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Results for hem
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
bhūtam3.3.84MasculineSingularrupyam, sitam, hema
bṛhatī3.3.81FeminineSingularrupyam, hema
cāmpeyaḥ2.2.63MasculineSingularcampakaḥ, hemapuṣpakaḥ
gairikam3,.3.12NeuterSingularsāṣṭaṃśataṃsuvarṇam, hema, urobhūṣaṇam, palam, dīnāraḥ
hemantaḥMasculineSingularhementa
hemapuṣpikāFeminineSingular
meruḥ1.1.52MasculineSingularsumeruḥ, hemādriḥ, ratnasānuḥ, surālayaḥmountain
ratnam2.9.94NeuterSingularhiraṇyam, ‍tapanīyam, ‍bharma, jātarūpam, rukmam, a‍ṣṭāpadaḥ, suvarṇam, hema, śātakumbham, karburam, mahārajatam, kārtasvaram, kanakam, hāṭakam, gāṅgeyam, cāmīkaram, kāñcanam, jāmbūnadam
satyam3.3.162NeuterSingularkaśerū, hema
sthāṇuḥ3.3.55MasculineSingularmṛgī, hemapratimā, haritā
udumbaraḥMasculineSingularjantuphalaḥ, yajñāṅgaḥ, hemadugdhaḥ
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Results for hem285 results for hem
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
hemain compound for 3. heman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemam. a particular weight of gold (equals māṣaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemam. a horse of a dark or brownish colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemam. Name of buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemam. of a son of ruśad-ratha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemam. of the father of su-tapas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemam. equals hema-candra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāf. Hoya Viridiflora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāf. the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāf. a handsome woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāf. Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāf. of a river View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
heman. gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemābhamfn. looking like golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemābhāf. Name of the palace of rukmiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemabhadrikamf(ā-)n. wearing a golden amulet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemabhastrāf. a gold purse or purse containing gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemacakramfn. having golden wheels View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemācalam. equals hema-parvata- (in both meanings) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemacandramfn. decorated with a golden crescent (as a chariot) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemacandram. Name of a king (son of viśāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemacandram. of a celebrated jaina- author (pupil of deva-candra- sūri- and teacher of king kumāra-pāla-;he lived between 1089 and 1173 A.D. and is the author of a great many works, especially of the anekārtha-keśa-, the abhidhānacintāmaṇi-, the uṇādi-sūtra-vṛtti-, the deśī-nāmamālā-, a Sanskrit and Prakrit grammar etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemacchannamfn. covered with golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemacchannan. a golden covering, golden trappings (of an elephant etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemacitran. Name of a mythical town View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemacūlinmfn. having a golden crest or top View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemacūrṇan. gold dust
hemadantāf. "golden-toothed", an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadhanvanm. "having a golden bow", Name of a son of the 11th manu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadhānyan. sesamum grain (see homa-dh-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadhānyakam. a particular weight (= 1 1/2 māṣaka-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadhāraṇan. a particular weight of golden (= 8 pala-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadharma m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadharmanm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāḍhyamfn. abounding in gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadīnāram. a golden dīnāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemādrim. "golden mountain", meru- or sumeru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemādrim. Name of an author (son of kāma-deva-;he lived in the 13th century A.D. and wrote the encyclopaedical work catur-varga-cintāmaṇi-, divided into 5 khaṇḍa-s, vrata-, dāna-, tīrtha-, mokṣa-, and pariśeṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemādrim. (with bhaṭṭa-) Name of the author of a commentator or commentary on raghu-vaṃśa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemādridānakhaṇḍasāramn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemādrijaraṇam. (equals hemādrikā-) Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemādrikāf. the plant svarṇa-kṣīrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemādriprāyaścittan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemādriprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadugdham. "golden-juiced", Ficus Glomerata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadugdhāf. equals svarṇa-kṣīrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadugdhaka m. Ficus Glomerata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadugdhīf. equals svarṇa-kṣīrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemadugdhinm. Ficus Glomerata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemagandhinīf. the perfume reṇukā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemagarbhamfn. containing golden in the interior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemagauramfn. of a golden yellow colour ( hemagaurāṅga ṅga- mfn.having golden yellow limbs) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemagauram. a kind of tree (equals kiṃkirāta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemagaurāṅgamfn. hemagaura
hemaghnan. lead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaghnīf. turmeric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemagirim. "golden mountain", Name of mount meru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemagirim. of another mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaguham. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemahaṃsagaṇim. Name of an author (pupil of ratna-śekhara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemahastiratham. "golden-elephant-chariot", Name of one of the 16 mahādāna-s (q.v)
hemāhvam. "called after gold", Michelia Champaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāhvāf. Hoya Viridiflora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāhvaf. equals svarṇakṣīrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemajan. tin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemajālālaṃkṛtamfn. "adorned with a golden net", Name of a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemajaṭam. plural Name of a class of kirāta-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemajīvantīf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemajvālam. "golden-flamed", agni- or fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakan. gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakan. a piece of gold (in sa-h-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakan. Name of a forest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakan. of a daitya- (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakakṣam. a golden girdle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakakṣamf(ā-)n. having golden walls View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakakṣamf(ā-)n. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakakṣyamfn. having a golden girdle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakalaśam. a golden pinnacle or cupola View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakamalan. a golden lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakampanam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakandalam. having golden shoots, coral View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakaṇṭham. a proper N. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakāntimfn. having a golden lustre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakāntif. Curcuma Aromatica or another species View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakaram. "golden-worker", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakaram. (with maithila-) Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakāram. a goldsmith View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakarakam. a golden vase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakārakam. idem or 'm. a goldsmith ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakārikāf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakartṛm. a goldsmith View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakartṛm. a kind of bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakelim. "golden sport", Name of agni- or fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakeśam. "golden-haired", śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaketakīf. Pandanus Odoratissimus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakiñjalkam. n. golden filaments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakiñjalkan. "having golden filaments", the nāgakesara- flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakirīṭamālinmfn. garlanded with a golden diadem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakṣīrīf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakuḍyaName of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakumbham. a golden jar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakuṇḍyaName of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakūṭam. "golden-peaked", Name of one of the ranges of mountains dividing the known continent into 9 varṣa-s (situated north of himālaya- and forming with it the boundaries of the kiṃnara- or kimpuruṣa- varṣa-;See varṣa-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakūṭam. of a monkey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakūṭamāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemakūṭhya equals -kuḍya- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemalam. a goldsmith View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemalam. a touchstone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemalam. a chameleon, lizard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemalamba m. Name of the 31st (or 5th) year of Jupiter's cycle of 60 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemalambakam. Name of the 31st (or 5th) year of Jupiter's cycle of 60 years View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemālaṃkāram. a golden ornament View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemālaṃkārinmfn. adorned with golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemalatāf. "golden creeper", a kind of plant (according to to some, Hoya Viridiflora) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemalatāf. Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemamākṣikan. pyrites View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemamālāf. "golden-garlanded", Name of the wife of yama- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemamālikāf. a golden necklace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemamālinmfn. garlanded or adorned with golden (as elephants, a rākṣasa- etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemamālinm. the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemamarīcimatmfn. having golden rays View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemamāṣāf. a particular weight of golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemamayamf(ī-)n. made of gold, golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāmbhoja() n. a golden lotus-flower. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāmbun. liquid golden, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāmbuja() () n. a golden lotus-flower. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemamṛgam. a golden deer (according to a story told in ,the rākṣasa- mārīca- transformed himself into a golden deer and so captivated rāma- and his wife sītā-, that the former left his forest-home to pursue it;during his absence rāvaṇa- q.v,disguised as a mendicant, presented himself before sītā- and carried her off). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemann. impulse ("gold") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemann. water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
heman(See him/a-and next), winter (only used in locative case,"in the winter") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemann. (of doubtful derivation) gold etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemann. a gold piece View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemann. (plural) golden ornaments View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemann. Mesua Roxburghii View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemann. the thorn-apple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemanm. the planet Mercury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemanābhim. a golden nave View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemanābhimfn. having a golden nave or centre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṇḍa() n. the golden world-egg (see brahmāṇḍa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṇḍaka() n. the golden world-egg (see brahmāṇḍa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemanetram. "golden eyed", Name of a yakṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgamf(ī-)n. having, golden limbs or parts, golden (varia lectio hemāṅka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgam. Michelia Champaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgam. a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgam. the mountain meru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgam. Name of brahmā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgam. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgam. of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgāf. a particular plant (equals svarṇa-kṣīrī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgadam. "having a golden bracelet", Name of a gandharva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgadam. of a king of the kaliṅga-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅgadam. of a son of vasudeva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāṅkamfn. adorned with golden (varia lectio hemāṅga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantam. winter, the cold season (comprising the two months agra-hāyaṇa- and pauṣa- id est from middle of November to middle of January) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemanta hemavala- See p.1304, columns 1 and 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantajabdha(t/a--) mfn. swallowed by winter (id est"hidden away or disappeared in winter") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantamegham. a winter-cloud View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantanātham. "lord of winter", the wood-apple tree (equals kapittha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantānilam. a winter wind
hemantāntam. (only in locative case nte-) the end of winter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantapratyavarohaṇan. redescending into winter (a kind of ceremony) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantaṛtuvarṇanan. "description of the winter season", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantasamayam. winter time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantasiṃham. Name of a king of karṇapūra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantaśiśiram. dual number (see ) winter and spring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemantīf. idem or 'm. winter, the cold season (comprising the two months agra-hāyaṇa- and pauṣa- id est from middle of November to middle of January) etc.' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaparvatam. an (artificial) mountain made of golden (as a gift; see mahādāna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaparvatam. Name of mount meru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaphalāf. "having golden fruit", a kind of plantain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapiṅgalamfn. golden yellow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapīṭhādhidevatāf. the tutelary deity of a golden footstool (applied to a monarch's foot) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaprabham. "having a golden lustre", Name of a vidyādhara- (f(ā-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaprabham. of a king of the parrots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapratimāf. a golden statue or image View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapṛṣṭhamfn. overlaid with golden, gilded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuñjakam. Name of a man (Bombay edition -kampana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣkaran. a lotus-flower of golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpam. (only ) "bearing golden flowers", Michelia Champaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpam. Jonesia Asoka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpam. Mesua Roxburghii View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpam. Cassia Fistula View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpan. the flower of Michelia Champaka etc. (See above) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpakam. (only ) Michelia Champaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpakam. Symplocos Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpīf. Rubia Munjista View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpīf. Hoya Viridiflora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpīf. Curculigo Orchioides View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpīf. a colocynth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpīf. equals kaṇṭakārī- and svarṇalī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpikāf. (ikā-) yellow jasmine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemapuṣpikāf. Linum Usitatissimum. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemarāgiṇīf. "gold-coloured", turmeric View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemarājam. (with miśra-) Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaratnamayamf(ī-)n. consisting of golden and jewels View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaratnavatmfn. idem or 'mf(ī-)n. consisting of golden and jewels ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemareṇum. "gold dust", a kind of atom (= trasareṇu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemasabhānāthamāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaśailam. "golden-peaked", Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaśaṅkham. "having a golden conch", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemasāran. blue vitriol (see -tāra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemasāvarṇim. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaśikā(?) f. "golden-crested", the plant svarṇa-kṣīrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaśikhā (?) f. "golden-crested", the plant svarṇa-kṣīrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemasiṃham. a throne of golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaśītan. idem or '(?) f. "golden-crested", the plant svarṇa-kṣīrī- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaśṛṅgan. a golden horn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaśṛṅgam. "golden-peaked", Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaśṛṅginmfn. having golden"tusks"and"peaks" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemasūrim. Name of a scholar (equals hema-candra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemasūtra n. "golden-thread", a necklace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemasūtrakan. "golden-thread", a necklace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hematālaName of a mountainous district in the north View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hematāran. blue vitriol View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hematārakam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hematarum. "golden tree", the Datura or thorn-apple View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hematilakasūrim. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemātram. or n. a particular high number View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavalan. a pearl (equals hima-v-; see next) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavalan. a pearl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavallīf. "golden creeper", Hoya Viridiflora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavarṇamfn. golden-coloured View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavarṇam. Name of a son of garuḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavarṇam. of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavatind. like golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavatmfn. adorned with gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāvatīmāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavibhramasūtran. Name of work (see haim-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavijayam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemaviṣāṇinmfn. golden-horned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemavyākaraṇan. Hema-candra's grammar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemāyaNom. A1. yate-, to be or become gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemayajñopavītavatmfn. furnished with a golden sacrificial thread View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemayūthikāf. yellow jasmine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemeśvaramāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemnam. (Greek ) the planet Mercury View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemf. idem or 'm. (Greek) the planet Mercury ' (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hemyāvatmfn. having golden trappings or a golden girth (?) () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aparahemantam. n. the latter part of winter. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśuhemanm. urged to fast course, running on quickly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āśuhemanm. inciting his horses (Name of agni-, especially when regarded as apāṃ-napāt-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhartṛhemam. equals -hari- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāsurahemarāśim. a glittering heap of gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhempuran. Name of a grāma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhaddhemādri(d-he-) m. the larger hemādri-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chemaṇḍam. equals cham-, an orphan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chemuṇāf. idem or 'm. equals cham-, an orphan ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chemuṇāf. see chā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dānahemādrim. equals -khaṇḍa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhemātram. or n. a particular high number (), v.r. for dhamātra- (See dhamara-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gehemehinmfn. "making water at home", a lazy or indolent man gaRa pātre-samitādi- and yuktārohy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grīṣmahemantam. dual number summer and winter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hiraṇyahemann. gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khemakarṇam. (for kṣem-?), Name of an ancestor of bala-bhadra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khemasiṃha see kṣetra-- s-, kṣema-- s- (above). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kūṭahemann. idem or 'n. alloyed or counterfeit gold ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
laghuhemadugdhāf. Ficus Oppositifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāhemavatmfn. richly adorned with gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahematiSee under 1. mahi-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantrahemādrim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padmahemamaṇim. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiṣṭhāhemādrim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravāhemūtritan. pravāha
prāyaścittahemādrim. Name of work
pṛṣṭhemukhamf(ī-)n. having the face in the back View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasahemann. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahemakamfn. together with the gold pieces View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahemakakṣyamfn. having golden girths View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvahemamayamf(ī-)n. entirely golden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhahemakumāram. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhahemann. purified gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandhemukhamfn. having the face or mouth on the shoulders View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphemanm. (fr. sphira-) fatness, abundance etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrāddhahemādrimn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthemain compound for stheman-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthemabhājmfn. firm, strong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthemanm. (fr. sthira-) firmness, stability View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthemanm. continuance, duration ( sthemnā mnā- ind."perseveringly") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthemanm. the state of standing or stopping still, rest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stheman sthairya- etc. See p.1265. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthemind. stheman
suhemantam. a good winter
suhemantamfn. having a good winter, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taptaheman. refined gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
taptahemamayamfn. consisting of refined gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tārahemābhan. "shining like silver and gold"Name of a metal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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hemakam हेमकम् Gold.
hemalaḥ हेमलः 1 A goldsmith. -2 A touchstone. -3 A chameleon.
hemam हेमम् [हि-मन्] 1 Gold. -2 The thorn-apple. -मः 1 A dark or brown-coloured horse. -2 A particular weight of gold. -3 The planet Mercury. -मा 1 The earth. -2 A handsome woman.
heman हेमन् n. [हि-मनिन्] 1 Gold; हेम्नः संलक्ष्यते ह्यग्नौ विशुद्धि श्यामिकापि वा R.1.1. -2 Water. -3 Snow. -4 The thorn-apple. -5 The Keśara flower. -6 Winter, the cold season. -7 The planet Mercury. -8 The Dhattūra plant.; हेमनामकतरुप्रसवेन त्र्यम्बकस्तदुपकल्पितपूजः N.21.34. -Comp. -अङ्कः a. adorned with gold; Mu.2.1 (v. l.); see next word. -अङ्ग a. golden; सुगाङ्गे हेमाङ्गं नृवर तव सिंहासनमिदम् Mu.2.1. (-ङ्गः) 1 Garuḍa. -2 a lion. -3 the mountain Sumeru. -4 N. of Brahman. -5 of Viṣṇu. -6 the Champaka tree. -अङ्गदम् a gold bracelet. -अद्रिः 1 the mountain Sumeru. -2 N. of an author of the encyclopædic work चतुर्वर्गचिन्तामणि. -अम्भोजम् a golden lotus, Nelumbium Speciosum (variety yellow); हेमाम्भोजप्रसवि सलिलं मानसस्याददानः Me.64. -अम्भोरुहम् golden lotus; हेमाम्भोरुहसस्यानां तद्वाप्यो धाम सांप्रतम् Ku. 2.44. -आह्वः 1 the wild Champaka tree. -2 the Dhattūra plant. -कक्ष a. having golden walls. -क्षः a golden girdle. -कन्दलः coral. -करः, -कर्तृ, -कारः, -कारकः a goldsmith; (हृत्वा) विविधानि च रत्नानि जायते हेमकर्तृषु Ms.12.61; हेममात्रमुपादाय रूपं वा हेमकारकः Y.3. 147. -कलशः a golden pinnacle; Inscr. -किंजल्कम् the Nāgakeśara flower. -कुम्भः a golden jar. -कूटः N. of a mountain; Ś.7. -केतकी the Ketaka plant, bearing yellow flowers (स्वर्णकेतकी). -केलिः 1 an epithet of Agni. -2 the Chitraka plant. -केशः N. of Śiva. -गन्धिनी the perfume named Reṇukā. -गर्भ a. containing gold in the interior. -गिरिः the mountain Sumeru. -गारैः the Aśoka tree. -घ्नम् lead. -घ्नी turmeric. -चन्द्रः N. of a celebrated Jaina lexicographer (of the 11th century). -छन्न a. covered with gold. (-न्नम्) gold covering. -ज्वालः fire. -तरुः the thorn-apple. -तारम् blue vitriol. -दुग्धः, -दुग्धकः the glomerous fig-tree. -धान्यकः the 11/2 Māṣaka weight. -धारणम् the 8-Palas weight of gold. -पर्वतः the mountain Meru. -पुष्पः, -पुष्पकः 1 the Aśoka tree. -2 the Lodhra tree. -3 the Champaka tree. (-n.) 1 the Aśoka flower. -2 the flower of China rose. -पुष्पिका yellow jasmine. -पृष्ठ a. gilded. -ब(व)लम् a pearl. -माला the wife of Yama. -माक्षिकम् pyrites. -मालिन् m. the sun. -यूथिका the golden or yellow jasmine. -रागिणी f. turmeric. -रेणुः a kind of atom (त्रसरेणुः). -वलम् a pearl. -व्याकरणम् Hemachandra's grammar. -शङ्खः N. of Viṣṇu. -शृङ्गम् 1 a golden horn. -2 a golden summit. -सारम् blue vitriol. -सूत्रम्, -सूत्रकम् a kind of necklace (Mar. गोफ).
hemantaḥ हेमन्तः न्तम् One of the six seasons, cold or winter season (comprising the months मार्गशीर्ष and पौष); नव- प्रवालोद्गमसस्यरम्यः प्रफुल्ललोध्रः परिपक्वशालिः । विलीनपद्मः प्रपत- त्तुषारो हेमन्तकालः समुपागतः प्रिये ॥ Ṛs.4.1. -Comp. -नाथः the wood-apple tree.
hemantī हेमन्ती Winter.
hemnaḥ हेम्नः The planet Mercury.
hemya हेम्य a. Golden.
chemaṇḍaḥ छेमण्डः An orphan.
stheman स्थेमन् m. Firmness, stability, fixity, fixedness; द्राघीयांसः संहताः स्थेमभाजः Śi.18.33; न यत्र स्थेमानं दधुरतिभ- यभ्रान्तनयनाः Bv.1.32.
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āsām ā-sām, gen. pl. f. of the prn. root a, of them, iv. 51, 6.
ena e-na, enc. prn. stem of 3. prs. he, she, it: acc. enam him, ii. 12, 5; iii. 59, 3; vii. 103, 2; x. 14, 11; 34, 4; 168, 2; acc. pl. enān them, vii. 103, 3; gen. du. enos of them two, vii. 103, 4 [prn. root e].
ebhis e-bhis, I. pl. with them, x. 34, 5 [prn. root a].
ebhyas e-bhyas, D. pl. to them, x. 34, 8 [prn. root a].
eṣām e-ṣām, G. pl. m. of them, i. 85, 3; vii. 103, 52. 6; x. 34, 5. 8; 129, 5 [prn. root a].
ta Tá, dem. prn., that; he, she, it; n. tád that, i. 1, 6; 35, 6; 154, 2. 5. 6; ii. 35, 11. 15; iv. 51, 10. 11; vii. 86, 2. 3. 4; 103, 5. 7; x. 34, 12. 13; 90, 12; 129, 2. 3. 4; 135, 5; m. A. tám him, ii. 33, 13; 35, 3. 4; iv. 50, 1. 9; vi. 54, 4; that, x. 90, 7; 135, 4; I. téna with it, viii. 29, 4. 10; with him, x. 90, 7; I. f. táyāwith that, i. 85, 11; D. tásmai to him, iii. 59, 5; iv. 50, 82; x. 34, 12; for him, x. 135, 2; to that, viii. 48, 12. 13 (= as such); x. 168, 4; for that, viii. 48, 10; ab. tásmād from him, x. 90, 5. 8. 93. 103;than that, x. 129, 2; G. tásya of him, ii. 35, 9; iii. 59, 4; of that, viii. 48, 8; x. 15, 7; du. m. táu these two, x. 14, 12; f. té these two, i. 160, 1. 5; D. tá̄bhyām to those two, x. 14, 11; pl. N. m. té they, i. 85, 2. 7. 10; viii. 48, 5; x. 15, 3. 53. 12. 13; those, x. 15, 1; 90, 16; = as such, x. 15, 4. 7; f. tá̄s they,iv. 51, 8; those, iv. 51, 72. 9; vii. 49, 1. 2. 3. 4; n. tá̄ those, i. 154, 6; ii. 33, 13; x. 14, 16; tá̄ni those, i. 85, 12; x. 90, 16; A. tá̄n those = that, x. 90, 8; I. tébhis with them, i. 35, 11; x. 15, 8. 14; f. tá̄bhiswith them, x. 168, 2; G. téṣām of them, x. 14, 6; L. tá̄su in them, ii. 33, 13.
śuṣma śúṣ-ma, m. vehemence, ii. 12, 1. 13; impulse, iv. 50, 7; force, vii. 61, 4 [śvas blow, snort].
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hemaka n. (piece of) gold; -kaksha, m. golden waistband; -kamala, n. golden lotus; -kartri, m. goldsmith; -kâra, m. id.: -ka, m. id.; -kûta, m. gold-peak, N. of a mountain in the northern Himâlayas; -giri, m. gold mountain, ep. of Meru; -kandra, a. adorned with a golden moon (car); m. N. of a celebrated Jain scholar, author among numerous other works of two dictionaries (12th century); -gata, m. pl. a kind of Ki râtas; -dînâra, m. gold denarius.
heman n. [√ hi] impulse (RV.1).
heman n. gold (ord. mg.); gold piece: pl. gold ornaments.
heman only lc. heman, in the winter (V.).
hemanta m. [cp. hima] winter: -sisi raú, du. winter and spring.
hemapratimā f. likeness of gold: -prabha, m. N. of a fairy; N. of a king of the parrots: â, f. N. of a fairy; -maya, a. (î) golden; -mriga, m. golden deer; -ratna maya, a. (î) consisting of gold and gems; -ratna-vat, a. containing or consisting of gold and gems; -latâ, f. golden creeper; N. of a princess; -vat, a. adorned with gold; -sri&ndot;ga, n. golden horn; -sûtra, n. gold (thread=) necklace; -½a&ndot;ka, a.adorned with gold; -½a&ndot;ga, a. having members or parts consisting of gold; m. ep. of Meru; -½akala, m. gold moun tain, ep. of Meru; -½anda, n. golden mundane egg; -½adri, m. gold mountain, ep. of Meru; N. of an author; -½âbha, a. looking like gold; -½ambuga, n. golden lotus; -½ambhoga, n. id.; -½alamkâra, m. golden ornament.
ghed gha̮id, ghem v.  gha.
stheman m. [abst. n. to sthi-ra] firmness (V.); C.: rest; continuance: in. per severingly: (-ma)-bhâg, a. firm, strong (C.).
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heman (Used only in the locative singular) denotes ‘ winter ’ in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas.
hemanta ‘Winter,’ occurs only once in the Rigveda, but often in the later texts. Zimmer is inclined to trace differences of climate in the Rigveda: he thinks that certain hymns, which ignore winter and insist on the rains, indicate a different place and time of origin from those which refer to the snowy mountains. It is, however, quite impossible to separate parts of the Rigveda on this basis. It is probable that that text owes its composition in the main to residents in the later Madhyadeśa; hence the references to cold and snow are rather a sign of local than of temporal differences. It is otherwise with the later expansion of the three into four seasons, which represents clearly the earlier advance of the Indians (see Rtu). The śatapatha Brāhmana describes winter as the time when the plants wither, "the leaves fall from the trees, the birds fly low and retire more and more.
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"hem" has 121 results.
     
