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"do" has 1 results.
    
        Root Word (Pāṇini Dhātupāṭha:)Full Root MarkerSenseClassSutra
√dodoavakhaṇḍane441
  
"do" has 5 results.
        Root WordIAST MeaningMonier Williams PageClass
√कृkṛdoing / karaṇa254/1Cl.8
√कृन्व्kṛnvdoing, moving / karaṇa254/1Cl.1
√चर्करीतcarkarītadoing, making (See Laghu 636) / kṛCl.2
√दक्ष्dakṣdoing or going, or acting quickly / śīghra1077/2Cl.1
√दोdocutting, dividing, moving, reaping / avakhaṇḍana97/1Cl.4
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Results for do
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
baṣkayaṇī2.9.72FeminineSingular‍sukhasaṃdohyā
bhujaḥ2.6.80Ubhaya-lingaSingularbāhuḥ, praveṣṭaḥ, do
bhūtiḥ3.3.76FeminineSingularjagat, chandoviśeṣaḥ, kṣitiḥ
devanam3.3.124NeuterSingularvipat, bhraṃśaḥ, kāmajaḥdoṣaḥ, krodhajaḥdoṣaḥ
do3.5.12MasculineSingular
dohadam1.7.27NeuterSingularabhilāṣaḥ, lipsā, īhā, icchā, kāmaḥ, vāñchā, spṛhā, tarpaḥ, manorathaḥ, tṛṭ, kāṅkṣādesire or longing
do2.8.53FeminineSingularpreṅkhā
doṣā2.4.6MasculineSingularnaktam
gauḥ2.9.67-72FeminineSingularupasaryā, rohiṇī, bahusūtiḥ, kapilā, navasūtikā, ekahāyanī, droṇakṣīrā, bandhyā, saurabheyī, garbhopaghātinī, arjunī, acaṇḍī, dhavalā, vaṣkayiṇī, dvivarṣā, pīnoghnī, tryabdā, samāṃsamīnā, sandhinī, vaśā, praṣṭhauhī, naicikī, pareṣṭukā, pāṭalā, suvratā, caturabdā, droṇadugdhā, avatokā, usrā, kālyā, aghnyā, sukarā, kṛṣṇā, dhenuḥ, ekābdā, pīvarastanī, trihāyaṇī, māheyī, vehad, śṛṅgiṇī, bālagarbhiṇī, śavalī, cirasūtā, dvihāyanī, sukhasaṃdohyā, caturhāyaṇī, dhenuṣyā, sravadgarbhā, mātā(49)cow
koṣṇamNeuterSingularkavoṣṇam, mandoṣṇam, kaduṣṇamwarmth
madakalaḥ2.8.36MasculineSingularmadotkaṭaḥ
nīlīFeminineSingulardo, śrīphalī, grāmīṇā, droṇī, rañjnī, klītakikā, nīlinī, tutthā, madhuparṇikā, kālā
pratyayaḥ3.3.155MasculineSingularatikramaḥ, kṛcchraḥ, doṣaḥ, daṇḍaḥ
purobhāgin3.1.45MasculineSingulardoṣaikadṛk
samūhaḥ2.5.41MasculineSingularvyūhaḥ, vrajaḥ, nikaraḥ, saṅghātaḥ, samudayaḥ, gaṇaḥ, nikurambam, sandohaḥ, stomaḥ, vrātaḥ, sañcayaḥ, samavāyaḥ, saṃhatiḥ, kadambakam, nivahaḥ, visaraḥ, oghaḥ, vāraḥ, samudāyaḥ, kṣayaḥ, vṛndam
sikatā3.3.80FemininePluralmahatī, kṣudravārtākī, chandobhedaḥ
śraddhāluḥ2.6.21FeminineSingulardohadavatī
vidvān2.7.5MasculineSingulardhīraḥ, prājñaḥ, kaviḥ, kṛtī, vicakṣaṇaḥ, doṣajñaḥ, kovidaḥ, manīṣī, saṃkhyāvān, dhīmān, kṛṣṭiḥ, dūradarśī, san, budhaḥ, jñaḥ, paṇḍitaḥ, sūriḥ, labdhavarṇaḥ, dīrghadarśī, vipaścit, sudhīḥ
vivadhaḥ3.3.103MasculineSingulardoṣotpādaḥ, prakṛtyādivinaśvaraḥ(vyākaraṇe), mukhyānuyāyīśiśuḥ, prakṛtasyānuvartanam
pradoṣaḥ1.4.6MasculineSingularrajanīmukhamevening
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Results for do721 results for do
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
do cl.2.4. P. dāti- etc. ; dy/ati- etc. (perfect tense 3 plural A1. -dadire- ; Aorist adāsīt-and adāt- ; preceding deyāt-, ; dāyāt-, ; -diṣīya- ; see ava-do-) to cut, divide, reap, mow etc.: Passive voice dīyate-, prob. to be cast down or, dejected : Desiderative ditsati- : Intensive dedīyate-, (see day-and 3. -). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doḍḍayācāryam. Name of a teacher. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodham. (for dogdhṛ-?) a calf View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodhakamfn. robbing one's own master View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodhakan. a form of metre (also dodhakavṛtta -vṛtta- n.), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodhakaśokaṭīkāf. Name of commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodhakavṛttan. dodhaka
dodhatSee dudh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodhūyamānamfn. ( dhu-, Intensive) shaking or trembling violently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doḍīf. a species of plant and its fruit gaRa harītaky-ādi- (see ḍodī-, ḍādī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodulyamānamfn. ( dul-, Intensive) swinging or being swung repeatedly or violently View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogam. a bull (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogdhavyamfn. (fr. duh-) to be milked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogdhos ablative infinitive mood of 2. duh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogdhṛm. a milker etc. (see a--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogdhṛm. a cowherd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogdhṛm. a calf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogdhṛm. a poet who writes for reward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogdhṛmfn. yielding milk or profit of any kind
dogdhran. milk-pail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogdhrīf. giving milk (a cow, wet-nurse etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogdhukāmamfn. wishing to milk or to suck out, i.e. so strip or impoverish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doghamfn. milking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dogham. milker, milking (see madhu--, su--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doin compound for dos- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohamfn. (2. duh-) milking id est yielding, granting (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doham. milking or milk etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doham. deriving advantage from (genitive case or compound), profit, gain, success, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doham. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doham. a milk-pail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doham. manaso d- Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dof. Name of a Prakrit metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadam. (also n. ;probably Prakrit for. daurhṛda- literally sickness of heart, nausea) the longing of a pregnant woman for particular objects (figuratively said of plants which at budding time long to be touched by the foot or by the mouth[ ] of a lovely woman) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadam. any morbid desire or wish for (locative case or compound f(ā-).) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadam. pregnancy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohada according to to Luders from duhalī- = dvihṛd-,"pregnant". View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadam. a kind of fragrant substance used as manure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadaduḥkhaśīlatāf. "tendency to morbid desires", pregnancy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadalakṣaṇan. "having morbid longing as its mark", a fetus or embryo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadalakṣaṇan. the period of passing from one season of life to another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadānvitāf. having a pregnant woman's longing for anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadaprakāram. Name of work on pregnancy. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadavatī f. having a pregnant woman's longing for anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohaḍikāf. a kind of Prakrit metre (equals dohā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadinmfn. eagerly longing for (locative case or compound), Vssav. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohadinm. the aśoka- tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodohīyan. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohajan. "produced by milking", milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohakam(ikā-)fn. See go--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohakāma(do-) mfn. desirous to be milked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohala equals dohada- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohala according to to Luders from duhalī- = dvihṛd-,"pregnant". View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohalavatī equals dohada- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohalin equals dohada- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohanamf(ā-)n. giving milk, a milker View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohanamf(ā-)n. giving milk, yielding profit (see kāma--, bahu--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohanan. (also d/oh-) milking etc. (see go--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohanan. the result of milking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohanan. (also naka- ) milk-pail (see kāṃsya-.). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohanīf. milk-pail (also nikā- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohanīyamfn. to be milked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohāpanayam. milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohasn. milking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohasn. dative case h/ase-, as infinitive mood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohinmfn. milking, yielding milk or desires (see kāma-dohinī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohitamfn. made to yield milk, milked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohīyasmfn. giving more or much milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doḥsahasrabhṛtm. "1000-armed", Name of arjuna- kārtavīrya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doḥśālinmfn. having strong arms = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doḥśekharan. "arm-top", shoulder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doḥśiñjinīf. equals dor-jyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohyamfn. to be milked, milkable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dohyan. an animal that gives milk (see duhya-. duḥkha-dohya-, sukha-dohā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolam. ( dul-) swinging, oscillating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolam. a festival (on the 14th of phālguna-) when images of the boy kṛṣṇa- are swung View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolam. a particular position of the closed hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dof. See below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dof. litter, hammock, palanquin, swing (figuratively = fluctuation, incertitude, doubt) etc. (rarely la- m.orf(ī-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dof. the Indigo plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolācalacittavṛtti() mfn. one whose mind is agitated like a swing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolādhirūḍhamfn. (dh-) mounted on a swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolādhirūḍhamfn. restless, disquietted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāḍolotsavam. equals -yātrā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolādrim. equals la-parvata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāghara m. or n. a hall with a swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāgharakam. or n. a hall with a swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolākuladhī(k- ) () mfn. one whose mind is agitated like a swing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolālolamfn. restless like a swing, uncertain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolamaṇḍapan. a swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāndolana(nd-) n. fluctuating in doubt like a swing (varia lectio dor-ānd-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolaparvatam. Name of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolārohaṇapaddhati(r-) f. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolārūḍha(r-) equals dhir- , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāyaNom. A1. yate-, to rock about like a swing, move to and fro ; be doubtful or uncertain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāyāmānamfn. oscillating, wavering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāyāmānamatimfn. doubtful in mind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolayānan. a swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāyantran. drugs tied up in a cloth and boiled out over a fire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolayātrāSee -y- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāyātrāf. "swing festival" (see dola-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāyātrāvivekam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāyitamfn. swung about, rocking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāyitaśravaṇakuṇḍalamfn. one whose earnings swing to and fro View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolāyuddhan. a doubtful fight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolikāf. a litter, swing, cradle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolitamfn. swung, shaken, tossed (-citta- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dolitam. a buffalo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
domann. (2. du-) pain, inconvenience (See a-doma-d/a-and dh/a-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorin compound for dos- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorakan. rope, strap of leather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorakamf. (ikā-), a string for fastening the wires of a lute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorāndolanan. swinging the arm (varia lectio dolānd-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorbāhavan. plural fore and upper-arms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dordaṇḍam. "arm-stick", a long arm, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorgaḍumfn. having a crippled arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorgrahamfn. "seizing with the arms", strong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorgraham. pain in the arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorjyāf. the sine of the base View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorlatikāf. "arm-creeper" (see -daṇḍa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorlatikābhīmam. Name of the poet bhīma-. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorlatikādarśanīyam. Name of the poet bhīma-. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dormadhyan. the middle of the arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dormūlan. "arm-root" id est the armpit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dornikartanan. amputation of the arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dorviṣādam. languor or lassitude of the arms, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dosn. (m.only ; Nominal verb accusative sg. d/os- ; dual number doṣī- ; dorbhyām- n. ; plural bhis- ; dohṣu- ) the fore-arm, the arm etc. equals doṣan- (q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dosn. the part of an are defining its sine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dosn. the side of a triangle or square (see bāhu-and bhuja-).
doṣam. evening, darkness (only ,where personified as one of the 8 vasu-s and husband of Night, ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāf. See next. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāf. darkness, night etc. ( doṣām ṣ/ām- ind.& doṣā ṣ/ā-[instr.; see gaRa svar-ādi-] ind.in the evening, at dusk, at night) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāf. Night personified (and regarded with as wife of puṣpārṇa- and mother of pradoṣa- or Evening, niśitha- [!] or Midnight and vyuṣṭa- or Day-break) (see doṣ/as-, paścā-doṣa-, pra-doṣa-, prati-doṣam-) 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣam. rarely n. ( duṣ-) fault, vice, deficiency, want, inconvenience, disadvantage etc.
doṣam. badness, wickedness, sinfulness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣam. offence, transgression, guilt, crime (accusative with -or labh-,to incur guilt) , etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣam. damage, harm, bad consequence, detrimental effect (naiṣa doṣaḥ-,there is no harm; ko'tra d-,what does it matter?) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣam. accusation, reproach (ṣaṃkṛ-or ṣeṇa-gam-with accusative,to accuse) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣam. alteration, affection, morbid element, disease (especially of the 3 humours of the body, viz. pitta-, vāyu-,and śleṣman-,1[ see tridoṣa-and dhātu-],applied also to the humours themselves) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣam. (also ṣaka-) a calf View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāf. (for 1.See 1. doṣa-) the arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāind. doṣā
doṣabalapravṛttamfn. proceeding from the influence of bad humours (a disease) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣabhājmfn. possessing faults or doing wrong View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣabhājmfn. a villain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣabhaktif. tendency to a disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣabhedam. a particular disease of the 3 humours View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣabhedīyamfn. relating to it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣabhītif. fear of offence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣābhūtamfn. (fr. doṣā- ind.) having become nocturnal, turned into nocturnal (day) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣadṛṣṭif. looking at faults, faults. finding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣadūṣitamfn. disfigured by a fault View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣadūṣitatvan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣadvayan. a combination of two evils, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaghnamf(ī-)n. removing the bad humours View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣagrāhinmfn. fault-finding, censorious, susceptible of evil (see guṇa--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣagrastamfn. involved in guilt, guilty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaguṇan. bad and good qualities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaguṇīkaraṇan. turning a fault into a merit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaguṇinmfn. having good and bad qualities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaguṇitvan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaharamfn. equals ghna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaikadṛśmfn. seeing only fault, censorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣajitkāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣajñamfn. knowing the faults of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣajñamfn. knowing what is evil or to be avoided, prudent, wise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣajñam. a physician View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣajñam. a Pandit, teacher, discerning man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣakalpanan. attributing blame, reprehending View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣākaram. "night-maker", the moon, satr-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣakaramf(ī-)n. causing evil or harm, pernicious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣākaram. a mine or heap of faults View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣakārin mfn. idem or 'mf(ī-)n. causing evil or harm, pernicious ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣākleśīf. "fading in the evening", a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣakṛtmfn. idem or ' mfn. idem or 'mf(ī-)n. causing evil or harm, pernicious ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣākṣaran. "word of blame", accusation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣalamfn. of a faulty nature, defective, corrupt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāmind. doṣā
doṣāmanyamfn. (fr. doṣā- ind.) considered as nocturnal, passing for nocturnal (day) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāmanyamfn. see View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣamayamf(ī-)n. consisting of faults View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣann. (occurring only in Nominal verb dual number dosh/aṇi1- ; genitive case sg. doṣṇ/as- ; instrumental case doṣṇā- locative case doṣṇi-[or doṣaṇi--See below] genitive case dual number doṣṇos- ;acc. plural [m. !] doṣṇas- ;the other forms are supplied by dos- q.v) the fore-arm, the lower part of the fore-foot of an animal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣann. the arm in general. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaṇan. imputation of a crime, accusation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣanirghātam. expiation of a crime, penance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaṇiśriṣmfn. leaning or hanging on the arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāntamfn. containing a fault on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣānudarśinmfn. perceiving faults View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣānuvādam. talking over faults, tale-bearing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaṇyamfn. being in or belonging to the arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaparihāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāpattif. incurring a fault View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaphalan. the fruit or consequence of a sin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaphalamfn. sinful, wicked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaprasaṅgam. attaching blame, condemnation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāramaṇam. " niśitha-'s lover", the moon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāropam. imputing fault, accusation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣasn. evening, dusk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣaśamanamfn. equals -ghna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣasthānan. the seat of disorder of the humours View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāsyam. "face of the night", a lamp View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣātanamf(ī-)n. (fr. doṣā- ind.) nocturnal, at evening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣatasind. from a fault or defect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣātilakam. "night-ornament", a lamp View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣatobrūto accuse of a fault View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣatrayan. vitiation of the 3 humours (above) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣatrayan. any combination of 3 defects View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣatrayaghṇamf(ī-)n. removing the 3 bad humours View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣatrayaharamfn. removing the 3 bad humours View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣatvan. faultiness, deficiency, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāvastṛm. illuminer of the dark (agni-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣavatmfn. having faults, faulty, defective, blemished etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣavatmfn. guilty of an offence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣavatmfn. connected with crime or guilt, sinful, wicked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣavatmfn. noxious, dangerous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣāyaNom. A1. yate-, to seem or appear like a fault, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣikamf(ī-)n. faulty, defective, bad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣikam. disease View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣinmfn. faulty, defiled, contaminated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣinmfn. guilty of an offence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣmatmfn. having arms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣocchrāyam. the rise or accumulation of vitiated humours, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣodakan. water caused by dropsy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣoddhāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣollāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doṣopacayam. equals ṣocchrāya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dosthamfn. (for doḥ--) placed on the arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dostham. servant (see pārśva-stha-), service View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dostham. player, play View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhidohanan. milking upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhidohyan. (impersonal or used impersonally) to be milked upon, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhidoṣamind. about dusk, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhūtadoṣamfn. faultless. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyantaradoṣakṛtmfn. "doing a wrong to one's own land", raising a sedition or mutiny View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācyādohan. "milking while kneeling", Name of a sāman- (vv.ll. āci-d-and ājyā-d- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhobhāgadoṣaharamfn. curing or strengthening the lower part of the body. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādoP. -d/āti-, -dy/ati- (subjunctive 1. plural -dyāmasi-,etc.) to reduce to small pieces, to crush View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adobhavatihe becomes that. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adogdhṛmfn. not milking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adogdhṛmfn. not exacting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adogdhṛmfn. not caring for View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adoham. ( duh-), the season when milking is impracticable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adomadaor a-doma-dh/a- mfn. not occasioning inconvenience View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adomayamfn. made of that, containing that View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adomūlamfn. rooted in that.
adoṣamfn. faultless, guiltless, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adoṣadarśinmfn. seeing or thinking no harm, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājyadohan. varia lectio for ācyā-d- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājyādohan. varia lectio for ācyā-d- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
akālajaladodaya m. unseasonable rising of clouds or mist. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amṛtanādopaniṣadf. "the sound of immortality", Name of an upaniṣad-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānandotsavam. a festival. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anapadoṣyamfn. not to be wasted, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolam. swinging View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolam. fanning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolam. a swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolakam. a see-saw, swing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
andolanan. swinging, oscillating. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolanan. swinging, a swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolanan. trembling, oscillation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolanan. investigation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
andolayaNom. P. andolayati-, to agitate, to swing. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolayaNom. P. āndolayati-, to swing, agitate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolikāf. a swing-cot, palanquin, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
andolitamfn. agitated, swung. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āndolitamfn. agitated, shaken, swung View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
annadoṣam. a fault committed by eating prohibited food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadoṣamfn. faultless. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apido(1. sg. -dyāmi-) to cut off View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arbudodāsarpiṇīf. "creeping near of arbuda- ", Name (also title or epithet) of a particular sacrificial path, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthadoṣam. a mistake with regard to the meaning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asṛgdohamfn. shedding blood, bleeding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atidoṣam. a great fault. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atidoṣamind. after dusk (varia lectio abhi-- d-), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avado -dyati- (ind.p. -dāya- ) Ved. to cut off, divide (especially the sacrificial cake and other objects offered in a sacrifice) etc. ; to cut into pieces ; (Aorist Potential A1.1. sg. -diṣīya-[derived fr. ava--,"to present", by ];perhaps fr. ava-day-above) to appease, satisfy with (instrumental case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avadoham. milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avadohaSee ava-duh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avadolam. swinging, (according to to Scholiast or Commentator nava-- d-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avedoktamfn. idem or 'mfn. not prescribed in the veda-s ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avidoham. not a bad milking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avidoṣamfn. faultless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avikhyātadoṣamfn. one who has not manifestly committed a crime, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahudohanāf. yielding much milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahudoṣam. great harm or disadvantage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahudoṣamf(ā-)n. having many faults or drawbacks, very wicked or bad View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadradosm. "auspicious-armed", Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedojjīvanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedoktijīvana n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhedonmukhamf(ī-)n. just about to burst into blossom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhadopaśāf. (with hrasvā-) Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdolam. n. a royal litter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caturdosmfn. four-armed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandoin compound for das-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandobaddhamfn. equals das-kṛta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandobhāgamf(ā-)n. one whose share is a metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandobhaṅgavatmfn. offending against metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandobhāṣāf. (gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-) the language of the veda- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndobhāṣamfn. fr. chando-bhāṣā- gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandobhāṣyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandodevam. Name of mataṅga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandodevīf. "metre-goddess", gāyatrī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandodīpikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogam. ( gai-) "singer in metre", chanter of the , udgātṛ- priest etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogamfn. "relating to the chando-ga-s", in compound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogabrāhmaṇan. equals chāndogya-br- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogabrāhmaṇan. equals gya-br- (varia lectio chand-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogāhnikapaddhatif. Name of work by rāma-kṛṣṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogamāhakim. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogapaddhatif. Name of the work yajña-pārśva- (parīś-. xv'> ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogapariśiṣṭan. supplement on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogaśākhāf. a branch of the (quoted in a work on śrāddha-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogasopānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogaśrāddhatattvapramāṇan. Name of work by raghu-nandana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogaśrutif. "tradition of the chandoga-s", the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogasūtran. Name of work (varia lectio chand-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogavṛṣotsargatattvan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogeyam. plural Name of a family (varia lectio gi-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogiSee geya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogikan. equals gya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandogovindan. gaṅgā-dāsa-'s work on metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandograntham. "metre-book" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogyan. "doctrine of the chando- -gas", a brāhmaṇa- of the (including the ) , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogyabhāṣyan. equals -mantra-bh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogyabrāhmaṇan. idem or 'n. "doctrine of the chando- -gas", a brāhmaṇa- of the (including the ) , ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogyamantrabhāṣyan. guṇa-viṣṇu-s commentator or commentary on the prayers and texts in View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogyavedam. equals gya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogyopanīṣadf. Name of an (part of the chāndogya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndogyopanīṣadbhāṣyan. śaṃkara-'s commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomam. (fr. do-'ma-,"hymn's or metre's home"?) the 8th, 9th, and 10th day in the dvādaśāha- rite (but see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomam. Name of the 3 stoma-s sung in that rite , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndomamfn. taken from the chandoma-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomadaśāham. idem or 'm. Name of a daśa-rātra- rite ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomadaśarātram. Name of a daśa-rātra- rite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomālāf. a similar work. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomānan. (gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-),"measure of a metre", a syllable regarded as the metrical unit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomānan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndomānamfn. fr. chando-m- gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomañjarif. gaṅgā-dāsa-'s work on metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomañjarīf. gaṅgā-dāsa-'s work on metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomapavamānatrirātram. equals -tri-kakud- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomārtaṇḍam. Name of work on metre. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomatrikakudm. Name of a try-aha- rite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomavatmfn. accompanied by a chandoma- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomavatparākam. equals -tri-kakud- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandomayamfn. consisting of or containing or representing sacred hymns
chāndomikamfn. belonging to the chandoma-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandonāmamfn. "named metre", metrical View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandonāmanmfn. idem or 'mfn. "named metre", metrical ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandonuśāsanavṛttif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandonuvṛttan. compliance with any one's wishes (; varia lectio nuv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandopahārāvalif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandoratnākaram. a similar work by sarvajña-ratnākara-śānti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandorūpan. a form of metre, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandoruṭstomam. (fr. -ruh-st-) Name of a ṣaḍ-aha- rite View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandovatīf. (in music) a kind of śruti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chāndovicitamfn. fr. chando-viciti- gaRa ṛg-ayanādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandovicitif. (gaRa ṛgayanādi-),"examination of metres", metrical science View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandovicitif. Name of work (called vedāṅga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandovivṛtif. explanation of metres View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandovivṛtif. equals daḥsāra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chandovṛttan. any metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
chedopasthāpanīyan. taking the (Jain) vows after having broken with doctrines or practices adhered to formerly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daivadoṣam. the fault or evil result of deeds, evil fate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantacchadopamāf. idem or 'f. Momordica monadelpha (its red fruit being compared to the lips) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmadogdhrīf. a cow whose milk is destined for sacrifice (see -dughā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divyadohadan. divine desire, the object of a deity's desire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divyadohadamfn. fit for an offering or oblation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛṣadolūkhalan. dṛṣada
dṛṣṭadoṣamfn. found out faulty or sinful or guilty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛṣṭidoṣam. the evil influence of the human eye View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dugdhadohamfn. milked out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duḥkhadohyāf. difficult to be milked (cow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durdof. difficult to be milked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durdof. a knot difficult to be undone Scholiast or Commentator on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṃdohasaṃnejanan. water to clean a milk-pail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāṃdohasaṃnejanaSee gāṃ-, column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gaṇḍūpadodbhavan. idem or 'n. lead ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
godoham. (see gāṃ-doha-saṃn/ejana-) the milking of cows View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
godohakam. equals -d/uh- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
godohamind. as long as the cows are being milked on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
godohanan. equals ha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
godohanan. the time necessary for milking a cow View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
godohanīf. a milk-pail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
godohikāf. "a milkman's sitting", a particular kind of being seated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grahaṇīdoṣam. idem or 'm. a morbid affection of the grahaṇī-, dysentery ' ("constipation"Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grahaṇīpradoṣam. idem or 'm. idem or 'm. a morbid affection of the grahaṇī-, dysentery ' ("constipation"Scholiast or Commentator) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gudodbhavam. piles View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇadoṣam. dual number virtue and vice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇadoṣan. sg. idem or 'm. dual number virtue and vice ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇadoṣaparīkṣaṇan. test or investigation of merits and defects View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guṇadoṣīkaraṇan. making a defect out of a merit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
halāyudhacchāndogyam. Name of work (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haṃsanādopaniṣadf. Name of an upaniṣad- (equals haṃsop-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
