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     Grammar Search "eti" has 1 results.
eti: third person singular present present class 2 parasmaipadai
     Amarakosha Search  
4 results
jvālaḥUbhaya-lingaSingulararciḥ, heti, śikhā, kīlaḥflame
70 results for eti
etif. arrival, approach View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
etivatmfn. containing a form of 5. i- (eti-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apracetitamfn. not having been perceived View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
araṇyetilakam. plural "wild, sesamum growing in a forest and containing no oil", anything which disappoints expectation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asaṃketitamfn. one with whom nothing has been concerted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asaṃketitatvan. the not being settled by agreement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asihetim. a swordsman or soldier armed with a sword View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asyaheti View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asyaheti(See /asyahaitika-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cetiṣṭhamfn. (fr. c/ettṛ-) most attentive (with genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cetiṣṭhamfn. (fr. citr/a-) most conspicuous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇetif. (equals ṇāyana-) the sun's progress south of the equator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devahetif. divine weapon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhṛtahetimfn. bearing weapons, armed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhunetimfn. having a roaring course View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūrehetimfn. (r/e--) whose arrows fly to a distance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dūrehetim. a particular form of agni- commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harihetif. indra-'s weapon id est the rainbow, (or) viṣṇu-'s weapon id est the cakra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harihetihūtim. "named after the cakra-", Anas Casarca (see cakra-vāka-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harihetimamfn. adorned with a rainbow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetietc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetif. (fr.1. hi-;in later language also m.) a missile weapon, any weapon (also personified) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetif. stroke, wound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetif. agni-'s weapon, flame, light etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetif. a ray of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetif. rapid motion, shot, impact (of a bow-string) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetif. an implement, instrument View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetif. a young shoot or sprout View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetim. Name of the first rākṣasa- king (represented as occupying the Sun's chariot in the month caitra- or madhu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetim. of an asura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetika(in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') equals heti- (see śakti--, svadhiti-h-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetimantram. Name of a mantra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetimatmfn. armed with missiles, possessed of weapons View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hetimatmfn. illuminated by the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karketilam. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. a species of quartz ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ketitamfn. called, summoned View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ketitamfn. dwelt, inhabited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiyadeti f. effort, vigorous or persevering exertions according to one's strength View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣetivatmfn. containing a form of 2. kṣi- (which forms the 3. sg. kṣ/eti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirhetimfn. weaponless, unarmed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paretif. departure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracetitamfn. (See a-prac-) noticed, observed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prahetim. a missile, weapon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prahetim. Name of. a king of the rākṣasa-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prahetim. of an asura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prahetietc. See pra-hi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pretif. departure, flight. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pretif. approach, arrival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pretikam. the soul of a dead man, a ghost View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pretivat(pr/e-) mfn. containing the word preti- or any form of pre- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
retinmfn. abounding in seed, prolific, impregnating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahetimfn. with the particle iti-, followed by it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahetikāramfn. (or n. scilicet pada-,a word) followed by the particle iti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahetikaraṇamfn. followed by the particle iti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaktihetikamfn. armed with a spear or lance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṃketikamfn. (fr. saṃ-keta-) consisting of signs, based on agreement, indicatory, conventional View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃketitamfn. agreed upon, fixed, settled, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃketitamfn. invited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svadhitihetikam. "axe-armed", a soldier armed with an axe View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvāsahetif. "remedy for asthma", sound sleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetikam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetimanm. whiteness, white colour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvetitamfn. (prob.) whitened (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tigmahetimfn. (m/a--) having sharp weapons (agni-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tigmahetimfn. forming a sharp weapon (agni-'s horn) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tretif. the threefold flame of the 3 fires of the altar View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upetif. approach, approximation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsanāvāsudevasyetipadyavyākhyāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣahetim. "whose weapon is poison", a serpent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yeyajñenetisūktaName of the hymn (beginning with ye yajñena-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
12 results
eti एतिः f. Ved. Arrival, approach.
araṇyetilakaḥ अरण्येतिलकः [P.II.1.44] Wild sesamum yielding no oil; (fig. anything which does not answer to one's expectation.)
upeti उपेतिः f. Arrival, approach.
ketita केतित a. 1 Called, summoned; केतितस्तु यथान्यायं हव्य- कव्ये द्विजोत्तमः Ms.3.19. -2 Dwelt, inhabited.
pareti परेतिः f. Ved. Departure. परेद्यवि parēdyavi परेद्युस् parēdyus परेद्यवि परेद्युस् ind. The other day.
preti प्रेतिः f. 1 death, dying. -2 Departure, flight. -3 Food.
pretikaḥ प्रेतिकः A ghost, spirit.
śvetiman श्वेतिमन् Whiteness; white colour.
saṃketita संकेतित a. 1 Agreed upon, fixed by convention; साक्षात् संकेतितं यो$र्थमभिधत्ते स वाचकः K. P.2. -2 Invited, called.
sāṃketika सांकेतिक a. (-की f.) 1 Symbolical, indicatory. -2 Conventional.
seti सेतिका N. of Ayodhyā.
heti हेतिः m., f. [हन्-करणे क्तिन् नि˚] A weapon, a missile; समरविजयी हेतिदलितः Bh.2.44; R.1.12; Ki.3.56;14.3. -2 A stroke, injury. -3 A ray of the sun. -4 Light, splendour. -5 Flame; वहन्ति सर्वभूतानि त्वत्तो निष्क्रम्य हेतयः Mb.5.16.6; Śi.14.25. -6 An implement, instrument; सध्ऱ्यङ् नियम्य यतयो यमकर्तहेतिं जह्युः स्वराडिव निपानखनित्रमि Bhāg.2.7.48. -7 Shot, impact (of a bow-string). -8 A young sprout.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
4 results
i I go, II. P. émi, x. 34, 5; éti, iv. 50, 8; x. 34, 6; 168, 12; yánti, vii. 49, 1; approach (acc.), viii. 48, 10; áyan, pr. sb. pass, vii. 61, 4; attain, vii. 63, 4; pf. īyúr, x. 15, 1. 2. ánu- go after, vi. 54, 5; follow (acc.), viii. 63, 5.ápa- go away, x. 14, 9. abhí- come upon. ipf. á̄yan, vii. 103, 2.áva- appease: op. iyām, vii. 86, 4. á̄- come, ii. 33, 1; v. 83, 6; go to, x. 14, 8. úpa á̄- come to (acc.), i. 1, 7. úd- rise, vii. 61, 1; 63, 1-4; ipf. ait, x. 90, 4. úpa- approach, vii. 86, 3; 103, 3; x. 14, 10; 34, 10; flow to, ii. 35, 3.párā- pass away, pf. īyúr, x. 14, 2. 7. pári- surround, ii. 35, 4. 9. prá- go forth, i. 154, 3; x. 14, 7. ánu prá- go forth after, vi. 54, 6. sám- flow together, ii. 35, 3; unite, vii, 103, 2.
kṣi kṣi dwell, II. P. kṣéti, iv. 50, 8. ádhi- dwell in (lc.), i. 154, 2.
dhuneti dhunéti, a. (Bv.) having a resounding gait, iv. 50, 2 [dhuna + iti].
vī guide, II. véti, i. 35, 9. úpa- come to (acc.), v. 11, 4.
     Macdonell Search  
284 results
acāpalya n. discretion, steadiness.
atitapasvin a. very ascetic.
atyāga m. non-abandonment: e tanoh, during lifetime.
anaya m. indiscretion, imprudence, bad conduct.
anuga a. following; flying after; corresponding to (--°ree;); m. follower: pl. reti nue; -gati, f. following: -ka, a. following; imitating; conforming to; -gantavya, fp. to be followed or accompanied; -gama, m., -na, n. following; -gara, m. invitation ad dressed to the reciter; -gargita, n. echo; -gâmin, a. following, obedient to (ac.); m. servant; -giram, ad. on the mountain.
anukrama m. regular order: in. & ab. in order; table of contents: -na, n. enumeration, -nî, f., -ni-kâ, f. table of con tents; Vedic index; -krosa, m. compassion, sympathy with (prati; g., lc., --°ree;): -vat, a. sympathetic, -½âtmatâ, f. compassionateness; -kshanam, ad. every moment, continually; -kshapam, ad. every night.
anucara a. (î; --°ree; â) following; m. attendant: pl. retinue.
anuyāja m. after-sacrifice: -vat, a. accompanied with an --; -yâtavya, fp. to be followed; -yâtri, m. companion; -yâtra, n., â, f. retinue; escort; -yâtrika, m. pl. re tinue; -yâna, n. following; -yâyi-tâ,f. fol lowing, -tva, n. id.; -yâyin, a. following; m. follower; -yugam, ad. according to the (4) ages; -yoga, m. question, enquiry; -yogya, fp. at the disposal of (--°ree;); to be asked.
anuvāka m. repetition; lesson, section (of a Vedic text); -vâkya, fp. to be re cited; f. â, verse to be recited by the Hotri or Maitrâvaruna priest.
anuvaṃśa m. genealogical table; a. equal by birth: -m, by birth; -vamsya, a. relating to one's genealogy; -vákana, n. repetition; study; lesson; -vanam, ad. in the forest; in every forest; -vana½antam, ad. in the forest; -vandin, a. praising; -vapram, ad. on the bank; -vartana, n. continuation; compliance, tractableness; -vartanîya, fp. to be followed; -varti-tva, n. compliance; -vartin, a. following, yielding, obedient; -vartman, a. following, serving; -vartya, fp. to be followed; -vasa, m. obedience; a. obedient; -vashat-kâra, m. repetition of the concluding sacrificial invocation.
antarita pp. (√ i) retired; excluded, separated; intervening; distant; being in a state (--°ree;); hidden, by (in., -°ree;), obstructed by (--°ree;).
annakāma a. desirous of food; -da, a. giving food; -dâtri, m. giver of food; -dâna, n. gift of food; -dosha, m. offence in diet, eating forbidden food; -pakti, f. prepar ation of food; -pati, m. lord of food (Savitri, Agni, or Siva); -prada, a. bestowing food; -prâsana, n. first feeding of an infant with rice; -bhatta, m. N. of an author; -maya, a. con sisting of food; -mala, n. secretion of rice; -yoni, arrack; -rasa, n. sg. & m. pl. food & drink; taste in preparing food: -maya, a. con sisting of food & drink; -vat, a. hvg. food, rich in food; -vikâra, m. transformation of food: -tva, n. abst. n.; -samskâra, m. preparation of viands.
aparicaya m. unfamiliarity; -kalita, pp. unmoved, immovable; -kita, pp. unknown, unfamiliar; -kyuta, pp. not having deserted; -kkhada, a. destitute of retinue or baggage; -kkhinna, pp.unlimited; -kkheda, m. lack of decision; irresolution; want of judg ment: -kartri, a. not deciding rightly; -gâta, pp. premature, still-born.
apācīna a. retired.
apratibaddha pp. not kept at a distance, belonging to the retinue; -bandha, m. no hindrance; a. unhindered; -buddha, pp. unawakened; unenlightened, stupid; -bodha, ad. without awakening (°ree;--); -bhata, a. irre sistible; -bhâ, f. non-appearance, non-arrival; -bheda, m. non-betrayal.
abhivāda m. greeting; abuse: -ka, a. saluting; about to greet (ac.): -vâd ana, n. greeting, salutation; -vâdayitri, m. greeter; -vâdin, a. explaining; signifying.
abhīka n. meeting: lc. opportunely.
abhyāvṛtti f. repetition.
abhyukṣaṇa n. besprinkling; -ug- gayini, ad. towards Uggayinî; -½utthâna, n. rising from one's seat (as a greeting); rise, ascendency, exaltation; -½utthita, pp. √ sthâ.
abhyāsa m. addition; repetition; reduplication (gr.); practice; application; use, habit; familiarity with (--°ree;); repeated recitation; study.
arasika a. unaesthetic.
arocakin a. lacking appetite; fastidious; pretentious; sensitive.
alpaparīvāra a. of slender retinue; -pâyin, a. sucking badly (leeches); -punya, a. whose good works are few; -pra- bhâva, a. insignificant; -bala, n. small force; -bala-prâna, a. weak and short-winded; -buddha, pp. only just awakened; -buddhi, a. of mean intellect; -bhâgya, a. luckless: -tva, n. abst. n.; -bhuga½antara, a. narrow-chested; -medhas, a. of small wit.
ācāra m. behaviour; good con duct; usage, custom, observance, rule: °ree;--, customary: -maya, a. ceremonious, devoted to etiquette; -lâg&abrevcirc;, m. f. pl. customary parched grain; -vat, a.well-behaved, virtuous; -vya peta, pp. diverging from usage; -½apeta, a. id.; -hîna, pp. neglectful of the rules of conduct.
āx{093c}ḍambara m. drum; din; ver bosity; trumpeting (of an elephant); --°ree;, acme, height, crown: -vat, a. noisy.
āmreḍa m. repetition; -ita, (pp.) n. repetition, repeated word (gr.).
āvṛtti f. turning in; return; repetition; solstice; re-birth; course, direction.
abhitaścara m. pl. retinue.
utsāha m. power, energy; effort, resolution, perseverance; inclination for, de light in (--°ree;): -yoga, m. display of energy; -vat, a. energetic; -sakti, f. strength of will, force of energy; -sâhin, a.resolute; powerful.
udvejaka a.=udvega-kara; -ana, a. disquieting, alarming; n. shuddering; alarm: -kara, a. causing terror; -anîya, fp. object of alarm to (g.); -in, a. causing aversion.
urvī f. earth; du. heaven and earth: pl. w. shash, the six terrestrial spaces (four quarters, above & below; sometimes explained as heaven & earth, day & night, water & plants).
ekāntavidhvaṃsin a. necessarily perishing; -vihârin, m. solitary wanderer; -sîla, a. retiring into solitude; -hita, pp. thoroughly good.
ekāyana n. road passable by only one narrow path; meeting-place; absolute oneness; the one right way: î-bhâva, m. unanimity; î-bhû, become a centre of union for (g.).
ojas n. [√ vag] strength power, might, energy: in. powerfully; resolutely; -vi-tâ, f. forcible expression; -vín, a. powerful, mighty; energetic, brave.
kamaṇḍalu m. ascetic's water-pot: -pâni, a. having a water-pot in the hand.
karmātman a. whose nature is action; -½anta, m. completion of work; busi ness, public affairs, management; -½antika, m. labourer, artisan: -loka, m. labourers; -½abhyâsa, m. practice of a rite.
kavitā f., -tvá, n. poetic art or gift; -putra, m. N. of a dramatist; -râga, m. king of poets; N. of a poet; (í)-sasta (or á), pp. spoken or praised by sages.
kāryavat a. having business to attend to; busy; having an object: -tâ, f. business; -vasa, m. influence of an object: ab. from interested motives; -vinimaya, m. mutual engagement to do something;-vi nirnaya, m. legal decision of a case; -vi patti, f. failure of an object; -vrittânta, m. fact of a matter; -vyasana, n. failure of an object; -sesha, m. what remains to be done, completion of undertakings; -siddhi, f. suc cess of a matter; -hantri, m. thwarter of one's interest; -hetu, m. motive of carrying out one's designs: ab. with a view to one's interests.
kiṭṭa n. secretion.
kāvyādarśa m. Mirror of poetry: T. of a work on poetics by Dandin (6th century a.d.); -½alamkâra, m. Ornament of poetry: T. of a work by Vâmana (9th century): -sûtra, n. pl. Vâmana'sSûtras, -vritti, f. his commentary on them.
kāvya m. pl. kind of Manes; n. poem; -kartri, m. poet; -goshthî, f. discussion on poetry; -gîva-gña, m. Venus, Jupiter, and Mercury, or a. understanding the purport of a poem; -tâ, f., -tva, n.condition of a poem; -devî, f. N. of a queen; -prakâsa, m. Light of poetry: T. of a work on poetics by Mammata and Alata (11th or 12th century); -mîmâmsa ka, m. rhetorician; -rasa, m. flavour of poetry; -sâstra, n.poetry and learning (°ree;--); treatise on poetry; Poetics: T. of a work.
kiṃparivāra a. having what retinue? -púrusha (or á), m. kind of elf, dwarf (attendants of Kubera); -prabhâva, a. how mighty? -prabhu, m. bad lord; -phala, a. producing what fruit? -bala, strong? -bhûta, pp. being what? having what attri bute (in commentaries w. reference to nouns)? -bhritya, m. bad servant; -máya, a. consist ing of what? -mâtra, a. of what extent?
kutapasvin m. bad ascetic; -tarka, m. bad dialectics, sophistry.
kutra ad.=lc. of ka, in what? where? whither? what for? --½api, (late) somewhere;--kid,=lc. in some--; somewhere: with neg. nowhere (also of direction); kutra- kid -kutra-kid, in one case -in the other, sometimes -sometimes.
kutāpasa m., î, f. bad ascetic.
kūṭa a. hornless (cattle); deceptive; spurious; concealed; invidious; -ka, a. false (coin); n. prominence; -karman, n. fraud; -kâraka, m. forger, false-witness; -krit, m. forger (of, g.); briber; -kkhadman,m. sharper, cheat; -tâpasa, m. counterfeit ascetic; -tulâ, f. false balance; -pâkala, m. elephant's fever; -pâsa, m. snare, trap; -bandha, m. id.; -yuddha, m. treacherous fight; -rakanâ, f. fraud; trap, snare; -lekha, m., -lekhya, n. forged document; -sâlmali, m. f. fabulous cotton shrub with sharp thorns employed to torture criminals in Yama's realm; -sâsana, n. forged edict: -kartri, m. forger of edicts; -sâkshin, m. false-witness; -stha,a. occupy ing the highest place, chief; being in the midst of (--°ree;); immovable, immutable; -svarna, n. counterfeit gold.
kva ad.=lc. of ka; where? whither? often emphasized with the pcls. áha, íd, iva, nu, nu khalu, and svid: kva svid also= somewhere; with bhû and as=what has be come of --?=it is all over with; kva tadga tam, how about that? without verb=it is out of the question; kva--kva, expressing incon gruity=how great is the difference between --and--, there is nothing in common between -and --; with api and kid=kasmin+api or kid; somewhere, in a certain place; some time, once; sometimes, ever; kvakit kva- kid, here and there, now and then; kvakid kvakid, here--there; now--now; kva½api, kva kit, kvaka, kvakana, withna, nowhere, in no case, never, with preceding yatra, wher ever, whenever, in whatever case.
gaṇa m. host, multitude; class; troop, retinue; inferior deities appearing in troops (esp. Siva's retinue, under the special rule of Ganesa); member of Siva's following; com munity, association, corporation; metrical foot; group of roots or words to which a grammatical rule applies.
gajadanta m. ivory; -nimîlita, n. elephant's wink=connivance; -pati, m. lordly elephant; -pumgava, m. lordly elephant; -pura, n. N. of a city=Hastinâpura; -mada, m. elephant's temple-juice; -muktâ, f. pearl said to be sometimes found in an elephant's forehead; -mauktika, n. id.; -yûtha, m. herd of elephants; -râga-muktâ, f.=gaga-muktâ; -vat, a. provided with elephants; -vadana, m. Elephant-face, ep. ofGanesa.
guṇana n. panegyric, exaltation; -anikâ, f. repetition.
guḍa m. ball; molasses; pill: pl. N. of a people: -ka, m. ball; -gihvikâ-nyâya, m. the manner of sugar and the tongue=first but fleeting impression, opinion recommend ing itself for the moment; -pishta, n.pastry made of flower and sugar; *-dhânâ, f. pl. grains of corn with sugar; -maya, a. (î) consisting of sugar; -sarkarâ, f. sugar; (â)-kesa, m. ep. of Arguna.
goṣṭha m. cow-shed, cow-pen, stable; meeting-place; n. kind of srâddha.
capalaya den. P. make unsteady, beguile into an indiscretion.
carcā f. repetition of a word (esp. with iti); coating (of ointment); care, trouble about, attention to, meddling with (--°ree; or g.); speaking about (--°ree;); discussion: -pada, n. pl. words repeated with the insertion of iti.
carcana n. repetition of a word.
cāpala n. speed; unsteadiness, inconstancy, frivolity, rashness, indiscretion (with regard to, --°ree;); -ya, n. id.
kṣoṇi f. host, retinue; earth, land.
chardana a. emetic; n. vomiting; -i, f. vomiting, nausea; 1. -ís, n. protection; secure habitation; 2. -is, n. vomiting.
jaṭin a. wearing braided hair; m. ascetic, pious mendicant; Siva; -ila, a. wear ing braided locks; tangled (hair); full of (--°ree;); m. ascetic; Siva.
jaṭā f. braid of hair (as worn by as cetics, Siva, and by mourners): -kalâpa, m. cue, pigtail; -gâla, n. braided locks, cue; -gûta, m. top-knot; -dhara, a. wearing braided hair; m. ascetic; Siva; -dhârin, a. id.; -bhâra, m. mass of braided hair: -dhara, a. wearing a --; -mandala, n. circle of braided locks on the crown.
jaḍaya den. P. enfeeble, dull; ren der apathetic regarding (lc.): pp. gadita.
jarā f. 1. wearing out; growing old, old age; 2. roaring; shout; greeting.
jāmi a. consanguineous (brother or sister), related, allied, own: du. pl. bro ther(s) and sister(s): î, f. (C.) female relation, esp. daughter-in-law; sts. sister; n. í, consan guinity; sameness; repetition, tautology (gr.).
jñāpaka a. (ikâ) causing to know, teaching, indicating; m. master of petitions (an official); n. precept; implicit rule (of grammar); -ana, n. notifying, indicating; -anîya, fp. to be made known ornotified as (nm.); -ayitri, m. instructor.
jñāna n. knowledge; true or superior knowledge (sts. pl.); wisdom; intention; assumption; consciousness; organ of sense: -kânda, n. the part of revelation treating of the higher knowledge; -kakshus,n. eye of knowledge; a. seeing with the eye of know ledge; -da, m. imparter of knowledge; -pûrva, a. preceded by knowledge, i. e. well-considered; -maya, a. (î) consisting in or containing knowledge; -mârga, m. path of knowledge; -yoga, m. the theoretical Yoga; -vat, a. knowing; learned; possessed of superior knowledge; -sakti-mat, a. having the faculty of knowing; -siddhi, m. N.
ḍākinī f. kind of female demon (in the retinue of Kâlî) that feeds on human flesh: -tva, n. character of a Dâkinî.
tathā ad. so, thus (corr. to yathâ, as, that; iva, as; yena, that); that is so; so be it, well, yes; so truly (in oaths); in like manner, also, likewise; tathâ ka, similarly, so also; tathâ½api, id.; nevertheless, yet (gnly. with corr. yadi½api, api yadi, kâmam, varam); tathâ hi, for so (it is), so for instance, that is to say, namely; tathâ½eva, just so, like wise, similarly (ka and api sometimes added); tathâ--yathâ, so-that; (so long) -till; yathâ tathâ, in whatever way, in this way or that, by all means; by commentators used to indicate that a word is used adverbially (in such a manner that it is --): with na, by no means, practically not; yathâ yathâ-tathâ tathâ, in whatever way--so, the more --the more; na tathâ, not so, untrue.
tapodhana a. whose wealth is pen ance; devout, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; N.; -nidhi, m. treasury of penance; rigorous devotee; -bhrit, a. devout, pious; m. devotee, ascetic; -maya, a. (î) consisting of penance or austerity; devoted to piety; -mûla, a. having austerity for its root; -yagña, a. sacri ficing with penance; -yukta, pp. ascetic, pious; m. ascetic, devotee; -rata, pp. delighting in penance, devout; -rati, a. id.; -vat, a. ascetic, devout; -vana, n. sacred grove (in which ascetics practise penance); -vriddha, pp. abounding in penance, rigorously ascetic, very pious.
tapiṣṭha spv. very hot, burning; -ishnu, a. warming, burning; -îyas, cpv. most rigorously ascetic; more pious than (g.).
tapasvin a. tormented, afflicted, unfortunate; pious, devout; m. ascetic, reli gious devotee; -î, f. female ascetic.
tapasvat a. glowing, hot; ascetic, full of devotion, pious.
tarasvin a. swift; impetuous, energetic; bold.
tarasvat a. energetic.
tāpasa a. (î) practising penance; re lating to religious penance; m., -î, f. ascetic, hermit; -ya, n. status of ascetics.
tigmakara m. sun (hot-rayed); (á)-tegas, a. keen-edged, sharp-pointed; im petuous, energetic; m. sun; -dîdhiti, m. sun; -dyuti, m. id.; -bhâs, -rasmi, -ruki, m. id.; -vîrya, a. powerful; -sri&ndot;ga,a. sharp horned; (á)-heti, a. bearing sharp missiles.
tīkṣṇa a. [√ tig+sna] sharp, point ed; hot, burning; pungent (taste); violent, energetic; stern, harsh; severe; subtle, acute; n. harsh speech; m. N.
tu pcl. (never commences a sentence): with impv. pray (V.); but: sts.=ka or vâ, or a mere expletive; api tu, but rather; kim tu, but yet, nevertheless; na tu, but not; na tu½eva tu, never at all; param tu,yet, nevertheless, however; tu--tu, indeed--but; ka--na tu, although--yet not; na or na ka api tu, not--but rather; kâmam (ka) -tu or kim tu, although--yet; kâmam, bhûyas, or varám--na tu, rather--than.
tīrthya a. relating to a Tîrtha; m. ascetic, sectary.
tīrthaka a. worthy; holy; m. ascetic, sectary; -kara, a. making a ford through life, delivering (Vishnu or Siva); religious pioneer, reformer, founder of a sect; -yâtrâ, f. visiting sacred bathing-places, pilgrimage; -râgî, f. series of sacred bathing-places, ep. of Benares; -vat, a. abounding in landing-stairs or sacred bathing-places; -silâ, f. stone stair to the water; -sevana, n. frequenting sacred bathing-places; -sevâ, f. id.
tejaskāma a. desirous of manly vigour; aiming at dignity or distinction; -vat, a. brilliant, splendid, glorious: -î, f. N. of a princess; -vi-tâ, f. energy; dignity, majesty; -vi-tva, n. splendour; -vín,; bright; strong, energetic; dignified; glorious.
taila n. sesamum oil; oil (sometimes pl.).
tairthika a. heretical; m. worthy person; n. water from a holy bathing-place.
tejodvaya n. sun and moon (the two lights); consisting of light or splendour; -maya, a. (î) brilliant, radiant; powerful; -rûpa, a. formed of pure splendour or radi ance; -vat, a. bright; brilliant; -vritta, n. dignified behaviour, energetic action.
tritaya n. triad; -tâ, f., -tva, n. id.; -danda, n. triple staff of the Brâhman ascetic; triple control (of thought, word, and deed); -dandin, a. bearing the triple staff; controlling thought, word, and deed;m. Brâhman ascetic.
tviṣi f. vehemence, energy; brilliance, splendour; beauty: (îbrev;)-mat, a. vehement; energetic; splendid.
dambhamuni m. hypocritical as cetic.
darśana a. (î) --°ree;, seeing, looking at; knowing; showing, teaching; n. 1. with active meaning: seeing, looking at, beholding; sight of, meeting with, visiting, attendance at (--°ree; or g.); adoration (of, g.); eyesight; review of (g.); inspection, investigation of (--°ree;); foreseeing (--°ree;); perception, understanding, in sight; recognition of (--°ree;); opinion, intention; doctrine, philosophical system; 2. with ps. meaning: becoming or being visible, appear ance, presence, attendance (in court); occur rence, mention (esp. in a standard work); ap parition, vision; 3. with cs. meaning: showing; with concrete meaning: eye; it is often --°ree; a. having a -appearance, looking --; -m dâ, show oneself.
duṣparigraha a. hard to re tain; -parihántu, a. hard to remove; -pari hara, a. hard to avoid; -pâra, a. hard to cross; -perform; -pârshni-graha, a. hav ing a bad enemy in the rear, -grâha, a. id.;-pûra, a. hard to fill; -satisfy; -prakriti, f. low nature; a. base; -prakriyâ, f. trifling dignity; -pragña, a. stupid: -tva, n. stu pidity; -pranîta, pp. led astray; n. indis cretion; -pradharsha, a. hard to assail; -prabhañgana, m.hurricane; -prayukta, pp. badly or wrongly employed; -pravâda, m. slander; -pravritti, f. bad news; -pra vesa, a. hard to enter; -prasaha, a. hard to endure, irresistible; -prasâda, a. hard to ap pease: -na, a. id.; -prasâdhana, a. hard to manage (person); -prasâdhya, fp. id.; -prâ pa, a. hard to attain; -preksha, a., -preksha- nîya, fp. hard to see; unpleasant to look at; -prekshya, fp. id.
dūrecara a. distant; (é)-bhâ, a. shining afar; (é)-heti, a. whose missile reaches far.
dṛksaṃgama n. sg. sight of and meeting with (g.).
dvirukta pp. said twice, repeated; reduplicated; n. reduplication; -ukti, f. repetition, doubling.
na pcl. not; less (with numerals=not quite by, in. or ab.: ékayâ na vimsati, 19; ekân na trimsat, 29); lest (with pot.); V.: as, like (not exactly, almost; or as it does not coalesce metrically, it may have been an affirmative particle originally= Gk. nai/). When repeated it implies a very strong affirmation (exceptionally a strengthened negation). In a second or later clause it is sometimes replaced by ka, vâ, api vâ, or even dropped. It is often strengthened by api, api ka, u, utá, eva, khalu, ka, ka½api, ka½eva, ked, tu, tu½eva, vâ, atha vâ, ha.
nagnaka m. naked mendicant, Buddhist ascetic.
nayavat a. versed in policy, pru dent; -vid, a. id.; -vartman, n. policy; -sâl in, a. possessed of worldly wisdom or of policy; -sâstra, n. doctrines of policy; -sâdh ana, n. politic procedure; -sâhasa½unnati mat, a. requiring a high degree of discretion and resolution; -hîna, pp. destitute of dis cretion.
navata a. ninetieth.
nāṭya n. dance; dramatic represen tation, scenic art; actor's attire: in. (represent) mimetically=on the stage; -vedî, f. stage; -sâlâ, f. dancing-hall; -sâstra, n. principles of dramatic art; -½âkârya, m.teacher of dancing or of the scenic art: -ka, n. office of a dancing-master; -½ukti, f. theatrical term.
nātinirvṛti f. not too great satisfaction; -nîka, a. not too low; -pari- kara, a. having a limited retinue; -pari sphuta, a. somewhat concealed; -paryâpta, pp. not too abundant; -pushta, pp.not too well furnished with (in.); -prakupita, pp. not excessively angry; -pramanas, a. not too good-humoured; -prasiddha, pp. not noto rious; -bhârika, a. not too weighty; -bhin na, pp. not very different from (ab.); -mâ tram, ad. not excessively; -mân-in, a. not esteeming oneself toohighly: (-i)-tâ, f. absence of vanity; -ramanîya, fp. not too charming: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -rûpa, a. not very pretty; -visadam, ad. (kiss) not very audibly; -vis târa-samkata, a. neither too wide nor too narrow; -sîta½ushna, a. neither too hot nor too cold; -slishta, pp. not very firm; -sva stha, a. not very well, poorly.
ni ad. down; in, into; backwards (except once, in the AV., only combined with verbs or compounded with nouns: in the latter case sometimes=nis).
ninṛtti f. repetition.
niratiśaya a. not to be surpassed, greatest, supreme; without distinc tive marks; -atyaya, a. free from danger, safe; successful; infallible; -adhishthâna, a. untenable; independent; -anukrosa, m.pitilessness (-tas, ad. pitilessly); a. pitiless (towards, lc.); -anuga, a. having no retinue; -anugraha, a. showing no favour or pity; -anuyogya, fp. irreproachable, valid (argument); -anurodha, a. regardless of, indif ferent to (lc.); -anusaya, a. having no residuum of the consequences of action left.
nirabhra a. cloudless; -amarsha, a. apathetic; -ambara, a. unclothed, naked.
nirākaraṇa n. expulsion; re pudiation of a wife; removal; disproval; -âkaranîya, fp. to be disproved; -âkari shnu, a. repudiating (ac.); seeking to remove from (ab.); forgetful; -âkartavya, fp. to be disproved; -âkartri, m. contemner of (g.); a. disproving; -âkâ&ndot;ksha, a. expecting nothing; having no desires; requiring no supplement; -âkâra, a. formless, bodiless; having no object, vacant; -âkula, a. not crowded, unfrequented; not confused, orderly; unconcerned, calm; -â kriti, a. formless; neglecting one's religious duties; -âkranda, a. unprotected; affording no protection; m. or n. unsheltered place; -âkri yâ, f.expulsion; disproval; -âgas, a. guiltless; -âgraha, a. not obstinately insisting on any thing; -âkikîrshu, des. a. wishing to refute any one (ac.); -âgîvya, a. affording no livelihood; -âdambara, ad. without much talk (°ree;--); -âta&ndot;ka, a. free from ailment or anxiety; causing no ailment or anxiety; -â- tapa, a. sheltered from the heat of the sun, shady; -âtapatra, a. destitute of an umbrella; -âtithya, n. inhospitable (forest); -âdara, a.showing no respect towards (lc.); -âdhi, a. free from care; -ânanda, a. joyless, sad; -ântra, a. disembowelled; -âpad, a. free from adversity; -âbâdha, a. undisturbed; harm less; frivolous, futile; -âmaya, m. health, welfare; a. healthy, well; salubrious; in fallible; -âmarsha, a. putting up with every thing, apathetic; -âmisha, a. fleshless; hav ing no sensual desires: -½âsin, a. not eating flesh, not carnivorous; -âyata-tva, n. lack of extension, shortness; -âyati, a. having no future; -âyâsa, a. involving no trouble; causing no fatigue; -âyudha, a. unarmed; -ârambha, a. unenterprising, inactive; -â lamba, a. having no support; suspended in the air; self-supported, isolated, affording no support; -âlâpa, a. not talking; -âloka, a. devoid of light, dark; blind, foolish; -âvar ana, a. uncovered, manifest; -âsa, a. having given up all hope or expectation, despairing (of, ac. with prati, d., ab., lc., or --°ree;): -kara, a. taking away all hope of, rendering impos sible, -tva, n. hopelessness; -âsa&ndot;ka, a. fear less; not afraid of (lc.); -âsa&ndot;kya, fp. not to be feared; -âsâ, f. renunciation of all hopes: -½âsanna, pp. verging on despair; -âsitva, n. despair; -âsin, a. having renounced all hope, hopeless; -âsis, a. having no desires or hopes; -âsî-bhû, lose all hope; -âsrama, a. being in none of the four stages of a Brâh man: -pada, a. having no hermitages (forest); -âsramin, a. id.; -âsraya, a. shelterless, un supported; independent; unprotected; -âsa, m. expulsion, exclusion, rejection, repudiation; -âstha, a. taking no interest in, not caring about (--°ree;); -âhâra, m. fasting; a. abstaining from food, having nothing to eat: -tâ, f. abst. n.
nirvāsa m. leaving one's home, dwelling abroad, banishment; -vâsana, n. expulsion, banishment; taking to another place; killing; -vâsanîya, fp. to be expelled or banished, from (ab.); -vâsya, fp. id.;-vâha, m. carrying out, accomplishment, com pletion; maintenance, subsistence: -ka, a. (ikâ) accomplishing, executing (--°ree;); -vâhin, a. id.; -vâhya, fp. to be accomplished, completed.
nirvyākula a. unagitated, calm: -tâ, f. tranquillity: in. quietly; -vyâga, a. sincere, honest (towards, lc.); unambiguous, undisputed: -m, ad. honestly; certainly, -tâ, f. honesty, candour; -vyâgî-kri, purify; -vyâ pâra, a. unoccupied; -vyûdha, pp. √ ûh; n. accomplishment, completion; -vyûdhi, f. conclusion, end; summit, acme; -vrana, a. un wounded; unfractured; -vrîda, a. shameless.
nirvṛti f. in ward tranquillity; satis faction, joy, pleasure; happiness, bliss; ex tinction (of a lamp): -mat, a. tranquil; happy; -vritti, f. accomplishment, perform ance, completion; impropriety, unseemly be haviour.
nirharaṇa n. removal; carrying out a corpse to the funeral pyre; -haranîya, fp. to be removed; -hâra, m. appropriation, personal expenditure from (ab.); -hâraka, a. carrying out a corpse to the funeral pyre; -hârana, n. causing a corpse to be carried out to the funeral pyre; -hriti, f. removal; -heti, a. unarmed; -hetu, a. causeless; -hrâda, m. sound; -hrâdin, a. resounding, echoing, pealing.
niṣpanda panda ] a. motionless: î kri, render motionless; -parikara, a. not having made the necessary preparations; -parikaya, a. not becoming intimate; -pari- kkhada, a. having no retinue; -paryanta,a. unlimited.
niṣṭha a. (--°ree;) being or situated on; based or dependent on; relating to; devoted to, intent on; °ree;--, dependent (people, loka, m. pl.=dependants); with d. leading to, pro ducing; â, f. basis, state; intentness; per fection, completion; summit, limit; end, ca tastrophe, death; perfect knowledge, cer tainty, complete familiarity with (lc.); deci sion, regarding (g.); the terminations -ta and -ta-vat of the past participle, one of these past participles (gr.): -sûnya, a. irresolute (mind).
nīti f. guidance; worldly wisdom, practical morality, political and social ethics; discretion, prudent counsel; policy: -kusala, a. skilled in the conduct of human affairs, politic; -gña, a. prudent, politic; -dosha, m. error of conduct; -patala, n. treatise on policy; -mat, a. (-î) acquainted with the rules of worldly wisdom, politic, prudent; -yukta, pp. versed in policy; -vid, m. poli tician; -vidyâ, f. science of policy; -vedin, a.knowing policy; -sataka, n. T. of Bhartri hari's century of verses on worldly wisdom; -sâstra, n. science of political ethics; trea tise on polity; -samdhi, m. quintessence of polity.
pañcaka a. consisting of five; five days old; with sata, n. five per cent; n. the number five (penta/s); (páñka)-kapâla, a. (î) distributed in five dishes; -kritvas, ad. five times; -gavya, n. sg. & pl. five products of the cow (milk, curds, butter, urine, dung); -guna, a. five times greater than (ab.); -grâmî, f. group of five villages; -katvâr imsat, f. forty-five; -kandra, m. N.; -kûda, a. having five tufts of hair; -ganá, m. pl.the five races or kinds: gods, men, Gandharvas and Apsarases, serpents, and Manes; sg. man: î-ya, a. sacred to the five races; -tantra: -ka, n. T. of a collection of fables in five books; -tapas, a. (ascetic) exposing himself to five fires (one at each cardinal point, with the sun above); -taya, a. (î) fivefold; -tâ, f. fivefold amount; dissolution of the body into the five elements, death; -tîrthî, f. the five sacred bathing-places; N. of a Tîrtha; -trimsat: -î, f. thirty-five; -tva, n. fiveness; the five elements, earth, water, five, air, and ether; dissolution into the five elements, death: -m gam, die; -dasá, a. (î) fifteenth; consisting of fifteen; increased by fifteen; î, f.fifteenth day in a half-month; -dasan, a. pl. fifteen; -dasa-vârshika, a. fifteen years old; -dasa½aha, m. period of fifteen days: i-ka, a. lasting fifteen days; -dh&asharp;, ad. in five parts, fivefold; -dhâtu, n. sg. the five elements.
pañcamaya a. (î) consisting of five (elements); -mâshaka (or ika), a. consisting of or amounting to five mâshas; -mâsya, a. needing five months for its development (seed); -mukha, a. five-faced; having five points (arrow); -mûla, m. N. of an attendant on Durgâ; -yâma, a. having five courses; -yoganî, f. distance of five yoganas; -râtra, n. period of five days; a. (á) lasting five days; n. general designation of the sacred book of Vishnuite sects: -ka, a. lasting five days; -lakshana, a. having five characteristics; -lambaka, m. T. of the 14th Lambaka in the Kathâsaritsâgara; -vata, m. N.; N. of a locality: î, f. id.; -varga, m. group orseries of five; -varna, a. five-coloured; of five kinds; -varsha: -ka, -varshîya, a. five years old; -vârshika, a. recurring every five years; -vimsá, a. (î) twenty-fifth; consisting of or containing twenty-five; -vimsati, f.twenty-five: -tama, a. twenty-fifth; -vidha, a. fivefold; -vrit, ad. five times; -sata, n. pl. five hundred; consisting of five hundred panas (fine); paying a fine of five hundred (panas); five-hundredth: e kâle, in the 500th year; n. 105; 500; î, f. 500; -sara, m. (five-arrowed), Kâma; -sikha, a. wearing five top-knots (ascetic); m. N. of an attendant of Siva; -sîrsha, a. five-headed.
padāvalī f. series of pâdas or words; -½âvritti, f. repetition of a word; repetition of the same word with another meaning (rh.).
paramaśobhana a. exceedingly beautiful; -samhrishta, pp. exceedingly rejoiced; -hamsa, m. ascetic of the highest order; universal soul; -½akshara, n. syllable om or the Absolute; -½a&ndot;ganâ, f. most excellent woman.
paraspara a.: ac. each other; in. by or with each other; g. of each other; °ree;--, -tas, -m, ad. each other, mutually; -gña, a. knowing one another, intimate; -vyâvritti, f. mutual exclusion; -sthita, pp.standing op posite each other; -½âdin, a. devouring one another; -½amisha-tâ, f. condition of being one another's prey; -½âsraya, m. mutual de pendence, petitio principii; a. mutual; -½upa-kâra, m. mutual benefit.
parikampin a. trembling vio lently; -kara, m. sg. & pl. retinue, dependents; assistance, expedient; addition; abundance, multitude; girdle for looping up a garment: -m bandh or kri, gird oneself for, prepare to (lc. or inf.); -karita, pp. accompanied by (in.); -karman, n. adoration; decoration of the person, anointing the body; purification, means of purifying; preparation for (--°ree;); -karma-ya, den. P. adorn; -karmin, m. at tendant, servant; -kalayitri, a. enclosing; -kalpana, n. cheating; -kîrtana, n. proclaim ing aloud, promulgation; naming; -kopa, m. violent anger; -krama, m. succession, order; -kraya, m. hire; redemption, peace pur chased with money; -kriyâ, f. attention to (--°ree;); -kleda, m. wetness; -klesa, m. hard ship; trouble, suffering; -kshaya, m. dis appearance, cessation, failure; decline; ruin; -kshâna, n. pl. coal-dust; -kshâma,a. ema ciated; -kshit, a. dwelling around (Agni), extending around (du., heaven and earth); m. N. of various princes; -kshiti, f. wound ing; -kshîna, pp. emaciated, wasted away; -kshepa, m. moving to and fro; surrounding, encompassing; that which encircles; compass.
parijana m. (surrounding folk), servant (male or female); gnly. coll., retinue, train, followers, attendants, domestics (esp. female); -gâta, pp. completely grown; -gi hîrshâ, f. desire to avoid orremove; -gñapti, f. recognition; -gñâtri, m. accurate knower; -gñâna, n. recognition, discrimination; full ascertainment, thorough information, com plete knowledge or acquaintance; -gñânin, a. possessing much information; -gñeya, fp. to be learned or known thoroughly; (pári)- gman, a. moving or speeding round; every where present: lc. all around.
paricaya m. 1. accumulation; 2. acquaintance, knowledge; intimacy; fami liarity with, practice of (in.±samam, g., lc., --°ree;); repetition or frequency of (--°ree;): -vat, a. well-known; -kara, m.companion; attendant, servant; -kárana, m. attendant; n. service; attendance on (--°ree;); -karanîya, fp. to be tended; applicable; -karitavya, fp. to be tended, served, or honoured; -karya, fp. to be tended or honoured:â, f. attendance, service, devotion, homage; -kâra-ka, m. as sistant, attendant, servant: ikâ, f. female attendant, waiting-maid; -kârana, n. at tendance; -kâr-in, a. attending on, doing homage to (--°ree;): (-i)-tâ, f. abst.n.; -kiti, f. acquaintance, intimacy with (--°ree;); -kintanî ya, fp. to be maturely considered; -kumb ana, n. passionate kissing.
paripaṇa n. playing for (--°ree;); -pat ana, n. flying about, hovering; -pantha-ka, m. (obstructor of one's path), adversary, enemy; -pantha-ya, den. P. oppose, resist (ac.); -panthín, a. besetting one'spath; m. waylayer, opponent, enemy; -panthî-bhû, become the adversary of, oppose (g.); -pava na, n. cleansing (of grain), winnowing; flail; -pasavya, a. relating to the sacrificial animal; -pâka, m. becoming fully cooked; digestion; ripening; maturity; perfection; consequence, effect; fulness, fulfilment (of time): -tas, ab. in consequence of; -pâkana, a. cooking fully; maturing; -pâkayitri, a. id.; -pâtala, a. very pale-red; -pât&ibrevcirc;, f. succession; -pâtha, m. complete enumeration: in. (know) com pletely; -p&asharp;na, n. hiding-place; -pândiman, m. extreme whiteness; -pându, a. very white or pale: -ra, a. very white; -pârsva, a.being at the side, close at hand: -vartin, a. remain ing at one's side, standing beside (g.); -pâ laka, a. protecting; maintaining; -pâlana, n. protection; maintenance; nurture: â, f. protection, nurture, î-ya, fp. to be guarded; -maintained; -pâlya, fp. to be protected; -maintained or observed; -pi&ndot;gî-kri, colour deep red-brown; -piñga, a. full of (in.); -piñg ara, a. brownish-red, orange-coloured; -pi pâlayishâ, f. desire to maintain; -pîdana, n. squeezing out; injuring, prejudicing (--°ree;); -pushta-tâ, f. being nourished by, feeding on (--°ree;); -pûti, f. complete purification; -pûra ka, a. fulfilling; bestowing abundance; -pûr ana, n. filling; completion; -pûrin, a. be stowing abundantly; -pûrna, pp. (√ 1. pri) filled with (--°ree;); -pûrnendu, m. full moon; -pûrti, f. becoming full of (--°ree;); completion; -pelava, a. very delicate, tiny; -pothaka, a.furthering, confirming; -poshanîya, fp. to be cherished; -prasna, m. enquiry, after (--°ree;); -prâpti, fp. obtainment; -prepsu, des. a. wishing to reach or obtain, seeking after, de siring (ac.); -plavá, a. running to and fro;m. fluctuation; -pluta, pp. (√ plu) over whelmed; bathed (in tears: --°ree;).
parivyaya m. condiment; -vrag- yâ, f. strolling, wandering from place to place; sp. religious mendicancy; -vrâg, m. (nm. t) wandering ascetic, religious mendi cant: -aka, m., -ikâ, f. mendicant devotee (man or woman of the fourth or last religious order).
parivāda m. detraction, censure (of, g., lc., --°ree;): -kathâ, f. id.; -vâdin, a. slandering, censuring: -î, f. seven-stringed lute; -vâpá, m. parched grains of rice; -vâra, m. cover; attendants, train, retinue (--°ree;, a. surrounded by); sheath: -tâ, f. condition of a retinue; -vârita, cs. pp. (√ 1. vri) encircled; -vâsa, m. 1. sojourn; 2. perfume; -vâha, m. overflow; drain for carrying off excess of water; -vâhín, a. (n-î) overflowing, with (--°ree;).
parisaṃvatsara m. full year; a. a full year old; waiting a full year; -sakhya, n. true friendship; -samkhyâ, f. complete tale or enumeration; full number, totality, sum, number; exhaustive statement (i. e. excluding everything not specified): -na, n. complete enumeration, full number; exhaustive statement; just examination or estimate; -samghushta, pp. resonant on all sides; -samâpti, f. conclusion, completion, end; extension to (lc. or ad. with prati); -sara, a. adjacent; bordering on (--°ree;); m. neighbourhood, region, proximity; -sarpana, n. creeping about; walking about; running to and fro, continual change from place to place; -sarpin, a. moving about; -sâdhana, n. accomplishment; settlement, exaction (of debts); -sântvana, n. consoling: pl. blandish ments; -sâraka, n. N. of a place on the Sarasvatî.
parīmāṇa n.=parimâna; -ram- bha, m. embrace; -varta, m. exchange, bar ter; change; -vâda, m. detraction; -vâra, m. retinue; -vâha, m. drain or channel for carrying off the overflow of a pond, waste pipe; -sesha, m. remnant.
paryāya m. revolution; expiration of a period; change of seasons; periodic re turn; repetition; regular succession; turn; ritual turn with the Soma cups in the Atirâ tra feast; period, sentence; stanza; alterna tive word, synonym: °ree;-or in. in order; alter nately, -m, abs. going about; -krama, m. order of succession, regular rotation; -tva, n. condition of being a ritual turn; -½anna, n. food meant for another.
pādanamra a. bowing down to the feet of any one; -nikrit, a. having a de ficiency of a syllable in each quarter-verse; -nyâsa, m. setting down of the feet, step; footprint; -pa, m. (drinking by the root), plant, esp. tree: -ka, --°ree;, a. id.; -patana, n. throwing oneself at the feet of any one, pros tration; -patita, pp. having thrown oneself at any one's feet; -paddhati, f. line of foot steps, footprints; -padma, m. lotus-foot; -parikâraka, m. humble servant; -pâda dhâvana, n. washing of one foot with the other; -pîtha, n. footstool: î-kri, turn into a footstool; -pûrana, a., n. filling a verse foot; -prakshâlana, n. washing of the feet; -prasârana, n. stretching out the feet; -pra hâra, m. kick; -bhata, m. foot-soldier; -bhâ ga, m. a fourth; -bhâg, a. possessing=equalling only a fourth part of any one (g.) in (lc.); -mudrâ, f. footprint; trace, sign, indication:-pa&ndot;kti, f. line of footprints, track; -mûla, n. root of the foot, tarsus; sometimes used as a respectful designation of a person; foot of a mountain: e ni-pat, fall at the feet of (g.); -yuddha, n. foot-fight; -ragas, n.dust of the feet; -lagna, pp. sticking in the foot (thorn); lying at any one's feet; attached to the foot; -lepa, m. foot-ointment of a peculiarly magical power; -vandana, n. adoration of the feet, reverential salutation;-sabda, m. sound of footsteps; -sas, ad. foot by foot; by a fourth; sauka, n. cleansing of the feet; -stambha, m. supporting beam, pillar.
pāriṇāmika a. digestible; subject to development: with bhâva, m. natural disposition; -nâyya, n. household utensils; -nâhya, n. id.; -tosh-ika, n. reward, gratuity (token of satisfaction); -panth-ika, m. highwayman, robber; -pâtra, incorrect for -yâtra; -pârsva-ka, a. atten dant: ikâ, f. chambermaid; -pârsvika, a. standing at one's side; m. attendant: pl. retinue; -pâlya, n. governorship; -plava, a. swimming; moving to and fro, unsteady; wavering, irresolute; m. ship: -tâ, f., -tva, n. unsteadiness, caprice; -bhadra, m. coral tree (Erythrina indica); -bhâsh-ika, a. (î) technical; -mândal-ya, n. spherical shape; -mân-ya, n.circumference; -yâtra, m. N. of the western Vindhya range; -vitt-ya, n. bachelorhood while a younger brother is mar ried; -vettr-ya, n. marriage of a younger before an elder brother; -sesh-ya, n. result: ab. therefore; -shada, m. member of an as sembly or council, auditor, spectator: pl. retinue of a god; -shad-ya, m. one who takes part in an assembly, spectator; -hâr-ika, a. privileged; -hâr-ya, m. bracelet; -hâs-ya, n. jest.
pārśvaka m. rib; -ga, a. going at one's side, accompanying; m. attendant: pl. retinue; -gata, pp. going at one's side, at tendant; sheltering (shade); -gamana, n. accompanying (--°ree;); -kara, m.attendant: pl. retinue; -tás, ad. from, by or at the side or flank of, beside, aside (g. or --°ree;); near at hand; -druma, m. tree at one's side; -parivartin, a. being at the side of (--°ree;); -vartin, a. stand ing beside; m.attendant: pl. retinue; -vi vartin, a. being beside, living with (g.); -stha, a. standing beside, staying near; -sthita, pp. id.
pārṣada m. (= pârishada) attend ant (esp. of a god); member of an assembly, spectator: pl. (sts. sg.) retinue; n. manual recognised by a grammatical school.
pāṣaṇḍa a. (î) heretical; m. here tic; m. n. heresy; -in, m. heretic; -ya, n. heresy.
piśaṅga a. (î) [moving brilliantly, glittering], reddish, tawny: -gata, m. N. of an ascetic (having a reddish top-knot); -tâ, f., -tva, n. reddish or tawny colour: i-ta, pp. orange-coloured; î-kri, colour reddish.
punarukta pp. said over again, repeated; superfluous, useless: -m or °ree;--, ad. repeatedly; n. repetition, tautology: -tâ, f., -tva, n. repetition, tautology; -ukta-vad- âbhâsa, m. seeming tautology (rh.); -ukti, f. repetition; useless repetition, tautology; useless or empty word: -mat, a. tautological; -uktî-kri, render superfluous; -upagamana, n. return; -upasadana, n. repeated performance; -upâkarana, n. renewal of study; -upâgama, m. return.
punargamana n. setting out again; -garbha-vat-î, a. f. again pregnant; -grahana, n. repetition; -ganman, n. second birth, regeneration; -gâta, pp. born again; -dars ana, n. seeing again; -dâra-kriyâ, f. marrying again (after the death of the first wife); -bhava, a. born again; m. re-birth; -bhâr yâ, f. second wife, re-marriage; -bh&usharp;, a. being renewed; f. re-married widow.
purobhāga m. front part; for wardness, obtrusiveness; disfavour: -m muk, abandon one's forwardness = retire discom fited; (mama) e, before (me); -bhâgin, a. obtrusive, forward; grudging, censorious; -bhâvin, a. impending, imminent; -mâruta, m. east wind; -mukha, a. having the aper ture turned frontways or eastward.
pūra a. filling; satisfying; m. filling; satisfying; swelling of a river or of the ocean; volume of water, flood, stream (often --°ree; with words denoting water or other fluid); superabundance, high degree of (--°ree;); cake; slow inhalation of breath through the nose (an ascetic practice); -aka, a. filling, -up, completing (g. or --°ree;); fulfilling, satisfying; m. stream, effusion; multiplier; slow inspira tion of breath through the nose (an ascetic practice); citron-tree: -pinda, m. pl. flour balls for completing the sacrifice to the Manes; -ana, a. (î) filling; fulfilling, satis fying; producing; m. filler-up or completer of a number, masculine ordinal number (from dvitîya onwards); n. act of filling or filling up; complete drawing of a bow; fulfilling, satisfying; equipping: -pratyaya, m. suffix forming ordinal nouns (gr.); -anîya, fp. to be filled in or supplied; to be fulfilled or satisfied; -ayitavya, fp. to be filled up or completed; to be satisfied; -ayitri, m. filler, of (g.); fulfiller, satisfier.
