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     Grammar Search "dhyama" has 1 results.
     
dhyāma: first person plural present imperative class 2 parasmaipadadhyā
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WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
aryaḥ3.3.154MasculineSingularasākalyam, gajānāṃmadhyamaṃgatam
kattṛṇamNeuterSingularpauram, saugandhikam, dhyāmam, devajagdhakam, rauhiṣam
madhyadeśaḥ2.1.7MasculineSingularmadhyama
svarāḥ1.7.1MasculinePluralṣaḍjaḥ, madhyama, dhaivataḥ, niṣādaḥ, pañcamaḥ, ṛṣabhaḥ, gāndhāraḥa note of the musical scale or gamut
madhyamā2.6.8FeminineSingular‍dṛṣṭarajāḥ
madhyamam2.6.80NeuterSingularmadhyaḥ, avalagnam
madhyamā2.6.83FeminineSingular
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106 results for dhyama
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
alpamadhyamamfn. thin-waisted. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amadhyama -āsas-, (Ved.) m. plural of whom none is the middle one (see /a-kaniṣṭha-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anumadhyamamfn. next oldest to the middle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gomadhyamadhyamfn. slender in the waist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamamf(ā-)n. (superl. of m/adhya-) middle (used like Latin medius exempli gratia, 'for example' madhyame gulme-,"in the midst of the troop") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamamf(ā-)n. being or placed in the middle, middlemost, intermediate, central etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamamf(ā-)n. middle-born (neither youngest nor oldest), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamamf(ā-)n. of a middle kind or size or quality, middling, moderate etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamamf(ā-)n. standing between two persons or parties, impartial, neutral etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamamf(ā-)n. (in astronomy) mean (see madhya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamamf(ā-)n. relating to the meridian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. the middlemost prince (whose territory lies between that of a king seeking conquest and that of his foe) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. the middle character in plays View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. the midland country (equals madhya-deśa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. (in music) the 4th or 5th note View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. the middlemost of the 3 scales View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. a particular rāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. (in gram.) the 2nd person (equals -puruṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. the governor of a province View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. a kind of antelope View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. Name of the 18th kalpa- (sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. plural a class of gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. (with Buddhists) Name of a particular sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. n. the middle of the body, waist etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. the middle finger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. midnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. a girl arrived at puberty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. the pericarp of a lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. a central blossom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. a kind of metre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamam. (in music) a particular mūrchanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaman. the middle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaman. mediocrity, defectiveness, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaman. Name of the 12th (14th) kāṇḍa- of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyaman. (in astronomy) the meridian ecliptic point View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyamamfn. (fr. madhyama-) relating to the middle, middlemost, central (also applied to the composers of the middle portion of the ṛg-- veda- id est of books ii-vii) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyamamfn. middle-born View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyamam. plural Name of a race View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamabhṛtakam. a husbandman, a farm-labourer who works both for his master and himself View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamadhyāf. (in music) a particular mūrchanā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamagatif. (in astronomy) mean motion of a planet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamagrāmam. (in music) the middle scale View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamajātamfn. middle-born, born between (two other children), middlemost. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakamf(ikā-)n. middlemost View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakamf(ikā-)n. common (as property) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakan. the interior of anything (kam pra-viś-,to enter) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyamakamf(ikā-)n. (from madhyama-) relating to the middle region (id est the atmosphere) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakakṣāf. the middle enclosure or courtyard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakālaṃkālokam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakālaṃkāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakāṇḍan. Name of the 2nd kāṇḍa- of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakavṛttif. Name of work (also madhyamika v-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakeyam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyamakeyam. plural Name of a people (varia lectio madhyamakeya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakhaṇḍan. (in algebra) the middle term of an equation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamakhaṇḍan. Name of part ii of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamalokam. the middle world (between heaven and the nether world), the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamalokapālam. "protector of the middle world", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamalokendum. "moon of the middle world", a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamandiram. Name of the author of the mahābhārata-tātparya-nirṇaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamandiram. of madhvācārya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamandiran. pudendum muliebre and anus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamaṇim. the central or principal gem of a necklace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamanoramāf. Name of a grammatical work (an abridgement of the manoramā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamapadan. the middle number (which is sometimes omitted and requires to be supplied in a compound consisting of two words) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamapadalopam. the omission of the middle member of a compound (as in, śāka-pārthiva-,the king of the era, for sākapriya-pārthiva-,the king dear to the era) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamapadalopinm. (scilicet samāsa-) a compound which omits the middle member View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamapāṇḍavam. "the middlemost of the five pāṇḍava-s", arjuna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamaparṇan. (prob.) a middle-sized leaf View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamapuruṣam. a particular personification View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamapuruṣam. (in gram.) the second person in verbal conjugation, a termination of the second person (see prathama-puruṣa-, uttama-puruṣa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamapūruṣam. a mediocre person View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamarātram. midnight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamarekhāf. (in astronomy) the central meridian of the earth (a line conceived to be drawn through laṅkā-, ujjayinī-, kuru-kṣetra-, and meru-; see madhya-rekhā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamasāhasam. the middlemost penalty or amercement, punishment for crimes of a middle degree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamasāhasamn. violence or outrage of the middle class (injuring buildings, throwing down walls etc.)
