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     Grammar Search "hate" has 8 results.
hate: feminine vocative singular stem: hati
hate: third person singular present present class 2 ātmanepadahan
hate: feminine accusative dual past passive participle stem: hata.
hate: feminine nominative dual past passive participle stem: hata.
hate: neuter accusative dual past passive participle stem: hata.
hate: neuter nominative dual past passive participle stem: hata.
hate: neuter locative singular past passive participle stem: hata.
hate: masculine locative singular past passive participle stem: hata.
"hate" has 1 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√द्विष्dviṣhating / aprīti59/2Cl.2
Results for hate
hatekṣaṇamfn. one whose sight is destroyed, blind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāṣpahatekṣaṇamfn. blinded by tears, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
iddhatejasm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāsiṃhatejasm. Name of a buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phatepuran. Name of a city View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samṛddhatejasmfn. endowed with splendour or strength View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
56 results
akṣi अक्षि n. [अश्नुते विषयान्; अश्-क्सि, अशेर्णित् Uṇ.3.155-6] अक्षिणी, अक्षीणि, अक्ष्णा, अक्ष्णः &c. 1 The eye (which grasps or sees objects); changed to अक्ष at the end of Bahuvrīhi comp; f. ˚क्षी when a limb of the body is indicated, as जलजाक्षी, otherwise दीर्घाक्षा वेणुयष्टिः; in Avyayī. comp. also it is changed to अक्ष, (समक्षम्, परोक्षम् &c.). -2 The number two; (-क्षिणी) the sun and moon. [cf. L. oculus; Ger. auge; Gr. okos, okkos, Zend ashi.] -Comp. -आमयः an eye-disease; यथा अक्ष्यामये मुद्गौदनं निवातशय्या चेति नित्यं शय्यासनं भोजनं च विकरोति । ŚB. on MS.1.3.32 and 1.6-81. -कम्पः twinkling; नाक्षिकम्पं व्यतिष्ठत R. 15.67. -कूटः-टकः, -गोलः, -तारा [ष. त.] the eyeball, pupil of the eye. -गत a. [अक्ष्णि गतः सर्वदा भावनावशात् अक्ष्यसन्नि- कृष्टो$पि उपस्थित इव़] 1 visible, present; न विभावयत्य- निशमक्षिगतामपि मां भवानतिसमीपतया Śi 9.81.2 rankling in the eye, an eye-sore, being a thorn in the eye, hated; ˚तोहमस्य हास्यो जातः Dk.159. -जाहः [ष. त.] the root of the eye. -पक्ष्मन्, -लोमन् n. [ष. त.] the eye-lash. -पटलम् [ष. त.]. 1 a coat of the eye. -2 a disease of the eye pertaining to this coat. -पद् a. Ved. falling into the eye, hence hurtful. न हि मे अक्षिपच्चना$च्छान्त्सुः पञ्च कृष्टयः Rv.1.119.6. adv. a little, as much as a mote (as much as could fall into the eye). -भू a. [अक्ष्णो भूर्विषयः] visible, perceptible, manifest; (hence) true, real. -भेषजम् [ष. त.] collyrium, a kind of balm (for the eyes). -जः (जम् also) N. of a plant (पट्टिकालोध्रवृक्ष) used to heal some varieties of the eye-disease. -भ्रुवम् [समाहारद्वन्द्व] the eye and the eyebrows taken collectively. -विकूणितम्, -विकूशितम् [अक्षणः विकूणि- तम् लज्जादिना सम्यक् प्रसाराभावात् संकोचो यत्र] a side-look, leer, a look with the eyelids partially closed. -श्रवस् serpent बभुरक्षिश्रवसो मुखे विशालाः Śi.2.44. -संविद् perception. -सूत्रम् the line of the eyes (with reference to idols. अक्षिसूत्रावसानं च तस्याधस्तात्पदान्तकम् Māna.9.2.92. -स्पन्दनम् eye twitching; Mu.4.
agniḥ अग्निः [अङ्गति ऊर्ध्वं गच्छति अङ्ग्-नि,नलोपश्च Uṇ.4.5., or fr. अञ्च् 'to go.'] 1 Fire कोप˚, चिन्ता˚, शोक˚, ज्ञान˚, राज˚, &c. -2 The God of fire. -3 Sacrificial fire of three kinds (गार्हपत्य, आहवनीय and दक्षिण); पिता बै गार्हपत्यो$ ग्निर्माताग्निर्दक्षिणः स्मृतः । गुरुराहवनीयस्तु साग्नित्रेता गरीयसी ॥ Ms. 2.232. -4 The fire of the stomach, digestive faculty, gastric fluid. -5 Bile (नाभेरूर्ध्व हृदयादधस्तादामाशयमाचक्षते तद्गतं सौरं तेजः पित्तम् इत्याचक्षते). -6 Cauterization (अग्नि- कर्मन्). -7 Gold. -8 The number three. शराग्निपरिमाणम् (पञ्चत्रिंशत्) Mb.13.17.26. -9 N. of various plants: (a) चित्रक Plumbago Zeylanica; (b) रक्तचित्रक; (c) भल्लातक Semicarpus Anacardium; (d) निम्बक Citrus Acida. -1 A mystical substitute for the letter र्. In Dvandva comp. as first member with names of deities, and with particular words अग्नि is changed to अग्ना, as ˚विष्णू, ˚मरुतौ, or to अग्नी, ˚पर्जन्यौ, ˚ वरुणौ, ˚षोमौ -11 पिङगला नाडी; यत्र तद् ब्रह्म निर्द्वन्द्वं यत्र सोमः, (इडा) सहाग्निना (अग्निः पिङ्गला) Mb.14.2.1. -12 Sacrificial altar, अग्निकुण्ड cf. Rām. 1.14.28. -13 Sky. अग्निर्मूर्धा Muṇḍ 2.1.4. [cf. L. ignis.] [Agni is the God of Fire, the Ignis of the Latins and Ogni of the Slavonians. He is one of the most prominent deities of the Ṛigveda. He, as an immortal, has taken up his abode among mortals as their guest; he is the domestic priest, the successful accomplisher and protector of all ceremonies; he is also the religious leader and preceptor of the gods, a swift messenger employed to announce to the immortals the hymns and to convey to them the oblations of their worshippers, and to bring them down from the sky to the place of sacrifice. He is sometimes regarded as the mouth and the tongue through which both gods and men participate in the sacrifices. He is the lord, protector and leader of people, monarch of men, the lord of the house, friendly to mankind, and like a father, mother, brother &c. He is represented as being produced by the attrition of two pieces of fuel which are regarded as husband and wife. Sometimes he is considered to have been brought down from heaven or generated by Indra between two clouds or stones, created by Dyau, or fashioned by the gods collectively. In some passages he is represented as having a triple existence, which may mean his three-fold manifestations as the sun in heaven, lightning in the atmosphere, and as ordinary fire on the earth, although the three appearances are also elsewhere otherwise explained. His epithets are numberless and for the most part descriptive of his physical characteristics : धूमकेतु, हुतभुज्, शुचि, रोहिताश्व, सप्तजिह्व, तोमरधर, घृतान्न, चित्रभानु, ऊर्ध्वशोचिस्, शोचिष्केश, हरिकेश, हिरण्यदन्त, अयोदंष्ट्र &c. In a celebrated passage he is said to have 4 horns, 3 feet, 2 heads, and 7 hands. The highest divine functions are ascribed to Agni. He is said to have spread out the two worlds and _x001F_+ produced them, to have supported heaven, formed the mundane regions and luminaries of heaven, to have begotten Mitra and caused the sun to ascend the sky. He is the head and summit of the sky, the centre of the earth. Earth, Heaven and all beings obey his commands. He knows and sees all worlds or creatures and witnesses all their actions. The worshippers of Agni prosper, they are wealthy and live long. He is the protector of that man who takes care to bring him fuel. He gives him riches and no one can overcome him who sacrifices to this god. He confers, and is the guardian of, immortality. He is like a water-trough in a desert and all blessing issue from him. He is therefore constantly supplicated for all kinds of boons, riches, food, deliverance from enemies and demons, poverty, reproach, childlessness, hunger &c. Agni is also associated with Indra in different hymns and the two gods are said to be twin brothers. Such is the Vedic conception of Agni; but in the course of mythological personifications he appears as the eldest son of Brahmā and is called Abhimānī [Viṣṇu Purāṇa]. His wife was Svāhā; by her, he had 3 sons -Pāvaka, Pavamāna and Śuchi; and these had forty-five sons; altogether 49 persons who are considered identical with the 49 fires. He is also represented as a son of Aṅgiras, as a king of the Pitṛs or Manes, as a Marut and as a grandson of Śāṇḍila, and also as a star. The Harivaṁśa describes him as clothed in black, having smoke for his standard and head-piece and carrying a flaming javelin. He is borne in a chariot drawn by red horses and the 7 winds are the wheels of his car. He is accompanied by a ram and sometimes he is represented as riding on that animal. Agni was appointed by Brahamā as the sovereign of the quarter between the south and east, whence the direction is still known as Āgneyī. The Mahābhārata represents Agni as having exhausted his vigour and become dull by devouring many oblations at the several sacrifices made by king Śvetaki, but he recruited his strength by devouring the whole Khāṇḍava forest; for the story see the word खाण्डव]. -Comp. -अ (आ) गारम् -रः, -आलयः, -गृहम् [अग्निकार्याय अगारम् शाक˚ त.] a fire-sanctuary, house or place for keeping the sacred fire; वसंश्चतुर्थो$ग्निरिवाग्न्यगारे R.5.25. रथाग्न्यगारं चापार्चीं शरशक्तिगदे- न्धनम् Mb.11.25.14. -अस्त्रम् fire-missile, a rocket, -आत्मक a. [अग्निरात्मा यस्य] of the nature of fire सोमा- त्मिका स्त्री, ˚कः पुमान्. -आधानम् consecrating the fire; so ˚आहिति. -आधेयः [अग्निराधेयो येन] a Brāhmana who maintains the sacred fire. (-यम्) = ˚आधानम्. -आहितः [अग्निराहितो येन, वा परनिपातः P.II.2.37.] one who maintains the sacred fire; See आहिताग्नि. -इध् m. (अग्नीध्रः) [अग्निम् इन्द्धे स अग्नीध्] the priest who kindles fire (mostly Ved). -इन्धनः [अग्निरिध्यते अनेन] N. of a Mantra. (नम्) kindling the fire; अग्नीन्धनं भैक्षचर्याम् Ms.2.18. -उत्पातः [अग्निना दिव्यानलेन कृतः उत्पातः] a fiery portent, meteor, comet &c. In Bṛ. S.33 it is said to be of five kinds: दिवि भुक्तशुभफलानां पततां रूपाणि यानि तान्युल्काः । धिष्ण्योल्का- शनिविद्युत्तारा इति पञ्चधा भिन्नाः ॥ उल्का पक्षेण फलं तद्वत् धिष्ण्याशनिस्त्रिभिः पक्षैः । विद्युदहोभिः ष़ड्भिस्तद्वत्तारा विपाचयति ॥ Different fruits are said to result from the appearances of these portents, according to the nature of their colour, position &c. -उद्धरणम्, -उद्धारः 1 producing fire by the friction of two araṇis. -2 taking out, before sun-rise, the sacred fire from its cover of ashes previous to a sacrifice. -उपस्थानम् worship of Agni; the Mantra or hymn with which Agni is worshipped (अग्निरुपस्थीयते$नेन) अग्निस्त्रिष्टुभ् उपस्थाने विनियोगः Sandhyā. -एधः [अग्निमेधयति] an incendiary. -कणः; -स्तोकः a spark. -कर्मन् n. [अग्नौ कर्म स. त.] 1 cauterization. -2 action of fire. -3 oblation to Agni, worship of Agni (अग्निहोत्र); so ˚कार्य offering oblations to fire, feeding fire with ghee &c.; निर्वर्तिताग्निकार्यः K.16.; ˚र्यार्धदग्ध 39, Ms.3.69, अग्निकार्यं ततः कुर्यात्सन्ध्ययोरुभयोरपि । Y.1.25. -कला a part (or appearance) of fire; ten varieties are mentioned धूम्रार्चिरुष्मा ज्वलिनी ज्वालिनी विस्फु- लिङ्गिनी । सुश्री: सुरूपा कपिला हव्यकव्यवहे अपि ॥ यादीनां दश- वर्णानां कला धर्मप्रदा अमूः ।). -कारिका [अग्निं करोति आधत्ते करणे कर्तृत्वोपचारात् कर्तरि ण्वुल्] 1 the means of consecrating the sacred fire, the Ṛik called अग्नीध्र which begins with अग्निं दूतं पुरो दधे. 2. = अग्निकार्यम्. -काष्ठम् अग्नेः उद्दीपनं काष्ठं शाक ˚त.] agallochum (अगुरु) -कुक्कुटः [अग्नेः कुक्कुट इव रक्तवर्णस्फुलिङ्गत्वात्] a firebrand, lighted wisp of straw. -कुण्डम [अग्नेराधानार्थं कुण्डम्] an enclosed space for keeping the fire, a fire-vessel. -कुमारः, -तनयः; सुतः 1 N. of Kārttikeya said to be born from fire; Rām.7. See कार्त्तिकेय. -2 a kind of preparation of medicinal drugs. -कृतः Cashew-nut; the plant Anacardium occidentale. [Mar.काजू] -केतुः [अग्नेः केतुरिव] 1 smoke. -2 N. of two Rākṣasas on the side of Rāvaṇa and killed by Rāma. -कोणः -दिक् the south-east corner ruled over by Agni; इन्द्रो वह्निः पितृपतिर्नौर्ऋतो वरुणो मरुत् । कुबेर ईशः पतयः पूर्वादीनां दिशां क्रमात् ॥ -क्रिया [अग्निना निर्वर्तिता क्रिया, शाक. त.] 1 obsequies, funeral ceremonies. -2 branding; भेषजाग्निक्रियासु च Y.3.284. -क्रीडा [तृ. त.] fire-works, illuminations. -गर्भ a. [अग्निर्गर्भे यस्य] pregnant with or containing fire, having fire in the interior; ˚र्भां शमीमिव Ś 4.3. (--र्भः) [अग्निरिव जारको गर्भो यस्य] 1 N. of the plant Agnijāra. -2 the sun stone, name of a crystal supposed to contain and give out fire when touched by the rays of the sun; cf Ś2.7. -3 the sacrificial stick अरणि which when churned, gives out fire. (-र्भा) 1 N. of the Śamī plant as containing fire (the story of how Agni was discovered to exist in the interior of the Śamī plant is told in chap. 35 of अनु- शासनपर्व in Mb.) -2 N. of the earth (अग्नेः सकाशात् गर्भो यस्यां सा; when the Ganges threw the semen of Śiva out on the Meru mountain, whatever on earth &c. was irradiated by its lustre, became gold and the earth was thence called वसुमती) -3 N. of the plant महा- ज्योतिष्मती लता (अग्निरिव गर्भो मध्यभागो यस्याः सा) [Mar. माल- कांगोणी] -ग्रन्थः [अग्निप्रतिपादको ग्रन्थः शाक. त.] the work that treats of the worship of Agni &c. -घृतम् [अग्न्युद्दीपनं घृतं शाक. त.] a kind of medicinal preparation of ghee used to stimulate the digestive power. -चित् m. अग्निं चितवान्; चि-भूतार्थे क्विप् P.III.2.91] one who has kept the sacred fire; यतिभिः सार्धमनग्निमग्निचित् R.8.25; अध्वरे- ष्वग्निचित्वत्सु Bk.5.11. -चयः, -चयनम्, -चित्या. arranging or keeping the sacred fire (अग्न्याधान); चित्याग्निचित्ये च P.III.1.132. -2 (-यः, -यनः) the Mantra used in this operation. -3 a heap of fire -चित्वत् [अग्निचयनम् अस्त्यस्मिन् मतुप्; मस्य वः । तान्तत्वान्न पद- त्वम् Tv.] having अग्निचयन or अग्निचित्. -चूडः A bird having a red tuft. -चर्णम् gunpowder. कार्यासमर्थः कत्यस्ति शस्त्रगोलाग्निचूर्णयुक् Śukranīti 2.93. -ज, -जात a. produced by or from fire, born from fire. (-जः, -जातः) 1 N. of the plant अग्निजार (अग्नये अग्न्युद्दीपनाय जायते सेवनात् प्रभवति). 1 N. of Kārttikeya पराभिनत्क्रौञ्चमिवाद्रिमग्निजः Mb.8.9. 68.3. Viṣṇu. (-जम्, -जातम) gold; so ˚जन्मन्. -जित् m. God; Bhāg.8.14.4. -जिह्व a. 1 having a fiery tongue. -2 one having fire for the tongue, epithet of a God or of Visṇu in the boar incarnation. (-ह्वा) 1 a tongue or flame of fire. -2 one of the 7 tongues of Agni (कराली धूमिनी श्वेता लोहिता नीललोहिता । सुवर्णा पद्मरागा च जिह्वा: सप्त विभावसोः -3 N. of a plant लाङ्गली (अग्नेर्जिह्वेव शिखा यस्याः सा); of another plant (जलपिप्पली) or गजपिप्पली (विषलाङ्गला) (Mar. जल-गज पिंपळी) -ज्वाला 1 the flame or glow of fire. -2 [अग्नेर्ज्वालेव शिखा यस्याः सा] N. of a plant with red blossoms, chiefly used by dyers, Grislea Tomentosa (Mar. धायफूल, धायटी). -तप् a. [अग्निना तप्यते; तप्-क्विप्] having the warmth of fire; practising austerities by means of fire. -तपस् a. [अग्निभिः तप्यते] 1 practising very austere penance, standing in the midst of the five fires. -2 glowing, shining or burning like fire (तपतीति तपाः अग्निरिव तपाः) hot as fire -तेजस् a. having the lustre or power of fire. (अग्नेरिव तेजो यस्य). (-स् n.) the lustre of fire. (-स् m.) N. of one of the 7 Ṛiṣis of the 11th Manvantara. -त्रयम् the three fires, See under अग्नि. -द a. [अग्निं दाहार्थं गृहादौ ददाति; दा. -क.] 1 giving or supplying with fire -2 tonic, stomachic, producing appetite, stimulating digestion. -3 incendiary; अग्निदान् भक्तदांश्चैव Ms.9.278; अग्निदानां च ये लोकाः Y.2.74; so ˚दायक, ˚दायिन्. यदग्निदायके पापं यत्पापं गुरुतल्पगे. Rām.2.75.45. -दग्ध a. 1 burnt on the funeral pile; अग्निदग्धाश्च ये जीवा ये$प्यदग्धाः कुले मम Vāyu. P. -2 burnt with fire. -3 burnt at once without having fire put into the mouth, being destitute of issue (?); (pl.) a class of Manes or Pitṛis who, when alive, kept up the household flame and presented oblations to fire. -दमनी [अग्निर्दम्यते$नया; दम्-णिच् करणे ल्युट] a narcotic plant, Solanum Jacquini. [Mar. रिंगणी] -दातृ [अग्निं विधानेन ददाति] one who performs the last (funeral) ceremonies of a man; यश्चाग्निदाता प्रेतस्य पिण्डं दद्यात्स एव हि. -दीपन a. [अग्निं दीपयति] stimulating digestion, stomachic, tonic. -दीप्त a. [तृ. त्त.] glowing, set on fire, blazing (-प्ता) [अग्निर्जठरानलो दीप्तः सेवनात् यस्याः सा] N. of a plant ज्योतिष्मती लता (Mar. मालकांगोणी), which is said to stimulate digestion. -दीप्तिः f. active state of digestion. -दूत a. अग्निर्दूत इव यस्मिन् यस्य वा] having Agni for a messenger, said of the sacrifice or the deity invoked; यमं ह यज्ञो गच्छत्यग्निदूतो अरंकृतः Rv.1.14.13. -दूषितः a. branded. -देवः [अग्नि- रेव देवः] Agni; a worshipper of Agni. -देवा [अग्निर्देवो यस्याः] the third lunar mansion, the Pleiades (कृत्तिका). -द्वारम् the door on the south-east of a building; पूर्व- द्वारमथैशाने चाग्निद्वारं तु दक्षिणे । Māna.9.294-95. -धानम् [अग्निर्धियते$स्मिन्] the place or receptacle for keeping the sacred fire, the house of अग्निहोतृ; पदं कृणुते अग्निधाने Rv. 1.165.3. -धारणम् maintaining the sacred fire; व्रतिनां ˚णम् K. 55. -नयनम् = ˚प्रणयनम्. -निर्यासः [अग्नेर्ज- ठरानलस्येव दीपको निर्यासो यस्य] N. of the plant अग्निजार. -नेत्र a. [अग्निर्नेता यस्य] having Agni for the leader or conveyer of oblations, an epithet of a god in general. -पदम् 1 the word Agni. -2 fire-place. -3 N. of a plant. -परिक्रि-ष्क्रि-या care of the sacred fire, worship of fire, offering oblations; गृहार्थो$ग्निपरिष्क्रिया Ms.2.67. -परिच्छदः the whole sacrificial apparatus; गृह्यं चाग्निपरिच्छदम् Ms.6. 4. -परिधानम् enclosing the sacrificial fire with a kind of screen. -परीक्षा [तृ. त.] ordeal by fire. -पर्वतः [अग्निसाधनं पर्वतः] a volcano; महता ज्वलता नित्यमग्निमेवाग्नि- पर्वतः Rām.5.35.43. -पुच्छः [अग्नेः अग्न्याधानस्थानस्य पुच्छ इव]. tail or back part of the sacrificial place; the extinction of fire. -पुराणम् [अग्निना प्रोक्तं पुराणम्] one of the 18 Purāṇas ascribed to Vyāsa. It derives its name from its having been communicated originally by Agni to the sage Vasiṣṭha for the purpose of instructing him in the two-fold knowledge of Brahman. Its stanzas are said to be 145. Its contents are varied. It has portions on ritual and mystic worship, cosmical descriptions, chapters on the duties of Kings and the art of war, a chapter on law, some chapters on Medicine and some treatises on Rhetoric, Prosody, Grammar, Yoga, Brahmavidyā &c. &c. -प्रणयनम् bringing out the sacrificial fire and consecrating it according to the proper ritual. -प्रणिधिः Incendiary. Dk.2.8. -प्रतिष्ठा consecration of fire, especially the nuptial fire. -प्रवेशः; -शनम [स. त.] entering the fire, self-immolation of a widow on the funeral pile of her husband. -प्रस्कन्दनम् violation of the duties of a sacrificer (अग्निहोमाकरण); ˚परस्त्वं चाप्येवं भविष्यसि Mb.1.84.26. -प्रस्तरः [अग्निं प्रस्तृणाति अग्नेः प्रस्तरो वा] a flint, a stone producing fire. -बाहुः [अग्ने- र्बाहुरिव दीर्घशिखत्वात्] 1 smoke. -2 N. of a son of the first Manu; Hariv. N. of a son of Priyavrata and Kāmyā. V. P. -बीजम् 1 the seed of Agni; (fig.) gold (रुद्रतेजः समुद्भूतं हेमबीजं विभावसोः) -2 N. of the letter र्. -भम [अग्नि- रिव भाति; भा-क.] 1 'shining like fire,' gold. -2 N. of the constellation कृत्तिका. -भु n. [अग्नेर्भवति; भू-क्विप् ह्रस्वान्तः] 1 water. -2 gold. -भू a. [अग्नेर्भवतिः भू-क्विप्] produced from fire. (भूः) 1 'fire-born,' N. of Kārttikeya. -2 N. of a teacher (काश्यप) who was taught by Agni. -3 (arith.) six. -भूति a. produced from fire. (-तिः) [अग्निरिव भूतिरैश्वर्यं यस्य] N. of a pupil of the last Tīrthaṅkara. (-तिः) f. the lustre or might of fire. -भ्राजस् a. Ved. [अग्निरिव भ्राजते; भ्राज्-असुन्] shining like fire. अग्निभ्राजसो विद्युतः Ṛv.5.54.11. -मणिः [अग्नेरुत्थापको मणिः शाक. त.] the sunstone. -मथ् m. [अग्निं मथ्नाति निष्पादयति; मन्थ्-क्विप्- नलोपः] 1 the sacrificer who churns the fuel-stick. -2 the Mantra used in this operation, on the अरणि itself. -मन्थः, -न्थनम्, producing fire by friction; or the Mantra used in this operation. (-न्थः) [अग्निर्मथ्यते अनेन मन्थ्-करणे घञ्] N. of a tree गणिकारिका (Mar. नरवेल) Premna Spinosa (तत्काष्ठयोर्घर्षणे हि आशु वह्निरुत्पद्यते), -मान्द्यम् slowness of digestion, loss of appetite, dyspepsia. -मारुतिः अग्निश्च मरुच्च तयोरपत्यं इञ् ततो वृद्धिः इत् च; द्विपदवृद्धौ पृषो. पूर्वपदस्य ह्रस्वः Tv.] N. of the sage Agastya. -मित्रः N. of a king of the Śunga dynasty, son of Puṣypamitra who must have flourished before 15 B. C. -the usually accepted date of Patañjali-as the latter mentions पुष्यमित्र by name. -मुखः a. having Agni at the head. (-खः) [अग्निर्मुखमिव यस्य] 1 a deity, god, (for the gods receive oblations through Agni who is, therefore, said to be their mouth; अग्निमुखा वै देवाः; अग्निर्मुखं प्रथमं देवतानाम् &c; or अग्निर्मुखे अग्रे येषाम्, for fire is said to have been created before all other gods.) -2 [अग्निर्मुखं प्रधानमुपास्यो यस्य] one who maintains the sacred fire (अग्निहोतृद्विज) -3 a Brāhmaṇa in general (अग्निर्दाहकत्वात् शापाग्निर्मुखे यस्य for Brāhmaṇas are said to be वाग्वज्राः). -4 N. of two plants चित्रक Plumbago Zeylanica and भल्लातक Semicarpus Anacardium अग्निरिव स्पर्शात् दुःखदायकं मुखमग्रम् यस्य, तन्निर्यासस्पर्शेन हि देहे क्षतोत्पत्तेस्थयोस्तथात्वम्) -5 a sort of powder or चूर्ण prescribed as a tonic by चक्रदत्त -6 'fire-mouthed, sharp-biting, an epithet of a bug. Pt. 1. (-खी) अग्निरिव मुखमग्रं यस्याः; गौरादि-ङीष्] 1 N. of a plant भल्लातक (Mar. बिबवा, भिलावा) and लाङ्गलिका (विषलाङ्गला). -2 N. of the Gāyatri Mantra (अग्निरेव मुखं मुखत्वेन कल्पितं यस्याः सा, or अग्नेरिव मुखं प्रजापतिमुखं उत्पत्ति- द्वारं यस्याः, अग्निना समं प्रजापतिमुखजातत्वात्; कदाचिदपि नो विद्वान् गायत्रीमुदके जपेत् । गायत्र्याग्निमुखी यस्मात्तस्मादुत्थाय तां जपेत् ॥ गोभिल). -3 a kitchen [पाकशाला अग्निरिव उत्तप्तं मुखं यस्याः सा]. -मूढ a. [तृ. त.] Ved. made insane or stupefied by lightning or fire. -यन्त्रम् A gun अग्नियन्त्रधरैश्चक्रधरैश्च पुरुषैर्वृतः Śivabhārata 12.17. -यानम् An aeroplane. व्योमयानं विमानं स्यात् अग्नियानं तदेव हि । अगस्त्यसंहिता. -योगः See पञ्चाग्निसाधन. अग्नियोगवहो ग्रीष्मे विधिदृष्टेन कर्मणा । चीर्त्वा द्वादशवर्षाणि राजा भवति पार्थिवः ॥ Mb.13.14,2.43. -योजनम् causing the sacrificial fire to blaze up. -रक्षणम् 1 con-secrating or preserving the sacred (domestic) fire or अग्निहोत्र. -2 [अग्निः रक्ष्यते अनेन अत्र वा] a Mantra securing for Agni protection from evil spirits &c. -3 the house of an अग्निहोतृ. -रजः, -रजस् m. [अग्निरिव रज्यते दीप्यते; रञ्ज्-असुन् नलोपः] 1 a scarlet insect by name इन्द्रगोप. -2 (अग्नेः रजः) the might or power of Agni. -3 gold. Mb.3. 16.86.7 -रहस्यम् mystery of (worshipping &c.) Agni; N. of the tenth book of Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. -राशिः a heap of fire, burning pile. -रुहा [अग्निरिव रोहति रुह्-क] N. of the plant मांसादनी or मांसरोहिणी (तदङ्कुरस्य वह्नितुल्य- वर्णतया उत्पन्नत्वात्तथात्वं तस्याः). -रूप a. [अग्नेरिव रूपं वर्णो यस्य] fire-shaped; of the nature of fire. -रूपम् the nature of fire. -रेतस् n. the seed of Agni; (hence) gold. -रोहिणी [अग्निरिव रोहति; रुह्-णिनि] a hard inflammatory swelling in the armpit. -लोकः the world a Agni, which is situated below the summit of Meru; in the Purāṇas it is said to be in the अन्तरिक्ष, while in the Kāśī Khaṇḍa it is said to be to the south of इन्द्रपुरी; एतस्या दक्षिणे भागे येयं पूर्दृश्यते शुभा । इमामर्चिष्मतीं पश्य वीतिहोत्रपुरीं शुभाम् ॥ -वधूः Svāhā, the daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Agni -वर्चस् a. [अग्नेर्वर्च इव वर्चो यस्य] glowing or bright like fire. (n.) the lustre of Agni. (-m.) N. of a teacher of the Purāṇas. -वर्ण a. [अग्नेरिव वर्णो यस्य] of the colour of fire; hot; fiery; सुरां पीत्वा द्विजो मोहादग्निवर्णां सुरां पिबेत् Ms.11.9; गोमूत्रमग्निवर्णं वा पिबेदुदकमेव वा 91. (र्णः) 1 N. of a prince, son of Sudarśana. -2 N. of a King of the solar race, See R.19.1. the colour of fire. (-र्णा) a strong liquor. -वर्धक a. stimulating digestion, tonic. (-कः) 1 a tonic. -2 regimen, diet (पथ्याहार). -वल्लभः [अग्नेर्वल्लभः सुखेन दाह्यत्वात्] 1 the Śāla tree, Shorea Robusta. -2 the resinous juice of it. -वासस् a. [अग्निरिव शुद्धं वासो यस्य] having a red (pure like Agni) garment. (n.) a pure garment. -वाह a. [अग्निं वाहयति अनुमापयति वा] 1 smoke. -2 a goat. -वाहनम् a goat (छाग). -विद् m. 1 one who knows the mystery about Agni. -2 an अग्निहोत्रिन् q. v. -विमोचनम् ceremony of lowering the sacrificial fire. -विसर्पः pain from an inflamed tumour, inflammation. -विहरणम्, -विहारः 1 taking the sacrificial fire from आग्नीध्र to the उत्तरवेदि. -2 offering oblations to fire; प्रत्यासन्ना ˚वेला K.348. -वीर्यम् 1 power or might of Agni. -2 gold. -वेतालः Name of Vetāla (connected with the story of Vikra-māditya). -वेशः [अग्नेर्वेश इव] N. of an ancient medical authority (चरक). -वेश्मन् m. the fourteenth day of the karma-ṃāsa; Sūryaprajñapti. -वेश्यः 1 N. of a teacher, Mbh. -2 Name of the 22nd muhūrta; Sūryapraj-ñapti. धौम्य cf. Mb 14.64.8. -शरणम्, -शाला-लम् a fire-sanctuary; ˚मार्गमादेशय Ś.5; a house or place for keeping the sacred fire; ˚रक्षणाय स्थापितो$हम् V.3. -शर्मन् a. [अग्निरिव शृणाति तीव्रकोपत्वात् शॄ-मनिन्] very passionate. (-m.) N. of a sage. -शिख a. [अग्नेरिव अग्निरिव वा शिखा यस्य] fiery, fire-crested; दहतु ˚खैः सायकैः Rām. (-खः) 1 a lamp. -2 a rocket, fiery arrow. -3 an arrow in general. -4 safflower plant. -5 saffron. -6 जाङ्गलीवृक्ष. (-खम्) 1 saffron. -2 gold. (-खा) 1 a flame; शरैरग्निशिखोपमैः Mb. -2 N. of two plants लाङ्गली (Mar. वागचबका or कळलावी) Gloriosa Superba; of other plants (also Mar. कळलावी) Meni-spermum Cordifolium. -शुश्रूषा careful service or worship of fire. -शेखर a. fire-crested. (-रः) N. of the कुसुम्भ, कुङ्कुम and जाङ्गली trees (-रम्) gold, -शौच a. [अग्नेरिव शौचं यस्य] bright as fire; purified by fire K.252. -श्री a. [अग्नेरिव श्रीर्यस्य] glowing like fire; lighted by Agni -ष्टुत्, -ष्टुभ, -ष्टोम &c. see ˚ स्तुत्, ˚स्तुभ् &c. -ष्ठम् 1 kitchen; अग्निष्ठेष्वग्निशालासु Rām.6.1.16. -2 a fire-pan. -संयोगाः explosives. Kau. A.2.3. -ष्वात्तः see स्वात्तः -संस्कारः 1 consecration of fire. -2 hallowing or con-secrating by means of fire; burning on the funeral pile; यथार्हं ˚रं मालवाय दत्वा Dk.169; नास्य कार्यो$ग्निसंस्कारः Ms.5.69, पितरीवाग्निसंस्कारात्परा ववृतिरे क्रियाः । R.12.56. -सखः; -सहायः 1 the wind. -2 the wild pigeon (smoke-coloured). -3 smoke. -सम्भव a. [प. ब.] sprung or produced from fire. (-वः) 1 wild safflower. -2 lymph, result of digestion. (-वम्) gold. -साक्षिक [अग्निः साक्षी यत्र, कप्] a. or adv. keeping fire for a witness, in the presence of fire; पञ्चबाण˚ M.4.12. ˚मर्यादो भर्ता हि शरणं स्त्रियाः H.1.v. l, R.11.48. -सारम् [अग्नौ सारं यस्य अत्यन्तानलोत्तापनेपि सारांशादहनात् Tv.] रसाञ्जन, a sort of medical preparation for the eyes. (-रः -रम्) power or essence of fire. -सुतः Kārttikeya; त्वामद्य निहनिष्यामि क्रौञ्चमग्निसुतो यथा । Mb.7.156.93. -सूत्रम् a thread of fire. -2 a girdle of sacrificial grass (मौञ्जीमेखला) put upon a young Brāhmaṇa at the time of investiture. -सूनुः (See -सुतः), (सेनानीरग्निभूर्गुहः । Amar.); देव्यङ्कसंविष्ट- मिवाग्निसूनुम् । Bu. ch.1.67. -स्तम्भः 1 stopping the burning power of Agni. -2 N. of a Mantra used in this operation. -3 N. of a medicine so used. -स्तुत् m. (अग्निष्टुत्) [अग्निः स्तूयते$त्र; स्तु-आधारे क्विप् षत्वम्] the first day of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice; N. of a portion of that sacrifice which extends over one day; यजेत वाश्वमेधेन स्वर्जिता गोसवेन वा । अभिजिद्विश्वजिद्भ्यां वा त्रिवृता- ग्निष्टुतापि वा ॥ Ms.11.74. -स्तुभ् (˚ष्टुभ्) m. [अग्निः स्तुभ्यते$त्र; स्तुभ्-क्विप् षत्वम्] 1 = अग्निष्टोम. -2 N. of a son of the sixth Manu. -रतोमः (˚ष्टोमः) [अग्नेः स्तोमः स्तुतिसाधनं यत्र] 1 N. of a protracted ceremony or sacrificeial rite extending over several days in spring and forming an essential part of the ज्योतिष्टोम. -2 a Mantra or Kalpa with reference to this sacrifice; ˚मे भवो मन्त्रः ˚मः; ˚मस्य व्याख्यानम्, कल्पः ˚मः P.IV.3.66. Vārt. -3 N. of the son of the sixth Manu. -4 a species of the Soma plant; ˚सामन् a part of the Sāma Veda chanted at the conclusion of the Agniṣṭoma sacrifice. -सावर्णिः Name of Manu. -स्थ a. (ष्ठ) [अग्नौ स्थातुमर्हति; स्था-क षत्वम्] placed in, over, or near the fire. (ष्ठः) an iron frying-pan; in the अश्वमेध sacrifice the 11th Yūpa which of all the 21 is nearest the fire. -स्वात्तः (written both as ˚स्वात्त and ˚ष्वात्त) (pl.) [अग्नितः i. e. श्राद्धीयविप्रकर- रूपानलात् सुष्ठु आत्तं ग्रहणं येषां ते] N. of a class of Pitṛs or Manes who, when living on earth, maintained the sacred or domestic fires, but who did not perform the Agniṣṭoma and other sacrifices. They are regarded as Manes of Gods and Brāhmaṇas and also as descendants of Marīchi; Ms.3.195. अग्निष्वात्ताः पितर एह गच्छत Tsy. (मनुष्यजन्मन्यग्निष्टोमादियागमकृत्वा स्मार्तकर्मनिष्ठाः सन्तो मृत्वा च पितृत्वं गताः इति सायणः). -हुत्, -होतृ Ved. sacrificing to Agni, having Agni for a priest; Rv.1.66.8. -होत्रम् [अग्नये हूयते$त्र, हु-त्र, च. त.] 1 an oblation to Agni (chiefly of milk, oil and sour gruel.). -2 maintenance of the sacred fire and offering oblation to it; (अग्नये होत्रं होमो$स्मिन् कर्मणीति अग्निहोत्रमिति कर्मनाम); or the sacred fire itself; तपोवनाग्निहोत्रधूमलेखासु K.26. होता स्यात् ˚त्रस्य Ms.11.36. ˚त्रमुपासते 42; स्त्रीं दाहयेत् ˚त्रेण Ms.5.167,6.4, दाहयित्वाग्निहोत्रेण स्त्रियं वृत्तवतीम् Y.1.89. The time of throwing oblations into the fire is, as ordained by the sun himself, evening (अग्नये सायं जुहुयात् सूर्याय प्रातर्जुहुयात्). Agnihotra is of two kinds; नित्य of constant obligation (यावज्जीवमग्निहोत्रं जुहोति) and काम्य occasional or optional (उपसद्भिश्चरित्वा मासमेकमग्निहोत्रं जुहोति). (-त्र) a. Ved. 1 destined for, connected with, Agnihotra. -2 sacrificing to Agni. ˚न्यायः The rule according to which the नित्यकर्मन्s (which are to be performed यावज्जीवम्) are performed at their stipulated or scheduled time only, during one's life time. This is discussed and established by जैमिनि and शबर at Ms.6. 2.23-26. in connection with अग्निहोत्र and other कर्मन्s. ˚हवनी (णी) a ladle used in sacrificial libations, or अग्निहोत्रहविर्ग्रहणी ऋक् Tv.; See हविर्ग्रहणी; ˚हुत् offering the अग्निहोत्र; ˚आहुतिः invocation or oblation connected with अग्निहोत्र. -होत्रिन् a. [अग्निहोत्र-मत्वर्थे इनि] 1 one who practises the Agnihotra, or consecrates and maintains the sacred fire. -2 one who has prepared the sacrificial place. -होत्री Sacrificial cow; तामग्निहोत्रीमृषयो जगृहु- र्ब्रह्मवादिनः Bhāg.8.8.2.