harṣadohalam. or n. lustful desire View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastadoṣam. a slip of the hand, mistake committed by the hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hindolam. (orf(ā-).) a swing, swinging cradle or hammock View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hindolam. an ornamental swing or litter in which figures of kṛṣṇa- are carried during the Swing-festival in the light half of the month śrāvaṇa- (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hindolam. (in music) a particular rāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hindolakam. a swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hindolayaNom. P. yati-, to swing, rock about (see andolaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hindof. a particular rāgiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
horāmakarandoharaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hradodaram. "lake-bellied", Name of a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hyogodoham. yesterday's cow's milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
janapadoddhvaṃsanīyamfn. treating on the epidemics of a country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jātadoṣamfn. guilty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmadohanāf. yielding milk easily, yielding desires View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmadohinīf. "yielding desires" equals -dhenu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāṃsyadohamf(ā-)n. having a copper milk-pail View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāṃsyadohanamf(ā-)n. idem or 'mf(ā-)n. having a copper milk-pail ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāṃsyopadohamf(ā-)n. equals kāṃsya-doha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāṃsyopadohanamf(ā-)n. idem or 'mf(ā-)n. equals kāṃsya-doha- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kandodbhavāf. a species of Cocculus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kandoṭam. Nymphaea Esculenta View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kandoṭam. the blue lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kandotam. Nymphaea Esculenta View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kandotthan. the blue lotus (see kandoṭa-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāntācaraṇadohadam. "having a longing desire for contact with the foot of a beautiful woman"(to hasten its blossoms), the tree Jonesia Asoka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāntāṅghridohada m. "having a longing desire for contact with the foot of a beautiful woman"(to hasten its blossoms), the tree Jonesia Asoka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanyādoṣam. a blemish in a virgin (as disease, bad repute etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmadoṣam. a sinful work, sin, vice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmadoṣam. error, blunder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmadoṣam. the evil consequence of human acts, discreditable conduct or business
khādoarṇa mfn. "having a devouring flood", id est having a flood that carries away the bank (said of a river) () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khādoarṇasmfn. "having a devouring flood", id est having a flood that carries away the bank (said of a river) () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulindopatyakam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumudotpalinmfn. richly furnished with kumuda-s and utpala-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kumudottaram. Name of a varṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kūṭasaṃdoham. idem or 'n. Name of work ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lūnadosm. Name of vṛṣāṇa- (one of śiva-'s attendants) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhudoghamfn. equals -d/ugha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhudohamind. milking out or obtaining honey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madodagramf(ā-)n. much excited, furious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madodagramf(ā-)n. arrogant, haughty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madodarkāf. a collective Name of the 3 myrobalans (Terminalia Chebula T. Bellerica and Phyllanthus Emblica) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madoddhatamfn. intoxicated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madoddhatamfn. puffed up with pride, arrogant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madodrekam. Melia Bukayun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madollāpinm. the Indian cuckoo (see madālāpin-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madonmattamfn. intoxicated with passion (rut) or pride View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madorjitamfn. swollen with pride, haughty with arrogance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madotkaṭamfn. excited by drink, intoxicated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madotkaṭamfn. excited by passion, furious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madotkaṭamfn. ruttish View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madotkaṭam. an elephant in rut View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madotkaṭam. a dove View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madotkaṭam. Name of a lion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madotkaṭāf. an intoxicating beverage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madotkaṭam. Linum Usitatissimum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madotkaṭam. Name of the goddess dākṣāyaṇī- (as worshipped in caitraratha-)
madotkaṭan. an intoxicating drink made from honey or the blossoms of the Bassia Latifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
makarandodyānan. Name of a pleasure-garden near ujjayinī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandoccam. the upper apsis of the course of a planet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandodakamfn. deficient in water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māndodareyam. metron. fr. mandodarī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandodarīf. Name of rāvaṇa-'s favourite wife (daughter of maya- and mother of indra-jit-;she advised her husband to deliver sītā- to rāma-, but he did not heed her;she is regarded as one of the five very chaste women, the other four being ahalyā-, draupadī-, sītā-, and tārā-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandodarīf. of one of the mātṛ-s attending on skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandodarīf. of the mother of the lexicographer jaṭā-dhara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandodarīśam. " maya-'s lord", Name of rāvaṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandodarīsutam. " maya-'s son", Name of indra-jit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandokam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandopakāriṇīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandoṣmanmfn. slightly warm, cool ( mandoṣmatā ma-- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandoṣmatāf. mandoṣman
mandoṣṇamfn. tepid, lukewarm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandoṣṇa n. gentle heat, warmth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandoṣṇatāf. gentle heat, warmth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mandotsāhamfn. unenergetic, indolent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇidoṣam. a flaw or defect in a jewel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārtaṇḍavedoddhāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
marudāndolam. a kind of fan made of the skin of a deer or buffalo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mārutāndolitamfn. shaken by the wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maryādoktif. equals maryādā-vacana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛdoṣam. the defect or inferiority of a mother (who is of a lower caste) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛgrāmadoṣam. plural the faults of woman kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medoin compound for medas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medobhavan. equals -ja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medobhavāf. equals -vatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medodbhavāf. a plant resembling ginger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medodharāf. a membrane in the abdomen containing the fat, the omentum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medodoṣam. excessive fatness, corpulency, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medogalam. a species of plant resembling the Mimosa Pudica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medogaṇḍam. a kind of fatty excrescence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medoghnamfn. destroying or removing fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medogranthim. a fatty tumour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medojan. "produced by medas-", bone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medorbudan. a fatty tumour unattended with pain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medorogam. equals -doṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medorupa(m/edo--) mfn. appearing as fat View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medovahan. a vessel conveying fat, a lymphatic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medovatīf. a species of plant resembling ginger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medovṛddhif. corpulence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medovṛddhif. enlargement of the scrotum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
modoṣam. Name of a preceptor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūtradoṣam. urinary disease , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nadīdoham. river-toll or tribute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nakṣatradohadaśāntikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandopākhyānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandopanandam. Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandopanandam. vocative case (used as an exclamation of sorrow) alas! woe is me! View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nandopanandasaṃjñāf. dual number Name of 2 kumārī-s on indra-'s standard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāradopadeśam. Name of chapter of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāradopaniṣadf. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāradopaniṣaddīpikāf. of a commentator or commentary on it, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāradopapurāṇan. Name of an upapurāṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nātidoṣalamfn. not of too bad quality or nature View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navadof. a litter borne by 9 men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nindopamāf. a comparison which involves reproof View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niravadoP. -dāti-, or -dyati- (ind.p. -dāya-), to distribute or divide completely, give any one his share, appease or satisfy with (double accusative) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niravadoṣatvan. (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirdoṣamf(ā-)n. faultless, defectless, guiltless, innocent etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirdoṣamf(ā-)n. infallible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirdoṣakulasārāvalif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirdoṣatāf. faultlessness Scholiast or Commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirdoṣīkaraṇan. rendering innocuous, paralyzing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirdoṣīkṛtamfn. cleared from guilt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nītidoṣam. error of conduct, mistake in policy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padoccayam. (in dramatic language) accumulation of words which belong to the subject matter (exempli gratia, 'for example' ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodakan. "foot-water", water used for washing the feet etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodakatīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dodaram. a serpent ("using the belly in place of feet") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doddhūtan. stamping the foot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
donamfn. less or smaller by a quarter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dopadhānan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dopadhānīf. a cushion for the foot View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padopahatamfn. (prob.) equals padāhata- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dopajīvinmfn. "living by a person's mercy (literally feet)", a servant, messenger etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padopasaṃgrahaṇan. clasping the foot (of a teacher) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dotphālam. shuffling or moving the feet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paippalādopaniṣadf. Name of an View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pakṣapradoṣavratan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palāladohadam. "longing for straw", the mango tree (the fruit of which is sometimes ripened in straw) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pānadoṣam. the vice of drinking, drunkenness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṅktidoṣam. "society-bane", anything which defiles a social circle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradoṣain -kīrtana- n. the proclaiming of another's faults, censoriousness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradoṣajñamfn. knowing another's faults View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paribhāṣāchandomañjarīf. Name of work
paryavadoP. -dyati-, to cut off or slice all round View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paścādoṣam. the later part of the evening
pāṭhadoṣam. an error in a text, false reading View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṭṭadolam. (or paṭṭadolā - f.?) a swing made of cloth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paṭṭadof. paṭṭadola
piṅgalacchandovṛttif. Name of Comm. on this work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṅgalacchandovyākhyān. Name of Comm. on this work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pippalādopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradohaSee su-pradoha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradohanam. Name of a man (See prādohani-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prādohanim. patronymic fr. pra-dohana- gaRa taulvalyādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣamfn. (for 2.See column 2) corrupt, bad, wicked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣam. defect, fault, disordered condition (of the body or of a country), mutiny, rebellion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣam. (for 1.See under pra-duṣ-) the first part of the night, evening (also personified as a son of doṣā- and associated with niśitha- and vyuṣṭa-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prādoṣamfn. belonging or relating to the evening, vespertine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣāgamam. the coming on of evening, nightfall View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣakam. evening (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣakam. born in the evening (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣakālam. evening tide View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣamind. in the evening, in the dark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣamāhātmyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣamahimanm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣānilam. the evening wind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣanirṇayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣapūjāvidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣaramaṇīyamfn. pleasant or delightful in the evening View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣasamayam. equals -kāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣaśāntif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣaśivapūjāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣastotran. Name of chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣatimiran. evening darkness, the dusk of early night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣavelāf. equals -kāla- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prādoṣikamfn. idem or 'mfn. belonging or relating to the evening, vespertine ' (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradoṣodyāpanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prahīṇadoṣamfn. one whose sins have vanished, sinless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāptadoṣamfn. one who has incurred guilt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātardoham. idem or 'n. morning milk ' or morning milking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratidoṣamind. in the evening, in the dark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyantajanapadopapattif. birth in a bordering or barbarous country (with Buddhists one of the eight inauspicious ways of being born) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyavadoP. -dāt/i-, or -dyati-, to divide again View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prauḍhadordaṇḍam. a strong and long arm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṃstvadoṣam. "want of manhood", impotence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāgadoṣa(probably) = rāgadveṣa-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rodoin compound for rodas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rodogṛha() o. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rodorandhra() n. the void or hollow space between heaven and earth. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdenduśekharadoṣoddhāram. Name of an index of the errors in the same work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdodadhim. ocean or treasury of words View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdopāttamfn. stated explicitly, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śabdotpattif. production or origin of sound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sacchandomamfn. connected with the chandoma- ( sacchandomatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sacchandomatvan. sacchandoma
sadānandopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadoin compound for sadas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadobilan. the entrance into the sadas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadodyamamfn. one who always exerts himself View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadogatamfn. gone to or present at an assembly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadogṛhan. "assembly house", the court of a prince, council-chamber etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadohavirdhānan. dual number and plural the sadas- and the havirdhāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadohavirdhānan. plural (with prajāpateḥ-) Name of various sāman-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadohavirdhāninmfn. provided with sadas- and havirdhāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadojiran. a vestibule View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadopacāramuktāvalīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadopavāsinmfn. always fasting
sadopayogam. constant use View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadoṣamfn. together with the night View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadoṣamfn. having faults, defective, wrong, objectionable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadoṣakamfn. faulty, defective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadoṣavatmfn. containing anything defective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadoṣavikāśam. a defective exhibition View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadotsavamfn. ever-festive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadoviśīyan. (also prajāpateḥ-) Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasradosmfn. having a thousand arms View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasradosm. Name of arjuna- kārtavīrya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakaladoṣamayamf(ī-)n. full of all defects View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sakalavedopaniṣatsāropadeśasāhasrīf. the upadeśa-sāhasrī- (by śaṃkarācārya-) on the essence of all the veda-s and upaniṣad-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samavado(or3. -) P. -dāti-, or -dyati- (3. plural perfect tense A1. -dadire-), to divide and put together piece by piece View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmavedopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samayabhedoparacanacakran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdehadof. the oscillation or perplexity (caused by) doubt View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdehadolāsthamfn. "one who is in a state of suspense" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdoham. milking together, milking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdoham. the whole milk (of a herd) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdoham. totality, multitude, heap, mass, abundance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdoha hana-, hyā- See saṃḍuh-, column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdohanamfn. yielding (as milk), bestowing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdohyāSee sukha-saṃdohyā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdolam. (orf(ā-).) a kind of pendulous ornament
saṃsargadoṣam. the fault or evil consequences of association (with bad people) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śanipradoṣam. "Saturn-evening", Name of the worship performed to śiva- on the 13th day of the waxing or waning moon when it falls on a Saturday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śanipradoṣavratan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāradollāsam. Name of a commentator or commentary on the laghu-candrikā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāyaṃdoham. milking the cows at evening, evening milking or milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāyaṃdohavatind. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāyamprātardoham. evening and morning milking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhasādhanadoṣam. the mistake of doing so View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandolamfn. (?) cold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandolam. coldness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandopaniṣadf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
skandopapurāṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
spandasaṃdoham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
spandolikāf. (see syand-) swinging backwards and forwards, rocking one's self to and fro (as in a swing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphuradoṣṭhamf(ī-)n. with quivering lip View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphuradoṣṭhakamfn. idem or 'mf(ī-)n. with quivering lip ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
strīmukhamadhudohadam. drinking or desiring the nectar of a women's mouth, Mimusops Elengi (according to to some also "the aśoka-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
strīmukhamadhudohalam. drinking or desiring the nectar of a women's mouth, Mimusops Elengi (according to to some also "the aśoka-") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
subhāṣitaratnasaṃdoham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūdadohasmfn. (s/ūda--) yielding milk like a well View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūdadohasf. Name of a particular verse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudogdhrīf. yielding much milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudoghamf(ā-)n. idem or 'f. yielding much milk ' , (figuratively) bountiful, liberal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudohamfn. easy to be milked (Comparative degree -tara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudohanamf(ā-)n. idem or 'mfn. easy to be milked (Comparative degree -tara-) ' (used in explaining su-dugha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūkadoṣam. the injurious effect of the above sūka- insect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhado() () f. an easily milked cow. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhadohyā() f. an easily milked cow. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhasaṃdohyāf. equals -dohā-, dohyā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śukradoṣam. defect of semen, impotence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūladoṣaharīf. a kind of plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūnādoṣam. the guilt incurred by destroying animals in any of the 5 sūnā-s (See pañca-sūnā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sundopasundam. dual number the two daitya-s sunda- and upasunda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supradof. easily milked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svacchandoddyotam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svadoṣajamf(ā-)n. due to one's own fault View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svapnadoṣam. "sleep fault", pollutio nocturna View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svātmānandopadeśam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svedoda n. equals sveda-jala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svedodakan. equals sveda-jala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svedodgamam. the breaking out of perspiration, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
syandolikāf. swinging or a swing (prob. wrong reading for spand-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tadojas(t/ad--) mfn. endowed with such strength, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tadokas(t/ad--) mfn. rejoicing in that View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridoṣain compound , disorder of the 3 humours of the body View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridoṣamfn. causing the tri-doṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridoṣaghnamfn. removing the tri-doṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridoṣahārinmfn. idem or 'mfn. equals -ghna-, ' (a kind of mixture) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridoṣajamfn. resulting from the tri-doṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridoṣakṛtmfn. idem or 'mfn. causing the tri-doṣa- ' , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridoṣāpaham. "keeping-off 3 kinds of sins (see -daṇḍa-) ", buddha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tridoṣaśamanamfn. equals -ghna-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tvagdoṣam. skin-disease, leprosy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tvagdoṣāpahāf. "leprosy-curer", Vernonia anthelminthica View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tvagdoṣārim. "leprosy-enemy", Name of a bulb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tvagdoṣinmfn. having skin-disease, leprous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udojasmfn. exceedingly powerful or effective View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ukthadoham. a particular final part of a śastra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upadoham. idem or ' dhuk- m. ( duh-), a milk-pail ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upadohaSee upa-duh-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upadohanan. idem or 'm. idem or ' dhuk- m. ( duh-), a milk-pail ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vacanīyadoṣam. the fault of being censurable or reprehensible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgdoṣam. "speech-fault", speaking badly or ill abusive or ungrammatical speech View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāgdoṣam. uttering a disagreeable sound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vanamālikīrtichandomālāf. Name of a poem View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
varadopaniṣaddīpikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedodayam. "origin of the veda-", Name of sūrya- or the Sun (from whom the sāma-veda- is said to have proceeded; see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedoditamfn. mentioned or enjoined in the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedoktamfn. taught or declared or contained in the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedoktaśivapūjanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedopabṛṃhaṇaSee pagrahaṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedopagrahaṇan. an addition or supplement to the veda- (Bombay edition pabṛṃhaṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedopakaraṇan. " veda--instrument", a subordinate science for aiding or promoting a knowledge of the veda- (= vedāṅga-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedopakaraṇasamūham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedopaniṣadf. the upaniṣad- or secret doctrine of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedopasthānikāf. attendance on the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedopayāmam. a particular implement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidoham. "wrong or excessive milking", taking too much profit out of anything View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidohamfn. false or excessive milking out or exploiting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidohaSee . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidoṣam. a fault, sin, offence View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidoṣaSee column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilāsadof. a pleasure-swing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimardottham. fragrance arising from the trituration of perfumes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipākadoṣam. morbid affection of the digestive powers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣadoṣaharamfn. taking away the ill effects of poison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvadohas(viśv/a-) mfn. milking or yielding all things View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛkṣadohada(prob.) n. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
doin compound for yādas-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
donātham. "lord of sea animals", Name of varuṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
donātham. the sea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
donivāsam. "abode of sea animals", the sea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajurvedopaniṣadf. Name of work (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yathādoṣamind. according to damage commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yonidoṣam. sexual defilement View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yonidoṣam. a defect of the female organ View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yonidoṣacikitsāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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Results for do62 results
     
do दो 4 P. (द्यति, दित; -caus. दापयति; -desid. दित्सति) 1 To cut, divide. -2 To mow, reap. -With अव to cut or lop off; यदन्यस्मिन् यज्ञे स्रुच्यवद्यति Śat. Br.
dodhakam दोधकम् N. of a metre consisting of three भगणs and one गुरु.
dogdhṛ दोग्धृ m. [दुह्-तृच्] 1 A cowherd, a milkman; मेरौ स्थिते दोग्धरि दोहदक्षे Ku.1.2. -2 A calf. -3 A panegyrist, one who writes verses for hire or reward. -4 One who performs anything out of interested motives (with a view to profit himself).
dogdhṛ दोग्धृ See under दुह्.
dogdhrī दोग्ध्री 1 A cow which yields milk. -2 A wet-nurse (having much milk; Mar. दाइ.) -3 A female who gives anything (with acc.).
dogha दोघ a. Ved. Milking. -घः Milking; उरुं दोघं धरुणं देव रायः Rv.5.15.5.
doghaḥ दोघः A calf.
doha दोह दोहन दोह्य &c. See under दुह्.
dohadaḥ दोहदः दम् [दोहमाकर्ष ददाति दा-क] 1 (a) The longing of a pregnant woman; प्रजावती दोहदशंसिनी ते R.14. 45; उपेत्य सा दोहददुःखशीलतां यदेव वव्रे तदपश्यदाहृतम् 3.6,7. (b) The desired object itself. -2 Pregnancy. -3 The desire of plants at budding time (as, for instance, of the Aśoka to be kicked by young ladies, of the Bakula to be sprinkled by mouthfuls of liquor &c.); महीरुहा दोहदसेकशक्तेराकालिकं कोरकमुद्गिरन्ति N.3.21;R.8.63; Me.78; see अशोक. -4 Vehement desire; प्रवर्तितमहासमर- दोहदा नरपतयः Ve.4. -5 Wish or desire in general. -Comp. -दुःखशीलता pregnancy; उपेत्य सा दोहददुःख- शीलताम् R.3.6. -धूपः a kind of fragrant substance used as manure; दाडिमे दोहदधूपिनि द्रुमे N.1.82. -लक्षणम् 1 the fœtus, the embryo (= दौर्हृदलक्षण q. v.). -2 the period of passing from one stage of life to another.
dohadavatī दोहदवती A pregnant woman longing for anything.
dohadin दोहदिन् a. Eagerly longing for, ardently desirous of.
dohaḥ दोहः [दुह् भावे घञ्] 1 Milking; आश्चर्यो गवां दोहो$गोपेन Sk.; Ku.1.2; R.2.28;17.19. -2 Milk. -3 A milkpail; दोहवत्सादिभेदेन क्षीरभेदं कुरूद्वह Bhāg.4.18.27. -4 Making profit out of anything, satisfaction, success, gain; वाग्दोहं वाचो दोहो$न्नवानन्नादो भवति Ch. Up.1.3.7. -Comp. -अपनयः, -जम् milk.
dohalaḥ दोहलः See दोहद; वृथा वहसि दोहलम् (v. l.) ललितकामि- साधारणम् M.3.16.
dohalī दोहली The Aśoka tree.
dohana दोहन a. [दुह् भावे ल्यु ल्युट् वा] 1 Milking. -2 Yielding or granting (desired objects). -नम् 1 Milking. -2 A milkpail; यां दुदोह पृथुस्तत्र को वत्सो दोहनं च किम् Bhāg.4. 16.3. -नी A milk-pail.
dohita दोहित p. p. Milked.
dohya दोह्य a. [दुह् कर्मणि ण्यत्] To be milked, milkable; Y.2.177. -ह्यम् Milk. -ह्या A cow.
do दोला दोलिका 1 A litter, palanquin. -2 A swing, hammock (fig. also); आसीत् स दोलाचलचित्तवृत्तिः R.14.34; 9.46;19.44; संदेहदोलामारोप्यते K.27. -3 Swinging, fluctuation. -4 Doubt, uncertainty. -6 The Indigo plant. -Comp. -अधिरूढ, -आरूढ a. (lit.) mounted on a swing; (fig.) uncertain, irresolute, disquieted. -चलचित्त- वृत्ति a. One whose mind is agitated like a swing. -यन्त्रम् drugs tied up in a cloth and boiled out over a fire; Bhāva. P. -युद्धम् uncertainty of success, a fight with varying success; दोलायुद्धं कृतगुरुतरध्वानमौद्धत्यभाजाम् Śi.18.8. -लोल a. uncertain.
dolaḥ दोलः [दुल्-घञ्] 1 Swinging, rocking, oscillating; वेलादोलानिलचलम् Mb.1.21.1. -2 A swing, litter. -3 A festival held on the fourteenth or full-moon day of the month of Phālguna when figures of 'young Kṛiṣṇa' (बालकृष्ण) are swung in a swing. -Comp. -मण्डपः, -पम्, -यानम् a swing.
dolāyamāna दोलायमान a. 1 Swinging, oscillating. -2 Wavering, vacillating. -3 Perplexed, doubtful.
dolāyate दोलायते Den. Ā. 1 To swing, rock to and fro, oscillate, fluctuate, vacillate (fig. also). -2 To be restless or uneasy.
dolāyita दोलायित दोलित a. Swung, shaken, oscillating &c.
dolikā दोलिका दोली 1 A cradle. -2 A swing. दोष dōṣa दोषिक dōṣika दोषिन् dōṣin दोष दोषिक दोषिन् See under दुष्.
doman दोमन् n. Pain, inconvenience.
doṅgakam दोङ्गकम् A variety of the resin of aloe (अगरु), black in colour; Kau. A.2.11.
doraḥ दोरः A rope (रज्जु).
dorakam दोरकम् A string for fastening the wires of a lute.
dos दोस् m., n. [दम्यते अनेन दम् दो$सि अर्धर्चा˚; Uṇ.2.69] (दोषन् is optionally substituted for this word after acc. dual.) 1 The forearm, the arm; तमुपाद्रवदुद्यम्य दक्षिणं दोर्निशाचरः R.15.23; हेमपात्रगतं दोर्भ्यामादधानं पयश्चरुम् 1.51; Ku.3.76. -2 The part of an arc defining its sine. -3 The side of a triangle or square. -4 A measure of eighteen inches; Mātaṅga. L.1.14. -Comp. -गडु (दोर्गडु) a. crooked-armed. -ग्रह (दोर्ग्रह) a. strong, powerful. (-हः) pain in the arm. -ज्या (दोर्ज्या) the sine of the base. -दण़्डः (दोर्दण्डः) a stick-like arm, strong arm; दोर्दण्डाञ्चितमहिमा Mv.7.8.; Bv.1.128. -निकर्तनम् (दोर्निकर्तनम्) amputation of the arm. -मूलम् (दोर्मूलम्) the armpit. -युद्धम् (दोर्युद्धम्) a duel; (अभ्युद्यतं) दोर्युद्धाय दशास्यमिन्द्रतनयः प्रक्षिप्य कक्षान्तरे Mv.5.37. -शालिन् (दोःशालिन्) possessed of strong arms, warlike, brave; इयं परिसमाप्यते रणकथाद्य दोःशालिनाम् Ve.3.34. -शिखरम् (दोःशिखरम्) the shoulder. -सहस्रभृत् (दोःसहस्रभृत्) m. 1 an epithet of the demon Bāṇa. -2 an epithet of Sahasrārjuna. -स्थः (दोःस्थः) 1 a servant. -2 service. -3 a player. -4 play, sport.
doṣā दोषा ind. At night; दोषा$पि नूनमहिमांशुरसौ किलेति Śi.4. 46,62. -f. 1 The arm. -2 The darkness of night, night; घर्मकालदिवस इव क्षपितदोषः K.37 (where the word means 'a fault or sin' also). -Comp. -आस्यः, -तिलकः a lamp. -करः 1 The moon; यामित्रवेधविहितानपहृत्य दोषान् । दोषाकरः सुखमनेकविधं विधत्ते ॥ Jyotistattvam. -2 a mine of faults; दोषाकरो$पि कुटिलो$पि कलङ्कितो$पि Udb.
doṣaḥ दोषः [दुष् भावे करणे वा घञ्] 1 (a) A fault, blame, censure, defect, blemish, weak point; पत्रं नैव यदा करीर- विटपे दोषो वसन्तस्य किम् Bh.2.93; Pt.1.242; नात्र कुलपति- र्दोषं ग्रहीष्यति Ś.3. 'will not find fault or take exception'; so पुनरुक्तदोषा R.14.9. विसृज्य शूर्पवद्दोषान् गुणान् गृह्णन्ति साधवः । दोषग्राही गुणत्यागी चालनीव हि दुर्जनः ॥ Udb. (b) An error, a mistake. -2 A crime, sin guilt, offence; जायामदोषामुत संत्यजामि R.14.34; Ms.8.25; Y.3.79; also अधर्मदोष; cf. Rām.3.66.16. -3 Noxious quality, badness, injurious nature or quality; as in आहारदोष; cf. Ms.1.14. -4 Harm, evil, danger, injury; बहुदोषा हि शर्वरी Mk.1.58; अनुसरति हि शशाङ्कं राहु-दोषे$पि तारा Pratimā1.25. को दोषः 'what harm is there'. -5 Bad or injurious consequence, detrimental effect; तत्किमयमातपदोषः स्यात् Ś.3; अदाता वंशदोषेण कर्मदोषाद्दरिद्रता Chāṇ.49; Ms.1.14. -6 Morbid affection, disease. -7 Disorder of the three humours of the body, or the three humours when in a disordered state, -8 (In Nyāya. &c.) A fault of a definition : (i. e. अव्याप्ति, अतिव्याप्ति and असंभव). -9 (In Rhet.) A fault or defect of composition (such as परदोष, पदांशदोष, वाक्यदोष, रसदोष, and अर्थदोष which are defined and illustrated in the 7th Ullāsa of K. P.). -1 A calf. -11 Refutation. -12 Evening, dusk; cf. दोषा; दोषे हृषीकेश उतार्धरात्रे निशीथ एको$वतु पद्मनाभः Bhāg.6.8.21. -Comp. -अक्षरम् accusation. -आकर a. faulty. -आरोपः charge, accusation. -एकदृश् a. fault-finding, censorious, picking holes. -कर, -कारिन्, -कृत् a. causing evil, hurtful. -गुणम् bad and good qualities; बीजानामुप्तिविच्च स्यात्क्षेत्रदोषगुणस्य च (जानीयात्) Ms.9.33. -ग्रस्त a. 1 convicted, guilty. -2 full of faults or defects. -ग्राहिन् a. 1 malicious, malignant. -2 censorious. -ज्ञ a. knowing faults &c. (-ज्ञः) 1 a wise or learned man; R.1.93. -2 a physician. -3 a teacher. -त्रयम् disorder or vitiation of the three humours of the body; (i. e. वात, पित्त and कफ). -दृष्टि a. looking at faults, censorious, -प्रसंगः attaching blame, condemnation, censure. -भक्तिः f. tendency to a disease. -भाज् a. faulty, guilty, wrong, a villain. -भेदः a peculiar modification of the vitiation of three humours. -स्थानम् the seat of disorder of the humours.
doṣakaḥ दोषकः A calf.
doṣala दोषल a. Faulty, defective, corrupt, sinful.
doṣan दोषन् m., n. (This word has no forms for the first five inflections, i. e. before ace. pl.) An arm.
doṣaṇam दोषणम् A charge, an accusation.
doṣas दोषस् f. Night. -n. Darkness.
doṣātana दोषातन a. (-नी f.) Nightly, nocturnal; दोषातनं बुध- बृहस्पतियोगदृश्यः (तारापतिः) R.13.76.
doṣika दोषिक a. (-की f.) Faulty, defective, bad. -कः Sickness, disease.
doṣin दोषिन् a. (-णी f.) [दुष्-णिनि] 1 Impure, corrupt, defiled, contaminated. -2 Faulty, defective. -3 Criminal, wicked, sinful, guilty, bad.
adogdhṛ अदोग्धृ a. Not exacting; considerate (as a king.).
adomada अदोमद ध a. Ved. Not causing inconvenience.
adohaḥ अदोहः 1 The time when milking is not practicable. -2 Not milking; अदोहं चादिशद्गवाम् R.17.19.
adoṣa अदोष a. [न. ब.] 1 Free from faults, demerits &c.; innocent; जायामदोषामुत संत्यजामि R.14.34. -2 Free from the faults of composition, such as अश्लीलता, ग्राभ्यता &c., See दोष; अदोषौ शब्दार्थौ K.P.1; अदोषं गुणवत् काव्यम् Sar. K.1. -षः Not a fault; किमित्यदोषेण तिरस्कृता वयम् Ki.14.11. though not at fault.
andolayati अन्दोलयति Den. P. To swing, agitate, rock to and fro, oscillate. See आन्दोल्
andolanam अन्दोलनम् Swinging, oscillating, waving; द्राक् चामरा- न्दोलनात् Udb. See आन्दोलनम्
āndol आन्दोल् Den. P. [-दोलयति-दोलिक] 1 To swing, rock or move to and fro. -2 To shake, tremble (fig. also); Māl.4; मन्दमारुतान्दोलिता लतेव Dk.17,21.