pūrti f. filling, completion; fulfilment; reward.
pūrṇāñjali m. two handfuls; -½âtman, m. probably incorrect for prânât man; -½ânanda, m. perfect joy; -½apûrna, pp. sometimes full, sometimes short (measure); -½âyata, (pp.) n. bow fully drawn; -½artha, a. having one's object attained or one's wish fulfilled; -½âhutí, f. full offering, offering of a full ladle.
pūrvābhimukha a. turned or flowing eastward; -½abhisheká, m. prelimin ary anointment; -½abhyâsa, m. repetition of something previous: in. anew; -½ambudhi, m. eastern ocean.
paunaruktya n. repetition; tautology.
paunaḥpunya n. frequent repetition.
prakara m. (scattered) heap, quantity, plenty: î, f. kind of song; short interlude (in a drama); -karana, n. production, creation; treatment, discussion, exposition; subject of discussion, topic; section, chapter; special treatise, monograph; kind of drama (in which the plot is invented by the poet): asminn eva prakarane, in regard to this very point, in this connection; na ka prakaranam vetsi, nor do you know what the point in question is: -tas, ad. on a suitable occasion, -tva, n. condition of discussing (--°ree;); -kartavya, fp. to be prepared; to be displayed or cherished; to be appointed to (lc.); -kartri, m. one who causes or occasions; -karsha, m. (preference, advantage), excellence, superiority, pre-eminence; intensity, excess; predominance; --°ree; a. consisting for the most part in: in., ab., °ree;--, highly, strongly, thoroughly; -karshana, m. troubler;n. drawing off; protrusion; extension, long duration; -karsha-vat, a. excellent; --°ree;, distinguished or pre-eminent in; -kalpanâ, f. allotment; -kalp-ita, pp. fitted, arranged, placed; -kalp-ya, to be allotted or settled; -kâ&ndot;kshâ, f. appetite; -kânda, m. n. trunk of a tree (between the root and branches); minor section in a book; --°ree;=pre-eminent, excellent; -kâmá, m. delight, voluptuousness: pl. objects of desire: -m, -tas, or°ree;--, ad. with delight, willingly; according to desire, sufficiently; in very deed; -kâra, m. kind, sort, species; way, manner; --°ree; a. of the nature of, -like: kena prakârena, in what way? how? prakâraih, in one way or another; râmâyanasya bhâratasya vâ pra kârah, a kind of Râmâyana or Mahâbhârata; -kâra-ka, a. (--°ree;) of the nature of, -like; -kâra-tâ, f. speciality; -kâra-vat, a. belonging to a species; -kârya, fp. to be exhibited; -kâlana, a. driving on; m. N. of a Nâga.
prakāśa a. shining (out), clear, bright; manifest, open, visible, public; produced or occasioned by (--°ree;); generally known, renowned, for (in. or --°ree;), in (--°ree;); having the appearance of, resembling, like (--°ree;): -m or °ree;--, ad. openly, publicly; aloud (dr.); m. lustre, splendour, light (often --°ree; in titles of exegetical works); manifestation; renown; open place, open air; publicity: ab. manifestly, certainly; lc. publicly, openly; aloud; -kâsa-ka, a. (ikâ) clear, bright, shining; generally known, renowned; illuminating; making clear, explaining; expressing, designating; m. illuminator, sun; -kâsa-tâ, f. brightness, lustre; renown; publicity: -m gam, become known; -kâsa-tva, n. manifestation, appearance, renown; -kâsa-devî, f. N.; -kâs-ana, a. illuminating; n. illumination; allowing to appear, manifestation; -kâsa-nârî, f. public woman, prostitute; -kâs-anîya, fp. to be illuminated; -kâs-ayi tavya, fp. to be made clear or evident; to be manifested; -kâsa½âtma-ka-tva, n. luminousness; -kâsa½âtman, a. whose nature is light, luminous; -kâs-i-tâ, f.brightness, light; -kâs-i-tva, n. id.; -kâs-in, a. bright, shining; bringing to light (g.); -kâsî-karana, n. illumination; -kâsî-kri, illuminate; pub lish; -kâsî-bhâva, m. becoming light, dawn; -kâsa½itara, a. reverse of manifest, invisible; -kâs-ya, fp. to be brought to light or manifested: -tâ, f. publicity.
pratinagaram ad. in every town; -nadi, ad. at every river; -nándana, n. greeting; grateful acceptance; -namas kâra, a. returning a reverential salutation; -nava, a. new, young, fresh, recent; -nâga, m. hostile elephant; -nâdî, f. branch-vein; -nâda, m. echo; -nâma, ad. by name: -grah anam, n. ad. mentioning each individual name; (práti)-nâman, a. related in name; -nâyaka, m. opposing hero (in a play); -nârî, f. female rival; -nidhâtavya, fp. to be substituted; -nidhâpayitavya, fp. to be caused to be substituted; -nidhi, m. substi tution; substitute; image, likeness; counter part of (--°ree;); -nidhî-kri, substitute anything (ac.) for (--°ree;); -nidheya, fp. to be substi tuted; -nipâta, m. falling down; -niyama, m. rule for each particular case; -nirdesa, m. reference back to, renewed mention of (g.): -ka, a. referring back to; -nirdesya, fp.referred to again; -niryâtana, n. restor ation, restitution; -nivartana, n. return; -nivârana, n. keeping off; -nivritti, f. re turn; -nisam, ad. every night; -niskaya, m. opposing opinion; -nishtha, a. standing on the oppositeside; -nripati, m. rival king; -noda, m. repulse; -nyâyám, ad. in reverse order; -nyâsa, m. counter deposit.
pratitadvid f. recognition of the contrary; -tantra-siddhânta, m. doc trine recognised in various systems (but not in all); -tara, m. sailor; -tar&asharp;m, with bhû, retire more and more; -taru, ad. at every tree; -tryaham, ad. for three days each time.
pratyabhyanujñā f. permission, consent; -½abhyâsam, ad. at every repetition; -½abhyutthâna, n. rising to receive (a guest).
pratyabhighāraṇa n. repeated besprinkling of a sacrificial remnant; -gñâ, f. recognition; regaining of consciousness; -gñâna, n. recognition; counter token of re cognition; reciprocity;-gñâpana, n. causing to recognise; -gñâyamâna-tva, n. recog nition (ps.); -nandin, a. receiving grate fully (--°ree;); -bhâshin, a. speaking to (ac.); -marsa, m.: -na, n. stroking or touching (with the hand); -methana, n.mocking reply; -yoga, m. countersuit or action; -lekh ya, n. counter-document (leg.); -vâda, m. re turn salutation: -ka, a. returning any one's greeting; -vâdana, n. answer to a salutation (g.), counter greeting to (g.); -vâdayitri, m. one who returns a salutation; -skandana, n. counter-accusation.
pratyātāpa m. sunny spot; -½âtma, °ree;-or -m, ad. for or in every soul; singly; -½âtmaka, -½âtmika, a. belonging to oneself, severally one's own; -½âtmya, n. likeness to oneself: in. after his own image; -½âdarsa, m. incorrect for pratyâdesa; -½âdâna, n. re covery, re-acquisition; reiteration, repetition; -½âditya, 1. m. mock sun; 2. ad, towards the sun (°ree;--); -½âditsu, des. a. desirous of gaining or regaining; -½âdeya, fp. to be received; -½âdesa, m. injunction, order; repudiation, rejection; refusal; prevention, determent, (deterrent) example; casting into the shade, eclipsing.
prapitāmaha m. great grandfather; also designation of Brahman and Krishna: pl. great-grandfathers, ances tors: î, f. paternal great-grandmother; -pi trivya, m. paternal grand-uncle; -pitvá, (V.) n. going away; flight, retreat; retired spot; evening; -pitsu, des. a. desirous of plunging into (lc.); wishing to enter upon a path (ac.); -pîdana, n. pressing, squeezing; means of squeezing tumours; -purâna, a.long kept, old; -pushpita, pp. covered with blossoms, flowering; -pûraka, a. (ikâ) fulfilling, satis fying; -pûrana, a. (î) filling up (oil) and increasing (love for anything); insertion in (lc. or --°ree;); drawing of a bow;embellishment of Indra's banner; -pûrya, ps. base of √ 1. pri, be thoroughly filled or satiated; be filled to the brim.
pralaghu a. very small or insignificant (retinue): -tâ, f. excessive smallness; -lap ana, n. prattling, chattering; -lapita, pp. √ lap; n. prattle, chatter; lament; -lab dhavya, fp. to be made sport of, to be de ceived; -lamba, a. hanging down, pendulous; stooping; m. N. of a Daitya slain by Bala deva or Krishna: -tâ, f. pendulousness, -bâhu, a. having pendulous arms, -bhuga, a. id.; -lambin, a. pendulous; -lambha, m.obtainment; deception; -lambhana, n. taking in, deceiving; -laya, m. dissolution, destruction, death; annihilation or end of the world; setting (of stars); cause of dissolu tion; swoon: -ghana, m. cloud producing the dissolution of the world, -m-kara, a. (î) causing destruction, -tâ, f. dissolution: -m gam, be annihilated, -tva, n. id.: â-ya klip, go to ruin, -dahana, m. conflagration causing the destruction of the world, -½anta-ga, a.perishing only at the end of the world (sun).
pravilambin a. prominent; -laya, m. melting; dissolution, complete dis appearance; -lâpana, n. annihilation; -lâpayitavya, fp. to be annihilated; -lâpita-tva, n. complete annihilation; -lâpin, a.lament ing; -lâpya, fp. to be completely destroyed; -vâda, m. quarrel; -vikta, pp. √ vik; n. (?) solitude (only lc. pl.); -vikshu, des. a. being about to enter; -veka, m. complete retirement.
pravrajana n. going abroad, leav ing home; -vragita, (pp.) m. religious men dicant (Brâhman in the fourth order); n. life of a religious mendicant: â, f. nun; -vragya, n. going abroad, migration, wander ing forth from home: â, f. religious mendi cancy; order of ascetics; joining the monastic (or fourth) order; -vraska, m. cut; -vrâg, m. religious mendicant, recluse; -vrâgá, m. river-bed (V.); -vrâgaka, m. religious men dicant: -strî, f. mendicant nun; -vrâgikâ, f. id.; -vrâgana, n. banishment; -vr&asharp;gin, going forth or after (--°ree;); m. religious mendi cant; -vlaya, m. collapse.
prākkarman n. preliminary pro cedure; action performed in a previous ex istence; -kalpa, m. former age; -krita, pp. formerly done, performed in a previous life; n. act done in a previous life;-kiram, ad. before it is too late, betimes; -kkhâya, n. falling of the shadow towards the east.
prātaradhyeya fp. to be recited early in the morning; -anuvâká, m. early recitation (the litany with which the Prâtah savana begins); -anta, a. ending in the morning; -apavarga, a. id.; -abhivâda, m. morning greeting; -avanegá, m. morning ablution; -ahna, m. early part of the day, forenoon; -âsa, m. morning meal, breakfast; -âsita, pp. having taken one's morning meal, having breakfasted; -âhutí, f.morning sacri fice (the second half of the daily Agnihotra sacrifice).
prātikāmin m. (acting ac cording to one's desire: prati-kâmam), ser vant; messenger; -kûlika, a. (î) resisting, hostile, contrary: -tâ, f. opposition, hostility; -kûlya, n. unfriendliness, opposition; repug nant practice; disagreeableness; disagree ment with (--°ree;); -gña, n. subject under dis cussion; -daivas-ika, a. occurring daily (prati-divasam); -nidhi-ka, m. representa tive; -paksha, a. belonging to the enemy oradversary; -pakshya, n. hostility, enmity, towards (g.); -pada, a. forming the com mencement; m. N.; -pad-ika, a. express, ex plicit; n. crude base of a noun (before it re ceives the case terminations or other suffixes); -paurush-ika, a. relating to manliness or valour; -bha, a. intuitive; n. intuition; pre sence of mind; -bhat-ya, n. rivalry; -bhâv ya, n. surety, for (--°ree;); certainty, trustworthy news of (g.); -bhâs-ika, a. existing only in appearance, apparent only; -rûp-ika, a. coun terfeit, spurious; using false measure or coun terfeit coin; -lom-ya, n. inversion, inverse order; opposition, hostility; -ves-ika, m. neighbour; -vesm-ika, m. neighbour: î, f.female neighbour; -ves-ya, a. neighbouring; m. opposite neighbour; neighbour;--°ree;=neigh bouring: -ka, m. neighbour; -sâkhya, n. a grammatical treatise on the phonetic changes of words in the text of the Vedasaccording to the respective recension (prati-sâkham; there are four such treatises, one for the RV., two for the YV., and one for the AV.); -satvanam, ad. in the direction of the Sat van; -sv-ika, a. own, peculiar, not common to others; -hata, m. kind of svarita ac cent; -hartra, n. office of the Pratihartri; -hârika, m. door-keeper; -hâr-ya, n. jug glery, performance of miracles; miracle.
prārthana n. solicitation, entreaty, prayer, request, desire, for (lc. or --°ree;); peti tion, suit; supplication of any one (--°ree;): â, f. (more common), id.: -bha&ndot;ga, m. refusal of a request, -½abhâva, m. absence of a suit, -siddhi, f. fulfilment of a desire or request.
priyacikīrṣā f. desire to do any one (g.) a kindness; -kikîrshu, des. a. wishing to do a service to any one (g.); -gana, m. loved person (male or female); -gâni, m. gallant, lover; -gîvita, a. to whom life is dear: -tâ, f. attachment to life; (á)-ta ma, spv. very dear; m. lover, spouse; -tara, cpv. dearer: -tva, n. being dearer to any one (lc.) than (ab.); (á)-tâ, f., -tva, n. popularity; affection; fondness or love for (--°ree;); -darsa, a. pleasant to look at; -darsana, n. sight of a dear friend; a. having a pleasing aspect, good-looking, handsome, to (g.); m. N. of a prince of the Gandharvas: â, f. N.; -darsin, m. (kindly-looking), ep. ofAsoka; -prasna, m. friendly inquiry (after any one's health etc.); -prâya, a. exceedingly kind (speech); -bhâshana, n. kind words; -bhâshin, a. speaking kind words; -bhogana, a. fond of eating; -mandana, a. fond of ornaments; (á)-medha, m. N. of a Rishi; -vaktri, m. one who says pleasant things (in a good or a bad sense); flatterer: -tva, n. kindly speech; -vakana, n. kind or endearing words; -vak as, n. id.; a. speaking kindly; -vasantaka, m. pleasant spring and dear Vasantaka; -vas tu, n. favourite object or topic; -vâk-sahita, pp. accompanied by kind words; -vâk, f. kind words; a. speaking kindly or affably; -vâda, m. kind words; -vâdikâ, f. kind of musical instrument; -vâd-ín, a. speaking sweetly or kindly, saying pleasant things; flattering; m. flatterer: (-i)-tâ, f. pleasing speech; flat tery; -vinâkrita, pp. abandoned or deserted by one's beloved; (á)-vrata, a.having de sirable ordinances or loving obedience; m. N.; -sravas, a. fame-loving, ep. of Krishna; -samvâsa, m. society of loved ones: -sakha, m. (î, f.) dear friend; a. loving one's friends; -samgamana, n. meeting of beloved ones, N. of a place where Indra and Krishna are said to have met their parents Kasyapa and Aditi; -satya, a. pleasant as well as true; -samprahâra, a. quarrelsome; -sâhasa, a. addicted to indiscretions: -tva, n. abst. n.; -suhrid, m. dear friend; -sevaka, a. kind to one's servants; -hita, pp. pleasant as well as salutary; n. what is agreeable and bene ficial.
preṣya fp. to be sent or despatched; m. servant, menial; n. servitude; behest, command: -kara, a. performing the behests of (g.); -gana, m. domestics, household; ser vant; -tâ, f., -tva, n. servitude, bondage, to (--°ree;); -bhâva, m. condition of a servant, ser vitude, bondage; -vadhû, f. handmaid; -var ga, m. body of servants, retinue.
bahistapas n. external asceticism.
bahvoda m. [for bahu½uda, cp. bahûdaka] kind of ascetic regarding knowledge (as opposed to works) as the chief thing; -½aushadhi-ka, a. [for -½osha-] abounding in herbs.
bahūdaka a. abounding in water; m. mendicant ascetic frequenting sacred bath ing-places; -½upamâ, f. comparison with many things (rh.); -½upâya, a. having many resources, powerful.
bṛṃhaṇa a. fattening, nourishing; n. fattening, invigorating: -tva, n. quality of strengthening; -an-îya, a. fattening, nour ishing; -ayitavya, fp. to be strengthened; -ita, pp. n. trumpeting of an elephant;roar of a lion.
bubhukṣā f. wish to enjoy (--°ree;); desire to eat, appetite, hunger: -½apanayana, m. remedy of hunger, food; -sh-ita, pp. hun gry, famishing; -shu, des. a. hungry; wish ing for worldly enjoyment (opp. desiring final liberation).
brahmaloka m. world or heaven of Brahman (sts. pl.); -laukika, a. inhabit ing the world of Brahman; -vaktri, m. ex pounder of the Vedas; -vat, ad. in accord ance with or like the Veda; -vadya, n.recitation of Vedic texts; -vadha, m. mur der of a Brâhman; -vadhyâ, f. id.: -krita, n. perpetrated murder of a Brâhman; -vark asá, n. pre-eminence in sacred knowledge, sanctity; -varkas-in, a. pre-eminent in di vine knowledge, holy; -varkas-vin, a. id.; -vâdá, m. discourse on sacred matters; -vâd ín, a. discoursing on sacred matters; m. theologian, Vedântin; -vâsa, m. Brahman's abode or heaven; (bráhma)-vâhas, a. to whom prayer is offered; -vit-tva, n. sacred knowledge, theology, philosophy; -víd, a. knowing the Vedas; versed in magic; m. theologian, philosopher; -vidy&asharp;, f. knowledge of Brahman or of sacred things; -vidvas, pt. knowing Brahman; -vivardhana, a. increas ing sacred knowledge, ep. of Vishnu; -vrik sha, m. Brahman as a tree; -vritti, f. sub sistence of a Brâhman; -veda, m. Veda of Spells, Atharva-veda; -vedi, f. N. of a local ity; -vedin, a.knowing the Brahman or the Vedas; -vaivarta: -ka, n. T. of a Purâna; -vrata, n. vow of chastity: -dhara, a. prac tising --; -sâyin, a. resting in Brahman; -sâlâ, f. Brahman's hall; N. of a sacred locality; -siras, -sîrshan, n. kind of mythi cal missile; -samsad, f. Brahman's audience chamber; -samstha, a. devoted to sacred things; -samhitâ, f. collection of prayers; -sattra, n. sacrifice of prayer; -sattrin, a. offering a sacrifice of prayer; -sadana, n. seat of the Brahman priest; abode or heaven of Brahman; -sabhâ, f. hall or audience chamber of Brahman; -sambhava, a. sprung from Brahman; -saras, n. N. of a bathing place; -savá, m. purification of prayer; kind of sacrificial rite; -sât-kri, bring into har mony with Brahman; -sâmá, -sâmán, n. Sâman chanted after a verse recited by the Brahman priest; -sâyugya, n. complete union or identification with the universal soul; -sârshti-tâ, f. equality with Brahman; -sâ varna, m. N. of the tenth Manu; -sâvarni, m. id.; -siddhânta, m. T. of various astrono mical works; -siddhi, m. N. of an ascetic; -suta, m. son of Brahman; -suvarkalâ, f. kind of plant; decoction of this plant (drunk as a penance); -sûtra, n. sacred cord worn by Brâhmans over the shoulder; sacred or theological Sûtra; T. of a Sûtra work on the Vedânta philosophy ascribed to Bâdarâyana or Vyâsa: -pada, n. statement of a theolo gical Sûtra; a. (î) consisting of the state ments of a theological Sûtra; -sûtrin, a. wearing the sacred cord; -srig, m. creator of Brahman, ep. of Siva; -soma, m. N. of a saint; -stamba, m. universe, world; -stena, m. (thief of=) one in unlawful possession of the Veda; -steya, n. (theft of=) unlawful acquisition of the Veda; -sthala, n. N. of a town and of various villages; -sva, n. pro perty of a Brâhman; -haty&asharp;, f. murder of a Brâhman; -hán, m. murderer of a Brâhman; -hridaya, m. n. N. of a star (Capella).
bhakta pp. (√ bhag) devoted, etc.; m. worshipper; n. food; meal: -kara, m. preparer of food, cook; -kkhanda, n. appetite; -tva, n. being a part of or belonging to (--°ree;); -da, -dâyaka, a.presenting food to (g.); -dâsa, m. one who serves in return for his daily food; -dvesha, m. aversion to food, lack of appetite; -dveshin, a. disliking food, lacking appetite; -pâtra, n. dish of food; -ruki, f. appetite; -rokana,a. stimulating appetite; -sarana, n. kitchen; -sâlâ, f. dining-hall; -½âkâ&ndot;kshâ, f. appetite; -½abhilâsha, m. id.; -½abhisâra, m. dining-room; -½aruki, f. aversion for food.
bhadrākṣa m. N. of a prince; -½âyudha, m. N.; -½asva, m. N.; -½âsana, n. splendid seat, throne; a sitting posture among ascetics; -½îsa, m. ep. of Siva; -½îs vara, m. N. of various statues and emblems of Siva; N. of a locality; N. of a scribe.
bhadra a. [laudable: √ bhand] bless ed, auspicious; fair, beautiful; good; fortu nate, prosperous; skilful in (lc.): vc. m. my good friend, worthy sir, f. my good lady, pl. good people; â dis, f. the auspicious quarter, the south; â vâk, f. kindly speech; -m, a-yâ, in. (V.) joyfully; -m kri or â-kar, do well; -m kri, grant welfare to (d.); m. kind of evil doer (pl.); N.; n. welfare, happiness, bless ing, prosperity: -m te,prosperity to you, God bless you (often used parenthetically in a sentence).
bhāgaśas ad. in parts (divide); part by part, in due proportion, gradually; -hara, a. receiving a share; m. heir; -hâra, m. division (in arithmetic); -hârin, a. in heriting; m. heir; -½apahârin, a.receiving a share of inheritance; -½arthin, a. claiming a share.
bhāva m. becoming, arising, occur ring; turning into (--°ree;), transformation into (lc.); being, existence; endurance, continu ance; state of being (--°ree;, forming abst. nouns like -tâ and -tva); being orbecoming (as the fundamental notion of the verb, sp. of the int. or imps. vb.); behaviour, conduct; condition, state; rank, position; aspect of a planet (in astrology); true state, reality (°ree;--, in reality); manner of being, nature; mental state, dis position, temperament; way of thinking, thought, opinion, sentiment, feeling; emotion (in rhetoric there are eight or nine primary Bhâvas corresponding to that number of Rasas or sentiments); supposition; meaning, import (iti bhâvah is continually used by commen tators like iti½arthah or iti½abhiprâyah, at the end of an explanation); affection, love; seat of the emotions, heart, soul; substance, thing; being, creature; discreet man (dr.: vc.=re spected sir); astrological house: bhâvo bhâ vam nigakkhati, birds of a feather flock to gether; bhâvam dridham kri, make a firm resolution; bhâvam kri or bandh, conceive affection for (lc.): -ka, a. causing to be, pro ducing (--°ree;); promoting the welfare of (g.); imagining, fancying (g. or --°ree;); having a sense of the beautiful, having a poetic taste; -kar tri-ka, a. having as its agent an abstract noun; -gamya, fp. to be recognised by the imagination.
ayati m. no ascetic.
bhāvuka a. becoming anything (nm., or --°ree; with ad. in -am); having an &ae;sthetic sense; n. language full of emotion.
pratvakṣas a. energetic, vigorous.
bhūṣā f. ornament: -petî, f. jewel case.
bhūṣaṇa a. (î) adorning (--°ree;); n. ornament, decoration; --°ree; a. adorned with: -tâ, f. state of an ornament; -petikâ, f. jewel-casket.
maṅgala n. [brightness: √ mañg] luck, fortune, happiness, bliss (sts. pl.); prosperity, welfare; auspiciousness; good omen, whateverconduces to an auspicious issue; benediction, blessing; auspicious or lucky object, amulet; solemn ceremony, auspicious festivity (on important occasions); good old custom; good work; a. auspicious, propitious; m. planet Mars; N.: -karana, n. uttering a prayer for theauspicious issue of an undertaking; -ka lasa-maya, a. consisting of festal jars; -kâr aka, a. productive of prosperity, auspicious; -kâla, m. auspicious time; -kshauma, n. du. two festal garments (upper and lower) of linen; -gâthikâ, f. solemn chant; -gîta, n. id.; -ghata, m. N. of an elephant; -kand ikâ, f. a form of Durgâ; -tûrya, n. musical instrument used on festive occasions: -nisva na, m. sound of auspicious musical instruments; -devatâ, f. tutelary deity (only --°ree;); -pattra, n. leaf used as an amulet; -pâthaka, m. pronouncer of benedictions, professional panegyrist; -pâtra, n. auspicious pot or vessel (containing propitious objects); -pura, n. N. of a town; -pushpa-maya, a. made of auspicious flowers (garland); -pra tisara, m. cord of an amulet; -prada, a. auspicious; -maya, a. (î) consisting of no thing but luck etc.; -vat-î, f. N.; -vâdin, a. pronouncing a blessing; -vrishabha, m. bull with auspicious marks; -sabda, m. benediction, greeting; -sûkaka, a. indicative of good luck, auspicious.
maṭha m., î, f. hut; solitary hut of an ascetic or student, cell; monastic school, col lege: -kintâ, f. care of a monastery: -m sam â-kar, rule a monastery.
manda a. slow, sluggish, in (lc. or --°ree;); apathetic, indifferent to (d.); weak, slight; faint, low (voice), gentle (rain, wind); dull-witted, stupid, foolish; unhappy; dis eased, ill: -m, ad. slowly, gradually (also °ree;--); slightly; faintly, softly, in a low voice: mandam mandam, ad. very slowly, quite gradually; m. the planet Saturn: -ka, a. scanty, little; dull, stupid; -karni, m. N. of a sage; -karman, a. inactive; -kârin, a.acting foolishly; -kirana, a. weak-rayed; -ga, a. moving or going slowly; m. planet Saturn; -gati, a. moving slowly: -tva, n. slow pace; -ketas, a. absent-minded; dull witted, stupid, foolish; -kkhâya, a. having its beauty dimmed, dull-looking, lustreless; -garas, a. aging slowly; -gâta, pp. slowly produced; -tâ, f. indolence; slightness, in significance; dulness, stupidity, foolishness; -tva, n. slightness, insignificance, feebleness; -dhî, a. dull-witted, stupid, foolish; -pâla, m. N. of a Rishi; -punya, a. unfortunate, ill-fated; -pragña, a. dull-witted; -preman, a. having little affection; -phala, a. bearing little fruit; having an insignificant result; -buddhi, a. dull-witted; -bhâgin, a. ill fated, wretched; -bhâgya, n. misfortune; a. ill-fated, unlucky, unfortunate, miserable: -tâ, f. wretchedness; -bhâg, a. ill-fated; -ma ti, a. dull-witted; m. N. of a wheelwright; N. of a lion; -mandam,ad. very slowly or gradually, by degrees; very softly; -mand a½âtapa, a. having very slight heat, cool.
mala n., C. also m., dirt, filth, impurity (also morally); bodily secretion; n. kind of base metal, brass (?): -karshana, a. remov ing dirt; -gñu, a. dirty-kneed; -tva, n. being a stain; -dâyaka, a. attaching a stigma to any one; -digdha½a&ndot;ga, a. (î) having the body soiled with mire; -pa&ndot;ka½anulipta½a&ndot; ga, a. (î) having the body besmeared with dirt and mire; -pa&ndot;kin, a. covered with dirt and mire; -mallaka, n. loin-cloth; -mâsa, m. (impure month, no religious rites being performed in it), intercalary month; -mûtra-parityâga, m. evacuation of excre ment and urine.
mahokṣa m. large or full-grown bull: -tâ, f. state of a great bull; -½ukkhra ya, a. very lofty or great; -½ukkhrâya-vat, a. id.; -½uttama, n. (?) perfume; -½utpala, n. lotus-flower (Nelumbium speciosum); -½ut sava, m. great festival; -½utsavin, a. cele brating a great festival; -½utsâha, a. having great power; strong-willed, energetic, per severing; -½udadhi, m. great sea, ocean (of which there are supposed to be four): -ga, m. shell; -½udaya, m. great exaltation, good fortune, or prosperity; a. conferring great good fortune, or blessings; very prosperous; very happy; m. N.; n. ep. of the city of Kâ nyakubga: â, f. N. of a hall in the lunar world: (a)-svâmin, m. N. of a temple; -½ud ara, n. big belly, dropsy; a. (î) big-bellied; m. N.: -mukha, m. N. of an attendant of Durgâ; -½udyama, a. exerting oneself greatly, hard-working, industrious; busily occupied with (inf. or d. of abst. n.); -½unnata, pp. very lofty; -½unnati, f. great elevation, high rank or position; -½upâdhyâya, m. great teacher; -½uraga, m. great serpent; -½uras-ka, a. broad-chested; -½ûrmin, a. very billowy; -½ulkâ, f. great firebrand; great meteor.
milana n. meeting, encountering, contact.
mukhagata pp. being in the mouth or face; being in front; -grahana, n. kissing the mouth; -kandra, m. moon-like face; -kandramas, m. id.; -kapala, a. talkative, garrulous; -kapetikâ, f. slap in the face; -kâpalya, n. garrulousness; -kkhavi, f. colour of the face, complexion; -ga, m. (born from the mouth of Brahman), Brâhman; -tás, ad. from, at, in, or by the mouth; in the face; in front, forward, from the front; before (g.); -pa&ndot;kaga, m. lotus-face; -pata, m. veil; -pinda, m. mouthful of food; -priya, a. pleasant in the mouth; -bandhana, n. in troduction, preface; -bha&ndot;ga, m. slap in the face, with (--°ree;); distorted face, grimace; -bha&ndot;gî, f. distortion of the face; -bheda, m. id.; -mandala, n. face; -mâtra, a. (î) reaching to the mouth; -mâruta, m. breath (of the mouth); -mudrana, n. closing the mouth of (g.); -mudrâ, f.distortion of the face or sealing of the lips; -motana, n. smacking of the lips.
muni m. inspired or ecstatic man (V.); sage, seer, ascetic, hermit, sp. one who has taken the vow of silence (C., rarely in Br.); seer in the heart=conscience: pl. the seven sages (=the seven Rishis) orstars of the Great Bear; sg. N.; N. of the mango tree, Arte misia indica, Butea frondosa, Buchanania latifolia, and Agati grandiflora.
munyanna n. pl. food of ascetics.
munīśa m. prince of ascetics, great sage or ascetic, ep. of Sâkyamuni and Vâl mîki; -½îsvara, m. id.; ep. of Vishnu and of Buddha.
munīndra m. chief of ascetics, great sage: -tâ, f. dignity of a great sage.
munikeśa a. wearing long hair like a Muni (AV.1); -paramparâ, f. unin terrupted tradition; -putra, m. son of an ascetic; -vana, n. forest inhabited by ascetics, hermit forest; -vara, m. best of theseven Munis, ep. of Vasishtha as one of the stars of the Great Bear; best of ascetics; -vrata, a. observing the vow of (ascetics=) silence.
mela m. [√ mil] meeting, intercourse; company, assembly; -aka, m. meeting, con gress, assemblage (-m kri, assemble); -ana, n. coming together, meeting, union.
mauna n. condition of a Muni or as cetic; silence (-m vi-dhâ or sam-â-kar, ob serve silence, hold one's tongue): -dhârin, a. observing silence; -vritti, a. observing the vow of silence; -vrata, n. vow of silence; a. observing the vow of silence; -vratin, a. id.
yati m. disposer (V.): pl. N. of an ancient race connected with the Bhrigus; sg. (striver), one who has renounced the world, ascetic, anchorite.
yatitāla m. kind of musical measure; -tva, n. condition of an ascetic; -dharma, m. duties of an ascetic.
yathā rel. ad. & cj. as, like (followed by correlative táthâ; sts. tathâ tathâ, tadvat, evam, V. evá; in V. the pcls. kid, ha, ha vai, iva½a&ndot;ga, iva ha are added, in C. sts. iva redundantly; at the end of a pâda yathâ is sometimes unaccented in this sense like iva); as, for instance; elliptically: as it is or was (rare); properly, correctly (=yathâvat); in order that, (so) that (with subj. or opt. in V.; opt., pr., ft., impf., pf., aor. in C.; sts. with ellipse of syât or bhavet); that (with verbs of saying, thinking, knowing, doubting, hear ing, etc. introducing oratio recta ± iti); as soon as (rare); as if (w. pot., rare): yathâ tathâ, as -therefore; as surely as -so truly (also tena satyena, the logical order of the clauses being sts. inverted); yáthâ yathâ táthâ tathâ (V. also eva&halfacute;eva), according or in proportion as -so, the more -the more; yathâ yathâ½eva, that (w. pot.; corr. tad); yathâ tathâ, in whatever way; in some way or other, anyhow (with na, in no way, not in reality); by commentators used to express that a word is employed adverbially (in such manner that it is, sc.bhavati); yathâ katham- kid, in any way, somehow or other; tad yathâ, that is as follows=namely, for instance; tad yathâ½api nâma, just as if (w. pot.).
yatin m. ascetic.
yamaka a. double, twofold; n. double bandage; repetition of syllables iden tical in sound but different in meaning, paro nomasia; -kimkara, m. Yama's servant, messenger of death; -ketu, m. Yama's flag, sign of death; -kshaya, m. Yama's abode; -gâth&asharp;, f. verse treating of Yama; -griha, n. Yama's abode; -ghna, a. destroying death, ep. of Vishnu; -ga, a. twin-born; m. du. twins; -gâta, pp.: -ka, a., m. id.;-gihvâ, f. (Yama's tongue), N. of a procuress; -tâ, f. condition of Yama: -m yâ, become the god of death to, cause the death of (g.); -tvá, n. id.; -damshtra, m. N. of an Asura, of a Râkshasa, and of a warrior; -damshtrâ, f.Yama's tooth: -½antaram gata, having en tered the jaws of death; -danda, m. Yama's rod; -dis, f. Yama's quarter, south; -dûtá, m. Yama's messenger; (á)-devata, a. having Yama as a deity; -dhânî, f. Yama's abode.
yācñā f. soliciting, asking, for (--°ree;); begging, mendicity; request, entreaty, peti tion; asking for (a girl) in marriage: -m kri, fulfil a request; -gîvana, n. subsist ence by begging; -bha&ndot;ga, m. vain request; -vakas, n. pl. words of solicitation.
yācaka m. petitioner, beggar: î, f. female beggar; -ana, n. begging, soliciting, asking for (--°ree;); asking in marriage (--°ree;): -ka, m. beggar; -anâ, f. asking, soliciting; request, petition, entreaty for (--°ree;); solicita tion of any one (--°ree;): -m kri, fulfil a request; -anîya, fp. to be requested; -ita, pp. asked, etc.: -ka, a. borrowed; n. borrowed sum or object; -i-tavya, fp. to be asked; to be asked for a girl (ac.) in marriage by (in.); -in, a. begging for (--°ree;); -ishnu, a. asking, soliciting; m. petitioner: -tâ, f. solicitation of favours.
yauvana n. (fr. yuvan) youth, bloom or prime of youth, adolescence, manhood: pl. youthful deeds: -darpa, m. pride of youth, juvenile indiscretion; -padavî, f. path of youth: -m ârûdha, having entered on adolescence; -prânta, m. n. end of youth; -vat, a. possessed of or being in the bloom of youth, youthful.
rasa m. [√ 2. ras] sap, juice (of plants), fruit-syrup; fluid, liquid; water; essence, pith (of anything); quicksilver; potion, elixir; poisonous draught; taste, flavour (as distinctive quality of fluids: six kinds are distinguished, viz. sweet, salt, bitter, sour, pungent, astringent); object of taste; organ of taste, tongue; relish, inclination, fondness or love for (lc. ± upari, --°ree;); desire; affection; pleasure, delight; charm; (flavour or key note in poetry), sentiment (eight Rasas are generally distinguished: love, heroism, dis gust, wrath, mirth, terror, pity, wonder, a ninth, quietism, and a tenth, tenderness, being sometimes added); prevailing sentiment in human character; sacred syllable om.
rasapācaka m. cook; -praban dha, m. poetical work, drama; -bhâva-vid, a. knowing the sentiments and emotions; -maya, a. (î) consisting of juice, fluid, water, or quicksilver; charming; -râga, m.quick silver; (rása)-vat, a. juicy, succulent; well flavoured, savoury; filled with juice; sup plied with moisture (field); overflowing with (in.); tasteful, charming; n. tasteful style: -î, f. kitchen; meal; -vat-tâ, f. juiciness; savouriness; tastefulness; -vâda, m. alchemy; -vikrayin, a. vendor of liquors or juices; -vikretri, m. id.; -vid, a. knowing the taste; having good taste; -sâstra, n. alchemy; -sodhana, n. purification of quicksilver; -sid dha,pp. (adept in quicksilver=) skilled in alchemy; familiar with poetical sentiments; -siddhi, f. (adeptness in quicksilver), skill in alchemy.
rahogata pp. having retired to a solitary place, being alone; secret.
rasita (pp.) n. roar, yell, cry; re verberation, thunder; rattle, jingle; -i-tri, m. 1. roarer; 2. taster; -ín, a. juicy; pos sessed of taste, aesthetic.
rasika a. possessed of taste, aesthetic; having a taste for or a sense of, fond of, appre ciating, understanding (lc., --°ree;); having a special taste or hobby; devoted to (lc., --°ree;); tasteful: -tâ, f. tasteor fondness for (lc.), -tva, n. devotion, addiction.
ruciṣya a. pleasing, agreeable; -î, f. metr.=ruki, light, lustre (pl.); -ya, a. pleasing, radiant, beautiful; appetising.
rucikara a. causing desire; pro ducing appetite.
ruci f. light, lustre; splendour, beauty; colour; liking, taste, fondness, for (lc., prati, inf., --°ree;); appetite; --°ree;, a. fond of, indulging in, addicted to, eager for: in. ruk yâ, according to desire, at will or pleasure; -m dâ, please any one (g.); -m â-vah, pro duce a liking for (d.); a-ye bhû, please any one (g.).
rocaka a. [√ ruk] stimulating the appetite; -aná, a. (â, î) bright, shining; pleasing, lovely; stimulating the appetite; n. (V.) brightness, brilliance, splendour; bright heavens (also pl., three being assumed): pl. lights, stars: â, f. gall-stone of the cow.
laghu ] a. (v-î, u) swift, active, nimble; light (not heavy); light, easily digested; easy in mind, buoyant; unimpeded, without a retinue; easy; easily articulated (the letter v);prosodically short; small, diminutive, little, insignificant, trifling; feeble, wretched, despicable, low; gentle, soft; younger; agreeable, desirable; handsome, beautiful; clean (dress): laghu man, think little of, despise; -kri, deride.
lābha m. finding, meeting; obtain ment, acquirement (of, g., --°ree;); gain, advan tage, profit; object acquired, acquisition; capture; apprehension, knowledge: -lipsâ, f. desire of gain, covetousness; -vat, a. having gained advantage; having got possession of (--°ree;); -½alâbha, m. du. & n. sg. gain and loss.
lāṭācārya m. N. of an astrono- mer; -½anuprâsa, m. repetition of a word in the same sense but in a different applica tion (rhet.).
liṅgin a. having a mark or sign; having the marks or appearance of (--°ree;); wearing false badges, hypocritical; assum ing the badges of, passing oneself off as (--°ree;); wearing his badgesjustly, sincere; provided with a phallus; having a subtle body; m. hypocrite; member of a religious order, as cetic; a Sivaite sect (pl.); cause.
liṅgavat a. having characteristic marks; having various genders; having a phallus (a certain Sivaite sect); -sarîra, n. the subtle body (phil.); -sâstra, n. treatise on grammatical gender; -stha,m. ascetic; -½anusâsana, n. doctrine of grammatical gender.
vanīyaka m. beggar, petitioner: -gana, m. id.
vanoddeśa m. forest region, place in the wood; -½udbhava, a. produced or ex isting in the forest, growing wild; -½upapla va, m. forest conflagration; -½upeta, pp. having retired to the forest; -½urvî, f. forest region.
vamathu m. vomiting; water squirted from an elephant's trunk; -ana, n. vomit ing; emission; emetic.
varcasa n. (--°ree;) brilliance, lustre; colour; -ka, n. brilliance; ordure; -ya, a. conferring vigour; -vín, a. vigorous; m. energetic man.
varṇarāśi m. alphabet; -lopa, m. dropping of a letter; -varti: -kâ, f. paint brush; -vikriyâ, f. violation of the rules of caste; -vritta, n. metre measured by the number of syllables; -vyatikrântâ, pp. f.having transgressed with a man of lower caste; -vyavasthiti, f. caste system; -sik shâ, f. phonetics; -sreshtha, m. best man by caste, Brâhman; -samsarga, m. mixture of castes by intermarriage; -samhâra, m. assem blyrepresentative of castes; -samkara, m. mixture of colours (rare); mixture of castes by intermarriage; -samghâta, m., -samghâta, m., -samâmnâya, m. (combination of letters), alphabet; -sthâna, n. place (in the mouth) of the production of a letter.
vānaprastha m. (betaking oneself to forest-uplands: vanaprastha), Brâh man of the third order (who has retired from domestic life to the forest), hermit; a. relating to the forest hermit; m. (sc.âsrama) third stage of a Brâhman's life, forest life; -prasth-ya, n. condition of a hermit.
vicāra m. [√ kar] procedure (S., E.); consideration, reflexion, deliberation; discrimination, investigation, examination; hesitation: -gña, m. one skilled in discrimina tion, competent judge;-kârana, n. considera tion, reflection; investigation, discussion; hesi tation: â, f. distinction; kind; -kâranîya, fp. needing careful consideration; -kâra-dris, a. employing no spies as eyes and regarding the matter with deliberation; -kâra-mû- dha, pp. deficient in discretion; -kârayitavya, fp. needing careful consideration; -kâra-vat, a. acting with deliberation, circumspect; -kâr ita, cs. pp. √ kar; -kârin, a. (n-î) having wide ways (earth; RV.1); wandering about; acting; dissolute; reflecting, considering, examining; -kârya, fp. needing (long) re flexion; n. imps. one should reflect or hesi tate; -kâlana, a. (î) destroying (--°ree;).
vijana a. destitute of men, deserted, solitary, lonely; n. retired place; absence of witnesses; lc. in a lonely place, in private, without witnesses: -m kri, remove all wit nesses; -gana-tâ, f. solitude;-ganî-kri, re move every one or all witnesses from a place (ac.); separate from a loved person; -gan man, m. a mixed caste (offspring of outcast Vaisya).
vittaka a. well-known, famous; -nâtha, m. lord of wealth, ep. of Kubera; -nâsa, m. loss of property; -pa, a. guarding treasure; m. ep. of Kubera; -pati, m. lord of wealth, ep. of Kubera; -pa-purî, f. N. of a town; -pâla, m. guardian of wealth, ep. of Kubera; -petâ, f., -petî, f. money-case, purse; -mâtrâ, f. sum of money; -½riddhi, f. abundance of wealth; -vat, a. wealthy, rich; -vivardhin, a. increasing capital; -samkaya, m. accumulation of wealth; -hîna, pp. desti tute of wealth, poor; -½âgama, m. acquisi tion of wealth, means of making money; -½âdhya, a. abounding in wealth, rich; -½âpti, f. acquisition of wealth.
vinaya a. removing (RV.1); m. (C.) removal, withdrawal (of a cloth); guidance, discipline, instruction, training; good beha viour, decorum, discretion, polite manners, good breeding, modest conduct; office (rare); treatise on discipline (B.); instruction; -gyot is, m. N. (conj.), -tâ, f. good behaviour; modesty; -nayana, a. removing, dispelling; n. education, instruction, in (lc.); -nayam dhara, m. N. of a merchant; -naya-pitaka, (basket=) collection of treatises on disci pline (B.); -naya-maya, a. being good breed ing itself; -naya-vat, a. well-behaved (in a-): -î, f. N.; -naya-sûtra, n. Sûtra treat ing of discipline (B.); -naya-svâminî, f. N.; -naya½âditya, m. ep. of Gayâpîda: -pura, n. N. of a town built by Gayâpîda; -naya½âdi-dhara, m. N.; -½avanata, pp. bowing low with modesty; -nayin, a. well bred, well-conducted, modest; -naya½ukti, f. modest speech (pl.).
virāga m. loss of colour; dislike (to persons), indifference (to things), to (ab., lc., --°ree;); indifference to worldly objects; a. of various colours, variegated; free from pas sion, indifferent; -râgi-tâ, f.aversion, dis like; -râgin, a. disliking, having a disincli nation for (lc.); -r&asharp;g, a. (V.) ruling; splen did; m. chief, ruler, lord; f. queen; f. exaltation (V.); f. (V.), m. (C.) N. of a divine being, the result of speculation, iden tified with Purusha, Pragâpati, Brahman, Agni, and later Vishnu, sometimes appear ing as the daughter (or son) of Purusha, Pragâpati, Brahman, or Vishnu; is made the subject of all kinds of fanciful allegories in the Brâhmanas; in the Vedânta virâg is a designation of intellect conditioned by the aggregate, so called because of its manifold brilliance; f. N. of various V. metres, chiefly with pâdas of ten syllables: t-tva, n. name of Virâg; -râga, a. brilliant; m. N.; -râg ita, pp. resplendent; -râta, m. N. of a king of the Matsyas; -râtra, end of night; -râd dhri, m. insulter; -râdha, m. N. of a Râk shasa: -gupta, m. N., -han, m. slayer of Virâdha, ep. ofVishnu (Râma); -râma, m. cessation; termination, end; end of a word or sentence, stop, pause (gr.); end of a pâda, caesura within a pâda; stroke below a con sonant indicating the absence of the inherent a (orig. only at the end of a sentence); ab stention (gr.): --°ree; a. ending in (gr.): -m yâ, rest; come to an end; -râva, m. cry, clamour, roar, noise; -râvin, a. crying, warbling, yell ing, roaring; resounding with (in.).
visadṛśa a. (â, î) unlike, different, unequal: -phala-tâ, f. difference of conse quences; -sandhi, m. secondary joint; ab sence of Sandhi; a. jointless; unallied with any one; lacking Sandhi; -samnâha,a. un armoured; -samâpti, f. non-completion; -sambhoga, m. separation.
vīpsā f. distributiveness (expressed by the repetition of a word); repetition (of a word).
vīrāśaṃsana n. (indicative of heroes), battle-field; -½âsana, n. kind of sit ting posture with ascetics.
vṛkṣa m. [that which is felled: √ vrik =√ vrask] tree; plant (rare); tree bearing visible flowers and fruit (rare, C.); trunk of a tree (rare): (a)-ka, m. little tree; (á)-kesa, a. wooded (RV.1); -ghata, m. N. of an Agra hâra; -kkhâyâ, f. shadow of a tree; -ga, a. made of wood, wooden; -traya, n. three trees; -tva, n. notion of &open;tree&close;; -devatâ, f. tree-divinity, dryad; -niryâsa, m. exudation from trees, gum, resin; -parna, n. leaf of a tree; -maya, a. (î) made of wood, wooden; -mûla, n. root of a tree: -tâ, f. sleeping on the roots of trees (of ascetics); -râg, m. king of trees, Indian fig-tree; -vâtikâ, f. grove of trees; -sâkhâ,f. branch of a tree; -sâyikâ, f. squirrel; -samkata, n. forest-thicket; -sar p&isharp;, f. tree-serpent (AV.1); -½agra, n. top of a tree; -½adana, m. (eating into a tree), car penter's chisel; -½adhirûdhi, f. spreading of a tree(from below upwards); kind of em brace; -½ârohana, n. climbing a tree.
vega m. [√ vig] shock, jerk (V., C., rare); C.: rush, impact; flood (of water, tears), cur rent; impetus (esp. of missiles), force, velo city, speed; impetuosity, vehemence, haste, sudden impulse; outbreak, outburst (of pas sion etc.), excitement; attack (of disease); circulation, working (of a poison; sts. pl.); impulse: -tara, m. greater swiftness: vegâd vegataram gam, run faster and faster; -tas, ad. with a sudden jerk; speedily, hastily, impetuously; -danda, m. elephant (=ve tanda); -vat, a. impetuous, hasty, swift, energetic, violent (wind); m. N. of a fairy: -î, f. N. of a fairy; -vâhin, a. flowing (river) or flying (arrow) swiftly; -sarî,f. female mule; -½anila, m. violent wind.
vedāṅga n. member of the Veda, subsidiary Vedic treatise (six are enumer ated: Sikshâ, Kalpa, Vyâkarana, Nirukta, Khandas, Gyotisha); -½âdi, m. beginning of the Veda; m. n. sacred syllable om; -½adhi gama, m. Vedic study; -½adhyayana, n. id.; -½adhyâya, a. studying or having studied the Veda; -½adhyâyin, a. id.; -½anadhyay ana, n. neglect of Vedic study; -½anuvak aná, n. repetition orrecitation of the Veda; Vedic doctrine.
vedasaṃhitā f. an entire Veda in any recension; -samnyâsika, a. having renounced Vedic study and pious works and devoting oneself to contemplation; -sam nyâsin, a. id.; -samâpti, f.completion of Vedic study.
vai post positive pcl. emphasizing the preceding word: rare in the Samhitâs, very common in Br. (often indicating the beginning of a clause) and E.; in S. gnly. only in the combination yadi½u vai; in E. and Manu vai is very common at the end of a pâda as a mere expletive; with other pcls.: vâ u (RV.); ha vaí, ha sma vai, eva vai (Br.); api vai, tu vai (C.).
vyathaka a. disquieting, distressing, painful (speech); -ana, a. distressing; n. tottering; feeling of pain; -ayitri, a. harassing (ac.); -&asharp;, f. failure (C.); injury, loss (Br., C.); disquietude, distress, anguish, pain (ord. mg.; C.): -m kri, cause pain to (g.); give way to grief; (vyáth)-is, ad. reeling (ship; RV.); unobserved by (g.), secretly (V.); or n. course, path.
vyavaccheda m. severance from (in., --°ree;); separation, dispersion (in a-); ex clusion; distinction, discrimination; letting fly (an arrow): -ka, a. distinguishing; ex cluding; -kkhedya, fp. to be excluded; -dhâna, n. interposition, intervention (ord. my.); cover; distinction, discrimination; interruption; conclusion: -vat, a. covered with (--°ree;); -dhâyaka, a. (ikâ) intervening; interrupting, disturbing; -dhârana, n.speci fication; -dhi, m. covering; -sâya, m. strenu ous labour; resolution, resolve, determina tion, purpose, to (lc., prati, --°ree;): -vat, a. reso lute, determined, enterprising; -sâyin, a. id., energetic; -sita, pp. √ sâ; n.resolve, pur pose, enterprise; -siti, f. resolution, deter mination; -sthâ, f. respective difference, distinction; continuance in one place (rare); fixity, permanence; fixed limit (rare); deci sion, establishment, settled rule regarding (--°ree;); fixed relation of time or place (gr.); state, condition; case (rare); occasion, oppor tunity (rare): in. according to a fixed rule: lc. in every single case; -sthâna, n. per sistence, continuance, in (lc., --°ree;); steadfast ness; condition, sg. pl. circumstances; -sthâ paka, a. determining, settling, deciding; -sthâpana, n. encouraging; fixing, deter mining; -sthâpanîya, fp. to be determined; -sthita-tva, n. permanence, fixity;-sthiti, f. distinction; perseverance in (lc.); con stancy, steadfastness; fixity, permanence; fixed rule; -hartavya, fp. to be employed or used; n. imps. one should act or proceed; -hartri, m. one engaged on or occupied with (in.); transactor; judge.
vyāmiśra a. mixed, blended; mingled with, accompanied by, provided with (in., --°ree;); manifold; equivocal (speech); dis traught: lc. when both cases occur at the same time (gr.); -moha, m.loss of conscious ness; mental confusion, infatuation; uncer tainty regarding (--°ree;); -yata-tâ, f. openness (of the mouth); -yata-tva, n. robustness, muscular development; -yata-pâtam, abs. flying from afar (arrow); -yâmá, m. com bat, strife (rare); athletic exercise; exer tion or practice in (--°ree;): -bhûmi, f. exercis ing ground, -sâlâ, f. gymnasium.
vrata n. [willed: √ vri: perh. old pp.] 1. V.: will, command, law, ordinance; do minion; service, obedience; realm; regular sphere or function; 2. V., C.: operation, ac tion, doings, conduct, manner, mode of life (with suki=clear conscience); religious rite or service; duty, towards (--°ree;); religious or ascetic observance taken upon oneself, aus terity, vow, rule, holy work (such as fasting and continence); 3. C.: vow (in general), resolve, to (d., lc. of vbl. n., --°ree;): ab. in conse quence of a vow; (á)-m kar, observe a vow, esp. practise chastity.
vratadāna n. imposition of a vow; -dhara, a. practising a vow (only --°ree;); -dhâr ana, n. fulfilment of religious observances or of duties, towards (g., --°ree;); (á)-pati, m. lord of religious rites (Agni; V.); -p&asharp;, a. guarding the sacred law (V.); -pârana, n. conclusion of a fast, eating after a fast; -pra dâna, n. imposition of a fast; -bha&ndot;ga, m. breach of a vow; -bhrít, a. bearing the sacred law or rite (Agni); -ruki, a. delighting in vows etc., religious; -lopa, m. breach of a vow; -lopana, n. id.; (á)-vat, a. fulfilling or practising a vow; -sayyâ-griha, n. sleeping apartment for the performance of a vow; -sampâdana, n.fulfilment of a vow or religious duty; -stha, a. practising a vow etc.; -sthita, pp. id.; -snâta, pp. having completed one's vows (but not Vedic study): -ka, a. id.; -snâna, n. completion of one's vows; -hâni, f. neglect of vows; -½âdesa, m. imposition of a vow, esp. of the first vow of the Brahmakârin; -½âdesana, n. initiation into a vow: -visarga, m. pl. initiation into and completion of a vow.
śama m. (mental) tranquillity or calmness, equanimity, quietism; peace, with (sârdham); apathy (rare); tranquillization, calm, pacification, alleviation, cessation, ex tinction: -m kri, show calmness, calm oneself, be tranquil: -gir, f. tranquillizing word; -pradhâna, a. devoted to calmness.
śākya m. [pat. fr. saka] N. of a warrior tribe in Kapilavastu, which derived its origin from the sun, and in which Bud- dha was born: -pâla, m. N. of a king; -pu trîya, m. Buddhistic monk; -bhikshu,m. Buddhistic mendicant: -kî, f. Buddhistic mendicant nun; -muni, m. Ascetic of the Sâkyas, ep. of Buddha; -sâsana, n. religion of Buddha; -simha, m. Lion of the Sâkyas, ep. of Buddha.
śānta pp. v. √ 2. sam; m. N.: -ketas, a. composed, calm; -gvara, a. having one's grief assuaged; -tâ, f. quietism, freedom from passion; -tva, n. id.; -manas, a. composed.
śārṅga a. made of horn (sri&ndot;ga); derived from the tree Sri&ndot;ga (poison); n. bow (sp. Vishnu's or Krishna's): -dhanvan, m. (having the bow Sâr&ndot;ga) ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; -dhara, m. (bearing the bow Sâr&ndot;ga) id.; N.: -paddhati, f. Sâr&ndot;gadhara's poetical anthology, T. of a work; -pâni, m. (holding the bow Sâr&ndot;ga in his hand) ep. of Vishnu or Krishna; -bhrit, m. ep. ofVishnu or Krishna; -rava, m. N.: pl. his descend ants: -misra, pl. Sâr&ndot;garava and the rest.
śālibhavana n. rice-field; -bhû, f. id.; -vâhana, m. (rice-bearer), N. of a king, adversary of Vikramâditya, the date of his birth, 78 a. d., being the beginning of the Saka era; -samrakshikâ, f.female guardian of a rice-field; -hotra, m. poetical N. of the horse (receiving offerings of=fed on, rice); N. of a Rishi, regarded as the first authority on the horse; n. Sâlihotra's work on the horse: -gña, a. familiar with --.
śāstrin a. learned; m. scholar; -îya, a. taught in the Sâstras, belonging to theory (opp. practice), theoretical: -tva, n. fact of being prescribed in the Sâstras.
śramaṇa m. (mortifying the flesh), ascetic, mendicant, sp. Buddhistic or Jain (a term sts. applied to Buddha himself); n. effort, exertion: -ka, m. mendicant; i-kâ, f. mendicant nun; -½âkârya, m.Buddha.
saṃsādhana n. preparation; per formance, accomplishment; -sâdhya, fp. to be accomplished; -obtained; conquerable; -sâra, m. transmigration, perpetual succes sion of births, cycle of existence, mundane existence (with all its sorrows): â samsârât, from the beginning of the world: -mandala, m. n. cycle of mundane existence, -mârga, m. path of life, -sâgara, m. ocean of worldly existence; -sârin, a. far-extending, compre hensive (intellect); transmigratory; m. living or human being; -siddhi, f. completion, ac complishment, fulfilment, success; perfection, in (--°ree;); -sûkana, n. manifestation, utterance (of a speech); -sríg, f. concussion (of battle; RV.1); -sriti, f.=-sâra, transmigration, etc.; -srishta, pp. √ srig; n. intimacy: -m kar, enter on intimate relations with (lc.); (sám) srishti, f. union (V.); combination of two figures of speech in one passage (C.); -srish- tin, a. again living in common after the partition of property.
