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     Grammar Search "ejaya" has 2 results.
ejayā: feminine nominative singular stem: ejaya
ejaya: second person singular present causative imperative class parasmaipadaej
16 results for ejaya
एजयmfn. causing to shake or tremble (forming irregular compounds with preceding accusative ; see janam-ejaya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अननङ्गमेजयmfn. not leaving the body unshaken (?) see an-aṅgamejaya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनङ्गमेजय(an-aṅgam--) mfn. not shaking the body (?), (gaRa cārv-ādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अङ्गमेजयत्व(aṅgam-ej-) n. the trembling of the body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अनुद्वेजयत्mfn. not stimulating, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अरिमेजयm. "shaking enemies", Name of a Naga priest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अरिमेजयm. of a son of śvaphalka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अरिमेजयm. of kuru- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जनमेजयm. ()"causing men to tremble" , Name of a celebrated king to whom vaiśampāyana- recited the (great-grandson to arjuna-, as being son and, successor to parikṣit- who was the son of arjuna-'s son abhimanyu-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जनमेजयm. Name of a son (of kuru-, i, 3740 ;of pūru- ;of puraṃ-jaya- ;of soma-datta- ;of su-mati- ;of sṛñjaya- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जनमेजयm. Name of a nāga-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जन्मेजयfor janam-ej- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सारिमेजयmfn. together with arim-ejaya- (son of śva-phalka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सत्त्वमेजयmfn. making animals tremble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उदेजयmfn. shaking, causing to tremble View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विश्वमेजयmfn. all-shaking, all-exciting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
8 results
āstīka आस्तीक a. Relating to, or treating of, the sage आस्तीक. -कः N. of an old saint, son of Jaratkāru; (at whose intercession King Janamejaya spared the Nāga Takṣaka from the destruction to which he had doomed the serpent race). Mb. gives the following etymology of the name; नाम चास्याभवत्ख्यातं लोकेष्वास्तीक इत्युत । अस्तीत्युक्त्वा गतो यस्मात्पिता गर्भस्थमेव तम् ॥ cf. सर्पाप- सर्प भद्रं ते गच्छ सर्प वनान्तरम् । जनमेजयस्य यज्ञान्ते आस्तीकवचनं स्मर ॥ -कम् A section (पर्व) of the first book of the Mahābhārata. -Comp. -अर्थदः N. of Janamejaya.
janamejaya जनमेजयः N. of a celebrated king of Hastināpura, son of Parīkṣit, the grandson of Arjuna. [His father died, being bitten by a serpent; and Janamejaya, determined to avenge the injury, resolved to exterminate the whole serpent-race. He accordingly instituted a serpent sacrifice, and burnt down all serpents except Takṣaka, who was saved only by the intercession of the sage Astika, at whose request the sacrifice was closed.. It was to this king that Vaiśampāyana related the Mahābhārata, and the king is said to have listened to it to expiate the sin of killing a Brāhmaṇa.].
takṣakaḥ तक्षकः [तक्ष् ण्वुल्] 1 A carpenter, wood-cutter (whether by caste or profession). -2 The chief actor in the prelude of a drama (i. e. the सूत्रधार). -3 N. of the architect of the gods. -4 N. of one of the principal Nāgas or serpents of the Pātāla, son of Kaśyapa and Kadru (saved at the intercession of the sage Āstika from being burnt down in the serpent-sacrifice performed by king Janamejaya, in which many others of his race were burnt down to ashes).
parikṣit परिक्षित् m. 1 N. of a king, son of Abhimanyu and father of Janamejaya. -2 An epithet of Agni.
pārikṣitaḥ पारिक्षितः A patronymic of Janamejaya, greatgrandson of Arjuna, and son of Parikṣit; क्व पारिक्षिता अभवन् Bṛi. Up.3.3.1.