āndolaḥ आन्दोलः 1 Swinging, a swing. -2 Trembling.
āndolanam आन्दोलनम् [आन्दोल् भावे ल्युट्] 1 Swinging, a swing. -2 Moving to and fro, shaking, rocking; किंत्वासामर- विन्दसुन्दरदृशां द्राक् चामरान्दोलनात् Udb. -3 Trembling, oscillation.
udojas उदोजस् a. Very powerful, violent (Ved.). स्तनयदमा रभसा उदोजसः Rv.5.54.3.
upadohaḥ उपदोहः 1 A nipple of the udder of a cow. -2 A milking vessel, also उपदुहः.
auddośika औद्दोशिक a. (-की f.) [उद्देश-ठक्] 1 Showing, indicative of. -2 Enumerating.
kandotaḥ कन्दोतः The white lotus.
chāndomika छान्दोमिक a. Belonging to the छन्दोमस् (as a day or सूक्त).
pradoṣa प्रदोष a. Bad, corrupt. -षः 1 (a) A fault, defect, sin, offence. (b) Transgression, violation. -2 Disordered condition, such as mutiny, rebellion. -3 Evening, nightfall, the first part of the night; प्रदोषो रजनीमुखम् Ak; 'प्रदोषे$ध्ययनं धीमान्न करोति यथाक्रमम्' Śabda. Ch.; तमःस्वभावास्ते$प्यन्ये प्रदोषमनुयायिनः Śi.2.98 (where प्रदोष primarily means 'corrupt' or 'bad'); व्रजसुन्दरीजनमन- स्तोषप्रदोषः Gīt.5; Ku.5.44; R.1.93; Ṛs.1.12. -Comp. -आगमः nightfall. -कालः, -समयः, -वेला evening-time, nightfall. -तिमिरम् evening darkness, the dusk of early night; कामं प्रदोषतिमिरेण न दृश्यसे त्वम् Mk. 1.35. -रमणीय a. delightful in the evening.
pradoṣaka प्रदोषक a. Born in the evening. -कः Evening.
pradohaḥ प्रदोहः Milking.
prādoṣa प्रादोष a. (-षी f.), प्रादोषिक a. (-की f.), Relating to the evening.
vidohaḥ विदोहः Taking too much profit out of anything.
sadoṣa सदोष a. 1 Defective, faulty. -2 Wrong, improper. -3 Objectionable.
saṃdohaḥ संदोहः 1 Milking. -2 The whole quantity of anything, a multitude, heap, mass, assemblage; कुन्दमाकन्द- मधुबिन्दुसंदोहवाहिना मारुतेनोत्ताभ्यति Māl.3; Bv.4.9; Bhāg. 1.14.37; ननु सर्वाक्षौहिणीसंदोहेन छादयिष्ये जयद्रथम् Dūtavākyam 1; (शिलीमुखानां) संदोहं द्रुतमुदपादयन् परेषु Śiva B. 24.62. -3 The whole milk (of a herd).
skandolaḥ स्कन्दोलः Coldness.
spandolikā स्पन्दोलिका Swinging backwards and forwards, rocking on a swing (a kind of game); Bhāg.1.18.15 (v. l.).
hindolaḥ हिन्दोलः 1 A swing. -2 The swing on which the figures of Kṛiṣṇa are carried about during the swingfestival in the bright half of Śrāvaṇa, or the festival itself. हिन्दोलकः hindōlakḥ हिन्दोला hindōlā हिन्दोलकः हिन्दोला 1 A swing. -2 A cradle.
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doṣāvastṛ doṣā-vastṛ, m. (Tp.) illuminer of gloom, i. 1, 7 [doṣá̄ evening + vas-tṛ from vas shine].
pratidoṣam prati-doṣám, adv. towards eventide, i. 35, 10 [doṣá̄ evening].
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dogdhavya fp. to be milked; -dhu kâma, a. eager to milk, i. e. plunder (ac.); -dhrí, m. milker; -dhrî, a. f. giving milk; f. milch cow; -dhra, n. milk-pail.
doha a. milking, yielding (--°ree;); m. milking; milk; profiting by (--°ree;).
dohada m. [corruption of dau(r) hrida] longing of pregnant women; violent desire, for (lc., --°ree;); longing of plants for the touch of a beautiful maiden which elicits their blossoms: -duhkha-sîla, a.suffering from mor bid longing during pregnancy: -tâ, f. morbid condition of longing during pregnancy; -lak shana, n. sign of pregnancy.
dohadin a. having a violent longing for (lc., --°ree;).
dohana a. yielding milk; n. milk ing; milk-pail (also î, f.).
dohas n. milking.
doḥśālin a. strong-armed.
dohya fp. to be milked; n. milk giving animal.
dola m. swinging; (m.) â, f. swing, often as symbol of doubt; dooly, bamboo litter (carried on four men's shoulders).
dolāya den. Â. sway like a swing; fluctuate, waver, be in doubt: pp. dolâyita, swaying to and fro.
dolāyuddha n. wavering battle; -½ârûdha, pp. sitting in a dooly; seated on a swing: ±iva=doubtful as to (--°ree;).
dolotsava m. swinging festival.
dormūla n. arm-pit.
dos n. fore-arm; arm.
doṣā f. evening, darkness: -m, in. &asharp;, in the evening, at night.
doṣa m. (n.) defect, blemish, fail ing; bad quality or condition, taint; fault; transgression, crime, sin, guilt, vice; harm, damage, injury; evil; bad consequence; morbid affection, disorder, disease; bodily humour (there are three such, phlegm, bile, and wind, which when disordered cause disease): in., ab. -tas, in consequence of a bad --, owing to the detrimental effect of (--°ree;); -tah sa&ndot;k, suspect of a transgression.
doṣakara a. harmful, injurious to (g.); -guna, n. sg. faults and merits; -gun in, a. possessed of faults and merits: (-i)-tva, n. abst. n.; -gña, a. knowing the faults of (--°ree;); knowing what is hurtful, wise; -tva, n. faultiness, defectiveness.
doṣākara m. (night-maker), moon.
doṣākṣara m. accusation, re proach.
doṣala a. corrupt, spoilt.
doṣan n. fore-arm; arm.
doṣaphala n. effect of sin; a. sinful; -maya, a. consisting of faults.
doṣāramaṇa m. moon.
doṣas n. evening, darkness.
doṣātana a. belonging to the evening, nocturnal.
doṣāvastar m. vc. illuminer of gloom (RV.).
doṣavat a. faulty, defective, blemished; guilty; blamable, sinful; detri mental.
doṣāya den. Â. become or appear like a fault.
doṣin a. guilty of a transgression.
doṣmat a. strong-armed, brave.
adoṣa m. no fault, no sin; a. guiltless; -gña, a. not knowing what faults are.
anabhikhyātadoṣa a. whose guilt is not known.
andolaya den. P. swing: pp. an dolita.
andolana n. swinging.
avikhyātadoṣa a. having committed no notorious crime.
āndolikā f. litter.
āndolaya den. P. swing: pp. ita.
āndolaka m. swing; -ana, n. swinging.
avadola m. swinging, rocking.
udojas a. extremely powerful.
chandoga m. chanter of Sâman hymns, follower of the Sâma-veda; -&zip;nu kramanî, f. Vedic index of metres; -&zip;nu vritta, n. complaisance; -bhâga, a. having a metre as his share.
chāndogya n. doctrine of the Khandogas: N. of a Brâhmana of the Sâma veda: -brâhmana, n. id.; -½upanishad, f. T. of an Upanishad of the Sâma-veda.
chandoma m. N. of the 8th, 9th, and 10th days in the dasarâtra; -mañgari, î, f. (nosegay of metres), T. of a work on metre; -máya, a. consisting or having the nature of sacred hymns; -vikiti, f.sifting of metres, prosody, T. of Pi&ndot;gala's work; -vivriti, f. elucidation of metres, T. of Pi&ndot;gala's work; -vritta, n. metre.
tadokas a. abiding there.
dopasaṃgrahaṇa n. em bracing the feet (of a teacher).
prādoṣa a. relating to or appearing in the evening: i-ka, a. id.
madotkaṭa a. excited with drink, intoxicated; excited with passion, furious; lustful, rutting (elephant); m. N. of a lion; -½udaka, n. temple-juice; -½uda gra, a. excited with passion, furious; -½ud dhata, pp. puffed up with pride, arrogant; -½unmatta, pp. drunk with passion, rutting; intoxicated with pride.
mandotsāha a. discouraged, despondent; -½udaka, a. deficient in water; -½udarî, f. N. of the eldest wife of Râvana; -½ushman, a. slightly warm, cool; -½autsuk ya, a. having but slight eagerness, disin clined for (prati).
medodoṣa m. morbid corpu lence, obeseness.
donātha m. lord of sea monsters, ep. of Varuna.
vedokta pp. mentioned, taught, or contained in the Veda; -½udita, pp. pre scribed by the Veda; -½upakarana, n. sup plementary treatise to the Veda.
sadoṣa a. 1. with night; 2. having blemishes or faults.
sadodyama a. ever strenuous.
sadogata pp. gone to or being in the assembly: pl. assembled; -griha, n. as sembly room.
saṃdoha m. milking; aggregate milk of a herd; totality, multitude, quantity, abun dance; -dohana, a. milking, bestowing.
hindola m. swing.
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doha ‘Milking,’ is a common word in the Atharvaveda and later. Reference is made in the Sūtras to the sāyam-doha, ‘evening milking,’ and the prātar-doha, ‘morning milking.’ Dohana has the same sense. See also Go.
doṣā ‘Evening,’ is frequently referred to from the Rigveda onwards, usually as contrasted with usas, ‘dawn.’ In the Chāndogya Upanisad the word is contrasted with prātar, ‘ early. ’ See also Ahan.
chandoga ‘metre-singing,’ is the term applied to reciters of the Sāmans, no doubt because these chants were sung according to their order in the Chandaārcika of the Sāmaveda. It is only found in the Satapatha Brāhmana, and often in the Sūtras.
sūdadohas In the Rigveda denotes ‘milking Sūda’—i.e., what is requisite to mix with Soma, according to Pischel. According to Roth, it means ‘yielding milk like a well.’
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dogdhrī dhenuḥ VS.22.22; TS.7.5.18.1; MS.3.12.6: 162.8; KSA.5.14; śB.13.1.9.3; TB.3.8.13.1. Cf. BṛhD.3.79. See next.
dogdhrīṃ dhenum śś.8.18.1. See prec.
do ye asya saṃyanti AVś.4.11.12c; AVP.3.25.9c.
dohai yajñaṃ sudughām iva dhenum TB.3.7.6.9c; Apś.4.7.2c.
dohān ko veda katidhā vidugdhāḥ MS.2.13.10c: 159.17. See kramān ko.
dohena gām upa śikṣā sakhāyam RV.10.42.2a; AVś.20.89.2a. P: dohena gām śś.5.10.8.
dohyā ca te dugdhabhṛc corvarī MS.1.6.1: 86.2; Apś.5.8.7. P: dohyā ca te dugdhabhṛc ca Mś.1.5.3.11.
dor vīrāyopabarbṛhat RV.5.61.5d.
doṣā asmabhyam uṣasaś ca pinvatam RV.1.34.3d.
doṣā enam uṣase saṃ pra yachāt AVP.2.61.5d.
doṣā vastor upa bruve RV.8.25.21b.
doṣā vastor uṣaso jarayantīḥ RV.1.179.1b.
doṣā vastor erire yajñiyāsaḥ RV.6.5.2b; TS.1.3.14.3b; KS.7.16b.
doṣā vastor (Aś.śG. doṣāvastar) namaḥ svāhā MS.1.8.7: 125.12; Aś.3.12.4; Apś.9.7.3; Mś.3.3.5; śG.5.4.4. See doṣā vastos svāhā.
doṣā vastor vahīyasaḥ prapitve RV.1.104.1d.
doṣā vastor havamānāsa indram RV.5.32.11d.
doṣā vastor haviṣā ni hvayāmahe RV.10.40.4b.
doṣā vastor haviṣmatī ghṛtācī RV.7.1.6b; TS.4.3.13.6b.
doṣā vastoḥ śarada indur indra RV.6.39.3b.
doṣā vastos svāhā KS.6.8. See doṣā vastor namaḥ.
doṣā śivaḥ sahasaḥ sūno agne RV.4.11.6c.
doṣabhyāṃ svāhā TS.7.3.16.2; KSA.3.6.
doṣām uṣāsam īmahe RV.5.5.6c.
doṣām uṣāso havyo haviṣmatā RV.10.39.1b.
doṣāvastar aghāyataḥ RV.7.15.15b.
doṣāvastar dīdivāṃsam anu dyūn RV.4.4.9b; TS.1.2.14.4b; MS.4.11.5b: 173.10; KS.6.11b.
doṣāvastar dhiyā vayam RV.1.1.7b; SV.1.14b; VS.3.22b; TS.1.5.6.2b; MS.1.5.3b: 69.3; KS.7.1b,8; śB.2.3.4.28b.
doṣāvastar namaḥ etc. see doṣā vastor namaḥ.
doṣī pārśve ca tāni ṣaṭ Kauś.45.3b.
doṣo āgād bṛhad gāya SV.1.177a; Aś.8.1.18a. P: doṣo āgāt AB.5.13.8; 21.10; Aś.8.11.3. See next.
doṣo gāya bṛhad gāya AVś.6.1.1a. P: doṣo gāya Vait.17.2; Kauś.23.2; 50.13; 59.25. See prec.
doṣoṣasi praśasyate RV.2.8.3b.
agado vai bhaviṣyasi (AVP.15.15.9b, -ti) # AVP.15.15.9b,10b.
agnihutasyendrapīthasyendor indriyāvataḥ, yo bhakṣo gosanir aśvasanir dhanasaniḥ prajāsanir lokasaniḥ, tasya ta upahūtasyopahūto bhakṣayāmi gāyatreṇa chandasā tejasā brāhmaṇavarcasena # Vait.19.16. Cf. Kś.25.12.6.
aṅgabhedo aṅgajvaro # AVś.5.30.9a. Cf. under prec. but one, and śīrṣarogo aṅgarogaḥ.
aṅgabhedo visalyakaḥ (AVP. visalpakaḥ) # AVś.19.44.2b; AVP.15.3.2b.
atiṣkado bhiyasā tan na āvat # RV.10.108.2c.
ado gacha mūjavataḥ # AVP.12.2.5a.
ado giribhyo adhi yat pradhāvasi # TB.2.5.6.4a. Cf. under ado yad avadhāvati, and amuṣmād adhi parvatāt.
ado devī (KS. devi) prathamānā pṛthag yat # KS.7.12a; Apś.5.9.11a. See ato devī, and ado yad devi.
ado ma āgachatu # Apś.4.12.6; 4.13.8; 13.16.10. See next but two.
adomadam annam addhi prasūtaḥ # AVś.6.63.1d. See under athā jīvaḥ.
adomadhaṃ pittam atta prasūtāḥ # AVP.11.11.4d.
ado māgachatu # MS.1.4.1: 48.7; KS.5.3; Mś.1.4.2.22. See prec. but two.
ado māgamyāt # MS.1.4.1: 48.7; Mś.1.4.2.22.
ado mā mā hāsiṣṭa # Apś.6.20.2. Cf. mā mā hāsiṣṭa.
ado yat te hṛdi śritam # AVś.6.18.3a.
ado yad avadhāvati # AVś.2.3.1a. P: ado yat Kauś.25.6. Cf. ado giribhyo, amī ye ke, and asau yo 'vasarpati.
ado yad avarocate # AVś.3.7.3a; AVP.3.2.3a.
ado yad dāru plavate # RV.10.155.3a; AVP.6.8.7a.
ado yad devi prathamānā purastāt # AVś.12.1.55a. See under ado devī.
ado yad brahma vilavam # TA.1.27.6a.
anānudo vṛṣabho jagmir āhavam # RV.2.23.11a.
anānudo vṛṣabho dodhato vadhaḥ # RV.2.21.4a.
annādo bhūyāsam # śB.11.2.7.11; Apś.6.14.6; JG.1.19. P: annādaḥ Kś.3.3.5.
annādo 'ham adyāsmiñ jane bhūyāsam, anannādaḥ sa yo 'smān dveṣṭi # Apś.6.21.1. See next.
annādo 'ham asmiñ jane bhūyāsam # KA.3.146. See prec.
apādo yatra yujyāso 'rathāḥ # RV.10.99.4c.
apānudo janam amitrayantam (AVś. amitrāyantam) # RV.10.180.3c; AVś.7.84.2c; AVP.1.77.1c; TS.1.6.12.4c; KS.8.16c.
apsuṣado nihitās tīre agnayaḥ # AVP.2.40.5b.
apsuṣado mahinaikādaśa stha # TS.1.4.10.1c; KS.4.5c. See apsukṣito.
amitrakhādo (AVP. amitraghāto) adbhutaḥ # RV.10.152.1b; AVP.2.88.1b. See amitrasāho.
avido yajñam # MS.4.5.2: 65.15; AB.2.20.11. Cf. avidāma tad.
ahutādo haviṣo yajñe asmin # VS.17.13c; TS.4.6.1.4c; MS.2.10.1c: 132.9; KS.17.17c; śB.9.2.1.14.
āṇḍādo garbhadūṣaṇaḥ # AVP.7.19.5b.
āṇḍādo garbhān mā dabhan # AVś.8.6.25c.
ātmasado me stha # Apś.6.21.1. See next two.
ānando modaḥ pramodaḥ # TB.3.10.1.1,3. See under ānandā modāḥ.
āmādo gṛdhrāḥ kuṇape radantām # AVś.11.10.8d.
āmādo ni vaha tvam # AVP.7.3.1c.
āskando 'yānām # TS.4.3.3.2; MS.2.7.20: 105.19; KS.39.7.
indo jayema tvayā dhanaṃ-dhanam # RV.9.85.8d.
indo tve na āśasaḥ # RV.9.1.5c.
indo devapsarastamaḥ # RV.9.105.5b; SV.2.962b.
indo devapsarā asi # RV.9.104.5b.
indo dyumnavardhanaḥ # RV.9.31.2b.
indo dhārābhir ojasā # RV.9.65.14b; 106.7b; SV.1.571b; 2.676b.
indo na dānam īṅkhaya # RV.9.52.3b. Cf. indo samudram īṅkhaya.
indo pavasva pavamāno asridham (SV. pavamāna ūrmiṇā) # RV.9.86.18b; SV.2.504b.
indo puṣṭyā juṣasva naḥ # TS.2.4.5.1b. See indo rayyā.
indo bhava maghavā rādhaso mahaḥ # RV.9.81.3b.
indo yathā tava stavaḥ # RV.9.55.2a; SV.2.326a.
indo yad adribhiḥ sutaḥ # RV.9.24.5a; SV.2.314a.
indo rayim aśvinaṃ vāvaśānaḥ # RV.9.93.4b.
indo rayyā sacasva naḥ # AVP.1.39.1b. See indo puṣṭyā.
indor indro 'pāt # TB.3.7.10.6; Apś.14.29.2.
indor indro yavāśiraḥ # RV.8.92.4c; SV.1.145c; JB.3.202c.
indo rucābhi gā ihi # RV.9.64.13c; SV.1.505c; 2.191c.
indo vājaṃ siṣāsasi # RV.9.23.6c.
indo viśvā apa sridhaḥ # RV.9.63.28b.
indo viśvāṃ abhīd asi # RV.9.59.4c.
indo viśvāni vāryā # RV.9.63.30c.
indo viśvābhir matibhiḥ pariṣkṛtam # RV.9.86.24d.
indo viśvāyum ā bhara # RV.9.4.10b; SV.2.406b.
indo vy avyam arṣasi # RV.9.67.5a.
indo sakhāyam ā viśa # RV.9.8.7c; SV.2.534c.
indo sakhitvam uśmasi # RV.9.31.6c; 66.14c.
indo sanitraṃ diva ā pavasva # RV.9.97.29c.
indo samudram ā viśa # SV.2.586c; JB.3.222c. See priyaḥ samudram.
indo samudram īṅkhaya # RV.9.35.2a. Cf. indo na dānam.
indo sahasrabharṇasam # RV.9.64.25c; 98.1c; SV.1.549c; 2.588c; JB.3.227c.
indo sahasravarcasam # RV.9.43.4c.
indo sahasriṇaṃ rayim # RV.9.98.4c.
indo sūktāya vacase vayo dhāḥ # RV.9.90.6c.
indo stotre suvīryam # RV.9.45.6c.
indrasyendo jaṭharam ā pavasva # RV.9.70.10b.
indrasyendo śivaḥ sakhā # RV.10.25.9b.
indrāyendo pari srava # RV.8.91.3d; 9.106.4b; 112.1e--4e; 113.1e--11e; 114.1e--4e; AVP.4.26.4d; SV.1.567b; JB.1.220d; N.6.6e; 9.2e.
indrāyendo pavamāno manīṣī # RV.9.96.8c.
indrāyendo marutvate # RV.9.64.22a; SV.1.472a; 2.426a; JB.1.95; 3.143; ṣB.5.1,3; AdB.1.3; PB.13.9.1; śś.7.15.16.
endo pārthivaṃ rayim # RV.9.29.6a.
endo viśa kalaśaṃ somadhānam # RV.9.97.33c.
kravyādo agnīñ chamayāmi sarvān # Kauś.71.6d.
kravyādo anyān dipsataḥ # AVś.4.36.3c.
kravyādo mūradevinaḥ # AVP.7.11.3c.
kravyādo mṛtyūn adharān pādayāmi # HG.1.19.7c.
kravyādo vātaraṃhasaḥ # AVś.11.10.3c.
kravyādo vṛktvy api (AVś. vṛṣṭvāpi) dhatsvāsan # RV.10.87.2d; AVś.8.3.2d.
kṣodo na reta itaūti siñcat # RV.10.61.2d.
gūrdo 'si # KS.39.5; Apś.16.30.1.
catuṣpado dvipada ā veśayeha # AVś.13.1.2d; AVP.7.6.10d; Kauś.43.13d.
catuṣpādo dvipado yanti yāmam # AVś.10.2.6d.
chando gacha svāhā # KS.3.8. See chandāṃsi gacha.
chando na sūro arciṣā # RV.8.7.36b.
chandonāmānāṃ (VSK. chandomānānāṃ; TSṃś. chandomānāṃ) sāmrājyaṃ gacheti (VSK. gachatād iti; Mś. gached iti) me somāya brūtāt # VS.4.24; VSK.4.8.1; TS.3.1.2.1; śB.3.3.2.6; Mś.2.1.4.6 (mss. -nāmānaṃ, and -mānaṃ).
chandobhir ukthāśastrāṇi # VS.19.28c.
chandobhir yajñaiḥ sukṛtāṃ kṛtena # AVś.6.124.1d. See brahmaṇā guptaḥ, and brahmaṇā saṃpṛñcānas.
chandobhir vigṛhīta eti # KS.39.2b; Apś.16.29.1b.
chandobhir haṃsaḥ śuciṣat # MS.3.11.6b: 148.15. See chandasā.
chandobhiś caturuttaraiḥ # TA.1.9.6b.
chandobhis tvā # KS.40.2.
chandobhiḥ sāmidhenīḥ # VS.19.20c.
chandobhyaś chandāṃsy ā viveśa # TA.10.6.1b; MahānU.7.5b.
