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     Grammar Search "haste" has 6 results.
     
haste: neuter nominative dual stem: hasta
haste: feminine nominative dual stem: hasta
haste: neuter accusative dual stem: hasta
haste: feminine accusative dual stem: hasta
haste: neuter locative singular stem: hasta
haste: masculine locative singular stem: hasta
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
haste(locative case of hasta-), in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastebandham. equals hasta-b- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastegṛhyaind. (equals hasta-gr-) mayūra-vyaṃsakādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastekaraṇan. taking (the bride's) hand, marrying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastekṛP. -karoti-, to take in hand, take possession of. make one's own View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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hastekaraṇam हस्तेकरणम् Marrying.
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raṃh Raṃh hasten, I. ráṃha; cs. raṃháya cause to speed, i. 85, 5.
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atijava m. extreme rapidity; -na, a. extremely swift: -tâ, f. great haste.
ativega m. excessive haste; -vedanâ, f. violent pain; -vepathu-mat, a. trembling violently.
abhidhā a. surrounding; f. appellation, name: -tavya, fp. to be said or announced, -tri, m. one who speaks, -na, n. statement; designation; name; word: -kosa, m. dictionary, -yin, a. saying, speaking; stating, explaining; -dhâvaka, a. hastening up.
abhipāta m. hastening up.
alīka a. disagreeable; false; n. dis agreeable thing; untruthfulness, falsehood; forehead; -nimîlana, n. feigned closing of the eyes; -pandita, m. philosophaster; -man trin, m. dishonest minister; -vâda-sîla, a. lying; -supta, -ka, n. feigned sleep.
asat pr. pt. non-existent; untrue; bad; -î, f. unchaste woman; n. non-entity; lie; evil; -kalpanâ, f. false supposition; lie; -krita, pp. badly treated; offered ungraciously; n. injury; -tva, n. non-existence:-vakana, a. expressing no entity: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -putra, a. sonless; -pratigraha, m. acceptance of a gift from an unworthy person; -pralâpa, m. empty talk; -pravritti, f. evil course of action.
ūrdhvakara a. with raised hands or upward rays; -karna, a. pricking up one's ears; -krita, pp. raised upwards; -ga, a. going upwards; -gati, f. going upwards; bounding; a. going upwards or to heaven; -gamana, n. rising, ascending, elevation: -vat, a. moving upwards; -gâmin, a.=-ga; -gvalana, n. flaming up; -ghampa, m. up ward leap; -dris, a. looking upwards; -drishti, a. upward gaze; -pâtra, n. tall vessel; -pâda, a. holding up the feet; m. tip of the foot; -pundra, -ka, m. vertical line marked with sandal &c. on the forehead of a Brâhman, sectarian mark; -bâhu, a. having the arms raised; -brihatî, f. a metre; -bhâga, m.upper part; -mukha, a. with upturned face; having its mouth turned upwards; darting up wards; -munda, a. shaved on the crown; -râgi, f. upward streak; -rekhâ, f. upward line; -retas, a. whose seed remains above, chaste; -loka, m. upper world, heaven; -vâla, a. hair outwards; -vrita, pp. worn above=over the shoulder.
ṛjipya a. hastening forward.
kulaṭā f. unchaste woman.
kṛtatīrtha a. to which a stair has been made; -tvara, a. hastening; -dâra, a. married; -dâsa, m. one who offers himself as a slave for a fixed time; -dîrgha-rosha, m. protracted wrath; -dhî, a.clever; resolved on (inf.); -dhvag, a. furnished with banners; -nâsaka, a. ungrateful; -nâsana, a. id.; -niskaya, a. convinced; firmly resolved on (d., lc., inf., --°ree;); resolute; -niskayin, a. resolute.
jagmi a. going, nimble; hastening to (ac., lc.).
java a. swift; m. swiftness, speed; haste: ab. at once; -ana, a. (î) quick, swift; n. quickness, swiftness; -anikâ, f. curtain.
tvarita pp.; n. haste, hurry.
tvarā f. haste, hurry, urgency (with in., lc., or --°ree;): in. hastily, quickly; vivâha krite tvarâ, hurry with regard to the wed ding; tvarâm kri, hasten with (g.).
dvipravrājinī a. f. running after two men, unchaste; -bâhu, a. two-armed; m. man; -bhâga, m. half; -bhâdra, a. having two months of Bhâdra; -bhuga, a. two-armed; -mâtra, a. twice as great; con taining two morae; -mukha, a. (î) two-mouthed; -mûrdhan, a. two-headed; -rada, a. having two tusks; m. elephant; -râtrá, a. lasting two days; m. feast lasting two days.
parivatsara m. complete year; &isharp;-na, a. relating to a full year; -vargana, n. avoidance of, abstention from (g. or --°ree;): î-ya, fp. to be avoided; -varta, m. revolution; end of a period, esp. of a cycle (yuga); end; exchange, barter; change; moving to and fro, haste, bustle; abode, place; causing to come to an end: -ka, a. causing to flow back; -vártana, a. (î) causing to turn; n. turn ing; tossing or rolling about on (--°ree;); revo lution; periodic course; end of a period; exchange, barter; change; -vartanîya, fp. to be exchanged for (in.); -vartin, a. turn ing, revolving; winding; circling, under going perpetual cycles, ever renewing itself; turning into, being exchanged for (--°ree;); abid ing or being in, at, or near (lc., -tas, --°ree;); -vartula, a. quite round; -vardhaka, m. groom; -vardhana, n. augmentation, mul tiplication; -vardhita-ka, a.reared; -vas trâ, f. curtain; -vaha, m. one of the seven winds; one of the seven tongues of fire.
