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Amarakosha Search
Results for grad
śivā2.2.5FeminineSingularjambukaḥ, kroṣṭā, mṛgradhūrtakaḥ, pheravaḥ, vañcalaḥ, gomāyuḥ, pheruḥ, sṛgālaḥ, bhūrimāyaḥ
Monier-Williams Search
135 results for grad
adhogamam. descent, downward movement, degradation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhogamanan. descent, downward movement, degradation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhogatif. descent, downward movement, degradation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agradāninm. a degraded Brahman who receives presents from śūdra-s, or takes things previously offered to the dead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alpārambham. a gradual beginning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapakarṣam. ( kṛṣ-) non-degradation, superiority. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anukṣi Passive voice (p. -kṣīyamaṇa-) to decay or vanish gradually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anulomapariṇītāf. married in regular gradation. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupūrveṇagradually, by degrees, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anusiddhamfn. (3. sidh-), gradually effected or realized View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anuśuṣto dry up gradually etc. ; to become emaciated by gradual practice of religious austerity ; to languish after another. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadhvaṃs -dhvaṃsati-, to scold, revile, [Comm. on] ("to drive or turn away") ; to fall away, be degraded () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadhvaṃsam. "falling away, degradation", in compound with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadhvastamfn. degraded View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apakarmann. any impure or degrading act View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apakṛtamfn. practised as a degrading or impure act (exempli gratia, 'for example' menial work, funeral rites, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apariharaṇīyamfn. not to be degraded. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apasadam. the children of six degrading marriages (of a Brahman with the women of the three lower classes, of a kṣatriya- with women of the two lower, and of a vaiśya- with one of the śūdra- ,but see and apadhvaṃsa-ja-), an outcast (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound';See brāhmaṇāpasada-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apātrakṛtyāf. acting unbecomingly, doing degrading offices (as for a Brahman to receive wealth improperly acquired, to trade, to serve a śūdra-, and to utter an untruth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asadvṛttif. low or degrading occupation or profession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātiśāyanikam. (in rhetoric) an affix that expresses gradation in an ascending series. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātiśāyikamfn. expressing ascending gradation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasarpiṇīf. "going or gliding down gradually", a descending period of a long duration and alternating with the"ascending one" (ut-sarpiṇī- q.v;both the ascending[ ut-s-]and descending[ ava-s-]cycle are divided into six stages each: good-good, good, good-bad, bad-good, bad, bad-bad) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasṛp -s/arpati-, (said of the sun) to set ; (parasmE-pada locative case m. -sarpati-) ; to flow back (as the, sea in low tide) (varia lectio ava-sarpita- mfn."caused to flow back") ; to creep to or approach unawares ; to flow over gradually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasvṛ(subjunctive -svarāti-) to sound (as an instrument) ; (Potential -svaret-) to sustain with gradually lowered voice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayājyamfn. ( yaj-), a person for whom one must not offer sacrifices, outcast, degraded , not to be offered in a sacrifice. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayugapadgrahaṇan. apprehending gradually and not simultaneously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baindam. Name of a degraded tribe (equals niṣādha- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaṭam. plural Name of a degraded tribe (see bhaṭṭa-, bhaḍa-, bhaṇḍa-;according to some "a person whose father is a Brahman and whose mother is a naṭī-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
brāhmaṇacāṇḍālam. " cāṇḍāla- among brāhmaṇa-", a degraded or out-caste brāhmaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
draviḍam. Name of a people (regarded as degraded kṣatriya-s and said to be descendants of draviḍa-, sons of vṛṣabha-svāmin- ) and of a district on the east coast of the Deccan etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ghāsam. () food, meadow or pasture grass (ghās/ād ghās/am-,"one bit after the other", gradually, xviii, 2, 26) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gṛdh cl.4 P. g/ṛdhyati- (perf. 3. plural jagṛdhur- ; jāgṛdh/ur- ; Aorist /agṛdhat- ; future gardhiṣyati- ; pr. p. g/ṛdhyat- ; ind.p. gṛddhvā- ), to endeavour to gain ; to covet, desire, strive after greedily, be desirous of or eager for (locative case [ etc.] or accusative ) : Causal P. gardhayati-, to be greedy ; to make desirous or greedy ; A1. yate-, to deceive, cheat : Intensive 2. sg. imperfect tense ajarghāḥ- ; ([ confer, compare anu--, prati--; abhi-ghṛdhna-, pra-gardhin-; confer, compare also Old German gir: modern German gier:Engl.greedy(?): Gothic gredags,gaurs: Hibernian or Irish greadaim,"I burn";greadhnach,"joyful, glad";gradh,"love, charity;dear ";graidhneog,"a beloved female", etc.: Lithuanian godus,gedu: Slavonic or Slavonian glad,"hunger."]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇam. the first gradation of a vowel, the vowels a- (with ar-, al- ), e-, o- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇavṛddhīf. dual number (equals vṛddhi-guṇau-) the gradations of vowels called guṇa- and vṛddhi- gaRa rājadantādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇinmfn. requiring the first gradation (a vowel) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hariścandram. Name of the 28th king of the solar dynasty in the tretā- age (he was son of tri-śaṅku-, and was celebrated for his piety; according to to the mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa- he gave up his country, his wife and his son, and finally himself, to satisfy the demands of viśvāmitra-;after enduring incredible sufferings, he won the pity of the gods and was raised with his subjects to heaven : according to to , his performance of the rāja-sūya- sacrifice was the cause of his elevation, and in the aitareya-brāhmaṇa- quite another legend is told about himSee under śunaḥśepa-, : in later legends hari-ścandra- is represented as insidiously induced by nārada- to relate his actions with unbecoming pride, whereupon he was degraded from svarga-, one stage at each sentence, till stopping in time and doing homage to the gods he was fixed with his capital in mid-air;his aerial city is popularly believed to be still visible in the skies at particular times; see saubha-) etc.
hīnajātimfn. of low caste, outcaste, degraded, vile View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jāgaritāntam. equals grad-avasthā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
juṅgitamfn. of degraded caste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalyāṇakārakam. Name of a jaina- work by ugrādityācārya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmbojam. a native of kamboja- (a race who, like the yavana-s, shave the whole head;originally a kṣatriya- tribe, but degraded through its omission of the necessary rites ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karaṭam. a man of a low or degraded profession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kautsam. Name of a degraded family (See kuts-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khasam. a native of that country (considered as a degraded kṣatriya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kirātam. plural Name of a degraded mountain-tribe (inhabiting woods and mountains and living by hunting, having become śūdra-s by their neglect of all prescribed religious rites;also regarded as mleccha-s;the Kirrhadae of Arrian) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kolam. Name of a degraded warrior-tribe (outcast, one degraded by sagara- from the military order) (varia lectio koli-sarpa- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kolisarpam. plural Name of a degraded warrior-tribe (varia lectio -sparśa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
konvaśiram. plural Name of a degraded warrior-tribe (see kolvagireya-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramaśasind. gradually, by degrees etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramātind. ablative in regular course, gradually, by degrees etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramatasind. gradually, successively View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramavṛddhif. gradual growth or increase View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krameṇaind. instrumental case in regular course, gradually, by degrees etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubrahmam. a degraded or contemptible Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kubrahmanm. a degraded or contemptible Brahman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṭilāf. (scilicet gati-) a particular period in the retrograde course of a planet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuṭilagatimfn. being in a particular period of the retrograde course (as a planet) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuvivāham. degrading or improper marriage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lāghavakārinmfn. degrading, disgraceful View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madrakam. (plural) Name of a degraded people (equals madra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitram. a particular mixed caste or degraded tribe (the offspring of an out-caste vaiśya-; see maitreyaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maitreyakam. Name of a particular mixed caste or degraded tribe (the offspring of a vaideha- and an ayogavī-, whose business is to praise great men and announce the dawn by ringing a bell) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānāpyan. temporary degradation of a monk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandamind. slowly, tardily, gradually, slightly, faintly, softly (also manda- in the beginning of a compound,and mandam mandam-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medam. a particular mixed caste (the son of a vaideha- and a kārāvara- or a niṣāda- female according to to some "any person who lives by degrading occupations") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medabhilla(?) m. Name of a degraded tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naṭam. Name of a particular caste (sons of degraded kṣatriya-s ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nicchivim. Name of one of the degraded castes sprung from the outcast or vrātya- kṣatriya-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīkāram. (1. kṝ-) disrespect, contempt, degradation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirjaram. (with jaina-s) the gradual destruction of all actions (also f(ā-).and nirjaraṇa raṇa- n.)
nirviṇṇamfn. abused, degraded, humble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣādam. a man of any degraded tribe, an out-caste (especially the son of a Brahman by a śūdra- woman) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niṣkramam. degradation, loss of caste, inferiority of tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nistriṃśam. a particular stage in the retrograde motion of the planet Mars, , (equals śamusala- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyakkaraṇan. lowering, degrading, treating with disrespect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padaśasind. step by step, gradually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pahlavam. plural Name of a people (the Parthians or Persians) etc. (also spelt pahnava-; in the they are said to be a degraded kṣatriya- race conquered by sagara- and sentenced to wear beards). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parābhūtamfn. defeated, overcome, harmed, injured, degraded, humbled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāradam. plural Name of a people or of a degraded tribe etc. (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paribhavanan. humiliation, degradation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paribhraṣṭamfn. sunk, degraded etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paribhūtatāf. humiliation, degradation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patanīyan. a degrading crime or sin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
patitamfn. fallen (morally), wicked, degraded, out-caste ( patitatva -tva- n.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātityan. (fr. patita-) loss of position or caste, degradation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pauṇḍrakam. Name of a particular mixed caste of hereditary sugar-boilers (the son of a vaiśya- by a woman of the distiller class, regarded as one of the degraded races of kṣatriya-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratīkṣyaind. "while expecting or waiting", gradually, slowly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratīpamf(ā-)n. impeding, hindering etc. backward, retrograde View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratīpagamanan. ( ) a retrograde movement. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratīpagatif. () ( ) a retrograde movement. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rajakam. a washerman (so called from his cleaning or whitening clothes;regarded as a degraded caste; according to to either "the son of a pāra-dhenuka- and a brāhmaṇī-"or"the son of a niṣṭhya- and an ugrī-") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājāpasadam. a degraded or outcast king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudhirānanan. Name of one of the 5 retrograding motions of Mars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadayamf(ā-)n. merciful, compassionate, kind, gentle (in the beginning of a compound and sadayam am- ind."mercifully, kindly, gently, gradually") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādhukam. Name of a low or degraded tribe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādhumatīf. one of the ten grades of a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadṛgbhavamind. on the same grade or degree with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakam. plural Name of a particular white-skinned tribe or race of people (in the legends which relate the contests between vasiṣṭha- and viśvāmitra- the śaka-s are fabled to have been produced by the Cow of vasiṣṭha-, from her sweat, for the destruction of viśvāmitra-'s army; in , they are mentioned together with the pauṇḍraka-s, oḍra-s, draviḍa-s, kāmboja-s, javana-s or yavana-s, pārada-s, pahlava-s, cīna-s, kirāta-s, darada-s, and khaśa-s, described by as degraded tribes of kṣatriya-s called after the districts in which they reside: according to the ,king sagara- attempted to rid his kingdom of these tribes, but did not succeed in destroying them all : they are sometimes regarded as the followers of śaka- or śāli-vāhana-, and are probably to be identified with the Tartars or Indo-Scythians [ Latin saca-]who overran India before the Aryans, and were conquered by the great vikramāditya- [q.v.]; they really seem to have been dominant in the north-west of India in the last century before and the first two centuries after the beginning of our era) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃkarāpātrakṛtyāf. an action which degrades a man to a mixed caste or makes him unworthy to receive gifts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śanairbhāvam. slowness, graduality (in the beginning of a compound before a pr. p. = slowly, by degrees) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śanais ś/anais- () or śan/ais- () ind. (originally instrumental case plural of śana- q.v; see uccais-, nīcais-) quietly, softly, gently, gradually, alternately View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sanikāramfn. degrading (as punishment) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārṣṭitāf. equality in rank or condition or power (sometimes regarded as one of the grades of mukti- or beatitude; see sālokya-, column 3) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārūpyan. assimilation to or conformity with the deity (one of the grades of mukti- or beatitude equals sarūpa--, sālokya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāyujyan. identification, absorption (into the divine Essence;this is one of the four grades or states of mukti- see sālokya- ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopākam. (perhaps for śva-pāka-) a man of a degraded caste (the son of a caṇḍāla- by a pulkasī-, and only to be employed as public executioner etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stokamf(ā-)n. little, small, short (in the beginning of a compound and stokam am- ind."a little, slightly, gradually"; bahutaram-stokam-,"more-than"; stokena na-,"not in the least"; stokena-and stokāt-in compound with a past participle ="hardly","with some difficulty","only just","a little while ago"[ see ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suduṣkulan. a very low or degraded race or family View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhāpetamfn. gradually deprived of pleasure (as opp. to sukhād-ap-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkṣmam. (with śaiva-s) one who has attained a certain grade of emancipation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svalpatasind. quite gradually (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāratamyan. (fr. 1. tara-and 2. tama-) gradation, proportion, difference View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
triśaṅkum. of a king of ayodhyā- (aspiring to ascend to heaven in his mortal body, he first requested vasiṣṭha- to perform a great sacrifice for him;on vasiṣṭha-'s refusing he applied to vasiṣṭha-'s hundred sons, who cursed and degraded him to the rank of a caṇḍāla- [hence called a caṇḍāla- king ]; viśvā-mitra- then undertook the sacrifice for him and invited all the gods, who declined to come and thereby so enraged the sage that, by his own power, he transported triśaṅku- to heaven;on his being hurled down again head foremost by the gods, he was arrested in his course by viśvā-mitra- and remained suspended in the sky, forming the southern cross constellation [son of pṛthu-]; and [son of trayyāruṇa-];[son of tri-bandhana-] ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uṣṇamn. Name of certain positions in the retrograde motion of the planet Mars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttarottaran. succession, gradation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaimātra(prob.) n. gradation (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakramf(ā-)n. having an apparently backward motion, retrograde (said of planets) etc.
vakran. the apparent retrograde motion of a planet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakraga mfn. having a retrograde motion (as a planet) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakragatamfn. having a retrograde motion (as a planet) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakragatif. crooked or winding course, apparent retrograde motion or retrogression (said of the course of a planet) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakratāf. (in astronomy) retrograde motion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakrībhūP. -bhavati- to become crooked or bent ; to retrograde (said of planets) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakrinmfn. retrograding, moving apparently backwards (said of Mars and other planets) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vakritamfn. entering on an apparently retrograde course (as a planet) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viḍambam. degradation, desecration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viḍambanan. disgrace, degradation profanation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viḍambinmfn. disgracing, degrading, profaning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijanmanm. a bastard, illegitimate child, the son of an out-caste or degraded vaiśya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvāmitram. (prob.)"friend of all", Name of a celebrated ṛṣi- or Sage (having the patronymic gāthina-, gādheya-, and jāhnava-;he was at first a functionary, together with vasiṣṭha-, of su-dās-, king of the tṛtsu-s;seeing vasiṣṭha- preferred by the king, he went over to the bharata-s, but could not prevent their being defeated by su-dās-, although he caused the waters of the rivers vipāś- and śutudrī- to retire and so give the bharata-s free passage ;he was born as a kṣatriya-, deriving his lineage from an ancestor of kuśika-, named purū-ravas-, of the lunar race of kings, and himself sovereign of kanyā-kubja- or Kanoj;his fame rests chiefly on his contests with the great Brahman vasiṣṭha-, and his success in elevating himself. though a kṣatriya-, to the rank of a BrahmanSee : the rāmāyaṇa-, which makes him a companion and counsellor of the young rāma-candra-, records [ ] how viśvāmitra-, on his accession to the throne, visited vasiṣṭha-'s hermitage, and seeing there the cow of plenty [probably typical of go-,"the earth"], offered him untold treasures in exchange for it, but being refused, prepared to take it by force;a long contest ensued between the king and the saint [symbolical of the struggles between the kṣatriya- and Brahmanical classes], which ended in the defeat of viśvāmitra-, whose vexation was such that, in order to become a Brahman and thus conquer his rival, he devoted himself to intense austerities [during which he was seduced by the nymph menakā- and had by her a daughter, śakuntalā-], gradually increasing the rigour of his mortification through thousands of years, till he successively earned the titles of rājarṣi-, ṛṣi-, maharṣi-, and finally brahmarṣi-;he is supposed to be the author of nearly the whole of ;moreover, a law-book, a dhanurveda-, and a medical work are attributed to him) etc.
vivarṇam. a man of low caste or of degrading occupation, an out-caste View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyālan. Name of one of the three retrograde stages in the motion of the planet Mars View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathāyathamind. one after another, by degrees, gradually View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvatind. y/āvad yāvad-t/āvat tāvat-,"as gradually as-so" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
Apte Search
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akarman अकर्मन् a. [न. ब] 1 Without work, idle; inefficient. -2 Disqualified for performing the necessary rites, wicked, degraded; अकर्मा दस्युरभि नो Rv.10.22.8. -3 (Gram.) intransitive, generally in this sense अकर्मक. --n. (र्म) [न. त] 1 Absence of work; absence of necessary observances; neglect of essential observances; inaction; अकर्मणश्च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणो गतिः Bg.4.17,18. -2 An improper act; crime, sin. -3 Not doing (= अकरणम्), non-performance; प्रतिषेधादकर्म MS.1.8.1. -4 What should not be done; अकर्म वा कृतदूषा स्यात् । MS.12.1.1 (where शबर explains अकर्म by न वा कर्तव्या दार्शिकी वेदिः ।). -5 Non-act, non-activity: अन्यद्धि कर्म भक्षणं प्रतिषिध्यमानम् अन्यद् अकर्म मानसः संकल्पः । ŚB. on MS.6.2.19. -6 Not doing, violation. तदकर्मणि च दोषः MS.6.3.3. (where तदकर्मणि is explained as प्रधानातिक्रमे by शबर); अकर्मणि चाप्रत्यवायात् । MS 6.3.1. -7 A wrong act, an improper act. अकर्म च दारक्रिया या आधानोत्तरकाले । ŚB. on MS.6.8.14; अकर्म चोर्ध्वमाधानात्˚ । MS.6.8.14. -Comp. -अन्वित a. 1 un-engaged, unoccupied, idle. -2 criminal. -कृत् a. free from action; न हि कश्चित् क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् । Bg.3.5 doing an improper act. -भोगः 1 enjoyment of freedom from the fruits of action. -2 renunciation of self-righteousness. -शील a. lazy, indolent.
agra अग्र a. [अङ्ग्-रन् नलोपः Uṇ.2.28] 1 First, foremost, chief, best, prominent, principal, pre-eminent; ˚महिषी chief queen; ˚वातमासेवमाना M.1. front (and hence, fresh) breeze; ˚आसनम् chief seat, seat of honour; माम- ग्रासनतो$वकृष्टमवशं ये दृष्टवन्तः पुरा Mu.1.12. -2 Excessive, over and above, surplus; supernumerary, projecting (अधिक). -ग्रः Setting mountain; अग्रसानुषु नितान्तपिशङ्गैः Ki.9.7. -ग्रम् 1 (a) The foremost or topmost point, tip, point (opp. मूलम्, मध्यम्); (fig.) sharpness, keenness; धर्मस्य ब्राह्मणो मूलम् मग्रं राजन्य उच्यते Ms.11.83; दर्व्याम् अग्रं मूलम् मध्यम् &c.; नासिका˚ tip of the nose; सूचि˚ &c.; समस्ता एव विद्या जिह्वाग्रे$भवन् K.346 stood on the tip of the tongue; अमुष्य विद्या रसनाग्रनर्तकी N.1.5. (b) Top, summit, surface; कैलास˚, पर्वत˚, &c. -2 Front, van; अग्रे कृ put in the front or at the head; तामग्रे कृत्वा Pt.4. See अग्रे. -3 The best of any kind; स्यन्दनाग्रेण with the best of chariots; प्रासादाग्रैः Rām. -4 Superiority, excellence (उत्कर्ष); अग्रादग्रं रोहति Tāṇḍya. -5 Goal, aim, resting place (आलम्बनम्); मनुमेकाग्रमासीनम् Ms.1.1, See ˚भूमि also. -6 Beginning, See अग्रे. -7 A multitude, assemblage. -8 Overplus, excess, surplus; साग्रं स्त्रीसहस्रम् Rām. 1 women and more; so साग्रकोटी च रक्षसाम्. -9 A weight = पल q. v. -1 A measure of food given as alms (ब्राह्मणभोजनम् occurring in अग्रहार); प्रयतो ब्राह्मणाग्रे यः श्रद्धया परया युतः । Mb.13.65.13. -11 (Astr.) Amplitude of the sun (˚ग्रा, अग्रका also). cf. ...अग्रमालम्बने$धिके । पुरोपरिप्रान्ताद्येषु न पुंसि प्रमिताशने । Nm. -12 Forepart of time; नैवेह किंचनाग्र आसीत् Bṛi. Up.1.2.1. In compounds as first member meaning 'the forepart', 'front', 'tip' &c.; e. g. ˚अक्चयः First procurement (cf. Daṇḍa-viveka G. O. S.52, p.43). ˚पादः -चरणः the forepart of the foot, toe; so ˚हस्तः, ˚करः, ˚पाणिः &c.; ˚सरोरूहम् the topmost lotus. पद्मानि यस्याग्रसरोरुहाणि Ku.1.16. ˚कर्णम् Tip-ear; top of the ear; Mātaṅga L.5.7. ˚कायः forepart of the body; so ˚नखम्, ˚नासिका tip of the nail, nose &c., -adv. In front, before, ahead. -Comp. -अंशुः [अग्रम् अंशोः] the focal point. -अक्षि n. [कर्म.] sharp or pointed vision, side-look (अपाङ्गवीक्षण); अग्राक्ष्णा वीक्षमाणस्तु तिर्यग् भ्रातरमब्रवीत् Rām. -अद्वन् a. having precedence in eating. -अनी (णी) कः (कम्) vanguard; दीर्घाल्लँघूंश्चैव नरानग्रानीकेषु योधयेत् Ms.7.193; [अग्राणीकं रघुव्याघ्रौ राक्षसानां बभञ्जतुः Rām. -अयणीयम [अग्रं श्रेष्टं अयनं ज्ञानं तत्र साधु छ]. 1 N. of a Buddhistic tenet (उत्पादपूर्वमग्रायणीयमथ वीर्यता प्रवादः स्यात् -हेमचन्द्रः). -2 title of the second of the fourteen oldest Jain books (Pūrvas). -अवलेहितम् [अग्रम् अव- लेहितम् आस्वादितं यस्य] food at a Śrāddha ceremony, the chief part of which has been tested. -आसनम् First seat of honour; मामग्रासनतो$वकृष्टमवशम् Mu.1.12. -उत्सर्गः taking a thing by leaving its first portion in conformity with the rule of laying by nothing for the next day (i. e. the rule of non hoarding); cf. Daṇḍaviveka G. O. S.52, pp.43-44. -उपहरणम् first supply. -उपहरणीय a. [अग्रे उपह्रियते कर्मणि अनीयर्] 1 that which is first offered or supplied. -2 [अग्रम् उपह्रियते यस्मै हृ- संप्रदाने अनीयर्] श्राद्धाद्यर्थमुपकल्पितस्य अन्नादेरग्रे दानोद्देश्यः वास्तु- देवादिः Tv. -करः 1 = अग्रहस्तः q. v. -2 the focal point. -केशः front line of hair; ˚शेषु रेणुः अपहरति K.86. -गः [अग्रे गच्छतीति, गम्-ड] a leader, a guide; taking the lead; marching foremost. -गण्य a. [अग्रे गण्यते$सौ] foremost, to be ranked first; शमनभवनयाने यद्भवानग्रगण्यः Mahān. -गामिन् a. [अग्रे गच्छति] a leader; प्रष्ठो$ग्रगामिनि P.VIII.3.92. -ज a. [अग्रे जायते; जन्-ड.] first born or produced; आनन्देनाग्रजेनेव R.1.78. (-जः) 1 the first born, an elder brother; सुमतिं ममाग्रजमवगच्छ M.5; अस्त्येव मन्युर्भरताग्रजे मे R.14.73. -2 a Brāhmaṇa. (-जा) an elder sister; so ˚जात, ˚जातक, ˚जाति. -जङ्घा the forepart of the calf. -जन्मन् m. [अग्रे जन्म यस्य सः] 1 the first-born, an elder brother; जनकाग्रजन्मनोः शासनमतिक्रम्य Dk.2. -2 a Brāhmaṇa (वर्णेषु मध्ये अग्रजातत्वात्, or अग्रात् प्रधानाङ्गात् मुखात् जातत्वात्, ब्राह्मणो$स्य मुखमासीत्, तस्मात् त्रिवृत् स्तोमानां मुखम... अग्निर्देवतानां ब्राह्मणो मनुष्याणाम्; तस्माद् ब्राह्मणो मुखेन वीर्यं करोति मुखतो हि सृष्टः Tāṇḍya); अतिवयसमग्रजन्मानम् K.12; अवो- चत् ˚न्मा Dk.13.3; N. of Brahmā, as he was the first to be born in the waters. cf. अग्रजन्मा द्विजे ज्येष्ठभ्रातरि ब्रह्मणि स्मृतम् Nm. -जिह्वा the tip of the tongue. -ज्या (astr.) the sign of the amplitude. -दानिन् [अग्रे दानम् अस्य; अग्र- दान-इनि] a (degraded) Brāhmaṇa who takes presents offered in honour of the dead (प्रेतोद्देशेन यद्दानं दीयते तत्प्रति- ग्राही); लोभी विप्रश्च शूद्राणामग्रेदानं गृहीतवान् । ग्रहणे मृतदानानां (ग्रहणात्तिलदानानां Tv.) अग्रदानी बभूव सः ॥ -दानीयः [अग्रे दानमर्हति छ] = अग्रदानिन्. -दूतः a harbinger; कृष्णाक्रोधा- ग्रदूतः Ve.1.22; ˚दूतिका Dk.2; महीपतीनां प्रणयाग्रदूत्यः R.6.12; -देवी the chief queen; समग्रदेवीनिवहाग्र- देवी... । -धान्यम a cereal grain. (Mar. जोंधळा), Holcus soraghum or Holcus spicatus. (Mar. बाजरी). -निरूपणम् predestination; prophecy, determining beforehand. -नीः (णीः) [अग्रे नीयते असौ नी-क्विप्, णत्वम्] 1 a leader, foremost, first, chief; ˚णी- र्विरागहेतुः K.195; अप्यग्रणीर्मन्त्रकृतामृषीणाम् R.5.4. chief. -2 fire. -पर्णी [अग्रे पर्णं यस्याः सा-ङीप्] cowage, Carpopogon Pruriens (अजलोमन्). [Mar. कुयली]. -पातिन् a. [अग्रे आदौ पतति; पत्-णिनि] happening beforehand, antecedent; [˚तीनि शुभानि निमित्तानि K.65. -पादः the forepart of the foot; toes; नवकिसलयरागेणाग्रपादेन M.3.12; ˚स्थिता standing on tiptoe. Ś.5. -पाणिः = ˚हस्तः q. v. -पूजा the highest or first mark of reverence or respect; ˚जामिह स्थित्वा गृहाणेदं विषं प्रभो Rām. -पेयम् precedence in drinking. -प्रदायिन् a. giving in advance; तेषामग्र- प्रदायी स्याः कल्पोत्थायी प्रियंवदः Mb.5.135.35. -बीज a. [अग्रं शाखाग्रं बीजमुत्पादकं यस्य] growing by means of the tip or end of branches, growing on the stock or stem of another tree, such as 'कलम' in Mar. (-जः) a viviparous plant. -भागः [कर्म.] 1 the first or best part (श्राद्धादौ प्रथममुद्धृत्य देयं द्रव्यम्) -2 remnant, remainder (शेषभाग). -3 fore-part, tip, point. -4 (astr.) a degree of amplitude. -भागिन् a. [अग्र- भागो$स्यास्ति; अस्त्यर्थे इनि] first to take or claim (the remnant); अलङ्क्रियमाणस्य तस्य अनुलेपनमाल्ये ˚गी भवामि V. 5, claiming the first share of the remnant etc. -भावः precedence. उदारसंख्यैः सचिवैरसंख्यैः कृताग्रभावः स उदाग्रभावः -भुज् a. 1 having precedence in eating. स तानग्रभुजस्तात धान्येन च धनेन च Mb.1.178.12. -2 gluttonous, voracious (औदरिक). -भूः [अग्रे भवति भू-क्विप्] = ˚ज. -भूमिः f. 1 goal of ambition or object aimed at; ततो$ग्रभूमिं व्यवसायासिद्धेः Ki.17.55; त्वमग्र- भूमिर्निरपायसंश्रया Śi.1.32 (प्राप्यस्थानम्). -2 the topmost part, pinnacle; विमान˚ Me.71. -महिषी the principal queen. -मांसम् [अग्रं भक्ष्यत्वेन प्रधानं मांसम्] flesh in the heart, the heart itself; ˚सं चानीतं Ve.3.2. morbid protuberance of the liver. -यणम् [अग्रम् अयनात् उत्तरायणात् णत्वं शकं˚ तद्विधानकालो$स्य अच् (?) Tv.] a kind of sacrificial ceremony. See आग्रयण. -यान a. [अग्रे यानं यस्य, या-ल्युट्] taking the lead, foremost. (-नम्) an army that stops in front to defy the enemy. मनो$ग्रयानं वचसा निरुक्तं नमामहे Bhāg.8.5.26. -यायिन् a. [अग्रे यास्यति या-णिनि] taking the lead, leading the van; पुत्रस्य ते रणशिरस्ययमग्रयायी Ś.7.26. मान- धनाग्रयायी R.5.3, -योधिन् [अग्रे स्थित्वा युध्यते] the principal hero, champion राक्षसानां वधे तेषां ˚धी भविष्यति Rām.; so ˚वीर; कर्मसु चाग्रवीरः. -रन्ध्रम् opening fore-part; त्रासान्नासाग्ररन्ध्रं विशति Māl.1.1. -लोहिता [अग्रं लोहितं यस्याः सा] a kind of pot-herb (चिल्लीशाक). -संख्या the first place or rank; पुत्रः समारोपयदग्रसंख्याम् R.18.3. -वक्त्रम् N. of a surgical instrument, Suśr. -वातः fresh breeze; अग्रवातमासेवमाना M.1. -शोमा towering beauty or the beauty of the peaks; कैलासशैलस्य यदग्रशोभाम् । Bu. ch.1.3. -संधानी [अग्रे फलोत्पत्तेः प्राक् संधी- यते ज्ञायते $नया कार्यम् Tv.] the register of human actions kept by Yama (यत्र हि प्राणिवर्गस्य प्राग्भवीयकर्मानुसारेण शुभा- शुभसूचकं सर्वं लिख्यते सा यमपञ्जिका). -सन्ध्या early dawn; कर्कन्धूनामुपरि तुहिनं रञ़्जयत्यग्रसन्ध्या Ś.4. v.1. -सर = यायिन् taking the lead; आयोधनाग्रसरतां त्वयि वीर याते R.5.71. -सारा [अग्रं शीर्षमात्रं सारो यस्याः सा] 1 a sprout which has tips without fruits. -2 a short method of counting immense numbers. -हर a. [अग्रे ह्रियते दीयते$सौ; हृ-अच्] 1 that which must be given first. -2 = अग्रहारिन्. -हस्त (˚कर; ˚पाणिः,) the forepart of the hand or arm; अग्रहस्तेन गृहीत्वा प्रसादयैनाम् Ratn.3; forepart of the trunk (of an elephant); often used for a finger or fingers taken collectively; शीतलस्ते ˚स्तः Mk.3; अतिसाध्वसेन वेपते मे ˚स्तः Ratn.1; कुसुमित इव ते ˚स्तः प्रतिभाति M.1.; प्रसारिते ˚स्ते M.4; ˚हस्तात्प्रभ्रष्टं पुष्पभाजनम् Ś.4. slipped from the fingers; also the right hand; अथ ˚हस्ते मुकुलीकृताङ्गुलौ Ku.5.63. (अग्रश्चासौ हस्तश्च Malli.). Ki.5.29. -हायनः (णः) [अग्रः श्रेष्ठः हायनो व्रीहिः अत्र, णत्वम्] the beginning of the year; N. of the month मार्गशीर्ष; (मासानां मार्गशीर्षो$हम् Bg. 1.35.); ˚इष्टिः नवशस्येष्टिर्यागभेदः. -हारः 1 a grant of land given by kings (to Brāhmaṇas) for sustenance (अग्रं ब्राह्मणभोजनं, तदर्थं ह्रियन्ते राजधनात् पृथक् क्रियन्ते ते क्षेत्रादयः- नीलकण्ठ; क्षेत्रोत्पन्नशस्यादुद्धृत्य ब्राह्मणोद्देशेन स्थाप्यं धान्यादि, गुरुकुला- दावृत्तब्रह्मचारिणे देयं क्षेत्रादि, ग्रामभेदश्च Tv.); अग्रहारांश्च दास्यामि ग्रामं नगरसंमितम् Mb.3.64.4. कस्मिंश्चिदग्रहारे Dk.8.9. -2 the first offering in वैश्वदेव Mb.3.234.47.
adainya अदैन्य a. Involving no humiliation or self-degradation Bh.3.144.
adhas अधस् अधः ind. [अधर-असि, अधरशव्दस्थाने अध् आदेशः P.V.3.39.] 1 Below, down; पतत्यधो धाम विसारि सर्वतः Śi.1.2; in lower region, to the infernal regions or hell; व्यसन्यधो$धो व्रजति स्वर्यात्यव्यसनी मृतः Ms.7.53. (According to the context अधः may have the sense of the nominative, ˚अङ्कुशः &c.; ablative, अधो वृक्षात् पतति; or locative, अधो गृहे शेते). -2 Beneath, under, used like a preposition with gen.; तरूणाम्˚ Ś.1.14; rarely with abl. also; बाहित्थं तु ततो$प्यधः Hemachandra; (when repeated) lower and lower, down and down; अधोधः पश्यतः कस्य महिमा नोपचीयते H.2.2; यात्यधोधो- व्रजत्युच्चैर्नरः स्वैरेव कर्मभिः H.2.47; अधोधो गङ्गेयं पदमुपगता स्तोकं Bh.2.1; from under, just below (with acc.); नवानधो$धो बृहतः पयोधरान् Śi.1.4. In comp. with nouns अधः has the sense of (a) lower, under, as ˚भुवनं, ˚लोकः the lower world; ˚वासः or ˚अंशुकम् an under-garment; or (b) the lower part; ˚कायः the lower part of the body; अधःकृ means to surpass, eclipse, overcome, vanquish, despise, scorn; तपः शरीरैः कठिनैरुपार्जितं तपस्विनां दूरमधश्चकार सा Ku.5.29; अधःकृताशेषान्तःपुरेण K.177; ˚कृतकुसुमायुधं 179; Śi.1.35; क्षितिप्रतिष्ठो$पि मुखारविन्दैवर्धूजनश्च- न्द्रमधश्चकार 3.52; ˚कृतैनसः Śi.16.8. dispelled. (c) अधस्, अधस्तात् -Pudendum muliebre. -Comp. -अक्ष a. situated below the axle or car. (-क्षम्) adv. below the car, under the axle. -अक्षजः [अक्षात् इन्द्रियाज्वायते इति अक्षजं प्रत्यक्षज्ञानम्, तदधरं ग्राहकत्वाभावात् हीनं यस्य सः Tv.; अधःकृतं अक्षजम् इन्द्रियज्ञानं येन Malli.] N. of Viṣṇu; other etymologies of the name are also found; (1) अधो न क्षीयते जातु यस्मात्तस्मादधोक्षजः; (2) द्यौरक्षं पृथिवी चाधस्तयोर्यस्मादजायत । मध्ये वैराजरूपेण ततो$धोक्षज इष्यते ॥ -अधस् See above. -उपास- नम् sexual intercourse. -अङ्गम्, -द्वारम्, -मर्म the anus; Pudendum Muliebre. -करः the lower part of the hand (करभ). -करणम् excelling, defeating, degradation; K.22; so ˚क्रिया; सहते न जनोप्यधःक्रियाम् Ki.2.47. degradation, dishonour. -खननम् undermining. -गतिः f., गमनम् -पातः 1 a downward fall or motion, descent; going downwards. -2 degradation, downfall, going to perdition or hell; मूलानामधोगतिः K.41 (where ˚ति has both senses); ˚तिम् आयाति Pt.1.15 sinks, comes down (feels dishonoured); Ms.3.17; अरक्षितारमत्तारं नृपं विद्याद- धोगतिम् 8.39 destined to go to hell. -गन्तृ m. one who digs downwards. a mouse. -ग-घ-ण्टा [अधरात् अधस्तादा- रभ्य घण्टेव तदाकारफलत्वात्] a plant Achyranthes Aspera (अपामार्ग. Mar. आघाडा). -चरः [अधः खनित्वा चरति-अच्] 1 thief. -2 one who goes downwards. -जानु n. the lower part of the knee. -ind. below the knee. -जिह्विका [अल्पा जिह्वा जिह्विका, अधरा जिह्विका] the uvula (Mar. पडजीभ). -तलम् the lower part or surface; शय्या˚, खट्वा˚. -दिश् f. the lower region, the nadir; the southern direction. -दृष्टि a. casting a downward look, a posture in Yoga; करणान्यबहिष्कृत्य स्थाणुवन्निश्चलात्मकः । आत्मानं हृदये ध्यायेत् नासाग्रन्यस्तलोचनः ॥ इति योगसारे. cf. also Ku.3.47. (-ष्टिः) a downward look. -पदं [अधोवृत्ति पदं, पादस्याधःस्थानं वा] the place under the foot, a lower place. -पातः = ˚गति q. v. above. -पुष्पी [अधोमुखानि पुष्पाणि यस्याः] Names of two plants अवाक्- पुष्पी (Pimpinella Anisum) and गोजिह्वा Elephantopus (Seaber). -प्रस्तरः a seat of grass for persons in mourning to sit upon. -भक्तम् [अधरं भक्तं यस्मात्] a dose of water, medicine &c. to be taken after meals &c. (भोजनान्ते पीयमानं जलादिकम्). -भागः 1 the lower part (of the body); पूर्वभागो गुरुः पुंसामधोभागस्तु योषितां Suśr. -2 the lower part of any thing, the region below, down below; ˚व्यवस्थितं किंचित्पुरमालोकितं Pt.1. situated down below, See पाताल. -भूः f. lower ground, land at the foot of a hill. -मुख, -वदन a. having the face downwards; ˚खी तिष्ठति; ˚खैः पत्रिभिः R.3.37. -2 head-long, precipitate, flying downwards. -3 upside down, topsyturvy. (-खः) N. of Viṣṇu. (-खा, -खी) N. of a plant गोजिह्वा. (-खम्) (नक्षत्रम्) 1 flying downwards, having a downward motion; these nakṣatras are : मूलाश्लेषा कृत्तिका च विशाखा भरणी तथा । मघा पूर्वात्रयं चैव अधोमुखगणः स्मृतः ॥ Jyotiṣa. -2 N. of a hell. -यन्त्रम् a still. -रक्तपित्तम् discharge of blood from the anus and urethra. -राम a. [अधोभागे रामः शुक्लः, दृष्टितर्पकत्वात् तस्य रामत्वम्] having a white colour or white marks on the lower part of the body (said of a goat); -लम्बः 1 a plummet. -2 a perpendicular. -3 the lower world. -वर्चस् a. strong _x001F_3in the lower regions; whose lustre penetrates downwards. -वशः Pudendum Muliebre. -वायुः [अधोगामी वायुः शाक. त.] breaking wind, flatulency. -वेदः to marry a second wife when the first is alive. -शय, -य्य a. sleeping on the ground. (-य्या) sleeping on the ground; अग्नीन्धनं भैक्षचर्यामधःशय्यां गुरोर्हितए । आसमावर्तनात् कुर्यात्कृतोपनयनो द्विजः ॥ Ms.2.18. -शिरस् a. -मुख (n.) N. of a hell. -स्थ, स्थित a. situated below, -स्वस्तिकम् the nadir.
anuloma अनुलोम a. [अनुगतः लोम P.V.4.75.] 1 'With the hair', regular, in natural order, successive (opp. प्रतिलोम); hence favourable, agreeable; ˚सुखो वायु- रनुसारयतीव माम् Rām.; त्रिरेनामनुलोमामनुमार्ष्टि Śat. Br.; °reeकृष्टं क्षेत्रं प्रतिलोमं कर्षति Sk. ploughed in the regular direction. -2 Mixed as a tribe. -मा A woman of the lower caste than that of the man's whom she marries; सकामास्वनु- लोमासु न दोषस्त्वन्यथा दमः Y.2.288. -मम् adv. In regular or natural order; प्रतिलोममालिम्पेन्नानुलोमम् Suśr. -माः (pl.) Mixed castes. -Comp. -अय a. having fortune favourable. -अर्थ a. speaking in favour of; जडानप्यनु- लोमार्थान् प्रवाचः कृतिनां गिरः Śi.2.25. -कल्पः the thirty-fourth of the Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭas. -ग a. straight going; प्रदक्षिणा ग्रहाश्चापि भविष्यन्त्यनुलोमगाः Mb.3.19.92. -ज, -जन्मन् a. born in due gradation, offspring of a mother inferior in caste to the father; said of the mixed tribes; संकीर्णयोनयो ये तु प्रतिलोमानुलोमजाः Ms.1.25; Y.1.95. -परिणीत a. married in regular gradation.