chandobhyo 'dhy amṛtāt saṃ babhūva # TA.7.4.1b; TU.1.4.1b.
chando daśamaṃ cāhaḥ # Aś.8.13.31a.
chandomānānāṃ etc., and chandomānāṃ etc. # see chandonāmānāṃ etc.
chandoyogān vijānatī # TB.3.12.9.6b.
chando ha jajñire tasmāt # AVP.9.5.11c. See chandāṃsi jajñire.
jātavedo aghāyataḥ # RV.6.16.30b.
jātavedo ni dhīmahi # RV.3.29.4c; VS.34.15c; TS.3.5.11.1c; MS.1.6.2c: 87.9; 1.6.7c: 97.15; KS.15.12c; AB.1.28.24c; KB.9.2.
jātavedo ni vartaya # AVś.6.77.3a; Mś.9.4.1.22a.
jātavedo bṛhataḥ supraṇīte # RV.3.15.4d.
jātavedo bhuvanasya retaḥ (Vait. yad retaḥ) # TB.1.2.1.15a; Vait.5.7a; Apś.5.8.5a.
jātavedo mamā vaha # RVKh.5.87.1d,13d,14d.
jātavedo maruto adbhis (TB. 'dbhis) tamayitvā # TB.1.2.1.7b; Apś.5.2.4b.
jātavedo ya urāv antarikṣe # AVP.15.22.4b.
jātavedo yaśo asmāsu dhehi # RV.5.4.10c; TS.1.4.46.1c; ApMB.2.11.5c.
jātavedo ramayā paśūn mayi # Aś.1.2.1.
jātavedo vapayā gacha devān # TS.3.1.4.4a; KS.30.8a,9; Apś.7.21.2; Mś.1.8.4.36a; Kauś.45.11a; SMB.2.3.19a; GG.4.4.23; MG.2.4.5a. Ps: jātavedo vapayā Vait.10.19; jātavedaḥ KhG.3.4.26.
jātavedo vahemaṃ (śś. vahasvainaṃ) sukṛtāṃ yatra lokaḥ (TA. lokāḥ) # TA.6.1.4; śś.4.14.36. See nayā hy.
jātavedo vicarṣaṇe # RV.1.78.1b; 6.16.29b,36b; 8.43.2b; SV.2.748b; TS.1.3.14.5b; KS.10.12b.
jātavedo virūpavat # RV.1.45.3b; N.3.17b.
jātavedo vi rocase # TS.1.4.46.2b.
jātavedo havir idaṃ juṣasva # Aś.2.2.17b; Apś.6.5.7b; Mś.1.6.1.15b; HG.2.17.2b. See jātavedaḥ prati.
tadokase puruśākāya vṛṣṇe # RV.3.35.7c.
tavendo dyumna uttame # RV.9.61.29b; SV.2.129c.
todo adhvan na vṛdhasāno adyaut # RV.6.12.3b; MS.4.14.15b: 240.5.
todo vātasya haryor īśānaḥ # RV.4.16.11b.
tvakcarmamāṃsarudhiramedomajjāsnāyavo 'sthīni (MahānU. -rudhirasnāyumedosthimajjā) me śudhyantām # TA.10.54.1; Tā.10.65; MahānU.20.18. P: tvakcarmaBDh.3.8.12.
tvānido ni tṛmpasi # RV.8.70.10b.
dado maghāni maghavann iyānaḥ # RV.7.29.1d.
dado vasūni mamadaś ca somaiḥ # RV.7.24.1d; SV.1.314d.
durhārdo dviṣataḥ śiraḥ # AVś.10.6.1b.
durhārdo ye viṣūkuhaḥ # Lś.3.11.3b.
dūra"upabdo vṛṣaṇo nṛṣācaḥ # RV.7.21.2d.
dṛṣado mopa gomataḥ # AVP.1.105.3d.
devanido ha prathamā ajūryan # RV.1.152.2d.
devāpsuṣado 'pāṃ napāt tanūnapān narāśaṃsa # AVP.3.31.5a. Cf. devāḥ sapītayo.
draviṇodo yajāmahe # RV.1.15.10b.
dvipado naś catuṣpadaḥ # TB.3.3.11.2c; Apś.3.13.6c.
dvipado 'sya catuṣpadaḥ # AVP.5.22.8b. Cf. RV.10.121.3c.
dvipādo ye catuṣpadaḥ # TB.1.2.1.25b.
nātrāvakhādo asti vaḥ # RV.1.41.4c.
nāmīmado nārūrupaḥ # AVś.4.6.3c. See nāropayo.
nido yatra mumucmahe # RV.9.29.5c.
nidhidātānnādo mataḥ # VaradapU.1.7. Fragments: nidhidātā ... annādo mataḥ VaradapU.1.6.
nimṛdo 'si # see nimrado 'si.
nimrado (Apś. nimṛdo) 'si # MS.1.5.4: 71.5; 1.5.11: 79.19; KS.7.2,9; Apś.6.18.2; Mś.1.6.2.12.
nīthāvido jaritāraḥ # RV.3.12.5b; SV.2.925b,1053b; MS.4.11.1b: 159.7.
pador asyā adhiṣṭhānāt # AVś.12.4.5a.
pado rogād upānahau # AVP.7.15.8b.
pado ṭe padyam ā dade # AVP.2.90.1c.
paramachado vara (KS. paramachad avarāṃ) ā viveśa # TS.4.6.2.1d; KS.18.1d. See prathamachad, and prathamachado.
pavasvendo pavamāno mahobhiḥ # RV.9.96.21a.
pavasvendo vṛṣā sutaḥ # RV.9.61.28a; SV.1.479a; 2.128a; JB.1.92; 3.21; PB.6.10.12; 11.6.3; 18.8.13. Fragment: vṛṣā sutaḥ JB.1.92.
paścādoṣāya (TB. paścāddo-) glāvinam (TB. glāvam) # VS.30.17; TB.3.4.1.14.
do 'sya viśvā (ArS.ChU. sarvā) bhūtāni # RV.10.90.3c; AVś.19.6.3c; ArS.4.5c; VS.31.3c; TA.3.12.2c; ChU.3.12.6c. See pād asya.
do 'syehābhavat (AVś. pādasyehā-; AVP. pād asyehā-; TA. -bhavāt) punaḥ # RV.10.90.4b; AVś.19.6.2b; AVP.9.5.2b; ArS.4.4b; VS.31.4b; TA.3.12.2b.
prathamachado vara ā viveśa # AVP.15.2.5d. See prec., and paramachado.
pradodhuvac chmaśruṣu prīṇānaḥ # RV.2.11.17c.
pradoṣa ubhe saṃdhye # Kauś.141.37d.
pradoṣaṃ taskarā iva # RV.1.191.5b; AVP.4.16.4c.
pradoṣam ardharātraṃ ca # PG.3.4.8c.
barhiṣado ye svadhayā sutasya # RV.10.15.3c; AVś.18.1.45c; VS.19.56c; TS.2.6.12.3c; KS.21.14c; AB.3.37.16. See barhiṣadaḥ svadhayā.
barhiṣado vacanāvanta ūdhabhiḥ # RV.9.68.1c; SV.1.563c.
mado na yaḥ somyo bodhicakṣāḥ # MS.4.12.2a: 182.1.
mado ya indrapātamaḥ # RV.9.99.3b; SV.2.982b.
mado yo devavītamaḥ # RV.9.63.16c; 64.12b.
mado rājann aduchunaḥ # RV.9.61.17b; SV.2.240b.
mado vṛṣan svabhiṣṭir dāsvān # RV.6.33.1b.
mucukundo mahāmuniḥ # RVKh.1.191.9b.
medobhyaḥ svāhā # VS.39.10 (bis). See medasaḥ svāhā.
medo mṛtyor juhomi medasā mṛtyuṃ vāsaye # VāDh.20.26.
yajurvedo vāyudevataḥ # GB.1.5.25b.
yado gachāty asunītim etām # AVś.18.2.5c. See yadā gachāty.
yadottamat tantubaddhāya nāvadvāsaḥ pūrvayāvat pururūpapeśaḥ # AVP.15.6.6ab.
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"do" has 280 results.
     
adoṣaabsence of fault; absence of inconvenience. The expression सोप्यदोषो भवति often occurs in the Mahābhāṣya: confer, compare MBh. on I. 3.62; I. 4.108, et cetera, and others
ikpadopasthitithe presence of the word इक् (vowels इ, उ, ऋ and लृ) in a rule, where the operations गुण and वृद्धि are prescribed by putting the words गुण and वृद्धि; exempli gratia, for example सिचि वृद्धिः परस्मैपदेषु P.VII.2.1; confer, compare इको गुणवृद्वी P.I.1.3.
chandobhāṣāVedic language as contrasted with भाषा (ordinary language in use); confer, compare गुरुत्वं लघुता साम्यं ह्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतानि च...एतत्सर्व तु विज्ञेयं छन्दोभाषां विजानता Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIV. 5.
dūṣakaradodbhedaname of a commentary, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa, believed to have been written by Gopalacārya Karhadkar, a grammarian of the 19th century and attributed to Bhimacarya. This commentary, which was written to criticize the commentary written by Visnusastri Bhat, was again criticized in reply by Visnusastri Bhat in his Ciccandrika ( चिच्चन्द्रिका ). See विष्णुशास्त्री भट.
doṣa(1)a fault of pronunciation; cf एताः स्वरदोषभावनाः अतोन्ये व्यञ्जनदोषाः M.Bh. on I. 1.1 Vart.18 (2) defect shown in connection with an expression or explanation.
doṣoddharaṇaname of a commentary on Nagesa's Paribhisendusekhara written by मन्नुदेव of the eighteenth century.
doṣoddhāraname of a commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara written by मन्नुदेव of the eighteenth century.
pratipadoktaexpressly stated as opposed to implied or suggested; confer, compare लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तस्यैव ग्रहणम्,. Par. Sek.Pari.105: confer, compare also विशेषेण प्रतिपादितं प्रतिपदोक्तं Puru. Pari. 3.
lakṣaṇapratipadoktaa short term used for the well-known Paribhāşā लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तस्यैव ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. I05, laying down that when a question arises as to which of the two words लक्षणोक्त (arrived at by certain changes or modifications) and प्रतिपदोक्त, (directly expressed) be accepted, the latter should be preferredition
śabdopadeśascientific and authoritative citation or statement of a word as contrasted with अपशब्दोपदेशः; confer, compare किं शब्दोपदेश: कर्तव्यः आहोस्विदपशब्दोपदेशः आहोस्विदुभयोपदेश इति ।Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika l. शमादि a class of eight roots headed by शम् which get their vowel lengthened before the conjugational sign य (श्यन्) as also before the krt. affix इन् ( घिनुण् ) in the sense of 'habituated to': exempli gratia, for example शाम्यति, शमी, भ्राम्यति, भ्रमी et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.VII.3.74 and P. III.2.141.
svatantrapadopasthitipakṣaan alternative view regarding the explanation of the rule 'इको गुणवृद्धी' P. I. 1. 3 by taking an additional word गुणवृद्धी supplied in the sutra. For full explanation see Sabdakaustubha on P. I. 1. 3.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
aḥ( : )visarga called visarjanīya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, one below the other, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly larly expressed by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti.. confer, compare अः ( : ) इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः । कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसजर्नीयसंज्ञो भवति ( दुर्गसिंह on कातन्त्र I.1.16). विसर्ग is always a dependent letter included among the Ayogavāha letters and it is looked upon as a vowel when it forms a part of the preceding vowel; while it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into the Jihvāmūlīya or the Upadhmānīya letter.
akṛtakāridoing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the expression is used in connection with grammatical operations like ह्रस्वकरण or दीर्घकरण only in cases where it is necessary i, e. where already there is no hrasva or drgha confer, compare अकृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रमग्निवत् । तद्यथा । अग्निर्यददग्धं तद्दहति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.127. the rules of Grammar, like fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.
akṛtavyūhashort expression for the grammatical maxim अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः which means "the followers of Pāṇini do not insist on the taking effect of a rule when its cause or causes disappear." See Par. śek. Par. 56.
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
akṛtsna-akṛtsnāan epithet applied to the pronunciation of Veda words improperly which does not serve any useful purpose. confer, compare अकृत्स्ना अप्रयोजना इत्यर्थ: Uvaṭa on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 68.
akṣaraa letter of the alphabet, such as a (अ) or i (इ) or h (ह) or y (य्) or the like. The word was originally applied in the Prātiśākhya works to vowels (long, short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavāha letters which were tied down to them as their appendages. Hence अक्षर came later on to mean a syllable i. e. a vowel with a consonant or consonants preceding or following it, or without any consonant at all. confer, compare ओजा ह्रस्वाः सप्तमान्ताः स्वराणामन्ये दीर्घा उभये अक्षराणि R Pr. I 17-19 confer, compareएकाक्षरा, द्व्यक्षरा et cetera, and others The term akṣara was also applied to any letter (वर्ण), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf, the terms एकाक्षर, सन्ध्यक्षर, समानाक्षर used by Patañjali as also by the earlier writers. For the etymology of the term see Mahābhāṣya अक्षरं न क्षरं विद्यात्, अश्नोतेर्वा सरोक्षरम् । वर्णे वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 2 end.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
agnipadādigaṇaa class of words headed by the word अग्निपद to which the taddhita affix. affix अण् is added in the senses of 'given there' or 'done there' e. g. अग्निपदम्. confer, compare अण्प्रकरणे अग्निपदादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् P. V.1.97 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1.
agnaukaravāṇinyāyaanalogy conveyed by the expression अग्नौ करवाणि implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( अग्नौकरण ), by virtue of the reply ' कुरु ' to his request made in the sentence अग्नौ करवाणि. confer, compare अग्नौकरवाणिन्यायेन भविष्यति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on. II.2.24.
aghoṣaunvoiced, merely breathed; a term applied to the surd consonants, ś, ṣ s, and visarga which are uttered by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. confer, compare T. Pr.I.12; R.Pr.I.11. The term jit ( जित् ) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a class in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्; ऊष्माणश्च हवर्जम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.50.51.
ājirādigaṇaclass of words headed by the word अजिर which do not allow lengthening of the final vowel by P. VI.3.119. although they form technical terms e. g. अजिरवती, पुलिनवती et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś on P. VI.3.119.
atantraimplying no specific purpose: not intended to teach anything, अविवक्षित; exempli gratia, for example ह्रस्वग्रहणमतन्त्रम् Kāś and Si. Kau. on तस्यादित उदात्तमर्धह्रस्वम् P.1.2.32: confer, compare also अतन्त्रं तरनिर्देशः ( the use of तरप् does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in Pāṇini's rules) Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribhāṣa by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and Sākaṭāyana. The author of the Mahābhāṣya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and the earlier grammarians See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on अल्पाच्तरम् P. II.2.34.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
adṛṣṭanot seen properly; doubtful; indistinct;said with respect to a letter which is not distinctly deciphered in the Saṁhitāpātha: exempli gratia, for example तन्नः ( R. Saṁh. I. 107. 3 ): the last letter त् of तत् is deciphered in the Pada-pātha which is given as तत्न: confer, compare अदृष्टवर्णे प्रथमे चोदकः स्यात् प्रदर्शकः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 15.
adyatanītech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the present time of the day in question, the occurrence of the immediate past or future events in which is generally expressed by the aorist (लुड्) or the simple future ( लृट् ); the other two corresponding tenses imperfect and first future (viz. लड् and लुट्) being used in connection with past and future events respectively, provided the events do not pertain to that day which is in question; confer, compare 'वा चाद्यतन्याम्' M.Bh. P.III.2.102 Vār.6, वादृतन्याम् P, VI.4.114. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (2) term for the tense showing immediate past time called लुङ् in Pāṇini's grammar e. g. मायोगे अद्यतनी । मा कार्षीत् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.III. 1.22, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. III. 3.11.
anantyanon-final confer, compare अनन्त्यविकारे अन्त्यसदेशस्य when a change does not concern a final letter then it concerns that which immediately precedes the final, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari 95. confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.13 Vārt 5.
anabhihitanot conveyed or expressed by another id est, that is by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the dative case case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the ablative case. case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the locative casecase in स्थाल्यां पचति.
anabhyāsaa wording which does not contain any reduplicative syllable; an epithet applied to such roots as are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the perfect, as they are already reduplicated; confer, compare लिटि धातोरनभ्यासस्य P. VI.1.8.
anākṛtinot capable of presenting (on its mere utterance) any tangible form or figure the word is used in connection with a technical term (संज्ञाशब्द) which presents its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise: confer, compare अनाकृति: संज्ञा । अाकृतिमन्तः संज्ञिनः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1.
aniṭ(1)not admitting the augment इट् to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ārdhadhātuka affixes placed after such roots as have their vowel characterized by a grave accent ( अनुदात्तस्वर ); the term अनिट् being explained as अनिडादि qualifying the अार्धधातुक affix; (2) in a secondary way, it has become customary to call such roots अनिट् as do not allow the augment इट् to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. Such roots are termed अनुदात्त verily because they are possessed of an anudātta vowel. e. g. कृ, भृ, जि, गम् , हन् et cetera, and others as against भु, धू, तॄ, श्वि, वृ, वद्, फल्, चल्, et cetera, and others which have their vowel characterized by an acute (उदात्त ) accent. For a complete list of such roots see the well-known stanzas given in the Siddhāntakaumudī incidentally on अात्मनेपदेष्वनतः P. VII.1.5. ऊदॄदन्तैर्यौतिरुक्ष्णुशीङ्स्नु....निहताः स्मृताः ॥ १ ॥ शक्लृपच्मुचिरिचवच्विच् .........धातवो द्व्यधिकं शतम् ॥ as also some lists by ancient grammarians given in the Mahābhāṣya on एकाच उपदेशेनुदात्तात्. P. VII. 2.10 or in the Kāśikā on the same rule P. VII.2.10.
aniṭkārikā(1)name given to Stanzas giving a complete list of such roots as do not allow the augment इ ( इट् ) to be prefixed to an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. For such Kārikās see Sid. Kaum. on VII.1.5 as also Kāśikā on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a short treatise enumerating in 11 verses the roots which do not admit the augment इट् before the ārdhadhatuka affixes. The work is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jain writer. The work possibly belongs to the Kātantra system and has got short glosses called व्याख्यान, अवचूरि, विवरण, टीका, टिप्पणी and the like which are all anonymous.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anukṛṣṭaattracted from a previous rule as is frequently done in Pāṇini's rules. See the word अनुकर्षण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anubandhaa letter or letters added to a word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an afix (e. g. क्त्रि, अथुच् अङ् et cetera, and others) or (b) the substitution of गुण, वृद्धि or संप्रसारण vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed इत् (literally going or disappearing) by Pāṇini (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् et cetera, and others I.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the इत् letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as आदित्व or अन्तत्व of affixes which are characterized by इत् letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, confer, compare अनेकान्ता अनुबन्धाः, एकान्ता:, etc, Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 4 to 8. Although पाणिनि has invariably used the term इत् for अनुबन्ध letters in his Sūtras, Patañjali and other reputed writers on Pāṇini's grammar right on upto Nāgeśa of the 18th century have used the term अनुबन्ध of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of इत्. The term अनुबन्ध was chosen for mute significatory letters by ancient grammarians probably on account of the analogy of the अनुबन्ध्य पशु, tied down at sacrifices to the post and subsequently slaughteredition
anuvādarepetition of a rule already laid down or of a statement already made confer, compare प्रमाणान्तरावगतस्य अर्थस्य शब्देन संकीर्तनमात्रमनुवाद: Kāś. on II.4.3.
anekaśeṣahaving no ekaśeṣa topic in it; a term applied to the Daiva Grammar which does not discuss the ekaśeṣa topic to which Pāṇini has devoted ten rules from I. 2.64 to 73.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
anvavasargarelaxation or wide opening of the sound-producing organs as done for uttering a vowel of grave accent. confer, compare अन्ववसर्गः गात्राणां विस्तृतता Tait. Pr. XXII.10.
apavādanyāyathe convention that a rule laying down an exception supersedes the general rule; confer, compare सिद्धं त्वपवादन्यायेन P. I.3.9 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7
apradhāna(1)non-principal, subordinate, secondary, confer, compare अप्रधानमुपसर्जन-मिति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 2.43; (2) nonessential, non-predominent, confer, compare सहयुक्तेऽप्रधाने P. II. 2.19 and the instance पुत्रेण सहागतः पिता । Kāś. on II.2.19.
abāghakanot coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with निपातन i. e. constituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be अबाधक i. e. not coming in the way of forms which could be arrived at by application of the regular rules. Siradeva has laid down the Paribhāṣā अबाधकान्यपि निपातनानि भवन्ति defending the form पुरातन in spite of Pāṇini's specific mention of the word पुराण in the rule पुराणप्रोक्तेषुo IV. 3. 105.
abhāṣitapuṃskathat which does not convey a masculine sense; a word which is not declined in the masculine gender; a word possessing only the feminine gender e.gखट्वा, लता et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अभाषितपुंस्काच्च P. VII. 3.48.
abhinidhānaliterally that which is placed near or before; the first of the doubled class consonants; a mute or sparṣa consonant arising from doubling and inserted before a mute; confer, compare अघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथमः अभिनिधानः स्पर्शपरात्तस्य सस्थानः ( Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 9. ) explained by त्रिभाष्यरत्न as स्पर्शपरादघोषादूष्मणः परः प्रथम आगमस्तस्य स्पर्शस्य समानस्थानः अभिनिधानो भवति । अभिनिधीयते इत्यभिनिधानः आरोपणीयः इत्यर्थः । यथा यः क्कामयेत अश्मन्नूर्जम् । यः प्पाप्मना । The Ṛk. prātiśākhya explains the term अभिनिधान somewhat differently; confer, compare अभिनिधानं कृतसंहितानां स्पर्शन्ति:स्थानामपवाद्य रेफम् । संघारणं संवरणं श्रुतेश्च स्पर्शोदयानामपि चावसाने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 5, explained by उव्वट as स्पर्शपराणां स्पर्शानां रेफं वर्जयित्वा अन्तःस्थानां च वर्णानां कृतसंहितानां च सतां संधारणं वर्णश्रुतेश्च संवरणं भवति । तदेतद् अभिनिधानं नाम । यथा उष मा षड् द्वा द्वा । ऋ. सं ८।६८।१४ इह षड् इत्यत्र अभिनिधानम् ॥ अभिनिघान possibly according to उव्वट here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. अभिनिधान means, in short, something like 'suppression.' The Ṛk. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains अभिनिधान as the first of a doubled consonant, cf ; अभिनिधानः । क्रमजं च पूर्वान्ततस्वरं भवति । Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 21.
abhyastarepeated, redoubled word or wording or part of a word. The term अभ्यस्त is applied to the whole doubled expression in Pāṇini's grammar, confer, compare उभे अभ्यस्तम् P. VI.1.6; (2) the six roots with जक्ष् placed at the head viz. जक्ष् , जागृ, दरिद्रा , चकास्, शास्, दीधी and वेवी which in fact are reduplicated forms of घस् , गृ, द्रा, कास् , शस् , धी and वी.
abhyāvṛttiinclination towards an action; tendency to do an act; confer, compare संख्यायाः क्रियाभ्यावृत्तिगणनं कृत्वसुच् । P. V. 4.17 अभिमुखी प्रवृत्तिरभ्यावृत्तिः (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V.4.19) is the explanation in the Mahābhāṣya,while पौनः पुन्यमभ्यावृत्तिः (Kāś. on V.4.17) is the one given in Kāśikā
abhyāsalit, doubling or reduplication technically the word refers to the first portion of the reduplication, which is called the reduplicative syllable as opposed to the second part which is called the reduplicated syllable; confer, compare पूर्वोभ्यासः P. VI.1.4. (2) Repetition, the sccond part which is repeated; confer, compare दोऽभ्यासे(RT.165) explained as दकारः अभ्यासे लुप्यते । पटत्पटेति । द्रसद्रसेति ; (3) repeated action; confer, compare अभ्यासः पुनः पुनः करणमावृत्तिः Kāś. on P.1-3, 1.
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
arthavadgrahaṇaparibhāṣāa well known maxim or Paribha of grammarians fully stated as अर्थवद्ग्रहणे नानर्थकस्य ग्रहणम्, deduced from the phrase अर्थवद्ग्रहणात् frequently used by the Vārttikakāra. The Paribhāṣā lays down that 'when a combination of letters employed in Grammar, is possessed of a sense, it has to be taken as possessed of sense and not such an one as is devoid of sense.'
alakṣaṇathat which is not a proper लक्षण i. e. Sūtra; a Sūtra which does not teach definitely; a Sūtra which cannot be properly applied being ambiguous in sense. cf व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदह्यादलक्षणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. I.
avyayaindeclinable, literally invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; confer, compare सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.
aśiṣyaunnecessary to be prcscribed or laid down.; confer, compareतदशिष्यं संज्ञाप्रमाणत्वात् P. I.2.53; also लिङ्गं अशिष्यं लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य M.Bh. on II.1.36.
aṣṭādhyāyīname popularly given to the Sūtrapāṭha of Pāṇini consisting of eight books (adhyāyas) containing in all 3981 Sūtras,as found in the traditional recital, current at the time of the authors of the Kāśika. Out of these 398l Sūtras, seven are found given as Vārtikas in the Mahābhāṣya and two are found in Gaṇapāṭha.The author of the Mahābhāṣya has commented upon only 1228 of these 3981 sūtras. Originally there were a very few differences of readings also, as observed by Patañjali ( see Mbh on I.4.1 ); but the text was fixed by Patañjali which, with a few additions made by the authors of the Kāśika,as observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., has traditionally come down to the present day. The Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is believed to be one of the six Vedāṅga works which are committed to memory by the reciters of Ṛgveda. The text of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is recited without accents. The word अष्टाध्यायी was current in Patañjali's time; confer, compare शिष्टज्ञानार्था अष्टाध्यायी Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 3.109.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
asiddhaparibhāṣāthe same as Antaraṅga Paribhāṣā or the doctrine of the invalidity of the bahiraṅga operation. See the word असिद्ध a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see the Paribhāṣā 'asiddham , bahiraṅgam antaraṅge' Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 50 and the discussion thereon. Some grammarians have given the name असिद्धपरिभाषा to the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे as contrasted with अन्तरङ्गं बहुिरङ्कगाद् वलीयः which they have named as बहिरङ्गपरिभाषा.