parīpsā f. wish to obtain, main tain, or preserve; haste; -½îpsu, des. a. wish ing to preserve (ac.).
pūrvapakṣa m. fore part or side; first half of a lunar month (when the moon increases), light fortnight; (primâ facie case), action at law; first objection to a proposi tion; -pakshin, a. making the first objection to a proposition; -pakshî-kri, make the first objection to a proposition; -patha, m. pre vious path, same way as before; -pada, n. previous member of a compound (gr.); -pad ya, a. belonging to the first member of a compound; -parigraha, m. first claim, pre cedence, privilege; a. claimed as a privilege by (g.); -pâda, m. fore-foot; -pitâmaha, m. fore-grandfather=ancestor; -pîthikâ, f. in troduction; -purusha, m.forefather (pl. ancestors); primaeval spirit, ep. of Brahman: -½upârgita, pp. collected by one's ancestors; -pûgita, pp. previously consecrated; -pûrva, a. every preceding one, each previously men tioned one; m. pl.ancient ancestors; -pûr va½ukta, pp. respectively mentioned before; -péya, n. precedence in drinking; precedence (in general); -pragñ&asharp;, f. knowledge of the past, memory; -prati-panna, pp. having previously agreed to or promised something; -pravritta, pp. having occurred previously; -prasthita, pp. having started previously, hastening on before.
pragama m. first advance of love in courtship; -gardhín, a. hastening onwards (RV.); -galbha, 1. den. Â. be courageous or resolute; be capable of (lc.), be able to (inf.); 2. a. bold, intrepid, resolute, confident; mature (age): -kulâla, m. dexterous potter, -tâ, f. boldness, confidence; -gâthá, m. kind of three-verse stanza (combination of a Brihatî or Kakubh with a Satobrihatî); N. of a Rishi; -guna, a. right, correct (road); being in good order, efficient; excellent; gunaya, den. P. put in order; manifest, show: pp. ita, put in order, properly arranged; -guna-rakanâ, f. putting in proper order; -gunin, a. kind towards (lc.); -gunî kri, put in proper order, arrange; render amenable to (lc.); -grihîta-pada, a. having the words pronounced separately (i. e. with out Sandhi); -grihya, fp. (to be) pronounced separately, not liable to the rules of Sandhi (vowel).
prajana m. (n.) procreation, impregnation; parturition; m. procreator; -gánana, a. generating, procreative; n. impregnation; parturition, procreation; birth, propagation; production, of (--°ree;); genital member; progeny, children; -gaya, m. victory; -galpa, m. conversation; prattle; -galpana, n. speaking, talking; -gavá, m. haste, speed; -gav ana, a. running very fast; -gavin, a. hurry ing, running fast, quick;-gas, a. --°ree;=pragâ, progeny; -gahitá, pp. given up, abandoned.
prapakva a. inflamed (med.); -pak sha, m. tip of a wing; -pañka, m. expansion, prolixity, amplification, of (g. or --°ree;); phe nomenon; manifestation or form of (g.); phenomenal world (ph.); mutual flattery (rh.); ludicrous dialogue (dr.): in. or -tas, ad. in detail, -pañka-ka, a. (ikâ) multiply ing (--°ree;); amplifying, explaining in detail; -pañkana, n. detailed or prolix account; -pañka-buddhi, a. crafty, wily; -pañka-ya,den. describe or explain in detail; represent in a false light; -pañka-vakana, n. prolix discourse; -paná, m. trade, barter, purchase; -patana, n. flying away; falling down, from (ab. or --°ree;), into (lc. or --°ree;); -patti, f.pious resignation; (á)-patha, m. onward way, journey; road; -pathín, a. wandering; -pad, f. 1. road; 2. (prá-) fore part of the foot; (prá) pada, n. fore part or tip of the foot; -pada na, n. entry, into (--°ree;); -padam, ad. reciting in such a manner as to cut up verses into sec tions of an equal number of syllables and to interpose between them formulae contain ing the word prapadye (Br.); -panna, pp. (√ pad) reached, arrived; attained, obtained: -pâla, m. protector of suppliants (Krishna); -palâyana, n. flight; -palâyin, a. fleeing, fugitive; -p&asharp;, f. water-tank, reservoir, well; water-hut for travellers; affluent (of a tank etc.); -pâka, m.ripening (of an ulcer etc.); digestion; -pâtha: -ka, m. lesson (subsection in books); -pâni, m. fore-arm: -ka, m. id.; -pându, a. very white: -ra, a. id.; -pâta, m. kind of flight; leaping forward; hasten ing away; fall, from (ab. or --°ree;), into (lc. or --°ree;); falling out (of the hair); effusion (of semen); fall (of a glance on anything); steep declivity, precipice; -pâtana, n. felling, cast ing down; directing or causing (the eye) to alight (--°ree;);-pâna, n. drinking; -pâ-pâlikâ, -pâ-pâlî, f. female watcher of a water-tank, well, or water-hut; -pâ-mandapa, m. water hut (for travellers); -pâlaka, m. protector, guardian; -pâlana, n. guarding, protecting.