madhyamasaṃgraham. the middle method of intriguing with another's wife (presenting flowers etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamaśīm. "lying or being in the middle", (prob.) an intercessor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamasthamfn. standing or being in the middle gaRa brāhmaṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamasthāmfn. standing in the middle, forming the centre (of a community) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamastheyan. the state of standing in the middle or forming the centre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhyamasthyan. (fr. madhyama-stha-) gaRa brāhmaṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamasvabhāvamfn. indifferent, neutral, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamasvaram. the middle or dominant note View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamasvaramfn. spoken in a middle tone (not too loud and not too low) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamaṭīkāf. Name of work by kumārila- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamavāhmfn. driving at middling or slow speed (equals manda-gamanena vāhaka-) (prob."driving in the middle", scilicet between gods and men) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamavayasn. middle age View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamavayaskamfn. middle-aged View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madhyamayānan. "the middle passage", the middle way to salvation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyamandiram. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
medhyamayamf(ī-)n. consisting of pure, matter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pipīlikamadhyamamf(ā-)n. thin in the middle like an ant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puraskṛtamadhyamakramamfn. taking or adopting a middle course View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samadhyamamfn. moderate on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
silikamadhyamamfn. (said of the horses of the Sun; according to to equals saṃsṛtamadhyama-,or śīrṣa-madhyama-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumadhyamamf(ā-)n. very middling or mediocre View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sumadhyamamf(ā-)n. slender waisted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanmadhyamanasetc. See View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanumadhyamamf(ā-)n. slender-waisted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttamādhamamadhyamamfn. good, bad, and indifferent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttamādhamamadhyamamfn. high, low, and middling. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vimadhyamamfn. middling, indifferent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vindhyamauleya() m. plural idem or '() () m. plural idem or 'm. plural idem or 'm. plural Name of a people ' (see -culika-).' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yavamadhyamam. a particular measure of length, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yavamadhyaman. a kind of cāndrāyaṇa- or lunar penance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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madhyama मध्यम a. [मध्ये भवः म] 1 Being or standing in the middle, middle, central; पितुः पदं मध्यममुत्पतन्ती V.1.19; मध्यमोपलम् Ki.9.2; so मध्यमलोकपालः, मध्यमपदम्, मध्यमरेखा q. q. v. v. -2 Intermediate, intervening; नाप्नोद्यो$यं मध्यमः प्राणस्तानि ज्ञातुं दध्रिरे Bṛi. Up.1.5.21. -3 Middling condition or quality, mediocre; as in उत्तमाधममध्यम. -4 Middling, moderate; तेन मध्यमशक्तीनि मित्राणि स्थापितान्यतः R.17.58. -5 Middle-sized. -6 Neither youngest nor oldest, the middleborn (as a brother); प्रणमति पितरौ वां मध्यमः पाण्डवो$यम् Ve.5.26; ततो$र्धं मध्यमस्य स्यात् तुरीयं तु यवीयसः Ms.9.112. -7 Impartial, neutral. -8 Mean (in astr.). -9 Belonging to the meridian. -मः 1 The fifth note in music. -2 A particular musical mode. -3 The mid-land country; see मध्यदेश. -4 The second person (in grammar). -5 