vaiśampāyanaḥ वैशम्पायनः N. of a celebrated pupil of Vyāsa; जनमे- जयेन पृष्टः सन् ब्राह्मणैश्च सहस्रशः । शशास शिष्यमासीनं वैशम्पायन- मन्तिके ॥ Mb. [It was he who made Yājñavalkya 'disgorge the whole of the Yajurveda he had learnt from him which was picked up by his other pupils in the form of Tittiris or partridges; and hence the Veda was called 'Taittirīya'. Vaīśampāyana was celebrated for his great skill in narrating Purāṇas, and is said to have recounted the whole of the Mahābhārata to king Janamejaya].
satya सत्य a. [सते हितं यत्] 1 True, real, genuine; as in सत्यव्रत, सत्यसंध. -2 Honest, sincere, truthful, faithful. -3 Fulfilled, realized. -4 Virtuous, upright. -5 Unfailing; कच्चिच्छुश्रूषसे तात पितुः सत्यपराक्रम Rām.2.1.7. -त्यः 1 The abode of Brahman and of truth, the uppermost of the seven worlds or lokas above the earth; see लोक. -2 The Aśvattha tree. -3 N. of Rāma. -4 Of Viṣṇu; सत्यव्रतं सत्यपरं त्रिसत्यं सत्यस्य योनिं निहितं च सत्ये । सत्यस्य सत्यमृतसत्यनेत्रं सत्यात्मकं त्वां शरणं प्रपन्नाः ॥ Bhāg.1.2.26. -5 The deity presiding over नान्दीमुखश्राद्ध q. v. -6 N. of Brahman; अव्ययस्याप्रमेयस्य सत्यस्य च तथाग्रतः Mb.1.37.5. -त्यम् 1 Truth; मौनात्सत्यं विशिष्यते Ms.2.83; सत्यं ब्रू 'to speak the truth'. -2 Sincerity. -3 Goodness, virtue, purity, -4 An oath, a promise, solemn asseveration; सत्याद् गुरुमलोपयन् R.12.9; Ms.8.113. -5 A truism demonstrated truth of dogma. -6 The first of the four Yugas. or ages of the world, the golden age, the age of truth and purity. -7 Water -8 The Supreme Spirit; हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्यापिहितं मुखम् Īśop.15. -9 Final emancipation (मोक्ष); इह चेदवेदीदथ सत्यमस्ति न चेदिहावेदीन् महती विनष्टिः Ken.2.5. -त्यम् ind. Truly, really, indeed, verily, forsooth; सत्यं शपामि ते पादपङ्कजस्पर्शेन K.; Ku.6.19. -Comp. -अग्निः N. of the sage Agastya. -अनुरक्त a. devoted to truth, honest, upright, true. -अनृत a. 1 true and false; सत्यानृता च परुषा H.2.183. -2 apparently true, but really false. (-तम्, -ते) 1 truth and falsehood. -2 practice of truth and falsehood; i. e. trade, commerce; सत्यानृताभ्यामपि वा न श्ववृत्त्या कदाचन Ms.4.4 and 6. -अभिसंध a. true to one's promise, sincere. -आत्मन् true. (-m.) a virtuous or upright man. -आश्रमः renunciation of the world (संन्यास); दीक्षा बहुविधा राजन् सत्याश्रमपदं भवेत् Mb.12.66.13. -उत्कर्षः 1 pre-eminence in truth. -2 true excellence. -उद्य a. speaking the truth. -उपयाचन a. fulfilling a request. -कामः a lover of truth. -क्रिया a promise, oath. -जित् N. of Indra in the third Manvantara; इन्द्रस्तु सत्यजित् Bhāg.8.1.24. -तपस् m. N. of a sage. -दर्शिन् a. truth-seeing, fore-seeing truth. -धन a. rich in truth, exceedingly truthful. -धर्मः the law of truth, eternal truth. ˚परायण a. devoted to truth and virtue. -धृति a. strictly truthful. -नारायणः 1 A form of Viṣṇu. -2 A form of divinity (called Satyapīr in Bengāli). -पुरम् 1 the world of Viṣṇu. -2 The city of Satya-nārayaṇa; अन्ते सत्यपुरं ययौ (सत्यनारायणव्रतकथा). -पुष्टिः true or permanent prosperity. -पूत a. purified by truth (as words); सत्यपूतां वदेद्वाणीम् Ms.6.46. -प्रतिज्ञ a. true to one's promise. -प्रतिष्ठान, -मूल a. grounded in truth. -फलः the Bilva tree. -भामा N. of the daughter of Satrājit and the favourite wife of Kṛiṣṇa; (it was for her that Kṛiṣṇa fought with Indra and brought the Pārijāta tree from the Nandana garden and planted it in her garden). -भारतः N. of Vyāsa. -भेदिन् a. promise-breaking. -मानम् a true measure. -युगम् the golden age; the first or कृतयुग; see सत्यम् (6) above. -यौवनः a Vidyādhara. -रत a. devoted to truth, honest, sincere. (-तः) N. of Vyāsa. -लौकिकम् spiritual and worldly matters; मया प्रोक्तं हि लोकस्य प्रमाणं सत्यलौकिके Bhāg.3.24.35. -वचनम् 1 the speaking of truth. -2 a promise, solemn assurance. -वचस् a. truthful, veracious. (-m.) 1 a saint, Ṛiṣi. -2 a seer. (-n.) truth, veracity. -वद्य a. veracious; सत्यवद्यो रघूत्तमः Bk.5.1. (-द्यम्) truth, veracity. -वाक्यम् truth-speaking, veracity, -वाच् a. truthful, veracious, candid. (-m.) 1 a saint, seer. -2 a crow. -वादिन् a. 1 truth-speaking. -2 sincere, outspoken, candid. -व्यवस्था ascertainment of truth. -व्रत, -संगर, -संध a. 1 true or faithful to an agreement, promise or word, adhering to truth veracious; Bhāg.1.2.26; see सत्यः (4). -2 honest, sincere. -श्रवसी Ved. an epithet of Uṣas. -श्रावणम् taking a solemn oath. -संश्रवः a promise, vow. -संकल्प a. true in purpose of resolve. -संकाश a. specious, plausible -संगरः N. of Kubera. -a. true to an agreement or promise. -संधः 1 an epithet of Rāma; राजेन्द्रं सत्यसंधं दशरथतनयम् Rāma-rakṣā 26. -2 of Bharata. -3 of king Janamejaya. (-धा) an epithet of Draupadī. -a. keeping one's promise, faithful. -साक्षिन् m. a trustworthy witness; यथोक्तेन नयन्तस्ते पूयन्ते सत्यसाक्षिणः Ms.8.257.