aṅgam अङ्गम् [अम् गत्यादौ बा˚ -गन्; according to Nir. अङ्ग, अङ्ग- नात् अञ्चनात् वा] 1 The body. -2 A limb or member of the body; शेषाङ्गनिर्माणविधौ विधातुः Ku.1.33; क्लेशस्याङ्गमदत्वा Pt.5. 32 without undergoing troubles; इति स्वप्नोपमान्मत्वा कामान्मा गास्तदङ्गताम् । Ki.11.34 do not be influenced or swayed by them (do not be subject to them) -3 (a.) A division or department (of anything), a part or portion, as of a whole; as सप्ताङ्गम् राज्यम्, चतुरङ्गम् बलम्, चतुःषष्ट्ष्ट्यङ्गम् ज्योतिः- शास्त्रम् see the words; गीताङ्गानाम् Pt.5.56; यज्ञश्चेत्प्रतिरुद्धःस्या- देकेनाङ्गेन यज्वनः Ms.11.11. (Hence) (b.) A supplementary or auxiliary portion, supplement; षडङ्ग or साङ्ग वेदः A peculiar use of the word अङ्ग in masculine gender may here be noted वेदांश्चैव तु वेदाङ्गान् वेदान्तानि तथा स्मृतीः । अधीत्य ब्राह्मणः पूर्वं शक्तितो$न्यांश्च संपठेत् Bṛhadyogiyājñaval-kya Smṛiti 12.34. (c.) A constituent part, essential requisite or component; सर्वैर्बलाङ्गैः R.7.59; तदङ्गमग्ऱ्यं मघवन् महाक्रतो R.3.46. (d.) An attributive or secondary part; secondary, auxiliary or dependent member (serving to help the principal one) (opp. प्रधान or अङ्गिन्); अङ्गी रौद्र- रसस्तत्र सर्वे$ङ्गानि रसाः पुनः S. D.517; अत्र स्वभावोक्तिरुत्प्रेक्षाङ्गम् Malli. on Ki 8.26. (e.) An auxiliary means or expedient (प्रधानोपयोगी उपायः or उपकरणम्); सर्वकार्यशरीरेषु मुक्त्वा- ङ्गस्कन्धपञ्चकम् । मन्त्रो योध इवाधीर सर्वाङ्गैः संवृतैरपि ॥ Śi.2.28-29; See अङ्गाङ्गि, पञ्चाङ्ग also (the angas of the several sciences or departments of knowledge will be given under those words). -4 (Gram.) A name for the base of a word; यस्मात्प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादिप्रत्यये अङ्गम् P.I.4.13; यः प्रत्ययो यस्मात्क्रियते तदादिशब्दस्वरूपं तस्मिन्प्रत्यये परे अङ्गसंज्ञं स्यात् Sk. The अङ्ग terminations are those of the nominative, and accusative singular and dual. -5 (Drama) (a.) One of the sub-divisions of the five joints or sandhis in dramas; the मुख has 12, प्रतिमुख 13, गर्भ 12, विमर्ष 13 and उपसंहार 14, the total number of the angas being thus 64; for details see the words. (b.) The whole body of subordinate characters. -6 (astr.) A name for the position of stars (लग्न), See अङ्गाधीश. -7 A symbolical expression for the number six (derived from the six Vedāngas). -8 The mind; हिरण्यगर्भाङ्गभुवं मुनिं हरिः Śi.1.1, See अङ्गज also. -9 N. of the chief sacred texts of the jainas. -ङ्गः (pl.) N. of a country and the people inhabiting it, the country about the modern Bhāgalpur in Bengal. [It lay on the south of Kauśikī Kachchha and on the right bank of the Ganges. Its capital was Champā, sometimes called Aṅgapurī Lomapādapurī, Karṇapurī or Mālinī. According to Daṇḍin (अङ्गेषु गङ्गातटे बहिश्चम्पायाः) and Hiouen Thsang it stood on the Ganges about 24 miles west of a rocky island. General Cunningham has shown that this description applies to the hill opposite Pātharghāṭā, that it is 24 miles east of Bhāgalpur, and that there are villages called Champanagar and Champapura adjoininng the last. According to Sanskrit poets the country of the Aṅgas lay to the east of Girivraja, the capital of Magadha and to the north-east or south-east of Mithilā. The country was in ancient times ruled by Karṇa] cf. अङ्गं गात्रा- न्तिकोपाय प्रतीकेष्वप्रधानके । देशभेदे तु पुंसि स्यात्...॥ Nm. -a. 1 Contiguous. -2 Having members or divisions. -Comp. -अङ्गि, [अङ्गीभावः -अङगस्य अङ्गिनो भावः] the relation of a limb to the body, of the subordinate to the principal, or of that which is helped or fed to the helper or feeder (गौणमुख्यभावः, उपकार्येपकारकभावश्च); e. g. प्रयाज and other rites are to दर्श as its angas, while दर्श is to them the aṅgi; अङ्गाङ्गिभावमज्ञात्वा कथं सामर्थ्यनिर्णयः । पश्य टिट्टिभमात्रेण समुद्रो व्याकुलीकृतः ॥ H.2.138; अत्र वाक्ये समास- गतयोरुपमयोः साध्यसाधनभावात् ˚वेन सम्बन्धः Malli. on Ki.6.2; अविश्रान्तिजुषामात्मन्यङ्गाङ्गित्वं तु संकरः K.P.1. (अनुग्राह्यानुग्राह- कत्वम्). -अधिपः, -अधीशः 1 lord of the Aṅgas, N. of Karṇa (cf. ˚राजः, ˚पतिः, ˚ईश्वरः, ˚अधीश्वरः). -2 'lord of a लग्न', the planet presiding over it; (अङ्गाधिपे बलिनि सर्वविभूतिसम्पत्; अङ्गाधीशः स्वगेहे बुधगुरुकविभिः संयुतो वीक्षितो वा Jyotiṣa). -अपूर्वम् effect of a secondary sacrificial act. -कर्मन् n. -क्रिया 1 besmearing the body with fragrant cosmetics, rubbing it &c. Dk.39. -2 a supplementary sacrificial act. -क्रमः the order of the performance with reference to the अङ्गs. The rule in this connection is that the अङ्गक्रम must conform to the मुख्यक्रम. cf. MS. 5.1.14. -ग्रहः spasm; seizure of the body with some illness. -ज-जात a. [अङ्गात् जायते जन्-ड] 1 produced from or on the body, being in or on the body, bodily; ˚जं रजः, ˚जाः अलङ्काराः &c. -2 produced by a supplementary rite. -3 beautiful, ornamental. (-जः) -जनुस् also 1 a son. -2 hair of the body (n. also); तवोत्तरीयं करिचर्म साङ्गजम् Ki.18.32. -3 love, cupid (अङ्गं मनः तस्मा- ज्जातः); intoxicating passion; अङ्गजरागदीपनात् Dk.161. -4 drunkenness, intoxication. -5 a disease. (-जा) a daughter. (-जम्) blood, अङ्गजं रुधिरे$नङ्गे केशे पुत्रे मदे पुमान् । नागरे नखरे$पि स्यात्... । Nm. -ज्वरः [अङ्गमङ्गम् अधिकृत्य ज्वरः] the disease called राजयक्ष्मा, a sort of consumption. -दूष- णम् 1 the defects of the limbs; the penalties of a defective construction; Māna. -2 name of the 79th chapter. -द्वीपः one of the six minor Dvīpas. -न्यासः [अङ्गेषु मन्त्र- भेदस्य न्यासः] touching the limbs of the body with the hand accompanied by appropriate Mantras. -पालिः f. [अङ्गं पाल्यते सम्बध्यते$त्र, अङ्ग-पाल्-इ] an embrace (probably a corruption of अङ्कपालि). -पालिका = अङ्कपालि q. v. -प्रत्यङ्गम् [समा. द्वन्द्व] every limb, large and small; ˚गानि पाणिना स्पृष्ट्वा K.167,72. -प्रायश्चित्तम् [अङ्गस्य शुद्ध्यर्थं प्राय- श्चित्तम्] expiation of bodily impurity, such as that caused by the death of a relative, consisting in making presents (पञ्चसूनाजन्यदुरितक्षयार्थं कार्यं दानरूपं प्रायश्चित्तम् Tv.). -भूः a. [अङ्गात् मनसो वा भवति; भू-क्विप्] born from the body or mind. (-भूः) 1 a son. -2 Cupid. -3 [अङ्गानाम् अङ्गमन्त्राणां भूः स्थानम्] one who has touched and purified, and then restrained, his limbs by repeating the Mantras pertaining to those limbs; ब्रह्माङ्गभूर्ब्रह्मणि योजितात्मा Ku.3.15 (सद्योजातादिमन्त्राणाम् अङ्गानां हृदयादिमन्त्राणां भूः स्थानं, कृतमन्त्रन्यासः Malli.). -भङ्गः 1 palsy or paralysis of limbs; ˚विकल इव भूत्वा स्थास्यामि Ś.2. -2 twisting or stretching out of the limbs (as is done by a man just after he rises from sleep); साङ्गभङ्गमुत्थाय Vb.; जृम्भितैः साङ्गभङ्गैः Mu.3.21, K.85. -3 The middle part of the anus and testicles. -मन्त्रः N. of a Mantra. -मर्दः [अङ्ग मर्दयति; मृद्-णिच्] 1 one who shampoos his master's body. -2 [भावे घञ्] act of shampooing; so ˚मर्दका or ˚मर्दिन्, मृद्- णिच् ण्वुल् or णिनि) one who shampoos. -मर्षः [ष. त.] rheumatism; ˚प्रशमनम् the curing of this disease. ˚मेजयत्वम् subtle throbbing of the body; Pātañjala 1.31. -यज्ञः, -यागः [अङ्गीभूतः यज्ञः] a subordinate sacrificial act which is of 5 sorts; समिधो यजति, तनूनपातं यजति, इडो यजति, बर्हिर्यजति, स्वाहाकारं यजति इति पञ्चविधाः । एतेषां सकृदनुष्ठा- नेनैव तन्त्रन्यायेन प्रधानयागानामाग्नेयादीनामुपकारितेति मीमांसा Tv. -रक्तः, -क्तम् [अङ्गे अवयवे रक्तः] N. of a plant गुडारोचनी found in काम्पिल्य country and having red powder (रक्ताङ्गलोचनी). -रक्षकः [अङ्गं रक्षति; रक्ष्-ण्वुल्] a bodyguard, personal attendant Pt.3. -रक्षणी [अङ्ग रक्ष्यते अनया] a coat of mail, or a garment. (-णम्) protection of person. -रागः [अङ्गं रज्यते अनेन करणे घञ्] 1 a scented cosmetic, application of perfumed unguents to the body, fragrant unguent; पुष्पगन्धेन अङ्गरागेण R.12.27, 6.6, स्तनाङ्गरागात् Ku.5.11. -2 [भावे ल्युट्] act of anointing the body with unguents. -रुहम् [अङ्गे रोहति; रुह्-क स. त. P.III.9.135.] hair; मम वर्णो मणिनिभो मृदून्य- ङ्गरुहाणि च Rām.6.48.12. विहङ्गराजाङ्गरुहैरिवायतैः Śi.1.7. -लिपिः f. written character of the Aṅgas. -लेपः [अङ्गं लिप्यते अनेन; लिप्-करणे घञ्] 1 a scented cosmetic. -2 [भावे घञ्] act of anointing. -लोड्यः (लोड ण्यत्) a kind of grass, ginger or its root, Amomum Zingiber. -वस्त्रोत्था f. A louse. -विकल a. [तृ. त.] 1 maimed, paralysed. -2 fainting, swooning. -विकृतिः f. 1 change _x001F_2of bodily appearance; collapse. -2 [अङ्गस्य विकृतिश्चालनादिर्यस्मात् प. ब.] an apoplectic fit, swooning, apoplexy (अपस्मार). -विकारः a bodily defect. -विक्षेपः 1 movement of the limbs; gesticulation. -2 a kind of dance. -विद्या [अङ्गरूपा व्याकरणादिशास्त्ररूपा विद्या ज्ञानसाधनम्] 1 the science of grammar &c. contributing to knowledge. -2 the science of foretelling good or evil by the movements of limbs. Kau. A.1.12; N. of chapter 51 of Bṛhat Saṁhitā which gives full details of this science; न नक्षत्राङ्गविद्यया...भिक्षां लिप्सेत कर्हिचित् Ms.6.5. -विधिः [अङ्गस्य प्रधानोपकारिणः विधिः विधानम् [a subordinate or subsidiary act subservient to a knowledge of the principal one (प्रधान- विधिविधेयकर्मणो$ङ्गबोधकतया अङ्गविधिः). -वीरः chief or principal hero. -वैकृतम् [अङ्गेन अङ्गचेष्टया वैकृतं हृदयभावो ज्ञाप्यते यत्र बहु.] 1 a sign, gesture or expression of the face leading to a knowledge of internal thoughts (आकार) -2 a nod, wink. -3 changed bodily appearance. -वैगुण्यम् a defect or flaw in the performance of some subordinate or subsidiary act which may be expiated by thinking of Viṣṇu); श्राद्धादिपद्धतौ कर्मान्ते यत्किञ्चिदङ्गवैगुण्यं जातं तद्दोषप्रशमनाय विष्णुस्मरणमहं करिष्ये इत्यभिलापवाक्यम् Tv.). -संस्कारः, -संस्क्रिया [अङ्गं संस्क्रियते अनेन; कृ-करणे or भावे- घञ्) 1 embellishment of person, personal decoration, doing whatever secures a fine personal appearance, such as bathing, rubbing the body, perfuming it with cosmetic &c. -2 [कर्त्रर्थे अण्] one who decorates or embellishes the person. -संहतिः f. compactness, symmetry; body; स्थेयसीं दधतमङ्गसंहतिम् Ki.13.5; or strength of the body. -संहिता The phonetic relation between consonants and vowels in the body of a word Ts. Prāt. -सङ्गः bodily contact, union; coition. -सुप्तिः f. Benumbing of the body. -सेवकः a personal attendant, body-guard. -स्कन्धः [कर्मधा.] a subdivision of a science. -स्पर्शः fitness or qualification for bodily contact or being touched by others. -हानिः f. 1. a defect or flaw in the performance of a secondary or subsidiary act (= ˚वैगुण्यम्); दैवाद् भ्रमात् प्रमादाच्चेदङ्गहानिः प्रजायते । स्मरणादेव तद्विष्णोः संपूर्णं स्यादिति श्रुतिः ॥ -हारः [अङ्गं ह्रियते इतस्ततः चाल्यते यत्र, हृ-आधारे or भावे घञ्] gesticulation, movements of the limbs, a dance; अङ्गहारैस्तथैवान्या कोमलै- र्नृत्यशालिनी Rām.5.1.36. संसक्तैरगुरुवनेषु साङ्गहारम् Ki.7.37. Ku.7.91. -हारिः [अङ्गं ह्रियते$त्र; हृ-बा˚णि] 1 gesticulation. -2 stage; dancing hall. -हीन a. [तृ. त.] 1 mutilated, deprived of some defective limb (अङ्गं हीनं यथो- चितप्रमाणात् अल्पं यस्य) according to Suśruta a man is so born, if the mother's दोहद has not been duly fulfilled (सा प्राप्तदौर्हृदा पुत्रं जनयेत गुणान्वितम् । अलब्धदौर्हृदा गर्भे लभेता- त्मनि वा भयम् ॥ येषु येष्विन्द्रियार्थेषु दौर्हृदे वै विमानना । जायते तत्सुतस्यार्तिस्तस्मिंस्तस्मिंस्तथेन्द्रिये ॥).
atighna अतिघ्न a. Very destructive. -घ्नी [अतिशयेन हन्ति दुःखम्; हन्-टक्] A happy state of complete oblivion which drowns all thoughts of whatever is disagreeable in the past; अतिघ्नीमानन्दस्य गत्वा Bṛi. Ār. Up.2.1.9.
anarvan अनर्वन् a. [अर्व्-हिंसायां कनिन्, अर्वा सपत्नः न. त.] 1 Not inimical, not hostile or to be hated (अद्वेष्य); यो मित्राय वरुणायाविधज्जनो$नर्वाणं तं परिपातो अंहसः Rv.1.136.5. -2 Having no horse.
aniṣṭa अनिष्ट a. 1 Unwished, undesirable; unfavourable, disagreeable, ill (with gen.); ध्यायत्यनिष्टं यत्किञ्चित्पाणिग्राहस्य चेतसा Ms.9.21 whatever ill she thinks of her husband. -2 Evil, forbidden. -3 Bad, unlucky, ominous. -4 Not honoured with a sacrifice. -ष्टम् An evil, mishap, misfortune, calamity, disadvantage; a crime, offence, wrong, unwelcome thing; ˚एकबुद्धि Māl.8.12; भवत्यनिष्टादपि नाम दुःसहान्मनस्विनीनां प्रतिपत्तिरीदृशी Ku.5.42; ill-omen; प्रातरेव ˚दर्शनं जातम् H.1. -Comp. -अनुबन्धिन् a. followed by or attended with calamities; विषयोपभोगेषु ˚बन्धिषु यः सुखपुद्धिमारो- पयति K.155. -आपत्तिः f., -आपादनम् getting what is not desired, an undesired occurrence. -आशंसिन् a. (˚सूचक) indicating or boding ill. -ग्रहः an evil or malignant planet. -दुष्टधी a. having an evil and corrupt mind. -प्रसङ्गः 1 an undesired occurrence. -2 connection with a wrong object, argument or rule. -फलम् an evil result. -शङ्का fear of evil. -हेतुः an evil omen.
anunī अनुनी 1 P. 1 To conciliate, win over, induce, persuade, prevail upon; request, supplicate, entreat, propitiate, pacify, appease (anger &c.); स चानुनीतः प्रणतेन पश्चात् R.5.54; विग्रहाच्च शयने पारङ्मुखीर्नानुनेतुमवलाः स तत्वरे 19.38,43; Bk.5.46;6.137; त्वत्सङ्गमेन मम तत्तदिवानु- नीतम् V.3.2 pacified, made favourable or agreeable; Ki.13.67; M.5; K.168,178; Dk.3,4,7. -2 To cherish love; विद्विषोप्यनुनय Bh.2.77; cf. Shakespeare "Cherish those hearts that hate thee". -3 To bring near to (with dat. of peason). -4 To train, discipline. -5 To honour.
antara अन्तर a. [अन्तं राति ददाति, रा-क] 1 Being in the inside, interior, inward, internal (opp. बाह्य); योन्तरो यमयति Śat. Br.; ˚र आत्मा Tait. Up.; कश्चनान्तरो धर्मः S. D. अन्तरापणवीथ्यश्च नानापण्योपशोभिताः अनुगच्छन्तु Rām.7.64.3. -2 Near, proximate (आसन्न); कृष्वा युजश्चिदन्तरम् Rv.1. 1.9. -3 Related, intimate, dear, closely connected (आत्मीय) (opp. पर); तदेतत्प्रेयः पुत्रात् ...... प्रेयो$न्यस्मात्सर्व- स्मादन्तरतरं यदयमात्मा Śat. Br.; अयमत्यन्तरो मम Bharata. -4 Similar (also अन्तरतम) (of sounds and words); स्थाने$न्तरतमः P.I.1.5; हकारस्य घकारोन्तरतमः Śabdak.; सर्वस्य पदस्य स्थाने शब्दतो$र्थतश्चान्तरतमे द्वे शब्दस्वरूपे भवतः P. VIII.1.1. Com. -5 (a) Different from, other than (with abl.); यो$प्सु तिष्ठन्नद्भ्यो$न्तरः Bṛi. Ār. Up.; आत्मा स्वभावो$न्तरो$न्यो यस्य स आत्मान्तरः अन्यस्वभावः व्यवसायिनो$न्तरम् P.VI.2.166 Sk. ततो$न्तराणि सत्त्वानि स्वादते स महाबलः Rām.7. 62.5. (b) The other; उदधेरन्तरं पारम् Rām. -6 Exterior, outer, situated outside, or to be worn outside (अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः P.I.1.36) (In this sense it is declined optionally like सर्व in nom. pl. and abl. and loc. sing.) अन्तरे-रा वा गृहाः बाह्या इत्यर्थः (चण्डालादिगृहाः); अन्तरे-रा वा शाटकाः परिधानीया इत्यर्थः Sk.; so अन्तरायां पुरि, अन्तरायै नगर्यै, नमो$न्तरस्मै अमेधसाम् Vop. -रम् 1 (a) The interior, inside; ततान्तरं सान्तरवारिशीकरैः Ki.4.29,5.5; जालान्तरगते भानौ Ms.8.132; विमानान्तरलम्बिनीनाम् R.13.33; Mk.8.5, Ku. 7.62; अपि वनान्तरं श्रयति V.4.24; लीयन्ते मुकुलान्तरेषु Ratn. 1.26, Ki.3.58; अन्तरात् from inside, from out of; प्राकारपरिखान्तरान्निर्ययुः Rām.; अन्तरे in, into; वन˚, कानन˚, प्रविश्यान्तरे &c. (b) Hence, the interior of any thing, contents; purport, tenor; अत्रान्तरं ब्रह्मविदो विदित्वा Śvet. Up. (c) A hole, an opening; तस्य बाणान्तरेभ्यस्तु बहु सुस्राव शोणितम्. -2 Soul, heart; mind; सततमसुतरं वर्णयन्त्यन्तरम् Ki.5.18 the inmost or secret nature (lit. middle space or region); लब्धप्रतिष्ठान्तरैः भृत्यैः Mu.3.13 having entered the heart; सदृशं पुरुषान्तरविदो महेन्द्रस्य V.3. -3 The Supreme Soul. -4 Interval, intermediate time or space, distance; रम्यान्तरः Ś.4.11; किंचिदन्तरमगमम् Dk.6; अल्प- कुचान्तरा V.4.49; क्रोशान्तरेण पथि स्थिताः H.4 at the distance of; बृहद् भुजान्तरम् R.3.54; अन्तरे oft. translated by between, betwixt; गीतान्तरेषु Ku.3.38 in the intervals of singing; मरणजीवितयोरन्तरे वर्ते betwixt life and death; अस्त्रयोगान्तरेषु Rām.; तन्मुहूर्तकं बाष्पसलिलान्तरेषु प्रेक्षे तावदार्यपुत्रम् U.3 in the intervals of weeping; बाष्पविश्रामो$प्यन्तरे कर्तव्य एव U.4 at intervals; स्मर्तव्योस्मि कथान्तरेषु भवता Mk.7.7 in the course of conversation; कालान्तरावर्तिशुभाशुभानि H.1 v. l. See कालान्तरम्; सरस्वतीदृषद्वत्योर्यदन्तरम् Ms.2.17,22; द्यावापृथिव्यो- रिदमन्तरं हि व्याप्तं त्वयैकेन Bg.11.2; न मृणालसूत्रं रचितं स्तनान्तरे Ś.6.18 between the breasts; Bg.5.27; अस्य खलु ते बाणपथवर्तिनः कृष्णसारस्यान्तरे तपस्विन उपस्थिताः Ś.1; तदन्तरे सा विरराज धेनुः R.2.2;12.29. (b) Intervention (व्यवधान) oft. in the sense of 'through'; मेघान्तरालक्ष्यमि- वेन्दुबिम्बम् R.13.38 through the clouds; वस्त्रं अन्तरं व्यवधायकं यस्य स वस्त्रान्तरः P.VI.2.166 Sk.; महानद्यन्तरं यत्र तद्देशान्त- रमुच्यते; जालान्तरप्रेषितदृष्टिः R.7.9 peeping through a window; विटपान्तरेण अवलोकयामि Ś.1; क्षणमपि विलम्बमन्तरीकर्तु- मक्षमा K.36 to allow to come between or intervene; कियच्चिरं वा मैघान्तरेण पूर्णिमाचन्द्रस्य दर्शनम् U.3. -5 Room, place, space in general; मृणालसूत्रान्तरमप्यलभ्यम् Ku.1.4; न ह्यविद्धं तयोर्गात्रे बभूवाङ्गुलमन्तरम् Rām.; मूषिकैः कृते$न्तरे Y.1. 147; गुणाः कृतान्तराः K.4 finding or making room for themselves; न यस्य कस्यचिदन्तरं दातव्यम् K.266; देहि दर्शना- न्तरम् 84. room; पौरुषं श्रय शोकस्य नान्तरं दातुमर्हसि Rām. do not give way to sorrow; तस्यान्तरं मार्गते Mk.7.2 waits till it finds room; अन्तरं अन्तरम् Mk.2 make way, make way. -6 Access, entrance, admission, footing; लेभेन्तरं चेतसि नोपदेशः R.6.66 found no admission into (was not impressed on) the mind; 17.75; लब्धान्तरा सावरणे$पि गेहे 16.7. -7 Period (of time), term; मासान्तरे देयम् Ak.; सप्तैते मनवः । स्वे स्वेन्तरे सर्वमिदमुत्पाद्यापुश्चराचरम् Ms.1.63, see मन्वन्तरम्; इति तौ विरहान्तरक्षमौ R.8.56 the term or period of separation; क्षणान्तरे -रात् within the period of a moment. -8 Opportunity, occasion, time; देवी चित्रलेखामव- लोकयन्ती तिष्ठति । तस्मिन्नन्तरे भर्तोपस्थितः M.1. अत्रान्तरे प्रणम्याग्रे समुपविष्टः; Pt.1 on that occasion, at that time; अस्मिन्नन्तरे Dk.164; केन पुनरुपायेन मरणनिर्वाणस्यान्तरं संभावयिष्ये Māl.6; कृतकृत्यता लब्धान्तरा भेत्स्यति Mu.2.22 getting an opportunity; 9; यावत्त्वामिन्द्रगुरवे निवेदयितुं अन्तरान्वेषी भवामि Ś.7. find a fit or opportune time; शक्तेनापि सता जनेन विदुषा कालान्तरप्रेक्षिणा वस्तव्यम् Pt.3.12; waiting for a suitable opportunity or time; सारणस्यान्तरं दृष्ट्वा शुको रावणमब्रवीत् Rām. -9 Difference (between two things), (with gen. or in comp.) शरीरस्य गुणानां च दूरमत्यन्तमन्तरम् H.1.46; उभयोः पश्यतान्तरम् H.1.64, नारीपुरुषतोयानामन्तरं महदन्तरम् 2.39; तव मम च समुद्रपल्वलयोरिवान्तरम् M.1; Bg.13.34; यदन्तरं सर्षपशैलराजयोर्यदन्तरं वायसवैनतेययोः Rām.; द्रुमसानुमतां किमन्तरम् R.8.9;18.15; rarely with instr.; त्वया समुद्रेण च महदन्तरम् H.2; स्वामिनि गुणान्तरज्ञे Pt.1.11; difference; सैव विशिनष्टि पुनः प्रधानपुरषान्तरं सूक्ष्मम् Sāṅ. K. -1 (Math.) Difference, remainder also subtraction, cf. योगोन्तरेणोनयुतो$र्धितस्तौ राशी स्मृतौ संक्रमणाख्यमेतत् ॥ Līlā. -11 (a) Different, another, other, changed, altered (manner, kind, way &c.); (Note:- that in this sense अन्तर always forms the latter part of a compound and its gender remains unaffected i. e. neuter, whatever be the gender of the noun forming the first part; कन्यान्तरम् (अन्या कन्या), राजान्तरम् (अन्यो राजा), गृहान्तरम् (अन्यद् गृहम्); in most cases it may be rendered by the English word 'another'.); इदमवस्थान्तरमारोपिता Ś.3 changed condition; K.154; Mu.5; शुभाशुभफलं सद्यो नृपाद्देवाद्भवान्तरे Pt.1.121; जननान्तरसौहृदानि &Sacute.5.2 friendships of another (former) existence; नैवं वारान्तरं विधास्यते H.3 I shall not do so again; आमोदान् हरिदन्तराणि नेतुम् Bv.1.15, so दिगन्तराणि; पक्षान्तरे in the other case; देश˚, राज˚, क्रिया˚ &c. (b) Various, different, manifold (used in pl.); लोको नियम्यत इवात्मदशान्तरेषु Ś.4.2; मन्निमित्तान्यवस्थान्तराण्यवर्णयत् Dk.118 various or different states; 16; sometimes used pleonastically with अन्यत् &c.; अन्यत्स्थानान्तरं गत्वा Pt.1. -12 Distance (in space); व्यामो बाह्वोः सकरयोस्ततयोस्ति- र्यगन्तरम् Ak.; प्रयातस्य कथंचिद् दूरमन्तरम् Ks.5.8. -13 Absence; तासामन्तरमासाद्य राक्षरीनां वराङ्गना Rām.; तस्यान्तरं च विदित्वा ibid. -14 Intermediate member, remove, step, gradation (of a generation &c.); एकान्तरम् Ms.1.13; द्वयेकान्तरासु जातानाम् 7; एकान्तरमामन्त्रितम् P.VIII.1.55; तत्स्रष्टुरेकान्तरम् Ś.7.27 separated by one remove, See एकान्तर also. -15 Peculiarity, peculiar or characteristic possession or property; a (peculiar) sort, variety, or kind; व्रीह्यन्तरेप्यणुः Trik.; मीनो राश्यन्तरे, वेणुर्नृपान्तरे ibid.; प्रासङ्गो युगान्तरम् cf. also प्रधानपुरुषान्तरं सूक्ष्मम् Sāṅ. K.37. &c. -16 Weakness, weak or vulnerable point; a failing, defect, or defective point; प्रहरेदन्तरे रिपुम्, Śabdak. सुजयः खलु तादृगन्तरे Ki.2.52; असहद्भिर्माममिमित्रैर्नित्यमन्तरदर्शिभिः Rām; परस्यान्तरदर्शिना ibid.; कीटकेनेवान्तरं मार्गयमाणेन प्राप्तं मया महदन्तरम् Mk.9; अथास्य द्वादशे वर्षे ददर्श कलिरन्तरम् Nala.7.2.; हनूमतो वेत्ति न राक्षसो$न्तरं न मारुतिस्तस्य च राक्षसो$न्तरम् Rām. -17 Surety, guarantee, security; तेन तव विरूपकरणे सुकृतमन्तरे धृतम् Pt.4 he has pledged his honour that he will not harm you; आत्मान- मन्तरे$र्पितवान् K.247; अन्तरे च तयोर्यः स्यात् Y.2.239; भुवः संज्ञान्तरयोः P.III.2.179; धनिकाधमर्णयोरन्तरे यस्तिष्ठति विश्वासार्थं स प्रतिभूः Sk. -18 Regard, reference, account; न चैतदिष्टं माता मे यदवोचन्मदन्तरम् Rām. with reference to me; त्वदन्तरेण ऋणमेतत्. -19 Excellence, as in गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः M.1.6 (this meaning may be deduced from 11). -2 A garment (परिधान). -21 Purpose, object, (तादर्थ्य) तौ वृषाविव नर्दन्तौ बलिनौ वासितान्तरे Mb.1.12.41; (Malli. on R.16.82). -22 Concealment, hiding; पर्व- तान्तरितो रविः (this sense properly belongs to अन्तर्-इ q. v.). -23 Representative, substitution. क्षात्रमाचरतो मार्गमपि बन्धोस्त्वदन्तरे Mb.12.1.3. -24 Destitution, being without (विना) which belongs to अन्तरेण. (अन्तरमवकाशाव- धिपरिधानान्तर्धिभेदतादर्थ्ये । छिद्रात्मीर्यावेनाबहिरवसरमध्येन्तरात्मनि च Ak.) [cf. L. alter] -25 Space (अवकाश); प्रेक्षतामृषि- सङ्घानां बभूव न तदान्तरम् Rām.7.14.19. -26 Separation (वियोग); भार्यापत्योरन्तरम् Mb.5.35.43. -27 A move or skilful play in wrestling; अन्योन्यस्थान्तरप्रेप्सू प्रचक्राते$न्तरं प्रति Mb.9.57.11. -28 A moulding of the pedestal and the base; षडंशं चान्तरे कर्णे उत्तरांशं तदूर्ध्वके । Māna.13.121; cf. स्थानात्मीयान्यतादर्थ्यरन्ध्रान्तर्धिषु चान्तरम् । परिधाने$वधौ मध्ये$- न्तरात्मनि नपुंसके । Nm. -Comp. -अपत्या a pregnant woman. -चक्रम् a technical term in augury Bṛi. S. chap.86. -ज्ञ a. knowing the interior, prudent, wise, foreseeing; नान्तरज्ञाः श्रियो जातु प्रियैरासां न भूयते Ki.11.24 not knowing the difference. -तत् a. spreading havoc. -द a. cutting the interior or heart. -दिशा, अन्तरा दिक् intermediate region or quarter of the compass. -दृश् a. realizing the Supreme Soul (परमात्मानुसंधायिन्). -पु(पू)रुषः the internal man, soul (the deity that resides in man and witnesses all his deeds); तांस्तु देवाः प्रपश्यन्ति स्वस्यैवान्तरपूरुषः; Ms.8.85. -पूजा = अन्तर-पूजा. -प्रभवः [अन्तराभ्यां भिन्नवर्णमातापितृभ्यां प्रभवति] one of a mixed origin or caste. (अम्बष्ठ, क्षत्तृ, करण, इ.); अन्तरप्रभवाणां च धर्मान्नो वक्तुमर्हसि Ms.1.2. -प्रश्नः an inner question, one contained in and arising out of what has been previously mentioned. -शायिन् -स्थ, -स्थायिन् -स्थित a. 1 inward, internal, inherent; ˚स्थैर्गुणैः शुभ्रैर्लक्ष्यते नैव केन चित् Pt. 1.221. -2 interposed, intervening, separate. -3 seated in the heart, an epithet of जीव.
apriya अप्रिय a. 1 Disliked, disagreeable, unpleasant, offensive अप्रियस्य च पथ्यस्य वक्ता श्रोता च दुर्लभः Rām.; Ms.4. 138; अतः समीपे परिणेतुरिष्यते तदप्रियापि प्रमदा स्वबन्धुभिः Ś.5. 17; hated, distasteful. -2 Unkind, unfriendly. -यः A foe, an enemy. -या A sort of fish (शृङ्गीमत्स्यः). -यम् An unfriendly or offensive act; पाणिग्राहस्य साध्वी स्त्री......नाचरेत्किञ्चिदप्रियम् Ms.5.156. -Comp. -कर, -कारिन्, -कारक a. unfriendly, ill-disposed. -भागिन् a. ill-fated. -वद, (˚यम्˚), -वादिन् a. speaking unkind or harsh words; वन्ध्यार्थध्न्यप्रियंवदा Y.1.73; माता यस्य गृहे नास्ति भार्या चाप्रियवादिनी Chāṇ.44.
abhidruh अभिद्रुह् 4 P. (A. in epic poetry) To hate, seek to injure or maliciously assail, plot against (with acc.); नित्यमस्मच्छरीरमभिद्रोग्धुं यतते Mu.1,2; क्रूरमभिद्रुह्यति Sk. (sometimes with dat. also); मया पुनरेभ्य एवाभिद्रुग्धमज्ञेन U.6; नाभिद्रुह्यति भूतेभ्यः Bhāg., Mu.5.
amitrayati अमित्रयति Den. P., अमित्रायते A. To act like an enemy, act hostilely towards, hate; हा कष्टं पुरुषस्य जीर्णवयसः पुत्रो$प्यमित्रायते Bh.3.111.
ātman आत्मन् m. [अत्-मनिण् Uṇ 4.152 said to be from अन् to breathe also] 'आत्मा यत्नो धृतिर्बुद्धिः स्वभावो ब्रह्मवर्ष्म च' इत्यमरः 1 The soul, the individual soul, the breath, the principle of life and sensation; किमात्मना यो न जितेन्द्रियो भवेत् H.1; आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि शरीरं रथमेव तु Kaṭh.3.3. (In आत्मा नदी संयमपुण्यतीर्था H.4.87 आत्मन् is compared to a river). -2 Self, oneself; in this sense mostly used reflexively for all three persons and in the singular number, masculine gender, whatever be the gender or number of the noun to which it refers; अनया चिन्तयात्मापि मे न प्रतिभाति Ratn.1; आश्रमदर्श- नेन आत्मानं पुनीमहे Ś.1; गुप्तं ददृशुरात्मानं सर्वाः स्वप्नेषु वामनैः R.1.6,4.35,14.57; Ku.6.2; देवी... प्राप्तप्रसवमात्मानं गङ्गादेव्यां विमुञ्चति U.7.2; गोपायन्ति कुलस्त्रिय आत्मानमात्मना Mb.; K.17; sometimes used in pl. also; आत्मनः स्तुवन्ति Śi.17.19; Māl.8. -3 Supreme deity and soul of the universe, Supreme Soul, Brahman; तस्माद्वा एतस्मादात्मन आकाशः संभूतः T. Up.2.1.1; Ms.1.15,12.24. -4 Essence, nature; काव्यस्यात्मा ध्वनिः S. D., see आत्मक below. -5 Character, peculiarity; आत्मा यक्ष्मस्य नश्यति Rv.1. 97.11. -6 The natural temperament or disposition; Bhāg.11.22.2. -7 The person or whole body (considered as one and opposed to the separate members of it); स्थितः सर्वोन्नतेनोर्वीं क्रान्त्वा मेरुरिवात्मना R.1.14; योस्या- त्मनः कारयिता Ms.12.12; Ki.9.66. -8 Mind, intellect; मन्दात्मन्, नष्टात्मन्, महात्मन् &c. अथ रामः प्रसन्नात्मा श्रुत्वा वायु- सुतस्य ह Rām.6.18.1. -9 The understanding; cf. आत्म- संपन्न, आत्मवत् &c. -1 Thinking faculty, the faculty of thought and reason. -11 Spirit, vitality, courage; त्यक्त्वा$$त्मानमथाब्रवीत् Mb.12.18.6. -12 Form, image; आत्मानमाधाय Ku.3.24 assuming his own form; 2.61; संरोपिते$प्यात्मनि Ś.6.24 myself being implanted in her. -13 A son; 'आत्मा वै पुत्रनामासि' इति श्रुतेः । तस्यात्मा शितिकण्ठस्य Śi.2.61. -14 Care, efforts, pain. -15 The sun. -16 Fire. -17 Wind, air. -18 Mental quality; बाहुश्रुत्यं तपस्त्यागः श्रद्धा यज्ञक्रिया क्षमा । भावशुद्धिर्दया सत्यं संयमश्चात्मसंपदः ॥ Mb.12.167.5. आत्मन् is used as the last member of comp. in the sense of 'made or consisting of'; see आत्मक. The form त्मन् is also found to be used; कृतार्थं मन्यते त्मानं Mb. [cf. Gr. atmos, aitmen] -Comp. -अधीन a. 1 dependent on oneself, independent. -2 sentient, existing. (-नः) 1 a son. -2 a wife's brother. -3 the jester or विदूषक (in dramatic literature). -अनुरूप a. worthy of oneself; तस्यामात्मानुरूपायामात्मजन्मसमुत्सुकः Ku. 1.18; R.1.33. -अनुगमनम् peronal attendance; शश्वदा- त्मानुगमनेन गाम् R.1.88. -अपहारः concealing oneself; कथं वा आत्मापहारं करोमि Ś.1. -अपहारकः one who pretends to belong to a higher class than his own, an impostor, a pretender; यो$न्यथा सन्तमात्मानमन्यथा सत्सु भाषते । स पापकृत्तमो लोके स्तेन आत्मापहारकः ॥ Ms.4.255. -आदिष्ट a. self-counselled. (-ष्टः) a treaty dictated by the party wishing it himself; स्वसैन्येन तु संघानमात्मादिष्ट उदाहृतः H.4.121. -आनन्द a. Rejoicing in the soul or Supreme Spirit; आत्ममिथुनः आत्मानन्दः Ch. Up.7.25.2. -आराम a. 1 striving to get knowledge; (as an ascetic or योगिन्), seeking spiritual knowledge; आत्मारामा विहितरतयो निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Ve.1.23. -2 selfpleased, delighted in self; आत्मारामः फलाशी. see आत्मानन्द Bh.3.93; cf. Bg.5.24. -आशिन् m. a fish supposed to feed on its young, or on the weakest of its species; cf. मत्स्या इव जना नित्यं भक्षयन्ति परस्परम् Rām. -आश्रय a. 1 dependent on oneself or on his own mind. -2 About or relating to oneself; कौलीनमात्माश्रयमाचचक्षे R.14.36. (-यः) 1 self dependence. -2 innate idea, abstract knowledge independent of the thing to be known. -ईश्वर a. Self-possessed, master of self; आत्मेश्वराणां न हि जातु विघ्नाः समाधिभेदप्रभवो भवन्ति Ku.3.4. -उदयः self-exaltation or elevation; आत्मोदयः परज्यानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयति Śi.2.3 -उद्भव a. born or produced from oneself. (-वः) 1 a son; आत्मोद्भवे वर्णचतुष्टयस्य R.18.12. -2 Cupid. -3 sorrow, pain. (-वा) 1 daughter. -2 intellect. -3 N. of a plant (माषपर्णी; Mar. रानउडीद). -उपजीविन् m. 1 one who lives by his own labour; Ms.7.138. -2 a day-labourer. -3 one who lives by his wife (Kull. on Ms.8.362). -4 an actor, public performer. -उपनिषद् f. N. of an उपनिषद् which treats of the Supreme Spirit. -उपम a. like oneself. (-मः) a son. -औपम्यम् Likeness to self. आत्मौपम्येन सर्वत्र Bg.6.32. -कर्मन् One's own duty; आत्मौपकर्मक्षमं देहं क्षात्रो धर्म इवाश्रितः R. -काम a. 1 loving oneself, possessed of self-conceit, proud; आत्मकामा सदा चण्डी Rām.2.7.1. -2 loving Brahman or the Supreme Spirit only; भगवन् वयमात्मकामाः Maitr. Up.7.1. -कार्यम् one's own business, private affair. -कृत a. 1 self-executed, done by oneself; पौरा ह्यात्मकृताद्दुःखाद्विप्रमोच्या नृपात्मजैः Rām.2.46.23. -2 done against one's own self; Vāj.8.13. -गत a. produced in one's mind; ˚तो मनोरथः Ś.1. (-तम्) ind. aside (to oneself) being considered to be spoken privately (opp. प्रकाशम् aloud); frequently used as a stage-direction in dramas; it is the same as स्वगतम् which is thus defined; अश्राव्यं खलु यद्वस्तु तदिह स्वगतं मतम् S. D.6. -गतिः f. 1 course of the soul's existence. -2 one's own course; Bhāg.5.17.3. ˚गत्या by one's own act. -गुप्ता The plant Mucuna Pruritus Hook (Mar. कुयली). -गुप्तिः f. a cave, the hiding place of an animal, lair. -ग्राहिन् a. selfish, greedy. -घातः 1 suicide. -2 heresy. -घातकः, -घातिन् 1 a suicide, a self-destroyer; K.174; व्यापादयेद् वृथात्मानं स्वयं यो$गन्युदका- दिभिः । अवैधेनैव मार्गेण आत्मघाती स उच्यते ॥ -2 a heretic. -घोषः 1 a cock (calling out to himself). -2 a crow. -3 One who flatters himself. cf. आत्मघोषो वायसे स्यादात्म- स्तुतिपरे$पि च Nm. -जः, -जन्मन् m. -जातः, -प्रभवः, -संभवः, -समुद्भवः 1 a son; यः स वासवनिर्जेता रावणस्यात्म- संभवः Rām.6.86.33; हतान्निहन्मेह नरर्षभेण वयं सुरेशात्मसमु- द्भवेन Mb.7.118.2; तमात्मजन्मानमजं चकार R.5.36; तस्यामात्मानुरूपायामात्मजन्मसमुत्सुकः R.1.33; Māl.1; Ku.6.28. -2 Cupid; ममायमात्मप्रभवो भूयस्त्वमुपयास्यति Rām.4.1.34. -3 a descendant; मृगयां विरन्काश्चिद्विजने जनकात्मजः Mb.12.39.1. -जा 1 a daughter; वन्द्यं युगं चरणयोर्जनकात्मजायाः R.13.78; cf. नगात्मजा &c. -2 the reasoning faculty, understanding. -जयः 1 one's own victory. -2 victory over oneself, self-denial or abnegation. -ज्योतिस् n. The light of the soul or Supreme Spirit (चैतन्य); कौस्तुभव्यपदेशेन स्वात्मज्योतिर्बिभर्त्यजः Bhāg. 12.11.1. -ज्ञः, -विद् m. a sage, one who knows himself; तस्मादात्मज्ञं ह्यर्चयेद्भूतिकामः Muṇḍ.3.1.1. -ज्ञानम् 1 self-knowledge. -2 spiritual knowledge, knowledge of the soul or the Supreme Spirit; सर्वेषामपि चैतेषामात्मज्ञानं परं स्मृतम् Ms.12.85,92. -3 true wisdom. -तत्त्वम् 1 the true nature of the soul or the supreme spirit; यदात्म- तत्त्वेन तु ब्रह्मतत्त्वं प्रपश्येत Śvet.2.15. -2 the highest thing. ˚ज्ञः a sage versed in the Vedānta doctrines. -तृप्त a. Self-satisfied; आत्मतृप्तश्च मानवः Bg.3.17. -तुष्टि a. self-satisfied. (-ष्टिः f.) self-satisfaction. -त्यागः 1 self-sacrifice. -2 suicide. -त्यागिन् m. a. 1 suicide; आत्मत्यागिन्यो नाशौचोदकभाजनाः Y.3.6. -2 a heretic, an unbeliever. -त्राणम् 1 self-preservation. -2 a body-guard; Rām.5. -दर्शः a mirror; प्रसादमात्मीयमिवात्म- दर्शः R.7.68. -दर्शनम् 1 seeing oneself. -2 spiritual knowledge, true wisdom; सर्वभूतात्मदर्शनम् Y.3.157; cf. Ms.12.91. see आत्मयाजिन. -दा a. Ved. granting one's existence or life; य आत्मदा बलदा यस्य विश्व Rv.1.121.2. -दानम् self-sacrifice, resigning oneself. -दूषि a. Ved. corrupting the soul; self-destroying; Av.16.1.3. -देवता a tutelary deity. -द्रोहिन् a. 1 self-tormenting, fretful. -2 suicide. -नित्य a. being constantly in the heart, greatly endeared to oneself. -निन्दा self-reproach. -निवेदनम् offering oneself (as a living sacrifice to the deity). -निष्ठ a. one who constantly seeks for spiritual knowledge. -पराजित a. one who has lost himself (Ved.) Av.5.18.2. -पुराणम् N. of a work elucidating the Upaniṣads (consisting of 18 chapters). -प्रत्ययिक a. knowing from one's experience; आत्मप्रत्ययिकं शास्त्रमिदम् Mb.12.246.13. -प्रबोधः 1 cognition of the soul; self-consciousness. -2 title of an उपनिषद्. -प्रभ a. self-illuminated. -प्रवादः 1 conversation about the Supreme Spirit. -2 N. of the seventh of the fourteen Pūrvas of the Jainas. -प्रशंसा self-praise. -बन्धुः, -बान्धवः 1 one's own kinsman; आत्ममातुः स्वसुः पुत्रा आत्मपितुः स्वसुः सुताः । आत्ममातुलपुत्राश्च विज्ञेया ह्यात्मबान्धवाः Śabdak. i. e. mother's sister's son, father's sister's son, and mother's brother's son. -2 the soul, the self. -बोधः 1 spiritual knowledge. -2 knowledge of self. -3 N. of a work of Śaṅkarāchārya. -भावः 1 existence of the soul; संयोग एषां न तु आत्मभावात् Śvet.1.2. -2 the self proper, peculiar nature. -3 the body. -भू a. self-born, self-existent. (-भूः) वचस्यवसिते तस्मिन् ससर्ज गिरमात्मभूः Ku.2.53,3.16,5.81. -योनिः 1 N. of Brahmā; -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 N. of Śiva; Ś.7.35. -4 Cupid, god of love. -5 a son. (-भूः f.) 1 a daughter. -2 talent, understanding. -भूत a. 1 self-produced; peculiar, belonging to. -2 attached, devoted, faithful; तत्रात्मभूतैः कालज्ञैरहार्यैः परिचारकैः Ms.7.217 (Kull. = आत्मतुल्य). (-तः) 1 a son. -2 Cupid. (-ता) 1 a daughter. -2 talent. -भूयम् 1 peculiarity, own nature. -2 Brahman. -मात्रा a portion of the Supreme Spirit. -मानिन् a. self-respecting, respectable. -2 arrogant, proud; विवेकशून्यः प्रभुरात्ममानी, महाननर्थः सुहृदां बतायम् Bk.12.83. -मूर्तिः 1 a brother; भ्राता स्वमूर्तिरात्मनः -2 soul, Supreme Spirit. -मूल a. self-luminous, shining (God); स आत्ममूलो$वतु मां परात्परः Bhāg.8.3.4. -मूलि n. the universe. -मूली N. of a plant (दूरालभा; Mar. धमासा). -याजिन् 1 sacrificing for oneself or himself. m. a learned man who studies his own nature and that of the soul (of others) to secure eternal felicity, one who looks upon all beings as self; सर्व- भूतेषु चात्मानं सर्वभूतानि चात्मनि । समं पश्यन्नात्मयाजी स्वाराज्यम- धिगच्छति ॥ Ms.12.91. -योनिः = ˚भू m. a. v. ददर्श चक्रीकृतचारुचापं प्रहर्तुमभ्युद्यतमात्मयोनिम् Ku.3.7. -रक्षा 1 N. of a plant (इन्द्रवारुणीवृक्ष). -2 self protection. -लाभः birth, production, origin; यैरात्मलाभस्त्वया लब्धः Mu.3.1, 5.23; Ki.3.32,17.19,18.34; K.239. -लोमन् 1 the hair of the body. -2 the beard. -वञ्चक a. self-deceiver. -वञ्चना self-delusion; self-deception. -वधः, -वध्या, -हत्या suicide. -वर्ग्य a. of one's party or class; उद्बाहुना जुहुविरे मुहुरात्मवर्ग्याः Śi.5.15. -वश a. depending on one's own will; यद्यत्परवशं कर्म तत्तद्यत्नेन वर्जयेत् । यद्यदात्मवशं तु स्यात्तत्तत्सेवेत यत्नतः ॥ Ms.4.159, सर्वमात्मवशं सुखम् 16. (-शः) 1 self-control, self-government. -2 one's control, subjection; ˚शं नी, ˚वशीकृ to reduce to subjection, win over. -वश्य a. having control over self, self-possessed, self-restrained; आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा Bg.2.64. -विक्रयः sale of oneself or one's own liberty; Ms.11.59. -विद् m. 1 a wise man, sage; as in तरति शोकमात्मवित्; सो$हं भगवो मन्त्रविदेवास्मि नात्मविच्छ्रुतह्येव Ch. Up.7.1.3. -2 knowing one's own self (family &c.); य इहात्मविदो विपक्षमध्ये Śi.2.116. -3 N. of Śiva. -विद्या knowledge of the soul, spiritual knowledge; आन्वीक्षिकीं चात्मविद्याम् Ms.7.43. -विवृद्धिः, -वृद्धिः f. self-exaltation. -वीर a. 1 mighty, powerful, strong. -2 appropriate, suitable, good for oneself (as diet &c.). -3 existent, sentient. (-रः) 1 a son. -2 wife's brother. -3 a jester (in dramas); आत्मवीरः प्राणवति श्यालके च विदूषके. -वृत्तम्, -वृत्तान्तः account of one's own self, autobiography. -वृत्ति a. dwelling in Atman or soul. (-त्तिः f.) 1 state of the heart; किमेभिराशोपहतात्मवृत्तिभिः Ku.5.76. -2 action as regards oneself, one's own state or circumstance; विस्माययन् विस्मितमात्मवृत्तौ R.2.33. -3 practising one's own duties or occupation. -शक्तिः f. one's own power or ability, inherent power or effort; दैवं निहत्य कुरु पौरुषमात्मशक्त्या Pt.1.361 to the best of one's power. -2 illusion. -शल्या N. of a plant (शतावरी). -शुद्धिः f. self-purification; Ms.11.164; योगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति संगं त्यक्त्वा$त्मशुद्धये Bg.5.11. -श्लाघा, -स्तुतिः f. self-praise, boasting, bragging. -संयमः self-restraint; आत्मसंयमयो- गाग्नौ जुह्वति ज्ञानदीपिते Bg.4.27. -संस्थ a. Based upon or connected with the person; आत्मसंस्थं मनःकृत्वा Bg.6.25. -सतत्त्वम् See आत्मतत्त्वम्; आत्मसतत्त्वं विगणयतः Bhāg.5.13.24. -सद् a. Ved. dwelling in oneself; आत्मसदौ स्तं मा मा हिंसिष्टम् Av.5.9.8. -संतुष्ट a. self-sufficient. -सनि a. Ved. granting the breath of life. -सम a. worthy of oneself, equal to oneself; कार्ये गुरुण्यात्मसमं नियोक्ष्ये Ku.3.13. -संदेहः 1 internal or personal doubt. -2 risk of life, personal risk. -संभवः, -समुद्भवः 1 a son; चकार नाम्ना रघुमात्मसंभवम् R.3.21,11.57,17.8. -2 Cupid, god of love. -3 epithet of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, or Śiva. -4 the Supreme Being (परमात्मन्). (-वा) 1 a daughter. -2 understanding, intellect. -संपन्न a. 1 self-possessed; Pt.1.49. -2 talented, intelligent; तमात्मसंपन्नमनिन्दितात्मा कृत्वा युवानं युवराजमेव R.18.18. -संभावना self-conceit; K. -सिद्धिः f. self-aggrandizement, attainment of object or purpose; आगच्छदात्मसिद्ध्यर्थं गोकर्णस्याश्रमं शुभम् Rām.7.9.47. -सुख a. self-delighted. (-खम्) the highest bliss. -स्थ a. At one's own disposal (स्वाधीन); तावदेव मया सार्धमात्मस्थं कुरु शासनम् Rām.2.21.8. -हन् a. 1 one who kills his own soul (neglects its welfare &c.); ये के चात्महनो जनाः Śvet.3. -2 a suicide, self-destroyer. -3 a heretic, unbeliever. -4 a priest in a temple, a servant or attendant upon an idol. -हननम्, -हत्या suicide. -हित a. beneficial to oneself. (-तम्) one's own good or welfare.