A neutral sovereign; धर्मोत्तरं मध्यममाश्रयन्ते R.13.7. -6 the middle-most prince; मध्यमस्य प्रचारं च विजिगीषोश्च चेष्टितम् Ms.7.155. -7 the middle character in plays. -8 The governor of a province. -9 An epithet of Bhīma; (cf. मध्वमव्यायोग). -मा 1 The middle finger. -2 A marriageable girl, one arrived at the age of puberty. -3 The pericarp of a lotus. -4 One of the classes of heroines (Nāyikās) in poetic compositions, a woman in the middle of her youth; cf. S. D. 1. -5 A central blossom. -मम् 1 The middle. -2 The waist; तदैव यन्न दग्धस्त्वं धर्षयंस्तनुमध्यमाम् Rām.6.111.24. -3 The defectiveness. -4 (In astr.) The meridian ecliptic point. -Comp. -अङ्गुलिः the middle finger. -आगमः one of the four Āgamas; Buddh. -आहरणम् (in alg.) elimination of the middle term in an equation. -उत्खातः a particular division of time. -उपलः = मध्यमणिः q. v.; मध्यमोपलनिभे लसदंशौ Ki.9.2. -कक्षा the middle courtyard. -खण्डम् the middle term of an equation. -गतिः (in astr.) the mean motion of a planet. -ग्रामः (in music) the middle scale. -जात a. middle-born. -पदम् the middle member (of a compound). ˚लेपिन् m. a subdivision of the Tatpuruṣa compound in which the middle word is omitted in composition; the usual instance given is शाकपार्थिवः which is dissolved as शाकप्रियः पार्थिवः; here the middle word प्रिय is omitted; so छायातरु, गुडधानाः &c. -पाण्डवः an epithet of Arjuna. -पुरुषः the second person (in grammar). -पूरुषः a mediocre person. -भृतकः a husbandman or cultivator (who works both for himself and his master or landlord). -यानम् the middle way to salvation. -रात्रः midnight. -राष्ट्रकम् a variety of diamonds; Kau. A.2.11.29. -रेखा the central meridian of the earth. -लोकः the middle world, the earth. ˚पालः a king; तां ...... अन्वग्ययौ मध्यमलोकपालः R.2.16. -वयस् n. middle age. -वयस्क a. middle-aged. -संग्रहः intrigue of a middling character, such as sending presents of flowers &c. to another's wife; it is thus defined by Vyāsa :-प्रेषणं गन्धमाल्यानां धूपभूषणवाससाम् । प्रलोभनं चान्नपानैर्मध्यमः संग्रहः स्मृतः ॥ -साहसः the second of the three penalties or modes of punishment; see Ms.8. 138. (-सः, -सम्) an outrage or offence of the middle class. -स्थ a. being in the middle.
madhyamaka मध्यमक a. (-मिका f.) 1 Middle, middle-most. -2 Common (property &c.). -कम् The interior of anything.
dhyama माध्यम a. (-मी f.) [मध्यम-अण्] Belonging to the middle portion, central, middle, middlemost.
dhyamaka माध्यमक a. (-मिका f.) माध्यमिक a. (-की f.) Middle, central. -काः (m. pl.) 1 N. of a people or their country in the central part of India. -2 N. of a Buddhist school; भगवत्पूज्यपादाश्च शुष्कतर्कपटूनमून् । आहुर्माध्यमिकान् भ्रान्तानचिन्त्ये$स्मिन् सदात्मनि ॥ Pañchadaśī 2.3.
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pratibudhyamāna prati-búdhyamāna, pr. pt. awaking towards (acc.), iv. 51, 10.
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madhyamandira n. female or gan; anus.
madhyamaka a. (ikâ) common to (g.); n. interior: -m pra-vis, enter; -ka kshâ, f. middle of the courtyard; -gâta, pp. born in the middle (son).
madhyama spv. middlemost, situ ated between; being in the middle, central; of medium kind or strength, middle-sized, middling, mediocre, moderate; neutral; m. =Madhya-desa; middle=fourth orfifth note in the scale; one of the three musical scales; second person (gr.); m. n. middle of the body, waist; n. middle; meridian.
madhyamapadalopin a. in which the middle word is dropped (com pound: e. g. sâka-pârthiva=vegetable, sc. loving, king); -purusha, m. kind of personi fication; second person (gr.); -pûrusha, m. mediocre person; -bhâva, m. moderate dis tance; -râtra, m. midnight; -loka, m. mid dle world=earth: -pâla, m. protector of earth, king, -½indu, m. moon of earth, king; -vayas-á, n. middle age; -½ashtakâ,f. eighth day in the dark fortnight of Mâgha.
dhyama a. belonging to the middle, central, inhabiting the middle of the country; m. pl. composers of the middle of the Rig-veda (books II to VII): -ka, a. (i-kâ) relating or belonging to the middle region (the atmosphere); i-ka, a. id.; m. pl. N. of a people in Midland (Madhya-desa).
