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     Amarakosha Search  
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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
darpaḥMasculineSingularavaṣṭambhaḥ, cittodrekaḥ, smayaḥ, madaḥ, avalepaḥarrogance
     Monier-Williams
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56 results for dre
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
drek cl.1 A1. drekate-, to sound ; to be in high spirits ; to grow or increase (see dhrek-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dref. Melia Sempervifrens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drekkaor drekkāṇa- or dreṣkāṇa- equals dṛkāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dreṣkāṇādhyāyam. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dreśyamfn. (prob. fr. dris.- equals dṛ-) visible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dreśyamfn. see a--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
acchidreṇaind. uninterruptedly, without break from first to last.
adreśyamfn. invisible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrendram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadreśaSee bhadreśa- etc. 1. bhadrā- below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadreśam. "husband of bhadrā- id est durgā- ", Name of śiva- (see umeśa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadreśvaraSee bhadreśa- etc. 1. bhadrā- below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadreśvaram. Name of various statues and liṅga-s of śiva- (see prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadreśvaram. of a place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadreśvaram. of a kāyastha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadreśvaram. of an author (also -sūri-and cārya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhadreṇu(bṛh/ad--) mfn. stirring up thick dust View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candreśaliṅgan. Name of a liṅga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candreṣṭāf. "moon-loved", a night lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candreśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrejyam. Name of bṛhaspati-, the preceptor of the gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indreṇatamf(ā-)n. naturally curved (as a reed) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indreṣitamfn. sent or driven or instigated by indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indreśvaram. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indreśvaraliṅgan. Name of a liṅga-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karkacandreśvaratantran. Name of a tantra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaudreyam. (gaRa gṛṣṭy-ādi-) patronymic fr. kudri- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣaudreyan. (fr. kṣudrā-), wax View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudrekṣafor drākṣa- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudreṅgudīf. Alhagi Maurorum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣudrervārum. a species of gourd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madodrekam. Melia Bukayun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madreśa m. a sovereign of the Madras View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madreśvaram. a sovereign of the Madras View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dreyam. "son of mādri-", metron. of nakula- and saha-deva- (dual number of both together) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dreyam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahīndrendram. an indra- among kings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahodrekam. a particular measure of capacity (= 4 prastha-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phaṇīndreśvaram. Name of one of the 8 vīta-rāga-s of the Buddhists View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradrekA1. -drekate-, to begin to neigh or roar or bellow etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāgodrekam. excess of passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmacandrendram. (with sarasvati-) Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samudreṣṭhamf(-)n. being in the waters
sattvodrekam. excess or predominance of the quality of goodness, superabundance of energy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saubhadreyam. metron. of abhimanyu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saubhadreyam. Terminalia Bellerica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddharudreśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīnarendreśvaram. Name of a statue of śiva- erected by śrī-narendra-- prabhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
subhadreśam. "lord of subhadrā-", Name of arjuna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udrecakamfn. enhancing or augmenting exceedingly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udrekam. abundance, overplus, excess, preponderance, superiority, predominance etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udref. the plant Melia Sempervirens View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udrekinmfn. excessive, violent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udrekinmfn. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') abounding in, giving preponderance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasūdrekam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāladreṣkāṇam. the second dṛkāṇa- (q.v) in Cancer etc. (equals vyāla-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
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drek द्रेक् 1 Ā. (द्रेकते) 1 To sound. -2 To grow, increase. -3 To show joy, be exhilarated.
drekka द्रेक्क (क्का also ष्का) णः One-third part of the night; स्वपञ्चनवमानां ये राशिनामधिपाः ग्रहाः । एते द्रेक्काणपाराशौ द्रेक्काणास्त्रय एव हि ॥ Jyotistattvam.
adreśya अद्रेश्य a. Ved. Invisible (अदृश्य). Muṇḍ.1.6.
adreśya अद्रेश्य a. Invisible अदृश्य; Muṇḍ1.1.6.
udrekaḥ उद्रेकः 1 Increase, excess, preponderance, abundance; ज्ञानोद्रेकाद्विघटिततमोग्रन्थयः सत्त्वनिष्ठाः Ve.1.23; गत्वोद्रेकं जघनपुलिने Śi.7.74; so मोह˚, धन˚, मद˚; सुकृतोद्रेकः Bh.3.87. -2 Commencement, outset. -3 Prosperity (ऐश्वर्य); Mb.12.313.17. -का The plant (महानिंब). -Comp. -भङ्गः discouraging a thing at the very beginning.
udrekin उद्रेकिन् a. Abounding in, increasing.
udrecaka उद्रेचक a. Enhancing or augmenting exceedingly; Rāj. T.4.
kṣaudreyam क्षौद्रेयम् Wax.
pradrek प्रद्रेक् 1 Ā. To neigh, bellow. प्रद्वार् pradvār प्रद्वारम् pradvāram प्रद्वार् प्रद्वारम् A place before a door or gate.
dreyaḥ माद्रेयः An epithet of Nakula and Sahadeva.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
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ud ud wet, VII. P. unátti, undánti [cp. Lat. und-a ‘wave’]. ví- moisten, drench, i. 85, 5; v. 83, 8.
toka tok-á, m. offspring, children, ii. 33, 14; vii. 63, 6.
nud nud push, VI. nudá; pf. 3. pl. Ā. nu-nudre, i. 85, 10. 11. prá- push away: pf. vii. 86, 1.
yuvayu yuva-yú, a. addressed to you, vii. 71, 7.
śata śatá, n. hundred, ii. 33, 2; vii. 103, 10 [Gk. ἑκατό-ν, Lat. centum, Go. hund].
     Macdonell Search  
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aṅgaja a. produced in, on or from the body, bodily; -gâta, m. son: pl. children.
atidurjana m. great scoundrel.
adharottara a. losing or winning; high and low; earlier and later; n. address and answer; gradation; topsy-turviness.
anabhibhāṣin a. not ad dressing.
anuga a. following; flying after; corresponding to (--°ree;); m. follower: pl. reti nue; -gati, f. following: -ka, a. following; imitating; conforming to; -gantavya, fp. to be followed or accompanied; -gama, m., -na, n. following; -gara, m. invitation ad dressed to the reciter; -gargita, n. echo; -gâmin, a. following, obedient to (ac.); m. servant; -giram, ad. on the mountain.
anubhava m. perception, feeling; spirit; -bhâva, m. enjoyment; power, dignity; -bhâvin, a. perceiving; m. eye-witness; -bhâshitri, a. addressing; -bhûta, pp. ex perienced, felt, enjoyed; -bhûti, f.perception, apprehension.
apatya n. offspring, progeny, child; -duhkha½eka-maya, a. consisting solely of grief for children; -vat, a. possessed of off spring; -sneha-kripâ-maya, a. filled with love and pity for children.
apasada m. outcast; worst among (--°ree;): pl. children of mixed marriages (in which the father is lower); -sarana, n. going away, retreat; -sarpa, m. spy; -savya, a. not left, right: -m kri, turn the right side towards (ac., lc.); hang the sacred thread on the right shoulder: -vat, a. in which the sa cred cord is on the right shoulder; -sâra, m. exit, outlet, egress: -na, n. removing, dismiss ing, banishing; -sâri-tâ, f. issue, end; -sârin, a. decreasing, diminishing.
abhibhāṣaṇa n. allocution; -bhâshin, a. addressing; speaking.
abhivadana n. address; -vand ana, n. respectful salutation; -varnana, n. description; -vardhana, n. strengthening, increasing.
abliṅga n., â, f. pl. verses addressed to the Waters (RV. X, ix, 1--3).
alaṃkaraṇa n. ornamenting; ornament; -in, a. ornamented; -ishnu, a. fond of dress; adorning (ac.); -tri, m. adorner.
avācya fp. not to be addressed; not to be uttered; not directly expressed: -tâ, f. abuse, invective.
avīra a. unmanly: â, f. woman without husband and children.
asaṃbhava m. destruction; absence, lack; impossibility, inadmissibility, absurdity; a. not being born again; having no material body; not occurring, impossible, absurd; -bhavyám, ad. irretrievably;-bhâv anâ, f. incredulity; disrespect; -bhâvayat, pr. pt. thinking impossible; -bhâvita, pp. uncompleted; inconceivable; unworthy of (g.): -½upamâ, f. simile in which an impos sibility is assumed; -bhâvya, fp. inconceiv able: -m, ad. irretrievably; -bhâshana, n. not addressing; -bhâshâ, f. no conversation with (in.); -bhâshya, fp. not to be conversed with, not suitable for a conference; -bhinna, pp. not broken through; -bhrita, pp. not made, natural; -bhoga, m. non-enjoyment; -bhogya, fp. with whom it is not lawful to eat; -bhrânta, pp. unbewildered, calm: -m, ad.
ākalpasāra a. fond of dress.
ābhāṣa m. speech; saying, pro verb; -ana, n. conference; addressing; -ya, fp. worthy of being addressed.
āmantraṇa n. calling, address ing; invitation; -ayitavya, fp. to be taken leave of; -ita, n. (pp.) address; vocative.
āyuṣka n. love of life; -kara, a. productive of longevity; -kâma, a. desirous of long life; -mat, a. long-lived (often as a respectful mode of address); life-long; -y&asharp; a. giving long life; n. long life; rite producing long life.
āryarāja m. N. of a king; -rûpa, a. having the air of respectability; -li&ndot;gin, a. bearing the marks of respectability; -var man, m. N. of a king; -vâk, a. speaking an Aryan tongue; -vidagdha-misra, a. honour able, learned, &c. &c. (honorific designation); -vritta, n. honourable behaviour; a. behav ing honourably; -vesha, a. respectably dressed; -vrata, a. behaving like an Aryan; -sîla, a. of honourable character; -samaya, m. ordi nance of honourable men; -suta, m.=ârya putra (husband); -strî, f. woman of the upper castes.
ārya a. (â or î) belonging to the faith ful, of one's own tribe; honourable, noble; m. Âryan (Vedic Indian); man of the first three castes; man of worth: voc. sir, friend; â, f.; Âryâ verse; a metre; -ka, m. man of worth; N. of a king; -guna, m. noble quality; -grihya, a. siding with the noble; -ketas, a. noble-minded; -gana, m. Âryans, honourable people; -gushta, pp. approved by the honourable; -tâ, f., -tva, n.honourableness; -dâsî, f. N.; -duh itri, f. daughter of a noble (honorific mode of addressing a female friend); -desa, m. dis trict inhabited by Âryans; -desya, a. coming from an Âryan district; -putra, m. son of an Âryan,honorific designation of (1) son of person addressed; (2) husband; (3) sovereign; -prâya, a. inhabited chiefly by Âryans; -buddhi, a. noble-minded; -bhata, m. N. of two astronomers: î-ya, n. work composed by Ârya bhata.
ālāpa m. talk, conversation; song (of birds): -vat, a. addressing.
ālapana n. chat, conversation; -ita, n. (pp.) discourse, talk; -itavya, fp. to be addressed.
āśaṅkanīya fp. to be feared, -expected, -assumed; -â, f. anxiety; dread of (ab.); distrust; -in, a. dreading; supposing; considering; causing anxiety or fear; doubtful, uncertain.
ukta pp. (√ vak) spoken, uttered; addressed; n. word, expression: -tva, n. statement; -pûrva, a. said before; -pratyuktá, n. address and reply, conversation; -mâtra, a. merely uttered: lc. no sooner said than --; -rûpa, a. of the form or kind mentioned; -vat, pp. act. √ vak; -vâkya, a. hvg. spoken.
ugra a. mighty; violent; grim, dread ful, terrible, rigorous; m. mighty person, great --, violent person; ep. of Siva & Rudra; N. of a mixed caste (offspring of Kshatriya & Sûdrâ); -tâ, f., -tva, n. violence; rigour; -danda, a. stern-sceptered, relentless; -pûti, a. having a horrible stench; -prabhâva, a. high and mighty; -rush, a. terribly angry; -sâsana, a. stringent in his orders: -sena, m. N. of various kings; -½îsa, m. N. of a temple built by Ugra.
unmatta pp. (√ mad) mad, frantic; intoxicated; m. thorn-apple: -ka, a. (ikâ) out of one's senses; mad; -darsana, a. of frantic aspect; -rûpa, a. maniac-like; -vat, ad. like a maniac; -vesa, a.dressed like a maniac; -½avanti, m. N. of a king.
ekaśata n. a hundred and one; a. 101st: -tama, a. id.; -sapha, a. (é-) one-hoofed, having an uncloven hoof; m. animal with uncloven hoof; n. the genus of solid hoofed animals; -sas, ad. singly;-sesha, m. sole remainder; ellipse by which only one of two or more words remains (e. g. du. or pl.); a. sole remaining, with the sole exception of (--°ree;); -sruta-dhara, a. remembering what one has heard once: -tva, n. abst. n.; -sruti, f. monotony; a. monotonous; -srushti, a. (é-) obeying one behest; -shash-tá, a. 61st; -shashti, f. 61: -tama, a. 61st.
kaṭukita pp. sharply addressed (Pr.).
kapaṭa m. n. fraud: °ree;--, fictitious; -nât aka, m. N.; -prabandha, m. cunning device; -sata-maya, a. consisting of a hundred kinds of fraud; -½îsvara, m. N. of a temple of Siva.
kardama m. mud, dirt, impurity; dregs; -râga, m. N.
kumārikā f. girl; N. of a part of Bhâratavarsha; -ín, a. possessed of children.
kuvastra n. bad dress; a. ill-clad: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -vâkya, n., -vâk, f. ill word; -vâdika, m. charlatan, quack; -vâsanâ, f. wrong notion.
keśakarṣaṇa n. pulling by the hair; -kalâpa, m. tuft of hair; -kîta, m. louse; -graha, m. seizing by the hair: -na, n. id.; -ta, m. N.; -dhâvalya, n. white hair; -pâsa, m. tuft or mass of hair; -bandha,m. hair-band; -rakanâ, f. dressing of the hair; -luñkana, n. tearing out the hair.
knūy only cs. knopaya, P. drench. abhi, wet, moisten.
guṇayukta pp. tied to a rope and endowed with virtues; -râga, m. delight in virtues; -vakana, m. n. adjective; -vat, a. furnished with a thread; having the elemental qualities; possessing good qualities, virtuous, excellent: -tâ, f. possession of virtues; -varman, m. N.; -vâkaka, a. expressing a quality; -sata-sâlin, a. possessing hundreds of virtues; -sabda, m. adjective; -samyukta, pp. endowed with good qualities; -samskâra, °ree;--, quality and preparation; -sampanna, pp. endowed with good qualities; -sâgara, m. a perfect ocean of virtues; -hâni, f. lack of virtues; -hîna, pp. devoid of virtues.
gopaveṣa a. dressed as a cowherd.
ghora a. [√ ghu] awful, sublime; terrible, dreadful; violent (pain, etc.); n. horror, terror; magic; spell.
catuḥśata n. one hundred and four; four hundred; -sapha, a. four-hoofed; -sâla, a. containing rooms on all four sides; m. building with square court in the middle: -ka, i-kâ, f. court with four rooms (one on each side); -srotra, a. four-eared.
cūḍa m. ridge (on bricks); ceremony of tonsure (performed on children); â, f. hair on the crown; tuft of hair left on the crown after the ceremony of tonsure; cere mony of tonsure; crest, summit;a-ka, --°ree;= kûdâ, tonsure.
jīvapati m. living husband; -pat nî, a. f. whose husband is alive; -pitri: -ka, a. whose father is still alive; (á)-putra, a. whose son or children are alive; m. N. of a Rishi and of a hymn composed by him; -praga, a. having children still alive; -maya, a. ani mate, living.
tadanukṛti ad. accordingly; -anusarana-krama, m. continual following of him; -anta, a. ending with that; -apatya tâ, f. condition of having offspring through him (the son) or by her (the Sûdrâ woman); apatya-maya, a. devoted to his (her) children; -apeksha, a. having regard to that; -artha, m. the meaning of that or those; a. having that for its object, meant for that; having the same meaning: -m, ad. for that purpose, on that account, therefore; -arthin, a. desiring that; -arthîya, a. undertaken for that end, having that as its object; -ardhika, a. half as much; -arha, a. commensurate with that; -avastha, a. being in that condition or plight; being in the same condition=safe.
tāta m. father: voc. dear (addressing elders, superiors, children, or pupils).
tāraka a. (ikâ) putting across, de livering; m. N. of a Daitya (slain by Indra): pl. children of Târaka.
tāvacchata a. (î) consisting of as many hundreds.
tvaṃkāra m. addressing as &open;thou.&close;
durukta pp. spoken falsely, rashly, or offensively (n. word --); harshly addressed; n. false, rash, or offensive word; -ukti, f. harsh or offensive word; -ukkheda, a. hard to exterminate; -uttara, a. hard to overcome; -utsaha, a. hard to bear; -resist; -udâhara, a. hard to utter; -udvaha, a. hard to bear; -upakâra, a. hard to approach, dangerous to molest; hard to deal with; -upadishta, pp. badly instructed; -upadesa, m.bad advice; -upapâda, a. hard to bring about or manage; difficult to prove; -upalaksha, a. hard to perceive; -upasarpin, a. approaching incau tiously.
durjanāya den. Â. be considered a scoundrel.
durjana m. wicked man, scoundrel.
duḥṣama n. bad year; -shtuta, n. wrong treatment of the stotra; -shvápnya, n. bad dream, uneasy sleep.
duḥstha a. faring ill, badly off, wretched, sad; -sthita, pp. id.; -sthiti, f. bad plight; -sparsa, a. hard or unpleasant to touch; -sprisa, a. id.; -smara, a. unpleasant to remember; -svapna, m. bad dream: -dars ana, n. bad vision in sleep.
devadatta a. god-given; m. Arguna's conch; the vital air which causes yawning; Dieu-donné, very common N., hence used to denote indefinite persons, So and-so; -dantin, m. ep. of Siva (?); -darsana, a. seeing or associating with the gods; m. N.; n. manifestation of a god; -darsin, a. associating with the gods; -dâru, m. n. N. of a kind of pine (Pinus Deodora); -dâsa, m. N.; -dûtá, m. messenger of the gods; -deva,m. god of gods, supreme god, ep. of Brahma, Siva, Vishnu, Krishna, and Ganesa: î, f. Durgâ; -daivatya, a. having the gods as a divinity, sacred or addressed to the gods.
devapati m. lord of the gods, Indra; (á)-patnî, a. f. having a god for a husband; -pasu, m. animal consecrated to the gods; -pâtrá, n. cup of the gods; -p&asharp;na, a. serving the gods for drinking;-putra, m. son of a god; a. (devá-) having gods as children; -pur, f. citadel of the gods; Indra's abode; -pura, n. Indra's abode; -pûgâ, f. divine worship; -pûrva, a. preceded by the word deva: -giri, m.=deva-giri; -prabha, m. N. of a Gandharva; -prasâda, m. N.; -priya, a. beloved of the gods (Siva); -bhakti, f. devotion to a god or the gods; -bhavana, n. abode of the gods, heaven; temple; -bhi shag, m. divine physician; -bhûta,pp. hav ing become or being a god; -maní, m. divine jewel, esp. Vishnu's breast ornament; whirl of hair on a horse's neck; -maya, a. con taining the gods; -mâtri-ka, a. nourished by rain only, i. e. by no other water; -mârga, m. path of the gods, jocular designation of the hind quarters; -muni, m. divine sage.
daivatya a. having as deity, sacred or addressed to (--°ree;).
dvilakṣa n. distance of two hundred thousand yoganas; -lakshana, a. of two descriptions, twofold; -laya, m. (?) double time (in music); -vakana, n. (terminations of the) dual; -varna, a. two-coloured; -varsha, a. two years old; -varshaka, a. (ikâ) id.; -vastra, a. clothed in an upper and an under garment; -vidha, a. twofold, of two kinds; -vidhâ, ad. twofold.
dhāraṇā f. wearing (a dress); sup porting, assistance; repression; mental reten tion; memory; mental concentration, sus pension of the breath, immovable abstraction; settled rule; understanding.
narayāna n. palanquin; -rûpa, n. human form; -loka, m. world of men: -pâla, m. prince, king; -vara, m. excellent man: -½uttama, spv. best of excellent men; -var man, m. N. of a prince; -vâhana, a.drawn by men; m. ep. of Kubera; N.: -datta, m. N. of a prince: -karita, n. adventures of Naravâhanadatta; -vâhana-datt-îya, a. be longing to Naravâhanadatta; -vâhin, a. borne by men: w. yâna, n. palanquin; -vishâna,n. human horn=chimera; -vîra, m. heroic man: -loka, m.=children of men; -vyâghra, -sâr dûla, m. tiger-like man=most illustrious of men; -sreshtha, spv. best of men; -sakha, m. friend of Nara, ep. of Nârâyana; -simha, m. lion among men=great warrior; man-lion (the fourth Avatâr of Vishnu); -hari, m. man lion, Vishnu's fourth Avatâr.
nānā ad. variously, in different places, separately; often, esp. °ree;--, used like an adjec tive, different, various, manifold; -½âkâra, a. various, sundrv; -gati, m. wind; -tva, n. dif ference; manifoldness; -digdesa, m.: ab. sg. from various quarters, from all parts of the world; -devatya, a. addressed to various gods; -desa, m. sg. various regions; -desîya, -desya, a. pl. belonging to various lands; -dhâtu-sata,n. pl. hundreds of various minerals; -dhâtu-samâkîrna, pp. filled with various minerals; -pakshi-gana½âkîrna, pp. filled with flocks of various birds; -pakshi nishevita, pp. frequented by various birds; -mantra½ogha-siddhi-mat, a. possessed of a number of efficacious spells; -mriga-gana, m. pl. flocks of various animals; -rasa, a. having various sentiments (drama); -rûpa, a. hete rogeneous; -½argha-mahâratna-maya, a. consisting of various priceless precious stones; -½artha, a. having different meanings; con taining something different; N. word with several meanings; new sentence; -varna½â kriti, a. of various colours and shapes; -vi dha, a.various, manifold; -strî, f. pl. women of different castes.
nikhanana n. burying, hiding in the ground; -kharva, n. a hundred thou sand millions: -ka, a thousand millions; -khâta, pp. √ khan: -tusha½a&ndot;gâra½âdi mat, a. with buried husks, coal, etc.
nirvaṃśa a. having no family, child less, alone in the world; -vakana, n. ex planation, etymology; a. speechless: -m, ad. without saying a word; -vatsala, a. not tenderly attached to, esp. children (lc.);-váp ana, n. (funeral) offering; -vartaka, a. per forming; -vartana, n. performance; -vart anîya, fp. to be accomplished; -varti, a. wickless; -vartitavya, fp. to be performed (Pr.); -vartin, a. ill-behaved (--°ree;); performing, doing (--°ree;); -vartya, fp. to be accomplished; -produced; -uttered; -vasa, a. possessing no will of one's own, dependent: -tâ, f. depend ence; -vashatkâra-ma&ndot;gala, a. lacking sacri fices and festivities;-vasu, a. poor; -vastrî kri, deprive of one's clothes; -vahana, n. con clusion, issue; final act, catastrophe (dr.)
nṛprajā f. pl. children of men; -mâmsa, n. human flesh.
nyarbuda n. a hundred millions.
pañcamaya a. (î) consisting of five (elements); -mâshaka (or ika), a. consisting of or amounting to five mâshas; -mâsya, a. needing five months for its development (seed); -mukha, a. five-faced; having five points (arrow); -mûla, m. N. of an attendant on Durgâ; -yâma, a. having five courses; -yoganî, f. distance of five yoganas; -râtra, n. period of five days; a. (á) lasting five days; n. general designation of the sacred book of Vishnuite sects: -ka, a. lasting five days; -lakshana, a. having five characteristics; -lambaka, m. T. of the 14th Lambaka in the Kathâsaritsâgara; -vata, m. N.; N. of a locality: î, f. id.; -varga, m. group orseries of five; -varna, a. five-coloured; of five kinds; -varsha: -ka, -varshîya, a. five years old; -vârshika, a. recurring every five years; -vimsá, a. (î) twenty-fifth; consisting of or containing twenty-five; -vimsati, f.twenty-five: -tama, a. twenty-fifth; -vidha, a. fivefold; -vrit, ad. five times; -sata, n. pl. five hundred; consisting of five hundred panas (fine); paying a fine of five hundred (panas); five-hundredth: e kâle, in the 500th year; n. 105; 500; î, f. 500; -sara, m. (five-arrowed), Kâma; -sikha, a. wearing five top-knots (ascetic); m. N. of an attendant of Siva; -sîrsha, a. five-headed.
paramatā f. highest position, supremacy; summit, highest aim; -dâruna, a. very dreadful; -duhkhita, pp. deeply afflicted.
paridhāna n. putting on (a gar ment); clothing, dressing; vesture, garment, sp. lower or under garment: -valkala, n. bark for clothing, -vastra, n. upper garment; -dhânî-kri, turn into an under garment; -dhârana, n. suffering, indulging in (g.): â, f. endurance; -dhí, m. (put-round), enclo sure, protection, fence, rampart: also of the ocean as encircling the earth; halo round sun or moon; horizon; circumference; the (three) green sticks surrounding the sacrificial altar; -dhî-kri, put on; -dhûsara, a. quite grey or dusty; -dhvamsa, m. eclipse; distress; dis aster, failure; loss or mixture of caste; -dhvamsin, a.destroying (--°ree;); destructive.
paruṣita pp. harshly addressed, used roughly; -iman, m. shagginess.
paro&100;kṣa ksha ] a. [beyond the eye], being out of sight, invisible, imperceptible; unknown, unintelligible; cognizable by mind only; °ree;--, imperceptibly: -m, ad. behind the back of, without the knowledge of (in. V.; g. or --°ree;, C.); in. imperceptibly, mysteriously; ab. without the knowledge of (in.); behind the back of (g.); when one has not been present (gr.); -kâma, a. fond of mystery; -krita, pp. not addressing but merely refer ring to a deity indirectly, i. e. in the third per son (verse); -tâ, f., -tva, n. being out of sight, imperceptibility; obscurity; -vritti, a. living or acting out of sight; -½artha, a. invisible; secret, recondite.
putrin a. having a son or sons, rich in or blessed with children; m. father of a son; n-î, f. mother of a son.
putra m. son, child; young of an animal, whelp: du. two sons or son and daughter; vc. (sg., du., pl.) often used in addressing young persons: î, f. daughter; (a)-ka, m. son, boy: often used as a term of endearment; N. of the reputed founder of Pâtaliputra; -kâmy&asharp;, f. wish for a son or children; -kri ta-ka, a. adopted as a child; -kritya, n. duty of a son; -krithá, m. n. procreation of children; -tâ, f., -tva, n.sonship; -dâra, n. sg. son and wife, wife and child; -nivesana, n. son's abode; -pura, n. N. of a town; -pau tra, n. sg. or m. pl. sons and grandsons: -ka, n. sg. id.; -pautrin, a. having sons and grand sons; -priya, a. dear toor beloved by one's son; -bhâga, m. heritage of a son; -bhânda, n. (?) substitute for a son; -vat, ad. like a son or sons; as in the case of the son; (á)-vat, a. having a son, sons, or children; possessed of a son in the true sense of the word.
puṣṭa pp. √ push; n. (V.) property, abundance, wealth (esp. in children or cattle).
pūtana m. kind of demon, spectre: â, f. N. of a female demon causing a certain disease in children, and killed by Krishna; i-kâ, f. id.
pṛcchaka a. asking, inquiring, about (g.); -â, f. question, addressed to (--°ree;), inquiry regarding (--°ree;).
pautra a. (î) relating to or proceeding from a son or children; m. son of a son, grandson: -ka, m. id.
prajāpati m. lord of creatures; genius presiding over procreation, protector of life; Creator, N. of a supreme being above the Vedic gods; this epithet is in the post-Vedic period applied to various holy men regarded as demiurgic beings; Time (personified); planet Mars; N.: -yagña, m. sacrifice to Pragâpati=procreation of children prescribed by law; -loká, m. Pragâpati's world.
prajādāna n. procreation of children; -dvâra, n. gate of progeny, ep. of the sun; -dhara, a. maintaining creatures (Vishnu); -½adhyaksha, m. surveyor of creatures, ep. of the sun, Daksha, etc.; -nâtha, m. lord of creatures, ep. of Brahman, Manu, and Daksha; protector of the people, king, prince; -½antaka, m. destroyer of creatures, Yama.
prajana m. (n.) procreation, impregnation; parturition; m. procreator; -gánana, a. generating, procreative; n. impregnation; parturition, procreation; birth, propagation; production, of (--°ree;); genital member; progeny, children; -gaya, m. victory; -galpa, m. conversation; prattle; -galpana, n. speaking, talking; -gavá, m. haste, speed; -gav ana, a. running very fast; -gavin, a. hurry ing, running fast, quick;-gas, a. --°ree;=pragâ, progeny; -gahitá, pp. given up, abandoned.
pratigaja m. hostile elephant; -gata, pp. √ gam; n. return; -gamana, n. return; -gará, m. call in reply (of the Adhvaryu to the address of the Hotri); -gar itri, m. one who replies with a call; -garg ana, n. answering roar (of a cloud): â, f. id.; -gâtra, °ree;-or -m, ad. at every member; -giri, m. mountain opposite; -gîryam, fp. n. one should reply with a call; -gúpya, fp. one should beware of (ab.); -griham, ad. in every house; -grihîtavya, fp. to be re ceived kindly, to be welcomed (incorrect for -grahî-); -grihîtri, m. receiver (incorrect for -grahî-); -geham, ac. ad. in every house.
pratyakṣa a. being before the eyes, evident, visible, perceptible; clear, plain, manifest; undoubted, actual, real; immediate, direct; having a clear knowledge of (g.); n. superintendence of, care for (g.); evidence, immediate perception; cognizance: -m, ad. before one's eyes or face; in the presence of (g. or --°ree;); visibly, evidently, from one's own immediate knowledge; clearly, distinctly; actually, really; immediately, directly, per sonally; ab. actually, really; immediately; in. before one's eyes, to one's face; at sight, evidently; lc. id.; °ree;--, before one's face, visibly; clearly; actually; directly, person ally: -karana, n.personal observation; -kri ta, pp. directly or personally addressed (in the second person); containing a direct invo cation; -kârin, a. moving in bodily shape before (g.); -gñâna, n. immediate know ledge; -tamât, -tam&asharp;m, ad. most evidently, immediately, or actually, etc.; -tas, ad. before one's very eyes: with √ sru, hear with one's own ears; -tâ, f. visibility: in. visibly; -tva, n. manifestness; explicitness; direct ness of perception; -darsana, n. seeing with one's own eyes, power of seeing (a god) bodily; -darsin, a. seeing or having seen anything (g.) with one's own eyes; -dris, a. seeing any thing clearly as if with one's own eyes; -drisya,fp. to be seen with one's own eyes, evident; -drishta, pp. seen with one's own eyes; -pramâ, f. correct conception gained by the evidence of the senses; -bhaksha, m. actual eating; -bhûta, pp. manifested, be come visible, appearing in bodily shape.
pravyakti f. manifestation, appear ance; -vyâdhá, m. shot, shooting distance; -vyâhâra, m. prolongation of a discourse: -m kri, address any one (g.).
prasāda m. clearness (of water, the voice); brightness; perspicuity (of speech or style); radiance (of the countenance); calm ness (of mind), serenity; cheerfulness, good temper; kindness, graciousness, favour; help, aid; gracious gift; food offered to an idol; remnants of a preceptor's food (which may be eaten without scruple): -m kri, be gra cious, show favour; grant the favour of (inf. or --°ree;); -sâda-ka, a. making clear, clarifying; cheering, gladdening; -sâdana, a. (î) making clear, clarifying; n. making clear, clarification; soothing, calming, tranquillizing; rendering cheerful; gratifying; propitiation; -sâdanîya, fp. to be propitiated; -sâda-parâ&ndot;mukha, a. (î) indifferent to any one's favour; with drawing one's favour from (g.); -sâda-bhû mi, f. object of favour, favourite; -sâdayi tavya, fp. to be rendered propitious towards (upari); -sâda-vitta: -ka, a. abounding in favour, standing high in the favour of (g. or --°ree;); m. favourite; -sâda½antara, n. another mark of favour; -sâdita, cs. pp. (√ sad) pleased, propitiated, well-satisfied; -sâdin, a. bright (eye, face); clear (neetar); perspi cuous; cheering, gladdening; -sâdî-kri, grant (ac.) as a favour to (g.), graciously present; -sâdya, 1. cs. gd. having ap peased, pleased, or propitiated; 2. fp. to be propitiated; -sâdhaka, a. (ikâ) adorn ing; m. dresser, valet; f. (ikâ) lady's maid; -s&asharp;dhana, a. accomplishing; n. ac complishment; putting in order, arranging; embellishment, personal adornment, toilet; means of decoration, toilet requisites; orna ment of (--°ree;): î, f. comb; -sâdhita, pp. ac complished; decorated; -sâra, m. spreading or stretching out, extension; rising, whirling up (of dust); opening; -sârana, n. stretch ing out, extending; development; extension, diffusion, augmentation; vocalization of a semivowel (gr.); -sâranin, a. containing a semivowel liable to vocalization (gr.); -sâr ita, cs. pp. (√ sri) extended, expanded, dif fused; stretched forth, exposed for sale; -sârin, a. breaking forth, issuing from (--°ree;); stretching oneself out; extending to (--°ree;); -sârya, 1. cs. gd. having extended or put forth; 2. fp. to be vocalized (semivowel).
prasava m. 1. pressing (of Soma); 2. setting in motion, impulse; course, current; quickening power, stimulation, instigation; aid; command; acquisition; vivifier; 3. be getting, generation; conception; bringing forth, bearing; birth; delivery, confinement; augmentation; birth-place; flower, blossom; sg. & pl. offspring, progeny (--°ree;, sts.=young --): -griha, n. lying-in chamber; -savana, n. bringing forth, bearing of children; fe cundity; -sava-vedanâ, f. pangs of child birth, travail; -savitrí, m. 1. impeller, in citer, vivifier (of, g.); 2. (-tri), m. procreator, father; -savin, a. bearing, producing; -sa vya, a. (holding the left hand outtowards anything), following one's left hand, keeping one's left hand towards anything (in walking round it): -m, ad. to the left; -sáh, a. (str. st. -s&asharp;h) overpowering; -saha, a. enduring, withstanding (--°ree;); m.endurance, resistance (only --°ree;); beast or bird of prey; -sahana, n. resisting; overcoming; embracing; -sahya, 1. gd. forcibly; exceedingly; without more ado; necessarily (with na, by no means); 2. fp. conquerable;with inf. capable of being (ps. pt.): -kârin, a. acting with violence; -harana, n. forcible abduction or appro priation.
prasvana m. sound, noise; (á)-svâ das, a. very sweet, highly pleasing; -svâpa, a. inducing sleep, soporific (missile); m. fall ing asleep; dream; -svâpana, a. (î) causing slumber: î dasâ, f. condition of sleep; n. causing sleep; -sveda, m. perspiration; -svedin, a. perspiring, covered with sweat.
bandhu m. connexion, relation; kinship, kindred; (maternal) kinsman; relative; friend; husband; --°ree;, relation of=extremely like; friend of=visited by or favourable for; --°ree; a. (û), coming under the head of, i. e. being only in name: -kritya, n. duty of a kinsman; business of a friend, friendly service; -ksít, a. dwelling among kinsmen (RV.1); -gana, m. kinsfolk; relative; friend; -gîva, m. (liv ing in the family), a tree (Pentapetes phoenicea; it has a beautiful red flower which opens at noon and falls off next morning at sunrise): -ka, m. id.; N. of a kakravartin; (ú)-tâ, f. connexion, relation; kinship; -tva, n. kinship, relationship; -datta,pp. given by relatives; m. N. of a man; â, f. N.; -pâla, m. N.; -príkkh, a. seeking one's kin (RV.1); -prabha, m. N. of a fairy; -prîti, f. love of one's friend; -bhâva, m. relationship.
bandhuvat ad. like a relative (=nm. or ac.); -varga, m. whole body of one's kinsmen; -hîna, pp. destitute of kindred; friendless.
bahutama spv. remotest: â bahutamât purushât, down to the remotest descendant; -tara, cpv. more numerous, more, than (ab.); more extensive, greater (fire); too or very much; several: etad eva½asmâkam bahutaram -yad, it is already a great thing for us that --; -m, ad. more; repeatedly; -tara-ka, a. very much or numerous; -tarâm, (ac. f.) ad. highly, greatly, very; -tâ, f. abundance, multitude; -titha, a.(having many tithis or lunar days), long (time); much, manifold: -m, ad. greatly; e&zip;hani, on many a day=for many days; -trina, n. almost grass, a mere straw; -trish- na, a. suffering from great thirst; -trivarsha, a.almost three years old; -tva, n. multiplicity, multitude; majority, opinion of the majority; plural; -dakshiná, a. accompanied by many gifts (sacrifice); -dâna, n. bounteous gift; 2. a. (á) munificent; -dâyin, a. id.; -drisvan,m. great observer, very learned man; -devata, a. addressed to many deities (verse); -devatyã, a. belonging to many gods; -daivata, a. relating to many gods; -dosha, 1. m. great harm or disadvantage; 2. a. having many drawbacks (forest); -dhana, a. possessing much wealth, very rich: -½îsvara, m. very wealthy man; -dh&asharp;, ad. in many ways, parts, or places; variously; many times, repeatedly; very: -kri, multiply; spread abroad;-nâman, a. having many names; -patnîka, a. having many wives: -tâ, f. polygamy; -pada, a. many footed; -parná, a. many-leaved; -pasu, a. rich in cattle; -pâda, a. many-footed; hav ing several pâdas (verse); -putra, a.having many sons or children; -pushpa-phala½upe ta, pp. having many flowers and fruits; -pra kâra, a. manifold: -m, ad. variously; repeatedly; -prakriti, a. consisting of several nominal bases (compound); -praga, a.rich in children; -pragña, a. very wise; -pra- gñâna-sâlin, a. possessed of much knowledge; -pratigña, a. involving several charges or counts (leg.); -prapañka, a. of great diffuseness, prolix; -pralâpin, a. garrulous; -bhâshin, a. id.; -bhâshya, n. loquacity; -bhug, a. eating much; -bhûmika, a. consisting of many stories (building); -bhoktri, m. great eater; -bhogyâ, f. harlot; -bhog aka, a. eating much; -bhog-in, a. id.: (-i) tâ, f.voracity; -bhauma, a. many-storied (building); -mati, f. high opinion, esteem, respect; -matsya, n. place abounding in fish; -madhya-ga, a. belonging to many; -mantavya, fp. to be highly thought of, prized or esteemed; -mâna, m. high opinion or regard, esteem, respect, for (lc. of prs. or thing, rarely g. of prs.); attaching great im portance to (lc.): -purah-saram, ad. with respect; -mânin, a. held in esteem, respected; -mânya, fp. to be highly thought of, estimable; -mâya, a. having many wiles, artful, treacherous; -mitra, a. having many friends; -mukha, a. many-mouthed, talking of many things; -mûla-phala½anvita, pp. furnished with many roots and fruits; -mûlya, 1. n. large sum of money; 2. a. of great price, costly; -yâgín, a. having offered many sacrifices; -ragas, a. very dusty and having much pollen; -ratna, a. abounding in jewels.
bālātapa m. morning sun, early sunshine (also pl.); -½âditya, m. newly-risen sun; N. of two princes; -½adhyâpa-ka, m. teacher of boys: -tâ, f. tutorship of boys; -½apatya, n. young offspring; -½âmaya, m. children's disease; -½aruna, m. (red of) early dawn; -½avabodhana, a. instruction of the young or inexperienced; -½avastha, a. young, juvenile.
bālaka a. (ikâ) young, childish, not yet full-grown; m. child, boy; young of an animal; five-year-old elephant; N. of a prince; -kânda, n. Boy-section, T. of the first book of the Râmâyana treating of the boy hood of Râma; -kunda½anuviddha, pp. n. spray of young jasmine intertwined (in their hair); -krishna, m. the boy Krishna; -kel&ibrevcirc;, f. children's game; -kriyâ, f. doings of children; -krîdana, n. child's play: -ka, m. children's toy; n. child's play; -krîdâ, f. child's play, childish sport; -ghna, m. child murderer; -kandra, m. young or crescent moon; n. breach of a peculiar shape; -kandra mas, m. young moon; -kandrikâ, f. N.; -karita, n. early life of a god, etc.; -karyâ, f. doings of a child; -tantra, n. midwifery; -tâ, f. childhood; -tva, n. id.; -darsam, abs. on seeing a boy; -pattra, m. a tree; -putra, a. having young children, having young: -ka,m. little son; -bandhana, m. binder of children (a demon of disease); -bhañgaka, m. N.; -bhâva, m. childhood; recent rise of a planet; -bhritya, m. servant from child hood; -mati, a. of childish intellect; -man dâra-vriksha, m. young coral tree; -râmâ yana, n. T. of a play; -roga, m. children's disease; -lîlâ, f. child's play; -vinashta: -ka, m. N.; -vaidhavya, n. child-widow hood; -sri&ndot;ga, a. having young horns; -sakhi, m. friend from youth; friend of a fool: -tva, n. friendship with a fool; -su hrid, m. friend from childhood; -han, a. (-ghnî) child-murdering.
bālopacaraṇa n. medical treatment of children: î-ya, a. relating to the --; -½upakâra, m. medical treatment of children.
bhagavat a. possessing a happy lot, fortunate, blessed; adorable, venerable, divine (ep. of gods and demi-gods), august, illustrious, holy (of saints); worshipful as a term of address in vc.(bhagavan, bhagavas (V.), bhagos, f. bhagavati, m. pl. bhagavantah) or nm. with 3 sg.; m. ep. of Vishnu or Krish na, and of Siva: -î, f. ep. of Lakshmî and of Durgâ; -vad-âsraya-bhûta, pp. being the seat or resting-place of the Venerable One (Vishnu).
bhaṅgi f. breaking; bend, curve; crooked path, circuitous way; circumlocution, roundabout way of speaking or acting; manner, method; way of dressing, fashion, costume; disguise, semblance, of (--°ree;); figure; step; wave: -bhûta, pp. resembling (--°ree;), -½antarena, in. in another way; in an indirect manner.
bhadraka a. good: pl. used as a term of address, good people: â, f. N.; -kal pa, m. the present cosmic age (among the Buddhists); -kâraka, a. causing prosperity; -kâlî, f. a goddess, later a form ofDurgâ; -kâshtha, n. wood of the Devadâru tree (Pinus Deodora); -krít, a. causing pros perity, blessing (V.); -ghata, m. pot of for tune, lottery vase.
bhayānaka a. terrible, dreadful.
bhayakara a. terrifying; endan gering (g.); -kartri, -krit, m. one who terri fies or endangers; -m-kara, a. (î) fear-in spiring, terrifying, formidable (to, --°ree;); m. N.; -dindima, m. battle-drum; -trâtri, m. rescuer from danger; -da, a. terrifying or bringing danger to (g. or --°ree;); -dâna, n. gift given through fear; -dâyin, a. fear-inspir ing; -dhana, a. abounding in dread, terrible; -pratîkâra, m. removal of danger; -prada, a. fear-inspiring; -pradâyin, a. bringing into danger consisting of (--°ree;); -vihvala, a. agi tated with fear; -vyûha, m. kind of mili tary array in view of danger on all sides; -soka-samâvishta, pp. filled with fear and sorrow; -samtrasta-mânasa, a. having a mind scared with fear; -sthâna, n. occasion of danger; -hâraka, a. freeing from fear or danger; -hetu, m. cause of alarm.
bhaya n. dread, alarm, fear, anxiety, of (ab., g., --°ree;); sg., pl. terror, danger, peril, distress (from, ab. or --°ree;; to, --°ree;): ab. through fear; -m kri, be afraid of (ab.); -m dâ, give a fright, terrify.
bhavaduttaram ad. with &open;bha vat&close; at the end; -vakana, n. your speech; -vidha, a. one like you (in respectful address).
bhavadīya a. thine, your (in re spectful address).
bhāvatka a. thy, your (in respectful address).
bhāṣika a. relating to the ver nacular; n. general rules: â, f. language; -ita, pp. spoken, said; n. speech, utterance, lan guage; -itavya, fp. to be addressed; -itri, a. saying, uttering (ac.; Br.), speaking (--°ree;); -in, a. saying, speaking; loquacious; gnly. --°ree;, speaking, talking.
bhī f. fear, fright, alarm, dread, of (ac. with prati, ab., lc., --°ree;).
bhīṣma a. frightful, terrific, dread ful; m. N. of a son of Ga&ndot;gâ and Sâmtanu, grand-uncle of the Pândus, and leader of the Kuru army: -ka, m. contemptible Bhî shma; N. of the father of Rukminî: -½âtma- gâ, f. pat. of Rukminî; -parvan, n. the Bhîshma section, T. of the sixth book of the Mahâbhârata; -ratna, n. jewel.
bhīluka a. timorous, cowardly; dreading (--°ree;).
bhīru a. (&ubrevcirc;) timid, fearful, cowardly; shy; afraid of (ab., --°ree;): vc. f. often used in address, O timid one! paratra --, dreading the beyond: (u)-ka, a. timorous, cowardly; afraid of (--°ree;);-gana, a. having cowardly followers; -tâ, f., -tva, n. timidity, bashful ness; cowardice; fear, dread, of (--°ree;); -bhî ru, a. excessively timid; -maya, a. terrific, frightful; -yodha, a. garrisoned by dastardly soldiers; -sattva,a. having a timid nature, timorous.
bhīmakarman a. doing terrible deeds, of terrific prowess; -khanda, n. T. of a section of the Mahâbhârata and of the Skanda-purâna; -gupta, m. N. of a prince; -gâ, f. daughter of Bhîma, Damayantî; -tâ, f. terribleness; -darsana, a. of terrible as pect; -dhanvan, m. N. of a prince; -nand inî, f. Bhîma's daughter; -nâda, m. dread ful sound; a. sounding dreadfully; -nâyaka, m. N.; -parâkrama, a. having terrible va lour or prowess; m. N.; -putrikâ, f. Bhîma's daughter; -pura, n. N. of a town; -pûrvaga, m. Bhîma's elder brother, ep. of Yudhishthira; -bala, a. having terrible strength; m. N.; -bhata, m. N.; -bhavî-bhû,assume the form of Bhîma's daughter, i. e. Damayantî; -bhu- ga, a. having terrible arms; m. N.; -mukha, a. having a terrible face; m. N.; -ratha, m. (having a formidable car), N. of a Rakshas; N.; -rûpa, a. of terrible form; -vakana, n. Bhîma's command; -vikrama, a. having ter rible valour; m. N.; -vega, a. having terrible swiftness; m. N.; -sâsana, n. Bhîma's sum mons; -sutâ, f. Bhîma's daughter, Dama yantî; -sena, m. (having a terrible army), N., especially of the second Pândava prince; -½âkara, m. N.; â-deva, m. N.
bhīti f. fear, alarm, dread, of (ab. or --°ree;); danger: -tas, ad. through fear of (--°ree;); -krit, a. causing fear; -kkhid, a. re lieving from danger; -mat, a. timid.
bhūrikālam ac. ad. for a long time; -kritrima-mânikya-maya, a. con sisting of many spurious rubies; -gadgadam, a. with much stammering; -guna, a. multi plying greatly;(bh&usharp;ri)-ganman, a. having many births; -tâ, f. multiplicity, multitude; -tegas, a. having great lustre; m. N.: -a, a. id.; -toka, a. rich in children; -da, a. giving much, liberal; -dakshina, a. attended with liberal rewards (sacrifice); giving rich re wards, munificent; -d&asharp;van, a. (r-î) giving much, liberal; -dhâman, a. possessed of great might; -nidhana, a. perishing in many ways; -prayoga, a. frequently used; m. T. of a dictionary containing frequently used words; -bhoga, a. having many enjoyments; -retas, a. abounding in seed; -vasu, m. N.; -vikrama, a. of great valour; -vrishti, f. ex cessive rain; -sas, ad. variously; (bhûri)-sri&ndot;ga, a. many-horned; (-bh&usharp;ri)-sthâtra, a. having many stations, being in many places.
bhos ij. [contraction of bhavas, V. vc. of bhavat] used in addressing persons male and female (often several), Sir! oh! ho there! hark! often repeated bho bhoh: in soliloquies= alas! (the final visarga is retained before hard letters only, being dropped before vowels and soft consonants.)
makarikā f. kind of head-dress; makara-like figure.
makara m. kind of marine monster (perhaps crocodile or shark): regarded as an emblem of Kâma and used as an ornament on gates and on head-dresses; Capricorn (sign of the zodiac); kind of military array shaped like a makara (two triangles joined at the a pex).
matta pp. √ mad: -ka, a. somewhat overbearing; m. N.; -kâsin-î, a. f. looking intoxicated (used of fascinating women, esp. as a term of address); -mayûra, m. peacock intoxicated with joy; -vârana, m. mad ele phant; n. (?) fence round a house: -vikrama, a. having the might of a mad elephant; n. turret, pinnacle: -vâranîya, a. attached to the turret (of a car).
marya m. (V.) man, esp. young man (pl. people, in address); wooer, lover; stallion.
mahāpakṣa a. having many ad herents, having a large following; -pa&ndot;ka, n. (?) deep mud; -pa&ndot;kti, f. a metre of forty-eight syllables; -pandita, a. extremely learned; m. great scholar; -patha, m. prin cipal street; high road; the great journey, pilgrimage to the other world (-m yâ, die); a certain hell; a. having a great path: -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -padma, n. a certain high number; m. one of the eight treasures connected with the magic art padminî; N. of a Nâga: -pati, m. lord of millions, ep. of Nanda, -saras, n. N. of a lake, -salila, n. id.; -padya-shatka, n. T. of a poem (at tributed to Kâlidâsa) consisting of six classi cal verses; -½aparâdha, m. great crime or injury; -parvata, m. high mountain; -pasu, m. large cattle; -pâta, m. long flight; a. flying far (arrow); -pâtaka, n. great crime or sin (of which there are five: killing a Brâhman, drinking spirituous liquor, theft, adultery with a teacher's wife, and asso ciation with persons guilty of those four crimes); -pâtakin, a. guilty of a capital sin; -pâtra, n. prime minister; -pâda, a. large footed; -pâpa, n.great crime; -pâpman, a. very harmful; -pâra, 1. m. a certain per sonification; 2. a. having distant banks, wide (sea); -pârsva, a. having broad sides (leech); N.; -pâsupata, a. with vrata, n. the great vow of a worshipper of Siva Pasupati; m. zealous worshipper of Siva Pasupati; -pîtha, n. high seat; -pumsa, m. great man; -punya, a. very auspicious (day); very good or beau tiful; very holy; -purá, n. great fortress: î, f. great citadel; -purusha, m. great or eminent man; supreme spirit; -pûta, pp. extremely pure; -prishtha, a. broad-backed; -pai&ndot;gya, n. T. of a Vedic text; -prakarana, n. main treatment of a subject; -pragâpati, m. great lord of creatures, ep. of Vishnu; -pratâpa, m. of great dignity, majestic; -pratîhâra, m. head janitor; -pradâna, n. great gift; -prapañka, m. the great world; -prabha, a. of great lustre, very splendid; -prabhâ, f. great brightness;-prabhâva, a. very mighty; -prabhu, m. great lord, sovereign; chief; ep. of Vishnu; -pramâna, a. very exten sive; -pralaya, m. great dissolution of the universe at the end of a cosmic age: -kâla, m. time of the --; -prasna,m. great or im portant question; -prasâda, m. great pre sent; a. very gracious; -prasthâna, n. great departure, decease; -prâgña, a. very wise or prudent (person); -prâna, m. hard breath ing, aspirate sound; great strength; a. pro nounced with a hard breathing, aspirated; of great endurance or physical strength; -plava, m. great flood, deluge; -phala, n. large fruit; great reward; a. producing a great reward; -bala, a. very strong, power ful, or effective; m. N.; -bâdha, a. very in jurious; -bâhu, a. long-armed, strong-armed; m. ep. of Vishnu; N.; -bila, n. deep hole; -buddhi, a. of great intellect, extremely clever; m. N. of an Asura; N.; -brihatî, f. a metre (8+8+8+8+12 syllables); -brah ma: -n, m. the great Brahman (the god); -brâhmaná, m. great Brâhman (also used sarcastically); n. Great (=Tândya) Brâh mana; -bhata, m. great warrior; N.; -bha ya, n. great danger or straits; -bhâga, a. having great good fortune, very lucky, greatly blessed; greatly distinguished, very illus trious (frequently used as a term of address); -bhâgin, a. very fortunate, greatly blessed; -bhâgya, n.high position, great importance or power; a. extremely fortunate: -tâ, f. great good fortune; -bhânda½agâra, n. chief treasury; -bhârata, a. (± a word meaning &open;battle&close;), the Great Battle of the Bharatas; n.(± âkhyâna), the Great Story of the Bharatas, T. of the well-known great Epic (which contains about 100,000 slokas); -bhâshya, n. the Great Commentary of Patañgali on the Sûtras of Pânini and the Vârttikas of Kâtyâyana (probably composed in the second century b. c.); -bhikshu, m. the great mendicant, ep. of Sâkyamuni; -½abhi- gana, m. high descent, noble birth; -½abhi yoga, m. great plaint or charge; -½abhishava, m. N. of a prince; -½abhisheka, m. great inauguration; T. of the fourteenth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara; -bhîta, pp. greatly terrified; -½abhîsu, a. brilliant, lustrous; -bhuga, a. long-armed; -bhûta, pp. being great, large (E.); m. great creature; n. gross element (ether, air, fire, water, earth); -bhû mi, f. great realm; whole territory (of a king); -½âbhoga, a. of great extent, wide spreading; -bhoga, 1. a. having great coils (serpent); m. serpent; -bhoga, 2. m. great enjoyment; -bhoga, m. great prince; -½abhra, n. great or thick cloud; -makha, m. great sacrifice (=-yagña); -mani, m. costly jewel; -mati, a. of great wit, clever; m. N.; (&asharp;) manas, a. lofty-minded, proud, haughty; high-minded, magnanimous; -manushya, m. great man, man of rank; -mantra, m. very efficacious spell (esp. against snake-poison); -mantrin, m. chief counsellor, prime minister; -mahá, a. high and mighty (RV.); -mah as, n. great luminary; -mahiman, m. true greatness; a. truly great; -mahima-sâlin, a. possessed of true greatness; -mahâ½upâ dhyâya, m. very great preceptor (a desig nation applied to great scholars, e.g. Malli nâtha); -mâmsa, n. delicious flesh (esp. human flesh); -½amâtya, m. prime minister; -mâtra, a. of great measure, great; greatest, best (of, --°ree;); m. man of high rank, high state official, king's minister; elephant-driver; -mânin, a. extremely proud; -mâya, a. at tended with great deception; practising great deception; m. N.; -mâyâ, f. the great illu sion (which makes the world appear really existent and thus in a sense creates it); -mây ûra, n. a kind of medicine; kind of prayer (--°ree;); -mârga, m. main road: -pati, m. chief inspector of roads; -mâhesvara, m. great worshipper of Mahesvara or Siva; -mukha,n. large mouth (also of rivers); a. (î) large mouthed; -muni, m. great sage; -mûdha, a. very stupid; m. great simpleton; -mûrkha, m. great fool; -mûrdhan, a. large-headed (Siva); -mriga, m. large wild animal; ele phant;-mridha, n. great battle; -megha, m. great or dense cloud; -medha, m. great sacrifice; (&asharp;)-meru, m. the great Mount Meru; -moha, m. great mental confusion or infatuation; -mohana, a. causing great men tal confusion; -moha-mantra, m. very effi cacious spell: -tva, n. abst. n.; -yaksha, m. great Yaksha, prince of the Yakshas; -yag- ñá, m. great or chief sacrifice (one of the five daily sacrifices of the householder, called bhûta-, manushya-, pitri-, deva-, and brah ma-yagña); -yantra, n. great mechanical work: -pravartana, n. execution of great mechanical works; -yama-ka, n. a great Yamaka (a stanza, all the four lines of which contain identically the same words but differ in meaning, e.g. Kirâtârgunîya XV, 52); -yasas, a. very famous, illustrious (person); -yâna, n. the Great Vehicle (a later form of Buddhistic doctrine originated by Nâgâr guna: opp.hîna-yâna); N. of a prince of the fairies (having a great car); -yuga, n. a great Yuga (equal to four ordinary Yugas or 4,320,000 years); -yuddha, n. great battle; -½âyudha, a. bearing great weapons (Siva); -ragana, n.saffron; a. coloured with saffron; -rana, m. great battle; -½aranya, n. great forest; -ratna, n. precious jewel: -maya, a. consisting of costly jewels, -vat, a. adorned with costly jewels; -rathá, m. great chariot; great warrior; N.; -rathyâ, f. main road; -½ârambha, m. great under taking; a. enterprising, active; -rava, m. great roar or yell; a. making a loud noise, shouting loud; m. N.; -rasa, a. extremely savoury; -râgá, m. great king, reigning prince, sovereign: -½adhirâga, m. lord of great kings, emperor; -râgñî, f. reigning princess, queen; ep. of Durgâ; -râgya, n. sovereign rule; -râtra, n. advanced time of night, end of the night; -râtri, f. id.; great night follow ing the dissolution of the world; -râva, m. loud yell; -râshtra, m. pl. the Mahrattas: î, f. Mahratta language, Mahrattî: a-ka, a. (ikâ) belonging to the Mahrattas; m. pl. the Mahrattas; -rug, -ruga, a. very painful; -roga, m. dangerous disease; -roman, a. very hairy (Siva); -raudra, a. extremely terrible; -½argha, a. of great price, precious, valuable; expensive: -tâ, f. preciousness, great value, -rûpa, a. having a splendid form; -½arghya, a. precious, valuable: -tâ, f. preciousness; -½arnava, m. great sea, ocean; -½artha, m. great matter; a. having great wealth, rich; of great significance, important; m. N. of a Dânava; -½arha, a.valuable, costly, splen did; -lakshmî, f. the Great Lakshmî, Nârâ yana's Sakti; also=Durgâ or Sarasvatî; -li&ndot;ga, n. a great Li&ndot;ga; -vamsya, a. of high lineage; -vanig, m. great merchant; -vada, m. great teacher (i.e. of the most essential Vedic knowledge); (&asharp;)-vadha, a. having a mighty weapon (RV.); -vana, n. great forest; -varâha, m. great boar (i.e. Vishnu's incarnation as a boar); N. of a prince; -vallî, f. great creeper; -vâkya, n. long composition, literary work; great pro position; -vâta, m. violent wind, gale; -vâyu, m. id.; -vârttika, n. the Great Vârttika, N. of Kâtyâyana's Vârttikas to the Sûtras of Pânini; -vâstu, n. great space; a. occupy ing a great space; -vikrama, a. of great courage, very valiant; m. N. of a lion; -vighna, m. n. great obstacle; -vigña, a. very sensible; -vidagdha, pp. very clever; -viraha, m. grievous separation; -visha,a. very poisonous; -vistara, a. very prolix (book); -vîki, m. (having great waves), a certain hell; -vîrá, m. great hero; large earthenware fire-pot (mostly used at the Pravargya cere mony); N. of various princes; N. of an Arhat, founder of the Jain sect: -karita, n. life of the great hero (Râma), T. of a play by Bhavabhûti, -karitra, n. life of Mahâ vîra (the Arhat), T. of a work; (&asharp;)-vîrya, a. mighty, very potent; -vrikshá, m. great tree; -vriddha, pp. very aged; -vrishá, m. great bull: pl. N. of a people in the western Himâlayas; -vega, a. greatly agitated (sea); very swift; -vaipulya, n. great extent; -vaira, n. great enmity; -vairâga, n. N. of a Saman;-vyâdhi, m. serious disease; -vyâhriti, f. the great exclamation (i.e. bh&usharp;r bhúvah svãh); -vratá, n. great or fundamental duty; great vow; great religious observance; N. of a Sâ man or Stotra to be chanted on the last day but one of the Gavâmayana (also applied to the day and the ceremony); rules of the worshippers of Siva Pasupati; a. having undertaken great duties or a great vow, practising great aus terity, very devotional; following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratika, a. following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratin, a., m., id.; a. practis ing the five fundamental duties of the Jains; -vratîya, a. relating to the Mahâvrata cere mony (day); -vrîhi, m. large rice; -sakti, a. very mighty (Siva); -sa&ndot;kha, m. great conch; -½asana, a. eating much, voracious (leech); m. great eater, glutton; -½asani dhvaga, m. flag with a great thunderbolt; -sabda, m. loud sound; title beginning with &open;mahâ&close; or the corresponding office; -½âsaya, 1. m. ocean; 2. a. high-minded, noble; -sayyâ, f. splendid couch; -sarîra, a. having a large body; -salka,m. kind of sea-crab; -salkalin, a. having large scales (fish); -sastra, n. mighty weapon; -sâka, n. kind of vegetable; -sâkya, m. great or distinguished Sâkya; -sânti, f. great appeasement (a kind of rite to avert evil);(&asharp;)-sâla, possessor of a great house, great householder; -sâlîna, a. very modest; -sâsana, n. great sway; a. exer cising great sway; -siras, a. large-headed; m. kind of serpent; -sûdra, m. Sûdra in a high position, upper servant; -saila, m. great rock or mountain; -½asman, m. precious stone; -smâsâna, n. large cemetery; ep. of Benares; -srotriya, m. great theologian or spiritual teacher; -½asva, m. N.: -sâlâ, f. great stable; office of head groom; -svetâ, f. N. of a god dess; N.; -samkata, n. great danger or straits; -satî, f. extremely faithful wife, pattern of wifely fidelity; -sattrá, n. great Soma sacrifice; -sattva, m. great creature; a. strong-minded; high-minded, noble; very courageous; containing large animals: -tâ, f. strength of character and containing large animals; -½âsana, n. splendid seat; -samdhi- -vigraha, m. office of chief minister of peace and war; -sabhâ, f. great dining hall; -samudra, m. ocean; -sarga, m. great crea tion (after a great dissolution); -sâdhana bhâga, m. head of the executive; -sâdhu, a. extremely good: v-î, f. pattern of wifely fidelity; -sâmtâpana,m. kind of penance; -sâmdhi-vigrah-ika, m. chief minister of peace and war; -sâmânya, n. generality in the widest sense; -sâra, a. strong; valuable, costly; -sârtha, m. great caravan; -sâhas ika, a. very daring, excessively rash; m. highwayman, robber: -tâ, f. great energy: in. with the utmost decision; -simha, m. great lion; N.; -siddha, (pp.) m. great saint; -siddhânta, m. great manual of as tronomy, T. of a work by Âryabhata the younger; -siddhi, f. great magical power; -subhiksha, n. great abundance of provisions, very good times (pl.); -sûkta, n. great hymn: pl. the great hymns of the tenth book of the Rig-veda (1 to 128); m. composer of the great hymns of RV. X; -sûkshma, a. extremely minute; -sûki, a. w. vyûha, m. kind of array of troops in battle; (&asharp;)-sena, a. having a large army; m. ep. of Skanda; N. of various princes; -senâ, f. great army; -stoma, a. having a great Stoma (day); -½astra, n. great or mighty missile; -sthâna, n. high place or position; -sthûla, a. very gross; -snâna, n. great ablution; -½âspada, a. mighty; -sva na, m. loud sound; a. loud-sounding, shout ing loud; loud (noise); -½âsvâda, a. very savoury; -hanu, a. having great jaws; -harm ya, n. great palace; -½âhava, m. great battle; -hava, m. great sacrifice; -hasta, a. large handed (Siva); -hâsa, m.loud laughter; a. laughing loud; -½ahí, m. great serpent: -sayana, n. sleep (of Vishnu) on the great serpent (Sesha); -½ahna, m. advanced day time, afternoon; -hrada, m. great pond.