saṃstha a. standing, staying, resting, existing, or contained in (lc., gnly. --°ree;); being in or with=belonging to (lc. or --°ree;); based or dependent on (--°ree;); being in possession of (--°ree;); lasting (--°ree;; rare); á, m. (RV.): only lc. in the midst or presence of (g.); -sth&asharp;, f. remaining or abiding with (--°ree;; E., rare); form, appearance (C.); established order, standard, rule (C.); condition, state, nature (C.); completion, conclusion (V.); end, death (P.); complete liturgical course (being the basis of a sacrifice; the Gyotishtoma, the Haviryagña, and Pâkayagña consist of seven such forms); spy in one's own country (rare): --°ree; a. a, having the form of, appearing as; -sthâna, n. position, situation in a place (--°ree;); standing firm (in battle); existence; life; strict adherence to (--°ree;); abode; public place in a town; form, shape, appearance (ord. mg.; often with rûpa); condition, state, nature (rare); aggregate (rare): -vat, a. ex isting; having various forms; -sthâpaka, a. establishing; -sthâpana, n. fixing, setting up, erecting; establishment, of (g., --°ree;); re gulation of (--°ree;): â, f. cheering up, encourage ment; -sthâpayitavya, fp. to be cheered or consoled; -sth&asharp;pya, fp. C.: to be placed in (subjection) to (g.); -impressed on the mind (lc.) of (g.); V.: to be concluded (sacrifice); (sám)-sthiti, f. C.: union with (in., lc.); standing or resting on (lc., --°ree;); position; abid ing, residence in (lc.); duration, continuance; perseverance (rare); attaching importance to (lc.); existence, possibility, of (g., --°ree;); form; established order; condition, nature; V.: conclusion (rare); P.: end, death (rare).
sagaṇa a. attended by a troop, sur rounded by (in.; V.); attended by his retinue (C.); -gadgada, a. falteringly uttered: -m, ad. falteringly; -gadgada-gir, a. with a faltering voice; -gandha, a. smelling; having the same smell as (in., --°ree;); related (Pr.); proud (v. r. -garva); (sá)-gara, m. [pro vided with moisture], atmosphere, air (V., rare); N. of a mythical king of Ayodhyâ, whose 60,000 sons while digging up the earth to recover a sacrificial horse, were burnt by the sage Kapila; the Ganges, brought down from heaven by Bhagîratha, a descendant of Sagara, to purify their remains, flowed with their ashes into the sea, which was called Sâgara in their honour (C.): pl. the sons of Sagara; -garbha, a. pregnant, by (in., ab.); (sá)-garbh-ya, a. born from the same womb; -garva, a. exulting, arrogant; proud of (lc., --°ree;): -m, ad. proudly; -guna, a.furnished with a string; together with the string; possessed of qualities or virtues; -gun-in, a. virtuous (rare); -gulika, a. along with a pill; -gotra, a. being of the same kin, related to (g., --°ree;); -gauravam, ad. with dignity.
saṃketa m. [joint purpose: √ kit] appointment, assignation, with (g.); precon certed sign, signal; agreement; consent: °ree;--, according to agreement: -m kri, kalpa ya or dâ, make an agreementor appoint ment, with (samam, saha, mithas), make an assignation with (in. + saha, g.), assign as a place of meeting; -m kri, give a sig nal; -keta-ka, m. assignation; -ketana, n. place of assignation (of lovers); -keta-niketa, m.: -na, n. id.; -keta-bhûmi, f. id.
saṃgati f. meeting with (g., --°ree;); resorting to a place, frequenting (lc.); asso ciation, intercourse (also sexual), with (in. ±saha, samam, g., lc., --°ree;); alliance (rare); accidental occurrence (rare); fitness, appro priateness; connexion, relation, to (in., --°ree;): in. by chance, haply.
saṃgata pp. (√ gam) apposite etc.; m. alliance based on mutual friendship; n. meeting, with (in., g., lc., --°ree;); association, intercourse, intimacy, with (in., g., --°ree;); agree ment: -½artha, a.having a suitable sense.
saṃgatha m. [√ gam] coming to gether, convergence, centre (V.); -gamá, m. meeting (of friends or foes), union, associa tion, intercourse (also sexual), with (in. ± saha, g., --°ree;); confluence; connexion, con tact, with (in., --°ree;); acquirement of (g.): anarthena --, harm, injury: -datta, m. N.; -gámana, V. a. (î) gathering together; m. assembler of (g.; V.); n. meeting, union, with (--°ree;; V., C.); coming into contact with, acquirement of (in.; C.); -gama-svâmin, m. N.
satkathā f. good conversation or tale; -kartri, m. benefactor; -karman, n. good work, virtuous act; a. performing good actions; -kalâ, f. fine art; -kavi, m. good or true poet: -tva, n. true poetic gift;-kâra, m. sg., pl. kind treatment, hospitable recep tion, hospitality; praise, favour (of a king, --°ree;): -½arha, a. worthy of hospitable treat ment; -kârya, fp. effected; deserving of honour or hospitality; n. necessary exist ence of the effect (as inherent in the cause: in Sâ&ndot;khya phil.): -vâda, m. theory of the actual existence of the effect, -vâdin, m. ad herent of this theory; -kâvya, n. good poem; -kîrti, f. good reputation; a. having a --; -kula, n. good or noble family; a. belonging to a --; -krita, pp. honoured, treated hos pitably; n. honourable reception; -kriti, f. kind treatment, hospitable reception, hos pitality; -kritya, gd. having entertained hospitably; -kriyâ, f. putting in order, pre paration (rare); sg., pl. kind treatment, hos pitable reception, hospitality (ord. mg.); cele bration (of a wedding, --°ree;); -kshetra, n. good field.
saṃtāna m. C.: continuity, continu- ance; uninterrupted series, continuous flow; continuous train of thought (rare); lasting alliance (in which a daughter is given to one's ally; also -samdhi, m.); continuation of a family, offspring, progeny (also n.); V.: con nexion, transition (in recitation etc.); reti culated ligature, sinew: -ka, m. one of the five trees of paradise: -maya, a. (î) consist ing of the flowers of the Samtânaka tree; -tânam, abs. extending across; -tâpa, m. heat; pain, suffering, anguish, distress, at (lc.); remorse, repentance; penance (rare): -m kri, be distressed about (prati): -kârin, a. causing suffering; -tâpana, a. paining, afflicting;-tâpa-vat, a. afflicted with pain, sorrowful; -tâpa-hara, a. removing heat; -târa, m. crossing (water, g., --°ree;): -mûlaka, probably incorr.; -târya, fp. to be crossed (sea); to be got over (fig.).
saṃnahana n. tying together; pre paration; cord; equipment; -nâda, m. sound, din, cry, roar; -nâdana, a. causing to sound, filling with noise; -nâma, m. subjection; modification; -nâha, m. tying up, girding; preparation, equipment; undertaking; cord; armour, mail; trappings of a horse; -nikar sha, m. drawing together, approximation, close contact, with (--°ree;); connexion with, re lation to (--°ree;); nearness, proximity: -m, ac. (go etc.) near; ab. from one's presence (de- part etc.); lc. in the neighbourhood of (g., --°ree;); -nikâsa, --°ree; a. having the appearance of; -nikrishta, pp. near etc.; n. nearness, prox imity: -m, ad.near (--°ree;); lc. in the neigh bourhood of (g., --°ree;); -nikaya, m. accumula tion; abundance, plenty, store; -nidhâtri, m. one who is near; receiver (of stolen goods); official on duty; -nidhâna, n. (putting toge ther into), receptacle; nearness, proximity, presence; existence: ab. from (g.); lc. in the neighbourhood or presence of (g., --°ree;); -nidhi, m. juxtaposition; proximity, vicinity, pre sence, existence: lc. in the presence of, near (g., --°ree;); -m, into the presence of, near (g., --°ree;); -m kri, bandh, or vi-dhâ, take up one's position or abode in (lc.); -nipâta, m. con tact, collision, encounter, with (in.); con junction, combination, aggregation, mixture; (morbid combination=) disorder of the three bodily humours; fall, descent (in lakshana-); collapse, death (very rare): -nidrâ, f. trance; -nipâtita, cs. pp. brought together, assembled; -nipâtya, fp. to be shot (arrow) at (lc.); -nibarhana, n. repression, mastery (of the heart); -nibha, a. resembling, like, -ish (--°ree;; sometimes with names of colours).
saṃdeha m. conglomeration, mortal coil (contemptuous term, Br.); C.: doubt, un certainty, as to (g., lc., --°ree;); doubtful matter (rare); danger, risk; a rhetorical figure: w. na or na½asti, without doubt (used paren thetically): -dâyin, a. causing uncertainty regarding, reminding of (--°ree;); -dolâ-stha, a. swayed by the swing of doubt; -pada, a. sub ject to doubt, doubtful; -bhrit, a. cherishing doubt regarding (lc.).
sapadi ad. on the spot, instantly, in a moment; -padma, a. provided with lotuses: -ka, a. provided with a lotus and splendid (padmâ = srî); -parâkrama, a. mighty; -parikrama, a. accompanied byone's retinue; -parikkhada, a. together with one's belongings, -goods and chattels; -pa ritosham, ad. with satisfaction; -parivâra, a. together with one's retinue; -parihâsa, a. jocose.
samakṣa a. meeting the eye, visible (C.): (á)-m (V., C.), e (C.), before the eyes, manifestly; in the presence of (g., --°ree;; C.): -darsana, n. seeing as an eye-witness.
samaya m. V.: coming together, place of meeting; V., C.: agreement, com- pact, contract, engagement (regarding, --°ree;); C.: treaty; condition; intercourse with (in.); appointed or proper time, for (g.); juncture, time, season; opportunity, occasion; (con currence of) circumstances, case; convention, general practice, usage, rule; ordinance, pre cept, doctrine; conventional meaning or scope of a word: -m kri, make an agreementor compact, with (in. ± saha); -m dâ, offer terms, propose an agreement; -m grah or prati-pad, enter into an agreement, accept a condition; -m raksh, observe an agree ment, keep one's word; -m vi-la&ndot;ghaya,break an agreement, break one's word; -m brû, vak, abhi-dhâ, state one's conditions; -m sam-vad, make an agreement; -m sthâ paya, fix, settle; in. samayena, according to agreement; conditionally: tena --, in con sequence of this agreement; ab. samayât (also -tas), in accordance with an agreement; con ditionally: -bhrams, lapse from=break, an agreement; lc. samaye (also °ree;--), at the ap pointed or right time, when the timehas come; at the time of, at the time when -is there (--°ree;): iha --, in this case, under such circumstances; -sthâ, keep one's engage ment or word; -sthâpaya, determine with regard to any one (ac.); make an arrange ment; -ni-vesaya, impose conditions on (ac.).
samabhidhā f. name, appellation (only --°ree; a.); -abhibhâshana, n. colloquy with (in., --°ree;); -abhivyâhâra, m. simultaneous mention; intercourse with (g.); -abhihâra, m. repetition; -abhyarthayitri, m. suppliant; -abhyâsa, m. vicinity, presence.
samavāptakāma a. having gained one's desire; -ava½aya, m. coming together, encounter, with (g., --°ree;); meeting, assembly, crowd; collection, aggregate; contact, combination; conjunction (of heavenly bodies); collision; close connexion, intimate union, concomitance, inherence; course, duration (rare, E.): in., ab. in combination; -m (or â-n) kri, combine, flock together; -avây-in, a. consisting of a combination (of humours); concomitant, inherent in (--°ree;); w. purusha, m. soul combined with a body, incarnate or individual soul.
samākula a. filled or crowded with, full of, abounding in (in., --°ree;); thrown into confusion, embarrassed, bewildered, by (--°ree;); -krandana, n. crying, shouting: -gir, f. pl. cries for help; -kramana, n. entering, frequenting; -khyâ, f. appellation, name; explanation, interpretation; -khyâna, n. naming, mentioning; narrative; appellation, name; -gantavya, fp. n. one should come together or approach; -gama, m. coming together, union; confluence; assembly; en counter or meeting with (in. ± saha, g., rarely lc., --°ree;); -gamana, n. coming toge ther, encountering, meeting (--°ree;); sexual union; -ghâta, m. collision; -ghrâna, n. smelling at anything.
samāpana a. completing; n. com pletion; dissolution (of the body); section, chapter; -½âp-in, a. concluding; (sám)-âp ti, f. acquirement (rare); completion, con clusion, end; dissolution (of the body; rare): -ka, a. having completed his studies; con cluding anything; -âpyã, fp. to be attained (V.); -performed or finished (C.); n. imps. one should conclude.
samāpatti f. encountering, meeting; accident, chance (°ree;--); attainment of, becoming (--°ree;): -drishta, pp. seen by chance.
samāpaka a. finishing, com pleting.
samāja m. [concourse: √ ag] as sembly, company (ord. mg.); encountering, meeting with (g., --°ree;); multitude, abundance.
samāvartana n. return home (of a pupil after the completion of his reli gious studies); -vaha, a. bringing, producing (--°ree;); -(â)vâya, m. metr. for -(a)vâya; -vâ sa, m. abode, habitation; -vritti,f.=-âvar tana; -vesa, m. entering; absorption in (--°ree;); simultaneous occurrence, co-existence (ord. mg.); agreement with (--°ree;); -sraya, m. con nexion with (--°ree;); shelter, refuge, asylum (ord. mg.); dwelling-place, habitation; re lation, reference (rare); resorting to (--°ree;): ab. in consequence of, owing to; a. (--°ree;) dwelling or situated in; relating to; -sraya- na, n. resorting or attaching oneself to (--°ree;); -srayanîya, be sought refuge with; taken service with; m. master (opp. samâ srita, servant); -srayin, a. occupying, ob taining possession of (--°ree;); -srita, pp. √ sri; m. servant: -tva, n. having betaken oneself to (the protection of, --°ree;); -slesha, m. em brace; -svâsa, m. recovery of breath, relief, encouragement; consolation; -svâsana, n. encouraging, comforting; consolation; -svâs ya, fp. to be consoled.
saṃpakva a. boiled soft; ripe; fully matured; -patti, f. concord (S., rare); turn ing out well, success, accomplishment; at tainment, acquisition; turning into, becom ing (rare); existence (rare); good condition, excellence; abundance, affluence; lucky event; prosperity, fortune (sg., pl.): in. at random: -ka, a. --°ree;, excellence; -pád, f. V.: agreement, bargain (rare); full number, total; C.: success, accomplishment, fulfilment; at tainment, acquisition; turning into, becom ing (rare); existence (rare; --°ree; a.=possess ing); right condition; excellence, perfection, beauty; abundance, plenty, high degree or excess of; (what befals), fate (rare); good fortune, prosperity, wealth, property (sg., pl.); -panna-kshîrâ, a. f. giving good milk: (a)-tamâ, spv. f. giving very good milk; -panna-tara, cpv. very palatable; -panna tâ, f. possession of (--°ree;); -panna-danta, a. possessing teeth; -parâyá, m. death (rare); conflict, battle; -parigraha, m. gracious re ception of (g.); property; -parka, m. mix ture, union, contact, association (of, --°ree;; with, in. ± saha, g., --°ree;); sexual intercourse with (--°ree;); -pâta, m. C.: flight, swift descent, fall, into (lc.); a particular mode of flight; col lision, concussion, encounter, with (saha); confluence; point of contact (rare); en trance, appearance, occurrence; V.: remnant of fluid (in a vessel), residue of an offering; hymns contiguous in the Samhitâ and ritual (also -sûkta, n.); -pâti, m. N. of a fabulous bird, son of Aruna or Garuda and elder brother of Gatâyu; -pâtín, a. flying to gether; flying with=equally swift; falling down (flowers); -pâda-ka, a. procuring, bestowing; producing, causing; -pâdana, a. (î) procuring, bestowing; carrying out, executing; n. procurement, acquirement; accomplishment, fulfilment, execution, per formance, production; clearing, putting in order (a house or site); -pâdanîya, fp. to be procured; -carried out, brought about, or accomplished; -appeased; -pâdayitri, m., trî, f. procurer; producer, accomplisher; -pâdita-tva, n. accomplishment or fulfilment by (--°ree;); -pâdin, a. coinciding with, suitable for (in., --°ree;); procuring; accomplishing; -p&asharp;d ya, fp. to be brought about, effected, or accomplished: -tva, n. accomplishment; -pârin, a. putting across (of a vessel, Br.); -pipâdayishâ, f. desire to accomplish; wish to prove right; -pîda, m. pressure: â, f. pain, torment; -puñga, m.multitude; -puta, m. hemispherical bowl (and anything shaped like it); round casket (for jewellery etc.); hemisphere (rare); credit, balance: e likh, write down (ac.) to the credit of (g.); -put ikâ, f. jewel-casket (=treasuryof aphorisms and tales); -pushti, f. perfect prosperity; -pûgana, n., -pûgâ, f. honouring, reverence; -pûgya, fp. to be honoured; -pûrna, pp. (√ 1. pri) filled etc.: -kâlîna, a. occurring in the fulness of (=at the right) time (birth), -kumbha, m. full pot; -pûrna-tâ, f. com pleteness, completion; full measure: -yuk ta, pp. having abundance; -pûrna½a&ndot;ga, a. (î) having its parts complete, entire; -pûrti, f. fulfilment, completion; -pûrva, a. pre ceded by=compounded with pûrva; -prik ta-tva, n. union.
samṛta pp. √ ri; (sám)-riti, f. (RV.) meeting; conflict; (-sám)-riddha, pp. (√  ridh) rich, affluent, flourishing, etc.; (sám)- riddhi, f. increase, thriving, prosperity, suc cess; excellence; abundance, plenty, pro fusion; affluence, wealth (also pl.): --°ree; a. increased by: -karana, n. means of procur ing prosperity, -mat, a. perfectly successful, -samaya, m. season of prosperity; -riddhî kri, make rich; -rídha,a. complete, per fect (RV.1).
saṃmukha a. (î, sts. â) confronting, facing (g., --°ree;); favourable, to any one (g.), propitious (fortune); intent on (lc., --°ree;): -m, ad. (come etc.) towards; (draw) to (oneself, âtmanah); (look) intoone's face; face to face; opposite, in the presence of (g.); lc. oppo site, before, in front or the presence of (g.): w. bhû, oppose any one (g.); w. sthâ, look any one (g.) in the face; °ree;--, towards; into one's face; -mukhî-kri, place opposite, make one's aim; -mukhîna, a. confronting, facing, opposite; favourable to (g.): -tva, n. condi tion of facing; presence; -mukhî-bhû, post oneself opposite; -mugdham, (pp.) ad. clandestinely; -mûdha,pp. √ muh: -tâ, f., -tva, n. dazed condition; -mûrkhana, n. congealment, densification, accumulation; -melana, n. meeting together, mixture, union; -mohá, m. stupefaction, swoon; infatuation, delusion; -mohana, a.(î) deluding, infatu ating; m. N. of one of the arrows of the god of love; n. leading astray, deluding, infatu ating; a certain mythical missile.
sarastīra n. bank of a pool; (sár as)-vat, a. (C., rare) abounding in or having come into contact with pools; having a taste for, delighting in (lc.); m. N. of a divinity of the upper region, guardian of the waters, bestower of fertility (V.); N. of a male deity corresponding to Sarasvatî (YV.); ocean (C., rare): -î, f. region abounding in pools (E., rare); N. of a large river flowing into the sea and of its tutelary deity (V.); N. of a small sacred river which with the Dri shadvatî forms the boundary of Brahmâvar ta and loses itself in a sandy desert, but is supposed to flow underground and join the Ganges and Yamunâ (V., C.); N. of various other rivers; N. of one of the three goddesses in the Âprî hymns (V.); goddess of speech (V., C.); in C. she is at enmity with Srî (or Lakshmî), wealth and eloquence or learning being rarely combined, wife of Vishnu, also a N. of Durgâ; C.: speech; eloquence; ce lestial or oracular voice; N. of one of the ten mendicant orders traced to Sa&ndot;karâkârya, its members adding the word Sarasvatî to their names: -kantha½âbharana, n.necklace of Sarasvatî; T. of a work on poetics as cribed to Bhogadeva, -vat, V. a. accom panied by Sarasvatî.
savāsas a. clothed, with one's clothes; -vikalpa, a. possessing or admitting of variety or distinctions, differentiated: -ka, a. id.; -vikâra, a. together with its develop ments or derivatives; together with its pro ducts (milk); enamoured; subject to modi fication or decomposition (food); -vikâsa, a. shining; -vikrama, a. vigorous, energetic; -viklavam, ad. dejectedly; -vigraha, a. embodied; -vikikitsitam, ad.doubtfully; -vitarkam, ad. thoughtfully; -vitâna, a. having a canopy.
samiti f. V., C.: coming together, meeting; council, assembly; V.: plot, league; C.: conflict, battle; combination (rare): -m- gaya, a. victorious in battle.
sādhya fp. to be subdued, won, or managed, conquerable, amenable; to be set to rights; -treated (medically), -cured, curable (disease); to be perfected (capacity); -accomplished, effected, brought about, or attained (ord. mg.); being effected, taking place; to be inferred or concluded; -proved or demonstrated; m. pl. a class of deities (to be propitiated): -tva, n. curableness; per fectibility; practicableness; -vat, prehending what is to be proved; -sama, m. (identical with what is to be proved), petitio principii; -sâdhana, n. accomplishment of what is to be done; -siddhi, f. success of an undertaking.
sānukampa a. compassionate, to wards (lc.): -m, ad. compassionately; -½anu kûla, a. propitious, favourable; -½ânukûl ya, n. assistance; -½anukrosa, a. tender, compassionate, merciful: -m,ad. compas sionately, -tâ, f. compassion; -½anuga, a. together with his retinue; -½anutarsham, ad. by means of thirst; -½anutâpa, a. re penting; -½anunaya, a. courteous, friendly: -m, ad. kindly; -½anunâsika, a.nasalised; -½anubandha, a. continuous, uninterrupted; entailing consequences; with one's belong ings: -ka, a. provided with an indicatory letter or syllable.
siddha pp. (√ sidh) hit (mark); ac complished, achieved, effected, fulfilled, real ized, successful; ready (money); prepared, made ready; cooked (food); gained, acquired; peculiar; unchangeable; cured (person); established, settled, substantiated, proved; well known, in (--°ree;); possessed of magical power (things); subject, ready to serve one (spirits, charms); perfected, adept in (d., --°ree;); become perfect, possessing super natural power, emancipated from the laws of nature; m. seer, sorcerer, magician; saint, Siddha (a class of demi-gods, such as Kapila, Vyâsa etc., possessing supernatural powers, esp. that of flying through the air); = Gina (with the Jains); N.; n. magical or super natural power: -kârya, a. having accomplished one's purpose; -kshetra, n. region inhabited by Siddhas, land of the Blest; N. of certain sacred regions: -parvata, m. mountain in the land of the Blest; -tâp asa, m., î, f. ascetic endowed with super natural knowledge and power; -tva, n. correct ness; establishment, demonstration; perfec tion; -dhâman, n. abode of the Blest;-bhûmi, f. fairyland; -mantra, m. magical spell; -yoga, m. magical agency; -yogin-î, f. sorceress, witch, fairy; -ratna, a. possess ing a magical jewel; -rasa, m. quicksilver; -rasâyana, a. possessed of an elixir of life; -râga, m. N. of a king; -laksha, a. hitting the mark (arrow); -vat, ad. as established or proved: -kri, regard as settled or proved; -varti, f. magical wick; -vâsa, m. abode of the Blest, N. of a locality; -sambandha, a. whose kin is known; -sarit, f. (famous river) Ganges.
sīmā f. parting of the hair (in su sîma); boundary; village boundary: -krish âna, pr. pt. ploughing on the boundary line; -½adhipa, m. guardian of the march; -½anta, m. boundary line, frontier; bounds (fig.); village march: -lekhâ, f. extreme boundary line; utmost limit, acme; -½apahârin, a. re moving landmarks; -pâla, m. guardian of the marches; -li&ndot;ga, n. landmark; -vâda, m. dispute about boundaries; -vivâda, m. id.; -vriksha, m. tree as a landmark; -sam dhi, m. meeting of boundaries; -setu, m. boundary dam, landmark.
sumanomattaka m. N.; -mano-latâ, f. flowering creeper; -mano hara, a. very charming or attractive; -mán tu, a. easily known, well-known (RV.); m. N. of a teacher; -mantra, a. following good counsels; m. N. of various men; -mantrita, pp. well-deliberated: n. imps. good counsel has been taken; n. good counsel: -m kri, take good counsel; -mantrin, a. having a good minister; -mánman, a. uttering good wishes, very devout (RV.); -marma-ga, a. deeply penetrating the joints, causing great agony (arrow); -marshana, a. easy to bear; (sú)-mahat, a. very great, huge, vast (of time, space, quantity, number, degree); very important; -mahas, a. glorious (RV., always vc.); -mahâ, °ree;--: a. extremely great; ad. very greatly; -mahâ-kaksha, a. very high-walled; -mahâ-tapas, a. extremely ascetic or pious; -mahâ-tegas, a. very glorious; -mahât man, a. very noble-minded or high-souled; -mahâ-bala, a. extremely powerful or effica cious; -mahâ-manas, a. very high-minded; -mahârha, a. very splendid; -mahausha dha, n. herb of marvellous efficacy; -mâyá, a. having noble counsels (Maruts; RV.); m. N. of a prince of the Asuras; N. of a fairy: â, f. N. of a daughter of Maya: (a)-ka, m. N. of a fairy; -mitrá, m. kind friend; N., esp. of kings: â, f. N. of a Yakshinî; N. of a wife of Dasaratha, mother of Satrughna and Lakshmana; -mukha, n. beautiful mouth; bright face: in. cheerfully; a. (î) fair-faced; bright-faced, glad; inclined or disposed to (--°ree;); m. N. of a king; -mundîka, m. N. of an Asura; -mridîká, -mrilîká, V. a. com passionate, gracious; -mrishta, pp. well polished; very dainty: -pushpa½âdhya, a. abounding in very bright flowers; -méka, V. a. well-established, firm; unvarying; -medhás, a.having a good understanding, intelligent, wise (ac. also -medh&asharp;m, RV.); -meru, m. N. of a mtn. (=Meru); N. of a fairy; -mná, a. [√ mnâ=√ man] well-dis posed, gracious (V.); n. (V.) benevolence, favour, grace; devotion, prayer; satisfac tion, gladness, peace: -yú, V. a. devout, be lieving; favourable; -mnâ-várî, a. f. gracious, bringing gladness (Dawn, RV.1).
susakhi m. (nm. â) good friend; -samkruddha, pp. greatly enraged; -sam gatâ, f. N.; -samgama, m. pleasant (place of) meeting; -samgrihîta, pp. well-controlled or governed (kingdom); -sakiva, m.good minister; a. having a good minister; -saggî kri, make perfectly ready; -samkita, pp. well-gathered, carefully accumulated: -m sam-ki, collect carefully; -sattra, n. good hospital; -sattva, a. very resolute; -sadrisa, a.(î) very like (g.); -samtushta, pp. per fectly satisfied; -samtosha, a. easy to satisfy; -samdîpta, pp. flaming brightly; -samdrís, a. fair to see; -samdha, a. true to one's word; -sanna, pp. [√ sad] completely at an end, foiled; -sama, a. perfectly level or smooth; (sú)-samâhita, pp. [√ dhâ] well laden (waggon, Br.); C.: well-adorned; very attentive or intent, thoroughly concentrated; (sú)-samiddha, pp. [√ idh] well-kindled;(sú)-samriddha, pp. [√ ridh] V.: quite per fect; C.: very abundant; very wealthy; -samriddhi, f. great wealth; -sampad, f. affluence, great prosperity; (sú)-sampish- ta, pp. completely shattered (car; RV.1); -sampratapta, pp. thoroughly harassed; -sambaddha, pp. intimately connected; -sambhriti, f. due collection of requisites; -sambhrama, m. great agitation or confu sion, excessive haste; -sambhrânta, pp. completely bewildered; (sú)-sarva, a. quite complete (Br.); -sahâya, a. having a good companion or assistant: -vat, a. id.; -sâdh ana, a. easy to prove; -sâdhita, pp. well trained; -sâdhya, fp. easy to control, amen able; -sâman, n.very conciliatory words; -sârathi, a. having a good charioteer; -sita, a. pure white; -siddha, pp. well-cooked; very efficacious, of great magical power; completely supplied with (in.): -½artha, a. having completely attained one's object; -sî ma, a. having a good parting (woman).
sotka a. full of longing, °ree;--, ad.; -½ukantha, a. eager or yearning for (prati); regretting, grieving at (--°ree;): -m, ad. long ingly; regretfully; -½utkampa, a. trembling, tremulous; -½utkarsha, a.excellent; -½ut prâsa, a. ironical, mocking: -m, ad. -ly; -½utpreksham, ad. with indifference; -½ut sava, a. festal (day); festive, overjoyed; -½utsâha, a. resolute, energetic, courageous; threatening (clouds); overjoyed: -m, ad. energetically, emphatically; with great joy: -tâ, f. alacrity, vigour; -½utsuka, a. longing, yearning, anxious, for (lc., prati, --°ree;); -½utse ka, a. arrogant, haughty; -½utsedha, a. high, lofty: -m, ad. with a jerk.
sauparṇa a. relating or belonging to, derived from, resembling, the hawk etc.; n. the Suparna hymn (V.): -vrata, n. kind of ascetic observance (S.).
spardhā f. [√ spridh] rivalry, emu lution, competition, for (in.), with (in.±saha, g., --°ree;); desire for (--°ree;; rare): in. in rivalry or emulation, vying with one another: -kara, a. (î) emulating, vying with (--°ree;); -vat, a. id.
svāgata pp. welcome; legitimately come by or acquired (property); n. greeting of &open;welcome,&close; welcome; welfare, health (rare): -m te (astu), I wish you welcome: -prasna, m. enquiry as to health.
svādhyāya m. repeating to oneself, study of the Veda; repetition of the Veda aloud: -m srâvaya, cause the Veda to be repeated aloud: -dhrik, a. studying the Veda; -vat, a. id.
svaira a. moving slowly or cautiously (rare): -m, ad. according to one's own inclination or will, of one's own accord, with out let or hindrance, without more ado, at random; freely, unreservedly (speak); slow ly, softly, cautiously; fearlessly; lc. pl. svai reshu, in cases when one is unreserved, in indifferent matters: -kathâ, f. unreserved conversation; -ka-m, ad. straight out; -gati, a. going about free, being at liberty; -kârin, a. acting at will, free; -vihârin, a. walking about at pleasure; meeting with no resistance (command); -vritta, pp. acting according to one's will; -vritti, a. living subject to no control, acting without restraint; -stha, a. standing unconcerned; -½âlâpa, m. unreserved conversation.
haṃsa m. gander, goose (a bird of passage, vehicle of Brakman), perh. also swan or flamingo (possessing the power of separating Soma from water in V., and milk from water in C.); (white and migratory like the goose), soul, sts. universal soul (U., C.): identified with Nârâyana, Vishnu, Krishna, and Virâg; kind of ascetic; N.: -ka, m. (little or poor) goose; m. or n. (?) anklet; -gâminî, a. f. having the gait of a hamsa, walking grace fully; -kihna-dukûla-vat, a. clad in a garment interwoven with figures of geese; -tâ, f. condition of a goose; -tûla, n. swansdown; -tva, n. condition of a goose; -dvâra, n. Swan's gate, N. of a pass on the way to lake Mânasa; -dvîpa, m. N. of an island; -nâda, m. N. of a fairy; -pada, n. goose-foot (as a mark); -padikâ, f. N. of the first wife of Dushyanta; -mâlâ, f. flight of geese or swans; -yâna, n. goose as a vehicle, car drawn by geese; a. (î) riding on a goose; -ratha, m. N.; -râga, m. king of geese, large gander; m. N.; -vat, a. containing the word hamsa (Br.): -î, f. N., esp. of the first wife of Dushyanta; -vâhana, m. (riding on a goose), ep. of Brahman; -vega, m. N.
ha encl. pcl. (=gha) slightly emphasizing the preceding word; in S., of course, to be sure (to express the author's agreement with a view); in C. very commonly used as a mere expletive, esp. at the end of a verse.
harasvin a. (V.) energetic, fiery.
hariścandra a. having a yellow or golden lustre (Soma, RV.1); m. N. of a king of the race of Ikshvâku; in E. a son of Trisa&ndot;ku, who having been elevated with his subjects to heaven and expelled thence owing to his pride, remained suspended in mid-air with his city (Saubha); (hári)-smasâru, a. having a tawny beard (RV.1); -smasru, a. id. (E.); -simha, m. N. of a king; -soma, m. N.; -svâmin, m. N.; -hadaukasa, m. N.; -haya, a. having tawny steeds, ep. of Indra; -hara, m. sg. Vishnu and Siva in one person; du. or °ree;--, Vishnu and Siva; N. of various men: -kathâ, f. discourse about Vishnu and Siva; -heti, f. Indra's weapon, rainbow; Vishnu's weapon, discus: -mat, a. adorned with a rainbow, -hûti, m. (called after the discus or kakra), the Kakravâka or ruddy goose (Anas casarca).
hiṅgu m. the plant Asa foetida; n. resin obtained from its roots and used as a medi cine and a seasoning: -râta, m. N.
huṃkāra m. the sound hum (ex pressive of a threat or disgust); trumpeting (of an elephant), lowing (of a cow), twanging (of a bow); -krita, pp., v. hum; n. exclama tion hum (expressive of anger); lowing (of a cow); roar (of thunder); -kriti, f. sound hum (= -kâra).
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
112 results
akṣata In one passage of the Atharvaveda,dealing with the Jayanya, mention is made of a remedy for sores designated both Aksita and Suksata, or, according to the reading of the Kausika Sutra, Aksata and Suksata, while Sayana has Aksita and Suksita. Bloomfield renders ' not caused by cutting ' and ' caused by cutting.' Formerly he suggested 'tumour' or 'boil.' Whitney thinks that two varieties of Jayanya are meant. Ludwig reads with Sayana aksita, which he renders by ' not firmly established ' in the invalid. Zimmer finds in it a disease Ksata.
agāra to in the Brāhmanas, though the exact details and significance of the legend are variously treated by Oldenberg, Sieg, Hertel,8and von Schroeder.He also appears in a strange dialogue with Lopāmudrā in the Rigveda, which appears to show him as an ascetic who finally yields to temptation. Von Schroeder regards it as a ritual drama of vegetation magic.In another passage of the Rigveda he appears as helping in the Aśvins’ gift of a leg to Viśpalā. Sāyana holds that he was the Purohita of Khela, and Sieg accepts this view, while Pischel thinks that Khela is a deity, Vivasvant. Geldner shows from the Rigveda that Agastya, as brother of Vasistha—both being miraculous sons of Mitra and Varuna —introduces Vasistha to the Trtsus. There are two other references to Agastya in the Rigveda, the one including him in a long list of persons, the other alluding to his sister’s sons (nadbhyah), apparently Bandhu, etc. In the Atharvaveda he appears as connected with witchcraft, and in a long list of sages. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā cows, with a peculiar mark on their ears (vistya-karnyah), are associated with him. This rare word is found as ‘house’ in the Kausītaki Upanisad.
ajina This word denotes generally the skin of an animal —e.g., a gazelle,as well as that of a goat (Aja). The use of skins as clothing is shown by the adjective ‘ clothed in skins ’ (ajina-vāsin) in the śatapatha Brāhmana, and the furrier’s trade is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The Maruts also wear deer-skins, and the wild ascetics (muni) of a late Rigveda hymn seem to be clad in skins (Mala).
atithigva This name occurs frequently in the Rigveda, apparently applying, in nearly all cases, to the same king, otherwise called Divodāsa. The identity of the two persons has been denied by Bergaigne, but is certainly proved by a number of passages, when the two names occur together, in connection with the defeat of Sambara. In other passages Atithigva is said to have assisted Indra in slaying Parnaya and Karañja. Sometimes he is only vaguely referred to, while once he is mentioned as an enemy of Turvaśa and Yadu. Again Atithigva is coupled with Ayu and Kutsa as defeated by Tūrvayāna. A different Atithigva appears to be referred to in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’), where his son, Indrota, is mentioned. Roth distinguishes three Atithigvas—the Atithigva Divodāsa, the enemy of Parnaya and Karañja, and the enemy of Tūrvayāna. But the various passages can be reconciled, especially if it is admitted that Atithigva Divodāsa was already an ancient hero in the earliest hymns, and was becoming almost mythical.
anas This is the term used to designate the draft wagon, as opposed to the chariot (ratha) for war or sport, with which it is sometimes expressly contrasted, though Indra is once said to be *seated in a wagon’ (anar-viś)B instead of on a chariot. Though Usas, Goddess of Dawn, sometimes rides on a chariot (ratha), the wagon is her characteristic vehicle. Of its con­struction we know little. The bridal wagon on which Sūryā, the daughter of the Sun, was borne in the marriage hymn in the Rigveda had a covering (Chadis).The axle-box (Kha) is also mentioned.In the Atharvaveda Vipatha appears to denote a rough vehicle used for bad tracks.The wagon was usually drawn by oxen (Anadvāh), as in wedding processions.The wagon of Dawn is described as drawn by ruddy cows or bulls.
ayogū Is a word of quite doubtful meaning, found in the list of victims in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. It may, like the late āyogava, denote a member of a mixed caste (theoretically a descendant of a Sūdra by a Vaiśya wife).Weber rendered it as *unchaste woman.’Zimmer thinks it denotes a brotherless maiden who is exposed to the dangers of prostitution (cf āyogava).
araṭu A plant1 (Colosanthes Indica) from the wood of which the axle of a chariot was sometimes made.Aranya.—This term denotes the uncultivated land—not necessarily forest land—beyond the village. It is contrasted with home (amā),and with the plough land (krsi),being spoken of as apart (tiras) from men. It is also contrasted with the Grāma, and it is the place where thieves live. The character of the forest is described in a hymn of the Rigveda to the forest spirit (Aranyānī). The dead are carried there for burial, and hermits live there.8 Forest fires were common.
avata A word occurring several times in the Rigveda, denotes a well, artificially made (khan * to dig ’) in contrast with a spring (iitsa), though the latter expression is also applied to an artificial well. Such wells were covered by the makers, and are described as unfailing (a-ksita) and full of water. The water was raised by a wheel (cahra) of stone, to which was fastened a strap (varatrā), with a pail (kośa) attached to it. When raised it was poured (siñc) into buckets (āhāva) of wood. Sometimes those wells appear to have been used for irrigation purposes, the water being led off into broad channels (sārmī susirā).
avi Sheep ’ are repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda, and later, often in conjunction with goats (aja). The wolf (vrka) was their great enemy, and they were tended by shepherds. Sheep as well as kine were captured from the enemy. The Soma sieve was made of sheep’s wool, and is repeatedly referred to (avi, mesī, avya, avyaya).Considerable herds must have existed, as Rjrāśva is said to have slain one hundred rams, and in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) β a hundred sheep are mentioned as a gift. The (mesa, vrsnis) ram was sometimes castrated (petva). The main use of sheep was their wool; hence the expression ‘woolly’ (ūrnāvatī) is employed to designate a sheep. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the ram is described as ‘woolly,’ and as ‘ the skin of beasts, quadruped and biped,’ with reference to the use of its wool as clothing for men and shelter for animals. Pūsan is said to weave raiment from the wool of sheep. Normally the sheep stayed out at pasture; in an obscure passage of the Rigveda reference appears to be made to rams in stall. Gandhāra ewes were famous for their wool. Pischel considers that the Parusnī was named from its richness in sheep, parus denoting the ‘ flocks ’ of wool.
ākhyāna In the Aitareya Brāhmana we hear of the śaunahśepa Akhyāna, ‘the story of Sunahśepa,’ which is told by the Hotr priest at the Rājasūya (‘ royal inauguration ’). The series of stories used at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) during the year while the sacrificial horse is allowed to wander at its will is called the ‘cyclic’ (pari-plavam). The Aitareya Brāhmana mentions also Akhyāna-vids (‘ men versed in tales’), who tell the Sauparna legend, elsewhere known as a Vyākhyāna. Yāska, in the Nirukta, frequently uses the term* sometimes in a pregnant sense as denoting the doctrine of the Aitihāsikas or traditional interpreters of the Rigveda.
ārya Is the normal designation in the Vedic literature from the Rigveda onwards of an Aryan, a member of the three upper classes, Brāhmana, Ksatriya, or Vaiśya, as the formal division is given in the Satapatha Brāhmana. The Arya stands in opposition to the Dāsa, but also to the Sūdra. Sometimes the expression is restricted to the Vaiśya caste, the Brāhmana and the Ksatriya receiving special designations; but this use is not common, and it is often uncertain also whether Arya is not meant. The phrase śūdrāryau is espe¬cially ambiguous, but appears to have denoted originally the śūdra and the Aryan, for in the Mahāvrata ceremony the fight between a Sūdra and an Arya is represented in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as one between a Brāhmana and a śūdra, though the Sūtra treats it as a fight between a Vaiśya and a śūdra. The word Arya (fem. Aryā or An) also occurs frequently used as an adjective to describe the Aryan classes (viśah),Q or name (nāman), or caste (varna), or dwellings (dhāman) ; or again reference is made to the Aryan supremacy (vrata) being extended over the land. Aryan foes (vrtra)u are referred to beside Dāsa foes, and there are many references to war of Aryan versus Aryan, as well as to war of Aryan against Dāsa. From this it can be fairly deduced that even by the time of the Rigveda the Aryan communities had advanced far beyond the stage of simple conquest of the aborigines. In the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas the wars alluded to seem mainly Aryan wars, no doubt in consequence of the fusion of Arya and Dāsa into one community. Weber considers that the five peoples known to the Rigveda were the Aryans and the four peoples of the quarters (dis) of the earth, but this is doubtful. Aryan speech (vāc) is specially referred to in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Áranyakas
āśrama (‘resting-place’) does not occur in any Upanisad which can be regarded as pre-Buddhistic. Its earliest use as denoting the stages of a Hindu’s life is found in the śvetāśvatara Upanisad. In one passage of the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made only to the Brahmacārin and householder, to whom, as a reward for study, the procreation of children, the practice of Yoga, abstention from injury to living creatures, and sacrifices, freedom from transmigration are promised. In another place three states are contemplated, but not as con­secutive. The Brahmacārin may either become a householder or become an anchorite, or remain in his teacher’s house all his life. Similarly, reference is made to the death of the anchorite in the forest, or the sacrifice in the village. In contrast with all three is the man who stands fast in Brahman (Brahma- samstha). In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the knowerof the Atman is contrasted with those who (1) study, or (2) sacrifice and give alms, or (3) are anchorites, and in another place with those who sacrifice and make benefactions, and those who practice asceticism. This position of superiority to, and distinction from, the Aśramas became later a fourth Aśrama, the Grhastha, or householder, who was in the second stage, being required to pass not only into the stage of Vānaprastha, but also that of the Sannyāsin (Bhiksu, Parivrājaka). The first stage, that of the Brahmacārin, was still obligatory, but was no longer allowed to remain a permanent one, as was originally possible.
itihāsa As a kind of literature, is repeatedlymentioned along with Purāna in the later texts of the Vedic period. The earliest reference to both occurs in the late fifteenth book of the Atharvaveda. Itihāsa then appears in the Satapatha Brāhmana, the Jaiminīya, Brhadāranyaka, and Chāndogya Upanisads. In the latter it is expressly declared with Purāna to make up the fifth Veda, while the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra makes the Itihāsa a Veda and the Purāna a Veda. The Itihāsa-veda and the Purāna-veda appear also in the Gopatha Brāhmana, while the śatapatha identifies the Itihāsa as well as the Purāna with the Veda. In one passage Anvākhyāna and Itihāsa are distinguished as different classes of works, but the exact point of distinction is obscure; probably the former was supplementary. The Taittirīya Áranyaka mentions Itihāsas and Purānas in the plural. There is nothing to show in the older literature what dis¬tinction there was, if any, between Itihāsa and Purāna; and the late literature, which has been elaborately examined by Sieg, yields no consistent result. Geldner has conjectured that there existed a single work, the Itihāsa-purāna, a collection. of the old legends of all sorts, heroic, cosmogonic, genealogical; but though a work called Itihāsa, and another called Purāna, were probably known to Patañjali, the inaccuracy of Geldner’s view is proved by the fact that Yāska shows no sign of having known any such work. To him the Itihāsa may be a part of the Mantra literature itself, Aitihāsikas being merely people who interpret the Rigveda by seeing in it legends where others see myths. The fact, however, that the use of the compound form is rare, and that Yāska regularly has Itihāsa, not Itihāsa-purāna, is against the theory of there ever having been one work. The relation of Itihāsa to Akhyāna is also uncertain. Sieg considers that the words Itihāsa and Purāna referred to the great body of mythology, legendary history, and cosmogonic legend available to the Vedic poets, and roughly classed as a fifth Veda, though not definitely and finally fixed. Thus, Anvākhyānas, Anuvyākhyānas, and Vyākhyānas could arise, and separate Ákhyānas could still exist outside the cycle, while an Akhyāna could also be a part of the Itihāsa-purāna. He also suggests that the word Akhyāna has special reference to the form of the narrative. Oldenberg, following Windisch, and followed by Geldner, Sieg, and others, has found in the Akhyāna form a mixture of prose and verse, alternating as the narrative was concerned with the mere accessory parts of the tale, or with the chief points, at which the poetic form was naturally produced to correspond with the stress of the emotion. This theory has been severely criticized by Hertel and von Schroeder. These scholars, in accordance with older suggestions of Max Muller and Levi, see in the so-called Ákhyāna hymns of the Rigveda, in which Oldenberg finds actual specimens of the supposed literary genus, though the prose has been lost, actual remains of ritual dramas. Elsewhere it has been suggested that the hymns in question are merely literary dialogues.
īṣā Denotes the * pole of a chariot.’ Normally the chariot had one pole (ekeṣaḥ), but sometimes two poles are referred to. The word is often compounded with Yuga, ‘ yoke,’ into which it was fastened (see Kha), and tied with ropes. Exactly how it was attached to the chariot we do not know. See also Ratha.
udāna Is usually the fifth of the vital breaths (Prāna) when five are enumerated. Sometimes it appears as the second, coming after Prāna, and followed by Vyāna or Samāna. Again, it is found simply opposed to Prāna, or it simply follows Prāna and Apāna. In the śatapatha Brāhmana it is treated as the breath that consumes the later Upanisads, while it that rises up by the throat, death.
upaniṣad in the Brāhmanas normally denotes the secret sense ’ of some word or text, sometimes the * secret rule ’ of the mendicant. But in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad it is already used in the plural as the designation of a class of writings, no doubt actually existing and similar to the Upanisads in the nature of their subject-matter and its treatment. Similarly the sections of the Taittirīya Upanisad end with the words ily upanisad. The Aitareya Aranyaka commences its third part with the title The Upanisad of the Samhitā/ and the title occurs also in the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka. The exact primary sense of the expression is doubtful. The natural derivation, adopted by Max Muller and usual ever since, makes the word mean firstly a session of pupils, hence secret doctrine, and secondly the title of a work on secret doctrine. Oldenberg, however, traces the use of the word to the earlier sense of ‘worship’ {cf. upāsana). Deussen considers the original sense to have been ‘secret word,’ next ‘secret text,’ and then ‘ secret import,’ but this order of meaning is im¬probable. Hopkins8 suggests that Upanisad denotes a sub¬sidiary treatise, but this sense does not account naturally for the common use as ‘ secret meaning,’ which is far more frequent than any other.
usra (ask martin) All these words denote a bull ’ or a ‘ cow,’ occurring frequently in the Rigveda, and sometimes reference to the morning light, doubtful. See Go.
ṛtu ‘Season,’ is a term repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Three seasons of the year are often alluded to, but the names are not usually specified. In one passage of the Rigveda spring (vasanta), summer (grīsma), and autumn (sarad) are given. The Rigveda knows also the rainy season (prā-vrs) and the winter (hitnā, hemanta). A more usual division (not found in the Rigveda is into five seasons,vasanta, grīsma, varsā, sarad, hemanta-śiśira; but occasionally the five are otherwise divided, varsā-śarad being made one season. Sometimes six seasons are reckoned, hemanta and śiśira being divided, so that the six seasons can be made parallel to the twelve months of the year. A still more artificial arrangement makes the seasons seven, possibly by reckoning the intercalary month as a season, as Weber and Zimmer hold, or more probably because of the predilection for the number seven, as Roth suggests. Occasionally the word rtu is applied to the months. The last season, according to the Satapatha Brāhmana, is hemanta. The growth of the division of the seasons from three to five is rightly explained by Zimmer as indicating the advance of the Vedic Indians towards the east. It is not Rigvedic, but dominates the later Samhitās. Traces of an earlier division of the year into winter and summer do not appear clearly in the Rigveda, where the appropriate words himā and samā are merely general appellations of the year, and where śarad is commoner than either as a designation of the year, because it denotes the harvest, a time of overwhelming importance to a young agricultural people. The division of the year in one passage of the Atharvaveda into two periods of six months is merely formal, and in no way an indication of old tradition.
ṛṣi ‘Seer,’ is primarily a composer of hymns to the gods. In the Rigveda reference is often made to previous singers and to contemporary poets. Old poems were inherited and refurbished by members of the composer’s family, but the great aim of the singers was to produce new and approved hymns. It is not till the time of the Brāhmanas that the composition of hymns appears to have fallen into disuse, though poetry was still produced, for example, in the form of Gāthās, which the priests were required to compose them¬selves and sing to the accompaniment of the lute at the sacrifice. The Rsi was the most exalted of Brāhmanas, and his skill, which is often compared with that of a carpenter, was regarded as heaven-sent. The Purohita, whether as Hotr or as Brahman (see Rtvij), was a singer. No doubt the Rsis were normally attached to the houses of the great, the petty kings of Vedic times, or the nobles of the royal household. Nor need it be doubted that occasionally the princes them¬selves essayed poetry: a Rājanyarsi, the prototype of the later Rājarsi or * royal seer,’ who appears in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, though he must be mythical as Oldenberg points out, indicates that kings cultivated poetry just as later they engaged in philosophic disputations. Normally, how¬ever, the poetical function is Brahminical, Viśāmitra and others not being kings, but merely Brāhmanas, in the Rigveda. In the later literature the Rsis are the poets of the hymns preserved in the Samhitās, a Rsi being regularly16 cited when a Vedic Samhitā is quoted. Moreover, the Rsis become the representatives of a sacred past, and are regarded as holy sages, whose deeds are narrated as if they were the deeds of gods or Asuras. They are typified by a particular group of seven, mentioned four times in the Rigveda, several times in the later Samhitās, and enumerated in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as Gotama, Bharadvāja, Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Vasistha, Kaśyapa, and Atri. In the Rigveda itself Kutsa, Atri, Rebha, Agastya, the Kuśikas, Vasistha, Vyaśva, and others appear as Rsis; and the Atharvaveda contains a long list, including Añgiras, Agasti, Jamadagni, Atri, Kaśyapa, Vasistha, Bharadvāja, Gavisthira, Viśvāmitra, Kutsa, Kaksīvant, Kanva, Medhātithi, Triśoka, Uśanā Kāvya, Gotama, and Mudgala. Competition among the bards appears to have been known. This is one of the sides of the riddle poetry (Brahmodya) that forms a distinctive feature of the Vedic ritual of the Aśva¬medha, or horse sacrifice. In the Upanisad period such competitions were quite frequent. The most famous was that of Yājñavalkya, which was held at the court of Janaka of Videha, as detailed in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and which was a source of annoyance to Ajātaśatru of Kāśī. According to an analogous practice, a Brāhmana, like Uddālaka Aruni, would go about disputing with all he came across, and compete with them for a prize of money.
odana Is a common expression denoting a mess, usually of grain cooked with milk (ksīra-pākam odanam). Special varieties are mentioned, such as the * milk-mess ’ (ksīraudana)