siddhahemacandraa title given to his grammar by Hemacandra himself, which subsequently came to be called हैमशब्दानुशासन or हैमव्याकरण. For details see हेमचन्द्र.
hemacandraa Jain sage and scholar of remarkable erudition in the religious works of the Jainas as also in several Shastras. He was a resident of Dhandhuka in Gujarat, who, like Sankarācārya took संन्यासदीक्षा at a very early age and wrote a very large number of original books and commentaries, the total number of which may well nigh exceed fifty, during his long life of eighty-four years ( 1088 to ll 2 ). He stayed at AnhilavalaPattana in the North Gujarat and was patronised with extreme reverence by King Kumarapala who in fact, became his devoted pupil. Besides the well-known works on the various Shastras like Kavyanusasana, Abhidhanacintamani, Desinamamla, Yogasastra, Dvyasrayakavya, Trisastisalakapurusacarita and others which are well-known, he wrote a big work on grammar called सिद्धहेमचन्द्र by him,but popularly known by the name हेमव्याकरण or हैमशब्दानुशासन The , work consists of eight books or Adhyayas, out of which the eighth book is devoted to prakrit Grammar, and can be styled as a Grammar of all the Prakrit dialects. The Sanskrit Grammar of seven chapters is based practically upon Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules or sutras referring to Vedic words or Vedic affixes or accents being entirely omittedThe wording of the Sutras is much similar to that of Panini; at some places it is even identical. The order of the treatment of the subjects in the सिद्धहैम. शब्दानुशासनमृत्र is not, however, similar to that obtaining in the Astadhyayi of Panini. It is somewhat topicwise as in the Katantra Vyakarana. The first Adhyaya and a quarter of the second are devoted to Samjna, Paribhasa and declension; the second pada of the second Adhyaya is devoted to karaka, while the third pada of it is devoted to cerebralization and the fourth to the Stripratyayas.The first two Padas of the third Adhyaya are devoted to Samasas or compound words, while the last two Padas of the third Adhyaya and the fourth Adhyaya are devoted to conjugation The fifth Adhyaya is devoted to verbal derivatives or krdanta, while the sixth and the seventh Adhyayas are devoted to formations of nouns from nouns, or taddhita words. On this Sabda nusasana, which is just like Panini's Astadhyayi, the eighth adhyaya of Hemacandra being devoted to the grammar of the Arsa language similar to Vedic grammar of Panini, Hemacandra has himself written two glosses which are named लधुवृति and वृहृदवृत्ति and the famous commentary known as the Brhannyasa. Besides these works viz the हैमशब्दानुशासन, the two Vrttis on it and the Brhannyasa, he has given an appendix viz the Lingnusasana. The Grammar of Hemacandra, in short, introduced a new system of grammar different from, yet similar to, that of Panini, which by his followers was made completely similar to the Paniniya system by writing works similar to the Siddhantakaumudi, the Dhatuvrtti, the Manorama and the Paribhasendusekhara. हेमहंसगणि a grammarian belonging to the school of Hemacandra, who lived in the fifteenth century and wrote a work on Paribhasas named न्यायसंग्रह, on which he himself wrote a commentary called न्यायार्थमञ्जूषा and another one called by the name न्यास.
hemalaghuprakriyāvṛttia topicwise work based on Hemacandra's Sabdanu-sasana written by Vinayavijaya, a Jain scholar of grammar.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
anarthaka(1)without any signification;literally having no meaning of themselves, id est, that ispossessing a meaning only when used in company with other words or parts of words which bear an independent sense;(the word is used generally in connection with prepositions); exempli gratia, for example अधिपरी अनर्थकौ P.1.4.93, confer, compare अनर्थान्तरवाचिनावनर्थकौ । धातुनोक्तां क्रियामाहतुः । तदविशिष्टं भवति यथा शङ्के पय: ॥ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.4.93; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.3: confer, compare also अनर्थकौ अनर्थान्तरवाचिनौ Kāś. on I.4.93, explained as अनर्थान्तरवाचित्वादनर्थकावित्युक्तम् न त्वर्थाभावादिति दर्शयति by न्यासकार; (2) meaningless, purposeless: confer, compare प्रमाणभूत आचार्यो दर्भपवित्रपाणिः महता यत्नेन सूत्रं प्रणयति स्म । तत्राशक्यं वर्णेनाप्यनर्थकेन भवितुं किं पुनरियता सूत्रेण M.Bh. on I.1.1, as also सामर्थ्ययोगान्न हि किंचिदस्मिन् पश्यामि शास्त्रे यदनर्थकं स्यात् M.Bh. on P. VI.I.77. See for details M.Bh. on I.2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 12: III.1.77 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 and Kaiyaṭa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon; (3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some nipātas केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः केचन च निरर्थकाः U1. varia lectio, another reading, on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII.9; निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P. I. 2.45 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).12 confer, compare also जन्या इति निपातनानर्थक्यं P. IV. 4.82. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, एकागारान्निपातनानर्थक्यं P. V.1.113 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1, also 114 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1.
aniṭ(1)not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhātuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has become customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily because they are possessed of an anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् et cetera, and others as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, et cetera, and others which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhāntakaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient grammarians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10.
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anudāttataraquite a low tone, completely grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudātta vowel which is immediately followed by an acute ( उदात्त ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were sub-divided into seven tones viz. उदात्त, उदात्ततर्, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितस्थोदात्त and एकश्रुति corresponding to the seven musical notes, the अनुदात्ततर was the name given to the lowest of them all. अनुदात्ततर was termed सन्नतर also; confer, compare उदात्तस्वरितपरस्य सन्नतरः P.I.2.40; confer, compare also M, Bh. on I.2.33.
antaraṅgaparibhāṣāthe phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.
anvaya(1)construing, construction: arrangement of words according to their mutual relationship based upon the sense conveyed by them, शब्दानां परस्परमर्थानुगमनम् । (2) continuance, continuation;confer, compare घृतघटतैलवट इति ; निषिक्ते घृते तैले वा अन्वयाद्विशेषणं भवति अयं घृतघटः, अयं तैलघट इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 1.1.
arīhaṇādia group of words given in P. IV.2.80 which get the taddhita affix घुञ् ( अक ) added to them as a cāturarthika affix e. g. अारीहणकम्, द्रौघणकम् et cetera, and otherssee Kāśikā on P.IV.2.80.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
ānupūrvīserial order, successive order of grammatical operations or the rules prescribing them as they occur; confer, compare अानुपूर्व्या सिद्धमेतत् M.Bh. on V.3.5; confer, compare also ययैव चानुपूर्व्या अर्थानां प्रादुर्भावस्तयैव शब्दानामपि । तद्वत् कार्यैरपि भवितव्यम् M.Bh. on. P.I.1.57.
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
itaretarapossessed of interdependence; depending upon each other; confer, compare इतरेतरं कार्यमसद्वत् Candra Pari. 5 }. Grammatical operations are of no avail if the rules stating them are mutually depending on each other. The word इतरेतर has the sense of इतरेतराश्रय here.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
uṭaugment उ affixed to the roots वृ and तॄ before the kṛt affix तृ; confer, compare तृरुतृतरूतृवरुतृ वरूतृवस्त्रीरिति तरतेर्वृङ्वृञोश्च तृचि उट् ऊट् इत्येतावाग निपात्येते Kāś. on P. VII.2.34.उण् the affix उण्, causing वृद्धि on account of the mute letter ण , prescribed after the roots कृ, वा, पा, जि, मि, स्वद्, साध् and अशू by the rule कृवापाजिमित्वदिसाध्यशूभ्य उण् which is the first rule (or Sūtra) of a series of rules prescribing various affixes which are called Uṇādi affixes, the affix उण् being the first of them. exempli gratia, for example कारुः, वायु , स्वादु, साधु et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṇādi I,1.
uṇādeikośaa metrical work explaining the उणादि words referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. with meanings assigned to them. There are two such compositions one by Rāmatarkavāgīśa or Rāmaśarma and the other by Rāmacandra Dīkṣita.
uṇādiprātipadikaword form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; confer, compare उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasargadyotyatāthe view or doctrine that prefixes, by themselves, do not possess any sense, but they indicate the sense of the verb or noun with which they are connectedition For details See Vākyapadīya II.165-206; also vol. VII. pages 370-372 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya edition by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekavākyaan expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other confer, compare विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.4.67; confer, compare also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
enaptaddhita affix. affix एन applied to उत्तर, अधर, and दक्षिण optionally instead of the taddhita affix. affix आति in the senses of दिक्, देश and काल, exempli gratia, for example उत्तरेण, उत्तरतः उत्तरात्, Words with this एन at the end govern the acc. case of the word syntactically connected with them. e. g. तत्रागारं धनपतिगूहान् उत्तरेण Kālidāsa: Meghadūta;confer, compareएनपा द्वितीया P.II.3.31.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kānacaffix अान forming perfect partciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: exempli gratia, for example सोमं सुषुवाणः; confer, compare P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.
kāmacāraoption; permission to do as desired liberty of applying any of the rules of grammar that present themselves; confer, compare तत्र कामचारो गृह्यमाणेन वा विभक्तिं विशेषयितुं अङ्गेन वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.27 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kiṃśulakādia class of words headed by the word किंशुलक, which get their final vowel lengthened when the word गिरि is placed after them as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; e. g. किंशुलकागिरिः, अञ्जनागिरिः; confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.3.117.
kiśarādi,kisarādia class of words headed by किसर meaning some kind of scent, which get the taddhita affix इक (ष्टन्) applied to them when the word so formed means 'a dealer of that thing;' exempli gratia, for example किशारिकः, किशारिकी cf; Kāś. on P. IV.4.53.
koṭarādia class of words headed by the word कोटर which get their final vowel lengthened when the word वन is placed after them as a seconditional member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper noun; exempli gratia, for example कोटरावणम्, मिश्रकावणम्. confer, compare Kāś. on P.VI.3.117.
kroṣṭrīyaan ancient school of grammarians who are believed to have written rules or Vārttikas on some rules of Pāṇini to modify them; the क्रोष्ट्रीय school is quoted in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare परिभाषान्तरमिति च मत्वा क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
gadādharacakravartinthe reputed Naiyāyika who wrote numerous works on the Navyanyaya; he has written a few works like व्युत्पत्तिवाद, उपसर्गविचार, कारकनिर्णय, सर्वनामविचार, प्रत्ययविचार on Vyākaraṇa themes although the treatment, as also the style, is logical.
gārgyaan ancient reputed grammarian and possibly a writer of a Nirukta work, whose views, especially in.connection with accents are given in the Pratisakhya works, the Nirukta and Panini's Astadhyayi. Although belonging to the Nirukta school, he upheld the view of the Vaiyakaranas that all words cannot be derived, but only some of them: cf Nirukta of Yāska.I. 12.3. cf, also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 167, Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.5, III. 14.22: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 13; XIII. 12: P. VII. 3.99, VIII. 3.20, VIII. 4.69.
gopīcandraknown also by the name गेयींचन्द्र who .has written several commentary works on the grammatical treatises of the Samksipatasara or Jaumāra school of Vyakarana founded by Kramdisvara and Jumaranandin in the 12th century, the well-known among them being the संक्षिप्तसाटीका, संक्षितसारपरिभात्रासूत्रटीका and तद्धितपरिशिष्टटीका. He is believed to have lived in the thirteenth century A. D.
goṣṭhaca taddhita affix.affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; confer, compare गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.1. varia lectio, another reading,2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
caya short term (Pratyahara) for the first letters ( क् , च् , ट् त्, and प्र) of the five classes. Sometimes as opined by पौष्करसादि, second letters are substituted for these if a sibilant follows them, e. g,अफ्सराः, वध्सरः । confer, compare चयो द्वितीयाः शरि पौप्करसांदरिति वाच्यम् confer, compare S.K. on ङूणोः कुक्टुक् शरि P. VIII.3.28.
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jñāpakasamuccayaa work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव.
jhita term, meaning 'having झ् as इत्' used by the Varttikakra in connection with those words in the rules of Panini which themselves as well as words referring to their special kinds, are liable to undergo the prescribed operation; confer, compare झित् तस्य च तद्विशेषाणां च मत्स्याद्यर्थम्। पक्षिमत्स्यमृगान् हन्ति। मात्त्प्यिक;। तद्विशेषाणाम्। शाफरिकः शाकुलिकः । M.Bh.on P.I. 1. 68 Vart. 8.
ṇastaddhita affix. affix अस् applied to the word पर्शू in the sense of collection. The original Varttika is पर्श्वाः सण् P. IV. 2. 43 Vart. 3. Some scholars read णस् in the place of सण् in the Varttika which is read as पर्श्वा णम् वक्तव्यः by them.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tamaṭtaddhita affix. affix तम added optionally with the affix डट् ( अ ) to विंशति, त्रिंशत् et cetera, and others, as also to words ending with them, in the sense of पूरण (completion), and necessarily (नित्यं) to the words शत, सहस्र, षष्टि, सप्तति et cetera, and others e. g. एकविंशतितमः एकविंशः, त्रिंशत्तमः, त्रिंशः, शततमः, षष्टितम:, विंशी, त्रिंशी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on V. 2.56-58.
(1)a technical term for the genitive case affix used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; (2) the taddhita affix. affix तल् which is popularly called ता as the nouns ending in तल् id est, that is त are declined in the feminine. gender with the feminine. affix अा added to them.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
tri(1)krt affix क्त्रि, always having the taddhita affix. affix मप् ( म ) added to it, applied to the roots marked with the mute syllable डु prefixed to them in the Dhatupatha; e. g. कृत्रिमम्, पक्त्रिमम्; (2) a term signifying the plural number; confer, compare ना नौ मे मदर्थे त्रिद्व्येकेषु V.Pr.II.3.
dvārādia class of words headed by the word द्वार् which get the augment ऐच् (id est, that is ऐ or औ ) placed before the letter य or व in them, instead of the substitution of vrddhi, when a taddhita affix marked with the mute letter ञ्,ण्, or क् is added to them; e. g. दौवारिकः सौवस्तिकः, शौवम्, शौवनम् et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, VII .3,4.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
nandyādiname giver to the class of roots beginning with the root नन्द्, which includes the roots वाश्, मद् , दूष्, वृध् , शुभ् and others as given in the Ganapatha.These roots have the affix ल्यु id est, that is अन added to them in the sense of agent. exempli gratia, for example नन्दनः, वाशनः, मदनः, वर्धनः, शोभनः, रमणः, दर्पणः, जनार्दनः, यवनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.1.134.
nāda(1)voice; resonance; tone; the sound caused by the vibration of the vocal chords in the open glottis when the air passes through them; confer, compare वर्णाोत्पत्त्यनन्तरभावी अनुरणनरूपः शब्दः नादः Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.9; confer, compare also संवृते कण्ठे यः शब्दः क्रियते स नादसंज्ञो भवति Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.II. 4; (2) sound, articulate sound generally without sense, which is momentary; (3) the highest sound. See परा.
nighaṇṭua name given to a collection of words which are mainly Vedic. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises on derivation such as the Nirukta of Yaska were based upon them; confer, compare निघण्टवः कस्मात् । निगमा इमे भवन्ति । छन्दोभ्यः समाहृत्य समाहृत्य समाम्नातास्ते निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः । अपि वा आहननादेव स्युः | समाहता भवन्ति । यद्वा समाहृता भवन्ति (Nir.I.1) where the word is derived from गम्,or हन् or हृ. The word निघण्टु is taken as synonymous with निगम by Durgacarya.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nirākṛta(1)set aside; answered; the word is frequently used in connection with faults which are stated to occur or present themselves if a particular explanation is given; (2) prevailed over by another; confer, compare तदा न रूपं लभते निराकृतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 30, where Uvvata paraphrases निराकृत as विस्मृत.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padādi(1)beginning of a word, the first letter of a word; confer, compare सात्पदाद्योः P. VIII.3.111; confer, compare also स्वरितो वानुदात्ते पदादौ P. VIII.2.6. Patañjali, for the sake of argument has only once explained पदादि as पदादादिः confer, compare M.Bh.on I. 1. 63 Vāŗt. 6; (2) a class of words headed by the word पद् which is substituted for पद in all cases except the nominative case. and the acc. singular and dual; this class, called पदादि, contains the substitutes पद् , दत्, नस् et cetera, and others respectively for पाद दन्त, नासिका et cetera, and others confer, compare Kās on P. VI. 1.63; (3) the words in the class, called पदादि, constiting of the words पद्, दत्, नस्, मस् हृत् and निश् only, which have the case affix after them accented acute; confer, compare P. VI. 1.171.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pārārthyaliterally serving the purpose of another like the Paribhāşā and the Adhikāra rules in Grammar which have got no utility as fair as they themselves are concerned, but which are of use in the interpretation of other rules; confer, compare अधिकारशब्देन पारार्थ्यात् परिभाषाप्युच्यते. Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
prayogaratnamālāname of a recognised treatise on grammar written by पुरुषोत्तमविद्यावागीश of Bengal in the fourteenth century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to form them by applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Panini and Katantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of the Tantra Sastra which shows a scholarship of the author in that branch The grammar was studied much in Bengal and Assam.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
bilvakādia class of words headed by the word बिल्वक the affix ईय ( छ ) placed after which is elided when another taddhita affix. affix such as अण् or the like is placed after them; confer, compare बिल्वा यस्यां सन्ति बिल्वकी तस्यां भवा: बैल्वकाः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VI.4.153.
madhyepavādaa rule forming an exception to other general rules being placed between them, one or many of which are placed before and the others afterwards. Such a rule sets aside the previous rules and not the succeeding ones. The statement laying down this dictum is मध्येपवादाः पूर्वान् विधीन् बाधन्ते नोत्तरान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari. 60, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.4.148 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahāsaṃjñāa long term, as contrasted with the very short terms टि, घु, भ, इत् and others introduced by Panini in his grammar for the sake of brevity. These long terms such as सर्वनाम, अब्यय,परस्मैपद, अात्मनेपद, and many others were widely in use at the time of Panini and hence he could not but pick them up in his grammar in spite of his strenuous attempts at brevity. The commentators, however, find out a motive for his doing this viz. that appropriate words only could be understood by those terms and not others; confer, compareमहासंज्ञाकरणेन तदनुगुणानामेव अत्र संनिवेशात् । S.K. on सर्वादीने सर्वनामानि P. I.1.27.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yañ(1)short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) formed by the letter य of हृयवरट् and the mute letter ञ्ज of इभञ् including serni-vowels and the third and the fourth consonants excepting घ् , ढ् and ध् of the five consonant groups: confer, compare अतो दीर्घो याञि P. VII. 3. 10l ; (2) taddhita affix. affix added (a) in the sense of गोत्र (grand-children and their descendants) to words of the गर्ग class and some other words under specific conditions, exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यः: वात्स्य:, काप्यः et cetera, and others, confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् and the following P.IV. 1. 105-108: (b) in the sense of collection to केदार, गणिका, केश and अश्व, confer, compare P.IV.2.40 and the Varttika.thereon and IV. 2.48; (c) in the Saiska senses to the word द्वीप, confer, compare P.IV.3.10: (d) to the word कंसीय e. g. कांस्यम् confer, compare P.IV.3.168, and (e) to the words अभिजित्, विदभृत् and others when they have the taddhita affix. affix अण् added to them : exempli gratia, for example अाभजित्य: confer, compare P. V. 3. 118.