bandha m. tying, fastening, bandaging; catching, capturing; fettering; arrest; connexion with (--°ree;); intercourse with (--°ree;); putting together, joining (the hands etc.); posture, position of the hands and feet; construction, building (of a bridge etc.); damming up (of a river); bridging; fixing on, directing towards (lc.); assumption or obtainment of a body (--°ree;); manifestation, display, or possession of (--°ree;); bond, deposit, pledge; mundane bondage (opp. final emancipation); bond, tie; band, fillet; bandage; fetter; sinew, tendon; receptacle; combination of words or letters: -ka, m. binder (of animals); catcher (--°ree;); rope, thong, fetter; part (--°ree; with an ordinal, e.g. tenth); n. (?) pledging: î, f. unchaste woman; -karana, n. fettering or checking by magic; -kartri, m. binder, fetterer, restrainer (Siva).
māhiṣa a. (î) belonging to or de rived from the buffalo: i-ka, m. keeper of buffaloes; paramour of an unchaste woman.
raṃhi f. (V.) flowing, stream; haste, speed.
raṅghas n. haste.
vega m. [√ vig] shock, jerk (V., C., rare); C.: rush, impact; flood (of water, tears), cur rent; impetus (esp. of missiles), force, velo city, speed; impetuosity, vehemence, haste, sudden impulse; outbreak, outburst (of pas sion etc.), excitement; attack (of disease); circulation, working (of a poison; sts. pl.); impulse: -tara, m. greater swiftness: vegâd vegataram gam, run faster and faster; -tas, ad. with a sudden jerk; speedily, hastily, impetuously; -danda, m. elephant (=ve tanda); -vat, a. impetuous, hasty, swift, energetic, violent (wind); m. N. of a fairy: -î, f. N. of a fairy; -vâhin, a. flowing (river) or flying (arrow) swiftly; -sarî,f. female mule; -½anila, m. violent wind.
vyabhicaraṇa n. uncertainty; -kâra, m. divergence, disconnexion; vari ability; failure; transgression, infidelity (esp. of a woman), towards (g., lc., --°ree;); change (in a-, unchangeable, unswerving); violation or neglect of (g.); extension beyond (--°ree;); -kâri-tâ, f. divergence; variability; -kâri tva, n. variability or multiplicity of mean ing; -kârin, a. straying from (--°ree;), deviating or diverging from (ab.); going astray, erring; unchaste, faithless (woman), towards (g.); changeable (opp. sthâyin, constant); violat ing, breaking (an agreement, --°ree;); -mâna, m. erroneous view; -hâsa, m. ridicule.
śravasya den. a) only pt. -yát, praising (V.); b) -yá, P. (V.) hasten, be swift; snatch up (ac.).
saraṇya den. P. hasten (RV., rare).
sasaṃrambha a. enraged, angry: -m, ad. angrily; hurriedly, very briefly; -samvâda, a. agreeing: -m, ad.; -samvid, a. with whom an agreement has been made; -samsaya, a. doubting, doubtful; dubious; -sakhî-kâ, a. f. accompanied by her friends; -sakhî-ganâ, a. f. id.; -samketa, a. arranged with, sharing a secret; -sa&ndot;ga, a. adhering, attached: -tva, n. adhesion, contact; -saki va, a. attended by hisministers; -sattva, a. courageous; inhabited by animals; together with the creatures in it (water): â, f. pregnant; -sadbhâva, a. accompanied with affection; -samtati-ka, a. together with offspring; -samtâna, a. id.; -samdeha, a. doubting; -samdhya, a. with the morning twilight: -½amsa, a. with the evening twilight; -sabh ya, a. together with assessors or judges; -sampad, a. affluent; -sambhrama, a. agi tated, flurried, showing great haste or zeal: -m, ad. hastily, hurriedly; -sarpa, a. in fested by serpents.
saraṇyu a. hastening, nimble: &usharp;, f. N. of a daughter of Tvashtri, mother of Yama and Yamî and of the Asvins (RV.1).
sādhvī f. (of sâdhu) virtuous or chaste woman (also -strî); female saint.
sārin a. 1. [√ sri] going, hasten ing; --°ree;, following; 2. having the essence or best (sâra) of, having excellent (--°ree;): n-î, f. stream, channel.
sidhma a. 1. making straight for his aim (RV.1); 2. leprous (V., rare); m. n. kind of leprosy (C.); -man, m. n. kind of leprosy; -ma-lá, a. leprous; -rá, a. (RV.) hastening to his goal; efficacious, successful.
susakhi m. (nm. â) good friend; -samkruddha, pp. greatly enraged; -sam gatâ, f. N.; -samgama, m. pleasant (place of) meeting; -samgrihîta, pp. well-controlled or governed (kingdom); -sakiva, m.good minister; a. having a good minister; -saggî kri, make perfectly ready; -samkita, pp. well-gathered, carefully accumulated: -m sam-ki, collect carefully; -sattra, n. good hospital; -sattva, a. very resolute; -sadrisa, a.(î) very like (g.); -samtushta, pp. per fectly satisfied; -samtosha, a. easy to satisfy; -samdîpta, pp. flaming brightly; -samdrís, a. fair to see; -samdha, a. true to one's word; -sanna, pp. [√ sad] completely at an end, foiled; -sama, a. perfectly level or smooth; (sú)-samâhita, pp. [√ dhâ] well laden (waggon, Br.); C.: well-adorned; very attentive or intent, thoroughly concentrated; (sú)-samiddha, pp. [√ idh] well-kindled;(sú)-samriddha, pp. [√ ridh] V.: quite per fect; C.: very abundant; very wealthy; -samriddhi, f. great wealth; -sampad, f. affluence, great prosperity; (sú)-sampish- ta, pp. completely shattered (car; RV.1); -sampratapta, pp. thoroughly harassed; -sambaddha, pp. intimately connected; -sambhriti, f. due collection of requisites; -sambhrama, m. great agitation or confu sion, excessive haste; -sambhrânta, pp. completely bewildered; (sú)-sarva, a. quite complete (Br.); -sahâya, a. having a good companion or assistant: -vat, a. id.; -sâdh ana, a. easy to prove; -sâdhita, pp. well trained; -sâdhya, fp. easy to control, amen able; -sâman, n.very conciliatory words; -sârathi, a. having a good charioteer; -sita, a. pure white; -siddha, pp. well-cooked; very efficacious, of great magical power; completely supplied with (in.): -½artha, a. having completely attained one's object; -sî ma, a. having a good parting (woman).