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jīvagṛbh ‘Seizing alive,’ is, according to Roth, the term, for a police official in the Rigveda. But although this sense is rendered possible by the mention of Madhyamaśī, perhaps ‘ arbitrator,’ in the same passage, it is neither necessary nor probable.
dharma Are the regular words, the latter in the Rigveda, and both later, for ‘ law ’ or ‘ custom.’ But there is very little evidence in the early literature as to the administra­tion of justice or the code of law followed. On the other hand, the Dharma Sūtras contain full particulars.Criminal Law.—The crimes recognized in Vedic literature vary greatly in importance, while there is no distinction adopted in principle between real crimes and what now are regarded as fanciful bodily defects or infringements of merely conventional practices. The crimes enumerated include the slaying of an embryo (
pratipraśna occurs in the śatapatha Brāhmana applied to Prajāpati as the decider of doubts; it may have been a technical term for an ‘arbitrator’ (cf, Madhyamaśī and Dharma).
praśna Denotes generally enquiry’ or ‘disputed question,’ the phrase praśnam eti having the sense ‘ he asks a person for the decision of a disputed point ’ in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. Thus Praána comes to have the definite meaning of ‘ decision ’ in the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda4 are included the Praśnin, the Abhi-praánin, and the Praśna-vivāka; it is quite likely that here the three parties to a civil case are meant—the plaintiff, the defendant, and the arbitrator or judge (Madhyamaśī).
magadha Is the name of a people who appear throughout Vedic literature as of little repute. Though the name is not actually found in the Rigveda, it occurs in the Atharvaveda, where fever is wished away to the Gandhāris and Mūjavants, northern peoples, and to the Añgfas and Magadhas, peoples of the east. Again, in the list of victims at the Purusamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda,3 the Māgadha, or man of Magadha, is included as dedicated to ati-krusta, ‘ loud noise ’ (?), while in the Vrātya hymn of the Atharvaveda[1] the Māgadha is said to be connected with the Vrātya as his Mitra, his Mantra, his laughter, and his thunder in the four quarters. In the śrauta Sūtras6 the equipment characteristic of the Vrātya is said to be given, when the latter is admitted into the Aryan Brahminical community, to a bad Brahmin living in Magadha ·(brahma-bandhu Māgadha-deśīya), but this point does not occur in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. On the other hand, respectable Brahmins sometimes lived there, for the Kausītaki Araṇyaka mentions Madhyama, Prātībodhī-putra, as Magadha-vāsin, ‘living in Magadha.’ Oldenberg, however, seems clearly right in regarding this as unusual. The Magadhas are evidently a people in the Baudhāyana and other Sūtras, possibly also in the Aitareya Araṇyaka. It is therefore most improbable that Zimmer can be right in thinking that in the Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda the λlāgadha is not a man of Magadha, but a member of the mixed caste produced by a Vaiśya marrying a Kṣatriya woman. But the theory of mixed castes, in any case open to some doubt, cannot be accepted when used to explain such obviously tribal names as Māgadha. The fact that the Māgadha is often in later times a minstrel is easily accounted for by the assumption that the country was the home of minstrelsy, and that wandering bards from Magadha were apt to visit the more western lands. This class the later texts recognize as a caste, inventing an origin by intermarriage of the old-established castes. The dislike of the Magadhas, which may be Rigvedic, since the Kīkatas were perhaps the prototype of the Magadhas, was in all probability due, as Oldenberg13 thinks, to the fact that the Magadhas were not really Brahminized. This is entirely in accord with the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa14 that neither Kosala nor Videha were fully Brahminized at an early date, much less Magadha. Weber15 suggests two other grounds that may have influeṇced the position—the persistence of aboriginal blood and the growth of Buddhism. The latter consideration is hardly applicable to the Yajurveda or the Atharvaveda; but the imperfect Brahminization of the land, if substituted for it in accordance with Oldenberg’s suggestion, would have some force. The former motive, despite Olden- berg’s doubt, seems fully justified. Pargiter18 has gone so far as to suggest that in Magadha the Aryans met and mingled with a body of invaders from the east by sea. Though there is no evidence for this view in the Vedic texts, it is reason¬able to suppose that the farther east the Aryans penetrated, the less did they impress themselves upon the aborigines. Modern ethnology confirms this a priori supposition in so far as it shows Aryan types growing less and less marked as the eastern part of India is reached, although such evidence is not decisive in view of the great intermixture of peoples in India.