oṣadhi Roughly speaking, the vegetable world is divided in Vedic literature between Osadhi or Vīrudh ‘plants’ and Vana or Vrksa ‘trees.’ Osadhi is employed in opposition to Vīrudh to denote plants as possessing a healing power or some other quality useful to men, while Vīrudh is rather a generic term for minor vegetable growths, but sometimes, when occur­ring beside Osadhi, signifies those plants which do not possess medicinal properties. A list of the minor parts of which a plant is made up is given in the later Samhitās. It comprises the root 0mfdd), the panicle (tfda), the stem (kāηda), the twig (valśa), the flower (puspa), and the fruit (phala), while trees have, in addition, a corona (skaηdha), branches [śākhā), and leaves (parηa). The Atharvaveda gives an elaborate, though not very intelligible, division of plants into those which expand (pra-strηatīh), are bushy (stambiηīh), have only one sheath (eka-śtmgāh), are creepers (pra-taηvatīh), have many stalks (amśumatīh), arejointed (kāndinīh), or have spreading branches (vi-śākhāh). In the Rigveda plants are termed ‘ fruitful ’ (phalinīh), blossom¬ing ’ (puspavatīh), and ‘ having flowers ’ (pra-sūvarīh).
aupamanyava ‘Descendant of Upamanyu,’ is the patro­nymic of various persons: see Kāmboja, Prācīnaśāla, Mahā- śāla. The best known bearer of the name is the grammarian who disagreed with the onomatopoetic theory of the derivation of names, and who is mentioned by Yāska. An Aupamanyavī- putra occurs in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra as a teacher.
kārṣman A word meaning literally ‘ furrow,’ and found only in the Rigveda, is the designation of the goal in the chariot race. The competitor probably turned round it and came back to the starting-place.
kīkaṭa The name of this people occurs only in one passage of the Rigveda, where they appear as hostile to the singer and as under the leadership of Pramaganda. Yāska declares that Kīkata was the name of a non-Aryan country, and later8 Kīkata is given as a synonym of Magadha. Hence Zimmer concludes that the Kīkatas were a non-Aryan people living in the country later known as Magadha. Weber holds that this people were located in Magadha, but were Aryan, though at variance with other Aryan tribes, perhaps because of heretical tendencies, for Magadha was later a seat of Buddhism. But the identification is uncertain, and is doubted by Oldenberg and Hillebrandt.
kurkura Is an onomatopoetic name for the dog in the Atharvaveda. See also Svan.
kṛkavāku The ‘cock, being named in the Atharvaveda with sheep, goats, and other domesticated animals, was pre­sumably tamed. In the -list of victims at the horse sacrifice in the Yajurveda, it appears as dedicated to Savitr: Yāska explains this by the fact that it declares the time of day (kālānuvāda). The commentator Mahīdhara explains the name by tāmra-cūda, ‘red-crested.’ It is of course onomato- poetic (‘ calling krka’). See also Kukkuta.
kraya Sale,’ is a word which does not actually occur in the Rigveda, though the verb krī, from which this noun is derived, is found there. Both noun and verb are common in the later Samhitās. Sale appears to have regularly consisted in barter in the Rigveda ten cows are regarded as a possible price for an (image of) Indra to be used as a fetish, while elsewhere not a hundred, nor a thousand, nor a myriad are considered as an adequate price (.śulka) for the purchase of Indra. The Athar­vaveda mentions, as possible objects of commerce, garments (dūrśa), coverlets (pavasta), and goatskins (ajina). The haggling of the market was already familiar in the days of the Rigveda,® and a characteristic hymn of the Atharvaveda is directed to procuring success in trade. The ‘ price ’ was called Vasna, and the ‘merchant Vanij, his greed being well known.There is little evidence of a standard of value in currency having been adopted. When no specific mention is made of the standard, the unit was probably the cow. In a consider¬able number of passages of the Satapatha Brāhmana and elsewhere, however, the expression hiranyam śata-mānam suggests that there must have been some standard other thancows, though it might in all these passages be rendered as ‘gold worth a hundred cows.’ But the use of the Krsnala as a measure of weight suggests that the meaning is ‘ gold weighing a hundred Krsnalas,’ and this seems the more probable explana¬tion. This unit seems not to be known in the Rigveda, where the meaning of the term Manā, which occurs once, is mysterious, and where necklets (Niska) seem to have been one of the more portable forms of wealth, like jewellery in modern India, and may perhaps have served as a means of exchange.
kṣatriya As the origin of caste, the relation of the castes, intermarriage, and cognate matters may most conveniently be discussed under Varna, this article will be confined to deter­mining, as far as possible, the real character of the class called Ksatriyas, or collectively Ksatra. The evidence of the Jātakas points to the word Khattiya denoting the members of the old Aryan nobility who had led the tribes to conquest, as well as those families of the aborigines who had managed to maintain their princely status in spite of the conquest. In the epic also the term Ksatriya seems to include these persons, but it has probably a wider signification than Khattiya, and would cover all the royal military vassals and feudal chiefs, expressing, in fact, pretty much the same as the barones of early English history. Neither in the Jātakas nor in the epic is the term co-extensive with all warriors; the army contains many besides the Ksatriyas, who are the leaders or officers, rather than the rank and file.In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas the Ksatriya stands as a definite member of the social body, distinct from the priest, the subject people, and the slaves, Brāhmana, Vaiśya, and Sūdra. It is significant that Rājanya is a variant to Ksatriya, and an earlier one. Hence it is reasonable to suppose that the Ksatriya and Rājanya are both of similar origin, being princely or connected with royalty. Moreover, the early use of Ksatriya in the Rigveda is exclusively con-nected with royal authority or divine authority. It is impossible to say exactly what persons would be in¬cluded in the term Ksatriya. That it covered the royal house and the various branches of the royal family may be regarded as certain. It, no doubt, also included the nobles and their families: this would explain the occasional opposition of Rājanya and Ksatriya, as in the Aitareya Brāhmana,8 where a Rājanya asks a Ksatriya for a place for sacrifice (deυa-yajana). Thus, when strictly applied, Ksatriya would have a wider denotation than Rājanya. As a rule, however, the two expressions are identical, and both are used as evidence in what follows. That Ksatriya ever included the mere fighting man has not been proved: in the Rigveda9 and later10 others than Ksatriyas regularly fought; but possibly if the nobles had retinues as the kings had, Ksatriya would embrace those retainers who had military functions. The term did not apply to all members of the royal entourage; for example, the Grāmanī was usually a Vaiśya. The connexion of the Ksatriyas with the Brahmins was very close. The prosperity of the two is repeatedly asserted to be indissolubly associated, especially in the relation of king (Rājan) and domestic priest (Purohita). Sometimes there was feud between Ksatriya and Brahmin. His management of the sacrifice then gave the Brahmin power to ruin the Ksatriya by embroiling him with the people or with other Ksatriyas. Towards the common people, on the other hand, the Ksa¬triya stood in a relation of well-nigh unquestioned superiority. There are, however, references to occasional feuds between the people and the nobles, in which no doubt the inferior numbers of the latter were compensated by their superior arms and prowess. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Vaiśya is described as tributary to another (anyasya bali-krt), to be devoured by another (anyasyādya), and to be oppressed at will (yathākāma-jyeya). Probably these epithets apply most strictly to the relation of the king and his people, but the passage shows that the people were greatly at the mercy of the nobles. No doubt the king granted to them the right, which may have been hereditary, to be supported by the common people, whose feudal superiors they thus became. In return for these privileges the Kṣatriyas had probably duties of protection to perform, as well as some judicial functions, to judge from an obscure passage of the Kāthaka Samhitā. The main duty of the Ksatriya in the small states of the Vedic period was readiness for war. The bow is thus his special attribute, just as the goad is that of the agriculturist; for the bow is the main weapon of the Veda. Whether the Ksatriyas paid much attention to mental occupations is uncertain. In the latest stratum of the Brāhmana literature there are references to learned princes like Janaka of Videha, who is said to have become a Brahmin (brahmā), apparently in the sense that he had the full knowledge which a Brahmin possessed. Other learned Ksatriyas of this period were Pravāhana Jaivali, Aśvapati Kaikeya, and Ajātaśatru Garbe, Grierson, and others believe they are justified in holding the view that the Ksatriyas developed a special philosophy of their own as opposed to Brahminism, which appears later as Bhakti, or Faith. On the other hand, there is clear evidence that the opinion of Ksatriyas on such topics were held in little respect, and it must be remembered that to attribute wisdom to a king was a delicate and effective piece of flattery. There are earlier references to royal sages (rājan- yarsi) but it is very doubtful if much stress can be laid on them, and none can be laid on the later tradition of Sāyana. Again, the Nirukta gives a tradition relating how Devāpi, a king’s son, became the Purohita of his younger brother Samtanu; but it is very doubtful if the story can really be traced with Sieg in the Rigveda itself. In any case, the stories refer only to a few selected Ksatriyas of high rank, while there is no evidence that the average Ksatriya was concerned with intellectual pursuits. Nor is there any reference to Ksatriyas engaging in agriculture or in trade or commerce. It may be assumed that the duties of administration and war were adequate to absorb his atten¬tion. On the other hand, we do hear of a Rājanya as a lute player and singer at the Aśvamedha or horse sacrifice. Of the training and education of a Ksatriya we have no record; presumably, as in fact if not in theory later on, he was mainly instructed in the art of war, the science of the bow, and the rudimentary administrative functions which would devolve on him. At this early state of the development of the nobility which appears to be represented in the Rigveda, it was probably not unusual or impossible for a Vaiśya to become a Ksatriya; at least, this assumption best explains the phrase ‘claiming falsely a Ksatriya’s rank ’ (ksatriyam mithuyā dhārayantam). The king and the Ksatriyas must have stood in a particularly close relation. The former being the Ksatriya par excellence, it is to him rather than to the ordinary Ksatriya that we must refer passages like that in the Satapatha Brāhmana, where it is said that the Ksatriya, with the consent of the clansmen, gives a settlement to a man : clearly a parallel to the rule found among many peoples that the chief, but only with the consent of the people, can make a grant of unoccupied land. In the same Brāhmana it is said that a Ksatriya consecrates a Ksatriya, a clear reference, as the commentator explains, to the practice of the old king consecrating the prince (kumāra) who is to succeed him ; and again, the Ksatriya and the Purohita are regarded as alone complete in contrast with other people, the parallel with the Purohita here suggesting that the Ksatriya par excellence is meant. On the other hand, the king is sometimes con¬trasted with the Rājanya. The Sūtra literature contains elaborate rules for the education and occupations of Ksatriyas, but their contents cannot always be traced in the Brāhmana literature, and their value is questionable.
khādi Occurs frequently in the Rigveda denoting either anklets or armlets, or sometimes rings on the hands. Max Muller considers that the word means quoits, the later Cakra. The rings were sometimes of gold.
gaya House,’ is a common word in the Rigveda, and sometimes occurs later. As its sense includes the inmates as well as their belongings, it is equivalent to ‘household.’
gāthā In the Rigveda usually means only ‘song,’ ‘verse,’ like Gātu. In one passage, however, it already has a more special sense, as it is classed with Nārāśamsī and Raibhī, a collocation repeatedly found later. The commentators identify the three terms with certain verses of the Atharvaveda, but Oldenberg has shown that this identification is incorrect for the Rigveda. Gāthās are often mentioned elsewhere, and are referred to as metrical in the Aitareya Áranyaka, where the Rc, Kumbyā, and Gāthā are classed as forms of verse. The Aitareya Brāhmana distinguishes between Rc and Gāthā as divine and human respectively. According to the usage of the Brāhmanas and the liturgical literature, as stated by the St. Petersburg Dictionary, the Gāthās are, though religious in content, distinguished from Rc, Yajus, and Sāman as non- Vedic—that is, are not Mantras. This view is consistent with the fact that the phrase Yajña-gāthā, meaning a verse summarizing a sacrificial usage, is not rare. The Satapatha Brāhmana preserves several Gāthās, which generally accord with this description as epitomizing the sacrifices of famous kings, and the Maitrāyanī Samhitā states that a Gāthā is sung at a wedding. Sometimes Gāthā is qualified as Nārāśamsī, where it must be a eulogy of a generous donor.
go ‘ox’ or ‘cow.’ These were among the chief sources of wealth to the Vedic Indian, and are repeatedly referred to from the Rigveda onwards. The milk (Ksīra) was either drunk fresh or made into butter (Ghrta) or curds (Dadhi), or was mixed with Soma or used for cooking with grain (Ksīraudana).The cows were milked thrice a day, early (prātar-doha), in the forenoon (Samgava), and in the evening (.sāyam-doha). Thrice a day they were driven out to graze, according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana (prātah, saφgave, say am). The first milking was productive, the last two scanty. According to the Aitareya Brāhmana, among the Bharatas the herds in the evening are in the Gostha, at midday in the Samgavinī. This passage Sāyana expands by saying that the herds go home to the Sālā, or house for animals, at night so far as they consist of animals giving milk, while the others stayed out in the Gostha, or open pasturage ; but both were together in the cattle-shed during the heat of the day. The time before the Samgava, when the cows were grazing freely on the pastureland, was called Svasara. When the cows were out feeding they were separated from the calves, which were, how¬ever, allowed to join them at the Samgava, and sometimes in the evening. While grazing the cattle were under the care of a herdsman (Gopā, Gopāla) armed with a goad, but they were liable to all sorts of dangers, such as being lost, falling into pits, breaking limbs, and being stolen. The marking of the ears of cattle was repeatedly adopted, no doubt, to indicate ownership. Large herds of cattle were well-known, as is shown by the Dānastutis, or ‘ praises of gifts,’ in the Rigveda, even when allowances are made for the exaggeration of priestly gratitude. The importance attached to the possession of cattle is shown by the numerous passages in which the gods are asked to prosper them, and by the repeated prayers for wealth in kine. Hence, too, forays for cattle (Gavisti) were well known; the Bharata host is called the ‘ horde desiring cows ’ (gavyan grāmak) in the Rigveda j and a verbal root gup, ‘ to protect,’ was evolved as early as the Rigveda from the denominative go-pāya, ‘ to guard cows.’ The Vedic poets do not hesitate to compare their songs with the lowing of cows, or to liken the choir of the singing Apsarases to cows. The cattle of the Vedic period were of many colours: red (:rohita), light (śakra), dappled (prśni), even black (krsna). Zimmer sees a reference to cows with blazes on the face in one passage of the Rigveda, but this is uncertain. Oxen were regularly used for ploughing or for drawing wágons (anadvāh), in which case they were, it seems, usually castrated. Cows were not properly used for drawing carts, though they at times did so. The flesh of both cows and bulls was sometimes eaten (Māmsa). Cattle were certainly the objects of individual ownership, and they formed one of the standards of exchange and valuation (see Kraya). The term Go is often applied to express the products of the cow. It frequently means the milk, but rarely the flesh of the animal. In many passages it designates leather used as the material of various objects, as a bowstring, or a sling, or thongs to fasten part of the chariot, or reins,or the lash of a whip. See also Carman, with which Go is sometimes synonymous.
gaura A species of ox (Bos gaurus), is frequently mentioned with the Gavaya from the Rigveda onwards. As the Vāja­saneyi Samhitā expressly mentions wild (āraηya) Gaúras, they must usually have been tame. The female, Gaurī, is also often referred to. The compound term Gaura-mrga (‘ the Gaura wild beast ’) is sometimes met with.
grāma The primitive sense of this word, which occurs frequently from the Rigveda onwards, appears to have been village.’ The Vedic Indians must have dwelt in villages which were scattered over the country, some close together, some far apart, and were connected by roads.The village is regularly contrasted with the forest (
camū Is a term of somewhat doubtful sense occurring repeatedly in the Rigveda, and connected with the preparation of Soma. Zimmer considers that in the dual it denotes the two boards between which, in his opinion, the Soma was crushed (cf. Adhisavana). Roth, however, appears to be right in taking the normal sense to designate a vessel into which the Soma was poured from the press, and Hillebrandt shows clearly that when it occurs in the plural it always has this sense, corresponding to the Graha-pātras of the later ritual, and that sometimes it is so used in the singular or dual also. In some cases, however, he recognizes its use as denoting the mortar in which the Soma was pressed: he may be right here, as this mode of preparation was probably Indo-Iranian. In a derivative sense Camū appears in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana to denote a trough, either of solid stone or consisting of bricks, used by the Eastern people to protect the body of the dead from contact with the earth, like modern stone-lined graves or vaults.
jagat Moving,’ is applied sometimes in the Atharvaveda, and later to the domestic animals in particular, as opposed to wild animals (śvapad). Occasionally the cow is mentioned separately, when the word jagat covers the rest of the domesti­cated animals.
jana Besides meaning * man’ as an individual, with a tendency to the collective sense, commonly denotes a * people ’ or tribe ’ in the Rigveda and later. Thus, the five tribes ’(Panca Janāh or Janāsah) are frequently referred to, and in one hymn of the Rigveda the people of Yadu ’ (yādva jana) and the Yadus (yādvāh) are synonymous. Again, the king (rājan) is described as protector (gopā) of the people (janasya),’and there are other references to king and Jana. The people of the Bharatas (bhārata jana) is also mentioned ; there is no ground to assume with Hopkins that Jana in this case means a clan or horde (Grāma), as distinguished from a people. It is difficult to say exactly how a people was divided. Zimmer argues from a passage in the Rigveda that a people was divided into cantons (Viś), cantons into joint families or clans, or village communities (Grāma, Vrjana), and these again into single families. He thinks that the four divisions are reflected in the passage in question by Jana, Viś, Janman, and Putrālj, or sons, and argues that each village community was originally founded on relationship. But it is very doubtful whether this precise division of the people can be pressed. The division of the Jana into several Viś may be regarded as probable, for it is supported by the evidence of another passage of the Rigveda, which mentions the Viś as a unit of the fighting men, and thus shows that, as in Homeric times and in ancient Germany, relationship was deemed a good principle of military arrangement. But the subdivision of the Viś into several Gramas is very doubtful. Zimmer admits that neither Grāma nor Vrjana11 has the special sense of a subdivision of the Viś when used for war, for both words only denote generally an armed host. He finds other designations of the village host in Vrā12 and in Vrāja,13 but it is sufficient to say that the former passage is of extremely doubtful import,14 and that the latter has no reference to war at all. It is therefore impossible to state in what exact relation the Grāma in Vedic times stood to the Viś or to the family (Kula or Gotra). The confusion is increased by the vagueness of the sense of both Grāma and Viś. If the latter be regarded as a local division, then no doubt the Grāma must have been a part of a district; but if a Viś was a unit of relationship, then a Grāma may have contained families of different Viśes, or may have sometimes coincided with a Viś, or have contained only a part of a Viś. But in any case the original state of affairs must have been greatly modified by the rise of the system of caste, and the substitu¬tion of a hierarchical for a political point of view. The elements of the people were represented by the family—either as an individual family inhabiting one home (Kula), and con¬sisting often, no doubt, of a joint family of brothers, or as a patriarchal family of sons who still lived with their father—and by the clan, the later Gotra, which included all those who claimed a common ancestor. The Gotra may be regarded as roughly corresponding to the Latin gens and the Greek yevos, and possibly the Viś may be the equivalent of the curia and φprjτpη, and the Jana of the tribus and φυXov or φv\η.i These three divisions may also be seen in the Viś, Zantu, and Daqyu of the Iranian world, where the use of Viś suggests that in the Indian Viś a relationship based on blood rather than locality is meant—and perhaps even in the vicus, pagus, and ciυitas of the old German polity described in the Germania of Tacitus. The family in some form appears as the third element of the Jana in a passage of the Rigveda, where the house {grha) is contrasted with the Jana and the Viś. Possibly, too, another passage contrasts the adhvam, or family sacrifice, with that of the Jana or Viś, rather than, as Zimmer thinks, the village with the two larger units. But it is significant of the particu¬larism of the Vedic Indians that while the king maintained a fire which might be regarded as the sacred fire of the tribe, there is no sure trace of any intermediate cult between that of the king and that of the individual householder. The real elements in the state are the Gotra and the Jana, just as ultimately the gens and tribtis, the γei>oç and ψv\ov, are alone important. It may be that Viś sometimes represents in the older texts what later was known as the Gotra. See Viś. This appears clearly when the constitution of society in the Brāhmana period is considered. The tribe or people still exists, and is presupposed, but the division into Viś disappears. The real division is now the separate castes (Varna), but the numerous sections into which each of them is divided appear to be based in part on the ancient Gotra.
jāmi A word which appears originally to have meant ‘ related in blood,’ is not rarely used as an epithet of ‘ sister ’ (Svasr), and sometimes even denotes ‘ sister ’ itself, the emphasis being on the blood-relationship. So it appears in a passage of the Atharvaveda, where ‘ brotherless sisters’ (abhrātara iva jāmayah) are referred to. The word is similarly used in the dispute occurring in the Aitareya Brāhmana as to the precedence of Rākā, or of the wives of the gods, in a certain rite. One party is there described as holding that the sister should be preferred (jāmyai vai pūrva-peyam)—apparently at a ceremonial family meal—to the wife, presumably as being of one blood with the husband, while the wife is not (being anyo- daryā, ‘of another womb’). In the neuter the word means ‘ relationship,’ like jāmi-tva, which also occurs in the Rigveda.
jāla Occurs in the Atharvaveda and the Sūtras in the sense of ‘ net.’ Jālaka is used in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad of a reticulated membrane resembling a woven covering.
jñātṛ Occurs in two passages of the Atharvaveda and one of the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka with a somewhat obscure sense. Zimmer conjectures not unnaturally that the word is a technical term taken from law, meaning ‘witness.’ The reference is, perhaps, to a custom of carrying on transactions of business before witnesses as practised in other primitive societies. Roth suggests that the word has the sense of ‘surety.’ But Bloomfield and Whitney ignore these inter¬pretations.
takman Is a disease repeatedly mentioned in the Athar­vaveda, but later not known under this name. It is the subject of five hymns of the Atharvaveda, and is often mentioned else­where. Weber first identified it with fever,’ and Grohmann showed that all the symptoms pointed to that ailment. Refer­ence is made to the alternate hot and shivering fits of the patient, to the yellow colour of the jaundice which accompanies the fever, and to its peculiar periodicity. The words used to describe its varieties are aηye-dyuh, ubhaya-dyuh, trtīyaka, vi-trtīya, and sadam-di, the exact sense of most of which terms is somewhat uncertain. It is agreed that the first epithet designates the fever known as quotidiaηus, which recurs each day at the same hour, though the word is curious (lit.‘ on the other—i.e., next, day’). The ubhaya-dyuk (‘ on both days ’) variety appears to mean a disease recurring for two suc¬cessive days, the third being free; this corresponds to the rhythmus quartanus complicatus. But Sāyana considers that it means a fever recurring on the third day, the * tertian.’ The tvtīyaka, however,must be the ‘tertian’ fever, though Zimmer suggests that it may mean a fever which is fatal at the third paroxysm. Grohmann regards the vi-trtīyaka as equivalent to the tertiana duplicata, a common form in southern countries, in which the fever occurs daily, but with a correspondence in point of time or severity of attack on alternate days. Bloomfield suggests that it is identical with the ubhaya-dyuh, variety. The sadam-di type appears to be the kind later known as samtata-jvara (‘ continuous fever ’), in which there are attacks of several days’ duration, with an interval followed by a fresh period of attack. Fever occurred at different seasons, in the autumn (śārada), in the hot weather (graisma), in the rains (vārsika) but was especially prevalent in the first, as is indicated by the epithet viśva-śārada, occurring every autumn.’ The disease is said to arise when Agni enters the waters. From this Weber deduced that it was considered to be the result of a chill supervening on heat, or the influence of heat on marshy land. Grohmann preferred to see in this connexion of the origin of the disease with Agni’s entering the waters an allusion to the fact that fever arises in the rainy season, the time when Agni, as lightning, descends to earth with the rain. Zimmer, who accepts this view, further refers to the prevalence of fever in the Terai, and interprets vanya, an epithet of fever found in the Atharvaveda, as meaning ‘ sprung from the forest,’ pointing out that fever is mentioned as prevalent among the Mūjavants and Mahāvrsas, two mountain tribes of the western Himalaya. There is no trace of fever having been observed to be caused by the bite of the anopheles mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water : this theory has without reason been held to be known to classical Indian medicine. Among the symptoms of Takman, or among complications accompanying it, are mentioned ‘itch’ (Pāman), ‘headache’ (§īrsa-śoka),so ‘cough’ (Kāsikā), and ‘consumption,’ or perhaps some form of itch (Balāsa). It is perhaps significant that the Takman does not appear until the Atharvaveda. It is quite possible that the Vedic Aryans, when first settled in India, did not know the disease, which would take some generations to become endemic and recognized as dangerous. What remedies they used against it is quite uncertain, for the Atharvaveda mentions only spells and the Kustha, which can hardly have been an effective remedy, though still used in later times. Fever must, even in the Atharvan period, have claimed many victims, or it would not be mentioned so prominently.
tāpasa ‘Ascetic,’ is not found in Vedic literature till the Upanisads.
tittira Is the name of the partridge in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas, being presumably an onomato- poetic formation. The bird is described as having variegated plumage (bahu-rūpa). It is usually associated with the Kapiñ- jala and Kalaviñka.
trasadasyu Son of Purukutsa, is mentioned in the Rigveda as king of the Pūrus. He was born to Purukutsa by his wife, Purukutsānī, at a time of great distress; this, according to Sāyana, refers to Purukutsa’s captivity: possibly his death is really meant. Trasadasyu was also a descendant of Giriksit and Purukutsa was a descendant of Durgaha. The genealogy, therefore, appears to be: Durgaha, Giriksit, Purukutsa, Trasa­dasyu. Trasadasyu was the ancestor of Tpksi, and, according to Ludwig, had a son Hiranin. Trasadasyu’s chronological position is determined by the fact that his father, Purukutsa, was a contemporary of Sudās, either as an opponent or as a friend. That Purukutsa was an enemy of Sudās is more probable, because the latter’s predecessor, Divodāsa, was apparently at enmity with the Pūrus, and in the battle of the ten kings Pūrus were ranged against Sudās and the Trtsus. Trasadasyu himself seems to have been an energetic king. His people, the Pūrus, were settled on the Sarasvatī, which was, no doubt, the stream in the middle country, that locality according well with the later union of the Pūrus with the Kuru people, who inhabited that country. This union is exemplified in the person of Kuruśravana, who is called Trāsadasyava, ‘ descendant of Trasadasyu,’ in the Rigveda, whose father was Mitrātithi, and whose son was Upamaśravas. The relation of Mitrātithi to Trksi does not appear. Another descendant of Trasadasyu was Tryaruna Traivrsna, who is simply called Trasadasyu in a hymn of the Rigveda. He was not only a 4 descendant of Trivrsan,’ but, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, he was also Traidhātva, descendant of Tridhātu.’ The order of these two predecessors of Tryaruna cannot be determined in any way from Vedic literature. According to the later tradition, a prince named Tridhanvan preceded Tryaruna in the succession. Vedic tradition further fails to show in what precise relation Trasadasyu stood to Trivrsan or Tryaruna.
daśan ‘Ten,’ forms the basis of the numerical system of the Vedic Indians, as it does of the Aryan people generally. But it is characteristic of India that there should be found at a very early period long series of names for very high numerals, whereas the Aryan knowledge did not go beyond 1,000. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the list is 1 ; 10; 100; 1,000 ; ιο,οοο {ayuta) \ ιοο,οοο (ηiyuta); ι,οοο,οοο(prayuta); 10,000,000 {arbuda); 100,000,000 (ηyarbuda)', 1,000,000,000 (samudra); 10,000,000,000 (madhya); ιοο,οοο,οοο,οοο (aηta); 1,000,000,000,000 {parārdha). In the Kāthaka Samhitā the list is the same, but ηiyuta and prayuta exchange places, and after ηyarbuda a new figure (badva) intervenes, thus increasing samudra to ιο,οοο,οοο,οοο, and so on. The Taittirīya Samhitā has in two places exactly the same list as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The Maitrāyanī Samhitā has the list ayuta, prayuta, then ayuta again, arbuda, ηyarbuda, samudra, madhya, aηta, parārdha. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmana has the Vājasaneyi list up to ηyarbuda inclusive, then follow ηikharvaka, badva, aksita, and apparently go = ι,οοο,οοο,οοο,οοο. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana list replaces nikharvaka by nikharva, badva by padma, and ends with aksitir vyomāntah. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra con¬tinues the series after nyarbuda with nikharvāda, samudra, salila, antya, ananta (=10 billions).But beyond ayuta none of these numbers has any vitality. Badva, indeed, occurs in the Aitareya Brāhmana, but it cannot there have any precise numerical sense j and later on the names of these high numerals are very much confused. An arithmetical progression of some interest is found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, where occurs a list of sacrificial gifts in which each successive figure doubles the amount of the preceding one. It begins with dvādaśa-mānam hiranyam, * gold to the value of 12 ’ (the unit being uncertain, but probably the Krsnala18), followed by ‘to the value of 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1,536, 3072/ then dve astāvimśati-śata-māne, which must mean 2 x 128 X 24 (the last unit being not a single māna, but a number of 24 mānas) = 6,144, then 12,288, 24,576, 49,152, 98,304, 196,608, 393,216. With these large numbers may be compared the minute theoretical subdivision of time found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where a day is divided into 15 muhūrtas—1 muhūrta =15 ksipras, 1 ksipra =15 etarhis, I etarhi = 15 idānis, 1 idāni =15 prānas. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra15 has a decimal division of the day into 15 muhūrtas—• i muhūrta = 10 nimesas, 1 nimesa = 10 dhvamsis. Few fractions are mentioned in Vedic literature. Ardha, pāda, śapha, and kalā denote J, J, TV respectively, but only the first two are common. Trtīya denotes the third part.16 In the Rigveda Indra and Visnu are said to have divided ι,οοο by 3, though how they did so is uncertain. Tri-pād denotes 4 three-fourths.’ There is no clear evidence that the Indians of the Vedic period had any knowledge of numerical figures, though it is perfectly possible.
daśamī Denotes in the Atharvaveda and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the period of life between 90 and 100 years which the Rigveda calls the daśama yuga, ‘ the tenth stage of life.’ Longevity seems not to have been rare among the Vedic Indians, for the desire to live a ‘hundred autumns’ (śaradal} śatam) is constantly expressed. Dīrghatamas is said to have lived ioo years, and Mahidāsa Aitareya is credited with 116. Onesikritos reported that they sometimes lived 130 years, a statement with which corresponds the wish expressed in the Jātaka for a life of 120 years. Probably the number was always rather imaginary than real, but the com¬parative brevity of modern life in India9 may be accounted for by the cumulative effect of fever, which is hardly known to the Rigveda. See Takman.
dāya Occurs in the Rigveda only in the sense of ‘reward’ of exertion (śrama), but later it means ‘inheritance’—that is, a father’s property which is to be divided among his sons either during his lifetime or after his death. The passages all negative the idea that the property 0/ the family was legally family property: it is clear that it was the property of the head of the house, usually the father, and that the other members of the family only had moral claims upon it which the father could ignore, though he might be coerced by his sons if they were physically stronger. Thus Manu is said in the Taittirīya Samhitā to have divided his property among his sons. He omitted Nābhānedistha, whom he afterwards taught how to appease the Añgirases, and to procure cows. This is a significant indication that the property he divided was movable property, rather than land (Urvarā). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the division is said to have been made during Manu’s lifetime by his sons, who left only their aged father to Nābhānedistha. According to the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, again, four sons divided the inheritance while their old father, Abhipratārin, was still alive. It is, of course, possible to regard Dāya as denoting the heritable property of the family, but the developed patria potestas of the father, which was early very marked, as shown by the legend of Sunahśepa, is inconsistent with the view that the sons were legally owners with their father, unless and until they actually insisted on a division of the property. Probably— there is no evidence of any decisive character—land was not divided at first, but no doubt its disposal began to follow the analogy of cattle and other movable property as soon as the available supply of arable land became limited. As for the method of division, it is clear from the Taittirīya Samhitā that the elder son was usually preferred; perhaps this was always the case after death. During the father’s life¬time another might be preferred, as appears from a passage of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Women were excluded from partition or inheritance, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Nirukta. They were, no doubt, supported by their brothers; but if they had none they might be reduced to prostitution. Detailed rules of inheritance appear in the Sūtras.
dāsa Like Dasyu, sometimes denotes enemies of a demoniac character in the Rigveda, but in many passages the word refers to human foes of the Aryans. The Dāsas are described as having forts (purafy), and their clans {viśah) are mentioned. It is possible that the forts, which are called ‘ autumnal ’ (śāradīh), may be mythical, but it is not essential, for the epithet may allude to their being resorted to in the autumn season. The Dāsa colour (Varna)6 is probably an allusion to the black skin of the aborigines, which is also directly mentioned. The aborigines (as Dasyus) are called anās, ‘nose¬less’ (?), and mrdhra-vāc, ‘ of hostile speech/9 and are probably meant by the phallus-worshippers (śiśna-devāh, ‘whose deity is a phallus ’) of the Rigveda. It is significant that constant. reference is made to the differences in religion between Arya and Dāsa or Dasyu. Since the Dāsas were in many cases reduced to slavery, the word Dāsa has the sense of * slave ’ in several passages of the Rigveda. Dāsī, the feminine, always has this sense from the Atharvaveda onwards. Aboriginal women were, no doubt, the usual slaves, for on their husbands being slain in battle they would naturally have been taken as servants. They would sometimes also become concubines; thus Kavasa was taunted with being the son of a female slave (dāsyāh putrah) in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Ludwig considers that in some passages Dāsa is applied, in the sense of enemy,’ to Aryan foes, but this is uncertain. Zimmer and Meyer think that Dāsa originally meant enemy in general, later developing in Iran into the name of the Dahae of the Caspian steppes, and in India into a desig¬nation of the aborigines. On the other hand, Hillebrandt argues that, as the Dāsas and the Panis are mentioned together, they must be deemed to be closely related tribes, identifying the Panis with the Parnians and the Dāsas of the Rigveda with the Dahae. This view, of course, necessitates a transfer of the scenes of the Rigveda, where Dāsas are prominent, and especially those in which Divodāsa—‘ the heavenly Dāsa’—plays an important part, to the far west. Hillebrandt justifies this by regarding the scene of the sixth book of the Rigveda as quite different from that of the seventh and third, in which Sudās, the Bharatas, Vasistha, and Viśvāmitra appear. The Sarasvatī of the sixth book he locates in Arachosia, that of the seventh in the Middle Country.’ It is, however, extremely doubtful whether this theory can be upheld. That Divodāsa should have been a Dāsa, and yet have fought against other Dāsas, is not in itself likely, especially when his son Sudās appears as a protagonist of Aryan civilization. It also seems unreasonable to seek in Arachosia for the river Sarasvatī, which it is natural to locate in the Middle Country. ’The wealth of the Dāsas was no doubt considerable, but in civilization there is no reason to suppose that they were ever equal to the invaders. Leading Dāsas were Ilībiśa, Cumuri and Dhuni, Pipru, Varcin, Sambara. For names of aboriginal tribes, see Kirāta, Kīkata, Candāla, Parnaka, Simyu.
divodāsa atithigva Is one of the leading princes of the early Vedic age. He was a son of Vadhryaśva, and father, or more probably grandfather, of Sudās, the famous king of the Trtsu family, among the Bharatas. Probably Pijavana was the son and Sudās the grandson. Divodāsa was naturally a Bharata, and, like Sudās, was an opponent of the Turvaśas and Yadus. His great enemy was śambara, the Dāsa, who was apparently chief of a mountain people, and whom he repeatedly defeated. He was also, it seems, like his father Vadhryaśva, an energetic supporter of the fire ritual, for Agni is once called by his name in the Rigveda. On the other hand, he was defeated, with Ayu and Kutsa, by Indra’s aid. In several passages he seems closely connected with the singer family, the Bharadvājas. From one passage, where Divodāsa is said to have fought against the Panis, the Pārāvatas, and Brsaya, Hillebrandt has inferred that he was engaged in conflicts with the tribes of Arachosia, and interpreting the name as the ‘heavenly Dāsa’ conjectures that he was himself a Dāsa. This conclusion is not probable, for the Sarasvatī on which the battle in question took place, and which can hardly be the Haraqaiti of Arachosia, would naturally designate the later Sarasvatī, while the Pārāvatas are mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, as in the east, about the Yamunā. Bergaigne’s opinion that Divodāsa and Atithigva were different people cannot be supported in view of the complete parallelism in the acts of the two persons. See also Pratardana. The people of Divodāsa are referred to in a hymn of the Rigveda.
diś Direction,’ is a word very frequently used in the Rigveda and later to denote a quarter of the sky. As a general rule, four quarters are mentioned—east, south, west, north. But the number of the ‘ directions ’ is sometimes increased up to ten by the addition to these four of various others. The five points include the zenith (ārdhvā) ; the six, the zenith and the nadir (ūrdhvā and avācī) ; the seven, the zenith, the ground on which one stands (dhruva), and the air (aηtariksa) between these two (vyadhvā) ; the eight include the inter­mediate quarters (S.E., S.W., N.E., N.W.) ; the nine add to these the zenith ; the ten, zenith and nadir. The number five is sometimes made up by the ground beneath the observer’s feet (ιdhruvā), and the number six by that point (dhruvā) and the zenith (ūrdhvā) ; the ‘ lofty ’ (brhatl) sometimes taking the place of the ‘ vertical ’ (ūrdhvā).
dundubhi Apparently an onomatopoetic word, means ‘ drum,’ as used in both war and peace. It is often mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. A special sort of drum was the earth drum,’ made by digging a hole in the ground and covering it with a hide. This was employed in the Mahāvrata, a rite performed at the winter solstice, for the purpose of driving away influences hostile to the return of the sun. A ‘ drum- beater’ is included in the list of sacrificial victims at the Purusamedha or ‘human sacrifice.’
duroṇa Is used in the Rigveda, and sometimes later, to denote ‘ home,’ both literally and metaphorically. See Grha.
durga ‘Hard to approach,’ occurs in the Rigveda as a neuter substantive only, sometimes in the sense of fort, ’stronghold.’ Cf Pur.
devāpi arṣṭiṣeṇa (‘Descendant of Rstisena ’) is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda and in the Nirukta. According to the latter source there were two brothers, Devāpi and Santanu, princes of the Kurus. The elder was Devāpi, but śantanu got himself anointed king, whereupon no rain fell for twelve years. The drought being attributed by the Brahmins to his having superseded his elder brother, Santanu offered the kingdom to Devāpi. The latter, however, refused, but acting as Purohita, or domestic priest, for his brother, obtained rain. The Brhad­devatā tells much the same tale, but adds that the reason for Devapi’s exclusion from the throne was the fact that he suffered from a skin disease. The Epic and later legends further develop the story, presenting two somewhat discrepant accounts. According to the one version, the ground of Devāpi's being passed over was leprosy, while in the other his devoting himself to asceticism in his youth was the cause of his brother’s taking his place. The Epic, moreover, treats him as a son of Pratīpa, and names as his brothers Bāhlīka6 and Arstisena, who is a new figure developed from the patronymic of Devāpi. Possibly Sieg is right in holding that two stories, those of Devāpi, Pratlpa’s son, and of Devāpi, Estisena’s son, have been confused; but in any case it is impossible to extract history from them. The Rigvedic hymn certainly appears to represent Devāpi as sacrificing for Santanu, who seems to be called Aulāna. But there is no trace in it of the brotherhood of the two men, nor is there anything to show that Devāpi was not a Brahmin, but a Ksatriya. Sieg, who interprets the hymn by the Nirukta, thinks that he was a Ksatriya, but on this occasion was enabled by the favour of Brhaspati to officiate as priest, and that the hymn shows clear recognition of the unusual character of his action ; but this view seems very improbable.
droṇa Denotes in the Rigveda a wooden trough,’ and more specifically it designates in the plural vessels used for holding Soma. The great wooden reservoir for Soma is called a Drona-kalaśa. The altar was sometimes made in the form of a Drona.
dhana Prize,’ is often found in the Rigveda, probably the prize in racing rather than the ‘ booty ’ in battle. It also denotes the ‘stake’ at dicing. In some passages it possibly means the ‘contest ’ itself. More generally it denotes ‘ wealth or ‘ gift.’ But it sometimes expresses booty,’ probably from the notion of ‘wealth’ rather than of ‘ prize.’
dhānā Always used in the plural, and frequently referred to in the Rigveda and later, means ‘grains of corn.’ They were sometimes parched (bhrjj), and were regularly mixed with Soma.
dhāman Denotes in the Rigveda and later ‘dwelling’ and house/ or sometimes its inmates. The word is also found in the sense of ordinance,’ law,’ expressing much the same as Dharman, especially in conjunction with Rta, ‘eternal order.’ Hillebrandt sees in one passage the sense of Naksatra.
nakta ‘Night/ is found frequently in the Rigveda, and sometimes later, usually in the adverbial form naktam, ‘by night/
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nārī ‘Woman,’ occurs in the Rigveda and later. The word seems in the Rigveda to have a distinct reference to a woman as a wife, because it occurs in several passages with distinct reference to matrimonial relations, and in the later Vedic literature, where it is not common, it sometimes has that sense. Delbruck, however, thinks that it does not indi­cate marital relations, but merely the woman as the sexual complement of the man.
niveśana Dwelling occurs in the Rigveda and the Sūtras. In the latter the word is sometimes contrasted with Grha as the resting-place of animals.
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
parṇa Denotes the tree Butea froηdosa, later usually called Palāśa. It occurs in the Rigveda in connexion with the Aśvattha, and with that tree as well as the Nyagrodha in the Atharvaveda, which mentions both amulets and the cover of sacrificial dishes as made from its wood. Its use for the making of sacrificial implements like the ladle (juhu), or sacrificial posts, or the small ladle called sruva, is mentioned. The Taittirīya Samhitā ascribes its origin to the loss of a feather by the Gāyatrī when winning the Soma. The tree is also often mentioned elsewhere. Reference too is sometimes made to its bark (parna-valka).
pur Is a word of frequent occurrence in the Rigveda and later, meaning ‘rampart,’ foft,’ or stronghold.’ Such fortifi­cations must have been occasionally of considerable size, as one is called ‘broad’ (prthvī) and ‘wide’ (urvī). Elsewhere a fort made of stone’ (aśmamayī) is mentioned. Sometimes strongholds ‘ of iron ’ (<āyasī) are referred to, but these are probably only metaphorical. A fort full of kine ’ (gomatī) is mentioned, showing that strongholds were used to hold cattle. Autumnal ’ (sāradī) forts are named, apparently as belonging to the Dāsas: this may refer to the forts in that season being occupied against Aryan attacks or against inundations caused by overflowing rivers. Forts ‘with a hundred walls (βata- bhuji) are spoken of. It would probably be a mistake to regard these forts as permanently occupied fortified places like the fortresses of the mediaeval barony. They were probably merely places of refuge against attack, ramparts of hardened earth with palisades and a ditch (cf. Dehī). Pischel and Geldner, however, think that there were towns with wooden walls and ditches (περίβολος and τάφρος) like the Indian town of Pātaliputra known to Megas- thenes and the Pāli texts. This is possible, but hardly susceptible of proof, and it is not without significance that the word Nagara is of late occurrence. On the whole it is hardly likely that in early Vedic times city life was much developed. In the Epic, according to Hopkins, there are found the Nagara, ‘city’; Grāma, ‘village’; and Ghosa, ‘ranch.’ Vedic literature hardly seems to go beyond the village, no doubt with modifications in its later period. The siege of forts, is mentioned in the Samhitās and Brāhmanas. According to the Rigveda, fire was used.
prakṣa Is the form in the Taittirlya Samhitā of the usual name, Plakṣa, of a tree, being merely a phonetic alteration for the sake of the etymology. According to Aufrecht, the same word is found in two passages of the Sāmaveda, the same reading occurring in the Aitareya Aranyaka. Oldenberg, however, questions the correctness of the reading Prakṣa, both in the latter passage and in the Sāmaveda.
pradhana Denotes ‘contest,’ whether the real conflict of war or the competition of the chariot race, in the Rigveda.
praśna Denotes generally enquiry’ or ‘disputed question,’ the phrase praśnam eti having the sense ‘ he asks a person for the decision of a disputed point ’ in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. Thus Praána comes to have the definite meaning of ‘ decision ’ in the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda4 are included the Praśnin, the Abhi-praánin, and the Praśna-vivāka; it is quite likely that here the three parties to a civil case are meant—the plaintiff, the defendant, and the arbitrator or judge (Madhyamaśī).
prāṇa Properly denoting ‘breath,’ is a term of wide and vague significance in Vedic literature. It is frequently men­tioned from the Rigveda onwards; in the Áranyakas and Upanisads it is one of the commonest symbols of the unity of the universe. In the narrow sense Prāṇa denotes one of the vital airs, of which five are usually enumerated—Prāna, Apāna, Vyāna, Udāna, and Samāna; but often only two, Prāna and Apāna, or Prāna and Vyāna, or Prāṇa and Udāna; or three, Prāṇa, Apāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Samāna; or four, Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna, and Samāna, or Prāṇa, Apāna, Udāna, Vyāna. The exact sense of each of these breaths when all are mentioned cannot be determined. Prāṇa is also used in a wider sense to denote the organs of sense, or as Sāyana puts it, the ‘orifices of the head,’ etc. These are given as six in one passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana, presumably the eyes, ears, and nostrils. More frequently there are stated to be seven in the head, the mouth being then included. Sometimes again they are mentioned as nine, or as seven in the head and two below. Ten are counted in the śatapatha Brāhmaria and the Jaiminiya Brāhmana, while even eleven are mentioned in the Kāthaka Upanisad, and twelve in the Kāthaka Samhitā, where the two breasts are added. Exactly what organs are taken to make up the numbers beyond seven is not certain. The tenth is the navel (nābhi) in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā j when eleven are named the Brahma-randhra (suture in the crown) may be included; in the Atharvaveda, as interpreted by the Brhad- āraṇyaka Upaniṣad, the seventh and eighth are the organs of taste and speech respectively. But usually these make one only, and the eighth and ninth are either in the breast or below (the organs of evacuation). The word Prāṇa has sometimes merely the general sense of breath, even when opposed to Apāna. But its proper sense is beyond question ‘ breathing forth,’ ‘ expiration,’ and not as the St. Petersburg Dictionary explains it, ‘ the breath inspired,’ a version due to the desire to interpret Apāna as ‘expiration,’ a meaning suggested by the preposition apa, ‘away.’ This being clearly shown both by the native scholiasts and by other evidence, Bǒhtlingk later accepted the new view.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
