खपद्मयोः । Nm. (जः) -4 A kind of horse born in water; वाजिनो जलजाः केचिद् वह्निजातास्तथापरे । शालिहोत्र of भोज, Appendix II,12. (-जम्) a lotus. ˚आजीवः a fisherman. ˚आसनः an epithet of Brahmā; वाचस्पतिरुवाचेदं प्राञ्जलिर्जलजासनम् Ku.2.3. ˚कुसुमम् the lotus. ˚द्रव्यम् a pearl, shell or any other thing produced from the sea. -जन्तुः 1 a fish, -2 any aquatic animal. -जन्तुका a leech. -जन्मन् a lotus. -जिह्वः a crocodile. -जीविन् m. a fisherman. -डिम्बः a bivalve shell. -तरङ्गः 1 a wave. -2 a metal cup filled with water producing harmonic notes like a musical glass. -ताडनम् (lit.) 'beating water'; (fig.) any useless occupation. -तापिकः, -तापिन्, -तालः The Hilsa fish; L. D. B. -त्रा an umbrella. -त्रासः hydrophobia. -दः 1 a cloud; जायन्ते विरला लोके जलदा इव सज्जनाः Pt.1.29. -2 camphor. ˚अशनः the Śāla tree. -आगमः the rainy season; सरस्तदा मानसं तु ववृधे जलदागमे Rām.7.12.26. ˚आभ a. black, dark. ˚कालः the rainy season. ˚क्षयः autumn. -दर्दुरः a kind of musical instrument. -देवः the constellation पूर्वाषाढा. -देवता a naiad, water-nymph. -द्रोणी a bucket. -द्वारम् A gutter, a drain, Māna.31.99. -धरः 1 a cloud. -2 the ocean. -धारा a stream of water. -धिः 1 the ocean. -2 a hundred billions. -3 the number 'four'. ˚गा a river. ˚जः the moon. ˚जा Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth. ˚रशना the earth. -नकुलः an otter. -नरः a merman. -नाडी, -ली a water-course. -निधिः 1 the ocean. -2 the number 'four'. -निर्गमः 1 a drain, water-course. -2 a water-fall, descent of a spring &c. into a river below. -नीलिः moss. -पक्षिन् m. a water-fowl. -पटलम् a cloud. -पतिः 1 the ocean. -2 an epithet of Varuṇa. -पथः a sea voyage; R.17.81. -पद्धतिः f. a gutter, drain. -पात्रम् 'a water-pot', drinking-vessel. -पारावतः a water-pigeon. -पित्तम् fire. -पुष्पम् an aquatic flower. -पूरः 1 a flood of water. -2 a full stream of water. -पृष्ठजा moss. -प्रदानम् presenting libations of water to the manes of the deceased. -प्रपातः 1 a water-fall. -2 rainy season; शरत्प्रतीक्षः क्षमतामिमं भवाञ्जलप्रपातं रिपुनिग्रहे धृतः Rām.4.27.47. -प्रलयः destruction by water. -प्रान्तः the bank of a river. -प्रायम् a country abounding with water; जलप्रायमनूपं स्यात् Ak. -प्रियः 1 the Chātaka bird. -2 a fish. (-या) an epithet of Dākṣāyaṇī. -प्लवः an otter. -प्लावनम् a deluge, an inundation. -बन्धः,
बन्धकः a dam, dike, rocks or stones impeding a current. -बन्धुः a fish. -बालकः, -वालकः the Vindhya mountain. -बालिका lightning. -बिडालः an otter. -बिम्बः, -म्बम् a bubble. -बिल्वः 1 a (quadrangular) pond, lake. -2 a tortoise. -3 a crab. -भीतिः f. hydrophobia. -भू a. produced in water. -भूः m. 1 a cloud. -2 a place for holding water. -3 a kind of camphor. -भूषणः wind. -भृत् m. 1 a cloud. -2 a jar. -3 camphor. -मक्षिका a water-insect. -मण़्डूकम् a kind of musical instrument; (= जलदर्दुर). -मद्गुः a king-fisher. -मसिः 1 a cloud. -2 camphor. -मार्गः a drain, canal. -मार्जारः an otter. -मुच् m. 1 a cloud; Me.69. -2 a kind of camphor. -मूर्तिः an epithet of Śiva. -मूर्तिका hail. -मोदम् a fragrant root (उशीर). -यन्त्रम् 1 a machine for raising water (Mar. रहाट). -2 a waterclock, clepsydra. -3 a fountain. ˚गृहम्, ˚निकेतनम्, ˚मन्दिरम् a house erected in the midst of water (a summerhouse) or one supplied with artificial fountains; क्वचिद् विचित्रं जलयन्त्रमन्दिरम् Ṛs.1.2. -यात्रा a sea-voyage. -यानम् a ship. -रङ्कुः a kind of gallinule. -रण्डः, रुण्डः 1 a whirlpool. -2 a drop of water, drizzle, thin sprinkling. -3 a snake. -रसः sea-salt. -राशिः the ocean. -रुह्, -हम् a lotus. -रूपः a crocodile. -लता a wave, billow. -वरण्टः a watery pustule. -वाद्यम् a kind of musical instrument. -वायसः a diver-bird. -वासः residence in water. (-सम्) = उशीर q. v. -वाहः 1 a cloud; साद्रिजलधिजलवाहपथम् Ki.12.21. -2 a waterbearer. -3 a kind of camphor. -वाहकः, -नः a watercarrier. -वाहनी an aqueduct. -विषुवम् the autumnal equinox. -वृश्चिकः a prawn. -वैकृतम् any change in the waters of rivers indicating a bad omen. -व्यधः A kind of fish; L. D. B. -व्यालः 1 a water-snake. -2 a marine monster. -शयः, -शयनः, -शायिन् m. an epithet of Viṣṇu; -शय्या lying in water (a kind of religious rite); द्वादशं हि गतं वर्षं जलशय्यां समासतः Rām.7. 76.17. -शर्करा A hailstone; तीव्रैर्मरुद्गणैर्नुन्ना ववृषुर्जलशर्कराः Bhāg.1.25.9. -शुक्तिः f. a bivalve shell. -शुचि a. bathed, washed. -शूकम् moss. -शूकरः a crocodile. -शोषः drought. -समुद्रः the ocean of fresh water. -संपर्कः mixture or dilution with water. -सर्पिणी a leech. -सूचिः f. 1 the Gangetic porpoise. -2 a kind of fish. -3 a crow. -4 a water-nut. -5 a leech. -स्थानम्, -स्थायः a pond, lake, reservoir; कदचित्तं जलस्थायं मत्स्य- बन्धाः समन्ततः Rām.12.137.5. -स्रावः A kind of eyedisease. -हम् a small water-house (rather summerhouse) furnished with artificial fountains. -हस्तिन् m. a water-elephant. -हारिणी a drain. -हासः 1 foam. -2 cuttle-fish-bone considered as the foam of the sea. jalakam जलकम् A conch, shell. jalaṅga जलङ्ग a. Aquatic. -गः The colocynth. jalaṅma जलङ्म A Chāndāla.