hasta m. hand (ord. mg.); C.: elephant's trunk; as a measure=fore-arm or cubit (about 18 inches); handwriting (rare); abundance (--°ree; after words meaning hair); N.; V., C.: eleventh (or thirteenth) lunar asterism: --°ree; a. holding in (sts. by) the hand: -m gam, fall into the hand of (--°ree;); e kri, take into one's hand; also=gain possession of, get into one's power; marry (a girl); e nyasta, resting on her hand (face);tasya haste loka-dvayam sthitam, the two worlds are in his hand=are assured to him.
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ayogū Is a word of quite doubtful meaning, found in the list of victims in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. It may, like the late āyogava, denote a member of a mixed caste (theoretically a descendant of a Sūdra by a Vaiśya wife).Weber rendered it as *unchaste woman.’Zimmer thinks it denotes a brotherless maiden who is exposed to the dangers of prostitution (cf āyogava).
ahan ‘Day.’ Like other peoples, the Indians used night as a general expression of time as well as day, but by no means predominantly.Night is also termed the dark (krsna), as opposed to the light (arjuna), day. Aho-rātra is a regular term for ‘ day and night ’ combined.The day itself is variously divided. In the Atharvaveda a division into ‘ the rising sun ’ (udyan sūryah), ‘ the coming together of the cows’ (sam-gava), ‘midday’ (madhyam-dina),*afternoon ’ (aparāhna), and ‘ sunset ’ (astam-yan) is found. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana the same series appears with ‘ early ’ (prātar) and ‘ evening ’ (sāyāhna) substituted for the first and last members, while a shorter list gives prātar, samgava, sāyam. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā there is the series ‘ dawn ’ (usas), samgava, madhyamdina, and aparāhna. The morning is also, according to Zimmer, called api-śarvara, as the time when the dark is just past. It is named svasara, as the time when the cows are feeding, before the -first milking at the samgava, or when the birds are awakening. It is also called pra-pitva, according to Zimmer. But Geldner points out that that term refers to the late midday, which also is called api-śarvara, as bordering on the coming night, being the time when day is hastening to its close, as in a race. From another point of view, evening is called abhi-pitva, the time when all come to rest. Or again, morning and evening are denoted as the dawning of the sun (uditā sūryasya)i or its setting (ni-mruc). The midday is regularly madhyam ahnām, madhye, or madhyamdina. Samgava16 is the forenoon, between the early morning (prātar) and midday (madhyamdina). The divisions of time less than the day are seldom precisely given. In the śatapatha Brāhmana, however, a day and night make up 30 muhūrtas; 1 muhūrta=ι5 ksipra; 1 ksipra — 15 etarhi; 1 etarhi= 15 idāni; 1 idāni = 15 breathings; 1 breath¬ing =1 spiration; 1 spiration = ι twinkling (nimesa), etc. In the śānkhāyana Áranyaka the series is dhvamsayo, nimesāh, kāsthāh, kalāh, ksanā, muhūrtā, ahorātrāh. A thirtyfold division of day as well as of night is seen in one passage of the Rigveda by Zimmer, who compares the Babylonian sixty¬fold division of the day and night. But the expression used— thirty Yojanas—is too vague and obscure—Bergaigne refers it to the firmament—to build any theory upon with safety.
āhanasyā (‘ unchaste ’).—This word in the plural (‘ lascivious verses ’) denotes a section of the Kuntāpa hymns of the Atharvaveda, which are of an obscene character.
dharma Are the regular words, the latter in the Rigveda, and both later, for ‘ law ’ or ‘ custom.’ But there is very little evidence in the early literature as to the administra­tion of justice or the code of law followed. On the other hand, the Dharma Sūtras contain full particulars.Criminal Law.—The crimes recognized in Vedic literature vary greatly in importance, while there is no distinction adopted in principle between real crimes and what now are regarded as fanciful bodily defects or infringements of merely conventional practices. The crimes enumerated include the slaying of an embryo (
nada Is found in several passages of the Rigveda, but its sense is still obscure. It is identified by Pischel with Nada, being explained by him in one passage as a reed boat, which is split, and over which the waters go; in another4 as a reed whip, of which the sharp points (karηa) are used to urge horses on; and in others again as figuratively designating the penis. Roth takes the sense to be ‘ bull ’ (either literally or meta-phorically) in all passages. Once at least the ‘ neigher ’ (from the root nadf ‘sound’) seems to be meant with reference to Indra’s horse. In the phrase nadasya karnaih8 the sense is, perhaps, ‘ through the ears of the (side) horse ’ (that is, by their being ready to hear the word of command) of their chariot, the Maruts ‘ hasten On with their swift steeds ’ (turayanta āśubhih).
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
       Bloomfield Vedic
         Concordance  
15 results
     