indraḥ इन्द्रः [इन्द्-रन्; इन्दतीति इन्द्रः; इदि ऐश्वर्ये Malli.] 1 The lord of gods. -2 The god of rain, rain; cloud; इन्द्रो वरुणः सोमो रुद्रः । शं न इन्द्रो बृहस्पतिः Tait. Vp.1.1.1. Bṛi. Up.1.4.11. -3 A lord or ruler (as of men &c.). इन्द्रो- मायाभिः पुरुरूप ईयते Bṛi. Up.2.5.19. first or best (of any class of objects), always as the last member of comp.; नरेन्द्रः a lord of men i. e. a king; so मृगेन्द्रः a lion; गजेन्द्रः the lord or chief of elephants; so योगीन्द्रः, कपीन्द्रः. -4 A prince, king. -5 The pupil of the right eye. -6 N. of the plant कुटज. -7 Night. -8 One of the divisions of भारतवर्ष. -9 N. of the 26th Yoga. -1 The human or animal soul. -11 A vegetable poison. -12 The Yoga star in the 26th Nakṣatra. -13 Greatness. -14 The five objects of senses. -द्रा 1 The wife of Indra, Indrāṇī. -2 N. of a plant (मरुबक Mar. मरवा) [Indra, the god of the firmament, is the Jupiter Pluvius of the Indian Āryans. In the Vedas he is placed in the first rank among the gods; yet he is not regarded as an uncreated being, being distinctly spoken of in various passages of the Vedas as being born, and as having a father and a mother. He is sometimes represented as having been produced by the gods as a destroyer of enemies, as the son of Ekāṣṭakā, and in Rv.1.9.13 he is said to have sprung from the mouth of Puruṣa. He is of a ruddy or golden colour, and can assume any form at will. He rides in a bright golden chariot drawn by two tawny horses. His most famous weapon is the thunderbolt which he uses with deadly effect in his warfare with the demons of darkness, drought and inclement weather, variously called Ahi, Vṛitra, Śambar, Namuchi &c. He storms and breaks through their castles, and sends down fertilizing showers of rain to the great delight of his worshippers. He is thus the lord of the atmosphere, the dispenser of rain, and governor of the weather. He is represented as being assisted by the Maruts or storm-gods in his warfare. Besides the thunderbolt he uses arrows, a large hook, and a net. The Soma juice is his most favourite food, and under its exhilarating influence he performs great achievements (cf. Rv.1.119), and pleases his devout worshippers, who are said to invite the god to drink the juice. He is their friend and even their brother; a father, and the most fatherly of fathers; the helper of the poor, and the deliverer and comforter of his servants. He is a wall of defence; his friend is never slain or defeated. He richly rewards his adorers, particularly those who bring him libations of Soma, and he is supplicated for all sorts of temporal blessings as cows, horses, chariots, health, intelligence, prosperous days, long life, and victory in war. In the Vedas Indra's wife is Indrānī, who is invoked among the goddesses. Such is the Vedic conception of Indra. But in later mythology he falls in the second rank. He is said to be one of the sons of Kaśyapa and Dākṣāyaṇī or Aditi. He is inferior to the triad Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśa (though in some places Viṣṇu is regarded as his younger brother, cf. R.14.59,15.4), but he is the chief of all the other gods, and is commonly styled Sureśa, Devendra &c. As in the Vedas so in later mythology, he is the regent of the atmosphere, and of the east quarter, and his world is called Svarga. He sends the lightning, uses the thunderbolt and sends down rain. He is frequently at war with Asuras, whom he constantly dreads, and by whom he is sometimes defeated. The Indra of mythology is famous for his incontinence and adultery, one prominent instance of which is his seduction of Ahalyā, the wife of Gautama (see Ahalyā), and for which he is often spoken of as Ahalyā-jāra. The curse of the sage impressed upon him a 1 marks resembling the female organ, and he was therefore called Sayoni; but these marks were afterwards changed into eyes, and he is hence called Netra-yoni and Sahasrākṣa. In the Rāmāyana Indra is represented as having been defeated and carried off to Laṅkā by Ravaṇa's son called Meghanāda, who for this exploit received the title of 'Indrajit'. It was only at the intercession of Brahmā and the gods that Indra was released, and this humiliation was regarded as a punishment for his seduction of Ahalyā. He is also represented as being in constant dread of sages practising potent penances, and as sending down nymphs to beguile their minds (see Apsaras). In the Purāṇas he is said to have destroyed the offspring of Diti in her womb, and to have cut off the wings of mountains when they grew troublesome. Other stories are also told in which Indra was once worsted by Raja, grandson of Purūravas, owing to the curse of Durvāsas, and other accounts show that he and Kṛiṣna were at war with each other for the Pārijāta tree which the latter wanted to remove from Svarga, and which he succeeded in doing in spite of Indra's resistance. His wife is Indrāṇī, the daughter of the demon Puloman, and his son is named Jayanta. He is also said to be father of Arjuna. His epithets are numerous; mostly descriptive of his achievements, e. g. वृत्रहन्, बलभिद्, पाकशासन, गोत्रभिद्, पुरंदर, शतक्रतु, जिष्णु, नमुचिसूदन &c. (see Ak.I.1.44.47). The Heaven of Indra is Svarga; its capital, Amarāvatī; his garden, Nandana; his elephant, Airāvata; his horse, Uchchaiśravas; his bow, the rain-bow, and his sword, Paranja.]. -Comp. -अग्निः the fire produced from the contact of clouds; ˚धूमः frost, snow; ˚देवता the 16th lunar mansion. -अनुजः, -अवरजः an epithet of Viṣṇu and of Nārāyaṇa (उपेन्द्र); तस्थौ भ्रातृसमीपस्थः शक्रस्येन्द्रानुजो यथा Rām.6.91.4. -अरिः an Asura or demon. -अवसानः a desert. -अशनः 1 hemp (dried and chewed). -2 the shrub which bears the seed used in jeweller's weight, (गुंजावृक्ष). -आयुधम् Indra's weapon, the rainbow; इन्द्रा- युधद्योतिततोरणाङ्कम् R.7.4,12.79; K.127. (-ध) 1 N. of the horse in Kādambarī (i. e. Kapiñjala changed into a horse). -2 a horse marked with black about the eyes. -3 a diamond. (-धा) a kind of leech. -आसनम् 1 the throne of Indra. -2 a throne in general. -3 a foot of five short syllables. -इज्यः N. of बृहस्पति the preceptor of gods. -ईश्वरः one of the forms of Śiva-liṅga. -उत्सवः a festival honouring Indra. -ऋषभ a. having Indra as a bull, or impregnated by Indra, an epithet of the earth. इन्द्रऋषभा द्रविणे नो दधातु Av.12.1.6. -कर्मन् m. an epithet of Viṣṇu (performing Indra's deeds). -कान्तः A class of the four-storeyed buildings. (Mānasāra 21.6-68). -कीलः 1 N. of the mountain मन्दर. -2 a rock. (-लम्) 1 the banner of Indra. -2 A pin, nail, bolt फालका भाजनोर्ध्वे तु तदूर्ध्वे चेन्द्रकीलकम् (Mānasāra 12.126). cf. also Kau. A.2.3. -कुञ्जरः Indra's elephant, Airāvata. -कूटः N. of a mountain -कृष्ट a. 'ploughed by Indra', growing exuberantly or in a wild state. (-ष्टः) a kind of corn produced by rain-water. -केतुः Indra's banner. -कोशः, -षः, -षकः, -ष्ठः 1 a couch, sofa, which is generally made up of covering pieces of perforated wooden planks; cf. अट्टालक- प्रतोलीमध्ये त्रिधानुष्काधिष्ठानं-इन्द्रकोशं कारयेत् Kau. A.2.3. -2 a platform. -3 a projection of the roof of a house. -4 A pin or bracket projecting from the wall (नागदन्त). A projection of the roof of a house forming a kind of balcony; Kau. A.24. -गिरिः the महेन्द्र mountain. -गुरुः, -आचार्यः the teacher of Indra; i. e. बृहस्पति. -गोपः, -गोपकः [इन्द्रो गोपो रक्षको$स्य, वर्षाभवत्वात्तस्य] a kind of insect of red or white colour; Śukra.4.157; K.1. -चन्दनम् the white sandal wood. -चापम्, -धनुस् n. 1 a rainbow; विद्युत्वन्तं ललितवनिताः सेन्द्रचापं सचित्राः Me.64; Śi.7.4. -2 the bow of Indra -चिर्भटा A mild variety of Colocynth. The leaf is tripartite, rough and wrinkled. (Mar. कंवडळ, applied often as इन्द्रावण in the sense of vile, malignant, dark and hateful.) -च्छदः A necklace of pearls having 18 strings. -च्छन्दस् n. [इन्द्र इव सहस्रनेत्रेण सहस्रगुच्छेन च्छाद्यते] a necklace consisting of 1 strings. -जः N. of Vālī. -जतु n. Bitumen (Mar. शिलाजित). -जननम् Indra's birth. -जननीय a. treating of Indra's birth (as a work). -जा a. Ved. born or arising from Indra. Av.4.3.7. -जालम् [इन्द्रस्य परमेश्वरस्य जालं मायेव] 1 the net of Indra. तेनाह- मिन्द्रजालेनामूंस्तमसाभि दधामि सर्वान् Av.8.8.8. -2 a weapon used by Arjuna; a stratagem or trick in war. -3 deception, cheating. -4 conjuring, jugglery, magical tricks; इन्द्रजालं च मायां वै कुहका वा$पि भीषणा Mb.5.16.55. स्वप्नेन्द्रजालसदृशः खलु जीवलोकः Śānti.2.2; K.15. -जालिक a. [इन्द्रजाल-ठन्] deceptive, unreal, delusive. (-कः) a juggler, conjurer. -जित् m. 'conqueror of Indra', N. of a son of Rāvaṇa who was killed by Lakṣmaṇa. [Indrajit is another name of Meghanāda a son of Rāvaṇa. When Rāvaṇa warred against Indra in his own heaven, his son Meghanāda was with him, and fought most valiantly. During the combat, Meghanāda, by virtue of the magical power of becoming invisible which he had obtained from Śiva, bound Indra, and bore him off in triumph to Laṅkā. Brahmā and the other gods hurried thither to obtain his release, and gave to Meghanāda the title of Indrajit, 'conqueror of Indra'; but the victor refused to release his prisoners unless he were promised immortality. Brahmā refused to grant this extravagant demand, but he strenuously persisted, and achieved his object. In the Rāmāyaṇa he is represented to have been decapitated by Lakṣmaṇa while he was engaged in a sacrifice]. ˚हन्तृ or विजयिन् m. N. of Lakṣmaṇa. -ज्येष्ठ a. Ved. led by Indra. -तापनः the thundering of clouds. -तूलम्, -तूलकम् a flock of cotton. -दमनः the son of Bāṇāsura. -दारुः the tree Pinus Devadāru. -द्युति Sandal -द्रुः, -द्रुमः 1 the plant Terminalia Arjuna (अर्जुन). -2 The plant कुटज. -द्वीपः, -पम् one of the 9 Dvīpas or Divisions of the continent (of India). -धनुः N. of Indra's bow, the rainbow; स एकव्रा- त्यो$भवत्स धनुरादत्त तदेवेन्द्रधनुः Av.15.1.6. -ध्वजः 1 a flag raised on the 12th day of the bright half of Bhādra. -2 Indra's weapon; विस्रस्ताकल्पकेशस्रगिन्द्रध्वज इवापतत् Bhāg.1.44.22. -नक्षत्रम् Indra's lunar mansion फल्गुनी. -नेत्रम् 1 the eye of Indra. -2 the number one thousand. -नीलः [इन्द्र इव नीलः श्यामः] a sapphire; परीक्षाप्रत्ययैर्यैश्च पद्मरागः परीक्ष्यते । त एव प्रत्यया दृष्टा इन्द्रनीलमणेरपि ॥ Garuḍa. P.; R.13.54;16.69; Me.48,79. -नीलकः an emerald. -पत्नी 1 Indra's wife, शची. -पर्णी, -पुष्पा N. of a medicinal plant (Mar. कळलावी). -पर्वतः 1 the महेन्द्र mountain. -2 a blue mountain. -पुत्रा N. of अदिति. -पुरोगम, -पुरःसर, -श्रेष्ठ a. led or preceded by Indra, having Indra at the head. -पुरोहितः N. of बृहस्पति. (-ता) the asterism Puṣya. -प्रमतिः N. of the pupil of Paila and the author of some ṛiks of the Rv. -प्रस्थम् N. of a city on the Yamunā, the residence of the Paṇḍavas (identified with the modern Delhi); इन्द्रप्रस्थगमस्तावत्कारि मा सन्तु चेदयः Śi.2.63. -प्रहरणम् Indra's weapon, the thunderbolt. -भगिनी N. of Pārvatī. -भेषजम् dried ginger. -मखः a sacrifice in honour of Indra. -महः 1 a festival in honour of Indra. -2 the rainy season; ˚कामुकः a dog. -मादन a. animating or delighting Indra; ये वायव इन्द्रमादनासः Rv.7.92.4. -मेदिन् a. Ved. whose friend or ally is Indra; इन्द्रमेदी सत्वनो नि ह्वयस्व Av.5.2-.8. -यज्ञः (See इन्द्रमह and इन्द्रमख) श्वो$स्माकं घोषस्योचित इन्द्रयज्ञो नामोत्सवः भविष्यति Bālacharita I. -यवः, -वम् seed of the Kutaja tree. -लुप्तः, -प्तम्, -लुप्तकम् 1 excessive baldness of the head. -2 loss of beard. -लोकः Indra's world, Svarga or Paradise. -लोकेशः 1 lord of Indra's world, i. e. Indra. -2 a guest (who, if hospitably received, confers paradise on his host). -वंशा, -वज्रा N. of two metres, see Appendix. -वल्लरी, -वल्ली N. of a plant (पारिजात) or of इन्द्रवारुणी. -वस्तिः [इन्द्रस्य आत्मनः वस्तिरिव] the calf (of the leg). -वाततम a. Ved. desired by Indra. अस्मे ऊतीरिन्द्रवाततमाः Rv.1.6.6. -वानकम् A variety of diamonds. Kau. A.2.11. -वायू (du.) Indra and Vāyu. इन्द्रवायू उभाविह सुहवेह हवामहे Av.3.2.6. -वारुणी, -वारुणिका Colocynth, a wild bitter gourd cucumis colocynthis. (Mar. मोठी कंवडळ) किमिन्द्रवारुणी राम सितया कटुकीयते Laghu Yoga-vāsiṣṭha-sāra X. सौवर्चलं हरिद्रा च पिप्पली चेन्द्रवारुणिः । मूत्र- कृच्छ्रे प्रशंसन्ति पिण्डो$यं वाजिनां हितः ॥ शालिहोत्र of भोज 33. -वाह् a. carrying Indra. -वृक्षः the Devadāru tree. -वृद्धा a kind of abscess. -वैडूर्यम् a kind of precious stone. -व्रतम् Indra's rule of conduct; one of the duties of a king (who is said to follow इन्द्रव्रत when he distributes benefits as Indra pours down rain); वार्षिकांश्चतुरो मासान् यथेन्द्रो$प्यभिवर्षति । तथाभिवर्षेत्स्वं राष्ट्रं कामैरिन्द्रव्रतं चरन् ॥ Ms.9.34. -शक्तिः f. Indrāṇī, the wife of Indra, or his energy personified. -शत्रुः 1 an enemy or destroyer of Indra (when the accent is on the last syllable), an epithet of प्रह्लाद; इन्द्रशत्रो विवर्धस्व मा चिरं जहि विद्विषम् Bhāg.6.9.12. बलिप्रदिष्टां श्रियमाददानं त्रैविक्रमं पादमिवेन्द्रशत्रुः R.7.35. -2 [इन्द्रः शत्रुः यस्य] one whose enemy is Indra, an epithet of वृत्र (when the accent is on the first syllable). (This refers to a legend in the Śat. Br., where it is said that Vṛitra's father intended his son to become the destroyer of Indra, and asked him to say इन्द्रशत्रुर्वधस्व &c. but who, through mistake, accented the word on the first syllable, and was killed by Indra; cf. Śik.52; मन्त्रो हीनः स्वरतो वर्णतो वा मिथ्याप्रयुक्तो न तमर्थमाह । स वाग्वज्रो यजमानं हिनस्ति यथेन्द्रशत्रुः स्वरतो$पराधात् ॥ -शलभः a kind of insect (इन्द्रगोप). -संजयम् N. of a sāman. Arṣeya Br. -संधा connection or alliance with Indra. तयाहमिन्द्रसंधया सर्वान् देवानिह हुव Av.11.1.9. -सारथिः 1 N. of Mātali. -2 an epithet of Vāyu, driving in the same carriage with Indra; Rv.4.46.2. -सावर्णिः N. of the fourteenth Manu. -सुतः, -सूनुः 1 N. of (a) Jayanta; (b) Arjuna; (c) Vāli, the king of monkeys. -2 N. of the अर्जुन tree. -सुरसः, -सुरा a shrub the leaves of which are used in discutient applications (निर्गुंडी). -सेनः N. of several men; of Bali; of a mountain; Bhāg.8.2.23. -सेना 1 Indra's missile or host. -2 Indra's army; Rv.1.12.2. -सेनानीः the leader of Indra's armies, epithet of Kārtikeya. -स्तुत् m. -स्तोमः 1 praise of Indra; N. of a particular hymn addressed to Indra in certain ceremonies. -2 a sacrifice in honour of Indra. -हवः invocation of Indra; भद्रान् कृण्वन्निन्द्रहवान्त्सखिभ्य Rv.9.96.1. -हस्तः a kind of medicament.
audumbara औदुम्बर a. (-री f.) [उदुम्बर-अञ्] 1 Made of, or coming from, the Udumbara tree. -2 Made of copper; पात्रमौदुम्बरं गृह्य Mb.13.125.82. -रः [P.IV.2.67.] 1 N of a region abounding in Udumbara trees. -2 A form of Yama, the god of death. -3 Made of copper. -4 A class of ascetics solely living on whatever fruits they see first early in the morning; Bhāg.3.12.43. -री A branch of the Udumbara tree. -रम् 1 The wood of the Udumbara tree. -2 The Udumbara fruit. -3 A kind of leprosy. -4 Copper or a copper-vessel; Mb.5.4.1.
kaṃsakam कंसकम् 1 Bell-metal. -2 Green sulphate of iron (an eye-cure).
kāyaka कायक (-यिका f.), कायिक (-की f.) a. [काय-ठक्] Relating to the body, bodily, corporeal; कायिकतपः Ms.12.8. -का Interest (whatever is given for the use of money); Ms.8.153. -Comp. -वृद्धिः f. 1 interest consisting in the use of any animal or capital stock pawned. -2 interest of which the payment does not affect the principal, or the use of the body of an animal pledged by the person to whom it is pledged.
kāsīsam कासीसम् Green vitriol, green sulphate of iron; (Mar. हिराकस). कासीसकटुरोहिण्योर्जातिकन्दहरिद्रयोः Suśr.
kṛtaka कृतक a. [कृत-कन्] 1 Done, made, prepared; (opp. नैसर्गिक); यद्यत्कृतकं तत्तदनित्यम् Nyāya Sūtra. -2 Artificial, done or prepared artificially; अकृतकविधि सर्वाङ्गीणमाकल्प- जातम् R.18.52. -3 Feigned, pretended, false, sham, assumed; कृतककलहं कृत्वा Mu.3; Ki.8.46. -4 Adopted (as a son &c.); oft. at the end of comp. also; यस्योपान्ते कृतकतनयः कान्तया वर्धितो मे (बालमन्दारवृक्षः) Me.77; सो$यं न पुत्रकृतकः पदवीं मृगस्ते (जहाति) Ś.4.14; U.1.4. -कम् 1 A kind of salt (Mar. बिडलोण). -2 Sulphate of copper. -कम् ind. In a simulated manner; अपयाति सरोषया निरस्ते कृतकं कामिनि चुक्षुवे मृगाक्ष्या Śi.9.83.
kṛṣṇa कृष्ण a. [कृष्-नक्] 1 Black, dark, dark-blue. -2 Wicked, evil; मनो गुणान्वै सृजते बलीयस्ततश्च कर्माणि विलक्षणानि । शुक्लानि कृष्णान्यथ लोहितानि तेभ्यः सवर्णाः सृतयो भवन्ति ॥ Bhāg. 11.23.44. -ष्णः 1 The black colour. -2 The black antelope; Bhāg.1.35.19. -3 A crow. -4 The (Indian) cuckoo. -5 The dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); Bg.8.25. -6 The Kali age. -7 Viṣṇu in his eighth incarnation, born as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī. [Kṛiṣna is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the deities. Though the real son of Vasudeva and Devakī and thus a cousin of Kaṁsa, he was, for all practical purposes, the son of Nanda and Yaśodā, by whom he was brought up and in whose house he spent his childhood. It was here that his divine character began to be gradually discovered, when he easily crushed the most redoubtable demons, such as Baka, Pūtanā &c., that were sent to kill him by Kaṁsa, and performed many other feats of surprising strength. The chief companions of his youth were the Gopis or wives of the cowherds of Gokula, among whom Rādhā was his special favourite (cf. Jayadeva's Gitagovinda). He killed Kaṁsa, Naraka, Keśin, Ariṣṭa and a host of other powerful demons. He was a particular friend of Arjuna, to whom he acted as charioteer in the great war, and his staunch support of the cause of the Pāṇḍavas was the main cause of the overthrow of the Kauravas. On several critical occasions, it was Kṛiṣṇa's assistance and inventive mind that stood the Pāṇḍavas in good stead. After the general destruction of the Yādavas at Prabhāsa, he was killed unintentionally by a hunter named Jaras who shot him with an arrow mistaking him at a distance for a deer. He had more than 16 wives, but Rukmiṇi and Satyabhāmā, (as also Rādhā) were his favourites. He is said to have been of dark-blue or cloud-like colour; cf. बहिरिव मलिनतरं तव कृष्ण मनो$पि भविष्यति नूनं Gīt.8. His son was Pradyumna]. -8 N. of Vyāsa, the reputed author of the Mahābhārata; कुतः सञ्चोदितः कृष्णः कृतवान्संहितां मुनिः Bhāg.1.4.3. -9 N. of Arjuna. -1 Aloe wood. -11 The Supreme spirit. -12 Black pepper. -13 Iron. -14 A Śūdra; कृष्णस्तु केशवे व्यासे कोकिले$र्जुनकाकयोः । शूद्रे तामिस्रपक्षे$ग्निकलिनीलगुणेषु च ॥ Nm. -15 The marking nut (भल्लातक); विरक्तं शोध्यते वस्त्रं न तु कृष्णोपसंहितम् Mb.12.291.1. -ष्णा 1 N. of Draupadī, wife of the Pāṇḍavas; तेजो हृतं खलु मयाभिहतश्च मत्स्यः सज्जीकृतेन धनुषाधिगता च कृष्णा Bhāg.1.15.7; प्रविश्य कृष्णासदनं महीभुजा Ki.1.26. -2 N. of a river in the Deccan that joins the sea at Machhalipaṭṭaṇa. -3 A kind of poisonous insect. -4 N. of several plants. -5 A grape. -6 A kind of perfume. -7 An epithet of Durgā Bhāg.4.6.7. -8 One of the 7 tongues of fire. -9 N. of the river Yamunā; विलोक्य दूषितां कृष्णां कृष्णः कृष्णाहिना विभुः Bhāg.1.16.1. -ष्णी A dark night; रिणक्ति कृष्णीर- रुषाय पन्थाम् Rv.7.71.1. -ष्णम् 1 Blackness, darkness (moral also); शुक्रा कृष्णादजनिष्ट श्वितीची Rv.1.123.9. -2 Iron. -3 Antimony. -4 The black part of the eye. -5 Black pepper. -6 Lead. -7 An inauspicious act. -8 Money acquired by gambling. -Comp. -अगुरु n. a kind of sandal-wood. -अचलः an epithet of the mountain Raivataka. -अजिनम् the skin of the black antelope. -अध्वन्, -अर्चिस् m. an epithet of fire; cf. कृष्ण- वर्त्मन्. -अयस्, n. -अयसम्, -आमिषम् iron, crude or black iron. -कृष्णायसस्येव च ते संहत्य हृदयं कृतम् Mb.5.135. 1; वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं कृष्णायसमित्येव सत्यम् Ch. Up. 6.1.6. -अर्जकः N. of a tree. -अष्टमी, -जन्माष्टमी the 8th day of the dark half of Śrāvaṇa when Kṛiṣṇa, was born; also called गोकुलाष्टमी. -आवासः the holy fig-tree. -उदरः a kind of snake. -कञ्चुकः a kind of gram. -कन्दम् a red lotus. -कर्मन् a. of black deeds, criminal, wicked, depraved, guilty, sinful. -काकः a raven. -कायः a buffalo. -काष्ठम् a kind of sandal-wood, agallochum. -कोहलः a gambler. -गङ्गा the river कृष्णावेणी. -गति fire; ववृधे स तदा गर्भः कक्षे कृष्णगतिर्यथा Mb.13.85.56; आयोघने कृष्णगतिं सहायम् R.6.42. -गर्भाः (f. pl.) 1 the pregnant wives of the demon Kṛiṣṇa; यः कृष्णगर्भा निरहन्नृजिश्वना Rv.1.11.1. -2 waters in the interiors of the clouds. -गोधा a kind of poisonous insect. -ग्रीवः N. of Śiva. -चञ्चुकः a kind of pea. -चन्द्रः N. of Vasudeva. -चर a. what formerly belonged to Kṛiṣṇa. -चूर्णम् rust of iron, iron-filings. -च्छविः f. 1 the skin of the black antelope. -2 a black cloud; कृष्णच्छविसमा कृष्णा Mb.4.6.9. -ताम्रम् a kind of sandal wood. -तारः 1 a species of antelope. -2 an antelope (in general) -तालु m. a kind of horse having black palate; cf. शालिहोत्र of भोज, 67. -त्रिवृता N. of a tree. -देहः a large black bee. -धनम् money got by foul means. -द्वादशी the twelfth day in the dark half of Āṣaḍha. -द्वैपायनः N. of Vyāsa; तमहमरागमकृष्णं कृष्णद्वैपायनं वन्दे Ve.1.4. -पक्षः 1 the dark half of a lunar month; रावणेन हृता सीता कृष्णपक्षे$- सिताष्टमी Mahān. -2 an epithet of Arjuna; -पदी a female with black feet, -पविः an epithet of Agni. -पाकः N. of a tree (Mar. करवंद). -पिङ्गल a. dark-brown. (-ला) N. of Durgā. -पिण्डीतकः (-पिण्डीरः) N. of a tree (Mar. काळा गेळा). -पुष्पी N. of a tree (Mar. काळा धोत्रा). -फलः (-ला) N. of a tree (Mar. काळें जिरें). -बीजम् a watermelon. -भस्मन् sulphate of mecury. -मृगः the black antelope; शृङ्गे कृष्णमृगस्य वामनयनं कण्डूयमानां मृगीम् Ś.6.17. -मुखः, -वक्त्रः, -वदनः the black-faced monkey. -मृत्तिका 1 black earth. -2 the gunpowder. -यजुर्वेदः the Taittirīya or black Yajurveda. -यामः an epithet of Agni; वृश्चद्वनं कृष्णयामं रुशन्तम् Rv.6.6.1. -रक्तः dark-red colour. -रूप्य = ˚चर q. v. -लवणम् 1 a kind of black salt. -2 a factitious salt. -लोहः the loadstone. -वर्णः 1 black colour. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a Śūdra; विडूरुङ्घ्रिश्रितकृष्णवर्णः Bhāg.2.1.37. -वर्त्मन् m. 1 fire; श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42; Ms.2.94. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a low man, profligate, black-guard. -विषाणा Ved. the horns of the black antelope. -वेणी N. of a river. -शकुनिः a crow; Av.19.57.4. -शारः, -सारः, -सारङ्गः the spotted antelope; कृष्णसारे ददच्चक्षुस्त्वयि चाधिज्यकार्मुके Ś.1.6; V.4.31; पीयूषभानाविव कृष्णसारः Rām. Ch.1.3. -शृङ्गः a buffalo. -सखः, -सारथिः an epithet of Arjuna. (-खी) cummin seed (Mar. जिरें). -स्कन्धः N. of a tree (Mar. तमाल).
kesa केस (श) रः रम् 1 The mane (as of a lion); न हन्त्यदूरे$पि गजान्मृगेश्वरो विलोलजिह्वश्चलिताग्रकेसरः Ṛs.1.14; Ś.7.14. -2 The filament of a flower; नीपं दृष्ट्वा हरितक- पिशं केसरैरर्धरूढैः Me.21; Ś.6.18; M.2.11; R.4.67; Śi.9.47. -3 The Bakula tree; रक्ताशोकश्चलकिसलयः केसर- श्चात्र कान्तः Me.8; Ku.3.55. -4 The Punnāga tree. -5 The fibre (as of a mango fruit). -6 Saffron. -7 The hair. -रम् 1 A flower of the Bakula tree; सुरभि- गन्धपराजितकेसरम् R.9.36. -2 Gold. -3 Sulphate of iron. -Comp. -अचलः an epithet of the mountain Meru; Bhāg.5.17.6. -अम्लः the citron. -वरम् saffron.
ci चि I. 5 U. (चिनोति, चिनुते, चिका-चा-य, चिच्ये-क्ये, अचैषीत्- अचेष्ट, चेतुम्, -चित; caus. चाययति, चापयति, also चययति, चप- यति desid. चिचीषति, -चिकीषति) 1 To collect, gather, accumulate (said to govern two accusatives being a द्विकर्मक root, but this use is very rare in classical literature), वृक्षं पुष्पाणि चिन्वती. -2 To gather for oneself, acquire, gain; चिचीषतां चन्मवतामलध्वीं भूतिम् Ki.3.11; 2.19; Mv.3.4. -3 To search, look out for; Bh.3.46. -4 To pile or heap up, place in a line; पर्वतानिव ते भूमा- वचैषुर्वानरोत्तमान् Bk.15.76. -5 To set, inlay, cover or fill with, see चित. pass. To bear fruit, grow, increase, thrive, prosper; सिच्यते चीयते चैव लता पुष्पफलप्रदा Pt.1.222 bears fruit; चीयते बालिशस्यापि सत्क्षेत्रपतिता कृषिः Mu.1.3; गजहंस तव सैव शुभ्रता जीयते न च न चापचीयते K. P.1. -II. 3 P. (चिकेति) Ved. 1 To observe, see, perceive. -2 To look steadfastly upon. -3 To be intent upon. -4 To seek for, search, investigate, make inquiries, search through. -III. 1 Ā. (चयते) 1 To detest, hate. -2 To revenge, take vengeance on. -IV. 1 U. (चायति-ते) 1 To fear, dread, be afraid of (with acc.) -2 To respect, honour. -3 To observe; cf. चाय्.
tallajaḥ तल्लजः 1 Excellence, superiority, happiness. -2 (At the end of comp.) Excellent (in this sense the word is always masculine, whatever be the gender of the first member of the compound); गोतल्लजः 'an excellent cow'; so कुमारीतल्लजः 'an excellent maiden'.
tāmra ताम्र a. [तम्-रक् दीर्घः Uṇ.2.16.] 1 Made of copper. -2 Of a coppery red colour, red; ततो$नुकुर्याद्विशदस्य तस्यास्ताम्रौष्ठपर्यस्तरुचः स्मितस्य Ku.1.44; उदेति सविता ताम्रस्ताम्र एवास्तमेति च Subhāṣ. -म्रः A kind of leprosy with red spots. -म्रम् 1 Copper. -2 A dark or coppery red. -3 A coppery receptacle; ताम्रलोहैः परिवृता निधयो ये चतुः- शताः Mb.2.61.29. -म्री A copper pot having a small hole at the botton used in measuring time by placing it in a water-vessel. -Comp. -अक्षः 1 a crow. -2 the (Indian) cuckoo. -अर्धः bell-metal. -अश्मन् m. a kind of jewel (पद्मराग); ताम्राश्मरश्मिच्छुरितैर्नखाग्रैः Śi.3.7. -आभम् red sandal (रक्तचन्दन). -उपजीविन् m. a coppersmith. -ओष्ठः (forming ताम्रोष्ठ or ताम्रौष्ठ) a red or cherry lip; Ku.1.44. -कारः, -कुट्टः a brazier, coppersmith. -कृमिः 1 a kind of red insect (इन्द्रगोप). -2 the lady bird. -3 cochineal. -गर्भम् sulphate of copper. -चूडः a cock; संध्याचूडैर- निबिडतमस्ताम्रचूडैरुडूनि । प्रासूयन्त स्फुटमधिवियद्भाण्डमण्डानि यानि ॥ Rām. Ch.6.96;7.56. -चडकः a particular position of the hand. -त्रपुजम् brass. -द्रुः the red sandalwood. -द्वीपः the island of Ceylon; Divyāvadāna.36. -धातुः 1 red chalk. -2 Copper; Rām.3. -पट्टः, -पत्रम् a copper-plate on which grants of land were frequently inscribed; पटे वा ताम्रपट्टे वा स्वमुद्रोपरिचिह्नितम् । अभिलेख्यात्मनो वंश्यानात्मानं च महीपतिः ॥ Y.1.319. -पर्णी N. of a river rising in Malaya, celebrated for its pearls; R.4.5. Hence ताम्रपर्णिक (= obtained in the same river); Kau. A.2.11. -पलः Alangium Hexapetalum; दद्यात्ताम्रपलं वापि अभावे सर्वकर्मणः Yuktikalpataru. -पल्लवः the Aśoka tree. -पाकिन् Thespesia Populneoides (Mar. लाखी-पारासा पिंपळ). -पुष्पः Kæmpferia Rotunda (Mar. बाहवा). -ष्पी Bignonia Suaveolens (Mar. धायरी, भुईपाडळ) -फलकम् a copper-plate. -मुख a. copper-faced. (-खः) 1 a Frank or European; -2 the Moghals. -वदनः (see ताम्रमुख); योत्स्यन्ति ताम्रवदनैरनेकैः सैनिका इमे Śiva. B.26.23. -वर्णी the blossom of sesamum. -लिप्तः N. of a country. -प्ताः (pl.) its people or rulers. -वृक्षः a species of sandal. -शिखिन् m. a cook. -सारकः a sort of Khadira. (-कम्) red sandal-wood.
tutthaḥ तुत्थः [तुद्-थक्] 1 Fire. -2 A stone. -त्थम् Sulphate of copper, usually applied to the eyes as a sort of collyrium or medical ointment. -त्था 1 Small cardamoms. -2 The indigo plant. -Comp. -अञ्जनम् blue vitriol applied to the eyes as a medical ointment.
drogdhṛ द्रोग्धृ a. Malevolent, hater.
drauhika द्रौहिक a. Always fit to be hated.
dviṣ द्विष् 2 U. (द्वेष्टि, द्विष्टे; द्विष्ट) To hate, dislike, be hostile towards; न द्वेक्षि यज्जनमतस्त्वमजातशुत्रुः Ve.3.15; नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता Bg.2.57;18.1; Bk. 17.61;18.9; रम्यं द्वेष्टि Ś.6.5 (Prepositions like प्र, वि and सम् are prefixed to this root without any change of meaning.)
dviṣṭa द्विष्ट p. p. [द्विष्-कर्मणि क्त] 1 Hostile. -2 Hated, disliked. -ष्टम् Copper. -Comp. -कारिन् One who plots against; राजद्विष्टकारिणश्च Kau.A.1.11.
dveṣaḥ द्वेषः [द्विष्-भावे घञ्] 1 Hate, dislike, abhorrence, repugnance, distaste; &Sacute.5.18; इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ Bg.3.34;7.27; so अन्नद्वेषः, भक्तद्वेषः &c. -2 Enmity, hostility, malignity; अकन्येति तु यः कन्यां ब्रूयाद् द्वेषेण मानवः Ms.8.225. -Comp. -परिमोचनः a particular Samādhi. -स्थ a. betraying dislike.
dveṣaṇa द्वेषण a. Hating, disliking. -णः An enemy. -णम् Hate, hatred, enmity, dislike.
dveṣya द्वेष्य pot. p. 1 To be hated. -2 Odious, hateful, disagreeble; द्वेष्यो$पि संमतः शिष्टः R.1.28; Pt.1.239. -ष्यः An enemy; Bg.6.9; समो$हं सर्वभूतेषु न मे द्वेष्यो$स्ति न प्रियः 9.29; Ms.9.37. -Comp. -पापक a. detesting sin; Mb.12.
dhātuḥ धातुः [धा-आधारे तुन्] 1 A constituent or essential part, an ingredient. -2 An element, primary or elementary substance, i. e. पृथिवी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु and आकाश; Bhāg.7.15.6. -3 A secretion, primary fluid or juice, essential ingredients of the body (which are considered to be 7:-- रसासृङ्मांसमेदो$स्थिमज्जाशुक्राणि धातवः, or sometimes ten if केश, त्वच् and स्नायु be added); Mb.3.213.1. -4 A humour or affection of the body, (i.e. वात, पित्त and कफ); यस्यात्मबुद्धिः कुणपे त्रिधातुके Bhāg.1.84.13. -5 A mineral, metal, metallic ore; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र Ku.1.7; त्वामालिख्य प्रणयकुपितां धातुरागैः शिलायाम् Me.17; R.4.71; Ku.6.51. -6 A verbal root; भूवादयो धातवः P.I.3.1; पश्चादध्ययनार्थस्य धातोरधिरिवाभवत् R.15.9. -7 The soul. -8 The Supreme Spirit; धातुप्रसादान्महिमानमात्मनः Kaṭha. -9 An organ of sense. -1 Any one of the properties of the five elements, i. e. रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द; तत्र तत्र हि दृश्यन्ते धातवः पाञ्चभौतिकाः । तेषां मनुष्यास्तर्केण प्रमाणानि प्रचक्षते Mb.6.5.11. -11 A bone. -12 A part, portion. -13 A fluid mineral of a red colour. -14 Ved. A supporter. -15 Anything to be drunk, as milk &c. -f. A milch cow. -Comp. -उपलः chalk. -काशीशम्, -कासीसम् red sulphate of iron. -कुशल a. skilful in working in metals, metallurgist. -क्रिया metallurgy, mineralogy -क्षयः waste of the bodily humours, a wasting disease, a kind of consumption. -गर्भः, -स्तपः a receptacle for ashes, Dagoba; Buddh. ˚कुम्भः a relic urn. -ग्राहिन् m. calamine. -घ्नम्, -नाशनम् sour gruel (prepared from the fermentation of rice-water). -चूर्णम् mineral powder. -जम् bitumen -द्रावकः borax. -पः the alimentary juice, the chief of the seven essential ingredients of the body. -पाठः a list of roots arranged according to Pāṇini's grammatical system (the most important of these lists called धातुपाठ being supposed to be the work of Pāṇini himself, as supplementary to his Sūtras). -पुष्टिः f. nutrition of the bodily humours. -प्रसक्त a. devoted to alchemy; -भृत् m. a mountain. -मलम् 1 impure excretion of the essential fluids of the body; कफपित्तमलाः केशः प्रस्वेदो नखरोम च । नेत्रविट् चक्षुषः स्नेहो धातूनां क्रमशो मलाः ॥ Suśruta. -2 lead. -माक्षिकम् 1 sulphuret of iron. -2 a mineral substance. -मारिणी borax. -मारिन् m. sulphur. -रसः a mineral or metalic fluid; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र (भूर्जत्वचः) Ku.1.7. -राजकः, -कम् semen. -वल्लभम् borax. -वादः 1 mineralogy, metallurgy. -2 alchemy. -वादिन् m. a mineralogist. -विष् f. lead. -वैरिन् m. sulphur. -शेखरन् green sulphate of iron, green vitriol. -शोधनम्, -संभवम् lead. -साम्यम् good health, (equilibrium of the three humours). -हन् m. sulphur.
netram नेत्रम् [नयति नीयते वा अनेन नी-ष्ट्रन्] 1 Leading, conducting, directing; कर्मणा दैवनेत्रेण जन्तुदेहोपपत्तये Bhāg.3.31.1. -2 The eye; प्रायेण गृहिणीनेत्राः कन्यार्थेषु कृटुम्बिनः Ku.6.85; 2.29,3;7.13. -3 The string of a churning-stick; मन्थानं मन्दरं कृत्वा तथा नेत्रं च वासुकिम् Mb.1.18.13; Bhāg. 8.6.22. -4 Woven silk, a fine silken garment; नेत्र- क्रमेणोपरुरोध सूर्यम् R.7.39. (where some commentators take नेत्रम् in its ordinary sense of the 'eye'). -5 The root of a tree. -6 An enema pipe. -7 A carriage, conveyance in general. -8 The number 'two'. -9 A leader; सूर्योदये सञ्जय के नु पूर्वं युयुत्सवो हृष्यमाणा इवासन् । मामका वा भीष्मनेत्राः समीपे पाण्डवा वा भीमनेत्रास्तदानीम् ॥ Mb.6.2.1. -1 A constellation, star. (said to be m. only in these two senses). -11 A river; Nm. -12 A kind of vein; Nm. -13 A bug; Nm. -14 A bark of a tree; Nm. -Comp. -अञ्जनम् a collyrium for the eyes; Ś. Til.7. -अतिथि a. One who has become visible. -अन्तः the outer corner of the eye. -अम्बु, -अम्भस् n. tears. -अभिष्यन्दः running of the eyes, a kind of eye-disease -अरिः Euphorbia Antiquorum (Mar. निवडुंग, शेर). -आमयः ophthalmia. -उत्सवः any pleasing or beautiful object. -उपमम् the almond fruit. -औषधम् 1 collyrium -2 green sulphate of iron (Mar. हिराकस). -कार्मणम् a spell for the eyes; Vikr. -कनीनिका the pupil of the eye. -कूटः, -टम् a front apartment, a side-hall, a corner tower; प्रधानावासनेत्रस्थनेत्रकूटद्वयं न्यसेत् Kāmikāgama 35.75. -कोषः 1 the eye-ball. -2 the bud of a flower. -गोचर a. within the range of sight, perceptible, visible. -चपल a. restless with the eyes, winking; न नेत्रचपलो$नृजुः Ms.4.177. -छदः the eyelid. -जम्, -जलम्, -वारि n. tears. -र्निसिन् a. kissing or touching the eye (sleep). -पत्रम् the eye-brows. -पर्यन्त a. as far as the eye, up to the eye. (-तः) the outer corner of the eye. -पाकः inflammation of the eye; Suśr. -पिण़्डः 1 the eye-ball. -2 a cat. -बन्धः hood-winking, playing at hide-and-seek; Bhāg. -भवः, -मलम् the mucus of the eyes. -मुष् a. stealing or captivating the eye. -योनिः 1 an epithet of Indra (who had on his body a thousand marks resembling the female organ inflicted by the curse of Gautama). -2 the moon. -रञ्जनम् a collyrium. -रोमन् n. the eyelash. -वस्तिः m., f. a clyster-pipe with a bag. -वस्त्रम् a veil over the eye, the eyelid. -विष् f. excretion of the eyes. -विष a. having poison in the eyes (the Brāhmaṇa); Mb.2. -स्तम्भः rigidity of the eyes.
pāṃśavaḥ पांशवः m. Fossil salt. पांसुः (-शुः) 1 Dust, dirt; crumbling soil; तस्याः खुरन्यासपवित्रपांसुम् (मार्गम्) R.2.2; विदह्यमानः पथि तप्तपांसुभिः Ṛs.1.13; Y.1.15. -2 A particle of dust. -3 Dung, manure. -4 A kind of camphor. -5 Landed property. -6 Powder, fragments; ससर्ज रसपांसवः Mb.3.284.4. -Comp. -कासीसम् sulphate of iron. -कुली a highroad, highway. -कूलम् 1 a dust-heap. -2 a legal document not made out in any particular person's name (निरुपपदशासनम्). -कृत a. covered with dust. -क्रीडनम्, -क्रीडा, -विकर्षणम् 1 Playing in the sand. -2 Wresting; Mb.5.169.12. (Com. पांसुविकर्षणे पांसुषु विकर्षणे भूमौ मुष्टियुद्धे इत्यर्थः.) -क्षारम्, -जम् a kind of salt. -गुण्ठित a. covered with dust. -चत्वरम् hail. -चन्दनः an epithet of Śiva. -चामरः 1 a heap of dust. -2 a tent. -3 a bank covered with Dūrvā grass. -4 praise. -5 bushes (?) carried by the current of the river; L. D. B. -जालिकः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निपातः a shower of dust; also -वर्षः Ms.4.115. -पटलम् a mass or coating of dust. -पिशाचः a class of demons. -मर्दनः an excavation for water round the root of a tree, a trench or basin. -लवणम् a kind of salt.