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgantukaliterally adventitious, an additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form exempli gratia, for example वदि, एधि, सर्ति et cetera, and others; confer, compare इन्धिभवतिभ्यां च P I.2.6: confer, compare also भावलक्षणे स्थेण्कृञ्वदिचरिहृतभिजनिभ्यस्तोमुन्, P.III.4.16, सृपिवृदो. कसुन् P. III.4.17 and a number of other sūtras where इ or तिं is added to the root confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे, वर्णात्कारः, रादिफः P.III.3.108 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2.3. 4, where such appendages to be added to the roots or letters are given. The word अागन्तु is an old word used in the Nirukta, but the term आगन्तुक appears to be used for the first time for such forms by Haradatta; confer, compare ह्वरोरिति ह्वृ कौटिल्ये, आगन्तुकेकारे गुणेन निर्देशः Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on VII.2.31. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed अागन्तुक which is placed second i. e. after the original by virtue of the convention आगन्तूनामन्ते निवेशः, although in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first which is called abhyāsa.A nice distinction can, however be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viz.आगन्तु, इत्, अभ्यास and आगम which can be briefly stated as follows; The former two do not form a regular part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word; besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the इत् wording, besides serving this purpose, is of use in causing some grammatical operations. अभ्यास, is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, āgama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.
ācitādia class of words headed by the word अाचित which do not have their final vowel accented acute by P. VI.2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions प्र, परा et cetera, and others although they are used as proper nouns. exempli gratia, for example आचितम्,निरुक्तम्, प्रश्लिष्टम्; confer, compare Kāśikā on P. VI.2.146.
ātideśikaapplied by extension or transfer of epithet as opposed to औपदेशिक. See the word अतिदेश; the term is often used in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; confer, compare यदि आतिदेशिकेन कित्वेन औपदेशिकं कित्वं बाध्येत. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.1.; confer, compare also अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् Par.Śek. Pari. 93.6.
ātiśāyikaa tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes तम and इष्ठ as also तर and ईयस् prescribed by Pāṇini by the rules अतिशायने तमबिष्ठनौ and द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तरबीयसुनौ confer, compare P.V.3.55, 57. This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. eg.श्रेष्ठतमाय कर्मणे Yaj. Saṁ. I.1; confer, compare also तदन्ताच्च स्वार्थे छन्दसि दर्शनं श्रेष्ठतमायेति P.V.3.55 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).3.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
āśvalāyanaprātiśākhyaan authoritative Prātiśākhya work attributed to Śaunaka the teacher of Āśvalāyana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Bāṣkala Śakhās of the Ṛgveda. it is widely known by the name Ṛk-Prātiśākhya. It is a metrical composition divided into . 18 chapters called Paṭalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the Ṛksaṁhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by Uvvaṭa.
utpalaauthor of a commentary on Pāṇini's Liṅgānuśāsana. It is doubtful whether he was the same as उत्पल-भट्ट or ‌भट्टोत्पल, the famous astrologer of the tenth century.
udāttathe acute accent defined by Pāṇini in the words उचैरुदात्त: P.I.2. 29. The word उच्चैः is explained by Patañjali in the words 'आयामो दारुण्यं अणुता स्वस्य इति उचैःकराणि शब्दस्य' where आयाम (गात्रनिग्रह restriction of the organs), दारुण्य (रूक्षता rudeness ) and स्वस्य अणुता ( कण्ठस्य संवृतता closure of the glottis) are given as specific characteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple word as also a compound word-and when a vowel in a word is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the अनुदात्त or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess any independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accert corresponds to what is termed 'accent' in English and other languages.
upasargapreposition, prefix. The word उसपर्ग originally meant only 'a prefixed word': confer, compare सोपसर्गेषु नामसु Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVI. 38. The word became technically applied by ancient Sanskrit Gratmmarians to the words प्र, परा, अप, सम् et cetera, and others which are always used along with a verb or a verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; confer, compare उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I. 4.59. 'These prefixes are necessariiy compounded with the following word unless the latter is a verbal form; confer, compare कुगतिप्रादयः P.II. 2.18. Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these prepositions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervention of one word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of the root. Some scholars like Śākaṭāyana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes do not express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gārgya hold the view that prefixes do express a sense e. g. प्र means beginning or प्रारम्भ; confer, compare न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः । नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति । उच्चावचाः पदार्था भवन्तीति गार्ग्यः । तद्य एषु पदार्थः प्राहुरिमं तं नामाख्यातयोरर्थविकरणम् Nirukta of Yāska.I. 8. It is doubtful, however, which view Pāṇini himself held. In his Ātmanepada topic, he has mentioned some specific roots as possessing some specific senses when preceded by some specific prefixes (see P. I. 3.20, 24, 25, 40, 4l, 46, 52, 56, et cetera, and others), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while prefixes are simply instrumental in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacanīyas,the same words प्र, परा et cetera, and others which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called Nipātas, are actually assigned some specific senses by Pāṇini. The Vārttikakāra has defined उपसर्ग as क्रियाविशेषक उपसर्गः P. I. 3.I. Vārt 7, leaving it doubtful whether the उपसर्ग or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent sense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bhartṛhari, Kaiyaṭa and their followers including Nāgeśa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipātas, which include प्र, परा and others as Upasargas as well as Karmapravacanīyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact द्योतक and not वाचक. For details see Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3, Vākyapadīya II. 190, Mahābhāṣya on I. 3.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7 and Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attachedition It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words वाचक in stanza 6 and विशेषकृत् in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; cf उपसर्गा विंशतिरर्थवाचकाः सहेतराभ्यामितरे निपाताः; क्रियावाचकभाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत्, सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list of upasargas see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 6, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 15, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI.24, and S. K. on P. I.4.60.
upasargadyotyatāthe view or doctrine that prefixes, by themselves, do not possess any sense, but they indicate the sense of the verb or noun with which they are connectedition For details See Vākyapadīya II.165-206; also vol. VII. pages 370-372 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya edition by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ubhayagatiboth the alternatives; both the senses; double signification; confer, compare उभयगतिरिह भवति P.I.1.23,Vārt 4,Pari. Śek, Par. 9 where the word ubhaya refers to both the senses-the ordinary one ( अकृत्रिम } and the technical one ( कृत्रिम)--exempli gratia, for example the meanings ( i ) numeral, and ( ii ) words बहु, गण et cetera, and others of the word संख्या.
ubhayapada(1)double voice--the Parasmaipada as well as the Ātmanepada; (2) both the words or members (in a compound); confer, compare उभयपदार्थप्रधानो द्वन्द्वः Kāś on P.I.2.57.
ūkaugment ऊ added to the अभ्यास or the reduplicative syllable of the root पठ् which is doubled before the affix क which is used instead of घ ( घञर्थे कः ); exempli gratia, for example पाटूपटः.
ekamunipakṣaa view or doctrine propounded by one of the many ancient sages or munis who are believed to be the founders of a Sastra; a view propounded only by Pāṇini, to the exclusion of Kātyāyana and Patañjali; confer, compare एकमुनिपक्षे तु अचो ञ्णितीत्यत्राच इति योगं विभज्य...व्यवस्थितविभाषात्रोक्ता Durghaṭa-Vṛtti I.1.5; see also I.4.24, II.3.18.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
editmarked by the mute indicatory letter ए. Roots marked with indicatory ए do not allow वृद्धि for their vowel in the aorist: exempli gratia, for example अरगीत्, अलगीत्; confer, compare P.VII.2.5.
aaudumvarāyaṇaan ancient sage whose doctrine of 'evanescence of words' (literally existence as long as its cognition is had by the sense organs) is seen quoted in the Nirukta; confer, compare इन्द्रियनित्यं वचनमौदुम्बरायणस्तत्र चतुष्टयं नोपपद्यते Nirukta of Yāska.I.1.
aupasaṃkhyānikasubsequently stated by way of addition or modification as done by the Vārttikakāras; confer, compare औपसंख्यानिकस्य णस्यापवादंः । आरण्यको मनुष्यः Kāś on P.IV.2.129; confer, compare also Kāś. on V.1.29 and VI.3.41.
{{c|-( anusvāra ) ṃanusvāraor nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra id est, that is अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 1.
or विसर्गः literally letting out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath escaping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjanīya, just like the anusvāra, is incapable of being independently utteredition Hence, it is written for convenience as अः although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vowel preceding it; confer, compare अः इति विसर्जनीयः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति कुमारीस्तनयुगाकृतिर्वर्णो विसर्जनीयसंज्ञो भवति । Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk. I.1.16. See अः a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 2.
m̐ nāsikyaa nasal letter or utterance included among the अयोगवाह letters analogous to anusvāra and yama letters. It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as हुँ इति नासिक्यः on which Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.makes the remark अयमृक्शाखायां प्रसिद्धः. The Ṛk-Prātiśākhya mentions नासिक्य, यम and अनुस्वार as नासिक्य or nasal letters, while Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.defines नासिक्य as a letter produced only by the nose; confer, compare केवलनासिकया उच्चार्यमाणे वर्णॊ नासिक्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya calls the letter ह् as nāsikya when it is followed by the consonant न् or ण् or म् and gives अह्नाम् , अपराह्णे and ब्रह्म as instances. The Pāṇinīya Śikṣā does not mention नासिक्य as a letter. The Mahābhāṣya mentions नासिक्य as one of the six ayogavāha letters; confer, compare के पुनरयोगवाहाः । विसर्जनीयजिह्वामूलीयोपध्मानीयानुस्वारानुनासिक्ययमाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Śivasūtra 5 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, where some manuscripts read नासिक्य for अानुनासिक्य while in some other manuscripts there is neither the word आनुनासिक्य nor नासिक्य. It is likely that the anunāsika-colouring given to the vowel preceding the consonant सू substituted for the consonants म, न् and others by P. VIII. 3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a separate phonetic unit and called नासिक्य as for instance in सँस्कर्ता, मा हिँसीः, सँशिशाधि et cetera, and others
yamaa letter called यम which is uttered partly through the nose. A class consonant excepting the fifth, when followed by the fifth viz. ङ्, ञ्, ण्, न or म् , gets doubled in the Vedic recital, when the second of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the following nasal consonant is called यम. This यम letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon the following nasal consonant and hence it is called अयोगवाह. The nasalization is shown in script as xx followed by the consonant; e. g. पलिक्क्नी, अगूग्रे, et cetera, and others The pronunciation of this yama or twin letter is seen in the Vedic recital only; confer, compare पलिक्कनी ... कखगघेभ्य; परे तत्सदृशा एव यमाः S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1. confer, compare कु खु गु घु इति यमाः विंशतिसंख्याका भवन्ति Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII.24.
karkyādia class of words headed by the word कर्की, the word प्रस्थ after which in a compound, does not have the acute accent on its first vowel. e. g. कर्कीप्रस्थः; confer, compare P.VI.2.87.
kartṛsthakriya(a root)whose activity is found functioning in the subject;confer, compare यत्र क्रियाकृतविशेषदर्शनं कर्तरि Kaiyata on P.III.1.87 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3. Such roots, although transitive do not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule कर्मवत्कर्मणा तुल्यक्रियः P.III. 1.87. as exempli gratia, for example ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः has no कर्मकर्तरि construction; confer, compare कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवद् भवतीति वक्तव्यम् । कर्तृस्थभावकानां कर्तृस्थक्रियाणां वा कर्ता कर्मवन्मा भूदिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.87. Vārt, 3.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
kamenāmanliterally noun showing action, participle. कर्मप्रवचनीय a technical term used in connection with a preposition which showed a verbal activity formerly, although for the present time it does not show it; the word is used as a technical term in grammar in connection with prefixes or उपसर्गs which are not used along.with a root, but without it confer, compare कर्म प्रोक्तवन्तः कर्मप्रवचनीयाः इति M.Bh. on P.I.4.83; exempli gratia, for example शाकल्यस्य संहितामनु प्रावर्षत्, अन्वर्जुनं योद्धारः, अा कुमारं यशः पाणिनेः; confer, compare Kāś. on P.I.4.83 to 98.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kāmacāraoption; permission to do as desired liberty of applying any of the rules of grammar that present themselves; confer, compare तत्र कामचारो गृह्यमाणेन वा विभक्तिं विशेषयितुं अङ्गेन वा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.27 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kāryakālaalong with the operation; confer, compare कार्यकालं संज्ञापरिभाषम् , rules laying down technical terms and regulating rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations ( provided the technical terms occur in those rules, or, the regulating rules concern those rules). See Pari. Śek. Pari 3.
kurvadrūpaeffective or efficient, as opposed to dormant, as applied to निमित्त (cause); confer, compareनिमित्तशब्दोयमस्ति योग्यतामात्रे । कुसुलस्थेष्वपि बीजेषु वक्तारो भवन्ति अङ्कुरनिमित्तान्येतानीति अस्ति च कुर्वद्रूपे । Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on P.VII.2.36.
kṛtliterally activity; a term used in the grammars of Pāṇini and others for affixes applied to roots to form verbal derivatives; confer, compare कृदतिङ् । धातोः ( ३ ।१।९१ ) इत्यधिकारे तिङ्कवर्जितः प्रत्ययः कृत् स्यात् । Kāś. on III.1.93, The kṛt affixes are given exhaustively by Pāṇini in Sūtras III.1.91 to III.4. I17. कृत् and तद्धित appear to be the ancient Pre-Pāṇinian terms used in the Nirukta and the Prātiśākhya works in the respective senses of root-born and noun-born words ( कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त according to Pāṇini's terminology), and not in the sense of mere affixes; confer, compare सन्त्यल्पप्रयोगाः कृतोप्यैकपदिकाः Nirukta of Yāska.I.14: अथापि भाषिकेभ्यो धातुभ्यो नैगमाः कृतो भाष्यन्ते Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; तिङ्कृत्तद्धितसमासा: शब्दमयम् V.Pr. I.27; also confer, compare V.Pr. VI.4. Patañjali and later grammarians have used the word कृत् in the sense of कृदन्त; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Pari Śek.Pari.75. The kṛt affixes are given by Pāṇini in the senses of the different Kārakas अपादान, संप्रदान, करण, अाधकरण, कर्म and कर्तृ, stating in general terms that if no other sense is assigned to a kṛt affix it should be understood that कर्ता or the agent of the verbal activity is the sense; confer, compare कर्तरि कृत् । येष्वर्थनिर्देशो नास्ति तत्रेदमुपतिष्ठते Kāś. on III.4.67. The activity element possessed by the root lies generally dormant in the verbal derivative nouns; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति, क्रियावदपि । M.Bh.on V.4.19 and VI. 2.139
kṛta(१)a term used by ancient grammarians in the sense of 'past tense';(2) effected, done. The word is mostly used in this sense in grammar.works;exempli gratia, for example किं तेन कृतं स्यात् ; नानुबन्धकृतमनेकात्त्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari. 6.
kṛtyaliterally that which should be done; the word कृत्य is used as a tech nical term in grammar in the sense of kṛt affixes which possess the sense 'should be done'. Pāṇini has not defined the term कृत्य but he has introduced a topic ( अधिकार ) by the name कृत्य (P. III.1.95), and mentioned kṛt afixes therein which are to be called कृत्य right on upto the mention of the affix ण्वुल्. in P.III. 1.133; confer, compare कृत्याः प्राङ् ण्वुलः P. III. 1.95 The kṛtya affixes, commonly found in use, are तव्य, अनीय and य ( यत्, क्यप् and ण्यत् ).
ktakṛt affix त in various senses, called by the name निष्ठा in Pāṇini's grammar along with the affix क्तवतू confer, compare क्तक्तवतू निष्ठा P.I.1.26.The various senses in which क्त is prescribed can be noticed below : (1) the general sense of something done in the past time as past passive voice.participle e. g. कृत:, भुक्तम् et cetera, and others: cf P. III.2.102; (2) the sense of the beginning of an activity when it is used actively: e. g. प्रकृतः कटं देवदत्तः, confer, compare P.III.2.102 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with a mute ञ् as also to roots in the sense of desire, knowledge and worship; exempli gratia, for exampleमिन्नः, क्ष्विण्ण:, धृष्ट: as also राज्ञां मतः, राज्ञामिष्टः, राज्ञां बुद्धः; confer, compare P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of mere verbal activity (भाव) e. g. हसितम् , सहितम् , जल्पितम् , (used always in the neuter gender); confer, compare P.III.3. 114: (5) the sense of benediction when the word ending in क्त is used as a technical term, exempli gratia, for example देवदत्तः in the sense of देवा एनं देयासुः. The kṛt affix क्तिन् is also used similarly exempli gratia, for example सातिः भूतिः मन्ति:; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.3.174.
ktavatukṛt affix तवत् which also is called निष्ठा. It is prescribed in the active sense of somebody who has done a thing sometime in the past. A word ending in it is equivalent to the past active participle; exempli gratia, for example भुक्तवान् ब्राह्मणः cf P.I.1.26. The feminine. affix डीप् ( ई ) is added to nouns ending in क्तवतु to form feminine bases; confer, compare P.IV.1.6.
ktvāntagerund; a mid-way derivative of a verbal root which does not leave its verbal nature on the one hand although it takes the form of a substantive on the other hand.
kyacdenominative affix ( विकरण ) in the sense of desiring for oneself, added to nouns to form denomitive roots; exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति; क्यच् is also added to nouns that are upamānas or standards of comparison in the sense of (similar) behaviour: exempli gratia, for example पुत्रीयति च्छात्रम्: confer, compare Kāś. on P. III.1.8, 10. It is also added in the sense of 'doing' to the words नमस्, वरिवस् and चित्र; e. g. नमस्यति देवान्, वरिवस्यति गुरून् , चित्रीयते ; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.19.
kyapkṛt afix य applied to the roots व्रज् and यज् in the sense of 'verbal activity' and to the roots अजू with सम्, षद् with नि et cetera, and others to form proper nouns e. g. व्रज्या, इज्या, समज्या, निषद्या et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III. 3.98 and 99; (2) kṛtya affix य in the sense of 'should be done' applied to the roots वद्, भू and हन् (when preceded by certain words put as upapada), as also to roots with penultimate ऋ and the roots मृज्, इ, स्तु and others; e. g. ब्रह्मोद्यम् , ब्रह्मभूयम् , इत्यम् , स्तुत्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1. 106,121.
kratvādia class of words headed by the word क्रतु, which have their first vowel accented acute in a Bahuvrīhi dompound, provided the first member of the compound is the word सु; exempli gratia, for example सुक्रतुः, सुप्रपूर्तिः et cetera, and others; confer, compare confer, compare Kāś. on P. VI.2.118.
krama(1)serial order or succession as contrasted with यौगपद्य or simultaneity. The difference between क्रम and यौगपद्य is given by भर्तृहरि in the line क्रमे विभिद्यते रूपं यौगपद्ये न भिद्यते Vāk. Pad. II. 470. In order to form a word by the application of several rules of grammar, a particular order is generally followed in accordance with the general principle laid down in the Paribhāṣā पूर्वपरनित्यान्तरङ्गापवादानामुत्तरोत्तरं बलीयः, as also according to what is stated in the sūtras असिद्धवदत्राभात्, पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् et cetera, and others (2) succession, or being placed after, specifically with reference to indeclinables like एव, च et cetera, and others which are placed after a noun with which they are connectedition When an indecinable is not so connected, it is called भिन्नक्रम; confer, compare परिपन्थं च तिष्ठति (P.IV. 4.36), चकारो भिन्नक्रमः प्रत्ययार्थं समुच्चिनोति, Kāś. on P. IV. 4.36; also ईडजनोर्ध्वे च । चशब्दो भिन्नक्रमः
īśeḥ(VII.2.77)अनुकर्षणार्थो विज्ञायते Kāś. on P.IV.2.78; (3) succession of the same consonant brought about; doubling; reduplication; क्रम is used in this way in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya as a synonym of dvitva prescribed by Pāṇini; e. g. अा त्वा रथं becomes अा त्त्वा रथम् ; सोमानं स्वरणम् becomes सोमानं स्स्वरणम् ; confer, compare स्वरानुस्वारोपहितो द्विरुच्यते संयोगादि: स क्रमोSविक्रमे सन् । etc, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. l to 4; confer, compare also स एष द्विर्भावरूपो विधिः क्रमसंज्ञो वेदितव्यः Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1. The root क्रम् IA. is several times used in the Prātiśākhya works for द्विर्भवन, confer, compare also T. Pr.XXI.5; XXIV.5; (4) repetition of a word in the recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called क्रमपाठ, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of words combined in the Saṁhitā by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of ण् for न् , or of ष् for स् , as also the separate words of a compound word ( सामासिकशब्द ); e. g. पर्जन्याय प्र । प्र गायत । गायत दिवः । दिवस्पुत्राय । पुत्राय मीळ्हुषे । मीळ्हुषे इति मीळ्हुषे । confer, compare क्रमो द्वाभ्यामतिक्रम्य् प्रत्यादायोत्तरं तयोः उत्तेरेणोपसंदध्यात् तथार्द्धर्चं समापयेत् ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) X. 1. For details and special features, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) ch. X and XI: confer, compare also Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 182190: T. Pr, XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
kramaṇadoubling. Irregular doubling is looked upon as a fault; confer, compare क्रमणं वा अयथेाक्तम् R.Pr. XIV. 25.
kramapāṭharecital of the Vedic Saṁhitā by means of separate groups of two words, repeating each word except the first of the Vedic verseline; see क्रम a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The various rules and exceptions are given in detail in Paṭalas ten and eleven of the Ṛk Prātiśākhya. The Vedic Saṁhitā or Saṁhitāpāṭha is supposed to be the original one and the Padapāṭha prepared later on, with a view to preserving the Vedic text without any change or modification of a letter, or accent; confer, compare न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः । पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. 2.16, where Patañjali clearly says that grammar-rules are not to follow the Padapāṭha, but, the writer of the Padapāṭha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jaṭāpāṭha, the Ghanapāṭha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapāṭha as they are not mentioned in the Prātiśākhya works.
kramyaa consonant which is subjected to doubling confer, compare क्रम्यो वर्णः पूर्वमक्षरं भजते Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVIII. 18.
kriyāaction, verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियावचनो धातु: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 3.1 ; confer, compare also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8. quoted by Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.in his Bhāṣya on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50; confer, compare also उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे P. I.4.59, लक्षणहेत्वेाः क्रियायाः P.III. 2.126; confer, compare also यत्तर्हि तदिङ्गितं चेष्टितं निमिषितं स शब्दः । नेत्याह क्रिया नाम सा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Āhnika 1. The word भाव many times is used in the same sense as kriyā or verbal activity in the sūtras of Pāṇini. confer, compare P.I.2.21 ; I.3.13; III. 1. 66.etc; confer, compare also कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति a statement made frequently by the Mahābhāṣyakāra. Some scholars draw a nice distinction between क्रिया and भाव, क्रिया meaning dynamic activity and भाव meaning static activity: confer, compare अपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यो धात्वर्थो भावः । सपरिस्पन्दनसाधनसाध्यस्तु क्रिया Kaiyaṭa's Kaiyaṭa's Mahābhāṣyapradīpa.on Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). III. 1.87. Philosophically क्रिया is defined as सत्ता appearing in temporal sequence in various things. When सत्ता does not so appear it is called सत्त्व.
krauḍyādia class of words headed by the word क्रौडि which do not take the feminine affix ई when they stand at the end of a compound; exempli gratia, for example कल्याणक्रौडा, सुभगा, पृथुजघना et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on P.IV.1.56.
khataddhita affix. affix, always changed into ईन, (l) applied to the word कुल in the sense of a descendant, exempli gratia, for example कुलीनः, आढ्यकुलीन:; confer, compare P. IV. 1.139; (2) applied to the words अवार, पार, पारावार and अवारपार in the Śaīṣika senses, e. g. अवारीणः, पारीणः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.IV.2.93 and Vārttikas 2, 3 on it; (3) applied to words ending in the word वर्ग ( which does not mean 'sound' or 'letter' ) in the sense of 'present there,' e. g. वासुदेववर्गीणः, युधिष्ठिरवर्गीणः; confer, compare P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words सर्वधुर and एकधुर in the sense of 'bearing,' and to ओजसू , वेशोभग, यशोभग and पूर्व, exempli gratia, for example ओजसीनः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.4.78, 79, 130, 132, 133; (5) applied in the sense of 'favourable to' to the words आत्मन् , विश्वजन, et cetera, and others (P.V.1.9), to विंशतिक, (32) to अाढक, अाचित, पात्र and others (53-55), to समा (85-86), to रात्रि, अहन् , संवत्सर and वर्ष (87-88) and संवत्सर and परिवत्सर (92); e. g. आत्मनीनः, आढकीनः पात्रीणः, समीनः, संवत्सरीणः et cetera, and others; (6) to the words सर्वचर्मन्, यथामुख et cetera, and others e. g. सर्वचर्मीणः confer, compare P.V. 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words अषडक्ष, अशितंगु et cetera, and others confer, compare P.V.4.7,8. e. g. अषडक्षीणः. (8) ख is also a technical term in the sense of elision or लोप in the Jainendra Grammar confer, compare Jain I. 1.61. (9) The word ख is used in the sense of 'glottis' or the hole of the throat ( गलबिल ) in the ancient Prātiṣākhya works.
gthird letter of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the properties घोष, संवृत, नाद and अल्पप्राण; some grammarians look upon the word क्ङित् (P.I.1.5) as made up of क् , ग् and ङ् and say that the Guna and Vṛddhi substitutes do not take place in the vowels इ, उ, ऋ, and लृ if an affix or so, marked by the mute letter ग् follows.
guṇādia class of words headed by the word गुण, which, when preceded by the word बहु in a Bahuvrihi compound, do not have their last vowel acute; e. g. बहुगुणा रज्जुः; बह्वक्षरं पदम् , et cetera, and others This class of गुणादि words is considered as आकृतिगण; confer, compare Kas, on P. VI. 2.176.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
ca(l)the letter च्, the vowel अ being added for facility of utterance, cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21; (2) a Bratyahara or short term standing for the palatal class of consonants च्, छ्, ज्,झ् and ञ्; cf इचशेयास्तालौ Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 66; (3) indeclinable च called Nipata by Panini; confer, compare चादयोSसत्त्वे P. I. 4.57, च possesses four senses समुच्चय, अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 2.29. See also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2.29 Vart. 15 for a detailed explanation of the four senses. The indeclinable च is sometimes used in the sense of 'a determined mention' or avadharana; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose of अनुवृत्ति or अनुकर्षण i. e. drawing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rule; confer, compare चानुकृष्टं नोत्तरत्र Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for अभ्यास (reduplicative syllable) used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; confer, compare चविकारेषु अपवादा उत्सर्गान्न बाधन्ते Kat. Pari. 75.
caritakriyahaving kriya or verbactivity hidden in it. The term is used by Bhartrhari in connection with a solitary noun-word or a substantive having the force of a sentence, and hence which can be termed a sentence on account of the verbal activity dormant in it. exempli gratia, for example पिण्डीम्; confer, compare वाक्यं तदपि मन्यन्ते यत्पदं वरितक्रियम् Vakyapad.II. 326, and चरिता गर्भीकृता आख्यातक्रिया यस्य तद्गर्भीकृतक्रियापदं नामपदं वाक्यं प्रयुञ्जते ! Com. on Vakyapadya II.326.
cāndraname of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition.
chaṇtaddhita affix. affix ईय causing the vrddhi substitute for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition छण् is added (1) to the words पितृत्वसृ and मातृप्वसृ in the sense of अपत्य; confer, compare P IV. 1.132, 134; (2) to the words कृशाश्व,अरिष्ट and others as a चातुरर्थिक affix: confer, compare P. IV. 2.80; (3) to the words तित्तिरि, वरतन्तु, खण्डिक and उख in the sense of 'instructed by', confer, compare P.IV.3.102; and (4) to the word शलातुर in the sense of 'being a national of' or 'having as a domicile.' e. g. शालातुरीयःconfer, compare P. IV. 3.94.
jahaddharmatvaabandonment or giving up of properties in the case of a word included in a वृत्ति or composite expression; confer, compare जहद्धर्मत्वाच्छब्दप्रवृत्तेः Durghata Vrtti on P. II. 2.6.
jit(l)literally affix marked with the mute letter ज्; e. g. जस्, जसि, जुस्. the word जित् is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the mute indicatory letter ज्.The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms; confer, compare जित् पर्यायवचनस्यैव राजांद्यर्थम् P.I.1.68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra सभा राजामनुष्यपूर्वा P.II. 4. 23, the word राजन् is supposed to be जित् and hence it denotes इन्, ईश्वर et cetera, and others; but not the word राजन् itself; (3) In the Pratisakhya works जित् means the first two consonants of each class (वर्ग); exempli gratia, for example क्, ख्,च्, छ्. et cetera, and others which are the same as खय् letters in Panini's terminology; confer, compare द्वौ द्वौ प्रथमौ जित्, V. Pr.I.50;III.13.