mānaka n. measure, weight; -ka laha, m. quarrel arising from jealous anger; -kali, m. mutual indignation; a. bestowing honour, showing respect; -kshati, f. injury to honour, mortification, indignity;-gran thi, m. violent anger; -tâ, f. being a proof; -tu&ndot;ga, m. man high in honour; N.; -da, a. bestowing or showing honour; m. giver of honour (gnly. used as a term of address); -danda, m. measuring-rod; -dhana,a. hav ing honour as his wealth, rich in honour; -dhmâta, pp. inflated with pride.
māma m. [belonging to mine: mama], dear friend (only vc., the crane being thus ad dressed in the fable by crabs, tortoises, and fishes, and the ass by the jackal): -ká, a. (ikâ, î) belonging to me, mine, my; -k-îna, a. my, mine.
māriṣa m. [perhaps turned back into Sanskrit from the Pâlimârisa=mâdrisa] worthy or excellent man (nearly always used in the vc. as a term of address=my worthy friend).
mārṣa m. worthy man (only as a term of address in vc.=mârisha).
mūrkha a. [√ mûrkh] dull, stupid, foolish; inexperienced in (lc.); m. fool, block head: -tâ, f., -tva, n. dullness, stupidity, folly; -vyasani-nâyaka, a. headed by a silly and vicious leader; -sata, n. pl.hundreds of fools.
mṛta pp. √ 1. mri; m. dead man, corpse (also of animals); n. death; begging, begged food: -ka, m. n. dead man, corpse; n. a death; -kambala, m. winding-sheet; -kalpa, a. almost dead, insensible, in a trance; -kela, n. garment of the dead; -gâta, pp. born dead; -gîvana, a. (î) reviving the dead; -deha, m. dead body, corpse; -dhâra, a. bear ing a corpse; -niryâtaka, m. corpse-bearer; -pa, m. watcher of the dead; -purusha-sa rîra, n. human corpse; -pûrusha-deha, m. id.; -praga, a. whose children have died; -bhartrikâ, a. f. whose husband is dead; -mâ trika, a. whose mother is dead; -vat, ad. as if dead: âtmânam mritavat samdarsya, pretending to be dead, feigning death; -vas tra-bhrit, a. wearing the clothes of the dead; -sabda, m. report of any one's death; -sam- gîvana, a. bringing the dead to life; n., î, f. revival of a dead person; -samgîvin, a. re viving the dead, life-restoring; -strî, a. whose wife is dead; -hâra, -hârin, m. corpse-bearer.
mṛṣṭi f. cleansing, careful prepara tion; careful dressing of food.
yathārtha a. conformable to reality, appropriate (name), suitable; correct, true (also of a dream), in the true sense of the word (life): °ree;-or (á)-m, ad. in accordance with the object or need, suitably, fitly, appro priately; in accordance with reality, accu rately; at pleasure; -ka, a. correct; coming true (dream); -krita-nâman, a. appropriately named; -tattvam, ad. in accordance with the actual truth; -tas, ad.in accordance with truth; -tâ, f. appropriateness (of a name); -nâma-ka, a. bearing an appropriate name: -tva, n. appropriateness of name; -nâman, a. having an appropriate name; -½akshara, a. true to the letter; -½âkhya, a. bearing an appropriate name.
yojana n. yoking; team, vehicle (RV., rare); path (V.); yogana (distance driven at a yoking or stretch), a measure of distance equal to four krosas or about nine English miles; preparation, arrangement (also â, f.); instigation; erection; mental concentration; union, combination, with (in. or --°ree;): â, f. grammatical construction; -gandha, a. whose odour extends for a yoga na: â, f. ep. of Satyavatî (mother of Vyâsa); -bâhu, a. having arms a yogana in length, excessively long-armed; m. ep. of Râvana; -sata, n. a hundred yoganas.
rakta pp. (√ rañg) coloured; red; nasalized (gr.); charming, lovely, sweet (voice); enraged; impassioned; passionately devoted to (anything, lc., --°ree;; any one, g., --°ree;); attached, fond; enamoured; charmed with (in.); n. blood: -ka, a. red; -kantha, a. sweet-voiced; m. cuckoo; N. of a fairy; -kadamba, m. red Kadamba tree; -kamal inî, f. group of red lotuses; -krishna, a. dark red; -kandana, n. red sandal; -kkha da, a. red-leaved; -kkhardi, f. vomiting blood; -ga, a. derived from the blood; -tara, cpv. greatly attached; -tâ, f. redness; nature of blood; -tva, n. redness; -dant, a. having red (=dirty) teeth; -nayana, a.red-eyed; -netra, a. id.; -pata, m. (wearing red rags), Buddhist monk: -vrata-vâhinî, f. Buddhist nun; -patî-kri, dress in red rags, turn into a Buddhist monk; -patta-maya, a. made of red cloth; -padma, n. red lotus; -pâda,m. red-footed bird; -pushpa, n. red flower; a. having red flowers; -phala, a. bearing red fruit; -bindu, m. drop of blood; -bhâva, a. enamoured; -mandala, a. having a red disc (moon); having loyal subjects: -tâ, f. abst.n.; -mukha, a. red-faced; m. N. of a monkey; -varna, m. red colour; colour of blood; a. red-coloured; -vâsas, a. wearing a red garment; -vâsin, a. id.; -syâma, a. dark red; -sâra, a. in whom blood predominates, of sanguine temperament.
rātri f. (only î in RV., which later became shortened), night; abbreviation for râtri-paryâya: -ka, a. nocturnal: --°ree; after a numeral, staying or lasting (so and so many) nights; -kara, m.(night-maker), moon; -ka ra, m. (night-walker), watchman; Râkshasa; -karyâ, f. night-wandering; nocturnal cere mony; -gâgara, m. wakefulness at night; -devata, a. having the night as a deity; -nâtha, m. lord of night, moon; -m-diva, n. night and day: -m, â, ad. by night and by day; -paryâya, m. the three ritual turns in the Atirâtra ceremony; -bhugamga, m. moon; -m-ata, m. (night-rover), demon; -maya, a. nocturnal; -rakshaka, m.watch man; -vâsas, n. night-dress; -sesha, m. re mainder or last part of the night; -sûkta, n. hymn to night (designation of the hymn in terpolated after RV. X, 127).
rudra a. roaring, terrific; m. Storm-god (chief of the Maruts): Rudra is sts. in Br. regarded as a form of Agni, but is later identified with Siva: pl. the Sons of Rudra, the Maruts (supposed to be either eleven or thirty-three in number); abbreviation for verses addressed to Rudra; N.: -kosa, m. Rudra's dictionary; -gapa, m. kind of prayer addressed to Rudra; -gâpin, a. muttering the Rudragapa; -ta, m. N.=Rudra-bhatta; -pâla, m. N.; -bhatta, m. N. of a scholar: -½âkârya, m. id.; -yagña, m. sacrifice to Rudra; (á)-vat, a. accompanied by Rudra or the Rudras; (á)-vartani, a. ep. of the Asvins; -sarman, m. N.; -suta, m. son of Rudra, Skanda; -soma, m. N. of a Brâh man; -hâsa, m. N. of a divine being.
rūpa n. appearance, colour (esp. pl.), form, shape; dream or phantom shapes (pl.; V.); likeness, image, reflexion; grammatical form, derivative; handsome form, beauty, comeliness; phenomenon; sign, indication, token, symbol, manifestation; characteristic, property, nature; circumstances (opp. time or place); sort, kind; trace of (--°ree;); single specimen; drama; --°ree; a. having a (beautiful etc.) form; having the form, appearance, or colour of, resembling; formed or consisting of, in the form of, that is to say; often --°ree; w. an a. or pp. emphasizing its mg., but fre quently also pleonastic: in. rupena, in the form of (--°ree;); -mkri, assume a form; -the form of (nm., g., a., or --°ree;).
rociṣṇu a. shining, brilliant, sparkling; gaily dressed; stimulating appe tite; -ís, n. light, brightness; grace.
lakṣa m. n. prize (RV.); mark, token; n. (?) aim, target; pretence, disguise; m. n. a hundred thousand, lac: âkâse laksh am bandh, fix one's gaze on the sky, look vaguely into the air: -ka, a. expressing by indication = elliptically or figuratively; m. N.; n. a hundred thousand.
lakṣya fp. to be defined; indicated, indirectly denoted or expressed; to be regarded as (nm.); had in view; to be observed; to be recognised by (in., --°ree;); visible, perceptible; n. object aimed at, prize; aim, mark; one hundred thousand, lac; pretence, disguise; example (?): -m labh, attain one's object, -m bandh, direct one's aim at (lc.): w. âkâse, gaze vaguely into the air: -tâ, f. visibility; state of being a mark:-m nî, make visible, -m yâ, become an aim; -tva, n. being an aim, of (--°ree;); -bheda, m. hitting the mark; -lakshana-bhâva, m. connexion of the indicated and indicator; -supta, pp. feigning sleep; -½alakshya, fp. visible and not visible, scarcely visible.
laghu ] a. (v-î, u) swift, active, nimble; light (not heavy); light, easily digested; easy in mind, buoyant; unimpeded, without a retinue; easy; easily articulated (the letter v);prosodically short; small, diminutive, little, insignificant, trifling; feeble, wretched, despicable, low; gentle, soft; younger; agreeable, desirable; handsome, beautiful; clean (dress): laghu man, think little of, despise; -kri, deride.
vaktavya fp. to be said, spoken; uttered, stated, or declared (w. g. or lc. of prs.); -spoken to or addressed (w. ac. of object); -blamed, reprehensible; responsible to, dependent on (g., --°ree;):vaktavyasya kâlah, time to speak; n. blame, censure: -tâ, f. censure; responsibility.
vayasya a. being of (an=) the same age; m. contemporary, friend (often as a term of address): â, f. woman's female contemporary or friend, confidential atten dant: (a)-ka, m. contemporary, friend.
varṇikā f. pigment, paint, un guent; actor's mask or dress: -parigraha, m. assumption of a mask or part.
vasana n. dress, garment, cloth (du. upper and lower garment): --°ree;, clothed in, also fig.=surrounded by, attached to (a doctrine): -vat, a. clothed; -sadman, n. (cloth-house), tent; -½arnava, a.sea-girt.
vastra n. dress, garment; cloth: -knop am, abs. wetting the clothes; -dasâ, f. hem of a garment; -dhâvin, a. washing clothes; -pûta, pp. strained through a cloth; -petâ, f. clothes-basket; -mukhya, a.having clothes as the chief thing (adornment); -vat, a. having a fine garment, beautifully dressed; -veshtita, pp. enveloped in clothes, well clad.
vācya fp. to be spoken, said, told, stated, declared, mentioned, or enumerated; spoken about; to be spoken to, addressed, or told (w. ac. or oratio recta w. iti); expressed, signified, expressly meant by (g., --°ree;); to be spoken against, to be blamed or censured by (in., g.), censurable; n. imps. one should say or speak, about (g.); n. reproach, fault (-m gam, expose oneself to reproach); (that of which anything is predicable), substantive: -tva, n. expression by means of (--°ree;); -vat, ad. like the substantive=following the gen der of the substantive, adjectivally.
vādin a. saying, speaking, talking (often --°ree;); speaking or talking about (--°ree;); declaring, proclaiming, announcing (--°ree;); expressing, indicating, designated as, addressed by (a title, --°ree;); m. speaker; teacher of (--°ree;); propounder or adherent of a theory; disputant; prosecutor.
vāsa m. garment, dress (metr. for vâs-as).
vāsana n. (fr. cs. of √ 2. vas) garment, dress; case, box, casket.
viṃśa a. twentieth (w. bhâga or amsa, m. one-twentieth); increased by twenty (e. g. w. sata, n. one hundred and twenty); con sisting of twenty parts; n. twenty; m. one-twentieth: (a)-ka, a. increased by twenty (w. sata, n. twenty per cent.); consisting of twenty parts; n. twenty.
vikaṭa a. [Prâkritic form of vi-kri ta, altered in appearance; RV.1, C.] having an unusual aspect, horrible, dreadful, hideous, formidable; large, broad (rare); extremely beautiful (rare): -m, ad.terribly; m. N.; N. of a gander: -vadana, m. N. of an at tendant of Durgâ; -varman, m. N. of a king; -½aksha, a. having dreadful eyes; m. N. of an Asura; -½ânana, a. having a large or hideous mouth.
vāsin a. 1. (--°ree;) clothed, dressed in; 2. (gnly. --°ree;) staying, abiding, dwelling, living (in, among, for a time, as); 3. incorr. spelling for vâsin.
vijñānitā f. familiarity with (--°ree;); -gñânin, a. having knowledge of any thing, acting with knowledge; skilled in an art, specialist; -gnân-îya, a. treating of the doctrine of (--°ree;);-gñâna½îsvara, m. N. of the author of the Mitâksharâ (comm. on Yâgña valkya); -gñâna½eka-skandha-vâda, m. doc trine of the sole reality of knowledge; -gñâ pana, n., â, f. communication, information, request, entreaty (esp. addressed to a su perior); -gñâpanîya, fp. to be announced; to be informed (esp. a superior); -gñâpita, cs. pp. √ gñâ; -gñâpin, a. announcing (--°ree;); -gñâpya, cs. fp. to be announced; to be in formed, of (ac.); -gñéya, fp. to be known, knowable; that one should know; to be recognised or regarded as; (ví)-gya, a. string less (bow); -gvara, a. free from fever; free from anxiety or distress, cheerful; -ghar- ghara, a.disagreeable (sound).
vijña a. discerning, intelligent, know ing, learned; -gñapta, pp. cs. (√ gñâ) ap prised, etc.; -gñapti, f. request, entreaty, of (any one, g.); address (to a superior): -m kri, address a request to (g.), announce anything to (a superior); -gñapya, fp. cs. to be in formed; -gñâtavya, fp. to be known; -re garded as; -inferred with certainty; (ví)- gñâti, f. knowledge; -gñâtrí, m. knower, un derstander.
vāsas n. [√ 2. vas] garment, robe, dress; cloth: du. upper and lower garment.
vibhetavya fp. n. one should be afraid of (ab.); -bhettri, m. destroyer, dis peller; -bheda, m. breaking through, split ting; knitting (of the brows); alteration, change; disturbance; dissension, discord, between (samam); distinction, difference; --°ree;, pl. different kinds of; -bheda-ka, a. dis tinguishing (g.) from (ab.); -bhedana, a. piercing, splitting; n. breaking; setting at variance; -bhedin, a. piercing (--°ree;); remov ing, dispelling; -bhramsa, m. decline, cessa tion; ruin; loss of (--°ree;); -bhramsin, a. fall ing down; -bhrama, m. moving to and fro, heaving (of waves), unsteadiness; wander ing about; vehemence, excess, high degree (--°ree; sts. pl.); amorous play, coquetry; de rangement, disturbance, confusion; erroneous application (of punishment); perturbation, agitation; mental confusion, delusion, error; illusion, illusive appearance, vision; grace, beauty; amorous distraction (of a woman, esp. with regard to dress); --°ree;, mere sem blance of; °ree;--, only in appearance; ab. (--°ree;) under the delusion that it was a --: -½arka, m. N.
vīṭā f. round pebble (plaything of children and held in the mouth as a penance): i-kâ, f. button (of a garment); ball, esp. pieces of areca-nut rolled up with spices in a betel leaf.
vīratara m. greater hero, than (ab.); n. a fragrant grass (Andropogon muricatus); (á)-tâ, f. manliness, heroism; -tva, n. id.; -deva, m. N.; -dhara, m. N. of a wheel wright; -nâtha, a. having a hero as a pro tector; m. N.; -patta, m. hero's band (round the forehead); (á)-patnî, f. wife of a hero; -pâna, n. hero's drink (taken before or after battle); -pura, n. N. of a town in the terri tory of Kânyakubga; N. of a mythicaltown in the Himâlaya; -purusha, m. brave man, hero; -pragâyinî, f. mother of heroes; -pra bha, m. N.; -prasavinî, -prasû, f. mother of a hero; -bâhu, m. N.; -bhata, m. warrior; N. of a king; -bhadra, m. N. of a Rudra; N. of an attendant of Siva, who destroyed Daksha's sacrifice; -bhavat, m. your heroic presence (honorific term of address); -bhâva, m. heroism; -bhuga, m. N. of two kings; -mânin, a. considering oneself a hero; -mâr ga, m. heroic career; -m-manya, a. id.
vṛthākarman n. action done at will, non-religious act; -½âkâra, m. useless phenomenon or thing; a. whose form is vain or illusory; -tva, n. futility; -½anna, n. food for one's own use only; -palita, a. grown grey in vain; -pasughna, a. slaying cattle for pleasure (not for sacrifice); -pragâ, a. f. having borne children in vain; -mâmsá, n. flesh taken at random (not conforming to prescribed rules), flesh meantfor one's own use only (Br., C.); -vâk, f. unsuitable or un true speech; -vâdin, a. speaking falsely; -vriddha, pp. grown old in vain (i. e. without learning wisdom); -½udyama, a. exerting oneself in vain.
veṣadhārin a. wearing the dress of (--°ree;); -vat, a. well-dressed (v. r. su veshavân for sa veshavân); -½anya-tva, n. change of dress.
veṣa m. [√ vish] dress, apparel, ex terior (ord. mg.); assumed appearance; ap pearance: -m kri or â-sthâ, assume a dress; -m gam or vi-dhâ, assume an appearance.
vyāpāda m. ruin, destruction, death; evil intent: -ka, a. fatal (disease); -pâdana, n. destruction, killing, death by (--°ree;); -pâda nîya, fp. to be destroyed or killed: -tâ, f. necessity of being killed; -pâdayitavya, fp. to be destroyed or killed; -pâra, m. [√ 3. pri] occupation, employment, business, con cern; action, operation, function; exertion, effort; --°ree;, occupation with, practice of etc.; sâyakânâm--,business of arrows (i. e. to hit the mark); -m kri, render good offices in a matter (tatra); perform the business of (g.); meddle in (other people's affairs, lc.); -m vrag, interfere with (lc.); -pâra-ka, a. (--°ree;) having -as a function; -pâra-vat, a. effec tive: -tâ, f. possession of the function of (--°ree;); -pâra-sata, n. hundred attempts; -pârita, cs. pp. √ 3. pri; -pârin, a. occupied with (--°ree;); m. workman.
śaṅkitavya fp. to be distrusted; -dreaded; -doubted; n. imps. one should distrust (lc.); -in, a. afraid of, dreading (--°ree;; ord. mg.); timid or distrustful as (a crow, --°ree;); supposing, assuming, anticipating; full of apprehension (service).
śaṅkā f. apprehension, alarm, fear (Br., C.), of (ab., --°ree;, sts. lc., prati); C.: sus picion, of (lc.); doubt, hesitation, misgiving, uncertainty: --°ree;, doubting; supposition, be lief, presumption (of, that -is, --°ree;): pâpa- sa&ndot;kâ na kartavyâ, you should suspect no evil: -½âta&ndot;kita, pp. overcome with fear and anxiety; -½abhiyoga, m. accusation based on mere suspicion; -½âspada, n.ground of sus picion; -sprishta, pp. filled with dread.
śatya a. consisting of a hundred.
śatoti a. bringing a hundred aids (V.).
śataikīya a. one of a hundred.
śatendriya a. having a hundred senses (Br.); -½îsa, m. chief of a hundred (villages).
śatika a. consisting of or amount ing to a hundred; hundredth: -vriddhi, a. winning a hundred at play; -ín, a. contain ing a hundred, hundredfold (RV.); possess ing a hundred (C.).
śatātman a. possessing or be stowing a hundred lives (RV.); -½adhika, a. exceeding a hundred; -½ânanda, m. N.; -&halfacute;anîka, m. N. of various men; N. of an Asura; -&halfacute;âyus, a. (-h-î) attaining the age of a hundred years; m. N.; -&halfacute;aritra, a. hun dred-oared (V.).
śataka a. (ikâ) consisting of a hun dred; hundredth; n. a hundred, century (construed like sata); -kritvas, ad. a hun dred times; -koti, 1. f. pl. a thousand mil lions; 2. m. (having a hundred points), In dra's thunderbolt; (á)-kratu, a. having a hundredfold power or counsel (V.); con taining a hundred sacrifices (Br.); m. N. of Indra (C.).: --°ree; with kshitietc., lord of earth, prince, king; -khanda-maya, a. (î) consist ing of a hundred rays; -gu, a. possessing a hun dred cows; -guna, a. a hundredfold, increased a hundred times, a hundred times stronger, more valuable or efficacious etc.: -m, ad. ahun dred times more than (ab.); -gunita,pp. in creased a hundredfold, a hundred times longer; -gunî-bhâva, m. hundredfold increase; -gunî-bhû, be multiplied a hundredfold; -gvín, a. hundredfold (RV.); -ghn&isharp;, f. of -han; (á)-kakra, a. hundred-wheeled (RV.1); -tamá, a. (&asharp;, î) hundredth; -traya, n., î, f. three hundred; -dala, n. lotus flower; -dru (-kâ), -drû, f. N. of a river (=V. sutu drî), now Sutlej; -dvâra, a. having a hundred exits (hole); -dhara, m. N. of a king;-dh&asharp;, ad. a hundredfold; into a hundred parts or pieces: with bhû, be divided into a hundred parts consisting of (g.); (á)-dhâra, a. 1. having a hundred streams; 2. having a hundred points or edges; m.thunderbolt (C.); -dhriti, m. ep. of Brahman and of Indra; -dhauta, pp. cleansed a hundredfold, perfectly clean; 1. -pattra, n. (°ree;--) a hundred leaves; a hundred vehicles; 2. (á)-pattra, a. having a hundred feathers orleaves (RV.1); m. woodpecker; peacock; n. day-lotus: -yoni, m. ep. of Brahman, -½âyata½îkshana, a. having long lotus-like eyes; -patha, a. hav ing a hundred paths, very many-sided; m. T. of a Brâhmana: -brâhmana,n. id.; (á)-pad, a. (-î; strg. base -pâd) hundred-footed; m., -î, f. centipede; (á)-parvan, a. hundred-jointed; (á)-pavitra, a. purifying a hundredfold (RV.1); -pâdaka, m. centipede; -pâla, m. overseer of a hundred (vil lages, g.); -buddhi, a. hundred-witted; m. N. of a fish; -brâhmana-ghâta-ga, a. (arising from=) equal to the guilt produced by the murder of a hundred Brâhmans; -bha&ndot;gî bhû, be varied in a hundred ways; -makha, m. ep. of Indra; (á)-manyu, a. having a hundredfold wrath; m. ep. of Indra (C.): -kâpa, m. n. rainbow; -mayûkha, m. (hundred-rayed) moon; (á)-mâna, a. hundredfold (V.); weighing a hundred (Raktikâs, comm.; V.); m.gold object weighing a hun dred Mânas; m. n. weight (or gift) of a hundred Mânas in gold or silver; -mukha, a. having a hundred openings or entrances; possible in a hundred ways (fall); (á)-yâtu, m. N.; -yogana-yâyin,a. travelling a hundred Yoganas; -râtra, m. n. festival of a hundred days; -rudríya, a. belonging or sacred to a hundred Rudras; -½rikin, m. pl. designation of the composers of Mand. I. of the Rig-veda; -laksha, n. a hundred lacs; -varsha, a. a hundred years old; lasting a hundred years; -sarkara, n. sg. hundred globules: -tâ, f. condition of a --; -sás, ad. in a hundred ways, in hundreds (referring to a nm., ac., or in.); a hundred times;(á)-sâkha, a. (â, î) having a hundred branches (also fig.); (á)-sârada, a. containing, be stowing etc. a hundred autumns (V.); n. period or age of a hundred years (V.); -sri&ndot;ga, a. hundred-peaked; -samkhya, a.numbering a hundred; -sani, a. gaining a hundred; -sahasra, n. sg. pl. a hundred thousand (w. g., app., or --°ree;); -s&asharp;, a. winning a hundred (RV.); -sâhasra, a. (î) amount ing to a hundred thousand, hundred thou sandfold; -séya, n. hundredfold gain (RV.1); -svín, a. possessing a hundred (RV.1); -hán, a. (-ghnî) slaying a hundred (V.): -ghnî, f. kind of deadly weapon; -hali, a. possess ing a hundred large ploughs; (á)-hima, a.living a hundred winters (V.); -hradâ, f. lightning.
śata (m.) n. (--°ree; a. î) a hundred (sts. pl. for sg.; with g., apposition, or --°ree;); a smaller number °ree;-is either additional (asîti sate=280) or multiplicative (tri-satam= 300) or the cpd. becomes an ordinal (dvi-sata =200th); with a numeral in -ka it=so many per cent (pañkakam satam=five per cent); a multiplicative is separated from it in a cpd. by the object counted (katur-varsha satam=400 years); it is also sts. °ree;-instead of --°ree;.
śamita pp. √ 1. sam & cs. √ 2. sam; -i-trí, m. 1. carver of the slaughtered victim, preparer, dresser (V.); slaughterer (E.); 2. preserver of mental calm; -in, a. tranquil, pacific.
śava m. n. [√ 2. sû] corpse: -karman, n. burial; -mandira, n. burial-place; -rû pa, n. kind of animal (S.); -sata-maya, a. covered with a hundred corpses; -sayana, n. burial-place; -sibikâ, f. bier;-siras, n. skull.
śākra a. (î) relating, belonging, or addressed to Indra: î, f. ep. of Durgâ (=In drânî); î-ya, a. id.; with dis, f. east.
śita pp. of √ 1. 2. sâ; a, incorr. for sita, white: -tâ, f. sharpness; -dhâra, a. keen-edged; -sara-sata, n. pl. hundreds of sharp arrows.
śiśuka m. infant; -kâla, m. child hood; -kândrâyana, n. child's lunar pen ance; -gana, m. children; -tâ, f., -tva, n. childhood; childishness; -desya, a. border ing on childhood, still almost a child; -nâga, m. young serpent; N.; -pâla, m. N. of a king of the Khedis, son of Damaghosha, slain by Krishna: -vadha, n. Death of Sisupâla, T. of an epic poem by Mâgha; (sísu)-mat, a. possessed of children or young (V.); -mâra, m. porpoise.
śṛṅga n. (--°ree; a. â, î) horn (also used for drinking and blowing); C.: elephant's tusk (rare); syringe (rare); mountain-top, peak; turret, pinnacle; horn of the moon; extreme end, tip (also AV.); height, acme, best of its kind; (horn=) self-sufficiency, pride (rare); first awakening of love (rare): -ka, (--°ree; a.) horn; syringe; -bhuga, m. N.; -rahita, pp. hornless; -vat, a. horned; peaked; -vera, m. N. of a snake-demon; n. fresh or dry ginger; -pura, n. N. of a town on the Ganges; -sata, n. pl. hundreds of peaks.
śṛṅgārita den. pp. adorned; -in, a. id.; beautifully dressed; enamoured; erotic.
śṛṅgāra a. handsome, fine (rare); fine garments, finery (also of the ornamental trappings of an elephant); sexual love; erotic sentiment in a poem (it is of two kinds, sam bhogaandvipralambha-sri&ndot;gâra); N.: -kesh- tâ, f. amatory gesture; -mañgarî, f. N.; -vat, a. erotic: -î, f. N.; -sata: -ka, n. hun dred verses treating of love, T. of the first century of Bhartrihari; -sekhara, m. N. of a king; -simha, m. N.
ṣaṭka a. consisting of six; n. aggre gate of six; -karna, a. six-eared, participated in by six ears (i. e. by two too many, counsel); -karman, n. (°ree;--) the six permissible occupa tions of a Brâhman(adhyayana, adhyâpana, yagana, yâgana, dâna, pratigraha); a. follow ing the six permissible occupations (Brâh man); m. Brâhman; -karma-vat, m. Brâh man; -kâra, m. the syllable shat (in vaushat); -kritvas, ad. six times; -katvârimsa, a. forty sixth: -ka, a. id.; -karana, a. six-footed; m. bee: â-ya, den. Â. represent a bee; -trimsá, a. (&isharp;) consisting of thirty-six; thirty-sixth; (shát)-trimsat, f. sg. thirty-six (w. pl. in app. or g.); -trimsat-ka, a. consisting of thirty-six; -trimsad-aha, a. lasting thirty-six days; -trimsad-âbdika, a. lasting thirty-six years; -pañkâsa, a. fifty-sixth; (shát)-pañkâsat, f. sg. fifty-six; (shát)-pad, a. (strg. base -pâd, f. -padî;V.) six-footed; taking six steps; (shát)-pada, a. six-footed; consisting of six pâdas; m. six-footed animal or insect; bee: -gya, a. strung with bees (bow); -pâda, m. six-footed; m. bee; (shát)-sata, n. sg. hundred and six; sg. & pl. six hundred; a. consisting of or amounting to six hundred; -shashti, f. sg. & pl. sixty-six; -sapta, a. pl. six or seven; -saptati, f. seventy-six.
ṣaṣṭi f. sixty (w. pl. in app. or g., also --°ree; or sts. °ree;--): -tas, ad.=ab.; -yoganya, a. sixty Yoganas distant; -sata, n. sg. hundred and sixty; -sahasra, n. pl. sixty thousand; -hâyana, a. sixty years old (elephant).
saṃspardhā f. rivalry, jealousy; -spardhin, a. vying with (--°ree;); jealous; -spar- sá, m. touch, contact (with, --°ree;); -sparsana, a. touching; n. contact; -sparsin, a. touch ing; -spris, a. id.; -sphota,m. concussion; -smarana, n. remembering, recollecting; -smaranîya, fp. to be remembered, living in remembrance only; -smartavya, fp. to be remembered; -smriti, f. remembrance, of (g., --°ree;): -m labh, remember; -smrita½upa-sthita, pp. appearing as soon as remem bered; -sravá, m. conflux; confluent re mainder of liquids (V.); flowing water; -sravana, n. in garbha-, miscarriage; -srâ vá, m. conflux (V.); accumulation of matteretc. (C.); remainder, dregs (V.); -sveda, m. sweat: -ga, a. pl. produced from moist heat (vermin etc.).
saṃskāra m. [√ kri] preparation, dressing (of food); refining (of metals etc.); polishing (of gems); cleansing, purifying; embellishment, decoration, adornment; rear ing (of animals or plants); toilet, attire (rare); correct formation or use (of a word); train ing, education; correctness (of pronuncia tion or expression); purificatory rite, domes tic consecration (applicable to all members of the first three castes), sacrament; sacrament of the dead, cremation (rare); mental impres sion (left by causes no longer operative and sts. dating from a previous birth; there are three kinds, vega, impulse, sthiti-sthâpaka, elasticity, andbhâvanâ, reproductive ima gination); after-effect; creation of the mind (regarded by it as real though actually non existent, such as material phenomena and all connected therewith; B.): -tâ, f. abst. n. of a cpd. ending insamskâra (=mental impres sion); -tva, n. decoration: kakshushâm samskâra-tvam sam-âp, become a feast to the eye; -nâman, n. sacramental name (= our baptismal name); -maya, a. (--°ree;) con sisting in the consecration of (rite); -vat, a. grammatically correct; -visishta, pp. better prepared (food).
sacinha a. branded: -m, ad.; -ket ana, a. rational, intelligent; fully con scious; (sá)-ketas, a. unanimous, with one accord (V.); intelligent, rational, being in one's right mind (V., C.); -kela, a. clothed, dressed, in one's clothes; -kaila, a. id.
satyaka m. N.; -karman, n. vera city; a. whose actions are true (RV.1); (á) kâma, a. truth-loving (V.); m. N. (V.); -gir, a. true to his word; -m-kâra, m. promise: -krita, pp. delivered as earnest-money;-gâ, a. born of truth (Br.); -gít, a. truly vic torious, conquering by truth (V.); m. N.; -tas, ad. in truth, truly, really; -t&asharp;, f. reality, truth (Br., C.); love of truth, veracity (C.): agrya-satyatâm gam, be recognised inone's true character; (á)-tâti, f. reality: lc. â, in reality (RV.1); a. making true (RV.1); -ti tikshâ-vat, a. truthful and patient; -tva, n. reality; -darsin, a. seeing or discerning the truth; -dris, a. id.; -dhana, a. rich in truth, exceedingly truthful; -dhara, m. N.; -dhar ma, m. law of truth: -patha, m. path of eter nal truth, -parâyana, a. devoted to truth and virtue; (á)-dharman, a. whose ordinances are true (V.); adhering to or speaking the truth (S.); (á)-dhriti, a. sincere in purpose; strictly truthful; m. N.; -nâma-tâ, f. cor rectness of name; -nâman, a. having a correct name, entitled to one's name; -parâkrama, a. truly valiant, heroic or mighty (person); -bhâmâ, f. N. of a daughter of Satrâgit and one of the wives of Krishna; -bhâshana, n. speaking of truth; (á)-mantra, a. whose words are true (RV.); (á)-manman, a. whose thoughts are true (V.); -maya, a. (î) consisting of truth, truthful; -mrishâ-viveka, m. discrimination of truth and falsehood; -yuga, n. first or Krita age; (á)-yoni, a. hav ing a permanent abode (RV.1); (á)-râdhas, a. bestowing real blessings, truly beneficent (RV.); -rûpa, a. whose appearance is true; credible, probable; -loka, m. world of truth (highest of the seven worlds); -vakana, n. speaking of truth; giving of a promise, solemn assurance; a. speaking the truth; -vat, a. true, truthful; containing the word satya (Br.): m. N.: -î, f. N. of the wife of Parâsara (Samtanu) and mother of Vyâsa; -vadana, n. speaking of truth: -sîla, a. habi tually truthful; -vara, incorr. for sattva vara; -varman, m. N.;-vâkya, n. true speech; a. true of speech; -v&asharp;k, f. true speech (C.); assurance (RV.); a. truthful; -vâkaka, a. speaking the truth, truthful; -vâd-ín, a. id.: (-i)-tâ, f., (-i)-tva, n. truth fulness; -vâhana, a. conveying the truth (dream); -vikrama, a. truly valiant; -vya vasthâ, f. ascertainment of the truth; -vra ta, n. vow of truthfulness; a. strictly truthful; m. N.; -sîla, a. addicted to truth; (á)-sush ma, a. truly valiant (V.); (á)-sravas, n. true renown (V.); m. N.; -srâvana, n. tak ing a solemn oath; -srut, a. listening to the truth (RV.); -samrakshana, n. keeping one's word; -samhita, a. true to one's agreement or promise (Br.); (á)-samkalpa, a. whose purpose is true (=realised); -samgara, a. keeping one's promise; -sad, a.=rita-sad; (á)-samdha, a. true to engagements, keeping one's agreement or promise; m. N.: -tâ, f. fidelity to one's promise, trustworthiness; -sâkshin, m.veracious witness; -stha, a. holding fast to the truth, keeping one's word; -½ânanda, m. true bliss: -kid-âtman, m. true bliss and pure intellect; -½anritá, n. du. truth and falsehood (V.); sg. du. practice of truth and falsehood, trade, commerce (C.).
saṃdaṃśa m. compression (of the lips); connexion; tongs; thumb and fore-finger; nippers (of a crab); section, chapter: -ka, m., i-kâ, f. pair of tongs; -darpa, m. arrogance, boasting of (--°ree;); -darbha, m. weaving (of a garland); piling (of arms); mixture; artistic combination (of words, notes etc.); literary composition; -darsana, n. seeing, beholding, viewing (ord. mg.); vision; gaze, look (rare); inspection, con sideration; appearance, manifestation; meet ing with (in. ± saha); showing, display (of or to, --°ree;): -m gam svapne, appear to (g.) in a dream; -m pra-yam, show oneself to (g.); lc. in view of; -d&asharp;na, n. bond, fetter, halter (V.); m. (?) fettering place (below the knee of an elephant); -dâna-tâ, f. condition of a fetter; -dânita, den. pp. bound, fettered: -ka, n. combination of three Slokas consisting of a single sentence; -digdha,pp. (√ dih) doubtful etc.; n. ambiguous expression: -tva, n. uncertainty, -punar-ukta-tva, n. uncer tainty and tautology, -buddhi, a. doubtful minded; -dîpaka, a. setting aflame, making jealous (--°ree;); -dîpana, a.kindling; exciting, provoking; m. one of the five arrows of Kâma; n. kindling, exciting, stimulating; -dûshana, a. (î) corrupting, ruining; n. de filing, violating; cause of ruin; -drís, f. (V.) sight; appearance; view, direction; -dríse, V. d. inf. of sam + √ dris.
saparyāṇa a. saddled; -palâsa, a. covered with leaves (branch; Br., S.); -pâ da, a. together with a quarter: -laksha, m. or n. one hundred and twenty-five thousand; -pâla, a. attended by a herdsman; -pinda, a. sharing the funeral cake, related to any one (g.) as far as the sixth generation: -tâ, f. kinship as far as the sixth generation; -pind î-karana, n. turning into a Sapinda relative, admission to orperformance of the first Srâd dha after a death; -pitrika, a. together with the father or fathers; -pitri-râganya, a. to gether with the royal members among the fathers; -pidhâna, a. provided with a lid; -putra, a. together with one's son or children; -with the calf: -ka, a. (ikâ) together with one's little son, -dâra, a. with son and wife; -pulaka, a. bristling, thrilled: -m, ad.; -pushpa, a. flowering (tree); -pûrva, a. possessed by one's ancestors; together with the preceding letter.
saptalokī f. the seven continents, the whole earth; (á)-vadhri, a. bound with seven cords (the soul; P.); m. N. of a man rescued by the Asvins (V.); -varsha, a. seven years old; -vârshika, a. (î) id.;-vimsá, a. twenty-seventh; consisting of twenty-seven; -vimsat, f. twenty-seven; (á)-vimsati, f. twenty-seven (w. app., g., --°ree;); (á)-vidha, a. sevenfold, of seven kinds; -satî, f. seven hun dred; -sapta-ta, a. seventy-seventh; -sap tati, f. seventy-seven: vatsare sapta-sap tatau, in the seventy-seventh year; -sapti, a. having seven steeds; m. sun.
samudanta a. rising above the edge, about to overflow (V.); -aya, m. union, junction (of forces); combination, aggregate; income, revenue (rare); success (rare): -m kri, collect or assemble (an army); -âkâra, m. presentation, offering, of (--°ree;); good or courteous behaviour; intercourse with (in.); address; -âya, m. combination, collection, aggregate, whole; genus (elephant); -âyin, a. combining, forming an aggregate; -ita mukha, a. with one voice, all at once; -ga, m. round casket; kind of artificial stanza (in which the two halves are identical in sound but different in meaning, e.g. Kirâtâr gunîya XV, 16): -ka, m. n. round casket; -gama, m. rise (of the sun), rising (of dust, of the breast); -danda, a. uplifted (arm); -desa, m. exposition, doctrine; locality, place; -dhata, pp. √ han: -lâ&ndot;gûla, a. cocking his tail; -dharana, n. upraising, extrication; removal; -dhartri, m. deliverer from (the ocean, danger, ab.); extirpator; -dhâra, m. extraction; rescue; removal, destruction; -bandhana, n. hanging up: âtmanah --, hanging oneself; -bodhana, n.resuscitation; -bhava, m. production, origin; appearance: --°ree; a. arising or produced from, being the source of; -bhâsana, n. illuminating; -bhe da, m. development; source; -yama, m. lift ing up; exertion, effort, labour, setting about (d., lc., --°ree;); -yamin, a. exerting oneself, strenuous; -yoga, m. employment, use (rare); preparation, equipment; energy; concurrence (of causes).
sarṣapa m. mustard; mustard seed; grain of mustard seed (as a measure of weight of very various value): -sneha, m. mustard oil; -½aruna, m. a demon hostile to children.
sasākṣika a. occurring before witnesses: -m, ad. in the presence of wit nesses; -sâgara, a. together with the oceans; -sâdhana, a. having means; together with forces; -sâdhvasa, a. dismayed, terrified: -m, ad.; -sâdhvî-ka, a. together with Arun dhatî; -sâra, a. firm, strong: -tâ, f. strength; -sârtha, a. with a caravan; -sita½utpala mâlin, a. having a wreath of white lotuses; -suta, a. together with sons orchildren; -sura, a. together with the gods; -suhrid, a. having friends; -saurabha, a. fragrant; -saurâshtra, a. together with the Saurâsh tras; -sthâna, a. occupying the same position as (g.); produced in the same part of the mouth as (g., --°ree;); -sthûna-kkhinna, pp. hewn down together with the stump.
sahasra m. (rare), n. thousand (also used to express a large number or great wealth); sp. a thousand cows, -Panas: con strued with an app. (sg. or pl.), g., sg. or pl., --°ree; (rarely °ree;--); in an a. cpd. it is always --°ree;: -ka, 1. n. thousand: --°ree; a. (ikâ) having or amounting to a thousand; 2. thousand-headed; -kara, m. (thousand-rayed), sun: -pan-netra, a. having a thousand hands, feet, and eyes; -kalâ, f. N.; -kirana, m. (thousand-rayed), sun; -kritvas, ad. a thou sand times; (sahásra)-ketu, a. having a thousand forms (RV.1); -gu, a. possessing a thousand cows; thousand-rayed; m. sun; -guna, a. thousandfold: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -gunita, pp. multiplied a thousand times; -kakshu, a. thousand-eyed (AV.); -git, a. con quering or winning a thousand (RV.); (-hás ra)-nîtha, a. having a thousand expedients or shifts (V.); m. N. (C.); -tama, spv. (î) thou sandth; -taya, n. a thousand; -da, a. giving a thousand (cows); (sahásra)-dakshina, a. attended with a fee of a thousand (kine; V.); -dîdhiti, m. sun; (á)-dvâr, a. thousand-doored (RV.1); -dhâ, ad. a thousand-fold; in a thousand ways or parts; -dhî, a. thousand-witted; m. N. of a fish; -nayana, a. thousand-eyed; m. ep. of Indra; -netra, a., m. id.; -pati, m. chief of a thousand (vil lages); -pattra, n. (having a thousand petals), lotus; -pûrana, a. thousandth; receiving a thousand; -poshá, m. thousandfold welfare (V.); a. thriving a thousandfold (S.); -buddhi, a. thousand-witted; m. N. of a fish; -bhakta, n. a certain festival at which thousands are fed; -bhânu, a. thousand-rayed; -bhrishti, a. thousand-pointed (V.); -ma&ndot;gala, N. of a locality; -mukha, a. having a thousand exits; -rasmi, a. thousand-rayed; m. sun; -li&ndot;gî, f. a thousand Li&ndot;gas; -lokana,a. thousand-eyed; m. ep. of Indra; -vartman, a. thousand-pathed; -vâka, a. containing a thousand verses or words; -satá-dakshina, a. attended with a fee of a hundred thousand (cows); -sás, ad. by thousands (referring to a nm., ac., in.); -sîrsha, a. thousand-headed: â, f. a certain verse (according to comm. the hymn RV. X, 90); (hásra)-sri&ndot;ga, a. thou sand-horned (RV.); -saní, a. gaining a thou sand (V.); -sâ, a. id.; -sâvá, m.thousand-fold Soma-pressing.
sāpatneya a. (î) born of a rival wife; -ya, a. based on rivalry, hereditary (enmity); born of a rival wife; n. relation ship of step-children; rivalry among wives of the same husband: -ka, n. rivalry.
sāpatya a. having children; -½apa trapa, a. ashamed, embarrassed; -½âpad, a. being in distress or difficulties; -½apadesam, ad. under some pretext; -½apamâna, a. at tended with contempt; -½aparâdha, a. guilty, criminal; erroneous; -½aparânta, a. together with the country of Aparânta; -½apavâda ka, a. liable to exception; -½apahnava, a. dissembling; concealed, veiled; -½apâya, a. struggling with adversity; attended with danger, dangerous.
sukaṇṭha a. (î) sweet-voiced: î, f. N. of an Apsaras; -kathâ, f. beautiful story; -kany&asharp;, f. N. of a daughter of Saryâta and wife of Kyavana (Br., C.); -kára, a. easily done, easy, for (g.), to (inf.): -tva, n. easi ness, feasibleness, -samdhi, a. easily united; -kárman, a. expert (V.); virtuous (C.); m. artificer (V.); -kalatra, n. good wife; -kavi, m. good poet; -kânta, pp. very handsome (youth); -kâlin, m. pl. a class of Manes; -kimsuká, a. adorned with Kimsuka flowers (car of Sûryâ; RV.1); -kîrtí, f. worthy praise (RV.); a. easily praised (RV.); m. N. of the composer of RV. X, 131 and of that hymn; -kukâ, a. f. having beautiful breasts; -ku mâra, a. (î) very tender or delicate; m. tender youth: -tva, n. tenderness, -½a&ndot;gî, a. f. very delicate-limbed; -kula, n. noble family; a. sprung from a noble family: -ga, -ganman, a. id., -tâ, f. noble birth;-kulîna, a. well-born; -kûrkura, m. N. of a demon injurious to children; -krit, a. doing good, benevolent; righteous, pious; m. pl. the Pious deceased, the Fathers who enjoy the reward of virtue in the other world (V.); 1.-kritá, n. good deed, meritorious act, righteousness, virtue, moral merit (V., C.); benefit, bounty, friendly aid, favour (C.); world of virtue, heaven (V., rare); a. well done (RV.1); 2. (sú)-krita, pp. well done, made, orexecuted; well-formed, adorned, fine: w. karman, n. good work; w. loká, m.= sukritasya loka, world of righteousness (V.); -krita-karman, n. good or meritorious act; a. doing good deeds, virtuous; -krita-krit, a. id.; -krita-bhâg, a. meritorious; -krita½ar tha, a. having fully attained one's object; -kriti, f. good conduct; a. righteous, vir tuous; -kritin, a. doing good actions, vir tuous; prosperous, fortunate; cultivated, wise; -kritya, n.good work to be done, duty; good action; -krity&asharp;, f. (RV.) ex pertness; right conduct, virtue; -krishta, pp. well-ploughed; -kéta, a. benevolent (V.); m. N. of an Âditya (V.); -ketú, a. radiant (dawn; RV.1); m. N. of a prince of the Yak shas and of various kings (C.): -sutâ, f. daughter of Suketu, Tâdakâ; -ketri, m. a personification (identified with the sun); -kesa, a. (î) beautiful-haired; -kesânta, a. having fair locks; -komala, a. very soft or tender; -krátu, a. skilful, wise (gods; RV.); -klesa, a. very distressing; -kshatrá, a. (V.) ruling well (gods); conferring power (wealth); -kshatriya, a. good Kshatriya; -kshití, f. (V.) good abode, security, refuge; -kshétra, n. fine field, good soil; a. affording a fair field or dwelling-place; having fair fields; -kshetriy&asharp;, f. desire of fair fields (RV.1); -kshobhya, fp. easily agitated.
sucakra a. having good wheels; m. good chariot (RV.); -kákshas, a. having good sight, keen-sighted (V.); -katura, a. very expert; -karita, pp. well-performed (vow); n. (sú-) sg. pl. good conduct, virtuous actions (V., C.); a. well-conducted (C.): -vrata, a. having performed his vow thoroughly, -½ar tha-pada, a. having well-selected sense and words (speech); -kintita, pp. well-consi dered; -kira, a. very long (of time): -m, in., °ree;--, ad. for a very long while; ab. after a very long time; -kétas, a. intelligent, sa pient; benevolent; -ketú, m. grace: only in. ú-nâ, graciously (RV.); -gana, m. good or benevolent man or person (sts. referring to a f.): svabhâva-sugano ganah, good-na tured man; -gana-tâ, f. good nature, geni ality, benevolence; -gana-tva, n. id.; -ga na½âkara, m. N.; -gániman, a. creating fair things (RV.); -gánman, a. id. (V.); of noble or auspicious birth (C.); -gaya, m. great victory; a. easy to conquer; -gala, a. having good water; (sú)-gâta (or á), pp. V.: well born or produced, of excellent kind or nature; nobly born, noble; of genuine birth; C.: well-formed, beautiful (ord. mg.); genuine, sincere (rare); not born in vain (v. r. sa gâtah); -gâta-vaktra, m. N. of a teacher (S.); -gâta½a&ndot;gî, a. f. having well-formed limbs; -gita-srama, a. getting over exertions well, indefatigable; -gihvá, a. (RV.) fair tongued; sweet-voiced; -gîrna, pp. well worn, ragged; well-digested: -sata-khanda maya, a. (î) consisting of a hundred worn out rags; -gîva, n. imps. it is easy for (g.) to live;-gîvita, a. living happily.
sugama a. easy to traverse; easy of access; easy to find or understand, obvious; m. N. of a Dânava; -gamana, a. easy of access; going well; -galâ, f. (fair-neck), N.; -gávya, n. possession of good cattle (RV.); -gâ&ndot;ga, N. of a palace; -g&asharp;tu, m. welfare; -gâtuy&asharp;, f. desire for prosperity: in. (y&asharp;) through -(RV.1); -gâtra, a. (î) fair-limbed: î, f. beautiful woman; -gîtha, m. N. of a Rishi; -gú, a.having good cattle (V.); -guna, a. virtuous; -gun-in, a. having great merits; (sú)-gupta, pp. well-guarded or looked after; well-concealed, kept very secret (C.): -m, ad. (C.) very carefully; very se cretly: -lekha, m. very secret letter; -gupti, f. great secrecy: -m â-dhâ, observe great se crecy; -guptî-kri, guard carefully; -guru, a. very grave (crime); -gûdha, pp. well-con cealed: -m, ad. very secretly; -grihin, a. well-housed (bird); -grihîta,pp. held firmly; adhered to; well practised or learnt; used auspiciously: -nâman, -nâmadheya, a. bear ing (a well-uttered=) an auspicious name; -gehinî, f. good mistress of the house; -gop&asharp;, m. good protector(RV.); a. well-guarded (RV.); -graha, a. having a good handle; easy to obtain; easy to understand; -grîva, m. (beautiful-necked) N. of a horse of Krish na; N. of a monkey-chief (brother of Vâlin, confederate of Râma); -grîshma, m. beau tiful summer; -ghata, a. easy to accomplish; -ghatita, pp. well put together, -devised: -ghatita, pp. id.; -ghana, a. very dense (forest); -ghora, a. very dreadful; -ghosha, a. making a loud noise; having a pleasant sound; m. N. of Nakula's conch; N. of an Agrahâra.
sutavat a. containing the word suta (Br.); -vatsala, a. tender towards one's children; m. tender father.
sudaṃsas a. performing mighty deeds (RV.); -dáksha, a. very expert or wise (V.); -dákshina, a. (E.) very dexterous; very courteous; having an excellent right hand (RV.): â, f. N. of Dilîpa's wife; -dá tra, a. giving good gifts (V.); -dant, a. (-dat-î) having beautiful teeth; -darpana, a. having a beautiful mirror, reflecting beauti fully; -dársana, a. easily seen, by (in.); good-looking, handsome, beautiful, lovely; m. N. of various men; m. n. Vishnu's discus (disc of the sun): â, f. night of the bright half of the month (V.); N. of a princess (C.); -dasâ½arha-kula, a. belonging to a family worthy of a happy lot and sprung from the noble race of the Dasârhas; -dâna, n. boun teous gift; -d&asharp;nu, a. (f. id.) dripping or be stowing abundantly, bounteous (of various gods; V.); -dâman, a. bestowing abundantly, bountiful (Indra; RV.2); m. N.; -dâminî, f. N.; -dâru, n. good wood; -dâruna, a. very dreadful; -d&asharp;s, m. [√ dâs=√ dâs] faithful worshipper (of the gods; RV.) or a. bountiful √ dâ]; m. N. of a king of the Tritsus (V., C.).
supakva a. well-cooked; thoroughly ripe or mature (also fig.); -pa&ndot;ka, m. (?) good clay; -patha, a. easy to read, legible; -pati, m. good husband; -pattra, a. having beau tiful wings; well-feathered (arrow); having a beautiful vehicle; -pátnî, a. f. having a good husband; -páth, m. good path; -pátha, n. (V.), m. (C.) good road (V., C.); virtuous course (C.); -pathin, m. (nm. -panthâs) good path; -pad, a. (-î) swift-footed (RV.1); -pa p[a]t-aní, f. swift flight (RV.1); -parigñâta, pp. well-ascertained; -parisrânta, pp. com pletely exhausted; -parihara, a. easy to avoid; -parîkshana, n. careful examina tion; -parîkshita, pp.carefully examined; -parus, a. having beautiful knots (arrow); -parná, a. (&isharp;) having beautiful wings (RV.); m. a large bird of prey, vulture, eagle (fig. of sun, moon, and clouds; du. = sun and moon; V.); a mythical bird, identified with Garuda (C.): -ketu, m. ep. of Vishnu Krishna; -paryavasita, pp. well carried out; -paryâpta, pp. very spacious (house); -par van, a. having beautiful joints; having beauti ful sections orbooks (Mahâbhârata); famous; -palâyita, (pp.) n. skilful or opportune re treat; -pâni, V. a. beautiful-handed; dex terous-handed; -pâtra, n. good receptacle, worthy person (esp. to receive gifts); -pârá, a. (RV.) easy to cross; easy to bear; easily passing over (rain); conducting to a pros perous issue (also TS.); m. a certain per sonification: (á)-kshatra, a. easily traversing his realm (Varuna; RV.1); -pârsva, a. hav ing beautiful sides; m. N.; -pippalá, a. bear ing good berries (V.); -pihita-vat, pp. act. having (the ears, ac.) carefully closed: -î, f. =finite vb.; -punya, a. very excellent; n. great religious or moral merit; -putra, m. good son; á, a. having manyor good chil dren (V., E.); -purusha, m. a certain per sonification; -pushkala, a. very abundant; -pushta, pp. well-fed; -pushpa, a. having beautiful flowers; -pushpita, den. pp. adorned with beautiful flowers; -pûgita,pp. highly honoured; (sú)-pûta, pp. well-clarified; -pûra, a. easy to fill; (sú)-pûrna, pp. well filled, quite full; -pûrvam, ad. very early in the morning; -pûrvâhne, lc. early in the forenoon; -pésas, a. well-adorned, beauti ful, fair (V., rarely P.).
subhaga a. having a blessed lot, highly favoured, fortunate, happy; beloved, dear (esp. wife); charming, amiable; lovely, beautiful (also of inanimate objects; vc., esp. f. common as an address); nice (fellow, ironical); suitable for (--°ree;, rare): -m, ad. charmingly; highly, very (rare): â, f. be loved wife; (á)-m-karana, a. (î) making happy (V.); charming (C.); (a)-tvá, n. wel fare, happiness (V.); popularity, dearness (esp. of a wife; C.); -mânin, a. thinking oneself popular; -m-manya, a. considering oneself happy or beloved: -bhâva, m. self conceit; -½âkheta-bhûmi, a. having fine hunting-grounds: -tva, n. abst. n.
suprakāśa a. well-lighted; dis tinctly visible; -praketá, a. bright, con spicuous, notable (RV.); -práketa, a. id. (RV.1); -prakshâlita, pp. well-washed; -pra gupta, pp. very secret; -prakkhanna, pp.well-concealed; -pragá, a. having good or numerous children; -pragás, a. id.; -pragña, a. very wise (person); -pránîti, f. safe guidance (V.); a. guiding safely (V.); following good guidance (RV.); -pratara, a. easy to cross (rivers); -pratarka, m. sound judgment; -pratikara, a. easy to requite; -pratigña, m. N. of a Dânava; -prativarman, m. N.; -pratishtha, a. standing firm; firmly sup porting; m. kind of military array; -pra tishthâpita, cs. pp. well set up (image); (sú)-pratishthita, pp. standing firm; pro perly set up (stone); thoroughly implanted in (lc.); well-established (fame, Pr.); n. N. of a town in Pratishthâna; -prátîka, a. having a beautiful countenance, handsome, lovely; m. N.; N. of a mythical elephant; -pratîta, pp. well-known; -pratúr, a. (nm. t&usharp;s) advancing victoriously (RV.1); -prá tûrti, a. id. (V.); -prapâná, n. good drink ing-place (RV.); -prabha, a. having a good appearance, fine, excellent; m. N. of a Deva putra: -deva, m. N.; -prabhâta, pp. beau tifully illuminated by dawn; n. beautiful dawn; -prayás, a. well-regaled (V.); -pra y&asharp;, a. pleasant to tread on (RV.1); -pra yukta, pp. well-discharged (arrow); well recited; well-planned (fraud); -pravâkaná, a. praiseworthy (RV.); -prasanna, pp. very clear (water); very bright or pleased (face etc.); very gracious; -prasava, m. easy par turition; -prasâda, a. placable; -prasâdh ita, pp. well-adorned; -prasiddha, pp. well known; -prahâra, m. N. of a fisherman.
suvitta a. having abundant wealth, rich; -vidagdha, pp. very cunning; -vidátra, a. noticing kindly, benevolent, propitious (V.); n. benevolence, favour (V.); -vidatr-íya, a. id. (RV.1); (sú)-vidita, pp.well-known; -vidyâ, f. good knowledge; -vidha, a. of a good kind; -vidhâna, n. good order or arrangement: -tas, ad. duly; -vidhi, m. suitable manner: in. suitably; -vinîta, pp. well-trained (horses); well-bred; -vipula, a.very great, abundant, etc.; (sú)-vipra, a. very devout (RV.1); -vimala, a. very clear or pure; -virûdha, pp. (√ ruh) fully developed; -visada, a. very distinct or intelligible; -visâla, a. very ex tensive; m. N. of an Asura;-visuddha, pp. perfectly pure; -visvasta, pp. full of confi dence, quite unconcerned; -vistara, m. great extent; great diffuseness: ab. very fully, in great detail: -m yâ, be filled (treasury); a. very extensive or large; very great, intense, or intimate etc.: -m, ad. in great detail, at full length; very vehemently; -vistîrna, pp. very extensive or great: -m, ad. in a very detailed manner; -vismaya, a. greatly sur prised or astonished; -vismita, pp. id.; -vi hita, pp. well carried out or fulfilled; well provided, with (in.); -vihvala, a. greatly exhausted, perturbed or distressed; -vîthî patha, m. a certain entrance to a palace; -v&isharp;ra, V. a. very mighty, heroic; having, abounding, or consisting in, retainers or heroes; m. hero (V.); -v&isharp;rya, n. manly vigour, heroism (V., very rare in E.): pl. heroic deeds; abundance of brave men, host of heroes (V.); a. (C.) very efficacious (herb); -v-riktí, f. [for su½rikti: √ rik] excellent praise, hymn (RV.); a. praising excellently (RV.); praiseworthy (V.); -vriksha, m. fine tree; -vrigána, a. dwelling in fair regions (RV.1); -vrít, V. a. (revolving=) running well (car); -vritta, pp. well-rounded; well conducted, virtuous (esp. of women; ord. mg.); composed in a fine metre; n. good conduct: â, f. N.: (a)-tâ, f. round shape and good conduct; -vriddha, pp. very old (family); -vrídh, a. glad, joyful (RV.); -vega, a. run ning, moving, or flying very fast; -vena, m. N.; -véda, a. easy to find or obtain (V.); -vesha, a. beautifully dressed or adorned: -vat, a. id.; -vyakta, pp. very clear or bright; quite distinct: -m, ad. quite clearly, manifestly; -vyasta, pp. thoroughly dis persed (army); -vyâhrita, (pp.) n. fine say ing; -vratá, a. ruling well (V.); fulfilling one's duties well, very virtuous (C.: often vc.); quiet, gentle (of animals; C., rare); m. N.; -samsa, a. (RV.) blessing bountifully (god); saying good things, pronouncing bless ings (men); -sákti, f. easy possibility, easy matter (RV.1); -sám&ibrevcirc;, in. ad. carefully, dili gently (V.);-saraná, a. granting secure refuge (RV.); -sárman, a. id. (V.); very pleasant (C.); m. frequent N.; -sasta, pp. well-recited (Br.); -sastí, f. good hymn of praise (V.); a. praiseworthy (RV.); -sânta, pp. very calm (water);-sâsita, pp. well controlled, well-disciplined (wife); -sikha, a. having a bright flame (lamp); -sithilî-kri, greatly relax; -siprá (sts. -sípra), a. having beautiful cheeks (RV.); (sú)-si-sv-i, a. √ sû: cp. sisu] growing well (in the womb; RV.1); (sú)-sishti, f. excellent aid (RV.1); -sishya, m. good pupil; -sîghrá, °ree;-or -m, ad. very swiftly; -sîta, a. quite cool or cold; -sîtala, a. id.; -s&isharp;ma, a. [√ sî] pleasant to recline on (Br., rare); -sîma-kâma, a. [hav ing deep-seated love] deeply in love; -sîla, n. good disposition; a. having a good dispo sition, good-tempered; m. N.: -guna-vat, a. having good nature and other good quali ties, -tâ, f. good nature, -vat, a. good natured; -subha, a. very fine (arm); very auspicious (day); very noble (deed); -séva, a. very kindly, loving, tender, or dear (V.); very prosperous (path; Br.); -sóka, a. shin ing brightly (RV.1);-sobhana, a. very hand some or beautiful; most excellent; -skandrá, a. very brilliant (V.); -srávas, a. very famous (V., P.); hearing well or gladly (V.); m. N.; N. of a Nâga; -srânta, pp. greatly exhausted; -sr&isharp;, a.splendid; rich; (sú)-sruta, pp. very famous (RV.1); C.: correctly heard; gladly heard; m. N. of a celebrated medical writer; N. of a son of Padmodbhava; -sronî, a. f. hav ing beautiful hips; -slakshna, a. very smooth, soft,or delicate; -slishta, pp. well-joined or united; well-ratified, very close (alliance); very convincing (argument): -guna, a. hav ing a well-fastened band: -tâ, f. abst. n.; -slesha, a. attended with a close embrace, with a euphonious coalescence of words, or with the rhetorical figure termed slesha; (sú-)-sloka, a. sounding, speaking etc. well (V., P.); famous (P.); -slok-ya, n. fame or well-sounding speech.