puruṣaḥ पुरुषः [पुरि देहे शेते शी-ड पृषो˚ Tv.; पुर्-अग्रगमने कुषन् Uṇ. 4.74] 1 A male being, man; अर्थतः पुरुषो नारी या नारी सार्थतः पुमान् Mk.3.27; Ms.1.32;7.17;9.2; R.2.41. -2 Men, mankind. -3 A member or representative of a generation. -4 An officer, functionary, agent, attendant, servant. -5 The height or measure of a man (considered as a measure of length); द्वौ पुरुषौ प्रमाणमस्य सा द्विपुरुषा-षी परिखा Sk. -6 The soul; द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च Bg.15.16 &c. -7 The Supreme Being, God (soul of the universe); पुरातनं त्वां पुरुषं पुराविदः (विदुः) Śi.1.33; R.13.6. -8 A person (in grammar); प्रथम- पुरुषः the third person, मध्यमपुरुषः the second person, and उत्तमपुरुषः the first person, (this is the strict order in Sk.). -9 The pupil of the eye. -1 (In Sāṅ. phil.) The soul (opp. प्रकृति); according to the Sāṅkhyas it is neither a production nor productive; it is passive and a looker-on of the Prakṛiti; cf. त्वामामनन्ति प्रकृतिं पुरुषार्थप्रवर्तिनीम् Ku.2.13 and the word सांख्य also. -11 The soul, the original source of the universe (described in the पुरुषसूक्त); सहस्रशीर्षः पुरुषः सहस्राक्षः सहस्रपात् &c. -12 The Punnāga tree. -13 N. of the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh signs of the zodiac. -14 The seven divine or active principles of which the universe was formed; तेषामिदं तु सप्तानां पुरुषाणां महौजसाम् Ms.1.19. -षी A woman. -षम् An epithet of the mountain Meru. -Comp. -अङ्गम् the male organ of generation. -अदः, -अद् m. 'a man-eater', cannibal, goblin; अवमेने हि दुर्बुद्धिर्मनुष्यान् पुरुषादकः Mb.3.275.27. -अधमः the vilest of men, a very low or despicable man. -अधिकारः 1 a manly office or duty. -2 calculation or estimation of men; संसत्सु जाते पुरुषाधिकारे न पूरणी तं समुपैति संख्या Ki.3.51. -अन्तरम् another man. -अयणः, -अर्थः 1 any one of the four principal objects of human life; i. e. धर्म अर्थ, काम and मोक्ष. -2 human effort or exertion (पुरुषकार); धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाश्च पुरुषार्था उदाहृताः Agni P.; H. Pr.35. -3 something which when done results in the satisfaction of the performer; यस्मिन् कृते पदार्थे पुरुषस्य प्रीतिर्भवति स पुरुषार्थः पदार्थः ŚB. on MS.4.1.2. -अस्थिमालिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -आद्यः 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 a demon. -आयुषम्, -आयुस् n. the duration of a man's life; अकृपणमतिः कामं जीव्याज्जनः पुरुषायुषम् Ve.6.44; पुरुषायुषजीविन्यो निरातङ्का निरीतयः R.1. 63. -आशिन् m. 'a man-eater', a demon, goblin. -इन्द्रः a king. -उत्तमः 1 an excellent man. -2 the highest or Supreme Being, an epithet of Viṣṇu or Kṛiṣṇa; यस्मात् क्षरमतीतो$हमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः । अतो$स्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥ Bg.15.18. -3 a best attendant. -4 a Jaina. -5 N. of a district in Orissa sacred to Viṣṇu. -कारः 1 human effort or exertion, manly act, manliness, prowess (opp. दैव); एवं पुरुषकारेण विना दैवं न सिध्यति H. Pr.32; दैवे पुरुषकारे च कर्मसिद्धिर्व्यवस्थिता Y.1.349; cf. 'god helps those who help themselves'; अभिमतसिद्धिर- शेषा भवति हि पुरुषस्य पुरुषकारेण Pt.5.3; Ki.5.52. -2 manhood, virility. -3 haughtiness, pride. -कुणपः, -पम् a human corpse. -केसरिन् m. man-lion, an epithet of Viṣṇu. in his fourth incarnation; पुरुषकेसरिणश्च पुरा नखैः Ś.7.3. -ज्ञानम् knowledge of mankind; Ms.7.211. -तन्त्र a. subjective. -दध्न, -द्वयस् a. of the height of a man. -द्विष् m. an enemy of Viṣṇu. -द्वेषिणी an illtempered woman (who hates her husband). -नाथः 1 a general, commander. -2 a king. -नियमः (in gram.) a restriction to a person. -पशुः a beast of a man, brutish person; cf. नरपशु. -पुङ्गवः, -पुण्डरीकः a superior or eminent man. -पुरम् N. of the capital of Gāndhāra, q. v. -बहुमानः the esteem of mankind; निवृत्ता भोगेच्छा पुरुषबहुमानो विगलितः Bh.3.9. -मानिन् a. fancying oneself a hero; कथं पुरुषमानी स्यात् पुरुषाणां मयि स्थिते Rām.2.24.35. -मेधः a human sacrifice. -वरः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -वर्जित a. desolate. -वाहः 1 an epithet of Garuḍa. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -व्याघ्रः -शार्दूलः, -सिंहः 'a tiger or lion among men', a distinguished or eminent man. उद्योगिनं पुरुषसिंहमुपैति लक्ष्मीः H. -2 a hero, brave man. -समवायः a number of men. -शीर्षकः A kind of weapon used by burglars (a sham head to be inserted into the hole made in a wall); Dk.2.2. -सारः an eminent man; Bhāg.1.16.7. -सूक्तम् N. of the 9th hymn of the 1th Maṇḍala of the Ṛigveda (regarded as a very sacred hymn).
puṣpam पुष्पम् [पुष्प् विकाशे-अच्] 1 A flower, blossom; पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति Bg.9.26. -2 The menstrual discharge; as in पुष्पवती q. v. -3 A topaz (पुष्पराग); Rām.2.94.6. -4 A disease of the eyes (albugo). -5 The car or vehicle of Kubera; see पुष्पक. -6 Gallantry, politeness (in love language). -7 Expanding, blooming, blossoming (said to be m. in this sense). -Comp. -अग्रम् pistil. -अञ्जनम् 1 calx of brass used as a collyrium. -2 A white flower-like substance which appears when zinc is mixed with copper and heated for preparing brass. -3 Zinc oxide (Mar. जस्तफूल). -अञ्जलिः a handful of flowers. -अनुगम् a powder promoting menstruation. -अभिषेक = ˚स्नान q. v. -अम्बु the honey of flowers. -अम्बुजम् the sap of flowers. -अवचयः collecting or gathering flowers. -अवचायिन् = पुष्पाजीव q. v. -अस्त्रः an epithet of the god of love. -आकर a. rich or abounding in flowers; मासो नु पुष्पाकरः V.1.9. -आगमः the spring. -आजीवः a florist, garland-maker. -आननः a kind of liquor. -आपीडः a chaplet of flowers. -आयुधः, -इषुः the god of love; पुष्पायुधं दुराधर्षम् Mb.1. 172.17; Mahimna 23. -आसवम् honey. -आसारः a shower of flowers; पुष्पासारैः स्नपयतु भवान् व्योमगङ्गाजलार्द्रैः Me.45. -आस्तरकः, -आस्तरणम् the art of strewing flowers (one of the 64 Kalās). -उद्गमः appearance of flowers. -उद्यानम् a flower-garden. -उपजीविन् m. a florist, gardener, garland-maker. -करण्डकम् N. of the garden of Ujjayinī. -करण्डिनी N. of the city, Ujjayinī. -कालः 1 'flower-time', the spring. -2 the time of the menses. -कासीसम् green (or black) sulphate of iron. -कीटः a large black bee. -केतनः, -केतुः the god of love. (-n.) 1 calx of flowers. -2 vitriol (used as a collyrium). -गण्डिका N. of a kind of farce (in which men act as women and women as men); S. D. -गृहम् a flowerhouse, conservatory. -घातकः the bamboo. -चयः 1 gathering flowers -2 a quantity of flowers. -चापः the god of love. -चामरः a kind of cane. -जम् the juice of flowers. -दः a tree. -दन्तः 1 N. of an attendant of Śiva. -2 N. of the author of the Mahimnastotra. -3 N. of the elephant presiding over the northwest; शुद्धाक्षमैन्द्रं भल्लाटं पुष्पदन्तं तथैव च Hariv. -4 the sun and moon (dual). -दामन् n. a garland of flowers. -द्रवः 1 the sap or exudation of flowers. -2 an infusion of flowers. -द्रुमः a flowering tree. -धः the offspring of an outcast Brāhmaṇa; cf. व्रात्यात् तु जायते विप्रात् पापात्मा भूर्जकण्टकः । आवन्त्यवाटधानौ च पुष्पधः शैख एव च ॥ Ms.1.21. -धनुस्, -धन्वन् m. the god of love; द्रुतमेत्य पुष्पधनुषो धनुषः Śi.9.41; शतमखमुपतस्थे प्राञ्जलिः पुष्पधन्वा Ku.2.64. -धरः a. bearing flowers. -धारणः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -ध्वजः the god of love. -निक्षः a bee. -निर्यासः, -निर्यासकः the sap, nectar, or juice of flowers. -नेत्रम् the tube of a flower. -पत्रिन् m. the god of love. -पथः, -पदवी the vulva. -पुटः the calyx of a flower. -2 (in music) a particular position in dancing. -पुरम् N. of Pāṭaliputra; प्रासादवातायनसंश्रितानां नेत्रोत्सवं पुष्पपुराङ्गनानाम् R.6.24. -प्रचयः, -प्रचायः the plucking or gathering of flowers. -प्रचायिका gathering of flowers. -प्रस्तारः a bed or couch of flowers. -फलः the wood-apple tree. -बटुकः a courtier, gallant; (v. l. for पुष्पनाटक), -बलिः an offering of flowers. -बाणः, -वाणः an epithet of the god of love. -भद्रः a kind of pavilion with 62 columns. -भवः the nectar or juice of flowers. -मञ्जरिका a blue lotus. -माला a garland of flowers. -मासः 1 the month of Chaitra; मम त्वयं विना वासः पुष्पमासे सुदुःसहः Rām.4.1. 41. -2 the spring; अजितभुवनस्तथा हि लेभे सिततुरगे विजयं न पुष्पमासः Ki.1.35. -यमकम् a kind of Yamaka; cf. Bk.1.14. -रजस् n. the pollen. -रथः a carriage for travelling or for pleasure (but not for war); मुख्यः पुष्परथो युक्तः किं न गच्छति ते$ग्रतः Rām.2.26.15. -रसः the nectar or juice of flowers. ˚आह्वयम् honey. -रागः, -राजः a topaz. -रेणुः pollen; वायुर्विधूनयति चम्पकपुष्पपेणून् Kavirahasya; R.1.38. -पुष्परोचनः the Nāgakesara tree. -लावः a flower-gatherer. (-वी) a female flowergatherer; Me.26. -लिक्षः, -लिह् m. a bee. -लिपिः A particular style of writing. -वर्षः, -वर्षणम् a shower of flowers; सुरभि सुरविमुक्तं पुष्पवर्षं पपात R.12.12; पुष्पवर्षो महानभूत् Rām. -वाटिका, -वाटी f. a flower-garden. -वृक्षः a tree bearing flowers. -वृष्टिः f. a shower of flowers; परस्परशरव्राताः पुष्पवृष्टिं न सेहिरे R.12.94. -वेणी a garland of flowers. -शकटिका, -शकटी a heavenly voice, voice from heaven. ˚निमित्तज्ञानम् Knowledge of the omens which result from heavenly voices (one of the 64 Kalās). -शय्या a flowery bed, a couch of flowers. -शरः, -शरासनः, -सायकः the god of love. -समयः the spring. -सारः, -स्वेदः the nectar or honey of flowers. -सारा the holy basil. -सिता a kind of sugar. -स्नानम् a kind of inauguration. -हासः 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 the blooming of flowers. -हासा a woman in her courses. -हीना a woman past child-bearing.
pṛthu पृथु a. (-थु or -थ्वी f., compar. प्रथीयस्, superl. प्रथिष्ठ) [प्रथ्-कु संप्र˚ Uṇ.1.28] 1 Broad, wide, spacious, expansive; पृथुनितम्ब q. v. below; सिन्धोः पृथुमपि तनुम् Me.48. -2 Copious, abundant, ample; अव्युच्छिन्नपृथु- प्रवृत्ति भवतो दानं ममाप्यर्थिषु V.4.47. -3 Large, great; दृशः पृथुतरीकृताः Ratn.2.15; अरोधि पन्थाः पृथुदन्तशालिना Śi. 12.48; R.11.25. -4 Detailed, prolix. -5 Numerous. -6 Smart, sharp, clever. -7 Important. -6 Various. -थुः 1 N. of fire or Agni. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 Of Mahādeva. -4 N. of a king. [Pṛithu was the son of Vena, son of Anga. He was called the first king, from whom the earth received her name Pṛithvī. The Viṣṇu Purāṇa relates that when Vena who was wicked by nature and prohibited worship and sacrifice, was beaten to death by the pious sages, and when consequently robbery and anarchy prevailed in the absence of a King, the Munis rubbed the right arm of the dead king to produce a son, and from it sprang the majestic Pṛithu, glowing like Agni. He was immediately declared King, and his subjects who had suffered from famine, besought the monarch for the edible fruits and plants which the earth withheld from them. In anger Pṛithu took up his bow to compel her to yield the supply so much needed by his subjects. She assumed the form of a cow and began to flee chased by the King. But she at last yielded and requested him to spare her life, and at the same time promised to restore all the needed fruits, plants &c., 'if a calf were given to her through which she might be able to secrete milk.' Pṛithu thereupon made Svāyambhuva Manu the calf; milked the earth, and received the milk into his own hand, from which proceeded all kinds of corn, vegetables, fruits &c., for the maintenance of his subjects. The example or Pṛithu was afterwards followed by a variety of milkers-gods, men, Ṛiṣis, mountains, Nāgas, Asuras &c., who found out the proper milkman and calf from their own number, and milked the earth of whatever they wanted; cf. Ku.1.2.] -थु f. Opium. -Comp. -उदर a. big-bellied, corpulent. (-रः) a ram. -कीर्ति a. far-famed. -जघन, -नितम्ब a. having large or broad hips or slopes; पृथुनितम्ब नितम्बवती तव V.4.26. -दर्शिन् a. far-sighted. -पत्रः, -त्रम् red garlic. -प्रथ, -यशस् a. far-famed, widely renowned. -बीजकः lentils. -रोमन् m. a fish. ˚युग्म the sign Pisces of the zodiac. -शेखरः a mountain. -श्री a. highly prosperous. -श्रोणि a. having large hips. -संपद् a. rich, wealthy. -स्कन्धः a hog.
pratihata प्रतिहत p. p. 1 Struck or beaten back; knocked back; तस्मिन् प्रतिहते चास्त्रे विस्मयो मे महानभूत् Mb.3.167.31. -2 Driven away, repelled, repulsed; शापादसि प्रतिहता Ś.7.32; सा बुद्धिरप्रतिहता वचनं तदेव Bh.2.4. -3 Opposed, obstructed. -4 Sent, despatched. -5 Hated, disliked. -6 Disappointed, frustrated. -7 Fallen, overthrown. -8 Tied, bound. -9 Impaired, lost; यावच्चेन्द्रियशक्तिरप्रति- हता Bh.3.88; इमास्ता मन्मथवतां हिताः प्रतिहता दिशः Rām. 4.28.13. -1 Dazzled (as eyes). -11 Dulled, blunted (as teeth by acid). -Comp. -धी, -मति a. hating, disliking.
pradviṣ प्रद्विष् 2 U. To hate, dislike. प्रद्विष् pradviṣ प्रद्विषत् pradviṣat प्रद्विष् प्रद्विषत् a. 1 Hating, disliking. -2 Hostile or opposed to. प्रद्वेषः pradvēṣḥ प्रद्वेषणम् pradvēṣaṇam प्रद्वेषः प्रद्वेषणम् Dislike, hatred, aversion.
yatas यतस् ind. [तद्-तसिल्] (often used merely for the abl. of the relative pronoun यद्) 1 From whence (referring to persons or things), from what, from which place or quarter; यतस्त्वया ज्ञानमशेषमाप्तम् R.5.4. (यतः = यस्मात् from whom); यतश्च भयमाशङ्केत् प्राचीं तां कल्पयेद् दिशम् Ms.7.189. -2 For which reason, wherefore, in consequence of which. -3 As, since, for, because; उवाच चैनं परमार्थतो हरं न वेत्सि नूनं यत एवमात्थ माम् Ku.5.75; R.8.76;13.61; oft. with ततः as correlative. -4 From which time forward, ever since. -5 That, so that, (यतस्ततः means 1 from which place soever, from any quarter whatever. -2 from any person whatever. -3 anywhere soever, on all sides, in any direction; न विद्यमानेष्वर्थेषु नार्त्यामपि यतस्ततः Ms.4.15. यतो यतः 1 from whatever place. -2 from whomsoever, from any person whatever. -3 wherever, in whatever direction; यतो यतः षट्चरणो$- भिवर्तते Ś.1.23; यतो यतो निश्चरति मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम् Bg.6.26. यतःप्रमृति from which time forward.) -Comp. -भव a. arising from which. -मूल a. originating in, or sprung from which.
yatra यत्र ind. [यद्-त्रल्] Where, in which place, whither; सैव सा (द्यौः) चलति यत्र हि चित्तम् N.5.57; Ku.1.7,1. -2 When; as in यत्र काले. -3 Whereas, because, since, as. (यत्र यत्र means 'wherever'; यत्र यत्र धूमस्तत्र तत्र वह्निः T. S.; यत्र तत्र in whatever place, everywhere; यत्रकुत्र or यत्रक्वचन-क्वापि 1 wheresoever, in whatever place. -2 whensoever, at whatever time. -3 whenever, as often as. -4 hither and thither.) -Comp. -कामम् ind. wherever one pleases. -कामावसायः the supernatural power (of yogins) for transporting one's self anywhere one likes. -सायंगृह, -सायंप्रतिश्रय a. taking up an abode wherever evening overtakes one.
yathā यथा ind. [यद् प्रकारे थाल्] 1 Used by itself यथा has the following senses :-- (a) as, in the manner mentioned; यथाज्ञापयति महाराजः 'as Your Majesty orders;' (b) namely, as follows; तद् यथानुश्रूयते Pt.1; U.2.4; (c) as, like (showing comparison, and used to express the point of similarity); आसीदियं दशरथस्य गृहे यथा श्रीः U.4.6; Ku.4.34; प्रभावप्रभवं कान्तं स्वाधीनपतिका यथा (न मुञ्चति) K. P.1; (d) as, as for example, for instance; यत्र यत्र धूमस्तत्र तत्र वह्निर्यथा महानसे T. S. कुर्युः कृत्यमकृत्यं वा उष्ट्रे काकादयो यथा Pt.1.288; (e) that (used to introduce direct assertions with or without इति at the end); अकथितो$पि ज्ञायत एव यथायमाभोगस्तपोवनस्येति Ś.1; विदितं खलु ते यथा स्मरः क्षणमप्युत्सहते न मां विना Ku.4.36; (f) so that, in order that; दर्शय तं चौरसिंहं यथा व्यापादयामि Pt.1. -2 Used correlatively with तथा, यथा has the following senses :-- (a) as, so (in which case एवम् and तद्वत् often take the place of तथा); यथा वृक्षस्तथा फलम् or यथा बीजं तथाङ्कुरः; Bg.11.29; in this case एव is frequently added to either यथा or तथा or to both to make the equality of relation more marked or striking; वधूचतुष्के$पि यथैव शान्ता प्रिया तनूजास्य तथैव सीता U.4.16; न तथा बाधते स्कन्धो (or शीतम्) यथा बाधति बाधते; (as much-as, as-as); Ku.6.7; U.2.4; V.4.33. In this sense तथा is often omitted, in which case यथा has sense (c) in 1 above. (b) so-that, तथा standing for 'so', and यथा for 'that'; यथा बन्धुजनशोच्या न भवति तथा निर्वाहय Ś.3; तथा प्रयतेथा यथा पहस्यसे जनैः K.19; तस्मान्मुच्ये यथा तात संविधातुं तथार्हसि R.1.72;3.66;14.66;15.68. (c) since-therefore, as (because) -so; यथा इतोमुखागतैरपि कलकलः श्रुतस्तथा तर्कयामि &c. Māl.8; sometimes तथा is omitted; मन्दं मन्दं नुदति पवनश्चानुकूलो यथा त्वां ... सेविष्यन्ते भवन्तं बलाकाः Me.9. (d) if-then, as surely as-so surely (a strong form of assertion or adjuration); वाङ्मनःकर्मभिः पत्यौ व्यभिचारो यथा न मे । तथा विश्वंभरे देवि मामन्तर्धातुमर्हसि R.15.81; यथा यथा- तथा तथा the more-the more, the less-the less; यथा यथा भाषसि धर्मसंमितं तथा तथा मे त्वयि भक्तिरुत्तमा Mb.; Śi.17.43; यथा यथा यौवनमतिचक्राम तथा तथावर्धतास्य संतापः K.59; Ms. 8.286;12.73; यथा तथा in any manner, in whatever way; यथा तथा यापयंस्तु सा ह्यस्य कृतकृत्यता Ms.4.17; यथैव just as; यथा तथा as much as; यथा तथा भवतु whatever may be the case; यथा कथंचित् anyhow, somehow or other. N. B. As the first member of Avyayībhāva comp. यथा is usually translated by 'according to, according as, in accordance with, in conformity to, in proportion to, not exceeding'; see compounds below. -Comp. -अंशम्, -अंशतस् ind. in due proportions, proportionately. -अधिकारम् ind. according to authority. -अधीत a. as read or studied, conformable to the text. (-तम्) ind. according to the text. -अनुपूर्वम्, -अनुपूर्व्यम्, -अनुपूर्व्या ind. in regular order or succession, successively. -अनुभूतम् ind. 1 according to experience. -2 by previous experience. -अनुरूपम् ind. in exact conformity, properly. -अनूक्तम् ind. as said or told; मया यथानूक्तमवादि ते हरेः कृतावतारस्य सुमित्र चेष्टितम् Bhāg.3.19.32. -अभिप्रेत, -अभिमत, -अभिलषित, -अभीष्ट a. as wished, intended or desired, agreeably to desire. (-तम् &c.) ind. according to one's wish, at pleasure, agreeably to one's desire. -अभिरुचित a. pleasant, agreeable. -अर्थ a. 1 conformable to truth, true, real, correct; सौम्येति चाभाष्य यथार्थभाषी R.14.44; so यथार्थानुभवः 'correct or right perception'; यथार्थवक्ता &c. -2 conformable to the true meaning; true to the sense, right, appropriate, significant; करिष्यन्निव नामास्य (i. e. शत्रुघ्न) यथार्थमरिनिग्रहात् R.15.6; (करिष्यते) युधि सद्यः शिशुपालतां यथार्थाम् Śi.16.85; Ki.8.48; Ku.2.16. -3 fit suitable. (-र्थम्, -अर्थतः ind. truly, rightly; fitly, suitably, properly.) ˚अक्षर a. signficant or true to the syllable; यस्मिन्नीश्वर इत्यनन्यविषयः शब्दो यथार्थाक्षरः V.1.1. ˚नामन् a. one whose name is true to its meaning or fully significant (whose deeds are according to his name); ध्रुवसिद्धेरपि यथार्थनाम्नः सिद्धिं न मन्यते M.4; परंतपो नाम यथार्थनामा R.6.21. ˚वर्णः a spy (see यथार्हवर्ण). (यथार्थता 1 suitableness, fitness. -2 propriety. -3 accuracy, genuineness, correctness.) -अर्ह a. 1 according to merit, as deserving. -2 appropriate, suitable, just. -3 as agreeable; यथार्हजलेन हृद्यगन्धेन स्नातः Dk.2.7. ˚वर्णः a spy, an emissary. -अर्हम्, -अर्हतः ind. according to merit or worth; यथार्हमन्यैरनुजीविलोकं संभावयामास यथाप्रधानम् R.16.4. -अर्हणम् ind. 1 according to propriety. -2 according to worth or merit. -अवकाशम् ind. 1 according to room or space. -2 as occasion may occur, according to occasion, leisure or propriety. -3 in the proper place; प्रालम्बमुत्कृष्य यथावकाशं निनाय R.6.14. -अवस्थम् ind. according to the condition or circumstances. -आख्यात a. as mentioned before, before mentioned. -आख्यानम् ind. as before stated. -आगत a. foolish, stupid. (-तम्) ind. as one came, by the same way as one came; यथागतं मातलिसारथिर्ययौ R.3.67. -आगमम् ind. according to tradition, as handed down from generation to generation. -आचारम् ind. as customary or usual. -आम्नातम्, आम्नायम् ind. as laid down in the Vedas. -आरम्भम् ind. according to the beginning, in regular order or succession. -आवासम् ind. according to one's dwelling, each to his own dwelling. -आशयम् ind. 1 according to wish or intention. -2 according to the agreement. -आश्रमम् ind. according to the Āśrama or period in one's religious life. -आश्रयम् ind. according to substratum; चित्रं यथाश्रयमृते Sāṅkhya K.41. -इच्छ, -इष्ट, -ईप्सित a. according to wish or desire, agreeably to one's desire, as much as desired, as desired or wished for. (-च्छम्, -ष्टम्, -तम्) ind. 1 according to wish or desire, at will or pleasure; यथेष्टं चेष्टन्ते स्फुटकुचतटाः पश्य कुलटाः Udb. -2 as much as may be wanted, to the heart's content; यथेष्टं बुभुजे मांसम् Ch. P.3. -ईक्षितम् ind. as personally seen, as actually perceived. -उक्त, -उदित a. as said or told above, aforesaid, above-mentioned; यथोक्ताः संवृत्ताः Pt.1; यथोक्त- व्यापारा Ś.1; R.2.7; ततः स्वगृहमेत्य यथोक्तमर्थत्यागं कृत्वा Dk.2.2. -उचित a. suitable, proper, due, fit. (-तम्) ind. duly, suitably, properly; आगतं तु भयं वीक्ष्य नरः कुर्याद् यथोचितम् H. -उत्तरम् ind. in regular order or succession, one after another; संबन्धो$त्र यथोत्तरम् S. D. 729; श्रैष्ठ्यमेषां यथोत्तरम् Ms.12.38; यथोत्तरेच्छा हि गुणेषु कामिनः Ki.8.4. -उत्साहम् ind. 1 according to one's power or might. -2 with all one's might. -उद्गत a. without sense, stupid. -उद्गमनम् in ascending proportion. -उद्दिष्ट a. as indicated or described. (-ष्टम्) or -उद्देशम् ind. in the manner indicated. -उपचारम् ind. as politeness or courtesy requires. -उपजोषम् ind. according to pleasure or desire; यथोपजोषं वासांसि परिधाया- हतानि ते Bhāg.8.9.15. -उपदिष्ट a. as indicated. -उपदेशम् ind. as advised or instructed. -उपपत्ति ind. 1 as may be fit. -2 as may happen. -उपपन्न a. just as happened to be at hand, natural; यथोपपन्नरज्जुबद्धः Dk.2.4. -उपमा (in Rhet.) a comparison expressed by यथा. -उप- -योगम् ind. according to use or requirements, according to circumstances. -उपाधि ind. according to the condition or supposition. -औचित्यम् propriety, suitableness, fitness. -ऋतु ind. according to the right season; यथर्तुवर्षी भगवान् न तथा पाकशासनः Mb.3.188.5. -कथित a. as already mentioned. -कर्तव्यम् what is right to be done. -कर्म ind. according to one's duties or circumstances. -कल्पम् ind. according to rule or ritual. -काम a. conformable to desire. (-मम्) ind. agreeably to desire, at will or pleasure, to the heart's content; यथाकामार्चितार्थिनाम् R.1.6;4.51. -कामिन् a. free, unrestrained. -कारम् ind. in whatever way; P.III.4.28. -कालः the right or due time, proper time; यथाकालप्रबोधिनाम् R.1.6. (-लम्) ind. at the right time, opportunely, seasonably; सोपसर्पैर्जजागार यथाकालं स्वपन्नपि R.17.51. -कृत a. as agreed upon, done according to rule or custom, customary; स यदि प्रतिपद्येत यथान्यस्तं यथाकृतम् Ms.8.183. (-तम्) ind. according to the usual practice. -क्लृप्ति ind. in a suitable way. -क्रमम्, -क्रमेण ind. in due order or succession, regularly, in due form, properly; यथाक्रमं पुंसवनादिकाः क्रियाः R.3.1;9.26. -क्षमम् ind. according to one's power, as much as possible. -क्षिप्रम् ind. as quickly as possible. -क्षेमेण ind. safely, comfortably. -खेलम् ind. playfully; V. -गुणम् ind. according to qualities or endowments; Ch. Up. -चित्तम् ind. according to will; Māl. -जात a. 1 foolish, senseless, stupid. -2 barbarous, outcast. -ज्ञानम् ind. to the best of one's knowledge or judgment. -ज्येष्ठम् ind. according to rank, by seniority. -तत्त्वम् ind. 1 according to actual facts, actually, as the case really may be. -तथ a. 1 true, right. -2 accurate, exact. (-थम्) a narrative of the particulars or details of anything, a detailed or minute account. (-थम्) ind. 1 exactly, precisely; विभाव्यन्ते यथातथम् Bhāg. -2 fitly, properly, as the case really may be; Mb.3. -तथ्यम्, -तथ्येन ind. truly, really. -तृप्ति ind. to the heart's content. -दर्शनम् ind. according to observation. -दिक्, -दिशम् ind. in all directions. -निकायम् ind. according to body; Śvet. Up. -निर्दिष्ट a. 1 as mentioned before, as specified above; यथानिर्दिष्टव्यापारा सखी. -2 as prescribed or laid down; यथानिर्दिष्टं संपादितं व्रतम् V.3. -न्यायम् ind. justly, rightly, properly; प्रतिपूज्य यथान्यायम् Ms.1.1. -न्यासम् ind. according to the text of a Śūtra, as written down. -न्युप्त a. as placed on the ground or offered; अवजिघ्रेच्च तान् पिण्डान् यथान्युप्तान् समाहितः Ms.3.218. -पण्यम् ind. according to the (value or kind of) commodities; शुल्क- स्थानेषु कुशलाः यथापण्यविचक्षणाः Ms.8.398 (v. l.). -पुरम् ind. as before, as on previous occasions; यथापुरमविज्ञाय स्वार्थलिप्सुमपण्डिताम् Rām.2.1.2. -पूर्व, -पूर्वक a. being as before, former; R.12.41. (-र्वम्) -पूर्वकम् ind. 1 as before; सर्वाणि ज्ञातिकार्याणि यथापूर्वं समाचरेत् Ms.11.187. -2 in due order or succession, one after another; एते मान्या यथापूर्वम् Y.1.35. -प्रत्यर्हम् ind. according to merit. -प्रदिष्टम् ind. as suitable or proper. -प्रदेशम् ind. 1 in the proper or suitable place; यथाप्रदेशं विनिवेशितेन Ku. 1.49; आसञ्जयामास यथाप्रदेशं कण्ठे गुणम् R.6.83; Ku.7.34. -2 according to direction or precept. -3 on all sides. -प्रधानम्, -प्रधानतः ind. according to rank or position, according to precedence; आलोकमात्रेण सुरानशेषान् संभावया- मास यथाप्रधानम् Ku.7.46. -प्रयोगम् ind. 1 according to usage or practice. -2 as found by experiment. -प्रस्तावम् ind. on the first suitable occasion. -प्रस्तुतम् ind. 1 at last, at length. -2 conformably to the circumstances. -प्राणम् ind. according to strength with all one's might. -प्राप्त a. 1 suitable to circumstances. -2 following from a previous grammatical rule; Kāśi. on P.III.2.135. (-प्तम्) ind. regularly, properly. -प्रार्थितम् ind. as requested. -बलम् ind. 1 to the best of one's power, with all one's might; यथाबलं च विभज्य गृह्णीत Dk.2.8. -2 according to the (condition of) army or number of forces; Ms. -बुद्धि, -मति ind. to the best of one's knowledge. -भक्त्या with entire devotion. -भागम्, -भागशः ind. 1 according to the share of each, proportionately; यथाभागशो$मी वो गन्धाः -2 each in his respective place; यथाभागमवस्थिताः Bg.1.11. -3 in the proper place; यथाभागमवस्थिते$पि R.6.19. -भावः 1 destiny. -2 proper relation. -भूतम् ind. according to what has taken place, according to truth, truly, exactly. -भूयस् ind. according to seniority. -मुखीन a. looking straight at (with gen.); (मृगः) यथामुखीनः सीतायाः पुप्लुवे बहु लोभयन् Bk.5.48. -मूल्य a. worth the price, accordant with the price. -यथम् ind. 1 as in fit, fitly, properly; यथायथं ताः सहिता नभश्चरैः Ki.8.2. -2 in regular order, severally, each in its proper place, respectively; असक्तमाराधयतो यथायथम् Ki.1.11; बीजवन्तो मुखाद्यर्था विप्रकीर्णा यथायथम् S. D.337. -3 by degrees, gradually; सर्वे मायामानवा यथायथमन्तर्भावं गताः Dk.1.5. -युक्तम्, -योगम् ind. according to circumstances, fitly, suitably. -योग्य a. suitable, fit, proper, right. -रसम् ind. according to the sentiments. -रुचम्, -रुचि ind. according to one's liking or taste; वदन्ति चैतत् कवयो यथारुचम् Bhāg.2.5.21. -रूपम् ind. 1 according to form or appearance. -2 duly, properly, fitly. -लब्ध a. as actually in hand. -वस्तु ind. as the fact stands, exactly, accurately, truly. -विध a. of such kind or sort. -विधि ind. according to rule or precept, duly, properly; यथाविधि हुताग्नीनाम् R.1.6; संचस्कारोभयप्रीत्या मैथिलेयौ यथाविधि 15.31;3.7; Ms.11.191. -विनियोगम् ind. in the succession or order stated. -विभवम् ind. in proportion to one's income, according to means. -वीर्य a. of whatever strength. (-र्यम्) ind. in respect of manliness or courage. -वृत्त a. as happened, done or acted. (-त्तम्) 1 the actual facts, the circumstances or details of an event.-2 a former event. -वृद्धम् ind. according to age or seniority; गगनादवतीर्णा सा यथावृद्धपुरःसरा Ku.6. 49. -व्युत्पत्ति ind. 1 according to the degree of education or culture. -2 according to the derivation. -शक्ति, -शक्त्या ind. to the best of one's power, as far as possible. -शब्दार्थम् ind. in keeping with or according to the sense conveyed by the (sacred) text; इह शब्द- लक्षणे कर्मणि यथाशब्दार्थं प्रवृत्तिः ŚB. on MS.11.1.26. -शास्त्रम् ind. according to the scriptures, as the law ordains; सर्वे$पि क्रमशस्त्वेते यथाशास्त्रं निषेविताः Ms.6.88. -शीघ्रम् ind. as quickly as possible. -शीलम् ind. in accordance with one's temper. -श्रुत a. according to the report. -श्रुतम् -ति ind. 1 as heard or reported. -2 (यथाश्रुति) according to Vedic precepts; अस्मात् परं बत यथाश्रुति संभृतानि को नः कुले निवपनानि करिष्यतीति Ś.6.25. -श्रेष्ठम् ind. in order of precedence or merit. -श्लक्ष्ण a. behaving in such a way that the weaker is placed first. -संस्थम् ind. according to circumstances. -संख्यम् a figure of speech in Rhetoric; यथासंख्यं क्रमेणैव क्रमिकाणां समन्वयः K. P.1; e. g. शत्रुं मित्रं विपत्तिं च जय रञ्जय भञ्जय Chandr.5.17. (-ख्यम्), -संख्येन ind. according to number, respectively, number for number; हृत्कण्ठतालुगाभिस्तु यथासंख्यं द्विजातयः (शुध्येरन्) Y.1.21. -समयम् ind. 1 at the proper time. -2 according to agreement or established usage. -संभव a. possible. -संभावित a. suitable, appropriate. -सर्वम् ind. in all particulars. -सवनम् ind. according to the time or season. -सारम् ind. according to quality or goodness. -सुखम् ind. 1 at will or pleasure. -2 at ease, comfortably, pleasantly, so as to give pleasure; अङ्के निधाय करभोरु यथासुखं ते संवाहयामि चरणावुत पद्मताम्रौ Ś.3.2; R.9.48; Ms.4.43. -स्थानम् the right or proper place. (-नम्) ind. 1 in the proper place; duly, properly. -2 instantly. -3 according to rank. -स्थित a. 1 according to circumstances or actual facts, as it stands; रामं यथास्थितं सर्वं भ्राता ब्रूते स्म विह्वलः Bk.6.8. -2 right, proper, fit. (-तम्) ind. 1 truly, properly. -2 according to circumstances. -स्थिति ind. as usual, according to state or circumstances. -स्थूलम् ind. without details. -स्व a. each according to (his or her) own; यथास्वान् जग्मुरालयान् Mb.12.44.14. -स्वम् ind. 1 each his own, respectively; अध्यासते चीरभृतो यथास्वम् R.13.22; Ki.14.43. -2 individually; यथास्वमाश्रमैश्चके वर्णैरपि षडंशभाक् R.17.65. -3 duly, properly, rightly; यथास्वं ग्राहकान्येषां शब्दादीनामिमानि तु Mb.3.211.13.
yad यद् pron. a. (Nom. sing. m. यः, f. या, n. यत्-द्) The relative pronoun corresponding 'who', 'which' or 'what' in English. (a) Its proper correlative is तद्; यस्य बुद्धिर्बलं तस्य; but sometimes इदम्, अदस्, एतद्, takethe place of तद्; sometimes the relative is used alone, its antecedent being supplied from the context. Not unfrequently two relatives are used in the same sentence; या यस्य युज्यते भूमिका तां खलु भावेन तथैव सर्वे वर्ग्याःपाठिताः Māl.1; यदेव रोचते यस्मै भवेत् तत् तस्य सुन्दरम्. (b) When repeated, the relative pronoun has the sense of 'totality, and may be translated by 'whoever', 'whatever', in which case the correlative pronoun is generally repeated; यो यः शस्त्रं बिभर्ति स्वभुजगुरुबलः पाण्डवीनां चमूनां ... क्रोधान्धस्तस्य तस्य स्वयमिह जगतामन्तकस्यान्तको$हम् Ve.3.3; क्रियते यद् यदेषा कथयति U.1; यं यं पश्यसि तस्य तस्य पुरतो मा ब्रूहि दीनं वचः Bh.2.51. When joined with the interrogative pronoun or its derivatives with or without the particles चिद्, चन, वा, or अपि, it expresses the sense of 'whatever', 'any whatsoever,', 'any'; सूतो वा सूतपुत्रो वा यो वा को वा भवाम्यहम् Ve.3.33; येन केन प्रकारेण anyhow, somehow or other; यत्र कुत्रापि, यो वा को वा, यः कश्चन &c.; यत् किंचिदेतद् 'this is a mere trifle'; यानि कानि च मित्राणि &c. -ind. As an indeclinable यद् is frequently used 1 to introduce a direct or subordinate assertion with or without इति at the end; सत्यो$यं जनप्रवादो यत् संपत् संपदमनुबध्नातीति K.73; तस्य कदाचिच्चिन्ता समुत्पन्ना यदर्थोत्पत्त्युपायाश्चिन्तनीयाः कर्तव्याश्च Pt.1. or -2 in the sense of 'because', 'since'; प्रियमा- चरितं लते त्वया मे ... यदियं पुनरप्यपाङ्गनेत्रा परिवृत्तार्धमुखी मयाद्य दृष्टा V.1.17; or किं शेषस्य भरव्यथा न वपुषि क्ष्मां न क्षिपत्येष यत् Mu.2.18; R.1.27,87; in this sense यद् is often followed by तद् or ततः as its correlative; see यत् प्रीति- मद्भिर्वदनैः स्वसाम्यात् ...... ततस्तदीयाधरयावयोगात् ... N.22.46. -Comp. -अपि ind. although, though; वक्रः पन्था यदपि भवतः Me.27. -अर्थम्, -अर्थे ind. 1 for which, wherefore, why, on which account; श्रूयतां यदर्थमस्मि हरिणा भवत्सकाशं प्रेषितः Ś.6; Ku.5.52. -2 since, because; नूनं दैवं न शक्यं हि पुरुषेणातिवर्तितुम् । यदर्थं यत्नवानेव न लभे विप्रतां विभो ॥ Mb. -अवधि ind. since which time. -आत्मक a. having which essence or existence. -कारणम्, -कारणात् ind. 1 wherefore, on which account. -2 since, because. -कृते ind. wherefore, why, for which person or thing. -भविष्यः a fatalist (one who says 'what will be will be'); यद्भविष्यो विनष्यति Pt.1.318. -वद a. talking anything. -वा ind. or else, whether; नैतद्विद्मः कतरन्नो गरीयो यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः Bg.2.6; (often used by commentators in suggesting an alternative meaning). -वृत्तम् an adventure. -सत्यम् ind. to be sure, to speak the truth, truly, forsooth; अमङ्गलाशंसया वो वचनस्य यत् सत्यं कम्पितमिव मे हृदयम् Ve.1; Mu.1; Mk.4.
yādṛkṣa यादृक्ष a. (-क्षी f.), -यादृश्, -यादृश a. (-शी f.) What like, of which sort or nature; येषां तु यादृशं कर्म Ms. 1.42; तत् क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक् च यद् विकारि यतश्च यत् Bg.13.3. -Comp. -गुण (-यादृग्गुण) a. of whatever qualities; यादृग्गुणेन भर्त्रा स्त्री संयुज्येत यथाविधि Ms.9.22.
yāvatitha यावतिथ a. 1 To whatever place or point. -2 In howmany soever (degree advanced); यो यो यावतिथश्चैषां स स तावद्गुणः स्मृतः Ms.1.2.
vatsakaḥ वत्सकः 1 A little calf, calf in general; भक्षयन्तीं न कथयेत् पिबन्तं चैव वत्सकम् Ms.11.114. -2 A child. -3 N. of a plant (कुटज). -कम् Green or black sulphate of iron.
vanitā वनिता 1 A woman in general; वनितेति वदन्त्येतां लोकाः सर्वे वदन्तु ते । यूनां परिणता सेयं तपस्येति मतं मम ॥ Bv.2.117; पथिकवनिताः Me.8. -2 A wife, mistress; वनेचराणां वनिता- सखानाम् Ku.1.1; R.2.19. -3 Any beloved woman. -4 The female of an animal. -Comp. -द्विष् m. a misogynist (woman-hater). -विलासः wanton pastime of women.
vidviṣṭa विद्विष्ट p. p. Hated, disliked, odious.
vidveṣaṇaḥ विद्वेषणः A hater, an enemy. -णी A woman of a resentful temper. -णम् 1 Causing hatred or enmity; a kind of Tāntric rite. -2 Enmity, harted. विद्वेषिन् vidvēṣin विद्वेष्टृ vidvēṣṭṛ विद्वेषिन् विद्वेष्टृ a. Hating, inimical. -m. A hater, an enemy.
virañj विरञ्ज् 1, 4 U. 1 To grow discoloured or soiled, be coarse or rough; केशा अपि विरज्यन्ते निःस्नेहाः किं न सेवकाः Pt.1.82. (where it has sense 2 also). -2 To be discontented or disaffected, to dislike, hate; चिरानुरक्तो$पि विरज्यते जनः Mk.1.53; Bh.2.2; श्रीर्निष्कुष्यति लङ्कायां विरज्यन्ति समृद्धयः Bk.18.22. -3 To become disgusted with the world and hence to renounce all worldly attachments. -Caus. To colour, dye.