ñyataddhita affix य signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition It is added (1) to words headed by प्रगदिन् in the four senses termed वंतुरर्थ exempli gratia, for exampleप्रागृद्यम्, शारद्यम् et cetera, and others;confer, compareP.IV. 2.80; (2).to the word गम्भीर and अव्ययीभाव compounds in the sense of present there', exempli gratia, for example गाम्भीर्यम् , पारिमुख्यम् et cetera, and others confer, compare P.IV.3.58, 59 (3) to the word विदूर exempli gratia, for example वैदुर्य; confer, compare P. IV.3.84;.(4) to the words headed by शण्डिक in the sense of 'domicile of', exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्यः ; confer, compare P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words छन्दोग, औक्थिक, नट et cetera, and others in the sense of duty (धर्म) or scripture (अाम्नाय) e. g. छान्दोग्यम् , औविथक्यम् नाट्यम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 3.129; (6) to the word गृहपति in the sense of ’associated with'; exempli gratia, for example गार्हपत्यः (अग्निः);confer, compareP.IV.4.90;(7) to the words ऋषभ and उपानह् ; confer, compare P. V.1.14; .(8) to the words अनन्त, आवसथ et cetera, and others,confer, compare P. V.4.23; (9) to the word अतिथि; confer, compare P.V.4.26; and (10) to the words in the sense of पूग(wandering tribes for earning money), as also to the words meaning व्रात (kinds of tribes) as also to words ending with the affix च्फञ् under certain conditions; confer, compare P.V.3. 112, 113.
ḍāctaddhita affix. affix आ applied to dissyllabic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoetic, when connected with the root कृ or भू or अम्. The word to which डाच् is applied becomes generally doubled; c. g पटपटाकरोति, पटपटाभवति पटपटास्यात्; confer, compare P.V.4.57. The affix डाच् is also applied to द्वितीय, तृतीय, to compound words formed of a numeral and the word गुण, as also to the words सपत्र, निष्पत्र, सुख, प्रिच etc when these words are connected with the root कृ;exempli gratia, for example द्वितीयाकरोति,तृतीया करोति, द्विगुणाकरोति, सपत्राकरोति, सुखाकरोति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.V.4. 58 to 67.
ḍhakañtaddhita affix. affix एयक applied (1) to the word कुल optionally along with यत् and ख, when it is not a member of a compound;.e. g. कौलेयकः, कुल्यः, कुलीनः; confer, compare P.'IV. 1. 140; (2) to the words कत्त्रि and others in the Saisika senses as also to the words कुल, कुक्षि and ग्रीवा, if the words formed with the affix added, respectively mean dog, sword and ornament : e. g. कात्त्रेयकः कौलेयक: (श्वा), कौक्षेयकः (असिः), ग्रैवेयकः (अलंकारः): confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV 2.95,96.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
tthe first consonant of the dental class of consonants which has got the properties श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष, विवृतकण्ठत्व and अल्पप्राणत्व. When used as a mute letter by Panini, त् signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it: e. g. कार्यम्, हार्यम्, पयस्यम् confer, compare P. VI.1.185. When appied to a vowel at its end, त् signifies the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with त् , e. g. अात् stands for अा with any of the three accents as also pure or nasalised; अात् does not include अं or अ 3 confer, compare तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indicatory mute त् for the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. purpose is seen also in the Pratis akhya works; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 114 Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 234.
takṣaśilādia class of words headed by तक्षशिला to which the taddhita affix अ ( अञ् ) is added in the sense of 'a native place or a domicile'. The word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel; e. g. ताक्षशिलः वात्सोद्वरणः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.93.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tadādividhia convention similar to the तदन्तविधि of Panini,laid down by the Varttikakara laying down that in case an operation is prescribed for something followed by a single letter, that single letter should be taken to mean a word beginning with that single letter: confer, compare यस्मिन्विधिस्तदादावल्ग्रहणे P.I.1.72 Vart. 29: Par. Sek. Pari. 33.
tṛjvadbhāvatreatment of a word as ending with the affix तृच् although, in fact, it does not so end; e. g. the word क्रोष्टु; confer, compare तृज्वत्क्रोष्टु:, P. VII. 1.95 ; confer, compare also तृज्वद्भावस्यावकाशः क्रोष्ट्रा क्रोष्टुना; M.Bh, on VII. 1.95 Vart. 10.
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
trātaddhita affix. affix त्रा in the sense of something donated, as also to the words देव, मनुष्य, पुरुष, पुरु and मर्त्य ending in the accusative or the locative case; e. g. व्राह्मणत्रा करोति, देवत्रा वसतिः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.4.55,56. ’There is avagraha before the taddhita affix. affix त्रा. देवत्रेति देवSत्रा्; confer, compare V.Pr. V.9.
dntyaproduced at the teeth, dental; formed at the teeth by the tip of the tongue; exempli gratia, for example the letters लृ ल् ,स् and तवर्ग; confer, compare लृलसिता दन्ते V.Pr.I.69. According to Panini's grammar लॄ(long) does not exist. According to Taittirya Prtisakhya र् is partly dental and partly lingual; cf T.Pr.II.41, while व् is partly dental and partly labial; confer, compare T.Pr. II.43; confer, compare दन्त्या जिह्वाग्रकरणाः V. Pr.I. 76; confer, compare लुग्वा दुहदिहलिहगुहामात्मनेपदे दन्त्ये P. VII. 3.73.
durgasiṃhathe famous commentator of the Katantra sutras, whose Vrtti on the sutras is the most popular one. It is called , कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति or कातन्तवृत्ति or दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति , also. A work on Paribhasas named परिभाषावृति, in which Paribhasas are explained and established as based on the Katantra Vyakarana sutras, is attributed to Durgasimha. It is doubtful whether this commentator Durgasimha is the same as Durgacarya, the famous commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. There is a legend that Durgasimha was the brother of Vikramaditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss on the Katantra sutras, some grammar works such as a gloss on the unadi sutras, a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on Kalapa-Vyakarana Sutras, a commentary on Karakas named षट्कारकरत्न, Namalinganusasana and Paribhasavrtti are ascribed to Durgasimha. Some scholars believe that the term अमरसिंह was only a title given to Durgasimha for his profound scholarship, and it was Durgasimha who was the author of the well-known work Amarakosa.
dṛṣṭāntasimilar instance,generally quoted to explain effectively some rules or conventions laid down; confer, compare ननु चायमप्यस्ति दृष्टान्तः समुदाये वाक्यपरिसमाप्तिरिति । तद्यथा गर्गाः शतं दण्ड्यन्तामिति M.Bh. on P.I. 1. 7.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dviḥdoubled; the term is used in connection with reduplication in the Katantra and Haima grammars confer, compare Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV.1.1, Kat.III 8. 10.
dviḥprayogadoubling, putting a word or word element twice;the words द्वित्व and द्विर्वचन are used in the same sense.
kāryayogasimultaneous occurrence of two grammatical operations resulting into a conflict and creating a doubt as to which of the two should take place first; confer, compareद्विकार्ययोगो हि विप्रतिषेधः M.Bh. on P.I.1.3 Vart. 6; I.1.12; et cetera, and others The term विप्रतिषेध occurring in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2 is evidently defined in this way by the word द्विकार्ययोग in the Mahabhsya.
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dvivarṇa(1)a repeated consonant; confer, compare द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत्, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 144: (2) doubling, repetition: cf ह्रस्वपूर्वो ङकारो द्विवर्णम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.IX. 18; confer, compare also Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) IX. 18.
dvisdouble reduplicated; the word is frequently used in connection with doubling of consonants or words in the PratiSakhya Literature as also in the Katantra, Sakatayana and Haima grammars confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1, XV. 5, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 101, R, T. 264; confer, compare also Kat. III. 8.10, Sak. IV. 1.43; Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV. 1.1.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
dhāraṇa(1)suppression of a consonant, out of two successive consonants which is looked upon as a fault of recital; exempli gratia, for example ह्वयामि when recited as वयामि; efeminine. धारणमनुपलब्धिः Uvvata on R.Pr.XIV. 6; (2) repetition of a consonant which is also a fault; exempli gratia, for example ज्ज्योतिष्कृत् for ज्योतिष्कृत्: confer, compare Uvvata on XIV.6;confer, compare also धारयन्त; परक्रमं et cetera, and others explained by Uvvata as सान्तस्थस्य संयोगस्य आदौ रक्तं धारयन्तो विलम्बमानाः परक्रमं कुर्वन्ति where धारयन्तः means 'lengthening’ or 'prolonging' confer, compare R.Pr. on XIV.23; (3) the peculiar position of the mouth (मुखसंधारणम् ) by which a double consonant is recited as a single one, confer, compare द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत् ( एकप्रयत्ननिर्वर्त्य ) धारणात् exempli gratia, for example व्यात्तम् , कुक्कुटः, confer, compare V.Pr. IV.144.
natiliterallyinclination, bending down; the word is used generally in the technical sense of 'cerebralization' but applied to the change of न् into ण् as also that of स् into ष्; confer, compare दन्त्यस्य मूर्धन्यापत्तिर्नतिः, V. Pr.I. 42. The root नम् is used in the sense of 'cerebralizing ' or 'being cerebralized' very frequently in the Pratisakhya works; exempli gratia, for example the word नम्यते is used in the sense of 'is cerebralized'; नमयति in the sense of 'cerebralizes' and नामिंन् in the sense of 'causing cerebralization'; confer, compare ऋकारादयो दश नामिन: स्वराः, पूर्वो नन्ता नतिषु नम्यमुत्तरम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 27.
naddhaa fault of pronunciation when a letter, although distinctly pronounced inside the mouth, does not become audible, being held up ( बद्ध ) by the lips or the like. The fault is similar to अम्बूकृत: confer, compare ओष्ठाभ्यामम्बूकृतमाह नद्धम् R.Pr.XIV.2.
nighātatoning down; the grave accent; the root निहन् in its various forms is used in the sense of toning down the voice and the word निघात is used in the sense of the grave accent (अनुदात्तस्वर) in the Vyakarana and Pratisakhya works; confer, compare also the words शेषनिघात, सर्वनिघात, et cetera, and others; confer, compare समानवाक्ये निघातयुष्मदस्मदादेशाः P. VIII. I.18 Vart. 5.
nitya(1)eternal, as applied to word or Sabda in contrast with sound or dhvani which is evanescent (कार्य ). The sound with meaning or without meaning,made by men and animals is impermanent; but the sense or idea awakened in the mind by the evanescent audible words on reaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; confer, compare स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायामादुपजायते; confer, compare also व्याप्तिमत्त्वा्त्तु शब्दस्य Nir.I.1 ; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; confer, compare उपबन्धस्तु देशाय नित्यम्, न रुन्धे नित्यम्। नित्यशब्दः प्राप्त्यन्तरानिषेधार्थः T.Pr.I.59, IV.14; (3) original as constrasted with one introduced anew such as an augment; confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.VI.14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; confer, compare नित्यविरते द्विमात्रम् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.37; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; confer, compare अयं नित्यशब्दोस्त्येव कूटस्थेष्वविचालिषु भावेषु वर्तते M.Bh. on P. VIII. 1.4; (6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply; confer, compare उपपदसमासो नित्यसमासः, षष्ठीसमासः पुनार्वेभाषा; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II.2.19; (7) constant,as applied to a rule which applies if another simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effect, as well as when that other rule does not take effect; confer, compare क्वचित्कृताकृतप्रसङ्गमात्रेणापि नित्यता Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations which are nitya according to this Paribhasa take effect in preference to others which are not 'nitya', although they may even be 'para'; confer, compare परान्नित्यं बलवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 42.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātadyotakatvathe view that the nipatas and the upasargas too, as contrasted with nouns,pronouns and other indeclinables, only indicate the sense and do not denote it; this view, as grammarians say, was implied in the Mahabhasya and was prominently given in the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrhari which was followed by almost all later grammarians. See निपात.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
nipātānarthakatvathe view prominently expressed by the Varttikakara that nipatas do not possess any sense, which was modified by Bhartrhari who stated that they do possess sense which, of course, is indicated and not expressedition See निपात.
niyata(1)regulated in size or number; definitely fixed; the word नियत is used in grammar in connection with the nimitta or nimittin in a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule, which, or a part of which, is shown to be superfluous unless there is laid down a regulation; confer, compare शेषग्रहणं कर्तव्यम् । शेषनियमार्थम् | प्रकृत्यर्थौ नियतौ प्रत्यया अनियतास्ते शेषेपि प्राप्नुवन्ति M.Bh. on I.3.12 Vart. 6; (2) The grave accent; cf उदात्तपूर्वं नियतं... स्वर्यते RPr.III.9.
niyama(1)restriction; regulation; binding; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; confer, compare M.Bh. on I. 1. 3, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11; confer, compare also the frequently quoted dictum अनियमे नियमकारिणी परिभाषा; (2) limitation as contrasted with विकल्प or कामचार; confer, compare अनेकप्राप्तावेकस्य नियमो भवति शेषेष्वनियम; पटुमृदुशुक्लाः पटुशुक्लमृदव इति; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) a regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimamsakas, e. g. the rule अनुदात्तङित आत्मनेपदम् P. I.3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restrictive sense as far as possible; confer, compare the dictum विधिनियमसंभवे विधिरेव ज्यायान्. Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions,. such as प्रयोगनियम,अभिधेयनियम,अर्थनियम, प्रत्ययनियम, प्रकृतिनियम, संज्ञानियम et cetera, and otherset cetera, and others; (4) grave accent or anudatta; confer, compare उदात्तपूर्वं नियतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 9; see नियत (2).
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
nivṛttisthānaplaces where the substitutes गुण and वृद्धि do not apply ; weak terminations; kit or nit affixes in Panini's grammar; confer, compare अथाप्यस्तेर्निवृत्तिस्थानेष्वादिलेापो भवति । स्तः सन्तीति । Nirukta of Yāska.II. 1. The word संक्रम is also used in this sense by ancient grammarians.
nihatastruck down in tone, grave, possessed of a grave accent; confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 138.
nyāyamaxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; confer, compare the words अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II 2.24, अपवादन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3.9, अविरविकन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, शालिपलालन्याय M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, confer, compare न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
parakramaa term used in the Praatisaakhya works for'doubling' of a consonant; | confer, compare सान्तःस्थादौ धारयन्तः परक्रमम् | Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV. 23.
paratvanyāyaapplication of the later rule before the former one, according to the dictum laid down by Paanini in the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4.2 ; confer, compare परत्वन्यायो 'न लङ्कितो भवति Sira. Pari. 84,
parikramathe same as परक्रम; doubling (द्वित्व ) of a subsequent consonant as for example the doubling of स् in इर्मन् स्स्याम ; confer, compare सान्त:स्थादौ धारयन्तः परक्रमं (1. varia lectio, another reading, I. परिक्रमं) R.Pr. XIV. 23.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pūrvatrāsiddhavacanathe dictum of Panini about rules in his second, third and fourth quarters (Padas) of the eighth Adhyaya being invalid to (viz. not seen by) all the previous rules in the first seven chapters and the first quarter of the eighth as laid down by him in the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. The rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् is taken also as a governing rule id est, that is अधिकार laying down that in the last three quarters also of his grammar, a subsequent rule is invalid to the preceding rule. The purpose of this dictum is to prohibit the application of the rules in the last three quarters as also that of a subsequent rule in the last three quarters, before all such preceding rules, as are applicable in the formation of a word, have been given effect to; confer, compare एवमिहापि पर्वेत्रासिद्धवचनं अादेशलक्षणप्रतिषेधार्थमुत्सर्गलक्षणभावार्थं च M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.1 Vart. 8.
pūrvasūtraliterally previous rule: a rule cited erlier in a treatise. The word is however, frequently used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of 'a rule laid down by an earlier grammarian': confer, compareवर्ण वाहुः पूर्वसूत्रे M. Bh, Ahnika 1, पूर्वसूत्रे गोत्रस्य वृद्धमिति संज्ञा क्रियते M. Bh on I. 2.68; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P.IV.1.14 Vart. 3, VI.I. 163 Vart. 1, VII.1.18, VIII. 4.7.
prakriyākaumudīa well-known work on Sanskrit Grammar by रामचन्द्रशेष of the 15th century, in which the subject matter of the eight chapters of Panini's grammar is arranged into several different sections forming the different topics of grammar. It is similar to, and possibly. the predecessor of, the Siddhanta Kaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before the Siddhinta Kaumudi was written. it has got many commentaries numbering about a dozen viz. प्रक्रियाप्रसाद, प्रक्रियाप्रकाश, प्रक्रियाप्रदीप, अमृतस्तुति, प्रक्रियाव्याकृति,निर्मलदर्पण,तत्वचन्द्र, प्रक्रियारञ्जन, प्रक्रियाविवरण and others of which the Prasada of Vitthalesa and the Prakasa of Srikrsna are the wellknown ones.
pratiṣiddhaa rule or operation which is prohibited or prevented from application by a specific negation of it by another rule or operation laid down to prohibit it. Generally the prohibited rule does not apply again; confer, compare सकृद्रतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद्वाधितं तद्वाधितमेव Par, Sek.Pari. 40; confer, compareनोत्सहते प्रतिषिद्धा सती बाधितुम् । M.Bh. on P. I. 1.43. The word प्रातिषिद्ध which is generally used in ancient works appears to be an earlier word as compared with निषिद्ध which is used by later grammarians.
pratiṣedhaprohibition, negation, prohibition of a rule or operation; generaliy प्रतिषेध or प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध is laid down by the use of the negative particle ( नञ् ) connected with a verbal activity, and not with a noun in a compound in which case the negation is named पर्युदास; confer, compare प्रसज्ज्यप्रतिषेधो यः क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदासः स विज्ञेयः थत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ।
pratiṣedhabalīyastvathe priority of consideration given to rules laying down a prohibition, for instance, the prohibition of guna or vrddhi by the rule ङ्किति च P. I. 1.5 after giving due consideration to which, the injunctions i. e the guna and vidhi rules are to be applied; confer, compare निषेधाश्च बलीयांसः Par. Sek. Pari. 112; confer, compare also. एवमप्युभयोः सावकाशयोः प्रतिषेधबलीयस्त्वात्प्रतिषेधः प्राप्नोति, M.Bh. P. on III. 1.30.
pratītārthawhose sense is clear and which hence does not require any further explanation; confer, compare यथा चापि प्रतीतार्थानि स्युस्तथैनान्याचक्षीरन् । Nirukta of Yāska.I.13.
pratyārambhaḥ(1)statement after prohibition literally commencing again; inducing a person to do something after he has refused to do it by repeating the order or request for generally by beginning the appeal with the word नह; exempli gratia, for example नह भोक्ष्यसे ? नह अध्येप्यसे; confer, compare नह प्रत्यारम्भे P. VIII. 1.31 and Kasika and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. thereon. (2) commencement or laying down again in spite of previous mention; confer, compare शेषवचनात्तु योसौ प्रत्यारम्भात्कृतो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI-3.46.
pradīpapopular name of the famous commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh century A. D. The cornmentary is a very scholarly and critical one and really does justice to the well-known compliment given to it, viz. that the Pradipa has kept the Mahabhasya alive which otherwise would have remained unintelligible and consequently become lost. The commentary प्रदीप is based on the commentary महाभाष्यदीपिका,or प्रदीपिका written by Bhartrhari, which is available at present only in a fragmentary form. The Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the Mahabhasya in spite of the presence of a few other commentaries on it which are all thrown into the back-ground by it.
pradeśaśāstraa rule, laying down a positive original injunction as opposed to the अपवादशास्त्र;confer, compare यैः अर्थाः प्रदिश्यन्ते तानि प्रदेशशास्त्राणि commentary on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI.35.
pradhāna(1)the principal thing as opposed to the subordinate one; something which has got an independent purpose of its own and is not meant for another; प्रधानमुपसर्जनमिति च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ M.Bh. on P. I.2.43 V.5; confer, compare also प्रधानाप्रधानयोः प्रधाने कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Par. Sek. Pari. 97; (2) predominant of main importance; confer, compare पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोव्ययीभावः et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.6, 20, 49 II.2.6 etc; (3) primary as opposed to secondary; confer, compare गौणे कर्मणि दुह्यादेः प्रधाने नीहृकृष्वहाम् । confer, compare also प्रधानकर्मण्याख्येये लादीनाहुर्द्विकर्मणाम् । अप्रधाने दुहादीनाम् M.Bh.on I.4.51
prayatna(1)effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; confer, compare तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य and आभ्यन्तर of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters ( सावर्ण्य ); confer, compareअाभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते;Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; confer, compare सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्वसूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.22.
prayoga(1)employment or use of a word in language and literature about which, laying down rules is looked upon as the purpose of grammar; confer, compare प्रयोगमूलत्वाद् व्याकरणस्मृतेः Kaiy.on P. V. 1.16, लोकतोर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमो यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika I. Vart. 1; (2) use of speech; utterance; confer, compare मध्यमेन स वाक्प्रयोगः प्रणवात्मकः कर्तव्यः, Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVIII. 4.
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
prayogaviṣayasphere or domain of the use of words; the whole Vedic and classical recognized literature: cf महान् हि शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः । सप्तद्वीपा वसुमती त्रयो लोकाः चत्वारो वेदाः साङ्गाः सरहस्याः बहुधा विाभन्नाः, एकशतमध्वर्युशाखाः, सहस्रवर्त्मा सामवेदः, एकविंशतिधा बाह् वृच्यम् , नवधाथर्वणो वेदो वाकोवाक्यामितिहासः पुराणं वैद्यकमित्येतावाञ्शब्दस्य प्रयोगविषयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika 1. Vrt. 5
prayojakacausing another to do; causal agent; confer, compare कुर्वाणं प्रयुङ्क्ते इति प्रयोजकः Ks. on P. I. 4.55.
prasajyapratiṣedhaprohibition of the possible application of a rule, generally laid down by the use of the negative particle न, together with, or connected with, a verbal activity: e.g न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.63, नामि P.VI. 4.3, न माङ्योगे VI.4.74 et cetera, and others etc: confer, compare प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधोSयं क्रियया सह यत्र नञ्; confer, comparealso प्रसज्यायं क्रियागुणौ ततः पश्चान्निवृतिं करोति M.Bh. on P.II.2.6. In some cases the negative particle in a compound has also to be taken as stating a negation by प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः;confer, compare M.Bh. on सुडनपुंसकस्य P.1.1.43, सार्वधातुकमपित् I.4.2, चादयोsसत्त्वे I. 4. 57.
prācīnamatathe view or doctrine of the former or rather older grammarians. The word is used in many commentary books and the meaning of the word is to be decided according to the context. For example in the works of Ramacandra, the author of the Prakriyakaumudi and his followers, the word refers to the view given by the writers of the Kasikavrtti and the commentaries thereon in the works of Bhattoji and his pupils, it refers to the writer of the Prakriyakaumudi in addition to the writers of the Kasika, while in the works of Nagesa it refers to the writings of Bhattoji and his pupils. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. V1I pp. 23-24 D. E. Society's Edition.
prāyikaoptional, to be done at pleasure, common, usual; confer, compare प्रायिकं चैतत् ।
priyādia class of words headed by the word प्रिया which do not allow their previous word in a bahuvrihi compound to take the masculine base by the rule स्त्रियाः पुंवत्.. P. VI. 3.84: e. g. कल्याणीप्रियः For details, see Kas, on P. VI. 3.34.
praiṣādithe senses प्रैष 'order to do', अतिसर्ग 'permission to do' and प्राप्तकालता 'fitness of time', as possessed by the potential passive participles; cf विधीयन्ते प्रैषादिषु लोडादयः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26.
prauḍhamanoramākhaṇḍana(1)a grammatical work written by a grammarian named Cakrapani of the Sesa family of grammarians. The work is meant to refute the arguments of Bhattoji Diksita in his Praudhamanorama; (2) a grammar work written by the famous poet and rhetorician Jagannātha in refutation of the doctrines and explanations given in the Praudhamanorama by the stalwart Grammarian Bhattoji Diksita. The work is not a scholarly one and it has got a tone of banter. It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works on Grammar and the bearded pedant Bhattoji should not be proud of his profound scholarship in Grammar. The work of Jagannatha was named मनोरमाकुचमर्दन possibly by his followers or even by himselfeminine.
bahiraṅgāsiddhatvainvalidity i. e. nonoccurrence or non-application of a bahiranga rule or operation before the antaranga operation which is looked upon as stronger occurring earlier to the mind, or in the wording, as it does.