suvarṣa m. good rain; a. raining well; -vasanta, m. good spring; -vastu sampad, a. having abundant wealth; -vas tra, a. beautifully-dressed; -vâkya, a. fair spoken; -v&asharp;k, a. id. (V.); -vânta, pp.having thoroughly disgorged the blood it has sucked (leech); -vâsa-kumâra: -ka, m. N. of a son of Kasyapa; -v&asharp;sas, a. beautifully attired, adorned; -vâsita, pp. perfumed, fra grant; -vâsin-î, f. married or singlegirl (not yet grown up) residing in her father's house; -v&asharp;stu, f. N. of a river (now Suwad); -vikrama, m. valour, prowess; -vikrânta, pp. bold, courageous, valiant; n. bold or courageous conduct; -vigraha, a.having a beautiful body or figure; m. N. of a messen ger; -vikakshana, a. very discerning or wise; -vikârita, pp. well-pondered; -vigñâná, a. easy to distinguish (RV.1); very discerning; -vigñeya, fp. easy to distinguish.
susukha a. very agreeable or com fortable: °ree;-or -m, ad.; -sûkshma, a. very minute, small, or insignificant; very subtile (mind, sense); -sevita, pp. well-served (king); -saindhavî, f. beautiful mare from the In dus country (Sindh); -stambha, m. good pillar; -strî, f. good woman; -stha, a. (well situated), faring well, healthy, being at ease, prosperous, well off; full (moon): -tâ, f. health; -sthâna, n. beautiful place; -sthita, pp. (√ sthâ) firmly established; following the right path, innocent; faring well, pros perous, well off, being at ease (ord. mg.): -tva, n. ease, comfort, prosperity, -m-manya, a. considering oneself well off; -sthiti, f. excellent position; welfare; -sthira, a. very steadfast, lasting, or durable: -m-manya, a. considering oneself firmly established, -var man, m. N.; -snâta, pp. perfectly cleansed by bathing; -snigdha-gambhîra, a.very soft and deep (voice); -spashta, pp. [√ spas] very clear, evident, or distinct: -m, ad. most manifestly; -svapna, m. beautiful dream; -svara, m. correct accent; a. hav ing a beautiful voice; melodious; loud: -m,ad. melodiously; loudly; -svâda, a. having a good taste, well-flavoured, sweet; -svâdu, a. very well-flavoured (water); -svâmin, m. good leader (of an army).
sṛjatvakarman n. procrea tion of children.
saumya a. (&isharp;, V.; â, C.; saúmyâ, RV.1) V., C.: relating, belong ing, or sacred to Soma; cool and moist (opp. âgneya, hot and dry); C.: northern (rare); (moonlike, placid as the moon), agreeable, pleasant; (my) dear, good (friend), gentle (sir, as a term of address); auspicious (planets etc.); m. pl. a class of Manes; sg. pat. of Budha, planet Mercury; the month Mârga sîrsha; m. n. kind of penance(rare); n. gentleness (rare): -tva, n. gentleness; -dars ana, a. pleasant to look at: â, f. N. of a princess; -nâman, a. (mnî) having an agree able name; -mukha, a. pleasant-faced; -rûpa, a. kind, gentle, to (g.); -½âkriti, a.having an agreeable appearance.
skanda m. hopper (in trina-skandá, grasshopper, N.); effusion, dropping (of, g., --°ree;); destruction; Assailer, god of war, leader of the divine hosts and chief of the demons of disease which attack children, possessed of eternal youth (hence Kumâra), son of Siva or Agni, brought up by Krittikâ (hence Kârtti keya): -ka, n. (?) a metre: -grâma, m. N. of a village; -gupta, m. N. of a prince and of an elephant-keeper;-gananî, f. Skanda's mother, Pârvatî; -tâ, f., -tva, n. condition of Skanda; -dâsa, m. N. of a merchant.
strī f. [perh.=starî; nm. without s, ac., V., C. striyam, C. also strîm] woman, female, wife; feminine form or gender (gr.): -ka, --°ree; a.=strî; -kat&ibrevcirc;, f. female hip; (str&isharp;) kâma, a.lusting after women (V., C.); de siring female offspring; -kârya, n. attend ance on women; -kumâra, m. pl. women and children; (str&isharp;)-krita, pp. done by women; n. copulation (S.); -kshîra, n. milk of women; -gamana, n. consorting or sexual intercourse with women; -ghâtaka, a. mur dering a woman or one's wife; -ghna, a. id.; -gana, m. women-kind; feminine (gr.); -gan anî, a. f. bringing forth daughters; -gita, pp. ruled by women, henpecked; -tva, n. womanhood; feminine gender (gr.); -dhana, n. woman's private property; wife and pro perty; -dharma, m. laws concerning women; copulation; -dharminî, a. menstruating; -pumsa, m. du.husband and wife; mascu line and feminine (gr.); -pumdharma, m. laws concerning men and women; -praty aya, m. feminine suffix; -prasû, a. f. bring ing forth daughters; -bhava, m. womanhood; -mantra, m. woman's counsel or stratagem; -maya, a. (î) feminine; effeminate.
smita (pp.) n. smile: -pûrva, a. smiling first: -m, ad. smilingly; -pûrva½a bhibhâsh-in, a. addressing with a smile: (-i)-tâ, f. abst. n.
svaja a. self-born, own, akin; m. viper (V.); -gana, m. man of one's own peo ple, kinsman: sg. also coll. kindred: -gan dhin, a. distantly related to (g.), -tâ, f. re lationship with (g.); -ganaya, den. P. be related to (ac.)=resemble; -ganâya, Â. be come a relation; -gana½âvrita, pp. surrounded by his own people; -gâta, pp. self-begotten; m. child begotten by oneself; -gâti, f. one's own kind; one's own family or caste; a. ofone's own kind; -gâtîya, -gâtya, a. id.
svadhā f. [cp. sudhâ] sweet libation, oblation to the Manes (consisting of ghee); attenuated to a mere exclamation addressed to the Manes (d., g.), taking the place of or accompanying the offering: -kara, a. addressing the Manes with the exclamation svadhâ; -kârá, m. exclamation svadhâ; -ninayana, n. oblation with the exclamation svadhâ; -bhug, m. pl. (enjoying the funeral oblation), Manes.
svapnāya den. Â. wish to sleep, be sleepy; resemble a dream.
svapnādhyāya m. chapter on dreams, T. of a work: -vid, m. interpreter of dreams; -½antá, m. condition of sleep or dream ing; -½antara, n. id.
svapnaja a. produced in a dream, dreamt; -darsana, n. vision of a dream; -nidarsana, n. id.; -bhâg, a. indulging in sleep; -mânavaka, m. dream-manikin (a kind of charm producing dreams that are realized); -labdha, pp. obtained (=appear ing) in a dream; -vritta, pp. occurring in a dream.
svapna m. V., C.: sleep; dream (ord. mg.); C.: sleepiness (rare); addiction to sleep, sloth (rare): -m dris or pas, see a vision, dream.
svasti f. well-being, fortune, success (V.; rarely in P., E.): V. in. í, ad. well, hap pily, successfully (V., C.): w. d.=farewell; hail (at beg. of a letter); (fr. this ad. arose an apparently indecl. n. n.,=nm. or ac., meaning) welfare, prosperity, luck (V., C.): -ka, m. kind of bard (rare); auspicious mark, cross with ends bent round; crossing of the hands on the breast; kind of cross-shaped cake; n. sitting with crossed legs; -kâra, m. bard who cries &open;hail;&close; exclamation svasti; -tâ, f. condition of well-being (Br.); -d&asharp;, a. bestowing welfare (RV.); -mát, a. faring well, safe, happy (V., C.); auspicious (RV.); containing the word svasti (Br.); -vâk, f. benediction, congratulation; -vâkana, n. in vitation addressed to Brâhmans to pronounce a blessing on an undertaking; fee presented on such an occasion; -vâkanika, a. pro nouncing a blessingon anything; -vâkya, fp. to be asked to pronounce a blessing on an undertaking; n.=-vâkana.
svāpa m. [√ svap] sleep (ord. mg.); dream; numbness (of a limb).
svīya a. belonging to oneself (sva), own; m. pl. one's own people, one's kindred: â, f. wife who may be truly called one's own; î-kri, make one's own, take possession of (v. r.).
haṃho ij. of address [=(a)ham bho].
hantavya fp. to be slain or killed, -punished with death; -transgressed (law); -refuted (rare): (hán)-tri (w. ac.; -trí, w. g.), m. striker, slayer, killer, murderer; de stroyer, disturber; (hán)-tave, (hán)-tavaí, V. d. inf. √ han; -tu-kâma, a. desirous of slaying; -trî-mukha, m. a kind of demon injurious to children; (hán)-man, m. or n. blow, thrust, stroke (RV.).
hum ij.: with kri, make the sound hum, resound (conch); address harshly (ac.): pp. lowing. anu-hum-kri, Â. answer with a roar.
     Vedic Index of
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akṣa This word occurs frequently, from the Rigveda onwards, both in the singular and plural, meaning ‘ die ’ and ‘ dice.’ Dicing, along with horse-racing, was one of the main amusements of the Vedic Indian ; but, despite the frequent mention of the game in the literature, there is considerable difficulty in obtaining any clear picture of the mode in which it was played. (i) The Material.—The dice appear normally to have been made of Vibhīdaka nuts. Such dice are alluded to in both the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda, hence being called ‘brown’ {babhru), and ‘ born on a windy spot.’ In the ritual game of dice at the Agnyādheya and the Rājasūya ceremonies the material of the dice is not specified, but it is possible that occasionally gold imitations of Vibhīdaka nuts were used. There is no clear trace in the Vedic literature of the later use of cowries as dice. (2^ The Number In the Rigveda the dicer is described as leader of a great horde ’ (senānīr mahato gaiiasya), and in another passage the number is given as tri-pañcāśah, an expression which has been variously interpreted. Ludwig, Weber, and Zimmer render it as fifteen, which is grammatically hardly possible. Roth and Grassmann render it as ‘ con¬sisting of fifty-three.’ Liiders takes it as ‘consisting of one hundred and fifty,’ but he points out that this may be merely a vague expression for a large number. For a small number Zimmer cites a reference in the Rigveda to one who fears ‘ him who holds four’ (caturaś cid dadamānāt), but the sense of that passage is dependent on the view taken of the method of playing the game. (3) The Method of Play.—In several passages of the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas lists are given of expressions con¬nected with dicing. The names are Krta, Tretā, Dvāpara, Áskanda, and Abhibhū in the Taittirīya Samhitā.16 In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, among the victims at the Purusamedha, the kitava is offered to the Aksarāja, the ādinava-darśa to the Krta, the kalpin to the Tretā, the adhi-kalpin to the Dvāpara, the sabhā-sthānu to the Áskanda. The lists in the parallel version of the Taittirīya Brāhmana are kitava, sabhāvin, ādinava- darśa, bahih-sad, and sabhā-sthānu, and Aksarāja, Krta, Tretā, Dvāpara, and Kali. From the Satapatha Brāhmana it appears that another name of Kali was Abhibhū, and the parallel lists in the Taittirīya and Vājasaneyi Samhitās suggest that Abhibhū and Aksarāja are identical, though both appear in the late Taittirīya Brāhmana list. The names of some of these throws go back even to the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda. Kali occurs in the latter, and Luders shows that in a considerable number of passages in the former Krta means a * throw ’ (not ‘ a stake ’ or * what is won ’ ), and this sense is clearly found in the Atharvaveda. Moreover, that there were more throws (ayāh) than one is proved by a passage in the Rigveda, when the gods are compared to throws as giving or destroying wealth. The nature of the throws is obscure. The St. Petersburg Dictionary conjectures that the names given above were applied either to dice marked 4, 3, 2, or 1, or to the sides of the dice so marked, and the latter interpretation is supported by some late commentators. But there is no evidence for the former interpretation, and, as regards the latter, the shape of the Vibhīdaka nuts, used as dice, forbids any side being properly on the top. Light is thrown on the expressions by the descrip- tion of a ritual game at the Agnyādheya and at the Rājasūya ceremonies. The details are not certain, but it is clear that the game consisted in securing even numbers of dice, usually a number divisible by four, the Krta, the other three throws then being the Tretā, when three remained over after division by four; the Dvāpara, when two was the remainder; and the Kali, when one remained. If five were the dividing number, then the throw which showed no remainder was Kali, the Krta was that when four was left, and so on. The dice had no numerals marked on them, the only question being what was the total number of the dice themselves. There is no reason to doubt that the game as played in the Rigveda was based on the same principle, though the details must remain doubtful. The number of dice used was certainly large, and the reference to throwing fours, and losing by one, points to the use of the Krta as the winning throw. The Atharvaveda, on the other hand, possibly knew of the Kali as the winning throw. In one respect the ordinary game must have differed from the ritual game. In the latter the players merely pick out the number of dice required—no doubt to avoid ominous errors, such as must have happened if a real game had been played. In the secular game the dice were thrown, perhaps on the principle suggested by Luders: the one throwing a certain number on the place of playing, and the other then throwing a number to make up with those already thrown a multiple of four or five. This theory, at any rate, accounts for the later stress laid on the power of computation in a player, as in the Nala. No board appears to have been used, but a depression on which the dice were thrown (adhi-devana, devana,dδ irina36), was made in the ground. No dice box was used, but reference is made to a case for keeping dice in (aksā-vapanaZ7). The throw was called graha or earlier grābhaP The stake is called vij. Serious losses could be made at dicing: in the Rigveda a dicer laments the loss of all his property, including his wife. Luders finds a different form of the game Upanisad.
aritra Denotes the ‘oar’ by which boats were propelled. The Rigveda and the Vājasaneyi Samhitā speak of a vessel with a hundred oars, and a boat (nau) is said to be * propelled by oars’ (aritra-parana). In two passages of the Rigveda the term, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, denotes a part of a chariot. The rower of a boat is called aritr. See Nau.
avi Sheep ’ are repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda, and later, often in conjunction with goats (aja). The wolf (vrka) was their great enemy, and they were tended by shepherds. Sheep as well as kine were captured from the enemy. The Soma sieve was made of sheep’s wool, and is repeatedly referred to (avi, mesī, avya, avyaya).Considerable herds must have existed, as Rjrāśva is said to have slain one hundred rams, and in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) β a hundred sheep are mentioned as a gift. The (mesa, vrsnis) ram was sometimes castrated (petva). The main use of sheep was their wool; hence the expression ‘woolly’ (ūrnāvatī) is employed to designate a sheep. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the ram is described as ‘woolly,’ and as ‘ the skin of beasts, quadruped and biped,’ with reference to the use of its wool as clothing for men and shelter for animals. Pūsan is said to weave raiment from the wool of sheep. Normally the sheep stayed out at pasture; in an obscure passage of the Rigveda reference appears to be made to rams in stall. Gandhāra ewes were famous for their wool. Pischel considers that the Parusnī was named from its richness in sheep, parus denoting the ‘ flocks ’ of wool.
aśva Is the commonest word for ‘horse’ in the Vedic literature. The horse is also called ‘the runner' (atya), ‘the swift’ (arvant), ‘the strong,’ for pulling ([vājin), ‘the runner’ (sapti), and ‘ the speeding ’ (haya). The mare is termed aśvā, atyā, arvatī, vadavā, etc. Horses of various colour were known, dun (harita, hart), ruddy (aruna, arusa, piśañga, rohita), dark brown (śyāυa), white (śveta), etc. A white horse with black ears is mentioned in the Atharvaveda as of special value. Horses were highly prized, and were not rare, as Roth thought, for as many as four hundred mares are mentioned in one Dānastuti (‘Praise of Gifts’). They were on occasion ornamented with pearls and gold. Mares were preferred for drawing chariots because of their swiftness and sureness. They were also used for drawing carts, but were not ordinarily so employed. No mention is made of riding in battle, but for other purposes it was not unknown. Horses were often kept in stalls, and fed there. But they were also allowed to go out to grass, and were then hobbled. They were watered to cool them after racing. Their attendants are frequently referred to (aśva-pāla,u aśva-pa,15 aśva-pati).16 Stallions were frequently castrated (vadhri). Besides reins (;mśmayah), reference is made to halters (aśvābhidhānī),18 and whips (aśvājani).19 See also Ratha. Horses from the Indus were of special value,20 as also horses from the Sarasvatī.
āśrama (‘resting-place’) does not occur in any Upanisad which can be regarded as pre-Buddhistic. Its earliest use as denoting the stages of a Hindu’s life is found in the śvetāśvatara Upanisad. In one passage of the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made only to the Brahmacārin and householder, to whom, as a reward for study, the procreation of children, the practice of Yoga, abstention from injury to living creatures, and sacrifices, freedom from transmigration are promised. In another place three states are contemplated, but not as con­secutive. The Brahmacārin may either become a householder or become an anchorite, or remain in his teacher’s house all his life. Similarly, reference is made to the death of the anchorite in the forest, or the sacrifice in the village. In contrast with all three is the man who stands fast in Brahman (Brahma- samstha). In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the knowerof the Atman is contrasted with those who (1) study, or (2) sacrifice and give alms, or (3) are anchorites, and in another place with those who sacrifice and make benefactions, and those who practice asceticism. This position of superiority to, and distinction from, the Aśramas became later a fourth Aśrama, the Grhastha, or householder, who was in the second stage, being required to pass not only into the stage of Vānaprastha, but also that of the Sannyāsin (Bhiksu, Parivrājaka). The first stage, that of the Brahmacārin, was still obligatory, but was no longer allowed to remain a permanent one, as was originally possible.
urvarā Is with Ksetra the regular expression, from the Rigveda onwards, denoting a piece of ‘ploughland’ (άρουρα). Fertile (apnasvatī) fields are spoken of as well as waste fields (ārtanā). Intensive cultivation by means of irrigation is clearly referred to both in the Rigveda and in the Atharva­veda, while allusion is also made to the use of manure. The fields (iksetra) were carefully measured according to the Rigveda. This fact points clearly to individual ownership in land for the plough, a conclusion supported by the reference of Apālā, in a hymn of the Rigveda, to her father's field (urvarā), which is put on the same level as his head of hair as a personal possession. Consistent with this are the epithets ‘winning fields ’ (urvarā-sā, urvarā-jit, ksetra-sā), while ‘ lord of fields ’ used of a god is presumably a transfer of a human epithet (urvarā-pati). Moreover, fields are spoken of in the same connexion as children, and the conquest of fields (ksetrāni sam-ji) is often referred to in the Samhitās. Very probably, as suggested by Pischel, the ploughland was bounded by grass land (perhaps denoted by Khila, Khilya) which in all likelihood would be joint property on the analogy of property elsewhere. There is no trace in Vedic literature of communal property in the sense of ownership by a community of any sort, nor is there mention of communal cultivation. Individual property in land seems also presumed later on. In the Chāndogya Upanisad the things given as examples of wealth include fields and houses («ūyatanāni). The Greek evidence also points to individual ownership. The precise nature of the ownership is of course not determined by the expression ‘ individual ownership.’ The legal relationship of the head of a family and its members is nowhere explained, and can only be conjectured (see Pitr). Very often a family may have lived together with undivided shares in the land. The rules about the inheritance of landed property do not occur before the Sūtras. In the Satapatha Brāhmana the giving of land as a fee to priests is mentioned, but with reproof: land was no doubt even then a very special kind of property, not lightly to be given away or parted with. On the relation of the owners of land to the king and others see Grāma; on its cultivation see Krsi.
ṛtvij Is the regular term for ‘ sacrificial priest,’ covering all the different kinds of priests employed at the sacrifice. It appears certain that all the priests were Brāhmanas. The number of priests officiating at a sacrifice with different functions was almost certainly seven. The oldest list, occurring in one passage of the Rigveda, enumerates their names as Hotr, Potr, Nestr, Agnīdh, Praśāstr, Adhvaryu, Brahman, besides the institutor of the sacrifice. The number of seven probably explains the phrase ‘ seven Hotrs ’ occurring so frequently in the Rigveda, and is most likely connected with that of the mythical ‘ seven Rsis.’ It may be compared with the eight of Iran. The chief of the seven priests was the Hotr, who was the singer of the hymns, and in the early times their composer also. The Adhvaryu performed the practical work of the sacrifice, and accompanied his performance with muttered formulas of prayer and deprecation of evil. His chief assist­ance was derived from the Agnīdh, the two performing the smaller sacrifices without other help in practical matters. The Praśāstr, Upavaktr, or Maitrāvaruna, as he was variously called, appeared only in the greater sacrifices as giving in­structions to the Hotr, and as entrusted with certain litanies. The Potr, Nestr, and Brahman belonged to the ritual of the Soma sacrifice, the latter being later styled Brāhmanāc- chamsin to distinguish him from the priest who in the later ritual acted as supervisor. Other priests referred to in the Rigveda are the singers of Sāmans or chants, the Udgātr and his assistant the Prastotr, while the Pratihartr, another assistant, though not mentioned, may quite well have been known. Their functions undoubtedly represent a later stage of the ritual, the development of the elaborate series of sacrificial calls on the one hand, and on the other the use of long hymns addressed to the Soma plant. Other priests, such as the Achāvāka, the Grāvastut, the Unnetr, and the Subrahmanyan were known later in the developed ritual of the Brāhmanas, making in all sixteen priests, who were technically and artificially classed in four groups : Hotr, Maitrāvaruna, Achāvāka, and Grāvastut; Udgātr, Prastotr, Pratihartr, and Subrahmanya; Adhvaryu, Pratisthātr, Nestr, and Unnetr; Brahman, Brāhmanācchamsin, Agnīdhra, and Poty. Apart from all these priests was the Purohita, who was the spiritual adviser of the king in all his religious duties. Geldner holds that, as a rule, when the Purohita actually took part in one of the great sacrifices he played the part of the Brahman, in the sense of the priest who superintended the whole conduct of the ritual. He sees evidence for this view in a considerable number of passages of the Rigveda and the later literature, where Purohita and Brahman were combined or identified. Oldenberg, however, more correctly points out that in the earlier period this was not the case: the Purohita was then normally the Hotr, the singer of the most important of the songs; it was only later that the Brahman, who in the capacity of overseer of the rite is not known to the Rigveda, acquired the function of general supervision hitherto exercised by the Purohita, who was ex officio skilled in the use of magic and in guarding the king by spells which could also be applied to guarding the sacrifice from evil demons. With this agrees the fact that Agni, pre-eminently the Purohita of men, is also a Hotr, and that the two divine Hotrs of the Aprī hymns are called the divine Purohitas. On the other hand, the rule is explicitly recognized in the Aitareya Brāhmana that a Ksatriya should have a Brahman as a Purohita; and in the Taittirīya Samhitā the Vasistha family have a special claim to the office of Brahman-Purohita, perhaps an indi¬cation that it was they who first as Purohitas exchanged the function of Hotys for that of Brahmans in the sacrificial ritual. The sacrifices were performed for an individual in the great majority of cases. The Sattra, or prolonged sacrificial session, was, however, performed for the common benefit of the priests taking part in it, though its advantageous results could only be secured if all the members actually engaged were consecrated (ιdīksita). Sacrifices for a people as such were unknown. The sacrifice for the king was, it is true, intended to bring about the prosperity of his people also; but it is characteristic that the prayer16 for welfare includes by name only the priest and the king, referring to the people indirectly in connexion with the prosperity of their cattle and agriculture.
etaśa Is in the Kausītaki Brāhmana the name of a sage who is said to have cursed his children because they interrupted him in the midst of a rite ; hence the Aitaśāyanas (descendants of Etaśa) are declared to be the worst of the Bhrgus. The same story appears in the Aitareya Brāhmana, where, how­ever, the sage’s name is Aitaśa, and the Aitaśāyanas are described as the worst of the Aurvas.
opaśa Is a word of somewhat doubtful sense, occurring in the Rigveda, the Atharvaveda, and occasionally later. It probably means a *plait ’ as used in dressing the hair, especially of women, but apparently, in earlier times, of men also. The goddess Sinīvālī is called svaupaśā, an epithet of doubtful sense, from which Zimmer conjectures that the wearing of false plaits of hair was not unknown in Vedic times. What was the difference between the braids referred to in the epithets prthu-stuka,8 ‘ having broad braids,’ and visita-stuka9 ‘ having loosened braids,’ and the Opaśa cannot be made out from the evidence available. Geldner10 thinks that the original sense was ‘ horn,’ and that when the word applies to Indra11 it means * diadem.’
kakṣīvant Is the name of a Rsi mentioned frequently in the Rigveda, and occasionally elsewhere. He appears to have been a descendant of a female slave named Uśij. He must have been a Pajra by family, as he bears the epithet Pajriya, and his descendants are called Pajras. In a hymn of the Rigveda he celebrates the prince Svanaya Bhāvya, who dwelt on the Sindhu (Indus), as having bestowed magnificent gifts on him ; and the list of Nārāśamsas (‘ Praises of Heroes ’) in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one by Kaksīvant Auśija in honour of Svanaya Bhāvayavya. In his old age he obtained as a wife the maiden Vrcayā. He appears to have lived to be a hundred, the typical length of life in the Vedas. He seems always to be thought of as belonging to the past, and in a hymn of the fourth book of the Rigveda he is mentioned with the semi-mythical Kutsa and Kavi Uśanas. Later, also, he is a teacher of bygone days. In Vedic literature he is not connected with Dīrghatamas beyond being once mentioned along with him in a hymn of the Rigveda. But in the Brhaddevatā he appears as a son of Dīrghatamas by a slave woman, Uśij. Weber14 considers that Kaksīvant was originally a Ksatriya, not a Brāhmana, quoting in favour of this view the fact that he is mentioned beside kings like Para Atnāra, Vītahavya Srāyasa, and Trasadasyu Paurukutsya. But that these are all kings is an unnecessary assumption : these persons are mentioned in the passages in question undoubtedly only as famous men of old, to whom are ascribed mythical sacrificial performances, and who thus gained numerous sons.
kumba Is mentioned with Opaśa and Kurīra as an ornament of women’s hair in the Atharvaveda. Geldner thinks that, like those two words, it originally meant ‘horn,’ but this is very doubtful. Indian tradition simply regards the term as denoting a female adornment connected with the dressing of the hair.
kurīra Like Opaśa and Kumba, denotes some sort of female head ornament in the description of the bride’s adornment in the wedding hymn of the Rigveda and in the Atharvaveda. According to the Yajurveda Samhitās, the goddess Sinīvālī is described by the epithets su-kapardā, su-kurīra, sv-opaśā, as wearing a beautiful head-dress. According to Geldner, the word originally meant ‘ horn but this is uncertain, as this sense is not required in any passage in which the term occurs.
kṛmi ‘ worm.’ In the later Samhitās, and especially in the Atharvaveda, worms play a considerable part. They are regarded as poisonous, and are spoken of as found in the mountains, in forests, in waters, in plants, and in the human body. In accordance with widespread primitive ideas, they are considered to be the causes of disease in men and animals. The Atharvaveda contains three hymns as charms directed against them. The first of these hymns is of a general character, the second is meant to destroy worms in cattle, and the third is intended to cure children of worms. When found in men, worms are said to have their place in the head and ribs, and to creep into the eyes, nose, and teeth. They are described as dark brown, but white in the fore part of the body, with black ears, and as having three heads. They are given many specific names: Alāndu, Ejatka, Kaskaça, Kīta, Kurūru, Nīlañgu, Yevāsa, Vaghā, Vrksasarpī, Saluna, Savarta, śipavitnuka, Stega.
keśa Hair of the head,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The hair was a matter of great care to the Vedic Indian, and several hymns of the Atharva­veda are directed to securing its plentiful growth. Cutting or shaving (vap) the hair is often referred to. For a man to wear long hair was considered effeminate. As to modes of dressing the hair see Opaśa and Kaparda; as to the beard see Smaśru.
kraya Sale,’ is a word which does not actually occur in the Rigveda, though the verb krī, from which this noun is derived, is found there. Both noun and verb are common in the later Samhitās. Sale appears to have regularly consisted in barter in the Rigveda ten cows are regarded as a possible price for an (image of) Indra to be used as a fetish, while elsewhere not a hundred, nor a thousand, nor a myriad are considered as an adequate price (.śulka) for the purchase of Indra. The Athar­vaveda mentions, as possible objects of commerce, garments (dūrśa), coverlets (pavasta), and goatskins (ajina). The haggling of the market was already familiar in the days of the Rigveda,® and a characteristic hymn of the Atharvaveda is directed to procuring success in trade. The ‘ price ’ was called Vasna, and the ‘merchant Vanij, his greed being well known.There is little evidence of a standard of value in currency having been adopted. When no specific mention is made of the standard, the unit was probably the cow. In a consider¬able number of passages of the Satapatha Brāhmana and elsewhere, however, the expression hiranyam śata-mānam suggests that there must have been some standard other thancows, though it might in all these passages be rendered as ‘gold worth a hundred cows.’ But the use of the Krsnala as a measure of weight suggests that the meaning is ‘ gold weighing a hundred Krsnalas,’ and this seems the more probable explana¬tion. This unit seems not to be known in the Rigveda, where the meaning of the term Manā, which occurs once, is mysterious, and where necklets (Niska) seem to have been one of the more portable forms of wealth, like jewellery in modern India, and may perhaps have served as a means of exchange.
gardabha The ass,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda as inferior to the horse. In the Taittirīya Samhitā he again appears as inferior to the horse, but at the same time as the best bearer of burdens (bhāra-bhāritama) among animals. The same authority styles the ass dvi-retas, ‘having double seed,’ in allusion to his breeding with the mare as well as the she-ass. The smallness of the young of the ass, and his capacity for eating, are both referred to. The disagreeable cry of the animal is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and in allusion to this the term ‘ ass ’ is applied opprobriously to a singer in the Rigveda. A hundred asses are spoken of as a gift to a singer in a Vālakhilya hymn. The mule (aśvatara) is the offspring of an ass and a mare, the latter, like the ass, being called dvi- retas, ‘ receiving double seed,’ for similar reasons. The male ass is often also termed Rāsabha. The female ass, Gardabhī, is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
ghora angirasa Is the name of a mythical teacher in the Kausītaki Brāhmana and the Chāndogya Upanisad,where he is teacher of the strange Krsna Devakīputra. That the name is certainly a mere figment is shown by the fact that this ‘dread descendant of the Añgirases' has a counterpart in Bhisaj Atharvana, ‘the healing descendant of the Atharvans,’ while in the Rigveda Sūtras the Atharvāno vedah is connected with bhesajam and the Añgiraso vedah with ghoram. He is accordingly a personification of the dark side of the practice of the Atharvaveda. He is also mentioned in the Aśvamedha section of the Kāthaka Samhitā.
cyavana Are variant forms of the name of an ancient Ṛṣi, or seer. The Rigveda represents him as an old decrepit man, to whom the Aśvins restored youth and strength, making him acceptable to his wife, and a husband of maidens. The legend is given in another form in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana, where Cyavana is described as wedding Sukanyā, the daughter of śaryāta. He is there called a Bhrgu or Añgirasa, and is represented as having been rejuvenated by immersion in a pond—the first occurrence of a motive, later very common in Oriental literature. Another legend about Cyavāna is apparently alluded to in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda, where he seems to be opposed to the Paktha prince Tūrvayāna, an Indra worshipper, while Cyavāna seems to have been specially connected with the Aśvins. This explanation of the hymn, suggested by Pischel, is corroborated by the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, which relates that Vidanvant, another son of Bhrgu, supported Cyavana against Indra, who was angry with him for sacrificing to the Aśvins; it is also note¬worthy that the Aśvins appear in the śatapatha Brāhmana as obtaining a share in the sacrifice on the suggestion of Sukanyā. But a reconciliation of Indra and Cyavana must have taken place, because the Aitareya Brāhmana relates the inauguration of śāryāta by Cyavana with the great Indra consecration (aindrena mahābhisekena). In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaça Cyavana is mentioned as a seer of Sāmans or Chants.
jani These words appear to denote ‘wife,’ usually applying to her in relation to her husband (Pati). The more general sense of ‘woman ’ is doubtful; for when Usas is called a fair Janī, ‘wife ’ may be meant, and the other passage cited for this sense by Delbriick, which refers to the begetting of children, seems to demand the sense of ‘wives.’ Since the words usually appear in the plural, it is possible they may refer not to ‘wives’ proper, but to Hetairai. This is, how¬ever, rendered unlikely because the Rigveda uses the phrase patyur janitvam, denoting ‘wifehood to a husband,’ as well as the expression janayo na patnlh,β ‘like wives (who are) mistresses,’ besides containing passages in which the word has reference to marriage. The singular occurs in the dialogue of Yama and Yamī.
jahnu Occurs only in the plural in the legend of Sunahśepa, who is said to have obtained, as Devarāta, both the lordship of the Jahnus and the divine lore of the Gāthins. A Jāhnava, or descendant of Jahnu, was, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, Viśvāmitra, who is said, by means of a certain catū-rātra or four-night ’ ritual, to have secured the kingdom for the Jahnus in their conflict with the Vrcīvants. He is here described as a king. Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmana, Viśvāmitra is addressed as a rāja-putra, ‘prince,’ and Bharata- rsabha, ‘bull of the Bharatas.’ It is therefore clear that the Brāhmanas, though not the Samhitās, saw in him at once a priest and a prince by origin, though there is no trace whatever of their seeing in him a prince who won Brahmanhood as in the version of the later texts.A Jahnāvī is mentioned twice in the Rigveda, being either the wife of Jahnu, or, as Sāyana thinks, the race of Jahnu. The family must clearly once have been a great one, later merged in the Bharatas.
jāspati Occurs once in the Rigveda in the sense of the ‘head of the family.’ The abstract formed from this word, Jās-patya, apparently denoting ‘lordship of children,’ is also found there.
tanaya n., denotes ‘ offspring,’ ‘descendants’ in the Rigveda, where also it is often used adjectivally with Toka. There seems no ground for the view that toka means 'sons,' 'children,' and tanaya 'grandchildren.'
tāta Apparently ‘dada’s boy,’ an affectionate term of address by a father (cf. Tata) to a son, is found in the Brāhmanas, occurring in the vocative only. But in the sense of father,’ through confusion with Tata, Aitareya Aranyaka.
tuc In the Rigveda occasionally occurs denoting ‘children.’ Tuj occurs rather more often in the same sense. Cf. Tanaya and Toka.
toka Denotes 4 children ’ or 4 descendants ’ generally in the Rigveda and later. The word is often joined with Tanaya.
darbha Is the name of a grass in the Rigveda and later. In the Atharvaveda it is used for the calming of anger (maηyu- śamaηa), and as an amulet for protection against the scattering of one’s hair or the striking of one’s breast. It is also said to be ‘ rich in roots ’ (bhūri-mūla), to possess a thousand leaves (sahasra-parηa) and a hundred stalks (śata-kāηda).
daśamī Denotes in the Atharvaveda and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana the period of life between 90 and 100 years which the Rigveda calls the daśama yuga, ‘ the tenth stage of life.’ Longevity seems not to have been rare among the Vedic Indians, for the desire to live a ‘hundred autumns’ (śaradal} śatam) is constantly expressed. Dīrghatamas is said to have lived ioo years, and Mahidāsa Aitareya is credited with 116. Onesikritos reported that they sometimes lived 130 years, a statement with which corresponds the wish expressed in the Jātaka for a life of 120 years. Probably the number was always rather imaginary than real, but the com¬parative brevity of modern life in India9 may be accounted for by the cumulative effect of fever, which is hardly known to the Rigveda. See Takman.
daśoṇi Appears in one passage of the Rigveda apparently as a favourite of Indra and as opposed to the Panis, who fell in hundreds for his benefit. The view of Ludwig that he is here the priest of the Panis is very improbable. Elsewhere his name is simply mentioned. See also Daśonya.
dharma Are the regular words, the latter in the Rigveda, and both later, for ‘ law ’ or ‘ custom.’ But there is very little evidence in the early literature as to the administra­tion of justice or the code of law followed. On the other hand, the Dharma Sūtras contain full particulars.Criminal Law.—The crimes recognized in Vedic literature vary greatly in importance, while there is no distinction adopted in principle between real crimes and what now are regarded as fanciful bodily defects or infringements of merely conventional practices. The crimes enumerated include the slaying of an embryo (
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nāman ‘Name,’ is a common word from the Rigveda onwards. The Grhya Sūtras give elaborate rules for the formation of the names of children, but more important is the distinction between the secret (guhya) and the ordinary name, though the rules as to the secret name are not at all consistent. The secret name is already recognized in the Rigveda, and is referred to in the Brāhmanas, one secret name, that of Arjuna for Indra, being given in the Satapatha Brāhmana. It is to be noted that the rule as to giving the designation of a Naksatra (lunar asterism) as the secret name or otherwise is not illustrated by a single recorded name of a teacher in the Brāhmanas. The śatapatha Brāhmana several times mentions the adoption of a second name with a view to securing success, and also refers to the adoption of another name for purposes of distinction. In actual practice two names are usually found in the Brāhmanas, the second being a patronymic or a metronymic, as in Kaksīvant Auśija (if the story of the slave woman Uśij as his mother is correct), or Brhaduktha Vāmneya, ‘ son of Vāmnī,’ though the relationship may, of course, be not direct parentage, but more remote descent. Three names are less common—for example, Kūśāmba Svāyava Lātavya, ‘ son of Svāyu, of the Lātavya (son of Latu) family,’ or Devataras Syāvasāyana Kāśyapa, where the patronymic and the Gotra name are both found. In other cases the names probably have a local reference—e.g., Kauśāmbeya and Gāñgya. Fre¬quently the patronymic only is given, as Bhārgava, Maudgalya, etc., or two patronymics are used. The simple name is often used for the patronymic—e.g., Trasadasyu. In a few cases the name of the wife is formed from the husband’s name, as Uśīnarānī, Purukutsānī, Mudgalānī.
niṣka Is frequently found in the Rigveda and later denoting a gold ornament worn on the neck, as is shown by the two epithets ηiska-kaηtha and ηiska-grīva, ‘ having a gold ornament on the neck.’ A Niska of silver is mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. As early as the Rigveda6 traces are seen of the use of Niskas as a sort of currency, for a singer celebrates the receipt of a hundred Niskas and a hundred steeds: he could hardly require the Niskas merely for purposes of personal adornment. Later the use of Niskas as currency is quite clear. Cf. also Krsnala.
nau Is the regular word in the Rigveda and later for a 4 boat ’ or 4 ship.’ In the great majority of cases the ship was merely a boat for crossing rivers, though no doubt a large boat was needed for crossing many of the broad rivers of the Panjab as well as the Yamunā and Gañgā. Often no doubt the Nau was a mere dug-out canoe (
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
paśu Means animal ’ generally, including man. There is frequent mention of the five sacrificial animalsthe horse, the cow, the sheep, the goat, and man. Seven such domestic animals are spoken of in the Atharvaveda and later; probably, as Whitney observes, merely as a sacred mystic number, not, as the commentator explains, the usual five with the ass and the camel added. Animals are also referred to as ubhayadaηt and anyatodant. They are further6 classified as those which take hold with the hand (hastādānāh), man (purusa) telephant (hastiri), and ape (markata), and those which grasp by the mouth (mukhādānāh). Another division is that of biped (dvipād) and quadruped (catuspād). Man is a biped; he is the first (pro- thama) of the beasts ; he alone of animals lives a hundred years (śatāyus), and he is king of the animals. He possesses speech (vāc) in conjunction with the other animals. In the Aitareya Aranyaka an elaborate distinction is drawn between vegetables, animals, and man in point of intellect.Of animals apart from man a threefold division is offered in the Rigveda into those of the air (υāyavya), those of the jungle (<āranya), and those of the village (grāmya), or tame animals. The division into āranya and grāmya animals is quite common. In the Yajurveda Samhitās is found a division into eka-śapha, ‘ whole-hoofed ’; ksudra, ‘small’; and āranya, ‘ wild,’ the two former classes denoting the tame animals. The horse and the ass are eka-śapha ; the ksudra are the sheep, the goat, and the ox: this distinction being parallel to that of ubhayadant and anyatodant. Zimmer sees in a passage of the Atharvaveda a division of wild animals (āranya) into five classes: those of the jungle described as the ‘dread beasts which are in the wood ’ (tnrgā bhīmā vane hitāh) ; winged creatures, represented by the Hamsa, ‘ gander,’ Suparna, ‘eagle,’ Sakuna, ‘bird’; amphibia—Simśumāra, ‘alligator,’ and Ajagara, ‘crocodile’ (?); ‘fish,’ Purīkaya, Jasa, and Matsya; insects and worms (described as rajasāh). But this division is more ingenious than probable, and it is ignored by both Bloomfield and Whitney.
pitṛ Common from the Rigveda onwards, denotes ‘father, not so much as the ‘begetter’ (janitr) but rather as the pro­tector of the child, this being probably also the etymological sense of the word. The father in the Rigveda stands for all that is good and kind. Hence Agni is compared with a father, while Indra is even dearer than a father. The father carries his son in his arms, and places him on his lap, while the child pulls his garment to attract attention. In later years the son depends on his father for help in trouble, and greets him with joy. It is difficult to ascertain precisely how far the son was subject to parental control, and how long such control continued. Reference is made in the Rigveda to a father’s chastising his son for gambling, and Rjrāśva is said to have been blinded by his father. From the latter statement Zimmer infers the existence of a developed patria potestas, but to lay stress on this isolated and semi-mythical incident would be unwise. It is, however, quite likely that the patria potestas was originally strong, for we have other support for the thesis in the Roman patria potestas. If there is no proof that a father legally controlled his son’s wedding, and not much that he controlled his daughter’s, the fact is in itself not improbable. There is again no evidence to show whether a son, when grown up, normally continued to stay with his father, his wife becoming a member of the father’s household, or whether he set up a house of his own : probably the custom varied. Nor do we know whether the son was granted a special plot of land on marriage or otherwise, or whether he only came into such property after his father’s death. But any excessive estimate of the father’s powers over a son who was no longer a minor and naturally under his control, must be qualified by the fact that in his old age the sons might divide their father’s property, or he might divide it amongst them, and that when the father-in-law became aged he fell under the control of his son’s wife. There are also obscure traces that in old age a father might be exposed, though there is no reason to suppose that this was usual in Vedic India. Normally the son was bound to give his father full obedience. The later Sūtras show in detail the acts of courtesy which he owed his father, and they allow him to eat the remnants of his father’s food. On the other hand, the father was expected to be kind. The story of Sunahśepa in the Aitareya Brāh-mana emphasizes the horror with which the father’s heartless treatment of his son was viewed. The Upanisads insist on the spiritual succession from father to son. The kissing of a son was a frequent and usual token of affection, even in mature years. On the failure of natural children, adoption was possible. It was even resorted to when natural children existed, but when it was desired to secure the presence in the family of a person of specially high qualifications, as in Visvamitra’s adoption of Sunahśepa. It is not clear that adoption from one caste into another was possible, for there is no good evidence that Viśvāmitra was, as Weber holds, a Ksatriya who adopted a Brāhmana. Adoption was also not always in high favour: it may be accidental or not that a hymn of the Vasistha book of the Rigveda condemns the usage. It was also possible for the father who had a daughter, but no sons, to appoint her to bear a son for him. At any rate the practice appears to be referred to in an obscure verse of the Rigveda as interpreted by Yāska. Moreover, it is possible that the difficulty of a brotherless maiden finding a husband may have been due in part to the possibility of her father desiring to make her a Putrikā, the later technical name for a daughter whose son is to belong to her father’s family. There can be no doubt that in a family the father took precedence of the mother. Delbruck explains away the apparent cases to the contrary. There is no trace of the family as a land-owning corporation. The dual form Pitarau regularly means ‘father and mother,’ ‘parents.
putra Is, with Sūnu, the usual name for ‘ son ’ from the Rigveda onwards. The original sense of the word was apparently ‘ small,’ or something analogous. The form Putraka is often used with the distinct intention of an affec­tionate address to a younger man, not merely a son proper. Reference is frequently made to the desire for a son. Cf. Pati.
pur Is a word of frequent occurrence in the Rigveda and later, meaning ‘rampart,’ foft,’ or stronghold.’ Such fortifi­cations must have been occasionally of considerable size, as one is called ‘broad’ (prthvī) and ‘wide’ (urvī). Elsewhere a fort made of stone’ (aśmamayī) is mentioned. Sometimes strongholds ‘ of iron ’ (<āyasī) are referred to, but these are probably only metaphorical. A fort full of kine ’ (gomatī) is mentioned, showing that strongholds were used to hold cattle. Autumnal ’ (sāradī) forts are named, apparently as belonging to the Dāsas: this may refer to the forts in that season being occupied against Aryan attacks or against inundations caused by overflowing rivers. Forts ‘with a hundred walls (βata- bhuji) are spoken of. It would probably be a mistake to regard these forts as permanently occupied fortified places like the fortresses of the mediaeval barony. They were probably merely places of refuge against attack, ramparts of hardened earth with palisades and a ditch (cf. Dehī). Pischel and Geldner, however, think that there were towns with wooden walls and ditches (περίβολος and τάφρος) like the Indian town of Pātaliputra known to Megas- thenes and the Pāli texts. This is possible, but hardly susceptible of proof, and it is not without significance that the word Nagara is of late occurrence. On the whole it is hardly likely that in early Vedic times city life was much developed. In the Epic, according to Hopkins, there are found the Nagara, ‘city’; Grāma, ‘village’; and Ghosa, ‘ranch.’ Vedic literature hardly seems to go beyond the village, no doubt with modifications in its later period. The siege of forts, is mentioned in the Samhitās and Brāhmanas. According to the Rigveda, fire was used.
puro'nuvākyā (‘Introductory verse to be recited’) is the technical term for the address to a god inviting him to partake of the offering; it was followed by the Yājyā, which accom­panied the actual oblation. Such addresses are not unknown, but are rare, according to Oldenberg in the Rigveda; subse­quently they are regular, the word itself occurring in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmarias.
pradhi Is the name of some part of the wheel of a chariot, probably the ‘ felly.’ In one passage of the Rigveda, and in one of the Atharvaveda, the ‘ nave ’ (Nabhya) and the felly ’ (pradhi) are mentioned along with the Upadhi, which must then be either a collective name for the spokes or an inner rim within the felly and binding the spokes. In the riddle hymn of the Rigveda twelve Pradhis are mentioned with three naves, one wheel, and three hundred and sixty spokes; what exactly is here meant by this particular term it would be useless to con­jecture, though it is clear that the passage as a whole symbolizes the year with three seasons, twelve months, and three hundred and sixty days. Elsewhere the nave and the Pradhi alone are mentioned, or the Pradhi occurs by itself.
pravara Denotes properly the 'summons' addressed to Agni at the begining of the sacrifice to perform his functionṣ But as Agni was then invoked by the names of the ancestors of the Purohita, the term Pravara denotes the series of ancestors invokeḍ
praśāstṛ Is the name of one of the priests (Rtvij) at the Vedic sacrifice. In the lesser sacrifices he plays no part at all, but he appears in the animal (pain) and Soma sacrifices, in the former as the only, in the latter as the main, assistant of the Hotr priest in the singing of the litanies. He is mentioned by name in the Rigveda, and often later. He is also in the Rigveda called Upavaktf, this name, like Praśāstr, being derived from the fact that one of his chief functions was to issue directions (praisa) to the other priests. Another name for him was Maitrāvaruna, because his litanies were mainly addressed to Mitra and Varuṇa, a connexion already visible in the Rigveda. The ‘two divine Hotṛs’ of the Apr! litanies denote, according to Oldenberg, the heavenly counterparts of the Hotr and the Praśāstr.
balbūtha is mentioned in one hymn of the Rigveda, along with Tarukça and Ppthuśravas, as a giver of gifts to the singer. He is called a Dāsa, but Roth was inclined to amend the text so as to say that the singer received a hundred Dāsas from Balbūtha. Zimmer’s suggestion that he may have been the son of an aboriginal mother, or perhaps an aboriginal himself, seems probable.4 If this was the case, it would be a clear piece of evidence for the establishment of friendly relations between the Aryans and the Dāsas.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
māṃsa ‘Flesh.’ The eating of flesh appears as something quite regular in the Vedic texts, which show no trace of the doctrine of Ahimsā, or abstaining from injury to animals. For example, the ritual offerings of flesh contemplate that the gods will eat it, and again the Brahmins ate the offerings.1 Again, the slaying of a ‘ great ox ’ (mahoksa) or a ‘ great goat ’ (mahāja) for a guest was regularly prescribed ; and the name Atithigva probably means ‘slaying cows for guests.’The great sage Yājñavalkya was wont to eat the meat of milch cows and bullocks (dhenv-anaduha) if only it was amsala (‘ firm ’ or ‘ tender ’).The slaughter of a hundred bulls (uksan) was credited to one sacrificer, Agastya. The marriage ceremony was accompanied by the slaying of oxen, clearly for food. That there was any general objection to the eating of flesh is most improbable. Sometimes it is forbidden, as when a man is performing a vow, or its use is disapproved, as in a passage of the Atharvaveda, where meat is classed with Surā, or intoxicating liquor, as a bad thing. Again, in the Rigveda® the slaying of the cows is said to take place in the Aghās, a deliberate variation for Maghās; but this may be the outcome merely of a natural association of death with gloom, even when cows alone are the victims in question. The Brāhmaṇas also contain the doctrine of the eater in this world being eaten in the next, but this is not to be regarded as a moral or religious disapproval of eating flesh, though it no doubt contains the germ of such a view, which is also in harmony with the persuasion of the unity of existence, which becomes marked in the Brāhmaṇas. But Ahimsā as a developed and articulate doctrine would seem to have arisen from the acceptance of the doctrine of transmigration, which in its fundamentals is later than the Brāhmaṇa period. On the other hand, it is to be noted that the cow was on the road to acquire special sanctity in the Rigveda, as is shown by the name aghnyā, ‘not to be slain,’ applied to it in several passages. But this fact cannot be regarded as showing that meat eating generally was condemned. Apart from mythical considerations, such as the identification of the cow with earth or Aditi (which are, of course, much more than an effort of priestly ingenuity), the value of the cow for other purposes than eating was so great as to account adequately for its sanctity, the beginnings of which can in fact be traced back to Indo-Iranian times. Moreover, the ritual of the cremation of the dead required the slaughter of a cow as an essential part, the flesh being used to envelope the dead body. The usual food of the Vedic Indian, as far as flesh was concerned, can be gathered from the list of sacrificial victims: what man ate he presented to the gods—that is, the sheep, the goat, and the ox. The horse sacrifice was an infrequent exception: it is probably not to be regarded as a trace of the use of horseflesh as food, though the possibility of such being the case cannot be overlooked in view of the widespread use of horseflesh as food in different countries and times. It is, however, more likely that the aim of this sacrifice was to impart magic strength, the speed and vigour of the horse, to the god and his worshippers, as Oldenberg argues.