sarpaḥ सर्पः [सृप्-घञ्] 1 Serpentine or winding motion, gliding. -2 Flowing, going. -3 A snake, serpent. -4 N. of a tree (नागकेशर). -5 The Āśleṣā constellation. -6 N. of a tribe of Mlechchhas or barbarians. -Comp. -अक्षी a kind of plant (Mar. थोर मुंगूसवेल). -अदनी the ichneumon plant (Mar. मुंगूसवेल). -अरातिः, -अरिः 1 an ichneumon. -2 a peacock. -3 an epithet of Garuḍa. -अशनः a peacock. -आवासः an ant-hill. -आवासम्, -इष्टम् the sandal tree. -ईश्वरः N. of Vāsuki. -गतिः a snake's tortuous movement (in wrestling). -गन्धा the ichneumon plant (Mar. लघु मुंगूसवेल). -छत्रम् a mushroom. -तृणः an ichneumon. -दंष्ट्रा 1 a snake's fang. -2 Croton Polyandrum (दन्ती). -दण्डा a kind of pepper. -दमनी N. of a plant (Mar. वांझ कर्टोली). -द्विष् a peacock. -धारकः a snake charmer. -निर्मोचनम् the cast-off skin of a snake. -फणिजः the gem found in a snake's head, the snake-gem. -बन्धः an artifice, subtle device. -भुज् m. 1 a peacock. -2 a crane. -3 a large snake. -भृता the earth. -मणिः a snake-gem. -राजः N. of Vāsuki. -लता Piper Betel (नागवल्ली); also सर्पवल्ली. -विद् m. a conjuror, snake-charmer. -विद्या, -वेदः Snakescience; सर्पदेवजनविद्यामेतद्भगवो$ध्येमि Ch. Up.7.1.2. -सत्रम् a sacrifice for the destruction of serpents (performed by king Janamejaya). -सत्रिन् m. N. of king Janamejaya; see जनमेजय. -हन् m 1 an ichneumon. -2 N. of Garuḍa.
     Vedic Index of
     Names and Subjects  
14 results
asitamṛga is the designation in the Aitareya Brāhmana1 of a family of the Kaśyapas who were excluded from a sacrifice by Janamejaya, but who took away the conduct of the offering from the Bhūtavīras, whom the king employed. In the Jaiminīya Brāhmana[1] and the Sadvimsa Brāhmana[2] the Asita- mrgas are called 4 sons of the Kaśyapas,’ and one is mentioned as Kusurubindu4 Auddālaki.
āsandīvant Possessing the throne,’ is the title of the royal city of Janamejaya Pāriksita, in which the horse, for his famous Aśvamedha, was bound. The authorities both cite a Gāthā for the fact, but they differ as to the priest who celebrated the rite. In the śatapatha Brāhmana he is stated to have been Indrota Daivāpa śaunaka, but in the Aitareya Tura Kāvaseya
indrota daivāpa śaunaka Is mentioned in the śata­patha Brāhmana as the priest who officiated at the horse sacrifice of Janamejaya, although this honour is attributed in the Aitareya Brāhmana to Tura Kāvaseya. He also appears in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of Sruta,and is mentioned in the Vamśa Brāhmana. He cannot be connected in any way with Devāpi, who occurs in the Rigveda
ugrasena Is mentioned in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and in a Gāthā there cited as being, with Bhīmasena and Srutasena, a Pārikṣitīya and a brother of Janamejaya. The brothers were cleansed by the horse sacrifice from sin.
kaśyapa Is the name of a sage who is mentioned only once in the Rigveda, but is a common figure in the later Samhitās. He is always of a mythical character, as belonging to the distant past. According to the Aitareya Brāhmana, he anointed King Viśvakarman Bhauvana, and in the Upanisads he is mentioned as a Rsi. The Kaśyapas appear in connexion with Janam- ejaya in the Aitareya Brāhmana.
