m. a washerman (so called from his cleaning or whitening clothes;regarded as a degraded caste; according to to either "the son of a pāra-dhenuka- and a brāhmaṇī-"or"the son of a niṣṭhya- and an ugrī-") etc.
पारिरक्षकः A religious mendicant, an ascetic.
पारिवित्त्यम् pārivittyam पारिवेत्र्यम् pārivētryam
पारिवित्त्यम् पारिवेत्र्यम् Being unmarried while a younger brother is married.
पारिव्राजकम् pārivrājakam पारिव्राज्यम् pārivrājyam
पारिव्राजकम् पारिव्राज्यम् The wandering life of a religious mendicant, asceticism.
वृत्त p. p. [वृत्-कर्तरि-क्त] 1 Lived, existed. -2 Occurred, happened. -3 Completed, finished. -4 Performed, done, acted. -5 Past, gone. -6 Round, circular; निवृत्त- वृत्तोरुपयोधरक्लमः Ki.8.3; विशालवक्षास्तनुवृत्तमध्यः R.6.32. -7 Dead, deceased; पत्यौ जीवति वृत्तायाः प्रजायास्तद्धनं भवेत् Ms.9.195; वृत्तं युद्धे शूरमाश्लिष्य काचित् Śi.18.6. -8 Firm, fixed. -9 Read through, studied; P.VII.2.26. -1 Derived from. -11 Famous. -12 Covered; स्वभावस्रोतसा वृत्तमुह्यते सततं जगत् Mb.12.235.13. -13 Turned. -14 Unimpaired (अप्रतिहत); महाभूतादि (व्यञ्जयन्) वृत्तौजाः प्रादुरासीत्तमोनुदः Ms.1.6. (See वृत्). -त्तः 1 A tortoise. -2 A kind of grass. -3 A round temple. -त्तम् 1 An event, occurrence. -2 History, account; वृत्तं रामस्य वाल्मीकेः कृतिस्तौ किन्नरस्वनौ R. 15.64. -3 News, tidings; समरवृत्तविबोधसमीया कुरुवरेण मुदा कृतयाचनः Veda-Vyāsāṣṭaka 6. -4 Practice, profession, mode of life, occupation; सतां वृत्तमनुष्ठिताः Ms.1.127; 7.122; Y.3.44. -5 Conduct, behaviour, manner, act, action; as in सद्वृत्त, दुर्वृत्त. -6 Good or virtuous conduct; एवं चलितवृत्तस्तु वृत्तशेषं न रक्षति Pt.4.28. -7 An established rule or usage, law, custom; observance of such rule or usage, duty; किमत्र चित्रं यदि कामसूर्भूर्वृत्ते स्थितस्याधिपतेः प्रजानाम् R.5.33. -8 A circle, circumference of a circle. -9 A metre in general, especially a metre regulated by the number of syllables it contains (opp. जाति); पद्यं चतुष्पदी तच्च वृत्तं जातिरिति द्विधा । वृत्तमक्षर- संख्यातं जातिर्मात्राकृता भवेत् । सममर्धसमं वृत्तं विषमं चेति तत् त्रिधा । Chand. M.; see App. -1 The epicycle. -11 Transformation, change into. -12 Appearance. -Comp. -अनुपूर्व a. taperingly round; वृत्तानुपूर्वे च न चातिदीर्घे जङ्घे शुभे सृष्टवतस्तदीये Ku.1.35. -अनुवर्तिन् a. obedient. -अनुसारः 1 conformity to prescribed rules. -2 conformity to metre. -अन्तः 1 an occasion, incident, event; अनेनारण्यकवृत्तान्तेन पर्याकुलाः स्मः Ś.1; R.3.66; U.2.17. -2 news, tidings, intelligence; को नु खलु वृत्तान्तः V.4; R.14.87. -3 account, history, tale, narrative, story. -4 a subject, topic. -5 a kind, sort. -6 mode, manner. -7 state, condition. -8 the whole, totality. -9 rest, leisure. -1 retirement, solitude. -11 property, nature. -इर्वारुः, -कर्कटी the water-melon. -ओजस् a. 1 strong, mighty. -2 having unimpaired creative power; Ms.1.6. -काय a. having a round body. -खण्डः a segment of a circle. -गन्धि n. N. of a kind of prose (having only the name of metre). -चूड(ल), -चौल a. tonsured, whose tonsure ceremony has been performed; स वृत्तचूलश्चलकाकपक्षकैः R.3.28; U.2. -चेष्टा conduct, behaviour. -तण्डुलः a kind of grass (यावनाल). -परिणाहः the circumference of a circle. -पुच्छा a kind of skin (चर्मजाति) possessing a round tail; Kau. A.2.11. -पुष्यः 1 a cane (वानीर). -2 the Śireeṣa tree. -3 the Kadamba tree; also Vānīra, Kubjaka, and Mudgara. -प्रत्यभिज्ञ a. well-versed in sacred rites. -फलः 1 the jujube tree. -2 the pomegranate tree. (-लम्) black pepper. -बन्धः metrical composition. -युक्त, -संपन्न a. virtuous; Ms.8.179. -शस्त्र a. one who has mastered the science of arms; वृत्तशस्त्रान् महारम्भानदान्तांस्त्रिदशैरपि Bk.9.19. -समाप्तिलिपिः a circular terminal script, the Visarga; the round circular figures resembling the Nāgarī छ put at the end of a manuscript; द्विकुण़्डली वृत्तसमाप्तिलिप्या ...... काये यदीये निरमायि सारैः N.1.86; A. R.6.7. -सादिन् a. worthless, mean, vile.