śītala शीतल a. [शीतं लाति ला-क, शीतमस्त्यस्य लच्-वा] 1 (a) Cool, cold, chill, frigid; अतिशीतलमप्यम्भः किं भिनत्ति न भूभृतः Subhāṣ. (b) Cool, bearable; महदपि परदुःखं शीतलं सम्यगाहुः V.4.13. -2 Not exciting, calm, gentle. -लः 1 The moon. -2 A kind of camphor. -3 Turpentine. -4 The Champaka tree. -5 A kind of religious observance (observed upon the sun's entering the sign Aries). -लम् 1 Cold, coolness. -2 The cold season. -3 Benzoin. -4 White sandal, or sandal in general. -5 A pearl. -6 Green sulphate of iron. -7 A lotus. -8 The root called वीरण q. v. -Comp. -छदः the Champaka tree. -जलम् a lotus. -प्रदः, -दम् sandal. -वातः a cool breeze. -षष्ठी the sixth day of the bright half of Māgha.
sarvathā सर्वथा ind. 1 In every way, by all means; सर्वथा व्यवहर्तव्यं कुता ह्यवचनायता U.1.5. -2 At all, altogether (usually with negation). -3 Completely, entirely, utterly. -4 At all times. -5 Exceedingly, very much. -6 In whatever way; सर्वथा वर्तमानो$पि न स भूयो$भिजायते Bg.13.23. -Comp. -विषय a. in whatever way appearing.
saudāyika सौदायिक a. (-की f.) Whatever is given to a woman at her marriage by her parents, or a relative in general, which becomes her own property; मातृपित्रा- दिभिर्दत्तं धनं सौदायिकं स्मृतम् Śukra.4.814. -कम् A nuptial present so made.
sphaṭikaḥ स्फटिकः 1 A crystal, quartz; अपगतमले हि मनसि स्फटिकमणाविव रजनिकरगभस्तयः सुखं प्रविशन्त्युपदेशगुणाः K. -का 1 Sulphate of alumina or alum. -2 Camphor. -Comp. -अचलः the mount Meru. -अद्रिः the mount Kailāsa. ˚भिद् m. camphor. -अभ्रः camphor. -अश्मन्, -आत्मन, -मणि m., -शिला a crystal stone. -कुड्यम्, भित्तिः crystal wall. -प्रभ a. crystalline, transparent. -स्कम्भः a crystal column. स्फटिकारिः sphaṭikāriḥ स्फटिकारिका sphaṭikārikā स्फटिकारिः स्फटिकारिका f. Sulphate of alumina.
haṃsaḥ हंसः [हस्-अच्-पृषो˚ वर्णागमः] (said to be derived from हस्; cf. भवेद्वर्णागमाद् हंसः Sk.) 1 A swan, goose, duck; हंसाः संप्रति पाण्डवा इव वनादज्ञातचर्यां गताः Mk. 5.6; न शोभते सभामध्ये हंसमध्ये बको यथा Subhāṣ; R.17. 25. (The description of this bird, as given by Sanskrit writers, is more poetical than real; he is described as forming the vehicle of the god Brahman, and as ready to fly towards the Mānasa lake at the approach of rains; cf. मानस. According to a very general poetical convention he is represented as being gifted with the peculiar power of separating milk from water e. g. सारं ततो ग्राह्यमपास्य फल्गु हंसो यथा क्षीरमिवाम्बुमध्यात् Pt.1; हंसोहि क्षीरमादत्ते तन्मिश्रा वर्जयत्यपः Ś.6.28; नीरक्षीरविवेके हंसालस्यं त्वमेव तनुषे चेत् । विश्वस्मिन्नधुनान्यः कुलव्रतं पालयिष्यति कः Bv.1.13; see Bh.2.18 also). -2 The Supreme Soul, Brahman. -3 The individual soul (जीवात्मन्); प्रीणीहि हंसशरणं विरम- क्रमेण Bhāg.4.29.56. -4 One of the vital airs. -5 The sun; हंसः शुचिषद्वसुरन्तरिक्षसद्धोता वेदिषत् Ka&tod;h.2.5.2; उषसि हंसमुदीक्ष्य हिमानिकाविपुलवागुरया परियन्त्रितम् Rām. ch.4.91. -6 Śiva. -7 Viṣṇu. -8 Kāmadeva. -9 An unambitious monorch. -1 An ascetic of a particular order; Bhāg.3.12.43. -11 A spiritual preceptor; Bhāg.7. 9.18. -12 One free from malice, a pure person. -13 A mountain. -14 Envy, malice. -15 A buffalo. -16 A horse. -17 A particular incantation; L. D. B. -18 The best of its kind (at the end of a compound; cf. कविहंस); L. D. B. -19 A temple of a particular form. -2 Silver. -a. 1 moving, going (गतिमान्); नव- द्वारं पुरं गत्वा हंसो हि नियतो वशी Mb.12.239.31 (see com.). -2 Pure; हंसाय संयतगिरे निगमेश्वराय Bhāg.12.8.47;6.4. 26. -साः (m. pl.) N. of a tribe said to live in the Plakṣa-Dvīpa. -Comp. -अंशुः a. white. -अङ्घ्रिः vermilion. -अधिरूढा an epithet of Sarasvatī. -अभिख्यम् silver. -आरूढः N. of Brahman. -उदकम् a kind of cordial liquor (prepared from infusion of cardamoms). -कान्ता a female goose. -कालीतनयः a buffalo. -कीलकः, -नीलकः a particular mode of sexual enjoyment. -कूटः 1 N. of one of the peaks of the Himālaya. -2 the hump on the shoulder of an ox (for अंसकूट). -गति a. having a swan's gait, stalking in a stately manner. -गद्गदा a sweetly speaking woman. -गामिनी 1 a woman having graceful gait like that of a swan; अव्यङ्गाङ्गीं सौम्यनाम्नीं हंसवारणगा- मिनीम् (उद्वहेत् स्त्रियम्) Ms.3.1. -2 N. of Brahmāṇi. -गुह्यम् N. of a particular hymn; अस्तौषीद्धंसगुह्येन भगवन्त- मधोक्षजम् Bhāg.6.4.22. -च्छत्रम् dry ginger. -तूलः, -लम् the soft feathers of down of a goose; रत्नखचितहेमपर्यङ्के हंसतूलगर्भशयनमानीय Dk.1.4;2.2. -दाहनम् aloewood. -नादः the cackling of a goose. -नादिनी a woman of a particular class (described as having a slender waist, large hips, the gait of an elephant and the voice of a cuckoo; गजेन्द्रगमना तन्वी कोकिलालापसंयुता । नितम्बे गुर्विणी या स्यात् सा स्मृता हंसनादिनी). -पक्षः a particular position o the hand. -पदः a particular weight (कर्ष). -पादम् 1 vermilion. -2 quick-silver. -बीजम् a goose's egg. -माला a flight of swans; तां हंसमालाः शरदीव गङ्गाम् Ku.1.3. -यानम् a car drawn by swans. -युवन् m. a young goose or swan. -रथः, -वाहनः epithets of Brahman. -राजः a king of geese, a large gander. -लिपिः a particular mode of writing (with Jainas). -लोमशम् green sulphate of iron. -लोहकम् brass. -श्रेणी a line of geese.
hrasva ह्रस्व a. [ह्रस्-वन्] (compar. ह्रसीयस्; superl. ह्रसिष्ठ) 1 Short, small, little. -2 Dwarfish, low or short in stature. -3 Short (opp. to दीर्घ in prosody). -4 Minor, very young in age; जाता ह्रस्वा प्रजा प्रमीयते Mb.3.197.13. -5 Unimportant, insignificant. -स्वः 1 A dwarf. -2 A short vowel. -स्वम् Green or black sulphate of iron. -Comp. -अग्निः Calotropis Gigantea = wort (Arka). -अङ्ग a. dwarfish, short-bodied (-ङ्गः) a dwarf. -गर्भः the Kuśa grass. -गवेधुका Uraria Lagopodioides (Mar. लहान चिकणा). -जात्य a. of a small kind. -दर्भः, -कुशः the short or white Kuśa grass. -दा gum olibanum. -निर्वेशकः a small sword. -पर्णः Ficus Infectoria (Mar. लघुपिंपरी). -फलः the date tree. -बाहुक a. short-armed. -मूर्ति a. short in stature, dwarfish, pigmy. -मूलः the short red cane.
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idh idh kindle, VII. Ā. inddhé. sám- kindle, 3. pl. indhate, ii. 35, 11; pf. īdhiré, v. 11, 2.
dviṣ dviṣ hate, II. dvéṣṭi, x. 34, 3.
dveṣas dvéṣ-as, n. hatred, ii. 33, 2 [dviṣ hate].
bādh bādh drive away, I. Ā. bá̄dhate, x. 127, 2; int. badbadhe press apart, vii. 61, 4. ápa- drive away, i. 35, 3. 9; 85, 3.
mah Mah, máṃh be great, máṃhate and máhe (3. s.). sám- consecrate, vii. 61, 6.
ya Yá, rel. prn. who, which, that: N. yás, i. 35, 6; 154, 12. 3. 4; 160, 4; ii. 12, 1-7. 9-15; 33, 5. 7; iii. 59, 2. 7; iv. 50, 1. 7. 9; vi. 54, 1. 2. 4; vii. 61, 1; 63, 1. 3; vii. 71, 4; 86, 1; viii. 48, 102. 12; x. 14, 5; 34, 12; 129, 7; f. yá̄, iv. 50, 3; n. yád, i. 1, 6; ii. 35, 15; vii. 61, 2; 63, 2; 103, 5. 7; x. 15, 6; 90, 23. 12; 129, 1. 3. 4; 135, 7; with kíṃ ca whatever, v. 83, 9; A. yám, i. 1, 4; ii. 12, 5. 7. 9; 35, 11; viii. 48, 1; x. 135, 3. 4; I. yéna, i. 160, 5; ii. 12, 4; iv. 51, 4; f. yáyā, iv. 51, 6; Ab. yásmād, ii. 12, 9; G. yásya, i. 154, 2; ii. 12, 1. 74. 142; 35, 7; v. 83, 43; vii. 61, 2; x. 34, 4; f. yásyās, x. 127, 4; L. yásmin, iv. 50, 8; x. 135, 1; du. yáu, x. 14, 11; pl. N. yé, i. 35, 11; 85, 1. 4; iv. 50, 2; x. 14, 3. 10; 15, 1-4. 8-10. 132. 142; 90, 7. 8; with ké whatever, x. 90, 10; f. yá̄s, vii. 49, 1. 2. 3; n. yá̄ni, ii. 33, 13; yá̄, i. 85, 12; ii. 33, 183; iv. 50, 9; vii. 86, 5; A. m. yá̄n, x. 14, 3; 15, 132; G. f. yá̄sām, vii. 49, 3; L. f. yá̄su, iv. 51, 7; vii. 49, 44; 61, 5.
ruh ruh grow, I. róhati, róhate. áti- grow beyond (acc.), x. 90, 2. á̄- rise up in (acc.), viii. 48, 11.
śumbh śumbh, adorn, I. Ā. śúmbhate. prá- adorn oneself, i. 85, 1.
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arthaya den. Â. (P.), (arthate, E.), endeavour, strive for; ask one (ac., ab.) for (ac.); explain. abhi, ask one (ac.) for (ac., d., lc., or -artham). pra, desire; ask one (ac.) for (ac., lc.); request something (ac.) from (ab.); wish to, ask one to (inf.); woo; have recourse to; Â. oppose oneself to (ac.). sam, prepare; conclude; judge, think, consider; connect with (in. or prati w. ac.); perceive; contemplate; resolve; cheer up, encourage.
ka inter. prn. st. (n. V. kád; C. kím) who? what? which? with iva, u, nâma, who indeed? often used in a depreciating sense= as good as none, no one or nothing: kâ½esha kathâ? that is out of the question; kim with in. or gd.=what does -matter? what is the use of -to (g.)? with nu, who pray? with vâ, who possibly? with svid, who or what, I wonder? Indef. prn. 1. with neg. any, any one; 2. with preceding ya and following ka, whosoever, whichever; anysoever, every; with preceding ya and following vâ, anysoever; 3. with kaná, none whatever (often strengthened by negatives); 4. with kana, kid, or api, some, any, a certain (a. or n.): pl. some; kaskid kaskid, the one--the other: pl. some--others.
katham ad. how? whence? why? with pot. or impv. (sts. ind.) how could, would, or should ? with mâ and aor. how should not --? sts. exclamation, what! sts. weakened to a simple interrogative=nonne or num? with nú, how, I wonder? how much more? with neg. how much less? with iva, how so? why pray? with nâma, svid, how pray? why I wonder? with kana, by no means: generally strengthened by preceding negative; with kid and api (not till Kâlidâsa) indef. in some way, by some means, somehow or other, by accident; with difficulty, only just, scarcely (katham often repeated); a. little, somewhat;with neg. in no manner, by no means; yathâ katham kid, in whatever manner; in any way.
kva ad.=lc. of ka; where? whither? often emphasized with the pcls. áha, íd, iva, nu, nu khalu, and svid: kva svid also= somewhere; with bhû and as=what has be come of --?=it is all over with; kva tadga tam, how about that? without verb=it is out of the question; kva--kva, expressing incon gruity=how great is the difference between --and--, there is nothing in common between -and --; with api and kid=kasmin+api or kid; somewhere, in a certain place; some time, once; sometimes, ever; kvakit kva- kid, here and there, now and then; kvakid kvakid, here--there; now--now; kva½api, kva kit, kvaka, kvakana, withna, nowhere, in no case, never, with preceding yatra, wher ever, whenever, in whatever case.
ta prn. of the 3rd prs. (nm. sg. m. sa, f. sâ) he, she, it, they; that, those (a. or n.); sts. attenuated to an article in mg.; correl. to (preceding) relative; with prns. of 1st & 2nd prs., e.g. so&zip;ham=I being such; repeated: this and that, each, several, various, respective; with relative (±vâ) yah sa, whoever; yat tad, whatever, every, any; yo yah -sa sa, who ever -he; yad yad -tat tad, whatever -that; tad yathâ, that is asfollows, that is to say.
tathā ad. so, thus (corr. to yathâ, as, that; iva, as; yena, that); that is so; so be it, well, yes; so truly (in oaths); in like manner, also, likewise; tathâ ka, similarly, so also; tathâ½api, id.; nevertheless, yet (gnly. with corr. yadi½api, api yadi, kâmam, varam); tathâ hi, for so (it is), so for instance, that is to say, namely; tathâ½eva, just so, like wise, similarly (ka and api sometimes added); tathâ--yathâ, so-that; (so long) -till; yathâ tathâ, in whatever way, in this way or that, by all means; by commentators used to indicate that a word is used adverbially (in such a manner that it is --): with na, by no means, practically not; yathâ yathâ-tathâ tathâ, in whatever way--so, the more --the more; na tathâ, not so, untrue.
dviṣ f. (nm. dvít) enmity, hate; m. f. foe; a. disliking, hostile to, hating (--°ree;).
dveṣya fp. hateful, odious; m. foe: -tâ, f., -tva, n. odiousness.
dveṣin a. disliking, hating, ab horring (g. or --°ree;); seeking to injure; m. foe; -tri, m. hater, enemy.
dveṣaṇa a. disliking, hating; n. dislike, hatred, hostility towards (g. or --°ree;); -anîya, fp. hateful.
dviṣṭatva n. hatefulness, disagreeableness.
naivābhigamana n. no sexual intercourse whatever.
prāptavya fp. to be met with or found; -obtained or acquired: -m-artha, m. nickname of a man who always answered inquiries as to his name with the words &open;prâptavyam artham labhate manushyah:&close; n. when used with nâman, n. name.
brahmatā f. nature of the absolute deity; -tegas, n. glory or power of Brah man; a. having the glory or power of Brah man; -tego-maya, a. formed of Brahman's glory; -tva, n. office of the Brahman priest; rank of a Brâhman; position of Brahman; -da, a. giving the Veda, imparting sacred knowledge; -danda, m. Brahman's staff (a kind of mythical weapon); curse of a Brâh man; -dandin, m. N. of an ancient sage; -dattá, m. given by the god Brahman; N.; -dâtri, m. imparter of the Veda, spiritual teacher; -dâna, n. gift of the Veda, impart ing of sacred knowledge; -dâya, 1. a. im parting the Veda; 2. m. sacred knowledge as a heritage; inheritance of a Brâhman; -dâya hara, a. receiving the Veda as an inherit ance from (g.); -dâyâda, a. enjoying sacred knowledge as his inheritance or m. son of Brahman; -dûshaka, a. falsifying the Veda; -deya, a. being given in marriage after the manner of Brahman or the Brâhmans: with vidhi, m. marriage of this kind; n. instruc tion in the Veda, imparting of sacred know ledge: -½anusamtâna, a. in whose familyteaching of the Veda is hereditary; -dvísh, a. hostile to devotion or religion, impious; m. hater of Brâhmans; -dvesha, m. hatred of religion, impiety; -dhara, a. possessed of sa cred knowledge; -dharma-dvish, a. hating the Vedas and the law; -dhâtu, m. compo nent part of Brahman.
maṅgala n. [brightness: √ mañg] luck, fortune, happiness, bliss (sts. pl.); prosperity, welfare; auspiciousness; good omen, whateverconduces to an auspicious issue; benediction, blessing; auspicious or lucky object, amulet; solemn ceremony, auspicious festivity (on important occasions); good old custom; good work; a. auspicious, propitious; m. planet Mars; N.: -karana, n. uttering a prayer for theauspicious issue of an undertaking; -ka lasa-maya, a. consisting of festal jars; -kâr aka, a. productive of prosperity, auspicious; -kâla, m. auspicious time; -kshauma, n. du. two festal garments (upper and lower) of linen; -gâthikâ, f. solemn chant; -gîta, n. id.; -ghata, m. N. of an elephant; -kand ikâ, f. a form of Durgâ; -tûrya, n. musical instrument used on festive occasions: -nisva na, m. sound of auspicious musical instruments; -devatâ, f. tutelary deity (only --°ree;); -pattra, n. leaf used as an amulet; -pâthaka, m. pronouncer of benedictions, professional panegyrist; -pâtra, n. auspicious pot or vessel (containing propitious objects); -pura, n. N. of a town; -pushpa-maya, a. made of auspicious flowers (garland); -pra tisara, m. cord of an amulet; -prada, a. auspicious; -maya, a. (î) consisting of no thing but luck etc.; -vat-î, f. N.; -vâdin, a. pronouncing a blessing; -vrishabha, m. bull with auspicious marks; -sabda, m. benediction, greeting; -sûkaka, a. indicative of good luck, auspicious.
ya prn. rel. (n. -d) who, that, which, what: nearly always followed by the ordinary correlative tad (± etad or idam) or less frequently idam (m. ayam), adas (m. asau), îdris, tâdrisa, etâvat (tathâ sts. corresponding to the n. yad); occasionally either the rel. or the corr. is dropped. Ya is sts. inaccurately employed in the sense of if any (one). Uses of the relative calling for special mention are the following: 1. Ya is often added (without the copula) to emphasize a subject (e.g. âtma parityâgena yad âsritânam rakshanam, tan nîtividâm na sammatam, protection of dependents at the sacrifice of one's own life is not approved by moralists).Sts. it is thus used without emphasis by the side of a simple subject (e. g. andhah sthaviras ka yah, a blind man and one who is old); rarely a nm. rel. of this kind=an ac. (e.g. sarvân rasân apo heta pasavo ye ka mânushâh, he should avoid selling all sorts of condiments, cattle, and human beings). The n. sg. yad of this emphatic rel. is frequently employed without regard to gender or number, when it may be translated by as for, as regards (e.g. asidhâ râvratam idam manye yad arinâ saha samvâ sah, as for dwelling with an enemy, that I consider as hard as the sword-blade vow); before a noun this yad=that is to say (Br.). Immediately following oratio recta ending with iti yad=at the thought that (cp. cj. yad). 2. Two relatives often occur in the same sentence, when the second may be translated by any (e.g. yad rokate yasmai, bhavet tat tasya sundaram, what pleases any one, that to him is beautiful). 3. The meaning of the rel. when repeated (sts. separated by hi) is generalised, ya ya being=whoever, whichever, whatever (followed by the doubled or single corr. tad). 4. Ya is often combined with other prns.: (a) w. tvam, sa, esha, ayam, asau; (b) w. aham (tvam, etc.): yo &zip; ham, I who=since I, or (after a question) that I; (c) w. tad, any soever: yad vâ tad vâ, any, any kind of; anything; (d) w. tvad=or any other (Br., rare); (e) w. intr. ka + ka (V., C., common), + kid (C., very common), + kid api (C., not common), + kana (E., rare), + vâ (C., rare), or + api (C., late, not yet in Manu), immediately following or sts. sepa rated (m. yah kás ka, kas kid, kas kid api, kas kana, ko vâ, or ko &zip; pi, n. yad kim ka, kim kid, kim kid api, kim kana, kim vâ or kim api), whoever, whatever, any soever, any one, no matter who.
yatas ad.=ab. of ya in all numbers and genders, out of or from whom or which, whence, whereof (be afraid); where (common); whither (rare); wherefore, for which reason; since, because, for (often introducing a verse in support of a previous statement); since when (gnly. + prabhriti); as soon as (RV.); that (after questions, e.g. what have I done that you should --; or to introduce oratio recta); yáto yatah, from which or whence respectively; whithersoever, in whatever direction; yata eva kutas ka, whenceso ever (Br.); yatas tatah, from any one so ever; from any quarter whatever; whither soever, to any place whatever.
yatra ad.=lc. of ya in all numbers and genders; where, in which place (ord. mg.); whither; on which occasion, in which case, if; when (common); in that (=quod; rare); in order that (RV., rare); that (after a question): yatra yatra, wherever; whithersoever; yatra tatra, in what ever; anywhere whatever; to any place whatever, heaven knows whither; at every opportunity, on every occasion; yatra tatra½api, anywhere soever; yatra kutra, in whatever; everywhere; yatra kutra½api, in whatever; yátra kvã ka (V.), in any what ever; wherever; whenever; whithersoever; yatra kvakana, in any whatever; any where; at any time; heaven knows whither; yatra kva vâ, anywhere whatever (P.); yatra kva½api, to any place, hither or thither (P.); yatra vâ, or at any other place, or elsewhere.
yatkāma a. desiring which (V.); -kâmy&asharp;, ad. with which intention (Br.); -kâranam, ad. on which account, wherefore; since, because (also ât); -kâryam, ad. with which intention; -kimkana-kâraka, a. doing anything that occurs to one, acting at ran dom; -kimkana-kâr-in, a. id.: (-i)-tâ, f. haphazard conduct; -kimkana-pralâpin, a. talking at random; -kimkana-vâda, m. random assertion; -kimkid-api-samkalpa, m. desire for something or other; -kimkid-duh kha-ka, n. pl. trifling pains of whatever kind; -kula, a. of which family; -krite, ad. for the sake of whom or which.
yathātattva ad. °ree;-- or -m, in accordance with truth, truly, accurately; -tatham, ad. as it is really (tathâ), circumstantially, accurately; properly, suitably; -tathyam, -tathyena, ad. in accordance with truth; -½âtmaka, a. having whatever nature; -darsana, ad. °ree;-or -m, at each occurrence, in each individual case; -dik, -disam, ad. in accordance with the cardinal points, ac cording to thecorresponding direction; -½â dishta, pp. according to the direction or statement: (á)-m, ad.; -drishtam, ad. as one has seen it; -devatam, ad. deity by deity; -desam, ad. according to the place; -½âdesam, according to precept; -dharmám, ad. in due order; according to the nature; -½adhikâra, ad. °ree;-or -m, according to au thority; -½adhîta, °ree;-or -m, ad. as learnt, in accordance with the text; -½adhyâpakam, ad. in accordance with the teacher; -nirup tam, ad. as scattered; -nirdishta, pp. as above specified, described, or characterized; -½anu pûrvam, ad. in regular order; -½anupûrvya, °ree;-or â, (in.) ad. id.; -½anubhûtam, ad. ac cording toprevious experience; -½anurûpam, ad. in exact conformity, regularly; -nyastam, ad. in the manner in which deposited; -nyây am, ad. according to rule, duly, fitly; -nyâs am, ad. according to the written wording of a sûtra, as is written; -nyupta, pp. in the order in which laid down.
yathā rel. ad. & cj. as, like (followed by correlative táthâ; sts. tathâ tathâ, tadvat, evam, V. evá; in V. the pcls. kid, ha, ha vai, iva½a&ndot;ga, iva ha are added, in C. sts. iva redundantly; at the end of a pâda yathâ is sometimes unaccented in this sense like iva); as, for instance; elliptically: as it is or was (rare); properly, correctly (=yathâvat); in order that, (so) that (with subj. or opt. in V.; opt., pr., ft., impf., pf., aor. in C.; sts. with ellipse of syât or bhavet); that (with verbs of saying, thinking, knowing, doubting, hear ing, etc. introducing oratio recta ± iti); as soon as (rare); as if (w. pot., rare): yathâ tathâ, as -therefore; as surely as -so truly (also tena satyena, the logical order of the clauses being sts. inverted); yáthâ yathâ táthâ tathâ (V. also eva&halfacute;eva), according or in proportion as -so, the more -the more; yathâ yathâ½eva, that (w. pot.; corr. tad); yathâ tathâ, in whatever way; in some way or other, anyhow (with na, in no way, not in reality); by commentators used to express that a word is employed adverbially (in such manner that it is, sc.bhavati); yathâ katham- kid, in any way, somehow or other; tad yathâ, that is as follows=namely, for instance; tad yathâ½api nâma, just as if (w. pot.).
yathāvakāśam ad. accord ing to space; into the proper place; accord ing to or on the first opportunity; -vakana kârin, a. acting according to orders, obedient; -vakanam, ad. according to the expression; -vat, ad. exactly as it is or should be, accord ing to usage, in due order, suitably, fitly, cor rectly, accurately;=yathâ, as (rare); -vay as, ad. according to age; of the same age; -vasám, ad. according toone's will or pleasure (V.); -½avasaram, ad. at every opportunity; -vastu, ad. in accordance with the facts, ac curately, truly; -½avastham, ad. in accord ance with the condition or circumstances; -½avasthita½artha-kathana, n. description of a matter in accordance with facts; -½âvâs am, ad. to one's respective dwelling; -vit tam, ad. in accordance with the find; in pro portion to property; -vidha, a. of what kind; -vidhânam, ad.according to prescription or rule, duly; -vidhânena, in ad. id.; -vidhi, ad. id.; in due form, suitably; according to the deserts of (g.); -viniyogam, ad. in the order stated; -vibhava, °ree;--, -m, or -tas, ad. in proportion to means or income; -vibhâg am, ad. in accordance with the share; -vi shayam, ad. according to the thing in ques tion; -vîrya, a. having what strength: -m, ad. in proportion or with regard to valour; -vritta, pp. as happened; how conducting oneself: °ree;-or -m, ad. as it happened, in ac cordance with the facts, circumstantially; according to the metre; n. previous event; ac tual facts, details of an event; -vrittânta, m.(?) experience, adventure; -vriddha, °ree;-or -m, according to age, by seniority; -vyavahâram, ad. in accordance with usage; -vyutpatti, ad. according to the degree of culture; -sakti, -saktyâ, ad. according to one's power, to the utmost of one's power, as far as possible; -½âsayam, ad. according to wish; according to the conditions or premises; -sâstra, °ree;-or -m, according to prescribed rules or the in stitutes of the law; -sîlam, ad.according to the character; -sraddhám, ad. according to inclination; -½âsramam, ad. according to the stage of religious life; -½âsrayam, ad. in re gard to the connexion; -srâddham, ad. in accordance with the funeral feast; -srutam, pp. as heard of: -m, ad. as one heard it; in accordance with knowledge; incorr. for -sruti; -sruti, ad. according to the precepts of the Veda; -samstham, ad. according to circum stances; -sakhyam, ad. in proportion to friend ship; -samkalpita, pp. as wished; -sam khyam, -samkhyena, ad. according to num ber, number for number, in such a way that the numbers of two equal series correspond numerically (the first to the first, the second to the second, etc.); -sa&ndot;gam, ad. according to need, adequately; -satyam, ad. in accord ance with truth, truthfully; -samdishtam, ad. as directed; -½âsannam, ad. as soon as come near; -samayam,ad. at the proper time; -samarthitam, ad. as has been con sidered good; -samâmnâtam, ad. as men tioned; -samîhita, pp. as desired: -m, ad. according to wish (Pr.); -samuditám, ad. as agreed; -sampad, ad. as it happens; -sam pratyayam, ad. according to agreement; -sampradâyam, ad. as handed down; -sam bandham, ad. according to the relationship; -sambhava, a. corresponding as far as pos sible: -m, ad. according to the connexion, respectively; -sambhavin, a., -sambhâvita, pp. corresponding; -sâma, ad. according to the sequence of the Sâmans; -sâram, ad. ac cording to the quality; -siddha, pp. as hap pening to be ready; -sukha,°ree;-or -m, ad. at pleasure; at ease, comfortably; pleasantly, conveniently; -sukha-mukha, a. facing any way one pleases; -sûktam, ad. hymn by hymn; -sûkshma, a. pl. according to size from the smallest onwards: -m,ad.; -½astam, ad. to one's respective home; -sthâna, n. proper place (only lc. sg. & pl.); a. being in the proper place: (á)-m, ad. to or in the proper place; -sthitam, ad. according to one's stand; as it stands, certainly, surely; -sthiti, ad. according to custom, as usual; -sthûla, °ree;-or -m, ad. in the rough, without going into detail; -smriti, ad. according to one's recollection; according to the rules of the law-books; -sva, a. one's (his, their) respective: °ree;-or -m, ad. each his own, each individually or in his own way, respectively; -svaira, °ree;-or -m, ad. at pleasure, without restraint; -½âhâra, a. eating whatever comes to hand.
yathāpaṇyam ad. according to the commodity; -½aparâdha-danda, a. pun ishing in proportion to guilt; -parîttam, ad. as delivered up; -puram, ad. as before; -pûr va, a. being as before: (á)-m, ad. as before; in succession, one after the other; -pragñam, ad. to the best of one's knowledge; -pratya ksha-darsanam, ad. as if actually seen; -pra dishtam, ad. as prescribed, duly; -pradesam, ad. in its respective place; in the proper place; in all directions; according to precept; -pradhânam, ad. according to size; accord ing to precedence; -pravesam, ad. as one has entered; -prasnam, ad. in accordance with the questions; -prastutam, ad. as had al ready been begun, at length; -prânam, ad. according to one's strength, with all one's might; -prânena, in. ad. id.; -prâpta, pp. as fallen in with, the first that occurs; as resulting from circumstances, suitable; re sulting from a preceding grammatical rule: -m, ad. according to the rule, regularly; -prârthitam, ad. as requested; -phalam, ad. according to the produce; -balám, ad. according to one'spower, with all one's might; according to the condition of the army; -bîg am, ad. according to the seed; -buddhi, ad. to the best of one's knowledge; -bhâgám, ad. according to the share; in one's respective place; in the right place; -bhâganam, ad. respectively in the right place; -bhâva, m. condition of how it is, true state; fate; -½abhi preta, pp. wished for, desirable (--°ree;): -m, ad. according to desire, as any one (g.) likes; -½abhimata, pp. desired: -m, ad. according to desire, to one's heart's content, -desa, m. desired place, whatever place one likes; -½abhi rukita, pp. liked, favourite; -½abhilashita, wished for, desirable; -½abhîshta, pp.desired: -dis, f. place desired by each; -bhûtam, ad. according to what has happened, truly; -bhû mi, ad. into the respective country; -½abhy arthita, pp. previously requested; -ma&ndot;ga lam, ad. according to the respective custom; -mati, ad. as seems fit to any one (g.); to the best of one's understanding; -manas, ad. to one's heart's content; -mukhyam, ad. as re gards the chief persons; -mukhyena, in. ad. chiefly, above all; -½âmnâtam, ad. as handed down in the text.
vidviṣ m. enemy; -dvishta-tâ, f. odiousness; -dvishti, f. hate, enmity; -dve shá, m. hatred, enmity, dislike, of (g., lc.); hatefulness to (--°ree;); proud disdain (rare): -m kri, show hostility towards(lc.); -m gam, incur odium; -m grah, conceive hatred to wards (lc.); -dvéshana, a. setting at variance (RV.); n. hatred, enmity towards (g., --°ree;); making oneself hated; stirring up of hatred or enmity; magic rite for engendering hatred; -dveshi-tâ, f. hatred, enmity; -dveshin, a. (n-î) hating; vying with (--°ree;); m. hater, enemy; -dveshtri, m. id.; -dveshya, fp. hateful, odious, to (--°ree;).
viśeṣa m. [√ sish] difference, be tween (2 g., 2 lc., g. & in.); characteristic difference, peculiarity, specific property, dif ferentia; species, individual; special objects, particulars (pl.); distinction, superiority, ex cellence, pre-eminence; special distinction; special place, wonderful object, extraordinary thing; individualization, variation (rh.); par ticularity (opp. sâmânya): --°ree; (sts. also °ree;--)= a definite, special, or particular (pl. different kinds of, various); extraordinary, pre-eminent, choice, distinguished: d. for the enhance ment of (beauty, --°ree;); in., ab., °ree;--, exceedingly, pre-eminently, especially, particularly, very; ab. by special reason of, in consequence of (--°ree;); yena yena viseshena, in any way whatever; a. extraordinary, abundant (in crease, v. r. viseshât): -ka, --°ree; a. = visesha, particularity; a. distinguishing, qualifying; m. n. forehead mark; m. a figure of speech in which two objects are at first represented as similar, but finally as different (e.g. &open;the crow and the cuckoo are black; spring causes their difference to be heard&close;); -karana, n. improvement; -gña, a. knowing the differ ences of things, discriminative, judicious; --°ree;, knowing various --.
sarvathā ad. in every way or respect, by all means (ord. mg.); in whatever way, however (rare); altogether, entirely, in the highest degree (rare); w. na, in no case, not at all.
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
14 results
uśīnara In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Kuru-Pañcālas are mentioned as dwelling together in the * Middle Country ’ with the Vaśas and the Uśīnaras. In the Kausītaki Upanisad also the Uśīnaras are associated with the Kuril-Pañcālas and Vaśas, but in the Gopatha Brāhmana the Uśīnaras and Vaśas are re­garded as northerners. In the Rigveda the people is alluded to in one passage by reference to their queen, Uśīnarānī. Zimmer thinks that the Uśīnaras earlier lived farther to the north-west, but for this there is no clear evidence. His theory is based merely on the fact that the Anukramanī (Index) of the Rigveda ascribes one hymn to śibi Auśīnara, and that the śibis were known to Alexander’s followers as Xiβoc, living between the Indus and the Akesines (Chenab). But this is in no way conclusive, as the Sibis, at any rate in Epic times, occupied the land to the north of Kuruksetra, and there is no reason whatever to show that in the Vedic period the Uśīnaras were farther west than the ‘ Middle Country.’
jahnu Occurs only in the plural in the legend of Sunahśepa, who is said to have obtained, as Devarāta, both the lordship of the Jahnus and the divine lore of the Gāthins. A Jāhnava, or descendant of Jahnu, was, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, Viśvāmitra, who is said, by means of a certain catū-rātra or four-night ’ ritual, to have secured the kingdom for the Jahnus in their conflict with the Vrcīvants. He is here described as a king. Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmana, Viśvāmitra is addressed as a rāja-putra, ‘prince,’ and Bharata- rsabha, ‘bull of the Bharatas.’ It is therefore clear that the Brāhmanas, though not the Samhitās, saw in him at once a priest and a prince by origin, though there is no trace whatever of their seeing in him a prince who won Brahmanhood as in the version of the later texts.A Jahnāvī is mentioned twice in the Rigveda, being either the wife of Jahnu, or, as Sāyana thinks, the race of Jahnu. The family must clearly once have been a great one, later merged in the Bharatas.
tirindira Is mentioned in a Dānastuti, or ‘ Praise of Gifts,’ in the Rigveda as having, along with Parśu, bestowed gifts on the singer. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra this state­ment is represented by a tale that the Kanva Vatsa obtained a gift from Tirindira Pāraśavya, Tirindira and Parśu being in this version thus treated as one and the same man. Ludwig sees in the Rigvedic passage a proof that the Yadus had gained a victory over Tirindira, and gave a part of the booty to the singers; but there is no proof whatever of the correctness of this interpretation, which Zimmer shows to be most unlikely. Yadu princes must be meant by Tirindira and Parśu, though Weber thinks that the singers were Yadus, not the princes. The latter he holds to have been Iranian (cf. TLpiβaζos, and see Parśu), and he thinks that in this there is evidence of continual close relations between India and Iran. This is perfectly possible, but the evidence for it is rather slight.