kuru The Kurus appear as by far the most important people in the Brāhmana literature. There is clear evidence that it was in the country of the Kurus, or the allied Kuru- Pañcālas, that the great Brāhmanas were composed. The Kurus are comparatively seldom mentioned alone, their name being usually coupled with that of the Pañcālas on account of the intimate connexion of the two peoples. The Kuru-Pañcālas are often expressly referred to as a united nation. In the land of the Kuru-Pañcālas speech is said to have its particular home ; the mode of sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas is proclaimed to be the best ; the Kuru-Pañcāla kings perform the Rājasūya or royal sacrifice ; their princes march forth on raids in the dewy season, and return in the hot season Later on the Kuru-Pañcāla Brahmins are famous in the Upanisads. Weber and Grierson have sought to find traces in Vedic literature of a breach between the two tribes, the latter scholar seeing therein a confirmation of the theory that the Kurus belonged to the later stream of immigrants into India, who were specially Brahminical, as opposed to the Pañcālas, who were anti-Brahminical. In support of this view, Weber refers to the story in the Kāthaka Samhitā of a dispute between Vaka Dālbhya and Dhrtarāstra Vaicitravīrya, the former being held to be by origin a Pañcāla, while the latter is held to be a Kuru. But there is no trace of a quarrel between Kurus and Pañcālas in the passage in question, which merely preserves the record of a dispute on a ritual matter between a priest and a prince: the same passage refers to the Naimisīya sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas, and emphasizes the close connexion of the two peoples. Secondly, Weber conjectures in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā that Subhadrikā of Kāmpīla was the chief queen of the king of a tribe living in the neighbour¬hood of the clan, for whose king the horse sacrifice described in the Samhitā was performed. But the interpretation of this passage by Weber is open to grave doubt ; and in the Kānva recension of the Samhitā a passage used at the Rājasūya shows that the Kuru-Pañcālas had actually one king. More¬over, there is the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmana that the old name of the Pañcālas was Krivi. This word looks very like a variant of Kuru, and Zimmer plausibly conjectures that the Kurus and Krivis formed the Vaikarna of the Rigveda, especially as both peoples are found about the Sindhu and the Asikni.The Kurus alone are chiefly mentioned in connexion with the locality which they occupied, Kuruksetra. We are told, however, of a domestic priest (Purohita) in the service of both the Kurus and the Srñjayas, who must therefore at one time have been closely connected. In the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made to the Kurus being saved by a mare (aśvā), and to some disaster which befel them owing to a hailstorm. In the Sūtras, again, a ceremony (Vājapeya) of the Kurus is mentioned. There also a curse, which was pronounced on them and led to their being driven from Kuruksetra, is alluded to. This possibly adumbrates the misfortunes of the Kauravas in the epic tradition. In the Rigveda the Kurus do not appear under that name as a people. But mention is made of a prince, Kuruśravana (‘ Glory of the Kurus ^, and of a Pākasthāman Kaurayāna. In the Atharvaveda there occurs as a king of the Kurus Pariksit, whose son, Janamejaya, is mentioned in the śata¬patha Brāhmana as one of the great performers of the horse sacrifice.It is a probable conjecture of Oldenberg’s that the Kuru people, as known later, included some of the tribes referred to by other names in the Rigveda. Kuruśravana, shown by his name to be connected with the Kurus, is in the Rigveda called Trāsadasyava, * descendant of Trasadasyu,’ who is well known as a king of the Pūrus. Moreover, it is likely that the Trtsu- Bharatas, who appear in the Rigveda as enemies of the Pūrus, later coalesced with them to form the Kuru people. Since the Bharatas appear so prominently in the Brāhmana texts as a great people of the past, while the later literature ignores them in its list of nations, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they became merged in some other tribe. Moreover, there is evidence that the Bharatas occupied the territory in which the Kurus were later found. Two of them are spoken of in a hymn of the Rigveda as having kindled fire on the Drsadvatī, the Apayā, and the Sarasvatī—that is to say, in the sacred places of