जलाका, जलालुका, जलिका, जलुका, जलूका, जलोका, जलोकिका A leech.
जलेजम् jalējam जलेजातम् jalējātam
जलेजम् जलेजातम् A lotus. jalāṣa जलाष a. Ved. 1 Mitigating, pacifying. -2 Healing, comforting, soothing (as a medicine); Rv.2.33.7. -षम् 1 Water. -2 Happiness, comfort. -Comp. -भेषज a. possessed of healing medicines; रुद्रं जलाषभेषजम् Rv.1.43.4. jaleśayaḥ जलेशयः 1 A fish. -2 N. of Viṣṇu; सप्तसामोपगीतं त्वां सप्तार्णवजलेशयम् Ṛ.1.21. jalevāhaḥ जलेवाहः A diver. jalhu जल्हु Ved. a. Cool, dull; नारायासो न जल्हवः Rv.8. 61.11. -ल्हुः Fire (according to Shri Prin. Apte). jalp जल्प् 1 P. (जल्पति, जल्पित) 1 To speak, talk, speak or converse (with another); अविरलितकपोलं जल्पतोरक्रमेण U.1.27; एकेन जल्पन्त्यनल्पाक्षरम् Pt.1.136; Bh.1.82. -2 To murmur, speak inarticulately. -3 To chatter, prattle, babble. -4 To praise. jalpaḥ जल्पः [जल्प् भावे घञ्] 1 Talk, speech. -2 Discourse, conversation. -3 Babble, prattling, gossip; -4 Debate, wrangling discussion. jalpaka जल्पक a. (-ल्पिका f.), -जल्पाक a. Talkative, garrulous; जल्पाकीभिः सहासीनः Bk.7.19; cf. स्याज्जल्पाकस्तु वाचालो वाचाटो बहुगर्ह्यवाक् Ak.3.1.36. jalpanam जल्पनम् a. [जल्प्-ल्युट्] Speaking, saying, talking &c. -नम् 1 Saying, talking. -2 Chattering, garrulity. jalpiḥ जल्पिः f. Ved. Inarticulate speech. jalpita जल्पित a. [जल्प् कर्मणि क्त] Said, spoken, prattled &c. -तम् Talk, gossip. añ jaliḥ अञ्जलिः m. [अञ्ज्-अलि Uṇ.4.2.] 1 A cavity formed by folding and joining the open hands together, the hollow of the hands; hence, a cavity. full of anything (changed to अञ्जल or ˚लि after द्वि and त्रि in द्विगु comp., P.V.4.12); न वार्यञ्जलिना पिवेत् Ms.4.63; सुपूरो मूषि- काञ्जलिः Pt.1.25; अरण्यबीजाञ्जलिदानलालिताः Ku.5.15; प्रकीर्णः पुष्पाणां हरिचरणयोरञ्जलिरयम् Ve.1.1. a cavityful of flowers; so जलस्याञ्जलयो दश Y.3.15.1 cavityfuls or libations of water; श्रवणाञ्जलिपुटपेयम् Ve.1.4. to be drunk by the cavity of the ear; अञ्जलिं रच्, बन्ध्, कृ or आधा fold the hands together and raise them to the head in supplication or salutation; बद्धः, कातर्यादरविन्द- कुङ्मलनिभो मुग्धः प्रणामाञ्जलिः U.3.37. -2 Hence a mark of respect or salutation; कः शक्रेण कृतं नेच्छेदधिमूर्धानमञ्जलिम् Bk.8.84; बध्यतामभययाचनाञ्जलिः R.11.78. -3 A measure of corn = कुडव; another measure = प्रसृत, or one-half of a मानिका. -Comp. कर्मन् n. folding the hands, respectful salutation; लुब्धमर्थेन गृह्णीयात् क्रुद्धं चाञ्जलि- कर्मणा Chāṇ.33. -कारिका 1 an earthen doll making the अञ्जलि (?). -2 N. of a plant, Mimosa Pudica (लज्जालु) (Mar. लाजाळू). -पुटः-टम् the cavity formed by joining the hands together; hollowed plams of the hand. añ jalikā अञ्जलिका [अञ्जलिरिव कायते प्रकाशते; कै-क टाप् Tv.]. 1 A small mouse. -2 The sensitive plant of Mimosa Pudica (Mar. लाजाळू). -3 An insect of the spider tribe (Mar. कांतीण). -कः 1 N. of one of Arjuna's arrows. -2 अञ्जल्याकारमुख (mouse-mouthed) arrow भल्लैरञ्जलिकैरपि Rām.6.45.23. -वेध a fighting stratagem जानन्नञ्जलिकावेधं नापाक्रामत पाण्डवः Mb.7.26.23. ij jalaḥ इज्जलः A small tree growing near water (हिज्जल, समुद्रफल). udañ jali उदञ्जलि a. One who hollows the palms and then raises them, folding the hands in supplication. upa jalp उपजल्प् 1 P. 1 To talk to, converse with, chatter. -2 To advise.