mātṛ Is the regular word for ‘mother’ from the Rigveda onwards, being a formation probably developed under the influence of an onomatopoetic word tnā, used like Ambā and Nanā. The relations of wife and husband, as well as of mother and children, are treated under Pati. It remains only to add that details are given in the Sūtras of the respectful attention paid to a mother, and of the ceremonies in which she is concerned. The mother also appears interested in the fate of her children as in the story of the sale of śunahśepa for adoption by Viśvāmitra in the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the household the mother ranked after the father (see Pitp). Occasionally mātarā is used for parents,’ as are also pitarā and mātarāpitarā and mātā-pitarah.
muni Occurs in one hymn of the Rigveda where it seems to denote an ascetic of magic powers with divine afflatus (devesita), the precursor of the strange ascetics of later India* This agrees with the fact that Aitaśa, the Muni, is in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa regarded by his son as deranged, a view not unjustified if the nonsense which passes as the Aitaśapralāpa, ‘ Chatter of Aitaśa,’ was really his. The Rigveda calls Indra the ‘ friend of Munis,’ and the Atharvaveda refers to a ‘ divine Muni ’ (deva muni), by whom a similar ascetic may be meant. In the Upaniṣads6 the Muni is of a more restrained type: he is one who learns the nature of the Brahman, the Absolute, by study, or sacrifice, or penance, or fasting, or faith (:śraddha). It must not of course be thought that there is any absolute distinction between the older Muni and the later: in both cases the man is in a peculiar ecstatic condition, but the ideal of the Upaniṣads is less material than the earlier picture of the Muni, who is more of a ‘ medicine man ’ than a sage. Nor would it be wise to conclude from the comparative rareness of the mention of the Muni in the Vedic texts that he was an infrequent figure in Vedic times: he was probably not approved by the priests who followed the ritual, and whose views were essentially different from the ideals of a Muni, which were superior to earthly considerations, such as the desire for children and Dakṣiṇās.
mṛtyu ‘Death,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and later as a thing of terror. There are a hundred and one forms of death, the natural one by old age (jam), and a hundred others, all to be avoided. To die before old age (purā jarasah) is to die before the allotted span (purā āy«sa#),β the normal length of life being throughout Vedic literature spoken of as a hundred years. On the other hand, the evils of old age in the loss of physical strength were clearly realized : one of the feats of the Aśvins was to restore old Cyavāna to his former youth and powers, and another was the rejuvenation of Kali. The Atharvaveda is full of charms of all sorts to avert death and secure length of years (āytisya). The modes of disposing of the dead were burial and cremation (see Ag’nidag’dha). Both existed in the early Vedic period, as in Greece; but the former method was on the whole less favoured, and tended to be regarded with disapproval. The bones of the dead, whether burned or not, were marked by the erection of a tumulus (śmaáāna): the śatapatha Brāhmana preserves traces of strong differences of opinion as to the mode in which these tumuli should be constructed. There is little or no trace of the custom common in northern lands of sending the dead man to sea in a burning ship: the reference to a ship seems to point to mythical perils after death, not to the mode of burial. The life after death was to the Vedic Indian a repetition of the life in this world. He passed into the next world sarυa- tanuh sūñgah, ‘ with whole body and all his members,’ enjoying there the same pleasures as he had enjoyed on earth. Even in the Rigveda there are hints of evil awaiting evil-doers, but it is not until the Atharvaveda and the Brāhmaṇas that a hell of punishment is set out, and it is in the Brāhmaṇas that good and evil deeds are said to produce happiness or hell hereafter. But there is no hint of extinction in the Rigveda as the fate of the wicked, as Roth inclined to think. The Vedic poet not being deeply moral, his verses do not convey, as would those of a man convinced of sin, warnings of future judgment.
yakṣma In the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda frequently denotes ‘illness,’ in general, perhaps as rendering the body emaciated. A hundred kinds of Yakṣma are referred to in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and a-yaksma in the Kāṣhaka Samhitā, denotes ‘ free from disease.’ In the Yaj'urveda Samhitās5 an account is given of the origin of Yakṣma, which is distinguished as of three kinds—Rāja-yakçma, ‘ royal Yakṣma,’ Pāpa-yakṣma, ‘evil Yakṣma,’ and Jāyenya, most probably ‘syphilis.’ The second of the series is elsewhere unknown, and can hardly be defined, for it merely means ‘serious or deadly disease.’ Cf. also Ajñātayakṣma.
yakṣma In the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda frequently denotes ‘ illness,’ in general, perhaps as rendering the body emaciated. A hundred kinds of Yakṣma are referred to in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and a-yaksma in the Kāçhaka Samhitā, denotes ‘ free from disease.’ In the Yaj'urveda Samhitās an account is given of the origin of Yakṣma, which is distinguished as of three kinds—Rāja-yakçma, ‘royal Yakṣma,’ Pāpa-yakṣma, ‘evil Yakṣma,’ and Jāyenya, most probably ‘syphilis.’ The second of the series is elsewhere unknown, and can hardly be defined, for it merely means ‘serious or deadly disease.’ Cf. also Ajñātayakçma.
yuktāáva Is the name of a man who is mentioned in the Pañcaviφśa Brāhmaṇa as the seer of a Sāman, or chant. He is said to have exposed a pair of twins, but Hopkins thinks that the reference is only to an exchange of children.
yuga In the Rigveda frequently denotes a ‘generation’; but the expression daśame yuge applied to Dirg’hatamas in one passage must mean ‘tenth decade’ of life. There is no reference in the older Vedic texts to the five-year cycle (see Samvatsara). The quotation from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa given in the St. Petersburg Dictionary, and by Zimmer and others, is merely a citation from a modern text in the commentary on that work. Nor do the older Vedic texts know of any series of Yugas or ages such as are usual later. In the Atharvaveda6 there are mentioned in order a hundred years, an ayuta (10,000?), and then two, three, or four Yugas: the inference from this seems to be that a Yuga means more than an ayuta, but is not very certain. Zimmer adduces a passage from the Rigveda, but the reference there, whatever it may be, is certainly not to the four ages {cf. also Triyug’a). The Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa recognizes long periods of time—e.g., one of 100,000 years. To the four ages, Kali, Dvāpara, Tretā, and Kṛta, there is no certain reference in Vedic literature, though the names occur as the designations of throws at dice (see Akça). In the Aitareya Brāhmana the names occur, but it is not clear that the ages are really meant. Haug thought that the dice were meant: this view is at least as probable as the alternative explanation, which is accepted by Weber, Roth,Wilson, Max Mūller, and Muir. Roth, indeed, believes that the verse is an inter¬polation ; but in any case it must be remembered that the passage is from a late book of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. Four ages—Puṣya, Dvāpara, Khārvā, and Kṛta—are mentioned in the late Sadvimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Dvāpara in the Gopatha Brāhmana.
rājan King,' is a term repeatedly occuring in the rigveda and the later literature. It is quite clear that the normal, though not universal form of government, in early India was that by kings, as might be expected in view of the fact that the Āryan Indian were invaders in a hostile territory : a situation which, as in the case of Ārayan invaders of Greece and German invaders of England, resulted almost necessarily in strengthening the monarchic element of the constitution. The mere patriarchal organization of society is not sufficient, as Zimmer assumes, to explain the Vedic kingship. Tenure of Monarchy.—Zimmer is of opinion that while the Vedic monarchy was sometimes hereditary, as is indeed shown by several cases where the descent can be traced,® yet in others the monarchy was elective, though it is not clear whether the selection by the people was between the members of the royal family only or extended to members of all the noble clans. It must, however, be admitted that the evidence for the elective monarchy is not strong. As Geldner argues, all the passages cited can be regarded not as choice by the cantons (Viś), but as acceptance by the subjects (viś): this seems the more prob¬able sense. Of course this is no proof that the monarchy was not sometimes elective: the practice of selecting one member of the family to the exclusion of another less well qualified is exemplified by the legend in Yāska of the Kuru brothers, Devāpi and śantanu, the value of which, as evidence of contemporary views, is not seriously affected by the legend itself being of dubious character and validity. Royal power was clearly insecure: there are several references to kings being expelled from their realms, and their efforts to recover their sovereignty, and the Atharvaveda contains spells in the interest of royalty. The King in War.—Naturally the Vedic texts, after the Rigveda, contain few notices of the warlike adventures that no doubt formed a very considerable proportion of the royal functions. But the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa contains the statement that the Kuru-Pañcāla kings, who, like the Brahmins of those tribes, stand as representatives of good form, used to make their raids in the dewy season. The word Udāja, too, with its variant Nirāja, records that kings took a share of the booty of war. The Rigveda13 has many references to Vedic wars: it is clear that the Kṣatriyas were at least as intent on fulfilling their duty of war as the Brahmins on sacrificing and their other functions. Moreover, beside offensive war, defence was a chief duty of the king: he is emphatically the ‘ protector of the tribe* (gopā janasya), or, as is said in the Rājasūya (‘royal consecration’), ‘protector of the Brahmin.’14 His Purohita was expected to use his spells and charms to secure the success of his king’s arms. The king no doubt fought in person: so Pratardana met death in war according to the Kausītaki Upanisad;16 and in the Rājasūya the king is invoked as ‘sacker of cities’ (purāψ bhettā). The King in Peace.—In return for his warlike services the king received the obedience—sometimes forced—of the people, and in particular their contributions for the maintenance of royalty. The king is regularly regarded as ‘ devouring the people,’ but this phrase must not be explained as meaning that he necessarily oppressed them. It obviously has its origin in a custom by which the king and his retinue were fed by the people’s contributions, a plan with many parallels. It is also probable that the king could assign the royal right of mainten¬ance to a Ksatriya, thus developing a nobility supported by the people. Taxation would not normally fall on Kṣatriya or Brahmin; the texts contain emphatic assertions of the exemption of the goods of the latter from the royal bounty. In the people, however, lay the strength of the king. See also Bali. In return the king performed the duties of judge. Himself immune from punishment (a-daiidya), he wields the rod of punishment (Daṇda). It is probable that criminal justice remained largely in his actual administration, for the Sūtras preserve clear traces of the personal exercise of royal criminal jurisdiction. Possibly the jurisdiction could be exercised by a royal officer, or even by a delegate, for a Rājanya is mentioned as an overseer (adhyaksa) of the punishment of a śūdra in the Kāthaka Samhitā. In civil justice it may be that the king played a much less prominent part, save as a court of final appeal, but evidence is lacking on this head. The Madhyamaśi of the Rigveda was probably not a royal, but a private judge or arbitrator. A wide criminal jurisdiction is, however, to some extent supported by the frequent mention of Varuna’s spies, for Varuṇa is the divine counterpart of the human king. Possibly such spies could be used in' war also. There is no reference in early Vedic literature to the exercise of legislative activity by the king, though later it is an essential part of his duties. Nor can we say exactly what executive functions devolved on the king. In all his acts the king was regularly advised by his Purohita ; he also had the advantage of the advice of the royal ministers and attendants (see Ratnin). The local administration was entrusted to the Grāmartī, or village chief, who may have been selected or appointed by the'king. The outward signs of the king’s rank were his palace and his brilliant dress. The King as Landowner.—The position of the king with regard to the land is somewhat obscure. The Greek notices,30 in which, unhappily, it would be dangerous to put much trust, since they were collected by observers who were probably little used to accurate investigations of such matters, and whose statements wore based on inadequate information, vary in their statements. In part they speak of rent being paid, and declare that only the king and no private person could own land, while in part they refer to the taxation of land. Hopkins is strongly of opinion that the payments made were paid for protection —i.e., in modern terminology as a tax, but that the king was recognized as the owner of all the land, while yet the individual or the joint family also owned the land. As against Baden- Powell, who asserted that the idea of the king as a landowner was later, he urges for the Vedic period that the king, as we have seen, is described as devouring the people, and that, according to the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Vaiśya can be devoured at will and maltreated (but, unlike the śūdra, not killed); and for the period of the legal Sūtras and śāstras he cites Bṛhaspati and Nārada as clearly recognizing the king’s overlordship, besides a passage of the Mānava Dharma Sāstra which describes the king as ‘lord of all a phrase which Būhler35 was inclined to interpret as a proof of landowning. The evidence is, however, inadequate to prove what is sought. It is not denied that gradually the king came to be vaguely con¬ceived—as the English king still is—as lord of all the land in a proprietorial sense, but it is far more probable that such an idea was only a gradual development than that it was primitive. The power of devouring the people is a political power, not a right of ownership; precisely the same feature can be traced in South Africa,3® where the chief can deprive a man arbitrarily of his land, though the land is really owned by the native. The matter is ultimately to some extent one of terminology, but the parallel cases are in favour of distinguishing between the political rights of the crown, which can be transferred by way of a grant, and the rights of ownership. Hopkins37 thinks that the gifts of land to priests, which seems to be the first sign of land transactions in the Brāhmaṇas, was an actual gift of land; it may have been so in many cases, but it may easily also have been the grant of a superiority : the Epic grants are hardly decisive one way or the other. For the relations of the king with the assembly, see Sabhā ; for his consecration, see Rājasūya. A rāja-tā, lack of a king,’ means‘anarchy.’
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
valśa Denotes ‘twig,’ usually in the compounds śata-valśa, ‘ having a hundred twigs,’ or sahasra-valśa, ‘having a thousand twigs,’ which is applied metaphorically of ‘offspring.’
vasana In the Rigveda and later denotes ‘dress.’
vastra In the Rigveda and later denotes * dress,’ ‘clothing.’ See Vāsas.
vāṇa In the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda denotes ‘instru­mental music’ according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary; but in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas a ‘harp’ or ‘lyre’ with a hundred strings (śata-tantu), used at the Mahā- vrata ceremony. The Rigveda clearly refers to the seven ‘notes’ (dhātu) of the instrument, which are called elsewhere the seven Vāṇīs, unless the latter expression be taken as referring to the metres.
vaira Seem to have in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas the definite and technical sense of ‘wergeld,’ the money to be paid for killing a man as a compensation to his relatives. This view is borne out by the Sūtras of Apa­stamba and Baudhāyana. Both prescribe the scale of 1,000 cows for a Kṣatriya, 100 for a Vaiśya, 10 for a śūdra, and a bull over and above in each case. Apastamba leaves the destination of the payment vague, but Baudhāyana assigns it to the king. It is reasonable to suppose that the cows were intended for the relations, and the bull was a present to the king for his intervention to induce the injured relatives to abandon the demand for the life of the offender. The Apa­stamba Sūtra allows the same scale of wergeld for women, but the Gautama Sūtra puts them on a level with men of the śūdra caste only, except in one special case. The payment is made for the purpose of vaira-yātana or vaira-niryātana, 'requital of enmity,' 'expiation' he Rigveda preserves, also, the important notice that a man’s wergeld was a hundred (cows), for it contains the epithet śata-dāya, ‘one whose wergeld is a hundred/ No doubt the values varied, but in the case of śunaháepa the amount is a hundred (cows) in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. In the Yajurveda Samhitās śata-dāya again appears. The fixing of the price shows that already public opinion, and perhaps the royal authority, was in Rigvedic times diminishing the sphere of private revenge; on the other hand, the existence of the system shows how weak was the criminal authority of the king (cf. Dharma).
vrātya Is included in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda, where, however, no further explanation of the name is given. Fuller information is furnished by the Atharvaveda, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Sūtras, which describe at length a certain rite intended for the use of Vrātyas. According to the Pañcavimśa Brāh­maṇa, there are four different kinds of ‘outcasts’—viz., the hīna, who are merely described as ‘depressed’; those who have become outcasts for some sin (nindita); those who become out­casts at an early age, apparently by living among outcasts; and those old men who, being impotent (śama-nīcamedhra), have gone to live with outcasts. The last three categories are by no means of the same importance as the first. The motive of the fourth is hard to understand: according to Rājārām Rām- krishṇa Bhāgavat,5 they were men who had enfeebled their constitutions by undue intercourse with women in the lands of the outcasts, and returned home in a debilitated state. But this is not stated in the text. It seems probable that the really important Vrātyas were those referred to as Itlna, and that the other classes were only subsidiary. According to Rāj'ārām,® there were two categories of the first class: (a) The depressed (hīna), who were non- Aryan ; and (6) degraded Aryans (gara-gir). This, however, is a mere guess, and devoid of probability. There seems to have been but one class of Vrātyas. That they were non-Aryan is not probable, for it is expressly said7 that, though unconse¬crated, they spoke the tongue of the consecrated: they were thus apparently Aryans. This view is confirmed by the state-ment that ‘they call what is easy of utterance, difficult to utter’: probable they had already a somewhat Prakritic form of speech (cf. Vāc). The Sūtras mention their Arhants (‘saints’) and Yaudhas (‘warriors’), corresponding to the Brahminical Brāhmana and Kṣatriya. Other particulars accord with the view that they were Aryans outside the sphere of Brahmin culture. Thus they are said not to practise agriculture or commerce (an allusion to a nomadic life), nor to observe the rules of Brahmacarya—i.e., the principle regulating the Brahminic order of life. They were also allowed to become members of the Brahminical community by performance of the ritual prescribed, which would hardly be so natural in the case of non-Aryans. Some details are given of the life and dress of the Vrātyas. Their principles were opposed to those of the Brahmins: they beat those unworthy of correction. Their leader (Gṛhapati) or householder wore a turban (Uçṇīçε), carried a whip (Pratoda), a kind of bow (Jyāhroda), was :lothed in a black (krçnaśa) garment and two skins (Ajina), blxk and white (krsna-valaksa), and owned a rough wagon (Vijatha) covered with planks (phalakāstīrna). The others, subordinate to the leader, had garments with fringes of red (valūkāntāni dāmatūsām), two fringes on each, skins folded double (dvisamhitāny ajinūni), and sandals (Upānah). The leader wore also an ornament (Niçka) of silver, which Rājārām converts into a silver coinage. The Vrātyas, on becoming consecrated, were expected to hand over their goods to the priest. Many other details are given in the Sūtras (e.g., that the shoes or sandals were of variegated black hue and pointed), but these are not authenticated by the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. The locality in which the Vrāiyas lived cannot be stated with certainty, but their nomad life suggests the western tribes beyond the Sarasvatī. But they may equally well have been in the east: this possibility is so far supported by the fact that the Sūtras make the Brahmin receiving the gift of the Vrātya's outfit an inhabitant of Mag’adha. The Atharvaveda does not help, for it treats the Vrātya in so mystical a way that he is represented as being in all the quarters. Indeed, Roth believed that it was here not a case of the Vrātya of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa at all, but of a glorification of the Vrātya as the type of the pious vagrant or wandering religious mendicant (Parivrājaka). This view is clearly wrong, as the occurrence of the words usnīsa, vipatha, and pratoda shows. It is probable that the 15th Book of the Atharvaveda, which deals with the Vrātya, and is of a mystical character, exalts the converted Vrātya as a type of the perfect Brahmacārin, and, in so far, of the divinity.
śatadyumna (‘Possessing a hundred glories’) is the name of a man who, along with Yajñesu, was made prosperous by the priest Mātsya through his knowledge of the exact moment for sacrifice, according to the Taittirlya Brāhmaṇa.
śatapati Occurs in a verse of the Maitrāyaṇī Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa as an epithet of Indra, who is described as alone the ‘lord of a hundred’ among men. To interpret the expression as ‘lord of a hundred gods,’ as does the commentary on the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, is obviously impossible. It seems clear that there is a reference to an analogous human functionary—viz., the lord of a hundred villages, known in the later law—who was probably at once a judicial deputy of the sovereign and a revenue collector, an ancient magistrate and collector.
śatayātu (‘Having a hundred magic powers’) is the name of a Rṣi in the Rigveda. He is enumerated after Parāśara and before Vasiṣtha. Geldner thinks he may have been a son of Vasiṣtha.
śatarudriya (Hymn ‘relating to the hundred Rudras’), is the name of a section of the Yajurveda,3 which celebrates the god Rudra in his hundred aspects, enumerating his many epithets.
śataśārada In the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda denotes a ‘period of a hundred autumns’ or years.
śambara Is the name of an enemy of Indra in the Rigveda. He is mentioned along with śuṣṇa, Pipru, and Varcin, being in one passage called a Dāsa, son of Kulitara. In another passage he is said to have deemed himself a godling (devaka). His forts, ninety, ninety-nine, or a hundred in number, are alluded to, the word itself in the neuter plural once meaning the ‘forts of śambara.’ His great foe was Divodāsa Ati- thigva, who won victories over him by Indra’s aid. It is impossible to say with certainty whether śambara was a real person or not. Hillebrandt9 is strongly in favour of the theory that he was a real chief as enemy of Divodāsa: he relies on the statistics of the mention of the name to show that, whereas he was conceived as a real foe in the hymns of the time of Divodāsa, later texts, like those of the seventh Maṇdala, make him into a demon, as a result of the change of scene from Arachosia to India. As a matter of fact, apart from this theory, śambara was quite possibly an aboriginal enemy in India, living in the mountains.
śarīra ‘Body,’ is a word of frequent occurrence in Vedic literature. The interest of the Vedic Indians seems early to have been attracted to the consideration of questions connected with the anatomy of the body. Thus a hymn of the Atharva­veda enumerates many parts of the body with some approach to accuracy and orderly arrangement. It mentions the heels (pārsnf), the flesh (māmsa), the ankle-bones (gulphau), the fingers (angulīh), the apertures (kha), the two metatarsi (uchlakau), the tarsus (pratisthā), the two knee-caps (astliī- vantau), the two legs {janghe), the two knee-joints (jānunoh sandhī). Then comes above the two knees (jānū) the four­sided (catuçtaya), pliant (śithira) trunk (kabandha). The two hips (śronī) and the two thighs (ūrū) are the props of the frame (ktisindha). Next come the breast-bone (uras), the cervical cartilages (grīvāh), the two breast pieces (stanau), the two shoulder-blades (/kaphodau), the neck-bones (skandhau), and the backbones (prstīh), the collar-bones (amsau), the arms (bāhu), the seven apertures in the head (sapta khāni śīrsani), the ears (karnau), the nostrils (nāsike), the eyes (caksanī), the mouth (mukha), the jaws (hanū), the tongue (jihvā), the brain (mas- tiska), the forehead (lalāta), the facial bone (kakātikā), the cranium (kapāla), and the structure of the jaws (cityā hanvoh). This system presents marked similarities with the later system of Caraka and Suśruta,4 which render certain the names ascribed to the several terms by Hoernle. Kaphodau, which is variously read in the manuscripts,5 is rendered ‘ collar-bone ’ by Whitney, but ‘ elbow ’ in the St. Petersburg Dictionary. Skandha in the plural regularly denotes 'neck-bones,’ or, more precisely, ‘cervical vertebrae,’ a part denoted also by usnihā in the plural. Prsii denotes not * rib,’ which is parśu, but a transverse process of a vertebra, and so the vertebra itself, there being in the truncal portion of the spinal column seventeen vertebrae and thirty-four transverse processes. The vertebrae are also denoted by kīkasā in the plural, which sometimes is limited to the upper portion of the vertebral column, sometimes to the thoracic portion of the spine. Anūka also denotes the vertebral column, or more specially the lumbar or thoracic portion of the spine; it is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa that there are twenty transverse processes in the lumbar spine (udara) and thirty-two in the thoracic, which gives twenty-six vertebrae, the true number (but the modern division is seven cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, and two false—the sacrum and the coccyx). The vertebral column is also denoted by karūkara, which, however, is usually found in the plural denoting the transverse processes of the vertebrae, a sense expressed also by kuntāpa. Grīvā, in the plural, denotes cervical vertebrae, the number seven being given by the Satapatha Brāhmana, but usually the word simply means windpipe, or, more accurately, the cartilaginous rings under the skin. Jatru, also in the plural, denotes the cervical cartilages, or possibly the costal cartilages, which are certainly so called in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where their number is given as eight. Bhamsas, which occurs thrice in the Atharvaveda, seems to denote the pubic bone or arch rather than the ‘buttocks’ or ‘fundament,’ as Whitney takes it. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the number of bones in the the human body is given as 360. The number of the bones of the head and trunk are given in another passage as follows: The head is threefold, consisting of skin (tvac), bone (1asthi), brain (matiska); the neck has 15 bones : 14 transverse processes (karūkara) and the strength (vīrya)—i.e., the bone of the centre regarded as one—as the 15th ; the breast has 17: 16 cervical cartilages (Jatru), and the sternum (uras) as the 17th ; the abdominal portion of the spine has 21 : 20 transverse processes (kimtāpa), and the abdominal portion (udara) as the 21st; the two sides have 27: 26 ribs (parśu), and the two sides as the 27th; the thoracic portion of the spine (anūka) has 33: 32 transverse processes, and the thoracic portion as 33rd. There are several enumerations of the parts of the body, not merely of the skeleton, in the Yajurveda Samhitās. They include the hair (lomāni), skin (tvac), flesh (māinsá), bone (1asthi), marrow (majjan), liver (yakrt), lungs (kloman), kidneys (matasne), gall (pitta), entrails (āntrāni), bowels (gudāh), spleen (ptīhan), navel (nābht), belly (udara), rectum (vanisthu), womb (yoni), penis (plāśi and śepa), face (mukha), head (śiras), tongue (jihvā), mouth (āsan), rump (pāyu), leech (vāla), eye (caksus), eyelashes (paksmāni), eyebrows (utāni), nose (was), breath (iiyāna), nose-hairs (nasyāni), ears (karnau), brows (bhrū), body or trunk (ātman), waist (upastha), hair on the face (śmaśrūni), and on the head (keśāh). Another enumeration gives śiras, mukha, keśāh, śmaśrūni, prāna (breath), caksus, śrotra (ear), jihvā, vāc (speech), manas (mind), arigulik, añgāni (limbs), bāhū, hastau (hands), karnau, ātmā, uras (sternum), prstllj, (vertebrae), udara, amsau, grīvāh, śronī, ūrū, aratnī (elbows), jānūni, nūbhi, pāyu, bhasat (fundament), āndau (testicles), pasas (membrum virile), jañghā, pad (foot), lomāni, tvac, māmsa, asthi, majjan. Another set of names includes vanisthu, purītat (pericardium), lomāni, tvac, lohita (blood), medas (fat), māmsāni, snāvāni (sinews), asthīni, majjānah, ret as (semen), pāyu, kośya (flesh near the heart), pārśvya (intercostal flesh), etc. The bones of the skeleton of the horse are enumerated in the Yajurveda Samhitās. In the Aitareya Araṇyaka the human body is regarded as made up of one hundred and one items ; there are four parts, each of twenty-five members, with the trunk as one hundred and first. In the two upper parts there are five four-jointed fingers, two kakçasī (of uncertain meaning), the arm (dos), the collar-bone (akça), and the shoulder-blade (artisa-phalaka). In the two lower portions there are five four-jointed toes, the thigh, the leg, and three articulations, according to Sāyaṇa’s commentary. The śānkhāyana Araṇyaka enumerates three bones in the head, three joints (parvāni) in the neck, the collar-bone {akṣa), three joints in the fingers, and twenty-one transverse processes in the spine (anūka).sg The Maitrāyaṇī Samhitā enumerates four constituents in the head {prāna, caksns, śrotra, vāc), but there are many variations, the number going up to twelve on one calculation. In the Taittirīya Upaniṣad an enumeration is given consisting of carma (skin), māinsa, snāvan, asthi, and majjan; the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has lomāni, mānμa, tvac, asthi, majjan, and the Aitareya Araṇyaka couples majjānah, snāvāni, and asthīni. Other terms relating to the body are kañkūsa, perhaps a part of the ear, yoni (female organ), kaksa (armpit), Danta (tooth), nakha (nail), prapada (forepart of the foot), hallks'tia (gall).
śutudrī Twice mentioned in the Rigveda, is the name of the most easterly river of the Panjab, the modern Sutlej, the Zaradros of Ptolemy and Arrian. In the post-Vedic period the name of this river appears transformed to śatadru ('flowing in a hundred channels'). The Sutlej has changed its course very considerably within historical times.
śvan In the Rigveda and later is the word for ‘dog,’ the feminine being śunī. The dog was a tame animal, and used to guard the house from thieves or other intruders. He was also employed in hunting the boar (varāha-yu),β but was no match for the lion. A hundred dogs are mentioned as a gift in a Dānastuti (Praise of Gifts’) in a Vālakhilya hymn. Elsewhere the dog is regarded as unfit for sacrifice, as being unclean, and is driven away from the sacrifice. To eat dog’s flesh was a last resort of despair and hunger. The bones of the feast were given to the dog. Saramā figures in legend as Indra’s faithful dog searching for the cows. Rudra is lord of dogs (śva-pati) in the Yajurveda ; the 'dog-keeper' (iυanin) is mentioned in the list of sacrificial victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the same Samhitā. The four-eyed (catur-aksa) dogs of certain texts are, of course, mythological. Cf Kurkura.
simha Denotes the ‘lion’ in the Rigveda and later. The roaring (nad) of the lion is often alluded to, and is called thundering (stanatha). He wanders about (ku-cara) and lives in the hills (giri-stha), and is clearly the ‘ dread wild beast that slays’ (tnrgo bhīma upahatnuh) to which Rudra is compared. When Agni, who has entered the waters, is compared to a lion, the reference may be to the lion’s habit of springing on animals at drinking places. That a jackal should defeat the lion is spoken of as a marvel. The lion, being dangerous to men, was trapped, lain in wait for in ambush, or chased by hunting bands. But dogs were terrified of lions. The lioness (simhī) was also famous for her courage : the aid given by Indra to Sudās against the vast host of his enemies is compared to the defeat of a lioness by a ram (Petva). The gaping jaws of the lioness when attacking men are alluded to in the Aitareya Brāhmana. The lioness is also mentioned in the Yajurveda Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas. See also Halīksṇa.
sīra ‘Plough,’ is mentioned in the Rigveda, and often later. It was large and heavy, as is shown by the fact that six oxen, or eight, or twelve, or even twenty-four,6 were used to drag it. The animals which drew the plough were oxen, which were, no doubt, yoked and harnessed with traces. The ox was guided by the Aṣṭrā, or ‘ goad,’ of the ploughman (cf. Vaiśya). Little is known of the parts of the plough. See Lāng'ala and Phāla.
subhagā In the vocative subhage, is a frequent form of courteous address to women from the Rigveda onwards.
suvasana In the Rigveda denotes a ‘splendid garment,’ and is also used adjectivally, ‘clothing well.’ Su-vāsas, 'well- dressed' is a common adjective. See Vāsas.
sūta Is the name of a court official who is often mentioned with the Grāmaṇī. He is one of the eight Vīras in the Pañca- virpśa Brāhmaṇa, and of the eleven Ratnins in other texts. He also appears in the Atharvaveda among the kingmakers (Rajakṛt) and in the śatrarudriya (‘section dealing with the hundred Rudras’) of the Yajurveda, The commentators are agreed in seeing in him the 'charioteer' (Sārathi) or 'master of the horse,' of the king; this sense is accepted by Roth, by Whitney, and by Bloomfield. But the fact that the Saṃ-grahītṛ, who occurs in several passages beside the Sūta, is the ‘ charioteer,’ renders this version improbable. Eggeling thinks that he was, in the Brāhmaṇas at least, a minstrel and court poet, while Weber considers that his name denotes him as ‘consecrated’—that is, one who has constant access to the king. In the Epic the Sūta serves as a royal herald and bard: it may be that the curious words ahanii}u ahantya, or ahantva applied to him in the śatarudriya denote his sacred character at once as minstrel and as herald—a combination of functions not unknown elsewhere.
saumya Is a term of affectionate address (‘my dear’) in the Upaniṣads.
svapna ‘Dream,’ is referred to in the Rigveda and later. Evil dreams are often mentioned. The Áranyakas of the Rigveda contain a list of dreams with their signification, as well as of pratyaksa-darianāni, ‘sights seen with one’s own eyes.’
himā Denotes ‘winter’ in the combination a ‘hundred winters’ in the Rigveda and elsewhere.
hiraṇya In the Rigveda and later denotes ‘gold.’ It is hardly possible to exaggerate the value attached to gold by the Vedic Indians. The metal was, it is clear, won from the bed of rivers. Hence the Indus is called ‘golden’ and ‘of golden stream.’ Apparently the extraction of gold from the earth was known, and washing for gold is also recorded. Gold is the object of the wishes of the Vedic singer, and golden treasures (hiranyāni) are mentioned as given by patrons along with cows and horses. Gold was used for ornaments for neck and breast (Niska), for ear-rings (Karṇa-śobhana), and even for cups. Gold is always associated with the gods. In the plural Hiraṇya denotes ‘ornaments of gold.’11 A gold currency was evidently beginning to be known in so far as definite weights of gold are mentioned: thus a weight, astā-prīīd, occurs in the Samhitās and the golden śatamāna, ‘ weight of a hundred (Kpçṇalas) ’ is found in the same texts. In several passages, moreover, hiranya or hiranyāni may mean ‘ pieces of gold.’ Gold is described sometimes as harita, ‘yellowish,’ some¬times as rajata,ls 'whitish,' when probably ‘ silver ’ is alluded to. It was obtained from the ore by smelting. Mega- sthenes bears testimony to the richness in gold of India in his time.
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agna indreṇa vāyunā # RV.1.14.10b; VS.33.10b; AB.3.4.12b.
agnayaḥ sagarā stha sagareṇa nāmnā raudreṇānīkena pāta māgnayaḥ pipṛta māgnayo gopāyata mā namo vo 'stu mā mā hiṃsiṣṭa # Vait.18.8. P: agnayaḥ sagarā stha Vait.18.13. See next two.
agnayaḥ sagarāḥ sagarā stha sagareṇa nāmnā raudreṇānīkena pāta māgnayaḥ pipṛta māgnayo gopāyata mā namo vo 'stu mā mā hiṃsiṣṭa # VS.5.34; (omitting gopāyata mā) VSK.5.8.5; (omitting māgnayo gopāyata and writing astu for 'stu) śś.6.13.1. P: agnayaḥ sagarāḥ Kś.9.8.24. See prec. two.
agninā devena pṛtanā jayāmi # TS.3.5.3.1; Apś.4.14.10; 13.18.8. Cf. indrena devena, viśvebhir devebhiḥ, and sarvebhir devebhiḥ.
agninendreṇa varuṇena viṣṇunā # RV.8.35.1a. Ps: agninendrena Aś.9.11.14; agninā Rvidh.2.32.2. Cf. BṛhD.6.77.
agner yoneḥ saha candreṇa jātam # AVP.7.5.9b.
achidraṃ tvā# see achidrāṃ tvāchidreṇāśvibhyāṃ.
achidrāṃ tvāchidreṇa sarasvatyai juṣṭaṃ (KS. juṣṭāṃ) gṛhṇāmi # MS.2.3.8: 36.6; KS.12.9; Apś.19.2.9.
achidrāṃ tvāchidreṇāśvibhyāṃ juṣṭaṃ (KS. juṣṭāṃ) gṛhṇāmi # MS.2.3.8: 36.5; KS.12.9; Apś.19.2.9 (so mss.; edition, achidraṃ). P: achidrāṃ tvāchidreṇa Mś.5.2.4.21.
achidrāṃ tvāchidreṇendrāya sutrāmṇe juṣṭaṃ (KS. juṣṭāṃ) gṛhṇāmi # MS.2.3.8: 36.7; KS.12.9. Cf. Apś.19.2.9.
achidreṇa pavitreṇa # VS.4.4; TS.1.1.5.1; 10.3; 2.1.2; MS.1.1.6b: 3.8; 1.1.9b: 5.1; 1.2.1b: 10.8; 2.6.8b: 68.13; 3.6.3: 62.17; 4.4.2: 51.14; KS.1.5; śB.1.1.3.6; 3.1.3.22; TB.3.2.5.2; Apś.10.7.11; Mś.2.1.1.40; GG.1.7.25; KhG.1.2.14. P: achidreṇa Kś.7.3.1. Cf. prec.
ajaṃ candreṇa saha yaj jaghāsa # AVP.5.28.6b.
adadhād indre pavamāna ojaḥ # RV.9.97.41c; SV.1.542c; 2.605c; JB.3.240c; N.14.17c.
adhi na indraiṣām (VS. indreṣām) # RV.8.83.7a; VS.33.47a.
anāsthāne agrabhaṇe samudre # RV.1.116.5b.
antaḥ samudre manasā carantam # TA.3.11.1c.
antaḥ samudre hṛdy antar āyuṣi # RV.4.58.11b; AVP.8.13.11b; VS.17.99b; KS.40.7b; Apś.17.18.1b.
apām avo na samudre # RV.8.16.2c; AVś.20.44.2c.
api bhadre saumanase syāma # RV.3.1.21d; 59.4d; 6.47.13b; 10.14.6d; 131.7b; AVś.6.55.3d; 7.92.1d; 18.1.58d; 20.125.7b; VS.19.50d; 20.52b; TS.1.7.13.5b; 2.6.12.6d; MS.4.12.5b: 191.6; 4.14.12d: 235.10; KS.8.11b; TB.2.8.4.1d; 7.5d; N.11.19d.
apy abhūr (AVPṭB.ApMB. abhūd) bhadre sukṛtasya loke # AVś.2.10.7b; AVP.2.3.5d; TB.2.5.6.3d; ApMB.2.12.9d. Cf. bhavāma bhadre.
amathnād anyaṃ pari śyeno adreḥ # RV.1.93.6b; TS.2.3.14.2b; MS.4.14.18b: 248.4; KS.4.16b; AB.2.9.8.
aśvāvatā puruścandreṇa yātam # RV.7.72.1b.
aśvinakṛtasya te sarasvatikṛtasyendreṇa sutrāmṇā kṛtasya, upahūta upahūtasya bhakṣayāmi # VS.20.35.
asmākam indrehi naḥ # RV.5.35.8a.
asmiṃś candre adhi yad dhiraṇyam # AVś.19.27.10c; AVP.10.7.10c.
asmin nara indriyaṃ dhattam ojaḥ # TS.1.6.12.4d. See under indreṇa ma.
asmin samudre adhy uttarasmin # RV.10.98.6a.
asmin sunvati yajamāna āśiṣaḥ svāhākṛtāḥ samudreṣṭhā gandharvam ā tiṣṭhatānu # TS.3.5.6.3.
ahaṃ rudrebhir vasubhiś carāmi # RV.10.125.1a; AVś.4.30.1a. P: ahaṃ rudrebhiḥ śś.6.11.11; Kauś.10.16; 139.15; Rvidh.4.4.4; VHDh.5.128. Cf. BṛhD.8.43. Designated as vākṣūktam VāDh.28.13; LAtDh.3.14.
āpaḥ stha samudre śritāḥ, pṛthivyāḥ pratiṣṭhā, yuṣmāsv idam antaḥ, viśvaṃ yakṣaṃ viśvaṃ bhūtaṃ viśvaṃ subhūtam, viśvasya bhartryo viśvasya janayitryaḥ # TB.3.11.1.5. Cf. āpa stha.
ā vahā duhitar divaḥ # RV.5.79.8b. Cf. candreṇa duhitar.
āvirṛjīko vidathā nicikyat # RV.4.38.4c. Cf. indreṇa gupto.
ā siñcatāpo madhv ā samudre # AVP.6.3.13d.
iḍe rante havye kāmye candre # VS.8.43a; śB.4.5.8.10. P: iḍe rante Kś.13.4.19. See ile rante mahi, havye kāmye, and prec. two.
idam ahaṃ traiṣṭubhena chandasā pañcadaśena stomena bṛhatā sāmnendreṇa devatayaujas te kṣatram ādade 'sau # KS.36.15.
idam aham indrajyeṣṭhebhyo rudrebhyo yajñaṃ prabravīmi # TB.3.7.4.6; Apś.4.2.2.
indav indreṇa no yujā # RV.9.11.9c; SV.2.799c.
indum indre dadhātana # RV.9.11.6c; SV.2.796c.
indra iveha dhruvas tiṣṭha # RV.10.173.2c; KS.35.7c; TB.2.4.2.9c; Apś.14.27.7c. P: indra iva N.1.4. See indrehaiva.
indre agnā namo bṛhat # RV.7.94.4a; SV.2.150a; JB.3.22; PB.11.7.3; 14.8.7; Aś.7.2.4; 12.1.5. P: indre agnā śś.7.14.1.
indreṇa dattāṃ pra# see indreṇa dattaṃ pra-.
indreṇa devīr (Mś. mss. devair) vīrudhaḥ saṃvidānāḥ # TS.3.1.8.2c; Mś.2.3.3.7c. See indreṇa devair.
indreṇa devair vīrudhaḥ saṃvyayantām # VārG.16.1c. See indreṇa devīr.
indreṇa manyunā vayam (MS.KS.Apś. yujā) # AVś.7.93.1a; MS.1.3.12a: 34.12; 4.6.3: 82.9; KS.4.4a; Apś.12.22.5a. P: indreṇa manyunā Mś.2.4.1.15. See indreṇa sayujo vayam.
indreṇa yujā pra mṛṇīta śatrūn # AVś.5.21.11b; 13.1.3b. See indreṇa sayujā praṇītha.
indreṇa varuṇena candreṇa sūryeṇa ca # AVP.1.4.2a. Probably not a verse, but a gloss listing four ūhas to be applied to the word parjanyaṃ in pāda b of the preceding stanza (see Zehnder's edition of kāṇḍa 2, p. 253).
indreṇa saṃ hi dṛkṣase # RV.1.6.7a; AVś.20.40.1a; 70.3a; SV.2.200a; JB.3.38; PB.12.2.6; Aś.7.2.3; Vait.33.3; 42.2; N.4.12a. P: indreṇa saṃ hi śś.12.1.4; 18.2.2.
indreṇa sayujā praṇītha śatrūn # TB.2.5.2.3b. See indreṇa yujā pra.
indreṇa sayujo (AVś. sayujā) vayam # AVś.5.14.7d; TS.3.5.3.2a; Apś.13.18.10. See indreṇa manyunā.
indre bhūtāni bhuvanānīndre # MS.4.14.7b: 225.13.
indremaṃ prataraṃ (VSṭS.śB. pratarāṃ) kṛdhi (VSṃS.śB. naya) # AVś.6.5.2a; VS.17.51a; TS.4.6.3.1a; KS.18.3a; MS.2.10.4a: 135.5; śB.9.2.2.7. P: indremam Vait.2.14; 3.3.
indre lokā indre tapaḥ # AVś.10.7.30a.
indreṣitā devā ājyam (TB. indreṣitā ājyam) asya mathnantu # AVś.7.70.2c; TB.2.4.2.2c.
indrehi matsy andhasaḥ # RV.1.9.1a; AVś.20.71.7a; SV.1.180a; VS.33.25a; Aś.6.4.10; Svidh.3.1.7. P: indrehi matsi śś.9.14.1,2.
iyaṃ vaḥ sā satyā saṃdhābhūd (MS. saṃvāg abhūd) yām indreṇa samadhadhvam (MS. samadadhvam) # TS.1.7.8.4; MS.1.11.3: 163.10. P: iyaṃ vaḥ sā satyā saṃdhābhūt Apś.18.5.2. See eṣā vaḥ sā.
ile rante mahi viśruti śukre candre havye kāmye 'dite sarasvati # JB.2.251. See under iḍe rante havye.
ukṣā samudro (MS.KS. samudre) aruṇaḥ (RV. aruṣaḥ) suparṇaḥ # RV.5.47.3a; VS.17.60a; TS.4.6.3.4a; MS.2.10.5a: 137.14; KS.18.3a; 21.8; śB.9.2.3.18. P: ukṣā samudraḥ śG.3.3.10.
uta śūdram utāryam # AVś.4.20.8d; AVP.8.6.8d. Cf. next, prec. but one, yac chūdre, and yaś ca śūdra.
uto hi vāṃ pūrvyā āvividre # RV.3.54.4a.
ubhe te bhadre nāmnī # AVś.4.9.10c; AVP.8.3.10c.
ubhe bhadre joṣayete na mene # RV.1.95.6a; AVP.8.14.6a.
uṣo bhadrebhir ā gahi # RV.1.49.1a. P: uṣo bhadrebhiḥ Aś.4.14.2; śś.6.5.4.
ūdhas te bhadre parjanyaḥ # AVś.10.10.7c.
ūrdhvaṃ nunudre 'vataṃ ta ojasā # RV.1.85.10a.
ṛte bhūmir iyaṃ śritā # TB.1.5.5.1d; Apś.8.4.2d. See ṛta iyaṃ, and cf. samudreṇa pṛthivī.
eko rudrebhir yāti turvaṇiḥ # RV.10.32.5b.
evā hi te śaṃ savanā samudre # RV.1.173.8a.
eṣā yayau paramād antar adreḥ # RV.9.87.8a.
eṣā vas sā satyā saṃvāg abhūd yām indreṇa samadadhvam # KS.14.1,7.
aiṣyāmi bhadreṇā saha # AVś.7.60.7c.
kaviṃ ketuṃ dhāsiṃ bhānum adreḥ # RV.7.6.2a.
kāle ha viśvā bhūtāni # AVś.19.53.6c. See kālo etc., and cf. indre ha viśvā and prāṇe ha.
krāṇā rudrebhir vasubhiḥ purohitaḥ # RV.1.58.3a.
kṣatram indre vayo dadhat # VS.28.45e; TB.2.6.20.5e.
cakṣur indre vayo dadhat # VS.28.35d. See teja indre.
candraṃ tvā candreṇa krīṇāmi śukraṃ śukreṇāmṛtam amṛtena # VSK.4.9.1. See under śukraṃ te śukra.
candrā vaś candreṇa punāmi # MS.2.6.8: 68.12; 4.4.2: 51.12; KS.15.6. See next.
candrāś candreṇa # TS.1.8.12.1; TB.1.7.6.3. See prec.
jihmaṃ nunudre 'vataṃ tayā diśā # RV.1.85.11a.
jetrā rudreṇa keśinā # AVP.2.25.3b.
taṃ vā ahaṃ nārvāñcaṃ na parāñcaṃ na pratyañcaṃ satyenodareṇa tenainaṃ prāśiṣaṃ tayainam ajīgamam # AVś.11.3.42; ... pratyañcaṃ satye pratiṣṭhāya tayainaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.49; ... pratyañcaṃ saptaṛṣibhiḥ prāṇāpānais tair enaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.38; ... pratyañcaṃ samudreṇa vastinā tenainaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.43; ... pratyañcaṃ savituḥ prapadābhyāṃ tābhyām enaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.47; ... pratyañcaṃ sūryācandramasābhyām akṣībhyāṃ tābhyām enaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.34; ... pratyañcaṃ tvaṣṭur aṣṭhīvadbhyāṃ tābhyām enaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.45; ... pratyañcaṃ divā pṛṣṭhena tenainaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.40; ... pratyañcaṃ dyāvāpṛthivībhyāṃ śrotrābhyāṃ tābhyām enaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.33; ... pratyañcam agner jihvayā tayainaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.36; ... pratyañcam antarikṣeṇa vyacasā tenainaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.39; ... pratyañcam aśvinoḥ pādābhyāṃ tābhyām enaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.46; ... pratyañcam ṛtasya hastābhyāṃ tābhyām enaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.48; ... pratyañcam ṛtubhir dantais tair enaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.37; ... pratyañcaṃ pṛthivyorasā tenainaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.41; ... pratyañcaṃ bṛhaspatinā śīrṣṇā tenainaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.32; ... pratyañcaṃ brahmaṇā mukhena tenainaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.35; ... pratyañcaṃ mitrāvaruṇayor ūrubhyāṃ tābhyām enaṃ etc. AVś.11.3.44.
tad indreṇa jayata tat sahadhvam # RV.10.103.2c; AVś.19.13.3c; AVP.7.4.3c; SV.2.1200c; VS.17.34c; TS.4.6.4.1c; MS.2.10.4c: 135.12; KS.18.5c.
tapo 'tiṣṭhat tapyamānaḥ samudre # AVś.11.5.26b.
tasya ta indav indrapītasya madhumata upahūtasyopahūto bhakṣayāmi # TB.3.7.10.6; Apś.14.29.2. Cf. indav indrapītasya, tasya ta indav indriyāvato, and tasya ta indreṇa.
tasya ta indreṇa pītasya madhumata upahūtasyopahūto bhakṣayāmi # TA.4.21.1. Cf. tasya ta indav indrapītasya.
me candreṇa vatseneṣam ūrjaṃ kāmaṃ duhām # AVś.4.39.8.
te aṅga vidre mitho janitram # RV.7.56.2b.
teja indre vayo dadhat # TB.2.6.20.1d. See cakṣur indre.
tenā te tanve śaṃ karam # AVś.1.3.1c--5c; AVP.1.4.1c--4c (but 2c should be disregarded, see note to 2a, indreṇa varuṇena etc.).
te no bhadreṇa śarmaṇā # RV.8.18.17a.
trito bibharti varuṇaṃ samudre # RV.9.95.4d.
tribhyo rudrebhyaḥ pravasan yajāmi # AVP.1.86.1a.
trir vasubhyo avapathās trī rudrebhyo avapathās trir ādityebhyo avapathāḥ # KS.30.6. P: trir vasubhyo avapathāḥ KS.30.7.
trīṇy apsu trīṇy antaḥ samudre # RV.1.163.4b; VS.29.15b; TS.4.6.7.2b; KS.40.6b.
traiṣṭubhasya chandaso 'gneḥ pakṣeṇāgneḥ pakṣam upadadhāmi # MS.2.8.11: 115.12. See traiṣṭubhena chandasā chandasā-, and traiṣṭubhena chandasendreṇa.
traiṣṭubhena chandasendreṇa devatayāgneḥ pakṣeṇāgneḥ pakṣam upa dadhāmi # TS.5.5.8.2. See traiṣṭubhasya, and indreṇa devena devatayā.
tvam indremaṃ suhavaṃ stomam erayasva # AVś.17.1.11c.
tviṣim indre na (MS. indreṇa) bheṣajam # VS.21.35c; MS.3.11.2c: 142.4; TB.2.6.11.5c.
tviṣim indre vayo dadhat # VS.28.40e; TB.2.6.20.3e.
dakṣiṇayā tvā diśendreṇa devatayā traiṣṭubhena chandasāgneḥ pārśvam upadadhāmi # KS.22.5. See prec. and next.
dakṣiṇayā tvā diśendreṇa devatayā traiṣṭubhena chandasā grīṣmam ṛtuṃ praviśāmi # KA.1.59; 2.59. See prec.
dakṣiṇāyā diśa indreṇa rājñādhyakṣeṇa # AVP.4.30.2b.
dasrāv imaṃ śṛṇutaṃ ślokam adreḥ # RV.1.118.3b; 3.58.3b.
divaḥ kṣudrebhir aśmibhiḥ (read aśmabhiḥ ?) # AVP.15.23.3b.
devas tvā savitā punātu vasoḥ pavitreṇa śatadhāreṇa supvā (Apś. supuvā) # VS.1.3; śB.1.7.1.16; Apś.1.13.6. P: devas tvā Kś.4.2.23. See devas tvā savitotpunātu, and achidreṇa tvā.
devas tvā savitā punātv (Mś.GG.KhG.JG. savitotpunātv) achidreṇa pavitreṇa vasoḥ (KS. omits vasoḥ) sūryasya raśmibhiḥ # TS.1.2.1.2; KS.2.1; 23.1; MS.1.2.1: 10.8; GG.1.7.25; KhG.1.2.14; JG.1.2. Ps: devas tvā savitā punātu (Mś. savitotpunātu) TS.6.1.1.9; MS.3.6.3: 62.16; Mś.1.2.5.18; devas tvā savitā Mś.2.1.1.40. Cf. prec., devo mā savitā etc., devo vaḥ savitā etc., and devo vaḥ savitotpunātv.
devas tvā savitotpunātu, achidreṇa tvā pavitreṇa śatadhāreṇa sahasradhāreṇa supvotpunāmi # Kauś.2.33,34. See devas tvā savitā punātu vasoḥ.
devo mā savitā punātv achidreṇa pavitreṇa sūryasya raśmibhiḥ # VS.4.4; śB.3.1.3.22. P: devo mā savitā punātu Apś.10.7.12. Cf. under devas tvā sa-.
devo vaḥ savitā punātv achidreṇa pavitreṇa (KS. adds sūryasya raśmibhis svāhā) # MS.2.6.8: 68.13; 4.4.2: 51.14; KS.15.6. Cf. under devas tvā etc.
devo vaḥ savitā hiraṇyapāṇiḥ pratigṛbhṇātv (VSK. vaḥ savitā pratigṛhṇātu hiraṇyapāṇir) achidreṇa pāṇinā # VS.1.16,20; VSK.1.5.7; śB.1.1.4.23; 2.1.19,21. P: devo vaḥ Kś.2.4.21. See next.
devo vaḥ savitotpunātv achidreṇa pavitreṇa vasoḥ (KS. omits vasoḥ) sūryasya raśmibhiḥ # TS.1.1.5.1; 10.3; MS.1.1.6: 3.8; 1.1.9: 5.1; KS.1.5. Ps: devo vaḥ savitotpunātu MS.4.1.6: 7.16; 4.1.9: 10.18; KS.31.4; TB.3.2.5.2; Apś.1.11.9; Mś.1.1.3.14; devo vaḥ savitā Mś.1.2.5.18; devo vaḥ JG.1.2. Cf. under devas tvā savitā punātv.
dyaur yathendreṇa garbhiṇī # ApMB.1.12.5b; HG.1.25.1b. See yathā dyaur.
nama indrāyaindrebhyaś ca # śG.2.14.7.
na ma indreṇa sakhyaṃ vi yoṣat # RV.2.18.8a.
namo astu (VS.śB. 'stu) rudrebhyo ye antarikṣe (VS.KS.śB. 'ntarikṣe) yeṣāṃ vāta (MS. vātā) iṣavaḥ # VS.16.65; MS.2.9.9: 129.11; KS.17.16; śB.9.1.1.36. P: namo astu rudrebhyo ye antarikṣe Mś.11.7.1.22. Cf. namo rudrāyāntarikṣasade yasya.
namo astu (VS.śB.Kś. 'stu) rudrebhyo ye divi yeṣāṃ varṣam iṣavaḥ # VS.16.64; MS.2.9.9: 129.9; KS.17.16; śB.9.1.1.35. Ps: namo astu rudrebhyo ye divi Mś.6.2.4.4; 11.7.1.22; namo 'stu Kś.18.1.5. Cf. namo rudrāya diviṣade.
namo astu (VS.śB. 'stu) rudrebhyo ye pṛthivyāṃ yeṣām annam iṣavaḥ # VS.16.66; MS.2.9.9: 129.14; KS.17.16; śB.9.1.1.37. P: namo astu rudrebhyo ye pṛthivyām Mś.11.7.1.22. Cf. namo rudrāya pṛthivīṣade.
namo rudrāya diviṣade yasya varṣam iṣavaḥ # KA.1.207; 3.159. P: namo rudrāya KA.3.207. Cf. namo astu rudrebhyo ye divi.
namo rudrāya pṛthivīṣade yasyānnam iṣavaḥ # KA.1.207; 3.166. Cf. namo astu rudrebhyo ye pṛthivyāṃ.
namo rudrāyāntarikṣasade yasya vāta iṣavaḥ # KA.1.207; 3.163. Cf. namo astu rudrebhyo ye antarikṣe.
namo rudrebhyo ye divi (also 'ntarikṣe, and pṛthivyām) # Apś.17.11.5. See next.
namo rudrebhyo ye pṛthivyāṃ ye 'ntarikṣe ye divi # TS.4.5.11.2. See prec.
namo 'stu rudrebhyo etc. # see namo astu etc.
na yac chūdreṣv alapsata (śś. alipsata) # AB.7.17.3b; śś.15.24b.
pari sruco babṛhāṇasyādreḥ # RV.5.41.12d.
paspṛdhra indre adhy ukthārkā # RV.6.34.1d.
pibā rudrebhiḥ sagaṇaḥ suśipra # RV.3.32.3d.
purā vividre kim u nūtanāsaḥ # RV.6.27.1d.
purā vividre sad u nūtanāsaḥ # RV.6.27.2d.
pūrvasmād dhaṃsy uttarasmin samudre # AVś.11.2.25e.
pṛthivyāṃ te niṣecanam # AVś.1.3.1d--5d; AVP.1.4.1d--4d (but 2d should be disregarded, see note to 2a, indreṇa varuṇena etc.).
praketena rudrebhyo rudrān jinva # MS.2.8.8: 112.8. See next two.
pra kṣudreva tmanā dhṛṣat # RV.8.49 (Vāl.1).4d.
pra rudreṇa yayinā yanti sindhavaḥ # RV.10.92.5a.
prasūtam indreṇogreṇo # AVP.11.10.2c.
prāṇam indre vayo dadhat # VS.28.36d; TB.2.6.20.1d.
priyaṃ viśyeṣu śūdreṣu # HG.1.10.6c; ApMB.2.8.4c.
priyaḥ sukṛt priya indre manāyuḥ # RV.4.25.5c.
balam indre vayo dadhat # VS.28.37e; TB.2.6.20.4d. See śūṣam indre.
bahis te (AVś.AVP.KS. bahiṣ ṭe) astu bāl iti # AVś.1.3.1e--5e; AVP.1.4.1e--4e (but 2e should be disregarded, see note to 2a, indreṇa varuṇena etc.); TS.3.3.10.2e; KS.13.9d; Apś.9.19.4.
bhagam indre vayo dadhat # VS.28.43e; TB.2.6.20.5e.
bhavāma bhadre sukṛtasya loke # AVP.2.73.4b. Cf. apy abhūr.
madhye jahur durevāsaḥ samudre # RV.7.68.7b.
mandantu tvā maghavann indrendavaḥ # RV.8.4.4a; SV.2.1072a.
mama yonir apsv antaḥ samudre # RV.10.125.7b; AVś.4.30.7b.
marutsv indre yaśasaṃ kṛdhī naḥ # RV.7.42.5b.
mahāṃś ca stomo adhi vardhad indre # RV.6.38.3d.
māśvānāṃ bhadre taskaraḥ # AVś.19.47.7a; AVP.6.20.7c.
mitraḥ śāśadre aryamā sudānavaḥ # RV.1.141.9b.
mitrāvaruṇābhyāṃ vasubhyo rudrebhya ādityebhyo viśvebhyo devebhyo brāhmaṇebhyaḥ saumyebhyaḥ somapebhyaḥ # Aś.6.11.16.
mimikṣa indre ny ayāmi somaḥ # RV.6.34.4b.
mṛdhaś ca sarvā indreṇa # AVP.6.9.8c; TB.2.4.7.2c.
ya indra indriyaṃ dadhuḥ # VS.20.70a; MS.3.11.4a: 145.7; KS.38.9a; TB.2.6.13.2a. P: ya indre Kś.19.6.18.
ya indre karmaṇā bhuvat # RV.7.32.13d; AVś.20.59.4d.
ya indreṇa sarathaṃ yāti devaḥ (AVP. sarathaṃ saṃbabhūva) # AVś.3.21.3a; AVP.3.12.3a. See yenendrasya.
yac chūdre yad arye # VS.20.17c; TS.1.8.3.1c; KS.38.5c; śB.12.9.2.3; TB.2.6.6.2c. Cf. under uta śūdram.
yajñair ya indre dadhate duvāṃsi # RV.7.20.6c.
yat samudre (AVP. samudro) abhyakrandat # AVś.19.30.5a; AVP.12.22.14a.
yat samudre yat sindhau # AVP.9.7.11c.
yat samudreṣu marutaḥ subarhiṣaḥ # RV.8.20.25b.
yat samudro abhyakrandat # see yat samudre etc.
yathā dyaur indreṇa garbhiṇī # śB.14.9.4.21b; BṛhU.6.4.21b; śG.1.19.5b. See dyaur yathendreṇa.
yad antaḥ samudre kavayo vadanti # MahānU.1.3c. See yam antaḥ.
yad indreṇa sarathaṃ yātho aśvinā # RV.8.9.12a; AVś.20.141.2a.
yadi vāruṇy asi varuṇāya tvā parikrīṇāmy ahaṃ tataḥ, vasubhyo 'thavā rudrebhya ādityebhyo 'thavā punaḥ # Rvidh.4.11.4. Metrical. See under prec.
yad dha devā bhavatha viśva indre # RV.3.54.17b.
yady asi rudrebhyo rudrebhyas tvā parikrīṇāmi # GG.2.6.7.
yad rudreṇāpibat saha # RV.10.136.7d; AVP.5.38.7d.
yad vā samudre adhy ākṛte gṛhe # RV.8.10.1c.
yad vā samudre andhasaḥ # RV.8.65.2c.
yad vā samudre andhaso 'vited asi # RV.8.13.15c.
yam antaḥ samudre kavayo vayanti # TA.10.1.1c. See yad antaḥ.
yaṃ bhadreṇa śavasā codayāsi # RV.1.94.15c; AVP.13.6.5c; N.11.24c.
yaśa indre vayo dadhat # VS.28.44e; TB.2.6.20.5e.
yasmin vayaṃ dadhimā śaṃsam indre # RV.10.42.6a; AVś.20.89.6a.
yasya samudraṃ rasayā sahāhuḥ # RV.10.121.4b; VS.25.12b; TS.4.1.8.4b. See samudraṃ yasya, and samudre yasya.
indreṇa sayāvarīḥ # RV.1.84.10c; AVś.20.109.1c; SV.1.409c; MS.4.14.14c: 238.6.
yām indreṇa saṃdhāṃ samadhatthāḥ (KS. indreṇa samadadhvam) # AVś.11.10.9a; KS.14.1b.
rudreṣu yā vasuṣu # AVP.2.18.5a.
yāsāṃ samudre saṃsthānam # AVP.8.12.10c.
yās te pūṣan nāvo antaḥ samudre # RV.6.58.3a; MS.4.14.16a: 243.8; TB.2.5.5.5a; Aś.3.7.8. Ps: yās te pūṣan nāvo antaḥ TB.2.8.5.3; yās te pūṣan śś.6.10.4.
yuvaṃ bhujyum avaviddhaṃ samudre # RV.7.69.7a; MS.4.14.10a: 230.7; TB.2.8.7.8a.
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"dre" has 17 results.
     