the later Kuruksetra. Similarly, the goddess Bhāratī (‘ belonging to the Bharatas ’) is constantly mentioned in the Aprī (‘ propitiatory ’) hymns together with Sarasvatī. Again, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana, one Bharata king was victorious over the Kāśis, and another made offerings to Gañgā and Yamunā, while raids of the Bharatas against the Satvants are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Nor is it without importance that the Bharatas appear as a variant for the Kuru-Pañcālas in a passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and that in the list of the great performers of the horse sacrifice the names of one Kuru and two Bharata princes are given without any mention of the people over which they ruled, while in other cases that information is specifically given.The territory of the Kuru-Pañcālas is declared in the Aitareya Brāhmana to be the middle country (Madhyadeśa). A group of the Kuru people still remained further north—the Uttara Kurus beyond the Himālaya. It appears from a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana that the speech of the Northerners— that is, presumably, the Northern Kurus—and of the Kuru- Pañcālas was similar, and regarded as specially pure. There seems little doubt that the Brahminical culture was developed in the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that it spread thence east, south, and west. Traces of this are seen in the Vrātya Stomas (sacrifices for the admission of non - Brahminical Aryans) of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and in the fact that in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka it is unusual for a Brahmin to dwell in the territory of Magadha. The repeated mention of Kuru- Pañcāla Brahmins is another indication of their missionary activity. The geographical position of the Kuru-Pañcālas renders it probable that they were later immigrants into India than the Kosala-Videha or the Kāśis, who must have been pushed into their more eastward territories by a new wave of Aryan settlers from the west. But there is no evidence in Vedic literature to show in what relation of time the immigration of the latter peoples stood to that of their neighbours on the west. It has, however, been conjectured, mainly on the ground of later linguistic phenomena, which have no cogency for the Vedic period, that the Kurus were later immigrants, who, coming by a new route, thrust themselves between the original Aryan tribes which were already in occupation of the country from east to west. Cf. also Krtvan. For other Kuru princes see Kauravya.
kautasta A word occurring once in the dual, is apparently a patronymic of Arimejaya and Janamejaya, two Adhvaryu priests at the snake sacrifice described in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
tura kāvṣeya Is mentioned in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the tenth book of the śatapatha Brāhmana as the source of the doctrine set forth in that book, and as separated, in the succession of teachers, from Sāndilya by Yajñavacas and Kuśri. In the same Brāhmana he is quoted by śāndilya as having erected a fire-altar on the Kārotī. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he appears as a Purohita, or ‘ domestic priest,’ of Janamejaya Pāriksita, whom he consecrated king. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad4 and a Khila he appears as an ancient sage. Oldenberg, no doubt rightly, assigns him to the end of the Vedic period. He is probably identical with Tura, the deva-muni, ‘saint of the gods,’ who is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