madhyadeśa The ‘Middle Country,’ is, according to the Mānava Dharma śāstra, the land between the Himālaya in the north, the Vindhya in the south, Vinaáana in the west, and Prayāga (now Allahabad) in the east that is, between the place where the Sarasvatī disappears in the desert, and the point of the confluence of the Yamunā (Jumna) and the Gañgā (Ganges). The same authority defines Brahmarsi-deśa as denoting the land of Kuruksetra, the Matsyas, Pañcālas, and śūrasenakas, and Brahmāvarta as meaning the particularly holy land between the Sarasvatī and the Drṣadvatī. The Baudhāyana Dharma Sūtra4 defines Áryāvarta as the land east of Vinaśana; west of the Kālaka-vana, ‘ Black Forest,’ or rather Kanakhala, near Hardvār; south of the Himālaya; and north of the Pāriyātra or the Pāripātra Mountains; adding that, in the opinion of others, it was confined to the country between the Yamunā and the Gañgā, while the Bhāllavins took it as the country between the boundary-river (or perhaps the Saras-vatī) and the region where the sun rises. The Mānava Dharma śāstra, in accord with the Vasiṣṭha Dharma Sūtra, defines Áryāvarta as the region between the Vindhya and the Himālaya, the two ranges which seem to be the boundaries of the Aryan world in the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad also. The term Madhyadeśa is not Vedic, but it is represented in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa by the expression madhyamā pratisthā diś, ‘ the middle fixed region,’ the inhabitants of which are stated to be the Kurus, the Pañcālas, the Vaśas, and the Uśīnaras. The latter two peoples practically disappear later on, the Madhyadeśa being the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, the land where the Brāhmaṇas and the later Samhitās were produced, bounded on the east by the Kosala-Videhas, and on the west by the desert. The western tribes are mentioned with disapproval both in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, while the tradition of the Brahminization of the Kosalas and the Videhas from the Kuru-Pañcāla country is preserved in the former Brāhmaṇa.
madhyamastha In the later Saiphitās denotes the chief in his relation to his followers (sajāta). Cf. Madhyamaśī.
māṇḍūkeya ‘Descendant of Māndūka,’ is the patronymic of several teachers in the Rigveda Áranyakas—viz., śūravīra, Hrasva, Dīrgha, Madhyama Prātībodhīputra. The Māṇ- dūkeyas also occur as a school in the Araṇyakas: a special form of the text of the Rigveda evidently appertained: to them.®
rājan King,' is a term repeatedly occuring in the rigveda and the later literature. It is quite clear that the normal, though not universal form of government, in early India was that by kings, as might be expected in view of the fact that the Āryan Indian were invaders in a hostile territory : a situation which, as in the case of Ārayan invaders of Greece and German invaders of England, resulted almost necessarily in strengthening the monarchic element of the constitution. The mere patriarchal organization of society is not sufficient, as Zimmer assumes, to explain the Vedic kingship. Tenure of Monarchy.—Zimmer is of opinion that while the Vedic monarchy was sometimes hereditary, as is indeed shown by several cases where the descent can be traced,® yet in others the monarchy was elective, though it is not clear whether the selection by the people was between the members of the royal family only or extended to members of all the noble clans. It must, however, be admitted that the evidence for the elective monarchy is not strong. As Geldner argues, all the passages cited can be regarded not as choice by the cantons (Viś), but as acceptance by the subjects (viś): this seems the more prob¬able sense. Of course this is no proof that the monarchy was not sometimes elective: the practice of selecting one member of the family to the exclusion of another less well qualified is exemplified by the legend in Yāska of the Kuru brothers, Devāpi and śantanu, the value of which, as evidence of contemporary views, is not seriously affected by the legend itself being of dubious character and validity. Royal power was clearly insecure: there are several references to kings being expelled from their realms, and their efforts to recover their sovereignty, and the Atharvaveda contains spells in the interest of royalty. The King in War.—Naturally the Vedic texts, after the Rigveda, contain few notices of the warlike adventures that no doubt formed a very considerable proportion of the royal functions. But the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa contains the statement that the Kuru-Pañcāla kings, who, like the Brahmins of those tribes, stand as representatives of good form, used to make their raids in the dewy season. The word Udāja, too, with its variant Nirāja, records that kings took a share of the booty of war. The Rigveda13 has many references to Vedic wars: it is clear that the Kṣatriyas were at least as intent on fulfilling their duty of war as the Brahmins on sacrificing and their other functions. Moreover, beside offensive war, defence was a chief duty of the king: he is emphatically the ‘ protector of the tribe* (gopā janasya), or, as is said in the Rājasūya (‘royal consecration’), ‘protector of the Brahmin.’14 His Purohita was expected to use his spells and charms to secure the success of his king’s arms. The king no doubt fought in person: so Pratardana met death in war according to the Kausītaki Upanisad;16 and in the Rājasūya the king is invoked as ‘sacker of cities’ (purāψ bhettā). The King in Peace.