(‘resting-place’) does not occur in any Upanisad which can be regarded as pre-Buddhistic. Its earliest use as denoting the stages of a Hindu’s life is found in the śvetāśvatara Upanisad. In one passage of the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made only to the Brahmacārin and householder, to whom, as a reward for study, the procreation of children, the practice of Yoga, abstention from injury to living creatures, and sacrifices, freedom from transmigration are promised. In another place three states are contemplated, but not as consecutive. The Brahmacārin may either become a householder or become an anchorite, or remain in his teacher’s house all his life. Similarly, reference is made to the death of the anchorite in the forest, or the sacrifice in the village. In contrast with all three is the man who stands fast in Brahman (Brahma- samstha). In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the knowerof the Atman is contrasted with those who (1) study, or (2) sacrifice and give alms, or (3) are anchorites, and in another place with those who sacrifice and make benefactions, and those who practice asceticism. This position of superiority to, and distinction from, the Aśramas became later a fourth Aśrama, the Grhastha, or householder, who was in the second stage, being required to pass not only into the stage of Vānaprastha, but also that of the Sannyāsin (Bhiksu, Parivrājaka). The first stage, that of the Brahmacārin, was still obligatory, but was no longer allowed to remain a permanent one, as was originally possible.
Is included in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda, where, however, no further explanation of the name is given. Fuller information is furnished by the Atharvaveda, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Sūtras, which describe at length a certain rite intended for the use of Vrātyas. According to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, there are four different kinds of ‘outcasts’—viz., the hīna, who are merely described as ‘depressed’; those who have become outcasts for some sin (nindita); those who become outcasts at an early age, apparently by living among outcasts; and those old men who, being impotent (śama-nīcamedhra), have gone to live with outcasts. The last three categories are by no means of the same importance as the first. The motive of the fourth is hard to understand: according to Rājārām Rām- krishṇa Bhāgavat,5 they were men who had enfeebled their constitutions by undue intercourse with women in the lands of the outcasts, and returned home in a debilitated state. But this is not stated in the text. It seems probable that the really important Vrātyas were those referred to as Itlna, and that the other classes were only subsidiary. According to Rāj'ārām,® there were two categories of the first class: (a) The depressed (hīna), who were non- Aryan ; and (6) degraded Aryans (gara-gir). This, however, is a mere guess, and devoid of probability. There seems to have been but one class of Vrātyas. That they were non-Aryan is not probable, for it is expressly said7 that, though unconse¬crated, they spoke the tongue of the consecrated: they were thus apparently Aryans. This view is confirmed by the state-ment that ‘they call what is easy of utterance, difficult to utter’: probable they had already a somewhat Prakritic form of speech (cf. Vāc). The Sūtras mention their Arhants (‘saints’) and Yaudhas (‘warriors’), corresponding to the Brahminical Brāhmana and Kṣatriya. Other particulars accord with the view that they were Aryans outside the sphere of Brahmin culture. Thus they are said not to practise agriculture or commerce (an allusion to a nomadic life), nor to observe the rules of Brahmacarya—i.e., the principle regulating the Brahminic order of life. They were also allowed to become members of the Brahminical community by performance of the ritual prescribed, which would hardly be so natural in the case of non-Aryans. Some details are given of the life and dress of the Vrātyas. Their principles were opposed to those of the Brahmins: they beat those unworthy of correction. Their leader (Gṛhapati) or householder wore a turban (Uçṇīçε), carried a whip (Pratoda), a kind of bow (Jyāhroda), was :lothed in a black (krçnaśa) garment and two skins (Ajina), blxk and white (krsna-valaksa), and owned a rough wagon (Vijatha) covered with planks (phalakāstīrna). The others, subordinate to the leader, had garments with fringes of red (valūkāntāni dāmatūsām), two fringes on each, skins folded double (dvisamhitāny ajinūni), and sandals (Upānah). The leader wore also an ornament (Niçka) of silver, which Rājārām converts into a silver coinage. The Vrātyas, on becoming consecrated, were expected to hand over their goods to the priest. Many other details are given in the Sūtras (e.g., that the shoes or sandals were of variegated black hue and pointed), but these are not authenticated by the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. The locality in which the Vrāiyas lived cannot be stated with certainty, but their nomad life suggests the western tribes beyond the Sarasvatī. But they may equally well have been in the east: this possibility is so far supported by the fact that the Sūtras make the Brahmin receiving the gift of the Vrātya's outfit an inhabitant of Mag’adha. The Atharvaveda does not help, for it treats the Vrātya in so mystical a way that he is represented as being in all the quarters. Indeed, Roth believed that it was here not a case of the Vrātya of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa at all, but of a glorification of the Vrātya as the type of the pious vagrant or wandering religious mendicant (Parivrājaka). This view is clearly wrong, as the occurrence of the words usnīsa, vipatha, and pratoda shows. It is probable that the 15th Book of the Atharvaveda, which deals with the Vrātya, and is of a mystical character, exalts the converted Vrātya as a type of the perfect Brahmacārin, and, in so far, of the divinity.
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