yuvādia class of words headed by the word युवन् which have the taddhita affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of 'duty' or 'nature': exempli gratia, for example यौवनम् स्थाविरम्, हौत्रम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.1.130.
rathaname of one of the eight kinds of recitals of the Veda Samhita by dividing it into the component words ( पद ) and reciting the component words by repeating them, in their regular order and reverse order too.
radhādia class of eight roots headed by the root रध् which allow the addition of the augment इ ( इट् ) optionally to the ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्, placed , after them; exempli gratia, for example रघिता रद्धा, त्रता , तर्त्पा तर्पिता et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII.2.35 and VII.2.45.
rasādia class of words headed by the word रस which have the taddhita affix.affix मतुप् added to them in the sense of possession in preference to other affixes like इन्: exempli gratia, for example. रसवान् , रूपवान् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 2.95.
rājadantādia class of compound words headed by राजदन्त in which the order of words or the constituent members is fixedition There are about 50 words in the class; some of them are tatpurusa compounds such as राजदन्त or अग्रेवण in which the subordinate word which ought to have been placed first is placed second There are some karmadharaya.compounds in which one particular word is always placed first and not any one of the two: exempli gratia, for example लिप्तवासितम्, सिक्तसंमृष्टम् et cetera, and others There are some dvandva compounds such as उलुखलमुसलम् , चित्रास्वाती, भार्यापती et cetera, and others in which a definite order of words is laid down. For details see Kasika on राजदन्तादिषु परम् P. II. 2.31.
laghuśabdenduśekharavyākhyāa commentary on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. There are more than a dozen commentary works on the popular Laghuśabdenduśekhara called by the usual names टीका or व्याख्या the prominent among which are गदा, भैरवी and विजया. A few of them have special names e. g. चिदस्थिमाला, चन्द्रकला, ज्योत्स्त्रा, विषमी et cetera, and others
lāvasthāthe original condition of ल् or the personal endings before the affixes तिप्, तस् and others are substituted for them in accordance with the time or mood, as also the person and the number in view;confer, compare लावस्थायामेव स्यादयः, सार्वधातुके श्यनादयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.III. 1. 33.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
varaṇādia class of words headed by वरण which have the taddhita affix elided, if it is added to them in the four senses mentioned in P.IV.2.67-70 confer, compare वरणानामदूरभवं नगरं वरणाः | कटुकबदर्या अदूरभवो ग्रामः कटुकबदरी ! confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.82.
varāhādia class of words headed by वराह which have the taddhita affix क ( कक् ) added to them in the four senses mentioned in P. IV. 2.67-70 exempli gratia, for example वाराहकम्, पालाशकम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 2.80.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
vākyasaṃskārapakṣathe grammarian's theory that as the individual words have practically no existence as far as the interpretation or the expression of sense is concerned, the sentence alone being capable of conveying the sense, the formation of individual words in a sentence' is explained by putting them in a sentence and knowing their mutual relationship. The word गाम् cannot be explained singly by showing the base गो and the case ending अम् unless it is seen in the sentence गाम् अानय; confer, compare यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे कृष्णादिसंबुद्धयन्त उपपदे ऋधेः क्तिनि कृते कृष्ण ऋध् ति इति स्थिते असिद्धत्वात्पूर्वमाद्गुणे कृते अचो रहाभ्यामिति द्वित्वं .. Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 99The view is put in alternation with the other view, viz. the पदसंस्कारपक्ष which has to be accepted in connection with the गौणमुख्यन्याय; cf पदस्यैव गौणार्थकत्वस्य ग्रहेण अस्य ( गौणमुख्यन्यायस्य) पदकार्यविषयत्वमेवोचितम् | अन्यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे तेषु तदनापत्तिः Par. Sek. on Pari. 15, The grammarians usually follow the वाक्यसंकारपक्ष.
vibhaktipratirūpakaa term applied to such words ending with kṛt affixes as appear similar to words ending with case-affixes; such words have no further case affixes put after them, and hence, they are called by the term 'avyaya'; exempli gratia, for example कर्तुम् confer, compare विभक्तिप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम् similar to उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाताः gaṇasūtra inside the Cādigaṇa P. I.4.57.
vṛtādia class of roots headed by the root वृत् which take optionally the Parasmaipada affixes when the vikaraṇa स्य of the future tense and the conditional mood, or the desiderative vikaraṇa सन् is added to them; exempli gratia, for example वर्त्स्यति,वर्तिष्यते; अवर्त्स्यत्, अवर्तिष्यत्,; विवृत्सति, विवर्तिषते confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.3.92; confer, comparealso P.VII.2.59.
vṛddha(1)a term used in Paninis grammar for such words or nouns ( प्रातिपदिक ) which have for their first vowel a vrddhi vowel, i. e. either अा or ऐ or अौ: exempli gratia, for example शाला, माला et cetera, and others; confer, compare वृद्धिर्यस्य अचामादिस्तद् वृद्धम् ; (2) a term applied to the eight pronouns headed by त्यत् for purposes of the addition of taddhita affix. affixes prescribed for the Vrddha words, such as छ by वृद्धाच्छ: P. IV.2.114: (3) a term applied to words having ए or ओ as the first vowel in them, provided such words denote districts of Eastern India, e. g. गोनर्द, भोजकट et cetera, and others confer, compare एङ् प्राचां देशे, P.I.1.73, 74 and 75; (4) a term used in the Pratisakhya works for a protracted vowel ( प्लत ) which has three matras; cf तिस्रॊ वृद्धम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.44.
veṭa term applied to roots which optionally admit the application of the augment इ (इट्) to the Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after them, e. g. roots having got the indicatory vowel ऊ added to them as also the roots स्वृ, सू, धू and the roots headed by रध् as also some specifically mentioned roots under certain conditions; cf P. VIl. 2.44-51.
vetanādia class of words headed by वेतन which have the taddhita affix इक (ठक्) added to them in the sense of "earning a livelihood' exempli gratia, for example वेतनिक: | धानुष्क:; दाण्डिक:; confer, compare वेतनेन जीवति वैतनिकः कर्मकर: Kas on P. IV. 4.12.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vyartha(l)useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; confer, compare व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: et cetera, and others: confer, compare व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its placcusative case. See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places.
vyutpattipakṣathe view that every word is derived from a suitable root as contrasted with the other view viz. the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष. The grammarians hold that Panini held the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष,id est, that is the view that not all words in a language can be derived but only some of them can be so done, and contrast him (id est, that isPanini) with an equally great grammarian Sakatayana who stated that every word has to be derived: confer, compare न्यग्रोधयतीति न्यग्रोध इति व्युत्पत्तिपक्षे नियमार्थम् ! अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष विध्यर्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VII.3.6.
śaktipotentiality of expressing the sense which is possessed by words permanently with them: denotative potentiality or denotation; this potentiality shows the senses,which are permanently possessed by the words, to the hearer and is described to be of one kind by ancient grammarian as contrasted with the two (अभिघा and लक्षणा) mentioned by the modern ones. It is described to be of two kinds-(a) स्मारिका शक्ति or recalling capacity which combines चैत्रत्व with पाक, and अनुभाविका शक्ति which is responsible for the actual meaning of a sentence. For details see Vakyapadiya III.
śīṇḍakādia class of words headeditionby the word शण्डिक which have the taddhita affix य ( त्र्य ) added to them in the sense of "domicile' or 'native place': exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्य:, सार्वसेन्यः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 92.
śaraṇadevaa prominent grammarian of the Eastern school of Panini's system of grammar who lived in the thirteenth century and wrote works on Panini's grammar. His work named दुर्घटवृत्ति which ex. plains according to Panini's rules, the Varttikas thereon, and the Jnapakas deduced from them,the various words difficult to be explained, is much appreciated by scholars of grammar. He has quoted from a large number of classical works, and referred to many works of the Eastern grammarians who followed the Kasika school.
śaratprabhṛtithe words of the type of शरद् such as विपाश्, अनस्, मनस् , उपानह् et cetera, and others which have the compound-ending अ (टच् ) added to them when they are at the end of the Avyayibhava compound;e.g प्रतिशरदम्, प्रतिविपाशम्.cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 4.107.
śarādia class of words headed by the word शर which have the taddhita affix. affix मय (मयट्) added to them in the sense of 'product' or 'portion': exempli gratia, for example शरमयम् , दर्भमयम् , मृण्मयम्; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.144;(2) a class of words headed by शर which get their final vowel lengthened before the taddhita affix.affix मत् when the whole word forms a proper noun: exempli gratia, for example शरावती, वंशावती, हनूमान् ; confer, compare P.VI.3.119.
śākalaa word frequently used in the Mahabhasya for a grammatical operation or injunction ( विधि ) which forms a specific feature of the grammar of शाकल्य, viz. that the vowels इ, उ,ऋ, and लृ remain without phonetical combination and a shortening of them, if they are long;confer, compareइकोsसवर्णे शाकल्यस्य ह्रस्वश्च P.VI. 1. 127; शाकल्यस्य इदं शाकल्यम् ।; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.VI.1.77 VI.1.125,VI. 1.27;VI.2.52, VII.3.3 and VIII. 2.108; (2) pupils of शाकल्य; confer, compare शाकल्यस्य छात्राः शाकलाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV.I.18;(3) a village in the Vahika district; confer, compare शाकलं नाम वाहीकग्राम: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.104 Vart. 3.
śākhādia class of words headed by the word शाखा which have the taddhita affix य added to them in the sense of इव id est, that is similarity; exempli gratia, for example शाख्य:, मुख्यः, जघन्यः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.3.103.
śivādia big class of about ninety words headed by the word शिव which have the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) in spite of other affixes such as इञ् , ण्यत् and others prescribed by other rules, which sometimes do not take place, or do so optionally; exempli gratia, for example शैवः: ताक्ष्ण:, ताक्षण्यः; गाङ्ग: गाङ्गेय:, गङ्गायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.112. This class is looked upon as आकृतिगण and a word is supposed to be . included in this class, when the ; affix अ is noticed in spite of some other affix being applicable by some other rule.
śravaṇahearing of a phonetic element or a word in the actual speech; audition; confer, compare तस्य चोदात्तस्वरितपरत्वे श्रवणं स्पष्टम् S. K. on P.I.2.32. In many technical grammatical terms, affixes and substitutes, there is sometimes a portion of them which is not a vital part of the word, but it is for the sake of causing certain prescribed grammatical operations. The letters or syllables which form such a portion are called इत् and they are only for the sake of grammatical operations (कार्यार्थ ), as contrasted with the other ones which are actually heard (श्रुत्यर्थ or श्रवणार्थ ).
saṃbandhiśibdarelative term; the term refers to words connected in such a way by their meaning that if one of them is uttered, the other has to be anticipated and understood; e. g. पितृ, भ्रातृ, मातृ, भार्या et cetera, and others confer, compare तद्यथा । संबन्धिशब्दाः । मातरि वर्तितव्यम् । पितरि शूश्रूषितव्यम् । न चोच्यते स्वस्यां मातरि स्वस्मिन्वा पितरि इति । confer, compare also M.Bh. on I 1.71 ; confer, compare also प्रधानमुपसर्जनं च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.43 Vart. 5; I. 2.48 Vart, 4,
saṃsargeliterally contact, connection; (1) contact of the air passing up through the gullet and striking the several places which produce the sound, which is of three kinds, hard, middling and soft; confer, compare संसर्गो वायुस्थानसंसर्गः अभिवातात्मकः स त्रिविधः । अयःपिण्डवद्दारुपिण्डवदूर्णापिण्डवदिति । तदुवतमापिशलशिक्षायाम् । स्पर्शयमवर्णकरो वायुः अय:पिण्डवत्स्थानमापीडयति | अन्तस्थावर्णकरो दांरुपिण्डवत् | ऊष्मस्थस्वरवर्णकर ऊर्णापिण्डवत् commentary on. T, Pr. XXIII. 1 ; ,(2) syntactical connection between words themselves which exists between pairs of words as between nouns and adjectives as also between verbs and the karakas, which is necessary for understanding the meaning of a sentence. Some Mimamsakas and Logicians hold that samsarga itself is the meaning of a sentence. The syntactical relation between two words is described to be of two kinds अभेद-संसर्ग of the type of आधाराधेयभाव and भेदसंसर्ग of the type of विषयविषयिभाव, समवाय, जन्यजनकभाव and the like.
satiśiṣṭaprescribed subsequently; occurring after the preceding has taken place; confer, compare सति शिष्टोपि विकरणस्वरः सार्वधातुकस्वरं न बाधते; although the words सति and शिष्टः are separate still it is habitual to take them combined in an adjectival sense and make the word सतिशिष्ट an adjective to the word स्वर as in the dictum सतिशिष्टस्वरबलीयस्त्वं च P. VI. 1. 158 Vart. 9.
samavasthitaappearing together, presenting themselves together; confer, compare द्वयोर्हि सावकाशयोः समवस्थितयोर्विप्रतिषेधो भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.3 Vart 6.
samāsaplacing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition confer, compare पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। Although the word समास in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समास: which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः। उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः। अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः । M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय and तत्पुरुष (with द्वितीयातत्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष et cetera, and othersas also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष and so on) समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समाहारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व and so on. समासचक्र a short anonymous treatise on compounds which is very popular and useful for beginners. The work is attributed to वररुचि and called also as समासपटल. The work is studied and committed to memory by beginners of Sanskrit ] studies in the PathaSalas of the old type.
samupasthitapresenting themselves simultaneously; the word is used in connection with two grammatical operations which present themselves simultaneously.
sarvanāmasthānaa term used in Panini's grammar, for the first five case affixes सु, औ, अस्, अम् and औ as also for the nominative case. and acc. plural afix इ ( शि ) of the neuter gender. The term appears to be an old one, which was used, by a specific mention, for the first five case-affixes which caused a special change in the base before them in the case of many words; confer, compare शि सर्वनामस्थानम् । सुडनपुंसकस्य P.I.1.42-48. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition p. 239 footnote.
subdhātua root formed from a noun or a subanta by the addition of any of the following affixesक्यच् ( by P. III. 1.8, 10 and l9), काम्यच् (by P.III.1.9), क्यङ् (by P. III.1.1 1, 12 and 14-18), क्यष् (by P.III.1.13),णिङ् (by P III.1.20), णिच् (by P.III.1.21 and 25) and यक् (by P.III.1.27)and also by क्विप् or zero affix by P. III. b.l l Varttika 3. All these formations ending with the affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are termed roots by the rule सनाद्यन्ता धातव: (P.III. 1. | 32) and are regularly conjugated in all the ten tenses and moods with the general conjugational sign शप् added to them in the conjugational tenses, and स्य, तास् and others in the other tenses and moods, and have verbal derivatives also formed by the addition of suitable krt affixes.
sūtrapāṭhathe text of Panini's Sutras handed down by oral tradition from the preceptor to the pupil. Although it is said that the actual text of Panini was modified from time to time, still it can be said with certainty that it was fixed at the time of the Bhasyakara who has noted a few different readings only. The Sutra text approved by the Bhasyakara was followed by the authors of the Kasika excepting in a few cases. It is customary with learned Pandits and grammarians to say that the recital of the Sutras of Panini was originally a continuous one in the form of a Samhitatext and it was later on, that it was split up into the different Sutras, which explains according to them the variation in the number of Sutras which is due to the different ways of splitting the Sutrapatha.
sthānivadbhāvabehaviour of the substitute like the original in respect of holding the qualities of the original and causing grammatical operations by virtue of those qualities. By means of स्थानिवद्भाव,the substitute for a root is,for instance, looked upon as a root; similarly, a noun-base or an affix or so, is looked upon like the original and it can cause such operations or be a recipient of such operations as are due to its being a root or a noun or an affix or the like. This स्यानिवद्भाव cannot be, and is not made also, a universally applicable feature; and there are limitations or restrictions put upon it, the chief of them being अल्विधौ or in the matter of such operations as are caused by the 'property of being a single letter' (अल्विधौ). There are two views regarding this 'behaviour like the original' : (l) supposed behaviour which is only instrumental in causing operations or undergoing them which is called शास्त्रातिदेदा and (2) actual restoration to the form of the original under certain conditions only as prescribed which is called रूपातिदेश. The रूपातिदेश is actually resorted to by some grammarians in the case of the reduplication of roots; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on द्विवेचनेचि P.I.1.59 and M.Bh. on P.I.1.59.See the word रूपातिदेश also. For details see Vol. VII p.p. 241243, Vyākarana Mahabhasya D.E. Society's Edition.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svarapratirūpakaa word or Pratipadika which is exactly similar to a single vowel such as उ or अा or . ए and the like; such words are to be looked upon as Avyayas and the case-affixes after them are dropped when they are usedition confer, compare स्वरप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम्.
svārthikaprescribed (after a base) in the sense of itself; id est, that is in the sense of the base. The word is used in connection with a large number of taddhita affix. affixes which are prescribed without any special sense attached to them; vide P. V.3.36 to P. V. 4.67. The Samasanta affixes prescribed from P.V.4.68 onwards can also be called स्वार्थिक;confer, compareस्वार्थिकाश्च प्रकृतितो लिङ्गवचनान्यनुवर्तन्ते | M.Bh. on P. V. 4. 14, 27. See the word स्वार्थ.
haritādia class of words headed by the word इरित to which the taddhita affix फक् ( अायन ) is added in the sense of a descendant after the affix अ ( अञ् ) has already been added to them by P. IV. 1. 104, the word so formed possessing the sense of the great grandchild (युवापत्य) of the individuals denoted by इरित and others; e. g. हारितायनः; confer, compare इह् तु गोत्राधिकारेपि सामर्थ्याद् यूनि प्रत्ययोभिघीयते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P, IV.1.100
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128 results
     