brahmaṇāṃ hasteṣu prapṛthak sādayāmi AVś.6.122.5b; 10.9.27b; 11.1.27b.
kaśā hasteṣu yad vadān (JB. yād vādān) RV.1.37.3b; SV.1.135b; JB.3.277b.
paḍbhir hastebhiś cakṛmā tanūbhiḥ RV.4.2.14b.
takṣā hastena vāsyā AVś.10.6.3b; Apś.7.9.9b.
ā yaṃ haste na khādinam # RV.6.16.40a; TS.3.5.11.4a; MS.4.10.3a: 148.7; KS.15.12a; AB.1.16.15; KB.8.1; Aś.2.16.7; śś.3.13.17.
ā yasmin haste naryā mimikṣuḥ # RV.6.29.2a.
ukhyaṃ (AVś. ukhyān; AVP. ukhyāṃ) hasteṣu bibhrataḥ # AVś.4.14.2b; AVP.3.38.2b; VS.17.65b; TS.4.6.5.1b; MS.2.10.6b: 138.1; KS.18.4b; śB.9.2.3.24.
evo 'bhūt tato 'bhūt , yathā te mahiraḥ priyo hastenābhimṛśāt tata # JB.3.247.
karat # MG.1.14.17 (Bhāradvāja-Gṛhyasūtra 1.19, karad dadhac chivena tvā pañcaśākhena hastena etc.); VārG.16.2. See karat svāhā.
kṛtaṃ me dakṣiṇe haste # AVś.7.50.8a; AVP.1.49.1a.
gṛhāṇa grāvāṇau sakṛtau vīra haste # AVś.11.1.10a. P: gṛhāṇa grāvāṇau Kauś.61.19.
dhiṣva vajraṃ dakṣiṇa indra haste # RV.6.22.9c; AVś.20.36.9c.
parūṃṣi vidvāṃ chasteva # AVś.9.3.3c.
priyo me mahiro dṛśe hastenābhimṛśāt tata # JB.3.247.
yudho nara (MS. narā) iṣuhastena vṛṣṇā # RV.10.103.2d; AVś.19.13.3d; AVP.7.4.3d; SV.2.1200d; VS.17.34d; TS.4.6.4.1d; MS.2.10.4d: 135.12; KS.18.5d.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"haste" has 1 results.
     