—In return for his warlike services the king received the obedience—sometimes forced—of the people, and in particular their contributions for the maintenance of royalty. The king is regularly regarded as ‘ devouring the people,’ but this phrase must not be explained as meaning that he necessarily oppressed them. It obviously has its origin in a custom by which the king and his retinue were fed by the people’s contributions, a plan with many parallels. It is also probable that the king could assign the royal right of mainten¬ance to a Ksatriya, thus developing a nobility supported by the people. Taxation would not normally fall on Kṣatriya or Brahmin; the texts contain emphatic assertions of the exemption of the goods of the latter from the royal bounty. In the people, however, lay the strength of the king. See also Bali. In return the king performed the duties of judge. Himself immune from punishment (a-daiidya), he wields the rod of punishment (Daṇda). It is probable that criminal justice remained largely in his actual administration, for the Sūtras preserve clear traces of the personal exercise of royal criminal jurisdiction. Possibly the jurisdiction could be exercised by a royal officer, or even by a delegate, for a Rājanya is mentioned as an overseer (adhyaksa) of the punishment of a śūdra in the Kāthaka Samhitā. In civil justice it may be that the king played a much less prominent part, save as a court of final appeal, but evidence is lacking on this head. The Madhyamaśi of the Rigveda was probably not a royal, but a private judge or arbitrator. A wide criminal jurisdiction is, however, to some extent supported by the frequent mention of Varuna’s spies, for Varuṇa is the divine counterpart of the human king. Possibly such spies could be used in' war also. There is no reference in early Vedic literature to the exercise of legislative activity by the king, though later it is an essential part of his duties. Nor can we say exactly what executive functions devolved on the king. In all his acts the king was regularly advised by his Purohita ; he also had the advantage of the advice of the royal ministers and attendants (see Ratnin). The local administration was entrusted to the Grāmartī, or village chief, who may have been selected or appointed by the'king. The outward signs of the king’s rank were his palace and his brilliant dress. The King as Landowner.—The position of the king with regard to the land is somewhat obscure. The Greek notices,30 in which, unhappily, it would be dangerous to put much trust, since they were collected by observers who were probably little used to accurate investigations of such matters, and whose statements wore based on inadequate information, vary in their statements. In part they speak of rent being paid, and declare that only the king and no private person could own land, while in part they refer to the taxation of land. Hopkins is strongly of opinion that the payments made were paid for protection —i.e., in modern terminology as a tax, but that the king was recognized as the owner of all the land, while yet the individual or the joint family also owned the land. As against Baden- Powell, who asserted that the idea of the king as a landowner was later, he urges for the Vedic period that the king, as we have seen, is described as devouring the people, and that, according to the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Vaiśya can be devoured at will and maltreated (but, unlike the śūdra, not killed); and for the period of the legal Sūtras and śāstras he cites Bṛhaspati and Nārada as clearly recognizing the king’s overlordship, besides a passage of the Mānava Dharma Sāstra which describes the king as ‘lord of all a phrase which Būhler35 was inclined to interpret as a proof of landowning. The evidence is, however, inadequate to prove what is sought. It is not denied that gradually the king came to be vaguely con¬ceived—as the English king still is—as lord of all the land in a proprietorial sense, but it is far more probable that such an idea was only a gradual development than that it was primitive. The power of devouring the people is a political power, not a right of ownership; precisely the same feature can be traced in South Africa,3® where the chief can deprive a man arbitrarily of his land, though the land is really owned by the native. The matter is ultimately to some extent one of terminology, but the parallel cases are in favour of distinguishing between the political rights of the crown, which can be transferred by way of a grant, and the rights of ownership. Hopkins37 thinks that the gifts of land to priests, which seems to be the first sign of land transactions in the Brāhmaṇas, was an actual gift of land; it may have been so in many cases, but it may easily also have been the grant of a superiority : the Epic grants are hardly decisive one way or the other. For the relations of the king with the assembly, see Sabhā ; for his consecration, see Rājasūya. A rāja-tā, lack of a king,’ means‘anarchy.’
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agnaye devebhyaḥ pitṛbhyaḥ samidhyamānāyānubrūhi # TB.1.6.9.1; Apś.8.14.17 (cf. 8.13.7, comm.).
agnaye samidhyamānāya hotar anubrūhi # śB.1.3.5.3; Kś.3.1.2.
agnaye samidhyamānāyānubrūhi # TS.6.3.7.1; MS.1.4.11: 59.9; śB.1.3.5.2,3; 2.5.2.19; 6.1.21; 3.7.4.7; TB.3.3.7.1; Kś.3.1.1; Apś.2.12.1; Mś.1.3.1.1; N.1.15. P: agnaye samidhyamānāya śś.1.4.4.