magadha Is the name of a people who appear throughout Vedic literature as of little repute. Though the name is not actually found in the Rigveda, it occurs in the Atharvaveda, where fever is wished away to the Gandhāris and Mūjavants, northern peoples, and to the Añgfas and Magadhas, peoples of the east. Again, in the list of victims at the Purusamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda,3 the Māgadha, or man of Magadha, is included as dedicated to ati-krusta, ‘ loud noise ’ (?), while in the Vrātya hymn of the Atharvaveda[1] the Māgadha is said to be connected with the Vrātya as his Mitra, his Mantra, his laughter, and his thunder in the four quarters. In the śrauta Sūtras6 the equipment characteristic of the Vrātya is said to be given, when the latter is admitted into the Aryan Brahminical community, to a bad Brahmin living in Magadha ·(brahma-bandhu Māgadha-deśīya), but this point does not occur in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. On the other hand, respectable Brahmins sometimes lived there, for the Kausītaki Araṇyaka mentions Madhyama, Prātībodhī-putra, as Magadha-vāsin, ‘living in Magadha.’ Oldenberg, however, seems clearly right in regarding this as unusual. The Magadhas are evidently a people in the Baudhāyana and other Sūtras, possibly also in the Aitareya Araṇyaka. It is therefore most improbable that Zimmer can be right in thinking that in the Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda the λlāgadha is not a man of Magadha, but a member of the mixed caste produced by a Vaiśya marrying a Kṣatriya woman. But the theory of mixed castes, in any case open to some doubt, cannot be accepted when used to explain such obviously tribal names as Māgadha. The fact that the Māgadha is often in later times a minstrel is easily accounted for by the assumption that the country was the home of minstrelsy, and that wandering bards from Magadha were apt to visit the more western lands. This class the later texts recognize as a caste, inventing an origin by intermarriage of the old-established castes. The dislike of the Magadhas, which may be Rigvedic, since the Kīkatas were perhaps the prototype of the Magadhas, was in all probability due, as Oldenberg13 thinks, to the fact that the Magadhas were not really Brahminized. This is entirely in accord with the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa14 that neither Kosala nor Videha were fully Brahminized at an early date, much less Magadha. Weber15 suggests two other grounds that may have influeṇced the position—the persistence of aboriginal blood and the growth of Buddhism. The latter consideration is hardly applicable to the Yajurveda or the Atharvaveda; but the imperfect Brahminization of the land, if substituted for it in accordance with Oldenberg’s suggestion, would have some force. The former motive, despite Olden- berg’s doubt, seems fully justified. Pargiter18 has gone so far as to suggest that in Magadha the Aryans met and mingled with a body of invaders from the east by sea. Though there is no evidence for this view in the Vedic texts, it is reason¬able to suppose that the farther east the Aryans penetrated, the less did they impress themselves upon the aborigines. Modern ethnology confirms this a priori supposition in so far as it shows Aryan types growing less and less marked as the eastern part of India is reached, although such evidence is not decisive in view of the great intermixture of peoples in India.
maṇi Is the name in the Rigveda and later of a ‘jewel’ used as an amulet against all kinds of evil. That either ‘pearl’ or ‘diamond’ is denoted is not clear. It is evident that the Maṇi could be strung on a thread (sūtra), which is referred to in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa and elsewhere; the Maṇi was certainly also worn round the neck, for in the Rigveda occurs the epithet mani-grīva, ‘ having a jewel on the neck.’ An amulet of Bilva is celebrated in the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka, and many varieties of amulet are there enumerated. The ‘jeweller’ (mani-kāra) is mentioned in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda.
mantra (From the root man, ‘think’) denotes in the Rigveda and later the ‘hymn’ as the product of the singer’s creative thought. In the Brāhmaηas the word is regularly used of the poetic and prose utterances of the Rṣis, including not merely the verse parts of the Samhitās, but also the prose formulae that betray by their style their special and archaic character.
mahāvṛkṣa A ‘great tree/ is mentioned sometimes in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa and in the Sūtras.
māṃsa ‘Flesh.’ The eating of flesh appears as something quite regular in the Vedic texts, which show no trace of the doctrine of Ahimsā, or abstaining from injury to animals. For example, the ritual offerings of flesh contemplate that the gods will eat it, and again the Brahmins ate the offerings.1 Again, the slaying of a ‘ great ox ’ (mahoksa) or a ‘ great goat ’ (mahāja) for a guest was regularly prescribed ; and the name Atithigva probably means ‘slaying cows for guests.’The great sage Yājñavalkya was wont to eat the meat of milch cows and bullocks (dhenv-anaduha) if only it was amsala (‘ firm ’ or ‘ tender ’).The slaughter of a hundred bulls (uksan) was credited to one sacrificer, Agastya. The marriage ceremony was accompanied by the slaying of oxen, clearly for food. That there was any general objection to the eating of flesh is most improbable. Sometimes it is forbidden, as when a man is performing a vow, or its use is disapproved, as in a passage of the Atharvaveda, where meat is classed with Surā, or intoxicating liquor, as a bad thing. Again, in the Rigveda® the slaying of the cows is said to take place in the Aghās, a deliberate variation for Maghās; but this may be the outcome merely of a natural association of death with gloom, even when cows alone are the victims in question. The Brāhmaṇas also contain the doctrine of the eater in this world being eaten in the next, but this is not to be regarded as a moral or religious disapproval of eating flesh, though it no doubt contains the germ of such a view, which is also in harmony with the persuasion of the unity of existence, which becomes marked in the Brāhmaṇas. But Ahimsā as a developed and articulate doctrine would seem to have arisen from the acceptance of the doctrine of transmigration, which in its fundamentals is later than the Brāhmaṇa period. On the other hand, it is to be noted that the cow was on the road to acquire special sanctity in the Rigveda, as is shown by the name aghnyā, ‘not to be slain,’ applied to it in several passages. But this fact cannot be regarded as showing that meat eating generally was condemned. Apart from mythical considerations, such as the identification of the cow with earth or Aditi (which are, of course, much more than an effort of priestly ingenuity), the value of the cow for other purposes than eating was so great as to account adequately for its sanctity, the beginnings of which can in fact be traced back to Indo-Iranian times. Moreover, the ritual of the cremation of the dead required the slaughter of a cow as an essential part, the flesh being used to envelope the dead body. The usual food of the Vedic Indian, as far as flesh was concerned, can be gathered from the list of sacrificial victims: what man ate he presented to the gods—that is, the sheep, the goat, and the ox. The horse sacrifice was an infrequent exception: it is probably not to be regarded as a trace of the use of horseflesh as food, though the possibility of such being the case cannot be overlooked in view of the widespread use of horseflesh as food in different countries and times. It is, however, more likely that the aim of this sacrifice was to impart magic strength, the speed and vigour of the horse, to the god and his worshippers, as Oldenberg argues.
mātṛ Is the regular word for ‘mother’ from the Rigveda onwards, being a formation probably developed under the influence of an onomatopoetic word tnā, used like Ambā and Nanā. The relations of wife and husband, as well as of mother and children, are treated under Pati. It remains only to add that details are given in the Sūtras of the respectful attention paid to a mother, and of the ceremonies in which she is concerned. The mother also appears interested in the fate of her children as in the story of the sale of śunahśepa for adoption by Viśvāmitra in the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the household the mother ranked after the father (see Pitp). Occasionally mātarā is used for parents,’ as are also pitarā and mātarāpitarā and mātā-pitarah.
māsa Denotes a 'month' a period of time repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and lateṛ The Characteristic days (or rather nights) of the month were those of new moon, Amā-vasya, 'home-staying (night),' and 'of the full moon,' Paurṇa-māsi. Two hymns of the Atharvveda celebrate these days respectively. A personification of the phases of the moon is seen in the four names Sinīvālī the day before new moon; Kuhū also called Guṅgū, the new moon day;Anumati, the day before full moon; and Rākā, the day of new mooṇ The importance of the new and full moon days respectively. One special day in the month, the Ekāṣṭakā, or eighth day after full moon, was importanṭ In the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa there stated to be in the year twelve such, mentioned between the twelve days of full moon and twelve days of new moon. But one Ekāṣṭakā is referred to in the Yajurveda Saṃhitas and elsewhere as of quite special importance. This was, in the accordant opinion of most comentators, the eighth day after the full moon of Magha. It marked the end of the year, or the begining of the new year. Though the Kauṣītaki Brāmaṇa places places the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, the latter date probably means the new moon preceding full moon in Māgha, not the new moon following full moon; but it is perhaps possible to account adequately for the importance of the Ekāstakā as being the first Aṣṭakā after the beginning of the new year. It is not certain exactly how the month was reckoned, whether from the day after new moon to new moon—the system known as amānta, or from the day after full moon to full moon—the pūr- nimānta system, which later, at any rate, was followed in North India, while the other system prevailed in the south. Jacobi argues that the year began in the full moon of Phālguna, and that only by the full moon’s conjunction with the Nakṣatra could the month be known. Oldenberg12 points to the fact that the new moon is far more distinctively an epoch than the full moon; that the Greek, Roman, and Jewish years began with the new moon; and that the Vedic evidence is the division of the month into the former (j>ūrva) and latter (apara) halves, the first being the bright (śukla), the second the dark (krsna) period. Thibaut considers that to assume the existence of the pīirnimānta system for the Veda is unnecessary, though possible. Weber assumes that it occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa as held by the scholiasts. But it would probably be a mistake to press that passage, or to assume that the amānta system was rigidly accepted in the Veda: it seems at least as probable that the month was vaguely regarded as beginning with the new moon day, so that new moon preceded full moon, which was in the middle, not the end or. the beginning of the month. That a month regularly had 30 days is established by the conclusive evidence of numerous passages in which the year is given 12 months and 360 days. This month is known from the earliest records, being both referred to directly and alluded to. It is the regular month of the Brāhmaṇas, and must be regarded as the month which the Vedic Indian recognized. No other month is mentioned as such in• the Brāhmaṇa literature ; it is only in the Sūtras that months of different length occur. The Sāmaveda Sūtras10 refer to (i) years with 324 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each; (2) years with 351 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each, plus another month of 27 days; (3) years with 354 days—i.e., 6 months of 30 days, and 6 with 29 days, in other words, lunar synodic years; (4) years with 360 days, or ordinary civil (sāvana) years; (5) years with 378 days, which, as Thibaut clearly shows, are third years, in which, after two years of 360 days each, 18 days were added to bring about correspondence between the civil year and the solar year of 366 days. But even the Sāmasūtras do not mention the year of 366 days, which is first known to the Jyotiṣa and to Garga. That the Vedic period was acquainted with the year of 354 days cannot be affirmed with certainty. Zimmer, indeed, thinks that it is proved by the fact that pregnancy is estimated at ten months, or sometimes a year. But Weber may be right in holding that the month is the periodic month of 27 days, for the period is otherwise too long if a year is taken. On the other hand, the period of ten months quite well suits the period of gestation, if birth takes place in the tenth month, so that in this sense the month of 30 days may well be meant. The year of 12 months of 30 days each being admittedly quite unscientific, Zimmer23 is strongly of opinion that it was only used with a recognition of the fact that intercalation took place, and that the year formed part of a greater complex, normally the five year Yuga or cycle. This system is well known from the Jyotiṣa: it consists of 62 months of 29£4 days each = 1,830 days (two of these months being intercalary, one in the middle and one at the end), or 61 months of 30 days, or 60 months of 30^ days, the unit being clearly a solar year of 366 days. It is not an ideal system, since the year is too long; but it is one which cannot be claimed even for the Brāhmaṇa period, during which no decision as to the true length of the year seems to have been arrived at. The references to it seen by Zimmer in the Rigveda are not even reasonably plausible, while the pañcaka yuga, cited by him from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, occurs only in a quotation in a commentary, and has no authority for the text itself. On the other hand, there was undoubtedly some attempt to bring the year of 360 days—a synodic lunar year—roughly into connexion with reality. A Sāmasūtra27 treats it as a solar year, stating that the sun perambulates each Naxatra in days, while others again evidently interpolated 18 days every third year, in order to arrive at some equality. But Vedic literature, from the Rigveda downwards,29 teems with the assertion of the difficulty of ascertaining the month. The length is variously given as 30 days, 35 days,31 or 36 days. The last number possibly indicates an intercalation after six years (6x6 = 36, or for ritual purposes 35), but for this we have no special evidence. There are many references to the year having 12 or 13 months. The names of the months are, curiously enough, not at all ancient. The sacrificial texts of the Yajurveda give them in their clearest form where the Agnicayana, ‘building of the fire-altar,’ is described. These names are the following: (1) Madhu, (2) Mādhava (spring months, vāsantikāv rtū); (3) Sukra, (4) Suci (summer months, graismāv rtū); (5) Nabha (or Nabhas), (6) Nabhasya (rainy months, vārsikāv rtū); (7) Iṣa, (8) ūrja (autumn months, śāradāυ rtū); (9) Saha (or Sahas),35 (10) Sahasya (winter months, haimantikāυ rtū); (II) Tapa (or Tapas),35 (12) Tapasya (cool months, śaiśirāv rtū). There are similar lists in the descriptions of the Soma sacrifice and of the horse sacrifice, all of them agreeing in essentials. There are other lists of still more fanciful names, but these have no claim at all to represent actual divisions in popular use. It is doubtful if the list given above is more than a matter of priestly invention. Weber points out that Madhu and Mādhava later appear as names of spring, and that these two are mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka as if actually employed; but the evidence is very inadequate to show that the other names of the months given in the list were in ordinary use. In some of these lists the intercalary month is mentioned. The name given to it in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā is Amhasas- pati, while that given in the Taittirīya and Maitrāyaṇī Sarphitās is Sarpsarpa. The Kāthaka Sarphitā gives it the name of Malimluca, which also occurs elsewhere, along with Samsarpa, in one of the lists of fanciful names. The Atharvaveda describes it as sanisrasa, ‘slipping,’ owing no doubt to its unstable condition. The other method of naming the months is from the Nakçatras. It is only beginning to be used in the Brāhmaṇas, but is found regularly in the Epic and later. The Jyotisa mentions that Māgha and Tapa were identical: this is the fair interpretation of the passage, which also involves the identifica¬tion of Madhu with Caitra, a result corresponding with the view frequently found in the Brāhmanas, that the full moon in Citrā, and not that in Phalgunī, is the beginning of the year. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa are found two curious expressions, yava and ayava, for the light and dark halves of the month, which is clearly considered to begin with the light half. Possibly the words are derived, as Eggling thinks, from yu, ‘ ward off,’ with reference to evil spirits. The word Parvan (‘ joint ’ = division of time) probably denotes a half of the month, perhaps already in the Rigveda. More precisely the first half, the time of the waxing light, is called pūrva-paksa, the second, that of the waning light, apara-paka. Either of these might be called a half-month (ardha-ināsa).
muni Occurs in one hymn of the Rigveda where it seems to denote an ascetic of magic powers with divine afflatus (devesita), the precursor of the strange ascetics of later India* This agrees with the fact that Aitaśa, the Muni, is in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa regarded by his son as deranged, a view not unjustified if the nonsense which passes as the Aitaśapralāpa, ‘ Chatter of Aitaśa,’ was really his. The Rigveda calls Indra the ‘ friend of Munis,’ and the Atharvaveda refers to a ‘ divine Muni ’ (deva muni), by whom a similar ascetic may be meant. In the Upaniṣads6 the Muni is of a more restrained type: he is one who learns the nature of the Brahman, the Absolute, by study, or sacrifice, or penance, or fasting, or faith (:śraddha). It must not of course be thought that there is any absolute distinction between the older Muni and the later: in both cases the man is in a peculiar ecstatic condition, but the ideal of the Upaniṣads is less material than the earlier picture of the Muni, who is more of a ‘ medicine man ’ than a sage. Nor would it be wise to conclude from the comparative rareness of the mention of the Muni in the Vedic texts that he was an infrequent figure in Vedic times: he was probably not approved by the priests who followed the ritual, and whose views were essentially different from the ideals of a Muni, which were superior to earthly considerations, such as the desire for children and Dakṣiṇās.
mṛga Has the generic sense of ‘wild beast’ in the Rigveda and later. Sometimes it is qualified by the epithet terrible’ (bhīma), which indicates that a savage wild beast is meant. Elsewhere the buffalo is shown to be denoted by the epithet maltisa ‘powerful,’ which later becomes the name of the buffalo. More particularly the word has the sense of an animal of the gazelle type. In some passages Roth sees the sense of bird.’ See also Mṛga Hastin, Puruṣa Hastin.
mṛgayu Hunter,’ occurs in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas, but not very often. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, however, in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) include a number of names which seem to be those of persons who make a liveli­hood by fishing or by hunting, such as the Mārgāra, ‘ hunter,’ the Kaivarta or Kevarta, Pauñji§tha, Dāśa, Maināla, * fisher-man,’ and perhaps the Bainda and the Ánda, who seem to have been some sort of fishermen. It is not probable that even in the earliest Vedic period hunting formed the main source of livelihood for any of the Vedic tribes: pastoral pursuits and agriculture (Κṛṣί) were, no doubt, the mainstay of their existence. But it would be unreasonable to suppose that not much hunting was done, both for recreation and for purposes of food, as well as for protection of flocks from wild beasts. The Rigveda is naturally our chief source of information in regard to hunting. The arrow was sometimes employed, but, as is usual with primitive man, the normal instruments of capture were nets and pitfalls. Birds were regularly caught in nets (Pāśa, Nidhā, Jāla ), the bird-catcher being called nidhā-pati, ‘master of snares.’ The net was fastened on pegs (as is done with modern nets for catching birds). Another name of net is apparently Mukṣījā. Pits were used for catching antelopes (Rśya), and so were called rśya-da, ‘antelope-catching.’ Elephants were captured as in Greek times, perhaps through the instrumentality of tame females (see Mpga Hastin). Apparently the boar was captured in the chase, dogs being used, but the passage from which this view is deduced is of uncertain mythological content. There is also an obscure reference to the capture of the buffalo (Gaura), but it is not clear whether the reference is to shooting with an arrow or capturing by means of ropes, perhaps a lasso, or a net. The lion was captured in pitfalls, or was surrounded by the hunters and slain ; one very obscure passage refers to the lion being caught by ambuscade, which perhaps merely alludes to the use of the hidden pit. The modes of catching fish are little known, for the only evidence available are the explanations of the various names mentioned in the Yajurveda. Sāyana18 says that Dhaivara is one who takes fish by netting a tank on either side; Dāśa and śauçkala do so by means of a fish-hook (badiśa); Bainda, Kaivarta, and Maināla by means of a net (jāla); Mārgāra catches fish in the water with his hands; Anda by putting in pegs at a ford (apparently by building a sort of dam); Parṇaka by putting a poisoned leaf on the water. But none of these explanations can claim much authority.
mṛtyu ‘Death,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and later as a thing of terror. There are a hundred and one forms of death, the natural one by old age (jam), and a hundred others, all to be avoided. To die before old age (purā jarasah) is to die before the allotted span (purā āy«sa#),β the normal length of life being throughout Vedic literature spoken of as a hundred years. On the other hand, the evils of old age in the loss of physical strength were clearly realized : one of the feats of the Aśvins was to restore old Cyavāna to his former youth and powers, and another was the rejuvenation of Kali. The Atharvaveda is full of charms of all sorts to avert death and secure length of years (āytisya). The modes of disposing of the dead were burial and cremation (see Ag’nidag’dha). Both existed in the early Vedic period, as in Greece; but the former method was on the whole less favoured, and tended to be regarded with disapproval. The bones of the dead, whether burned or not, were marked by the erection of a tumulus (śmaáāna): the śatapatha Brāhmana preserves traces of strong differences of opinion as to the mode in which these tumuli should be constructed. There is little or no trace of the custom common in northern lands of sending the dead man to sea in a burning ship: the reference to a ship seems to point to mythical perils after death, not to the mode of burial. The life after death was to the Vedic Indian a repetition of the life in this world. He passed into the next world sarυa- tanuh sūñgah, ‘ with whole body and all his members,’ enjoying there the same pleasures as he had enjoyed on earth. Even in the Rigveda there are hints of evil awaiting evil-doers, but it is not until the Atharvaveda and the Brāhmaṇas that a hell of punishment is set out, and it is in the Brāhmaṇas that good and evil deeds are said to produce happiness or hell hereafter. But there is no hint of extinction in the Rigveda as the fate of the wicked, as Roth inclined to think. The Vedic poet not being deeply moral, his verses do not convey, as would those of a man convinced of sin, warnings of future judgment.
ratha in the Rigveda and later denotes ‘chariot’ as opposed to Anas, ‘cart,’ though the distinction is not absolute. Of differences in the structure of the two we have no information, except that the Kha, or nave hole, in the wheel of the chariot was greater than in that of the cart. The chariot has, as a rule, two wheels (Cakra), to which reference is frequently made. The wheel consisted of a rim (Pavi), a felly (Pradhi), spokes (Ara), and a nave (Nabhya). The rim and the felly together constitute the Nemi. The hole in the nave is called Kha: into it the end of the axle was inserted; but there is some uncertainty whether Ani denotes the extremity of the axle that was inserted in the nave, or the lynch-pin used to keep that extremity in the wheel. Sometimes a solid wheel was used. The axle (Akṣa) was, in some cases, made of Araψu. wood; round its ends the wheels revolved. To the axle was attached the body of the chariot (Kośa). This part is also denoted by the word Vandhura, which more precisely means the ‘ seat ’ of the chariot. The epithet tri-vandhura is used of the chariot of the Aśvins, seemingly to correspond with another of its epithets, tri-cakra: perhaps, as Weber thinks, a chariot with three seats and three wheels was a real form of vehicle; but Zimmer considers that the vehicle was purely mythical. Garta also denotes the seat of the warrior. At right angles to the axle was the pole of the chariot (īçā, Praiiga). Normally there was, it seems, one pole, on either side of which the horses were harnessed, a yoke (Yuga) being laid across their necks; the pole was passed through the hole in the yoke (called Kha or Tardman ), the yoke and the pole then being tied together. The horses were tied by the neck (grīva), where the yoke was placed, and also at the shoulder, presumably by traces fastened to a bar of wood at right angles to the pole, or fastened to the ends of the pole, if that is to be regarded, as it probably should, as of triangular shape, wide at the foot and coming to a point at the tip. The traces seem to be denoted by Raśmi and Raśanā. These words also denote the ‘ reins,’ which were fastened to the bit (perhaps śiprū) in the horse’s mouth. The driver controlled the horses by reins, and urged them on with a whip (Kaśā). The girths of the horse were called Kakṣyā. The normal number of horses seems to have been two, but three or four10 were often used. It is uncertain whether, in these cases, the extra horse was attached in front or at the side; possibly both modes were in use. Even five steeds could be employed. Horses were normally used for chariots, but the ass (gardabha) or mule (aśvatarī) are also mentioned. The ox was employed for drawing carts, and in fact derived its name, Anadvāh, from this use. Sometimes a poor man had to be content with a single steed, which then ran between two shafts. In the chariot the driver stood on the right, while the warrior was on the left, as indicated by his name, Savyeṣtha or Savyaṣhā. He could also sit when he wanted, for the chariot had seats, and an archer would naturally prefer to sit while shooting his arrows. The dimensions of the chariot are given in the śulba Sūtra of Apastamba at Angulis (finger-breadths) for the pole, for the axle, and 86 for the yoke. The material used in its construction was wood, except for the rim of the wheel. Many other parts of the chariot are mentioned, their names being often obscure in meaning: see Añka, Nyanka, Uddhi, Paksas, Pātalya, Bhurij, Rathopastha, Rathavāhana.
raśanā Means generally ‘cord’ or ‘rope.’ In the Rigveda the word ofter refers to various fastenings of a horse. In one passage the expression śīrsanyā raśanā, ‘head rope,’ perhaps means not so much ‘reins’ as ‘headstall.’ In others the sense of ‘ traces ’ seems certain, though sometimes ‘ reins ’ or ‘ traces ’ may equally well be intended. Elsewhere the more general sense of ‘ rope ’ for stening is meant.
rājan King,' is a term repeatedly occuring in the rigveda and the later literature. It is quite clear that the normal, though not universal form of government, in early India was that by kings, as might be expected in view of the fact that the Āryan Indian were invaders in a hostile territory : a situation which, as in the case of Ārayan invaders of Greece and German invaders of England, resulted almost necessarily in strengthening the monarchic element of the constitution. The mere patriarchal organization of society is not sufficient, as Zimmer assumes, to explain the Vedic kingship. Tenure of Monarchy.—Zimmer is of opinion that while the Vedic monarchy was sometimes hereditary, as is indeed shown by several cases where the descent can be traced,® yet in others the monarchy was elective, though it is not clear whether the selection by the people was between the members of the royal family only or extended to members of all the noble clans. It must, however, be admitted that the evidence for the elective monarchy is not strong. As Geldner argues, all the passages cited can be regarded not as choice by the cantons (Viś), but as acceptance by the subjects (viś): this seems the more prob¬able sense. Of course this is no proof that the monarchy was not sometimes elective: the practice of selecting one member of the family to the exclusion of another less well qualified is exemplified by the legend in Yāska of the Kuru brothers, Devāpi and śantanu, the value of which, as evidence of contemporary views, is not seriously affected by the legend itself being of dubious character and validity. Royal power was clearly insecure: there are several references to kings being expelled from their realms, and their efforts to recover their sovereignty, and the Atharvaveda contains spells in the interest of royalty. The King in War.—Naturally the Vedic texts, after the Rigveda, contain few notices of the warlike adventures that no doubt formed a very considerable proportion of the royal functions. But the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa contains the statement that the Kuru-Pañcāla kings, who, like the Brahmins of those tribes, stand as representatives of good form, used to make their raids in the dewy season. The word Udāja, too, with its variant Nirāja, records that kings took a share of the booty of war. The Rigveda13 has many references to Vedic wars: it is clear that the Kṣatriyas were at least as intent on fulfilling their duty of war as the Brahmins on sacrificing and their other functions. Moreover, beside offensive war, defence was a chief duty of the king: he is emphatically the ‘ protector of the tribe* (gopā janasya), or, as is said in the Rājasūya (‘royal consecration’), ‘protector of the Brahmin.’14 His Purohita was expected to use his spells and charms to secure the success of his king’s arms. The king no doubt fought in person: so Pratardana met death in war according to the Kausītaki Upanisad;16 and in the Rājasūya the king is invoked as ‘sacker of cities’ (purāψ bhettā). The King in Peace.—In return for his warlike services the king received the obedience—sometimes forced—of the people, and in particular their contributions for the maintenance of royalty. The king is regularly regarded as ‘ devouring the people,’ but this phrase must not be explained as meaning that he necessarily oppressed them. It obviously has its origin in a custom by which the king and his retinue were fed by the people’s contributions, a plan with many parallels. It is also probable that the king could assign the royal right of mainten¬ance to a Ksatriya, thus developing a nobility supported by the people. Taxation would not normally fall on Kṣatriya or Brahmin; the texts contain emphatic assertions of the exemption of the goods of the latter from the royal bounty. In the people, however, lay the strength of the king. See also Bali. In return the king performed the duties of judge. Himself immune from punishment (a-daiidya), he wields the rod of punishment (Daṇda). It is probable that criminal justice remained largely in his actual administration, for the Sūtras preserve clear traces of the personal exercise of royal criminal jurisdiction. Possibly the jurisdiction could be exercised by a royal officer, or even by a delegate, for a Rājanya is mentioned as an overseer (adhyaksa) of the punishment of a śūdra in the Kāthaka Samhitā. In civil justice it may be that the king played a much less prominent part, save as a court of final appeal, but evidence is lacking on this head. The Madhyamaśi of the Rigveda was probably not a royal, but a private judge or arbitrator. A wide criminal jurisdiction is, however, to some extent supported by the frequent mention of Varuna’s spies, for Varuṇa is the divine counterpart of the human king. Possibly such spies could be used in' war also. There is no reference in early Vedic literature to the exercise of legislative activity by the king, though later it is an essential part of his duties. Nor can we say exactly what executive functions devolved on the king. In all his acts the king was regularly advised by his Purohita ; he also had the advantage of the advice of the royal ministers and attendants (see Ratnin). The local administration was entrusted to the Grāmartī, or village chief, who may have been selected or appointed by the'king. The outward signs of the king’s rank were his palace and his brilliant dress. The King as Landowner.—The position of the king with regard to the land is somewhat obscure. The Greek notices,30 in which, unhappily, it would be dangerous to put much trust, since they were collected by observers who were probably little used to accurate investigations of such matters, and whose statements wore based on inadequate information, vary in their statements. In part they speak of rent being paid, and declare that only the king and no private person could own land, while in part they refer to the taxation of land. Hopkins is strongly of opinion that the payments made were paid for protection —i.e., in modern terminology as a tax, but that the king was recognized as the owner of all the land, while yet the individual or the joint family also owned the land. As against Baden- Powell, who asserted that the idea of the king as a landowner was later, he urges for the Vedic period that the king, as we have seen, is described as devouring the people, and that, according to the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Vaiśya can be devoured at will and maltreated (but, unlike the śūdra, not killed); and for the period of the legal Sūtras and śāstras he cites Bṛhaspati and Nārada as clearly recognizing the king’s overlordship, besides a passage of the Mānava Dharma Sāstra which describes the king as ‘lord of all a phrase which Būhler35 was inclined to interpret as a proof of landowning. The evidence is, however, inadequate to prove what is sought. It is not denied that gradually the king came to be vaguely con¬ceived—as the English king still is—as lord of all the land in a proprietorial sense, but it is far more probable that such an idea was only a gradual development than that it was primitive. The power of devouring the people is a political power, not a right of ownership; precisely the same feature can be traced in South Africa,3® where the chief can deprive a man arbitrarily of his land, though the land is really owned by the native. The matter is ultimately to some extent one of terminology, but the parallel cases are in favour of distinguishing between the political rights of the crown, which can be transferred by way of a grant, and the rights of ownership. Hopkins37 thinks that the gifts of land to priests, which seems to be the first sign of land transactions in the Brāhmaṇas, was an actual gift of land; it may have been so in many cases, but it may easily also have been the grant of a superiority : the Epic grants are hardly decisive one way or the other. For the relations of the king with the assembly, see Sabhā ; for his consecration, see Rājasūya. A rāja-tā, lack of a king,’ means‘anarchy.’
lokā Denotes ‘world’ in the Rigveda and later. Mention is often made of the three worlds, and ayaṃ lokaḥ, ‘this world, is constantly opposed to asau lokaḥ,‘yonder world’ —i.e., ‘heaven.’ Loka itself sometimes means ‘heaven, while in other passages several different sorts of world are mentioned.
vadhryaśva ‘Having castrated horses,’ is the name in the Rigveda1 of a prince, the father of Divodāsa, and an energetic supporter of the fire cult, as was his son after him. He is mentioned in a long list of names in the Atharvaveda.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vasiṣṭha Is the name of one of the most prominent priestly figures of Vedic tradition. The seventh Maṇdala of the Rigveda is ascribed to him ; this ascription is borne out by the fact that the Vasisthas and Vasistha are frequently mentioned in that Maṇdala, besides being sometimes referred to elsewhere. That by the name Vasiṣçha a definite individual is always meant is most improbable, as Oldenberg shows; Vasiṣtha must normally mean simply ‘ a Vasiṣtfia.’ But it is not necessary to deny that a real Vasiṣtha existed, for one hymn seems to show clear traces of his authorship, and of his assist­ance to Sudās against the ten kings. The most important feature of Vasiṣtha’s life was apparently his hostility to Viśvāmitra. The latter was certainly at one time the Purohita (‘ domestic priest ’) of Sudās, but he seems to have been deposed from that post, to have joined Sudās’ enemies, and to have taken part in the onslaught of the kings against him, for the hymn of Sudās’ triumph has clear references to the ruin Viśvāmitra brought on his allies. Oldenberg, however, holds that the strife of Viśvāmitra and Vasistha is not to be found in the Rigveda. On the other hand, Geldner is hardly right in finding in the Rigveda a compressed account indicating the rivalry of śakti, Vasiṣṭha’s son, with Viśvāmitra, the acquisition by Viśvāmitra of special skill in speech, and the revenge of Viśvāmitra, who secured the death of śakti by Sudās’ servants, an account which is more fully related by Sadguruśiṣya, which appeared in the śātyāya- naka, and to which reference seems to be made in the brief notices of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa regarding Vasiṣtha's sons having been slain, and his overcoming the Saudāsas. But it is important to note that no mention is made in these authorities of Sudās himself being actually opposed to Vasistha, while in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa Vasiṣtha appears as the Purohita and consecrator of Sudās Paijavana. Yāska recognizes Viśvāmitra as the Purohita of Sudās; this accords with what seems to have been the fact that Viśvāmitra originally held the post. Probably, however, with the disappearance of Sudās, Viśvāmitra recovered his position, whereupon Vasiṣtha in revenge for the murder of his sons secured in some way unspecified the defeat of the Saudāsas. At any rate it is hardly necessary to suppose that the enmity of the Saudāsas and Vasiṣthas was permanent. There is evidence that the Bharatas had the Vasisthas as Purohitas, while other versions regard them as Purohitas for people (prajāh) generally. It seems that the Vasiṣthas were pioneers in adopting the rule that Purohitas should act as Brahman priest at the sacrifice: the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa states that the Vasiṣthas were once the only priests to act as Brahmans, but that later any priest could serve as such. A rivalry with Jamadgni and Viśvāmitra is reported in the Taittirīya Samhitā. Parāśara and śatayātu are associated with Vasiṣtha in the Rigveda, being apparently, as Geldner thinks, the grandson and a son of Vasiṣtha. According to Pischel, in another hymn, Vasiṣtha appears as attempting to steal the goods of his father Varuṇa; Geldner also shows that the Rigveda contains a clear reference to Vasistha’s being a son of Varuṇa and the nymph Urvaśī. Perhaps this explains the fact that the Vasiṣthas are called the Tptsus in one passage of the Rigveda; for being of miraculous parentage, Vasistha would need adoption into a Gotra, that of the princes whom he served, and to whom Agastya seems to have introduced him. There are numerous other references to Vasistha as a Ṛṣi in Vedic literature, in the Sūtras, and in the Epic, where he and Viśvāmitra fight out their rivalry.
vājapeya Is the name of a ceremony which, according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and later authorities, is only per­formed by a Brahmin or a Kṣatriya. The same Brāhmaṇa insists that this sacrifice is superior to the Rājasūya, but the consensus of other authorities assigns to it merely the place of a preliminary to the Bphaspatisava in the case of a priest, and to the Rājasūya in the case of a king, while the śatapatha is compelled to identify the Bṛhaspatisava with the Vājapeya. The essential ceremony is a chariot race in which the sacrificer is victorious. There is evidence in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra® showing that once the festival was one which any Aryan could perform. Hillebrandt, indeed, goes so far as to compare it with the Olympic games; but there is hardly much real ground for this: the rite seems to have been developed round a primitive habit of chariot racing, transformed into a ceremony which by sympathetic magic secures the success of the sacrificer. In fact Eggeling seems correct in holding that the Vājapeya was a preliminary rite performed by a Brahmin prior to his formal installation as a Purohita, or by a king prior to his consecration. The Kuru Vājapeya was specially well known.
vātaraśana ‘Wind-girt,’ is applied to the Munis in the Rigveda and to the Rṣis in the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Naked ascetics, such as are known throughout later Indian religious history, are evidently meant.
vi Rigveda, and sometimes later, denotes ‘bird.’
viś Is an expression of somewhat doubtful significance. In many passages of the Rigveda the sense of ‘settlement’ or ‘dwelling’ is adequate and probable, since the root viś means to enter’ or ‘settle.’ In other passages, where the Viśaḥ stand in relation to a prince, the term must mean ‘subject’; so, for example, when the people of Tṛṇaskanda or of the Trtsus are mentioned. ' Again, in some passages the general sense of ‘ people ’ is adequate; as when the Rigveda speaks of the ‘Aryan people,’ or the ‘divine people,’ or the ‘ Dāsa people,’ and so on. Sometimes, however, the Viś appear in a more special sense as a subdivision of the Jana or whole people. This is, however, not common, for in most passages one or other of the senses given above is quite possible. Moreover, it is very difficult to decide whether the Viś as a subdivision of the Jana is to be considered as being a local subdivision (canton) or a blood kinship equivalent to a clan in the large sense of the word, while the relation of the Viś to the Grāma or to the Gotra is quite uncertain. In one passage of the Atharvaveda the Viśah are mentioned along with the sabandhavah or relatives, but no definite conclusion can be drawn from that fact. Nor does the analogy of the Roman curia or the Greek φpηrpη throw much light, as these institutions are themselves of obscure character, and the parallelism need not be cogent. It is, at any rate, possible that the Viś may in some cases have been no more than a Gotra or clan, or different clans may sometimes have made up a Viś, while Grāma is more definitely, perhaps, a local designation. But the Vedic evidence is quite inconclusive. Cf. Viśpati. In the later period the sense of Viś is definitely restricted in some cases to denote the third of the classes of the Vedic polity, the people or clansmen as opposed to the nobles (Kṣatra, Kṣatriya) and the priests (Brahman, Brāhmaṇa). For the position of this class, see Vaiśya.
vṛksa Is the ordinary term for tree' in the Rigveda and later. In the Atharvaveda it denotes the coffin made from a tree, no doubt by hollowing it out. The Ṣadviṃśa Brāhmaṇa refers to the portent of a tree secreting blood.
vṛtraghna Occurs in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, where in a Gāthā reciting the prowess of Bharata it is said that he bound horses on the Yamunā (Jumna) and Gangū (Ganges) Vrtraghne, which Sāyaṇa renders ‘ at Vṛtraghna,’ as the name of a place. Roth, however, seems right in interpreting the form as a dative, ‘for the slayer of Vṛtra’—i.e., Indra.
vaiśya Denotes a man, not so much of the people, as of the subject class, distinct from the ruling noble (Kṣatriya) and the Brāhmaṇa, the higher strata of the Aryan community on the one side, and from the aboriginal śūdra on the other. The name is first found in the Puruṣa-sūkta (‘ hymn of man ’) in the Rigveda, and then frequently from the Atharvaveda onwards, sometimes in the form of Viśya. The Vaiśya plays singularly little part in Vedic literature, which has much to say of Kṣatriya and Brahmin. His characteristics are admirably summed up in the Aitareya Brāh¬maṇa in the adjectives anyasya bali-krt, ‘tributary to another’; anyasyādya, ‘to be lived upon by another’; and yathakāma- jyeyafr, ‘to be oppressed at will.’ He was unquestionably taxed by the king (Rājan), who no doubt assigned to his retinue the right of support by the people, so that the Kṣatriyas grew more and more to depend on the services rendered to them by the Vaiśyas. But the Vaiśya was not a slave: he could not be killed by the king or anyone else without the slayer incurring risk and the payment of a wergeld (Vaira), which even in the Brahmin books extends to 100 cows for a Vaiśya. Moreover, though the Vaiśya could be expelled by the king at pleasure, he cannot be said to have been without property in his land. Hopkins® thinks it is absurd to suppose that he could really be a landowner when he was subject to removal at will, but this is to ignore the fact that normally the king could not remove the landowner, and that kings were ultimately dependent on the people, as the tales of exiled kings show. On the other hand, Hopkins is clearly right in holding that the Vaiśya was really an agriculturist, and that Vedic society was not merely a landholding aristocracy, superimposed upon an agricultural aboriginal stock, as Baden Powell8 urged. Without ignoring the possibility that the Dravidians were agriculturists, there is no reason to deny that the Aryans were so likewise, and the goad of the plougher was the mark of a Vaiśya in life and in death. It would be absurd to suppose that the Aryan Vaiśyas 'did not engage in industry and com¬merce (cf. Paṇi, Vaṇij), but pastoral pursuits and agriculture must have been their normal occupations. In war the Vaiśyas must have formed the bulk of the force under the Kṣatriya leaders (see Kçatriya). But like the Homeric commoners, the Vaiśyas may well have done little of the serious fighting, being probably ill-provided with either body armour or offensive weapons. That the Vaiśyas were engaged in the intellectual life of the day is unlikely; nor is there any tradition, corresponding to that regarding the Kṣatriyas, of their having taken part in the evolution of the doctrine of Brahman, the great philosophic achievement of the age. The aim of the Vaiśya's ambition was, according to the Taittirīya Samhitā, to become a Grāmariī, or village headman, a post probably conferred by the king on wealthy Vaiśyas, of whom no doubt there were many. It is impossible to say if in Vedic times a Vaiśya could attain to nobility or become a Brahmin. No instance can safely be quoted in support of such a view, though such changes of status may have taken place (see Kṣatriya and Varṇa). It is denied by Fick that the Vaiśyas were ever a caste, and the denial is certainly based on good grounds if it is held that a caste means a body within which marriage is essential, and which follows a hereditary occupation (cf. Varṇa). But it would be wrong to suppose that the term Vaiśya was merely applied by theorists to the people who were not nobles or priests. It must have been an early appellation of a definite class which was separate from the other classes, and properly to be compared with them. Moreover, though there were differences among Vaiśyas, there were equally differences among Kṣatriyas and Brāhmaṇas, and it is impossible to deny the Vaiśyas’ claim to be reckoned a class or caste if the other two are such, though at the present day things are different.
śamitṛ Denotes the ‘man who cuts up ’ the slaughtered animal in the Rigveda and later, sometimes having merely the sense of ‘ cook.’