parikṣit Appears in the Atharvaveda as a king in whose realm, that of the Kurus, prosperity and peace abound. The verses in which he is celebrated are later called Pāriksityafy, and the Brāhmanas explain that Agni is pari-ksit because he dwells among men. Hence Roth and Bloomfield regard Pariksit in the Atharvaveda not as a human king at all. This may be correct, but it is not certain. Both Zimmer and Oldenberg recognize Pariksit as a real king, a view supported by the fact that in the later Vedic literature King Janamejaya bears the patronymic Pāriksita. If this be so, Pariksit belonged to the later period, since the Atharvan passage in which his name occurs is certainly late, and none of the other Samhitās know Pariksit at all. The Epic makes him grandfather of Pratisravas and great-grandfather of Pratīpa, and Zimmer, probably with justice, compares the Prātisutvana and Pratīpa found in another late Atharvan passage.8 But Devāpi and Santanu cannot be brought into connexion with Pratīpa.
pārikṣita ‘Descendant of Pariksit,’ is the patronymic of Janamejaya in the Aitareya Brāhmana and the śatapatha Brāhmana. The Pāriksitīyas appear in the śatapatha Brāh­mana and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra as performers of the horse sacrifice. In a Gāthā there cited they are called Pāri- ksitas. Apparently they were the brothers of Janamejaya, named Ugrasena, Bhīmasena, and Srutasena. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the question whither they have gone is made the subject of a philosophical discussion. It is clear that the family had passed away before the time of the Upanisad, and it is also clear that there had been some serious scandal mingled with their greatness which they had, in the opinion of the Brahmins, atoned for by their horse sacrifice with its boundless gifts to the priests. Weber sees in this the germ of the Epic stories which are recorded in the Mahābhārata. The verses relating to Pariksit in the Atharvaveda are called Pāriksityah in the Brāhmanas.
purohita (‘Placed in front,’ ‘appointed’) is the name of a priest in the Rigveda and later. The office of Purohita is called Purohiti and Purodhā. It is clear that the primary function of the Purohita was that of ‘ domestic priest ’ of a king, or perhaps a great noble; his quite exceptional position is shown by the fact that only one Purohita seems ever to be mentioned in Vedic literature. Examples of Purohitas in the Rigveda are Viśvāmitra or Vasiçtha in the service of the Bharata king,.Sudās. of the Trtsu family; the Purohita of Kuruśravana ; and Devāpi, the Purohita of Santanu. The Purohita was in all religious matters the alter ego of the king. In the ritual it is laid down that a king must have a Purohita, else the gods will not accept his offerings. He ensures the king's safety and victory in battle by his prayers ; he procures the fall of rain for the crops j he is the flaming fire that guards the kingdom. Divodāsa in trouble is rescued by Bharadvāja; and King Tryaruna Traidhātva Aikçvāka reproaches his Purohita, Vj?śa Jāna, when his car runs over a Brahmin boy and kills him. The close relation of king and Purohita is illustrated by the case of Klltsa Aurava, who slew his Purohita, UpagfU Sauśravasa, for disloyalty in serving Indra, to whom Kutsa was hostile. Other disputes between kings and priests who officiated for them are those of Janam- ejaya and the Kaśyapas, and of Viśvantara and the śyā- parnas ;lβ and between Asamāti and the Gaupāyanas. In some cases one Purohita served more than one king; for example, Devabhāg a Srautarṣa was the Purohita of the Xufus and the Sfñjayas at the same time, and Jala Jātū- karnya was the Purohita of the kings of Kāśi, Videha, and Kosala. There is no certain proof that the office of Purohita was hereditary in a family, though it probably was so. At any rate, it seems clear from the relations of the Purohita with King Kuruśravana, and with his son Upamaśravas, that a king would keep on the Purohita of his father. Zimmer thinks that the king might act as his own Purohita, as shown by the case of King Viśvantara, who sacrificed without the help of the śyāparṇas, and that a Purohita need not be a priest, as shown by the case of Devāpi and śantanu. But neither opinion seems to be justified. It is not said that Viśvantara sacrificed without priests, while Devāpi is not regarded as a king until the Nirukta, and there is no reason to suppose that Yāska's view expressed in that work is correct. According to Geldner, the Purohita from the beginning acted as