anulomanam अनुलोमनम् 1 Regular gradation, sending or putting in the right direction. -2 (In medicine) Carrying off by the regular channels, such as purging; alleviation.
antara अन्तर a. [अन्तं राति ददाति, रा-क] 1 Being in the inside, interior, inward, internal (opp. बाह्य); योन्तरो यमयति Śat. Br.; ˚र आत्मा Tait. Up.; कश्चनान्तरो धर्मः S. D. अन्तरापणवीथ्यश्च नानापण्योपशोभिताः अनुगच्छन्तु Rām.7.64.3. -2 Near, proximate (आसन्न); कृष्वा युजश्चिदन्तरम् Rv.1. 1.9. -3 Related, intimate, dear, closely connected (आत्मीय) (opp. पर); तदेतत्प्रेयः पुत्रात् ...... प्रेयो$न्यस्मात्सर्व- स्मादन्तरतरं यदयमात्मा Śat. Br.; अयमत्यन्तरो मम Bharata. -4 Similar (also अन्तरतम) (of sounds and words); स्थाने$न्तरतमः P.I.1.5; हकारस्य घकारोन्तरतमः Śabdak.; सर्वस्य पदस्य स्थाने शब्दतो$र्थतश्चान्तरतमे द्वे शब्दस्वरूपे भवतः P. VIII.1.1. Com. -5 (a) Different from, other than (with abl.); यो$प्सु तिष्ठन्नद्भ्यो$न्तरः Bṛi. Ār. Up.; आत्मा स्वभावो$न्तरो$न्यो यस्य स आत्मान्तरः अन्यस्वभावः व्यवसायिनो$न्तरम् P.VI.2.166 Sk. ततो$न्तराणि सत्त्वानि स्वादते स महाबलः Rām.7. 62.5. (b) The other; उदधेरन्तरं पारम् Rām. -6 Exterior, outer, situated outside, or to be worn outside (अन्तरं बहिर्योगोपसंव्यानयोः P.I.1.36) (In this sense it is declined optionally like सर्व in nom. pl. and abl. and loc. sing.) अन्तरे-रा वा गृहाः बाह्या इत्यर्थः (चण्डालादिगृहाः); अन्तरे-रा वा शाटकाः परिधानीया इत्यर्थः Sk.; so अन्तरायां पुरि, अन्तरायै नगर्यै, नमो$न्तरस्मै अमेधसाम् Vop. -रम् 1 (a) The interior, inside; ततान्तरं सान्तरवारिशीकरैः Ki.4.29,5.5; जालान्तरगते भानौ Ms.8.132; विमानान्तरलम्बिनीनाम् R.13.33; Mk.8.5, Ku. 7.62; अपि वनान्तरं श्रयति V.4.24; लीयन्ते मुकुलान्तरेषु Ratn. 1.26, Ki.3.58; अन्तरात् from inside, from out of; प्राकारपरिखान्तरान्निर्ययुः Rām.; अन्तरे in, into; वन˚, कानन˚, प्रविश्यान्तरे &c. (b) Hence, the interior of any thing, contents; purport, tenor; अत्रान्तरं ब्रह्मविदो विदित्वा Śvet. Up. (c) A hole, an opening; तस्य बाणान्तरेभ्यस्तु बहु सुस्राव शोणितम्. -2 Soul, heart; mind; सततमसुतरं वर्णयन्त्यन्तरम् Ki.5.18 the inmost or secret nature (lit. middle space or region); लब्धप्रतिष्ठान्तरैः भृत्यैः Mu.3.13 having entered the heart; सदृशं पुरुषान्तरविदो महेन्द्रस्य V.3. -3 The Supreme Soul. -4 Interval, intermediate time or space, distance; रम्यान्तरः Ś.4.11; किंचिदन्तरमगमम् Dk.6; अल्प- कुचान्तरा V.4.49; क्रोशान्तरेण पथि स्थिताः H.4 at the distance of; बृहद् भुजान्तरम् R.3.54; अन्तरे oft. translated by between, betwixt; गीतान्तरेषु Ku.3.38 in the intervals of singing; मरणजीवितयोरन्तरे वर्ते betwixt life and death; अस्त्रयोगान्तरेषु Rām.; तन्मुहूर्तकं बाष्पसलिलान्तरेषु प्रेक्षे तावदार्यपुत्रम् U.3 in the intervals of weeping; बाष्पविश्रामो$प्यन्तरे कर्तव्य एव U.4 at intervals; स्मर्तव्योस्मि कथान्तरेषु भवता Mk.7.7 in the course of conversation; कालान्तरावर्तिशुभाशुभानि H.1 v. l. See कालान्तरम्; सरस्वतीदृषद्वत्योर्यदन्तरम् Ms.2.17,22; द्यावापृथिव्यो- रिदमन्तरं हि व्याप्तं त्वयैकेन Bg.11.2; न मृणालसूत्रं रचितं स्तनान्तरे Ś.6.18 between the breasts; Bg.5.27; अस्य खलु ते बाणपथवर्तिनः कृष्णसारस्यान्तरे तपस्विन उपस्थिताः Ś.1; तदन्तरे सा विरराज धेनुः R.2.2;12.29. (b) Intervention (व्यवधान) oft. in the sense of 'through'; मेघान्तरालक्ष्यमि- वेन्दुबिम्बम् R.13.38 through the clouds; वस्त्रं अन्तरं व्यवधायकं यस्य स वस्त्रान्तरः P.VI.2.166 Sk.; महानद्यन्तरं यत्र तद्देशान्त- रमुच्यते; जालान्तरप्रेषितदृष्टिः R.7.9 peeping through a window; विटपान्तरेण अवलोकयामि Ś.1; क्षणमपि विलम्बमन्तरीकर्तु- मक्षमा K.36 to allow to come between or intervene; कियच्चिरं वा मैघान्तरेण पूर्णिमाचन्द्रस्य दर्शनम् U.3. -5 Room, place, space in general; मृणालसूत्रान्तरमप्यलभ्यम् Ku.1.4; न ह्यविद्धं तयोर्गात्रे बभूवाङ्गुलमन्तरम् Rām.; मूषिकैः कृते$न्तरे Y.1. 147; गुणाः कृतान्तराः K.4 finding or making room for themselves; न यस्य कस्यचिदन्तरं दातव्यम् K.266; देहि दर्शना- न्तरम् 84. room; पौरुषं श्रय शोकस्य नान्तरं दातुमर्हसि Rām. do not give way to sorrow; तस्यान्तरं मार्गते Mk.7.2 waits till it finds room; अन्तरं अन्तरम् Mk.2 make way, make way. -6 Access, entrance, admission, footing; लेभेन्तरं चेतसि नोपदेशः R.6.66 found no admission into (was not impressed on) the mind; 17.75; लब्धान्तरा सावरणे$पि गेहे 16.7. -7 Period (of time), term; मासान्तरे देयम् Ak.; सप्तैते मनवः । स्वे स्वेन्तरे सर्वमिदमुत्पाद्यापुश्चराचरम् Ms.1.63, see मन्वन्तरम्; इति तौ विरहान्तरक्षमौ R.8.56 the term or period of separation; क्षणान्तरे -रात् within the period of a moment. -8 Opportunity, occasion, time; देवी चित्रलेखामव- लोकयन्ती तिष्ठति । तस्मिन्नन्तरे भर्तोपस्थितः M.1. अत्रान्तरे प्रणम्याग्रे समुपविष्टः; Pt.1 on that occasion, at that time; अस्मिन्नन्तरे Dk.164; केन पुनरुपायेन मरणनिर्वाणस्यान्तरं संभावयिष्ये Māl.6; कृतकृत्यता लब्धान्तरा भेत्स्यति Mu.2.22 getting an opportunity; 9; यावत्त्वामिन्द्रगुरवे निवेदयितुं अन्तरान्वेषी भवामि Ś.7. find a fit or opportune time; शक्तेनापि सता जनेन विदुषा कालान्तरप्रेक्षिणा वस्तव्यम् Pt.3.12; waiting for a suitable opportunity or time; सारणस्यान्तरं दृष्ट्वा शुको रावणमब्रवीत् Rām. -9 Difference (between two things), (with gen. or in comp.) शरीरस्य गुणानां च दूरमत्यन्तमन्तरम् H.1.46; उभयोः पश्यतान्तरम् H.1.64, नारीपुरुषतोयानामन्तरं महदन्तरम् 2.39; तव मम च समुद्रपल्वलयोरिवान्तरम् M.1; Bg.13.34; यदन्तरं सर्षपशैलराजयोर्यदन्तरं वायसवैनतेययोः Rām.; द्रुमसानुमतां किमन्तरम् R.8.9;18.15; rarely with instr.; त्वया समुद्रेण च महदन्तरम् H.2; स्वामिनि गुणान्तरज्ञे Pt.1.11; difference; सैव विशिनष्टि पुनः प्रधानपुरषान्तरं सूक्ष्मम् Sāṅ. K. -1 (Math.) Difference, remainder also subtraction, cf. योगोन्तरेणोनयुतो$र्धितस्तौ राशी स्मृतौ संक्रमणाख्यमेतत् ॥ Līlā. -11 (a) Different, another, other, changed, altered (manner, kind, way &c.); (Note:- that in this sense अन्तर always forms the latter part of a compound and its gender remains unaffected i. e. neuter, whatever be the gender of the noun forming the first part; कन्यान्तरम् (अन्या कन्या), राजान्तरम् (अन्यो राजा), गृहान्तरम् (अन्यद् गृहम्); in most cases it may be rendered by the English word 'another'.); इदमवस्थान्तरमारोपिता Ś.3 changed condition; K.154; Mu.5; शुभाशुभफलं सद्यो नृपाद्देवाद्भवान्तरे Pt.1.121; जननान्तरसौहृदानि &Sacute.5.2 friendships of another (former) existence; नैवं वारान्तरं विधास्यते H.3 I shall not do so again; आमोदान् हरिदन्तराणि नेतुम् Bv.1.15, so दिगन्तराणि; पक्षान्तरे in the other case; देश˚, राज˚, क्रिया˚ &c. (b) Various, different, manifold (used in pl.); लोको नियम्यत इवात्मदशान्तरेषु Ś.4.2; मन्निमित्तान्यवस्थान्तराण्यवर्णयत् Dk.118 various or different states; 16; sometimes used pleonastically with अन्यत् &c.; अन्यत्स्थानान्तरं गत्वा Pt.1. -12 Distance (in space); व्यामो बाह्वोः सकरयोस्ततयोस्ति- र्यगन्तरम् Ak.; प्रयातस्य कथंचिद् दूरमन्तरम् Ks.5.8. -13 Absence; तासामन्तरमासाद्य राक्षरीनां वराङ्गना Rām.; तस्यान्तरं च विदित्वा ibid. -14 Intermediate member, remove, step, gradation (of a generation &c.); एकान्तरम् Ms.1.13; द्वयेकान्तरासु जातानाम् 7; एकान्तरमामन्त्रितम् P.VIII.1.55; तत्स्रष्टुरेकान्तरम् Ś.7.27 separated by one remove, See एकान्तर also. -15 Peculiarity, peculiar or characteristic possession or property; a (peculiar) sort, variety, or kind; व्रीह्यन्तरेप्यणुः Trik.; मीनो राश्यन्तरे, वेणुर्नृपान्तरे ibid.; प्रासङ्गो युगान्तरम् cf. also प्रधानपुरुषान्तरं सूक्ष्मम् Sāṅ. K.37. &c. -16 Weakness, weak or vulnerable point; a failing, defect, or defective point; प्रहरेदन्तरे रिपुम्, Śabdak. सुजयः खलु तादृगन्तरे Ki.2.52; असहद्भिर्माममिमित्रैर्नित्यमन्तरदर्शिभिः Rām; परस्यान्तरदर्शिना ibid.; कीटकेनेवान्तरं मार्गयमाणेन प्राप्तं मया महदन्तरम् Mk.9; अथास्य द्वादशे वर्षे ददर्श कलिरन्तरम् Nala.7.2.; हनूमतो वेत्ति न राक्षसो$न्तरं न मारुतिस्तस्य च राक्षसो$न्तरम् Rām. -17 Surety, guarantee, security; तेन तव विरूपकरणे सुकृतमन्तरे धृतम् Pt.4 he has pledged his honour that he will not harm you; आत्मान- मन्तरे$र्पितवान् K.247; अन्तरे च तयोर्यः स्यात् Y.2.239; भुवः संज्ञान्तरयोः P.III.2.179; धनिकाधमर्णयोरन्तरे यस्तिष्ठति विश्वासार्थं स प्रतिभूः Sk. -18 Regard, reference, account; न चैतदिष्टं माता मे यदवोचन्मदन्तरम् Rām. with reference to me; त्वदन्तरेण ऋणमेतत्. -19 Excellence, as in गुणान्तरं व्रजति शिल्पमाधातुः M.1.6 (this meaning may be deduced from 11). -2 A garment (परिधान). -21 Purpose, object, (तादर्थ्य) तौ वृषाविव नर्दन्तौ बलिनौ वासितान्तरे Mb.1.12.41; (Malli. on R.16.82). -22 Concealment, hiding; पर्व- तान्तरितो रविः (this sense properly belongs to अन्तर्-इ q. v.). -23 Representative, substitution. क्षात्रमाचरतो मार्गमपि बन्धोस्त्वदन्तरे Mb.12.1.3. -24 Destitution, being without (विना) which belongs to अन्तरेण. (अन्तरमवकाशाव- धिपरिधानान्तर्धिभेदतादर्थ्ये । छिद्रात्मीर्यावेनाबहिरवसरमध्येन्तरात्मनि च Ak.) [cf. L. alter] -25 Space (अवकाश); प्रेक्षतामृषि- सङ्घानां बभूव न तदान्तरम् Rām.7.14.19. -26 Separation (वियोग); भार्यापत्योरन्तरम् Mb.5.35.43. -27 A move or skilful play in wrestling; अन्योन्यस्थान्तरप्रेप्सू प्रचक्राते$न्तरं प्रति Mb.9.57.11. -28 A moulding of the pedestal and the base; षडंशं चान्तरे कर्णे उत्तरांशं तदूर्ध्वके । Māna.13.121; cf. स्थानात्मीयान्यतादर्थ्यरन्ध्रान्तर्धिषु चान्तरम् । परिधाने$वधौ मध्ये$- न्तरात्मनि नपुंसके । Nm. -Comp. -अपत्या a pregnant woman. -चक्रम् a technical term in augury Bṛi. S. chap.86. -ज्ञ a. knowing the interior, prudent, wise, foreseeing; नान्तरज्ञाः श्रियो जातु प्रियैरासां न भूयते Ki.11.24 not knowing the difference. -तत् a. spreading havoc. -द a. cutting the interior or heart. -दिशा, अन्तरा दिक् intermediate region or quarter of the compass. -दृश् a. realizing the Supreme Soul (परमात्मानुसंधायिन्). -पु(पू)रुषः the internal man, soul (the deity that resides in man and witnesses all his deeds); तांस्तु देवाः प्रपश्यन्ति स्वस्यैवान्तरपूरुषः; Ms.8.85. -पूजा = अन्तर-पूजा. -प्रभवः [अन्तराभ्यां भिन्नवर्णमातापितृभ्यां प्रभवति] one of a mixed origin or caste. (अम्बष्ठ, क्षत्तृ, करण, इ.); अन्तरप्रभवाणां च धर्मान्नो वक्तुमर्हसि Ms.1.2. -प्रश्नः an inner question, one contained in and arising out of what has been previously mentioned. -शायिन् -स्थ, -स्थायिन् -स्थित a. 1 inward, internal, inherent; ˚स्थैर्गुणैः शुभ्रैर्लक्ष्यते नैव केन चित् Pt. 1.221. -2 interposed, intervening, separate. -3 seated in the heart, an epithet of जीव.
apakarman अपकर्मन् a. [बहु. स.] Of bad or degraded actions, corrupted, depraved. -n (˚र्म) 1 Discharge, paying off (of a debt); दत्तस्यानपकर्म च Ms.8.4. -2 An improper or unworthy act; evil doing, conduct, or course; any degrading or impure act. -3 Wickedness, violence, oppression. -4 Incompetence, laziness.
apakāraḥ अपकारः 1 Harm, wrong; injury, hurt, offence, misdeed, wrong deed (opp. उपकार); स्वल्पेनाप्यपकारेण ब्राह्मण्यमिव दुष्यति Pt.1.66; उपकर्त्रारिणा सन्धिर्न मित्रेणाप- कारिणा। उपकारापकारौ हि लक्ष्यं लक्षणमेतयोः Śi.2.37; अपकारो- प्युपकारायैव संवृत्तः &c. -2 Thinking ill of, desire to offend or hurt (अनिष्टचिन्ता). -3 Wickedness, violence, oppression, enmity. -4 A mean or degraded action. -Comp. -अर्थिन् a. meaning to harm, malevolent, malicious. -गिर् f. (-गीः), -शब्दः abusive words, menacing or insulting speech; भर्त्सनं त्वपकारगीः Ak.
apakṛta अपकृत p. p. 1 Injured, wronged, wickedly or maliciously committed &c. निरीक्ष्य कृष्णा$पकृतं गुरोः सुतम् Bhāg.1.7.42. -2 Done or practised as a degrading or impure act, as funeral rites. -तम् An injury, harm, offence. कर्मणः फलनिर्वृत्तिं स्वयमश्नाति कारकः । प्रत्यक्षं दृश्यते लोके कृतस्यापकृतस्य च ॥ Mb.13.6.9.
apakṛtiḥ अपकृतिः f. अपकृत्यम् 1 harm, injury, hurt, damage, offence. -2 Opposition, enmity. -3 A degrading or impure act.
apakarṣaḥ अपकर्षः 1 (a) Drawing off or down; diminution, decrease, reduction; मदो$पकर्षात् Dk.16; loss, decay, decline, destruction; तेजो$पकर्षः Ve.1; deterioration, inferiority; उत्कर्षापकर्षविहीनो मध्यः Sk. (b) Dishonour, degradation, lowering (of esteem), infamy, disgrace (opp. उत्कर्ष in all senses); तपोबीजप्रभावैस्तु ते गच्छन्ति युगे युगे । उत्कर्षं चापकर्षं च मनुष्येष्विह जन्मतः ॥ Ms.1.42; मूल्यो- त्कर्ष˚ rise and fall in price, increase and decrease. -2 Anticipated performance of a duty, as of a Śrāddha, anticipation (of some detail or details at a विकृतियाग), i. e. performing them at an earlier stage. (see उत्कर्ष). -3 Anticipation of a word occurring later on (in gram., poetry or Mīmāṁsā &c.). -Comp. -समः a sort of fallacy; e. g. sound has not the quality of shape, as a jar, so sound and a jar have no qualities in common.
apadhvaṃsaḥ अपध्वंसः 1 Degradation, falling off or from, disgrace. -2 Concealment. -Comp. -जः, -जा a person of a mixed, degraded and impure caste (where the mother belongs to a higher caste than the father's) एको विड्वर्ण एवाथ तथा$त्रैवोपलक्षितः । षडपध्वंसजास्ते हि...Mb.13.49.8. अपध्वंसजाः स्मृताः Ms.1.41.46.
apama अपम a. [अपकृष्टं मीयते, मा बाहु ˚क] Ved. The most distant or remote, the last, lowest in caste, most degraded (जात्यातिनिकृष्ट) युवं भगो$नाशोश्चिदवितारापमस्य चित् । Rv.1.39.3. -मः (In astr.) Declination. (कलन, क्रान्ति, गति) the ecliptic (क्रान्तिवृत्त); परिसरतां गगनसदां चलनं किंचिद् भवेदपमः Sid. Śir. -Comp. -ज्या the line of the ecliptic; see क्रान्तिज्या. -मण्डलम् -वृत्तम् the ecliptic.
apariskanda अपरिस्कन्द a. Motionless. अपरिहरणीय apariharaṇīya अपरिहार्य aparihārya अपरिहरणीय अपरिहार्य a. 1 Inevitable. -2 Not to be abandoned. -3 Not to be degraded.
apasadaḥ अपसदः [अपकृष्टो नीच इव सीदति, सद-अच्] 1 An outcast, a low man; usually at the end of comp. in the sense of 'vile', 'wretched', 'accursed'; कापालिक˚ Māl.5; रे रे क्षत्रियापसदाः Ve.3; नर˚, ब्राह्मण˚ &c. -2 N. for the children of six degrading connections, i. e. of men of the first three castes with women of the castes inferior to their own; विप्रस्य त्रिषु वर्णेषु नृपतेर्वर्णयोर्द्वयोः । वैश्यस्य वर्णे चैकस्मिन् षडेते$पसदाः स्मृताः ॥ Ms.1.1. See अपध्वंसः. -3 प्रतिलोमजः contrary to अनुलोमजः (परवर्णासु अनुलोमजाः ष़ड- पध्वंसजाः विलोमजा अपसदाः षडिति ज्ञेयम्) cf. Mb.13.49.6-8.
apākṣa अपाक्ष a. [अपनतः अक्षमिन्द्रियम्] 1 Present, perceptible. -2 [अपगते अपकृष्टे वा अक्षिणी यस्य] Eyeless; having bad eyes. अपाङ्क्त apāṅkta पाङ्क्तेय pāṅktēya पाङ्क्त्य pāṅktya अपाङ्क्त पाङ्क्तेय पाङ्क्त्य a. 'Not in the same row or line'; especially one who is not allowed by his castemen to sit in the same row with them at meals; degraded, excommunicated, excluded from or inadmissible into society, an outcast; ˚उपहत defiled by the presence of excommunicated or impious persons. एतान्वि- गर्हिताचारानपाङ्क्तेयान्द्विजाधमान् (विवर्जयेत्) Ms.3.167.
apātram अपात्रम् 1 A worthless vessel or utensil. -2 (fig). An unworthy or undeserving person, unfit receptacle or recipient. -3 One unfit or disqualified to receive gifts; अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते Bg.17.22; Ks.24. 26. -Comp. -कृत्या, अपात्रीकरणम् doing degrading or unworthy acts; disqualification, any action which makes a man unworthy; four disqualifications for a Brāhmaṇa are mentioned in Ms.11.7. -निन्दितेभ्यो धना- दानं वाणिज्यं शूद्रसेवनम् । अपात्रीकरणं ज्ञेयमसत्यस्य च भाषणम् ॥; see also संकरापात्रकृत्यासु मासं शोधनमैन्दवम् 11.125. -दायिन् a. giving to unworthy persons. -भृत् a. supporting the unworthy or worthless; प्रायेणापात्रभृद्भवति राजा Pt.1.
ayājya अयाज्य a. 1 (A person) for whom one must not perform sacrifices, not competent to offer sacrifices (as a Śūdra &c.). -2 (Hence), Out-cast; degraded, not admissible to or incapable of religious ceremonies. -3 Not fit for sacrificial offerings. -Comp. याजनम्, -संयाज्यम् sacrificing for a person for whom one must not perform sacrifices; अयाज्ययाजनैश्चैव नास्तिक्येन च कर्मणाम् Ms.3.65; गोवधो$याज्यसंयाज्यपारदार्यात्मविक्रयाः Ms.11.59.
ayugapad अयुगपद् ind. Not all together, gradually, seriatim; अयुगपदुन्नमितभ्रु वीक्षितम् Ki.1.61. -Comp. -ग्रहणम् apprehending gradually. -भावः successive order, successiveness.
ādatta आदत्त आत्त p. p. [आ -दा -क्त] 1 Taken, received, assumed, accepted; आत्तसारश्चक्षुषा स्वविषयः M.2; एवमा- त्तरतिः R.11.57; M.5.1; ˚हासः Ratn. 1 smiling; -2 Agreed to, undertaken, begun. -3 Attracted. -4 Drawn out, extracted; गामात्तसारां रघुरप्यवेक्ष्य R.5. 26; ˚बलम् 11.76 taken away. -5 Seized, overpowered; दृष्ट्वाग्रे वरमात्तसाध्वसरसा गौरी नवे संगमे Ratn.1.2. -Comp. -गन्ध a. 1 having one's pride humbled, attacked, insulted, defeated; पक्षच्छिदा गोत्रभिदात्तगन्धाः R.13.7; केनात्तगन्धो माणवकः Ś.6. -2 already smelt (as a flower); आत्तगन्धमवधूय शत्रुभिः Śi.14.84 (where आ˚ has sense 1 also). -गर्व a. humiliated, insulted, degraded. -दण्ड a. assuming the royal sceptre; नियम- यसि विमार्गप्रस्थितानात्तदण्डः Ś5.8. -मनस्क a. one whose mind is transported (with joy &c.). -लक्ष्मी a. stripped of wealth. -वचस् a. Ved. 1 destitute of speech. -2 having commenced speaking.
āvantya आवन्त्य a. [अवन्तिषु भवः ञ्य] Coming from or belonging to Avantī. -त्यः 1 A prince or an inhabitant of Avantī. -2 The offspring of a degraded Brāhmaṇa; see Ms.1.21.
uttara उत्तर a. [उद्-तरप्] 1 Being or produced in the north, northern (declined like a pronoun). -2 Upper, higher P.I.1.34 (opp. अधर); उत्तरे-अधरे दन्ताः Śat. Br.; अवनतोत्तरकायम् R.9.6; P.II.2.1. -3 (a) Later-latter, following, subsequent (opp. पूर्व); पूर्वमेघः, उत्तरमेघः, ˚मीमांसा; उत्तरार्धः &c. ˚रामचरितम् later adventures of Rāma U.1.2; पूर्वः उत्तरः former-latter H.1.9; एतानि मान्यस्थानानि गरीयो यद्यदुत्तरम् Ms.2.136. (b) Future; concluding; ˚कालः subsequent time; ˚फलम्; ˚वचनम् a reply. -4 Left (opp. दक्षिण). -5 Superior, chief, excellent; dominant, power- ful. आनयेङ्गुदिपिण्याकं चीरमाहर चोत्तरम् Rām.2.13.2; वाद्यमानेषु तूर्येषु मल्लतारोत्तरेषु च Bhāg.1.42.36. -6 Exceeding, transgressing, beyond; तर्कोत्तराम् Mv.2.6. -7 More, more than (generally as the last member of a comp. with numerals); षडुत्तरा विंशतिः 26; अष्टोत्तरं शतं 18; दशनागबलाः केचित् केचिद्दशगुणोत्तराः Rām.5.43.22. -8 Accompanied or attended with, full of, consisting chiefly of, followed by (at the end of comp.); राज्ञां तु चरितार्थता दुःखोत्तरैव Ś.5; चषकोत्तरा R.7.49; अस्रोत्तर- मीक्षिताम् Ku.5.61; उत्सवोत्तरो मङ्गलविधिः Dk.39,166; K.311; H.1.15; प्रवाल ˚पुष्पशय्ये R.6.5 over spread with; धर्मोत्तरम् 13.7 rich in; 18.7; कम्प ˚ 13.28;17.12; 19.23. -9 To be crossed over. -रः 1 Future time, futurity. -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 N. of Śiva. -रा 1 The north; अस्त्युत्तरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा Ku.1.1. -2 A lunar mansion. -3 N. of the daughter of Virāṭa and wife of Abhimanyu. -4 N. of a plant (Mar. पिंपरी). -रम् 1 An answer, reply; प्रचक्रमे च प्रतिवक्तुमुत्तरम् R.3.47; उत्तरादुत्तरं वाक्यं वदतां संप्रजायते Pt.1.6; a reply is suggested to a reply वचस्तस्य सपदि क्रिया केवलमुत्तरम् Śi. -2 (In law) Defence, a rejoinder. -3 The last part or following member of a compound. -4 (In Mīm.) The fourth member of an अधिकरण q. v. the answer. -5 The upper surface or cover. -6 Conclusion. -7 Remainder, rest, what followed or took place next; शान्तमथवा किमिहोत्तरेण U.3.26. -8 Superiority, excellence. -9 Result, the chief or prevalent result or characteristic. -1 Excess, over and above; see above (उत्तर a. 8). -11 Remainder, difference (in arith.). -12 A rectangular moulding (Mānasāra 13.67.) -13 The next step, further action; उत्तरं चिन्तयामास वानरो मरुतात्मजः Rām.5.13.59. -14 A cover (आच्छादन); सूस्करं सोत्तरबन्धुरेषम् Mb.6.6.9. -रम् ind. 1 Above. -2 Afterwards, after; तत उत्तरम्, इत उत्तरम् &c. शापं तं ते$भिविज्ञाय कृतवन्तः किमुत्तरम् Mb.1.36.1. -Comp. -अगारम् An upper room, garet. -अधर a. higher and lower (fig. also). (-रौ du.) the upper and under lip, the two lips; पुनर्विवक्षुःस्फुरितोत्तराधरः Ku.5.83 (स्फुरण- भूयिष्ठो$धरो यस्य Malli.). -अधिकारः, -रिता, -त्वम् right to property, heirship, inheritance. -अधिकारिन् m. an heir or claimant (subsequent to the death of the original owner). -अपरा north-west. -अभिमुख a. Turned towards the north. -अयनम् (˚यणं. न being changed to ण) 1 the progress of the sun to the north (of the equator); अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् Bg.8.24. cf. भानोर्मकरसंक्रान्तेः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् । कर्कादेस्तु तथैव स्यात् षण्मासा दक्षिणायनम् ॥ -2 the period or time of the summer solstice. -अरणिः, -णी f. the upper अरणि (which by cutting becomes the प्रमन्थ or churner); दारुपात्राणि सर्वाणि अरणिं चोत्तरारणिम् (दत्त्वा) Rām.6.111.116. -अर्थ a. for the sake of what follows. -अर्धम् 1 the upper part of the body. -2 the northern part. -3 the latter half (opp. पूर्वार्ध). -4 the further end. -अर्ध्य a. being on the northern side. -अहः the following day. -आभासः a false reply, an indirect, evasive, or prevaricating reply. ˚ता, -त्वम् the semblance of a reply without reality. -आशा the northern direction. ˚अधिपतिः, -पतिः the regent of the northern direction, an epithet of Kubera. -आषाढा 1 the 21st lunar mansion consisting of three stars. -2 N. of bread-fruit or Jak tree (Mar. फणस). -आसङ्गः 1 an upper garment; कृतोत्तरासङ्गम् K.43; Śi.2.19; Ku.5.16. -2 contact with the north. -इतर a. other than उत्तर i. e. southern. (-रा) the southern direction. -उत्तर a. [उत्तरस्मादुत्तरः] 1 more and more, higher and higher, further and further. -2 successive, ever increasing; ˚स्नेहेन दृष्टः Pt. 1; Y.2.136. (-रम्) 1 a reply to an answer, reply on reply; अलमुत्तरोत्तरेण Mu.3. -2 conversation, a rejoinder. -3 excess, exceeding quantity or degree. -4 succession, gradation, sequence. -5 descending. (-रम्) ind. higher and higher, in constant continuation, more and more. उत्तरोत्तरमुत्कर्षः K. P.1; उत्तरोत्तरं वर्धते H.1. -उत्तरिन् a. 1 ever-increasing. -2 one following the other. -ओष्ठः the upper lip (उत्तरो-रौ-ष्ठः). Vārt. on P.VI.1.94. ओत्वोष्ठयोस्समासे वा -काण्डम् the seventh book of the Rāmāyaṇa. -कायः the upper part of the body; तं वाहनादवनतोत्तरकायमीषत् R.9.6. -कालः 1 future time. -2 time calculated from one full moon to another. -कुरु (m. pl.) one of the nine divisions of the world, the country of the northern Kurus (said to be a country of eternal beatitude). -कोसलाः (m. pl.) the northern Kosalas; पितुरनन्तरमुत्तरकोसलान् R.9.1. -कोशला the city of Ayodhyā; यदुपतेः क्व गता मथुरा पुरी रघुपतेः क्व गतोत्तरकोशला ॥ Udb. -क्रिया funeral rites, obsequies. -खण्डम् the last section of book. -खण्डनम् refutation. -गीता N. of a section of the sixth book of the Mahābhārata. -ग्रन्थः supplement to a work. -च्छदः a bed-covering, covering (in general); शय्योत्तरच्छदविमर्द- कृशाङ्गरागम् R.5.65,17.21; नागचर्मोत्तरच्छदः Mb. -ज a. born subsequently or afterwards; चतुर्दश प्रथमजः पुनात्युत्तरजश्च षट् Y.1.59. -ज्या the versed sine of an arc (Wilson); the second half of the chord halved by the versed sine (B. and R.). -ज्योतिषाः (m. pl.) the northern Jyotiṣas. -ततिः f. Ectype (lit. subequent proceedings) उत्तरस्यां ततौ तत्प्रकृतित्वात् MS.1.4.25. शबर explains उत्तरस्यां ततौ as विकृतौ), -तन्त्रम् N. of a supplementary section in the medical work of Suśruta. -तापनीयम् N. of the second part of the नृसिंहतापनीयो- पनिषद्. -दायक a. replying, disobedient, pert, impertinent; दुष्टा भार्या शठं मित्रं भृत्याश्चोत्तरदायकाः H.2.11. -दिश् f. the north. ˚ईशः, -पालः 1 Kubera, the regent of the north. -2 the planet बुध. ˚बलिन् 1 the planet Venus. -2 the moon. -देशः the country towards the north. -धेय a. to be done subsequently. -नारायणः the second part of the नारायणसूक्त or पुरुषसूक्त (Rv.1.9.). -पक्षः 1 the northern wing or side. -2 the dark half of a lunar month. -3 the second part of an argument, i. e. a reply, the reason pro. (opp. पूर्वपक्ष); प्रापयन् पवनव्याधेर्गिरमुत्तरपक्षताम् Śi.2.15. -4 a demonstrated truth or conclusion. -5 the minor proposition in a syllogism. -6 (in Mīm.) the fifth member of an Adhikaraṇa, q. v. -पटः 1 an upper garment. -2 a bed-covering (उत्तरच्छदः). -पथः the northern way, way leading to the north; the northern country; P.V.1 77. उत्तरपथेनाहृतं च. -पथिक a. travelling in the northern country. -पदम् 1 the last member of a compound. -2 a word that can be compounded with another. -पदिक, -पदकीय a. relating to, studying, or knowing the last word or term. -पर्वतकम् A variety of hides. Kāu. A.2.11. -पश्चार्धः the northwestern half. -पश्चिम a. northwestern. (-मः) the north-western country. (-मा) [उत्तरस्याः पश्चिमायाश्च दिशोन्तरालम्] the north-west; आलोकयन्नुत्तरपश्चिमेन Mb.12.335.8. -पादः the second division of a legal plaint, that part which relates to the reply or defence; पूर्वपक्षः स्मृतः पादो द्वितीयश्चोत्तरः स्मृतः । क्रियापादस्तृतीयः स्याच्चतुर्थो निर्णयः स्मृतः ॥ -पुरस्तात् ind. north-eastward (with gen.). -पुराणम् N. of a Jaina work. -पुरुषः = उत्तमपुरुषः q. v. -पूर्व a. north-eastern. (-र्वा) the north-east. -प्रच्छदः a cover lid, quilt. -प्रत्युत्तरम् 1 a dispute, debate, a rejoinder, retort. -2 the pleadings in a law-suit. -फ (फा) ल्गुनी the twelfth lunar mansion consisting of two stars (having the figure of a bed). -भागः The second part. -भाद्रपद्, -दा 1 the 26 th lunar mansion consisting of two stars (figured by a couch). -2 N. of a plant (Mar. कडुनिंब). -मन्द्रा a loud but slow manner of singing. ˚मन्द्राद्या a. particular मूर्च्छना in music. -मात्रम् a mere reply. -मीमांसा the later Mīmāmsā, the Vedānta Philosophy, an inquiry into the nature of Brahman or Jñāna Kāṇḍa (distinguished from मीमांसा proper which is usually called पूर्वमीमांसा). -युगम् A particular measure (= 13 Aṅgulas). -रहित a. without a reply. -रामचरितम् -त्रम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti, which describes the later life of Rāma. -रूपम् The second of two combined vowels or consonants. -लक्षणम् the indication of an actual reply. -लोमन् a. having the hair turned upwards. -वयसम्, -स् n. old age, the declining period of life. -वरितः a kind of small syringe. -वल्ली f. N. of the second section of the काठकोपनिषद् when divided into two अध्यायs. -वस्त्रम्, -वासस् n. an upper garment, mantle, cloak; जग्राह तामुत्तरवस्त्रदेशे Mb.3.268. 24. -वादिन् m. 1 a defendant, respondent; (Opp. पूर्ववादिन्.) साक्षिषूभयतः सत्मु साक्षिणः पूर्ववादिनः । पूर्वपक्षे$धरीभूते भवन्त्युत्तरवादिनः ॥ Y.2.17. -2 one whose claims are of later date than another's. -विद् -वेदन or वेदिन् An elephant sensitive to slight stimuli (Mātaṅga L.1.29; 9.39). -वीथिः f. The northern orbit; Bṛi. S. -वेदिः 1 the northern altar made for the sacred fire. -2 N. of a Tīrtha near the कुरुक्षेत्र. -सक्थम् the left thigh. -संझित a. denoted or named in reply (as a witness). (-तः) hearsay-witness. -साक्षिन् m. 1 a witness for the defence. -2 a witness deposing to facts from the reports of others. -साधक a. 1 finishing what remains or follows, assisting at a ceremony. -2 who or what proves a reply. (-कः) an assistant, helper -हनुः Ved. the upper jaw-bone.
udaya उदय a. (In gram.) Following, coming after or upon (as a letter, accent &c.); उदयशब्दः परशब्दसमानार्थः प्रातिशाख्येषु प्रसिद्धः. -यः 1 Rise (fig. also); चन्द्रोदय इवोदधेः R.12.36,2.73; going upwards, ascending (as of the sun, stars &c.). -2 (a) Rising up, coming forth; द्रविण˚ acquisition of wealth; Pt.2; so भाग्य˚ dawn of fortune; Amaru.25; स्वगुणोदयेन Pt.1.94. (b) Appearance, becoming visible, production; घनोदयः प्राक् Ś.7.3; मेघ˚ Ku.6.54; हसितमन्यनिमित्तकृतोदयम् Ś.2.12 raised from some other cause; Amaru.88; Ś.7.8; फलोदय R.1.5; rising or accomplishment of the fruit; Ms.3.169; K.3.18. -3 Creation (opp. प्रलय); यः सिन्धूनामुपोदये Rv.8.41.2. यौ तौ स्वप्नावबोधौ तौ भूतानां प्रलयो- दयौ Ku.2.8. -4 The eastern mountain (behind which the sun is supposed to rise); ददर्श पिङ्गाधिपतेरमात्यं वाता- त्मजं सूर्यमिवोदयस्थम् Rām.5.31.18. यौर्यत्र दृश्यते भास्वान्स तेषामुदयः स्मृतः; उदयगूढशशाङ्कमरीचिभिः V.3.6. -5 Advance- ment, prosperity, rise; (opp. व्यसन), तेजोद्वयस्य युगपद्- व्यसनोदयाभ्याम् Ś.4.2; उदये मदावाच्यमुञ्झता R.8.84; K.5; importance, celebrity; ˚उन्मुखे त्वयि R.11.73. -6 Elevation, exaltation, rise; growth; उदयमस्तमयं च रघू- द्वहात् R.9.9; तमुदयाय नवा नवयौवना 7; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिः Śi 2.3,11.6. -7 Result, consequence; असुखोदयं कर्म Ms.4.7; Amaru.47; following; नोदात्तस्वरितोदयम् P.VIII.4.67. -8 Accomplishment, fulfilment; उपस्थितो- दयम् R.3.1; प्रारम्भसदृशोदयः 1.15. -9 Profit, advantage. -1 Income, revenue; Ms.7.55; Y.2.43. -11 Interest, consideration paid for the use of money; Y.2.67,146. -12 Light, splendour. -13 Outlet, exit. -14 Beginning; अभिगम्योदयं तस्य कार्यस्य प्रत्यवेदयत् Mb.3.282.22. -15 Efficacy, influence; पर्याप्तः परवीरघ्न यशस्यस्ते बलोदयः Rām. 5.56.11. -16 Birthday celebration; हस्ते गृहीत्वा सहराम- मच्युतं नीत्वा स्ववाटं कृतवत्यथोदयम् Bhāg.1.11.2. -17 The first lunar mansion; the orient sine. -Comp. -अचलः, -अद्रिः, -गिरिः, -पर्वतः, -शैलः the eastern mountain behind which the sun, moon &c are supposed to rise; उदयगिरिवनालीबालमन्दारपुष्पम् Udb.; श्रितोदयाद्रेरभिसा- यमुच्चकैः Śi.1.16; तत उदयगिरेरिवैक एव Māl.2.1. -इन्दुः The town इन्द्रप्रस्थ; पुरे कुरूणामुदयेन्दुनाम्नि Mb.7.23.29. -उन्मुख a. About to rise, expecting prosperity. -क्रमः Gradual rise; नाडीनाम् Māl.5.2. by gradually inflating or filling with wind the Nādīs, (as in the act of restraining the wind). -ज्या f. See उदय (17). -पुरम् N. of the capital of Mārwār. -प्रस्थः the plateau of the mountain behind which the sun is supposed to rise. -प्राणः (pl.) A particular measure of time. -राशिः The constellation in which the planet is seen when on the horizon.