hema goldCC Adi 4.164
CC Madhya 14.165
CC Madhya 15.119
CC Madhya 6.279
SB 10.41.20-23
SB 10.50.50-53
hema goldSB 10.50.50-53
SB 10.64.13
SB 10.71.31-32
SB 11.14.25
SB 3.14.46
SB 3.15.20
hema goldenCC Antya 1.92
SB 10.34.10
SB 10.53.15
SB 10.54.34
SB 3.17.17
SB 8.8.10
hema golden coloredSB 11.14.36-42
hema of goldSB 10.81.29-32
hema very coldSB 8.2.25
hema with goldCC Antya 19.95
SB 10.51.50
hema-abja of white lotus flowersCC Antya 18.92
hema-abja of white lotus flowersCC Antya 18.92
hema-abja white lotus flowersCC Antya 18.94
hema-abja white lotus flowersCC Antya 18.94
hema-abje with the white lotus flowersCC Antya 18.94
hema-abje with the white lotus flowersCC Antya 18.94
hema-ādīni such as goldSB 6.16.6
hema-ādīni such as goldSB 6.16.6
hema-ańgada-lasat-bāhuḥ decorated with golden bangles on his armsSB 8.15.8-9
hema-ańgada-lasat-bāhuḥ decorated with golden bangles on his armsSB 8.15.8-9
hema-ańgada-lasat-bāhuḥ decorated with golden bangles on his armsSB 8.15.8-9
hema-ańgada-lasat-bāhuḥ decorated with golden bangles on his armsSB 8.15.8-9
hema-ańgaḥ having a body like molten goldCC Madhya 6.104
hema-ańgaḥ having a body like molten goldCC Madhya 6.104
hema-ańgaḥ whose body was like molten goldCC Adi 3.49
hema-ańgaḥ whose body was like molten goldCC Adi 3.49
CC Madhya 10.170
hema-ańgaḥ whose body was like molten goldCC Madhya 10.170
hema-bhāra volumes of goldCC Madhya 6.171
hema-bhāra volumes of goldCC Madhya 6.171
hema-bhūṣaṇam decorated with ornaments of goldSB 8.11.30
hema-bhūṣaṇam decorated with ornaments of goldSB 8.11.30
hema-jaḍi set in goldCC Adi 13.113
hema-jaḍi set in goldCC Adi 13.113
hema-jāla-akṣa from dainty little windows made of networks of goldSB 8.15.19
hema-jāla-akṣa from dainty little windows made of networks of goldSB 8.15.19
hema-jāla-akṣa from dainty little windows made of networks of goldSB 8.15.19
hema-kalaśaiḥ with golden waterpotsSB 9.11.27
hema-kalaśaiḥ with golden waterpotsSB 9.11.27
hema-kāraḥ the expert who knows about goldSB 7.7.21
hema-kāraḥ the expert who knows about goldSB 7.7.21
hema-kumbha golden waterpots on the domesSB 9.10.17
hema-kumbha golden waterpots on the domesSB 9.10.17
hema-kumbhaiḥ with gold pinnaclesSB 3.23.18
hema-kumbhaiḥ with gold pinnaclesSB 3.23.18
hema-latā a golden creeperSB 8.8.18
hema-latā a golden creeperSB 8.8.18
hema-mālī with a golden garlandSB 4.13.36
hema-mālī with a golden garlandSB 4.13.36
hema-mālinām decorated with garlands of goldSB 10.1.30
hema-mālinām decorated with garlands of goldSB 10.1.30
hema-maya goldenCC Madhya 13.19
hema-maya goldenCC Madhya 13.19
hema-mayam possessing the luster of goldSB 7.4.4
hema-mayam possessing the luster of goldSB 7.4.4
hema-nalīnam like a golden lotusBs 5.18
hema-nalīnam like a golden lotusBs 5.18
hema-siṃha upon a golden throneSB 12.13.13
hema-siṃha upon a golden throneSB 12.13.13
hema-tālābhaiḥ like golden palm treesSB 4.10.18-19
hema-tālābhaiḥ like golden palm treesSB 4.10.18-19
hema-toraṇaiḥ with gates of goldSB 3.23.19
hema-toraṇaiḥ with gates of goldSB 3.23.19
hemācala Himalayan mountainCC Madhya 13.173
hemacandraḥ was named HemacandraSB 9.2.34
hemaiḥ of goldSB 10.50.50-53
hemakūṭāt from Hemakūṭa MountainSB 5.17.9
hemāńgada HemāńgadaSB 9.24.49
hemante before the winter seasonSB 7.14.20-23
hemante during the winterSB 10.22.1
hemnaḥ of goldSB 8.12.33
hemni goldSB 3.15.21
hemni in goldSB 12.3.47
tapta-hema-ābhaḥ whose bodily luster became like molten goldSB 7.3.23
anuvidhema I performSB 3.9.4
anuvidhema we offer obeisances, following in the footsteps of the ācāryasCC Madhya 25.38
anuvidhema I performCC Antya 5.124-125
tapta-hema-avadātena with a luster like that of molten goldSB 8.6.3-7
bibhemi fearSB 3.9.18
bibhemi am afraidSB 7.9.15
bibhemi am afraid ofSB 8.20.5
bibhemi I do fearSB 8.22.3
na bibhemi do not fearSB 12.6.5
dagdha hema molten goldCC Adi 4.209
tāra-hema of pearls and goldSB 4.6.27
tapta-hema molten goldSB 4.24.24-25
niṣadhaḥ hema-kūṭaḥ himālayaḥ three mountains named Niṣadha, Hemakūṭa and HimālayaSB 5.16.9
tapta-hema-ābhaḥ whose bodily luster became like molten goldSB 7.3.23
tapta-hema-avadātena with a luster like that of molten goldSB 8.6.3-7
maṇi-hema-ketubhiḥ with flags made with pearls and goldSB 8.15.20
tapta-hema as molten goldCC Adi 3.41
dagdha hema molten goldCC Adi 4.209
jāmbū-nada-hema gold from the Jāmbū RiverCC Madhya 2.43
jāmbū-nada hema the golden particles found in the Jāmbū RiverCC Antya 20.62
niṣadhaḥ hema-kūṭaḥ himālayaḥ three mountains named Niṣadha, Hemakūṭa and HimālayaSB 5.16.9
jāmbū-nada-hema gold from the Jāmbū RiverCC Madhya 2.43
jāmbū-nada hema the golden particles found in the Jāmbū RiverCC Antya 20.62
maṇi-hema-ketubhiḥ with flags made with pearls and goldSB 8.15.20
niṣadhaḥ hema-kūṭaḥ himālayaḥ three mountains named Niṣadha, Hemakūṭa and HimālayaSB 5.16.9
maṇi-hema-ketubhiḥ with flags made with pearls and goldSB 8.15.20
na bibhemi do not fearSB 12.6.5
jāmbū-nada-hema gold from the Jāmbū RiverCC Madhya 2.43
jāmbū-nada hema the golden particles found in the Jāmbū RiverCC Antya 20.62
niṣadhaḥ hema-kūṭaḥ himālayaḥ three mountains named Niṣadha, Hemakūṭa and HimālayaSB 5.16.9
tapta-hema molten goldSB 4.24.24-25
tapta-hema-ābhaḥ whose bodily luster became like molten goldSB 7.3.23
tapta-hema-avadātena with a luster like that of molten goldSB 8.6.3-7
tapta-hema as molten goldCC Adi 3.41
tāra-hema of pearls and goldSB 4.6.27
udvahema carry carefullySB 10.68.37
udvahema we carryCC Adi 5.141
udvahema we carryCC Madhya 20.306
vidhema do we offerSB 3.13.42
vidhema let us offerSB 3.15.50
vidhema I doIso 18
     DCS with thanks   
Results for hem89 results
     