drutaliterally rapid; the vice of rapidity in utterance;a fault of speech especially in connection with the utterance of vowels in Vedic recital when on account of haste the utterance of letters becomes indistinct. confer, compare संदृष्टमेणीकृतमर्धकं द्रुतं विकीर्णमेताः स्वरद्रोषभावनाः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1 vart. 18.
     Vedabase Search  
Results for haste86 results
     
haste by the handSB 10.9.11
haste in the handCC Adi 16.65
CC Adi 5.190
CC Madhya 12.100
SB 10.11.20
haste in the handsCC Madhya 1.261
SB 2.7.16
haste on the handSB 4.15.9-10
haste the handsCC Antya 18.91
haste with his handCC Madhya 13.93
hastena by one handSB 8.7.12
hastena by the handSB 8.6.38
hastena handSB 10.25.19
SB 10.30.20
SB 10.46.25
hastete kariyā taking in the handsCC Madhya 20.26
hastete kariyā taking in the handsCC Madhya 20.26
dhanur-bāṇa haste with arrows and bow in handCC Madhya 24.235
dakṣiṇa-haste on the palm of the right handSB 9.20.23
dhanur-bāṇa haste with arrows and bow in handCC Madhya 24.235
dui haste in two handsCC Adi 17.14
eka-hastena with one handSB 10.43.26-27
dakṣiṇa-haste on the palm of the right handSB 9.20.23
mṛdu-haste by His soft handCC Adi 14.45
dui haste in two handsCC Adi 17.14
śrī-haste with His handsCC Madhya 7.7-8
sva-haste by His own handCC Madhya 8.193
śrī-haste with His transcendental handsCC Madhya 11.115
śrī-haste with His handCC Madhya 11.132
śrī-haste by His own transcendental handCC Madhya 11.199
ūrdhva-haste raising the handCC Madhya 11.201
śrī-haste by His own handCC Madhya 12.79
śrī-haste by His own handCC Madhya 12.80
śrī-haste with His own handCC Madhya 12.99
śata-haste with one hundred handsCC Madhya 12.115
śrī-haste with His own handCC Madhya 12.199
sva-haste by His own handCC Madhya 13.29
śrī-haste by the hand of Lord Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 13.30
sva-haste with His own handCC Madhya 16.45
vetra-haste with a cane in the handsCC Madhya 16.112
śrī-haste by the spiritual handCC Madhya 20.55
dhanur-bāṇa haste with arrows and bow in handCC Madhya 24.235
sva-haste with his own handCC Antya 5.17
sva-haste with his own handCC Antya 5.17
sva-haste with his own handCC Antya 5.18
śrī-haste in His own handCC Antya 6.98
svarūpera haste in the hands of Svarūpa DāmodaraCC Antya 6.204
śrī-haste by His own transcendental handCC Antya 6.298
sva-haste with his own handCC Antya 8.28
śrī-haste with His transcendental handsCC Antya 11.68
śrī-haste in the transcendental handsCC Antya 11.82
śrī-haste with His transcendental handsCC Antya 11.104
tomāra haste by your handsCC Antya 12.132
tarańga-haste by the waves of the Yamunā, which are compared to handsCC Antya 18.91
vāma-hastena with his left handSB 6.12.24
eka-hastena with one handSB 10.43.26-27
mṛdu-haste by His soft handCC Adi 14.45
śata-haste with one hundred handsCC Madhya 12.115
śrī-haste with His handsCC Madhya 7.7-8
śrī-haste with His transcendental handsCC Madhya 11.115
śrī-haste with His handCC Madhya 11.132
śrī-haste by His own transcendental handCC Madhya 11.199
śrī-haste by His own handCC Madhya 12.79
śrī-haste by His own handCC Madhya 12.80
śrī-haste with His own handCC Madhya 12.99
śrī-haste with His own handCC Madhya 12.199
śrī-haste by the hand of Lord Caitanya MahāprabhuCC Madhya 13.30
śrī-haste by the spiritual handCC Madhya 20.55
śrī-haste in His own handCC Antya 6.98
śrī-haste by His own transcendental handCC Antya 6.298
śrī-haste with His transcendental handsCC Antya 11.68
śrī-haste in the transcendental handsCC Antya 11.82
śrī-haste with His transcendental handsCC Antya 11.104
sva-haste by His own handCC Madhya 8.193
sva-haste by His own handCC Madhya 13.29
sva-haste with His own handCC Madhya 16.45
sva-haste with his own handCC Antya 5.17
sva-haste with his own handCC Antya 5.17
sva-haste with his own handCC Antya 5.18
sva-haste with his own handCC Antya 8.28
svarūpera haste in the hands of Svarūpa DāmodaraCC Antya 6.204
tarańga-haste by the waves of the Yamunā, which are compared to handsCC Antya 18.91
tomāra haste by your handsCC Antya 12.132
ūrdhva-haste raising the handCC Madhya 11.201
vāma-hastena with his left handSB 6.12.24
vetra-haste with a cane in the handsCC Madhya 16.112
Ayurvedic Medical
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brahmacarya