aupadharmyam औपधर्म्यम् [उपधर्म-ष्यञ्] 1 A false doctrine, heresy वेशं विधाय बहुभाष्यत औपधर्म्यम् Bhāg.2.7.37. -2 Inferior virtue, or a degraded principle of virtue.
kaṭola कटोल a. Pungent. -लः 1 A pungent flavour. -2 A man of an inferior and degraded tribe, a Chāṇḍāla. -Comp. -वीणा a kind of lute played by the Chāṇḍālas.
karaṭaḥ करटः [किरति मदं, कॄ-अटन् Uṇ.4.81.] 1 An elephant's cheek; प्रभिन्नकरटौ मत्तौ भूत्वा कुञ्जररूपिणौ Mb.1.21.2. -2 Safflower. -3 A crow; Śānti.4.19. -4 An atheist, unbeliever. -5 A degraded Brāhmaṇa. -6 A man of a low profession. -7 A musical instrument. -8 The first Śrāddha ceremony performed in honour of a dead man; करट त्वं रट कस्तवापराधः Udb. -टम् Hard. (a variety of coral); Kau. A.2.11. -टा 1 An elephant's cheek. -2 A cow difficult to be milked. -मुखम् A spot where an elephant's temple bursts; Mb.
kirātaḥ किरातः [किरं पर्यन्तभूमिं अतति गच्छतीति किरातः] 1 N. of a degraded mountain tribe who live by hunting, a mountaineer; वैयाकरणकिरातादपशब्दमृगाः क्व यान्तु संत्रस्ताः । यदि नटगणकचिकित्सकवैतालिकवदनकन्दरा न स्युः ॥ Subhāṣ.; Pt.1.17; पर्यन्ताश्रयिभिर्निजस्य सदृशं नाम्नः किरातैः कृतम् Ratn.2.3; Ku.1.6,15. जवार इति यद्राज्यं किरातानां पुरातनम् Parṇāl 1.39. -2 A savage, barbarian. -3 A dwarf. -4 A groom, a horseman. -5 N. of Śiva in the disguise of a Kirāta. -6 A species of fish; किरातो लुब्धके देववाहिनीमत्स्यभेदयोः Nm. -7 N. of a medicinal herb (Mar. किराईत, चिराईत, भूनिंब) -ताः (pl.) N. of a country. -Comp. -अर्जुनीयम् N. of a poem by Bhāravi (in which the combat of Arjuna with Śiva in the form of a Kirāta or mountaineer is poetically described.) -आशिन् m. an epithet of Garuḍa. -तिक्तः N. of a medicinal herb (Mar. किराईत, चिराईत).
ku कु ind. A prefix implying 'badness', 'deterioration', 'depreciation', 'sin', 'reproach', 'littleness', 'want', 'deficiency', &c. Its various substitutes are कद् (कदश्व), कव (कवोष्ण), का (कोष्ण), किं (किंप्रभुः); cf. Pt.5.17. -Comp. -कर्मन् n. a bad deed, a mean act. -a. wicked, Bhāg.1.16.22. -कु-वाच् m. jackal. -कूलम् A hole filled with stakes. ˚लः A fire made of chaff; कुकूलं शङ्कुभिः कीर्णे श्वभ्रे ना तु तुषानले Nm. -ग्रहः an unpropitious planet. -ग्रामः a petty village or hamlet (without a king's officer, an agnihotrin, a physician, or a river.) -चन्दनम् Red sandal-wood. -चर a. of bad conduct, a thief; दृष्ट्वा त्वादित्यमुद्यन्तं कुचराणां भयं भवेत् Mb.14.39.13. -चेल a. wearing bad or ragged garments; कपालं वृक्ष- मूलानि कुचेलमसहायता । समता चैव सर्वस्मिन्नेतन्मुक्तस्य लक्षणम् ॥ Ms.6.44. -चरित्रम्, -चर्या wickedness, evil conduct, impropriety; Ms.9.17. -चोद्यम् an unsuitable question. -जन्मन् a. low born. -तनु a. deformed, ugly. (-नुः) an epithet of Kubera. -तन्त्री a bad lute. -तपः 1 a sort of blanket (made of the hair of the mountain goat). -2 the eighth Muhūrta or portion of the day. -3 a daughter's or sister's son. -4 the sun. -तर्कः 1 sophistical or fallacious argument. -2 a heterodox doctrine, free thinking; कुतर्केष्वभ्यासः सततपरपैशुन्यमननम् G. L.31. ˚पथः a sophistical mode of arguing. -तीर्थम् a bad teacher. -दिनम् an evil or unpropitious day. -दृष्टिः f. 1 weak sight. -2 an evil eye, sinister eye (fig.). -3 an opinion or doctrine opposed to the Vedas, heterodox doctrines; या वेदबाह्याः स्मृतयो याश्च काश्च कुदृष्टयः Ms.12.95. -देशः 1 a bad place or country. -2 a country where the necessaries of life are not available or which is subject to oppression. -देह a. ugly, deformed; कुदेहमानाहिविदष्टदृष्टेर्ब्रह्मन्वचस्ते$मृतमौषधं मे Bhāg.5.12.2. (-हः) an epithet of Kubera. -द्वारम् back door. -धी a. foolish, silly, stupid. -2 wicked. -नखम् a disease of the nails; Mb.3. -नटः 1 a bad actor. -2 a sort of trumpet flower. -3 red arsenic. -नदिका a small river, rill; सुपूरा स्यात्कुनदिका Pt.1.25. -नाथः a bad master; हतास्म्यहं कुनाथेन न पुंसा वीरमानिना Bhāg.9.14.28. -नामन् m. a miser. -नीतः bad counsel, leading; तृणैश्छन्ना भूमिर्मतिरिव कुनीतैव विदुषः Mu.6.11. -पटः, -टम् a miserable garment; कुपटावृतकटिः Bhāg.5.9.1. -पथः 1 a wrong road, bad way (fig. also). -2 a heterodox doctrine. -पथ्य a. unwholesome, improper. -परीक्षक a. examining badly, not valuing rightly; कुत्स्याः स्युः कुपरीक्षका न मणयो यैरर्घतः पातिताः Bh.2.15. -पात्रम् an unfit recipient. -पुत्रः a bad or wicked son: यादृशं फल- माप्नोति कुप्लवैः संतरन् जलम् । तादृशं फलमाप्नोति कुपुत्रैः संतरंस्तमः ॥ Ms.9.161. कुपुत्रो जायेत क्वचिदपि कुमाता न भवति, देव्यपराध- क्षमापनस्तोत्र (ascribed to a later शङ्कराचार्य). -पुरुषः 1 a low or wicked man. -2 a spiritless coward. -पूय a. low, vile, contemptible. -प्रिय a. disagreeable, contemptible, low, mean. -प्लवः a bad boat; कुप्लवैः संतरन् जलम् Ms.9.161. -बन्धः a disgraceful stigma; अन्त्याभिगमने त्वङ्क्यः कुबन्धेन प्रवासयेत् Y.2.294. -ब्रह्मः, -ब्रह्मन् m. a bad or degraded Brāhmaṇa. -मन्त्रः 1 bad advice. -2 a charm used to secure success in a bad cause. -मुद्विन् a. Unfriendly; उदहृष्यन्वारिजानि सूर्योत्थाने कुमुद्विना । राज्ञा तु निर्भया लोकाः Bhāg.1.21.47. -मेरुः The southern hemisphere or pole. -योगः an inauspicious conjunction (of planets). -योगिन् m. a false devotee, impostor. -रस a. having bad juice or flavour. (-सः) a kind of spirituous liquor. -रूप a. ugly, deformed; कुपुत्रो$पि भवेत्पुंसां हृदयानन्दकारकः । दुर्विनीतः कुरूपो$पि मूर्खो$पि व्यसनी खलः ॥ Pt.5.19. -रूप्यम् tin. -लक्षण a. having fatal marks on the body. कुलक्षणेत्यहं राज्ञा त्यक्तेत्यात्तविमानना Ks.91.19. -वङ्गः lead. -वचस्, -वाच्, -वाक्य a. abusive, bad, scurrilous; using abusive or foul language; संस्मारितो मर्मभिदः कुवाग्रिपून् Bhāg.4.3.15. (-n.) abuse, bad language. -वज्रकम् crystal; a stone resembling a diamond. -वर्षः a sudden or violent shower; Rām.6. -विक्रमः bravery exhibited in a wrong place; धिगीदृशं ते नृपते कुविक्रमं कृपाश्रये यः कृपणे पतत्त्रिणि N.1.132. -विवाहः a degraded or improper form of marriage; Ms.3.63. -वृत्तिः f. bad bebaviour. -वेधस् m. bad fate; हृतरत्नेन मुषितो दत्त्वा काचं कुवेधसा Ks. 71.232. -वैद्यः a bad physician, quack. -शील a. rude, wicked, unmannerly, ill tempered, of bad character; कुतो गम्यमगम्यं वा कुशीलोन्मादिनः प्रभोः Ks.32.152. -ष्ठलम् 1 a bad place. -2 the earth; शयानां कुष्ठले Bk.9.84. -सरित् f. a small river, rill; उच्छिद्यन्ते क्रियाः सर्वा ग्रीष्मे कुसरितो यथा Pt.2.89. -सृतिः f. 1 evil conduct, wickedness; कस्माद्वयं कुसृतयः खलयोनयस्ते Bhāg.8.23.7. -2 conjuring, magic. -3 roguery. -स्त्री a bad woman.
kṛṣṇa कृष्ण a. [कृष्-नक्] 1 Black, dark, dark-blue. -2 Wicked, evil; मनो गुणान्वै सृजते बलीयस्ततश्च कर्माणि विलक्षणानि । शुक्लानि कृष्णान्यथ लोहितानि तेभ्यः सवर्णाः सृतयो भवन्ति ॥ Bhāg. 11.23.44. -ष्णः 1 The black colour. -2 The black antelope; Bhāg.1.35.19. -3 A crow. -4 The (Indian) cuckoo. -5 The dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); Bg.8.25. -6 The Kali age. -7 Viṣṇu in his eighth incarnation, born as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī. [Kṛiṣna is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the deities. Though the real son of Vasudeva and Devakī and thus a cousin of Kaṁsa, he was, for all practical purposes, the son of Nanda and Yaśodā, by whom he was brought up and in whose house he spent his childhood. It was here that his divine character began to be gradually discovered, when he easily crushed the most redoubtable demons, such as Baka, Pūtanā &c., that were sent to kill him by Kaṁsa, and performed many other feats of surprising strength. The chief companions of his youth were the Gopis or wives of the cowherds of Gokula, among whom Rādhā was his special favourite (cf. Jayadeva's Gitagovinda). He killed Kaṁsa, Naraka, Keśin, Ariṣṭa and a host of other powerful demons. He was a particular friend of Arjuna, to whom he acted as charioteer in the great war, and his staunch support of the cause of the Pāṇḍavas was the main cause of the overthrow of the Kauravas. On several critical occasions, it was Kṛiṣṇa's assistance and inventive mind that stood the Pāṇḍavas in good stead. After the general destruction of the Yādavas at Prabhāsa, he was killed unintentionally by a hunter named Jaras who shot him with an arrow mistaking him at a distance for a deer. He had more than 16 wives, but Rukmiṇi and Satyabhāmā, (as also Rādhā) were his favourites. He is said to have been of dark-blue or cloud-like colour; cf. बहिरिव मलिनतरं तव कृष्ण मनो$पि भविष्यति नूनं Gīt.8. His son was Pradyumna]. -8 N. of Vyāsa, the reputed author of the Mahābhārata; कुतः सञ्चोदितः कृष्णः कृतवान्संहितां मुनिः Bhāg.1.4.3. -9 N. of Arjuna. -1 Aloe wood. -11 The Supreme spirit. -12 Black pepper. -13 Iron. -14 A Śūdra; कृष्णस्तु केशवे व्यासे कोकिले$र्जुनकाकयोः । शूद्रे तामिस्रपक्षे$ग्निकलिनीलगुणेषु च ॥ Nm. -15 The marking nut (भल्लातक); विरक्तं शोध्यते वस्त्रं न तु कृष्णोपसंहितम् Mb.12.291.1. -ष्णा 1 N. of Draupadī, wife of the Pāṇḍavas; तेजो हृतं खलु मयाभिहतश्च मत्स्यः सज्जीकृतेन धनुषाधिगता च कृष्णा Bhāg.1.15.7; प्रविश्य कृष्णासदनं महीभुजा Ki.1.26. -2 N. of a river in the Deccan that joins the sea at Machhalipaṭṭaṇa. -3 A kind of poisonous insect. -4 N. of several plants. -5 A grape. -6 A kind of perfume. -7 An epithet of Durgā Bhāg.4.6.7. -8 One of the 7 tongues of fire. -9 N. of the river Yamunā; विलोक्य दूषितां कृष्णां कृष्णः कृष्णाहिना विभुः Bhāg.1.16.1. -ष्णी A dark night; रिणक्ति कृष्णीर- रुषाय पन्थाम् Rv.7.71.1. -ष्णम् 1 Blackness, darkness (moral also); शुक्रा कृष्णादजनिष्ट श्वितीची Rv.1.123.9. -2 Iron. -3 Antimony. -4 The black part of the eye. -5 Black pepper. -6 Lead. -7 An inauspicious act. -8 Money acquired by gambling. -Comp. -अगुरु n. a kind of sandal-wood. -अचलः an epithet of the mountain Raivataka. -अजिनम् the skin of the black antelope. -अध्वन्, -अर्चिस् m. an epithet of fire; cf. कृष्ण- वर्त्मन्. -अयस्, n. -अयसम्, -आमिषम् iron, crude or black iron. -कृष्णायसस्येव च ते संहत्य हृदयं कृतम् Mb.5.135. 1; वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं कृष्णायसमित्येव सत्यम् Ch. Up. 6.1.6. -अर्जकः N. of a tree. -अष्टमी, -जन्माष्टमी the 8th day of the dark half of Śrāvaṇa when Kṛiṣṇa, was born; also called गोकुलाष्टमी. -आवासः the holy fig-tree. -उदरः a kind of snake. -कञ्चुकः a kind of gram. -कन्दम् a red lotus. -कर्मन् a. of black deeds, criminal, wicked, depraved, guilty, sinful. -काकः a raven. -कायः a buffalo. -काष्ठम् a kind of sandal-wood, agallochum. -कोहलः a gambler. -गङ्गा the river कृष्णावेणी. -गति fire; ववृधे स तदा गर्भः कक्षे कृष्णगतिर्यथा Mb.13.85.56; आयोघने कृष्णगतिं सहायम् R.6.42. -गर्भाः (f. pl.) 1 the pregnant wives of the demon Kṛiṣṇa; यः कृष्णगर्भा निरहन्नृजिश्वना Rv.1.11.1. -2 waters in the interiors of the clouds. -गोधा a kind of poisonous insect. -ग्रीवः N. of Śiva. -चञ्चुकः a kind of pea. -चन्द्रः N. of Vasudeva. -चर a. what formerly belonged to Kṛiṣṇa. -चूर्णम् rust of iron, iron-filings. -च्छविः f. 1 the skin of the black antelope. -2 a black cloud; कृष्णच्छविसमा कृष्णा Mb.4.6.9. -ताम्रम् a kind of sandal wood. -तारः 1 a species of antelope. -2 an antelope (in general) -तालु m. a kind of horse having black palate; cf. शालिहोत्र of भोज, 67. -त्रिवृता N. of a tree. -देहः a large black bee. -धनम् money got by foul means. -द्वादशी the twelfth day in the dark half of Āṣaḍha. -द्वैपायनः N. of Vyāsa; तमहमरागमकृष्णं कृष्णद्वैपायनं वन्दे Ve.1.4. -पक्षः 1 the dark half of a lunar month; रावणेन हृता सीता कृष्णपक्षे$- सिताष्टमी Mahān. -2 an epithet of Arjuna; -पदी a female with black feet, -पविः an epithet of Agni. -पाकः N. of a tree (Mar. करवंद). -पिङ्गल a. dark-brown. (-ला) N. of Durgā. -पिण्डीतकः (-पिण्डीरः) N. of a tree (Mar. काळा गेळा). -पुष्पी N. of a tree (Mar. काळा धोत्रा). -फलः (-ला) N. of a tree (Mar. काळें जिरें). -बीजम् a watermelon. -भस्मन् sulphate of mecury. -मृगः the black antelope; शृङ्गे कृष्णमृगस्य वामनयनं कण्डूयमानां मृगीम् Ś.6.17. -मुखः, -वक्त्रः, -वदनः the black-faced monkey. -मृत्तिका 1 black earth. -2 the gunpowder. -यजुर्वेदः the Taittirīya or black Yajurveda. -यामः an epithet of Agni; वृश्चद्वनं कृष्णयामं रुशन्तम् Rv.6.6.1. -रक्तः dark-red colour. -रूप्य = ˚चर q. v. -लवणम् 1 a kind of black salt. -2 a factitious salt. -लोहः the loadstone. -वर्णः 1 black colour. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a Śūdra; विडूरुङ्घ्रिश्रितकृष्णवर्णः Bhāg.2.1.37. -वर्त्मन् m. 1 fire; श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42; Ms.2.94. -2 N. of Rāhu. -3 a low man, profligate, black-guard. -विषाणा Ved. the horns of the black antelope. -वेणी N. of a river. -शकुनिः a crow; Av.19.57.4. -शारः, -सारः, -सारङ्गः the spotted antelope; कृष्णसारे ददच्चक्षुस्त्वयि चाधिज्यकार्मुके Ś.1.6; V.4.31; पीयूषभानाविव कृष्णसारः Rām. Ch.1.3. -शृङ्गः a buffalo. -सखः, -सारथिः an epithet of Arjuna. (-खी) cummin seed (Mar. जिरें). -स्कन्धः N. of a tree (Mar. तमाल).
kolaḥ कोलः [कुल् संस्त्याने अच्] 1 A hog, boar; Y.3.273; Śi.14.43,86. -2 A raft, boat. -3 The breast. -4 The haunch, hip, lap. -5 An embrace. -6 The planet Saturn. -7 An out-cast, one of a degraded tribe. -8 A barbarian. -9 N. of a tribe inhabiting the hills in Central India. -लम् 1 The weight of one Tola. -2 Black pepper. -3 A kind of berry. -Comp. -अञ्चः N. of the country of the Kaliṅgas. -पुच्छः a heron.
kautsam कौत्सम् A Sāman composed by Kutsa. -त्सः 1 N. of a sage; माण्डव्यः कौत्सात् Bṛi. Up.6.5.4; उपसेदित्वात् कौत्सः पाणिनिम् Mbh. on P.III.2.18. -2 N. of a pupil of Varatantu; R.5.1. -3 N. of a degraded family.
kramaḥ क्रमः [क्रम-भावकरणादौ घञ्] 1 A step, pace; त्रिविक्रमः; सागरः प्लवगेन्द्रेण क्रमेणैकेन लङ्घितः Mb.; Śi.12.18. -2 A foot; (अपनेष्यति) असुरेभ्यः श्रियं दीप्तां विष्णुस्त्रिभिरिव क्रमैः Rām. 5.21.28. -3 Going, proceeding, course; क्रमात् or क्रमेण in course of, gradually; कालक्रमेण gradually, in course of time; कालक्रमेण जगतः परिवर्तमाना Svapna., भाग्यक्रमः course or turn of fate; R.3.7,3,32. -4 Performance, commencement; अविचार्य क्रमं न करिष्यति । इत्थमत्र विततक्रमे क्रतौ Śi.14.53. -5 (a) Regular course, order, series, succession; निमित्तनैमित्तक- योरयं क्रमः &Sacute.7.3; Ms.7.24,.9.85,2.173,3.69. (b) Traditional order; U.6. (c) Order of propriety; लोका- न्तरगतेनापि नोज्झितो विनयक्रमः Nāg.5.11. आत्मीयः पर इत्ययं खलु कुतः सत्यं कृपाया क्रमः । ibid. 5.2; Ku.5.32; प्रियवचन- निवेदनत्वरया क्रमविशेषो नावेक्षितः Pratijñā. -6 Method, manner; वर्तस्व च सतां क्रमे Rām.2.25.2; नेत्रक्रमेणोपरुरोध सूर्यम् R.7.39. -7 Grasp, hold; क्रमगता पशोः कन्यका Māl.3.13. -8 A position of attack (assumed by an animal before making a spring); न मया क्रमः सज्जीकृत आसीत् Pt.4. -9 Preparation, readiness; Bk.2.9. -1 An undertaking, enterprize. -11 An act or deed, manner of proceeding; कोप्येष कान्तः क्रमः Amaru.48,33. -12 Particular manner of reciting Vedic texts, leaving at each time one word and taking up another; वेदैः साङ्गपदक्रमोपनिषदैर्गायन्ति यं सामगाः Bhāg.12.13.1. चर्चागुणान् क्रमगुणांश्चापेक्ष्य भवति Mbh. on P.V.1.119. -13 Power, strength; स ईश्वरः काल उरुक्रमो$सौ Bhāg.7.8.9. -14 N. of Viṣṇu. -Comp. -अनुसारः, अन्वयः regular order, due arrangement. -आगत, -आयात a. descended or inherited lineally, hereditary; क्रमायातो$पि भूपतिः Pt.1.73,84;3.167... त्यक्त्वैश्वर्यं क्रमागतम् Nāg.1.4. -उद्वेगः an ox. -ज्यका, -ज्या the sine of a planet declination. -पाठः the Karma reading. -भङ्गः irregularity, -भाविन् successive. -माला -रथः -लेखा -शठः -शिखा various kinds of क्रमपाठ. -योगः succession, order; Ms.1.42. -योगेन ind. in regular manner; तेनैव क्रमयोगेन जिज्ञासुः पर्यपृच्छत Mb.1.132.78.
kramataḥ क्रमतः ind. Gradually, successively.
kramaśaḥ क्रमशः ind. 1 In due order, regularly, successively, seriatim. -2 Gradually, by degrees; R.12.47; क्रम- शस्तन्निबोधत Ms.1.68,3.12.
grāmaḥ ग्रामः [ग्रस्-मन् आदन्तादेशः] 1 A village, hamlet; पत्तने विद्यमाने$पि ग्रामे रत्नपरीक्षा M.1; त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे ग्रामस्यार्थे कुलं त्यजेत् । ग्रामं जनपदस्यार्थे स्वात्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्यजेत् ॥ H.1.129; R.1.44; Me.3. -2 A race, community; कथा ग्रामं न पृच्छसि Rv.1.146.1. -3 A multitude, collection (of anything); e. g. गुणग्राम, इन्द्रियग्राम; Bg.8.19;9.8. शस्त्रास्त्र- ग्रामकोविदः Bm.1.611,613. -4 A gamut, scale in music; स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छनाम् Śi.1.1. -Comp. -अक्षपटलिकः a village archioist; Hch.7.23. -अधिकृतः, -अधिपः, -अधिपतिः, -अध्यक्षः, -ईशः, -ईश्वरः superintendent, head, chief of a village; ग्रामाधिपस्य तरुणीमहं भार्यां सदा भजे Ks.64.115; Ms.7.115. -अन्तः the border of a village, space near a village; Ms.4.116;11.78. -अन्तरम् another village. -अन्तिकम् the neighbourhood of a village. -अन्तीय a. situated in the neighbourhood of a village; Ms.8.24. -यम् space near a village. -आचारः a village custom. -आधानम् hunting. -उपाध्यायः the village priest. -कण्टकः 1 'the village-pest', one who is a source of trouble to the village. -2 a tale-bearer. -काम a. 1 one wishing to take possession of a village. -2 fond of living in villages. -कायस्थ a village scribe. -कुक्कुटः a domestic cock; Ms.5.12,19. -कुमारः 1 one beautiful in a village. -2 a village-boy. -कूटः 1 the noblest man in a village. -2 a Śūdra. -गृह्य a. being outside a village. -गृह्यकः a village-carpenter. -गोदुहः the herdsman of a village. -घातः plundering a village; Ms.9.274. -घोषिन् a. sounding among men or armies (as a drum); प्रवेदकृद् बहुधा ग्रामघोषी Av. 5.2.9. -m. an epithet of Indra. -चर्या sexual intercourse; (स्त्रीसंभोग). -चैत्यः a sacred fig-tree of a village; नीडारम्भैर्गृहबलिभुजामाकुलग्रामचैत्याः Me.23. -ज, -जात a. 1 village-born, rustic. -2 grown in cultivated ground; Ms.6.16. -जालम् a number of villages, a district. -णीः 1 the leader or chief of a village or community; तयोर्युद्धं समभवद्रक्षोग्रामणिमुख्ययोः Mb.7.19.3. -2 a leader or chief in general. -3 a barber. -4 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -5 a libidinous man. -6 a yakṣa; उन्नह्यन्ति रथं नागा ग्रामण्यो रथयोजकाः Mb.12.11.48. (-f.) 1 a whore, harlot. -2 the indigo plant. ˚पुत्रः a bastard, the son of a harlot. -तक्षः a village-carpenter; P.V.4.95. -देवता the tutelary deity of a village. -द्रुमः a sacred tree in a village. -धर्मः 1 the observances or customs of a village. -2 sexual intercourse. -धान्यम् a cultivated grain (like rice); ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः Mb.12.36.48. See ग्राम्यधान्यम्. -पालः 1 the guardian of a village. -2 army for the protection of a village. -पुरुषः the chief of a village. -प्रेष्यः the messenger or servant of a community or village. -मद्गुरिका 1 a riot, fray, village tumult. -2 N. of a fish (or a plant) -मुखम् a market. -मृगः a dog. -याजकः, -याजिन् m. 1 'the village priest,' a priest who conducts the religious ceremonies for all classes and is consequently considered as a degraded Brāhmaṇa; Ms.4.25. -2 the attendant of an idol. -युद्धम् a riot, fray. -लुण्ठनम् plundering a village. -वासः (ग्रामेवासः also) 1 a villager. -2 residence in a village. -विशेषः a variety of scales in music; स्फुटीभवद्ग्रामविशेषमूर्च्छना Śi. -वृद्धः an old villager; प्राप्यावन्तीनुदयनकथाकोविदग्रामवृद्धान् Me.3. -षण्डः an impotent man (क्लीब). -संकरः the common sewer or drain of a village. -संघः a villagecorporation. -सिंहः a dog; व्यमुञ्चन्विविधा वाचो ग्रामसिंहास्त- तस्ततः Bhāg.3.17.1. -स्थः a. 1 a villager. -2 a covillager. -हासकः a sister's husband.
jālma जाल्म a. (-ल्मी f.) 1 Cruel, severe, harsh. -2 Rash, inconsiderate. -ल्मः (-ल्मी f.) 1 A rogue, rascal, villain, wretch, miscreant; आस्तां जाल्म उदरं स्रंसयित्वा Av.4.16.7; अपि ज्ञायते कतमेन दिग्भागेन गतः स जाल्म इति V.1. -2 A poor man, a low or degraded man. -3 One who reads or recites badly; cf. P.VI.2.158.
juṅgita जुङ्गित a. Deserted, abandoned. -तः A man of a degraded caste, a Chāṇḍāla.
jhallaḥ झल्लः 1 A prize-fighter. -2 N. of one of the degraded classes; Ms.1.22;12.45. -ल्ली A kind of drum.
tāratamyam तारतम्यम् [तरतमंयोर्भावः ष्यञ्] 1 Gradation, proportion, relative importance, comparative value. -2 Difference, distinction; निर्धनं निधनमेतयोर्द्वयोस्तारतम्यविधिमुक्त- चेतसाम् । बोधनाय विधिना विनिर्मिता रेफ एव जयवैजयन्तिका ॥ Udb.
tri त्रि num. a. [Uṇ.5.66] (declined in pl. only, nom. त्रयः m., तिस्त्रः f., त्रीणि n.) Three; त एव हि त्रयो लोकास्त एव त्रय आश्रमाः &c. Ms.2.229; प्रियतमाभिरसौ तिसृभिर्बभौ R.9.18; त्रीणि वर्षाण्युदीक्षेत कुमार्यृतुमती सती Ms.9.9 [cf. L. tres; Gr. treis; A. S., Zend thri; Eng. three]. -Comp. -अंशः 1 a three-fold share; त्र्यंशं दायाद्धरेद्विप्रः Ms.9.151. -2 a third part. -3 three-fourths. -अक्ष a. triocular. -अक्षः, -अक्षकः an epithet of Śiva; शुष्कस्नायु- स्वराह्लादात्त्र्यक्षं जग्राह रावणः Pt.5.57. -अक्षरः 1 the mystic syllable ओम् consisting of three letters; see under अ. आद्यं यत्त्र्यक्षरं ब्रह्म Ms.11.265. -2 a matchmaker or घटक (that word consisting of three syllables). -3 a genealogist. (-री) knowledge, learning; see विद्या. -अङ्कटम्, -अङ्गटम् 1 three strings suspended to either end of a pole for carrying burdens. -2 a sort of collyrium. (-टः) N. of Śiva. -अङ्गम् (pl.) a tripartite army (chariots, cavalry and infantry). -अङ्गुलम् three fingers' breadth. -अञ्जनम् the three kinds of collyrium; i. e. कालाञ्जन, रसाञ्जन and पुष्पाञ्जन. -अञ्जलम्, -लिः three handfuls taken collectively. -अधिपतिः (the lord of the 3 guṇas or worlds), an epithet of Viṣṇu; Bhāg.3.16.24. -अधिष्ठानः the soul. (नम्) spirit, life (चैतन्य). -a. having three stations; Ms.12.4. -अध्वगा, -मार्गगा, -वर्त्मगा epithets of the river Ganges (flowing through the three worlds). -अनीक a. having the three properties of heat, rain and cold; त्यनीकः पत्यते माहिनावान् Rv.3.56.3. (-का) an army consisting of horses, elephants and chariots. -अब्द a. three years old. -ब्दम् three years taken collectively. -अम्बकः (also त्रियम्बक in the same sense though rarely used in classical literature) 'having three eyes', N. of Śiva.; त्रियम्बकं संयमिनं ददर्श Ku.3.44; जडीकृतस्त्र्यम्बकवीक्षणेन R.2. 42;3.49. ˚सखः an epithet of Kubera; कुबेरस्त्र्यम्बकसखः Ak. -अम्बका an epithet of Pārvatī -अशीत a. eighty-third. -अशीतिः f. eighty-three. -अष्टन् a. twenty-four. -अश्र, -अस्र a. triangular. (-स्रम्) a triangle. -अहः 1 a period of three days. -2 a festival lasting three days. -आर्षेयाः deaf, dumb and blind persons. -आहिक a. 1 performed or produced in three days. -2 recurring after the third day, tertian (as fever). -3 having provision for three days कुशूलकुम्भीधान्यो वा त्र्याहिको$श्वस्तनो$पि वा Y.1.128. -ऋचम् (तृचम् also) three Riks taken collectively; Ms.8.16. -ऐहिक a. having provision for three days. -ककुद् m. 1 N. of the mountain Trikūṭa. -2 N. of Viṣnu or Kṛiṣṇa. -3 the highest, chief. -4 a sacrifice lasting for ten nights. -ककुभ् m. Ved. 1 Indra. -2 Indra's thunderbolt. -कटु dry ginger, black pepper and long pepper taken together as a drug; शिरामोक्षं विधायास्य दद्यात् त्रिकटुकं गुडम् Śālihotra 62. -कण्टः, -कण्टकः a kind of fish. -करणी the side of a square 3 times as great as another. -कर्मन् n. the chief three duties of a Brāhmaṇa i. e. sacrifice, study of the Vedas, and making gifts or charity. (-m.) one who engages in these three duties (as a Brāhmaṇa). -काण्डम् N. of Amarsiṁha's dictionary. -कायः N. of Buddha. -कालम् 1 the three times; the past, the present, and the future; or morning, noon and evening. -2 the three tenses (the past, present, and future) of a verb. (-लम् ind. three times, thrice; ˚ज्ञ, ˚दर्शिन् a. omniscient (m.) 1 a divine sage, seer. -2 a deity. -3 N. of Buddha. ˚विद् m. 1 a Buddha. -2 an Arhat (with the Jainas). -कूटः N. of a mountain in Ceylon on the top of which was situated Laṅkā, the capital of Rāvaṇa.; Śi.2.5. -कूटम् sea-salt. कूर्चकम् a knife with three edges. -कोण a. triangular, forming a triangle. (-णः) 1 a triangle. -2 the vulva. -खम् 1 tin. -2 a cucumber. -खट्वम्, -खट्वी three bedsteads taken collectively. -क्षाराणि n. (pl.) salt-petre, natron and borax. -गणः an aggregate of the three objects of worldly existence; i. e. धर्म, अर्थ and काम; न बाधते$स्य त्रिगणः परस्परम् Ki.1.11; see त्रिवर्ग below. -गत a. 1 tripled. -2 done in three days. -गर्ताः (pl.) 1 N. of a country, also called जलन्धर, in the northwest of India. -2 the people or rulers of that country. -3 a particular mode of calculation. -गर्ता 1 a lascivious woman, wanton. -2 a woman in general. -3 a pearl. -4 a kind of cricket. -गुण a. 1 consisting of three threads; व्रताय मौञ्जीं त्रिगुणां बभार याम् Ku.5.1. -2 three-times repeated, thrice, treble, threefold, triple; सप्त व्यतीयुस्त्रिगुणानि तस्य (दिनानि) R.2. 25. -3 containing the three Guṇas सत्त्व, रजस् and तमस्. (-णम्) the Pradhāna (in Sāṅ. phil.); (-ind.) three times; in three ways. -णाः m. (pl.) the three qualities or constituents of nature; त्रयीमयाय त्रिगुणात्मने नमः K.1. (-णा) 1 Māyā or illusion (in Vedānta phil.). -2 an epithet of Durgā. -गुणाकृतम् ploughed thrice. -चक्षुस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -चतुर a. (pl.) three or four; गत्वा जवात्त्रिचतुराणि पदानि सीता B.R.6.34. -चत्वा- रिंश a. forty-third. -चत्वारिंशत् f, forty-three. -जगत् n. -जगती the three worlds, (1) the heaven, the atmosphere and the earth; or (2) the heaven, the earth, and the lower world; त्वत्कीर्तिः ...... त्रिजगति विहरत्येवमुर्वीश गुर्वी Sūkti.5.59. -जटः an epithet of Śiva. -जटा N. of a female demon, one of the Rākṣasa attendants kept by Rāvaṇa to watch over Sītā, when she was retained as a captive in the Aśoka-vanikā. She acted very kindly towards Sītā and induced her companions to do the same; सीतां मायेति शंसन्ति त्रिजटा समजीवयत् R.12.74. -जातम्, जातकम् The three spices (mace, cardamoms, cinnamon). -जीवा, -ज्या the sine of three signs or 9˚, a radius. -णता a bow; कामुकानिव नालीकांस्त्रिणताः सहसामुचन् Śi.19.61. -णव, -णवन् a. (pl.) three times nine; i. e. 27. -णाकः the heaven; तावत्त्रिणाकं नहुषः शशास Bhāg.6.13.16. -णाचिकेतः 1 a part of the Adhvaryu-sacrifice or Yajurveda, or one who performs a vow connected therewith (according to Kull. on Ms.3.185); Mb.13.9.26. -2 one who has thrice kindled the Nāchiketa fire or studied the Nāchiketa section of Kāṭhaka; त्रिणाचिकेत- स्त्रिभिरेत्य सन्धिम् Kaṭh.1.17. -णीता a wife ('thrice married'; it being supposed that a girl belongs to Soma, Gandharva and Agni before she obtains a human husband). -णेमि a. with three fellies; विचिन्वतो$भूत् सुमहांस्त्रिणेमिः Bhāg.3.8.2. -तक्षम्, तक्षी three carpenters taken collectively. -दण्डम् 1 the three staves of a Saṁnyāsin (who has resigned the world) tied togethar so as to form one. -2 the triple subjection of thought, word, and deed. (-ण्डः) the state of a religious ascetic; ज्ञानवैराग्यरहितस्त्रिदण्डमुपजीवति Bhāg.11.18.4. -दण्डिन् m. 1 a religious mendicant or Saṁnyāsin who has renounced all worldly attachments, and who carries three long staves tied together so as to form one in his right hand; तल्लिप्सुः स यतिर्भूत्वा त्रिदण्डी द्वारका- मगात् Bhāg.1.86.3. -2 one who has obtained command over his mind, speech, and body (or thought, word, and deed); cf. वाग्दण्डो$थ मनोदण्डः कायदण्डस्तथैव च । यस्यैते निहिता बुद्धौ त्रिदण्डीति स उच्यते ॥ Ms.12.1. -दशाः (pl.) 1 thirty. -2 the thirty-three gods:-- 12 Ādityas, 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras and 2 Aśvins. (-शः) a god, an immortal; तस्मिन्मघोनस्त्रिदशान्विहाय सहस्रमक्ष्णां युगपत्पपात Ku.3.1. ˚अङ्कुशः (-शम्) the heaven. ˚आयुधम् Indra's thunderbolt; R.9.54. ˚आयुधम् rainbow; अथ नभस्य इव त्रिदशायुधम् R.9.54. ˚अधिपः, ˚ईश्वरः, ˚पतिः epithets of Indra. ˚अधिपतिः N. of Śiva. ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚अयनः an epithet of Viṣṇu. ˚अरिः a demon. ˚आचार्यः an epithet of Bṛihaspati. ˚आधार Nectar. ˚आलयः, ˚आवासः 1 heaven. -2 the mountain Meru. -3 a god. ˚आहारः 'the food of the gods', nectar. ˚इन्द्रः 1 Indra. -2 Śiva. -3 Brahman. ˚गुरुः an epithet of Bṛihaspati, ˚गोपः a kind of insect; (cf. इन्द्रगोप) श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि R.11.42. ˚दीर्घिका an epithet of the Ganges. ˚पतिः Indra; एषो$प्यैरावतस्थस्त्रिदशपतिः Ratn.4.11. ˚पुङ्गवः Viṣṇu; Rām.1. ˚मञ्जरी the holy basil. ˚वधू, ˚वनिता, an Apsaras or heavenly damsel; कैलासस्य त्रिदशवनितादर्पणस्यातिथिः स्याः Me.6. ˚वर्त्मन् the sky. ˚श्रेष्ठः 1 Agni. -2 Brahman. ˚दशीभूत Become divine; त्रिदशीभूतपौराणां स्वर्गान्तरमकल्पयत् R.15.12. -दिनम् three days collectively. ˚स्पृश् m. concurrence of three lunations with one solar day. -दिवम् 1 the heaven; त्रिमार्गयेव त्रिदिवस्य मार्गः Ku.1.28; Ś.7.3. -2 sky, atmosphere. -3 paradise. -4 happiness. (-वा) cardamoms. ˚अधीशः, ˚ईशः 1 an epithet of Indra. -2 a god. ˚आलयः the heaven; अश्वमेधजिताँल्लोका- नाप्नोति त्रिदिवालये Mb.13.141.53. ˚उद्भवा 1 the Ganges. -2 small cardamoms. ˚ओकस् m. a god; वपुषि त्रिदिवौकसां परं सह पुष्पैरपतत्र्छिलीमुखाः Vikr.15.72. ˚गत dead; त्रिदिवगतः किमु वक्ष्यते पिता मे Vikr.6.62. -दृश् m. an epithet of Śiva. -दोषम् vitiation or derangement of the three humours of the body, i. e. वात, पित्त and कफ. -धा ind. in 3 parts, ways or places; triply, ˚त्वम् tripartition; Ch. Up. -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa; -तुम् 1 the triple world. -2 the aggregate of the 3 minerals or humours. -धामन् m. 1 N. of Viṣṇu. -2 of Vyāsa; -3 of Śiva. -4 of Agni. -5 death. -n. the heaven; हंसो हंसेन यानेन त्रिधाम परमं ययौ Bhāg.3.24.2. -धारा the Ganges. -नयन, -नेत्रः, -लोचनः epithets of Śiva; R.3. 66; Ku.3.66;5.72. -नवत a. ninety-third. -नवतिः f. ninety three. -नयना Pārvat&imacr. -नाभः Viṣṇu; Bhāg.8. 17.26. -नेत्रचूडामणिः the moon. -नेत्रफलः the cocoa-nut tree. -पञ्च a. three-fold five, i. e. fifteen. -पञ्चाश a. fiftythird. -पञ्चाशत् f. fifty-three. -पुटः glass (काच). -पताकः 1 the hand with three fingers stretched out or erect. -2 the forehead marked naturally with three horizontal lines. -पत्रकः the Palāśa tree. -पथम् 1 the three paths taken collectively, i. e. the sky, atmosphere, and the earth, or the sky, earth and the lower world. -2 a place where three roads meet. (-था) an epithet of Mathura. ˚गा, ˚गामिनी an epithet of the Ganges; गङ्गा त्रिपथगामिनी; धृतसत्पथस्त्रिपथगामभितः स तमारुरोह पुरुहूतसुतः Ki.6.1; Amaru.99. -पद्, -पाद्, -पात् m. Ved. 1 Viṣṇu. -2 fever (personified). -पद a. three-footed. (-दम्) a tripod; त्रिपदैः करकैः स्थालैः ...... Śiva. B.22. 62. -पदिका 1 a tripod. -2 a stand with three feet. -पदी 1 the girth of an elephant; नास्रसत्करिणां ग्रैवं त्रिपदी- च्छेदिनामपि R.4.48. -2 the Gāyatrī metre. -3 a tripod. -4 the plant गोधापदी. -परिक्रान्त a. one who walks thrice round a sacred fire. -पर्णः Kiṁśuka tree. -पाटः 1 intersection of a prolonged side and perpendicular (in a quadrangular figure). -2 the figure formed by such intersection. -पाटिका a beak. पाठिन् a. 1 familiar with Saṁhitā, Pada, and Krama. -2 one who learns a thing after three repetitions. -पादः 1 the Supreme Being. -2 fever. -पाद् a. 1 having three feet. -2 consisting of three parts, having three fourths; राघवः शिथिलं तस्थौ भुवि धर्मस्त्रिपादिव R.15.96. -3 trinomial. (-m.) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu in his dwarf incarnation. -2 the Supreme Being. -पिटकम् the 3 collections of Buddhistic sacred writings (सुत्त, विनय and अभिधम्म). -पुट a. triangular. (-टः) 1 an arrow. -2 the palm of the hand. -3 a cubit. -4 a bank or shore. -पुटकः a triangle. -पुटा an epithet of Durgā. -पुटिन् m. the castor-oil plant. -पुण्ड्रम्, -पुण्ड्रक a mark on the forehead consisting of three lines made with cowdung ashes. -पुरम् 1 a collection of three cities. -2 the three cities of gold, silver, and iron in the sky, air and earth built for demons by Maya; (these cities were burnt down, along the demons inhabiting them, by Śiva at the request of the gods); Ku.7.48; Amaru.2; संरक्ताभिस्त्रिपुरविजयो गीयते किन्नरीभिः Me.56; Bh.3.123; (-रः) N. of a demon or demons presiding over these cities. ˚अधिपतिः N. of Maya, ˚अन्तकः, ˚अरिः, ˚घ्नः, ˚दहनः, ˚द्विष् m., हरः &c. epithets of Śiva; अये गौरीनाथ त्रिपुरहर शम्भो त्रिनयन Bh.3.123; R.17.14. ˚दाहः burning of the three cities; मुहुरनुस्मरयन्तमनुक्षपं त्रिपुरदाहमुमापतिसेविनः Ki.5.14. ˚सुन्दरी Durgā. (-री) 1 N. of a place near Jabalpura, formerly capital of the kings of Chedi. -2 N. of a country. -पुरुष a 1 having the length of three men. -2 having three assistants. (-षम्) the three ancestorsfather, grand-father and great-grand-father. -पृष्ठम् the highest heaven; Bhāg.1.19.23. (ष्ठः) Viṣṇu. -पौरुष a. 1 belonging to, or extending over, three generations of men. 2 offered to three (as oblations). -3 inherited from three (as an estate). -प्रस्रुतः an elephant in rut. -फला (1) the three myrobalans taken collectively, namely, Terminalia Chebula, T. Bellerica, and Phyllanthus (Mar. हिरडा, बेहडा and आंवळकाठी). Also (2) the three sweet fruits (grape, pomegranate, and date); (3) the three fragrant fruits (nutmeg, arecanut, and cloves). -बन्धनः the individual soul. -बलिः, बली, -वलिः, -वली f. 1 the three folds or wrinkles of skin above the navel of a woman (regarded as a mark of beauty); क्षामोदरोपरिलसत्त्रिवलीलतानाम् Bh.1.93,81; cf. Ku.1.39. -2 the anus. -बलीकम् the anus. -बाहुः a kind of fighting with swords. -ब्रह्मन् a. with ब्रह्मा, विष्णु and महेश. -भम् three signs of the zodiac, or ninety degrees. -भङ्गम् a pose in which the image is bent at three parts of the body. -भद्रम् copulation, sexual union, cohabitation. -भागः 1 the third part; त्रिभागं ब्रह्महत्यायाः कन्या प्राप्नोति दुष्यती Mb.12.165.42. -2 the third part of a sign of the zodiac. -भुक्ल a. one possessed of learning, good conduct and good family-descent (Dānasāgara, Bibliotheca Indica,274, Fasc.1, p.29). -भुजम् a triangle. -भुवनम् the three worlds; पुण्यं यायास्त्रिभुवन- गुरोर्धाम चण्डीश्वरस्य Me.35; Bh.1.99. ˚गुरु Śiva. ˚कीर्तिरसः a patent medicine in Āyurveda. ˚पतिः Viṣṇu. -भूमः a palace with three floors. -मद the three narcotic plants; the three-fold haughtiness; Bhāg.3.1.43. -मधु n. -मधुरम् 1 sugar, honey, and ghee. -2 three verses of the Ṛigveda (1.9.6-8; मधु वाता ऋतायते˚). -3 a ceremony based on the same; L. D. B. -4 threefold utterance of a vedic stanza ˚मधु वाता -m. a reciter and performer of the above ceremony; L. D. B. -मार्गा the Ganges; त्रिमार्गयेव त्रिदिवस्य मार्गः Ku.1.28. -मुकुटः the Trikūṭa mountain. -मुखः an epithet of Buddha. -मुनि ind. having the three sages पाणिनि, कात्यायन and पतञ्जलि; त्रिमुनि व्याकरणम्. -मूर्तिः 1 the united form of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, and Maheśa, the Hindu triad; नमस्त्रिमूर्तये तुभ्यं प्रांक्सृष्टेः केवलात्मने । गुणत्रयविभायाय पश्चाद्भेदमुपेयुषे ॥ Ku.2.4. -2 Buddha, or Jina. -मूर्धन् m. 1 a demon; त्रयश्च दूषण- खरस्त्रिमूर्धानो रणे हताः U.2.15. -2 a world called महर्लोक; G&imac;rvāṇa; cf. अमृतं क्षेममभयं त्रिमूर्ध्नो$धायि मूर्धसु Bhāg.2.6.19. -यव a. weighing 3 barley corns; Ms.8.134. -यष्टिः a necklace of three strings. -यामकम् sin. -यामा 1 night (consisting of 3 watches of praharas, the first and last half prahara being excluded); संक्षिप्येत क्षण इव कथं दीर्घयामा त्रियामा Me.11, Ku.7.21,26; R.9.7; V.3. 22. -2 turmeric. -3 the Indigo plant. -4 the river Yamuṇā. -युगः an epithet of Viṣṇu; धर्मं महापुरुष पासि युगानुवृत्तं छन्नः कलौ यदभवस्त्रियुगो$थ सत्त्वम् Bhāg.7.9.38; the god in the form of यज्ञपुरुष; Bhāg.5.18.35. -योनिः a law-suit (in which a person engages from anger, covetousness, or infatuation). -रसकम् spirituous liquor; see त्रिसरकम्. -रात्र a. lasting for three nights. (-त्रः) a festival lasting for three nights. (-त्रम्) a period of three nights. -रेखः a conch-shell. -लिङ्ग a. having three genders, i. e. an adjective. -2 possessing the three Guṇas. (-गाः) the country called Telaṅga. (-गी) the three genders taken collectively. -लोकम् the three worlds. (-कः) an inhabitant of the three worlds; यद्धर्मसूनोर्बत राजसूये निरीक्ष्य दृक्स्वस्त्ययनं त्रिलोकः Bhāg.3. 2.13. ˚आत्मन् m. the Supreme Being. ˚ईशः the sun. ˚नाथः 'lord of the three worlds', an epithet of 1 Indra; त्रिलोकनाथेन सदा मखद्विषस्त्वया नियम्या ननु दिव्यचक्षुषा R.3.45. -2 of Śiva; Ku.5.77. ˚रक्षिन् a. protecting the 3 worlds; त्रिलोकरक्षी महिमा हि वज्रिणः V.1.6. -लोकी the three worlds taken collectively, the universe; सत्यामेव त्रिलोकीसरिति हरशिरश्चुम्बिनीविच्छटायाम् Bh.3.95; Śānti.4.22. -लोचनः Śiva. (-ना) 1 an unchaste woman. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -लोहकम् the three metals:-- gold, silver, and copper. -वर्गः 1 the three objects of wordly existence, i. e. धर्म, अर्थ, and काम; अनेन धर्मः सविशेषमद्य मे त्रिवर्गसारः प्रतिभाति भाविनि Ku.5.38; अन्योन्यानुबन्धम् (त्रिवर्गम्) Kau. A.1.7; प्राप त्रिवर्गं बुबुधे$त्रिवर्गम् (मोक्षम्) Bu. Ch.2.41. -2 the three states of loss, stability, and increase; क्षयः स्थानं च वृद्धिश्च त्रिवर्गो नीतिवेदिनाम् Ak. -3 the three qualities of nature, i. e. सत्त्व, रजस्, and तमस्. -4 the three higher castes. -5 the three myrobalans. -6 propriety, decorum. -वर्णकम् the first three of the four castes of Hindus taken collectively. -वर्ष a. three years old; Ms.5.7. -वलिः, -ली f. (in comp.) three folds over a woman's navel (regarded as a mark of beauty) -वली the anus. -वारम् ind. three times, thrice. -विक्रमः Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf incarnation. ˚रसः a patent medicine in Āyurveda. -विद्यः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. -विध a. of three kinds, three-fold. -विष्टपम्, -पिष्टपम् 1 the world of Indra, heaven; त्रिविष्टपस्येव पतिं जयन्तः R.6.78. -2 the three worlds. ˚सद् m. a god. -वृत् a. 1 threefold; मौञ्जी त्रिवृत्समा श्लक्ष्णा कार्या विप्रस्य मेखला Ms.2.42. -2 consisting of three parts (as three गुणs, विद्याs); Bhāg.3.24.33;1.23.39; (consisting of three letters- ओङ्कार); हिरण्यगर्भो वेदानां मन्त्राणां प्रणवस्त्रिवृत् Bhāg.11.16.12. (-m.) 1 a sacrifice. -2 a girdle of three strings; Mb.12.47.44. -3 an amulet of three strings. (-f.) a plant possessing valuable purgative properties. ˚करण combining three things, i. e. earth, water, and fire. -वृत्तिः livelihood through 3 things (sacrifice, study and alms). -वेणिः, -णी f. the place near Prayāga where the Ganges joins the Yamunā and receives under ground the Sarasvatī; the place called दक्षिणप्रयाग where the three sacred rivers separate. -वेणुः 1 The staff (त्रिदण्ड) of a Saṁnyāsin; केचित् त्रिवेणुं जगृहुरेके पात्रं कमण्डलुम् Bhāg.11.23.34. -2 The pole of a chariot; अथ त्रिवेणुसंपन्नं ...... बभञ्ज च महारथम् Rām.3. 51.16; Mb.7.156.83; a three bannered (chariot); Bhāg.4.26.1. -वेदः a Brāhmaṇa versed in the three Vedas. -शक्तिः a deity (त्रिकला), Māyā; Bhāg.2.6.31. -शङ्कुः 1 N. of a celebrated king of the Solar race, king of Ayodhyā and father of Hariśchandra. [He was a wise, pious, and just king, but his chief fault was that he loved his person to an inordinate degree. Desiring to celebrate a sacrifice by virtue of which he could go up to heaven in his mortal body, he requested his family-priest Vasiṣṭha to officiate for him; but being refused he next requested his hundred sons who also rejected his absurd proposal. He, therefore, called them cowardly and impotent, and was, in return for these insults, cursed and degraded by them to be a Chāṇḍāla. While he was in this wretched condition, Viśvāmitra, whose family Triśaṅku had in times of famine laid under deep obligations, undertook to celebrate the sacrifice, and invited all the gods to be present. They, however, declined; whereupon the enraged Viśvāmitra. by his own power lifted up Triśaṅku to the skies with his cherished mortal body. He began to soar higher and higher till his head struck against the vault of the heaven, when he was hurled down head-foremost by Indra and the other gods. The mighty Viśvāmitra, however, arrested him in his downward course, saying 'Stay Triśaṅku', and the unfortunate monarch remained suspended with his head towards the earth as a constellation in the southern hemisphere. Hence the wellknown proverb:-- त्रिशङ्कुरिवान्तरा तिष्ठ Ś.2.] -2 the Chātaka bird. -3 a cat. -4 a grass-hopper. -5 a firefly. ˚जः an epithet of Hariśchandra. ˚याजिन् m. an epithet of Viśvāmitra. -शत a. three hundred. (-तम्) 1 one hundred and three. -2 three hundred. -शरणः a Buddha. -शर्करा three kinds of sugar (गुडोत्पन्ना, हिमोत्था, and मधुरा). -शाख a. three-wrinkled; भ्रुकुट्या भीषणमुखः प्रकृत्यैव त्रिशाखया Ks.12.72. -शालम् a house with three halls or chambers. -शिखम् 1 a trident; तदापतद्वै त्रिशिखं गरुत्मते Bhāg.1.59.9. -2 a crown or crest (with three points). -शिरस् m. 1 N. of a demon killed by Rāma. -2 an epithet of Kubera. -3 fever. त्रिशिरस्ते प्रसन्नो$स्मि व्येतु ते मज्ज्वराद्भयम् Bhāg.1.63.29. -शीर्षः Śiva. -शीर्षकम्, -शूलम् a trident. ˚अङ्कः, ˚धारिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -शुक्लम् the holy combination of 'three days' viz. Uttarāyaṇa (day of the gods), the bright half of the moon (day of the manes) and daytime; त्रिशुक्ले मरणं यस्य, L. D. B. -शूलिन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -शृङ्गः 1 the Trikūṭa mountain. -2 a triangle. -शोकः the soul. -षष्टिः f. sixty-three. -ष्टुभ् f. a metre of 4 x 11 syllables. -संध्यम्, -संध्यी the three periods of the day, i. e. dawn, noon, and sunset; also -त्रिसवनम् (-षवणम्); Ms.11.216. -संध्यम् ind. at the time of the three Sandhyas; सान्निध्यं पुष्करे येषां त्रिसन्ध्यं कुरुनन्दन Mb. -सप्तत a. seventy-third. -सप्ततिः f. seventy-three. -सप्तन्, -सप्त a. (pl.) three times 7, i. e. 21. -सम a. (in geom.) having three equal sides, equilateral. -सरः milk, sesamum and rice boiled together. -सरकम् drinking wine thrice ('सरकं शीधुपात्रे स्यात् शीधुपाने च शीधुनि' इति विश्वः); प्रातिभं त्रिसरकेण गतानाम् Śi.1.12. -सर्गः the creation of the 3 Guṇas; Bhāg.1.1.1. -साधन a. having a threefold causality; R.3.13. -सामन् a. singing 3 Sāmans (an उद्गातृ); उद्गाता तत्र संग्रामे त्रिसामा दुन्दुभिर्नृप Mb.12.98.27. -साम्यम् an equilibrium of the three (qualities); Bhāg.2.7.4. -सुपर्णः, -र्णम् 1 N. of the three Ṛigvedic verses (Rv.1.114.3-5). -2 N. of T. Ār.1.48-5; -a. familiar with or reciting these verses; Ms.3.185. -स्थली the three sacred places : काशी, प्रयाग, and गया. -स्थानम् the head, neck and chest together; तन्त्रीलयसमायुक्तं त्रिस्थानकरणान्वितम् Rām.7.71.15. -a. 1 having 3 dwelling places. -2 extending through the 3 worlds. -स्रोतस् f. an epithet of the Ganges; त्रिस्रोतसं वहति यो गगनप्रतिष्ठाम् Ś.7.6; R.1.63; Ku.7.15. -सीत्य, -हल्य a. ploughed thrice (as a field). -हायण a. three years old.
dur दुर् ind. (A prefix substituted for दुस् before words beginning with vowels or soft consonants in the sense of 'bad'. 'hard' or 'difficult to do a certain thing'; for compounds with दुस् as first member see दुस् s. v.). -Comp. -अक्ष a. 1 weak-eyed. -2 evileyed. (-क्षः) 1 a loaded or false die. -2 dishonest gambling. -अक्षरम् an evil word; श्रुतिं ममाविश्य भवद्दुरक्षरं सृजत्यदः कीटकवदुत्कटा रुजः N.9.63. -अतिक्रम a. difficult to be overcome or conquered, unconquerable; सर्वं तु तपसा साध्यं तपो हि दुरति- क्रमम् Ms.11.2.38; स्वभावो दुरतिक्रमः 'nature cannot be changed'; स्वजातिर्दुरतिक्रमा Pt.1. -2 insurmountable, impassable; B. R.6.18-19. -3 inevitable. (-मः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अत्यय a. 1 difficult to be overcome; स्वर्गमार्गपरिघो दुरत्ययः R.11.88. -2 hard to be attained or fathomed; स एष आत्मा स्वपरेत्यबुद्धिभिर्दुरत्यया- नुक्रमणो निरूप्यते Bhāg.7.5.13. -अदृष्टम् ill-luck, misfortune. -अधिग, -अधिगम a. 1 hard to reach or attain, unattainable; Bhāg.3.23.8; दुरधिगमः परभागो यावत्पुरुषेण पौरुषं न कृतम् Pt.1.33. -2 insurmountable. -3 hard to be studied or understood; इह दुरधिगमैः किञ्चि- देवागमैः Ki.5.18. -अधिष्ठित a. badly performed, managed, or executed. (-तम्) improper stay at a place. -अधीत a. badly learnt or read. -अध्यय a. 1 difficult of attainment; सहस्रवर्त्मा चपलैर्दुरध्ययः Śi.12.11. -2 hard to be studied. -अध्यवसायः a foolish undertaking. -अध्वः a bad road; स्वयं दुरध्वार्णवनाविकाः कथं स्पृशन्तु विज्ञाय हृदापि तादृशीम् N.9.33. -अन्त a. 1 whose end is difficult to be reached, endless, infinite; संकर्षणाय सूक्ष्माय दुरन्तायान्तकाय च Bhāg. -2 ending ill or in misery, unhappy; अहो दुरन्ता बलवद्विरोधिता Ki.1.23; नृत्यति युवति- जनेन समं सखि विरहिजनस्य दुरन्ते (वसन्ते) Gīt.1; इयमुदरदरी- दुरन्तधारा यदि न भवेदभिमानभङ्गभूमिः Udb. -3 hard to be understood or known. -4 insurmountable. -अन्तक a. = दुरन्त q. v. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -अन्वय a. 1 difficult to be passed along; Mb.14.51.17. -2 hard to be carried out or followed. -3 difficult to be attained. or understood; बुद्धिश्च ते महाप्राज्ञ देवैरपि दुरन्वया Rām.3. 66.18. -4 not suitable, improper; वचो दुरन्वयं विप्रास्तूष्णी- मासन्भ्रमद्धियः Bhāg.1.84.14. (-यः) 1 a wrong conclusion, one wrongly inferred from given premisses. -2 (in gram.) a false agreement. -अपवादः ill report. slander. -अभिग्रह a. difficult to be caught. -अभि- मानिन् a. vain-glorious, disagreeably proud. -अवगम a. incomprehensible; Bhāg.5.13.26. -अवग्रह a. 1 difficult to be restrained or subjugated; भक्ता भजस्व दुरवग्रह मा त्यजास्मान् Bhāg.1.29.31. -2 disagreeable. -अवग्राह a. difficult to be attained; Bhāg.7.1.19. -अवच्छद a. difficult to be hidden; हेतुभिर्लक्षयांचक्रुराप्रीतां दुरवच्छदैः Bhāg.1.62.28. -अवबोध a. unintelligible. Bhāg.1.49.29. -अवसित a. unfathomed, difficult to be ascertained, द्युपतिभिरजशक्रशंकराद्यैर्दुरवसितस्तवमच्युतं नतो$स्मि Bhāg.12.12.67. -अवस्थ a. ill off, badly or poorly circumstanced. -अवस्था, -स्थानम् a wretched or miserable state; Bhāg.5.3.12. -अवाप a. difficult to be gained or fulfilled; Ś.1. -अवेक्षितम् an improper look. -अह्नः a bad day. -आकृति a. ugly, mis-shaped. -आक्रन्द a. crying bitterly or miserably; किं क्रन्दसि दुराक्रन्द स्वपक्ष- क्षयकारक Pt.4.29. -आक्रम a. 1 invincible, unconquerable. -2 difficult to be passed. -आक्रमणम् 1 unfair attack. -2 difficult approach. -आगमः improper or illegal acquisition. -आग्रहः foolish obstinacy, headstrongness, pertinacity; ममाहमित्यूढदुराग्रहाणां पुंसाम् Bhāg.3. 5.43. -आचर a. 1 hard to be performed. -2 incurable (as a disease). -आचार a. 1 ill-conducted, badly behaved. -2 following bad practices, wicked, depraved; अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक् Bg.9.3. (-रः) bad practice, ill-conduct, wikedness. -आढ्य a. not rich, poor. -आत्मता vileness, baseness, wickedness. -आत्मन् a. evil-natured, low, wicked, vile, base, mean; ये च प्राहुर्दुरात्मानो दुराराध्या महीभुजः Pt.1.39. (-m.) a rascal, villain, scoundrel. -आधर a. difficult to be withstood or overpowered, irresistible. -आधर्ष a. hard to be approached or assailed, unassailable जगन्नाथो दुराधर्षो गङ्गां भागीरथीं प्रति Mb. -2 not to be attacked with impunity. -3 haughty. (-र्षः) white mustard. -आधारः an epithet of Śiva. -आधिः (m.) 1 distress or anxiety of mind; निरस्तनारीसमया दुराधयः Ki.1.28. -2 indignation. -आधी a. Ved. malignant, thinking ill of. -आनम a. difficult to bend or draw; स विचिन्त्य धनुर्दुरानमम् R.11.38. -आप a. 1 difficult to be obtained; श्रिया दुरापः कथमीप्सितो भवेत् Ś.3.13; R.1.72;6.62. -2 difficult to be approached; Pt.1.67. -3 hard to be overcome. -आपादन a. difficult to be brought about; किं दुरापादनं तेषाम् Bhāg.3.23.42. -आपूर a. difficult to be filled or satisfied; Bhāg.7.6.8. -आबाध a. hard to be molested. (-धः) N. of Śiva. -आमोदः bad scent, stench; शवधूमदुरामोदः शालिभक्ते$त्र विद्यते Ks.82.22. -आराध्य a. difficult to be propitiated, hard to be won over or conciliated; दुराराध्याः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहाः Pt.1.38. -आरुह a. difficult to be mounted. (-हः) 1 the Bilva tree. -2 the cocoanut tree. -3 the date tree. -आरोप a. difficult to be strung (bow); दुरारोपमैन्दुशेखरं धनुर्दुर्निवारा रावणभुजदण्डाः B. R.1.46-47. -आरोह a. difficult of ascent. (-हः) 1 The cocoanut tree. -2 the palm tree. -3 the date tree. -आलापः 1 a curse, imprecation. -2 foul of abusive language. -आलोक a. 1 difficult to be seen or perceived. -2 painfully bright, dazzling; दुरालोकः स समरे निदाघाम्बररत्नवत् K. P.1. (-कः) dazzling splendour. -आव(वा)र a. 1 difficult to be covered or filled up; दुरावरं त्वदन्येन राज्यखण्डमिदं महत् Rām.2.15.5. -2 difficult to be restrained, shut in, kept back or stopped. -आवर्त a. difficult to be convinced or set up; भवन्ति सुदुरावर्ता हेतुमन्तो$पि पण्डिताः Mb.12.19.23. -आशय a. 1 evil-minded, wicked, malicious, स्फुटनिर्भिन्नो दुराशयो$धमः Śi. उपेयिवान् मूलमशेषमूलं दुराशयः कामदुघाङ्घ्रिपस्य Bhāg.3.21.15. -2 having a bad place or rest. (-m.) the subtle body which is not destroyed by death (लिङ्गदेह); एतन्मे जन्म लोके$स्मिन्मुमुक्षूणां दुराशयात् Bhāg.3.24. 36. -आशा 1 a bad or wicked desire. -2 hoping against hope. -आस a. difficult to be abided or associated with; संघर्षिणा सह गुणाभ्यधिकैर्दुरासम् Śi.5.19. -आसद a. 1 difficult to be approached or overtaken; स सभूव दुरासदः परैः R.3.66; 8.4; Mv.2.5; 4.15. -2 difficult to be found or met with. -3 unequalled, unparalleled. -4 hard to be borne, insupportable. -5 difficult to be conquered, unassailable, unconquerable; जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् Bg.3.43. (-दः) an epithet of Śiva. -इत a. 1 difficult. -2 sinful. (-तम्) 1 a bad course, evil, sin; दरिद्राणां दैन्यं दुरितमथ दुर्वासनहृदां द्रुतं दूरीकुर्वन् G. L.2; R.8.2; Amaru.2; Mv.3.43. -2 a difficulty, danger. -3 a calamity, evil; अपत्ये यत्तादृग्- दुरितमभवत् U.4.3. -इतिः f. Ved. 1 a bad course. -2 difficulty. -इष्टम् 1 a curse, imprecation. -2 a spell or sacrificial rite performed to injure another person. -ईशः a bad lord or master. -ईषणा, -एषणा 1 a curse, an imprecation. -2 an evil eye. -उक्त a. harshly uttered; Pt.1.89. -उक्तम्, -उक्तिः f. offensive speech, reproach, abuse, censure; लक्ष्मि क्षमस्व वचनीयमिदं दुरुक्तम् Udb. -उच्छेद a. difficult to be destroyed. -उत्तर a. 1 unanswerable. -2 difficult to be crossed; दुरुत्तरे पङ्क इवान्धकारे Bk.11.2; प्राप्तः पङ्को दुरुत्तरः Ki.15.17. -उदय a. appearing with difficulty, not easily manifested; यो$ नात्मनां दुरुदयो भगवान्प्रतीतः Bhāg.3.16.5. -उदर्क a. having bad or no consequences; N.5.41. -उदाहर a. difficult to be pronounced or composed; अनुज्झितार्थसंबन्धः प्रबन्धो दुरुदाहरः Śi.2.73. -उद्वह a. burdensome, unbearable. -उपसद a. difficult of approach; Ki.7.9. -उपसर्पिन् a. approaching incautiously; एकमेव दहत्यग्निर्नरं दुरुपसर्पिणम् Ms.7.9. -ऊह a. abstruse; जानीते जयदेव एव शरणः श्लाघ्ये दुरूहद्रुते Gīt. -एव a. Ved. 1 having evil ways. -2 irresistible, unassailable. (-वः) a wicked person. -ओषस् a. Ved. slow, lazy. -ग 1 difficult of access, inaccessible, impervious, impassable; दुर्गस्त्वेष महापन्थाः Mb.12.3. 5; दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति Kaṭh.1.3.14. -2 unattainable. -3 incomprehensible. -4 following wicked path, vicious; Rām.2.39.22. (-गः, -गम्) 1 a difficult or narrow passage through a wood or over a stream, mountain &c., a defile, narrow pass. -2 a citadel. fortress, castle; न दुर्गं दुर्गमित्येव दुर्गमं मन्यते जनः । तस्य दुर्गमता सैव यत्प्रभुस्तस्य दुर्गमः ॥ Śiva. B.16.61. -3 rough ground. -4 difficulty, adversity, calamity, distress, danger; निस्तारयतिं दुर्गाच्च Ms.3.98;11.43; मच्चित्तः सर्व- दुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि; Bg.18.58. (-गः) 1 bdellium. -2 the Supreme Being. -3 N. of an Asura slain by Durgā (thus receiving her name from him). ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚पतिः, ˚पालः the commandant or governor of a castle. ˚अन्तः The suburb of a fort; दुर्गान्ते सिद्धतापसाः Kau. A. 1.12. ˚कर्मन् n. fortification. ˚कारक a. making difficult. (-कः) the birch tree. ˚घ्नी N. of Durgā. ˚तरणी an epithet of Sāvitrī. सावित्री दुर्गतरणी वीणा सप्तविधा तथा Mb. ˚मार्गः a defile, gorge. ˚लङ्घनम् surmounting difficulties. (-नः) a camel. ˚संचरः 1 a difficult passage as to a fort &c., a bridge &c. over a defile. ˚संस्कारः Repairs to the old forts; अतो दुर्गसंस्कार आरब्धव्ये किं कौमुदीमहोत्सवेन Mu. ˚सिंहः N. of the author of कलापपरिशिष्ट. ˚व्यसनम् a defect or weak point in a fortress. (-र्गा) an epithet of Pārvatī, wife of Śiva. -2 the female cuckoo -3 N. of several plants. ˚नवमी the 9th day of the bright half of कार्तिक. ˚पूजा the chief festival in honour of दुर्गा in Bengal in the month of Āśvina. -गत a. 1 unfortunate, in bad circumstances; समाश्वसिमि केनाहं कथं प्राणिमि दुर्गतः Bk.18.1. -2 indigent, poor. -3 distressed, in trouble. -गतता ill-luck, poverty, misery; तावज्जन्मातिदुःखाय ततो दुर्गतता सदा Pt.1.265. -गतिः f. 1 misfortune, poverty, want, trouble, indigence; न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद् दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति Bg.6.4. -2 a difficult situation or path. -3 hell. -गन्ध a. ill-smelling. (-न्धः) 1 bad odour, stink -2 any ill-smelling substance. -3 an onion. -4 the mango tree. (-न्धम्) sochal salt. -गन्धि, -गन्धिन् a. ill-smelling. -गम a. 1 impassable, inaccessible, impervious; कामिनीकायकान्तारे कुचपर्वतदुर्गमे Bh.1.86; Śi. 12.49. -2 unattainable, difficult of attainment. -3 hard to be understood. (-मम्) a difficult place like hill etc; भ्राम्यन्ते दुर्गमेष्वपि Pt.5.81. -गाढ, -गाध, -गाह्य a. difficult to be fathomed or investigated, unfathomable. -गुणितम् not properly studied; चिराम्यस्तपथं याति शास्त्रं दुर्गुणितं यथा Avimārakam.2.4. -गोष्ठी evil association; conspiracy. वृद्धो रक्कः कम्पनेशो दुर्गोष्ठीमध्यगो$भवत् Rāj. T.6. 17. -ग्रह a. 1 difficult to be gained or accomplished. -2 difficult to be conquered or subjugated; दुर्गाणि दुर्ग्रहाण्यासन् तस्य रोद्धुरपि द्विषाम् R.17.52. -3 hard to be understood. (-हः) 1 a cramp, spasm. -2 obstinacy. -3 whim, monomania; कथं न वा दुर्ग्रहदोष एष ते हितेन सम्य- ग्गुरुणापि शम्यते N.9.41. -घट a. 1 difficult. कार्याणि घटयन्नासीद् दुर्घटान्यपि हेलया Rāj. T.4.364. -2 impossible. -घण a. 1 closely packed together, very compact. -घुरुटः An unbeliever; L. D. B. -घोषः 1 a harsh cry. -2 a bear. -जन a. 1 wicked, bad, vile. -2 slanderous, malicious, mischievous; यथा स्त्रीणां तथा वाचां साधुत्वे दुर्जनो जनः U.1.6. (-नः) a bad or wicked person, a malicious or mischievous man, villain; दुर्जनः प्रियवादी च नैतद्विश्वास- कारणम् Chāṇ.24,25; शाम्येत्प्रत्यपकारेण नोपकारेण दुर्जनः Ku.2.4. (दुर्जनायते Den. Ā. to become wicked; स्वजनो$पि दरिद्राणां तत्क्षणाद् दुर्जनायते Pt.1.5.). (दुर्जनीकृ [च्वि] to make blameworthy; दुर्जनीकृतास्मि अनेन मां चित्रगतां दर्शयता Nāg.2). -जय a. invincible. (-यः) N. of Viṣṇu. -जर a. 1 ever youthful; तस्मिन्स्तनं दुर्जरवीर्यमुल्बणं घोराङ्कमादाय शिशोर्दधावथ Bhāg.1.6.1. -2 hard (as food), indigestible. -3 difficult to be enjoyed; राजश्रीर्दुर्जरा तस्य नवत्वे भूभुजो$भवत् Rāj. T.5.19. -जात a. 1 unhappy, wretched. -2 bad-tempered, bad, wicked; Rāj. T.3. 142. -3 false, not genuine. ˚जीयिन् a. one who is born in vain; यो न यातयते वैरमल्पसत्त्वोद्यमः पुमान् । अफलं जन्म तस्याहं मन्ये दुर्जातजायिनः ॥ Mb. (-तम्) 1 a misfortune, calamity, difficulty; त्वं तावद् दुर्जाते मे$त्यन्तसाहाय्यकारिणी भव M.3; दुर्जातबन्धुः R.13.72. 'a friend in need or adversity.' -2 impropriety. -जाति a. 1 bad natured, vile, wicked; रुदितशरणा दुर्जातीनां सहस्व रुषां फलम् Amaru.96. -2 outcast. (-तिः f.) misfortune, ill condition. -ज्ञान, -ज्ञेय a. difficult to be known, incomprehensible. उच्चावचेषु भुतेषु दुर्ज्ञेयामकृतात्मभिः Ms.6.73. (-यः) N. of Śiva. -णयः, -नयः, -नीतिः 1 bad conduct. -2 impropriety -3 injustice. -णामन्, -नामन् a. having a bad name. -णीत a. 1 ill-behaved. -2 impolitic. -3 forward. (-तम्) misconduct; दुर्णीतं किमिहास्ति किं सुचरितं कः स्थानलाभे गुणः H. -दम, -दमन, -दम्य a. difficult to be subdued, untamable, indomitable. -दर्श a. 1 difficult to be seen. -2 dazzling; सुदुर्दर्शमिदं रूपं दृष्टवानसि यन्मन Bg.11.52. -दर्शन a. ugly, ill-looking; दुर्दर्शनेन घटतामियमप्यनेन Māl.2.8. -दशा a misfortune, calamity. -दान्त a. 1 hard to be tamed or subdued, untamable; Śi.12.22. -2 intractable, proud, insolent; दुर्दान्तानां दमनविधयः क्षत्रियेष्वायतन्ते Mv.3.34. (-तः) 1 a calf. -2 a strife, quarrel. -3 N. of Śiva. -दिन a. cloudy, rainy. (-नम्) 1 a bad day in general; तद्दिनं दुर्दिनं मन्ये यत्र मित्रागमो हि न Subhāṣ. -2 a rainy or cloudy day, stormy or rainy weather; उन्नमत्यकालदुर्दिनम् Mk.5; Ku.6 43; Mv.4.57. -3 a shower (of anything); द्विषां विषह्य काकुत्स्थस्तत्र नाराचदुर्दिनम् ॥ सन्मङ्गलस्नात इव R.4.41,82;5.47; U.5.5. -4 thick darkness; जीमूतैश्च दिशः सर्वाश्चक्रे तिमिरदुर्दिनाः Mb. (दुर्दिनायते Den. Ā. to become cloudy.) -दिवसः a dark or rainy day; Pt.1.173. -दुरूटः, -ढः 1 an unbeliever -2 an abusive word. -दृश a. 1 disagreeable to the sight, disgusting; दुर्दृशं तत्र राक्षसं घोररूपमपश्यत्सः Mb.1.2.298. -2 difficult to be seen; पादचारमिवादित्यं निष्पतन्तं सुदुर्दृशम् Rām.7.33.5. -दृष्ट a. illjudged or seen, wrongly decided; Y.2.35. -दैवम् ill-luck, misfortune. -द्यूतम् an unfair game. -द्रुमः onion (green). -धर a. 1 irresistible, difficult to be stopped. -2 difficult to be borne or suffered; दुर्धरेण मदनेन साद्यते Ghat.11; Ms.7.28. -3 difficult to be accomplished. -4 difficult to be kept in memory. (-रः) quicksilver. -धर्ष a. 1 inviolable, unassailable. -2 inaccessible; संयोजयति विद्यैव नीचगापि नरं सरित् । समुद्रमिव दुर्धर्षं नृपं भाग्य- मतः परम् ॥ H. Pr.5. -3 fearful, dreadful. -4 haughty. -धी a. stupid, silly. -नयः 1 arrogance. -2 immorality. -3 evil strategy; उन्मूलयितुमीशो$हं त्रिवर्गमिव दुर्नयः Mu.5.22. -नामकः piles. ˚अरिः a kind of bulbous root (Mar. सुरण). -नामन् m. f. a cockle. (-n.) piles. -निग्रह a. irrepressible, unruly; मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् Bg.6.35. -निमित a. carelessly put or placed on the ground; पदे पदे दुर्निमिते गलन्ती R.7.1. -निमित्तम् 1 a bad omen; R.14.5. -2 a bad pretext. -निवार, -निवार्य a. difficult to be checked or warded off, irresistible, invincible. -नीतम् 1 misconduct, bad policy, demerit, misbehaviour; दुर्णीतं किमि- हास्ति Pt.2.21; H.1.49. -2 ill-luck. -नीतिः f. maladministration; दुर्नीतिं तव वीक्ष्य कोपदहनज्वालाजटालो$पि सन्; Bv.4.36. -नृपः a bad king; आसीत् पितृकुलं तस्य भक्ष्यं दुर्नृप- रक्षसः Rāj. T.5.417. -न्यस्त a. badly arranged; दुर्न्यस्त- पुष्परचितो$पि Māl.9.44. -बल a. 1 weak, feeble. -2 enfeebled, spiritless; दुर्बलान्यङ्गकानि U.1.24. -3 thin, lean, emaciated; U.3. -4 small, scanty, little; स्वार्थोप- पत्तिं प्रति दुर्बलाशः R.5.12. -बाध a. Unrestrained (अनिवार); दुर्बाधो जनिदिवसान्मम प्रवृद्धः (आधिः); Mv.6.28. -बाल a. 1 bald-headed. -2 void of prepuce. -3 having crooked hair. -बुद्धि a. 1 silly, foolish, stupid. -2 perverse, evil-minded, wicked; धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः (समा- गताः) Bg.1.23 -बुध a. wicked-minded, silly; Mb. 11.4.18. -बोध a. unintelligible, unfathomable, inscrutable; निसर्गदुर्बोधमबोधविक्लवाः क्व भूपतीनां चरितं क्व जन्तवः Ki. 1.6. -भग a. 1 unfortunate, unlucky; श्रीवल्लभं दुर्भगाः (निन्दन्ति) Pt.1.415. -2 not possessed of good features, ill-looking. -भगा 1 a wife disliked by her husband; दुर्भगाभरणप्रायो ज्ञानं भारः क्रियां विना H.1.17. -2 an ill-tempered woman, a shrew. -3 a widow; -भर a. insupportable, burdensome, heavily laden with (comp.); ततो राजाब्रवीदेतं बहुव्यसनदुर्भरः Ks.112.156. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. (ग्यम्) ill-luck. -भावना 1 an evil thought. -2 a bad tendency. -भिक्षम् 1 scarcity of provisions, dearth, famine; Y.2.147; Ms.8.22; उत्सवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे... यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः H.1.71; Pt.2. -2 want in general. -भिद, -भेद, -भेद्य a. firm; सुजनस्तु कनकघटवद् दुर्भेद्यश्चाशु संध्येयः Subhāṣ. -भृत्यः a bad servant. -भिषज्यम् incurability; Bṛi. Up.4.3.14. -भ्रातृ m. a bad brother. -मङ्कु a. obstinate, disobedient. -मति a. 1 silly, stupid, foolish, ignorant. -2 wicked, evilminded; न सांपरायिकं तस्य दुर्मतेर्विद्यते फलम् Ms.11.3. -मद a. drunken, ferocious, maddened, infatuated; Bhāg.1.15.7. -दः foolish pride, arrogance. -दम् the generative organ; ग्रामकं नाम विषयं दुर्मदेन समन्वितः Bhāg.4.25.52. -मनस् a. troubled in mind, discouraged, disspirited, sad, malancholy; अद्य बार्हस्पतः श्रीमान् युक्तः पुष्येण राघवः । प्रोच्यतै ब्राह्मणैः प्राज्ञैः केन त्वमसि दुर्मनाः ॥ Rām. [दुर्मनायते Den. Ā. to be troubled in mind, be sad, meditate sorrowfully, to be disconsolate, become vexed or fretted; Māl.3]. -मनुष्यः a bad or wicked man. -मन्त्रः, -मन्त्रितम्, -मन्त्रणा evil advice, bad counsel; दुर्मन्त्रान्नृपतिर्विनश्यति; Pt.1.169. -मरम् a hard or difficult death; Mb.14.61.9. -मरी a kind of दूर्वा grass. -मरणम् violent or unnatural death. -मर्ष a. 1 unbearable; Bhāg.6.5.42. -2 obstinate, hostile. -मर्षणः N. of Viṣṇu. -मर्षित a. provocated, encouraged; एवं दुर्मर्षितो राजा स मात्रा बभ्रुवाहनः Mb.14. 79.13, -मर्याद a. immodest, wicked. -मल्लिका, -मल्ली a minor drama, comedy, farce; S. D.553. -मित्रः 1 a bad friend. -2 an enemy. -मुख a. 1 having a bad face, hideous, ugly; Bh.1.9. -2 foul-mouthed, abusive, scurrilous; Bh.2.69. (-खः) 1 a horse. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 N. of a serpent king (Nm.) -4 N. of a monkey (Nm.) -5 N. of a year (29th year out of 6 years cycle). -मूल्य a. highly priced, dear. -मेधस् a. silly, foolish, dull-headed, dull; Pt.1. (-m.) a dunce, dull-headed man, blockhead; ग्रन्थानधीत्य व्याकर्तु- मिति दुर्मेधसो$प्यलम् Śi.2.26. -मैत्र a. unfriendly, hostile; Bhāg.7.5.27. -यशस् n. ill-repute, dishonour. -योगः 1 bad or clumsy contrivance. -2 a bad combination. -योध, -योधन a. invincible, unconquerable. (-नः) the eldest of the 11 sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra and Gāndhārī. [From his early years he conceived a deep hatred for his cousins the Pāṇḍavas, but particularly Bhīma, and made every effort he could to compass their destruction. When his father proposed to make Yudhiṣṭhira heir-apparent, Duryodhana did not like the idea, as his father was the reigning sovereign, and prevailed upon his blind father to send the Pāṇḍavas away into exile. Vāraṇāvata was fixed upon as their abode, and under pretext of constructing a palatial building for their residence, Duryodhana caused a palace to be built mostly of lac, resin and other combustible materials, thereby hoping to see them all destroyed when they should enter it. But the Paṇḍavas were forewarned and they safely escaped. They then lived at Indraprastha, and Yudhiṣṭhira performed the Rājasuya sacrifice with great pomp and splendour. This event further excited the anger and jealousy of Duryodhana, who was already vexed to find that his plot for burning them up had signally failed, and he induced his father to invite the Pāṇḍavas to Hastināpura to play with dice (of which Yudhiṣṭhira was particularly fond). In that gambling-match, Duryodhana, who was ably assisted by his maternal uncle Śakuni, won from Yudhiṣṭhira everything that he staked, till the infatuated gambler staked himself, his brothers, and Draupadī herself, all of whom shared the same fate. Yudhiṣṭhira, as a condition of the wager, was forced to go to the forest with his wife and brothers, and to remain there for twelve years and to pass one additional year incognito. But even this period, long as it was, expired, and after their return from exile both the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas made great preparations for the inevitable struggle and the great Bhāratī war commenced. It lasted for eighteen days during which all the Kauravas, with most of their allies, were slain. It was on the last day of the war that Bhīma fought a duel with Duryodhana and smashed his thigh with his club.] मोघं तवेदं भुवि नामधेयं दुर्योधनेतीह कृतं पुरस्तात् न हीह दुर्योधनता तवास्ति पलायमानस्य रणं विहाय Mb.4.65.17. -योनि a. of a low birth, न कथंचन दुर्योनिः प्रकृतिं स्वां नियच्छति Ms.1.59. -लक्ष्य a. difficult to be seen or perceived, hardly visible. -क्ष्यम् bad aim; मनः प्रकृत्यैव चलं दुर्लक्ष्यं च तथापि मे Ratn.3.2. -लभ a. 1 difficult to be attained, or accomplished; R.1.67;17.7; Ku.4.4;5.46,61; दुर्लभं भारते जन्म मानुष्यं तत्र दुर्लभम् Subhāṣ. -2 difficult to be found or met with, scarce, rare; शुद्धान्तदुर्लभम् Ś.1.17. -3 best, excellent, eminent. -ग्रामः a village situated close to a large village and inhabited by the free-holders (अग्र- हारोपजीविनः); Māna.1.79-8. -4 dear, beloved. -5 costly. -ललित a. 1 spoilt by fondling, fondled too much, hard to please; हा मदङ्कदुर्ललित Ve.4; V.2.8; Māl.9. -2 (hence) wayward, naughty, illbred, unruly; स्पृहयामि खलु दुर्ललितायास्मै Ś.7. (-तम्) waywardness, rudeness. -लेख्यम् a forged document. Y.2.91. -वच a. 1 difficult to be described, indescribable. अपि वागधिपस्य दुर्वचं वचनं तद् विदधीत विस्मयम् Ki.2.2. -2 not to be talked about. -3 speaking improperly, abusing. (-चम्) abuse, censure, foul language. -वचस् n. abuse, censure; असह्यं दुर्वचो ज्ञातेर्मेघा- न्तरितरौद्रवत् Udb. -वर्ण a. bad-coloured. -र्णः 1 bad colour. -2 impurity; यथा हेम्नि स्थितो वह्निर्दुवर्णं हन्ति धातु- जम् Bhāg.12.3.47. (-र्णम्) 1 silver. दुर्वर्णभित्तिरिह सान्द्रसुधासुवर्णा Śi.4.28. -2 a kind of leprosy. -वस a. difficult to be resided in. -वसतिः f. painful residence; R.8.94. -वह a. heavy, difficult to be borne; दुर्वहगर्भखिन्नसीता U.2.1; Ku.1.11. -वाच् a. speaking ill. (-f.) 1 evil words, abuse. -2 inelegant language or speech. -वाच्य a. 1 difficult to be spoken or uttered. -2 abusive, scurrilous. -3 harsh, cruel (as words). (-च्यम्) 1 censure, abuse. -2 scandal, ill-repute. -वातः a fart. ˚वातय Den. P. to break wind or fart; इत्येके विहसन्त्येनमेके दुर्वातयन्ति च Bhāg.11.23.4. -वादः slander, defamation, calumny. -वार, -वारण a. irresistible, unbearable; R.14.87; किं चायमरिदुर्वारः पाणौ पाशः प्रचेतसः Ku.2.21. -वासना 1 evil propensity, wicked desire; कः शत्रुर्वद खेददानकुशलो दुर्वासनासंचयः Bv. 1.86. -2 a chimera. -वासस् a. 1 ill-dressed. -2 naked. (-m.) N. of a very irascible saint or Ṛiṣi, son of Atri and Anasūyā. (He was very hard to please, and he cursed many a male and female to suffer misery and degradation. His anger, like that of Jamadagni, has become almost proverbial.) -वाहितम् a heavy burden; उरोजपूर्णकुम्भाङ्का सदुर्वाहितविभ्रमा Rāj. T.4.18. -विगाह, -विगाह्य a. difficult to be penetrated or fathomed, unfathomable. -विचिन्त्य inconceivable, inscrutable -विद a. difficult to be known or discovered; नूनं गतिः कृतान्तस्य प्राज्ञैरपि सुदुर्विदा Mb.7.78. 2. -विदग्ध 1 unskilled, raw, foolish, stupid, silly. -2 wholly ignorant. -3 foolishly puffed up, elated. vainly proud; वृथाशस्त्रग्रहणदुर्विदग्ध Ve.3; ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं ब्रह्मापि नरं न रञ्जयति Bh.2.3. -विद्ध a. Badly perforated (a pearl); Kau. A.2.11. -विद्य a. uneducated; Rāj. T.1.354. -विध a. 1 mean, base, low. -2 wicked, vile. -3 poor, indigent; विदधाते रुचिगर्वदुर्विधम् N.2.23. -4 stupid, foolish, silly; विविनक्ति न बुद्धिदुर्विधः Śi.16.39. -विनयः misconduct, imprudence. -विनीत a. 1 (a) badly educated, ill-mannered; ill-behaved, wicked; शासितरि दुर्विनीतानाम् Ś.1.24. (b) rude, naughty, mischievous. -2 stubborn, obstinate. (-तः) 1 a restive or untrained horse. -2 a wayward person, reprobate. -विपाक a. producing bad fruit; श्रितासि चन्दनभ्रान्त्या दुर्विपाकं विषद्रुमम् U.1.46. (-कः) 1 bad result or consequence; U.1.4; किं नो विधिरिह वचने$प्यक्षमो दुर्विपाकः Mv. 6.7. -2 evil consequences of acts done either in this or in a former birth. -विभाव्य a. inconceivable; also दुर्विभाव; असद्वृत्तेरहो वृत्तं दुर्विभावं विधेरिव Ki.11.56. -विमर्श a. difficult to be tried or examined; यो दुर्विमर्शपथया निजमाययेदं सृष्ट्वा गुणान्विभजते तदनुप्रविष्टः Bhāg.1.49.29. -विलसितम् a wayward act, rudeness, naughtiness; डिम्भस्य दुर्विलसितानि मुदे गुरूणाम् B. R.4.6. -विलासः a bad or evil turn of fate; U.1. -विवाहः a censurable marriage; इतरेषु तु शिष्टेषु नृशंसानृतवादिनः । जायन्ते दुर्विवाहेषु ब्रह्मधर्मद्विषः सुताः ॥ Ms.3.41. -विष a. ill-natured, malignant. (-षः) N. of Śiva. -विषह a. unbearable, intolerable, irresistible. (-हः) N. of Śiva. -वृत्त a. 1 vile, wicked, ill-behaved. -2 roguish. (-त्तम्) misconduct, ill-behaviour. दुर्वृत्तवृत्तशमनं तव देवि शीलम् Devīmāhātmya. -वृत्तिः f. 1 misconduct. -2 misery, want, distress. -3 fraud. -वृष्टिः f. insufficient rain, drought. -वेद a. difficult to be known or ascertained. -व्यवहारः a wrong judgment in law. -व्यवहृतिः f. ill-report or rumour. -व्यसनम् 1 a fond pursuit or resolve; Mu.3. -2 bad propensity, vice; तेन दुर्व्यसनेनासीद्भोजने$पि कदर्थना Ks.73.73. -व्रत a. not conforming to rules, disobedient. -हुतम् a badly offered sacrifice. -हृद् a. wicked-hearted, ill-disposed, inimical; अकुर्वतोर्वां शुश्रूषां क्लिष्टयोर्दुर्हृदा भृशम् Bhāg.1.45.9. (-m.) an enemy. -हृदय a. evil-minded, evil-intentioned, wicked. -हृषीक a. having defective organs of sense.