उपजल्पनम् upajalpanam उपजल्पितम् upajalpitam
उपजल्पनम् उपजल्पितम् A talk; इदमेव स्मराम्यस्याः सहसैवोपजल्पितम् Rām.2.6.14. upa jalpin उपजल्पिन् a. Giving advice. kakuñ jalaḥ ककुञ्जलः The Chātaka bird. kaj jalam कज्जलम् [कुत्सितं जलमस्मात्प्रभवति, कोः कदादेशः] 1 Lampblack or soot, considered as a collyrium and applied to the eyelashes or eyelids medicinally, or sometimes as an ornament; यथा यथा चेयं चपला दीप्यते तथा तथा दीप- शिखेव कज्जलमलिनमेव कर्म केवलमुद्वमति K.15; अद्यापि तां विधृत- कज्जललोलनेत्राम् Ch. P.15; ˚कालिमा Amaru.88. -2 Sulphuret of lead or antimony (used as a collyrium.) -3 (fig.) Dregs; धिङ् मां विगर्हितं सद्भिर्दुष्कृतं कुलकज्जलम् Bhāg.6. 2.27. -4 Ink. -ला (-ली) A kind of fish. -ली 1 Sulphuret of mercury, æthiop's mineral. -2 Ink. -Comp. -ध्वजः a lamp. -रोचकः, -कम् the wooden stand on which a lamp is placed. kaj jalikā कज्जलिका Powder (esp. made of mercury). kaj jalita कज्जलित a. 1 Covered with lampblack or with a collyrium prepared from it. -2 Blackened, soiled; Hch. kañ jalaḥ कञ्जलः A kind of bird. kapiñ jalaḥ कपिञ्जलः 1 The Chātaka bird; सोमपीथं तु यत्तस्य शिर आसीत्कपिञ्जलः Bhāg.6.9.5. -2 The Tittiri bird. kā jalam काजलम् 1 A little water. -2 Bad water. kuñ jalam कुञ्जलम् Sour gruel. te jalaḥ तेजलः The francoline partridge. nirjar jalpa निर्जर्जल्प a. Ved. Ragged, tatterd. patañ jaliḥ पतञ्जलिः N. of the celebrated author of the Mahābhāṣya, the great commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras; also of a philosopher, the propounder of the Yoga philosophy. pari jalpitam परिजल्पितम् A covert indication (as by a servant) of one's own skill, superiority &c. by pointing out the cruelty, deceitfulness and such other faults of his master; Ujjvalamaṇi thus defines it:-- प्रभोर्निर्दयताशाठ्य- चापलाद्युपपादनात् । स्वविचक्षणताव्यक्तिर्भङ्ग्या स्यात् परिजल्पितम् ॥ (Wilson renders the word by 'the covert reproaches of a mistress neglected or ill-used by her lover'.) pātañ jala पातञ्जल a. (-ली f.) Composed by Patañjali; पातञ्जले महाभाष्ये कृतभूरिपरिश्रमः Paribhāṣenduśekhara. -लम् The Yoga system of philosophy taught by Patañjali. (It is generally believed that Patañjali, the author of the Mahābhāṣya, is the same as the author of the Yoga system; but it is a dubious point.) piñ jala पिञ्जल a. [पिञ्ज् कलच्] 1 Overcome with grief or terror, extremely confounded or perplexed. -2 Panicstruck (as an army). -लम् 1 Yellow orpiment. -2 The leaf of the Kuśa grass. -ली Two blades of Kuśa. grass used in holding certain articles at a sacrifice; एतदेव पिञ्जल्या लक्षणं समुदाहृतम् Karmapradīpa.
पिञ्जालम् (-नम्) Gold. pra jalp प्रजल्प् 1 P. 1 To speak, say, talk; स्वरेण तस्याममृत- स्रुतेव प्रजल्पितायामभिजातवाचि Ku.1.45. -2 To call. -3 To proclaim. -4 To prattle, chatter. pra jalpaḥ प्रजल्पः Prattle, gossip, heedless or frivolous words (used in greeting a lover); असूयेर्ष्यामदयुजा यो$वधीरणमुद्रया । प्रियस्य कौशलोद्गारः प्रजल्पः स तु कथ्यते ॥ pra jalpanam प्रजल्पनम् 1 Talking, speaking. -2 Prattle, gossip. pra jalpita प्रजल्पित a. Talked, prattled. -तम् Talk. prati jalpaḥ प्रतिजल्पः An answer, reply. prati jalpakaḥ प्रतिजल्पकः 1 A respectful concurrence. -2 A polite but evasive answer. prāñ jalaḥ प्राञ्जलः a. 1 Straightforward, candid, honest, sincere. -2 Straight, erect. prāñ jaliḥ प्राञ्जलिः a. [प्रसृतौ अञ्जली येन] Folding the hands in supplication, as a mark of respect or humility.
प्राञ्जलिक prāñjalika प्राञ्जलिन् prāñjalin
प्राञ्जलिक प्राञ्जलिन् See प्राञ्जलि. bī jala बीजल a. Furnished with seed, seedy. mā jalaḥ माजलः A kind of bird, the blue roller. vi jala विजल a. Waterless; तोयाशया विजला सरितो$पि Bṛi. S. -लम् 1 A sauce; also विजिलम्. -2 Drought. vi jalpaḥ विजल्पः 1 Prattle, idle or foolish talk. -2 Talk or speech in general. -3 A malignant or spiteful speech. vi jalpita विजल्पित p. p. 1 Spoken, talked; परिहासविजल्पितं सखे (वचः) Ś.2.19. -2 Prated, babbled. sa jala सजल a. Watery, wet, humid. saṃ jalp संजल्प् 1 P. To talk, converse. saṃ jalpaḥ संजल्पः 1 Conversation; असतां दर्शनात् स्पर्शात् संजल्पाच्च सहासनात् Mb.3.1.29. -2 Confused talk, chattering, confusion. -3 An uproar.
jala n. (sts. pl.) water. jalada m. (water-giver), cloud: -kâla, m. rainy season; -kshaya, m. (disappearance of clouds), autumn; -taskara, m. robber of a cloud; -samaya, m. rainy season; -½âgama, m. (arrival of clouds), rainy season; -½atyaya, m. autumn. jaladāna n. libation of water (fes tival in Uggayinî); -dravya, n. ocean-pro duct, pearl; -dhara, m. (water-bearer), cloud: -mâlâ, f. tract of clouds, -½abhyudaya, m. (rise of the clouds), rainy season; -dhârâ, f. stream of water, shower; -dhi, m. ocean, sea: -tâ, f. abst. n., -rasanâ, f. ocean-girt (earth); -nidhi, m. ocean, sea; -pakshin, m. water bird; -patha, m. sea-voyage; -pâda, m. (water-foot), N. of a frog-king; -pûra, m. full channel (of a river); -pûrusha, m. water pixie; -pravâha, m. current; -plava, m. de luge; -bindu, m. drop of water: -durdina, n. shower of rain; -budbuda, m. water-bub ble; -bhâgana, n. water-vessel; -maya, a. (î) consisting of water; -mânusha, m. (î) fa bulous aquatic being; otter; -muk, a. dis charging rain; m. cloud. jalāhati f. downpour of rain. jalakapi m. (river) dolphin; -kum bha, m. water-pot; -kumbhikâ, f. jar of wa ter; -keli, m. f. sporting in the