śarīra ‘Body,’ is a word of frequent occurrence in Vedic literature. The interest of the Vedic Indians seems early to have been attracted to the consideration of questions connected with the anatomy of the body. Thus a hymn of the Atharva­veda enumerates many parts of the body with some approach to accuracy and orderly arrangement. It mentions the heels (pārsnf), the flesh (māmsa), the ankle-bones (gulphau), the fingers (angulīh), the apertures (kha), the two metatarsi (uchlakau), the tarsus (pratisthā), the two knee-caps (astliī- vantau), the two legs {janghe), the two knee-joints (jānunoh sandhī). Then comes above the two knees (jānū) the four­sided (catuçtaya), pliant (śithira) trunk (kabandha). The two hips (śronī) and the two thighs (ūrū) are the props of the frame (ktisindha). Next come the breast-bone (uras), the cervical cartilages (grīvāh), the two breast pieces (stanau), the two shoulder-blades (/kaphodau), the neck-bones (skandhau), and the backbones (prstīh), the collar-bones (amsau), the arms (bāhu), the seven apertures in the head (sapta khāni śīrsani), the ears (karnau), the nostrils (nāsike), the eyes (caksanī), the mouth (mukha), the jaws (hanū), the tongue (jihvā), the brain (mas- tiska), the forehead (lalāta), the facial bone (kakātikā), the cranium (kapāla), and the structure of the jaws (cityā hanvoh). This system presents marked similarities with the later system of Caraka and Suśruta,4 which render certain the names ascribed to the several terms by Hoernle. Kaphodau, which is variously read in the manuscripts,5 is rendered ‘ collar-bone ’ by Whitney, but ‘ elbow ’ in the St. Petersburg Dictionary. Skandha in the plural regularly denotes 'neck-bones,’ or, more precisely, ‘cervical vertebrae,’ a part denoted also by usnihā in the plural. Prsii denotes not * rib,’ which is parśu, but a transverse process of a vertebra, and so the vertebra itself, there being in the truncal portion of the spinal column seventeen vertebrae and thirty-four transverse processes. The vertebrae are also denoted by kīkasā in the plural, which sometimes is limited to the upper portion of the vertebral column, sometimes to the thoracic portion of the spine. Anūka also denotes the vertebral column, or more specially the lumbar or thoracic portion of the spine; it is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa that there are twenty transverse processes in the lumbar spine (udara) and thirty-two in the thoracic, which gives twenty-six vertebrae, the true number (but the modern division is seven cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, and two false—the sacrum and the coccyx). The vertebral column is also denoted by karūkara, which, however, is usually found in the plural denoting the transverse processes of the vertebrae, a sense expressed also by kuntāpa. Grīvā, in the plural, denotes cervical vertebrae, the number seven being given by the Satapatha Brāhmana, but usually the word simply means windpipe, or, more accurately, the cartilaginous rings under the skin. Jatru, also in the plural, denotes the cervical cartilages, or possibly the costal cartilages, which are certainly so called in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where their number is given as eight. Bhamsas, which occurs thrice in the Atharvaveda, seems to denote the pubic bone or arch rather than the ‘buttocks’ or ‘fundament,’ as Whitney takes it. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the number of bones in the the human body is given as 360. The number of the bones of the head and trunk are given in another passage as follows: The head is threefold, consisting of skin (tvac), bone (1asthi), brain (matiska); the neck has 15 bones : 14 transverse processes (karūkara) and the strength (vīrya)—i.e., the bone of the centre regarded as one—as the 15th ; the breast has 17: 16 cervical cartilages (Jatru), and the sternum (uras) as the 17th ; the abdominal portion of the spine has 21 : 20 transverse processes (kimtāpa), and the abdominal portion (udara) as the 21st; the two sides have 27: 26 ribs (parśu), and the two sides as the 27th; the thoracic portion of the spine (anūka) has 33: 32 transverse processes, and the thoracic portion as 33rd. There are several enumerations of the parts of the body, not merely of the skeleton, in the Yajurveda Samhitās. They include the hair (lomāni), skin (tvac), flesh (māinsá), bone (1asthi), marrow (majjan), liver (yakrt), lungs (kloman), kidneys (matasne), gall (pitta), entrails (āntrāni), bowels (gudāh), spleen (ptīhan), navel (nābht), belly (udara), rectum (vanisthu), womb (yoni), penis (plāśi and śepa), face (mukha), head (śiras), tongue (jihvā), mouth (āsan), rump (pāyu), leech (vāla), eye (caksus), eyelashes (paksmāni), eyebrows (utāni), nose (was), breath (iiyāna), nose-hairs (nasyāni), ears (karnau), brows (bhrū), body or trunk (ātman), waist (upastha), hair on the face (śmaśrūni), and on the head (keśāh). Another enumeration gives śiras, mukha, keśāh, śmaśrūni, prāna (breath), caksus, śrotra (ear), jihvā, vāc (speech), manas (mind), arigulik, añgāni (limbs), bāhū, hastau (hands), karnau, ātmā, uras (sternum), prstllj, (vertebrae), udara, amsau, grīvāh, śronī, ūrū, aratnī (elbows), jānūni, nūbhi, pāyu, bhasat (fundament), āndau (testicles), pasas (membrum virile), jañghā, pad (foot), lomāni, tvac, māmsa, asthi, majjan. Another set of names includes vanisthu, purītat (pericardium), lomāni, tvac, lohita (blood), medas (fat), māmsāni, snāvāni (sinews), asthīni, majjānah, ret as (semen), pāyu, kośya (flesh near the heart), pārśvya (intercostal flesh), etc. The bones of the skeleton of the horse are enumerated in the Yajurveda Samhitās. In the Aitareya Araṇyaka the human body is regarded as made up of one hundred and one items ; there are four parts, each of twenty-five members, with the trunk as one hundred and first. In the two upper parts there are five four-jointed fingers, two kakçasī (of uncertain meaning), the arm (dos), the collar-bone (akça), and the shoulder-blade (artisa-phalaka). In the two lower portions there are five four-jointed toes, the thigh, the leg, and three articulations, according to Sāyaṇa’s commentary. The śānkhāyana Araṇyaka enumerates three bones in the head, three joints (parvāni) in the neck, the collar-bone {akṣa), three joints in the fingers, and twenty-one transverse processes in the spine (anūka).sg The Maitrāyaṇī Samhitā enumerates four constituents in the head {prāna, caksns, śrotra, vāc), but there are many variations, the number going up to twelve on one calculation. In the Taittirīya Upaniṣad an enumeration is given consisting of carma (skin), māinsa, snāvan, asthi, and majjan; the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has lomāni, mānμa, tvac, asthi, majjan, and the Aitareya Araṇyaka couples majjānah, snāvāni, and asthīni. Other terms relating to the body are kañkūsa, perhaps a part of the ear, yoni (female organ), kaksa (armpit), Danta (tooth), nakha (nail), prapada (forepart of the foot), hallks'tia (gall).
śaru Denotes in the Rigveda and Atharvaveda a missile weapon, often certainly an ‘arrow,’ but perhaps sometimes a ‘dart’ or ‘spear.’
śiṃśumāra Is the name of an aquatic creature in the Rigveda and the later Samhitās. It is either the ‘crocodile,’ the ‘alligator,’ or the ‘porpoise’ (Delphinus Gangeticiis).
śūrpa In the Atharvaveda and later denotes a wickerv/ork basket for winnowing grain. It is called varṣa-vγddha, ‘swollen by rain,’ in the Atharvaveda, which shows, as Zimmer says, that it was sometimes made of reeds, not of dry wood.
śmaśru In the Rigveda and later means ‘beard’ and ‘ moustache,’ being sometimes contrasted with Keśa, hair of the head.’ Shaving was known (see Vaptp and Kṣura). The wearing of a beard was a sign of manhood according to the Taittirīya Saṇihitā, with which agrees the notice of Mega- sthenes that the Indians carefully tended their beards up to the day of their death.
śramaṇa ‘mendicant monk,’ is first found in the Upaniṣads. According to Fick, anyone could become a śramaṇa. For the time of Megasthenes this seems indicated by his evidence, which, however, refers only to the east of India, beyond the Madhyadeśa proper. The Vedic evidence is merely the name and the fact that Tāpasa, ‘ascetic,’ follows it in the Brhad­āraṇyaka Upaniṣad and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
saṃvatsara ‘Year,’ is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Its duration was, according to the concurrent evidence of the Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, 360 days, divided into months, being, no doubt, roughly a lunar synodic year, which, however, it exceeded in length by days. As a solar year it appears only in the Nidāna Sūtra of the Sāmaveda, where the sun is stated to spend days in each of the Nakṣatras. The year being obviously out of harmony with the solar year (whether sidereal or tropical), efforts were certainly made to effect an assimilation of the natural and the accepted year. As has been seen (see Māsa), the evidence goes strongly to show that the intercalation was not an easy matter in the Brāh¬maṇa period, though there are traces of what may be re¬garded as a five-yearly or six-yearly intercalation. But there is no conclusive evidence that these periods were really observed. Zimmer,4 indeed, considers that the evidence required is afforded by the lists of the years, which are sometimes enumerated as five : Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Idvatsara, and Vatsara ;δ or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Iduvatsara, Vatsara;® or Samvatsara, Idāvatsara, Iduvat- sara, Idvatsara, Vatsara;7 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Anuvatsara, Udvatsara;8 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Anuvatsara, Idvatsara.9 But it must be noted not merely that the names vary considerably, but that four only are mentioned in some places,10 in others11 three, in others12 two, and in yet others13 six. Moreover, in none of these enumera¬tions is there any reference to the names being connected with a system of intercalation. It is most probable that here we have no more that a mere series of priestly variations of Vatsara, based on the older and more genuine Saipvatsara and Parivatsara as variants of the simple Vatsara, ‘year.’ The key to the invention of the series is probably to be found in passages like that of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, where the several Cāturmāsya ( four-monthly ’) sacrifices are equated with the different years. Particularly unjustifiable is the attempt of Zimmer to see in the two-year series a series of two years of 354 days each, with an intercalary month in the second; for the year of 354 days, as such, is not known to have existed before the Sūtra period. Zimmer ® also finds an attempt at intercalation in the famous 12 days in which the Rbhus are said to have slept in the house of Agohya. He thinks that they represent twelve days added at the winter solstice to equate the lunar year of 354 days and the solar year of 366 days ; and from the rever¬ence paid in German antiquity to the ‘ 12 nights,’ he infers that this mode of intercalation is Indo-Germanic. There can be little doubt that this view is wrong, and that the 12 days are merely the ' reflexion of the year ’ (samvatsarasya pratima) in the sense that they represent the twelve months, and have no relation to chronology at all. A reference to the use of Samvatsara alone as the fifth year of the cycle is seen by Shamasastry in the peculiar dating of certain notices in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra, but this view is improbable.
sabhā Is the name of an ‘ assembly ’ of the Vedic Indians as well as of the ‘hall’ where they met in assembly. It is often mentioned in the Rigveda and later, but its exact character is not certain. The hall was clearly used for dicing presumably when the assembly was not transacting public business: a dicer is called sabhā-sthānu, ‘pillar of the assembly hall,’ doubt­less because of his constant presence there. The hall also served, like the Homeric Xecrχη, as a meeting-place for social intercourse and general conversation about cows and so forth, possibly for debates and verbal contests. According to Ludwig, the Sabhā was an assembly not of all the people, but of the Brahmins and Maghavans (‘ rich patrons ’). This view can be supported by the expressions sabheya, ‘ worthy of the assembly,’ applied to a Brahmin,8 rayih sabhāvātt, ‘wealth fitting for the assembly,’ and so on. But Bloomfield plausibly sees in these passages a domestic use of Sabhā, which is recognized by the St. Petersburg Dictionary in several passages11 as relating to a house, not to the assembly at all. Zimmer is satisfied that the Sabhā was the meeting- place of the village council, presided over by the Grāmaṇī. But of this there is no trace whatever. Hillebrandt seems right in maintaining that the Sabhā and the Sāmiti cannot be distinguished, and that the reference to well-born (su-jāta) men being there in session is to the Aryan as opposed to the Dāsa or Sūdra, not to one class of Aryan as opposed to the other. Hillebrandt also sees in Agni ‘ of the hall ’ (sabhya) a trace of the fire used in sacrifice on behalf of the assembly when it met. Women did not go to the Sabhā, for they were, of course, excluded from political activity. For the Sabhā as a courthouse, cf. Grāmyavādin. There is not a single notice of the work done by the Sabhā.
sabhāsad ‘Sitter in the assembly,’ is probably a technical description of the assessors who decided legal cases in the assembly (cf. Sabhācara). The term, which is found in the Atharvaveda and later, cannot well merely denote any member of the assembly. It is also possible that the Sabhāsads, perhaps the heads of families, were expected to be present at the Sabhā oftener than the ordinary man: the meetings of the assembly for justice may have been more frequent than for general discus­sion and decision.
samiti Denotes an ‘assembly’ of the Vedic tribe. It is alreadv mentioned in the Rigveda, and often later, sometimes in connexion with Sabhā. Ludwig considers that the Samiti included all the people, primarily the viśafy, 'subjects,' but also the Mag’havans and Brahmins if they desired, though the Sabhā was their special assembly. This view is not probable, nor is that of Zimmer, that the Sabhā was the village assembly. Hillebrandt appears to be right in holding that Samiti and Sabhā are much the same, the one being the assembly, the other primarily the place of assembly. The king went to the assembly just as he went to the Sabhā. That he was elected there, as Zimmer thinks, is as uncertain as whether he was elected at all (see Rājan). But there are clear signs that concord between king and assembly were essential for his prosperity. It is reasonable to assume that the business of the assembly was general deliberation on policy of all kinds, legislation so far as the Vedic Indian cared to legislate, and judicial work (cf. Sabhāsad). But of all these occupations there is, perhaps as a result of the nature of the texts, little or no evidence directly available.The gods had a Samiti, hence called daivī, ‘divine,’ just as they had a Sabhā. The assembly disappears as an effective part of government in the Buddhist texts, the Epic, and the law-books.
surā Is the name of an intoxicating ‘ spirituous liquor,’ often mentioned in Vedic literature. In some passages it is referred to favourably, in others with decided disapproval. It is classed with the use of meat and with dicing as an evil in the Atharvaveda, and often with dicing. It was, as opposed to Soma, essentially a drink of ordinary life. It was the drink of men in the Sabhā, and gave rise to broils. Its exact nature is not certain. It may have been a strong spirit prepared from fermented grains and plants, as Eggeling holds, or, as Whitney thought, a kind of beer or ale. Geldner renders it * brandy.’ It is sometimes mentioned in connexion with Madhu. It was kept in skins.
sūkara ‘Wild boar,’ has the appearance of being an onomato- poetic word (‘making the sound sū’)\ it is more probably a very old word going back to the Indo-European period, and cognate with the Latin su-culus (‘little pig’), being transformed in sense by popular etymology. It occurs in the Rigveda and later. It appears once in the Atharvaveda accompanied by ntrga, the combined words apparently meaning ‘ wild hog, as opposed to Varāha, ‘ boar.’
soma Was the famous plant which was used for the prepara­tion of the libation of Soma made at the Vedic sacrifice. Its importance is sufficiently shown by the fact that the whole of the ninth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, and six hymns in other Maṇdalas, are devoted to its praise. Nevertheless, little is actually known of the plant. Its twigs or shoots are described as brown (babhru), ruddy (aruna), or tawny (hari).s Possibly its twigs hang down if the epithet Naicāśākha refers to the plant as Hillebrandt thinks. The shoot is called amśu, while the plant as a whole is called andhas, which also denotes the juice. Parvan is the stem. Kξip, ‘finger,’ is used as a designation of the shoots, which may therefore have resembled fingers in shape; vaksanā and vāna also seem to have the sense of the shoot. There is some slight evidence to suggest that the stem was not round, but angular. The plant grew on the mountains, that of Mūjavant being specially renowned. These notices are inadequate to identify the plant. It has been held to be the Sarcostemma viminalc or the Asclepias acida (Sarcostemma brevistigma). Roth held that the Sarcostemma acidiim more nearly met the requirements of the case. Watt suggested the Afghan grape as the real Soma, and Rice thought a sugar-cane might be meant, while Max Mūller and Rājendralāla Mitra suggested that the juice was used as an ingredient in a kind of beer—i.e., that the Soma plant was a species of hop. Hillebrandt considers that neither hops nor the grape can explain the references to Soma. It is very probable that the plant cannot now be identified. In the Yajurveda the plant is purchased ere it is pressed. Hillebrandt considers that the sale must be assumed for the Rigveda. It grew on a mountain, and could not be obtained by ordinary people: perhaps some special tribe or prince owned it, like the Kīkatas. As it stands, the ritual performance is clearly an acquisition of the Soma from the Gandharvas (represented by a śūdra), a ritual imitation of the action which may have been one of the sources of the drama. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining the real plant from a great distance, several substitutes were allowed in the Brāhmaṇa period. The plant was prepared for use by being pounded with stones or in a mortar. The former was the normal method of pro¬cedure, appearing in the Rigveda as the usual one. The stones are called grāvan or αdn, and were, of course, held in the hands. The plant was laid on boards one beside the other (Adhiṣavana), and, according at least to the later ritual, a hole was dug below, so that the pounding of the plant by means of the stones resulted in a loud noise, doubtless a prophylactic against demoniac influences. The plant was placed on a skin and on the Vedi—-which was no longer done in the later ritual—Dhiṣaṇā in some passages denoting the Vedi. Sometimes the mortar and pestle were used in place of the stones. This use, though Iranian, was apparently not common in Vedic times. Camū denotes the vessel used for the offering to the god, Kalaśa and Camasa those used for the priests to drink from. Sometimes the Camū denotes the mortar and pestle. Perhaps the vessel was so called because of its mortar-like shape. The skin on which the shoots were placed was called Tvac, or twice go (‘cow-hide). Kośa, Sadhastha, Dru, Vana, Droṇa, are all terms used for Soma vessels, while Sruva denotes the ladle.’ Apparently the plant was sometimes steeped in water to increase its yield of juice. It is not possible to describe exactly the details of the process of pressing the Soma as practised in the Rigveda. It was certainly purified by being pressed through a sieve (Pavitra). The Soma was then used unmixed (βukra, śuci) for Indra and Vāyu, but the Kanvas seem to have dropped this usage. The juice is described as brown (babhru)," tawny (hart), or ruddy (aruna), and as having a fragrant smell, at least as a rule. Soma was mixed with milk (Gavāśir), curd or sour milk (Dadhyāśir), or grain (Yavāśir). The admixtures are alluded to with various figurative expressions, as Atka, ‘ armour ’j Vastra or Vāsas, 'garment'; Abhiśrī, 'admixturerūpa, ‘beautyJ; śrl, ‘splendour’; rasa, ‘flavour’; prayas, ‘ dainty ’; and perhaps nabhas, ‘ fragrance.’ The adjective tīvra denotes the ‘ pungent ’ flavour of Soma when so mixed. The Soma shoots, after the juice has been pressed out, are denoted by rjīsa, ‘residue.’ It seems probable that in some cases honey was mixed with Soma: perhaps the kośa madhti-ścut, ' the pail distilling sweetness,’ was used for the mixing. It seems doubtful if Surā was ever so mixed. There were three pressings a day of Soma, as opposed to the two of the Avesta. The evening pressing was specially connected with the Rbhus, the midday with Indra, the morning with Agni, but the ritual shows that many other gods also had their share. The drinker of Soma and the nondrinker are sharply discriminated in the texts. Localities where Soma was consumed were Árjīka, Pastyāvant, śaryaṇāvant, Suṣomā, the territory of the Pañcajanāh or ‘five peoples,’ and so on. The effects of Soma in exhilarating and exciting the drinkers are often alluded to. It is difficult to decide if Soma was ever a popular, as opposed to a hieratic drink. The evidence for its actual popularity is very slight, and not decisive.
svādhyāya (‘Reciting to oneself’) in the Brāhmaṇas denotes the study or repetition of the Vedic texts. The Sūtras give rules for it in great detail. Cf Brāhmaṇa.
hiraṇya In the Rigveda and later denotes ‘gold.’ It is hardly possible to exaggerate the value attached to gold by the Vedic Indians. The metal was, it is clear, won from the bed of rivers. Hence the Indus is called ‘golden’ and ‘of golden stream.’ Apparently the extraction of gold from the earth was known, and washing for gold is also recorded. Gold is the object of the wishes of the Vedic singer, and golden treasures (hiranyāni) are mentioned as given by patrons along with cows and horses. Gold was used for ornaments for neck and breast (Niska), for ear-rings (Karṇa-śobhana), and even for cups. Gold is always associated with the gods. In the plural Hiraṇya denotes ‘ornaments of gold.’11 A gold currency was evidently beginning to be known in so far as definite weights of gold are mentioned: thus a weight, astā-prīīd, occurs in the Samhitās and the golden śatamāna, ‘ weight of a hundred (Kpçṇalas) ’ is found in the same texts. In several passages, moreover, hiranya or hiranyāni may mean ‘ pieces of gold.’ Gold is described sometimes as harita, ‘yellowish,’ some¬times as rajata,ls 'whitish,' when probably ‘ silver ’ is alluded to. It was obtained from the ore by smelting. Mega- sthenes bears testimony to the richness in gold of India in his time.
hemanta ‘Winter,’ occurs only once in the Rigveda, but often in the later texts. Zimmer is inclined to trace differences of climate in the Rigveda: he thinks that certain hymns, which ignore winter and insist on the rains, indicate a different place and time of origin from those which refer to the snowy mountains. It is, however, quite impossible to separate parts of the Rigveda on this basis. It is probable that that text owes its composition in the main to residents in the later Madhyadeśa; hence the references to cold and snow are rather a sign of local than of temporal differences. It is otherwise with the later expansion of the three into four seasons, which represents clearly the earlier advance of the Indians (see Rtu). The śatapatha Brāhmana describes winter as the time when the plants wither, "the leaves fall from the trees, the birds fly low and retire more and more.
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eti pra hotā vratam asya māyayā RV.1.144.1a; KB.20.2. P: eti pra hotā śś.6.4.11; 11.4.13; 14.56.5.
eti prācī viśvavārā namobhiḥ RV.5.28.1c.
eti priyaṃ varuṇayor adabdham RV.6.51.1b.
eti preti vīti sam ity ud iti TB.; TA.4.19.1.
eti saumanaso bahuḥ HG.1.29.1b. See yeṣu saumanaso.
aceti ketur uṣasaḥ purastāt # RV.7.67.2c.
aceti citrā vi duro na āvaḥ # RV.1.113.4b.
aceti dasrā vy u nākam ṛṇvathaḥ # RV.1.139.4a.
aceti divo duhitā maghonī # RV.7.78.4a.
aceti prāsahas patis tuviṣmān # RV.10.74.6c; AB.3.22.2c.
abhyeti na # see abhyaiti.
āśrāvayeti stotriyāḥ # VS.19.24a.
upakṣeti hitamitro na rājā # RV.1.73.3b; 3.55.21b.
kṣeti kṣitīḥ subhago nāma puṣyan # RV.5.37.4d.
kṣeti kṣemebhiḥ sādhubhiḥ # RV.8.84.9a.
tatheti vāyur āha tat # TB. See vāyur āha.
tetikte tigmā tujase anīkā # RV.4.23.7b.
dūreheti patatrī vājinīvān # Mś.; MG.1.13.4c; VārG.15.1c. See next but one.
dūrehetir amṛḍayo mṛtyur gandharvaḥ # TS. See amṛḍayo.
dūrehetir indriyāvān (PB. -yavān) patatrī (PG. patatriḥ) # TS.; PB.1.7.5c; TB.; PG.3.14.6c; ApMB.2.11.17c. See prec. but one.
paryeti parivīto vibhāvā # RV.10.6.1d; MS.4.14.15d: 241.3.
preti dharmaṇā dharmaṃ jinva # VS.15.6; śB. See next, and pretyā dha-.
pretir asi # TS.;; KS.17.7; 37.17; GB.2.2.13; PB.1.9.2; Vait.20.13. P: pretiḥ TS. See under prec.
bhīṣodeti sūryaḥ # TA.8.8.1b; TU.2.8.1b; NṛpU.2.4b.
yajeti dhayyārūpam # VS.19.24c.
yajeti vacanāc chrutiḥ # AB.7.9.15d.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     KV Abhyankar
"eti" has 222 results.
jāgrahitetivādaa short disguisition on the correctness of the word जाग्रहीता, written by a grammarian named Cakrin; confer, compare भट्टोजिदीक्षितग्राहग्रस्तं माधवदिग्गजम्। अमूमुचत् सत्यवर्यश्चक्री चक्रिप्रसादभाक्, colophon.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
ajādigaṇaclass of words headed by अज to which the feminine.affix अा is added, sometimes inspite of the affix ई being applicable by other rules such as जातेरस्त्रीविषयात्o P. IV. 1.63 and other rules in the section. e. अजा, एडका, त्रिफला, उष्णिहा, जेष्ठा, दंष्ट्रा. cf P. IV.1.4.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
atikramapassing over a word in the क्रमपाठ without repeating it; passing beyond, confer, compare अतिक्रम्य परिग्रहः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.7, which means catching a word for repetition by coming back after passing over it, e. g. इन्द्राग्नी अपात् । इन्द्राग्नी इति इन्द्राग्नी । or अनु दक्षि । दक्षि दावने | दक्षीति दक्षि ।
atijagatīone of the varieties of-in fact, the first variety of-the Aticchandas metre, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.: this Atijagatī consists of 52 syllables.e. g. तमिन्द्रे जोहवीमि मघवानमुग्रम् Ṛk. Saṁh.8.97.13 cf, प्रथमातिजगत्यासां सा द्विपञ्चाशदक्षरा Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI.80.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
aātidhṛtione of the varieties of Aticchandas consisting of 76 syllables. e. g. स हि शर्धो न मारुते तुविष्वाणिः Ṛk. Saṁh. I.127.6.
atyalparather too little, an expression used by Patanjali idiometically confer, compare अत्यल्पमिदमुच्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.69 et cetera, and others
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
adhika(1)additional or surplus activity which a rule in grammar sometimes shows; अधिकः कारः or अधिकं कार्यम्; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.11, Kāś. on III.2.124, Bh. Vṛ. on III.4.72; ( 2 ) surplus subject matter e. g. अथाख्याः समाम्नायाधिकाः प्राग्रिफितात् (V.Pr. I.33.)
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
anākāṅkṣanot depending on another for the completion of its sense: confer, compare न यद्यनाकाङ्क्षे P. III.4.23, and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. thereon which explains अनाकाङक्षे as न विद्यते आकाङ्क्षा अपेक्षा यस्य तस्मिन्.
anukaraṇa(1)imitation; a word uttered in imitation of another; an imitative name: confer, compare अनुकरणे चानितिपरम् P.I.4.62; अनुकरणं हि शिष्टशिष्टाप्रतिषिद्धेषु यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु, Śiva sūtra 2 Vārt 1; confer, compare also प्रकृतिवद् अनुकरणं भवति an imitative name is like its original Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 36; also M.Bh. on VIII. 2.46; (2) imitative word, onomatopoetic word; confer, compare एवं ह्याहुः कुक्कुटाः कुक्कुड् इति । नैवं त आहुः । अनुकरणमेतत्तेषाम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.3.48. confer, compare also दुन्दुभि: इति शब्दानुकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.IX. 12.
anupradānaan effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as कण्ठ, तालु et cetera, and others which is looked upon as an external effort or bāhyaprayatna. अनुप्रदान is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( 1 ) स्थान, ( 2 ) करण or आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न and ( 3 ) अनुप्रदान or बाह्यप्रयत्न; confer, compare स्थाकरणप्रयत्नेभ्यो वर्णा जायन्ते Cān. The commentator on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.describes अनुप्रदान as the मूलकारण or उपादानकारण, the main cause in the production of articulate sound confer, compare अनुप्रदीयते अनेन वर्णः इति अनुप्रदानम्: cf also अनुप्रदीयते इत्यनुप्रदानं प्रयत्न इत्यर्थः; Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. I. Generally two main varieties of बाह्यप्रयत्न are termed अनुप्रदान which are mentioned as (i) श्वासानुप्रदान (emission of breath) and नादानुप्रदान (resonance), the other varieties of it such as विवार, संवार, घोष, अघोष, अल्पप्राण, मह्मप्राण, उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित being called merely as बाह्यप्रयत्न.
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anulomasaṃdhicombination according to the alphabetical order; a kind of euphonic alteration ( संधि ) where the vowel comes first. e.gहव्यवाट् + अग्निः where ट् is changed to द्; एषः देवः= एष देवः confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 8. (Sce अनुलोम ).
anuvādarepetition of a rule already laid down or of a statement already made confer, compare प्रमाणान्तरावगतस्य अर्थस्य शब्देन संकीर्तनमात्रमनुवाद: Kāś. on II.4.3.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
antafinal, phonetically last element remaining, of course, after the mute significatory letters have been droppedition confer, compare अनुत्तरलक्षणोन्तः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.21 Vārt, 6.
antaḥpātainsertion of a letter or phonetic element such as the letter क् between ङ् and a sibilant, or the letter ट् between ण् and a sibilant; confer, compare प्रत्यङ्क् स विश्वा, वज्रिञ् च् , छ्र्थिहि; confer, compare Pān. VIII.3.28, 29, 30, 31: confer, compare तेऽन्तःपाताः अकृतसंहितानाम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)IV.20
antarainterval between two phonetic elements when they are uttered one after another; hiatus, pause; वर्णान्तरं परमाणु, R.T. 34; also विरामो वर्णयोर्मध्येप्यणुकालोप्यसंयुते Vyāsaśikṣā; (2) space between two phonetic elements, e. g. स्वरान्तरे explained as स्वरयोरन्तरे (between two vowels) by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.confer, compare अन्तस्थान्तरोपलिङ्गी विभाषितगुणः Nir X.17.
apavarṇaa letter which is phonetically badly or wrongly pronouncedition confer, compare कुतीथादागतं दग्धमपवर्णं च भक्षितम् । न तस्य पाठे मोक्षोस्ति पापाहेरिव किल्बिषात् Pāṇ.Śik.50.
apialso in addition to; अपि is used sometimes to mean absolute of or ungualified by any condition; confer, compare अन्येभ्येपि दृश्यते । अपिशब्दः सर्वोपाधिव्यभिचारार्थः । निरुपपदादपि भवति । धीवा पीवा । KS. on P. III. 2.75, III. 2.101, VII. 1.38; confer, compare अपिग्रहणे व्यभिचारार्थम् ) Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.3.64.
apṛktaliterally unmixed with any (letter); a technical term for an affix consisting of one phonetic element, id est, that is of a single letter. confer, compare अपृक्त एकाल्प्रत्ययः P. I.2.41.
abhyāsalit, doubling or reduplication technically the word refers to the first portion of the reduplication, which is called the reduplicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; confer, compare पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; confer, compare दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; confer, compare अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.
ayogavāhathe letters or phonetic elements अनुस्वार,विसर्ग,जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय and यम called so,as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as अ or the like, and never independently; confer, compare अकारादिना वर्णसमाम्नायेन संहिताः सन्तः ये वहन्ति आत्मलाभं ते अयेागवाहाः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Vāj.Pr.VIII.18. These अयोगवाह letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consonants;confer, compareअयोगवाहानामट्सु उपदेशः कर्तव्यः णत्वं प्रयोजनम् । शर्षु जष्भावत्वे प्रयोजनम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on शिवसूत्र हयवरट्.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
allopaelision or omission of a single phonetic element or letter; confer, compare अल्लोपोsनः P. VI.4.134.
avarṇathe letter अ; the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, comprising all its varieties caused by grades, ( ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत) or accents of nasalization. The word वर्ण is used in the neuter gender in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare सर्वमुखस्थानमवर्णम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.9, मा कदाचिदवर्णं भूत् M.Bh. I.1.48 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1; cf also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.50 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 18 and I.1.51 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2: confer, compare also ह्रस्वमवर्णं प्रयोगे संवृतम् Sīradeva's ParibhāṣāvṛttiPari. 17. 6
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
avivakṣita(1)not taken technically into consideration, not meant: confer, compare अविवक्षिते कर्मणि षष्ठी भवति M.Bh on II.3. 52; (2) unnecessary; superfluous; the word is especially used in connection with a word in a Sūtra which could as well be read without that word. The word अतन्त्रं is sometimes used similarly.
aśvādi(1)a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the affix फञ्(अायन) is added in the sense of गोत्र (grandchildren et cetera, and others); exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायनः जातायनः, औत्सायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.1. 110; (2) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the taddhita affix यत् is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a meeting or an accidental circumstance; exempli gratia, for example आश्विकम् अाश्मिकम् confer, compare P. V.1.39.
ākāṅkṣāexpectancy with regard to sense-completion, generally in compounds such as साकाङ्क्ष, निराकाङ्क्ष et cetera, and others confer, compare अस्त्यस्मिन्नाकाङ्क्षा इत्यतः साकाङ्क्षम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.114.
ākāṅkṣyaa word for which there is expectancy of another word for the completion of sense.
ātiśāyikaa tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ confer, compare P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; confer, compare also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
āpatyapatronymic affix such as अण् and others. The term अापत्य, which is the same as the usual term अपत्य in तस्यापत्यम् P.IV.I, is found sometimes used in the Vārttikas and in the Mahābhāṣya; confer, compare आयत्याज्जीवद्वंश्यात्स्वार्थे द्वितीयो युवसंज्ञ: P.IV.1.163 Vārt 6.
abādha(1)similarity of one phonetic element, for instance, in the case of ऐ with आ resulting from Saṁdhi: e. g. प्रजाया अरातिं निर्ऋत्या अकः where प्रजाया and निर्ऋत्या stand for प्रजायै and निर्ऋत्यै confer, compare एकारान्तानि अाकारबाधे Āth. Pr. II.1.4; (2) Similarity of accent of words in the Saṁhitāpāṭha and Padapāṭha; (3) followed by confer, compare Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.1.14; (4) distress; confer, compare आबाधे च, P. VIII.1.10.
ābhīkṣṇyarepetition of an action; confer, compare पौनःपुन्यं आभीक्ष्ण्यम् Kāś. on III.4.22; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III.4.24: VIII.1.4; VIII.1.12.
aāvṛttirepetition, exempli gratia, for example पदावृत्तिः; see commentary on Vāj. Prāt. IV.21; confer, compare also आवृत्तितः सप्तदशत्वं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
ikārathe letter इ with all its 18 varieties (इ +कार).
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
uktaprescribed, taught, lit, said (already). उक्तं वा is a familiar expression in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas referring usually to something already expresseditionSometimes this expression in the Mahābhāṣya, referring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subsequently expressed, leads to the conclusion that the Mahābhāṣyakāra had something like a 'Laghubhāṣya' before him at the time of teaching the Mahābhāṣya. See Kielhorn's Kātyāyana and Patañjali, also Mahābhāṣya D.E. S.Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72.
uktārthaa word or expression whose sense has been already expressedition The expression उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः is frequently used in the Mahābhāṣya and the Vārttikas and cited as a Paribhāṣā or a salutary conventional maxim against repetition of words in the Paribhāṣāpāṭhas of Vyādi (Par. 51), Candragomin (Par 28) and Kātantra (Par. 46) and Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. (Par. 46) grammars.
ukhyaa writer on Vedic phonetics and euphony quoted in the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya; confer, compare उख्यस्य सपूर्वः Tai. Pra. VIII. 22.
utpatti(1)production: confer, compare वर्णोत्पत्तिः production of a phonetic element Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.23.1 ; (2) production of a grammatical element such as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or substitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-formation: confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari. Śek. Par. 75; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.2.19. Vārt, 4.
upagītaa fault in the pronunciation of letters, noticed sometimes in the utterance of a letter adjoining such a letter as is coloured with a musical tone on account of the proximity of the adjacent letter which is uttered in a musical note and which therefore is called 'प्रगीत'; confer, compare प्रगीतः सामवदुच्चारितः । उपगीतः समीपवर्णान्तरगीत्यानुरक्तः Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on M.Bh. I. Āhnika 1.
upajanaliterallyorigin; one that originates, augment, उपजायते असौ उपजन: । The word is used in the sense of 'additional phonetic element'; confer, compare उपजन आगमः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5; confer, compare also वर्णव्यत्ययापायोपजनविकारेष्वर्थदर्शनात् । Māheśvarasūtras. 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 15. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya gives स् in पुरुश्चन्द्र as an instance ofeminine. उपजन confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 37. In the Nirukta उपजन is given as the sense of the prefix 'उप'; confer, compare उपेत्युपजनम्: The commentary on the Nirukta explains the word उपजन as अाधिक्य.
upadhmānīyaa letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting the breath out of the mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is coloured by labial utterance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independently; hence this utterance called 'उपध्मानीय' ( similar to a sound blown from the mouth ) is not put in, as an independent letter, in the वर्णसमाम्नाय attributed to महेश्वर. Patañjali, however, has referred to such dependent utterances by the term अयोगवाहवर्ण. See अयेागवाह; confer, compare xक इति जिह्वामूलीयः । जिह्वामूलेन जन्यत्वात् । xप इत्युपध्मानीयः । उपध्मानेन जन्यत्वात्. अयेगवाह is also called अर्धविसर्ग. See अर्धविसर्ग.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
uṣṇih(उष्णिक्)name of the second of the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name प्रजापतिच्छन्दस्. The Uṣṇik metre consists of 28 syllables divided into three padas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla bles. It has got many varieties such as पुरउष्णिह्, ककुभ् and others; for details see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI 20-26.
ūṣmasaṃdhiname of a combination or संधि where a visarga is changed into a breathing ( ऊष्मन् ). It has got two varieties named व्यापन्न where the visarga is charged into a breathing as for instance in यस्ककुभः, while it is called विक्रान्त (passed over) where it remains unchanged as for instance in यः ककुभः, य: पञ्च; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IV. 1 1.
fourth vowel in Pāṇini's alphabet; possessed of long and protracted varieties and looked upon as cognate ( सवर्ण ) with लृ which has no long type in the grammar of Pāṇini; confer, compare R.Pr.I,9: V.Pr.VIII.3. (2) uṇādi suffix च् applied to the root स्था to form the word स्थृ; e. g. सव्येष्ठा सारथिः; confer, compare सव्ये स्थश्छन्दसि Uṇ Sū, II. 101.
ṛkārathe letter ऋ with its 18 varieties made up of the ह्रस्व, दीर्घ, प्लुत, and सानुनासिक varieties and characterized by the three accents. ऋ and लृ are looked upon as cognate in Pāṇini's grammar and hence, ऋ could be looked upon as possessed of 30 varieties including 12 varieties of लृ.
ekavākyaan expression giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. A positive statement and its negation, so also, a general rule and its exception are looked upon as making a single sentence on account of their mutual expectancy even though they be sometimes detached from each other confer, compare विदेशस्थमपि सदेकवाक्यं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.4.67; confer, compare also निषेधवाक्यानामपि निषेध्यविशेषाकाङ्क्षत्वाद्विध्येकवाक्यतयैव अन्वयः । तत्रैकवाक्यता पर्युदासन्यायेन । संज्ञाशास्त्रस्य तु कार्यकालपक्षे न पृथग्वाक्यार्थबोधः । Par. Śek on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in fact, two sentences, but, to avoid the fault of गौरव, caused by वाक्यभेद, grammarians hold them to be composite single sentences.
ekādeśaa single substitute in the place of two original units; exempli gratia, for example ए in the place of अ and इ,or ओ in the place of अ and उ. The ādeśas or substitutes named पूर्वरूप and पररूप are looked upon as ekadeśas in Pāṇini's grammar although instead of them, the omission of the latter and former vowels respectively, is prescribed in some Prātiśākhya works. गुण and वृद्धि are sometimes single substitutes for single originals, while they are sometimes ekadeśas for two original vowels exempli gratia, for example तवेदम्, ब्रह्मौदनः, उपैति, प्रार्च्छति, गाम्, सीमन्तः et cetera, and others; see P.VI.1.87 to ll l, confer, compare also A.Pr.II 3.6.
ekālpossessed of one single phonetic element or letter confer, compare अपृक्त एकाल् प्रत्ययः P. I.2.41.
o(1)diphthong vowel made up of the vowels अ and उ, termed as guṇa in Pāṇini's grammar and prescribed sometimes in the place of the vowel उ; ( 2 ) affix ओ applied to the root गम् or गा to form a noun; confer, compare ओकारो नामकरणः Nir.II.5.
aurasaproduced from the chest ; the Visajanīya and h (हकार) are looked upon as औरस and not कण्ठ्य by Some ancient phoneticians;confer, compare केचिदाचार्याः एतौ हकारविसर्जनीयौ उर:स्थानाविच्छन्ति commentary on R.Pr.I.18: confer, compare also हकारं पञ्चमैर्युक्तमन्तस्थाभिश्च संयुतम् । उरस्यं तं विजानीयात्कण्ठ्यमाहुरसंयुतम् । Pān. Śikṣā. 16.
{{c|-( anusvāra ) ṃanusvāraor nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra id est, that is अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 1.
ᳵjihvāmūlīyaa phonetical element or unit called Jihvāmūlīya, produced at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left 0ut breath) directly preceding the utterance of the letter क् or ख् and hence shown as ᳵ क्. See अ ᳵ क् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
ᳶ upadhmānīyaliterally blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonant प् or फ्. The upadhmānīya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the upadhmānīya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter प् or फ्, when, in writing, it is to be shown instead of the visarga, it is shown as ᳶ, or as w , or even as x just as the Jihvāmūlīya; confer, compare उपध्मायते शब्दायते इति, उप समीपे ध्मायते शब्द्यते इति वा commentary on Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I:; : confer, compare also कपाभ्यां प्रागर्धविसर्गसदृशो जिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयौः:S.K.on P.VIII.2.1.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kātya(1)another name sometimes given to Katyāyana to whom is ascribed the composition of the Vārttikas on Pāṇini-sūtras; (2) an ancient writer Kātya quoted as a lexicographer by Kṣīrasvāmin, Hemacandra and other writers.
kāraan affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; exempli gratia, for example इकारः, उकारः ; confer, compare वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या; वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्ततीन्यत्रावधारणम् Vyak. Paribhāṣā , confer, compare also the words वकार:, हिंकारः: (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; confer, compare अधिकः कारः , पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.11.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
kṛtvasuctaddhita affix. affix कृत्वम् applied to numerals to convey the sense of repetition, e. g. पंञ्चकृत्वः दशकृत्वः confer, compare संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणने कृत्वसुच् P. V. 4.17.
ktavatukṛt affix तवत् which also is called निष्ठा. It is prescribed in the active sense of somebody who has done a thing sometime in the past. A word ending in it is equivalent to the past active participle; exempli gratia, for example भुक्तवान् ब्राह्मणः cf P.I.1.26. The feminine. affix डीप् ( ई ) is added to nouns ending in क्तवतु to form feminine bases; confer, compare P.IV.1.6.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kriyāsamabhihārarepetition or intensity of a verbal activity; confer, compare समभिहारः पौनः पुन्यं भृशार्थो वा, Kāś. on P.I.4.2.
kanipkṛt affix वन् in the sense of agent added to (l) a root preceded by an Upasarga or a Subanta Upapada or sometimes even without any preceding word; exempli gratia, for exampleप्रतरित्वा, धीवा, पीवा; (2) to the root दृश्, preceded by an Upapada which is the object of the root दृश्, exempli gratia, for example पारदृश्वा; (3) to roots युध् and कृञ् having राजन् as their object, exempli gratia, for example राजयुध्वा, राजकृत्वा ; confer, compare Pāṇini III.2.94-96.
kvip(1)kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् et cetera, and others, and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; confer, compareP.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति et cetera, and others; confer, compare M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.
garīyasinvolving a special effort.The word is frequently used by the Vārttikakāra and old grammarians in connection with something, which involves greater effort and longer expression and, hence, not commendable in rules of the Shastra works where brevity is the soul of 'wit'; confer, compare पदगौरवाद्योगवेिभागो गरीयान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 121. The word गुरु is also sometimes used in a similar sense; confer, compare तद् गुरु भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1 Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. l Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.
galatpadathe word occurs in the Prātiśākhya works in connection with the definition of संक्रम, in the kramapātha. The word संक्रम means bringing together two words when they are combined according to rules of Samdhi. (See the word संक्रम). In the Kramapātha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapātha, but it is to be passed over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapātha is called गलत्पद; e. g. दिशां च पतये नमो नमो वृक्षेभ्यो हरिकेशेभ्यः पशूनां पतये नमो नमः सस्पिञ्जराय त्विषीमतॆ पथीनां पतये नमः । In the Kramapātha पतये नमः and नमः are passed over and पशूनां is to be connected with सस्पिञ्जराय. The words पतये नमः and नमः are called galatpada; confer, compare गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 197. There is no गलत्पद in पदपाठ.
guṇa(1)degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree, guna degree and vrddhi degree exempli gratia, for example इ, ए and ऐ or उ, ओ and औ. अ is given as a guna of अ; but regarding अ also,three degrees can be stated अ, अ and आ. In the Pratisakhya and Nirukta ए is called गुण or even गुणागम but no definiti6n is given ; confer, compare गुणागमादेतनभावि चेतन R.Pr.XI.6;शेवम् इति विभीषितगुणः। शेवमित्यपि भवति Nir.X.17: (2) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as श्वास,नाद et cetera, and others: confer, compareṚgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) Ch.XIII : (3) secondary, subordinate;confer, compare शेषः,अङ्गं, गुणः इति समानार्थाः Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.on Nirukta of Yāska.I.12: (4) properties residing in a substance just as whiteness, et cetera, and others in a garment which are different from the substance ( द्रव्य ). The word गुण is explained by quotations from ancient grammarians in the Maha bhasya as सत्वे निविशतेsपैति पृथग्जातिषु दृश्यते । अाघेयश्चाक्रियाजश्च सोSसत्त्वप्रकृतिर्गुणः ॥ अपर आह । उपैत्यन्यज्जहात्यन्यद् दृष्टो द्रव्यान्तरेष्वपि। वाचकः सर्वलिङ्गानां द्रव्यादन्यो गुणः स्मृतः ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.44;cf also शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धा गुणास्ततोन्यद् द्रव्यम् ,M.Bh.on V.1.119 (5) properties of letters like उदात्तत्व, अनुदात्तत्व, स्वरितत्व, ह्र्स्वत्व, दीर्घत्व, प्लुतत्व, अानुनासिक्य et cetera, and others; confer, compare भेदकत्वाद् गुणस्य । आनुनासिक्यं नाम गुणः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.. Vart, 13: (6) determinant cf भवति बहुव्रीहौ तद्गुणसंविज्ञानमपि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27; (7) technical term in Panini's grarnmar standing for the vowels अ, ए and ओ, confer, compare अदेङ्गुणः P.I.1.2. For the various shades of the meaning of the word गुण, see Mahabhasya on V.1.119. " गुणशब्दोयं बह्वर्थः । अस्त्येव समेष्ववयवेषु वर्तते ।...... चर्चागुणांश्च ।
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
caya short term (Pratyahara) for the first letters ( क् , च् , ट् त्, and प्र) of the five classes. Sometimes as opined by पौष्करसादि, second letters are substituted for these if a sibilant follows them, e. g,अफ्सराः, वध्सरः । confer, compare चयो द्वितीयाः शरि पौप्करसांदरिति वाच्यम् confer, compare S.K. on ङूणोः कुक्टुक् शरि P. VIII.3.28.
carcāguṇarepetition of a word in the पद्पाठ, क्रमपाठ, जटापाठ et cetera, and others where the several Pathas appear to be called चर्चा.In the पदपाठ a word in a compound is repeated twice, in the क्रमपाठ every word is repeated twice, in the जटापाठ, six times.
codaka(1)an objector; the word is common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to making matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with इति interposed: confer, compare चेदकः परिग्रहः इत्यनर्थान्तरम्. See अदृष्टवर्ण and परिग्रह.
jagannātha(1)the well-known poet and scholar of Vyakarana and Alam kara who wrote many excellent poetical works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of कृष्णशेष and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Diksita and Bhattoji Diksita. He wrote a sort of refutation of Bhattoji's commentary Praudha-Manorama on the Siddhānta Kaumudi, which he named प्रौढमनेारमाखण्डन but which is popularly termed मनोरमाकुचमर्दन. His famous work is the Rasagangadhara on Alankrasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varnakramalaksana; (3) writer of Sarapradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata Vyakarana.
jihvāmūlasthāna(l)having the root of the tongue as the place of its production;the phonetic element or letter called जिह्वामूलीय; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which a visarga is changed when followed by क् or ख्; cf X क इति जिह्वामूलीयः V.Pr.VIII.19. The जिह्वामूलीय letter is called जिह्व्य also; see Nyasa on I. 1.9. The Rk. Pratisakhya looks upon ऋ, लृ, जिह्वामूलीय, and the guttural letters as जिह्वामूलस्थान.
jñāpakaliterallyindirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sutras, especially those of Pinini, are very laconic and it is believed that not a single word in the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is without any purpose, the object of it being achieved in some other way, the commentators always try to assign some purpose or the other for the use of the word in the Sutra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the whole Sutra is called ज्ञापक or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribhasas or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication(ज्ञापकसिद्ध) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be व्यर्थ or without purpose, and which are shown as सार्थक after the particular indication ( ज्ञापन ) is drawn from them. The ज्ञापक is shown to be constituted of four parts, वैयर्थ्य, ज्ञापन, स्वस्मिञ्चारितार्थ्य and अन्यत्रफल. For the instances of Jñāpakas, see Paribhāșenduśekhara. Purușottamadeva in his Jñāpakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ज्ञापन from the wording of Pāņini Sūtras. The word ज्ञापक and ज्ञापन are used many times as synonyms although ज्ञापन sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ज्ञापक or indicator. For instances of ज्ञापक, confer, compareM.Bh. on Māheśvara Sūtras 1, 3, 5, P. Ι.1. 3, 11, 18, 23, 51 et cetera, and others The word ऊठ् in the rule वाह ऊठ् is a well known ज्ञापक of the अन्तरङ्गपरिभाषा. The earliest use of the word ज्ञापक in the sense given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., is found in the Paribhāșāsūcana of Vyādi. The Paribhāșā works on other systems of grammar such as the Kātantra; the Jainendra and others have drawn similar Jñāpakas from the wording of the Sūtras in their systemanuscript. Sometimes a Jñāpaka is not regularly constituted of the four parts given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.;it is a mere indicator and is called बोधक instead of ज्ञापक्र.
jñāpanaa conclusion or inference, drawn from a word or words in a Sūtra, with a view to assign a purpose to that or to those words which otherwise would have been without a purpose. The word is sometimes used in the sense of ज्ञापक, and refers to the word or words supposed to be without any purpose and therefore looked upon as a reason or हेतु for the desired conclusion to be drawn. The words किमेतस्य ज्ञापने प्रयोजनम् occur very frequently in the Mahābhāșya: cf, M.Bh. on P. Ι. I. 11, 14,19, 55, 68, Ι. 2.41 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others
ṭilopadeletion or elision of the final syllable beginning with a vowel, as prescribed by Panini in certain rules; confer, compare भस्य टेर्लोपः VII. 1.88, टे: P. VI, 4.143, 155 नस्तद्धिते P. VI. 4.144 and अह्नष्टखोरेव P. VI. 4.145.
ṭhacataddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) with the vowel अ accented acute applied to (1) कुमुद and others as a Caturarthika affix; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with उप which are proper nouns for persons; confer, compare P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word एकशाला in the sense of इव; confer, compare P. V.3.109. The base, to which टच् is added, retains generally two syllables or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ठच् e. g. देविकः, वायुकः, पितृकः शेबलिकः et cetera, and others from the words देवदत्त, वायुदत्त, पितृदत्त, शेवलदत्त et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V,3.83, 84.