hema noun (masculine) a horse of a dark or brownish colour (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a particular weight of gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain name of a son of Ruśadratha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Buddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the father of Sutapas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26045/72933
hema noun (neuter) gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the Nāgakesara flower
Frequency rank 9744/72933
hemabīja noun (neuter) mercury
Frequency rank 72705/72933
hemacandra noun (masculine) name of a celebrated Jaina author (pupil of Devacandra Sūri and teacher of king) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king (son of Viśāla) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an alchemist
Frequency rank 22777/72933
hemacitra noun (neuter) name of a mythical town (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72694/72933
hemadaṇḍikā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 72698/72933
hemadhenudānavidhinirūpaṇa noun (neuter) name of Liṅgapurāṇa, 2.35
Frequency rank 72700/72933
hemadru noun (masculine) ashes
Frequency rank 72699/72933
hemadugdha noun (masculine) Ficus Glomerata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41472/72933
hemadugdhaka noun (masculine) Ficus Glomerata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41473/72933
hemadugdhā noun (feminine) Cleome felina (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18693/72933
hemagairika noun (feminine neuter) svarṇagairika
Frequency rank 31303/72933
hemagarbha noun (masculine) a kind of ceremony name of a mountain a kind of alchemical preparation
Frequency rank 16330/72933
hemagarbhikā noun (feminine) hemagarbha
Frequency rank 72692/72933
hemagiri noun (masculine) name of another mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of mount Meru (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41471/72933
hemaguha noun (masculine) name of a serpent-demon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72693/72933
hemaja noun (neuter) tin (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72695/72933
hemaka noun (neuter) a piece of gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (?) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a forest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72683/72933
hemakakṣa noun (masculine) name of a mountain
Frequency rank 72684/72933
hemakara noun (masculine) name of an author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72685/72933
hemakartṛ noun (masculine) a goldsmith (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of bird (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72686/72933
hemaketakī noun (feminine) Pandanus Odoratissimus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72691/72933
hemakiñjalka noun (neuter) the Nāgakesara flower (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72690/72933
hemakāntā noun (feminine) dāruharidrā
Frequency rank 72687/72933
hemakāra noun (masculine) a goldsmith (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72688/72933
hemakāraka noun (masculine) a goldsmith (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72689/72933
hemakūṭa noun (masculine neuter) name of a monkey (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of one of the ranges of mountains dividing the known continent into 9 Varshas (situated north of Himālaya and forming with it the boundaries of the Kiṃnara or Kimpuruṣa Varsha) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the Varṣa ruled by Kiṃpuruṣa
Frequency rank 8537/72933
hemakṣīrī noun (feminine) a kind of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Cleome felina Linn. f.
Frequency rank 20404/72933
hemalamba noun (masculine) name of the 31st (or 5th) year of Jupiter's cycle of 60 years (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72710/72933
hemalatā noun (feminine) a kind of plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a princess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72709/72933
hemalī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 72708/72933
hemamākṣika noun (masculine neuter) mākṣika a kind of pyrite (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9524/72933
heman noun (neuter) a gold piece (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
golden ornaments (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Mesua Roxburghii (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the thorn-apple (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hemavimala
Frequency rank 270/72933
hemanetra noun (masculine) name of a Yakṣa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41475/72933
hemanidhi noun (masculine) mercury
Frequency rank 41474/72933
hemanta noun (masculine feminine) the cold season (comprising the two months agrahāyaṇa and Pauṣa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
winter (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 3744/72933
hemapadma noun (neuter) Costus Speciosus
Frequency rank 72702/72933
hemaparvata noun (masculine) an (artificial) mountain made of gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a mountain in Kuśadvīpa name of mount Meru (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26046/72933
hemaparṇī noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 72703/72933
hemapaṅkaja noun (masculine) name of a warrior (?)
Frequency rank 72701/72933
hemaphalā noun (feminine) a kind of plantain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72704/72933
hemapuṣpa noun (masculine) Cassia Fistula (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Jonesia Asoka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Mesua Roxburghii (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Michelia Champaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31305/72933
hemapuṣpa noun (neuter) the flower of Michelia Champaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41477/72933
hemapuṣpaka noun (masculine) Michelia Champaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Symplocos Racemosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41478/72933
hemapuṣpikā noun (feminine) Linum Usitatissimum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
yellow jasmine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31306/72933
hemapuṣpī noun (feminine) a colocynth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Curculigo Orchioides (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Hoya Viridiflora (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Rubia Munjista (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17441/72933
hemapādī noun (feminine) a kind of Mimosa
Frequency rank 41476/72933
hemaroman noun (masculine) name of a man (?)
Frequency rank 72707/72933
hemarāji noun (feminine) ? a plant??
Frequency rank 13273/72933
hemasakha noun (masculine) name of a mountain
Frequency rank 72718/72933
hemasiṃha noun (masculine) a throne of gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72720/72933
hemasundara noun (masculine) name of an alchemical preparation
Frequency rank 41482/72933
hemasundarī noun (feminine) name of a magical guṭikā
Frequency rank 41481/72933
hemasāra noun (neuter) blue vitriol (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72719/72933
hemasūtra noun (neuter) a necklace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31310/72933
hemasūtraka noun (neuter) a necklace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72721/72933
hematāpya noun (neuter) hemamākṣika
Frequency rank 72696/72933
hematāra noun (neuter) blue vitriol (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31304/72933
hematāraka noun (neuter) tuttha
Frequency rank 72697/72933
hemavalka noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 72712/72933
hemavallarikā noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 72714/72933
hemavallarī noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 72713/72933
hemavallī noun (feminine) Hoya Viridiflora (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18694/72933
hemavant adjective adorned with gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31307/72933
hemavarman noun (masculine) another name of king Hiraṇyavarman
Frequency rank 41480/72933
hemavarṇa noun (masculine) name of a Buddha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Garuḍa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41479/72933
hemavarṇavatī noun (feminine) dāruharidrā
Frequency rank 72711/72933
hemavatī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 31308/72933
hemavimala noun (masculine neuter) a kind of vimala
Frequency rank 72715/72933
hemayūthikā noun (feminine) yellow jasmine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72706/72933
hemaśaila noun (masculine) name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72716/72933
hemaśodhanī noun (feminine) saurāṣṭrā
Frequency rank 72717/72933
hemaśṛṅga noun (masculine) name of a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31309/72933
hemebha noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 72933/72933
hemā noun (feminine) a handsome woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Hoya Viridiflora (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Apsaras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the earth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 17440/72933
hemābhra noun (neuter) img/alchemy.bmp
Frequency rank 13274/72933
hemābhraka noun (neuter) hemābhra
Frequency rank 72722/72933
hemādri noun (masculine) Meru or Sumeru (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author (son of Kāmadeva) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22778/72933
hemāhva noun (masculine) Michelia Champaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72724/72933
hemāhvā noun (feminine) Cleome felina Linn. f. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Hoya Viridiflora (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10832/72933
hemākhya noun (masculine neuter) a kind of guggulu
Frequency rank 41483/72933
hemāvatī noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 72723/72933
hemāṅga noun (masculine) a lion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Michelia Champaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Brahmā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Garuḍa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the mountain Meru (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41484/72933
khem indeclinable [rel.] a kind of mantra
Frequency rank 34520/72933
laghuhemadugdhā noun (feminine) Ficus Oppositifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64028/72933
śaśihemanidhi noun (masculine) mercury
Frequency rank 67349/72933
saheman adjective golden
Frequency rank 69714/72933
sitahema noun (neuter) sitasvarṇa
Frequency rank 30995/72933
stheman noun (masculine) continuance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
firmness (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stability (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the state of standing or stopping still (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25963/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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ajalambana