chaste life; celibacy before marriage; sexual restrain to promote physical, mental and spiritual health.

nirguṇḍi

Plant five leaved chaste tree, Indian privet, roots and leaves of Vitex negundo; nirguṇḍitaila oilbased preparation with nirgunḍi as main ingredient used in vraṇa.

reṇuka

Plant five-leaved chaste tree, Vitex nigundo

surasa

1.holy basil; 2. gum-myrrh, resin, fragrant grass; 3. five leaved chaste tree (Vitex negundo)

     Wordnet Search "haste" has 4 results.
     

haste

hastena   

hastaḥ eva yatra karaṇam।

asya kārayānasya saṃyoktaṃ hastena parivartate।

haste

hastena spṛś   

santoṣeṇa hastena sparśanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

prasannaḥ ācāryaḥ rameśasya pṛṣṭhaṃ hastena aspṛśat।

haste

udāratayā, muktahastena, akārpaṇyena   

kārpaṇyarahitatvena।

saḥ āplāvapīḍitebhyaḥ udāratayā dānaṃ dattavān।

haste

sṭelinamahodayaḥ, josephasṭelinamahodayaḥ   

ekaḥ prasiddhaḥ ruṣyadeśīyaḥ netā।

leninamahodayasya mṛtyoḥ anantaraṃ sṭelinamahodayaḥ tasya uttarādhikārī abhavat।

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