ṭhantaddhita affix. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; confer, compare P.IV.4. 7; exempli gratia, for example नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; confer, compare P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; confer, compare P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(possession); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
ḍāctaddhita affix. affix आ applied to dissyllabic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoetic, when connected with the root कृ or भू or अम्. The word to which डाच् is applied becomes generally doubled; c. g पटपटाकरोति, पटपटाभवति पटपटास्यात्; confer, compare P.V.4.57. The affix डाच् is also applied to द्वितीय, तृतीय, to compound words formed of a numeral and the word गुण, as also to the words सपत्र, निष्पत्र, सुख, प्रिच etc when these words are connected with the root कृ;exempli gratia, for example द्वितीयाकरोति,तृतीया करोति, द्विगुणाकरोति, सपत्राकरोति, सुखाकरोति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4. 58 to 67.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
taṅ(1)a short term used for the nine personal endings of the Atmanepada viz. त,अाताम्...महिङ् which are themselves termed Atmanepada; confer, compare तङानौ अात्मनेपदम् P. 1.4. 100 (2) the personal-ending त of the 2nd person. plural (substituted for थ by III.4 101) looked upon as तङ् sometimes, when it is lengthened in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare तङिति थादेशस्य ङित्त्वपक्षे ग्रहणम् । भरता जातवेदसम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI. 3. 133.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
taparakaraṇaaddition of the mute letter त् after a vowel to signify the inclusion of only such varieties of the vowel as take the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त्; confer, compare P. I. 1.70. See त्.
tamaṭtaddhita affix. affix तम added optionally with the affix डट् ( अ ) to विंशति, त्रिंशत् et cetera, and others, as also to words ending with them, in the sense of पूरण (completion), and necessarily (नित्यं) to the words शत, सहस्र, षष्टि, सप्तति et cetera, and others e. g. एकविंशतितमः एकविंशः, त्रिंशत्तमः, त्रिंशः, शततमः, षष्टितम:, विंशी, त्रिंशी et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on V. 2.56-58.
tasi(1)taddhita affix.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing exempli gratia, for example वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; confer, compare Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) taddhita affix.affix तस् applied in the sense of the ablative case. case and substituted for the ablative case. case affix: exempli gratia, for example ग्रामतः अागच्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumental or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् confer, compare Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.
tātparya(1)repetition of action; confer, compare तात्पर्यमाभीक्ष्ण्यं पौनःपुन्यमासेवा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on III. 2.81 also तात्पर्यमासेवा । द्रव्ये व्याप्तिः, क्रियायामासेवा । (2) foremost consideration; confer, compare चतुर्ग्रहणे सति तात्पर्येण स्यन्दिः संनिधापितो भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.2.59; (3) purport (of a sentence), significance, intention; confer, compare सर्वशास्त्रोपकारकमिति तत्तात्पर्यम् Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3.
duḥspṛṣṭaproduced by an incomplete contact of the करण; the term is applied to the phonetic element ळ् which is due to the incomplete contact of the organ at the production of the letter ल्; cf दु:स्पृष्टश्चेति विज्ञेयः; Pan, Siksa 5.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dviruktirepetition of a word, or of a letter or of a root. See द्वित्व.
dvirbhāvarepetition, reduplication. See द्वित्व.
dvivarṇa(1)a repeated consonant; confer, compare द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत्, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 144: (2) doubling, repetition: cf ह्रस्वपूर्वो ङकारो द्विवर्णम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.IX. 18; confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX. 18.
dvisvarapossessed of two vowels,dissyllabic; confer, compare न पदे द्विस्वरे नित्यम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVI. 17. द्विस्स्पृष्ट a term used for an upadhmaniya letter or a phonetic element resulting from a visarga followed by the letter प्, or फ़्. See उपध्मांनीय.The word is also used sometimes for the pronunciation ळ् of ड्, and ळ्ह् of ढ्. See दुःस्पृष्ट.
dhāraṇa(1)suppression of a consonant, out of two successive consonants which is looked upon as a fault of recital; exempli gratia, for example ह्वयामि when recited as वयामि; efeminine. धारणमनुपलब्धिः Uvvata on R.Pr.XIV. 6; (2) repetition of a consonant which is also a fault; exempli gratia, for example ज्ज्योतिष्कृत् for ज्योतिष्कृत्: confer, compare Uvvata on XIV.6;confer, compare also धारयन्त; परक्रमं et cetera, and others explained by Uvvata as सान्तस्थस्य संयोगस्य आदौ रक्तं धारयन्तो विलम्बमानाः परक्रमं कुर्वन्ति where धारयन्तः means 'lengthening’ or 'prolonging' confer, compare R.Pr. on XIV.23; (3) the peculiar position of the mouth (मुखसंधारणम् ) by which a double consonant is recited as a single one, confer, compare द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत् ( एकप्रयत्ननिर्वर्त्य ) धारणात् exempli gratia, for example व्यात्तम् , कुक्कुटः, confer, compare V.Pr. IV.144.
dhṛta or dhṛtapracayaa kind of original grave vowel turned into a circumflex one which is called प्रचय unless followed by another acute or circumflex vowel. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has mentioned seven varieties of this 'pracaya' out of which धृतप्रचय or धृत is one. For details see Bhasya on धृतः प्रचयः कौण्डिन्यस्य, T.Pr.XVIII.3.
naraperson; personal ending; the term is used in connection with (the affixes of) the three persons प्रथम, मध्यम, and उत्तम which are promiscuously seen sometimes in the Vedic Literature confer, compare सुतिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां ... व्यत्ययमिच्छति ... Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.85.
nalopaelision of न्, which in Panini's grammar is sometimes taken as valid for certain grammatical operations,and otherwise for other operations; confer, compare नलोपः सुप्स्वरसंज्ञातुग्विधिषु कृति P.VIII.2.2.
navyamataa term used for the differentiation in views and explanations held by the comparatively new school of Bhattoji Diksita, as contrasted with those held by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in contrast with Bhagttoji Diksita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol.VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D.E. Society, Poona.
nāsikyaletters or phonetic elements produced in the nose; confer, compare नासिकायां यमानुस्वारनासिक्याः Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 12. See ( नासिक्य ).
nigāraa kind of sound which apparently is made up of a combination of three phonetic elements ह्, म् and नासिक्य. It is a peculiar sound through both the mouth and the nose, although no specific place of production is assigned to it; cf अविशेषस्थानौ संस्वांदनिगारौ। हकारमकारनासिक्या वा निगारे R.T.11.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nirdeśamention, actual statement; the word is often used in the Mahabhasya in sentences like स तथा निर्देशः कर्तव्यः, निर्देशं कुरुते et cetera, and others; confer, compare also V.Pr. I. 36;confer, compare also the maxim तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य P. I.1.66 and Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 134; confer, compare also अवश्यं कयाचिद्विभक्त्या केनचिद्वचनेन निर्देशः कर्तव्यः M.Bh. on P. I. 2. 39 Vart. 1. Sometimes the mention or exhibition made by a word shows the particular type of word; confer, compare Durghata Vrtti on P. I. 2. 6 and VII. 4. 73 as also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 11 and V. 2. 20.
nivātasometimes used for निघात or the grave accent.
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
parigrahaalso परिग्रहण. (1) acceptance, inclusion; confer, compare किं प्रयोजनम् | प्रत्ययार्थे परिग्रहार्थम् M.Bh. on P.III.26.1 ; (2) repetition of a Samhita word in the Pada recital, technically named वेष्टक also; repetition of a word with इति interposed; e. g. सुप्राव्या इति सुप्रऽ अव्या: Rg Veda II.13.9, अलला भवन्तीरित्यललाSभवन्तीः Rg. IV.18.6; confer, compare परिग्रहेत्वनार्षान्तात् तेन वैकाक्षरीक्तात् | परेषां न्यास-माचारं व्यालिस्तौ चेत्स्वरौ परौ; Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 14. confer, compare also, R.Pr.XI.32,36,42.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
parilopaelision ofa phonetic member: the same as lopa in the Grammar of Panini. The term परिलोप and the verbal forms of the root परिलुप् are found in the Pratisakhya works; confer, compare उष्मा परिलुप्यते त्रयाणाम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) II. 4.
parisamāptiapplication of the complete sense; the word is found used in the three alternative views about the application of the full sense of a sentence,collectively, individually or in both the ways, to the individuals concerned ; confer, compareप्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्ति:, समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः, उभयथा वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः ; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1.1 Vart12; ( 2 ) completion ; confer, compare वृत्करणं ल्वादीनां प्वादीनां च परिसमाप्त्यर्थमिति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VII. 3.80.
parihāra(1)removal of a difficulty, confer, compare अन्यथा कृत्वा चोदितमन्यथा कृत्वा परिहारं: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1.7. Vart. 3: (2) repetition in the Padapatha, Kramapatha et cetera, and others e. g अकरित्यक:. In this sense the word is found in the neuter gender ; confer, compare रेफपरिहाराणि Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. III. 1.1.
paśyantīname of the second out of the four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the ancient writers on Phonetics, sound or word ( वाक् ) which is constituted of air ( वायु ) originates at the Mulaadhaaracakra where it is called परा. It then springs up and it is called पश्यन्ती in the second stage. Thence it comes up and is called मध्यमा in the third stage; rising up from the third stage when the air strikes against the vocal chords in the glottis and comes in contact with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is heard in the form of different sounds. when it is called वैखरी; confer, compare वैखर्या मध्यमायाश्च पश्यन्त्याश्चैतदद्भुतम् । अनेकतीर्थभेदायास्त्रय्या वाचः परं पदम् Vaakyapadiya I. 144, and also confer, compare पश्यन्ती तु सा चलाचलप्रतिबद्धसमाधाना संनिविष्टज्ञेयाकारा प्रतिलीनाकारा निराकारा च परिच्छिन्नार्थप्रत्ययवभासा संसृष्टार्थप्रत्यवभासा च प्रशान्तसर्वार्थप्रत्यवभासा चेत्यपरिमितभेदा । पश्यन्त्या रूपमनपभ्रंशामसंकीर्ण लोकव्यवह्यरातीतम् । commentary on Vaakyapadiya I. 144. confer, compare also तत्र श्रोत्रविषया वैखरी । मध्यमा हृदयदशेस्था पदप्रत्यक्षानुपपत्त्या व्यवहारकारणम् । पश्यन्ती तु लोकव्यवहारातीता। योगिनां तु तत्रापि प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागावगतिरस्ति | परायां तु न इति त्रय्या इत्युक्तम् । Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on चत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
pāṇinīyaśikṣāa short work on phonetics which is taken as a Vedāņga work and believed to have been written by Pāņini. Some say that the work was written by Pińgala.
pādapūraṇacompletion of the fourth part or Pāda of a stanza or verse; confer, compare सोचि लोपे चेत् पादपूरणम् P. VI.1.134, also प्रसमुपोदः पादपूरणे VIII. 1.6. As many times some particles, not with any specific or required sense, were used for the completion of a Pāda, such particles were called पाद्पूरण ; confer, compare सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरण: R.Pr.XII.7; also निपातस्त्वर्थासंभवे पादपूरणो भवति Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.50 Uvvața.
piṅgalācāryaan ancient scholar who is believed to be the first writer on Prosody, his work being known as छन्दःशास्त्र of पिङ्गल. Some scholars believe that he wrote a work on Phonetics which is now popularly called पाणिनीयशिक्षा.
punaruktaa passage which is repeated in the क्रमपाठ and the other Pāțhas or recitals; the word is also used in the sense of the conventional repetition of a word at the end of a chapter. The word पुनर्वचन is used also in the same sense; confer, compare यथोक्तं पुनरुक्तं त्रिपदप्रभृति त्रिपदप्रभृति । T.Pr.I.6l: confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X.8 and 10.
pūraṇaan ordinal numeral; literally the word means completion of a particular number ( संख्या ); confer, compare येन संख्या संख्यानं पूर्यते संपद्यते स तस्याः पूरणः । एकादंशानां पूरणः एकादशः । Kas, on P.V. 2.48. The word is used also in the sense of an affix by the application of which the particular number ( संख्या ) referring to an object, is shown as complete; confer, compare यस्मिन्नुपसंजाते अन्या संख्या संपद्यते स प्रत्ययार्थः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.2.48. These Purana pratyayas are given in P. V. 2. 48-58, confer, compare पूरणं नामार्थः । तमाह Xतीयशव्दः । अतः पूरणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.3. The word also means 'an ordinal number'; confer, compare पूरणगुणसुहितार्थसदव्ययतव्यसमानाधिकरणेन P.II.2.11.
pūraṇapratyayaa taddhita affix. affix showing the completion of the particular number ( संख्या ) shown by the word to which the affix is applied; confer, compare . अर्धपूर्वपदश्च पूरणप्रत्ययान्तः संख्याशब्दो भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । अर्धपञ्चमः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.23 Vart. 7. These affixes are mentioned by Panini in V.2. 48 to 58.
pūrvavipratiṣedhaconflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; confer, compare इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85et cetera, and others confer, comparealso पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
paunaḥpunyafrequency; repetition a sense in which the frequentative affix यङ् and in some cases the imperative mood are prescribed; confer, compareपौनःपुन्यं भृशार्थश्च क्रियासमभिहारः:S.K. on P.1II. 1.22: confer, compare also S. K on P.III.4.2.
prakṛtibhāvaphonetical maintenance of a wording without allowing any euphonic modifications as found in the case of a dual form ending in ई,ऊ or ए,as also in other specified cases; confer, compareईदूदेद्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् and the following rules P.I. 1.11 to 19, as also प्लुतप्रगृह्या अचि नित्यम् VI.1.125
pratisaṃskaraṇaediting with improvement, with an attempt to restore the correct version or the original text in the place of the corrupt one sometimes suitable additions and improvements are also made; e. g. चरकप्रतिसंस्करण attributed to Patanjali.
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyāmnāyaliterally, repetition in a contrary way; in the Pratisakhya literature, the word refers to the repetition of a Vedic passage; repetition by pupils after hearing from the preceptor ; confer, compare प्रत्याम्नायः पुनर्वचनं Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV. 9.
pratyuccārarepetition especially of what has been recited by the preceptor; confer, compare प्रत्युच्चार्यैतद्वचनं परस्य शिष्यस्य स्याद् भो इति चोदना वा, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV. 8.
praśliṣṭanirdeśamention of a thing in a coalescence, which when split up, shows a phonetic element or a letter which could not be known before the components were separated; अनुपसर्जनात् । प्रश्लिष्टनिर्देशोयम् । अनुपसर्जन अ अ अत् इति । M.Bh. on I. 1.27 Vart. 6; cf also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.3.69.
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
baor बकार the letter ब्, the vowel अ as also the word कार being added for facility of utterance; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.17.21, The letter ब् is sometimes used for व् especially when it stands at the beginning of a word, for which scholars use the expression वबयेारभेद:
binduanusvara, letter pronounced only through the nose; a dot to indicate the nasal phonetic element shown in writing a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. or sometimes after that letter or vowel, after which it is uttered; confer, compare अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति ।। Kat. I.1.19.
bṛhacchabdaratnaa learned commentary on the commentary मनोरमा of भट्टोजीदीक्षित; the commentary was written by हरिदीक्षित the grandson of Bhattoji. The work is called बृहच्छब्दरत्न in contrast with the लघुशब्दरत्न of the same author (हरिदीक्षित) which is generally studied at the Pathasalas all over the country. The work बृहच्छब्दरत्न is only in a Manuscript form at present. Some scholars believe that it was written by Nagesabhatta, who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari Diksita, but the belief is not correct as proved by a reference in the Laghusabdaratna, where the author himself remarks that he himself has written the बृहच्छब्दरत्न, and internal evidences show that लबुशब्दरत्न is sometimes a word-forword summary of the बृहच्छब्दरत्न. confer, compareविस्तरस्तु अस्मत्कृते बृहच्छब्दरत्ने मदन्तेवासिवृतलधुशब्देन्दुशेखरे च द्रष्टव्यः Laghusabdaratna. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. Journal Vol. 32 pp.258-60.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhisaffix of the instrumental plural before which the base is looked upon as a Pada and sometimes split up in the Padapāṭha, especially when the preceding word has got no change for its last letter or syllable.
maṭtaddhita affix. affix म applied to a numeral, not preceded by another numeral in the sense of completion; e. g. पञ्चम:, सप्तम:; confer, compare नान्तादसंख्यादेर्मट् Pān. V.2.49.
mañjūṣāa popular name given to the work परमलघुमञ्जूषा of Nāgeśa on अर्थप्रक्रिया (science or method of interpretation) in Vyākaraṇa, which is generally read by advanced students. Nāgeśa has also written a bigger work on the same subject लघुमञ्जूषा which sometimes is also referred to by the word मञ्जूषा.
madhyapatitaliterally fallen in the middle; the word is used generally in the sense of an augment which is inserted in the middle of a word. Sometimes an affix too, like अकच् or a conjugational sign like श्रम्, is placed in the middle of a word. Such a middling augment is technically ignored and a word together with it is taken as the original word for grammatical operations; exempli gratia, for example उच्चकै:, नीचकै: et cetera, and others cf तन्मध्यपतितस्तद्ग्रहणेन गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 89.
mallināthaa reputed commentator on many classical poetic and dramatic works, who flourished in the fourteenth century. He was a scholar of Grammar and is believed to have written a commentary on the Śabdenduśekhara and another named न्यासोद्योत on the न्यास of जिनेन्द्रबुद्धि.
mṛdu(1)soft in utterance ; the term is used in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya for the क्षैप्र, प्रश्लिष्ट, तैरोव्यञ्जन, and पादवृत्त varieties of the circumflex accent (स्वरित) out of which the पादवृत्त is the softest ( मृदुतम ) and consequently always called मृदु, while the others are called मृदु only with respect to the preceding one in the order given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; viz.अभिनिहत, क्षैप्र et cetera, and othersconfer, compareसर्वतीक्ष्णोभिनिहत:प्राश्लिष्टस्तदनन्तरम् । ततो मृदुतरौ स्वरौ जात्यक्षेप्रावुभौ स्मृतौ | ततो मृदुतर: स्वारस्तैरोव्यञ्जन उच्यते | पादवृत्तो मृदुतमस्त्वेतत्स्वारबलाबलम् Uvvata on V.Pr. I. !25; (2) soft, as opposed to hard; the term is used in connection with the first,third and fifth consonants of the five classes.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yaḍantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् in the sense of repetition and intensity, to roots having one syllable and beginning with a consonant: confer, compare धातोरेकाचो हृलादे: क्रियासमभिहारे यङ् P. III. 1.22, 23,24. See य (12) a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
yaḍlugantaa secondary root formed by adding the affix यङ् to roots specified in P. III. 1.22,23,24, which affix is sometimes dropped: confer, compare यङोचि च ; P. II. 4. 74. The yanluganta roots take the parasmaipada personal endings and not the atmanepada ones which are applied to yananta roots.
yogavāhaa technical term used for phonetic elements or letters which are mentioned in the alphabet of Panini, viz., the Mahesvara sutras in contrast with the term अयोगवाह which is used by grammarians for the phonetic elements अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others which are not mentionedition ,See अयोगवाह; confer, compare also M. Bh on Siva sutra 5.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
lekhāone of the varieties or developments of the क्रमपाठ or the artificial recitation of the separate words of the Samhitā.
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
vaktavyathat which ought to be stated or prescribed; the word is frequently found used by the Varttikakāra when he suggests any addition to, or modification in Panini's rules. Sometimes,the word is added by the author of the Mahabhasya in the explanation of a Varttika after stating what is lacking in the Varttika.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
vākyaa sentence giving an idea in a single unit of expression consisting of the verb with its karakas or instruments and adverbs; confer, compareअाख्यातं साब्ययं सकारकं सकारकविशेषणं वाक्यसंज्ञं भवतीति वक्तव्यम् | साव्ययम् | उच्चैः पठति | सकारकम् | ओदनं पचति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vart. 10. Regarding the different theoretical ways of the interpretation of a sentence see the word शाब्दबोध. For details, see वाक्यपदीय II. 2 where the different definitions of वाक्य are given and the अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट is established as the sense of a sentence.
vākyaparisamāpticompletion of the idea to be expressed in a sentence or in a group of sentences by the wording actually given, leaving nothing to be understood as contrasted with वाक्यापरिसमाप्ति used in the Mahabhasya: confer, compare वाक्यापरिसमाप्तेर्वा P.I.1.10 vart. 4 and the Mahabhasya thereon. There are two ways in which such a completion takes place,singly and collectively; cf प्रत्येकं वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः: illustrated by the usual example देवदत्तयज्ञदत्तविष्णुमित्रा भोज्यन्ताम् where Patanjali remarks प्रत्येकं ( प्रत्यवयवं) भुजिः परिसमाप्यते; cf also समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिः where Patajali remarks गर्गा: शतं दण्ड्यन्ताम् | अर्थिनश्च राजानो हिरण्येन भवन्ति न च प्रत्येकं दण्डयन्ति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.1Vart.12: cf also M.Bh. on P.I.1.7, I.2.39, II.2.l et cetera, and others वाक्यप्रकाश a work on the interpretation of sentences written with a commentary upon it by उदयधर्ममुनि of North Gujarat who lived in the seventeenth century A.D.
vākyapradīpaa term sometimes seen (wrongly) applied to the Vakyapadiya of Bhartrhari. It may have been the name of the commentary on the vakyaprakasa.
vākyaikadeśapart of a sentence which sometimes, on the strength of the context, conveys the whole meaning confer, compare दृश्यन्ते हिं वाक्येषु वाक्येकदेशान् प्रयुञ्जाना: पदेषु च पदैकदेशान् | प्रविश पिण्डीम् | प्रविश तर्पणम् पदेषु पदकैदेशान् देवदत्तो दत्तः | सत्यभामा भामेति M.Bh. on P.I.1.45 Vart. 3.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vikrama(1)name given to a grave vowel placed between two circumflex vowels, or between a circumflex and an acute, or between an acute and a circumflex; confer, compare स्वरितयोर्मध्ये यत्र नीचं स्यात्, उदात्तयोर्वा अन्यतरतो वा उदात्तस्वरितयोः स विक्रम: T.Pr. XIX.I ; (2) name given to a grave vowel between a pracaya vowel and an acute or a circumflex vowel: confer, compare प्रचयपूर्वश्च कौण्डिन्यस्य T.Pr.XIX.2: (8) repetition of a word or पद as in the Krama recital of the Veda words; (4) name given to a visarjaniya which has remained intact, as for instance in यः प्रणतो निमिषतः ; confer, compare R.Pr. I.5; VI.1 ; the word विक्रम is sometimes used in the sense of visarjaniya in general: cf also अनिङ्गयन् विक्रममेषु कुर्यात् R.Pr. XIII.11.
vigrahalit, separation of the two parts of a thing; the term is generally applied to the separation of the constituent words of a compound word: it is described to be of two kinds : ( a ) शास्त्रीयविग्रहृ or technical separation; e. g. राजपुरुष्: into राजन् ङस् पुरुष सु and ( 2 ) लौकिकविग्रहं or common or popular separation ; e. g. राजपुरूष: into राज्ञ: पुरुष:. It is also divided into two kinds according to the nature of the constituent words (a) स्वपदाविग्रह separation by means of the constituent words, exempli gratia, for example राजहितम् into राज्ञे हृितम्;(b) अस्वपदविग्रह, e. g. राजार्थम् into राज्ञे इदम् ;or exempli gratia, for example सुमुखीं into शोभनं मुखं अस्याः confer, compare M.Bh. on P.V.4.7. The compounds whose separation into constituent words cannot be shown by those words (viz. the constituent words) are popularly termed nityasamsa. The term नित्यसमास is explained as नित्यः समासो नित्यसमासः | यस्य विग्रहो नास्ति । M.Bh. on P.II.2.19 Vart. 4. The upapadasamsa is described as नित्यसमास. Sometimes especially in some Dvandva compounds each of the two separated words is capable of giving individually the senses of both the words exempli gratia, for example the words द्यावा and क्षामा of the compound द्यावाक्षामा. The word विग्रह is found used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the separate use of a word as contrasted with the use in a compound; cf अच्छेति विग्रहे प्लुतं भवति R.Pr.VII.1. विग्रहृ is defined as वृत्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः in the Siddhantakaumudi.
vickrt affix वि (which also becomes nil or zero) applied to a root in the sense of an agent, as observed in Vedic and classical use, as also to the root यज् with उप and roots ending in अा generally in Vedic Literature but sometimes in popu1ar language; confer, compare विजुपे छन्दसि । आतो मनिन्कनिबवनिपश्च। अन्येभ्योपि दृश्यन्ते | कीलालपाः, शुभ्ंयाः et cetera, and others Kas on P. III. 2.73, 74, 75.
vidharmakapossessed of different phonetic properties.
vidhāraṇamention of a consonant as intact id est, that is without any phonetic coalescence or संधि; the same as अभिनिधान. The term is used in this sense in the Pratisakhya works.
viparīta(1)in the opposite or reverse way: confer, compare विपरीताच्चेति वक्तव्यम् । पारावारीणः M.Bh. on P.IV.2.93 Vart. 2; (2) change of ऋ into इ, seen sometimes in Vedic Literature when that ऋ is preceded or followed by a palatal letter; exempli gratia, for example श्रृङगे into शिङ्गे (Ṛk. Saṁh. V-2.9) बिभृयात् into बिभियात् (Ṛk.Saṁh. x.x.9) विचृत into विचित्त Ṛg. Veda II.27.16; confer, compare अनन्तरे तद्विपरीतमाहुस्तालव्ये श्रृङगे बिभृयाद्विचृत्ताः R.Pr.XIV.17.
vibhajyānvākhyānaa method of forming a word, or of arriving at the complete form of a word by putting all the constituent elements of the word such as the base, the affix, the augment, the modification, the . accent, et cetera, and others one after another and then arriving at the form instead of completing the formation stage by stage; e. g. in arriving at the form स्नौघ्नि the wording स्नौघ्न + अ +ई is to be considered as it stands and not स्नौघ्न + अ = स्नौघ्न and then स्नौघ्न +ई. The विभज्यान्वाख्यानपक्ष in connection with the formation of a word corresponds to the पदसंस्कारपक्ष in connection with the formation of a sentence.
vimokṣaliberation of the last letter (especially a class consonant) of a word from phonetic modifications by coalescence with the initial letter of the following word, or liberation of modification of a consonant or vowel standing at the end of a verse or sometimes even in the middle of a verse: exempli gratia, for example तत् नो मित्रः,सम् यौमि, संमधुमतीर्मधुमतीभिः पृच्यन्ताम् शुक्रं दुदुह्रे अह्नय; confer, compare V. Pr.I.90,91.
virāgaomission of a consonant, sometimes when it is preceded and also followed by another consonant, as if it were squeezed between the two; this is no doubt looked upon as a fault; exempli gratia, for example the omission of the consonant द् in उपमा षट् द्रा द्वा uttered as उपमा षट् वा द्वा; confer, compareअन्योन्येन व्यञ्जनानां विरागः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.explains विराग as लोप्.
virāmaan ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or : pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (a) ऋग्विराम,pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा, (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधान:, त एनम् , (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.gप्रउगम्, तितउः; confer, compare ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः. The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका which has got both , the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ is also equal to one mātrā; confer, compare R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामोs वसानम् P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; confer, compare वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् S.K.on P. I.4.110: confer, compare also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṁhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; confer, compare परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति Kāś. on P. I.4.109 confer, compare also विरामे मात्रा R.T.35; confer, compare also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.
visargaaspiration, leaving of the breath generally at the completion of the utterance of a word when there is a pause; the term विसर्जनीय was in use in ancient times. Although not mentioned in his alphabet by Pāṇini, this Phonetic element, visarga, is looked upon as a letter; it is mentioned as one of the letters in the Śikṣā and the Prātiśākhya works and Patañjali has advised its inclusion in the alphabet. As visarga cannot be found in use independently of another letter (which is any vowel after which it occurs) it is called अयोगवाह.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
veṣṭakalifeminine. enclosure or envelope; the term is used in the sense of परिग्रहं with reference to the repetition of one and the same word more than once in the Krama and other artificial recitals; confer, compare परिग्रहे त्वनाषीन्तात् तेन वैकाक्षरीकृतात् | परॆषां न्यासमाचारं, व्यालिस्तौ चेत् स्वरौ परौ|| on which Uvvata remarks परिग्रहे वेष्टके.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
vyathanaalteration of a phonetic element; change of sound; mispronunciation; confer, compare तदापायव्यथनानि दोषा: R.Pr,XIV, 1.
vyavadhāna(I)intervention; the word is used in connection with the intervention or occurrence of letters or phonetic units between the cause ( निमित्त ) of an operation and the operatee (विधिभाक् ); cf लोपे कृते नास्ति व्यवधानम् | स्थानिवद्भावाद् व्यवधानमेव | The word is used also in the sense of intervention in , general, which separates the two connected things; व्यवधानं च भवति वाक्ये राज्ञ ऋद्धस्य पुरुषः; the word व्यवाय is used in the same sense; confer, compare अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेपि; (2) an inserted letter or phonetic element; confer, compare व्यवधानः अन्त्यविकारे T, Pr. 185, 186.
vyavāyaintervention, separation by insertion; separation by means of the insertion of a phonetic element. See व्य्वधान a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. confer, compare अट्कुप्वाङ्नुम्व्यवायेपि P. VIII. 4.2: अडभ्यासव्यवायेपि P. VI. 1.26: confer, compare अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपर: Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 190; संयेागानां स्वरभक्त्या व्यवायः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 25.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyūha(l)resolution or determination: confer, compare अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः । न कृतो विाशीष्ट ऊहो निश्चयः ,शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिविषये यैः इत्यर्थः Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) separation of the phonetic elements in a word, done especially for the recital of the Vedic texts according to metre:confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने क्षेप्रवणैकंभाविनाम् । व्यूहैः पृथक्करणेन Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII.22.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śākalaa word frequently used in the Mahabhasya for a grammatical operation or injunction ( विधि ) which forms a specific feature of the grammar of शाकल्य, viz. that the vowels इ, उ,ऋ, and लृ remain without phonetical combination and a shortening of them, if they are long;confer, compareइकोsसवर्णे शाकल्यस्य ह्रस्वश्च P.VI. 1. 127; शाकल्यस्य इदं शाकल्यम् ।; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.VI.1.77 VI.1.125,VI. 1.27;VI.2.52, VII.3.3 and VIII. 2.108; (2) pupils of शाकल्य; confer, compare शाकल्यस्य छात्राः शाकलाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV.I.18;(3) a village in the Vahika district; confer, compare शाकलं नाम वाहीकग्राम: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.2.104 Vart. 3.
śākalaprakṛtibhāvaabsence of a phonetic coalescence ( प्रकृतिभाव ) as specifically mentioned by शाकल्य. See शाकल.
śāstrascientific treatment of a subject; a system of thoughts giving a scientific treatment of any subject. The word is applied to the rules of Panini and sometimes to an individual rule; confer, compare शास्त्रबाध or अशास्त्रबाध or विप्रतिषेधशास्त्र,frequently used by the commentators; confer, compare न हि संदेहादलक्षणं शास्त्रामित्यर्थः Nagesa's Par. Sek. on Pari. 1; confer, compare पदान्तादिष्वेव विकारशास्त्रम् R.Pr.II.2
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śivādia big class of about ninety words headed by the word शिव which have the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) in spite of other affixes such as इञ् , ण्यत् and others prescribed by other rules, which sometimes do not take place, or do so optionally; exempli gratia, for example शैवः: ताक्ष्ण:, ताक्षण्यः; गाङ्ग: गाङ्गेय:, गङ्गायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.112. This class is looked upon as आकृतिगण and a word is supposed to be . included in this class, when the ; affix अ is noticed in spite of some other affix being applicable by some other rule.
śubhrādia class of words headed by the word शुभ्र to which the taddhita affix एय ( ढक् ) is added in the sense of a descendant in spite of other affixes being prescribed by some other rules which sometimes are added optionally with this एय; exempli gratia, for example शौभ्रेय:, वैधवेय: रौहिणेयः. This class is looked upon as अाकृतिगण and hence if this affix एय is seen applied although not prescribed actually as in the word गाङ्गेय, the word is supposed to have been included in this class; confer, compare P. IV. I.123.
śravaṇahearing of a phonetic element or a word in the actual speech; audition; confer, compare तस्य चोदात्तस्वरितपरत्वे श्रवणं स्पष्टम् S. K. on P.I.2.32. In many technical grammatical terms, affixes and substitutes, there is sometimes a portion of them which is not a vital part of the word, but it is for the sake of causing certain prescribed grammatical operations. The letters or syllables which form such a portion are called इत् and they are only for the sake of grammatical operations (कार्यार्थ ), as contrasted with the other ones which are actually heard (श्रुत्यर्थ or श्रवणार्थ ).
śruti(1)literally hearing sound.confer, compare श्रुतौ च रूपग्रहणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64; perception, as a proof contrasted with inference; confer, compare ननु च श्रुतिकृतोपि भेदोस्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VII. 1.72 Vart. 1; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 2.25; cf also तस्मादुच्चश्रुतीनि Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 61; (2) authoritative word; the word is sometimes used in connection with the utterances of the Sutrakaras viz. the Sutra.
ṣatvachange of the consonant स् into ष् in certain conditions in the formation of a word, or after prepositions in the case of verbs beginning with स्. This cerebralization of स् was a peculiar phonetic change which naturally occurred when स् in utterance came after a vowel excepting अ. Some of the Pratisakhya works have exhaustively treated this change and Panini has also mentioned many rules in connection with it.
ṣitan affix or sometimes a word marked by the mute letter ष्, The mute letter ष् attached to roots signifies the addition of the krt affix अङ् ( अ ) in the sense of the verbal activity: e. g. क्षमा from the root क्षमूष् ( क्षम् ), जरा from ज्ट्टष्ठ ( ज्दृ ); confer, compare षिद्भिदादिम्भोSङ् P. III. 3.104: attached to affixes, ष् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीष् ), e. g. वराकी, शतपथिकी et cetera, and others confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41. A few roots headed by घट् (roots from घट् to त्वर्) are to be looked upon as षित् for the purpose of the addition of the krt. affix अ; e. g. घटा, व्यथा et cetera, and others confer, compare घटादयः षितः । Gana sutra in Dhatupatha
saṃghātārthacollective sense given by a combination of letters called पदार्थ. When the collective sense is given by a combination of words it is called पदार्थ, and when the idea is complete it is called वाक्यार्थ. Sometimes the meaning of a compound word is taken individually and not. collectively; such a meaning is called संघातविगृहीतार्थ confer, compare नामाख्यातग्रहणं संघातविगृहीतार्थं द्रष्टव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 3.72 Vart. 1.
saṃdhāraṇaputting very close in utterance; slurring of a phonetic element when it appears as almost suppressed; confer, compare संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेः संवरणम् Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5.
saṃdhieuphonic combination; phonetic combination of two vowels or two consonants or one vowel and one consonant resulting from their close utterance; many kinds of such combinations and varieties are given in the Pratisakhya works. In the Siddhantakaumudi, Bhattoji Diksita has given five kinds of such Sandhis at the beginning of his work; confer, compare पदान्तपदाद्योः संधिः । यः कश्चिद्वैदिकशास्त्रसंधिरुच्यते स पदान्तपदाद्योर्वेदितव्यः।ते संधयश्चत्वारो भवन्ति । स्वरयोः व्यञ्जनयो: स्वरव्यञ्जनयोश्च Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 3.
saṃnidhāpanaputting together too close, so that the two phonetic elements which are so placed, coalesce together and result into a third, or one of the two merges into another.
saṃnidhijuxtaposition; coming together phonetically very close: confer, compare पदानामविलम्बितेनोच्चारणम् Tarka Samgraha; अव्यवधानेन अन्वयप्रतियोग्युपस्थितिः Tattvacintamani 4; the same as संनिकर्ष which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
saṃnipātalakṣaṇaan operation which is characterized by the relationship between two words or two phonetic elements. See संनिपातपरिभाषा a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
saṃsvādaa peculiar phonetic element described along with another one named निगार both of which have got no definite place of utterance in the mouth; confer, compare अविशेषस्थानौ संस्वादानगारौ । पकारनकारयकारा: वा संस्वादे । हकारमकारना. सिक्या वा निगारे I commentary on R.T.11.
saṃhitāposition of words or parts of words in the formation ofa word quite near each other which results into the natural phonetic coalescence of the preceding and the following letters. Originally when the Vedic hymns or the running prose passages of the Yajurveda were split up into their different constituent parts namely the words or padas by the Padakaras, the word संहिता or संहितापाठ came into use as contrasted with the पदपाठ. The writers of of the Pratisakhyas have conseguently defined संहिता as पदप्रकृतिः संहिता, while Panini who further split up the padas into bases ( प्रकृति ) and affixes ( प्रत्यय ) and mentioned several augments and substitutes, the phonetic combinations, which resulted inside the word or pada, had to be explained by reason of the close vicinity of the several phonetic units forming the base, the affix, the augment, the substitute and the like, and he had to define the word संहृिता rather differently which he did in the words परः संनिकर्षः संहिता; cf P.I.4.109: confer, compare also संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्य समासे वाक्ये तु सा विवक्षामपेक्षते Sabdakaustubha on Maheshvara Sutra 5.1.
sakriyāviśeṣaṇaaccompanied by a word qualifying the verbal activity; sometimes a verb with such a word makes a sentence; confer, compare सक्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति । M.Bh. on P. II.1.1 Vart, 9
sakriyāviśeṣaṇaaccompanied by a word qualifying the verbal activity; sometimes a verb with such a word makes a sentence; confer, compare सक्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति । M.Bh. on P. II.1.1 Vart, 9
samābhahārarepetition of an action; intensity of an action. पौनःपुन्यं भृशार्थो वा समभिहारः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1. 22.
samayathe omission of words which have already occurred before in the recital of the Pada and other Pathas or recitals, with a view to avoiding an unnecessary repetition; confer, compareदृष्टक्रमत्वात्समयान् संदध्यात् सर्वशः क्रमे। पदेन व पदाभ्यां च प्रागवस्येदतीत्य च R.Pr.X.12.
savarṇacognate, homophonic: a letter belonging to the same technical category of letters possessing an identical place of utterance and internal effort confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, 1. 9. For example, the eighteen varieties of अ, due to its short, long and protracted nature as also due to its accents and nasalization, are savarna to each other. The vowels ऋ and लृ are prescribed to be considered as Savarna although their place of utterance differs. The consonants in each class of consonants are savarna to one another, but by the utterance of one, another cannot be taken except when the vowel उ has been applied to the first. Thus कु stands for क्, ख्, ग्, घ् and ङ्. confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. 1, I. 9 and अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्यय: P. I. 1. 69.
sāmānādhikaraṇyastanding in apposition; the word is used many times in its literal sense ' having the same substratum.' For instance, in घटं करोति देवदत्तः, the personal ending ति and देवदत्त are said to be समानाधिकरण. The Samanadhikarana words are put in the same case although, the gender and number sometimes differ. See the word समानाधिकरण.
sāmānyagrahaṇamention of a term in such a general way as would include some varieties or specific forms of it to which the expression put is common: exempli gratia, for example the word आप् ( feminine. affix ) for the afixes टाप्, डाप् and चाप्; confer, compare सामान्य ग्रहणार्थो णकारः M.Bh. on P.III. 1.30 cf also च्ल्युत्सर्गः सामान्यग्रहणार्थः P. III 1.43 Vart. 1.
suc(l)taddhita affix. affix स् applied to fद्व, त्रि, चतुर् and to एक optionally, in the sense of 'repetition of the activity' e. g. द्विः करोति et cetera, and others cf Kas, on P. V. 4. 18, 19; (2) Unadi affix स्, see सु a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. सुजनपण्डित a grammarian who wrote a small treatise on genders named लिङार्थचन्द्रिका सुट् (1) short term ( प्रत्याहार ) for the first five case-affixes which are called सर्वनामस्थान also, when they pertain to the masculine or the feminine gender: confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य I.1.43; (2)augment स् prefixed to the root कृ and to the root कॄ when preceded by certain prepositions and as seen in the words कुस्तुम्बुरु and others as also in the words अपरस्पर गोष्पद, आस्पद, अाश्चर्य, अपस्कर, विप्किर, हरिश्चन्द्र, प्रस्कण्व्, मल्कर, कास्तीर, अजास्तुन्द, कारस्कर and words in the class of words headed by पारस्कर, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VI. 1.135-57: (3) augment स् prefixed to the case-affix अाम् after a pronoun; e. g. सर्वेषाम् confer, compare P. VII. I.52;(4) augment स् prefixed to the consonant त् or थ् pertaining to लिङ् affixes, e. g. कृषीष्ट confer, compare P. III. 4.107.
sup(l)locative case affix सु: (2) short term for case-affixes, as formed by the syllable सु (the nominative case. singular. affix) at the beginning and the final consonant प् of सुप्, the locative plural case-affix in the rule स्वौजसमौट्...ङ्योस्सुप् P. IV. 1.2. These case afixes are called 'vibhakti' also. These सुप् affixes are elided after an indeclinable word; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुप: P. II. 4.82; in Veda स्, शे ( ए ), या, डा, ड्या, याच् and अाल् as seen, are substituted for these case affixes, which sometimes are even dropped or assimilated with the previous vowel of the base: e. g. सन्तु पन्थाः, आर्द्रे चर्मन् et cetera, and others cf, P. VII. 1.39. These caseaffixes are as a rule, grave-accented (अनुदात्त) excepting in such cases as are mentioned in P. VI.1. 166 to 184 and 19l.
sūtraa short pithy assertion laying down something in a scientific treatise; aphorism; the word is sometimes used in a collective sense in the singular, referring to the whole collection of Sutras or rules; confer, compare व्याकरणस्य सूत्रम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I. The term is defined as अाल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् | अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. There are given generally six kinds of Sutras viz. संज्ञासूत्र, परिभाषासूत्र,विधिसूत्र, नियमसूत्र, प्रतिषेधसूत्र and अधिकारसूत्र; confer, compare also संज्ञा च परिभाषा च विधिर्नियम एव च प्रतिषेधोधिकारश्च षड्विधम् सूत्रलक्षणम् | Com. on Kat. I. 1.2.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
svarabhinnadiffering in the matter of accent; words so differing are Practically looked upon as one and the same; confer, compare स्वरभिन्नानां यस्योत्तरस्वरविधिस्तस्येंकशेषो वक्यव्य: | अक्षश्च अक्षश्च अक्षौ । M. Bh on I. 2. 64 Vart. 24, For technical purposes, they are sometimes looked upon as different; confer, compare स्वरभिन्नस्य च प्राप्नुवन् विधिरनित्यः । Par. Sek. Pari. 49.
svābhāvyainherence; natural capacity; the word is used many times in connection with the power of denotation: confer, compare शब्दशक्तिस्वाभाव्यात् | Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. III.1. 112 or अभिधानशक्तिस्वाभाव्यात् Nyasa on P. IV. 4.60. स्वार a term used in the PratiSakhya works for स्वरित or the circumflex accent: स्वारः स्वरितः ( Com. on T.Pr. XVII.6: confer, compare also T.Pr.XX.20; XXIII.24. There are seven varieties of स्वार given in thc Pratisakhya works, viz. क्षैप्र, नित्य, प्रातिहत, अभिनिहत, प्रश्लिष्ट, पादवृत्त and तैरोव्यञ्जन, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XX.1-7.
     Vedabase Search  
74 results
eti achievesSB 6.16.24
eti attainSB 9.18.40
eti attainedSB 9.22.11
eti attainsSB 10.14.60
SB 3.32.43
eti becomesCC Antya 1.170
eti comesBG 11.55
eti comes backSB 6.5.13
eti does attainBG 4.9
eti does attainBG 4.9
eti getsBG 8.6
SB 4.24.29
eti goesSB 10.90.50
eti goes toCC Madhya 2.36
eti He is comingSB 10.35.22-23
eti reachesSB 7.10.47
abhyeti he undergoesSB 3.27.3
abhyeti approachesSB 3.29.19
abhyeti approachesSB 10.40.26
abhyeti is attractedSB 10.60.48
abhyudeti awakensCC Madhya 21.45
anuparyeti passes throughSB 5.22.16
anveti extends throughSB 6.16.56
apyeti dissolvesSB 6.16.22
apyeti disappears (that difference of opinion)SB 11.22.6
apyeti becomes mergedSB 11.24.22-27
apyeti are removedSB 11.26.31
atyeti surpassesBG 8.28
atyeti one can cross overSB 3.14.18
atyeti conquersSB 5.1.18
atyeti can overcomeSB 8.21.22
atyeti surpassesIso 4
bibheti fearsSB 1.1.14
bibheti is afraidSB 1.8.31
bibheti is afraid ofSB 2.7.7
bibheti fearsSB 6.9.21
na bibheti does not fearSB 11.23.56
bibheti is afraidSB 12.8.43
dhātā kṛtasthalī heti Dhātā, Kṛtasthalī and HetiSB 12.11.33
vidveṣam eti creates enmitySB 5.14.26
heti the wheel of eternal timeSB 3.8.20
heti weaponSB 3.25.38
heti HetiSB 6.10.19-22
heti HetiSB 8.10.19-24
dhātā kṛtasthalī heti Dhātā, Kṛtasthalī and HetiSB 12.11.33
heti weaponCC Madhya 22.162
yama-karta-hetim the process of spiritual cultureSB 2.7.48
heti with a weaponSB 4.5.22
heti with HetiSB 8.10.28
heti by the swordSB 11.29.39
heti swordSB 12.4.34
yama-karta-hetim the process of spiritual cultureSB 2.7.48
dhātā kṛtasthalī heti Dhātā, Kṛtasthalī and HetiSB 12.11.33
na pratyeti does not believeSB 10.57.38-39
na bibheti does not fearSB 11.23.56
paryeti completes its orbitSB 3.11.13
praheti PrahetiSB 6.10.19-22
praheti PrahetiSB 8.10.19-24
prahetiḥ puñjikasthalī Praheti and PuñjikasthalīSB 12.11.34
praheti with PrahetiSB 8.10.28
na pratyeti does not believeSB 10.57.38-39
prahetiḥ puñjikasthalī Praheti and PuñjikasthalīSB 12.11.34
samanveti existsSB 3.26.18
sameti achievesSB 7.7.36
sameti comesSB 11.23.47
sameti comes nearCC Antya 6.285
udeti it risesSB 5.21.8-9
udeti arisesSB 7.5.27
udeti has risen on the horizonSB 9.6.37
udeti is awakenedBs 5.58
vidveṣam eti creates enmitySB 5.14.26
viparyeti is changed or brokenSB 10.4.19
vyeti declinedSB 3.11.21
yama-karta-hetim the process of spiritual cultureSB 2.7.48
     DCS with thanks   
22 results
eti noun (feminine) approach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
arrival (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
[gramm.] the root i (eti)
Frequency rank 27289/72933
acetita adjective not thought about
Frequency rank 31440/72933
asaṃketin adjective
Frequency rank 45812/72933
asaṃketita adjective one with whom nothing has been concerted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45813/72933
asāṃketika adjective
Frequency rank 32882/72933
indreti noun (masculine) name of a man
Frequency rank 33279/72933
ketita adjective called (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dwelt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inhabitated (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
summoned (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34248/72933
ceti noun (masculine) [gramm.] verb cetay
Frequency rank 52429/72933
nirheti adjective unarmed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weaponless (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56357/72933
netikarman noun (neuter) eine yogische Reinigungsübung
Frequency rank 56731/72933
netikarmaka noun (neuter) eine yogische Reinigungsübung
Frequency rank 56732/72933
praheti noun (masculine) a missile (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of the Rākṣasas (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
weapon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15942/72933
preti noun (feminine) name of a Śakti
Frequency rank 29317/72933
bibheti noun (masculine) [gramm.] the root bhī
Frequency rank 60251/72933
rakṣoheti noun (masculine) name of a Rākṣasa
Frequency rank 29855/72933
śveti noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 40268/72933
saṃketita adjective agreed upon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fixed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
invited (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
settled (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40606/72933
sāketika adjective (sprachlich) konventionell
Frequency rank 70221/72933
sāṃketika adjective based on agreement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
consisting of signs (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conventional (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
indicatory (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 70459/72933
seti noun (feminine) ?
Frequency rank 41082/72933
heti noun (masculine) name of an Asura (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of the first Rākṣasa king (represented as occupying the sun's chariot in the month Caitra or Madhu) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16329/72933
heti noun (feminine) Agni's weapon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a ray of the sun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a young shoot or sprout (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an implement (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flame (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
impact (of a bow-string) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
instrument (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
light (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rapid motion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
shot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stroke (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wound (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11872/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
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vetiver grass, Andropogon muricatum.