antimony; a chemical element with symmetalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite.bol Sb (Latin: stibium). A lustrous gray

anitya

non-eternal; ephemeral.

ardhāvabhedaka

dividing into half; hemicrania; headache affecting one side of the head.

arśa

1. hemorrhoids; piles; 2. nasal polyp.

aruṇa

erythematous leprosy.

bhallātakādimodaka

a solid preparation made from marking nut, myrobalan fruit, jaggery and sesame oil; indicated in hemorrhoids caused by choler (pitta).

bhang

Plant hemp, Cannabis indica.

ḍālana

pouring of smelted metal into liquids, a process in medicinal alchemy.

ḍamaruyantra,ḍamarukayantra

hour-glass apparatus used in medicinal alchemy; two small drums or earthen pots joined at mouths.

gostanimūṣa

a crucible used in medicinal alchemy.

guṇa

property; trait; character; physio-chemical and pharmacodynamic properties of a substance.

hemagarbhapoṭaliras

(hema.garbha.poṭali.ras) a herbo-mineral medicine to treat chronic diseases and used as rejuvenator.

laghukarṇi

Plant bowstring hemp, Clematis triloba, mūrva.

mācika

1. insect or fly; 2. Plant bastard jute, Deccan hemp, Hibiscus cannabis.

mahārasa

primary alchemical substances, mercury (pādarasa), vermillion (hingulīka), mica (abhraka), loadstone (kāntaloha), iron pyrites (vimala), pyrites (mākṣika), tourmaline (vaikrānta), conch (śankha).

mūrva

Plant bowstring hemp, a controversial plant. several plants like Marsdenia tenacissima, M. volubilis; elephant creeper or Argyreia nervosa; Clematis triloba, Maerua arenaria, Bauhinia vahlii; Chenomorpha fragrans are considered as mūrva.

nāgārjuna

alchemist, surgeon, logician and philosopher. Apparently there were more than one Nāgārjuna in the history of ayurveda and Buddhism. Andhra Nāgārjuna was born in Vedali village near Śrīparvatam and famed as ayurveda Nāgārjuna.

nidānapañcaka

aetiological pentad or five clinical barometers. Mādhavanidāna describes them as prodromal symptoms (pūrvarūpa), manifested symptoms (rūpa), pathogenesis (samprāpti), allaying by suitable remedies or predilection (upaśaya) and eight kinds of physical examination (aṣṭavidhaparīkṣa).

pakṣāghāta

paralysis, hemiplegia.

rasabandha

immobalizing mercury, a process in medicinal alchemy.

rasakaumudi

a treatise on medicinal alchemy by Jnana Chandra.

rasamāṇikya

1. ruby-like-chemical, 2. mercury based preparation used in skin diseases.

rasāmṛtam

a text on medicinal alchemy of 20th century authored by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya.

rasaśāla

pharmaceutical / alchemical laboratory.

rasaśāstra:

medical mineralogy and medicinal alchemy.

rasatantra

medicinal alchemy and pharmaceutics.

rasāyana

nourishment of the seven dhatus; promotive therapy; a medicine supposed to prevent the ageing process and prolong life, rejuvenating therapy, alchemy, ayurvedic venation therapy, alchemical elixir.

rasendrakalpadruma

a treatise on medicinal alchemy by Ramakrishna Bhatta.

sampuṭa

space between two bowls, hemisphere.

saṃrambha

enthusiasm; vehemence; intensity.

samskāra

rites with scientific significance on reaching developmental milestones; refining; forming well, alchemical operations.