water; -kriyâ, f. libation of water to the dead; -krîdâ, f. sporting in the water; -khaga,m. aquatic bird; -gandha½ibha, m. fabulous animal; -kara, m. aquatic animal; fish; -kârin, a. living in the water; m. aquatic animal; fish; -ga, a. water-born, existing or growing in water; m. aquatic animal, fish; shell;n. day-lotus; pro duct of the sea, pearl: -kusuma, n. lotus blossom, -½âsana, m. ep. of Brahman (seated on a lotus); -gantú, m. aquatic animal; -gîv- in, a. living in or on water; m. fisherman; -tumbikâ-nyâya, m. in. like water and the gourd; -trâsa, m. hydrophobia; -trâsin, a. suffering from hydrophobia. jalāṃśu m. (cool-rayed), moon (= gadâmsu); -½âgama, m. rain; -½añgali, m. two handfuls of water in honour of the dead; fare well for ever (fig.); -½atyaya, m. (cessation of the rain), autumn; -½âdhâra, m. reservoir, pond. jalārthin a. thirsty; -½ârdra, a. wet, moist: â, f. wet garment; damp cloth (used for fanning); -ârdrikâ, f. id. (--°ree; a.); -½âsaya, m. reservoir, pond, lake; sea; a. rest ing in the water; stupid. jalāṣa a. soothing, healing; -bhe shaga, a. having soothing remedies. jalauka m. leech; â, f.: -½okas, a. living in the water; m. aquatic animal; N. of a king; f. leech; -½oka½avakaranîya, fp. treat ing of the application of leeches. jalāya den. Â. turn into water. jalayantra n. squirt; water-clock: -ka, n. squirt, -kakra, n. water-wheel, -man dira, n. apartment with shower-bath; -râsi, m. waters; sea, ocean; -ruh, -ruha, m. day lotus (growing in the water); -rekhâ, f. streak on the water; strip of water; -lekhâ, f. id.; -lava-muk, m. (shedding drops of water), cloud; -vat, a. abounding in water; -vâsa, m. abode in the water; a. living in the water; -vâs-in, a. living in the water:(i)-tâ, f. abst. n.; -vâha, a. bearing water: -ka, m. water carrier; -sayyâ, f. lying in the water (as a penance); -samnivesa, m. reservoir, pond; -sûrya: -ka, m. reflection of the sun in the water; -stha, a. being in the water; -sthâna, n. reservoir, lake; -snâna, n. bathe; -hastin, m. (water-elephant), crocodile; -hâra, m. water-carrier; î, f. jalāyukā f. leech. jalecara a. (î) living in the water; m. aquatic animal (--°ree; a. f. â); -saya, a. abid ing in the water; ep. of Vishnu. jaleśa m. lord of water, ep. ofVaruna, ocean. jaleśvara m. lord of water, ep. of Varuna. jalodara n. (water-belly), dropsy; -½uddhata-gati, a. moving violently in the water; f. a metre; -udbhava, a. sprung from the water; m. aquatic animal; N. of a water sprite. jalpa m. talk, conversation, words: pl. prate; -aka, a. chattering; m. chatterer; -ana, n. speaking, talking; -âka, a. chatter ing, loquacious; -ita, pp. n. talk; words; -in, a. speaking, talking (--°ree;); -ya, n. chatter. a jalpat pr. pt. not saying. añ jali m. the two open hands held together hollowed: -m kri, raise -to the forehead (as a reverential salutation); two handfuls (as a measure); -karman, n. folding the hands (in salutation); -pâta, m. id. antar jalacara a. living in the water; -nivâsin, a. id.; -supta, pp. sleeping in the water; -½ogha, m. internal mass of water. apara jaladhi m. western ocean. udañ jali a. holding up the hollowed hands. udakāñ jali m. handful of water; -½anta, m. water-boundary: â½uda kântât, till water is reached; -½arnava, m. receptacle of waters; -½artha, m. ablution: -m, ad. in order to perform an ablution; -½arthin, a. seeking water. upa jalpin a. advising. uṣo jala n. pl. dew; -devatâ, f. goddess of dawn; -râga, m. dawn. ekāñ jali m. one handful. kaj jala n. lamp-black; collyrium prepared from it. kapiñ jala m. francoline partridge; N. of a man; N. of a sparrow: -nyâya, in. after the fashion of the Kapiñgala topic (in the Pûrvamîmâmsâ) according to which the plural (kapiñgalân) means only three. karṇāñ jali m. pointed ears. kha jala n. mist. dhārā jala n. blood dripping from the blade or edge (of a sword). pātañ jala a. composed by Patañ gali; m. follower of the Yoga system of Patañgali; n. the Yoga system of Patañgali; the Mahâbhâshya of Patañgali. piñ jalī f. bunch or tuft of stalks or grass; -ûla, n. id. pūrṇāñ jali m. two handfuls; -½âtman, m. probably incorrect for prânât man; -½ânanda, m. perfect joy; -½apûrna, pp. sometimes full, sometimes short (measure); -½âyata, (pp.) n. bow fully drawn; -½artha, a. having one's object attained or one's wish fulfilled; -½âhutí, f. full offering, offering of a full ladle. prāñ jala a. [having the hands outstretched]; straightforward, candid, open; level (road), straight: -tâ, f. straightness plainness (of meaning etc.); -½añgali, a. hav ing the folded hands outstretched (in token of respect or humility); î-bhû, hold out the folded hands. vij jala a. slimy: â, f. N. sa jala a. watery, wet, moist: -naya na, a. watery-eyed (peacock), -prishata, a. having drops of water; -gâgara, a. waking, not asleep; -gâtá, a. related (V.); m. kins man, countryman (V.); -gâti, a.belonging to the same caste, of the same kind, similar; -gâtîya, a. id.; -gâtyã, a. akin (V., C.); n. like descent, kinship; -gâni, a. together with his wife; -gâmi, a. incorr. for -gâni; -gâra, a. together with her paramour;-gâla, a. having a mane; -gîva, a. animate, living, alive; provided with a bowstring: -tâ, f. living condition; possession of a bowstring.