draviḍaḥ द्रविडः 1 N. of a country on the east coast of the Deccan (pl.); अस्ति द्रविडेषु काञ्ची नाम नगरी Dk.13. -2 An inhabitant or native of that country; जरद्द्रविडधार्मिकस्ये- च्छया निसृष्टैः K.229. -3 N. of a degraded tribe; cf. Ms.1.22. -3 A collective name for five peoples (आन्ध्र, कर्नाटक, गुर्जर, तैलङ्ग and महाराष्ट्र); see द्राविड.
naṭaḥ नटः [नट्-अच्] 1 A dancer; न नटा न विटा न गायकाः Bh.3.27. -2 An actor; कुर्वन्नयं प्रहसनस्य नटः कृतो$सि Bh. 3.126,112; नटवद् व्यवतिष्ठते लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.42. -3 The son of a degraded Kṣatriya; Ms.1.22. -4 The Aśoka tree. -5 A kind of reed. -Comp. -अन्तिका shame, modesty. -ईश्वरः an epithet of Śiva. -चर्या the performance of an actor. -भूषणः, -मण़्डनः (yellow) orpiment. -रङ्गः 1 a theatrical stage. -2 anything illusory. -वरः 'the chief actor', the Sūtradhāra of a drama. -संज्ञकम् yellow orpiment. (-कः) an actor, dancer. -सूत्रम् directions or rules for actors. पाराशर्य- शिलालिभ्यां भिक्षुनटसूत्रयोः P.IV.3.11.
nāga नाग a. (-गी f.) Serpentine, formed of snakes, snaky. -2 Elephantine. -गः [न गच्छति इत्यगः न अगो नागः] 1 A snake in general, particularly the cobra; नासुरो$यं न वा नागः Ki.15.12. -2 A fabulous serpentdemon or semi-divine being, having the face of a man and the tail of a serpent, and said to inhabit the Pātāla; अनन्तश्चास्मि नागानाम् Bg.1.29; R.15.83. -3 An elephant; दिङ्नागानां पथि परिहरन् स्थूलहस्तावलेपान् Me.14,36; Si.4.63; V.4.25. -4 A shark. -5 A cruel or tyrannical person. -6 (At the end of comp.) Any pre-eminent or distinguished person, e. g. पुरुषनागः . -7 A cloud. -8 A peg projecting from a wall to hang anything upon. -9 N. of several plants as Mesua Roxburghii, Rottlera Tictoria, Piper betel; (Mar. नागचाफा, नागकेशर, पानवेल, नागरमोथा etc.); Bhāg.8.2.18; Rām.7. 42.4. -1 One of the five vital airs of the body, that which is expelled by eructation. -11 The number 'seven'. -12 A trumpet (see नागवेला). -गम् 1 Tin. -2 Lead. -3 One of the astronomical periods (Karaṇas) called ध्रुव -4 The effects of that period on anything done during it. -5 The asterism called आश्लेषा. -6 A captivating act of females (स्त्रीबन्धः), gesticulation; L. D. B. -7 A kind of coitus; Nm. -गी 1 A female Nāga. -2 A female elephant; -Comp. -अङ्गम् Hastināpura. -अङ्गना 1 a female elephant. -2 the proboscis of an elephant. -अञ्चला, -अञ्जना = नागयष्टि q. v. -अञ्जना a female elephant. -अधिपः an epithet of Śeṣa. -अन्तकः, -अरातिः, -अरिः 1 an epithet of Garuḍa. -2 a peacock. -3 a lion. -अशनः 1 a peacock; Pt.1.159. -2 an epithet of Garuḍa. -3 a lion. -आख्यः = नागकेसर q. v. -आननः an epithet of Ganeśa. -आनन्दम् a drama by Śrīharṣa. -आरूढ a. Riding upon an elephant. -आह्वः Hastināpura. -इन्द्रः 1 a lordly or superior elephant; नागेन्द्रहस्तास्त्वचि कर्कशत्वात... कदलीविशेषाः Ku. 1 36. -2 Airāvata, Indra's elephant; कुथेन नागेन्द्रमिवेन्द्रवाहनम् Śi. -3 an epithet of Śeṣa. -ईशः 1 an epithet of Śeṣa. -2 N. of the author of Paribhāṣenduśekhara and several other works. -3 N. of Patañjali. -उदम्, -उदरम् 1 a breast-plate. -2 a peculiar disease of pregnancy (गर्भोपद्रवभेद). -कन्यका, -कन्या a serpent-virgin. -कर्णः the castor-oil plant. -किंजल्कः = नागकेसर q. v. -कुमारी Rubia Munjiṣṭā (Mar. मंजिष्ठ). -केतुः An epithet of Karṇa (?); समरमधि- गतार्थः प्रस्थितो नागकेतुः Karṇabhāra 1.3. -केसरः N. of a tree with fragrant flowers, Mesua Roxburghii; कतकं नक्रनखरं नलदं नागकेसरम् Śiva B.3.14. -रम् a kind of steel. -गर्भम् red lead. -चूडः an epithet of Śiva. -जम् 1 red lead. -2 tin. -जिह्विका red arsenic. -जीवनम् tin. (-नः) orpiment. -दन्तः, -दन्तकः 1 ivory. -2 a peg or bracket projecting from a wall and used to hang things upon; N.18.15. -दन्ती 1 a kind of sun-flower. -2 a harlot. -द्वीपम् N. of a द्वीप in Bharatavarṣa. -नक्षत्रम्, -नायकम् the constellation called Āśleṣā. (-कः) the lord of serpents; अनन्तो वासुकिः पद्मो महापद्मो$पि नक्षकः । कर्कोटः कुलिकः शङ्ख इत्यष्टौ नागनायकाः ॥ Trikāṇdaśeṣa. -नामकम् Tin. -नामन् m. holy basil (तुलसी). -नासा the proboscis of an elephant. -निर्यूहः a large pin or bracket projecting from a wall. -पञ्चमी 1 N. of a festival on the fifth day in the bright half of Śrāvaṇa. -2 the fifth day in the dark half of Āsāḍha. -पतिः an epithet of (1) Airāvata. (2) Śesa. -पदः a mode of sexual enjoyment (रतिबन्ध). पादौ स्कन्धे तथा हस्ते क्षिपेल्लिङ्गं भगे लघु । कामयेत् कामुको नारीं बन्धो नागपदो मतः ॥ Ratimañjarī. -पर्णी the betel plant. -पाशः 1 a sort of magical noose used in battle to entangle an enemy. -2 N. of the noose or weapon of Varuṇa. -पाशकः a kind of coitus (रतिबन्ध). स्वजङ्घाद्वयमध्यस्थां हस्ताभ्यां धारयन् कुचौ । रमेन्निःशङ्कितो नारीं बन्धो$यं नागपाशकः ॥ Ratimañjarī. -पुरम् 1 Hastināpura. -2 N. of a city in Pātāla. -पुष्पः 1 the Champaka tree. -2 the Punnāga tree. -बन्धः 1 a snake as a chain. -2 N. of a metre, resembling the coilings of a snake. -बन्धकः an elephant-catcher. -बन्धुः the holy fig-tree. -बलः an epithet of Bhīma. -भूषणः an epithet of Śiva. -मण्डलिकः 1 a snake-keeper. -2 a snake-catcher. -मल्लः an epithet of Airāvata. -मारः a species of pot-herb (Mar. माका). -यष्टिः f., -यष्टिका 1 a graduated pole or post for showing the depth of water in a newly-dug pond. -2 a boring-rod driven into the earth. -रक्तम्, -रेणुः red lead. -रङ्गः the orange. -राजः 1 an epithet of Śeṣa. -2 a large elephant; अधस्तान्नागराजाय सोमायोर्ध्वं दिशं ददौ Hariv. -रिपुः (see नागान्तकः) Garuḍa; शार्ङ्गचक्रायुधः खड्गी सर्वनागरिपुध्वजः Mb.13.147.15. -रुकः the orange tree. -लता 1 the penis. -2 the piper betel. -वल्लरी, -वल्ली piper betel. -वेला the hour when a serpent-like instrument is blown; नागवेलायामागन्तव्य...... । यस्मिन् ग्रामे न नागाः...... तस्मिन्नपि स एव कालः । तत्र हि आगमनं क्रियते । ŚB. on MS.1.8.69. -लोकः the world of serpents, the race of serpents collectively, one of the regions below the earth called Pātāla. -वारिकः 1 a royal elephant. -2 an elephant-driver. -3 a peacock. -4 an epithet of Garuḍa. -5 the chief of a herd of elephants. -6 the chief person in an assembly. -वीथी that part of the moon's path which contains the asterisms अश्विनी, भरणी and कृत्तिका; अश्विनी कृत्तिका याम्या नागवीथीति शब्दिता V. P. -संभवम्, -संभूतम् red lead. ...... मञ्जिष्ठां नागसंभवम् Śiva. B.3.19. -साह्वयम् Hastināpura.
nicchiviḥ निच्छिविः N. of one of the degraded castes (sprung from outcast Kṣatriyas); see Ms.1.22.
nirviṇṇa निर्विण्ण p. p. 1 Despondent, depressed; निर्विण्णः शुचमेति Mk.1.14. -2 Overcome with fear or sorrow. -3 Emaciated with grief. -4 Abused, degraded. -5 Disgusted with anything; मत्स्याशनस्य निर्विण्णः Pt.1. -6 Impaired, decayed. -7 Humble, modest. -8 Known, certain.
niṣādaḥ निषादः 1 N. of one of the wild aboriginal tribes in India, such as hunters, fishermen &c.; a mountaineer; मा निषाद प्रतिष्ठां त्वमगमः शाश्वतीः समा Rām.1.2.15; R.14. 52,7; U.2.5. -2 A man of a degraded tribe in general, an outcast, a Chāṇḍāla. -3 Especially, the son of a Brāhmaṇa by a Sūdra woman. cf. ब्राह्मणाद्वैश्य- कन्यायामम्बष्ठो नाम जायते । निषादः शूद्रकन्यायां यः पारशव उच्यते ॥ Ms.1.8. -4 (In music) The first (more properly the last or seventh) note of the Hindu gamut; गीतकला- विन्यासमिव निषादानुगतम् K.31 (where it has sense 1 also). -5 N. of a Kalpa. -Comp. -वत् m. the निषाद note; Mb.12 184.39. -स्थपतिन्यायः The rule according to which when a compound expression is capable of being dissolved as a कर्मधारय or a तत्पुरुष, the former is to be preferred to the latter. This is discussed and established by जैमिनि and शबर in MS.6.1.51-52 in connection with the expression निषादस्थपति.
niṣkramaḥ निष्क्रमः 1 Going out, coming forth; अविभावितनिष्क्रम- प्रयाणः Ki.13.27. -2 Departure from, exit. -3 One of the Saṁskāras or religious rites; i. e. taking out a child for the first time into the open air (which is usually performed in the fourth month of its age); चतुर्थे मासि निष्क्रमः Y.1.12; cf. उपनिष्क्रमण also. -4 Degradation, loss of caste, inferiority of tribe. -5 Intellectual faculty.
nyak न्यक् ind. An adverb, prefixed to कृ or भू, to imply 'contempt', 'degradation' or 'humiliation'.
nyakkṛ न्यक्कृ 8 U. To insult, contemn, slight, degrade, humiliate. न्यक्करणम् nyakkaraṇam न्यक्कारः nyakkārḥ न्यक्करणम् न्यक्कारः Humiliation, degradation, disrespect, contempt, insult; न्यक्कारो हृदि वज्रकील इव मे तीव्रं परिस्पन्दते Mv.5.22;3.4; अयं हि न्यक्कारो जननि मनुजस्य श्रवणयो G. L.32.
nyagbhāvaḥ न्यग्भावः 1 Humiliation, degradation. -2 Making inferior, subordination. -3 Being brought or come down; न्यग्भावं परमं वायोः शाल्मले त्वमुपागतः Mb.12.155.2.
nyagbhāvita न्यग्भावित a. 1 Humiliated, degraded, slighted. -2 Surpassed, excelled, made inferior or secondary (अप्रधानीकृत); न्यग्भावितवाज्यव्यङ्ग्यव्यञ्जनक्षमस्य शब्दार्थयुगलस्य K. P.1.
patanīya पतनीय a. Causing a fall, causing the loss of caste. -यम् A degrading crime or sin; लाक्षालवणमांसानि पतनीयानि विक्रये Y.3.4. नीचाभिगमनं गर्भपातनं भर्तृहिंसनम् । विशेषपत- नीयानि स्त्रीणामेतान्यपि ध्रुवम् ॥ 297; Mb.7.156.5.
patita पतित p. p. 1 Fallen, descended, alighted. -2 Dropped. -3 Fallen (in a moral sense), abandoned, wicked; नष्टे मृते प्रव्रजिते क्लीबे च पतिते पतौ । -4 Apostate. -5 Degraded, outcast. -6 Fallen in battle, defeated or overthrown. -7 Being in, fallen into; as in अवंशपतित. -8 Placed, kept; निक्षेपे पतिते हर्म्ये श्रेष्ठी स्तौति स्वदेवताम् Pt. I.14. -9 (with पादयोः or पाद-) Having thrown oneself at (a person's feet). -तम् Flying. -Comp. -उत्पन्न a. sprung from an outcast. -गर्भा a woman who miscarries. -मूर्धज a. one whose hair has fallen out. -वृत्त a. one leading a life of an out-cast. -सावित्रीकः a man of the first three classes whose thread-ceremony has been improperly performed, or not performed at all. -स्थित a. lying on the ground.
padaśaḥ पदशः ind. 1 Step by step, gradually. -2 Word by word. पदाजिः padājiḥ पदातः padātḥ पदातिः padātiḥ पदाजिः पदातः पदातिः [पद्भ्यामतति, अत्-अच्] 1 A foot-soldier; 'पदातिपत्तिपदगपादातिकपदाजयः' Ak.; R. 7.37. -2 A pedestrian (walking on foot); U.5.12. -Comp. -अध्यक्षः the commander-in-chief of the infantry. -लव (पदातिलव) a. most humble.
parābhūta पराभूत p. p. 1 Defeated, overcome. -2 Treated with contempt, degraded, dishonoured.
pari परि (री) भवः 1 Insult, injury, humiliation, disrespect, degradation, disgrace; पराक्रमः परिभवे वैयात्यं सुरते- ष्विव (भूषणम्) Śi.2.44; R.12.37; Ve.1.25; U.4.23; Mu.3.4; Mv.1.4;3.17. -2 Defeat, discomfiture. -Comp. -आस्पदम्, -पदम् 1 an object of contempt; अदुर्गो विषयः कस्य नारेः परिभवास्पदम् H.3.51. -2 a disgrace or disgraceful situation. -विधिः humiliation; प्रायो मूर्खः परिभवविधौ नाभिमानं तनोति Śi. Til.16.
paribhraṣṭa परिभ्रष्ट p. p. 1 Fallen or dropped off. -2 Escaped. -3 Cast down, degraded. -4 Deprived of, devoid of (with abl. or instr.); मत्स्यमांसपरिभ्रष्टे किं निरीक्षसि जम्बुके Pt.4.93. -5 Neglecting. -6 Vanished. -7 Lost.
paryāyaḥ पर्यायः 1 Going or winding round, revolution. -2 Lapse, course, expiration (of time) कालपर्याययोगेन राजा मित्रसहो$भवत् Rām.7.65.17. -3 Regular recurrence or repetition. -4 Turn, succession, due or regular order; पर्यायसेवामुत्सृज्य Ku.2.36; Māl 9.32; Ms.4.87; Mu.3.27. -5 Method, arrangement. -6 Manner, way, method of proceeding. -7 A synonym, convertible term; पर्यायो निधनस्यायं निर्धनत्वं शरीरिणाम् Pt.2.99; पर्वतस्य पर्याया इमे &c. -8 An opportunity, occasion. -9 Creation, formation, preparation, manufacture; लोकपर्याय- वृत्तान्तं प्राज्ञो जानाति नेतरः Mb.12.174.3. -1 Comprehensiveness. -11 A strophe of a hymn. -12 Property, quality. -13 A means, stratagem (उपाय); न पर्यायो$स्ति यत् साम्यं त्वयि कुर्युर्विशांपते Mb.5.73.7. -14 End (अन्त); पर्यायकाले धर्मस्य प्राप्ते कलिरजायत Mb.5.74.12. -15 Contrariety, reverse; कालपर्यायमाज्ञाय मा स्म शोके मनः कृथाः Mb.6.2.5. -16 (In Rhet.) A figure of speech; see K. P.1; Chandr.5.18,19; S. D.733. [Note. पर्यायेण is often used adverbially in the sense of : 1 in turn or succession, by regular gradation, (opp. तन्त्रेण); पर्यायेण क्रियायामेवं दोषः । तन्त्रेण तु क्रियायां भवति क्वचित् संभवः । ŚB. on MS.6.2.2. -2 Occassionally, now and then; पर्यायेण हि दृश्यन्ते स्वप्नाः कामं शुभाशुभाः Ve.2.14]. -3 Alternately; मत्सदृशं किमपि पुरूपं मां च पर्यायेण निर्वर्ण- यन्ती Dk.5. -Comp. -अन्नम् food intended for another. -उक्तम् a figure of speech in Rhetoric; it is a circumlocutory or periphrastic way of speaking, when the fact to be intimated is expressed by a turn of speech or periphrasis; e. g. see Chandr.5.66. or S. D.733. -क्रमः order of succession. -च्युत a. supplanted, superseded. -वचनम्, -शब्दः a synonym. -वाचकः a. expressing a corresponding notion. -शयनम् alternate sleeping and watching. -सेवा service by rotation; पर्यायसेवामुत्सृज्य Ku.2.36.
pāpa पाप a. [पाति रक्षत्यस्मादात्मानम्, पा-अपादाने प; Uṇ.3.23] 1 Evil, sinful, wicked, vicious; पापं कर्म च यत् परैरपि कृतं तत् तस्य संभाव्यते Mk.1.36; साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धि- र्विशिष्यते Bg.6.9. -2 Mischievous, destructive, accursed; पापेन मृत्युना गृहीतो$स्मि M.4. -3 Low, vile, abandoned; Ms.3.52; अधार्मिकाणां पापानामाशु पश्यन् विपर्ययम् 4.171. -4 Inauspicious, malignant, foreboding evil; as in पापग्रहः. -पम् 1 Evil, bad fortune or state; पापं पापाः कथयथ कथं शौर्यराशेः पितुर्मे Ve.3.6; शान्तं पापम् 'may the evil be averted', 'god forbid' (often used in dramas). -2 Sin, crime, vice, guilt; अपापानां कुले जाते मयि पापं न विद्यते Mk.9.37; Ms.11.231;4 181; R.12.19. -पम् ind. badly, sinfully, wrongly. -पः A wretch, sinful person, wicked or profligate person; पापस्तु दिग्देवतया हतौजास्तं नाभ्यभूदवितं विष्णुपत्न्या Bhāg.6.13.17. -पा 1 A beast of prey. -2 A witch. -Comp. -अङ्कुशा N. of the Ekādaśī in the light half of Āśvina. -अधम a. exceedingly wicked, vilest. -अनुबन्धः bad result or consequences. -अनुवसित a. sinful. -अपनुत्तिः f. expiation. -अहः an unlucky day. -आख्या one of the seven divisions of the planetary courses. -आचार a. following evil or sinful courses, leading a sinful life, vicious, wicked. -आत्मन् a. evil-minded, sinful, wicked; पापात्मा पापसंभवः Purāna. (-m.) a sinner. -आरम्भ a. wicked, villainous, committing murderous deeds; पापारम्भवतोर्मृगीव वृकयोर्भीरुर्गता गोचरम् Māl.5.24. -आशय, -चेतस् a. evil-intentioned, wicked-minded. -उक्त addressed in ill-omened words. -कर, -कारिन्, -कृत्, -कर्म(र्मि)न् &c. a. sinful, a sinner, villain. -क्षयः removal or destruction of sin. -गतिः ill-fated. -ग्रहः a planet of evil or malignant aspect, such as Mars, Saturn, Rāhu or Ketu. -घ्न a. destroying sin, expiating; मत्समः पातकी नास्ति पापघ्नी त्वत्समा न हि Śaṅkarāchārya. (-घ्नः) the sesamum plant. (-घ्नी) the Tulasī plant. -चर्यः 1 a sinner. -2 demon. -चेलिका, -चेली Clypea Hernandifolia (Mar. पहाडमूळ). -चैलम् an inauspicious garment. -जीव a. wicked, sinful. -दर्शन्, -दर्शिन् looking at faults, malevolent. -दृष्टि a. evileyed. -धी a. evil-minded, wicked. -नक्षत्रम् an inauspicious constellation. -नापितः a cunning or vile barber. -नाशन a. destroying or expiating sin. (-नः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. (-नम्) expiation, atonement. (-नी, -नाशिनी) 1 the wild Tulasī plant or Śamī. -2 N. of a river. -निरति a. wicked, sinful. -f. wickedness. -निष्कृतिः atonement for sin. -पतिः a paramour. -पुरुषः a villainous person. -फल a. evil, inauspicious; पापफल- नरकादिमांस्तु शुभकर्मफलस्वर्गमस्त्विति काङ्क्षते Maṅḍala Brā. Up.2.4. -बुद्धि, -भाव, -मति a. evil-minded, wicked, depraved. -भक्षणः N. of Kālabhairava. -भाज् a. sinful, a sinner; न केवलं यो महतो$पभाषते शृणोति तस्मादपि यः स पापभाक् Ku.5.83. -मित्रम् a bad counsellor or friend. -मुक्त a. freed from sin, purified. -मोचनम्, -विनाशनम् destruction of sin. -योनि a. lowborn. (-निः f.) vile birth, birth in an inferior condition. -रोगः 1 any bad disease. -2 small-pox. -लोक्य a. 1 infernal. -2 belonging to the wicked. -वशीयस् a. 1 inverted -2 confused. (-m.) inversion, confusion. -वंश a. born in a degraded family; शशाप तान् न राज्यार्हाः पापवंशा भविष्यथ Bm.1.349. -विनिग्रहः restraining wickedness. -शमन a. removing crime. -शील a. prone to evil, wicked by nature, evil minded. -संकल्प a. evil-minded, wicked. (-ल्पः) a wicked thought. -हन् a. destroying sin; यत्र श्यामो लोहिताक्षो दण्डश्चरति पापहा । प्रजास्तत्र न मुह्यन्ति नेता चेत् साधु पश्यति ॥ Ms.7.25.
pāmara पामर a. (-रा, -री f.) [पामन्-र] 1 Diseased with scab, scabby. -2 Vile, wicked. -3 Low, vulgar, base, -4 Foolish, stupid. -5 Poor, helpless; Ud. D.5. -रः 1 A fool, an idiot; वल्गन्ति चेत् पामराः Bv.1.72. -2 A wicked or low man. -3 One engaged in the most degrading occupation.
pukkaśa पुक्कश a. (-शी f.), पुक्कस a. (-सी f.) Low, vile, -शः, -षः, -सः N. of a degraded mixed caste, the offspring of a Niṣāda by a Śūdra woman; जातो निषादाच्छूद्रायां जात्या भवति पुक्कसः Ms.1.18. -शी, -सी 1 A bud. -2 The Indigo plant. -3 A woman of the Pukkasa caste.
pracyuta प्रच्युत p. p. 1 Fallen off or from. -2 Strayed, deviated. -3 Dislodged, displaced, degraded; अस्माद- प्रच्युतो विप्रः प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् Ms.12.116. -4 Displaced, ejected. -5 Banished, expelled. -6 Routed, put to flight.