anupasarjananot subordinated in wordrelation, principal member; confer, compare अनुपसर्जनात् P. IV.I.14 and M.Bh. thereon; cf also Par. Śek Pari. 26.
aśvādi(1)a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the affix फञ्(अायन) is added in the sense of गोत्र (grandchildren et cetera, and others); exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायनः जातायनः, औत्सायनः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.1. 110; (2) a class of words headed by the word अश्व to which the taddhita affix यत् is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a meeting or an accidental circumstance; exempli gratia, for example आश्विकम् अाश्मिकम् confer, compare P. V.1.39.
upakādia class of words headed by the word उपक after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of गोत्र ( grand-children et cetera, and others ) is optionally elided, provided the word is to be used in the plural number; confer, compare उपकलमकाः भ्रष्टककपिष्ठलाः also उपकाः, औपकायनाः; लमकाः, लामकायना ; भ्रष्टकाः भ्राष्टकयः । Kāś. on P. II.4.69.
kātantraparibhāṣāpāṭhaname given to a text consisting of Paribhāṣāsūtras, believed to have been written by the Sūtrakāra himself as a supplementary portion to the main grammar. Many such lists of Paribhāṣāsūtras are available, mostly in manuscript form, containing more than a hundred Sūtras divided into two main groups-the Paribhāṣā sūtras and the Balābalasūtras. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kuñjādia class of words headed by कुञ्ज to which the taddhita affix अायन (च्फञ्) is applied in the sense of गोत्र i. e. grandchildren etc e. g. कौञ्जायनाः confer, compare Kāś, on P.IV.1.9.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
phañtaddhita affix. affix फ marked with ञ् causing the Vrddhi substitute for the initial vowel of the word, applied in the sense of grandchildren and their issues to words अश्व and others, as also to the word भर्ग; exempli gratia, for exampleआश्वायन, अाश्मायनः, भार्गायणः confer, compare अश्वादिभ्यः फञ् and भर्गात् त्रैगर्ते; confer, compare P.IV.1.110 and 111.
yañ(1)short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) formed by the letter य of हृयवरट् and the mute letter ञ्ज of इभञ् including serni-vowels and the third and the fourth consonants excepting घ् , ढ् and ध् of the five consonant groups: confer, compare अतो दीर्घो याञि P. VII. 3. 10l ; (2) taddhita affix. affix added (a) in the sense of गोत्र (grand-children and their descendants) to words of the गर्ग class and some other words under specific conditions, exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यः: वात्स्य:, काप्यः et cetera, and others, confer, compare गर्गादिभ्यो यञ् and the following P.IV. 1. 105-108: (b) in the sense of collection to केदार, गणिका, केश and अश्व, confer, compare P.IV.2.40 and the Varttika.thereon and IV. 2.48; (c) in the Saiska senses to the word द्वीप, confer, compare P.IV.3.10: (d) to the word कंसीय e. g. कांस्यम् confer, compare P.IV.3.168, and (e) to the words अभिजित्, विदभृत् and others when they have the taddhita affix. affix अण् added to them : exempli gratia, for example अाभजित्य: confer, compare P. V. 3. 118.
śabdarūpāvalia very brief treatise on declension giving the forms of the seven cases of a few choice-words. The work is studied as the first elementary work and is very common without the name of any specific author.There are different works named शब्दरूपावलि giving declensions of different words which are all anonymous, although from the dates of manuscripts mentioned, they appear to be more than five or six hundred years old.
ṣaṣṭhīthe sixth case; the genitive case. This case is generally an ordinary case or विभक्ति as contrasted with कारकविभक्ति. A noun in the genitive case shows a relation in general, with another noun connected with it in a sentence. Commentators have mentioned many kinds of relations denoted by the genitive case and the phrase एकशतं षष्ठ्यर्थाः (the genitive case hassenses a hundred and one in all),. is frequently used by grammarians confer, compare षष्ठी शेषे P. II. 3.50; confer, compare also बहवो हि षष्ठ्यर्थाः स्वस्वाम्यनन्तरसमीपसमूहविकारावयवाद्यास्तत्र यावन्त: शब्दे संभवन्ति तेषु सर्वेषु प्राप्तेषु नियमः क्रियते षष्ठी स्थानेयोगा इति । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.49. The genitive case is used in the sense of any karaka when that karaka ; is not to be considered as a karaka; confer, compare कारकत्वेन अविवक्षिते शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति. A noun standing as a subject or object of an activity is put in the genitive case when that activity is expressed by a verbal derivative , and not by a verb itself; confer, compare कर्तृकर्मणोः कृति P. II. 3 .65. For the senses and use of the genitive case, confer, compare P. II. 3.50 to 73.
saṃjñāa technical term; a short wording to convey ample sense; a term to know the general nature cf things; convention; confer, compare वृद्धिशब्द; संज्ञा; अादेच: संज्ञिन: M.Bh. on P.1-1.1. There are two main divisions of संज्ञा-कृत्रिमसंज्ञा or an artificial term such as टि, घु, or भ which is merely conventional, and अकृत्रिमसंज्ञा which refers to the literal sense conveyed by the word such as अव्यय, सर्वनाम and the like. Some grammar works such as the Candra avoid purely conventional terms, These samjhas are necessary for every scientific treatise. In Panini's grammar, there are the first two chapters giving and explaining the technical terms whose number exceeds well-nigh a hundredition
saṃbuddhi(1)a term used in Panini's grammar for the case-affix of the vocative singular; confer, compare एकवचनं संबुद्धिः P. II. 3, 49; the vocative is, however, not looked upon as a separate case, but the designation संबोधन is given to the nominative case, having the sense of संबोधनः (2) the word is also used in the general sense of संबोधन i. e. addressing or calling: confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्धौः किमिदं पारिभाषिक्याः संबुद्धेर्ग्रहणमेकवचनं संबुद्वि: (II. 3.49) आहोस्विदन्वर्थग्रहणं संबोधनं संबुद्वि: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.33.
saṃbodhanacalling or address which is given as one of the additional senses of the nominative case affixes ( confer, compare संबोधने च P. II. 3, 47 ) in addition to those given in the rule प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा P. II. 3.46: confer, compare आभिमुख्यकरणं संबोधनम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3.47.
sāmānyāpekṣarefering only to a general thing indicated, and not to any specific instances. The word is used in connection with a Jnapana or indication drawn from the wording of a rule, which is taken to apply in general to kindred things and rarely to specific things; confer, compare इदं च सामान्यापेक्षं ज्ञापकं भावतिङोपि पूर्वमुत्पत्तेः । Pari. sek. on Pari. 50.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
     Vedabase Search  
1545 results
     