śana

Plant sunnhemp, dried seeds of Crotolaria juneca, C. retusa.

sarvajnavacana

a text on alchemy witten by Sarvajana in the 18th Century ; available in bookform.

śonita

blood; śonitasthāpana arresting hemorrhage.

śulbasūtra

parts of ancient treatises of empirical mathematics.

uparasa

secondary mineral, secondary alchemical reagents.

varṣābhu

Plant hoase purslane, Trianthema portulacastrum, T. monogyna, T. obcordata.

vijayā

Plant Indin hemp, leaves of Cannabis sativa, C. indica.

visarga

second part of the year (seasons incl. varsha ṛtu (monsoon), ṣarad ṛtu (mid Septembermid November) and hemant ṛtu (winter).

     Wordnet Search "hem" has 62 results.
     

hem

anātha, nirnātha, chemaṇḍa, chamaṇḍa   

yasya nāthaḥ nāsti।

śyāmena svasya jīvanam anāthānāṃ pālanārthe vyatitam।

hem

pravālaḥ, prabālaḥ, vidrumaḥ, pravālam, ratnavṛkṣaḥ, mandaṭaḥ, mandāraḥ, raktakandaḥ, raktakandalaḥ, hemakandalaḥ, ratnakandalaḥ, latāmaṇiḥ, aṅgārakamaṇiḥ, māheyaḥ, pārijātaḥ, pāribhadraḥ, krimiśatruḥ, bhaumaratnam, bhomīrāḥ, supuṣpaḥ, raktapuṣpakaḥ   

ratnaviśeṣaḥ, māṅgalyārthe paridhīyamāṇaḥ raktavarṇavartulākāraghanagolaviśeṣaḥ;

gauraṃ raṅgajalākrāntaṃ vakrasukṣmaṃ sakoṭaraṃ rūkṣakṛṣṇaṃ laghuśvetaṃ pravālam aśubhaṃ tyajet

hem

jalam, vāri, ambu, ambhaḥ, payaḥ, salilam, sarilam, udakam, udam, jaḍam, payas, toyam, pānīyam, āpaḥ, nīram, vāḥ, pāthas, kīlālam, annam, apaḥ, puṣkaram, arṇaḥ, peyam, salam, saṃvaram, śaṃvaram, saṃmbam, saṃvatsaram, saṃvavaraḥ, kṣīram, pāyam, kṣaram, kamalam, komalam, pīvā, amṛtam, jīvanam, jīvanīyam, bhuvanam, vanam, kabandham, kapandham, nāram, abhrapuṣpam, ghṛtam, kaṃ, pīppalam, kuśam, viṣam, kāṇḍam, savaram, saram, kṛpīṭam, candrorasam, sadanam, karvuram, vyoma, sambaḥ, saraḥ, irā, vājam, tāmarasa, kambalam, syandanam, sambalam, jalapītham, ṛtam, ūrjam, komalam, somam, andham, sarvatomukham, meghapuṣpam, ghanarasaḥ, vahnimārakaḥ, dahanārātiḥ, nīcagam, kulīnasam, kṛtsnam, kṛpīṭam, pāvanam, śaralakam, tṛṣāham, kṣodaḥ, kṣadmaḥ, nabhaḥ, madhuḥ, purīṣam, akṣaram, akṣitam, amba, aravindāni, sarṇīkam, sarpiḥ, ahiḥ, sahaḥ, sukṣema, sukham, surā, āyudhāni, āvayāḥ, induḥ, īm, ṛtasyayoniḥ, ojaḥ, kaśaḥ, komalam, komalam, kṣatram, kṣapaḥ, gabhīram, gambhanam, gahanam, janma, jalāṣam, jāmi, tugryā, tūyam, tṛptiḥ, tejaḥ, sadma, srotaḥ, svaḥ, svadhā, svargāḥ, svṛtikam, haviḥ, hema, dharuṇam, dhvasmanvatu, nāma, pavitram, pāthaḥ, akṣaram, pūrṇam, satīnam, sat, satyam, śavaḥ, śukram, śubham, śambaram, vūsam, vṛvūkam, vyomaḥ, bhaviṣyat, vapuḥ, varvuram, varhiḥ, bhūtam, bheṣajam, mahaḥ, mahat, mahaḥ, mahat, yaśaḥ, yahaḥ, yāduḥ, yoniḥ, rayiḥ, rasaḥ, rahasaḥ, retam   

sindhuhimavarṣādiṣu prāptaḥ dravarupo padārthaḥ yaḥ pāna-khāna-secanādyartham upayujyate।

jalaṃ jīvanasya ādhāram। /ajīrṇe jalam auṣadhaṃ jīrṇe balapradam। āhārakāle āyurjanakaṃ bhuktānnopari rātrau na peyam।

hem

viṣṇuḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, svabhūḥ, daityāriḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, govindaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, acyutaḥ, śārṅgī, viṣvaksenaḥ, janārdanaḥ, upendraḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, madhuripuḥ, vāsudevaḥ, trivikramaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, śauriḥ, śrīpatiḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, vanamālī, balidhvaṃsī, kaṃsārātiḥ, adhokṣajaḥ, viśvambharaḥ, kaiṭabhajit, vidhuḥ, śrīvatsalāñachanaḥ, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, vṛṣṇiḥ, śatadhāmā, gadāgrajaḥ, ekaśṛṅgaḥ, jagannāthaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, sanātanaḥ, mukundaḥ, rāhubhedī, vāmanaḥ, śivakīrtanaḥ, śrīnivāsaḥ, ajaḥ, vāsuḥ, śrīhariḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, nṛhariḥ, vibhuḥ, madhujit, madhusūdanaḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, śrīgarbhaḥ, śrīkaraḥ, śrīmān, śrīdharaḥ, śrīniketanaḥ, śrīkāntaḥ, śrīśaḥ, prabhuḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, ajitaḥ, jitāmitraḥ, ṛtadhāmā, śaśabinduḥ, punarvasuḥ, ādidevaḥ, śrīvarāhaḥ, sahasravadanaḥ, tripāt, ūrdhvadevaḥ, gṛdhnuḥ, hariḥ, yādavaḥ, cāṇūrasūdanaḥ, sadāyogī, dhruvaḥ, hemaśaṅkhaḥ, śatāvarttī, kālanemiripuḥ, somasindhuḥ, viriñciḥ, dharaṇīdharaḥ, bahumūrddhā, vardhamānaḥ, śatānandaḥ, vṛṣāntakaḥ, rantidevaḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, dāśārhaḥ, abdhiśayanaḥ, indrānujaḥ, jalaśayaḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, tārkṣadhvajaḥ, ṣaḍbinduḥ, padmeśaḥ, mārjaḥ, jinaḥ, kumodakaḥ, jahnuḥ, vasuḥ, śatāvartaḥ, muñjakeśī, babhruḥ, vedhāḥ, prasniśṛṅgaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, suvarṇabinduḥ, śrīvatsaḥ, gadābhṛt, śārṅgabhṛt, cakrabhṛt, śrīvatsabhṛt, śaṅkhabhṛt, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, lakṣmīpatiḥ, murāriḥ, amṛtaḥ, ariṣṭanemaḥ, kapiḥ, keśaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, janārdanaḥ, jinaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, vikramaḥ, śarvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ hindudharmānusāraṃ jagataḥ pālanakartā।

ekādaśastathā tvaṣṭā dvādaśo viṣṇurucyate jaghanyajastu sarveṣāmādityānāṃ guṇādhikaḥ।

hem

pārvatī, ambā, umā, girijā, gaurī, bhagavatī, bhavānī, maṅgalā, mahāgaurī, mahādevī, rudrāṇī, śivā, śailajā, himālayajā, ambikā, acalakanyā, acalajā, śailasutā, himajā, śaileyī, aparṇā, śailakumārī, śailakanyā, jagadjananī, tribhuvanasundarī, sunandā, bhavabhāminī, bhavavāmā, jagadīśvarī, bhavyā, pañcamukhī, parvatajā, vṛṣākapāyī, śambhukāntā, nandā, jayā, nandinī, śaṅkarā, śatākṣī, nityā, mṛḍa़ाnī, hemasutā, adritanayā, haimavatī, āryā, ilā, vāruṇī   

śivasya patnī।

pārvatī gaṇeśasya mātā asti।

hem

suvarṇam, svarṇam, kanakam, hiraṇyam, hema, hāṭakam, kāñcanam, tapanīyam, śātakumbham, gāṅgeyam, bharmam, karvaram, cāmīkaram, jātarūpam, mahārajatam, rukmam, kārtasvaram, jāmbunadam, aṣṭāpadam, śātakaumbham, karcuram, rugmam, bhadram, bhūri, piñjaram, draviṇam, gairikam, cāmpeyam, bharuḥ, candraḥ, kaladhautam, abhrakam, agnibījam, lohavaram, uddhasārukam, sparśamaṇiprabhavam, mukhyadhātu, ujjvalam, kalyāṇam, manoharam, agnivīryam, agni, bhāskaram, piñajānam, apiñjaram, tejaḥ, dīptam, agnibham, dīptakam, maṅgalyam, saumañjakam, bhṛṅgāram, jāmbavam, āgneyam, niṣkam, agniśikham   

dhātuviśeṣaḥ-pītavarṇīyaḥ dhātuḥ yaḥ alaṅkāranirmāṇe upayujyate।

suvarṇasya mūlyaṃ vardhitam।

hem

aśokaḥ, śokanāśaḥ, viśokaḥ, vañjuladrumaḥ, vañjalaḥ, madhupuṣpaḥ, apaśokaḥ, kaṅkelliḥ, kelikaḥ, raktapallavaḥ, citraḥ, vicitraḥ, karṇapūraḥ, subhagaḥ, dohalī, tāmrapallavaḥ, rogitaruḥ, hemapuṣpaḥ, rāmā, vāmāṅgighātanaḥ, piṇḍīpuṣpaḥ, naṭaḥ, pallavadruḥ   

svanāmakhyātavṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ sadā haritaḥ asti।

aśokaḥ bhārate sarvatra dṛśyate।

hem

campakaḥ, cāmpeyaḥ, hemapuṣpakaḥ, svarṇapuṣpaḥ, śītalachadaḥ, subhagaḥ, bhṛṅgamohī, śītalaḥ, bhramarātithiḥ, surabhiḥ, dīpapuṣpaḥ, sthiragandhaḥ, atigandhakaḥ, sthirapuṣpaḥ, hemapuṣpaḥ, pītapuṣpaḥ, hemāhvaḥ, sukumāraḥ, vanadīpaḥ, kaṣāyaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ saḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya puṣpāṇi pītavarṇīyāni sugandhitāni ca santi।

tasya prāṅgaṇe campakaḥ kundam ityādīni santi।

hem

hemagandhinī, reṇukā   

sugandhitavastuprakāraḥ।

hemagandhinī dhārmikeṣu anuṣṭhāneṣu upayujyate।

hem

nikaṣaḥ, śāṇaḥ, śānaḥ, kasaḥ, ākaṣaḥ, kaṣaḥ, nikasaḥ, hemalaḥ   

prastarabhedaḥ yena svarṇādīnāṃ guṇāḥ jñāyate;

svarṇakāraḥ nikaṣena suvarṇaparīkṣā karoti

hem

maṅgalagrahaḥ, maṅgalaḥ, ajapatiḥ, koṇaḥ, ailaḥ, bhaumaḥ, ajapatiḥ, aṅgārakaḥ, lohitāṅgaḥ, raktāṅgaḥ, mahīsutaḥ, āvaneyaḥ, bhūmijaḥ, hemnaḥ, kujaḥ, pṛthvījaḥ, viśvambharāputraḥ   

sūryāt caturthaḥ grahaḥ।

śāstrajñāḥ maṅgalagrahaṃ jñātumicchanti।

hem

udumbaraḥ, kṣīravṛkṣaḥ, hemadugdhaḥ, sadāphalaḥ, kālaskandhaḥ, yajñayogyaḥ, yajñīyaḥ, supratiṣṭhitaḥ, śītavalkaḥ, jantuphalaḥ, puṣpaśūnyaḥ, pavitrakaḥ, saumyaḥ, śītaphalaḥ   

nyagrodhajātīyaḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya phale jantavaḥ santi।

saḥ udumbarasya chāyāyām upaviṣṭaḥ।

hem

udumbaraḥ, hemadugdhaḥ, sadāphalaḥ, kālaskandhaḥ, jantuphalaḥ, pavitrakaḥ, śītaphalaḥ   

kṣīravṛkṣasya phalam yasmin jantavaḥ santi।

saḥ udumbarān chinatti।

hem

sumeruḥ, meruḥ, hemādriḥ, ratnasānuḥ, surālayaḥ, amarādriḥ, bhūsvargaḥ   

dharmagrantheṣu varṇitaḥ saḥ parvataḥ yaḥ parvatānāṃ rājā asti iti manyate।

sumeruḥ suvarṇasya asti iti manyate।

hem

haridrā, harit, suvarṇā, kāñcanī, pītā, gaurī, svarṇavarṇā, kāverī, umā, śivā, dīrgharāgā, haladdī, pauñjā, pītavālukā, hemanāśā, rañjanī, bhaṅgavāsā, gharṣiṇī, pītikā, rajanī, mehaghnī, bahulā, varṇinī, rātrināmikā, niśāhvā, niśā, śarvarī, varavarṇinī, varṇadātā, maṅgalapradā, hemarāgiṇī, gharṣaṇī, janeṣṭā, kṛmaghnī, lasā, yāminī, varāṅgī, varā, varṇadātrī, pavitrā, haritā, viṣaghnī, piṅgā, maṅgalyā, maṅgalā, lakṣmīḥ, bhadrā, śiphā, śobhā, śobhanā, subhagāhvayā, śyāmā, jayantikā   