balhika Is the name of a people in the Atharvaveda where the fever (Takman) is called upon to go to the Mūjavants, the Mahāvrsas, and the Balhikas. The Mūjavants are quite certainly a northern tribe, and though, as Bloomfield suggests, the passage may contain a pun on Balhika as suggesting ‘outsider’ (from bahts, ‘without’), still no doubt the name was chosen from a northern tribe. But the view of Roth and Weber, which Zimmer once accepted, that an Iranian tribe is referred to (cf. Balkh), is not at all probable. Zimmer shows that there is no need whatever to assume Iranian influence. See also Parśu.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
bhiṣaj ‘Physician is a word of common occurrence in the Rigveda and later. There is no trace whatever in the former text of the profession being held in disrepute: the Aśvins, Varuṇa, aṇd Rudra are all called physicians. On the other hand, in the Dharma literature this profession is utterly despised. This dislike is found as early as the Yajurveda Sarphitās, where the Aśvins are condemned because of their having to do with the practice of medicine (bhe§aja), on the ground that it brings them too much among men, an allusion to the caste dislike of promiscuous contact. despised. This dislike is found as early as the Yajurveda Sarphitās, where the Aśvins are condemned because of their having to do with the practice of medicine (bheṣaja), on the ground that it brings them too much among men, an allusion to the caste dislike of promiscuous contact. The Rigveda contains a hymn in which a physician celebrates his plants and their healing powers. Moreover, wonder¬ful cures are referred to as performed by the Aśvins: the healing of the lame and of the blind ; the rejuvenation of the aged Cyavana and of Puramdhi’s husband; the giving of an iron leg {jañghā āyasī) to Viśpalā, a deed only more wonderful if we assume that Viśpalā was a mare, as has been suggested by Pischel. It would in all probability be a mistake to assume that the Vedic Indians had any surgical skill: they no doubt applied simples to wounds, but both their medicine and their surgery must have been most primitive. All that the Atharvaveda shows in regard to medicine is the use of herbs combined with spells, and of water {cf. Jalāça), remedies Indo-European in character, but not of much scientific value. On the other hand, the knowledge of anatomy shown (see śarīra), though betraying grave inaccuracies, is not altogether insignificant; but that was due no doubt mainly to the practice of dissecting animals at the sacrifice.There is some evidence in the Rigveda that the practice of medicine was already a profession; this is supported by the inclusion of a physician in the list of victims at the Puruṣa- medha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. According to Bloomfield, a hymn of the Atharvaveda contains a physician’s deprecation of the use of home-made remedies instead of reliance on his professional training.
yamunā ‘Twin,’ the name of a river, so called as running parallel with the Ganges, is mentioned thrice in the Rigveda, and not rarely later. According to the Rigveda, the Trtsus and Sudās won a great victory against their foes on the Yamunā; there is no reason whatever to accept Hopkins’ view that the Yamunā here was another name of the Paruçṇī (Ravi). In the Atharvaveda the salve (Áñjana) of the Yamunā {Yamuna) is mentioned along with that of Trikakud (Traikakuda) as of value. In the Aitareya and the śatapatha Brāhmaṇas the Bharatas are famed as victorious on the Yamunā. Other Brāhmaṇas also mention this river. In the Mantrapāṭha the Sālvas are spoken of as dwelling on its banks.
yayāti Is mentioned twice in the Rigveda, once as an ancient sacrificer, and once as Nahuṣya, ‘descendant of Nahuça,’ apparently a king. There is no trace whatever of his connexion with Pūru, as in the Epic, the tradition of which must be deemed to be inaccurate.
yamunā ‘Twin,’ the name of a river, so called as running parallel with the Ganges, is mentioned thrice in the Rigveda, and not rarely later. According to the Rigveda, the Trtsus and Sudās won a great victory against their foes on the Yamunā; there is no reason whatever to accept Hopkins’ view that the Yamunā here was another name of the Paruṣṇī (Ravi). In the Atharvaveda the salve (Áñjana) of the Yamunā {Yamuna) is mentioned along with that of Trikakud (Traikakuda) as of value. In the Aitareya and the śatapatha Brāhmaṇas the Bharatas are famed as victorious on the Yamunā. Other Brāhmaṇasalso mention this river. In the Mantrapāṭha the Sālvas are spoken of as dwelling on its banks.
yayāti Is mentioned twice in the Rigveda, once as an ancient sacrificer, and once as Nahuṣya, ‘descendant of Nahuṣa,’ apparently a king. There is no trace whatever of his connexion with Pūru, as in the Epic, the tradition of which must be deemed to be inaccurate.
yuga In the Rigveda frequently denotes a ‘generation’; but the expression daśame yuge applied to Dirg’hatamas in one passage must mean ‘tenth decade’ of life. There is no reference in the older Vedic texts to the five-year cycle (see Samvatsara). The quotation from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa given in the St. Petersburg Dictionary, and by Zimmer and others, is merely a citation from a modern text in the commentary on that work. Nor do the older Vedic texts know of any series of Yugas or ages such as are usual later. In the Atharvaveda6 there are mentioned in order a hundred years, an ayuta (10,000?), and then two, three, or four Yugas: the inference from this seems to be that a Yuga means more than an ayuta, but is not very certain. Zimmer adduces a passage from the Rigveda, but the reference there, whatever it may be, is certainly not to the four ages {cf. also Triyug’a). The Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa recognizes long periods of time—e.g., one of 100,000 years. To the four ages, Kali, Dvāpara, Tretā, and Kṛta, there is no certain reference in Vedic literature, though the names occur as the designations of throws at dice (see Akça). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the names occur, but it is not clear that the ages are really meant. Haug thought that the dice were meant: this view is at least as probable as the alternative explanation, which is accepted by Weber, Roth,Wilson, Max Mūller, and Muir. Roth, indeed, believes that the verse is an inter¬polation ; but in any case it must be remembered that the passage is from a late book of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. Four ages—Puṣya, Dvāpara, Khārvā, and Kṛta—are mentioned in the late Sadvimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Dvāpara in the Gopatha Brāhmana.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
videha Is the name of a people who are not mentioned before the Brāhmaṇa period. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the legend of Videgha Māthava preserves clearly a tradition that in Videha culture came from the Brahmins of the West, and that Kosala was brahminized before Videha. The Videhas, however, derived some fame later from the culture of their king Janaka,who figures in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad as one of the leading patrons of the Brahman doctrine. In the Kausītaki Upaniṣad the Videhas are joined with the Kāśis ; in the list of peoples in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa the Videhas are passed over, probably because, with Kosala and Kāśi, they are included in the term Prāeyas, easterners.’ Again, in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra it is recorded that the Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha kingdoms had each the one Purohita, Jala Jātūkarṇya; and in another passage of the same text the connexion between the Videha king, Para Átṇāra, and the Kosala king, Hiraṇya- nābha, is explained, while the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa speaks of Para Atṇāra as the Kosala king, descendant of Hiranyanābha. Another king of Videha was Namī Sāpya, mentioned in the Pañcavirpśa Brāhmaṇa. In the Samhitās of the Yajurveda ‘cows of Videha’ seem to be alluded to, though the com¬mentator on the Taittirīya Samhitā merely takes the adjective vaidehī as ‘having a splendid body’ (viśista-deha-sambandhinī), and the point of a place name in the expression is not very obvious. The Videhas also occur in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra in Brāhmana-like passages. The boundary of Kosala and Videha was the Sadānīrā, probably the modern Gandak (the Kondochates of the Greek geographers), which, rising in Nepal, flows into the Ganges opposite Patna. Videha itself corresponds roughly to the modern Tirhut.
sabhā Is the name of an ‘ assembly ’ of the Vedic Indians as well as of the ‘hall’ where they met in assembly. It is often mentioned in the Rigveda and later, but its exact character is not certain. The hall was clearly used for dicing presumably when the assembly was not transacting public business: a dicer is called sabhā-sthānu, ‘pillar of the assembly hall,’ doubt­less because of his constant presence there. The hall also served, like the Homeric Xecrχη, as a meeting-place for social intercourse and general conversation about cows and so forth, possibly for debates and verbal contests. According to Ludwig, the Sabhā was an assembly not of all the people, but of the Brahmins and Maghavans (‘ rich patrons ’). This view can be supported by the expressions sabheya, ‘ worthy of the assembly,’ applied to a Brahmin,8 rayih sabhāvātt, ‘wealth fitting for the assembly,’ and so on. But Bloomfield plausibly sees in these passages a domestic use of Sabhā, which is recognized by the St. Petersburg Dictionary in several passages11 as relating to a house, not to the assembly at all. Zimmer is satisfied that the Sabhā was the meeting- place of the village council, presided over by the Grāmaṇī. But of this there is no trace whatever. Hillebrandt seems right in maintaining that the Sabhā and the Sāmiti cannot be distinguished, and that the reference to well-born (su-jāta) men being there in session is to the Aryan as opposed to the Dāsa or Sūdra, not to one class of Aryan as opposed to the other. Hillebrandt also sees in Agni ‘ of the hall ’ (sabhya) a trace of the fire used in sacrifice on behalf of the assembly when it met. Women did not go to the Sabhā, for they were, of course, excluded from political activity. For the Sabhā as a courthouse, cf. Grāmyavādin. There is not a single notice of the work done by the Sabhā.
       Bloomfield Vedic
260 results
tayā hatena pāpena Tā.10.1.9c. Cf. tvayā etc.
tvayā hatena pāpena TA.10.1.8c; MahānU.4.6c,7c. Cf. tayā etc.
akarma vayaṃ tad yad asmākaṃ karma hotāraṃ pṛchata # JB.1.76. See akārṣam ahaṃ tad yan mama hotāraṃ pṛchate.
akarma vayaṃ tad yad asmākaṃ karmodgātāraṃ pṛchata # JB.1.76. See akārṣam ahaṃ tad yan mama karmodgātāraṃ pṛchate.
akārṣam ahaṃ tad yan mama karmodgātāraṃ pṛchate # ṣB.1.4.7. See akarma vayaṃ tad yad asmākaṃ karmodgātāraṃ pṛchata.
akārṣam ahaṃ tad yan mama hotāraṃ pṛchate # ṣB.1.4.7. See akarma vayaṃ tad yad asmākaṃ karma hotāraṃ pṛchata.
agann indraṃ mahate saubhagāya # RV.9.97.5d.
agnaye kuṭārūn ālabhate # VS.24.23; MS.3.14.4: 173.5.
agnaye tvā bṛhate nākāya # MS.1.1.3: 2.9. See agnaye bṛhate.
agnaye 'nīkavate prathamajān ālabhate # VS.24.16; MS.3.13.14: 171.6; Apś.20.14.10. P: agnaye 'nīkavate Apś.20.15.5.
agnaye bṛhate nākāya (KS.ApMB. nākāya svāhā) # TS.; KS.1.3; 31.2; TB.; ApMB.2.6.9 (ApG.5.11.22). See agnaye tvā bṛhate.
agniṃ naras triṣadhasthe sam īdhire (SVṭS.JB. indhate) # RV.5.11.2b; SV.2.259b; TS.; KS.39.14b; JB.3.63.
agniṃ martāsa indhate # AVś.12.1.20c.
agne 'janiṣṭhā mahate vīryāya # AVś.11.1.3a. P: agne 'janiṣṭhāḥ Kauś.60.23.
agner edhate jaritābhiṣṭau # RV.10.6.1b; MS.4.4.15b: 241.2.
agne vasu vidhate rājani tve # RV.6.1.13d; TB.; MS.4.13.6d: 207.16; KS.18.20d.
agne śardha mahate saubhagāya # RV.5.28.3a; AVś.7.73.10a; VS.33.12a; MS.4.11.1a: 159.5; KS.2.15a; TB.; 5.2.4a; Aś.2.11.9; 18.17; Apś.3.15.5a. P: agne śardha śś.3.1.4; Mś.
agne suvīra edhate # RV.8.84.9c.
agreyāvā dhiṣaṇe yaṃ dadhāte # MS.4.14.9b: 228.5.
achāvāko vā ayam upahavam ichate taṃ hotar upahvayasva # Apś.12.26.3. See upahavam.
ata inoṣi vidhate cikitvaḥ # RV.6.5.3c.
atha viśve arapā edhate gṛhaḥ # TS. See adhā viśvāhārapa.
athā dadhāte bṛhad ukthyaṃ vayaḥ # RV.1.136.2f.
athā sīdasva mahate saubhagāya # Mś.
athaitān aṣṭau virūpān (TB. athaitān arūpebhya) ālabhate etc. # VS.30.22 (atidīrghaṃ cātihrasvaṃ ca, in the sequel); VSK.34.22 (atiśuklaṃ cātikṛṣṇaṃ ca, in the sequel); TB. (atihrasvam atidīrgham, in the sequel).
atho ūrdhvāya tiṣṭhate # AVP.4.21.5d.
adadā arbhāṃ mahate vacasyave # RV.1.51.13a.
adha gmantośanā pṛchate vām # RV.10.22.6a.
adhā naro ny ohate # RV.5.52.11a.
adhā niyuta ohate # RV.5.52.11b.
adhā viśvāhārapa edhate gṛhe # VS.8.5d. See atha viśve.
anarvā kṣeti dadhate suvīryam # RV.1.94.2b; AVP.13.5.2b.
anu kṛṣṇe vasudhitī (RV.3.31.17a, vasudhitī jihāte) # RV.3.31.17a; 4.48.3a.
antān divo bādhate vartanibhyām # RV.7.69.3d; MS.4.14.10d: 230.1; TB.
anyo net sūrir ohate # RV.8.5.39c.
apāmīvāṃ bādhate veti sūryam # RV.1.35.9c; VS.34.25c.
apīcyaṃ vardhate naptur apām # RV.2.35.11b.
apo devo vi gāhate # RV.9.3.6b; SV.2.607b.
apo vasāno mahiṣo vi gāhate # RV.9.86.40b.
abhi yonim ayohatam (SV.VS. ayohate) # RV.9.1.2b; SV.2.40b; VS.26.26b; JB.1.156.
abhūd u vo vidhate ratnadheyam # RV.4.34.4a.
ayaṃ rakṣo 'pa bādhate # AVP.2.11.3b. Cf. ayaṃ bādhate.
ayaṃ vāṃ vatso matibhir na vindhate # RV.8.9.6c; AVś.20.140.1c.
ayaṃ viṣkandhaṃ sahate # AVś.2.4.3a; AVP.2.11.3a.
ayaṃ bādhate atriṇaḥ # AVś.2.4.3b. Cf. ayaṃ rakṣo.
ariṣṭaḥ sa marto viśva edhate # RV.10.63.13a.
ariṣṭaḥ sarva edhate # RV.1.41.2c; 8.27.16d.
arcā dive bṛhate śuṣmaṃ vacaḥ # RV.1.54.3a.
arhantaś cid yam indhate # RV.5.7.2c; TS.; MS.4.12.4c: 187.10.
avindaj jyotir bṛhate raṇāya # RV.3.34.4d; AVś.20.11.4d; TB.
avocāma mahate saubhagāya # RV.8.59 (Vāl.11).5a.
avo dhāta vidhate ratnam adya # RV.6.65.3d.
aśastim apa bādhate # AVP.1.69.2b.
aśvāyeva tiṣṭhate ghāsam asmai (AVś.19.55.7b, agne) # AVś.19.55.1b,7b; VS.11.75b; TS.; MS.2.7.7b: 83.11; KS.16.7b; 19.10; śB. See next.
aśvāyeva tiṣṭhate jātavedaḥ # AVś.3.15.8b. See prec.
asūta pṛśnir mahate raṇāya # RV.1.168.9a.
ahāv (MS.KS. ahā) anadatā hate # AVś.3.13.1b; AVP.3.4.1b; TS.; KS.39.2b; MS.2.13.1b: 152.7.
ahne pārāvatān ālabhate # VS.24.25; MS.3.14.6: 173.9.
ā ghā ye agnim indhate (JB.3.277a, indhātāyi) # RV.8.45.1a; SV.1.133a; 2.688a; VS.7.32a; MS.4.12.6a: 194.9; KS.13.15a; JB.3.276a,277a; TB.; ā.; Aś.2.9.14; 6.4.10; 7.8.1; śś.12.11.20; 18.7.6; Apś.11.10.17a; 12.1.2. P: ā ghā ye śś.3.12.8. Cf. Rvidh.2.32.4.
ādityajūta edhate # RV.8.46.5b.
ād id vo deva ohate # RV.7.16.11d; SV.1.55d; 2.863d; MS.2.13.8d: 157.8.
ā devayur inadhate duroṇe # RV.4.2.7c.
ā devānām ohate vi vrayo hṛdi # RV.2.23.16c.
ā mā roha mahate saubhagāya # AVś.5.28.14d. See ā roha māṃ, and darbhā roha.
ā yas te agna idhate anīkam # RV.7.1.8a.
ā roha māṃ mahate saubhagāya # RVKh.10.128.10d. See under ā mā roha.
ārkṣo anīka edhate # RV.8.74.4d. See bṛhadanīka.
āvitto 'yam asā āmuṣyāyaṇo 'muṣyāḥ putro 'muṣyāṃ viśi (MS. adds mahate kṣatrāya mahate jānarājyāya) # MS.2.6.9: 69.6; KS.15.7. P: āvitto 'yam asā āmuṣyāyaṇo 'muṣyāḥ putro 'muṣyāṃ viśi MS.4.4.3: 53.4. See āvinno 'yam.
āvinno 'yam asāv āmuṣyāyaṇo 'syāṃ viśy asmin rāṣṭre mahate kṣatrāya mahata ādhipatyāya mahate jānarājyāya # TS.; TB. See āvitto 'yam.
āviṣṭyo vardhate cārur āsu # RV.1.95.5a; AVP.8.14.5a; MS.4.14.8a: 227.4; TB.; N.8.15a.
āviḥ svaḥ kṛṇute gūhate busam # RV.10.27.24c; N.5.19.
idaṃ viṣkandhaṃ sahate # AVś.1.16.3a; AVP.1.10.2a.
idaṃ bādhate atriṇaḥ (AVP. attriṇaḥ) # AVś.1.16.3b; AVP.1.10.2b.
idā hi vo vidhate ratnam asti # RV.6.65.4a.
indav indrāya bṛhate pavasva # RV.9.69.10a.
induḥ punāno ati gāhate mṛdhaḥ # RV.9.86.26a.
indraś ca yad yuyudhāte ahiś ca # RV.1.32.13c; AVP.12.13.3c.
indreṇa medī bṛhate raṇāya # AVP.5.17.2d.
indro vardhate prathate vṛṣāyate # RV.10.94.9d.
imaṃ stomam arhate jātavedase # RV.1.94.1a; AVś.20.13.3a; AVP.13.5.1a; SV.1.66a; 2.414a; MS.2.7.3a: 78.1; AB.6.12.12; JB.3.140; KB.23.8; GB.2.2.22; PB.13.8.1; ā.; Aś.5.5.19; SMB.2.4.2a; HG.1.9.4a; ApMB.2.7.1a. Ps: imaṃ stomam arhate Aś.4.13.7; MG.1.1.16; 10.2; 2.2.5; VārG.5.31; imaṃ stomam Aś.7.7.8; śś.4.2.10; 8.2.11; 10.8.15; GG.4.4.5; KhG.1.2.6; imam Rvidh.1.22.1. Cf. BṛhD.3.126.
imaṃ devā asapatnaṃ suvadhvaṃ mahate kṣatrāya mahate jyaiṣṭhyāya mahate jānarājyāyendrasyendriyāya (VSK.11.3.2 stops at jyaiṣṭhyāya; VSK.11.6.2 at jānarājyāya) # VS.9.40; 10.18; VSK.11.3.2; 6.2; śB.; 4.2.3. P: imaṃ devāḥ YDh.1.299.
ime dhenū amṛtaṃ ye duhāte # TB.
iṣitaṃ ha vi tiṣṭhate # AVś.19.53.5d; AVP.11.8.5d.
īśānāya parasvata (MS. -tā) ālabhate # VS.24.28; MS.3.14.10: 174.5.
īśānāso ye dadhate svar naḥ # RV.7.90.6a.
ukthair yajñeṣu vardhate # RV.9.17.4c.
uc ca tiṣṭha mahate saubhagāya # AVś.2.6.2b; AVP.3.33.2b; VS.27.2b; TS.; MS.2.12.5b: 148.13; KS.18.16b.
uc chrayasva (MS. uñ śrayasva) mahate saubhagāya # RV.3.8.2d; AVś.3.12.2d; AVP.3.20.2d; MS.4.13.1d: 199.7; KS.15.12d; AB.2.2.13; TB.; PG.3.4.4b; HG.1.27.3d.
uto nu cid ya ohate # RV.8.40.11c. Cf. prec.
ut krāma mahate saubhagāya # VS.11.21a; TS.; KS.16.2a; MS.2.7.2a: 75.17; śB. P: ut krāma TS.; MS.3.1.4: 5.7; KS.19.3; Kś.16.2.18; Apś.16.2.11; Mś.
utsaṃ devīr dadhate yā hiraṇyam # AVP.14.1.7b.
ud ātair jihate bṛhat # RV.9.5.5a.
ud ubjaināṃ mahate vīryāya # AVś.11.1.7b.
ud oṣadhīr jihate pinvate svaḥ (TA. suvaḥ) # RV.5.83.4b; MS.4.12.5b: 193.1; TA.6.6.2b.
ud yad indro mahate dānavāya # RV.5.32.7a.
upahavam ayaṃ brāhmaṇa ichate (KB.śś. ichate 'chāvāko vā) # KB.2.8.6; śś.7.6.4; Kś.9.12.11. See achāvāko vā.
urudhāreva dohate # RV.8.93.3c; AVś.20.7.3c; SV.2.802c.
uro vā padbhir (Kauś. paḍbhir) āhate (KauśṣMB. -ta) # TS.; śś.4.17.12b; Kś.25.9.12b; Mś.; Kauś.44.17b; SMB.2.2.11b.
ūrjaṃ duhāte anapasphurantau # AVś.9.1.7c.
ṛkvāṇo agnim indhate # RV.3.13.5c.
ṛtāya dhenū parame duhāte # RV.4.23.10d.
ṛtāyinī māyinī saṃ dadhāte # RV.10.5.3a.
ṛṣiḥ ko vipra ohate # RV.8.3.14b; AVś.20.50.2b.
ojāyamānas tanvaś ca śumbhate # RV.1.140.6c.
kaṇvāsas tvā sutasomāsa indhate # RV.1.44.8c.
kathā sūre bṛhate pṛchyamānaḥ # RV.4.3.8b.
kiṃ te brahmāṇo gṛhate sakhāyaḥ # RV.5.32.12c.
ko vaḥ sakhitva ohate # RV.8.7.31c.
kratve dakṣāya bṛhate madāya # RV.5.43.5b.
kṣayadvīraḥ sa sādhate # RV.8.19.10b.
kṣuttṛṣṇābhyāṃ taṃ yo gāṃ vikṛntantaṃ māṃsaṃ bhikṣamāṇa upa tiṣṭhate # TB. See kṣudhe yo.
kṣetravid dhi diśa āhā vipṛchate # RV.9.70.9d.
gāyatreṇa tvā chandasodūhāmy auṣṇihena tvānuṣṭubhena tvā vārhatena tvā pāṅktena tvā traiṣṭubhena tvā jāgatena tvā vairājena tvā dvaipadena tvātichandasā tvā # ā.
girayaś cin ni jihate # RV.8.7.34a.
gṛhaṃ-gṛham upa tiṣṭhāte agniḥ # RV.1.124.11d.
grīvā ādadhate veḥ # RV.6.48.17d.
gharmasyaikā savitaikāṃ ni yachati (MS.KS. yachate; PG. yachatu) # TS.; MS.2.13.10d: 160.13; KS.39.10d; PG.3.3.5d.
ghṛtaṃ duhāte amṛtaṃ prapīne # TB.; Apś.21.20.7d.
ghṛtaṃ duhāte sukṛte śucivrate # RV.6.70.2b.
ghṛtair annair vāvṛdhāte madhūnām # RV.10.5.4d.
jaritṛbhyo vimaṃhate # RV.8.45.12c.
jāgṛvāṃsaḥ sam indhate # RV.1.22.21b; 3.10.9b; SV.2.1023b; VS.34.44b; NṛpU.5.10b; Vāsū.4.2b; SkandaU.16b; āruṇU.5b; MuktiU.2.78b.
jyotayainaṃ mahate saubhagāya # AVś.7.16.1b. See vardhayainaṃ.
jyotiṣā bādhate tamaḥ # RV.10.127.2c; VS.33.92d; Aś.8.10.3c; śś.10.11.9c.
tatred indro dadhate pṛtsu turyām # TS.
tasmai te deva bhavāya śarvāya paśupataya ugrāya devāya mahate devāya rudrāyeśānāyāśanaye svāhā # śś.4.18.5. Cf. namo rudrāya paśupataye mahate.
te dakṣiṇāṃ duhate saptamātaram # RV.10.107.4d. See te duhrate.
te devā asapatnam imaṃ suvadhvam amum āmuṣyāyaṇam amuṣyāḥ putram amuṣyāṃ viśi mahate kṣatrāya mahate jānarājyāya # MS.2.6.6: 67.12; amum āmuṣyāyaṇam ... mahate jānarājyāya (with the first part of the formula understood) Mś. See next, and ye devā devasuva.
te devā asapatnam imaṃ suvadhvaṃ mahate kṣatrāya mahate jyaiṣṭhyāya mahate rājyāya mahate jānarājyāya mahate viśvasya bhuvanasyādhipatyāya # KS.15.5. See under prec.
tena pitā vardhate tena putraḥ # RV.7.101.3d.
tokaṃ ca tasya tanayaṃ ca vardhate # RV.2.25.2c.
trīṇi jyotīṃṣi sacate (Vait. dadhate) sa ṣoḍaśī (VSK. ṣolaśī) # VS.8.36d; 32.5d; VSK.8.11.1d; 32.5d; PB.12.13.32d; JB.1.205d; TB.; TA.10.10.2d; MahānU.9.4d; śś.9.5.1d; Vait.25.12d; Apś.14.2.13d; NṛpU.2.4e.
tvaṃ na indra mahate saubhagāya # AVś.17.1.9a.
tvam agna uruśaṃsāya vāghate # RV.1.31.14a.
tvam agne tvaṣṭā vidhate suvīryam # RV.2.1.5a.
tvam agne vāghate supraṇītiḥ # RV.4.2.13a.
tvaṣṭāraṃ vāyum ṛbhavo ya ohate # RV.10.65.10a.
tvāṃ naṣṭavān mahimāya pṛchate # Aś.4.11.6a.
dakṣaṃ dadhāte apasam # RV.1.2.9c; SV.2.199c.
daddhi sūriś cid ohate # RV.1.176.4d.
dadhatho ratnaṃ vidhate janāya # RV.4.44.4d; AVś.20.143.4d.
dadhāti ratnaṃ vidhate janāya # RV.7.75.6d.
dadhāti ratnaṃ vidhate yaviṣṭhaḥ # RV.4.12.3c.
dadhāti ratnaṃ vidhate suvīryam # RV.7.16.12c; SV.2.864c.
divaḥ pīyūṣaṃ duhate nṛcakṣasaḥ # RV.9.85.9d.
dīrghāyutvāya bṛhate raṇāya # AVś.2.4.1a; AVP.2.11.1a. P: dīrghāyutvāya Kauś.42.23.
devaṃ martāsa indhate sam adhvare # RV.3.10.1c.
devānāṃ sumne bṛhate raṇāya # VS.14.3b; MS.2.8.1b: 106.12; KS.17.1b; śB. See next but one.
devānāṃ sumne subhagaḥ sa edhate # RV.2.25.5c.
devānāṃ sumno mahate raṇāya # TB.; Apś.10.3.8b. See prec. but one.
devānāṃ nāva rundhate # AVś.13.2.15d.
devīr dvāra indraṃ saṃghāte # VS.28.13a; TB. Cf. next.
devīr dvāraḥ saṃghāte vīḍvīr yāmañ śithirā (KSṭB. chithirā) dhruvā devahūtau # MS.4.13.8: 209.11; KS.19.13; TB. Cf. prec.
dyauś ca yaṃ pṛthivī vāvṛdhāte # RV.7.7.5c.
dhūmrān vasantāyālabhate # VS.24.11. See next but one.
dhvāntaṃ tamo 'va dadhvase hate # RV.10.113.7c.
na karmaṇā vardhate no kanīyān # śB.; TB.; BṛhU.4.4.28b; BDh.
na cakram abhi bādhate # RV.8.5.34c.
na taṃ yakṣmā arundhate # AVś.19.38.1a.
nama ānirhatebhyaḥ (MS. ānṛhatebhyaḥ) # VS.16.46; TS.; MS.2.9.9: 127.5; KS.17.16; śB.
namas te prāṇa tiṣṭhate # AVś.11.4.7c.
namas te bṛhate yat ta uttarato yat ta uttaraḥ pakṣaḥ # Lś.3.11.3. See next two.
namas te bṛhate yas ta uttaraḥ pakṣaḥ # ā. See under prec.
namas te bṛhate yas ta uttaro bāhur yas ta uttaraḥ pakṣaḥ # śś.17.13.3. See prec. two.
namas te rudra tiṣṭhate # AVś.11.2.15c.
namo dive bṛhate rodasībhyām # RV.1.136.6a.
namo dive bṛhate sādanāya # RV.5.47.7d; AVś.19.11.6d; AVP.12.17.6d.
namo bṛhate ca varṣīyase ca # VS.16.30; TS.; MS.2.9.5: 124.12; KS.17.14.
namo mahate devāya # śś.6.2.2.
namo rudrāya paśupataye mahate devāya tryambakāyaikacarāyādhipataye haraye śarvāyeśānāyogrāya vajriṇe ghṛṇine kapardine namaḥ # GDh.26.12. Cf. tasmai te deva.
namo viṣṇave bṛhate (AG. mahate) karomi # TA.2.12.1d; Apś.14.34.5d; AG.3.3.4d.
namo vo 'dṛṣṭāya bṛhate karomi # JG.1.12c.
na riṣyati na vyathate # TA.1.11.7a.
naro yatra duhate kāmyaṃ madhu # RV.10.76.6c.
na vyathate caran # AVP.8.9.8d.
na śardhate dasyujūtāya stavān # RV.6.24.8b.
na sa rājā vyathate yasminn indraḥ # RV.5.37.4a.
na sredhati na vyathate na riṣyati # RV.5.54.7b.
nānaḍvān sahate dhuram # AVś.5.17.18b; AVP.9.16.1b.
nāmāni yahvo adhi yeṣu vardhate # RV.9.75.1b; SV.1.554b; 2.50b; JB.1.166.
ni bādhate amatir nagnatā jasuḥ # RV.10.33.2c.
nivīyamānā mahate saubhagāya # KS.31.14b.
ni vo vanā jihate yāmano bhiyā # RV.5.57.3b; TB.
ni śaryāṇi dadhate deva ā varam # RV.9.68.2d.
niṣeduṣo vijṛmbhate # RV.10.86.16d,17b; AVś.20.126.16d,17b.
nṛmṇā śiśāno mahiṣo na śobhate # RV.9.69.3d.
no asya vyathate paviḥ # RV.6.54.3c.
padvantaṃ garbham apadī dadhāte # RV.1.185.2b; MS.4.14.7b: 224.11; TB.
pavitram ati gāhate # RV.9.67.20b.
pāñcajanyasya bahudhā yam indhate # AVś.4.23.1b; AVP.4.33.1b. See yaṃ pāñca-.
pra ketunā sahate viśvam ejat # AVś.13.2.31d.
prajāpataye puruṣān hastina (MS. hastinā) ālabhate # VS.24.29; MS.3.14.8: 174.1.
prajāpatir mahate saubhagāya # SMB.1.5.2b.
pra ṇināya mahate saubhagāya # RV.3.8.11d; VS.5.43b; TS.; MS.1.2.14b: 23.7; KS.3.2b; 26.3; śB.
prati gṛbhṇāmi mahate etc. # see prati gṛhṇāmi etc.
prati gṛhṇāmi (MSṭB.Aś. gṛbhṇāmi) mahate vīryāya (MS.KS. mahata indriyāya) # MS.2.3.4d: 31.10; KS.40.3d; TB.; Aś.6.12.2d.
praprothāya (TS.KSA. praprothate) svāhā # VS.22.7; TS.; MS.3.12.3: 160.13; KSA.1.10.
pra maṃhiṣṭhāya bṛhate bṛhadraye # RV.1.57.1a; AVś.20.15.1a; KB.30.9; GB.2.4.16; Vait.25.7. P: pra maṃhiṣṭhāya Aś.6.1.2; 8.6.13; śś.12.25.2,4.
pra yaḥ purūṇi gāhate # RV.1.127.4d.
pra va indrāya bṛhate # RV.8.89.3a; SV.1.257a; VS.33.96a; AB.4.29.11; 5.4.12; 16.12; KB.27.2; ā.; Aś.5.14.18.
pra vām atra vidhate daṃsanā bhuvat # RV.1.119.7d.
pra vīyante garbhān dadhate # AVś.11.4.3c.
pra samrāje bṛhate manma nu priyam # RV.6.68.9a. P: pra samrāje bṛhate śś.12.10.4.
prāgnaye bṛhate yajñiyāya # RV.5.12.1a. P: prāgnaye bṛhate Aś.4.13.7.
prātar hi yajñam aśvinā dadhāte # RV.5.77.1c; MS.4.12.6c: 196.2; TB.
prādevīr māyāḥ sahate durevāḥ # RV.5.2.9c; AVś.8.3.24c; TS.; KS.2.15c; JB.3.96c.
bṛhad vayo bṛhate tubhyam agne # RV.5.43.15a.
bṛhantaṃ cid ṛhate randhayāni # RV.10.28.9c.
bṛhaspatir vāvṛdhate suvṛktibhiḥ # RV.10.64.4b.
brahmacāriṇam ichate # AVś.11.5.17d.
brahmaṇe brāhmaṇam (TB.Apś. add ālabhate) # VS.30.5; TB.; Kś.21.1.7 (comm.); Apś.20.24.8.
bharadvājavad vidhate maghoni # RV.6.65.6b.
bhuvo vāyave cāntarikṣāya ca mahate ca svāhā # TA.10.4.1; MahānU.7.3.
bhūmyā ākhūn ālabhate # VS.24.26; MS.3.14.7: 173.11.
bhūmyai pīṭhasarpiṇam ālabhate # TB. See pṛthivyai etc.
bhūr agnaye ca pṛthivyai ca mahate ca svāhā # TA.10.4.1; MahānU.7.3.
bhūr bhuvaḥ suvaś candramase ca nakṣatrebhyaś ca digbhyaś ca mahate ca svāhā # TA.10.4.1; MahānU.7.3.
makṣū jāta āviśad yāsu vardhate # RV.2.13.1b.
madhyena yakṣmaṃ bādhate # AVś.19.36.2c; AVP.2.27.2c.
madhva ūrmiṃ duhate sapta vāṇīḥ # RV.8.59 (Vāl.11).3b.
manīṣiṇo manasā pṛchated u tat # RV.10.81.4c; VS.17.20c; TS.; MS.2.10.2c: 133.5; KS.18.2c; TB.
marmṛjyamānā mahate saubhagāya # TB.;; Apś.4.5.1c.
mahate kṣatrāya mahata ādhipatyāya mahate jānarājyāya # TS.; TB.; 6.7. See next.
mahate kṣatrāya mahate jānarājyāya # MS.2.6.6: 67.14; Mś. See prec.
mahāṃ abhijñu bādhate # śś. See mahāṃ abhito.
mahāṃ abhito bādhate # AVś.20.136.15c. See mahāṃ abhijñu.
mahāntaṃ devaṃ tarpayāmi # BDh. Cf. mahate devāya.
mahīr apo vi gāhate # RV.9.7.2b; 99.7d; SV.2.479b.
ghoṣā utthur bahule vinirhate # AVś.7.52.2c.
śardhate parā dāḥ # RV.8.2.15b; SV.2.1156b.
mṛgāyāraṇye tiṣṭhate # AVP.1.99.3c.
ya īṃ vahāte mahiṣīm iṣirām # RV.5.37.3b.
ya īṃ vahāte ya īṃ vā vareyāt # RV.10.27.11d; Vait.38.6d.
ya īṃ puṣyanta indhate # RV.4.8.5c; KS.12.15c.
ya ukthebhir na vindhate # RV.8.51 (Vāl.3).3a.
ya u svayaṃ vahate so araṃ karat # RV.5.44.8d.
ya ohate rakṣaso devavītau # RV.5.42.10a. Cf. BṛhD.5.38.
yaṃ sam id anya indhate # SV.1.59d. See yaṃ sīm id.
yajñaṃ viṣṭāra ohate # RV.5.52.10d.
yajñasya ketum indhate # RV.6.2.3b.
yajñair ya indre dadhate duvāṃsi # RV.7.20.6c.
yad apravītā dadhate ha garbham # RV.4.7.9c.
yad īṃ sumitrā viśo agra indhate # RV.10.69.1c.
yad īm upa hvarate sādhate matiḥ # RV.1.141.1c.
yad ohate varuṇo mitro aryamā # RV.7.66.12c.
yad vairūpa upahate vyadhve (JB.3.255a erroneously vyaddhve) # JB.2.398a; 3.255a.
yantā vasūni vidhate tanūpāḥ # RV.10.46.1d; SV.1.77d; KS.10.13b.
yaṃ tvā janāsa indhate # RV.8.43.27a.
yam indhate yuvatayaḥ sam itthā # RV.2.35.11c.
yaṃ pāñcajanyaṃ bahavaḥ samindhate # TS.; MS.3.16.5b: 190.6; KS.22.15b. See pāñcajanyasya.
yayā sapatnīṃ bādhate # RV.10.145.1c; AVś.3.18.1c; AVP.7.12.10c; ApMB.1.15.1c.
yayor vāṃ viśvaṃ yad idaṃ vitiṣṭhate # AVP.4.37.1b. Cf. yayor vām idaṃ.
yayoḥ śatrur nakir ādeva ohate # RV.8.59 (Vāl.11).2d.
yaḥ śardhate nānudadāti śṛdhyām # RV.2.12.10c; AVś.20.34.10c; AVP.12.14.10c.
yas tvām agna inadhate yatasruk # RV.4.12.1a.
dohate prati varaṃ jaritre # RV.10.133.7b.
no dohate trir ahann asaścuṣī # RV.9.86.18c; SV.2.504c.
yābhir madāya śumbhate # RV.9.38.3c; SV.2.629c.
yāv ārebhāte vahu (for bahu) sākam ugrau # AVP.4.37.4a. See next.
yāḥ śukraṃ duhate payaḥ # RV.9.19.5c.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     KV Abhyankar
"hate" has 2 results.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
     Vedabase Search  
Results for hate163 results
hate being destroyedSB 10.77.37
hate being killedSB 10.17.10
SB 10.44.28
SB 10.74.44
hate having been killedSB 10.88.37
hate was killedSB 6.13.10
hate pitari when their father was killedSB 9.15.34
hate pitari when their father was killedSB 9.15.34
hatena being killedSB 10.44.45
hateṣu being killedSB 10.44.31
hateṣu having been killedSB 10.2.3
SB 10.50.34
hateṣu when they have been killedSB 12.2.21
hateṣu when they were deadSB 10.50.42
abhihatena who had been struckSB 10.44.24-25
abhilabhate he getsSB 5.14.36
abhivardhate increases more and moreSB 9.19.14
ahate unusedSB 10.75.22
ahatena with newSB 5.9.15
antaḥ-dadhate will disappearSB 3.3.15
anupṛcchate after he (Indra) inquiredSB 6.8.3
apahate futileSB 7.5.42
ārabhate beginsBG 3.7
ārabhate beginsSB 4.18.5
ārabhate begins to performSB 4.29.58
ārabhate beginsSB 4.29.60
ārabhate beginsSB 7.7.47
arhate deservesSB 5.5.1
arhate worship performedSB 10.38.3
atiśobhate appears beautifulSB 9.14.26
avarundhate obtainSB 5.14.39
avatiṣṭhate becomes establishedBG 2.65
avatiṣṭhate becomes situatedBG 6.18
avatiṣṭhate can be fixedSB 2.2.12
avatiṣṭhate presently existsSB 3.22.20
avatiṣṭhate he remainsSB 3.28.44
avatiṣṭhate standsSB 5.24.27
avatiṣṭhate develops firmlySB 12.4.34
bādhate does not hinderSB 10.1.13
bādhate is causing distressSB 10.23.1
bādhate undoesSB 11.21.16
bṛhate the greatestSB 4.24.42
bṛhate who are unlimitedSB 8.3.17
bṛhate the greatest of allSB 9.19.29
bṛhate hugeSB 10.40.17-18
bṛhate the greatest beingSB 10.85.39
antaḥ-dadhate will disappearSB 3.3.15
edhate prospersSB 10.44.48
edhate growSB 11.3.38
edhate prospersSB 11.9.15
edhate increasesSB 11.25.19
vṛtre hate when Vṛtrāsura was killedSB 6.13.1
vālini hate when Vāli had been killedSB 9.10.12
ubhaye hate when both are destroyedSB 11.13.3
samīhate hātum endeavors to give upCC Antya 20.156
īhate he aspiresBG 7.22
īhate thinks ofSB 4.29.71
īhate performsSB 6.2.4
īhate engages in activities of creation, maintenance and annihilationSB 8.1.15
īhate is actingSB 10.39.27
īhate endeavorsSB 10.54.12
īhate endeavorsSB 10.74.22
īhate engagesSB 11.2.47
īhate executesCC Madhya 22.74
katthate they saySB 5.24.16
labhate achievesBG 4.39
labhate gainsBG 6.43
labhate obtainsBG 7.22
labhate achievesBG 18.45
labhate gainsBG 18.54
labhate achievesSB 3.30.4
labhate achievesSB 4.23.39
labhate he obtainsSB 5.13.12
labhate getsSB 6.19.25
labhate can achieveSB 8.23.6
labhate gainsSB 10.6.44
labhate one achievesSB 11.3.46
labhate one obtainsSB 11.11.23-24
labhate such a person obtainsSB 11.11.47
labhate achievesSB 11.20.32-33
labhate receivesSB 11.27.53
labhate can achieveSB 12.3.48
labhate obtainsCC Adi 1.57
labhate achievesCC Madhya 8.65
labhate obtainsCC Madhya 18.12
labhate gainsCC Madhya 24.132
labhate achievesCC Madhya 25.155
labhate na does not achieveMM 53
labhate obtainsNBS 49
labhate attainsNBS 84
labhate attainsNBS 84
mahate unto the greatSB 3.14.35
mahate unto the SupremeSB 6.16.20
mahate unto the greatSB 7.3.26-27
mahate the SupremeSB 10.74.23
mahate greatestSB 12.12.1
na utsahate never attemptsSB 1.10.11-12
na śobhate does not appear beautifulSB 10.44.46
labhate na does not achieveMM 53
nihate being killedSB 10.18.32
nihate having been killedSB 10.36.16
nihate being killedSB 10.61.39
nihate having been killedSB 10.72.45
prabādhate is harassingSB 4.25.30
prārabhate beginsBG 18.15
pratihate being hamperedSB 2.7.32
pratihate frustratedSB 3.19.12
pratihate being dazzledSB 4.1.25
pratihate being thwartedSB 10.43.12
pratyavatiṣṭhate it appearsSB 3.27.20
pṛcchate askingSB 4.6.37
pṛcchate to the inquiringSB 7.1.13
ṛcchate obtainsSB 12.6.26
samedhate it increasesSB 11.12.18
samīhate plansSB 8.24.47
samīhate offers (its obligation unto You)SB 10.2.34
samīhate one accomplishesSB 10.88.30
samīhate hātum endeavors to give upCC Antya 20.156
samutkaṇṭhate is very eager to goCC Madhya 1.58
samutkaṇṭhate is very eager to goCC Madhya 13.121
samutkaṇṭhate is very eager to goCC Antya 1.78
saṃyacchate winds upSB 2.4.7
sandadhate performsSB 7.8.40
sañjihate move aboutSB 10.40.15
śobhate look wellSB 1.5.12
śobhate is beautifulSB 4.7.36
na śobhate does not appear beautifulSB 10.44.46
śobhate look wellSB 12.12.53
śobhate looks beautifulCC Madhya 22.19
śraddadhate respect very muchSB 4.6.44
śraddadhate are eagerSB 6.18.21
śraddadhate you believe inSB 7.7.17
śraddhate is convinced byNBS 84
tat vyathate that are painedCC Madhya 8.219
ubhaye hate when both are destroyedSB 11.13.3
upahate having stoppedSB 10.29.30
upalabhate achievesSB 3.33.37
na utsahate never attemptsSB 1.10.11-12
utsahate is ableCC Madhya 24.98
vālini hate when Vāli had been killedSB 9.10.12
vāñchate desiresSB 4.18.9-10
vardhate flourishingSB 1.14.30
vardhate overloadsSB 3.15.10
vardhate increasesSB 8.19.26
vardhate is increasingSB 10.13.36
vardhate increasesSB 10.74.4
vardhate growsSB 11.3.10
vardhate increasesSB 11.8.20
vidadhate take toSB 6.3.26
vihate having been stoppedSB 10.25.15
vihate when it was disruptedSB 10.27.12
vihate which is subject to destructionSB 10.87.34
vinihate is killedSB 6.9.55
vinihate was killedSB 7.2.1
vipralambhate cheatsSB 8.21.33
vipṛcchate having inquired about it fromSB 2.4.25
vṛtre hate when Vṛtrāsura was killedSB 6.13.1
vyathate is hurtSB 4.3.19
vyathate are distressedSB 10.31.19
vyathate are distressedCC Adi 4.173
tat vyathate that are painedCC Madhya 8.219
vyathate are distressedCC Madhya 18.65
vyathate are distressedCC Antya 7.40
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agate stone; name derived from Achates river in Italy. They are associated with volcanic rock and belong to quartz variety.