agne deva paṇibhir guhyamānaḥ (TSṭB. vīyamāṇaḥ; MSṃś. vīyamānaḥ; KS. idhyamānaḥ) # VS.2.17b; TS.1.1.13.2b; MS.4.1.14b: 20.5; KS.1.12b; 31.11; TB.3.3.9.6; śB.1.8.3.22b; Mś.1.3.4.26b.
atho saṃ dyāmi madhyamān # AVś.6.103.2b.
anuprāsyemāni pṛthumadhyamāni # AVP.15.12.11c.
anu vīrair anu puṣyāsma (TB.Apś. rādhyāma) gobhiḥ # VS.26.19a; TB.3.7.10.2a; Apś.9.14.1a.
antarikṣe madhyato madhyamasya # AVś.4.14.8e.
amanyamānāñ charvā jaghāna # RV.2.12.10b; AVś.20.34.10b. See abudhyamānān sarvā.
avamaṃ madhyamaṃ catum # TA.1.8.4b.
avādhamaṃ vi madhyamaṃ śrathāya # RV.1.24.15b; AVś.7.83.3b; 18.4.69b; ArS.1.4b; VS.12.12b; TS.1.5.11.3b; 4.2.1.3b; MS.1.2.18b: 28.8; 4.14.17b: 246.5; KS.3.8b; 16.8b; śB.6.7.3.8; SMB.1.7.10b. P: avādhamam ... vi madhyamam HG.1.9.10.
asthur in madhyamā imāḥ # AVś.1.17.3c.
asyāṃ tvā dhruvāyāṃ madhyamāyāṃ pratiṣṭhāyāṃ diśi sādhyāś cāptyāś ca devāḥ ṣaḍbhiś caiva pañcaviṃśair ahobhir abhiṣiñcantv etena ca tṛcenaitena ca yajuṣaitābhiś ca vyāhṛtibhī rājyāya māhārājyādhipatyāya svāvaśyāyādhiṣṭhāya # AB.8.19.1.
ā paramābhir uta madhyamābhiḥ # RV.6.62.11a.
indraṃ kṣiyanta uta yudhyamānāḥ # RV.4.25.8c.
indraṃ pare 'vare madhyamāsaḥ # RV.3.25.8a.
indrāgnibhyāṃ tvā sayujā yujā yunajmy āghārābhyāṃ tejasā varcasokthebhi stomebhiś chandobhī rayyai poṣāya sajātānāṃ madhyamastheyāya # TS.4.4.5.1. P: indrāgnibhyāṃ tvā sayujā yujā yunajmi Apś.17.5.2. See prec.
indrāṇīva subudhā budhyamānā # AVś.14.2.31c.
īrmāntāsaḥ silikamadhyamāsaḥ # RV.1.163.10a; VS.29.21a; TS.4.6.7.4a; KSA.6.3a; N.4.13a. Cf. BṛhD.4.27.
ugro madhyamaśīr iva # RV.10.97.12d; AVś.4.9.4d; AVP.8.3.11d; 9.8.10d; 9.9.1d; 11.7.2d; VS.12.86d; TS.4.2.6.4d; MS.2.7.13d: 94.6; KS.16.13d.
un madhyamāḥ pitaraḥ somyāsaḥ # RV.10.15.1b; AVś.18.1.44b; VS.19.49b; TS.2.6.12.3b; MS.4.10.6b: 157.4; AB.3.37.13; N.11.18b.
un madhyamān madhyame tat # AVP.3.15.5c.
etāvatī madhyamā devamātrā # GB.1.5.23d; JB.2.72d.
kaniṣṭha uta madhyamaḥ # AVP.4.16.5b.
gṛhṇāmi te madhyamam uttamaṃ rasam # AVś.5.13.2c. See next but one.
tato madhyamam āyanti # TA.1.8.5a.
taṃ tvā sīsena vidhyāmaḥ # AVś.1.16.4c. See sīsena vidhyāmas.
tīvrāntasya bahulamadhyamasya # AVP.7.6.7b.
tvaṃ puṣyasi madhyamam # RV.7.32.16b; SV.1.270b.
dīrghaṃ na āyuḥ pratibudhyamānā # AVś.12.1.62c.
devo martair vasubhir idhyamānaḥ # RV.5.3.8d.
namaḥ puruṣāya supuruṣāya mahāpuruṣāya madhyamapuruṣāyottamapuruṣāya brahmacāriṇe namo-namaḥ # Svidh.1.2.5. See namaḥ sobhyāya supuruṣāya.
namaḥ sobhyāya supuruṣāya mahāpuruṣāya madhyamapuruṣāyottamapuruṣāya brahmacāriṇe namaḥ # GDh.26.12. See namaḥ puruṣāya.