prati प्रति ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs it means (a) towards, in the direction of; (b) back, in return, again; तष्ठेदानीं न मे जीवन् प्रतियास्यसि दुर्मते Rām.7.18.13; (c) in opposition to, against, counter; (d) upon, down upon; (see the several roots with this preposition). -2 As a prefix to nouns not directly derived from verbs it means (a) likeness, resemblance, equality; (b) opposite, of the opposite side; प्रतिबल Ve.3.5. 'the opposing force'; so प्रतिद्विपाः Mu.2.13; (c) rivalry; as in प्रतिचन्द्रः 'a rival moon'; प्रतिपुरुषः &c. -3 As a separable preposition (with acc.) it means (a) towards, in the direction of, to; तौ दम्पती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं प्रस्थापयामास वशी वसिष्ठः R.2.7;1. 75; प्रत्यनिलं विचेरु Ku.3.31; वृक्षं प्रति विद्योतते विद्युत् Sk.; (b) against, counter, in opposition to, opposite; तदा यायाद् रिपुं प्रति Ms.7.171; प्रदुदुवुस्तं प्रति राक्षसेन्द्रम् Rām.; ययावजः प्रत्यरिसैन्यमेव R.7.55; (c) in comparison with, on a par with, in proportion to, a match for; त्वं सहस्राणि प्रति Ṛv.2.1.8; (d) near, in the vicinity of, by, at, in, on; समासेदुस्ततो गङ्गां शृङ्गवेरपुरं प्रति Rām.; गङ्गां प्रति; (e) at the time, about, during; आदित्यस्योदयं प्रति Mb; फाल्गुनं वाथ चैत्रं वा मासौ प्रति Ms.7.182; (f) on the side of, in favour of, to the lot of; यदत्र मां प्रति स्यात् Sk.; हरं प्रति हलाहलं (अभवत्) Vop.; (g) in each, in or at every, severally (used in a distributive sense); वर्षं प्रति, प्रतिवर्षम्; यज्ञं प्रति Y.1.11; वृक्षं वृक्षं प्रति सिञ्चति Sk.; (h) with regard or reference to, in relation to, regarding, concerning, about, as to; न हि मे संशीतिरस्या दिव्यतां प्रति K.132; चन्द्रोपरागं प्रति तु केनापि विप्रलब्धासि Mu.1; धर्मं प्रति Ś.5.18; मन्दौत्सुक्यो$स्मि नगरगमनं प्रति Ś.1; Ku.6.27; 7.83; त्वयैकमीशं प्रति साधु भाषितम् 5.81; Y.1.218; R.6. 12;1.29;12.51; (i) according to, in conformity with; मां प्रति in my opinion; (j) before, in the presence of; (k) for, on account of. -4 As a separable preposition (with abl.) it means either (a) a representative of, in place of, instead of; प्रद्युम्नः कृष्णात् प्रति Sk.; संग्रामे यो नारायणतः प्रति Bk.8.89; or (b) in exchange or return for; तिलेभ्यः प्रति यच्छति माषान् Sk.; भक्तेः प्रत्यमृतं शंभोः Vop. -5 As the first member of Avyayībhāva compound it usually means (a) in or at every; as प्रतिसंवत्सरम् 'every year', प्रतिक्षणम्, प्रत्यहम् &c.; (b) towards, in the direction of; प्रत्यग्नि शलभा डयन्ते. -6 प्रति is sometimes used as the last member of Avyayī. comp. in the sense of 'a little'; सूपप्रति, शाकप्रति. [Note:-In the compounds given below all words the second members of which are words not immediately connected with verbs, are included; other words will be found in their proper places.] -Comp. -अंशम् ind. on the shoulders. -अक्षरम् ind. in every syllable or letter; प्रत्यक्षरश्लेषमयप्रबन्ध Vās. -अग्नि ind. towards the fire. -अग्र = प्रत्यग्र q. v. -अङ्गम् 1 a secondary or minor limb (of the body), as the nose. -2 a division, chapter, section. -3 every limb. -4 a weapon. (-ङ्गम्) ind. 1 on or at every limb of the body; as in प्रत्यङ्ग- मालिङ्गितः Gīt.1. -2 for every subdivision. -3 in each case (in grammar). -अधिदेवता a tutelary deity who stays in front or near one; Hch. -अधिष्ठानम्, -आधानम् the principal place of residence; Bṛi. Up.2.2.1. -2 repository. -अनन्तर a. 1 being in immediate neighbourhood; दानमानादिसत्कारैः कुरुष्व प्रत्यनन्तरम् Rām.4.15.27. (com. प्रत्यनन्तरं स्वाधीनम्). -2 standing nearest (as an heir). -3 immediately following, closely connected with; जीवेत् क्षत्रियधर्मेण स ह्यस्य (ब्राह्मणस्य) प्रत्यनन्तरः; Ms.1. 82;8.185. (-रम्) ind. 1 immediately after. -2 next in succession. -रीभू to betake oneself close to; P. R. -अनिलम् ind. towards or against the wind. -अनीक a 1 hostile, opposed, inimical. -2 resisting, opposing. -3 opposite. -4 equal, vying with. (-कः) an enemy. (-कम्) 1 hostility, enmity, hostile attitude or position; न शक्ताः प्रत्यनीकेषु स्थातुं मम सुरासुराः Rām. -2 a hostile army; यस्य शूरा महेष्वासाः प्रत्यनीकगता रणे Mb.; ये$वस्थिताः प्रत्यनीकेषु योधाः Bg.11.32. (प्र˚ may have here sense 1 also). -3 (in Rhet.) a figure of speech in which one tries to injure a person or thing connected with an enemy who himself cannot be injured; प्रतिपक्षमशक्तेन प्रतिकर्तुं तिरस्क्रिया । या तदीयस्य तत्स्तुत्यै प्रत्यनीकं तदुच्यते K. P.1. -अनुप्रासः a kind of alliteration. -अनुमानम् an opposite conclusion. -अन्त a. contiguous, lying close to, adjacent, bordering. (-न्तः) 1 a border, frontier; स गुप्तमूलप्रत्यन्तः R.4.26. -2 a bordering country; especially, a country occupied by barbarian or Mlechchhas. ˚देशः a bordering country. ˚पर्वतः an adjacent hill; पादाः प्रत्यन्तपर्वताः Ak. -अन्धकार a. spreading shadow; Buddh. -अपकारः retaliation, injury in return; शाम्येत् प्रत्यप- कारेण नोपकारेण दुर्जनः Ku.2.4. -अब्दम् ind. every year -अमित्र a. hostile. (-त्रः) an enemy. (-त्रम्) ind. towards as enemy. -अरिः 1 a well-matched opponent. -2 the 9th, 14th or 23rd asterism from the जन्मनक्षत्र. -3 a particular asterism; दारुणेषु च सर्वेषु प्रत्यरिं च विवर्जयेत् Mb.13.14.28 (com. प्रत्यरिं स्वनक्षत्राद् दिननक्षत्रं यावद् गणयित्वा नवभिर्भागे हृते पञ्चमी तारा प्रत्यरिः ।). -अर्कः a mock sun; parhelion. -अर्गलम् the rope by which a churning stick is moved. -अवयवम् ind. 1 in every limb. -2 in every particular, in detail. -अवर a. 1 lower, less honoured; पुरावरान् प्रत्यवरान् गरीयसः Mb.13.94.12. -2 very low or degrading, very insignificant; Ms.1.19. -अश्मन् m. red chalk. -अष्ठीला a kind of nervous disease. -अहम् ind. every day, daily; day by day; गिरिशमुपचचार प्रत्यहं सा सुकेशी Ku.1.6. -आकारः a scabbard, sheath. -आघातः 1 a counter-stroke. -2 reaction. -आचारः suitable conduct or behaviour. -आत्मम् ind. singly, severally. -आत्मक a. belonging to oneself. -आत्म्यम् similarity with oneself. -आत्मेन ind. after one's own image; स किंनरान् कुंपुरुषान् प्रत्यात्म्येना- सृजत् प्रभुः Bhāg.3.2.45. -आदित्यः a mock sun. -आरम्भः 1 recommencement, second beginning. -2 prohibition. -आर्द्र a. fresh. -आशा 1 hope, expectation; न यत्र प्रत्याशामनुपतति नो वा रहयति Māl.9.8. -2 trust, confidence. -आसङ्गः Connection, contact; अथ प्रत्यासङ्गः कमपि महिमानं वितरति Mv.1.12. -आस्वर 1 returning. -2 reflecting; Ch.Up.1.3.2. -आह्वयः echo, resonance; छाया प्रत्याह्वयाभासा ह्यसन्तो$प्यर्थकारिणः Bhāg.11.28.5. -उत्तरम् a reply, rejoinder. -उलूकः 1 a crow; मृत्युदूतः कपोतो$यमुलूकः कम्पयन्मनः । प्रत्युलूकश्च कुह्वानैरनिद्रौ शून्यमिच्छतः ॥ Bhāg.1.14.14. -2 a bird resembling an owl. -ऋचम् ind. in each Rik. -एक a. each, each one, every single one. (-कम्) ind. 1 one at a time, severally; singly, in every one, to every one; oft. with the force of an adjective; विवेश दण्डकारण्यं प्रत्येकं च सतां मनः R.12.9. 'entered the mind of every good man'; 12.3;7.34; Ku.2.31. -एनस् m. 1 an officer of justice (who punishes criminals); Bṛi. Up.4.3.7. -2 a heir responsible for the debts of the deceased; surety. -कञ्चुकः 1 an adversary. -2 a critic. -कण्ठम् ind. 1 severally, one by one. -2 near the throat. -कलम् ind. constantly, perpetually. -कश a. not obeying the whip. -कष्ट a. comparatively bad. -कामिनी a female rival; Śi. -कायः 1 an effigy, image, picture, likeness. -2 an adversary; स वृषध्वजसायकावभिन्नं जयहेतुः प्रतिकाय- मेषणीयम् Ki.13.28. -3 a target, butt, mark. -कितवः an opponent in a game. -कुञ्जरः a hostile elephant. -कूपः a moat, ditch. -कूल a. 1 unfavourable, adverse, contrary, hostile, opposite, प्रतिकूलतामुपगते हि विधौ विफलत्व- मेति बहुसाधनता Śi.9.6; Ku.3.24. -2 harsh, discordant. unpleasant, disagreeable; अप्यन्नपुष्टा प्रतिकूलशब्दा Ku.1. 45. -3 inauspicious. -4 contradictory. -5 reverse, inverted. -6 perverse, cross, peevish, stubborn. ˚आचार- णम्, ˚आचरितम् any offensive or hostile action or conduct; प्रतिकूलाचरितं क्षमख मे R.8.81. ˚उक्तम्, -क्तिः f. a contradiction. ˚कारिन्, -कृत, -चारिन्, -वत्ति a. opposing. ˚दर्शन a. having an inauspicious or ungracious appearance. ˚प्रवर्तिन्, -वर्तिन् a. acting adversely, taking an adverse course. ˚भाषिन् a. opposing, contradicting. ˚वचनम् disagreeable or unpleasant speech. ˚वादः contradiction. (प्रतिकूलता, -त्वम् adverseness, opposition, hostility. प्रति- कूलयति 'to oppose'.). -कूल ind. 1 adversely, contrarily. -2 inversely, in inverted order. -कूलय Den. P. to resist, oppose. -कूलिक a. hostile, inimical. -क्षणम् ind. at every moment or instant, constantly; प्रतिक्षणं संभ्रमलोलदृष्टि- र्लीलारविन्देन निवारयन्ती Ku.3.56. -क्षपम् ind. everynight. -गजः a hostile elephant -गात्रम् ind. in very limb. -गिरिः 1 an opposite mountain. -2 an inferior mountain. -गृहम्, -गेहम् ind. in every house. -ग्रामम् ind. in every village. -चक्रम् a hostile army. -चन्द्रः a mock moon; paraselene. -चरणम् ind. 1 in every (Vedic) school or branch. -2 at every foot-step. -छाया, -यिका 1 a reflected image, reflection, shadow; रूपं प्रतिच्छायिक- योपनीतम् N.6.45. -2 an image, picture. -जङ्घा the forepart of the leg. -जिह्वा, -जिह्विका the soft palate, -तन्त्रम् ind. according to each Tantra or opinion. -तन्त्र- सिद्धान्तः a conclusion adopted by one of the disputants only; (वादिप्रतिवाद्येकतरमात्राभ्युपगतः). -त्र्यहम् ind. for three days at a time. -दण्ड a. Ved. disobedient. -दिनम् ind. every day; राशीभूतः प्रतिदिनमिव त्र्यम्बकस्याट्टहासः Me.6. -दिशम् ind. in every direction, all round, everywhere. -दूतः a messenger sent in return. -देवता a corresponding deity; गताः कलाः पञ्चदश प्रतिष्ठा देवाश्च सर्वे प्रतिदेवतासु Muṇḍa.3.2.7. -देशम् ind. in every country. -देहम् ind. in every body. -दैवतम् ind. for every deity. -द्वन्द्वः 1 an antagonist, opponent, adversary, rival. -2 an enemy. (-द्वम्) opposition, hostility. -द्वन्द्विन् a. 1 hostile, inimical. -2 adverse (प्रतिकूल); कृतान्तदुर्वृत्त इवापरेषां पुरः प्रतिद्वन्द्विनि पाण्डवास्त्रे Ki.16.29. -3 rivalling, vying with; किसलयोद्भेदप्रतिद्वन्दिभिः (करतलैः) Ś.4.5. (-m.) an opponent, adversary, rival; तुल्यप्रति- द्वन्द्वि बभूव युद्धम् R.7.37.;15.25. -द्वारम् ind. at every gate. -धुरः a horse harnessed by the side of another. -नप्तृ m. great-grandson, a son's grandson. -नव a. 1 new, young, fresh. -2 newly blown budded; सान्ध्यं तेजः प्रतिनवजपापुष्परक्तं दधानः Me.38. -नाडी a branch-vein. -नायकः the adversary of the hero of any poetic composition; धीरोद्धतः पापकारी व्यसनी प्रतिनायकः S. D., as रावण in the Rāmāyaṇa, शिशुपाल in Māgha-Kāvya &c. -नारी, -पत्नी, -युवतिः a female rival; Śi.7.45. -निनादः = प्रतिध्वनिः q. v. -न्यायम् ind. in inverted order; पुनः प्रतिन्यायं प्रतियोन्याद्रवति स्वप्नायैव Bṛi. Up.4.3.15. -पक्ष a. like, similar. (-क्षः) 1 the opposite side, party or faction, hostility; विमृश्य पक्षप्रतिपक्षाभ्यामवधारणं नियमः Gaut. S, -2 an adversary, enemy, foe, rival; प्रति- पक्षकामिनी, -लक्ष्मी 'a rival wife'; Bv.2.64; दासीकृतायाः प्रति- पक्षलक्ष्याः Vikr.1.73; प्रतिपक्षमशक्तेन प्रतिकर्तुम् K. P.1; Vikr.1.7; often used in comp. in the sense of 'equal' or 'similar'. -3 remedy, expiation; यादवस्य पापस्य प्रतिपक्षमुपदिशामि Nāg.5. -4 a defendant or respondent (in law). ˚ता 1 hostility, opposition. -2 obstacle. -पक्षित a. 1 containing a contradiction. -2 nullified by a contradictory premise; (as a hetu in न्याय); cf. सत्प्रतिपक्ष. -पक्षिन् m. an opponent, adversary. -पण्यम् merchandise in exchange; Buddh. -प्रथम् ind. along the road, towards the way; प्रतिपथगतिरासीद् वेगदीर्घीकृताङ्गः Ku.3.76. -पदम् ind. 1 at evry stop. -2 at every place, everywhere. -3 expressly. -4 in every word; प्रतिपदाख्याने तु गौरवं परिहरद्भिर्वृत्तिकारैः सर्वसामान्यः शब्दः प्रति- गृहीतः प्रकृतिवदिति ŚB. on MS.8.1.2. -पल्लवः an opposite or outstretched branch; R. -पाणः 1 a stake. -2 a counter-pledge. -3 a counter-stake; Mb.3. -पादम् ind. in each quarter. -पात्रम् ind. with regard to each part, of each character; प्रतिपात्रमाधीयतां यत्नः Ś.1 'let care be taken of each character'. -पादपम् ind. in every tree. -पाप a. returning sin for sin, requiting evil for evil. -पु(पू)रुषः 1 a like or similar man. -2 a substitute, deputy. -3 a companion. -4 the effigy of a man pushed by thieves into the interior of a house before entering it themselves (to ascertain if any body is awake). -5 an effigy in general. (-षम्) ind. man by man, for each man. -पुस्तकम् a copy of an original manuscript. -पूर्वाह्णम् ind. every forenoon. -प्रति a. counter-balancing, equal to. -प्रभातम् ind. every morning. -प्रसवः 1 (As opposed to अनुप्रसव) tracing causes back to the origin as -a pot, a lump of mud, mud, clay, Pātañjala Yogadarśana. -2 Negation of (or exception to) a negation. The force of a प्रतिप्रसव is positive, limiting as it does the scope of a प्रतिषेध or negation. Hence it is just the opposite of परिसंख्या whose force is negative or exclusive since it limits the scope of a positive statement. प्रतिप्रसवो$यं न परिसंख्या ŚB. on MS.1.7.45. -प्रकारः an outer wall or rampart. -प्रियम् a kindness or service in return; प्रतिप्रियं चेद् भवतो न कुर्यां वृथा हि मे स्यात् स्वपदोपलब्धिः R.5.56. -बन्धुः an equal in rank or station; Mb.5.121.13. -बलः a. 1 able, powerful. -2 equal in strength, equally matched or powerful. (-लम्) 1 a hostile army; अस्त्रज्वालावलीढप्रतिबलजलधेरन्तरौर्वायमाणे Ve.3.7. -2 strength. -बाहु 1 the forepart of the arm. -2 an opposite side (in a square or polygon). -बि (वि) म्बः, -म्बम् 1 a reflection, reflected image; ज्योतिषां प्रतिबिम्बानि प्राप्नु- वन्त्युपहारताम् Ku.6.42; Śi.9.18. -2 an image, a picture. -बीजम् a rotten seed. -भट a. vying with, rivalling; घटप्रतिभटस्तनि N.13.5. (-टः) 1 a rival, an opponent; निवासः कन्दर्पप्रतिभटजटाजूटभवने G. L.21. -2 a warrior on the opposite side; समालोक्याजौ त्वां विदधति विकल्पान् प्रतिभटाः K. P.1. -भय a. 1 fearful, formidable, terrible, frightful. -2 dangerous; स्वगृहोद्यानगते$पि स्निग्धैः पापं विशङ्क्यते मोहात् । किमु दृष्टबह्वपायप्रतिभयकान्तारमध्यस्थे ॥ Pt.2.171; Nāg.5.1.; Bhāg.1.6.14. (-यम्) a danger; सुनन्द, श्रुतं मया संनिहितगरुडप्रतिभयमुद्देशं जामाता जीमूतवाहनो गतः Nāg.5. -भैरव a. dreadful. -मञ्चः a kind of measure (in music.) -मञ्चाः Platforms opposite to each other; दशभागिकौ द्वौ प्रतिमञ्चौ Kau. A.2.3.21. -मण्डलम् 1 a secondary disc (of the sun &c.). -2 an eccentric orbit. -मन्दिरम् ind. in every house. -मल्लः an antagonist, a rival; उपेयिवांसं प्रतिमल्लतां रयस्मये जितस्य प्रसभं गरुत्मतः N.1.63; पातालप्रतिमल्लगल्ल &c. Māl.5.22. -मानना worship (पूजा); स्पर्शमशुचिवपुरर्हति न प्रतिमाननां तु नितरां नृपोचिताम् Śi.15.35. -माया a counter-spell or charm; प्रतिमाया कृतं च तत् Mb.1.34.22. -मार्गः the way back; Mb.4. -मार्गम् ind. back, backwards. -माला capping verses (Mar. भंडी). -मासम् ind. every month, monthly. -मित्रम् an enemy, adversary. -मुख a. standing before the face, facing; प्रतिमुखागत Ms.8.291. -2 near, present. (-खम्) a secondary plot or incident in a drama which tends either to hasten or retard the catastrophe; see S. D.334 and 351-364. (-खम्) ind. 1 towards. -2 in front, before. -मुखरी a particular mode of drumming. -मुद्रा 1 a counterseal. -2 the impression of a seal. -मुहूर्तम् ind. every moment. -मूर्तिः f. an image, a likeness. -मूषिका f. a musk-rat (Mar. चिचुंदरी). -यूथपः the leader of a hostile herd of elephants. -रथः an adversary in war (lit. in fighting in a war-chariot); दौष्यन्तिमप्रतिरथं तनयं निवेश्य Ś.4.2. -रथ्यम् in every road; अस्मिन् नगरे प्रतिरथ्यं भुजङ्गबद्धसंचारे Udb. -रवः, -ध्वनिः 1 an echo; प्रतिरवविततो वनानि चक्रे Ki.1.4. -2 quarrel; controversy. -3 (Ved.) life (प्राण). -रसितम् an echo; केनास्मत् सिंह- नादप्रतिरसितसखो दुन्दुभिस्ताड्यते$यम् Ve.1.22. -राजः a hostile king. -रात्रम् ind. every night. -रूप a. 1 corresponding, similar, having a counter-part in; अग्निर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव Kaṭh.2.2.9. -2 beautiful. -3 suitable, proper; इदं न प्रतिरूपं ते स्त्रीष्वदाक्षिण्यमीदृशम् Bu. Ch.4.66; आत्मनः प्रतिरूपं सा बभाषे चारुहासिनी Rām.4. 19.17. -4 facing (अभिमुख); प्रतिरूपं जनं कुर्यान्न चेत् तद् वर्तते यथा Mb.12.97.16 (com. प्रतिरूपं युद्धाभिमुखम्). (-पम्) 1 a picture, an image, a likeness. -2 a mirror-like reflecting object; अदर्शनं स्वशिरसः प्रतिरूपे च सत्यपि Bhāg. 1.42.28. -4 an object of comparison (उपमान); भवान्मे खलु भक्तानां सर्वेषां प्रतिरूपधृक् Bhāg.7.1.21. -रूपक a. resembling, similar (at the end of comp.); जहीमान् राक्षसान् पापानात्मनः प्रतिरूपकान् Mb.3.29.11; चेष्टाप्रतिरूपिका मनोवृत्तिः Ś.1. (-कम्) 1 a picture, an image; अग्निदैर्गर- दैश्चैव प्रतिरूपककारकैः Mb.12.59.49. -2 a forged edict; जर्जरं चास्य विषयं कुर्वन्ति प्रतिरूपकैः Mb.12.56.52. -3 a reflection. -लक्षणम् a mark, sign, token. -लिपिः f. a transcript, a written copy. -लेखः a writ of reply; प्रावृत्तिकश्च प्रतिलेख एव Kau. A.2.1.28. -लोम a. 1 'against the hair or grain', contray to the natural order, inverted, reverse (opp. अनुलोम); नववर्षसहस्राक्षः प्रतिलोमो$भवद् गुरुः Bhāg.12.14.15. -2 contrary to caste (said of the issue of a woman who is of a higher caste than her husband). -3 hostile. -4 low, vile, base. -5 left (वाम). -6 obstinate, perverse; अपरिचितस्यापि ते$प्रतिलोमः संवृत्तः Ś.7. -7 disagreeable, unpleasant. (-मम्) any injurious or unpleasant act. (-मम्) ind. 'against the hair or grain', inversely, invertedly. ˚ज a. born in the inverse order of the castes; i. e. born of a mother who is of a higher caste than the father; cf. Ms.1.16,25. -लोमक a. reverse, inverted; राजन्यविप्रयोः कस्माद् विवाहः प्रतिलोमकः Bhāg.9.18.5. -कम् inverted order. -लोमतः ind. 1 in consequence of the inverted order or course; Ms.1.68. -2 in an unfriendly manner; यदा बहुविधां वृद्धिं मन्येत प्रतिलोमतः Mb.12.13.39. -वत्सरम् ind. every year. -वनम् ind. in every forest. -वर्णिक a. similar, corresponding. -वर्धिन् a. being a match for. -वर्षम् ind. every year. -वस्तु n. 1 an equivalent, a counterpart. -2 anything given in return. -3 a parallel. ˚उपमा a figure of speech thus defined by Mammaṭa:-- प्रतिवस्तूपमा तु सा ॥ सामान्यस्य द्विरेकस्य यत्र वाक्यद्वये स्थितिः । K. P.1; e. g. तापेन भ्राजते सूर्यः शूरश्चापेन राजते Chandr.5. 48. -वातः a contrary wind; प्रतिवाते$नुवाते च नासीत गुरुणा सह Ms.2.23. (-तम्) ind. against the wind; चीनांशुक- मिव केतोः प्रतिवातं नीयमानस्य Ś.1.33. -वारणः a hostile elephant. -वासरम् ind. every day. -विटपम् ind. 1 on every branch. -2 branch by branch. -विषम् an antidote. (-षा) a birch tree. -विष्णुकः a Muchakunda tree. -वीरः an opponent, antagonist. -वीर्यम् being equal to or a match for. -वृषः a hostile bull. -वेलम् ind. at each time, on every occasion. -वेशः 1 a neighbouring house, neighbourhood. -2 a neighbour. -वेशिन् a. a neighbour; दृष्ट्वा प्रभातसमये प्रतिवेशिवर्गः Mk.3.14. -वेश्मन् n. a neighbour's house. -वेश्यः a neighbour. -वैरम् requital of hostilities revenge. -शब्दः 1 echo, reverberation; वसुधाधरकन्दराभिसर्पी प्रतिशब्दो$पि हरेर्भिनत्ति नागान् V. 1.16; Ku.6.64; R.2.28. -2 a roar. -शशिन् m. a mock-moon. -शाखम् ind. for every branch or school (of the Veda). -शाखा a side-branch; महाभूतविशेषश्च विशेषप्रतिशाखवान् Mb.14.35.21. -संवत्सरम् ind. every year. -सङ्गक्षिका 1 a cloak to keep off the dust; Buddh. -संदेशः a reply to the message; दर्पसारस्य प्रति- संदेशमावेदयत् D. K.2.1. -सम a. equal to, a match for. -सव्य a. in an inverted order. -सामन्तः an enemy. -सायम् ind. every evening. -सूर्यः, -सूर्यकः 1 a mock-sun. -2 a lizard, chameleon; 'कृकलासस्तु सरटः प्रतिसूर्यः शयानकः ।' Hemchandra; तृष्यद्भिः प्रतिसूर्यकैरजगरस्वेदद्रवः पीयते U.2.16. -सेना, सैन्यम् a hostile army; निहतां प्रतिसैन्येन वडवामिव पातिताम् Rām.2.114.17. -स्थानम् ind. in every place, everywhere. -स्मृतिः N. of particular kind of magic; गृहाणेमां मया प्रोक्तां सिद्धिं मूर्तिमतीमिव । विद्यां प्रतिस्मृतिं नाम Mb.3.36.3. -स्रोतस् ind. against the stream; सरस्वतीं प्रतिस्रोतं ययौ ब्राह्मणसंवृतः Bhāg.1.78. 18. -a. going against the stream; अथासाद्य तु कालिन्दी प्रतिस्रोतः समागताम् Rām.2.55.5. -हस्तः, -हस्तकः a deputy, an agent, substitute, proxy; आश्रितानां भृतौ स्वामिसेवायां धर्मसेवने । पुत्रस्योत्पादने चैव न सन्ति प्रतिहस्तकाः ॥ H.2.33. -हस्तीकृ to take; Pratijñā 3. -हस्तिन् the keeper of a brothel; Dk.2.2.
prati प्रति (ती) घातः 1 Warding off, repulse; सर्वेषामेव शापानां प्रतिघातो हि विद्यते Mb.1.37.4. -2 Opposition, resistance; अस्त्राणां प्रतिघाते च सर्वथैव प्रयोजयेत् Mb.3.167. 54. -3 A counterblow, blow in return; अथाददे वारुण- मन्यदस्त्रं शिखण्ड्यथोग्रं प्रतिघातमस्य Mb.6.85.29. -4 Rebound, reaction; जयाशा यत्र चास्माकं प्रतिघातोत्थितार्चिषा Ku.2.49. -5 Prohibiting. -6 Embezzlement; कृतप्रतिघातावस्थसूचको निष्पन्नार्थः षष्ठमंशं लभेत Kau A.2.8.26. -7 Ruin, degradation; आत्मनः प्रतिघातमाशङ्कमानः Bhāg.5.9.3. प्रतिघातक pratighātaka घातिन् ghātin प्रतिघातक घातिन् a. Hostile, inimical, opposed to. -2 Interrupting, obstructing; वयमपि न खल्वेयंप्रायाः क्रतु- प्रतिघातिनः U.5.29. v. l. -3 Repelling, warding off -4 Encroaching upon, disturbing. -5 Reacting. -6 Dazzling; विजित्य नेत्रप्रतिघातिनीं प्रभाम् Ku.5.2.
pratīpa प्रतीप a. [प्रतिगताः आपो यत्र, प्रतिअप् अच्, अप ईप् च्] 1 Contrary, unfavourable, adverse, opposite; तत्प्रतीप- पवनादि वैकृतम् R.11.62; Ki.14.6. -2 Reverse, inverted, out of order. -3 Backward, retrograde. -4 Disagreeable, displeasing. -5 Refractory, disobedient, obstinate, perverse; प्रेष्यः प्रतीपो$धिकृतः प्रमादी (त्याज्याः) Pt.1.424. -6 Turned away, averted. -7 Meeting, encountering. -8 Hindering. -पः 1 N. of a king, father of Śantanu and grand-father of Bhīṣma. -2 An adversary, opponent; चरति मयि रणे यश्च यश्च प्रतीपः Ve.3.32. -पम् N. of a figure of speech in which the usual form of comparison is inverted, the उपमान being compared with the उपमेय; प्रतीपमुपमानस्याप्युपमेयत्वकल्पनम् । त्वल्लोचनसमं पद्मं त्वद्वक्त्रसदृशो विधुः ॥ Chandr.5.9; (for fuller definitions and explanation see K. P.1 under प्रतीप). -पम् ind. 1 On the contrary. -2 In an inverted order. -3 Against, in opposition to; भर्तृर्विप्रकृतापि रोषणतया मा स्म प्रतीपं गमः Ś.4.18. -Comp. -उक्तिः contradiction. -ग a. 1 going against. -2 adverse, unfavourable; तस्य जातु मरुतः प्रतीपगाः R.11.58. -गमनम्, -गतिः f. retrograde motion; अम्भसामोघसंरोधः प्रतीपगमनादिव Ku.2.25. -तरणम् going or sailing against the stream; स्रोतोजवोह्य- मानस्य प्रतीपतरणं हि तत् V.2.5. -दर्शिनी a woman. -दीपकम् a particular figure of speech. -वचनम् 1 contradiction. -2 a perverse or evasive manner of speaking. -विपाकिन् a. producing the opposite result (recoiling on the doer); फलमनुभवत्युग्रं पापः प्रतीपविपाकिनः Māl.5.26.
prātīpika प्रातीपिक a. (-की f.) Reverse, contrary, retrograde.
baliṣṇu बलिष्णु a. Dishonoured, degraded, despised (अप- मानित).
brāhmaṇa ब्राह्मण a. (-णी f.) [ब्रह्म वेदं शुद्धं चैतन्यं वा वेत्त्वधीते वा अण्] 1 Belonging to a Brāhmaṇa. -2 Befitting a Brāhmaṇa. -3 Given by a Brāhmaṇa. -4 Relating to religious worship. -5 One who knows Brahma. -णः 1 A man belonging to the first of the four original castes of the Hindus, a Brāhmaṇa (born from the mouth of the puruṣa); ब्राह्मणो$स्य मुखमासीत् Rv.1.9. 12; Ms.1.31,96; (जन्मना ब्राह्मणो ज्ञेयः संस्कारैर्द्विज उच्यते । विद्यया याति विप्रत्वं त्रिभिः श्रोत्रिय उच्यते ॥ or जात्या कुलेन वृत्तेन स्वाध्यायेन श्रुतेन च । एभिर्युक्तो हि यस्तिष्ठेन्नित्यं स द्विज उच्यते ॥). -2 A priest, theologian. -3 An epithet of Agni. -4 N. of the twentyeighth Nakṣatra. -णम् 1 An assemblage or society of Brāhmaṇas. -2 That portion of the Veda which states rules for the employment of the hymns at the various sacrifices, their origin and detailed explanation, with sometimes lengthy illustrations in the shape of legends or stories. It is distinct from the Mantra portion of the Veda. -3 N. of that class of the Vedic works which contain the Brāhmaṇa portion (regarded as Śruti or part of the revelation like the hymns themselves). Each of the four Vedas has its own Brāhmaṇa or Brāhmaṇas :-ऐतरेय or आश्व- लायन and कौषीतकी or सांख्यायन belonging to the Ṛigveda; शतपथ to the Yajurveda, पञ्चविंश and षड्विंश and six more to the Sāmaveda, and गोपथ to the Atharvaveda. -4 The Soma vessel of the Brahman priest. -Comp. -अतिक्रमः offensive or disrespectful conduct towards Brāhmaṇas, insult to Brāhmaṇas; ब्राह्मणातिक्रमत्यागो भवता- मेव भूतये Mv.2.1. -अगर्शनम् absence of Brahmanical instruction or guidance; वृषलत्वं गता लोके ब्राह्मणादर्शनेन च Ms.1.43. -अपाश्रयः seeking shelter with Brāhmaṇas. -अभ्युपपत्तिः f. protection or preservation of, or kindness shown to, a Brāhmaṇa; ब्राह्मणाभ्युपपत्तौ च शपथे नास्ति पातकम् Ms.8.112. -आत्मक a. belonging to Brāhmaṇas. -घ्नः the slayer of a Brāhmaṇa; स्त्रीबाल- ब्राह्मणघ्नांश्च हन्याद् द्विट्सेविनस्तथा Ms.9.232. -चाण्डालः 1 a degraded or outcast Brāhmaṇa; यथा ब्राह्मणचाण्डालः पूर्व- दृष्टस्तथैव सः Ms.9.87. -2 the son of a Śūdra father by a Brāhmaṇa woman. -जातम्, -जातिः f. the Brāhmaṇa caste. -जीविका the occupation or means of livelihood prescribed for a Brāhmaṇa; अध्यापनमध्ययनं यजनं याजनं तथा । दानं प्रतिग्रहश्चैव षट्कर्माण्यग्रजन्मनः ॥ षण्णां तु कर्मणामस्य त्रीणि कर्माणि जीविका । याजनाध्यापने चैव विशुद्धाच्च प्रतिग्रहः ॥. -द्रव्यम्, -स्वम् a Brāhmaṇa's property. -निन्दकः a blasphemer or reviler of Brāhmaṇas. -प्रसंगः the applicability of the term Brāhmaṇa. -प्रातिवेश्यः a neighbouring Brāhmaṇa; ब्राह्मणप्रातिवेश्यानामेतदेवानिमन्त्रणे Y.2.263. -प्रियः N. of Viṣṇu. -ब्रुवः one who pretends to be a Brāhmaṇa, one who is a Brāhmaṇa only in name and neglects the duties of his caste; बहवो ब्राह्मणब्रुवा निवसन्ति Dk.; सममब्राह्मणे दानं द्विगुणं ब्राह्मणब्रुवे Ms.7.85;8.2. -भावः the rank or condition of a Brāhmaṇa. -भूयिष्ठ a. consisting for the most part of Brāhmaṇas. -यष्टिका, -यष्टी Clerodendrum Siphonantus (Mar. भारंग). -वधः the murder of a Brāhmaṇa, Brahmanicide. -वाचनम् the recitation of benedictions. -संतर्पणम् feeding or satisfying Brāhmaṇas.
bhaṭaḥ भटः [भट्-अच्] 1 A warrior, soldier, combatant; दीन परिजनकृताश्रुजलो न भटीजनः स्थिरमना विचक्लमे Śi.15.93; तद्भटचातुरीतुरी N.1.12; वादित्रसृष्टिर्घटते भटस्य 22.22; Bk. 14.11. -2 A mercenary, hired soldier, hireling. -3 An outcast, a barbarian. -4 A demon. -5 N. of a degraded tribe. -6 A servant, slave. -टा Coloquintida (इंद्रवारुणी). -Comp. -पेटकम् a troop of soldiers. -बलाग्रः a hero; Buddh. (-ग्रम्) an army.
madguḥ मद्गुः [मस्ज्-उ न्यक्वा˚; cf. Uṇ.1.7] 1 A kind of aquatic bird, a cormorant or driver; मांसं गृधो वपां मद्गुः (भवति) Ms.12.63. -2 A kind of snake. -3 A kind of wild animal. -4 A kind of galley or vessel of war; को$पि मद्गुरभ्यधावत् Dk. -5 N. of a degraded mixed tribe, the offspring of a Brāhmaṇa by a woman of the bard class; see Ms.1.48. -6 An outcast.
madguraḥ मद्गुरः [मद् गुक् उरच् न्यङक्वा˚; cf. Uṇ.4.41] 1 A diver, pearl-fisher. -2 A kind of sheat-fish. -3 N. of a degraded mixed tribe; see मद्गु (5).
madraka मद्रक a. Belonging to, or produced in, Madra. -कः A ruler or inhabitant of Madra. -काः (pl.) N. of a degraded tribe in the south.
manda मन्द a. [मन्द्-अच्] 1 Slow, tardy, inactive, lazy, dull, loitering; (न) भिन्दन्ति मन्दां गतिमश्वमुख्यः Ku.1.11; तच्चरितं गोविन्दे मनसिजमन्दे सखी प्राह Gīt.6. -2 Cold, indifferent, apathetic. -3 Stupid, dull-witted, foolish, ignorant, weak-brained; प्रयोजनमनुद्दिश्य न मन्दो$पि प्रवर्तते Subhāṣ.; मन्दो$प्यमन्दतामेति संसर्गेण विपश्चितः M.2.8; मन्दः कवियशःप्रार्थी गमिष्याम्युपहास्यताम् R.1.3; द्विषन्ति मन्दाश्चरितं महात्मनाम् Ku.5.75. -4 Low, deep, hollow (as sound). -5 Soft, faint, gentle; as in मन्दस्मितम्. -6 Small, little, slight; मन्दोदरी; see अ ind. 1 (d) also. -7 Weak, defective, feeble, as मन्दाग्नि. -8 Unlucky, unhappy. -9 Faded. -1 Wicked, vile. -11 Addicted to drinking. -12 Weak, slack (as a bow). -13 Sick, afflicted with disease. -14 Independent (स्वतन्त्र). -न्दः 1 The planet Saturn. -2 An epithet of Yama. -3 The dissolution of the world. -4 A kind of elephant; मन्दो$पि नाम न महानवगृह्य साध्यः Śi.5.49 (where मन्द means 'a fool' also). -5 The apsis of a planet's course. -न्दा A pot, vessel. -न्दम् ind. 1 Slowly, gradually, by degree; यातं यच्च नितम्बयो- र्गुरुतया मन्दं विलासादिव Ś.2.2. -2 Gently, softly, not violently; मन्दं मन्दं नुदति पवनश्चानुकूलो यथा त्वाम् Me.9. -3 Faintly, feebly, weakly, lightly. -4 In a low tone, deeply. -Comp. -अक्ष a. weak-eyed. (-क्षम्) sense of shame, modesty, bashfulness; मन्दाक्षं ह्रीस्त्रपा व्रीडा लज्जा सा$पत्रपा$न्यतः Ak; मन्दाक्षमन्दाक्षरमुद्रमुक्त्वा N.3.61;14.47; 22.33. -अग्नि a. having a weak digestion. (-ग्निः) slowness of digestion. -अनिलः a gentle breeze. -असु a. having weak or faint breath. -आक्रान्ता N. of a metre; see App.I; सुवशा कालिदासस्य मन्दाक्रान्ता प्रवल्गति । सदश्व- दमकस्येव काम्बोजतुरगाङ्गना ॥ According to prof. Sukumāra Sen, Kālidāsa is the inventor of this metre. -आचार a. badly conducted. -आत्मन् a. dull-witted, silly, ignorant; मन्दात्मानुजिघृक्षया Malli. -आदर a. 1 having little respect for, disregarding, caring little for. -2 neglectful. -आस्यम् shyness. -उच्चः the upper apsis of the course of a planet. -उत्साह a. discouraged, dispirited; मन्दोत्साहः कृतो$स्मि मृगयापवादिना माढव्येन Ś.2. -उदरी N. of the wife of Rāvaṇa, regarded as one of the five very chaste women; cf. अहल्या. She advised her husband to deliver Sītā to Rāma and thus save himself from certain ruin, but he did not heed her; मन्दोदरीकुटिलकोमलकेशपाशमन्दारदाममकरन्दरसं पिबन्तः P. R.1. 58. -उष्ण a. tepid, lukewarm. (-ष्णम्) gentle heat. -औत्सुक्य a. slackened in eagerness, cast down, disinclined; मन्दौत्सुक्यो$स्मि नगरगमनं प्रति Ś.1. -कर्ण a. slightly deaf; (Proverb:-बधिरान्मन्दकर्णः श्रेयान् 'something is better than nothing'). -कर्मन् a. inactive. -n. the process for determining the apsis of a planet's course. -कान्तिः the moon. -कारिन् a. acting slowly or foolishly. -गः Saturn. -गति, -गामिन् a. walking slowly, slow of pace. -चेतस् a. 1 dull-witted, silly, foolish. -2 absent-minded. -3 fainting away, scarcely conscious. -छाय a. dim, faint, lustreless; Me.82 (v. l.). -जननी the mother of Saturn. -जरस् a. slowly growing old. -धार a. flowing in a slow stream. -धी, -प्रज्ञ, -बुद्धि, -मति, -मेधस् a. dull-witted, silly, foolish. -परिधिः m. (in astr.) the epicycle of the apsis. -पुण्य a. unfortunate, ill-fated. -फलम् equation of the apsis. -भागिन्, -भाग्य, -भाज् unfortunate, ill-fated, wretched, miserable. -भास् a. dim, of fading lustre; सेनानिवेशान् पृथिवीक्षितो$पि जग्मुर्विभातग्रहमन्दभासः R.7.2. -मन्दम् ind. slowly, leisurely. -रश्मि a. dim. -विचेष्टित a. slowly moving. -विभव a. poor, impoverished; नश्यति विपुलमतेरपि बुद्धिः पुरुषस्य मन्दविभवस्य Pt.5.5. -विभ्रंश a. slightly purgative. -विसर्पिन् a. creeping along slowly (as a louse); cf. Pt.1.252 (N. of a louse). -वीर्य a. weak. -वृष्टिः f. slight rain. -स्मितम्, -हासः, -हास्यम् a gentle laugh, a smile.
mānaḥ मानः [मन्-घञ्] 1 Respect, honour, regard, respectful consideration; दारिद्र्यस्य परा मूर्तिर्यन्मानद्रविणाल्पता Pt.2.159; Bg.6.7; so मानधन &c. -2 Pride (in a good sense), self-reliance, self-respect; जन्मिनो मानहीनस्य तृणस्य च समा गतिः Pt.1.16; R.19.81. -3 Haughtiness, pride, conceit, self-confidence, vanity; मानाद् रावणः परदारान् अप्र- यच्छन् (विननाश) Kau. A.1.6. -4 A wounded sense of honour. -5 Jealous anger, anger excited by jealousy (especially in women); anger in general; मुञ्च मयि मान- मनिदानम् Gīt.1; माधवे मा कुरु मानिनि मानमये 9; त्यजत मानमलं बत विग्रहैः R.9.47; Śi. 9.84; Bv.2.56; Dk.2.3. -6 Opinion, conception. -7 Ved. Object, purpose. -नम् [मा-ल्युट्] 1 Measuring. -2 A measure, standard; माना- धीना मेयसिद्धिः Mīmāṁsā; निराकृतत्वाच्छ्रुतियुक्तिमानतः A. Rām. 7.5.57. -3 Dimension, computation. -4 A standard of measure, measuring rod, rule; परिमाणं पात्रमानं संख्यै- कद्यादिसंज्ञिका Śukra.2.344. -5 Proof, authority, means of proof or demonstration; ये$मी माधुर्यौजः प्रसादा रसमात्र- धर्मतयोक्तास्तेषां रसधर्मत्वे किं मानम् R. G.; मानाभावात् (frequently occurring in controversial language) Pad. D.4. 3. -6 Likeness, resemblance. -Comp. -अन्ध a. blinded by pride. -अर्ह a. worthy of honour; Ms.2.137. -अवभङ्गः destruction of pride or anger. -आसक्त a. given to pride, haughty, proud. -उत्साहः energy arising from self-confidence; Pt.1.226. -उन्नतिः f. great respect or honour; (सत्संगतिः) मनोन्नतिं दिशति पापमपाकरोति Bh.2.23. -उन्मादः infatuation of pride. -कलहः, -कलिः a quarrel caused by jealous anger; Amaru. -क्षतिः f., -भङ्गः, -हानिः f. injury reputation or honour, humiliation, mortification, insult, indignity. -ग्रन्थिः 1 injury to honour or pride. -2 violent anger. -ग्रहणम् fit of sulkiness. -द a. 1 showing respect. -2 proud; इत्थं मानद नातिदूरमुभयोरप्यावयोरन्तरम् Bh.3.24. -3 destroying pride. -4 a giver of honour (a mode of addressing lovers &c.). (-दः) a mystical name for the letter आ. (-दा) N. of the second digit of the moon. -दण्डः a measuring-rod; स्थितः पृथिव्या इव मानदण्डः Ku.1.1. -धन a. rich in honour; महौजसो मान- धना धनार्चिताः Ki.1.19. -धानिका a cucumber. -ध्मात a. puffed up with pride. -परिखण्डनम् mortification, humiliation. -भङ्गः see मानक्षति. -भाज् a. receiving honour from; राजस्नातकयोश्चैव स्नातको नृपमानभाक् Ms.2.139. -भृत्, पर a. possessing pride, extremely proud; प्रथमे मानभृतां न वृष्णयः Ki.2.44. -महत् a. rich or great in pride, greatly proud; किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसरः केसरी Bh.2. 29. -योगः the correct mode of measuring or weighing; मानयोगं च जानीयात्तुलायोगांश्च सर्वशः Ms.9.33. -रन्ध्रा a sort of clepsydra, a perforated water-vessel, which, placed in water and gradually filling, serves to measure time. -वर्जित a. 1 disgraced, dishonoured. -2 humble, lowly. -3 slanderous, libellous. -वर्धनम् indicating, increasing respect; यत्किंचिदेव देयं तु ज्यायसे मानवर्धनम् Ms.9.115. -विषमः one of the ways of embezzlement namely making use of false weights and measures; Kau. A.2.8.26. -सारः, -रम् a high degree of pride. -सूत्रम् 1 a measuring-cord; Dk.2.2. -2 a chain (of gold &c.) worn round the body.
mānāpyam मानाप्यम् A temporary degradation of a monk; Bhddh.
medaḥ मेदः 1 Fat. -2 A particular mixed tribe; cf. Ms. 1.36; Mb.13.22.22 (com. मेदा गोमहिष्यादीनां मृतानां मांसमश्नन्तः). -3 N. of a serpent-demon. -4 N. of a plant (अलंबुषा). -दा A root resembling ginger (one of the eight principal medicines). -Comp. -कृत् n. the flesh. -जम् a species of bdellium. -भिल्लः N. of a degraded tribe.