hated, disliked, odious, unpleasant.


green vitreol, ferrous sulphate.


flower, puṣpakāśīsa purified ferrous sulphate; puṣpaśāka flower vegetable ex: cauliflower.


blue vitriol, copper sulphate.

     Wordnet Search "hate" has 12 results.


tejomayaḥ, tejomayī, tejomayam, suprabhaḥ, suprabhā, suprabham, tejiṣṭhaḥ, tejiṣṭham, tejiṣṭhā, tejīyān, tejīyasī, tejīyaḥ, atitaijasaḥ, atitaijasī, atitaijasam, atiśobhanaḥ, atiśobhānā, atiśobhanam, atidīptimān, atidīptimat, atidīptimatī, atikāntimān, atitejasvī, atitejasvinī, atikāntimatī, atikāntamat, atiprabhāvān, mahātejāḥ, mahātejaḥ, mahāprabhaḥ, mahāprabhā, mahāprabham, ujjvalaḥ, ujjvalā, ujjvalam, śobhamānaḥ, śobhamānam, śobhamānā, śubhraḥ, śubhrā, śubhram, bhāsvān, bhāsantaḥ, bhāsantā, bhāsantam, bhāsantaḥ, bhānumān, bhāsuraḥ, bhāsurā, bhāsuram   