patañ jali the reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itsel The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; feminine. पतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explain confer, compare He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are cover edition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य. edition pātañ jalamahābhāṣya the same as महाभाष्य. See महाभाष्य. akṣara a letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compare एकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा confer, compare The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । et cetera, and others Āhnika 2 end. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). akṣarasamāmnāya alphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ，ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । confer, compare Ahnika.2-end. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). atiśāyana excellence, surpassing; the same as अतिशय in V. 2 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ P. V. 3.55, also confer, compare भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेऽतिशायने । संसर्गेऽ स्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare on V.2.94, where अतिशायन means अतिशाय. Patañjali, commenting on P. V.3.55 clearly remarks that for अतिशय, or for अतिशयन, the old grammarians, out of fancy only, used the term अतिशायन as it was a current term in popular usage; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). देश्याः सूत्रनिबन्धाः क्रियन्ते यावद् ब्रूयात् प्रकर्षे अतिशय इति तावदतिशायन इति confer, compare on , P. V.3.55. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). atyalpa rather too little, an expression used by Patanjali idiometically अत्यल्पमिदमुच्यते confer, compare on I.1.69 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). et cetera, and others adhikāra governing rule consisting of a word ( प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः exempli gratia, for example ) or words ( et cetera, and others ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे exempli gratia, for example ) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; et cetera, and others अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeat confer, compare The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if oppo edition These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; singular. सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥ confer, compare anubandha a letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् ) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् ( et cetera, and others going or disappearing) by Pāṇini ( literally उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् confer, compare I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, et cetera, and others अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, confer, compare Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughter Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. edition aviravikanyāya a maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । confer, compare on IV.1.88; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also confer, compare on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). aṣṭādhyāyī name popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed , has traditionally come down to the present day. The a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी confer, compare on VI. 3.109. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ācārya preceptor, teacher; a designation usually given to Pāṇini by Patañjali in the Mahābhāṣya; the usual expression तज्ज्ञापयति आचार्यः as also अाचार्यप्रवृत्तिर्ज्ञापयति; also confer, compare नेदानीमाचार्याः सूत्राणि कृत्वा निवर्तयन्ति; confer, compare also the popular definition of अाचार्य given as 'निशम्य यद्गिरं प्राज्ञा अविचार्यैव तत्क्षणम् । संभावयन्ति शिरसा तमाचार्यं प्रचक्षते ।" confer, compare āpiśali an ancient grammarian mentioned by Pāṇini and his commentators like Patañjali, Helarāja and others; वा सुप्यापिशलेः P. IV.3.98; तथा चापिशलेर्विधिः confer, compare on IV.2.45. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). āpuṭ augment ( आप् ) suggested in the place of आपुक् by Patañjali to be prefixed to the affix णिच् M Bh on III.1.25. confer, compare ārṣa derived from the holy sages; founded on sacred tradition, such as the Vedāṅgas; कृत्स्नं च वेदाड्गमनिन्द्यमार्षम् R. Prāt. XIV 30. The word is explained as स्वयंपाठ by the confer, compare on Vāj Prāt. IX.2I, and as Vaidika saṁdhi on X.l3. Patañjali has looked upon the pada-pāṭha or Pada-text of the Saṁhitās of the Vedas, as anārṣa, as contrasted with the Saṁhitā text which is ārṣa; commentary आर्ष्याम् in the sense संहितायाम् R. Prāt. II.27; confer, compare also पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् M.Bh. on III.1.109. confer, compare ukta prescribed, taught, lit, said (already). उक्तं वा is a familiar expression in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already express Sometimes this expression in the Mahābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subsequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhāṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72. edition uccarita pronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been serv The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by edition (Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana. उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः confer, compare on I.4. 109. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ujjvaladatta the famous commentator on the Uṅādi sūtras. His work .is called Uṅādisūtravṛtti, which is a scholarly commentary on the Uṅādisūtrapāṭha, consisting of five Pādas. Ujjvaldatta is belived to have lived in the l5th century A.D. He quotes Vṛttinyāsa, Anunyāsa, Bhāgavṛtti He is also known by the name Jājali. et cetera, and others uṇādi affixes headed by the affix उण्, which are similar to kṛt affixes of Pāṇini, giving derivation mostly of such words as are not derived by rules of Pāṇini. No particular sense such as agent, object is mentioned in connection with these affixes, but, as Pāṇini has stated in 'ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः P.III. 4.75, the various Uṇādi affixes are applied to the various roots as prescribed in any Kāraka sense, except the संप्रदान and the अपादान; in other words, any one of the senses, agent, object, instrument and abode, is assigned to the Uṇādi affix as suits the meaning of the word. Although some scholars believe that the Uṇādi affixes are given by a grammarian later than Pāṇini as there are words like ताम्बूल, दीनार and others included in the list of Uṇādi words and that there are many interpolated Sūtras, still the Uṇādi collection must be looked upon as an old one which is definitely mentioned by Pāṇini in two different rules; et cetera, and others Pāṇini उणादयो बहुलम् P. III.3.1 and ताभ्यामन्यत्रोणादयः III.4.76. Patañjali has given a very interesting discussion about these Uṇādi affixes and stated on the strength of the Vārttika, तत्रोणादिप्रतिषेधः, that these affixes and the words given in the Uṇādi collection should not be considered as genuinely deriv confer, compare The derivation is not a very systematic and logically correct one and therefore for practical purposes, the words derived by the application of the affixes उण् and others should be looked upon as underived; edition उणादयोSव्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि. confer, compare on. P.I.1.16, III.4.77, IV.1.1, VI.1.62, VII.1.2, VII.2.8 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). There is a counterstatement also seen in the Mahābhāṣya उणादयो व्युत्पन्नानि, representing the other view prevailing at the time; et cetera, and others confer, compare on III.I.133; but not much importance seems to be attached to it. The different systems of grammar have different collections of such words which are also known by the term Uṇādi. Out of the collections belonging to Pāṇini's system, three collections are available at present, the collection into five pādas given in the printed edition of the Siddhānta Kaumudi, the collection into ten Pādas given in the printed edition of the Prakriya-Kaumudi and the collection in the Sarasvatīkaṇthābharaṇa of Bhoja forming Pādas 1, 2 and 3 of the second Adhyāya of the work. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). uṇādisūtradaśapādī the text of the Uṇādi Sūtras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written by शाकटायन. It is printed at the end of the Prakriyā Kaumud and separately also, and is also available in manuscripts with a few differences. Patañjali in his Bhāṣya on P.III.3.1, seems to have mentioned Sakaṭāyana as the author of the Uṇādi Sūtras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there was at that time, a version of the Sūtras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, as scholars believe that there are many interpolations and changes in the versions of Uṇādi Sūtras available at present. A critical study of the various versions is extremely desirable. udātta the acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages. uddeśya referred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate- confer, compare In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting; participle. तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, confer, compare on I. 1.