ambara dressSB 8.7.15
ambara dressesBG 11.10-11
SB 1.3.4
ambaram dressSB 11.14.36-42
aṃśukam dressSB 2.9.16
avadhūta-veṣaḥ dressed like a mendicantSB 3.1.19
avadhūta-veṣaḥ dressed like a mendicantSB 3.1.19
bhūṣāmbara dressesCC Madhya 14.130
bhūṣayām cakruḥ dressed very nicely to attend the festivalSB 10.5.9
bhūṣayām cakruḥ dressed very nicely to attend the festivalSB 10.5.9
carma-ambara dress of skinCC Madhya 1.285
carma-ambara dress of skinCC Madhya 1.285
citra-ambarāḥ dressed with varieties of colored embroiderySB 10.5.11
citra-ambarāḥ dressed with varieties of colored embroiderySB 10.5.11
dik-ambaram dressed by all directions (naked)SB 1.19.27
dik-ambaram dressed by all directions (naked)SB 1.19.27
dukūla dressing in fine garmentsSB 10.48.5
dukūla-agrye dressed with a dhotīSB 4.21.17
dukūla-agrye dressed with a dhotīSB 4.21.17
dukūlam dressesSB 10.33.17
gopa-veśa dressed like a cowherd boyCC Adi 11.21
gopa-veśa dressed like a cowherd boyCC Adi 11.21
CC Madhya 1.146
gopa-veśa dressed like a cowherd boyCC Madhya 1.146
CC Madhya 13.129
gopa-veśa dressed like a cowherd boyCC Madhya 13.129
gopa-veśa hailā dressed Himself as a cowherd boyCC Madhya 15.17
gopa-veśa hailā dressed Himself as a cowherd boyCC Madhya 15.17
gopa-veśa hailā dressed Himself as a cowherd boyCC Madhya 15.17
juṣṭam dressed withSB 2.3.21
kauśeya-vāsasā dressed in yellow silk garmentsSB 8.6.3-7
kauśeya-vāsasā dressed in yellow silk garmentsSB 8.6.3-7
klinna drenchedSB 10.75.17
kḷpta dressedSB 1.15.10
kṛta-svasti-ayanām dressed with auspicious garments and ornamentsSB 4.27.2
kṛta-svasti-ayanām dressed with auspicious garments and ornamentsSB 4.27.2
kṛta-svasti-ayanām dressed with auspicious garments and ornamentsSB 4.27.2
lāñchanam dressed likeSB 1.17.1
mekhalām dressed with a beltSB 8.12.18
nāṭya-dharaḥ dressed as a playerSB 1.8.19
nāṭya-dharaḥ dressed as a playerSB 1.8.19
nyaṣiñcat drenchedSB 11.31.15
parāna vastra dresses themCC Antya 5.18
parāna vastra dresses themCC Antya 5.18
parāya vāsa-vibhūṣaṇa dresses and decorates the body with various types of ornamentsCC Antya 5.39
parāya vāsa-vibhūṣaṇa dresses and decorates the body with various types of ornamentsCC Antya 5.39
parāya vāsa-vibhūṣaṇa dresses and decorates the body with various types of ornamentsCC Antya 5.39
paricchadāḥ dressed in ornamentsSB 6.10.19-22
paricchadau dressed very nicely in different ways and equipped with implementsSB 10.11.38
paridhāna dressingCC Antya 6.254
parisnutam drenchedSB 10.85.54
paryadhāt dressed himself accordinglySB 1.15.37
phula-phala-patra-yukta dressed with fruits, flowers and leavesCC Madhya 14.32
phula-phala-patra-yukta dressed with fruits, flowers and leavesCC Madhya 14.32
phula-phala-patra-yukta dressed with fruits, flowers and leavesCC Madhya 14.32
phula-phala-patra-yukta dressed with fruits, flowers and leavesCC Madhya 14.32
piśańga dress of the colorSB 3.8.28
piśańga-ambaram dressed in yellow garmentsSB 8.22.13
piśańga-ambaram dressed in yellow garmentsSB 8.22.13
piśańga-vāsāḥ dressed in yellow garmentsSB 8.18.1
piśańga-vāsāḥ dressed in yellow garmentsSB 8.18.1
pīta-ambara dressed in yellow clothCC Madhya 12.59
pīta-ambara dressed in yellow clothCC Madhya 12.59
pīta-ambara dressed with yellow garmentsCC Madhya 9.73
pīta-ambara dressed with yellow garmentsCC Madhya 9.73
pīta-ambara-dharaḥ dressed with yellow garmentsCC Adi 5.214
pīta-ambara-dharaḥ dressed with yellow garmentsCC Adi 5.214
pīta-ambara-dharaḥ dressed with yellow garmentsCC Adi 5.214
CC Madhya 8.140
pīta-ambara-dharaḥ dressed with yellow garmentsCC Madhya 8.140
pīta-ambara-dharaḥ dressed with yellow garmentsCC Madhya 8.140
pīta-dukūla-saṃvṛtā dressed in yellow garmentsSB 4.4.24
pīta-dukūla-saṃvṛtā dressed in yellow garmentsSB 4.4.24
pīta-dukūla-saṃvṛtā dressed in yellow garmentsSB 4.4.24
pīta-vāsāḥ dressed in yellow garmentsSB 8.17.4
pīta-vāsāḥ dressed in yellow garmentsSB 8.17.4
plutam drenchedSB 11.27.16-17
SB 11.27.38-41
prasuptaḥ dreaming while asleepSB 4.9.33
pratyāhṛtam drew backSB 1.15.14
rāja-veśa dressed like a royal princeCC Madhya 13.129
rāja-veśa dressed like a royal princeCC Madhya 13.129
rūpam dressSB 4.19.22
siñce drenchesCC Antya 15.68
su-vāsāḥ dressing with very nice garmentsSB 7.13.41
su-vāsāḥ dressing with very nice garmentsSB 7.13.41
su-vāsasaḥ dressed in fine clothingSB 4.3.5-7
su-vāsasaḥ dressed in fine clothingSB 4.3.5-7
su-vāsasaḥ dressed with fine clothingSB 8.8.7
su-vāsasaḥ dressed with fine clothingSB 8.8.7
su-vāsasam dressed in excellent robesSB 3.23.36-37
su-vāsasam dressed in excellent robesSB 3.23.36-37
su-vāsobhiḥ dressed nicelySB 9.10.49
su-vāsobhiḥ dressed nicelySB 9.10.49
su-veśa dhariyā dressing herself very nicelyCC Antya 3.109
su-veśa dhariyā dressing herself very nicelyCC Antya 3.109
su-veśa dhariyā dressing herself very nicelyCC Antya 3.109
sura-lińginoḥ dressed like inhabitants of VaikuṇṭhaSB 3.15.33
sura-lińginoḥ dressed like inhabitants of VaikuṇṭhaSB 3.15.33
svapan dreamingBG 5.8-9
svapan dreaming in sleepSB 3.8.12
svapna dreamCC Adi 13.84
CC Adi 14.92
CC Antya 3.31
CC Madhya 18.87
SB 2.9.1
svapna dreaming while asleepCC Antya 8.67-68
svapna dreamsSB 6.15.21-23
svapnaḥ dreamingSB 11.13.27
svapnaḥ dreaming (the activity of the senses without the gross body)SB 7.7.25
svapnaḥ dreamsSB 8.10.55
svāpnam dreamSB 10.86.45
svapnam dreamingBG 18.35
svapne dekhi' dreamingCC Antya 18.117
svapne dekhi' dreamingCC Antya 18.117
ugraḥ dreadfulSB 1.3.39
ukṣitāḥ drenchedSB 10.61.38
ulbaṇam dreadfulSB 7.8.19-22
upātta-vicitra-veśam dressed very attractivelyCC Madhya 17.36
upātta-vicitra-veśam dressed very attractivelyCC Madhya 17.36
upātta-vicitra-veśam dressed very attractivelyCC Madhya 17.36
SB 10.21.11
upātta-vicitra-veśam dressed very attractivelySB 10.21.11
upātta-vicitra-veśam dressed very attractivelySB 10.21.11
uśat-dukūla dressed with a very beautiful sariSB 8.9.16-17
uśat-dukūla dressed with a very beautiful sariSB 8.9.16-17
vāsāḥ dressedSB 10.79.32
vasane dressCC Madhya 20.42
vasitvā dressing HimselfSB 10.41.39
SB 10.65.32
vastra dressSB 10.82.7-8
SB 8.16.39
vāta-rasanāḥ dressed by the wind (naked)SB 11.2.20-21
vāta-rasanāḥ dressed by the wind (naked)SB 11.2.20-21
vāta-vasanāḥ dressed by the air (naked)SB 11.6.47
vāta-vasanāḥ dressed by the air (naked)SB 11.6.47
veṇu dressSB 3.8.24
veśa dressCC Adi 17.5
CC Madhya 1.182
veṣa dressCC Madhya 3.9
veṣa dressedSB 3.8.25
veśa dhari' dressing like thatCC Adi 13.105
veśa dhari' dressing like thatCC Adi 13.105
veśa dhari' dressing themselvesCC Madhya 1.268
veśa dhari' dressing themselvesCC Madhya 1.268
veṣaḥ dressedSB 1.19.25
veṣam dressSB 10.41.40
SB 2.7.37
veṣam dressedSB 10.23.22
veṣayitvā dressingSB 11.1.13-15
vikṛta-veṣiṇaḥ dressed awkwardlySB 9.8.5-6
vikṛta-veṣiṇaḥ dressed awkwardlySB 9.8.5-6
vyalikhat drewSB 10.62.18-19
ā-vaṭubhyaḥ unto those who appear as childrenSB 5.13.23
ā-bāla including the childrenSB 10.16.13-15
ā-bāla-vṛddha beginning from the children up to the old personsCC Madhya 4.83
ā-bāla from the childrenCC Madhya 7.81
abda-śatam for a hundred years according to the demigods*SB 7.9.34
abda-śata of hundreds of yearsSB 10.1.38
abda-śatam one hundred yearsSB 12.2.27-28
abda-śata centuries [These twelve hundred years of the demigods equal 432,000 earth years]SB 12.2.31
svapna-ābham like a dreamSB 10.14.22
abhāṣata addressedSB 3.13.6
abhāṣata addressedSB 4.27.27
abhāṣata he addressedSB 9.4.43
abhāṣata began to address KṛṣṇaSB 10.8.33
ābhāṣya addressingSB 4.7.49
ābhāṣya after addressingSB 7.1.22
ābhāṣya addressingSB 10.1.34
ābhāṣya addressingSB 10.36.20
ābhāṣya addressing (Lord Kṛṣṇa)SB 10.72.1-2
abhibhāṣyamāṇaḥ being thus addressed (as deaf, dumb and blind)SB 5.5.29
abhibhāṣyamāṇaḥ being addressedSB 5.9.9-10
abhidhātum to address in feelingSB 1.8.26
abhigoptā a well-wisher of the citizens as a father is the well-wisher of his childrenSB 5.10.23
abhihataḥ addressed bySB 1.14.40
rājñā abhihitam having been addressed by the King (Bhagīratha)SB 9.9.9
abhimantritaḥ was addressedSB 4.9.45
sandhyā-abhra-nīveḥ of the dress of the evening skySB 3.8.24
abhyabhāṣata addressedSB 8.6.30
abhyabhāṣata addressed questionsSB 11.16.8
abhyadhāt addressedSB 10.76.13
abhyāha addressedSB 10.88.38-39
abhyanandata she addressedSB 4.25.32
abravīt addressedSB 1.4.1
abravīt he addressedSB 10.74.1
abruvan they addressedSB 10.54.10
ācaṣṭa began to addressSB 8.12.42
divya-veśa-ādaraḥ the hankering for first-class dressCC Antya 1.165
deha-ādau identifying oneself with the material body and then with one's wife, children, family, community, nation and so onSB 7.7.19-20
suta-ādayaḥ childrenSB 1.10.29
dāra-apatya-ādayaḥ beginning with the wife and childrenSB 5.14.3
suta-ādayaḥ children and so onSB 7.7.39
suta-ādayaḥ children and so forthSB 10.46.38
suta-ādayaḥ children and othersSB 10.49.23
adhovāsa a lower dressCC Antya 18.91
śata-patra-ādi lotus flowers with a hundred petals and so onSB 5.24.10
dhana-ādibhiḥ such as wealth, honor, children, land and houseSB 1.13.20
vastra-ākalpa-añjana-ādibhiḥ with proper dress, ornaments, black ointment, and so onSB 10.5.9
dāra-ādīn the wife and childrenSB 5.26.9
suta-ādīnām and childrenSB 7.15.65
adīnānām of the happy (children)SB 11.7.60
ātma-ja-ādiṣu as well as in childrenSB 7.14.3-4
ambara-ādiṣu in such dresses and ornamentsSB 9.4.27
apatya-ādyaiḥ with his children and so onSB 10.46.16
āha addressedSB 2.7.15
āha addressedSB 4.25.25
āha addressedSB 4.30.7
āha addressedSB 8.11.3
āha addressedSB 10.25.20
śata-āha in one hundred daysCC Madhya 5.1
āhūtaḥ being addressed or called (by him)SB 7.12.3
āhvayantaḥ addressing one anotherSB 8.10.27
aiṇeya-ajina-vāsasa with a dress of a deerskinSB 5.7.13
aiṇeya-ajina-vāsasa with a dress of a deerskinSB 5.7.13
vastra-ākalpa-añjana-ādibhiḥ with proper dress, ornaments, black ointment, and so onSB 10.5.9
avadhūta-ākṛtiḥ the dress of a mendicantCC Madhya 24.348
tādṛśa-ākṛtim in such dressSB 4.19.14
su-alańkṛta properly dressed and decoratedSB 9.6.45-46
alańkṛtaḥ being dressed very nicely with ornaments and fresh garmentsSB summary
divya-srak-ambara-ālepa she then assumed the form of a demigoddess, completely decorated with sandalwood pulp, flower garlands and a nice dressSB 10.4.9
alikhat she drewSB 10.62.17
āmantrya thus addressingSB 3.12.20
āmantrya addressingSB 6.4.16
āmantrya addressingSB 8.7.41
āmantrya addressingSB 8.15.7
ambarā and dressSB 6.14.48
ambara-ādiṣu in such dresses and ornamentsSB 9.4.27
divya-srak-ambara-ālepa she then assumed the form of a demigoddess, completely decorated with sandalwood pulp, flower garlands and a nice dressSB 10.4.9
ambaraḥ and dressSB 6.14.50-51
ambarāḥ whose dressesSB 10.75.17
pīta-ambaraḥ whose yellow dressCC Antya 1.165
ambaraḥ whose dressCC Antya 15.63
yāvat vibhūṣā-ambaram exactly like their ornaments and dress in all their varied particularsSB 10.13.19
śata-aṃśa one hundred divisionsCC Madhya 19.139
śata-aṃśa a hundredth partCC Madhya 19.140
daśa-śata-ānanaḥ one who has ten hundred facesSB 2.7.41
anapatyaḥ without childrenSB 6.6.23
anapatyaḥ without childrenSB 6.6.43
anīka-śatam with a hundred rowsSB 7.8.19-22
vastra-ākalpa-añjana-ādibhiḥ with proper dress, ornaments, black ointment, and so onSB 10.5.9
kari' veśa-antara changing the dressCC Madhya 16.161
anya veśa different dressCC Madhya 13.146
paurva-aparyeṇa in the form of parents and childrenSB 11.24.20
kṛta-śriyā apāśrita beauty created by those dresses and ornamentsSB 3.8.25
apatya childrenSB 2.1.4
apatya from her childrenSB 3.17.2
apatya childrenSB 3.31.42
apatya childrenSB 4.12.16
apatya childrenSB 4.24.3
dāra-apatya-ādayaḥ beginning with the wife and childrenSB 5.14.3
apatya childrenSB 5.24.8
kalatra-apatya wives and childrenSB 5.24.29
para-vitta-apatya-kalatrāṇi the money, wife and children of anotherSB 5.26.8
apatya childrenSB 7.7.44
apatya childrenSB 10.14.50
apatya childrenSB 10.16.60
apatya childrenSB 10.23.27
apatya childrenSB 10.29.32
apatya-ādyaiḥ with his children and so onSB 10.46.16
apatya childrenSB 10.47.16
apatya childrenSB 10.60.20
apatya childrenSB 11.3.19
apatya childrenSB 11.5.18
apatya childrenSB 11.10.7
apatya of childrenCC Adi 13.73
apatyaḥ and childrenSB 10.86.43
bhūri-apatyāḥ having many childrenSB 12.3.34
sa-apatyam along with his one hundred sonsSB 3.20.2
apatyam the childrenSB 5.18.19
apatyānām of the childrenSB 10.69.33
apatyāni childrenSB 3.12.56
apatyāni childrenSB 3.13.11
apatyāni childrenSB 8.13.1
apatyāni childrenSB 9.14.39
apatyasya for the childrenSB 7.14.26
apatye childrenSB 4.20.6
svapne api even in dreamsSB 6.1.19
varṣa-śataiḥ api even if he does so for hundreds of yearsSB 9.1.7
yātudhānī api although she was a witch (whose only business was to kill small children and who had tried to kill Kṛṣṇa also)SB 10.6.34
aprajaḥ one who has no childrenSB 4.23.33
aprajayā who had not given birth to any childrenSB 5.3.1
daśa-śata-aram the Sudarśana disc (ten hundred spokes)SB 3.28.27
arbhāḥ their childrenSB 10.16.32
arbhaka-arthe for the sake of fatherless childrenSB 3.1.40
arbhaka-grahāḥ like evil stars for childrenSB 10.6.24
arbhakāḥ and childrenSB 10.25.26
arbhakāḥ childrenSB 12.8.29
arbuda a hundred millionCC Madhya 21.20
arbuda a hundred millionCC Madhya 21.67
arbudāni groups of one hundred millionSB 6.14.34
ārcchat withdrewSB 1.15.15
nīvi-bandha-argala of the impediments such as tightened dresses and beltsCC Antya 1.168
svapna-upalabdha-arthaḥ an object obtained in dreamingSB 6.4.54
arbhaka-arthe for the sake of fatherless childrenSB 3.1.40
asādhavaḥ scoundrelsSB 10.68.31
prajā-asavaḥ those whose love for their children is the same as their love for their own lifeSB 10.12.15
āsiñcat he drenchedSB 3.22.25
āśramaḥ the symbolic dress (with daṇḍa and kamaṇḍalu)SB 7.13.9
aṣṭa-śatādhikāni increased by eight hundredSB 5.21.12
ati-svapna-śīlasya of one who dreams too much in sleepCC Antya 8.67-68
saha-ātma-jā along with my childrenSB 1.8.23
tat-ātma-jāḥ ca and his children like Priyavrata, Uttānapāda, Devahūti, etc.SB 2.7.43-45
ātma-ja childrenSB 4.25.55
ātma-ja childrenSB 5.5.3
ātma-ja childrenSB 5.18.10
ātma-ja childrenSB 6.11.27
ātma-ja-ādiṣu as well as in childrenSB 7.14.3-4
ātma-ja childrenSB 10.40.24
ātma-ja childrenSB 10.49.20
sva-ātma-jān his own childrenSB 11.7.67
ātma-ja childrenSB 11.9.26
ātmā-jāḥ and my other young childrenSB 11.17.57
ātmaja and childrenSB 10.89.28
saha-ātmajāḥ along with their childrenSB 10.71.15
ātmajeṣu for their childrenSB 10.45.21
sarva-ātmakam one hundred percentSB 1.3.39
ātmanaḥ childrenSB 3.21.29
svapna-aupamyena by the analogy of a dreamSB 9.19.26
avadhūta-veṣa-bhāṣā-caritaiḥ by the dress, language and characteristics of an avadhūtaSB 5.6.6
avadhūta-ākṛtiḥ the dress of a mendicantCC Madhya 24.348
avadhūtaḥ without dressing (of the hair, etc.)SB 3.1.19
avasthitaḥ staying (a householder generally stays home with his wife and children)SB 7.14.2
avayavāḥ (children) whose limbsSB 11.7.58
svapna-āveśe when absorbed in dreamsCC Antya 14.38
śata-āvṛtti hundreds of timesCC Madhya 19.230
plakṣa-āyāmā as big as the plakṣa tree (one hundred yojanas broad and eleven hundred yojanas high)SB 5.20.8
puruṣa-āyuṣā in a human lifetime (about one hundred years)SB 5.18.15
kṣaṇa-āyuṣām of persons who have only one hundred years of lifeSB 5.19.23
śata-ayutaiḥ unlimitedly, by many hundreds of thousandsSB 10.1.17
babhāṣe addressedSB 2.9.19
babhāṣe addressedSB 3.12.5
babhāṣe addressedSB 8.22.19
babhāṣe he addressedSB 9.20.7
baddhān the captured (children)SB 11.7.66
badvam badvam (one hundred and seven) groups of 13,084 (thus totaling 1,400,000)SB 10.70.7-9
badvam badvam (one hundred and seven) groups of 13,084 (thus totaling 1,400,000)SB 10.70.7-9
śata-bāho Śatabāhu (hundred-armed)SB 7.2.4-5
bāla-prajā having young childrenSB 1.9.13
bāla-grahāḥ ca and those attacking childrenSB 10.6.24
loka-bāla-ghnī who used to kill human childrenSB 10.6.34
bāla-bhāṣitam childish talk from the assembled childrenSB 10.7.10
bāla-ghnyāḥ who was determined to kill small childrenSB 10.11.24
ā-bāla including the childrenSB 10.16.13-15
bāla childrenSB 10.25.27
bāla by childrenSB 10.66.3
bāla childrenSB 11.31.25
bāla childrenSB 12.1.39-40
ā-bāla-vṛddha beginning from the children up to the old personsCC Madhya 4.83
ā-bāla from the childrenCC Madhya 7.81
bāla-cāñcalya kare sport like childrenCC Madhya 14.84
bāla childrenCC Madhya 18.121-122
bālāḥ the childrenSB 10.29.21-22
bālāḥ childrenSB 10.45.4
bālāḥ childrenSB 11.30.6
bālaiḥ by childrenSB 1.19.25
bālaka childrenCC Adi 7.25
bālakāḥ the childrenSB 10.7.9
vraja-bālakaiḥ with other small children in VrajaSB 10.8.27
bālakān childrenSB 4.28.18
bālakān the childrenSB 11.7.65
bālakere with other childrenCC Adi 14.40
bālān childrenSB 1.16.21
bālān small childrenSB 8.11.4
bālān childrenSB 10.11.31-32
bālānām of the childrenSB 4.7.2
bālānām of little childrenSB 7.6.29-30
bālavat like childrenSB 4.15.26
bale addressCC Adi 17.175
bāleṣu childrenSB 10.2.3
bali' addressing Him thusCC Adi 13.25
nīvi-bandha-argala of the impediments such as tightened dresses and beltsCC Antya 1.168
bāra-lakṣa twelve hundred thousandCC Antya 3.191
śata-bhāgaḥ one hundred truṭisSB 3.11.6
śata-bhāgasya of one hundredthCC Madhya 19.140
śata-bhāgasya of one hundredthCC Madhya 19.141
bhagavān who is also addressed as bhagavān because of his powerful positionSB 8.6.3-7
śata bhakta-gaṇa hundreds of devoteesCC Madhya 12.108
svapna-bhańga breaking of the dreamCC Adi 5.197
bhańgī-śataiḥ with a hundred mannersCC Adi 4.196
śata śata bhāra hundreds of potsCC Madhya 3.75
śata śata bhāra hundreds of bucketsCC Madhya 15.239
bhāryā-śatena with one hundred wivesSB 9.6.26
avadhūta-veṣa-bhāṣā-caritaiḥ by the dress, language and characteristics of an avadhūtaSB 5.6.6
bhāṣitaḥ being thus addressedSB 8.20.1
bāla-bhāṣitam childish talk from the assembled childrenSB 10.7.10
varṇa-veśa-bheda by differences of dress and colorCC Madhya 20.187
bhūri-apatyāḥ having many childrenSB 12.3.34
bhūṣitāḥ being nicely dressedSB 10.5.8
śata-eka-bījam the root cause of hundredsSB 3.9.2
brāhmaṇera veśe in the dress of brāhmaṇasCC Madhya 9.175
tat-ātma-jāḥ ca and his children like Priyavrata, Uttānapāda, Devahūti, etc.SB 2.7.43-45
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
bāla-grahāḥ ca and those attacking childrenSB 10.6.24
cailam whose dressSB 10.80.23
ku-cailasya who was poorly dressedSB 10.80.7
bāla-cāñcalya kare sport like childrenCC Madhya 14.84
śata-candra possessing brilliant circles like a hundred moonsSB 6.8.26
śata-candra-vartmabhiḥ by the maneuvers of his sword and his shield, which was marked with a hundred moonlike spotsSB 7.8.28
śata-candra-yuktaḥ with a shield decorated with hundreds of moonsSB 8.20.31
śata-candram decorated with one hundred moonsSB 4.15.17
carama-udbhavaḥ the source of one hundred sons (headed by Śatajit)SB 5.15.16
cāri-śata mudrā four hundred coinsCC Antya 6.259
cāri-śata mudrā four hundred coinsCC Antya 6.267
dui-cāri-lakṣa kāhana two to four hundred thousand kāhanasCC Antya 9.123
avadhūta-veṣa-bhāṣā-caritaiḥ by the dress, language and characteristics of an avadhūtaSB 5.6.6
catuḥ-śatam four hundredSB 10.1.30
daśa-pañca-catuḥ-śatam fifteen thousand four hundredSB 12.13.4-9
catuḥ-lakṣaḥ four hundred thousandSB 12.13.4-9
chaya-śata six hundredCC Madhya 20.388
śata culāya on one hundred stovesCC Madhya 15.226
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
dakṣaḥ Dakṣa, the expert in begetting childrenSB 6.4.17
suta-dāra-vatsalaḥ being attached to the children and wifeSB 5.13.18
dāra-apatya-ādayaḥ beginning with the wife and childrenSB 5.14.3
suta-dāra-vatsalaḥ very affectionate to the children and wifeSB 5.14.32
dāra-sutān the wife and children or the most opulent family lifeSB 5.14.43
dāra-ādīn the wife and childrenSB 5.26.9
dāra-sutān wife and childrenCC Madhya 23.25
dāra-sutān wife and childrenCC Antya 6.137
dāruṇaḥ most dreadfulSB 4.14.31
daśa-śata-ānanaḥ one who has ten hundred facesSB 2.7.41
śatāni daśa ten hundredSB 3.23.26
daśa-śata-aram the Sudarśana disc (ten hundred spokes)SB 3.28.27
daśa-śataiḥ by ten times one hundred (one thousand)SB 8.11.16
daśa-śatāni ten times one hundred (one thousand)SB 8.11.21
daśa-śatam one thousand (ten times one hundred)SB 9.15.16
daśa-pañca-catuḥ-śatam fifteen thousand four hundredSB 12.13.4-9
daśamāsasya of one who is dressed by all directionsSB 1.12.11
deha-ādau identifying oneself with the material body and then with one's wife, children, family, community, nation and so onSB 7.7.19-20
svapna dekhe he dreamtCC Adi 14.84
svapne dekhe he dreamedCC Antya 1.41
svapna dekhi' by seeing the dreamCC Adi 16.14
svapna dekhi' after seeing the dreamCC Madhya 4.108
svapna dekhi' after seeing the dreamCC Madhya 4.130
svapne dekhi' seeing the dreamCC Madhya 5.131
svapna dekhi' after dreamingCC Antya 1.43
svapana dekhiluń I saw a dreamCC Antya 3.35
dekhinu svapana saw a dreamCC Antya 12.94
deva addressing my LordSB 3.2.22
deva-lińga-praticchannaḥ covering himself with the dress of a demigodSB 8.9.24
mūrdha-sahasra-dhāmasu on the hundreds and thousands of hoods of the LordSB 5.17.21
dhana-ādibhiḥ such as wealth, honor, children, land and houseSB 1.13.20
dhanuḥ-śatam the extent of one hundred bow-lengthsSB 10.16.7
śata-dhāra with hundreds of branchesCC Madhya 14.140
tāra śata śata dhāra the flow of that eternal bliss is running in hundreds of branchesCC Madhya 25.271
śata-śata dhāra hundreds and hundreds of branchesCC Antya 5.162
nṛpa-lińga-dharam one who passes in the dress of a kingSB 1.16.4
veṣa-dhāraṇa changing the dressCC Madhya 3.8
śata śata dhāre hundreds and hundreds of branchesCC Antya 7.165
nanda-veśa dhari' in the dress of Nanda MahārājaCC Madhya 15.19
hindu-veśa dhari' accepting the dress of a HinduCC Madhya 16.178
prajā-sarga-dhiyaḥ who were under the impression that begetting children was the most important dutySB 6.5.29
digambara without any dressCC Adi 6.81
divya-srak-ambara-ālepa she then assumed the form of a demigoddess, completely decorated with sandalwood pulp, flower garlands and a nice dressSB 10.4.9
divya-śarat-śate vṛtte after the expiry of one hundred years by the measurement of the demigodsSB 10.10.20-22
divya-veśa-ādaraḥ the hankering for first-class dressCC Antya 1.165
svapna diyā appearing in a dreamCC Madhya 9.246
svapna-dṛk a person who is seeing a dreamSB 12.10.31-32
svapna-dṛṣṭāḥ the evil spirits that cause bad dreamsSB 10.6.24
svapna-dṛṣṭaḥ things seen in a dreamSB 11.22.54-55
duḥsvapna-nāśam counteracting the causes of bad dreamsSB 8.4.14
dui-śata numbering about two hundredCC Madhya 11.67
dui-śata turkī two hundred TurksCC Madhya 18.173
dui-cāri-lakṣa kāhana two to four hundred thousand kāhanasCC Antya 9.123
dui-tina śata two hundred to three hundredCC Antya 12.13
dukūla their dressesSB 10.39.14
dukūla of their dressesSB 10.71.33
dukūlāni their dressesSB 9.18.5
dvādaśa-lakṣāṇi twelve hundred thousandSB 5.21.10
dvādaśa-yojanam twelve yojanas (about one hundred miles)SB 10.50.49
dvija-lińgebhyaḥ who were dressed like brāhmaṇasSB 8.19.14
ei veṣa this kind of dressCC Madhya 20.69
śata-eka-bījam the root cause of hundredsSB 3.9.2
eka-śata one hundredCC Madhya 12.78
śata-eka one hundredCC Madhya 19.139
eka-śata mudrā one hundred coinsCC Antya 6.153
saḥ eva that very dreamSB 3.27.25
gagana-paridhānaḥ taking the sky as His dressSB 5.5.28
śata bhakta-gaṇa hundreds of devoteesCC Madhya 12.108
śiśu-gaṇe all the childrenCC Adi 14.23
garbha-sambhūtam the children born from the wombSB 10.1.65-66
guru-gehe in the guru-kula, the place where children are sent to be instructed by the guruSB 7.5.7
śata-ghaṭa hundreds of waterpotsCC Madhya 4.56
śata ghaṭa one hundred potsCC Madhya 12.96
śata ghaṭe in a hundred waterpotsCC Madhya 12.95
loka-bāla-ghnī who used to kill human childrenSB 10.6.34
bāla-ghnyāḥ who was determined to kill small childrenSB 10.11.24
nanda-gokule in the estate of Nanda Mahārāja known as Gokula, where hundreds and thousands of cows are maintainedSB 10.2.7
gopa-veśe in the dress of cowherd boysCC Adi 5.191
gopa-veśa with the dress of a cowherd boyCC Adi 17.279
gopa-veśa the dress of a cowherd boyCC Madhya 1.79
gopa-veśa the dress of a cowherd boyCC Madhya 20.177
gopa-veśa the dress of a cowherd boyCC Madhya 21.101
arbhaka-grahāḥ like evil stars for childrenSB 10.6.24
bāla-grahāḥ ca and those attacking childrenSB 10.6.24
gṛha-medhinām although situated with a wife and childrenSB 6.5.42
tri-guṇa of the three stages wakefulness, dream and dreamless sleepSB 11.13.32
śata śata guṇa hundreds of qualities moreCC Adi 4.240
śata-guṇa one hundred timesCC Adi 7.24
śata-guṇa one hundred timesCC Madhya 17.226
lakṣa-guṇa a hundred thousand timesCC Madhya 17.227
śata-guṇam a hundred timesCC Madhya 8.211
śata-guṇān one hundred times more (nine hundred thousand)SB 10.58.50-51
śata-guṇān one hundred times more (ninety million)SB 10.58.50-51
śata-guṇān one hundred times more (nine billion)SB 10.58.50-51
guru-gehe in the guru-kula, the place where children are sent to be instructed by the guruSB 7.5.7
uvāca ha addressedSB 3.22.1
svapne-ha even in dreamsCC Antya 2.144
svapna-jñāna haila could understand that it was a dreamCC Antya 14.21
hanta addressing themSB 8.6.18
śata-haste with one hundred handsCC Madhya 12.115
hata-sutā deprived of all childrenSB 10.4.6
śateka vatsara haya there are one hundred yearsCC Madhya 20.322
hayamedha-śatasya of one hundred aśvamedha sacrificesSB 9.23.33
he note of addressSB 1.15.18
he note of addressSB 1.15.18
he putrakaḥ O childrenSB 10.80.40
hi addressedSB 3.16.35
hindu-veśa dhari' accepting the dress of a HinduCC Madhya 16.178
iti uktaḥ thus being addressedSB 8.19.28
iti uktaḥ thus being addressedSB 9.3.14
iti uktaḥ thus being addressedSB 9.9.3
iti uktaḥ thus being addressedSB 10.1.35
iti thus addressedSB 10.66.10
saha-ātma-jā along with my childrenSB 1.8.23
ātma-ja childrenSB 4.25.55
ātma-ja childrenSB 5.5.3
ātma-ja childrenSB 5.18.10
ātma-ja childrenSB 6.11.27
ātma-ja-ādiṣu as well as in childrenSB 7.14.3-4
ātma-ja childrenSB 10.40.24
ātma-ja childrenSB 10.49.20
ātma-ja childrenSB 11.9.26
jagāda addressedSB 3.18.21
tat-ātma-jāḥ ca and his children like Priyavrata, Uttānapāda, Devahūti, etc.SB 2.7.43-45
ātmā-jāḥ and my other young childrenSB 11.17.57
sva-ātma-jān his own childrenSB 11.7.67
svapna-jana a person dreamingSB 2.1.39
śata jana about one hundred menCC Madhya 12.95
śata śata jana hundreds of menCC Madhya 12.107
śata jana hundreds of menCC Madhya 12.108
śata jana one hundred menCC Madhya 15.226
śata jana one hundred personsCC Madhya 18.169
śata-janera kāma the work of hundreds of menCC Madhya 12.114
śata-janera of one hundred peopleCC Antya 10.111
śata-janera of one hundred personsCC Antya 10.127
janma-śata-udbhavam occurring during the last hundred birthsSB 3.31.9
śata-janmabhiḥ for one hundred birthsSB 4.24.29
śata-janmabhiḥ by hundreds of birthsCC Antya 4.63
svapna-jñāna haila could understand that it was a dreamCC Antya 14.21
kṛṣṇa kaha address as Lord KṛṣṇaCC Madhya 10.17
dui-cāri-lakṣa kāhana two to four hundred thousand kāhanasCC Antya 9.123
kanyāre kahe addressing the girls, the Lord would sayCC Adi 14.50
kahe addressesCC Adi 17.41
kahe addressesCC Adi 17.303
tāre kahe he addresses himCC Antya 2.21
kahe prabhu Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu addressedCC Antya 4.87
kahila addressedCC Adi 16.98
kalatra-apatya wives and childrenSB 5.24.29
para-vitta-apatya-kalatrāṇi the money, wife and children of anotherSB 5.26.8
śata-janera kāma the work of hundreds of menCC Madhya 12.114
śateka kāmāne one hundred cannonsCC Madhya 18.173
kañculi as a top dressCC Antya 18.91
kanyāre kahe addressing the girls, the Lord would sayCC Adi 14.50
kapotakān the pigeon childrenSB 11.7.72
karabhān to the childrenSB 8.2.26
bāla-cāñcalya kare sport like childrenCC Madhya 14.84
kari' veśa-antara changing the dressCC Madhya 16.161
kariyā sājani nicely dressedCC Antya 14.108
karma-mayam producing hundreds and thousands of desires and acting accordinglySB 7.9.21
kata śata how many hundreds ofCC Madhya 15.71
pīta-kauśeya-vāsasam and He is dressed with yellow silk garmentsSB 4.8.48
pīta-kauśeya-vāsasaḥ and dressed in yellow silk garmentsSB 10.13.46
kene māraha śiśure why do You beat other childrenCC Adi 14.42
ketu-śatam one hundred KetusSB 6.6.37
kirīṭa head dressSB 2.2.9
koṭi koṭi hundreds and thousandsCC Adi 10.160
koṭi koṭi hundreds and thousandsCC Adi 10.160
koṭi koṭi hundreds and thousandsCC Adi 15.21
koṭi koṭi hundreds and thousandsCC Adi 15.21
koṭi koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 1.152
koṭi koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 1.152
lakṣa-koṭi hundreds and thousandsCC Madhya 1.224
śata-koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 8.109
śata-koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 8.116
lakṣa-koṭi loka many hundreds of thousands of peopleCC Madhya 16.208
lakṣa koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 16.265-266
lakṣa koṭi-vadana possessing a hundred thousand and ten million facesCC Madhya 21.68
koṭi-koṭi one hundred trillionCC Madhya 21.85
koṭi-koṭi one hundred trillionCC Madhya 21.85
lakṣa koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 25.174
koṭī sūrya hundreds of thousands of sunsCC Antya 6.44
koṭi namaskāra hundreds and thousands of obeisancesCC Antya 19.19
śata-kratuḥ who performed one hundred sacrificesSB 4.16.24
śata-kratuḥ King Indra, who had performed a hundred sacrificesSB 4.19.2
krīḍamānāḥ now Kṛṣṇa, being still more grown up, was playing with other children of the same ageSB 10.8.32
kṛpaṇān other poor childrenSB 10.4.12
kṛṣṇa kaha address as Lord KṛṣṇaCC Madhya 10.17
kṛta-śriyā apāśrita beauty created by those dresses and ornamentsSB 3.8.25
śata-kṛtvaḥ one hundred timesSB 5.4.17
kṣaṇa-āyuṣām of persons who have only one hundred years of lifeSB 5.19.23
kṣatriya-veśa the dress is like that of a kṣatriyaCC Madhya 20.177
kṣetra-prasūtāḥ became the children of Rathītara and belonged to his family (because they were born from the womb of his wife)SB 9.6.3
ku-cailasya who was poorly dressedSB 10.80.7
kumāra-līlau the pastimes Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma exhibited as childrenSB 10.8.24
kumāram and childrenSB 10.16.23
kumārān childrenSB 6.18.68
kumārāṇām for the childrenSB 10.90.41
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
kuṭumbam his dependent wife and childrenSB 6.1.22
lākhe lākhe in hundreds and thousandsCC Antya 14.23
lākhe lākhe in hundreds and thousandsCC Antya 14.23
lakṣa hundred thousandsSB 5.21.12
lakṣa-yojana one hundred thousand yojanas (eight hundred thousand miles)SB 8.7.9
lakṣa lakhs (one lakh equals one hundred thousand)SB 9.23.32
lakṣa lakṣa hundreds of thousandsCC Adi 7.156
lakṣa lakṣa hundreds of thousandsCC Adi 7.156
lakṣa lakṣa hundreds of thousandsCC Adi 7.157
lakṣa lakṣa hundreds of thousandsCC Adi 7.157
lakṣa hundred thousandCC Adi 10.43
lakṣa one hundred thousandCC Adi 10.99
lakṣa-koṭi hundreds and thousandsCC Madhya 1.224
lakṣa lakṣa many hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 9.89
lakṣa lakṣa many hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 9.89
lakṣa-koṭi loka many hundreds of thousands of peopleCC Madhya 16.208
lakṣa koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 16.265-266
lakṣa-sańkhya numbering hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 17.188
lakṣa-guṇa a hundred thousand timesCC Madhya 17.227
lakṣa lakṣa loka many hundreds of thousands of peopleCC Madhya 19.38
lakṣa lakṣa loka many hundreds of thousands of peopleCC Madhya 19.38
lakṣa a hundred thousandCC Madhya 21.4
lakṣa a hundred thousandCC Madhya 21.67
lakṣa koṭi-vadana possessing a hundred thousand and ten million facesCC Madhya 21.68
lakṣa a hundred thousandCC Madhya 21.68
lakṣa hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 25.65
lakṣa koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 25.174
lakṣa hundred thousandCC Antya 3.100
bāra-lakṣa twelve hundred thousandCC Antya 3.191
dui-cāri-lakṣa kāhana two to four hundred thousand kāhanasCC Antya 9.123
catuḥ-lakṣaḥ four hundred thousandSB 12.13.4-9
lakṣaiḥ hundreds of thousandsSB 10.69.1-6
lakṣam one hundred thousandSB 6.17.2-3
lakṣam one hundred thousandSB 10.61.30
lakṣam a lakh (one hundred thousand)SB 10.64.19-20
svapna-nirvṛti-lakṣaṇam the kind of happiness found in dreamsSB 5.14.17
lakṣāṇām one hundred thousandSB 6.17.2-3
lakṣāṇi hundred thousandsSB 5.21.7
dvādaśa-lakṣāṇi twelve hundred thousandSB 5.21.10
lakṣeṇa with (three) hundred thousand (persons)SB 10.90.42
nṛpa-lāñchanam the dress of a kingSB 1.17.29
kumāra-līlau the pastimes Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma exhibited as childrenSB 10.8.24
nṛpa-lińga-dharam one who passes in the dress of a kingSB 1.16.4
deva-lińga-praticchannaḥ covering himself with the dress of a demigodSB 8.9.24
nṛpa-lińga with the dress of kingsSB 12.2.19-20
dvija-lińgebhyaḥ who were dressed like brāhmaṇasSB 8.19.14
sādhu-lińgena wearing the dress of a saintly personSB 6.5.36
unmatta-lińginaḥ who dress as if madmenSB 6.15.11
loka-bāla-ghnī who used to kill human childrenSB 10.6.34
pañca-śata loka five hundred menCC Madhya 12.154-155
lakṣa-koṭi loka many hundreds of thousands of peopleCC Madhya 16.208
lakṣa lakṣa loka many hundreds of thousands of peopleCC Madhya 19.38
manaḥ-ratham a daydreamSB 11.22.41
maṇḍitā finely dressedSB 7.11.26-27
manorathaḥ a mental concoction (daydream)SB 7.2.48
manuṣyera veśe in the dress of human beingsCC Antya 9.8
śata-manyoḥ Indra, who performed one hundred such sacrificesSB 1.8.6
kene māraha śiśure why do You beat other childrenCC Adi 14.42
mātā like a mother who is affectionate to her childrenCC Madhya 22.6
svapna-māyā illusion, like a dreamSB 9.18.49
karma-mayam producing hundreds and thousands of desires and acting accordinglySB 7.9.21
māyām the illusion of dreamingSB 11.28.3
yat-māyayā all such things addressed by me are, after all, given by the mercy of the SupremeSB 10.8.42
gṛha-medhinām although situated with a wife and childrenSB 6.5.42
mṛta-prajā a woman whose children are deadSB 6.19.26-28
mṛta-prajaḥ my children deadSB 11.7.70
śata mudrā one hundred coinsCC Antya 6.146
eka-śata mudrā one hundred coinsCC Antya 6.153
cāri-śata mudrā four hundred coinsCC Antya 6.259
cāri-śata mudrā four hundred coinsCC Antya 6.267
śata-mukha as if with hundreds of mouthsCC Antya 3.93
śata-mukhe in hundreds of mouthsCC Adi 4.255
vāra-mukhyābhiḥ accompanied by beautiful, well-dressed prostitutesSB 9.10.35-38
mūrdha-sahasra-dhāmasu on the hundreds and thousands of hoods of the LordSB 5.17.21
nā paribe do not dressCC Antya 6.236
nadati exclaims loudly (addressing the Lord, 'O Kṛṣṇa')SB 7.4.40
śata-valśaḥ nāma the tree named Śatavalśa (because of having hundreds of trunks)SB 5.16.24
koṭi namaskāra hundreds and thousands of obeisancesCC Antya 19.19
nānā-veśe in different dressesCC Antya 9.9
nanda-gokule in the estate of Nanda Mahārāja known as Gokula, where hundreds and thousands of cows are maintainedSB 10.2.7
nanda-veśa dhari' in the dress of Nanda MahārājaCC Madhya 15.19
putra-nāśam the loss of his childrenSB 6.5.34
duḥsvapna-nāśam counteracting the causes of bad dreamsSB 8.4.14
nirmamaḥ without any sense of proprietorship over one's wife, children, home, society, etc.SB 11.10.6
nirmatsarāṇām of the one-hundred-percent pure in heartSB 1.1.2
nirmatsarāṇām of the one-hundred-percent pure in heartCC Adi 1.91
nirmatsarāṇām of the one hundred percent pure in heartCC Madhya 25.149
svapna-nirvṛti-lakṣaṇam the kind of happiness found in dreamsSB 5.14.17
sandhyā-abhra-nīveḥ of the dress of the evening skySB 3.8.24
nīvi-bandha-argala of the impediments such as tightened dresses and beltsCC Antya 1.168
viślathat-nīvyā whose dress was slackenedSB 6.1.58-60
nīvyaḥ the belts of their dressesSB 10.35.2-3
niyutāni lakhs (one lakh equals one hundred thousand)SB 9.20.28
nṛpa-lińga-dharam one who passes in the dress of a kingSB 1.16.4
nṛpa-lāñchanam the dress of a kingSB 1.17.29
nṛpa-lińga with the dress of kingsSB 12.2.19-20
nyarbudaiḥ not less than ten crores (one hundred million)SB 8.15.16
nyarbudam of one hundred millionSB 10.61.31
nyarbudāni ten crores (one hundred million)SB 9.4.33-35
nyaṣiñcat he drenchedSB 11.29.45
pāda-ūna less by a quarter (six hundred miles)SB 4.6.32
pākhaṇḍeṣu towards the sinful dressSB 4.19.24-25
śata-palāśat like lotus flowers with hundreds of petalsSB 6.9.43
pañca-śateṣu five hundredSB 9.15.33
pañca-śatāni five hundredSB 9.17.12
pañca-śatāni five hundredSB 10.63.18
pañca-śatāni five hundredSB 12.6.78
daśa-pañca-catuḥ-śatam fifteen thousand four hundredSB 12.13.4-9
pañca-śatāni five hundred (verses)SB 12.13.4-9
pañca-śata loka five hundred menCC Madhya 12.154-155
para-vitta-apatya-kalatrāṇi the money, wife and children of anotherSB 5.26.8
nā paribe do not dressCC Antya 6.236
paribhāṣya addressing Them by nameSB 10.85.2
paribhāvita being one hundred percent engagedSB 3.9.11
rūḍha-paricchadāḥ all the dresses and paraphernalia having been kept on the cartsSB 10.11.30
paricchadeṣu equipped with different garments and dressesSB 9.6.45-46
gagana-paridhānaḥ taking the sky as His dressSB 5.5.28
paridhāya after dressingSB 10.70.6
parikṣiṇoti diminishing the one hundred yearsSB 3.8.20
pariveṣayantyaḥ getting dressedSB 10.29.6-7
śata-parvaṇā possessing one hundred jointsSB 6.12.3
śata-parvaṇā having one hundred jointsSB 6.12.25
śata-parvaṇā which has hundreds of sharp edgesSB 8.11.6
śata vatsara paryanta up to one hundred yearsCC Madhya 2.25
pāśa addressed to himCC Adi 12.29
śata-patra-ādi lotus flowers with a hundred petals and so onSB 5.24.10
śata-patra of hundred-petaled lotusesSB 10.15.3
yoga-paṭṭa saffron-colored dressCC Madhya 10.108
paurva-aparyeṇa in the form of parents and childrenSB 11.24.20
pautra grandchildrenSB 12.5.3
photo small jackets for childrenCC Adi 13.113
piśańga-vāsāḥ whose dress is yellowSB 8.10.54
pīta-kauśeya-vāsasam and He is dressed with yellow silk garmentsSB 4.8.48
pīta-kauśeya-vāsasaḥ and dressed in yellow silk garmentsSB 10.13.46
pīta-vāsa yellow dressCC Adi 6.32
pīta-vastra yellow dressCC Adi 17.15
pīta-ambaraḥ whose yellow dressCC Antya 1.165
plakṣa-āyāmā as big as the plakṣa tree (one hundred yojanas broad and eleven hundred yojanas high)SB 5.20.8
prabhāṣya addressingSB 10.4.13
kahe prabhu Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu addressedCC Antya 4.87
pragīyamāṇam unto those who were thus addressingSB 1.16.13-15
prāha addressed (the Lord)SB 7.10.25
prāha she addressedSB 10.42.9
prāha addressedSB 10.64.31
prāha He addressedSB 10.69.16
bāla-prajā having young childrenSB 1.9.13
prajā-vatīnām of those who have childrenSB 3.14.11
su-praja-tamaḥ surrounded by many childrenSB 4.23.33
prajā-sarge in the matter of begetting childrenSB 4.24.14
prajā-sarga-dhiyaḥ who were under the impression that begetting children was the most important dutySB 6.5.29
mṛta-prajā a woman whose children are deadSB 6.19.26-28
prajā-asavaḥ those whose love for their children is the same as their love for their own lifeSB 10.12.15
prajā of their childrenSB 11.7.64
prajā-vān having responsible childrenSB 11.17.55
prajāḥ childrenSB 3.21.6
prajāḥ childrenSB 10.89.33
prajāḥ childrenSB 10.90.39
mṛta-prajaḥ my children deadSB 11.7.70
prajāḥ association with people in general or one's childrenSB 11.13.4
su-prajām possessing nice childrenSB 9.18.31
prajām childrenSB 11.11.19
prajanaḥ the cause for begetting childrenBG 10.28
prajananāḥ and in producing childrenSB 5.20.3-4
prajāpatiḥ one who is entrusted with begetting childrenSB 4.1.3
prajātyai for the sake of childrenSB 3.14.22
prajayā by childrenSB 3.14.12
prajayā for the purpose of begetting childrenSB 11.5.13
prajāyām childrenSB 5.3.13
śateka prakāra hundreds of varietiesCC Madhya 14.28
śata-prakāra a hundred varietiesCC Antya 10.24
sahasra-prakāra hundreds and thousands of varietiesCC Antya 10.33
prākṛtau two ordinary human childrenSB 10.11.39-40
prasāra by dressingSB 10.59.45
prasāra by dressingSB 10.61.6
prasūti-prasavaiḥ by so many children and descendantsSB 6.6.3
kṣetra-prasūtāḥ became the children of Rathītara and belonged to his family (because they were born from the womb of his wife)SB 9.6.3
prasūti-prasavaiḥ by so many children and descendantsSB 6.6.3
prasvāpaḥ the dreamSB 3.27.25
pratibhāṣamāṇam addressing themSB 10.29.30
deva-lińga-praticchannaḥ covering himself with the dress of a demigodSB 8.9.24
praticchannaiḥ disguised in different dressesSB 7.5.7
pratyāhūya addressingSB 7.5.55
pratyūcatuḥ addressedSB 4.12.22
pravāha of the continuous current in the form of wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleepSB 7.7.28
prāvocat he addressedSB 3.23.22
svapna-prāya almost dreamingCC Madhya 2.39
śiśu-prāya like childrenCC Madhya 14.82
proktau addressedSB 7.1.39
puruṣa-āyuṣā in a human lifetime (about one hundred years)SB 5.18.15
strī-put wife and childrenCC Antya 18.55
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 5.15.14-15
putra-nāśam the loss of his childrenSB 6.5.34
putra-śoka due to lamentation for the loss of his childrenSB 6.5.35
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 6.18.17
putra-vatsalāḥ being very affectionate to the childrenSB 7.4.45
putra-vitta children and wealthSB 7.7.4-5
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.3.28
putra children, sonsSB 9.4.65
putra-śata one hundred sonsSB 9.6.4
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.21.24
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.22.2
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.22.26
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.23.28
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.23.29
putra with regard to childrenSB 10.63.40
putra to their childrenSB 11.7.59
putra of childrenSB 11.17.53
putra for childrenSB 11.17.56
putra of childrenSB 12.5.3
strī-putra wife and childrenCC Madhya 5.69
putra childrenCC Madhya 18.90
strī-putra his wife and childrenCC Antya 3.161
putrāḥ childrenSB 7.14.6
putraḥ and childrenSB 10.16.65-67
putraiḥ and (begetting) childrenSB 10.84.39
he putrakaḥ O childrenSB 10.80.40
putrān childrenSB 10.65.11-12
putrān childrenSB 10.82.17
putrān childrenSB 12.3.42
putriṇām of persons who have childrenSB 6.15.21-23
putriṇām and childrenSB 11.9.3
rāja-veśa royal dressCC Madhya 1.79
rāja-veśa the royal dressCC Madhya 11.55
rāja-veśa the royal dressCC Madhya 14.5
rājñā abhihitam having been addressed by the King (Bhagīratha)SB 9.9.9
ratha-śataiḥ by hundreds of chariotsSB 10.1.30
manaḥ-ratham a daydreamSB 11.22.41
rūḍha-paricchadāḥ all the dresses and paraphernalia having been kept on the cartsSB 10.11.30
rūpā who has forms or dressesSB 6.5.14
rūpam the false dress of a saintly personSB 4.19.17
rūpam the dress of a sannyāsīSB 4.19.21
sa-apatyam along with his one hundred sonsSB 3.20.2
sa-sutān with their childrenSB 10.84.55-56
śiśu saba all the childrenCC Adi 14.41
sabhyāḥ addressing the ladies and gentlemenSB 4.21.21
sādhu-lińgena wearing the dress of a saintly personSB 6.5.36
saḥ eva that very dreamSB 3.27.25
saḥ that same dreamSB 11.28.14
saha-ātma-jā along with my childrenSB 1.8.23
saha-ātmajāḥ along with their childrenSB 10.71.15
mūrdha-sahasra-dhāmasu on the hundreds and thousands of hoods of the LordSB 5.17.21
sahasra-prakāra hundreds and thousands of varietiesCC Antya 10.33
sahasraśaḥ hundreds and thousandsSB 2.1.2
śata-sahasraśaḥ many hundreds and thousandsSB 5.19.16
śata-sahasraśaḥ by hundreds of thousandsSB 11.12.13
sahasraśaḥ by hundreds and thousands of timesCC Madhya 20.249
kariyā sājani nicely dressedCC Antya 14.108
sakhā-vṛnda hundreds of friendsCC Madhya 15.241
samābhāṣya addressingSB 6.14.16
samābhāṣya addressingSB 10.43.31
śatam samāḥ for one hundred yearsSB 9.2.1
śatam samāḥ for one hundred yearsSB 11.3.11
samāharat withdrewSB 10.41.1
samāśrāvya clearly addressingSB 10.85.27-28
sambhāṣa addressCC Adi 5.169
sambhāṣaṇa addressCC Madhya 11.130
sambhāṣaṇe addressingCC Madhya 9.250
sambhāṣaṇīyaḥ fit for being addressedSB 7.13.23
sambhāṣya addressingSB 1.6.37
garbha-sambhūtam the children born from the wombSB 10.1.65-66
sambodhana addressCC Adi 17.175
sambodhana addressingCC Madhya 2.64
saṃśrāvayan addressingSB 10.74.30
svapna-saṃstutam as if imagined in a dreamSB 9.4.15-16
samūcatuḥ they addressed herSB 10.82.36
samuditaḥ addressedSB 3.24.41
saṃvatsara-śatam one hundred yearsSB 3.11.12
sandhyā-abhra-nīveḥ of the dress of the evening skySB 3.8.24
śiśu-sańge along with other childrenCC Adi 14.48
sañjahre withdrewSB 11.1.5
varṇa-sańkara of unwanted childrenBG 1.42
sańkaraḥ such unwanted childrenBG 1.41
lakṣa-sańkhya numbering hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 17.188
śata-sańkhyayoḥ hundreds of yearsSB 3.11.20
śateka sannyāsī one hundred sannyāsīsCC Madhya 3.100
sannyāsīra veṣe in the dress of a mendicantCC Madhya 9.214
santāna childrenSB 3.14.14
santāna childrenSB 10.53.46
sapta-śatāni seven hundredSB 5.26.27
saramā-sutāḥ the children of SaramāSB 6.6.24-26
divya-śarat-śate vṛtte after the expiry of one hundred years by the measurement of the demigodsSB 10.10.20-22
śarat-śatam one hundred autumnsSB 11.6.25
prajā-sarga-dhiyaḥ who were under the impression that begetting children was the most important dutySB 6.5.29
sva-sargasya of her own childrenSB 3.14.37
prajā-sarge in the matter of begetting childrenSB 4.24.14
sarva-ātmakam one hundred percentSB 1.3.39
tri-ṣaṭ-śatam three times six hundred (eighteen hundred)SB 10.1.30
sat-veśa nice dressCC Adi 17.4
śata-manyoḥ Indra, who performed one hundred such sacrificesSB 1.8.6
daśa-śata-ānanaḥ one who has ten hundred facesSB 2.7.41
śata-eka-bījam the root cause of hundredsSB 3.9.2
śata-bhāgaḥ one hundred truṭisSB 3.11.6
śata-sańkhyayoḥ hundreds of yearsSB 3.11.20
daśa-śata-aram the Sudarśana disc (ten hundred spokes)SB 3.28.27
janma-śata-udbhavam occurring during the last hundred birthsSB 3.31.9
śata with hundredsSB 4.6.27
yojana-śata one hundred yojanas (eight hundred miles)SB 4.6.32
śata-candram decorated with one hundred moonsSB 4.15.17
śata-kratuḥ who performed one hundred sacrificesSB 4.16.24
śata-kratuḥ King Indra, who had performed a hundred sacrificesSB 4.19.2
śata-janmabhiḥ for one hundred birthsSB 4.24.29
śata of hundredsSB 4.25.20
śata hundredSB 4.27.13
śata hundredSB 4.29.21
śata-kṛtvaḥ one hundred timesSB 5.4.17
śata hundredSB 5.5.28
śata-yojana one hundred yojanasSB 5.16.12
śata-yojanam up to one hundred yojanas (eight hundred miles)SB 5.16.23
śata-valśaḥ nāma the tree named Śatavalśa (because of having hundreds of trunks)SB 5.16.24
śata-sahasraśaḥ many hundreds and thousandsSB 5.19.16
śata-yojana of one hundred yojanasSB 5.24.6
śata-patra-ādi lotus flowers with a hundred petals and so onSB 5.24.10
śata one hundredSB 5.24.31
yojana-śata of eight hundred milesSB 5.26.28
śata-candra possessing brilliant circles like a hundred moonsSB 6.8.26
śata-palāśat like lotus flowers with hundreds of petalsSB 6.9.43
śata-parvaṇā possessing one hundred jointsSB 6.12.3
śata-parvaṇā having one hundred jointsSB 6.12.25
śata-bāho Śatabāhu (hundred-armed)SB 7.2.4-5
śata-candra-vartmabhiḥ by the maneuvers of his sword and his shield, which was marked with a hundred moonlike spotsSB 7.8.28
śata hundreds and thousandsSB 7.10.68
śata-parvaṇā which has hundreds of sharp edgesSB 8.11.6
śata-candra-yuktaḥ with a shield decorated with hundreds of moonsSB 8.20.31
putra-śata one hundred sonsSB 9.6.4
śata-ayutaiḥ unlimitedly, by many hundreds of thousandsSB 10.1.17
abda-śata of hundreds of yearsSB 10.1.38
śata-patra of hundred-petaled lotusesSB 10.15.3
śata hundredsSB 10.29.44
śata with hundredsSB 10.33.3
śata one hundredSB 10.37.4
śata of one hundred (years)SB 10.45.5
śata hundredsSB 10.48.24
śata hundredsSB 10.52.43
śata hundredsSB 10.55.14
śata with hundredsSB 10.55.26
śata one hundredSB 10.57.18
śata-guṇān one hundred times more (nine hundred thousand)SB 10.58.50-51
śata-guṇān one hundred times more (ninety million)SB 10.58.50-51
śata-guṇān one hundred times more (nine billion)SB 10.58.50-51
śata one hundredSB 10.62.2
śata by one hundredSB 10.71.6
śata hundredsSB 10.81.28
śata by hundredsSB 10.87.33
śata one hundredSB 10.90.29
śata-varṣā lasting one hundred yearsSB 11.3.9
śata-sahasraśaḥ by hundreds of thousandsSB 11.12.13
śata hundredsSB 11.12.22-23
śata-trayam three hundredSB 12.1.6-8
śata one hundredSB 12.1.14
śata one hundredSB 12.1.15-17
abda-śata centuries [These twelve hundred years of the demigods equal 432,000 earth years]SB 12.2.31
śata-varṣāṇi for one hundred yearsSB 12.4.7
śata with hundredsCC Adi 1.73-74
śata śata guṇa hundreds of qualities moreCC Adi 4.240
śata śata guṇa hundreds of qualities moreCC Adi 4.240
śata-mukhe in hundreds of mouthsCC Adi 4.255
śata one hundred timesCC Adi 4.258
śata by hundredsCC Adi 5.22
śata-guṇa one hundred timesCC Adi 7.24
śata śata hundreds and hundredsCC Adi 9.19
śata śata hundreds and hundredsCC Adi 9.19
śata-tina about three hundredCC Adi 12.32
śata śata many hundredsCC Adi 16.9
śata śata many hundredsCC Adi 16.9
śata hundredCC Adi 16.36
śata one hundredCC Adi 16.40
śata hundredCC Adi 17.82
śata vatsara paryanta up to one hundred yearsCC Madhya 2.25
śata śata bhāra hundreds of potsCC Madhya 3.75
śata śata bhāra hundreds of potsCC Madhya 3.75
śata-ghaṭa hundreds of waterpotsCC Madhya 4.56
śata one hundredCC Madhya 4.61
śata-āha in one hundred daysCC Madhya 5.1
śata hundredsCC Madhya 6.176
śata one hundredCC Madhya 6.206
śata śata hundreds and hundredsCC Madhya 7.105
śata śata hundreds and hundredsCC Madhya 7.105
sūrya-śata hundreds of sunsCC Madhya 8.18
śata-koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 8.109
śata-koṭi hundreds of thousandsCC Madhya 8.116
śata-guṇam a hundred timesCC Madhya 8.211
dui-śata numbering about two hundredCC Madhya 11.67
eka-śata one hundredCC Madhya 12.78
śata hundredCC Madhya 12.78
śata hundreds ofCC Madhya 12.84
śata jana about one hundred menCC Madhya 12.95
śata ghaṭe in a hundred waterpotsCC Madhya 12.95
śata ghaṭa one hundred potsCC Madhya 12.96
śata one hundredCC Madhya 12.105
śata śata jana hundreds of menCC Madhya 12.107
śata śata jana hundreds of menCC Madhya 12.107
śata bhakta-gaṇa hundreds of devoteesCC Madhya 12.108
śata jana hundreds of menCC Madhya 12.108
śata śata hundreds ofCC Madhya 12.110
śata śata hundreds ofCC Madhya 12.110
śata-janera kāma the work of hundreds of menCC Madhya 12.114
śata-haste with one hundred handsCC Madhya 12.115
pañca-śata loka five hundred menCC Madhya 12.154-155
śata śata hundreds upon hundredsCC Madhya 13.20
śata śata hundreds upon hundredsCC Madhya 13.20
śata hundredsCC Madhya 14.130
śata-dhāra with hundreds of branchesCC Madhya 14.140
kata śata how many hundreds ofCC Madhya 15.71
śata culāya on one hundred stovesCC Madhya 15.226
śata jana one hundred menCC Madhya 15.226
śata śata bhāra hundreds of bucketsCC Madhya 15.239
śata śata bhāra hundreds of bucketsCC Madhya 15.239
śata-guṇa one hundred timesCC Madhya 17.226
śata jana one hundred personsCC Madhya 18.169
dui-śata turkī two hundred TurksCC Madhya 18.173
śata-eka one hundredCC Madhya 19.139
śata-aṃśa one hundred divisionsCC Madhya 19.139
śata-bhāgasya of one hundredthCC Madhya 19.140
śata-aṃśa a hundredth partCC Madhya 19.140
śata-bhāgasya of one hundredthCC Madhya 19.141
śata-āvṛtti hundreds of timesCC Madhya 19.230
chaya-śata six hundredCC Madhya 20.388
śata a hundredCC Madhya 21.4
śata hundredCC Madhya 21.67
tāra śata śata dhāra the flow of that eternal bliss is running in hundreds of branchesCC Madhya 25.271
tāra śata śata dhāra the flow of that eternal bliss is running in hundreds of branchesCC Madhya 25.271
śata-mukha as if with hundreds of mouthsCC Antya 3.93
śata-janmabhiḥ by hundreds of birthsCC Antya 4.63
śata-śata dhāra hundreds and hundreds of branchesCC Antya 5.162
śata-śata dhāra hundreds and hundreds of branchesCC Antya 5.162
śata hundredCC Antya 6.55
śata mudrā one hundred coinsCC Antya 6.146
eka-śata mudrā one hundred coinsCC Antya 6.153
cāri-śata mudrā four hundred coinsCC Antya 6.259
cāri-śata mudrā four hundred coinsCC Antya 6.267
śata śata dhāre hundreds and hundreds of branchesCC Antya 7.165
śata śata dhāre hundreds and hundreds of branchesCC Antya 7.165
śata hundredsCC Antya 8.81
śata-prakāra a hundred varietiesCC Antya 10.24
śata-janera of one hundred peopleCC Antya 10.111
śata-janera of one hundred personsCC Antya 10.127
dui-tina śata two hundred to three hundredCC Antya 12.13
śata by hundredsBs 5.29
śata hundredsMM 37
śatābhyām with two hundred arrowsSB 8.11.22
śatadhā in a hundred partsSB 10.65.26
śatadhā into hundreds of piecesSB 10.67.19-21
śatadhā into hundreds of piecesSB 10.67.19-21
śatadhā in hundreds of piecesSB 10.77.13
śatadhā into one hundred partsCC Madhya 19.141
aṣṭa-śatādhikāni increased by eight hundredSB 5.21.12
śatāḥ having hundredsSB 10.59.45
śatāḥ having hundredsSB 10.61.6
śataiḥ by hundredsBG 16.11-12
śataiḥ hundredSB 4.27.16
varṣa-śataiḥ for a hundred yearsSB 7.2.57
daśa-śataiḥ by ten times one hundred (one thousand)SB 8.11.16
varṣa-śataiḥ api even if he does so for hundreds of yearsSB 9.1.7
ratha-śataiḥ by hundreds of chariotsSB 10.1.30
śataiḥ with the hundredsSB 12.6.74
bhańgī-śataiḥ with a hundred mannersCC Adi 4.196
varṣa-śatam for one hundred yearsSB 1.13.15
śatam hundreds of such divisionsSB 1.16.34
varṣa-śatam one hundred yearsSB 3.10.4
saṃvatsara-śatam one hundred yearsSB 3.11.12
śatam one hundredSB 3.11.33
śatam hundredSB 3.15.1
tri-śatam three hundredSB 3.21.18
śatam a hundredSB 3.23.46
varṣa-śatam one hundred yearsSB 4.1.19
śatam one hundredSB 4.16.24
śatam a hundredSB 4.25.37
śatam one hundredSB 4.25.43
śatam one hundredSB 4.27.7
śatam hundredSB 4.27.9
śatam hundredSB 4.27.9
śatam hundredSB 4.27.16
śatam one hundredSB 4.28.39
śatam hundredSB 4.29.23-25
śatam one hundredSB 5.4.8
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 5.15.14-15
śatam to one hundredSB 6.6.37
ketu-śatam one hundred KetusSB 6.6.37
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 6.18.17
śatam one hundredSB 7.3.19
varṣa-śatam one hundred yearsSB 7.6.6
anīka-śatam with a hundred rowsSB 7.8.19-22
abda-śatam for a hundred years according to the demigods*SB 7.9.34
varṣa-śatam for one hundred yearsSB 8.1.8
yojana-śatam hundreds of milesSB 8.24.26
śatam samāḥ for one hundred yearsSB 9.2.1
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.3.28
daśa-śatam one thousand (ten times one hundred)SB 9.15.16
śatam hundredSB 9.20.27
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.21.24
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.22.2
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.22.26
śatam there were one hundred sonsSB 9.23.15
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.23.28
putra-śatam one hundred sonsSB 9.23.29
catuḥ-śatam four hundredSB 10.1.30
tri-ṣaṭ-śatam three times six hundred (eighteen hundred)SB 10.1.30
dhanuḥ-śatam the extent of one hundred bow-lengthsSB 10.16.7
yuga-śatam a hundred millenniumsSB 10.19.16
śatam one hundredSB 10.61.29
śatam one hundredSB 10.90.44
śatam one hundredSB 11.2.16
śatam samāḥ for one hundred yearsSB 11.3.11
śarat-śatam one hundred autumnsSB 11.6.25
śatam one hundredSB 12.1.3
śatam one hundredSB 12.1.10
varṣa-śatam one hundred yearsSB 12.1.29-31
śatam one hundredSB 12.2.26
abda-śatam one hundred yearsSB 12.2.27-28
śatam one hundredSB 12.4.11
śatam one hundredSB 12.4.12
śatam śatam each one hundredSB 12.6.79
śatam śatam each one hundredSB 12.6.79
daśa-pañca-catuḥ-śatam fifteen thousand four hundredSB 12.13.4-9
śatam hundredSB 12.13.4-9
śatam one hundredIso 2
śatāni hundredsSB 3.11.19
śatāni daśa ten hundredSB 3.23.26
śatāni hundredsSB 4.27.6
sapta-śatāni seven hundredSB 5.26.27
daśa-śatāni ten times one hundred (one thousand)SB 8.11.21
varṣa-śatāni hundreds of yearsSB 9.17.7
pañca-śatāni five hundredSB 9.17.12
suta-śatāni hundreds of sonsSB 9.24.66
pañca-śatāni five hundredSB 10.63.18
śatāni hundredSB 10.68.50-51
śatāni hundredsSB 10.73.1-6
śatāni hundredsSB 10.90.41
śatāni hundredsSB 12.1.19
pañca-śatāni five hundredSB 12.6.78
śatāni hundredsSB 12.9.19
pañca-śatāni five hundred (verses)SB 12.13.4-9
śatāni hundredsBs 5.41
śataśaḥ hundredsBG 11.5
śataśaḥ hundreds ofSB 1.11.19
śataśaḥ in hundredsSB 5.11.11
śataśaḥ in the hundredsSB 5.17.10
śataśaḥ hundredsSB 5.26.37
śataśaḥ hundreds upon hundredsSB 8.10.48
śataśaḥ by the hundredsSB 10.50.25-28
śataśaḥ hundredsSB 10.55.23
śataśaḥ by the hundredsSB 10.82.12-13
śatasya of the one-hundredthSB 4.20.2
hayamedha-śatasya of one hundred aśvamedha sacrificesSB 9.23.33
varṣa-śate after one hundred yearsSB 3.17.2
śate hundredSB 10.1.30
divya-śarat-śate vṛtte after the expiry of one hundred years by the measurement of the demigodsSB 10.10.20-22
śateka sannyāsī one hundred sannyāsīsCC Madhya 3.100
śateka prakāra hundreds of varietiesCC Madhya 14.28
śateka kāmāne one hundred cannonsCC Madhya 18.173
śateka vatsara haya there are one hundred yearsCC Madhya 20.322
śatena to perform one hundredSB 4.19.1
śatena numbering one hundredSB 8.10.30-31
śatena by one hundredSB 8.15.34
bhāryā-śatena with one hundred wivesSB 9.6.26
śatena with one hundredSB 10.76.18-19
pañca-śateṣu five hundredSB 9.15.33
śayānaḥ as if dreaming in sleepSB 2.2.2
sei svapna that dreamCC Madhya 18.87
sei vastra that new dressCC Madhya 20.71
ati-svapna-śīlasya of one who dreams too much in sleepCC Antya 8.67-68
śiśavaḥ childrenSB 6.14.57
śiśavaḥ small childrenSB 10.4.5
śiśavaḥ childrenSB 10.83.13-14
śiśu-gaṇe all the childrenCC Adi 14.23
śiśu childrenCC Adi 14.40
śiśu saba all the childrenCC Adi 14.41
śiśu-sańge along with other childrenCC Adi 14.48
śiśu-prāya like childrenCC Madhya 14.82
śiśubhiḥ along with my childrenSB 10.49.11
śiśūn childrenSB 1.7.51
śiśūn small childrenSB 1.13.34
śiśūn childrenSB 7.1.37
śiśūn so many childrenSB 10.4.17
śiśūn all such childrenSB 10.4.31
śiśūn childrenSB 10.6.7
śiśūn their childrenSB 10.29.6-7
śiśūn childrenSB 10.45.22
śiśūn their childrenSB 11.7.61
śiśūnām of the childrenSB 1.7.15
śiśūnām of the childrenSB 3.30.8
śiśūnām of childrenSB 7.5.49
śiśūnām to the small childrenSB 7.6.11-13
kene māraha śiśure why do You beat other childrenCC Adi 14.42
putra-śoka due to lamentation for the loss of his childrenSB 6.5.35
divya-srak-ambara-ālepa she then assumed the form of a demigoddess, completely decorated with sandalwood pulp, flower garlands and a nice dressSB 10.4.9
kṛta-śriyā apāśrita beauty created by those dresses and ornamentsSB 3.8.25
śṛńgāra for dressingCC Madhya 14.228
sthāna-traya the three conditions of life (deep sleep, dreaming and wakefulness)SB 6.16.61-62
strī-putra wife and childrenCC Madhya 5.69
strī-putra his wife and childrenCC Antya 3.161
strī-put wife and childrenCC Antya 18.55
su-vāsāḥ exquisitely dressedSB 4.15.13
su-praja-tamaḥ surrounded by many childrenSB 4.23.33
su-vāsasaḥ very nicely dressedSB 9.3.15
su-vāsasaḥ well dressed with valuable garmentsSB 9.4.23
su-alańkṛta properly dressed and decoratedSB 9.6.45-46
su-vāsāḥ being nicely dressedSB 9.10.49
su-prajām possessing nice childrenSB 9.18.31
su-vāsasam nicely painted or very attractively dressedSB 10.6.4
su-vāsasaḥ very well dressedSB 10.11.33
su-vāsobhiḥ well-dressedSB 10.69.9-12
su-veṣa and fine dressSB 10.69.13
su-vāsasām nicely dressedSB 10.70.7-9
su-vāsasaḥ well dressedSB 10.84.44-45
suhṛtsu to the wife and childrenSB 7.6.11-13
suptam a dreamSB 4.29.2b
sūrya-śata hundreds of sunsCC Madhya 8.18
koṭī sūrya hundreds of thousands of sunsCC Antya 6.44
suṣupte in deep dreamless sleepSB 11.13.32
suta-ādayaḥ childrenSB 1.10.29
suta childrenSB 3.30.6
suta childrenSB 5.1.4
suta childrenSB 5.5.8
suta-dāra-vatsalaḥ being attached to the children and wifeSB 5.13.18
suta-dāra-vatsalaḥ very affectionate to the children and wifeSB 5.14.32
suta childrenSB 5.14.44
suta-ādayaḥ children and so onSB 7.7.39
suta-ādīnām and childrenSB 7.15.65
suta-śatāni hundreds of sonsSB 9.24.66
hata-sutā deprived of all childrenSB 10.4.6
suta childrenSB 10.29.33
suta childrenSB 10.31.16
suta-ādayaḥ children and so forthSB 10.46.38
suta for childrenSB 10.48.27
suta-ādayaḥ children and othersSB 10.49.23
suta to childrenSB 10.51.47
suta and childrenSB 10.65.7
suta and childrenSB 10.84.38
suta childrenSB 10.87.34
suta-utpattim begetting childrenCC Adi 17.164
suta childrenCC Madhya 9.269
sutāḥ childrenSB 4.22.44
saramā-sutāḥ the children of SaramāSB 6.6.24-26
sutāḥ childrenSB 10.51.18
sutān childrenSB 4.28.34
dāra-sutān the wife and children or the most opulent family lifeSB 5.14.43
sutān their childrenSB 10.25.12
sutān childrenSB 10.39.22
sutān His childrenSB 10.69.23
sa-sutān with their childrenSB 10.84.55-56
dāra-sutān wife and childrenCC Madhya 23.25
dāra-sutān wife and childrenCC Antya 6.137
suteṣu childrenSB 5.19.14
suteṣu in childrenSB 9.4.27
suvāsasaḥ well dressedSB 10.84.44-45
sva-sargasya of her own childrenSB 3.14.37
sva-ātma-jān his own childrenSB 11.7.67
svāpam the subject of a dreamSB 6.16.55
svapan sleeping, dreamingSB 11.13.30
svapana a dreamCC Madhya 4.105
svapana a dreamCC Madhya 4.157
svapana dekhiluń I saw a dreamCC Antya 3.35
dekhinu svapana saw a dreamCC Antya 12.94
svapana a dreamCC Antya 14.17
vā svapane or in dreamsCC Madhya 2.37
svapane in a dreamCC Madhya 4.126
svapane in a dreamCC Madhya 5.128
svapna-jana a person dreamingSB 2.1.39
svapna a dreamSB 4.12.15
svapna-nirvṛti-lakṣaṇam the kind of happiness found in dreamsSB 5.14.17
svapna-upalabdha-arthaḥ an object obtained in dreamingSB 6.4.54
svapna-vat like a dreamSB 7.14.3-4
svapna-saṃstutam as if imagined in a dreamSB 9.4.15-16
svapna-māyā illusion, like a dreamSB 9.18.49
svapna-aupamyena by the analogy of a dreamSB 9.19.26
svapna-vat like a dreamSB 9.21.17
svapna-dṛṣṭāḥ the evil spirits that cause bad dreamsSB 10.6.24
svapna-ābham like a dreamSB 10.14.22
svapna a dreamSB 10.40.24
svapna-vat like a dreamSB 10.47.32
svapna as a dreamSB 10.49.25
svapna a dreamSB 11.2.38
svapna in dreamSB 11.3.35
svapna a dreamSB 11.11.8
svapna of a dreamSB 11.13.31
svapna in a dreamSB 11.14.28
svapna a dreamSB 11.21.31
svapna a dreamSB 11.22.40
svapna-dṛṣṭaḥ things seen in a dreamSB 11.22.54-55
svapna-dṛk a person who is seeing a dreamSB 12.10.31-32
svapna-bhańga breaking of the dreamCC Adi 5.197
svapna dekhe he dreamtCC Adi 14.84
svapna dekhi' by seeing the dreamCC Adi 16.14
svapna-prāya almost dreamingCC Madhya 2.39
svapna dekhi' after seeing the dreamCC Madhya 4.108
svapna dekhi' after seeing the dreamCC Madhya 4.130
svapna diyā appearing in a dreamCC Madhya 9.246
sei svapna that dreamCC Madhya 18.87
svapna a dreamCC Madhya 19.245
svapna dekhi' after dreamingCC Antya 1.43
ati-svapna-śīlasya of one who dreams too much in sleepCC Antya 8.67-68
svapna a dreamCC Antya 12.92
svapna-jñāna haila could understand that it was a dreamCC Antya 14.21
svapna-āveśe when absorbed in dreamsCC Antya 14.38
svapnaḥ a dreamSB 4.29.34
svapnaḥ a dreamSB 7.2.48
svapnaḥ a dreamSB 7.7.27
svapnaḥ a dreamSB 10.8.40
svapnaḥ a dreamSB 11.11.2
svapnaḥ merely a dreamSB 11.13.34
svapnaḥ a dreamSB 11.17.53
svāpnam born in a dreamSB 3.28.38
svāpnam in a dreamSB 10.77.29
svāpnam just like a dreamSB 11.13.37
svapnam a dreamSB 11.22.41
svāpnam of a dreamSB 11.28.32
svapnān living conditions (wakefulness, dreaming and sleep)SB 7.15.62
svapnāt from a dreamSB 11.11.8
svapnāt from a dreamSB 11.11.12-13
svapnavat like a dreamSB 4.29.2b
svapnāyitam like a dreamSB 10.70.28
svapne in a dreamSB 3.27.4
svapne in a dreamSB 3.33.27
svapne in dreamSB 4.22.27
svapne in a dreamSB 4.28.40
svapne in a dreamSB 4.29.34
svapne in a dreamSB 4.29.35
svapne in dreamSB 4.29.73
svapne in a dreamSB 5.11.3
svapne api even in dreamsSB 6.1.19
svapne in a dreamSB 6.2.30
svapne in the dreaming conditionSB 6.16.53-54
svapne in a dreamSB 7.15.61
svapne in a dreamSB 10.1.41
svapne in a dreamSB 10.62.10
svapne in my dreamSB 10.62.14
svapne in a dreamSB 11.13.30
svapne in dreamsSB 11.13.32
svapne in a dreamSB 11.22.56
svapne in a dreamSB 11.28.13
svapne in a dreamSB 12.5.4
svapne in a dreamCC Adi 5.181
svapne in a dreamCC Adi 16.12
svapne in a dreamCC Adi 16.106
svapne in a dreamCC Madhya 4.35
svapne in dreamsCC Madhya 4.172
svapne dekhi' seeing the dreamCC Madhya 5.131
svapne dekhe he dreamedCC Antya 1.41
svapne-ha even in dreamsCC Antya 2.144
svapneha even in dreamsCC Madhya 10.8
svapnera of the dreamCC Adi 16.14
svapnera of the dreamCC Antya 14.32
svapnete in dreamCC Madhya 10.122
svāpni a dreamSB 4.12.4
svataḥ by dreamSB 3.7.5
svatvam so-called proprietorship over one's wife, children, home, business and so onSB 7.14.14
tādṛśa-ākṛtim in such dressSB 4.19.14
su-praja-tamaḥ surrounded by many childrenSB 4.23.33
tanaya childrenSB 10.14.35
tāra śata śata dhāra the flow of that eternal bliss is running in hundreds of branchesCC Madhya 25.271
tāre kahe he addresses himCC Antya 2.21
tāsām of their childrenSB 11.7.59
tāsām of the childrenSB 11.7.62
tat-ātma-jāḥ ca and his children like Priyavrata, Uttānapāda, Devahūti, etc.SB 2.7.43-45
tatra there (in her dream)SB 10.62.11
teṣām of them (the one hundred sons of ṛṣabhadeva)SB 11.2.19
śata-tina about three hundredCC Adi 12.32
dui-tina śata two hundred to three hundredCC Antya 12.13
tokān the small childrenSB 10.8.29
tokānām of childrenSB 6.4.12
tokeṣu for the childrenSB 10.14.49
sthāna-traya the three conditions of life (deep sleep, dreaming and wakefulness)SB 6.16.61-62
śata-trayam three hundredSB 12.1.6-8
tri-śatam three hundredSB 3.21.18
tri-ṣaṭ-śatam three times six hundred (eighteen hundred)SB 10.1.30
tri-guṇa of the three stages wakefulness, dream and dreamless sleepSB 11.13.32
triśata-upanītam the bow carried by three hundred menSB 9.10.6-7
vāsaḥ tu the dressSB 2.1.34
dui-śata turkī two hundred TurksCC Madhya 18.173
turye in the fourth element (beyond wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep)SB 11.13.28
ūcuḥ addressedSB 1.12.15
ūcuḥ they addressedSB 10.19.8
udayam brilliancy by bathing Him, dressing Him and decorating Him with ornamentsSB 10.11.20
carama-udbhavaḥ the source of one hundred sons (headed by Śatajit)SB 5.15.16
janma-śata-udbhavam occurring during the last hundred birthsSB 3.31.9
uktaḥ addressedBG 1.24
uktaḥ addressedSB 3.4.14
uktāḥ addressedSB 7.4.29
uktaḥ addressedSB 7.7.11
iti uktaḥ thus being addressedSB 8.19.28
iti uktaḥ thus being addressedSB 9.3.14
iti uktaḥ thus being addressedSB 9.9.3
iti uktaḥ thus being addressedSB 10.1.35
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.30.38
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.41.18
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.45.25
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.51.21
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.51.44
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.56.32
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.61.27-28
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.63.30
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.71.20
uktaḥ addressedSB 10.81.5
uktaḥ being addressedSB 11.6.32
uktaḥ addressedSB 11.29.45
uktaḥ addressedSB 12.6.28
uktaḥ addressedSB 12.6.63
uktavantam being addressed by Mahārāja SatyavrataSB 8.24.54
ukte being addressedSB 6.1.37
uktvā having addressedSB 1.13.60
pāda-ūna less by a quarter (six hundred miles)SB 4.6.32
unmatta-lińginaḥ who dress as if madmenSB 6.15.11
svapna-upalabdha-arthaḥ an object obtained in dreamingSB 6.4.54
triśata-upanītam the bow carried by three hundred menSB 9.10.6-7
uta and what to speak of begetting one hundred sons in each of themSB 9.6.52
suta-utpattim begetting childrenCC Adi 17.164
uvāca ha addressedSB 3.22.1
vā svapane or in dreamsCC Madhya 2.37
lakṣa koṭi-vadana possessing a hundred thousand and ten million facesCC Madhya 21.68
vaiṣṇava-veśe in the dress of a VaiṣṇavaCC Madhya 14.5
śata-valśaḥ nāma the tree named Śatavalśa (because of having hundreds of trunks)SB 5.16.24
prajā-vān having responsible childrenSB 11.17.55
vanya-veśa forest dressCC Antya 18.101
vāra-mukhyābhiḥ accompanied by beautiful, well-dressed prostitutesSB 9.10.35-38
varāmbaram glittering dressSB 1.9.33
varṇa-sańkara of unwanted childrenBG 1.42
varṇa-veśa-bheda by differences of dress and colorCC Madhya 20.187
varṣa-śatam for one hundred yearsSB 1.13.15
varṣa-śatam one hundred yearsSB 3.10.4
varṣa-śate after one hundred yearsSB 3.17.2
varṣa-śatam one hundred yearsSB 4.1.19
varṣa-śataiḥ for a hundred yearsSB 7.2.57
varṣa-śatam one hundred yearsSB 7.6.6
varṣa-śatam for one hundred yearsSB 8.1.8
varṣa-śataiḥ api even if he does so for hundreds of yearsSB 9.1.7
varṣa-śatāni hundreds of yearsSB 9.17.7
śata-varṣā lasting one hundred yearsSB 11.3.9
varṣa-śatam one hundred yearsSB 12.1.29-31
śata-varṣāṇi for one hundred yearsSB 12.4.7
śata-candra-vartmabhiḥ by the maneuvers of his sword and his shield, which was marked with a hundred moonlike spotsSB 7.8.28
vāsa with a dressSB 10.5.17
pīta-vāsa yellow dressCC Adi 6.32
vāsaḥ tu the dressSB 2.1.34
su-vāsāḥ exquisitely dressedSB 4.15.13
piśańga-vāsāḥ whose dress is yellowSB 8.10.54
vāsaḥ the covering dressSB 8.12.23
su-vāsāḥ being nicely dressedSB 9.10.49
vāsaḥ the dressSB 9.18.5
vāsaḥ well dressedSB 10.7.16
vasanam our dressSB 10.35.16-17
aiṇeya-ajina-vāsasa with a dress of a deerskinSB 5.7.13
viraja-vāsasaḥ always dressed with clean garmentsSB 8.15.17
su-vāsasaḥ very nicely dressedSB 9.3.15
su-vāsasaḥ well dressed with valuable garmentsSB 9.4.23
su-vāsasaḥ very well dressedSB 10.11.33
pīta-kauśeya-vāsasaḥ and dressed in yellow silk garmentsSB 10.13.46
su-vāsasaḥ well dressedSB 10.84.44-45
pīta-kauśeya-vāsasam and He is dressed with yellow silk garmentsSB 4.8.48
su-vāsasam nicely painted or very attractively dressedSB 10.6.4
vāsasam whose dressSB 10.55.27-28
vāsasam whose dressSB 10.58.50-51
su-vāsasām nicely dressedSB 10.70.7-9
vāsasam whose dressSB 10.89.54-56
vāsasoḥ whose dressSB 10.54.55
vasitvā being dressedSB 10.15.45
su-vāsobhiḥ well-dressedSB 10.69.9-12
vastra-ākalpa-añjana-ādibhiḥ with proper dress, ornaments, black ointment, and so onSB 10.5.9
pīta-vastra yellow dressCC Adi 17.15
sei vastra that new dressCC Madhya 20.71
svapna-vat like a dreamSB 7.14.3-4
svapna-vat like a dreamSB 9.21.17
svapna-vat like a dreamSB 10.47.32
prajā-vatīnām of those who have childrenSB 3.14.11
vatsāḥ O my childrenSB 3.14.13
suta-dāra-vatsalaḥ being attached to the children and wifeSB 5.13.18
suta-dāra-vatsalaḥ very affectionate to the children and wifeSB 5.14.32
putra-vatsalāḥ being very affectionate to the childrenSB 7.4.45
śata vatsara paryanta up to one hundred yearsCC Madhya 2.25
śateka vatsara haya there are one hundred yearsCC Madhya 20.322
ā-vaṭubhyaḥ unto those who appear as childrenSB 5.13.23
avadhūta-veṣa-bhāṣā-caritaiḥ by the dress, language and characteristics of an avadhūtaSB 5.6.6
veṣa whose style of dressSB 10.43.19
su-veṣa and fine dressSB 10.69.13
veṣa the dressSB 10.71.7
veṣa and by dressing as mendicantsSB 12.3.38
sat-veśa nice dressCC Adi 17.4
gopa-veśa with the dress of a cowherd boyCC Adi 17.279
rāja-veśa royal dressCC Madhya 1.79
gopa-veśa the dress of a cowherd boyCC Madhya 1.79
veṣa-dhāraṇa changing the dressCC Madhya 3.8
veṣa the dressCC Madhya 8.284
rāja-veśa the royal dressCC Madhya 11.55
anya veśa different dressCC Madhya 13.146
rāja-veśa the royal dressCC Madhya 14.5
nanda-veśa dhari' in the dress of Nanda MahārājaCC Madhya 15.19
kari' veśa-antara changing the dressCC Madhya 16.161
hindu-veśa dhari' accepting the dress of a HinduCC Madhya 16.178
ei veṣa this kind of dressCC Madhya 20.69
gopa-veśa the dress of a cowherd boyCC Madhya 20.177
kṣatriya-veśa the dress is like that of a kṣatriyaCC Madhya 20.177
varṇa-veśa-bheda by differences of dress and colorCC Madhya 20.187
veśa of dressCC Madhya 20.208
gopa-veśa the dress of a cowherd boyCC Madhya 21.101
divya-veśa-ādaraḥ the hankering for first-class dressCC Antya 1.165
vanya-veśa forest dressCC Antya 18.101
veṣābhiḥ whose dressSB 10.90.1-7
veṣam in dressSB 10.66.15
veśau being dressedSB 10.21.8
gopa-veśe in the dress of cowherd boysCC Adi 5.191
brāhmaṇera veśe in the dress of brāhmaṇasCC Madhya 9.175
sannyāsīra veṣe in the dress of a mendicantCC Madhya 9.214
vaiṣṇava-veśe in the dress of a VaiṣṇavaCC Madhya 14.5
manuṣyera veśe in the dress of human beingsCC Antya 9.8
nānā-veśe in different dressesCC Antya 9.9
veṣeṇa by your dressSB 1.17.5
veṣeṇa by the dressSB 6.15.10
yāvat vibhūṣā-ambaram exactly like their ornaments and dress in all their varied particularsSB 10.13.19
viraja-vāsasaḥ always dressed with clean garmentsSB 8.15.17
viślathat-nīvyā whose dress was slackenedSB 6.1.58-60
para-vitta-apatya-kalatrāṇi the money, wife and children of anotherSB 5.26.8
putra-vitta children and wealthSB 7.7.4-5
vivāsasam without any dress (naked)SB 9.14.22
vivāsasam without any dress, completely nakedSB 10.10.20-22
vraja-bālakaiḥ with other small children in VrajaSB 10.8.27
ā-bāla-vṛddha beginning from the children up to the old personsCC Madhya 4.83
sakhā-vṛnda hundreds of friendsCC Madhya 15.241
divya-śarat-śate vṛtte after the expiry of one hundred years by the measurement of the demigodsSB 10.10.20-22
vyājahāra addressedSB 10.23.13
vyaktam a body manifested in a dreamSB 6.1.49
yat-māyayā all such things addressed by me are, after all, given by the mercy of the SupremeSB 10.8.42
yātudhānī api although she was a witch (whose only business was to kill small children and who had tried to kill Kṛṣṇa also)SB 10.6.34
ḍākinyaḥ yātudhānyaḥ ca kuṣmāṇḍāḥ witches and devils, enemies of childrenSB 10.6.24
yāvat vibhūṣā-ambaram exactly like their ornaments and dress in all their varied particularsSB 10.13.19
yoga-paṭṭa saffron-colored dressCC Madhya 10.108
yojana-śata one hundred yojanas (eight hundred miles)SB 4.6.32
śata-yojana one hundred yojanasSB 5.16.12
śata-yojana of one hundred yojanasSB 5.24.6
yojana-śata of eight hundred milesSB 5.26.28
lakṣa-yojana one hundred thousand yojanas (eight hundred thousand miles)SB 8.7.9
yojana-śatam hundreds of milesSB 8.24.26
śata-yojanam up to one hundred yojanas (eight hundred miles)SB 5.16.23
dvādaśa-yojanam twelve yojanas (about one hundred miles)SB 10.50.49
yuga-śatam a hundred millenniumsSB 10.19.16
śata-candra-yuktaḥ with a shield decorated with hundreds of moonsSB 8.20.31
     DCS with thanks   
19 results
     