tasya kumārasya tejomayaṃ mukhaṃ dṛṣṭvā saḥ uccakulajātaḥ iti vicārya ācāryaḥ taṃ śiṣyatvena svīkṛtavān।


pāradaḥ, rasarājaḥ, rasanāthaḥ, mahārasaḥ, rasaḥ, mahātejaḥ, rasalehaḥ, rasottamaḥ, sūtarāṭ, capalaḥ, jaitraḥ, rasendraḥ, śivabījaḥ, śivaḥ, amṛtam, lokeśaḥ, durdharaḥ, prabhuḥ, rudrajaḥ, haratejaḥ, rasadhātuḥ, acintyajaḥ, khecaraḥ, amaraḥ, dehadaḥ, mṛtyunāśakaḥ, sūtaḥ, skandaḥ, skandāṃśakaḥ, devaḥ, divyarasaḥ, śreṣṭhaḥ, yaśodaḥ, sūtakaḥ, siddhadhātuḥ, pārataḥ, harabījam, rajasvalaḥ, śivavīryam, śivāhvayaḥ   

dhātuviśeṣaḥ, kramikuṣṭhanāśakaḥ ojayuktaḥ rasamayaḥ dhātuḥ।

pāradaḥ nikhilayogavāhakaḥ asti।


prātaḥ, prātaḥkāle, prātaḥsamaye, prabhātam, pratyūṣaḥ, pratyaham, prabhātakāle, prabhāte, prage, prāhṇe, prāhṇam   

āpratyūṣāt madhyāhnaparyantasya samaye।

śvaḥ prātaḥ āgamiṣyatām।



uttarapradeśasasya āgrā-maṇḍalasya ekaṃ nagaram।

phatehapūrasīkarīnagaram akabareṇa sthāpitam।



uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

phatehapūranagaraṃ hamīdapūranagarasya nikaṭe vartate।



uttara-pradeśa-prānte ekaḥ jilhāpradeśaḥ;

phatehapura-jilhāpradeśa mukhyālayaḥ phatehapura-nagaryām vartate



bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

phatehābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ phatehābādanagare asti।



bhāratadeśasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

mukhyamantriṇaḥ omaprakāśacauṭālāmahodayasya phatehābādanagare vyākhyānam asti।



pañjābaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

phategaḍhasāhibamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ phategaḍhasāhibanagare vartate।



pañjābaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

phategaḍhasāhibanagarasya ekasmin mandire umāmaheśvarayoḥ tathā ca gaṇeśasya pratimāḥ santi।



ekā nagarī ।

kṣitīśa-vaṃśāvalī-carite phatepura-nagarasya varṇanaṃ prāpyate



ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

iddhatejasaḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

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