the Brahman priest in the sacrificial ritual, being there the general superintendent of the sacrifice. In favour of this view, he cites the fact that Vasiṣtha is mentioned both as Purohita and as Brahman: at the sacrifice of Sunahśepa he served as Brahman, but he was the Purohita of Sudās; Bṛhaspati is called the Purohita and the Brahman of the gods; and the Vasisthas who are Purohitas are also the Brahmans at the sacrifice. It is thus clear that the Brahman was often the Purohita; and it was natural that this should be the case when once the Brahman’s place became, as it did in the later ritual, the most important position at the sacrifice. But the Brahman can hardly be said to have held this place in the earlier ritual; Oldenberg seems to be right in holding that the Purohita was originally the Hotr priest, the singer par excellence, when he took any part at all in the ritual of the great sacrifices with the Rtvijs. So Devāpi seems clearly to have been a Hotr; Agni is at once Purohita and Hotr; and the two divine Hotṛs ’ referred to in the Apr! litanies are also called the ‘two Purohitas.’ Later, no doubt, when the priestly activity ceased to centre in the song, the Purohita, with his skill in magic, became the Brahman, who also required magic to undo the errors of the sacrifice. There is little doubt that in the original growth of the priest¬hood the Purohita played a considerable part. In historical times he represented the real power of the kingship, and may safely be deemed to have exercised great influence in all public affairs, such as the administration of justice and the king’s conduct of business. But it is not at all probable that the Purohita represents, as Roth and Zimmer thought, the source which gave rise to caste. The priestly clcss is already in existence in the Rigveda (see Varṣa).
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
bhīmasena Is the name of one of the brothers of Janam-ejaya, the Pāriksitīyas, in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
bhūtavīra Is the name of a family of priests who, according to the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, were employed by Janamejaya to the exclusion of the Kaśyapas. A family of the latter, the Asitamj’g’as, however, won back the favour of Janamejaya, and ousted the Bhūtavīras.
       Bloomfield Vedic
7 results
arejetāṃ (TB. arejayatāṃ) rodasī pājasā girā # RV.1.151.1c; TB.
upariṣṭād yad ejāya # ApMB.2.16.1c.
janamejayasya yajñānte # Mahābh.1.58.25c. See janmejayasya.
janmejayasya (most mss. janam-) yajñānte # RVKh.1.191.5c. See janamejayasya etc.
devebhyo janamejayaḥ # AB.8.21.3d; śB.; śś.16.9.1d.
dyām amena rejayat pra bhūma # RV.4.22.3d.
pavasva viśvamejaya # RV.9.35.2b; 62.26c. See prec. but one.
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11 results
ejayate disturbsSB 5.2.14
janamejaya-ādīn headed by Mahārāja JanamejayaSB 1.16.2
janamejaya-ādīn headed by Mahārāja JanamejayaSB 1.16.2
janamejaya JanamejayaSB 9.22.35
janamejaya was named JanamejayaSB 9.2.35-36
janamejaya King JanamejayaSB 9.20.2
janamejaya the eldest sonSB 9.22.36
janamejaya JanamejayaSB 9.23.2
janmejaya King Janamejaya, the son of ParīkṣitSB 12.6.16
udvejayan giving troubleSB 9.8.15-16
udvejayanti cause unnecessary painSB 5.26.33
     DCS with thanks   
5 results
ejaya adjective causing to shake or tremble (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48054/72933
aṅgamejayatva noun (neuter) trembling of the body
Frequency rank 41776/72933
anudvejayant adjective not frightening
Frequency rank 26340/72933
arimejaya noun (masculine) name of a Naga priest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Śvaphalka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Kuru (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32526/72933
janamejaya noun (masculine) name of a celebrated king to whom Vaiśampāyana recited the MBh (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Nāga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kuru (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1934/72933
     Wordnet Search "ejaya" has 9 results.