yathā यथा ind. [यद् प्रकारे थाल्] 1 Used by itself यथा has the following senses :-- (a) as, in the manner mentioned; यथाज्ञापयति महाराजः 'as Your Majesty orders;' (b) namely, as follows; तद् यथानुश्रूयते Pt.1; U.2.4; (c) as, like (showing comparison, and used to express the point of similarity); आसीदियं दशरथस्य गृहे यथा श्रीः U.4.6; Ku.4.34; प्रभावप्रभवं कान्तं स्वाधीनपतिका यथा (न मुञ्चति) K. P.1; (d) as, as for example, for instance; यत्र यत्र धूमस्तत्र तत्र वह्निर्यथा महानसे T. S. कुर्युः कृत्यमकृत्यं वा उष्ट्रे काकादयो यथा Pt.1.288; (e) that (used to introduce direct assertions with or without इति at the end); अकथितो$पि ज्ञायत एव यथायमाभोगस्तपोवनस्येति Ś.1; विदितं खलु ते यथा स्मरः क्षणमप्युत्सहते न मां विना Ku.4.36; (f) so that, in order that; दर्शय तं चौरसिंहं यथा व्यापादयामि Pt.1. -2 Used correlatively with तथा, यथा has the following senses :-- (a) as, so (in which case एवम् and तद्वत् often take the place of तथा); यथा वृक्षस्तथा फलम् or यथा बीजं तथाङ्कुरः; Bg.11.29; in this case एव is frequently added to either यथा or तथा or to both to make the equality of relation more marked or striking; वधूचतुष्के$पि यथैव शान्ता प्रिया तनूजास्य तथैव सीता U.4.16; न तथा बाधते स्कन्धो (or शीतम्) यथा बाधति बाधते; (as much-as, as-as); Ku.6.7; U.2.4; V.4.33. In this sense तथा is often omitted, in which case यथा has sense (c) in 1 above. (b) so-that, तथा standing for 'so', and यथा for 'that'; यथा बन्धुजनशोच्या न भवति तथा निर्वाहय Ś.3; तथा प्रयतेथा यथा पहस्यसे जनैः K.19; तस्मान्मुच्ये यथा तात संविधातुं तथार्हसि R.1.72;3.66;14.66;15.68. (c) since-therefore, as (because) -so; यथा इतोमुखागतैरपि कलकलः श्रुतस्तथा तर्कयामि &c. Māl.8; sometimes तथा is omitted; मन्दं मन्दं नुदति पवनश्चानुकूलो यथा त्वां ... सेविष्यन्ते भवन्तं बलाकाः Me.9. (d) if-then, as surely as-so surely (a strong form of assertion or adjuration); वाङ्मनःकर्मभिः पत्यौ व्यभिचारो यथा न मे । तथा विश्वंभरे देवि मामन्तर्धातुमर्हसि R.15.81; यथा यथा- तथा तथा the more-the more, the less-the less; यथा यथा भाषसि धर्मसंमितं तथा तथा मे त्वयि भक्तिरुत्तमा Mb.; Śi.17.43; यथा यथा यौवनमतिचक्राम तथा तथावर्धतास्य संतापः K.59; Ms. 8.286;12.73; यथा तथा in any manner, in whatever way; यथा तथा यापयंस्तु सा ह्यस्य कृतकृत्यता Ms.4.17; यथैव just as; यथा तथा as much as; यथा तथा भवतु whatever may be the case; यथा कथंचित् anyhow, somehow or other. N. B. As the first member of Avyayībhāva comp. यथा is usually translated by 'according to, according as, in accordance with, in conformity to, in proportion to, not exceeding'; see compounds below. -Comp. -अंशम्, -अंशतस् ind. in due proportions, proportionately. -अधिकारम् ind. according to authority. -अधीत a. as read or studied, conformable to the text. (-तम्) ind. according to the text. -अनुपूर्वम्, -अनुपूर्व्यम्, -अनुपूर्व्या ind. in regular order or succession, successively. -अनुभूतम् ind. 1 according to experience. -2 by previous experience. -अनुरूपम् ind. in exact conformity, properly. -अनूक्तम् ind. as said or told; मया यथानूक्तमवादि ते हरेः कृतावतारस्य सुमित्र चेष्टितम् Bhāg.3.19.32. -अभिप्रेत, -अभिमत, -अभिलषित, -अभीष्ट a. as wished, intended or desired, agreeably to desire. (-तम् &c.) ind. according to one's wish, at pleasure, agreeably to one's desire. -अभिरुचित a. pleasant, agreeable. -अर्थ a. 1 conformable to truth, true, real, correct; सौम्येति चाभाष्य यथार्थभाषी R.14.44; so यथार्थानुभवः 'correct or right perception'; यथार्थवक्ता &c. -2 conformable to the true meaning; true to the sense, right, appropriate, significant; करिष्यन्निव नामास्य (i. e. शत्रुघ्न) यथार्थमरिनिग्रहात् R.15.6; (करिष्यते) युधि सद्यः शिशुपालतां यथार्थाम् Śi.16.85; Ki.8.48; Ku.2.16. -3 fit suitable. (-र्थम्, -अर्थतः ind. truly, rightly; fitly, suitably, properly.) ˚अक्षर a. signficant or true to the syllable; यस्मिन्नीश्वर इत्यनन्यविषयः शब्दो यथार्थाक्षरः V.1.1. ˚नामन् a. one whose name is true to its meaning or fully significant (whose deeds are according to his name); ध्रुवसिद्धेरपि यथार्थनाम्नः सिद्धिं न मन्यते M.4; परंतपो नाम यथार्थनामा R.6.21. ˚वर्णः a spy (see यथार्हवर्ण). (यथार्थता 1 suitableness, fitness. -2 propriety. -3 accuracy, genuineness, correctness.) -अर्ह a. 1 according to merit, as deserving. -2 appropriate, suitable, just. -3 as agreeable; यथार्हजलेन हृद्यगन्धेन स्नातः Dk.2.7. ˚वर्णः a spy, an emissary. -अर्हम्, -अर्हतः ind. according to merit or worth; यथार्हमन्यैरनुजीविलोकं संभावयामास यथाप्रधानम् R.16.4. -अर्हणम् ind. 1 according to propriety. -2 according to worth or merit. -अवकाशम् ind. 1 according to room or space. -2 as occasion may occur, according to occasion, leisure or propriety. -3 in the proper place; प्रालम्बमुत्कृष्य यथावकाशं निनाय R.6.14. -अवस्थम् ind. according to the condition or circumstances. -आख्यात a. as mentioned before, before mentioned. -आख्यानम् ind. as before stated. -आगत a. foolish, stupid. (-तम्) ind. as one came, by the same way as one came; यथागतं मातलिसारथिर्ययौ R.3.67. -आगमम् ind. according to tradition, as handed down from generation to generation. -आचारम् ind. as customary or usual. -आम्नातम्, आम्नायम् ind. as laid down in the Vedas. -आरम्भम् ind. according to the beginning, in regular order or succession. -आवासम् ind. according to one's dwelling, each to his own dwelling. -आशयम् ind. 1 according to wish or intention. -2 according to the agreement. -आश्रमम् ind. according to the Āśrama or period in one's religious life. -आश्रयम् ind. according to substratum; चित्रं यथाश्रयमृते Sāṅkhya K.41. -इच्छ, -इष्ट, -ईप्सित a. according to wish or desire, agreeably to one's desire, as much as desired, as desired or wished for. (-च्छम्, -ष्टम्, -तम्) ind. 1 according to wish or desire, at will or pleasure; यथेष्टं चेष्टन्ते स्फुटकुचतटाः पश्य कुलटाः Udb. -2 as much as may be wanted, to the heart's content; यथेष्टं बुभुजे मांसम् Ch. P.3. -ईक्षितम् ind. as personally seen, as actually perceived. -उक्त, -उदित a. as said or told above, aforesaid, above-mentioned; यथोक्ताः संवृत्ताः Pt.1; यथोक्त- व्यापारा Ś.1; R.2.7; ततः स्वगृहमेत्य यथोक्तमर्थत्यागं कृत्वा Dk.2.2. -उचित a. suitable, proper, due, fit. (-तम्) ind. duly, suitably, properly; आगतं तु भयं वीक्ष्य नरः कुर्याद् यथोचितम् H. -उत्तरम् ind. in regular order or succession, one after another; संबन्धो$त्र यथोत्तरम् S. D. 729; श्रैष्ठ्यमेषां यथोत्तरम् Ms.12.38; यथोत्तरेच्छा हि गुणेषु कामिनः Ki.8.4. -उत्साहम् ind. 1 according to one's power or might. -2 with all one's might. -उद्गत a. without sense, stupid. -उद्गमनम् in ascending proportion. -उद्दिष्ट a. as indicated or described. (-ष्टम्) or -उद्देशम् ind. in the manner indicated. -उपचारम् ind. as politeness or courtesy requires. -उपजोषम् ind. according to pleasure or desire; यथोपजोषं वासांसि परिधाया- हतानि ते Bhāg.8.9.15. -उपदिष्ट a. as indicated. -उपदेशम् ind. as advised or instructed. -उपपत्ति ind. 1 as may be fit. -2 as may happen. -उपपन्न a. just as happened to be at hand, natural; यथोपपन्नरज्जुबद्धः Dk.2.4. -उपमा (in Rhet.) a comparison expressed by यथा. -उप- -योगम् ind. according to use or requirements, according to circumstances. -उपाधि ind. according to the condition or supposition. -औचित्यम् propriety, suitableness, fitness. -ऋतु ind. according to the right season; यथर्तुवर्षी भगवान् न तथा पाकशासनः Mb.3.188.5. -कथित a. as already mentioned. -कर्तव्यम् what is right to be done. -कर्म ind. according to one's duties or circumstances. -कल्पम् ind. according to rule or ritual. -काम a. conformable to desire. (-मम्) ind. agreeably to desire, at will or pleasure, to the heart's content; यथाकामार्चितार्थिनाम् R.1.6;4.51. -कामिन् a. free, unrestrained. -कारम् ind. in whatever way; P.III.4.28. -कालः the right or due time, proper time; यथाकालप्रबोधिनाम् R.1.6. (-लम्) ind. at the right time, opportunely, seasonably; सोपसर्पैर्जजागार यथाकालं स्वपन्नपि R.17.51. -कृत a. as agreed upon, done according to rule or custom, customary; स यदि प्रतिपद्येत यथान्यस्तं यथाकृतम् Ms.8.183. (-तम्) ind. according to the usual practice. -क्लृप्ति ind. in a suitable way. -क्रमम्, -क्रमेण ind. in due order or succession, regularly, in due form, properly; यथाक्रमं पुंसवनादिकाः क्रियाः R.3.1;9.26. -क्षमम् ind. according to one's power, as much as possible. -क्षिप्रम् ind. as quickly as possible. -क्षेमेण ind. safely, comfortably. -खेलम् ind. playfully; V. -गुणम् ind. according to qualities or endowments; Ch. Up. -चित्तम् ind. according to will; Māl. -जात a. 1 foolish, senseless, stupid. -2 barbarous, outcast. -ज्ञानम् ind. to the best of one's knowledge or judgment. -ज्येष्ठम् ind. according to rank, by seniority. -तत्त्वम् ind. 1 according to actual facts, actually, as the case really may be. -तथ a. 1 true, right. -2 accurate, exact. (-थम्) a narrative of the particulars or details of anything, a detailed or minute account. (-थम्) ind. 1 exactly, precisely; विभाव्यन्ते यथातथम् Bhāg. -2 fitly, properly, as the case really may be; Mb.3. -तथ्यम्, -तथ्येन ind. truly, really. -तृप्ति ind. to the heart's content. -दर्शनम् ind. according to observation. -दिक्, -दिशम् ind. in all directions. -निकायम् ind. according to body; Śvet. Up. -निर्दिष्ट a. 1 as mentioned before, as specified above; यथानिर्दिष्टव्यापारा सखी. -2 as prescribed or laid down; यथानिर्दिष्टं संपादितं व्रतम् V.3. -न्यायम् ind. justly, rightly, properly; प्रतिपूज्य यथान्यायम् Ms.1.1. -न्यासम् ind. according to the text of a Śūtra, as written down. -न्युप्त a. as placed on the ground or offered; अवजिघ्रेच्च तान् पिण्डान् यथान्युप्तान् समाहितः Ms.3.218. -पण्यम् ind. according to the (value or kind of) commodities; शुल्क- स्थानेषु कुशलाः यथापण्यविचक्षणाः Ms.8.398 (v. l.). -पुरम् ind. as before, as on previous occasions; यथापुरमविज्ञाय स्वार्थलिप्सुमपण्डिताम् Rām.2.1.2. -पूर्व, -पूर्वक a. being as before, former; R.12.41. (-र्वम्) -पूर्वकम् ind. 1 as before; सर्वाणि ज्ञातिकार्याणि यथापूर्वं समाचरेत् Ms.11.187. -2 in due order or succession, one after another; एते मान्या यथापूर्वम् Y.1.35. -प्रत्यर्हम् ind. according to merit. -प्रदिष्टम् ind. as suitable or proper. -प्रदेशम् ind. 1 in the proper or suitable place; यथाप्रदेशं विनिवेशितेन Ku. 1.49; आसञ्जयामास यथाप्रदेशं कण्ठे गुणम् R.6.83; Ku.7.34. -2 according to direction or precept. -3 on all sides. -प्रधानम्, -प्रधानतः ind. according to rank or position, according to precedence; आलोकमात्रेण सुरानशेषान् संभावया- मास यथाप्रधानम् Ku.7.46. -प्रयोगम् ind. 1 according to usage or practice. -2 as found by experiment. -प्रस्तावम् ind. on the first suitable occasion. -प्रस्तुतम् ind. 1 at last, at length. -2 conformably to the circumstances. -प्राणम् ind. according to strength with all one's might. -प्राप्त a. 1 suitable to circumstances. -2 following from a previous grammatical rule; Kāśi. on P.III.2.135. (-प्तम्) ind. regularly, properly. -प्रार्थितम् ind. as requested. -बलम् ind. 1 to the best of one's power, with all one's might; यथाबलं च विभज्य गृह्णीत Dk.2.8. -2 according to the (condition of) army or number of forces; Ms. -बुद्धि, -मति ind. to the best of one's knowledge. -भक्त्या with entire devotion. -भागम्, -भागशः ind. 1 according to the share of each, proportionately; यथाभागशो$मी वो गन्धाः -2 each in his respective place; यथाभागमवस्थिताः Bg.1.11. -3 in the proper place; यथाभागमवस्थिते$पि R.6.19. -भावः 1 destiny. -2 proper relation. -भूतम् ind. according to what has taken place, according to truth, truly, exactly. -भूयस् ind. according to seniority. -मुखीन a. looking straight at (with gen.); (मृगः) यथामुखीनः सीतायाः पुप्लुवे बहु लोभयन् Bk.5.48. -मूल्य a. worth the price, accordant with the price. -यथम् ind. 1 as in fit, fitly, properly; यथायथं ताः सहिता नभश्चरैः Ki.8.2. -2 in regular order, severally, each in its proper place, respectively; असक्तमाराधयतो यथायथम् Ki.1.11; बीजवन्तो मुखाद्यर्था विप्रकीर्णा यथायथम् S. D.337. -3 by degrees, gradually; सर्वे मायामानवा यथायथमन्तर्भावं गताः Dk.1.5. -युक्तम्, -योगम् ind. according to circumstances, fitly, suitably. -योग्य a. suitable, fit, proper, right. -रसम् ind. according to the sentiments. -रुचम्, -रुचि ind. according to one's liking or taste; वदन्ति चैतत् कवयो यथारुचम् Bhāg.2.5.21. -रूपम् ind. 1 according to form or appearance. -2 duly, properly, fitly. -लब्ध a. as actually in hand. -वस्तु ind. as the fact stands, exactly, accurately, truly. -विध a. of such kind or sort. -विधि ind. according to rule or precept, duly, properly; यथाविधि हुताग्नीनाम् R.1.6; संचस्कारोभयप्रीत्या मैथिलेयौ यथाविधि 15.31;3.7; Ms.11.191. -विनियोगम् ind. in the succession or order stated. -विभवम् ind. in proportion to one's income, according to means. -वीर्य a. of whatever strength. (-र्यम्) ind. in respect of manliness or courage. -वृत्त a. as happened, done or acted. (-त्तम्) 1 the actual facts, the circumstances or details of an event.-2 a former event. -वृद्धम् ind. according to age or seniority; गगनादवतीर्णा सा यथावृद्धपुरःसरा Ku.6. 49. -व्युत्पत्ति ind. 1 according to the degree of education or culture. -2 according to the derivation. -शक्ति, -शक्त्या ind. to the best of one's power, as far as possible. -शब्दार्थम् ind. in keeping with or according to the sense conveyed by the (sacred) text; इह शब्द- लक्षणे कर्मणि यथाशब्दार्थं प्रवृत्तिः ŚB. on MS.11.1.26. -शास्त्रम् ind. according to the scriptures, as the law ordains; सर्वे$पि क्रमशस्त्वेते यथाशास्त्रं निषेविताः Ms.6.88. -शीघ्रम् ind. as quickly as possible. -शीलम् ind. in accordance with one's temper. -श्रुत a. according to the report. -श्रुतम् -ति ind. 1 as heard or reported. -2 (यथाश्रुति) according to Vedic precepts; अस्मात् परं बत यथाश्रुति संभृतानि को नः कुले निवपनानि करिष्यतीति Ś.6.25. -श्रेष्ठम् ind. in order of precedence or merit. -श्लक्ष्ण a. behaving in such a way that the weaker is placed first. -संस्थम् ind. according to circumstances. -संख्यम् a figure of speech in Rhetoric; यथासंख्यं क्रमेणैव क्रमिकाणां समन्वयः K. P.1; e. g. शत्रुं मित्रं विपत्तिं च जय रञ्जय भञ्जय Chandr.5.17. (-ख्यम्), -संख्येन ind. according to number, respectively, number for number; हृत्कण्ठतालुगाभिस्तु यथासंख्यं द्विजातयः (शुध्येरन्) Y.1.21. -समयम् ind. 1 at the proper time. -2 according to agreement or established usage. -संभव a. possible. -संभावित a. suitable, appropriate. -सर्वम् ind. in all particulars. -सवनम् ind. according to the time or season. -सारम् ind. according to quality or goodness. -सुखम् ind. 1 at will or pleasure. -2 at ease, comfortably, pleasantly, so as to give pleasure; अङ्के निधाय करभोरु यथासुखं ते संवाहयामि चरणावुत पद्मताम्रौ Ś.3.2; R.9.48; Ms.4.43. -स्थानम् the right or proper place. (-नम्) ind. 1 in the proper place; duly, properly. -2 instantly. -3 according to rank. -स्थित a. 1 according to circumstances or actual facts, as it stands; रामं यथास्थितं सर्वं भ्राता ब्रूते स्म विह्वलः Bk.6.8. -2 right, proper, fit. (-तम्) ind. 1 truly, properly. -2 according to circumstances. -स्थिति ind. as usual, according to state or circumstances. -स्थूलम् ind. without details. -स्व a. each according to (his or her) own; यथास्वान् जग्मुरालयान् Mb.12.44.14. -स्वम् ind. 1 each his own, respectively; अध्यासते चीरभृतो यथास्वम् R.13.22; Ki.14.43. -2 individually; यथास्वमाश्रमैश्चके वर्णैरपि षडंशभाक् R.17.65. -3 duly, properly, rightly; यथास्वं ग्राहकान्येषां शब्दादीनामिमानि तु Mb.3.211.13.
rājan राजन् m. [राज्-कनिन् रञ्जयति रञ्ज्-कनिन् नि ˚ वा Uṇ.1.145] A king, ruler, prince, chief (changed to राजः at the end of Tat. comp.); वङ्गराजः, महाराजः &c.; तथैव सो$भूदन्वर्थो राजा प्रकृतिरञ्जनात् R.4.12; पित्रा न रञ्जितास्तस्य प्रजास्तेनानु- रञ्जिताः । अनुरागात्ततस्तस्य नाम राजेत्यभाषत ॥ V. P. -2 A man of the military casts; a Kṣatriya; Śi 14.14. -3 N. of Yudhiṣṭhira. -4 N. of Indra. -5 The moon; राजप्रियाः कैरविण्यो रमन्ते मधुपैःसह Bv.1.126. -6 Lord, master. -7 N. of Pṛithu. -8 A Yakṣa; तं राजराजानु- चरो$स्य साक्षात् Ki.3.3. -9 The Soma plant; ऐन्द्रश्च विधिवद्दत्तो राजा चाभिषुतो$नघः Rām.1.14.6; Bṛi. Up.1.3. 24. -Comp. -अग्निः wrath of a king. -अङ्गनम् a royal court, the court-yard of a palace. -अदनः 1 the Piyāla tree. -2 The seed of the tree Chirongia Sapida; राजादनं कन्दरालम् Śiva B.3.15. -अधिकारिन्, -अधिकृतः 1 a government officer or official. -2 a judge. -अधिराजः, -इन्द्रः a king of kings, a supreme king, paramount sovereign, an emperor. -अधिष्ठानम् the capital of a king, metropolis. -अध्वन् m. a principal or royal road, main street, highway. -अनकः 1 an inferior king, a petty prince. -2 a title of respect formerly given to distinguished scholars and poets. -अन्नम् 1 rice grown in Āndhra. -2 food obtained from a king; राजान्नं तेज आदत्ते Ms.4.218. -अपसदः an unworthy or degraded king. -अभिषेकः coronation of a king. -अम्लः a kind of vegetable plant; Rumex Vesicarius (Mar. चुका). -अर्कः Calotropis Gigantea (मन्दार; Mar. रुई). -अर्हम् 1 aloewood, a species of sandal. -2 a kind of rice (राजान्न). -अर्हणम् a royal gift of honour. -अहिः a large snake (having two mouths). -आज्ञा a king's edict, an ordinance, a royal decree. -आभरणम् a king's ornament. -आम्रः a superior kind of mango. -आवर्तः a diamond of an inferior quality. -2 a diamond from Virāṭa country. -आवलिः, -ली a royal dynasty or genealogy. -आसनम् a throne. -आसन्दी Ved. a stand on which the Soma is placed. -इन्दुः an excellent king; दिलीप इति राजेन्दुरिन्दुः क्षीरनिधाविव R.1.12. -इष्टः a kind of onion. (-ष्टम्) = राजान्न q. v. -उपकरणम् (pl.) the paraphernalia of a king, the insignia of royalty. -उपसेवा royal service; Ms.3.64. -ऋषिः (राजऋषिः or राजर्षिः) a royal sage, a saint-like prince, a man of the Kṣatriya caste who, by his pious life and austere devotion, comes to be regarded as a sage or riṣi; e. g. पुरूरवस्, जनक, विश्वामित्र. -कन्या, -कन्यका a princess. -करः a tax or tribute paid to the king. -करणम् a law-court. -कर्णः an elephant's tusk. -कर्तृ m. a person who assists at a coronation; समेत्य राजकर्तारः सभामीयुर्द्विजातयः Rām.2.67.2. -कर्मन् n. 1 the duty of a king. -2 royal service; cf. Ms.7.125. -कला a crescent of the moon (the 16th part of the moon's disc). -कलिः a bad king; cf. अशरण्यः प्रजानां यः स राजा कलिरुच्यते Mb.12.12.29. -कार्यम्, -कृत्यम् 1 state-affairs. -2 royal command. -कुमारः a prince. -कुलम् 1 a royal family, a king's family; अग्निरापः स्त्रियो मूर्खः सर्पो राजकुलानि च H.; नदीनां शस्त्रपाणीनां नखिनां शृङ्गिणां तथा । विश्वासो नैव कर्तव्यः स्त्रीषु राजकुलेषु च ॥ ibid. -2 the court of a king; आ दास्याः पुत्रि राजकुलं ल्येतत् Nāg.3.12/13. -3 a court of justice; (राजकुले कथ् or निविद् caus. means 'to sue one in a court of law, lodge a complaint against). -4 a royal palace. -5 a king, master (as a respectful mode of speaking). -6 a royal servant; बध्नन्ति घ्नन्ति लुम्पन्ति दृप्तं राजकुलानि वै Bhāg. 1.41.36. -कोशनिघण्टुः also -व्यवहारकोशः N. of a dictionary in Shivaji's time compiled by his minister Raghunātha Paṇḍita. -क्षवकः a kind of mustard. -गामिन् 1 a. escheating to the sovereign (as the property of a person having no heir). -2 brought before the king (as slander); Ms.11.55. -गिरिः N. of a mountain in Magadha. -गुरुः a royal counsellor. -गुह्यम् a royal mystery; राजविद्या राजगुह्यं पवित्रमिदमुत्तमम् Bg.9.2. -गृहम् 1 a royal dwelling, royal palace. -2 N. of a chief city in Magadha (about 75 or 8 miles from Pāṭaliputra). -ग्रीवः a kind of fish. -घ a. sharp, hot. (-घः) a king-killer, regicide. -चिह्नम् 1 insignia of royalty, regalia. -2 the stamp on a coin. -चिह्नकम् the organ of generation (उपस्थ). -जक्ष्मन् = राजयक्ष्मन् q. v. -तरङ्गिणी N. of a celebrated historical poem treating of the kings of Kāśmīra by Kalhaṇa. -तरुः the कर्णि- कार tree, -तालः, ताली the betel-nut tree; राजतालीवनध्वनिः R. -दण्डः 1 a king's sceptre. -2 royal authority. -3 punishment inflicted by a king. -4 fine payable to a king. -दन्तः (for दन्तानां राजा) the front tooth; राजौ द्विजानामिह राजदन्ताः N.7.46; 'राजन्ते सुतनोर्मनोरमतमास्ते राज- दन्ताः पुरः' (शृङ्गारधनदशतकम् 67). -दूतः a king's ambassador, an envoy. -दृशद् f. the larger or lower millstone. -देयम्, -भागम् the royal claim, tax; न वृत्त्या परितुष्यन्ति राजदेयं हरन्ति च Mb.12.56.59. -दौवारिकः 1 = राजद्वारिकः q. v. -2 a royal messenger; Hch.4. -द्रोहः high treason, sedition, rebellion. -द्रोहिन् m. a traitor. -द्वार् f., -द्वारम् the gate of royal palace; राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः Subhāṣ. -द्वारिकः a royal porter. -धर्मः 1 a king's duty. -2 a law or rule relating to kings (oft. in pl.). -धानम्, -धानकम्, -धानिका, -धानी the king's residence, the capital, metropolis, the seat of government; तौ दम्पती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं (प्रस्थापयामास) R.2.7. -धान्यम् Panicum Frumentaceum (Mar. सांवा). -धामन् n. a royal palace. -धुर् f., -धुरा the burden or responsibility of government. -नयः, -नीतिः f. administration of a state, administration of government, politics, statesmanship. -नामन् m. Trichosanthes Dioeca (Mar. पडवळ). -नारायणः (in music) a kind of measure. -निघण्टुः N. of a dictionary of Materia Medica. -नीलम् an emerald. -पट्टः 1 a diamond of inferior quality. -2 a royal fillet. -पट्टिका f. the Chātaka bird. -पदम् royalty, sovereignty. -पथः, -पद्धतिः f. = राजमार्ग q. v. -पिण्डः the maintenance given by a king; अवश्यं राजपिण्डस्तैर्निवेश्य इति मे मतिः Mb.3.36.16. -पिण्डा a species of date. -पुंस् m. a royal servant. -पुत्रः 1 a prince. -2 a Kṣatriya, a man of the military tribe. -3 the planet Mercury. -4 N. of a mixed caste. -5 a Rajpoot. -5 A kind of mango. -पुत्रिका 1 a kind of bird. -2 Princess. -पुत्री 1 a princess. -2 a female of the Rajpoota tribe. -3 N. of several plants:-- जाती, मालती, कटुतुम्बी &c. -4 a kind of perfume (रेणुका). -5 a musk rat. -6 a kind of metal; also राजपत्नी. -पुरम् a royal city. -पुरुषः 1 a king's servant. -2 a minister. -पुष्पः the नागकेसर tree. -पूगः a kind of Areca-nut palm; Bhāg.4.6.17. -पौरुषिकः a royal servant; Mb.13.126.24. -प्रकृतिः a king's minister. -प्रसादः royal favour. -प्रेष्यः a king's servant. (-ष्यम्) royal service (more correctly राजप्रैष्य). -फणिञ्झकः an orange tree. -वदरम् salt. -बीजिन्, -वंश्य a. a scion of royalty, of royal descent. -भट्टिका a species of water-fowl. -भृतः a king's soldier. -भृत्यः 1 a royal servant or minister. -2 any public or government officer. -भोगः a king's meal, royal repast. -भोग्यम् nutmeg. -भौतः a king's fool or jester. -मणिः a royal gem. -मन्त्रधरः, -मन्त्रिन् m. a king's counsellor. -महिषी the chief queen. -मार्गः 1 a highway, high road, a royal or main road, principal street. -2 the way, method or procedure of kings. -मार्तण्डः, -मृगाङ्कः (in music) a kind of measure. -माषः a kind of bean. -मुद्रा the royal seal. -यक्ष्मः, -यक्ष्मन् m. 'consumption of the moon', pulmonary consumption, consumption in general; राजयक्ष्मपरिहानिराययौ कामयानसमवस्थया तुलाम् R.19.5; राजयक्ष्मेव रोगाणां समूहः स महीभृताम् Śi.2.96; (for explanation of the word see Malli. thereon, as well as on Śi. 13.29). -यानम् a royal vehicle, a palanouin. -युध्वन् m. 1 a king's soldier. -2 one who fights with a king; P.III.2.95. -योगः 1 a configuration of planets, asterisms &c. at the birth of a man which indicates that he is destined to be a king. -2 an easy mode of religious meditation (fit for kings to practise), as distinguished form the more rigorous one called हठयोग q. v. -रङ्गम् silver. -राक्षसः a bad king. -राज् m. 1 a supreme king. -2 the moon. -राजः 1 a supreme king, sovereign lord, an emperor. -2 N. of Kubera; अन्तर्बाष्प- श्चिरमनुचरो राजराजस्य दध्यौ Me.3. -3 the moon. -राज्यम् the state or dignity of Kubera; स्वर्लोके राजराज्येन सो$भि- षिच्येत भार्गव Mb.13.85.53. -रीतिः f. bell-metal. -लक्षणम् 1 any mark on a man's body indicating future royalty. royal insignia, regalia. -लक्ष्मन् n. royal insignia. (-m.) N. of Yudhiṣṭhira. -लक्ष्मीः, -श्रीः f. the fortune or prosperity of a king (personified as a goddess), the glory or majesty of a king; स न्यस्तचिह्नामपि राजलक्ष्मीम् R.2.7. -लिङ्गम् a kingly mark. -लेखः a royal edict. -लोकः a. collection of princes or kings. -वंशः a dynasty of kings. -वंशावली genealogy of kings, royal pedigree. -वर्चसम् kingly rank or dignity. -वर्तः cloth of various colours. -वल्लभः 1 a king's favourite. -2 a kind of mango. -3 a kind of Jujube. -वसतिः 1 dwelling in a king's court. -2 a royal palace. -वाहः a horse. -वाह्यः a royal elephant. -विः the bluy jay. -विजयः (in music) a kind of Rāga. -विद्या 'royal policy', kingcraft, state-policy, statesmanship; Bg.9.2; (cf. राजनय); so -राजशास्त्रम्; वीराश्च नियतोत्साहा राजशास्त्रमनुष्ठिताः Rām.1. 7.12. -विहारः a royal convent. -वृक्षः the tree Cassia Fistula; गुच्छैः कृतच्छविरराजत राजवृक्षः Rām. Ch.5.9. -वृत्तम् the conduct or occupation of a king; (कच्चित्) प्रजाः पालयसे राजन् राजवृत्तेन धार्मिक Rām.1.52.7. -वृत्तिः the works of a king; प्रत्यक्षाप्रत्यक्षानुमेया हि राजवृत्तिः Kau. A.1.9. -शफरः a Hilsā fish; L. D. B. -शासनम् a royal edict; दिवा चरेयुः कार्यार्थं चिह्निता राजशासनैः Ms.1.55. -शृङ्गम् a royal umbrella with a golden handle. -शेखरः N. of a poet. -संसद् f., -सभा f. a court of justice. -सदनम् a palace. -सर्पः a kind of snake-devouring snake. -सर्षपः black mustard (the seed used as a weight; त्रसरेणवो$ष्टौ विज्ञेया लिक्षैका परिमाणतः । ता राजसर्षपस्तिस्रस्ते त्रयो गौरसर्षपः ॥ Ms.8.133). -सायुज्यम् sovereignty. -सारसः a peacock. -सूयः, -यम् 1 a great sacrifice performed by a universal monarch (in which the tributary princes also took part) at the time of his coronation as a mark of his undisputed sovereignty; राजा वै राजसूयेनेष्ट्वा भवति Śat Br.; cf. सम्राट् also; राजा तत्र सूयते तस्माद् राजसूयः । राज्ञो वा यज्ञो राजसूयः ŚB. on MS.4.4.1. -2 a lotus. -3 a mountain. - सौधः a king's palace. -स्कन्धः a horse. -स्थानाधिकारः Viceroyalty. -स्थानीयः a viceroy, governor. -स्वम् 1 royal property; राजस्वं श्रोत्रियस्वं च न भोगेन प्रणश्यति Ms.8.149. -2 tribute, revenue. -स्वर्णः a kind of thorn-apple. -स्वामिन् m. N. of Viṣṇu. -हंसः a flamingo (a sort of white goose with red legs and bill); संपत्स्यन्ते नभसि भवतो राजहंसाः सहायाः Me.11; कूजितं राजहंसानां नेदं नूपुरशिञ्जितम् V. -हत्या regicide. -हस्तिन् m. a royal elephant, i. e. a lordly and handsome elephant. -हासकः a kind of fish; L. D. B.
rudhira रुधिर a. [रुध्-किरच् Uṇ.1.5] Red, red-coloured. -रम् 1 Blood. -2 Saffron. -रः 1 The red colour. -2 The planet Mars; रोहिणीशकटमर्कनन्दनश्चेद् भिनत्ति रुधिरो$थवा शशी Pt.1.213. -3 A kind of precious stone. -Comp. -अन्धः N. of a hell. -अशनः 'a blood-eater', a demon, an evil spirit. -आख्यः a kind of precious stone. -आननम् one of the five retrograding motions of Mars. -आमयः hemorrhage, piles. -उद्गारिन् a. 1 emitting blood. -2 N. of a संवत्सर. -पायिन् m. a demon. -प्लावित a. soaked in blood. -लालस a. sanguinary. -लेपः a. spot of blood. -सार a. sanguine.
lāghavam लाघवम् [लघोर्भावः अण्] 1 Smallness, littleness. -2 Levity, lightness; अलसग्रहणं प्राप्तो दुर्मेधावी तथोच्यते । बुद्धिलाघवयुक्तेन जनेनादीर्धदर्शिना ॥ Mb.12.166.6. (com. लाघवं नीचता); cf. बुद्धिलाघव. -3 Thoughtlessness, frivolity. -4 Insignificance. -5 Disrespect, contempt, dishonour, degradation; सेवां लाघवकारिणीं कृतधियः स्थाने श्ववृत्तिं विदुः Mu.3.14; यास्यसि लाघवम् Bg.2.35. -6 Quickness, speed, rapidity; गतिर्वेगश्च तेजश्व लाघवं च महाकपे । पितुस्ते सदृशं वीर मारुतस्य महौजसः ॥ Rām.4.44.5. -7 Ease, facility. -8 Health, soundness of constitution. -9 Activity, dexterity; readiness; वियदभिपातलाघवेन Ki.7.21; हस्तलाघवम्. -1 Versatility; बुद्धिलाघवम्. -11 Brevity, conciseness (of expression); प्रसादरम्यमोजस्वि गरीयो लाघवान्वितम् Ki.11.38. -12 An explanation which is in consonance with the principle of economy of nature and involves simplicity of reasoning; (अल्पोपस्थितिसापेक्षत्वं लाघवम्); आकाशो लाघवादेकः Tarka. K. -13 Shortness of a syllable (in prosody). -Comp. -कारिन् disgraceful.
vakra वक्र a. 1 Crooked (fig. also), bent, curved, winding, tortuous; वक्रः पन्था यदपि भवतः प्रस्थितस्योत्तराशाम् Me. 27; Ku.3.29. -2 Roundabout, indirect, evasive, circuitous, equivocal, ambiguous (as a speech); किमेतैर्वक्रभणितैः Ratn.2; वक्रवाक्यरचनारमणीयः ...... सुभ्रुवां प्रववृते परिहासः Śi.1.12; see वक्रोक्ति also. -3 Curled, curling, crisped (as hair). -4 Retrograde (as motion). -5 Dishonest, fraudulent, crooked in disposition. -6 Cruel, malignant (as a planet); वक्राः स्युः पञ्चषष्ठे$र्के अतिवक्रा नगाष्टगे । नवमे दशमे चैव जायते सहजा गतिः ॥ Jyotistattvam. -7 Prosodially long. -क्रः 1 The planet Mars. -2 The planet Saturn. -3 N. of Śiva. -4 N. of the demon Tripura. -5 A nose. -क्रम् 1 The bend or arm of a river. -2 Retrograde motion (of a planet). -3 A form of fracture. -Comp. -अङ्गम् a crooked limb. (-ङ्गः) 1 a goose. -2 the ruddy goose. -3 a snake. -आख्यम् tin. -इतर a. straight. -उक्तिः f. a figure of speech consisting in the use of evasive speech or reply, either by means of a pun, or by an affected change of tone; Mammaṭa thus defines it :-- यदुक्तमन्यथा वाक्यमन्यथा- न्येन योज्यते । श्लेषेण काक्वा वा ज्ञेया सा वक्रोक्तिस्तथा द्विधा K. P.9; for example see the opening stanza in Mu. (धन्या केयं स्थिता ते &c.). -2 equivocation, insinuation, inuendo; सुबन्धुर्बाणभट्टश्च कविराज इति त्रयः । वक्रोक्तिमार्गनिपुणाश्चतुर्थो विद्यते न वा ॥. -3 sarcasm. -कण्टः the jujube tree. -कण्टकः the Khadira tree. -कीलः a curved iron for striking an elephant. -खड्गः, -खड्गकः a sabre, scimitar. -ग, -गत a. having a retrograde motion (as a planet). -गति, -गामिन् a. 1 winding, meandering. -2 fraudulent, dishonest. (-तिः f.) a crooked or tortuous motion, winding gait. -गुल्फः, -ग्रीवः a camel. -चञ्चुः a parrot. -तालम्, -ताली a particular wind-instrument. -तुण्डः 1 an epithet of Gaṇeśa. -2 a parrot. -दंष्ट्रः a boar. -दृश् a. looking obliquely, squinting. -दृष्टि a. 1 squint-eyed, squinting. -2 having a malignant or evil look. -3 envious. (-f.) squint, an oblique look. -घी a. dishonest, deceitful. -नक्रः 1 a parrot. -2 a low man. -नासिकः an owl. -पदम् a cloth marked with various patterns. -पुच्छः, -पुच्छिकः a dog. -पुष्पः the Palāśa tree. -प्लुत a. leaping in curves. -बालधिः, -लाङ्गूलः a dog. -भणितम् prevarication, evasion. -भावः 1 crookedness. -2 deceit. -रेखा a curved line. -वक्त्रः a hog. -संस्थ a. placed transversely.
vakratā वक्रता त्वम् 1 Crookedness. -2 Retrograde motion. -3 Failure, mishap. -4 Perverseness; dishonesty.
vakrin वक्रिन् a. 1 Crooked. -2 Retrograde. -m. A Jaina or Buddha.
vakrībhū वक्रीभू 1 P. 1 To become crooked. -2 To retrograde. -वक्रीभावः 1 Curve. -2 Dishonest or perverse disposition.
varṇaḥ वर्णः [वर्ण्-अच् Uṇ.3.1] 1 A colour, hue; अन्तः- शुद्धस्त्वमपि भविता वर्णमात्रेण कृष्णः Me.51. -2 A paint, dye, paint-colour; see वर्ण् (1). -3 Colour, complexion, beauty; विविक्तवर्णाभरणा सुखश्रुतिः Ki.14.3; त्वय्यादातुं जलमवनते शार्ङ्गिणो वर्णचौरे Me.48; R.8.42. -4 Look, countenance; मध्यस्थवर्ण इव दृश्यते Madhyamavyāyoga 1; किं त्वं शङ्कितवर्ण इव Chārudatta 4; अवदातिका परशङ्कितवर्णेव दृश्यते Pratimā 1. -5 A class of men, tribe, caste (especially applied to the four principal castes, ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, वैश्य and शूद्र); वर्णानामानुपूर्व्येण Vārt; न कश्चिद्वर्णानामपथमपकृष्टो$पि भजते Ś.5. 1; R.5.19. -6 A class, race, tribe, kind, species; as in सवर्णम् अक्षरम्; ब्रह्मणा पूर्वसृष्टं हि कर्मभिर्वर्णतां गतम् Mb.12. 188.1. -7 (a) A letter, character, sound; न मे वर्ण- विचारक्षमा दृष्टिः V.5; Ki.14.3. (b) A word, syllable; S. D.9. -8 Fame, glory, celebrity, renown; राजा प्रजा- रञ्जनलब्धवर्णः R.6.21. -9 A good quality, merit, virtue; त्रिवर्णा वर्णिता$स्माभिः किं भूयः श्रोतुमिच्छसि Bhāg.11.3.16. -1 Praise; स्वगुणोच्चगिरो मुनिव्रताः परवर्णग्रहणेष्वसाधवः Śi.16. 29. -11 Dress, decoration. -12 Outward appearance, form, figure. -13 A cloak, mantle. -14 A covering, lid. -15 The order or arrangement of a subject in a song (गीतक्रम); अभिध्यायन्वर्णरतिप्रमोदानतिदीर्घे जीविते को रमेत Kaṭh.1.28; उपात्तवर्णे चरिते पिनाकिनः Ku.5.56 'celebrated in song, made the subject of a song.' -16 The housings of an elephant. -17 A quality, property; जङ्गमानामसंख्येयाः स्थावराणां च जातयः । तेषां विविधवर्णानां कुतो वर्णविनिश्चयः ॥ Mb.12.188.9. -18 A religious observance. -19 An unknown quantity. -2 The number 'one'. -21 Application of perfumed unguents to the body. -22 Gold. -23 A musical mode. -र्णा Cajanus Indicus (Mar. तूर). -र्णम् 1 Saffron. -2 A coloured unguent or perfume. -Comp. -अङ्का a pen. -अधिपः a planet presiding over a caste or class. -अनुप्रासः alliteration. -अन्तरम् 1 another caste. ˚गमनम् the passing into another caste. -2 change of sound. -अपसदः an outcast. -अपेत a. devoid of any cast, outcast, degraded; वर्णा- प्रेतमविज्ञातं ...... कर्मभिः स्वैर्विभावयेत् Ms.1.57. -अवकृष्टः a Śūdra; अपि वर्णावकृष्टस्तु नारी वा धर्मकाङ्क्षिणी Mb.12.24.34. -अर्हः a kind of bean. -अवर a. inferior in caste. -आगमः the addition of a letter; भवेद्वर्णागमाद्धंसः Sk. -आत्मन् m. a word. -आश्रमाः the (four) castes and stages of life; वर्णाश्रमाणां गुरवे स वर्णी विचक्षणः प्रस्तुतमाचचक्षे R.5.19. ˚गुरुः N. of Śiva. ˚धर्मः the duties of caste and order. -उदकम् coloured water; वर्णोदकैः काञ्चनशृङ्गमुक्तै- स्तमायताक्ष्यः प्रणयादसिञ्चन् R.16.7. -कविः N. of a son of Kubera. -कूपिका an ink-stand. -क्रमः 1 the order of castes or colours. -2 alphabetical order or arrangement. -गत a. 1 coloured. -2 algebraical. -गुरुः a king, prince. -ग्रथणा a method (artificial) of writing verses. -चारकः a painter. -ज्येष्ठः a Brāhmaṇa. -तर्णकम्, -तर्णिका woollen cloth used as a mat. -तालः (in music) a kind of measure. -तूलिः, -तूलिका, -तूली f. a pencil, paint-brush. -द a. colouring. (-दम्) a kind of fragrant yellow wood. -दात्री turmeric. -दूतः a letter. -दूषक a. violating the distinctions of castes; यत्र त्वेते परिध्वंसा जायन्ते वर्णदूषकाः Ms.1.61. -धर्मः the peculiar duties of a caste. -नाथः the planetary regent of a caste. -पत्रम् a pallet. -परिचयः skill in song or music. -पातः the omission of a letter. -पात्रम् a paint-box. -पुष्पम् the flower of the globe-amaranth. -पुष्पकः the globeamaranth. -प्रकर्षः excellence of colour. -प्रसादनम् aloe-wood. -बुद्धिः the notion connected with particular letters or sounds. -भेदिनी millet. -मातृ f. a pen, pencil. -मातृका N. of Sarasvatī. -माला, -राशिः the alphabet. -रे(ले)खा, -लेखिका chalk. -वर्तिः, -वर्तिका f. 1 a paint-brush; फलकमादाय मणिसमुद्गकाद्वर्णवर्तिकामुद्धृत्य Dk.2.2. -2 a pencil. -वादिन् m. a panegyrist. -विक्रिया enmity against the castes. -विपर्ययः the substitution or change of letters; (भवेत्) सिंहो वर्णविपर्ययात् Sk. -विलासिनी turmeric. -विलोडकः 1 a house-breaker. -2 a plagiarist (lit. word-stealer). -वृत्तम् a metre regulated by the number of syllables it contains (opp. मात्रावृत्त). -व्यव- -स्थितिः f. the institution of caste, caste-system. -शिक्षा instruction in letters. -श्रेष्ठः a Brāhmaṇa; वर्णश्रेष्ठो द्विजः पूज्यः H.4.21. -संयोगः marriage between persons of the same caste. -संसर्गः confusion of castes, marriage with members of other castes; Ms.8.172. -संहारः an assemblage of different castes. -संकरः 1 confusion of castes through intermarriage; स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्ण- संकरः Bg.1.41. -2 mixture or blending of colours; चित्रेषु वर्णसंकरः K. (where both senses are intended); Śi.14.37. -संघातः, -समाम्नायः the alphabet. -स्थानम् an organ of utterance. -हीन a. outcast.
vikālikā विकालिका A perforated copper-vessel which, placed in water, marks the time by gradually filling; cf. मानरन्ध्रा.