conjunctivitis, oozing and enlargement of eyes; 2. any item that increases kapha, that promotes thick secretions blocking the passages. Go to kaphaja abhiṣyanda.


repetitive expression, practice.


1. Plant orange tree, Citrus reticulata; 2. a species of fern; 3. Artocarpus lacucha, monkey jack tree; 4. Mythological white elephant carrying the god Indra.


1. diabetic boil; 2. lacrimal abscess; stye or hordeolum; 3. inflammatory swelling.


lac, lacca; the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of insects used as haemostat.


loss of appetite; tastelessness; anorexia.


one of tantrayuktis; presumption; inference from circumstances; disjunctive hypothetical syllogism; logical implication.


loss of appetite; tastelessness.


1. a binary star Beta Arietis in Aries constellation; first of the 27 stars in celestial sphere; 2. name of a month.


incomparable, unequal; atulyagotrīya incomparable; genetically different.


he who has shed everything, an asceti Century


Plant 1. saffron; 2. asafoetida.


second star in the path of moon corresponding to 35, 39, and 41 Arietis in Aries constellation.


polyphagia (excessive hunger or increased appetite) with muscular wasting; excessive hunger


author of Cārucarya, a work on dietetics and lifestyle (11th Century ).


cognition; discretion; knowledge; awareness; intellect; buddhimāndya low intelligence.


Plant Cassia tora, syn. Senna tora; sicklepod, foetic cassia.


Plant Bengal gram, chickpea, Cicer arietinum.


the drops collected from the plant Cicer arietinum in the winter mornings using a cloth.


text on dietetics and lifestyle authored by Bhoja (11th Century )


rejuvenating and anti-aeging preparation with the main ingredient of myrobalan, invented by sage Cyavana. It contains 48 ingredients and indicated in debility, gout, respir diseases, loss of appetite et Century


Plant 1. camel thorn, Persian manna plant, Alhagi pseudalhagi; A. camelorum; Hedysaum alhagi; 2. Fagonia cretica or Khorasan thorn.


emerald, a gemstone of the mineral beryl coloured green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.


profuse watery secretion from nose.


cause; aetiology.


Plant wild asafoetida, Ferula jaeschkeana.


Plant asafetida; resin of Ferula foetida; hiṅgupatri leaf of Ferula jaeschkeana.


Plant andropogon grass; black vetiver; roots of Colius vettiveroides.


Plant jeevanti, Leptadenia reticulata.


load stone or magnetic ore of iron.


reason, aetiology.


crab; karkaṭaśṛṇgi crab’s claw, insect secretions on Pistacia chinensia, syn, Pistacia integerrima, syn. Rhus integerrima.


impetigo, skin disease, urticaria.


depletion, wasting condition.




lac, the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of insects, ex: laccifer.


Plant vetiver, root of Andropogon muricatus, syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides.


depletion therapy (by fasting), fasting.


1. Plant emetic nut, dried fruit of Xeromphis spinosa syn. Randia dumetorum; 2. Gardenia floribunda. 3. inebriating, intoxicating; 4. bees-wax.


(madhyama.panca.mūla) country mallow balā, hogweed punrṇava, castor eranḍa, Uraria picta and Desmodium gangeticum śūrṇaparṇidvayam.


emerald; a gemstone, and a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.


mouth, oral, mukhapāka stomatitis, mukhasrāva excess salivary secretion, mukhavairasya distaste or loss of taste.




Plant Citrus aurantium, C. reticulate; orange.


drawing of a thread through nose and mouth to clean with warm salt water.


inquiry into the causes of a disease, aetiology, diagnosis.


aetiological pentad or five clinical barometers. Mādhavanidāna describes them as prodromal symptoms (pūrvarūpa), manifested symptoms (rūpa), pathogenesis (samprāpti), allaying by suitable remedies or predilection (upaśaya) and eight kinds of physical examination (aṣṭavidhaparīkṣa).


depletion of immunity.


beverage, rice is fried in oil and later boiled in water, one of the eight varieties of rice preparations, thin gruel.


1. Plant salacia, Salacia reticulata; 2. yellow jasmine; 3. turmeric; 4. saffron.


urinary disease, increased frequency and turbidity of urine, pramehapiḍaka diabetic carbuncle.


life force prāṇavāta fore-breath; one of the five varieties of vāta.


one of tantrayuktis, connected argument, context; conclusion by repetition.


Plant 1. marsh mallow, khatmi, Althaea officinalis; 2. touch-me-not plant, Mimosa pudica 3. stinkvine, Paederia foetida is used in south India and arrow-leaf morning glory, Merremia tridentata is used in north India.


area which has no sensation, anesthetic patches on the skin.


obstruction by secretions.


Plant pinari, Sterculia foetida.


haemopoietic system.


netted custard apple, Annona reticulata; native to Americas and not dealt with in classical ayurvedic texts.


Plant Amaranthus tricolor, A. gangeticus. amaranth or elephant head amaranth.


one of the nine seizing planets (graha), impetigo, a skin disease.


Plant salpan, Desmodium gangeticum, D. laxiflorum. (in north India); Pseudarthria viscida is used in south India.


an aetiological factor that is closer and immeadiate. ex: vitiation of humors.


a type of diabetic boil.


paraplegia; impairment of motor and sensory functions of lower extremeties.


poetic treatise on āyurveda by a Telugu scholar in Tanjavur.


one of eighteen varieties of kuṣṭa, pityriasis versicolor, black patches.


1. training; 2. phonetics (one of the vedāngas).


duct, blood vessel, vein, nerve; sirapidika episcleritis, sirapratāna prominent and reticulated veins.


cruciform forceps used in surgery. Its of 24 varieties.


1. causing to perspire, diphoretic, sudation or fomenting; 2. steaming, sudation therapy; 3. one of eighteen purification processes of mercury.


drug, promoting thin secretions.


emerald; a gemstone with a variety of the mineral beryl colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.


saturating humor, one of the five varieties of kapha/sleṣma.


strong-smelling; ex: garlic, asafoetida, orris root.


Plant vetiver, fibrous roots of Vetiveria zizanioides. syn. Andropogon muricatus.


earthy concretion of a milk-white colour formed in the hallow of a bamboo; bamboo rice. Bambusa arundinacea.


vedic auxiliary disciplines; phonetics (śikṣa), ritual (kalpa), grammar (vyākaraṇa), etymology (nirukti), meter (chandas) and astrology (jyotiṣa).


fifth layer of skin, one fifth of vrīhi in thickness, reticular layer; visarpa, kuṣṭa are manifested from here.


discretion, consideration, deep thinking.


an aetiological factor that is at distance; a cause that acts after some time.




trickling, a substance promoting thick secretions which may not block the passages, overflow, see. Abhiṣyanda


1. growth (testicle), (gut), 2. Plant Habenaria intermedia, syn. H. arietina.


an aetiological factor that cannot immediately cause a disease.


Plant ground prickle; khorassan thorn; Fagonia cretica.


(yoṣa.apasmāra) hysteria; A mental disorder characterized by emotional excitability and sometimes by amnesia or a physical deficit, such as paralysis, or a sensory deficit, without an organic cause.

     Wordnet Search "eti" has 34 results.


dhūmikā, dhūlikā, dhūpikā, śīkaraḥ, khabāṣpaḥ, mṛgatṛṣṇā, mṛgatṛṣā, mṛgatṛṭ, kūhā, kuheḍikā, kujhaṭikā, kujhaṭiḥ, himajhatiḥ, rubheṭiḥ, dhūmamahiṣī   


śītakāle dhūmikayā āvāgamanasya kṛte kāṭhinyaṃ jāyate।


pretaḥ, pretanaraḥ, pretikaḥ, paretaḥ, nārakaḥ, narakavāsī, narakāmayaḥ, paretaḥ, niśāṭaḥ, brahmarākṣasaḥ, bhūtaḥ, malinamukhaḥ, rahāṭaḥ, śmaśānanivāsī, śmaśānaveśmā, sattva   

mṛtyoḥ anantaraṃ yaḥ jīvātmā tasya sā avasthā yasyāṃ saḥ mokṣābhāvat anyajanān pīḍayati।

ādhunike yuge viralāḥ janāḥ pretānām astittvaṃ na svīkurvanti।



mañcasampuṭādeḥ vibhāgaḥ yaḥ udghāṭayituṃ śakyate।

mayā granthaḥ antaḥpeṭikāyāṃ sthāpitaḥ।


ḍhālam, khaḍgarāṭ, kheṭikā, ajjhalam   

khaḍgādibhiḥ rakṣaṇārthe upayujyamānā astraviśeṣaḥ।

yoddhā ḍhālena svasaṃrakṣaṇaṃ karoti।


capeṭikā, talāghātaḥ   

sampūrṇahastena kṛtaḥ āghātaḥ।

tena mahyaṃ capeṭikā dattā।


sampuṭaḥ, sampuṭakaḥ, peṭikā   

kāṣṭhasya dhātoḥ vā sapidhānaṃ catuṣkoṇākārakaṃ pātram।

eṣaḥ sampuṭaḥ vastraiḥ pūritaḥ।


vajram, kuliśam, bhaduram, paviḥ, śatakoṭiḥ, svaruḥ, śambaḥ, dambholiḥ, aśaniḥ, kulīśam, bhidiram, bhiduḥ, svarus, sambaḥ, saṃvaḥ, aśanī, vajrāṃśaniḥ, jambhāriḥ, tridaśāyudham, śatadhāram, śatāram, āpotram, akṣajam, girikaṇṭakaḥ, gauḥ, abhrottham, meghabhūtiḥ, girijvaraḥ, jāmbaviḥ, dambhaḥ, bhidraḥ, ambujam, hlādinī, didyut, nemiḥ, hetiḥ, namaḥ. sṛkaḥ, vṛkaḥ, vadhaḥ, arkaḥ, kutasaḥ , kuliśaḥ, tujaḥ, tigmam, meniḥ, svadhitiḥ sāyakaḥ, paraśuḥ   

indrasya pradhānaṃ śastram।

ekadā indreṇa hanumān vajreṇa prahṛtaḥ।


asihetiḥ, khaḍgikaḥ   

yaḥ aseḥ pracalanaṃ samyak jānāti।

śivājīrājaḥ ekaḥ kuśalaḥ asihetiḥ āsīt।


patrapeṭikā, lekhabhāṇḍam   

patravibhāgena sthāne sthāne sthāpitā peṭikā yasyāṃ janaiḥ patrāṇi niḥkṣipyante।

mama patram api patrapeṭikāyāṃ samādadhātu।




tau dvau sāṅketikāyāṃ bhāṣāyāṃ vadataḥ।


piṭakaḥ, peṭakaḥ, peḍā, mañjūṣā, peṭaḥ, peṭikā, tariḥ, tarī, mañjuṣā, peḍikā   

vaṃśaśalākayā vinirmitaṃ pidhānayuktaṃ pātram।

piṭake sarpaḥ asti।


vyādhaḥ, ākheṭakaḥ, ākheṭikaḥ, kulikaḥ, kṣāntaḥ, khaṭṭikaḥ, gulikaḥ, drohāṭaḥ, nirmanyuḥ, nirvairaḥ, naiṣādaḥ, pāparddhikaḥ, balākaḥ, mārgikaḥ, mṛgadyūḥ, lubdhakaḥ, vyādhakaḥ, śvagaṇikaḥ, saunikaḥ   

yaḥ mṛgayāṃ karoti।

śvāpadaḥ na prāptaḥ ataḥ vyādhaḥ riktahastaḥ eva pratyāgacchat।



mugdagodhūmādīnāṃ sāmbugāḍhaṃ cūrṇaṃ hastena vimardayitvā vaṭakākāraṃ vidhāya nirdhūme agnau pacyamānaḥ puṣṭaḥ roṭikāviśeṣaḥ।

kṛṣakaḥ tiktikayā saha leṭīṃ khādati।



agni-prajvalanārthe upayuktā kāṣṭha-śalākā-peṭīkā;

dīpeṣikā-peṭīkāyām bahavaḥ dīpeṣikāḥ santi



haṭhayogasya bhedaḥ yasmin ekasmin nāsikāpuṭe jalaṃ yojayitvā anyasmāt bahiḥ niṣkāsyate।

yaḥ prātaḥ netiṃ karoti tasya kadāpi pīnasaḥ na bhavati।


vidyutpeṭikā, vidyutkoṣaḥ, samūhā   

rasāyanagarbhaḥ koṣaḥ yasmin rāsāyanikaprakriyayā vidyut nirmīyate।

krīḍānake catasraḥ vidyutpeṭikāḥ santi।,



phenakasya peṭikā।

tena hastaprakṣālanād anantaraṃ phenakaṃ phenakapeṭikāyāṃ sthāpitam।



ekaḥ rākṣasaḥ yaḥ hetyāḥ bhrātā āsīt।

praheteḥ varṇanaṃ rāmāyaṇe vartate।



ekā rākṣasī।

hetyāḥ varṇanaṃ rāmāyaṇe vartate।


dhūmikā, dhūpikā, khabāṣpaḥ, kuñjhaṭikā, kuñjhaṭiḥ, himañjhatiḥ, kūhā, kuhelikā, kuhelī, kuheḍikā, kuheḍī, rubheṭī, ratāndhrī, nabhoreṇuḥ   

dhūmasadṛśāḥ bāṣpakaṇāḥ ye sūryaprakāśam apahṛtya janān kuhayanti;

śiśire prātaḥ dhūmikā dṛśyate



ekā saṃkarā rāgiṇī।

saṅgītajñaḥ jayetīṃ gāyati।



ekaḥ laghu karaṇḍakaḥ।

tataḥ peṭikāyāḥ mama valayāni ānayatu।


sukarātaḥ, sākreṭisaḥ   

prācīnayavanasthaḥ ekaḥ dārśanikaḥ।

pleṭomahodayasya guruḥ sukarātāya viṣaprayogena ghātitaḥ।



saṅketasya saṅketena sambaddhaḥ vā।

citre sāṅketikānāṃ varṇānāṃ mahattvaṃ vartate।


karṣita, kheṭita, halya   

yasya karṣaṇaṃ jātam।

kṛṣakaḥ karṣite kṣetre bījāni vapati।


matapeṭikā, matapatrapeṭikā   

sā peṭikā yasyāṃ matadātā svamatakhyāpanārthe matapatraṃ nidhāyati।

matapeṭikāḥ surakṣāpūrvakaṃ matadānakendrān prati nīyante।


sūryakiraṇaḥ, sūryaraśmiḥ, sūryamayūkhaḥ, sūryakaraḥ, sūryāṃśuḥ, arkakaraḥ, gabhastiḥ, tapanakaraḥ, ravikiraṇaḥ, sūryapādaḥ, heti   

sūryasya raśmiḥ।

uṣaḥkāle sūryakiraṇāḥ dharām āvṛṇvanti।


rūḍha, nirūḍha, pracalita, vyāvahārika, ucita, niyata, pracala, sāmayika, niyama, dharmya, vaiyavahārika, sāṃketika, sāmayācārika, pratna, lokya, laukika   

loke lokeṣu vā pracalitaḥ.;

asya śabdasya rūḍhaḥ arthaḥ kaḥ।



yena upakaraṇena sauravidyut nirmīyate।

śuddhāyāḥ ūrjāyāḥ utpādane sauravidyutpeṭikāyāḥ tantram atīva upayuktam।


kuliṅgākṣī, peṭikā , kuberākṣī   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ, kuliṅgasya caṭakasya akṣivat asyāḥ phalam asti ।

kuliṅgākṣī kośe varṇitā asti


kuliṅgākṣī, peṭikā , kuberākṣī   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ,kuliṅgasya caṭakasya akṣivat asyāḥ phalam asti ।

kuliṅgākṣī kośe varṇitā asti



ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

śvetikasya ullekhaḥ rājataraṅgiṇyām asti



ekā nadī ।

śvetyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti



ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

kheṭikasya varṇanaṃ pravare samupalabhyate

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