drekin noun (masculine) a kind of plant (or: writing error for udrekin)
Frequency rank 55157/72933
indreti noun (masculine) name of a man
Frequency rank 33279/72933
indreśvara noun (masculine neuter) name of a Tīrtha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33280/72933
udrekin adjective abounding in (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excessive (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
giving preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
violent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47382/72933
udreka noun (masculine) abundance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
excess (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
overplus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
predominance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
preponderance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
superiority (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7392/72933
kṣudreṅgudī noun (feminine) Alhagi Maurorum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50686/72933
kṣudrervāru noun (masculine) a species of gourd (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 34447/72933
kṣaudreya noun (neuter) beeswax wax (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50753/72933
candreśa noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha at the Narmadā
Frequency rank 34905/72933
candreṣṭā noun (feminine) a night lotus
Frequency rank 52094/72933
cittodreka noun (masculine) arrogance pride
Frequency rank 52290/72933
bhadrendra noun (masculine) name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37769/72933
bhadreśa noun (masculine) name of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60563/72933
bhadreśvarī noun (feminine) name of Devī at Bhadra
Frequency rank 60564/72933
bhadreśvara noun (masculine neuter) name of a Kāyastha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of an author (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of various statues and Liṅgas of Śiva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19765/72933
madodreka noun (masculine) Melia Bukayun (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61304/72933
dreya noun (masculine) metron. of Nakula (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
metron. of Sahadeva (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a people (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14370/72933
raudreya noun (masculine) name of a Ṛṣi
Frequency rank 63887/72933
samudreka noun (masculine) preponderance
Frequency rank 40468/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
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ahipūtana