śanirbhāvaḥ शनिर्भावः 1 Slowness. -2 Graduality.
śanais शनैस् ind. 1 Slowly, gently, quielty. -2 Gradually, by degrees, little by little; धर्मं संचिनुयाच्छनैः; Ku.3.59; Ms.3.217. -3 Successively, in due order; विषयाणां ग्रहीतॄणि शनैः पञ्चेन्द्रियाणि च Ms.1.15. -4 Mildly, softly. -5 Tardily, sluggishly. -6 Independently. (शनैः शनैः slowly, by slow degrees). -Comp. -चर a. going or moving slowly; शनैश्चराभ्यां पादाभ्यां रेजे ग्रहमयीव सा Bh.1.17 (where it means 'Saturn' also). (-रः) the planet Saturn.
śvan श्वन् m. [श्वि-कनिन् नि˚ Uṇ.1.158] (Nom. श्वा, श्वानौ, श्वानः acc. pl. शुनः; शुनी f.) A dog; श्वा यदि क्रियते राजा स किं नाश्नात्युपानहम् Subhāṣ; Bh.2.31; Ms.2.28. -Comp. -अदः = श्वपाकः q. v.; श्वादो$पि सद्यः सवनाय कल्पते Bhāg.3.33.6. -अश्वः an epithet of Bhairava. -क्रीडिन्, -वत् m. a keeper or breeder of sporting dogs; Ms.3.164;4.216. -गणः a pack of hounds. -गणिकः 1 a hunter. -2 a dog feeder. -जीविका dog's life, servitude. -दंष्ट्रा 1 a dog's tooth. -2 The गोक्षुर plant (Mar. गोखरू). -दयितम् a bone. -धूर्तः a jackal. -नरः a snappish or currish fellow. -निशम्, -निशा a night on which dogs bark; (the 14th day of the dark half of a month). -पच् m., -पचः 1 a man of a very low and degraded caste, an outcast, a Chāṇḍāla; Ms.3.92; श्वपचात्मभुवोर्निरन्तरा मम भूयात् परमात्मनि स्थितिः Bv.4.23. -2 a dog-feeder. -3 a public executioner. -पदम् 1 a dog's foot. -2 a mark like a dog's foot (to be branded on the forehead of a thief); स्तेये च श्वपदं कार्यम् Ms.9.237. -पाकः an outcast, a Chāṇḍāla; क्षत्तुर्जातस्तथोग्रायां श्वपाक इति कीर्त्यते Ms.1.19; श्वपाको जल्पाको भवति मधुपाकोपमगिरा । देव्यपराधक्षमापनस्तोत्रम् 6; शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः Bg.5.18; G. L.29. -फलम् lime or citron. -फल्कः N. of the father of Akrūra. -भीरुः a jackal. -यूथ्यम् a pack of dogs. -वृत्तिः f. 1 the life of a dog (to which servitude is often likened); सेवां लाघवकारिणीं कृतधियः स्थाने श्ववृत्तिं विदुः Mu.3.14; Ms.4.6. -2 servitude, service; सत्यानृताभ्यामपि वा न श्ववृत्त्या कदाचन (जीवेत्) Ms.4.4. -व्याघ्रः 1 a beast of prey. -2 a tiger. -3 a leopard. -हन् m. a hunter.
sanikāra सनिकार a. Degrading (as punishment).
sārṣṭitā सार्ष्टिता 1 Equality in rank, condition, or power; देवतानां सलोकतां सार्ष्टितां सायुज्यं गच्छति Ch. Up.2.2.2. -2 Equality with the Supreme Being in power and all the divine attributes, the last of the four states or grades of Mukti; ब्रह्मदो ब्रह्मसार्ष्टितां (प्राप्नोति) Ms.4.232.
sārṣṭyam सार्ष्ट्यम् The fourth grade of Mukti; see above.
sopākaḥ सोपाकः A man of a degraded caste; चण्डालेन तु सोपाको मूलव्यसनवृत्तिमान् । पुक्कस्यां जायते पापः सदा सज्जनगर्हितः ॥ Ms.1.38.
hīna हीन p. p. [हा-क्त तस्य नः ईत्वम्] 1 Left, abandoned, forsaken &c.; यो वैश्यः स्याद् बहुपशुर्हीनक्रतुरसोमपः । कुटुम्बात् तस्य तद् द्रव्यमाहरेद्यज्ञसिद्धये ॥ Ms.11.12. -2 Destitute or deprived of, bereft of, without; (with instr. or in comp.); तया (संतत्या) हीनं विधातर्मां कथं पश्यन्न दूयसे R.1.7; गुणैर्हीना न शोभन्ते निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः Subhāṣ.; so द्रव्य˚, मति˚, उत्साह˚ &c.; अन्नहीनो देहद्राष्ट्रं मन्त्रहीनस्तु ऋत्विजः । दीक्षितं दक्षिणाहीनो नास्ति यज्ञसमो रिपुः Ms.11.4 (v. l.) -3 Excluded, shut out from (with abl.). -4 Decayed, wasted. -5 Deficient, defective; हीनातिरिक्तगात्रो वा तमप्यपनयेत्ततः Ms.3.242. -6 Subtracted. -7 Less, lower; हीनान्नवस्त्रवेषः स्यात् सर्वदा गुरु- संनिधौ Ms.2.194; हीना हीनान् प्रसूयन्ते 1.31. -8 Low, base, mean, vile. -9 Defeated (in a low-suit). -1 Lost, strayed from (a caravan). -नः 1 A defective witness. -2 A faulty respondent; (Nārada enumarates five kinds:-- अन्यवादी क्रियाद्वेषी नोपस्थायी निरुत्तरः । आहूतप्रपलायी च हीनः पञ्चविधः स्मृतः ॥). -3 Substraction. -ना A female mouse; cf. दीना. -नम् Deficiency, want. -Comp. -अङ्ग a. deficient in a limb, crippled, maimed, defective; हीनाङ्गी वाधिकाङ्गी वा या भवेत् कन्यका नृणाम् । भर्तुः स्यात् सा विनाशाय स्वशीलनिधनाय च ॥ Pt.5.95; Ms.4.141; Y. 1.222. (-गी) a small ant. -कर्मन्, -क्रिय a. neglecting the customary religious rites; Ms.3.7. -कुल, -ज a. baseborn, of low family. -क्रतु a. one who neglects his sacrifice; Ms.11.12. -जाति a. 1 of a low caste. -2 excommunicated, outcaste, degraded; हीनजातिस्त्रियं मोहादुद्बहन्तो द्विजातयः । कुलान्येव नयन्त्याशु संसतानानि शूद्रताम् ॥ Ms.3.15. -पक्ष a. unprotected. -प्रतिज्ञा a. faithless. -यानम् N. of the earliest systems of Buddhist doctrine. -योनिः f. low birth or origin. -रोमन् a. bald. -वर्ण a. 1 of low caste. -2 of inferior rank. -वादः a defective statement, contradictory evidence, prevarication. -वादिन् a. 1 making a defective statement. -2 prevaricating. -3 dumb, speechless. -4 cast in law, defeated. -सख्यम् associating with low persons. -सामन्तः a deposed king; Śukra.1.189. -सन्धिः an agreement made by an inferior king. -सेवा attendance on base persons.
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36 results
adharottara a. losing or winning; high and low; earlier and later; n. address and answer; gradation; topsy-turviness.
anapākṛṣṭa pp. not degraded.
apakartana n. cutting in pieces; -kartri, m. injurer; -karman, n. delivery; -karsha, m. removal; decrease; deterioration; low position; annulment; anticipation (gr.); -karshaka, a. diminishing, detracting; -kar shana, a. id.; n. removal; degradation; -kar shin, a. drawing away; -kalmasha, a. free from sin; -kâra, m., -tâ, f. hurt, injury; -kârin, a. injurious; offensive; mischievous; -kîrtya, fp. dishonourable.
apadravya n. bad ware; -dh&asharp;, f. hiding-place; -dhûma, a. smokeless: -tva, n. -ness; -dhyâna, n. disfavour, malice; -dhvam sá, m. degradation: -ga, m. child of a mixed marriage; -dhvasta,pp. degraded.
alaghu a. clumsy; slow; not insig nificant; -bhava, m. no degradation; -sarîra, a. fatigued.
avimuktaśaiva m. Saiva monk of a certain grade; -½âpîda, m. N. of a king; -½îsa, m. Siva.
kāla m. due season, appointed or right time (for, d., g., lc., inf., --°ree;); time; oppor tunity; season; meal-time (of which there are two a day); half a day; hour; age, era; measure, prosody; Time, fate; death, god of death; --°ree;, at the right time; in time, gradually; parah kâlah, high time (w. inf.); kâlam kri, fix a time for (lc.); kâlam âsâdya, according to circumstances; in. kâlena, in due season; in course of time: -gakkhatâ, as time goes on, in course of time; dîrghena --, mahatâ -or bahunâ --, after a long time; kenakit --, after some time; tena --, at that time; ab. kâlât, in the long run, in course of time; kâlatas, id.; with regard to time; g. dîrghasya or mahatah kâlasya, after a long time; kasya kit --, after some time; lc. kâlé, at the right or appointed time, opportunely; in time=gra dually; -prâpte, when the time has come; -gakkhati, in course of time; -yâte, after the lapse of some time; kasmims kit --, one day; kâle kâle, always at the right time; shashthe --, at the end of the third day: --&zip;hnah, at the sixth hour of the day, i. e. at noon; pañ- kasate --, =after 250 days; ubhau kâlau, morning and evening.
kubandha m. degrading brand; -buddhi, f. wrong view; a. wickedly dis posed; stupid.
kulapatana n. fall --, degradation of the family; -pati, m. head of the family; -parvata, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; -p&asharp;, m. f. head of the family or community; -pâms anî, f. disgrace to her family; -pâlikâ, f. N.; -putra, m. son of a good family; virtuous youth: -ka, m. id.; -purusha, m. man of good family; virtuous man; -pratishthâ, f. support of the race; -prasûta, pp. born of a noble race; -bhava, a.coming of a noble race; -bhavana, n. chief residence; -bhûta, pp. being the head of the guild; -bhûbhrit, m. chief mtn. or mtn.-range; model of a prince; -mârga, m. ancestral path; -mitra, n. friend of the family.
kramapāṭha m. krama method of reciting the Veda; -prâpta, pp. inherited; -yoga, m. regular order, succession; -râgya, n. N. of a locality; -varta, N. of a country; -vriddhi, f. gradual increase; -sas,ad. in order, in turn; gradually.
krama m. step; gait; course; posture for attack; regular order, succession, grada tion; inheritance; method, manner, way; usage, ritual; occasion, reason for (--°ree;, g.); a way of reciting the Veda: in., ab., or -tas, in order, in turn; in., ab., °ree;--, in due course, regularly, gradually; in. in the course of (--°ree;).
guṇa m. strand, thread, string, rope; wick; bow-string; lute-string; species; con stituent of policy (of which there are six or four), subordinate element, accessory; second ary dish, seasoning; remote object (of a verb); property, quality; elemental quality (sound, feeling, colour, taste, smell); fundamental quality (sattva, ragas, tamas); good quality, virtue, merit, excellence; high degree of (--°ree;= excessive); external articulation (of letters); first strong grade of vowels (a, ar, al, e, o); time (with numerals); multiple: almost always --°ree; a. after numerals=-fold (lit. having so many strands), so many times as much as or more than (in. or ab.).
tāmra a. copper-coloured, dark red; m. eruption with dark red spots; n. copper; a. (a) of copper; î, f. kind of water-clock (a copper vessel having an orifice in the bottom, which when placed in water, gradually fills).
tāratamya n. condition of more or less (tara-tama), gradation; great difference.
dvyuktha a. pronouncing two ukthas; -½ũrana, a. having two lambs; -½eka½antara, a. having two or one (caste) intervening (i.e. three or two grades lower).
nirabhiprāya a. aimless; -bha va, a. not degrading or humiliating; -mâna, a. free from pride; -lapya, a. unspeakable; -lâsha, a. free from desire for, regardless of (--°ree;); -samdhin, a.disinterested.
niṣāda m. N. of aboriginal Indian tribes described as fishermen, hunters, and robbers; considered a degraded caste, off- spring of Brâhmans and Sûdra women; a note in the musical scale; î, f.Nishâda woman.
nīkāra m. degradation, humiliation.
pracyavana n. withdrawal, departure; loss of (ab.); -kyuta, pp. (√ kyu) fallen, degraded, banished, etc.; -kyuti, f. departure, withdrawal; loss of (ab.); abandonment of (--°ree;):sâmya½avasthânât--, loss of equilibrium.
bhāgaśas ad. in parts (divide); part by part, in due proportion, gradually; -hara, a. receiving a share; m. heir; -hâra, m. division (in arithmetic); -hârin, a. in heriting; m. heir; -½apahârin, a.receiving a share of inheritance; -½arthin, a. claiming a share.
manda a. slow, sluggish, in (lc. or --°ree;); apathetic, indifferent to (d.); weak, slight; faint, low (voice), gentle (rain, wind); dull-witted, stupid, foolish; unhappy; dis eased, ill: -m, ad. slowly, gradually (also °ree;--); slightly; faintly, softly, in a low voice: mandam mandam, ad. very slowly, quite gradually; m. the planet Saturn: -ka, a. scanty, little; dull, stupid; -karni, m. N. of a sage; -karman, a. inactive; -kârin, a.acting foolishly; -kirana, a. weak-rayed; -ga, a. moving or going slowly; m. planet Saturn; -gati, a. moving slowly: -tva, n. slow pace; -ketas, a. absent-minded; dull witted, stupid, foolish; -kkhâya, a. having its beauty dimmed, dull-looking, lustreless; -garas, a. aging slowly; -gâta, pp. slowly produced; -tâ, f. indolence; slightness, in significance; dulness, stupidity, foolishness; -tva, n. slightness, insignificance, feebleness; -dhî, a. dull-witted, stupid, foolish; -pâla, m. N. of a Rishi; -punya, a. unfortunate, ill-fated; -pragña, a. dull-witted; -preman, a. having little affection; -phala, a. bearing little fruit; having an insignificant result; -buddhi, a. dull-witted; -bhâgin, a. ill fated, wretched; -bhâgya, n. misfortune; a. ill-fated, unlucky, unfortunate, miserable: -tâ, f. wretchedness; -bhâg, a. ill-fated; -ma ti, a. dull-witted; m. N. of a wheelwright; N. of a lion; -mandam,ad. very slowly or gradually, by degrees; very softly; -mand a½âtapa, a. having very slight heat, cool.
yathāyatham ad. fitly, properly, in due order; one after the other, gradually; -yukta, pp. regarding (lc.): -m, ad. accord ing to circumstances, suitably; -yukti, ad. id.: -tas, ad. id.; -yogam, ad. id.; according to usage; -yogena, in. ad. according to cir cumstances, suitably; -yogyam, ad. as is fit, properly, suitably; -½ârabdha, pp. previously begun; -½ârambham, ad. according to the beginning, in the same order; -rukam, -ruk i, ad. according to taste; -rûpa, a. of what kind; having a suitable appearance, extremely beautiful; very great: (á)-m, ad. suitably; rightly, truly; according to appearance.
yāvat rel. a. (with its following cor. t&asharp;vat, so great etc.=) as great, much, many, far, long, manifold, or frequent as: yâvak karma dâru ka, (as much as=) nothing but skin and wood;yâvat tâvat, how much soever; iti yâvat, as much as, that is to say (frequent in commentators); n. y&asharp;vat, indc. as far, much, or often as, to what amount (gnly. w. following cor. -tâvat, so far etc.); as long as, while; meanwhile, just (w. 1 prs. pr. or 3 impv., to denote an intended action); till (w. pr., pot., ft., impf., aor., or ellipse of copula); as soon as (w. pr., pot., pf., aor., or ellipse of copula): na yâvat -tâvat, scarcely -when, no sooner -than; yâvan na, while not=till (w. pr., pot., ft., impf., or ellipse of copula); also=if not, whether not; na pa ram or kevalam -yâvat, not only -but even; y&asharp;vad yâvat -t&asharp;vat tâvat, as gradu ally -so; prp. w. (gnly. preceding) ac. during, for (e.g. a year); up to, as far as (e.g. one's house; sts. nm.+iti instead of ac.); till (e.g. the evening): adya yâvat, till to-day; w. following ab. till (rare); in. yâvatâ, as far or long as; till (pot.); as soon as (pr.); inas much as, since; w. na, while not=till; lc. y&asharp;vati, as far or as long as (cor. tâvati).
laghukoṣṭha a. having an empty stomach; -kaumudî, f. the short Kaumudî (an abridgement of the Siddhânta-kaumudî); -krama, a. having a quick step, hurrying: -m, ad. quickly; -gati, a. swift-paced; -kit ta, a. light-minded, fickle; -ketas, a. little minded, mean-spirited; -kkhedya, fp. easy to destroy (prob. incorr. for -½ukkhedya); -tâ, f., tva, n. activity, nimbleness; lightness; buoyancy, light-heartedness;prosodical shortness; smallness, shortness; insignificance; levity, thoughtlessness; lack of dignity, con tempt, degradation; -patana-ka, m. (swift flying), N. of a crow; -parikrama, a. mov ing quickly; -pâka, a. growing old quickly; easily digested; -pâtin, a. (flying quickly), N. of a crow; -pramâna, a. short; -pra yatna, a. pronounced with slight effort; -bhâ va, m. ease; -bhug, a. eating little; -mûla, a. having insignificant roots, insignificant at the beginning; -vikrama, m. quick step; a. quick-footed; -vivara-tva, n. narrowness of aperture; -vritti, a. of a light nature, light; frivolous: -tâ, f. levity; -sattva, a. having a weak character; -samutthâna,a. rising up quickly, prompt; -sâra, a. insignificant, worthless; -hasta, a. light-handed, adroit (of archers, scribes, etc.): -tâ, f., -tva, n. adroitness of hand, dexterity; -hârîta, m. abridged Hârîta (author of a law-book).
lāghava n. swiftness, speed; dex terity, in (--°ree;); lightness; ease of mind, re lief; levity, thoughtlessness; insignificance, meanness, smallness; prosodical shortness; brevity, conciseness (of expression); lack of weight or consequence, derogation of dignity, disrespect: -kârin, a. degrading.
vakrita den. pp. curved, crooked, bent; retrograde (planet); -ima (?), a. curved; -i-man, m. crookedness; equivocation, ambiguity.
vakra a. bent, curved, crooked; cir cuitous, tortuous; curly (hair); retrograde (of the motion of planets); ambiguous; de ceitful, fraudulent, dishonest; adverse (for tune); m. planet Mars: -gati, a. having a tortuous course, winding; -gâmin, a. id.; -tâ, f. crookedness; -tunda, a. crooked mouthed; m. ep. of Ganesa; -tva, n. crooked ness; ambiguity; deceitfulness; -dhî, f. deceitfulness, dishonesty; a. deceitful, dis honest; -nâsa, a. having a curved nose or beak; m. N. of an owl; -pâda, a. crooked legged; -pura, n. N. of a town; -pluta, pp. leaping in curves; -buddhi, a. deceitful; -bhanita, n. ambiguous speech; -bhâva, m. crookedness; deceitfulness; -vâkya, n. am biguous speech; -½a&ndot;ga, n. (--°ree; a. î) crooked limb; -½a&ndot;ghri, m. crooked foot: -samgrâ ma, m. (oblique-footed or tripping up=) fraudulent fight.
viḍamba a. imitating any one (--°ree;); m. derision; desecration: -ka, a. (--°ree;) imitat ing, bearing a striking resemblance; bringing disgrace on (--°ree;); -dambana, a. imitating, acting like; n., â, f.imitation, copying, dis guise, playing the part of any one, illusive assumption of a form (sp. of a god in human form); derision, scorn, mockery; disgrace, degradation: (&abrevcirc;)-m kri, copy, imitate; make a laughing-stock of (ac.); -dambita½îsvara, a. imitating (=the image of) Siva; -dambin, a. (--°ree;) imitating, assuming the appearance of, strikingly like; mocking=throwing into the shade, surpassing; degrading, disgracing.
vṛddhi f. [√ vridh+ti] V., C.: growth; V.: delectation, delight; C.: adolescence; increase, augmentation, development, pro longation (of life); waxing (of the digits of the moon), swelling (of rivers, ocean); advance ment, rise, increase in wealth, extension of power; affluence, prosperity, success; gain, profit; interest, usury; strongest vowel grade (â, ai, au).
śanairbhāva m. gradualness: °ree; w. pr. pt.=gradually.
saṃkaṭa a. [put together: Pr.= krita] contracted, narrow; dense, impervious (forest); difficult, critical; --°ree;, full of (danger ous things); N.; Slender, N. of a gander; n. contracted space, narrow passage, defile; strait, difficulty, critical condition, distress, danger (to, from, --°ree;): â-ya, den. Â. grow too narrow; become contracted, grow less; -ka thana, n. conversation, with (in. ± saha, --°ree;); -kathâ, f.conversation, talk, with (in. ± saha, --°ree;), about (--°ree;); -kara, m. commingling, mixture; intermixture of castes by unequal marriages (=varna-); action equivalent to the mixture of castes (sts. n. in E.); mixture of figures of speech: -krityâ, f. act degrading to a mixed caste, î-karana, n. act which degrades to the position of a mixed caste; -karshana, m. Plougher, ep. of Halâyudha, elder brother of Krishna, among Vishnu wor shippers identified with the second person in the quaternity of Purushottama (=the soul); n. extraction; means of uniting; -kalana, n. putting or holding together; n., â, f. addi tion; -kalita, pp. added together.
sadambha a. hypocritical; -daya, a. compassionate or merciful towards (lc.): °ree; or -m, ad. compassionately, mercifully; gently, gradually.
sopāka m. a degraded caste (off- spring of a Kândâla and of a Pulkasî).
stoka m. [√ 2. stu] drop (V.; rare in P.): a. (C.) very small or little; a. a little (C.): °ree;-or -m, ad. (C.) slightly, a little; gradually; bahutaram -stokam, more than; ab. stokât, °ree;-with a pp. in -ta, only just; recently.
srotas n. [√ sru] current; river bed; stream, river; rush, violent onset of (desire, --°ree;); canal (in the body); aperture (of the body); organ of sense (rare): -tâ, f. na ture of a stream: in.gradually; -vin-î, f. (having a current), river.
svalpa a. very small, little, short (time), or insignificant: in. in a short time: -ka, a. (ikâ) id.; -tantra, a. consisting of short sections, concisely written: -tva, n. abst. n.; -tara, cpv. very insignificant; -tas, ad. quite gradually; -dukkha, n. very little pain; -dris, a. very short-sighted (fig.); -bala, a. extremely weak; -vayas, a. very young; -silâ-ya, den. Â. become a very small rock.
Bloomfield Vedic
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ūrdhvadhanvā pratihitābhir astā (AVP. astāt) # AVP.7.4.4d; TS.; MS.2.10.4d: 135.14; KS.18.5d. See ugradhanvā.
namaḥ svapadbhyo jāgradbhyaś ca vo namaḥ # VS.16.23; TS.; MS.2.9.4: 123.11; KS.17.13.
piṅgas tam ugradhanvā # AVś.8.6.18c.
yaj jāgrad yat supto yad divā yan naktam # AVś.16.7.10.
yadi jāgrad yadi svapan (VS.KS.śBṭB. svapne) # AVś.6.115.2a; VS.20.16a; KS.38.5a; śB.; TB. See yadi svapan.
yadi vṛkṣād abhyapaptat (HG. vṛkṣāgrād abhyapatat) phalam (AVś. phalaṃ tat) # AVś.6.124.2a; HG.1.16.7c. See next.
yadi svapan yadi jāgrat # MS.3.11.10a: 157.3. See yadi jāgrad.
Dictionary of Sanskrit Search
"grad" has 9 results
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
apabhraṃśadegraded utterance of standard correct forms or words: corrupt form: e. g. गावी, गोणी and the like, of the word गो, confer, compare गौः इत्यस्य शब्दस्य गावी गोणी गोता गोपोतलिका इत्येवमादयः अपभ्रंशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.l ; cf शब्दसंस्कारहीनो यो गौरिति प्रयुयुक्षिते । तमपभ्रंशमिच्छन्ति विशिष्टार्थनिवेशिनम् Vāk. Pad I.149: सर्वस्य हि अपभ्रंशस्य साधुरेव प्रकृतिः commentary on Vāk. Pad I. 149.
avarṇathe letter अ; the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, comprising all its varieties caused by grades, ( ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत) or accents of nasalization. The word वर्ण is used in the neuter gender in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.9, मा कदाचिदवर्णं भूत् M.Bh. I.1.48 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; cf also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.50 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 18 and I.1.51 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2: confer, compare also ह्रस्वमवर्णं प्रयोगे संवृतम् Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 17. 6
asthaअ, अा and अा३. This term is used in Ṛk Tantra confer, compare अस्थनामिनी सन्ध्यम् R.T.94, अस्थ possibly means 'belonging to अ i. e. all the three grades ह्रस्व, दीर्घ and प्लुत of अ'.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
plutaprotracted, name given to vowels in the protracted grade. The vowels in this grade which are termed protracted vowels are possessed of three matras and in writing they are marked with the figure 3 placed after them. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or दीर्घ vowels; confer, compare ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः P. I.2.27. The word is derived from प्लु (प्रु also) I Atmane to go, and explained as प्लवते इति, The word प्लवते is often found for प्लुतो भवति in the Pratisakhya works; cf also मात्रा ह्रस्वरतावदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धस्तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः । अधः स्विदासी३दुपरि स्विदासी३द् अर्थे प्लुतिर्भीरिव विन्दती३त्रिः ll Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.16.
yāskaa reputed ancient Niruktakara or etymologist, of the 6th century B.C. or even a few centuries before that, whose work, the Nirukta, is looked upon as the oldest authoritative treatise regarding derivation of Vedic words. Yaska was preceded by a number of etymologists whom he has mentioned in his work and whose works he has utilisedition Yaska's Nirukta threw into the back-ground the older treatises on etymology, all of which disappeared gradually in the course of time.
vṛddhi(1)a technical term used by Panini to denote the vowels अा, ऐ and औ: a vowel belonging to the third grade out of the three grades of vowels which are known as zero, normal and long grades; cf , वृद्धिरादैच् P I. 1.1: (2) lengthening completely of a vowel which is called प्लुति in grammar: the term is used in the Rk Tantra Pratisakhya in this sense.
saṃprasāraṇaliterally extension; the process of changing a semi-vowel into a simple vowel of the same sthana or place of utterance; the substitution of the vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ for the semi-vowels य्, व् , र् and ल् respectively; cf इग्यणः संप्रसारणम् P. 1.1.45. The term संप्रसारण is rendered as a 'resultant vowel' or as 'an emergent vowel'. The ancient term was प्रसारण and possibly it referred to the extension of य् and व्, into their constituent parts इ +अ, उ+अ et cetera, and others the vowel अ being of a weak grade but becoming strong after the merging of the subseguent vowel into it exempli gratia, for example confer, compare सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P. III. 2.8 Vart.1. For the words taking this samprasarana change, see P. VI. 1 .13 to .19. According to some grammarians the term संप्रसारण is applied to the substituted vowels while according to others the term refers to the operation of the substitution: confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.15. The substitution of the samprasarana vowel is to be given preference in the formation of a word; , confer, compare संप्रसारणं तदाश्रयं च कार्यं बलवत् Pari. Sek. Pari. 1 19. संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्व the relative superior strength of the samprasarana change in comparison with other operations occurring simultaneotisly. The phrase न वा संप्रसारणबलीयस्त्वात् is often used in the Mahabhasya which is based upon the dictum of the superior strength of the samprasarana substitution, which is announced by the writer of the Varttikas; P. VI. 1.17 Vart, 2. , See संप्रसारण.
Vedabase Search
186 results
anu-dina gradually, day after dayCC Madhya 8.194
anu-dina gradually, day after dayCC Madhya 8.194
anukṣīyamāṇa gradually being decreasedSB 5.14.21
anuśuṣyanti gradually become weaker and weaker, with less potencySB 10.10.16
āpūryamāṇābhiḥ gradually increasingSB 5.22.9
avakīryate gradually vanishesSB 7.15.19
jitam jitam gradually controlling the mindSB 2.2.13
jitam jitam gradually controlling the mindSB 2.2.13
krama graduallySB 4.23.8
SB 6.1.1
krama-udaya gradually rising higher and higherCC Madhya 20.389
krama-udaya gradually rising higher and higherCC Madhya 20.389
kramaśaḥ graduallySB 2.4.9
SB 6.16.5
kramāt graduallyCC Madhya 8.195
NoI 7
kramataḥ graduallySB 8.19.34
krame graduallyCC Antya 1.141
CC Antya 1.157
CC Antya 5.63
CC Antya 8.99
CC Madhya 20.384
CC Madhya 20.397
CC Madhya 23.42
CC Madhya 23.44
CC Madhya 8.295
krame krame graduallyCC Antya 14.13
krame krame graduallyCC Antya 14.13
CC Antya 9.48
krame krame graduallyCC Antya 9.48
CC Antya 9.53
krame krame graduallyCC Antya 9.53
CC Madhya 15.192
krame krame graduallyCC Madhya 15.192
CC Madhya 16.237
krame krame graduallyCC Madhya 16.237
CC Madhya 20.391
krame krame graduallyCC Madhya 20.391
krame-krame graduallyCC Antya 9.20
krame-krame graduallyCC Antya 9.20
krameṇa graduallyNoI 8
SB 12.3.3-4
SB 4.23.15
SB 4.29.55
krameta graduallyCC Madhya 23.54
kramiṣyati gradually He will expandSB 8.19.33
nītam nītam gradually bringing themSB 10.37.29
nītam nītam gradually bringing themSB 10.37.29
sadbhiḥ gradually elevated in positionSB 3.21.13
samujjihānayā gradually increasedSB 4.20.19
śanaiḥ graduallyBG 6.25
SB 10.13.26
SB 10.13.34
SB 10.13.64
SB 10.55.29
SB 10.68.32-33
SB 10.86.52
SB 10.88.8
SB 11.28.40
SB 12.3.20
SB 3.26.28
SB 3.27.5
SB 3.28.5
SB 3.7.12
SB 4.23.14
SB 4.28.35-36
SB 4.4.25
SB 4.8.44
SB 5.26.39
SB 6.1.12
SB 7.11.32
SB 7.11.8-12
SB 9.3.8
SB 9.4.26
śanaiḥ gradually, by practiceSB 7.15.32-33
śanaiḥ gradually, step by stepSB 11.13.13
śanaiḥ śanaiḥ gradually, step by stepSB 11.9.12
śanaiḥ śanaiḥ gradually, step by stepSB 11.9.12
śanakaiḥ graduallyCC Madhya 24.157
SB 1.18.39
SB 10.16.55
SB 10.86.21
SB 12.4.7
SB 3.2.6
SB 3.27.23
SB 3.28.34
SB 3.28.7
SB 4.20.9
SB 4.26.20
SB 7.14.3-4
udarkam gradualSB 3.23.13
upetya gradually going nearSB 7.9.4
vardhatā gradually increasing proportionatelySB 3.11.21
vavṛdhe gradually developedSB 6.14.31
viśīryate gradually disappearingSB 2.4.5
vivardhamānā gradually increasingSB 3.5.13
yathā-kramam gradually, step by stepSB 11.10.11
yathā-kramam gradually, step by stepSB 11.10.11
adhama degradedCC Madhya 1.196
āre adhama O most degraded oneCC Madhya 5.52
adhamaḥ very degradedSB 5.26.30
adhamasya most degradedMM 35
ajita-ātmabhiḥ who could not control their senses and thus were degradedSB 9.15.16
amanasvinaḥ such low-minded, low-grade kingsSB 8.19.4
anubhava-ātmani which is always thought of (beginning from the lotus feet and gradually progressing upward)SB 6.2.41
anukramāt by a gradual process of differentiationSB 3.7.21
anupūrvam successively, according to the gradationSB 7.15.50-51
ānupūrvyāt by the gradual process of purificatory ceremoniesSB 11.17.22
sa-anvayānām with different gradationsSB 3.5.50
ātma-apahnavam degrading oneself from the platform of tapasyaSB 9.6.49
apakṛṣṭa-cetanaḥ having degraded consciousnessSB 4.27.3
apakṛtam the doer of the degradingSB 1.7.42
yakṣma-graha-arditaḥ being oppressed by a disease that brings about gradual destructionSB 6.6.23
āre adhama O most degraded oneCC Madhya 5.52
asattamaḥ most degradedSB 12.1.20
ātma-pātaḥ degradation of oneselfSB 2.1.39
ātma-apahnavam degrading oneself from the platform of tapasyaSB 9.6.49
ajita-ātmabhiḥ who could not control their senses and thus were degradedSB 9.15.16
anubhava-ātmani which is always thought of (beginning from the lotus feet and gradually progressing upward)SB 6.2.41
ucca-avacatvam the quality of higher or lower grades of lifeSB 8.24.6
kāla-avadhiḥ the limited span of life (after which one's evolution may be degrading or elevating)SB 5.14.31
avasādayet put into degradationBG 6.5
brahma-bandhoḥ of a degraded brāhmaṇaSB 1.7.16
bhinna bhinna dharma different grades of religious principlesCC Madhya 17.184
bhinna bhinna dharma different grades of religious principlesCC Madhya 17.184
brahma-bandhoḥ of a degraded brāhmaṇaSB 1.7.16
apakṛṣṭa-cetanaḥ having degraded consciousnessSB 4.27.3
dainya and degradationSB 11.25.29
dainyam the degraded conditionSB 10.30.34
ugra-daṃṣṭrīm UgradaṃṣṭrīSB 5.2.23
bhinna bhinna dharma different grades of religious principlesCC Madhya 17.184
durātmā degraded soulSB 8.4.10
durgati degradationCC Adi 17.259
durgatim to degradationBG 6.40
kula-dūṣaṇam who are the degradation of the familySB 9.3.21
vakra-gatyā taking retrograde coursesSB 3.17.14
yakṣma-graha-arditaḥ being oppressed by a disease that brings about gradual destructionSB 6.6.23
hena such degradedCC Adi 7.120
hinasti degradeBG 13.29
jīve such a low-grade living entityCC Madhya 25.78
kadaryāṇām of persons in the lowest gradeSB 10.1.58
kāla-avadhiḥ the limited span of life (after which one's evolution may be degrading or elevating)SB 5.14.31
kalau in the degraded age of KaliSB 11.4.22
kalau in the degraded age of KaliSB 11.6.24
kali of the current, degraded ageSB 11.1.11-12
krama kari' dividing according to gradesCC Madhya 16.75
kīkaṭāḥ a degraded country or the inhabitants of such a placeSB 7.10.19
krama kari' dividing according to gradesCC Madhya 16.75
krame by gradationsCC Madhya 8.87
krame krame by a gradual progressionCC Madhya 22.69
krame krame by a gradual progressionCC Madhya 22.69
kṣaye in gradual destruction (the dark fortnight)SB 6.6.24-26
kṣīyamāṇābhiḥ by gradually decreasingSB 5.22.9
ku-śarīre in a low-grade bodySB 5.26.17
ku degradedSB 10.87.22
kula-dūṣaṇam who are the degradation of the familySB 9.3.21
kula-pāṃsanaḥ one who can degrade the reputation of his familySB 10.1.35
nīca-sevā service to degraded personsCC Madhya 1.193
śva-pākam the fifth-grade caṇḍālasCC Madhya 23.27
śva-pākān the lowest grade of human beings, who are accustomed to eating dogsCC Madhya 25.136
kula-pāṃsanaḥ one who can degrade the reputation of his familySB 10.1.35
parayā of a high gradeBG 1.27
ātma-pātaḥ degradation of oneselfSB 2.1.39
patanti degradesSB 2.6.34
prākṛtaiḥ lower gradeSB 6.4.34
prāpite being degraded toSB 9.18.3
sa-anvayānām with different gradationsSB 3.5.50
śanaiḥ śanaiḥ very graduallySB 10.20.39
śanaiḥ śanaiḥ very graduallySB 10.20.39
ku-śarīre in a low-grade bodySB 5.26.17
nīca-sevā service to degraded personsCC Madhya 1.193
śūdrasya of the fourth-grade persons, the workersSB 7.11.15
śūdrasya of the śūdra (the fourth grade of man in society, the worker)SB 7.11.24
śva-pākam the fifth-grade caṇḍālasCC Madhya 23.27
śva-pākān the lowest grade of human beings, who are accustomed to eating dogsCC Madhya 25.136
tāratamya upper and lower gradationsCC Madhya 16.73
ucca-avacatvam the quality of higher or lower grades of lifeSB 8.24.6
udarke having gradually evolvedSB 1.12.12
ugra-daṃṣṭrīm UgradaṃṣṭrīSB 5.2.23
urvyām of high gradeSB 3.1.17
uttamāḥ of high gradeSB 1.11.36
vakra-gatyā taking retrograde coursesSB 3.17.14
varākāḥ degraded foolsMM 17
vidūra-vigataḥ the fifth-grade person, or the untouchableSB 5.1.35
vidūra-vigataḥ the fifth-grade person, or the untouchableSB 5.1.35
yakṣma-graha-arditaḥ being oppressed by a disease that brings about gradual destructionSB 6.6.23


Cheyne-stokes respiration; an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by deeper and faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea.


medical compendium compiled by Ugraditya (7th Century ) in south India, an adherent of Jainism.


low grade fever.


conciliating, postoperative management, graduated readministration of diet to rekindle digestive fire.

Wordnet Search
"grad" has 3 results.


dūradarśin, agradarśin, anāgatadarśin, anāgatadarśin, pūrvadarśin, bhaviṣyadarśin, antarajña, prapaśyat, krāntadarśin   

yaḥ bhaviṣyat kālasthitāṃ dūrasthāṃ ghaṭanāṃ paśyati cintayati vā।

dūradarśī samasyāyāṃ na nimijyati।


puraḥsaraḥ, agradūtaḥ, agresaraḥ, purogāmī, purogaḥ, prāggāmī   

yaḥ agre gatvā anyasya āgamanaṃ sūcayati।

laṅkāvijayāt anantaraṃ prabhuḥ rāmacandraḥ hanumantaṃ puraḥsaraḥ iti rūpeṇa ayodhyāṃ preṣayati।



ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

ugradevasya ullekhaḥ taittirīya-āraṇyake asti

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