bādhakatvathe same as बाध ; sublation; setting aside; this sublation is described to be of two types(1) complete sublation when the rule set aside, is for ever set aside and cannot, by the maxim called तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय, be applied again; confer, compare दधि ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दीयतां तक्रं कौण्डिन्यायेति सत्यपि संभवे दधिदानस्य तक्रदानं निवर्तकं भवति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.47; VI. 1.2. VI. 2.1. et cetera, and others; ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the rule set aside, can be applied, if possible after the special rule has been applied; confer, compare सर्वथा अनवकाशत्वादेव बाधकत्वे स्वस्य (अनवकाशशास्त्रस्य) पूर्वप्रवृत्तिरित्येव बाधः । तत्र बाधके प्रवृत्ते यद्युत्सर्गप्राप्तिर्भवति तदा भवत्येव यथा तत्रैव याडादयः Par.Sek.on Pari.57, The sublation or बाधकत्व is not only in the case of सामान्यविशेषभाव and अनवकाशत्व as given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., but a rule or operation which is पर (cited later), or नित्य, or अन्तरङ्ग sets aside the rule or operation which is पूर्व,or अनित्य,or बहिरङ्ग respectively. This बाध्यबाधकभाव occupies a very important position in respect of the application of grammar rules for arriving at the correct forms (इष्टरूपसिद्धि) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribhasas in the field of बाध्यबाधकभाव.
binduanusvara, letter pronounced only through the nose; a dot to indicate the nasal phonetic element shown in writing a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. or sometimes after that letter or vowel, after which it is uttered; confer, compare अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणार्थः इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति ।। Kat. I.1.19.
bhartṛharia very distinguished Grammarian who lived in the seventh century A. D. He was a senior contemporary of the authors of the Kasika, who have mentioned his famous work viz. The Vakyapadiya in the Kasika. confer, compare शब्दार्थसंबन्धोयं प्रकरणम् | वाक्यपदीयम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.88. His Vyakarana work "the Vakyapadiya" has occupied a very prominent position in Grammatical Literature. The work is divided into three sections known by the name 'Kanda' and it has discussed so thoroughly the problem of the relation of word to its sense that subsequent grammarians have looked upon his view as an authority. The work is well-known for expounding also the Philosophy of Grammar. His another work " the Mahabhasya-Dipika " is a scholarly commentary on Patanjali's Mahabhasya. The Commentary is not published as yet, and its solitary manuscript is very carelessly written. Nothing is known about the birth-place or nationality of Bhartrhari. It is also doubtful whether he was the same person as king Bhartrhari who wrote the 'Satakatraya'.
bhāgavṛttione of the oldest commentaries on the Sutras of Panini, which, although not available at present, has been profusely quoted by Purusottamadeva and other Eastern Grammarians of the twelfth and later centuries. The authorship of the work is attributed to Bhartrhari, but the point is doubtful as Siradeva in his Paribhasavrtti on Pari. 76 has stated that the author of the Bhagavrtti has quoted from Maghakavya; confer, compare अत एवं तत्रैव सूत्रे भागवृत्तिः पुरातनमुनेर्मुनितामिति पुरातनीनेदिरिति च प्रमादपाठावेतौ गतानुगतिकतया कवयः प्रयुञ्जते न तेषां लक्षणे चक्षुरिति | Some scholars attribute its authorship to Vimalamati. Whosoever be the author, the gloss ( भागवृत्ति ) was a work of recognised merit; confer, compare काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत् सिद्धान्तं वेत्तुमस्ति धी: | तदा विचिन्त्यतां भातभीषावृत्तिरियं मम Bhasavrtti at the end. सृष्टिघर in his commentary on the Bhasavrtti also says " सा हि द्वयोर्विवरणकर्त्री."
bhāvapradhānadescription of a verb or verbal form in which activity plays the main part as opposed to a noun in which completed activity ( सत्व ) is predominant.
bhāṣāvṛttia short gloss on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini in the l2th century by Puruṣottamadeva's Paribhāṣāvṛtti.adeva, a reputed scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which flourished in Bengal and Behar in the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, The gloss is very useful for beginners and it has given a clear explanation of the different sūtras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. The treatise does not comment upon Vedic portions or rules referring to Vedic Language because, as the legend goes, king Lakṣmaṇa Sena, for whom the gloss was written, was not qualified to understand Vedic Language; confer, compare वैदिकभाषानर्हत्वात् Com. on Bhāṣāvṛtti by Sṛṣṭidhara. There is a popular evaluation of the Bhāṣāvṛtti given by the author himself in the stanza "काशिकाभागवृत्त्योश्चेत्सिद्धान्तं बोद्धुमस्ति धीः ! तदा विचिन्त्यतां भ्रातर्भाषावृत्तिरियं मम " at the end of his treatise; for details see पुरुषोत्तमदेव.
madhyepavādaa rule forming an exception to other general rules being placed between them, one or many of which are placed before and the others afterwards. Such a rule sets aside the previous rules and not the succeeding ones. The statement laying down this dictum is मध्येपवादाः पूर्वान् विधीन् बाधन्ते नोत्तरान् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari. 60, also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.VI.4.148 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5.
madhyodāttathe acute or udātta accent to the मध्य vowel which is neither the initial ( अादि) nor the final one ( अन्त ) as laid down by the rule उपोत्तमं रिति P. VI.1.217; confer, compare मध्योदात्तमपि यमिच्छति तत्र रेफमनुबन्धं करोति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.1.3.
mantraname given to the Samhitā portion of the Veda works especially of the Ṛgveda and the Yajurveda as different from the Brāhmaṇa, Āraṇyaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other Vedas; confer, compare मन्त्रशब्द ऋक्शब्दे च यजु:शब्दे च; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4. The word मन्त्र occurs several times in the rules of Pāṇini ( confer, compare P. II. 4. 80, III.2.71, III.3.96, VI. 1. 151, VI.1.210, VI.3.131, VI.4.53, VI. 4.141) and a few times in the Vārttikas. (confer, compare I. 1. 68 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4, IV.3.66 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5 and VI. 4. 141 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1). It is, however, doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by Pāṇini and Kātyāyana. Later on, the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula, which was looked upon as sacredition Still later on, the word came to mean a secret counsel. For details see Goldstūcker's Pāṇini p. 69, Thieme's 'Pāṇini and the Veda ' p. 38.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyavyākhyāname given to each of the explanatory glosses on the Mahabhasya written by grammarians prominent of whom were Purusottamadeva, Narayana Sesa, Visnu, Nilakantha and others whose fragmentary works exist in a manuscript form. महामिश्र name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa. The commentary is known by the name Vyakaranaprakasa. महाविभाषा a rule laying down an option for several rules in a topic by being present in every rule: confer, compare महाविभाषया वाक्यमपि. विभाषा (P.II.1.11) and समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (P. IV.1.82) are some of the rules of this kindeclinable
mahāsaṃjñāa long term, as contrasted with the very short terms टि, घु, भ, इत् and others introduced by Panini in his grammar for the sake of brevity. These long terms such as सर्वनाम, अब्यय,परस्मैपद, अात्मनेपद, and many others were widely in use at the time of Panini and hence he could not but pick them up in his grammar in spite of his strenuous attempts at brevity. The commentators, however, find out a motive for his doing this viz. that appropriate words only could be understood by those terms and not others; confer, compareमहासंज्ञाकरणेन तदनुगुणानामेव अत्र संनिवेशात् । S.K. on सर्वादीने सर्वनामानि P. I.1.27.
mukhasukhārthaa mute letter added to an affix or a substitute cr the like, which does not really form a part of the affix et cetera, and others, but which simply facilitates the utterance of it: confer, compare अथ मुखसुखार्थस्तकार: दकारोपि ! Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.1, VI.1.87; confer, compare also अादति तकारो मुखसुखार्थः, न त्वयं तपरः Kaas. on P. III.2.171.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yara short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) for any consonant except ह् standing at the end of a word is optionally changed to the nasal consonant of its class if followed by a nasal letter; confer, compare यरोनुनासिकेनुनासिकेा वा P. VIII.4.45: and (2) is doubled if preceded by र् or ह् as also if preceded by a vowel but not followed by a vowel; exempli gratia, for example अर्क्कः, दद्धयत्र: confer, compare अन्वॊ रहाभ्यां द्वे; अनचिच P. VIII.4.46,47.
yavādia class of words headed by the word यव, the taddhita affix मत् after which does not get the consonant मृ changed into व् although the affix मत् be added to a word ending in म् or अ, or having म् or अ as the penultimate letter; e. g. यवमान् , ऊर्मिमान् , भूमिमान् et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.2.9. This यवादिगण is looked upon as आकृतिगण
yājakādeia class of words headed by the words याजक, पूजक, परिचारक and others with which a word in the genitive case is compounded, in spite of the prohibition of compounds with such words, laid down by the rule कर्तरि च P. II. 2.16; exempli gratia, for exampleब्राह्मणयाजकः. ब्राह्मणपूजक: et cetera, and others: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.2.9. These words, याजक and others standing as the second members of compounds have their last vowel accented acute;confer, compareP.VI . 2.151.
yugapadadhikaraṇavacanatādenotation of two or more things by one single member by virtue of their being put together in a dvandva compound of two or more words; the grammarians advocate this doctrine stating that in a dvandva compound such as घटपटौ or घटपटम् , the word घट has the capacity of expressing the sense of both घट and पट, which in a sentence घटः पटश्च, it does not possess. Similarly पट also has the capacity of conveying the sense of both पट and घट. Possibly this theory is advocated by grarnmarians, on the analogy of words like पितरौ or मातरौ for मातापितरौ, द्यावा for द्यावापृथिवी and so on; confer, compare सिद्धं तु युगपदधिकरणवचने द्वन्द्ववचनात् P. II 2.29 Vart. 2. For details see Vyakaranamahabhasya on चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II. 2.29.
yogavibhāgadivision of a rule which has been traditionally given as one single rule, into two for explaining the formation of certain words, which otherwise are likely to be stamped as ungrammatical formations. The writer of the Varttikas and the author of the Mahabhasya have very frequently taken recourse to this method of योगविभाग; confer, compare P.I.1.3 Vart. 8, I.1.17 Vart.1,I.1.61, Vart. 3; I. 4.59 Vart. 1, II. 4. 2. Vart.2, III.1.67 Vart. 5, III.4.2. Vart. 6, VI.I. I Vart. 5, VI.1.33 Vart.1 et cetera, and others Although this Yogavibhaga is not a happy method of removing difficulties and has to be followed as a last recourse, the Varttikakara has suggested it very often, and sometimes a sutra which is divided by the Varttikakara into two,has been recognised as a couple of sutras in the Sutrapatha which has come down to us at present.
yogārambhalaying down or citing a rule as done by the writers of sutras; confer, compare नैकं प्रयोजनं योगारम्भं प्रयोजयति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1.67 Vart. 5; P. VII. 1.96 Vart. 2.
rapratyāhārakhaṇḍanaa small article showing that the short term र for the consonants र् and ल् need not be advocated as done by the learned old grammarians.The treatise was Written by Vaidyanatha Paya-gunde, the prominent pupil of Nagesabhatta.
rājadantādia class of compound words headed by राजदन्त in which the order of words or the constituent members is fixedition There are about 50 words in the class; some of them are tatpurusa compounds such as राजदन्त or अग्रेवण in which the subordinate word which ought to have been placed first is placed second There are some karmadharaya.compounds in which one particular word is always placed first and not any one of the two: exempli gratia, for example लिप्तवासितम्, सिक्तसंमृष्टम् et cetera, and others There are some dvandva compounds such as उलुखलमुसलम् , चित्रास्वाती, भार्यापती et cetera, and others in which a definite order of words is laid down. For details see Kasika on राजदन्तादिषु परम् P. II. 2.31.
rīṅsubstitute री for the vowel ऋ at the end of a base ( अङ्ग ) before the affix च्चि as also before य which does not belong to a krt or Sarvadhatuka affix; exempli gratia, for example मात्रीभूतः, मात्रीयते; confer, compare रीङ् ऋतः P.VII.4.27.
laghuśabdenduśekharaname of a commentary on Bhațțojī's Siddhāntakaumudī written by Nāgeśa Bhațța, the stalwart Grammarian of the eighteenth century. The work is named लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर which differentiates it from the author's another work बृहच्छब्देन्दुशेखर of which the former is an abridgment. As the study of the Laghuśabdenduśekhara is very common and as the Bŗhatśabdenduśekhara is seldom studied, it is always the Laghuśabdenduśekhara that is understood by the simple and popular name Śekhara.
laghuśabdenduśekharavyākhyāa commentary on the Laghuśabdenduśekhara. There are more than a dozen commentary works on the popular Laghuśabdenduśekhara called by the usual names टीका or व्याख्या the prominent among which are गदा, भैरवी and विजया. A few of them have special names e. g. चिदस्थिमाला, चन्द्रकला, ज्योत्स्त्रा, विषमी et cetera, and others
liṅga(1)sign or characteristic mark; generally the mute letter prefixed or suffixed to roots,affixes, or augments and their substitutes with a specific purpose; confer, compare किंचिल्लिङ्गमासज्य वक्ष्यामि Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on I.1.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).7, अवयवे कृतं लिङ्ग समुदायस्य विशेषकं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.62 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5; (2) proof, evidence ( प्रमाण ); the word is often used in the Paribhāșendușekhara and other works in connection with a rule or part of a rule quoted as an evidence to deduce some general dictum or Paribhāșā; (3) gender; confer, compare लिङ्ग स्त्रीलिङ्गपुंलिङ्गनपुंसकानि Kāś. on P. II. 3. 46; confer, compare also प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम्. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa.Pari.71.The gender of a word in Sanskrit language does not depend on any specific properties of a thing; it simply depends on the current usage; confer, compare लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य which is often quoted in the Mahābhāsya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.36, II.2.29, II.4.12, IV. 1.3, V.3.66, V.4.68, VIII.1.15. For details see Mahābhāșya on P.IV.1. 3 where after a long enlightening discussīon the definition संस्त्यानप्रसवौ लिङ्गम् is given.
lopadisappearance of a word or part of a word enjoined in grammar for arriving at the required forms of a word; confer, compare अदर्शनं लोपः P. I.1.52: confer, compare अदर्शनमश्रवणमनुच्चारणमनुपलब्धिरभावो वर्णविनाश इत्यनर्थान्तरम् । एतैः शब्दैर्योर्थोभिधीयते तस्य लोप इतीयं संज्ञा भवति Kāś. on P.I.1. 52. This disappearance in the case of an affix is tantamount to its notional presence or imaginary presence, as operations caused by it do take place although the word element has disappeared; confer, compare प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । प्रत्यये लुप्तेपि तद्धेतुकं कार्ये भवति Kāś. on P. I.1.62.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṇānarthavattvathe view that letters do not possess the sense, as individually in every letter no separate sense ; is seen: confer, compare अनर्थकास्तु et cetera, and others Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 5, Vart.14 and 15.
varṇaukadeśaa part or a portion of a combined letter id est, that isसंयुक्तस्वर or संयुक्तव्यञ्जन. The diphthongs or संयुक्तस्वरs are divisible into two Svaras, for instance ऐ into अा and ए, औ into अा and ओ. Similarly double consonants like क्कू, च्च्, क्म्, क्त् et cetera, and others are also divisible. Regarding the point raised whether the individual parts can be looked upon as separate letters for undergoing or causing a grammatical operation,the decision of the grammarians is that they cannot be looked upon as separate, when they are completely mixed as the dipthongs; confer, compareनाक्यपवृक्तस्यावयवस्य तद्वधिर्यथा द्रव्येषु Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3, 4 Vart. 6.
vācakaexpressive, as contrasted with द्योतक्र, व्यञ्जक, सूचक and भेदक which ७ mean suggestive; the term is used in connection with words which directly convey their sense by denotation, as opposed to words which convey indirectly the sense or suggest it as the prefixes or Nipatas do.
vāvidhiवाविधान also, laying down an option regarding a grammatical operation; confer, compare स्वस्तियोगे चतुर्थी कुशालार्थेराशिषि वाविधानात् P.II.3.16 Vart.1 ; confer, compare also अविशेषेण अयादनिां वाविधिमुक्त्वा सार्वधातुके नित्यमिति वक्ष्यामि M.Bh.on P.III. 1.31 Vart, 2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on P. III.1.94.
vikliṣṭaa fault in the utterance of a letter when there does not take place the necessary contact with the proper place of the utterance of a word; confer, compare हन्वोः प्रकर्षेणे सर्वतश्चलने विक्लिष्टं नाम दोषो भवति | विक्लिष्टं नाम असंयुक्तम् R.Pr.XIV.3.
vigrahaṇaenclosure or closure(वेष्टन)by the use of the word इति as done in the Krama and other Veda-recitals.
viccheda(1)breach or break (in the Samhitapatha); utterance of words separately by breaking their coalescence: confer, compare पदविच्छेद: असंहितः V. Pr.I.156; (2) doubling of a consonant technically called यम ; confer, compare अन्त:पदे अपञ्चमः पञ्चमेषु विच्छेदम् V.Pr. IV.163.
vipratipanna(1)doubtful: a matter of doubt; confer, compare विद्याद् विप्रतिपन्नानां पादवृत्ताक्षरैर्ऋचाम् R.Pr.XVII.13; (2) perverted: confer, compare तेभ्य एवं विप्रतिपन्नबुद्धिभ्यः अध्येतृभ्यः इदं शास्त्रमन्वाचष्टे M.Bh. on I.1 Āhnika 1.
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
vibhaktyarthapradhānaan indeclinable, which is generally described as having the sense of a case affix as predominant in it: exempli gratia, for example तत्र, अधः, नीचैः et cetera, and others; some indeclinables have the sense of a root viz. the verb-activity as predominant: confer, compare किंचिदव्ययं विभक्त्यर्थप्रधानं किचित् क्रियाप्रधानम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.38.
virāgaomission of a consonant, sometimes when it is preceded and also followed by another consonant, as if it were squeezed between the two; this is no doubt looked upon as a fault; exempli gratia, for example the omission of the consonant द् in उपमा षट् द्रा द्वा uttered as उपमा षट् वा द्वा; confer, compareअन्योन्येन व्यञ्जनानां विरागः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XIV where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.explains विराग as लोप्.
viśayavatdoubtful;possessed of a doubt about itself; confer, compareविशयवत्यो हि वृत्तयो भवन्ति । यथार्थं विभक्तीः संनमयेत् । प्रत्तम् । अवत्तम् । Nir.II.1.
viśeṣapratipattia clear understanding, or a determined sense in a place of doubt: confer, compare व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्तिर्नहि संदेहादलक्षणम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 1; also M.Bh. in Āhnika 1.
viṣayadomain; province: confer, compare प्रकल्प्य चापवादविषयं तत उत्सर्गोभिनिविशते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 63.
viṣayatābeing a subject of discussion of; coming under the domain of, applicability the meaning of विषयसप्तमी which is similar to विवक्षा.
viṣayasaptamīlocative case denoting the domain or province of a particular suffix or a substitute or the like, which could be actually applied later on; this विषयसप्तमी is contrast ed with परसप्तमी when the thing mentioned in the locative case is required, to be present in front; confer, compareअसति पौर्वापर्ये विषयसप्तमी विज्ञास्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.35; confer, compare also अार्धधातुके इति विषयसप्तमी Kāś, on P.II. 4.35; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26 and IV. 1.90.
viṣayārthameant for showing the province or domain of the application of a particular rule; confer, compare तत्रग्रहृणं ( in तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् ) विषयार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.1.92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).6.
vihitaprescribed by a rule; that for which a vidhi or injunction has been laid down. The word is very frequently used by grammarians with respect to an affix prescribed after a base.
vaiyākaraṇaśābdabodhaimport of a sentence according to the grammarians, in which verbal activity occupies a predominant place, and the residing place of the subject as also that of the verbal activity is identical in the active voice, while the object and the verbal activity have got the same place of residence in the passive voice. The other auxiliaries of activity such as the instrument, location and the like, are connected with the verbal activity. The import of the sentence चैत्रः पचति, in short, can be expressed as चैत्रकर्तृका वर्तमानकालिकां पाकक्रिया.
vyartha(l)useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; confer, compare व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: et cetera, and others: confer, compare व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its placcusative case. See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places.
vyavasthāliterally definite arrangement; restriction regarding the application of a rule, especially when it seems to overlap, as done by the Varttikakara, and later on by the Paribhashas laid down by grammarians regarding the rules of Panini: confer, compare स्वाभिधेयापेक्षावधिनियमो व्यवस्था S. K. on P. I.1.34; confer, compare also लक्ष्यानुसाराह्यवस्था Par. Sek. Pari. 99, 108.
vyavasthitavibhāṣāan option which does not apply universally in all the instances of a rule which prescribes an operation optionally, but applies necessarily in : some cases and does not apply at all in the other cases, the total result being an option regarding the conduct of the rule. The rules अजेर्व्यघञपॊ: P. II. 4.56, लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे III. 2.124 and वामि I. 4.5 are some of the rules which have got an option described as व्यवस्थितविभाषा. The standard instances of व्यवस्थितविभाषा are given in the ancient verse देवत्रातो गलो ग्राहः इतियोगे च सद्विधिः | मिथस्ते न विभाष्यन्ते गवाक्षः संशितव्रतः|| M. Bh, on P, III. 3.156; VII.4.41.
vyākhyāna(1)explanation of a rule, or a line, or a verse by analysing the rule and giving examples and counter-examples; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऎजिति | किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत्समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति | M.Bh. Ahnika l Vart.11 ; (2)authoritative decision given in places of doubt by ancient scholars; confer, compare याख्थानतो विशेषप्रतिपत्ति: न हि संदेहादलक्षणम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika .1; Par.Sek.Pari.1.
byāḍiname of an ancient grammarian with a sound scholarship in Vedic phonetics, accentuation,derivation of words and their interpretation. He is believed to have been a relative and contemporary of Panini and to have written a very scholarly vast volume on Sanskrit grammar named *Samgraha which is believed to have consisted of a lac of verses; confer, compare संग्रहो व्याडिकृतो लक्षसंख्ये ग्रन्थ: NageSa's Uddyota; confer, compare also इह पुरा पाणिनीये अस्मिन्व्याकरणे ब्याड्युपरचितं लक्षग्रन्थपरिमाणं निबन्धनमासीत् Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari. Tika. The work is not available at present. References to Vyadi or to his work are found in the Pratisakhya works, the Mahabhasya, the Varttikas, the Vakyapadiya and many subsequent treatises. A work on the Vyakarana Paribhasas, believed to have been written by Vyadi, is available by the name परिभाषासूचन which from its style and other peculiarities seems to have been written after the Varttikas, but before the Mahabhasya. Vyadi is well-known to have been the oldest exponent of the doctrine that words denote an individual object and not the genus. For details see pp. 136-8, Vol. 7 Vyakarana Mahabhasya DE. Society's Edition.
vyāptinyāyathe general method of taking a comprehensive sense instead of a restricted one in places of doubt; confer, compare व्याप्तिन्यायाद्वा Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 2. 168.
vyutpattipakṣathe view that every word is derived from a suitable root as contrasted with the other view viz. the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष. The grammarians hold that Panini held the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष,id est, that is the view that not all words in a language can be derived but only some of them can be so done, and contrast him (id est, that isPanini) with an equally great grammarian Sakatayana who stated that every word has to be derived: confer, compare न्यग्रोधयतीति न्यग्रोध इति व्युत्पत्तिपक्षे नियमार्थम् ! अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष विध्यर्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VII.3.6.
vyūha(l)resolution or determination: confer, compare अकृतव्यूहाः पाणिनीयाः । न कृतो विाशीष्ट ऊहो निश्चयः ,शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिविषये यैः इत्यर्थः Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) separation of the phonetic elements in a word, done especially for the recital of the Vedic texts according to metre:confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने क्षेप्रवणैकंभाविनाम् । व्यूहैः पृथक्करणेन Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII.22.
śā(1)conjugational sign(विकरण) applied to the roots of the sixth conjugation ( तुदादिगण ) in all conjugational tenses and moods ( i, e. the present, the imperfect,the imperative and the potential ) before the personal-endings; confer, compare तुदादिभ्यः शः, P. III.1.77; this sign श ( अ ) has got the initial consonant श्, as an indicatory one, and hence this अ is a Sarvadhatuka affix, but, it is weak and does not cause गुण for the preceding vowel; ( 2 ) taddhita affix. affix श in the sense of possession applied to the words लोमन् and others; e. g. लोमश:, रोमशःconfer, compare P.V.2. 100; (3) krt affix (अ ) applied to the roots पा, घ्रा, ध्मा, धे and दृश् when preceded by a prefix,to the roots लिम्प्, विन्द् et cetera, and othersnot preceded by a prefix, and optionaily to दा and धा of the third conjugation in the sense of an agent'; exempli gratia, for example उत्पिबः, उत्पश्यः, लिम्प:, विन्दः दद:, दायः: confer, compare P.III.1.137-139.
śakandhukaname of a class of words in whose case the last vowel of the first word does not coalesce with the first vowel of the next word; e. g. शक अन्धुक ईश । अक्षपा असि | वपा इव त्मना | सुपथा अकृण्वन् [ confer, compare शकन्धुकादीनाम् R.T.87 which is explained by the commentator as शकन्धुकादीनां च न संनिकृष्यत.
śaktaendowed with शक्ति i. e. the potentiality to express the sense; potent to show the particular Sense.
śīṇḍakādia class of words headeditionby the word शण्डिक which have the taddhita affix य ( त्र्य ) added to them in the sense of "domicile' or 'native place': exempli gratia, for example शाण्डिक्य:, सार्वसेन्यः, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3. 92.
śabādeśathe Vikarana affixes श्यन् , श> श्रम्, उ and श्रा according to those who hold the view that these affixes do not form the exceptions of शप्, but they are substituted for शप् . confer, compare शबादेशाः शयन्नादय: करिष्यन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.27, II.2.3, III.1.33 and III.1.67.
śabdanityatvathe doctrine of the Vaiyakaranas as also of the Mimamsakas that word is permanent, as contrasted with that of tha Naiyayikas who advocate the impermanence of words,
śabdparavipratiṣedhacl,. comparatively superior strength possessed by a word, which in the text of a particular sutra is later than another word, which is put in earlier in the Sutra. This शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधे is contrasted with the standard शास्त्रपरविप्रतिषेध which is laid down by Panini in his rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् and which lays down the superior strength of that rule which is put by Panini later on in his Astadhyayi: e. g. in the rule विभाषा गमहनविदविशाम्,it is not the word हन् although occuring earlier, but the word विश् occuring later in the rule, which helps us to decide which विद् should be taken confer, compareज्ञानार्तस्य सत्यपि विदरूपत्वे अर्थस्य भेदकत्वेन रूपवदाश्रयणात्प्रतिषेधाभावः | यद्यपि हन्तिना साहचर्ये विदेरस्ति तथापि शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधाद् विशिर्व्यवस्थाहेतुर्न हान्तिः ! Kaiyata on P. VII.2.18:confer, compare also, P.VI.1.158 V.12.
śāstrāsiddhatvathe supposed invalidity of a rule or a set of rules by virtue of the dictum laid down by Panini in पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1: confer, compare शास्त्रासिद्धत्वमनेन क्रियेत | एकादेशशास्त्रं तुक्शास्त्रे असिद्धं भवति | M.Bh. on P.VI.1.86 Vart. 5.