uttejaya, prakopaya, saṃkṣobhaya, uttāpaya, saṃtāpaya, uddīpaya, udyojaya, utthāpaya, protsahaya, pracodaya, vardhaya, pravartaya, saṃdhukṣaya, sandhukṣaya   

saṃvegānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

saḥ rāmasya kathanaṃ śrutvā auttejayat।


janamejayaḥ, pārīkṣitaḥ, rājarṣiḥ   

rājñaḥ parīkṣitasya putraḥ।

janamejayaḥ abhimanyoḥ pautraḥ āsīt।


prakṣobhaya, saṃkṣobhaya, vikṣobhaya, udvejaya   

kenacit kāryeṇa karmaṇā vā krodhituṃ preraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

tasya jalpanaṃ mām prakṣobhayati।


tejaya, pariṣkṛ, niṣṭāpaya   

kimapi vastu samyak mṛṣṭvā gharṣitvā tasya kāntivardhanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

tāmrādīnāṃ dhātūnāṃ pātrāṇi āmlaiḥ dravyaiḥ tejyante।


preraya, protsāhaya, saṃcāraya, sañcāraya, udyojaya, pravartaya, uttejaya, āśvāsaya   

pravartanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

idaṃ kāryaṃ kartuṃ śyāmaḥ māṃ prerayati।



cakrarahitaṃ yānam yatra śunaḥ aśvān vā yojayati।

himayukte pradeśe eva slejayānaṃ prayujyate।


uttejaya, santejaya, saṃtejaya, udīraya, preraya, pravartaya   

bhāvānāṃ protsāhanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

gāyakaḥ svasya utsāhapūrṇagītena śrotāram uttejayati।


vitrāsaya, saṃtrāsaya, santrāsaya, bhīṣaya, udvejaya, pravyathaya   

bhayāśaṅkādyutpādanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

māṃ mā vitrāsayatu ahaṃ kṛśaḥ asmi।



saḥ rājā yaḥ mahābhāratakālāt prāk pāñcālaṃ śaśāsa।

ugrāyudhena janmejayaḥ hataḥ।

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