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). upagraha a term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's . The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him. Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. upacāra (1) taking a secondary sense; implication; moving for a sense which is near about; the same as लक्षणा. The word आचार is explained as उपचार, employment or current usage, by Patañjali; literally आचारात् । आचार्याणामुपचारात् । confer, compare I.1.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the letter सं for विसर्ग : Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). प्रत्ययग्रहणोपचारेषु च, P.IV.1.1 confer, compare 7. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). upadhmānīya a letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग. confer, compare e diphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालुस्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; confer, compare on I.1-48; as also the article on. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). ekatiṅ possessed of one verb; given as a definition of a sentence: एकतिङ् P.II.1.1 Vārt 10, explained by Patañjali as एकतिङ् वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । ब्रूहि ब्रूहि । confer, compare ekamunipakṣa a view or doctrine propounded by one of the many ancient sages or munis who are believed to be the founders of a Sastra; a view propounded only by Pāṇini, to the exclusion of Kātyāyana and Patañjali; एकमुनिपक्षे तु अचो ञ्णितीत्यत्राच इति योगं विभज्य...व्यवस्थितविभाषात्रोक्ता Durghaṭa-Vṛtti I.1.5; see also I.4.24, II.3.18. confer, compare ekaśeṣa a kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः confer, compare अजा feminine. अश्वाः feminine. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original masculine gender. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona. Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. ekaśruti that which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; id est, that is एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33. confer, compare aindra name of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': ( I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). oṃkāra the syllable ओं called by the term प्रणव and generally recited at the beginning of Vedic works. Patañjali has commented upon the word briefly as follows; पादस्य वा अर्धर्चस्य वा अन्त्यमक्षरमुपसंहृत्य तदाद्यक्षरशेषस्य स्थाने त्रिमात्रमोंकारं त्रिमात्रमोंकारं वा विदधति तं प्रणव इत्याचक्षते M.Bh. on VIII.2.89. kātantra name of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. . A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375. Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. kātyāyana the well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascrib For details see edition . pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below. The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona. kīlhārn Kielhorn F., a sound scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who brought out excellent editions of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya and the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and wrote an essay on the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana. For details see Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya Vol VII.p.40, D. E society edition, Poona. kuṇaravāḍava name of an ancient granmarian who lived possibly after Pāṇini and before Patañjali and who is referred to in the Mahābhāṣya as giving an alternative forms for the standard form of certain words; कुणरवाडवस्त्वाह नैषां शंकरा शंगरैषा M.Bh. on III.2.14; cf also कुणरवस्त्वाह नैष वहीनरः । कस्तर्हि । विहीनर एषः confer, compare on VII.3.1. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). kṛt activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; literally कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः confer, compare I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska. II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also Nirukta of Yāska. V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139 confer, compare kaiyaṭa name of the renowned commentator on the Mahābhāṣya, who lived in the 11th century. He was a resident of Kashmir and his father's name was Jaiyaṭa. The commentary on the Mahābhāṣya was named महाभाष्यप्रदीप by him, which is believed by later grammarians to have really acted as प्रदीप or light, as without it, the Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali would have remained unlit, that is unintelligible, at several places. Later grammarians attached to प्रदीप almost the same importance as they did to the Mahābhāṣya and the expression तदुक्तं भावकैयटयोः has been often used by commentators. Many commentary works were written on the out of which Nageśa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa. is the most popular. The word कैयट came to be used for the word महाभाष्यप्रदीप which was the work of Kaiyaṭa. For details see Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. 389-390. Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. kramapāṭha recital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम . The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् confer, compare on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). gonardīya inhabitant of Gonarda which was the name of a district. in the province of Oudh in the days of the Mahabhasyakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda was the name of the district named Gonda at present The expression गोनर्दीय अाह occurs four times in the Mahabhasya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time; cf M.Bh. on I. 1.21 ; I. 1.29; III. I.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata paraphrases the words गेानर्दीयस्त्वाह as भाष्यकारस्त्वाह, scholars say that गेीनर्दीय was the name taken by the Mahabhasyakara himself who was a resident of Gonarda. Hari Diksita, however, holds that गोनर्दीय was the term used for the author of the . Varttikas; literally Brhacchabdaratna. confer, compare cāndra name of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र . For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. cārāyaṇa an ancient grammarian referred to by Patanjali in the Mahabhasya as a scholar who had a line of pupils named after him; कम्बलचारायणीयाः confer, compare on P.I. 1.73 Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). cūrṇi a gloss on the Sutras of Panini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta, Some scholars believe that Patanjali's Mahabhasya is referred to here by the word चूर्णि, as it fully discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that चूर्णि,stands for the Vrtti of चुल्लिभाट्टि. In Jain Religious Literature there are some brief comments on the Sutras which are called चूर्णि and there possibly was a similar चूर्णि on the sutras of Panini. trimuni (1) the famous three ancient grammarians Panini (the author of the Sutras), Katyayana (the author of the Varttikas), and Patanjali (the author of the Mahabhasya;) (2) the grammar of Panini, called so, being the contribution of the reputed triad of Grammarians. dvyac a word possessed of two vowels in it; dissyllabic words; the word is frequently used in Panini's Astadhyayi and Patanjali's Mahabhasya, Kasika Vrtti and other works on Panini's grammar. navāhnikī name given to the first nine Ahnikas or lessons of the Mahabhasya which are written in explanation of only the first pada of the first Adhyaya of Panini's Astadhyayi and which contain almost all the important theories, statements and problems newly introduced by Patanjali. navyamata a term used for the differentiation in views and explanations held by the comparatively new school of Bhattoji Diksita, as contrasted with those held by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in contrast with Bhagttoji Diksita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol.VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya D.E. Society, Poona. edition nāgeśa the most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundr He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the edition on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa. D. E. Society, Poona. edition nipātana a word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini; दाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 confer, compare et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; et cetera, and others M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 confer, compare et cetera, and others ; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf et cetera, and others XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) also confer, compare on II.1.27. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). padakāra one who has divided the Samhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada-text. The term is applied to ancient Vedic Scholars शाकल्य, आत्रेय, कात्यायन and others who wrote the Padapātha of the Vedic Samhitās. The term is applied possibly through misunderstanding by some scholars to the Mahābhāsyakāra who has not divided any Vedic Samhitā,but has, in fact, pointed out a few errors of the Padakāras and stated categorically that grammarians need not follow the Padapāțha, but, rather, the writers of the Padapāțha should have followed the rules of grammar. Patañjali, in fact, refers by the term पदकार to Kātyāyana, who wrote the Padapātha and the Prātiśākhya of the Vājasaneyi-Samhitā in the following statement--न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम्। यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् literally on P. III.1. 109; VI. 1. 207; VIII. 2.16; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). also अदीधयुरिति पदकारस्य प्रत्याख्यानपक्षे उदाहरणमुपपन्नं भवति ( परिभाषासूचन of व्याडि Pari. 42 ) where Vyādi clearly refers to the Vārtika of Kātyāyana ' दीधीवेव्योश्छन्दोविषयत्वात् ' P. I. 1.6 confer, compare I. The misunderstanding is due to passages in the commentary of स्कन्दस्वामिन् on the Nirukta passage I. 3, उब्वटटीका on ऋक्प्रातिशाख्य XIII. 19 and others where the statements referred to as those of Patañjali are, in fact, quotations from the Prātiśākhya works and it is the writers of the Prātiśākhya works who are referred to as padakāras by Patañ jali in the Mahābhāsya. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). padādi (1) beginning of a word, the first letter of a word; सात्पदाद्योः P. VIII.3.111; confer, compare also स्वरितो वानुदात्ते पदादौ P. VIII.2.6. Patañjali, for the sake of argument has only once explained पदादि as पदादादिः confer, compare M.Bh.on I. 1. 63 Vāŗt. 6; (2) a class of words headed by the word पद् which is substituted for पद in all cases except the confer, compare and the acc. singular and dual; this class, called पदादि, contains the substitutes पद् , दत्, नस् nominative case. respectively for पाद दन्त, नासिका et cetera, and others et cetera, and others Kās on P. VI. 1.63; (3) the words in the class, called पदादि, constiting of the words पद्, दत्, नस्, मस् हृत् and निश् only, which have the case affix after them accented acute; confer, compare P. VI. 1.171. confer, compare padānta inal letter of a word; P. VI.1.76, 109; VII.3.3, 9; VIII. 4.35,37, 42, 59. At one place, Patañjali for purposes of argument has explained the word as final in a word; confer, compare नैवं विज्ञायते पदस्यान्तः पदान्तः पदान्तादिति । कथं तर्हि । पदे अन्तः पदान्तः पदान्तादिति confer, compare on VIII. 4.35. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). paribhāṣāsegraha' a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundr edition paribhāṣāsūcana an old work on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's Grammar, believed to have been written by Vyaadi, who lived after Kaatyayana and before Patanjali. The work is written in the old style of the MahabhaSya and consists of a short commentary on 93 Paribhasas. parimāṇa a word used by Panini in तदस्य परिमाणम् V.1.19 and explained by Patanjali as सर्वतो मानम् .Samkhya ( number ) is also said to be a parimana. Parimana is of two kindsनियत or definite as in the case of Khaari, drona etc; and अनियत, as in the case of Gana, Samgha, PUga, Sartha, Sena The term परिमाण, in connection with the utterance of letters, is used in the sense of मात्राकाल or one mora. et cetera, and others paspaśā called also पस्पशाह्निक; name given to the first or introductory chapter ( अाह्निक ) of the Maahabhaasya of Patanjali. The word occurs first in the SiSupaalavadha of Maagha. The word is derived from पस्पश् , the frequentative base of स्पर्श to touch or to see (ancient use). Possibly it may be explained as derived from स्पश् with अप; cf . शब्दबिद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Sis.II.112. Mallinatha has understood the word पस्पश m. and explained it as introduction to a Saastra treatise; पस्पशः शास्त्रारम्भसमर्थक उपेद्वातसंदर्भग्रन्थः । Mallinaatha on SiS. II.112. confer, compare pāṇini the illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation o the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native pl feminine. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition. accusative case. pāṇinisūtra called also by the name अष्टक or पाणिनीय-अष्टक; name given to the SUtras of Paanini comprising eight adhyaayaas or books. The total number of SUtras as commented upon by the writers of the Kasika and the Siddhaantakaumudi is 3983. As nine sUtras out of these are described as Vaarttikas and two as Ganasutras by Patanjali, it is evident that there were 3972 SUtras in the Astaka of Paanini according to Patanjali. A verse current among Vaiyakarana schools states the number to be 3996; त्रीणि सूत्रसहस्राणि तथा नव शतानि च । षण्णवतिश्च सूत्राणां पाणिनिः कृतवान् स्वयम् । The traditional recital by Veda Scholars who look upon the Astadhyayi as a Vedaanga, consists of 3983 Sutras which are accepted and commented upon by all later grammarians and commentators. The SUtras of Paanini, which mainly aim at the correct formation of words, discuss declension, conjugation, euphonic changes, verbal derivatives, noun derivatives and accents. For details see Vol.VII, Vyaakarana Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's edition pp. 152-162. confer, compare pāṇinisūtravārtika name given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. उक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. confer, compare Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224. et cetera, and others puṃvadbhāva restoration of the masculine form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadhāraya and the Bahuvrīhi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; e. g. दीर्घजङ्घः. This restoration to the masculine form is also noticed before the affixes तस्, तर, तम्, रूप्य, पाश, त्व as also before क्यङ् and the word मानिन्. For details, see P. VI, 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII of the Pātańjala Mahābhāșya D. E. Society's edition. taddhita affix. paurastyavaiyākaraṇa a grammarian of the eastern school which is believed to have been started by जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि the writer of the gloss called न्यास on the Kasikavrtti. The school practically terminated with पुरुषोत्तमदेव and सीरदेव at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Such a school existed also at the time of Panini and Patanjali, a reference to which is found made in प्राचां ष्फ ताद्धतः P. IV. 1.17 and प्राचामवृद्धात्फिन् बहुलम् IV.1. 160 and प्राचामुपादेरडज्वुचौ च V.3.80 where the word is explained as प्राचामाचार्याणां by the writer of the Kasika. pratisaṃskaraṇa editing with improvement, with an attempt to restore the correct version or the original text in the place of the corrupt one sometimes suitable additions and improvements are also made; e. g. चरकप्रतिसंस्करण attributed to Patanjali. pradīpa popular name of the famous commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh century A. D. The cornmentary is a very scholarly and critical one and really does justice to the well-known compliment given to it, viz. that the Pradipa has kept the Mahabhasya alive which otherwise would have remained unintelligible and consequently become lost. The commentary प्रदीप is based on the commentary महाभाष्यदीपिका,or प्रदीपिका written by Bhartrhari, which is available at present only in a fragmentary form. The Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the Mahabhasya in spite of the presence of a few other commentaries on it which are all thrown into the back-ground by it. prāgdeśa districts of the east especially districts to the east of Ayodhya and Pataliputra, such as Magadha, Vanga and others; nothing can definitely be said as to which districts were called Eastern by Panini and his followers Katyayana and Patanjali. A Varttika given in the Kasika but not traceable in the Mahabhasya defines Pragdesa as districts situated to the east of शरावती (probably the modern river Ravi or a river near that river ): प्रागुदञ्चौ विभजते हंसः क्षीरोदके यथा । विदुषां शब्दसिद्ध्यर्थे सा नः पातु शरावती ॥ confer, compare on एङ् प्राचां देशे P. I. 1.75. There is a reading सरस्वती in some manuscript copies and सरस्वती is a wellknown river in the Punjab near Kuruksetra, which disappears in the sandy desert to the south: a reading इरावती is also found and इरावती may stand for the river Ravi. शरावती in Burma is simply out of consideration. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 202-204 and 141-142 D. E. Society's Edition. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. prāṇapaṇā a gloss on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali, written by the famous easterm grammarian Purusottamadeva of the 12th century A. D., of which only a fragment of a few pages is available. As the legend goes, the name प्राणपणा was given to the gloss as it was accompanied by an oath on the part of the author that his life was at stake if he did even the slightest injustice to the author of the Mahabhasya. phiṭsūtra a small work on accents attributed to Santanava,an ancient Vedic scholar who lived before Patanjali if not before Panini, as the latter has not referred to him. There is an anonymous commentary upon it. bhartṛhari a very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् confer, compare on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'. Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. bhāṣya a learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given , the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali ( a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya. confer, compare bhāṣyakāra Patañjali, the author of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya; the term, in this sense, frequently occurs in works on Grammar. See भाष्य. bhāṣyeṣṭi the brief pithy assertions or injunctions of the type of Sūtras given by Patañjali in a way to supplement the Sūtras of Pāṇini and the Vārttikas thereon. See the word इष्टि and the word भाष्यसूत्र also. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. bhairavamiśra one of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar. He was the son of भवदेव and his native place was Prayāga. He has written the commentary called Candrakalā on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara, Parikṣā on the Vaiyākaraṇabhũṣanasāra, Gadā called also Bhairavī or Bhairavīgadā on the Paribhāṣenduśekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavī) on the Śabdaratna and Lingānuśāsana. He is reported to have visited Poona, the capital of the Peśawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyāya and Vyākaraṇa. For details see pp. 24 and 25 Vol. VII . Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya D. E. Society's Edition. mahābhāṣya the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the literally of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे confer, compare scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplement et cetera, and others Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to edition , he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ). confer, compare mahābhāṣyadīpikā a very learned old commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Bhartrhari or Hari in the seventh century A. D. The commentary has got only one manuscript preserved in Germany available at present, of which photostat copies or ordinary copies are found here and there. The first page of the manuscript is missing and it is incomplete also, the commentary not going beyond the first seven Aahnikas. For details see page 383 Vol. VII Vyaakarana Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition. mahābhāṣyapradīpa a very scholarly commentary on Patanjali's MahabhaSya written by Kaiyatabhatta in the eleventh century, The commentary has so nicely explained every difficult and obscure point in the Mahabhasya, and has so thoroughly explained each sentence that the remark of later grammarians that the torch of the Mahabhasya has been kept burning by the Pradipa appears quite apt and justifi Kaiyata's commentary has thrown much additional light on the original arguments and statements in the Mahabhasya. There is a learned commentary on the Pradipa written by Nagesabhatta which is named vivarana by the author but which is well known by the name 'Uddyota' among students and teachers of Vyakarana. For details see pp. 389, 390 Vol VII, Patanjala Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition. edition mādhurīrvṛti a gloss not composed by, but simply explained by an inhabitant of Mathuraa or Madhuraa Such a gloss is referred to in the Mahaabhaasya on P.IV.3.101 Vaart.3, which possibly might be referring to an existing gloss on the SUtras of Paanini, which was being explained at Mathura, at the time of Patanjali. The term मधुरा was used for मथुरा in ancient times and the word माथुरी वृत्ति is also used for माधुरी वृति. rāmabhadra dīkṣita son of यज्ञराम दीक्षित, a grammarian of Tanjore of the seventeenth century who wrote a commentary on the Paribhasavrtti of Siradeva named परिभाषावृत्तिव्याख्या. He has also written the ' life of Patanjali' ( पतञ्जलिचरित ) and many miscellaneous works, such as उणादिमणिदीपिका and others. vararuci (1) a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himsel confer, compare (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss＾ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त. feminine. varṇikuberanātha or वर्णिकुवेरानन्द an old writer on grammar who has written a work named शब्दविवरण on the meanings of words. The work forms a part of his bigger work दानभागवत. Both the works are incomplete. The शब्दविवरण is based mostly upon ancient grammar works of Patanjali Vararuci, Varttikakara, Sarvavarman, Bhartrhari and others. vākyaparisamāpti completion of the idea to be expressed in a sentence or in a group of sentences by the wording actually given, leaving nothing to be understood as contrasted with वाक्यापरिसमाप्ति used in the Mahabhasya: वाक्यापरिसमाप्तेर्वा P.I.1.10 vart. 4 and the Mahabhasya thereon. There are two ways in which such a completion takes place,singly and collectively; cf प्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः: illustrated by the usual example देवदत्तयज्ञदत्तविष्णुमित्रा भोज्यन्ताम् where Patanjali remarks प्रत्येकं ( प्रत्यवयवं) भुजिः परिसमाप्यते; cf also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः where Patajali remarks गर्गा: शतं दण्ड्यन्ताम् | अर्थिनश्च राजानो हिरण्येन भवन्ति न च प्रत्येकं दण्डयन्ति | confer, compare on P.I.1.1Vart.12: cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.7, I.2.39, II.2.l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). वाक्यप्रकाश a work on the interpretation of sentences written with a commentary upon it by उदयधर्ममुनि of North Gujarat who lived in the seventeenth century A.D. et cetera, and others vārttika a statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discuss The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated edition . If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. vārttikakāra believed to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः ) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition. et cetera, and others vāsudeva ( शास्त्री) surnamed Abhyankar, who lived from 1863 to l942 and did vigorous and active work of teaching pupils and writing essays, articles, commentary works and original works on various Shastras with the same scholarship, zeal and acumen for fifty years in Poona. He wrote गूढार्थप्रकाश a commentary on the LaghuSabdendusekhara and तत्त्वादर्श a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara in 1889. His edition of the Patanjala Mahabhasya with full translation and notes in Marathi can be called his magnum opus. See अभ्यंकर. visarga aspiration, leaving of the breath generally at the completion of the utterance of a word when there is a pause; the term विसर्जनीय was in use in ancient times. Although not mentioned in his alphabet by Pāṇini, this Phonetic element, visarga, is looked upon as a letter; it is mentioned as one of the letters in the Śikṣā and the Prātiśākhya works and Patañjali has advised its inclusion in the alphabet. As visarga cannot be found in use independently of another letter (which is any vowel after which it occurs) it is called अयोगवाह. vyaktipadārthavāda the same as द्रव्यपदार्थवाद; the view that a word denotes the individual object and not the generic nature. The oldest grammarian referred to as holding this view, is व्याडि who preceded Patanjali. vyākaraṇamahābhāṣyapradīpa the original name of the learned commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya by Kaiyatabhatta the well-known grammarian of Kashmir of the eleventh century. See प्रदीप and कैयट. vyākaraṇādhyayanaprayojana the purpose of the study of Grammar which is beautifully summed up and discussed in the first Ahnika by Patanjali in his Mahabhasya. vyāghrabhūti name of an old grammarian later than Patanjali who is quoted by later grammarians; व्याघ्रभूत्यादयस्त्वेनं नेह पेठुरिति स्थितम् Siddhantakaumudi on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII. 1. 5. confer, compare śabdānuśāsana science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the literally mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively. a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. śākaṭāyana (1) name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन. ślokavārtika Varttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators. siddha (1) established; the term is used in the sense of नित्य or eternal in the Varttika सिद्धे शब्दार्थसंबन्धे where, as Patanjali has observed, the word सिद्ध meaning नित्य has been purposely put in to mark an auspicious beginning of the शब्दानुशासनशास्त्र which commences with that Varttika; माङ्गलिक आचार्यो महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थे सिद्धशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्क्ते M.Bh.on Ahnika 1; (2) established, proved, formed; the word is many times used in this sense in the Mahabhasya, as also in the Varttikas especially when a reply is to be given to an objection; confer, compare P.I. 1.3 Vart. 17, I.1. 4. Vart. 6: I. I. 5, Vart.5,I.1.9 Vart. 2 confer, compare et cetera, and others sūtrakāra the original writer of the sutras; e. g. पाणिनि, शाकटायन, शर्ववर्मन् , हेमचन्द्र and others. In Panini's system, Panini is called Sutrakara, as contrasted with Katyayana,who is called the Varttikakara and Patanjali, who is called the Bhasyakara; पाणिने: सूत्रकारस्य M.Bh. on P.II 2.1.1. confer, compare svara (l) vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. . a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.