śikṣāgeneral name given to a work on Phonetics. Although there are many such works which are all called शिक्षा, the work, which is often referred to, by the word, is the Siksa named पाणिनीयशिक्षा, about the authorship of which, however, there is a doubt whether it was the work of Panini or of somebody belonging to his school. The Siksa works are helpful, no doubt, for the study of grammar, but no topic belonging to Siksa is given by Panini which apparently means that these works do not come under the subject or province of Grammar. The reason why the Siksa topics are not given by Panini, is worth consideration. These Siksa works are not specifically related to a particular Veda and it cannot be said whether they preceded or succeeded the Pratisakhya works.
śivādia big class of about ninety words headed by the word शिव which have the taddhita affix. affix अ ( अण् ) added to them in the sense of a descendant ( अपत्य ) in spite of other affixes such as इञ् , ण्यत् and others prescribed by other rules, which sometimes do not take place, or do so optionally; exempli gratia, for example शैवः: ताक्ष्ण:, ताक्षण्यः; गाङ्ग: गाङ्गेय:, गङ्गायनि:; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.112. This class is looked upon as आकृतिगण and a word is supposed to be . included in this class, when the ; affix अ is noticed in spite of some other affix being applicable by some other rule.
śiṣṭavyākhyānaexplanation (of doubtful things or expressions) given by the learned people.
śtip'the syllable ति applied to the Vikarana-ending form of a root to denote a root for a grammatical operation. The specific mention of a root with श्तिप् added, shows that the root of the particular class or conjugation shown, is to be taken and not the same root belonging to any other conjuga-tion; confer, compare इक्श्तिपौ धातुनिर्देशे; exempli gratia, for example अस्यतिवक्तिख्यातिभ्योऽङ् P.III. 1. 52. Although operations prescribed for a primary root are applicable to a frequentative root when the frequentative sign य has been omitted, operations prescribed for a root which is stated in a rule with ति ( श्तिप् ) added to it, do not take place in the frequentative roots;confer, compare श्तिपा शपानुबन्धेन ... पञ्चैतानि न यङ्लुकि.
ślokavārtikaVarttika or supplementary rule to Panini's rules laid down by scholars of grammar immediately after Panini, composed in verse form. These Slokavarttikas are quoted in the Mahabhasya at various places and supposed to have been current in the explanations of Panini's Astadhyayi in the days of Patanjali. The word is often used by later commentators.
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् and ष्वष्क्; (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज्, as also of the roots ending in छ् and श् before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
ṣaṭkārakakhaṇḍanamaṇḍanaknown also as कारकखण्डनमण्डन a grammar-work on consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् et cetera, and others cf P. VIII.2.36 (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VIII. 3.39: confer, compare also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष्; e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे , वृक्षष्टकार: Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.41.
saṃkrama(1)joining with a subsequent word after omitting a word or two occurring between; cf, गलत्पदमतिक्रम्य अगलता सह संधानं संक्रम:; e. g. शूद्रे अर्ये for शूर्द्रे यदर्ये where यत् is passed over in the krama and other recitals; cf Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 77, 165, 194; (2) a term used in ancient grammars for such affixes and others which do not allow the substitution of guna or vrddhi for the preceding vowel; the term is also used for the letters क्, ग् and ङ् when they are mute, serving only the purpose of preventing guna or vrddhi; confer, compare मृजेरजादौ संक्रमे विभाषा वृद्धिमारभन्ते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.3. Vart. 10.
saṃjñāvidhia rule laying down the definition of a संज्ञा or a technical term as contrasted with कार्यविधि or a rule laying down a grammatical operation: confer, compare संज्ञाविधौ वृद्धिरादैच् अदेङ्गुणः इति M.Bh. on Siva Sutra 3, 4.
saṃdehaambiguity; doubt regarding the wording of a rule or its interpretation or regarding the correctness of a word. It is looked upon as the main purpose of grammar to solve doubts regarding the correctness of words; confer, compare व्याख्यानतो विशेषप्रतिप्रत्तिर्नहि संदेहादलक्षणम् Pari. Sekh.Pari.1.
saṃdehanivṛttyarthalit, meant for the removal of doubt; the word is used in connection with a word or an expression or an addition of a mute letter, as seen in the expression of the sutrakara for the purpose of leaving no kind of doubt regarding the wording or its meaning confer, compare तत्र अवश्यं संदेहनिवृत्त्यर्थं विशेषार्थिना विशेषोनुप्रयोक्तव्यः M.Bh. on P.II. 2.24 Vart. 6.
saṃpradānaa karaka relation or a relation between a noun and the verbal activity with which it is connected, of the type of the donation and the donee; the word is technically used in connection with the bearer of such a relation confer, compare कर्मणा यमभिप्रैति स संप्रदानम् P. I.4.32.
sapādasaptādhyāyīa term used in connection with Panini's first seven books and a quarter of the eighth, as contrasted with the term Tripadi, which is used for the last three quarters of the eighth book. The rules or operations given in the Tripadi, are stated to be asiddha or invalid for purposes of the application of the rules in the previous portion, viz. the Sapadasaptadhyayi, and hence in the formation of' words all the rules given in the first seven chapters and a quarter, are applied first and then a way is prepared for the rules of the last three quarters. It is a striking thing that the rules in the Tripadi mostly concern the padas or formed words, the province, in fact, of the Pratisakhya treatises, and hence they should, as a matter of fact, be applicable to words after their formation and evidently to accomplish this object, Panini has laid down the convention of the invalidity in question by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् P. VIII. 2,1.
saptasvaralit, the seven accents; the term refers to the seven accents formed of the subdivisions of the three main Vedic accents उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित viz उदात्त, उदात्ततर, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितोदात्त,and एकश्रुति: cf त एते तन्त्रे तरनिर्देशे सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति ( उदात: । उदात्ततरः । अनुदात्तः ! अनुदात्ततरः । स्वरित: । स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः । एकश्रुतिः सप्तम: ॥ M. Bh on P. I. 2. 33. It is possible that these seven accents which were turned into the seven notes of the chantings of the samans developed into the seven musical notes which have traditionally come down to the present day known as सा रे ग म प ध नी; confer, compare उदात्ते निषादगान्धारौ अनुदात्ते ऋषभधैवतौ । स्वरितप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः। Pāṇini. Siksa. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions the seven accents differently; confer, compare उदात्तादयः परे सप्त । यथा-अभिनिहितक्षैप्र-प्राशश्लिष्ट-तैरोव्यञ्जन-तैरोविराम-पादवृत्तताथाभाव्याः Uvvata on V.Pr.I.l l4.
samuccayaaccumulation which is one of the four senses of the indeclinable च and which means the anticipation of an allied another by the express mention of one, in which sense the Dvandva compound prescribed by the rule चार्थे द्वन्द्वः does not take place; confer, compare समुच्चय: | प्लक्षश्च इत्युक्ते गम्यत एतन्न्यग्रोधश्चेति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.29 Vart. 15.
sarvapadādeśaa substitute for the entire word and not for a part of it. This doctrine of सर्वपदादेशं everywhere is advocated by grammarians in consonance with their doctrine of शब्दनित्यत्व; confer, compare सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः | एकदेशविकारे हि नित्यत्वं नोपपद्यते ॥ M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 20, VII.;.27.
sāṃgrahasūtrikaa student of संग्रहसूत्र; the word occurs in the Mahabhasya along with वार्तिकसूत्रिक, and it may therefore mean a student of the stupendous work named the Samgraha of व्याडि which is believed to have consisted of small numerous sutralike assertions, with an exhaustive gloss thereon. See संग्रह.
sāmānyaviśeṣabhāvathe relationship between the general and the particular, which forms the basis of the type of apavada which is explained by the analogy of तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय; the word also refers to the method followed by the Sutras of Panini, or any treatise of grammar for the matter of that, where a general rule is prescribed and, for the sake of definiteness some specific rules laying down exceptions, are given afterwards: confer, compare किंचित्सामान्यविशेषवल्लक्षणं प्रवर्त्यं येनाल्पेन यत्नेन महतः शद्बौघान् प्रतिपद्येरन् l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnik 1.
sāmānyaviheitaa general rule, a rule laid down in general which is restricted by special rules afterwards; confer, compare बाधकेनानेन भवितव्यं सामान्यविहितस्य विशेषविहितेन Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. l.24 Vart. 5, cf also M. Bh, on III.1.94, III. 2.77 et cetera, and others
sāhacaryapresence together, mention together, association; this साहचर्य is many times of use in cases of doubt regarding the meaning of a word or the choice of a word in a particular sense: confer, compare अथवा साहचर्यात्ताच्छब्द्यं भविष्यति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1, 70, I 2. 27: confer, compare सहचरितो योर्थस्तस्य गतिर्भविष्यति साहचर्यात् ; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 51 Vart. 3.
siṃhāvalokitanyāyathe analogy of the backward look peculiar to a lion, who, as he advances, does always look back at the ground coveredition The word is used in grammar with reference to a word taken back from a rule to the preceding rule which technically is called अपकर्षः confer, compare वक्ष्यमाणं विभाषाग्रहणमिह सिंहावलोकितन्यायेन संबध्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.49.
siddhāntakaumudīa critical and scholarly commentary on the Sutras of Panini, in which the several Sutras are arranged topicwise and fully explained with examples and counter examples. The work is exhaustive, yet not voluminous, difficult yet popular, and critical yet lucid. The work is next in importance to the Mahabhasya in the system of Panini, and its study prepares the way for understanding the Mahabhasya. It is prescribed for study in the courses of Vyakarana at every academy and Pathasala and is expected to be committed to memory by students who want to be thorough scholars of Vyakarana.By virtue of its methodical treatment it has thrown into the back-ground all kindred works and glosses or Vrttis on the Sutras of Panini. It is arranged into two halves, the first half dealing with seven topics ( 1 ) संज्ञापरिभाषा, ( 2 ) पञ्त्वसंधि, ( 3 ) षड्लिङ्ग, ( 4 ) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, ( 5 ) कारक, ( 6 ) समास, ( 7 ) तद्धित, and the latter half dealing with five topics, ( 1 ) दशगणी, ( 2 ) द्वादशप्राक्रिया ( 3 ) कृदन्त ( 4 ) वैदिकी and ( 5 ) स्वर. The author भट्टोजीदीक्षित has himself written a scholarly gloss on it called प्रौढमनेरमा on which, his grandson, Hari Diksita has written a learned commentary named लघुशब्दरत्न or simple शब्दरत्न. The Siddhāntakaumudi has got a large number of commentaries on it out of which, the commentaries प्रौढमनेरमा, बालमनोरमा, (by वासुदेवदीक्षित) तत्त्वबोधिनी and लघुशब्देन्दुशेखर are read by almost every true scholar of Vyakarana. Besides these four, there are a dozen or more commentaries some of which can be given below with their names and authors ( I ) सुबेाधिनी by जयकृष्णमौनि, ( 2 ) सुबोधिनी by रामकृष्णभट्ट ( 3 ) वृहृच्छब्देन्दुशेखर by नागेश, ( 4 ) बालमनेारमा by अनन्तपण्डित, ( 5 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरहृस्य by नीलकण्ठ, ( 6 ) रत्नार्णव, by कृष्णमिश्र ( 7 ) वैयाकरणसिद्धान्तरत्नाकर by रामकृष्ण, ( 8 ) सरला by तारानाथ,(9) सुमनोरमा by तिरुमल्ल,(10)सिद्वान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by लक्ष्मीनृसिंह, (11 )सिद्धान्तकौमुदीव्याख्या by विश्वेश्वरतीर्थ, (12) रत्नाकर by शिवरामेन्द्रसरस्वती and (13) प्रकाश by तोलापदीक्षित. Although the real name of the work is वैयाकरणसिद्धान्ततकौमुदी, as given by the author, still popularly the work is well known by the name सिद्धान्तकौमुदी. The work has got two abridged forms, the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi both written by Varadaraja, the pupil of Bhattoji Diksita.
supsupsamāsaa popular name given to a compound formed of two nouns, which cannot be ordinarily explained by the rules of grammar laid down in definite terms by Panini in II.1.5I to II. 2.29. The so called irregular compounds are explained as formed in accordance with the rule सह सुपा II. 1.4 wherein the word पद presents it self by अनुवृत्ति from सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत् स्वरे II. . 2, the rule सह सुपा as a result being explained as सुप् सुपा सह समस्यते. As these compounds cannot be put under the topics of अव्ययीभाव, तत्पुरुष and others mentioned by Panini in II. 1.5 to II. 2.29 they are called सुप्सुप्समास or केवलसमास.
sūtraa short pithy assertion laying down something in a scientific treatise; aphorism; the word is sometimes used in a collective sense in the singular, referring to the whole collection of Sutras or rules; confer, compare व्याकरणस्य सूत्रम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Ahnika I. The term is defined as अाल्पाक्षरमसंदिग्धं सारवद्विश्वतोमुखम् | अस्तोभमनवद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्रविदो विदुः. There are given generally six kinds of Sutras viz. संज्ञासूत्र, परिभाषासूत्र,विधिसूत्र, नियमसूत्र, प्रतिषेधसूत्र and अधिकारसूत्र; confer, compare also संज्ञा च परिभाषा च विधिर्नियम एव च प्रतिषेधोधिकारश्च षड्विधम् सूत्रलक्षणम् | Com. on Kat. I. 1.2.
sūtrapāṭhathe text of Panini's Sutras handed down by oral tradition from the preceptor to the pupil. Although it is said that the actual text of Panini was modified from time to time, still it can be said with certainty that it was fixed at the time of the Bhasyakara who has noted a few different readings only. The Sutra text approved by the Bhasyakara was followed by the authors of the Kasika excepting in a few cases. It is customary with learned Pandits and grammarians to say that the recital of the Sutras of Panini was originally a continuous one in the form of a Samhitatext and it was later on, that it was split up into the different Sutras, which explains according to them the variation in the number of Sutras which is due to the different ways of splitting the Sutrapatha.
seṭkaसेट् together with the augment 'iț' prescribed in general for being prefixed to an Ardhadhatuka affix beginning with any consonant except य्. The word is also used in the sense of a root which allows the augment इट् ( इ ) to be prefixed to valadi Ardhadhatuka affixes placed after it, in contrast with such roots which do not allow it and hence which are termed अनिट्.
sthita(1)happened, come to pass; e. g. राम ङस् इति स्थिते et cetera, and others; (2) established ; remaining intact after the removal of doubts; confer, compare एवं हिं स्थितमेतत् (3) remaining unaffected as referring to अस्पृष्टकरण;cf स्वराणामनुस्वारस्य ऊष्मणां च अस्पृष्टं करणं वेदितव्यम् तध स्थितामित्युच्यते। यत्र वर्णस्थानमाश्रित्य जिह्वावतिष्ठते तत् स्थितमित्युच्यते Uvvata on R.Pr. XIII. ; (4) established or stated in the Padapatha: confer, compare स्थिते पदे पदपाठे इत्यर्थ;gloss on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XX.2.
sphoṭaname given to the radical Sabda which communicates the meaning to the hearers as different from ध्वनि or the sound in ordinary experience.The Vaiyakaranas,who followed Panini and who were headed by Bhartihari entered into discussions regarding the philosophy of Grammar, and introduced by way of deduction from Panini's grammar, an important theory that शब्द which communicates the meaning is different from the sound which is produced and heard and which is merely instrumental in the manifestation of an internal voice which is called Sphota.स्फुटयतेनेन अर्थः: इति स्फोटः or स्फोटः शब्दो ध्वनिस्तस्य व्यायमादुपजायते Vakyapadiya; confer, compare also अभिव्यक्तवादको मध्यमावस्थ आन्तर: शब्द: Kaiyata's Pradipa. For, details see Vakyapadiya I and Sabdakaustubha Ahnika 1. It is doubtful whether this Sphota theory was. advocated before Panini. The word स्फोटायन has been put by Panini in the rule अवङ् स्फोटायनस्य only incidentally and, in fact, nothing can be definitely deduced from it although Haradatta says that स्फोटायन was the originator of the स्फोटवाद. The word स्फोट is not actually found in the Pratisakhya works. However, commentators on the Pratisakhya works have introduced it in their explanations of the texts which describe वर्णोत्पत्ति or production of sound; confer, compare commentary on R.Pr.XIII.4, T.Pr. II.1. Grammarians have given various kinds of sphota; confer, compare स्फोटो द्विधा | व्यक्तिस्फोटो जातिस्फोटश्च। व्यक्तिस्पोटः सखण्ड अखण्डश्च । सखण्ड। वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। अखण्ड: पदवाक्यभेदेन द्विधा ! एवं पञ्च व्यक्तिस्फोटाः| जातिस्फोट: वर्णपदवाक्यभेदेन त्रिधा। इत्येवमष्टौ स्फोटः तत्र अखण्डवाक्यस्फोट एव मुख्य इति नव्याः । वाक्य जातिस्फोट इति तु प्राञ्चः॥; confer, compare also पदप्रकृतिः संहिता इति प्रातिशाख्यमत्र मानम् । पदानां प्रकृतिरिति षष्ठीतत्पुरुषे अखण्डवाक्यस्फोटपक्षः । बहुव्रीहौ सखण्डबाक्यस्फोट:||
sphoṭasiddhāntathe doctrine of Sphota, as advocated by the grammarians and criticised by others. See the word स्फोट,
svaritakaraṇamarking or characterizing by.a svarita accent, as is supposed to have been done by Panini when he wrote down his sutras of grammar as also the Dhatupatha, the Ganapatha and other subsidiary appendixes. Although the rules of the Astadhyayi are not recited at present with the proper accents possessed by the various vowels as given by the Sutrakara, still, by convention and traditional explanation, certain words are to be believed as possessed of certain accents. In the Dhatupatha, by oral tradition the accents of the several roots are known by the phrases अथ स्वरितेतः, अथाद्युदाताः, अथान्तेादात्ताः, अथानुदात्तेत: put therein at different places. In the sutras, a major purpose is served by the circumflex accent with which such words, as are to continue to the next or next few or next many rules, have been markedition As the oral tradition, according to which the Sutras are recited at present, has preserevd no accents, it is only the authoritative word, described as 'pratijna' of the ancient grammarians, which now is available for knowing the svarita. The same holds good in the case of nasalization ( अानुनासिक्य ) which is used as a factor for determining the indicatory nature of vowels as stated by the rule उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत्; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः S. K. on P. I.3.2.
halsvaraprāptia possibility of the application of an accent to the consonant by the literal interpretation of rules prescribing an accent for the first or the last letter of a word, to prevent which a ruling is laid down that a consonant is not to be accented; confer, compare हल्स्वरप्राप्तौ व्यञ्जनमविद्यमानवत् Par. Sek. Pari. 80.
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521 results
     
dodhūyamānām being tossed aboutSB 8.24.36
dodhūyati rapidly blowingSB 2.10.20
dogdhāram milkmanSB 4.18.9-10
dogdhi enjoysSB 3.32.1
dogdhi you yieldSB 4.17.23
dogdhi sma fulfilledSB 4.19.7
dogdhi sma fulfilledSB 4.19.7
dogdhum to give painSB 6.2.5-6
do handsSB 4.5.10
do the armSB 10.77.15
do the armsSB 10.62.6
do the sense for handlingSB 2.5.31
do whose two armsCC Antya 15.78
doḥ-daṇḍa of His four stout armsSB 3.15.41
doḥ-daṇḍa of His four stout armsSB 3.15.41
doḥ-daṇḍaḥ of powerful armsSB 5.1.29
doḥ-daṇḍaḥ of powerful armsSB 5.1.29
doḥ-daṇḍaḥ the armsSB 8.8.32
doḥ-daṇḍaḥ the armsSB 8.8.32
doḥ-sahasrāt from His thousand armsSB 3.22.3
doḥ-sahasrāt from His thousand armsSB 3.22.3
doha for milkingSB 4.18.27
dohaḥ what is obtained by milking the cowsSB 10.24.26
dohāḥ yieldingSB 3.17.13
dohāi under the protection ofCC Madhya 18.168
dohām already takenSB 11.11.19
doham the milkingSB 10.29.5
doham which amply rewardSB 11.5.33
dohān gainedSB 3.23.8
dohanam milking potSB 4.18.9-10
dohanam the milking potSB 4.17.3
dohanam to the place of milkingSB 10.38.28-33
dohane while milkingSB 10.44.15
doḥṣu protection of armsSB 1.15.16
do palanquinCC Adi 13.114
dola anantare after the Dola-yātrāCC Antya 1.216
dola anantare after the Dola-yātrāCC Antya 1.216
dola-yātrā the Dola-yātrā festivalCC Madhya 7.5
dola-yātrā the Dola-yātrā festivalCC Madhya 7.5
dola-yātrā the festival of Dola-yātrāCC Antya 1.215
dola-yātrā the festival of Dola-yātrāCC Antya 1.215
CC Antya 4.114
dola-yātrā the festival of Dola-yātrāCC Antya 4.114
CC Antya 4.207
dola-yātrā the festival of Dola-yātrāCC Antya 4.207
dola-yātrā dekhi' after seeing the Dola-yātrā ceremonyCC Madhya 16.9
dola-yātrā dekhi' after seeing the Dola-yātrā ceremonyCC Madhya 16.9
dola-yātrā dekhi' after seeing the Dola-yātrā ceremonyCC Madhya 16.9
dolāya in a palanquinCC Madhya 3.137
dolāya on the carrierCC Madhya 14.110
dolāya caḍi' riding on a palanquinCC Madhya 8.14
dolāya caḍi' riding on a palanquinCC Madhya 8.14
dolāya caḍiyā riding on a palanquinCC Madhya 16.98
dolāya caḍiyā riding on a palanquinCC Madhya 16.98
dole movesCC Adi 5.189
CC Adi 5.190
do the potCC Madhya 3.90
dońhā both of ThemCC Adi 5.177
dońhā both of themCC Madhya 1.217
dońhā diyā through these two personsCC Madhya 11.77
dońhā diyā through these two personsCC Madhya 11.77
dońhākāra of the twoCC Adi 4.164
dońhākāre to both of themCC Antya 4.53
dońhāke both of them (Nīlāmbara Cakravartī and Jagannātha Miśra)CC Madhya 6.54
dońhāra of bothCC Adi 1.101
CC Adi 4.257
CC Madhya 10.180
CC Madhya 24.330
dońhāra of both of themCC Madhya 14.82
CC Madhya 21.118
CC Madhya 24.275
CC Madhya 6.228
CC Madhya 8.23
CC Madhya 8.53
CC Madhya 9.175
dońhāra of both of usCC Madhya 10.169
dońhāra of the parents, Śacīmātā and Jagannātha MiśraCC Adi 14.8
dońhāra of the twoCC Adi 1.85-86
CC Madhya 4.211
dońhāra bhajana engages in devotional service of both (Kṛṣṇa and his spiritual master or the sādhu)CC Madhya 24.175
dońhāra bhajana engages in devotional service of both (Kṛṣṇa and his spiritual master or the sādhu)CC Madhya 24.175
dońhāra darśane in seeing one anotherCC Madhya 3.141
dońhāra darśane in seeing one anotherCC Madhya 3.141
dońhāra dāsera dāsa I am a servant of the servant of the servants of these two personalitiesCC Antya 19.109
dońhāra dāsera dāsa I am a servant of the servant of the servants of these two personalitiesCC Antya 19.109
dońhāra dāsera dāsa I am a servant of the servant of the servants of these two personalitiesCC Antya 19.109
dońhāre both Nārada Muni and ParvataCC Madhya 24.274
dońhāre both of themCC Madhya 20.67
CC Madhya 24.274
dońhāre the two of themCC Adi 10.140
dońhāre mililā he met bothCC Antya 13.43
dońhāre mililā he met bothCC Antya 13.43
dońhāte praveśa entered into Them both (Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma)CC Adi 5.153
dońhāte praveśa entered into Them both (Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma)CC Adi 5.153
dońhe between both of ThemCC Madhya 13.119
dońhe bothCC Adi 4.142
CC Madhya 21.118
CC Madhya 8.22
CC Madhya 9.169
dońhe both of themCC Adi 10.143
dońhe both of ThemCC Adi 5.5
CC Adi 5.76
dońhe both of themCC Antya 11.15
CC Madhya 8.261
CC Madhya 9.169
dońhe both of Them (Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa)CC Adi 5.153
dońhe both the elderly sannyāsīsCC Madhya 25.227
dońhe both togetherCC Adi 4.142
dońhe Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Sanātana GosvāmīCC Adi 10.89
dońhe the twoCC Adi 4.57
dońhe the two of themCC Adi 10.139
dońhe You twoCC Madhya 3.69
dorbhiḥ by the armsSB 3.4.7
dorbhiḥ with armsSB 4.10.18-19
SB 8.7.17
dorbhiḥ with my armsSB 10.62.7
dorbhiḥ with their armsSB 10.13.33
SB 10.56.23
SB 10.82.15
dorbhiḥ with their two armsSB 10.13.22
dorbhyām by his two armsSB 10.5.21
SB 3.17.19
dorbhyām by the armsSB 10.33.14
dorbhyām by their armsSB 10.8.23
dorbhyām from the two armsSB 6.12.26
dorbhyām in His armsSB 10.80.18
dorbhyām with her armsSB 10.48.7
dorbhyām with His armsSB 10.11.51
SB 10.26.8
SB 10.37.32
SB 10.37.4
dorbhyām with his armsSB 10.67.5
SB 10.71.26
SB 10.88.18-19
SB 4.9.42-43
dorbhyām with His handsSB 10.67.25
dorbhyām with His two armsSB 10.38.20
dorbhyām with his two armsSB 7.5.20
dorbhyām with His two armsSB 9.10.39-40
dorbhyām with his two handsSB 10.72.43
dordaṇḍa armsSB 3.8.29
dordaṇḍa strength of armsSB 1.17.8
dordaṇḍa-yūthaḥ having unlimited armsSB 7.8.31
dordaṇḍa-yūthaḥ having unlimited armsSB 7.8.31
dordaṇḍaiḥ the arms of whomSB 8.10.40
doṣa and faultsSB 11.7.40
doṣa any faultCC Adi 8.62
doṣa bad thingsSB 11.7.8
doṣa by the weaknessBG 2.7
doṣā DoṣāSB 4.13.13
doṣa faultCC Adi 10.6
CC Adi 12.34
CC Adi 14.27
CC Adi 14.44
CC Adi 16.47
CC Adi 16.61
CC Adi 16.62
CC Adi 16.85
CC Adi 7.101
CC Adi 7.107
CC Adi 7.110
CC Adi 7.114
CC Antya 15.18
CC Antya 17.36
CC Antya 19.52
CC Antya 3.16
CC Antya 3.205
CC Antya 4.184
CC Antya 8.84
CC Madhya 1.194
CC Madhya 12.190