oṣadhiviśeṣaḥ asya pītavarṇīyāni mūlāni pākādiṣu vyañjanatvena upayujyante raktaśuddhikaratvāt te bheṣaje tathā ca dehavarṇavidhāyitvāt ca prasādhakeṣu api upayujyante।

samaye akṛtena siṃcanena haridrā śuṣkā jātā। / haridrā kapha-pittāstraśotha-kaṇḍuvraṇāpahā।

hem

indravallī, viśālā, aindrī, citrā, gavākṣī, gajacirbhaṭā, mṛgervāruḥ, piṭaṅkīkī, mṛgādanī, indrā, aruṇā, gavādanī, kṣudrasahā, indracirbhiṭī, sūryā, viṣaghnī, gaṇakarṇikā, amarā, mamātā, sukarṇī, suphalā, tārakā, vṛṣabhākṣī, pītapuṣpā, indravallarī, hemapuṣpī, kṣudraphalā, vāruṇī, bālakapriyā, raktairvāruḥ, viṣalatā, śakravallī, viṣāpahā, amṛtā, viṣavallī, citraphalā, gavākṣaḥ   

ekā vanyā latā yasyāḥ phalāni raktavarṇīyāni santi।

indravalyaḥ phalaṃ tiktam asti।

hem

nohembaramāsaḥ   

āṅglasaṃvatsarasya ekādaśaḥ māsaḥ।

tasya janmadināṅkaḥ nohembaramāsasya caturthaḥ dināṅkaḥ asti।

hem

śītakālaḥ, śītakaḥ, hemantaḥ, sahāḥ, haimanaḥ   

śītasya kālaḥ।

yadā śītakāle varṣā jāyate tadā śītatvaṃ vardhate।

hem

haridrā, harit, suvarṇā, kāñcanī, pītā, gaurī, svarṇavarṇā, kāverī, umā, śivā, dīrgharāgā, haladdī, pauñjā, pītavālukā, hemanāśā, rañjanī, bhaṅgavāsā, gharṣiṇī, pītikā, rajanī, mehaghnī, bahulā, varṇinī, rātrināmikā, niśāhvā, niśā, śarvarī, varavarṇinī, varṇadātā, maṅgalapradā, hemarāgiṇī, gharṣaṇī, janeṣṭā, kṛmaghnī, lasā, yāminī, varāṅgī, varā, varṇadātrī, pavitrā, haritā, viṣaghnī, piṅgā, maṅgalyā, maṅgalā, lakṣmīḥ, bhadrā, śiphā, śobhā, śobhanā, subhagāhvayā, śyāmā, jayantikā   

oṣadhimūlaviśeṣaḥ। haridrā nāma oṣadheḥ pītavarṇīyāni mūlāni ye janaiḥ pākādiṣu vyañjanatvena upayujyante। raktaśuddhikaratvāt te bheṣaje tathā ca dehavarṇavidhāyitvāt ca prasādhakeṣu upayujyante।

haridrāyāḥ lepena tvakśuddhiḥ bhavati।

hem

śikhigrīvam, śikhikaṇṭham, kṛṣṇaḥ, vitunnakaḥ, tūtakam, hemasāram, nīlam, kāṃsyanīlī, amṛtāsaṅgam, hematāram, tutthakam   

tāmrasya lavaṇam।

śikhigrīvam rañjane tathāca mudraṇe upayujyate।

hem

svarṇima, suvarṇīya, suvarṇa, haima, hiraṇmaya, svarṇila, hemamaya   

svarṇasya varṇasadṛśaḥ।

śītakāle svarṇimāni kiraṇāni ālhādayanti।

hem

hemantaḥ, hemantam, haimanaḥ, uṣmāsahaḥ, śaradantaḥ, himāgamaḥ   

śītakālaḥ yat agrahāyaṇapauṣamāsātmakaḥ।

hemante kasmiṃścit sthāne himapātaḥ bhavati।

hem

indravāruṇī, viśālā, aindrī, citrā, gavākṣī, gajacirbhacā, mṛgervāru, piṭaṅgikī, mṛgādanī, indrā, aruṇā, gavādanī, kṣudrasahā, indracarbhiṭī, sūryā, viṣaghnī, gaṇakarṇikā, amarā, mātā, sukarṇī, suphalā, tārakā, vṛṣabhākṣī, potapuṣpā, indravallarī, hemapuṣpī, kṣudraphalā, vāruṇī, bālakapriyā, raktairvāruḥ, viṣalatā, śakravallī, viṣāpahā, amṛtā, viṣavallī, citraphalā   

latāviśeṣaḥ yaḥ bheṣajayuktaḥ dīrghajīvī asti tathā ca yasya parṇāni tāmbulasya parṇasadṛśāni santi।

indravāruṇeḥ puṣpāṇi pītavarṇīyāni santi tathā ca samūharūpeṇa santi।

hem

arkapriyā, arkavallabhā, varā, raktajapā, raktapiṇḍakaḥ, raktapuṣpī, hemapuṣpikā, prātikā, tāmravarṇā, vikrāntā   

madhyamākārakaḥ vṛkṣaḥyasya puṣpāṇi raktāni santi।

mālī upavane arkapriyā ropayati।

hem

hemālaḥ   

rāgaviśeṣaḥ।

paṇḍitaḥ hemālaṃ gāyati।

hem

svarṇābhā, nāgapuṣpā, suvarṇayuthikā, hemapuṣpikā   

pītavarṇīyā yuthikā।

svarṇābhāyāḥ gandhaḥ udyāne sarvadūraṃ gataḥ।

hem

ketakaḥ, ketakī, indukalikā, tīkṣṇapuṣpā, dīrghapatraḥ, pāṃsukā, amarapuṣpaḥ, amarapuṣpakaḥ, kaṇṭadalā, kanakaketakī, kanakapuṣpī, droṇīdalaḥ, karatṛṇam, krakacacchadaḥ, gandhapuṣpaḥ, dalapuṣpā, dalapuṣpī, cakṣuṣyaḥ, cāmarapuṣpaḥ, chinnaruhā, jambālaḥ, jambulaḥ, dhūlipuṣpikā, nṛpapriyā, pharendraḥ, valīnakaḥ, viphalaḥ, vyañjanaḥ, śivadviṣṭā, sugandhinī, sūcipuṣpaḥ, sūcikā, strībhūṣaṇam, sthiragandhaḥ, svarṇaketakī, hanīlaḥ, halīmaḥ, hemaketakī, haimaḥ   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ- yasya savāsikasya puṣpasya patrāṇi krakacasya iva tīkṣṇāni santi।

adhunā udyānasthasya ketakasya puṣpaṃ vikasati।

hem

āḍā-khemaṭā-tālaḥ   

mṛdaṅgasya ekaḥ tālaḥ।

āḍā-khemaṭā-tālaḥ trayodaśamātrāyuktaḥ asti।

hem

lodhraḥ, gālavaḥ, śābaraḥ, tirīṭaḥ, tilvaḥ, mārjanaḥ, lodhavṛkṣaḥ, bhillataruḥ, tilvakaḥ, kāṇḍakīlakaḥ, lodhrakavṛkṣaḥ, śambaraḥ, hastirodhrakaḥ, tilakaḥ, kāṇḍanīlakaḥ, hemapuṣpakaḥ, bhillī, śāvarakaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

lodhrasya carma evaṃ kāṣṭhaṃ ca auṣadhāya upayujyate।

hem

hemā   

ekā apsarāḥ।

mandodarī hemāyāḥ garbhāt jātā।

hem

hemadhanvā   

ekadaśatamasya manoḥ ekaḥ putraḥ।

hemadhanvanaḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

hem

hemadantā   

ekā apsarāḥ।

hemadantāyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu vartate।

hem

hemamālī   

ekaḥ rākṣasaḥ।

hemamālī kharasya senāpatiḥ āsīt।

hem

hemacandraḥ   

purāṇeṣu varṇitaḥ ekaḥ rājā।

hemacandraḥ ikṣkvākoḥ vaṃśajaḥ āsīt।

hem

dhemājīnagaram   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

dhemājīnagare jalaplāvanasya prakopaḥ sarvādhikaḥ asti।

hem

dhemājīmaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhemājīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dhemājīnagare asti।

hem

mahemaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya paṇḍicerīrājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

mahemaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mahenagare asti।

hem

siṃhaḥ, kesarī, keśarī, hapiḥ, mṛgendraḥ, mṛgarājaḥ, mṛgarāṭ, mṛgapatiḥ, paśurājaḥ, paśupatiḥ, śārdūlaḥ, vanarājaḥ, mṛgaripuḥ, mṛgāriḥ, gajāriḥ, kuñjarārātiḥ, dviradāntakaḥ, hastikakṣyaḥ, bhīmanādaḥ, bhīmavikrāntaḥ, bhāriḥ, haryyakṣaḥ, pañcāsyaḥ, pañcānanaḥ, pañcamukhaḥ, pañcavaktraḥ, pañcaśikhaḥ, vyālaḥ, saṭāṅkaḥ, jaṭilaḥ, araṇyarāj, araṇyarāṭ, ibhamācalaḥ, ibhāriḥ, karidārakaḥ, karimācalaḥ, kalaṅkaṣaḥ, palaṅkaṣaḥ, keśī, kravyādaḥ, gajāriḥ, nakhāyudhaḥ, nakharāyudhaḥ, nadanuḥ, pārindraḥ, pārīndraḥ, bahubalaḥ, bhāriḥ, bhīmavikrāntaḥ, mahānādaḥ, mahāvīraḥ, mṛgadviṣ, mṛgadviṭ, mṛgaprabhuḥ, raktajihvaḥ, vanahariḥ, visaṅkaṭaḥ, vikramī, vikrāntaḥ, śṛṅgoṣṇīṣaḥ, śailāṭaḥ, śaileyaḥ, sakṛtprajaḥ, harit, haritaḥ, hemāṅgaḥ   

siṃhajātīyaḥ naraḥ vanyapaśuḥ।

siṃhasya grīvā saṭayā āvṛtā asti।

hem

anadhyavasāyin, aprayatnaśīla, alpaceṣṭita, anudyamin, anudyogin, alasa, gehemehin, jihma, nirūdyama, niryatna, niṣkriyātman   

yaḥ prayatitum anutsukaḥ asti।

anadhyavasāyī manuṣyaḥ kadāpi yaśaḥ na prāpnoti।

hem

hemāṅgadaḥ   

yaḥ suvarṇasya keyūram dhārayati।

rātrau caurāḥ hemāṅgadāt tasya keyūram acorayan।

hem

hemāṅgadaḥ   

vasudevasya putraḥ।

hemāṅgadasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।

hem

hemnārāgaḥ   

saṅgīte ekaḥ rāgaḥ।

saṅgītakāraḥ hemnārāgaṃ gāyati।

hem

prāyaścittahemādriḥ   

ekā kṛtiḥ ।

saṃskṛta-vāṅmaye prāyaścittahemādriḥ iti khyātā racanā

hem

siddhahemakumāraḥ   

ekaḥ rājā ।

siddhahemakumārasya ullekhaḥ hemacandreṇa kṛtaḥ

hem

hemakuṇḍyaḥ   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

hemakuṇḍyasya ullekhaḥ varāhamihirasya bṛhatsaṃhitāyām asti

hem

hemacitraḥ   

ekaḥ paurāṇikaḥ grāmaḥ ।

hemacitrasya ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe asti

hem

hematārakaḥ   

ekaḥ janasamudāyaḥ ।

hematārakāṇām ullekhaḥ mārakaṇḍeyapurāṇe asti

hem

hematālaḥ   

ekaṃ parvatīyaṃ maṇḍalam ।

hematālasya ullekhaḥ varāhamihirasya bṛhatsaṃhitāyām asti

hem

hematilakasūriḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

hematilakasūryaḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

hem

hemadharmaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

hemadharmasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

hem

hemadharmā   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

hemadharmaṇaḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

hem

hemapuñjakaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

hemapuñjakasya ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti

hem

hemalatā   

ekā rājakanyā ।

hemalatāyāḥ ullekhaḥ kathāsaritsāgare asti

hem

hemavijayaḥ   

ekaḥ kaviḥ ।

hemavijayasya ullekhaḥ praśastyām asti

hem

hemasāvarṇiḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

hemasāvarṇeḥ ullekhaḥ rāmāyaṇe asti

hem

hemasūriḥ   

ekaḥ vidvān ।

hemasūryaḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

hem

hemakam   

ekaṃ vanam ।

hemakasya ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

hem

hemakaḥ   

ekaḥ daityaḥ ।

hemakasya ullekhaḥ viṣṇupurāṇe asti

hem

hemakuḍyaḥ   

ekaṃ sthānam ।

hemakuḍyasya ullekhaḥ varāhamihirayoḥ bṛhatsaṃhitāyām asti

hem

padmahemamaṇiḥ   

ekaḥ śikṣakaḥ ।

padmahemamaṇeḥ ullekhaḥ vivaraṇapustikāyām asti

hem

parvamitrasya ullekhaḥ hemacandrasya pariśiṣṭaparvan ityasmin granthe asti   

parvamitra ।

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ

hem

timilāyāḥ ullekhaḥ hemādreḥ caturvarga-cintāmaṇau asti   

timilā ।

ekaṃ vādyam









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