napkin rash or diaper rash; sores on the hinder part of the body; anal eruption in children.

andhapūtanā

female demon causing diseases in children; disease similar to blindness caused by vitamin A deficiency.

asura

demon; asurakāya infernal body; a person with traits affluent in circumstances, dreadful, valorous, irascible, jealous of other men’s excellence, gluttonous and fond of eating alone.

bālagraha

specific disorders of children; children’s seizures.

bālatantra

peadiatrics; a branch dealing with medical care of infants and children.

bhaya

fear; dread; apprehension; alarm.

graha

1. planet; 2. disease affecting children; seizures.

kākavandhya

sterility in women after two conceptions and deliveries, i.e. women with only two children.

karkoṭaki

1. Plant Momordica dioica, M. cochinchinensis; 2. women whose children die abruptly.

kulakṣayakari

women whose male children dies after delivery.

kumāra

children in the age-group of one to sixteen years.

lakṣa

one hundred thousand.

marīci

onehundred and eighty smallest particles (paramāṇu).

mṛtavandhya

sterile women whose new born children die after delivery.

niśa

1. night; 2. dream; 3. vision; 4. turmeri Century

padmarāga

ruby, a precious stone with aluminum oxide from pink to bloodred in colour due to presence of chromium.

paśu

animal, beast; paśukāya bestial body; person with traits of beast like bad thinking, sluggish activity, dreams of copulation and denying everything.

pauruṣādini

women whose children die before they attain sixteen years of age.

pratisāraṇa

dressing and anointing the edges of a wound

putranjīva

1. giving life to children; 2. Plant spurious wild olive, lucky bean tree, Putranjiva roxburghi.

sapraja

together with children or offspring; secondary infertility.

śatadhā

in hundred ways.

śatam

one hundred

svapna

sleep, dream.

vaidyaśataśloki

text with a hundred verses on ayurveda.

     Wordnet Search "dre" has 8 results.
     

dre

abhimanyuḥ, saubhadraḥ, saubhadreyaḥ, ārjuneyaḥ   

subhadrā-arjunayoḥ putraḥ।

cakravyūhasya bhedanakāle abhimanyuḥ vīragatiṃ prāptavān।

dre

arjunaḥ, dhanañjayaḥ, pārthaḥ, śakranandanaḥ, gāṇḍivī, madhyamapāṇḍavaḥ, śvetavājī, kapidhvajaḥ, rādhābhedī, subhadreśaḥ, guḍākeśaḥ, bṛhannalaḥ, aindriḥ, phālgunaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, kirīṭī, śvetavāhanaḥ, bībhatsuḥ, vijayaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, savyasācī, kṛṣṇaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ   

kunteḥ tṛtīyaḥ putraḥ।

arjunaḥ mahān dhanurdharaḥ āsīt।

dre

hariścandreśvaraḥ   

mahārāṣṭrarājye hariścandadurge vartamānaṃ bhagavataḥ śaṅkarasya mandiram।

asmābhiḥ hariścandreśvarasya darśanaṃ kṛtam।

dre

ḍreganaḥ   

ṭyūnānī iti paurāṇikayā kathānusāreṇa jīvaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ śvāsocchvāsadvārā agniḥ kṣipati tathā ca tasya śarīraṃ sarpasadṛśam asti।

kecana ḍreganāḥ pakṣavantaḥ santi।

dre

pauṇḍrikaḥ, puṇḍrekṣuḥ   

ekaḥ ikṣuprakāraḥ ।

pauṇḍrikaḥ madhuraḥ vartate

dre

mālinī, samudrānta, durālabha, ātmamūlī, idamkāryā, sutā, kacchurā, kṣudreṅgudī, gāndhārikā, girikarṇī, tāmramūlā, triparṇikā, dīrghamūlī, duḥsparśā, padmamukhī, phañjikā, marūdbhavā, rodanī, rodanikā, virūpā, viśāladā   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

mālinyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

dre

bhadrendraḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

kośakāraiḥ bhadrendraḥ nirdiṣṭaḥ

dre

timilāyāḥ ullekhaḥ hemādreḥ caturvarga-cintāmaṇau asti   

timilā ।

ekaṃ vādyam

Parse Time: 1.138s Search Word: dre Input Encoding: IAST: dre