namo madhyamāya cāpagalbhāya ca # VS.16.32; TS.4.5.6.1. MS.2.9.6: 125.4; KS.17.14.
ni yudhyāmadhim aśiśād abhīke # RV.7.18.24d.
pavamānaṃ tu madhyamam # TA.1.8.4b.
pīlumatīti madhyamā # AVś.18.2.48b.
pra budhyasva subudhā budhyamānā # AVś.14.2.75a. P: pra budhyasva Kauś.77.13.
pra madhyamāsu mātṛṣu prame sacā # RV.9.70.4b.
bhagaṃ purastāt pratibudhyamānāḥ # AVP.10.6.2a.
vo ratho madhyamavāḍ ṛte bhūt # RV.2.29.4c.
yaṃ yudhyamānā avase havante # RV.2.12.9b; AVś.20.34.9b; AVP.12.14.9b.
yat paramam avamaṃ yac ca madhyamam # AVś.10.7.8a.
madhyamā viśvakarmann utemā # RV.10.81.5b; VS.17.21b; TS.4.6.2.5b; MS.2.10.2b: 133.10; KS.18.2b.
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"dhyama" has 6 results.
     
madhyama(1)the middle person ( मध्यमपुरुष ), confer, compare युष्मद्युपपदे...मध्यम: P. I. 4.105; confer, compare also Nirukta of Yāska.VII. 7; (2) middling tone or effort confer, compare मध्यमेन स वाक्ययोग: Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVIII. 4, where the commentator explains the word as उच्चनीचसमाहारविलक्षण: वाक्प्रयोगः | the word मध्यमा is used in this sense as qualifying a mode of utterance. वृत्ति; confer, compare अभ्यासार्थे द्रुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् ! Ṟ. Pr. XIII. 19; cf also चतुष्कला मध्यमायार्म् Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 32; (3) one of the seven modes of speech or tones. cf सप्त वाचः स्थानानि भवन्ति | उपांशुध्वाननिमदेापव्दिमन्मन्द्रमध्यमताराणि Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.4 and 5 and also कण्ठे मध्यमम् XVIII.11 where the commentatator explains मध्यम as यत्र कण्ठे स्थाने प्रयोग उपलभ्यते तन्मध्यमं नाम षष्ठं वाचस्स्थानम् | (4) one of the seven musical notes originating or proceeding from the Svarita accent confer, compare, स्वारतप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः Pāṇ Śikṣā.
madhyamakaumudī(1)name of a treatise on grammar by Rāmaśarman; (2) the same as मध्यकौमुदी.
madhyamapadalopaliterally the dropping of the middle word or member ( of a compound generally) as for instance in शाकपार्थिक for शाकप्रियपार्थिव; the word मध्यमपदलोप is also used in the sense of a compound. The compounds which have the middle word dropped are enumerated by the Vārttikakāra under the Vārttika शाकपार्थिवादीनां मध्यमपदलेापश्च Bh. Vṛ. II.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).; cf also Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.6.30.
drutāone of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance mentioned in the Pratisakhya works and quoted in the Mahabhasya; confer, compareतित्रो वृत्तीरुपदिशन्ति वाचो विलम्बितां मध्यमां च दुतां च । अभ्यासार्थे दुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्ति विलम्बिताम् । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 18, 19; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायां, ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलाम्बितायाम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.70, Vart. 4. The utterance of a letter takes ,1/3 rd time more in the मध्यमवृत्ति than in the द्रुतवृत्ति, while in the विलम्बितवृत्ति it takes 1/3 rd more than in the मध्यमवृत्ति. In short, the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis, Druta, Vilambita and Madhyama the quantity of time in the proportion of 9:12:16 respectively.
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dhyāmaka

Plant rusa grass, Andropogon schoenanthus, syn. Cymbopogon martini.

madhyamapancamūla

(madhyama.panca.mūla) country mallow balā, hogweed punrṇava, castor eranḍa, Uraria picta and Desmodium gangeticum śūrṇaparṇidvayam.

pañcapañcamūla

(panca.panca.mūla) the roots mentioned in bṛhatpañcamūla, madhyamapañcamūla, jīvanīyapañcamūla, tṛṇapañcamūla together with the roots of svādamṣṭa, śaireya and karamardika.

rohiṣa

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     Wordnet Search "dhyama" has 19 results.
     

dhyama

madhyamakoṣṭakam, madhyamakoṣṭakaḥ   

tat koṣṭakaṃ yat vartulākārakoṣṭakāt bahiḥ sthāpyate।

koṣṭakasya praśne madhyamakoṣṭakaṃ niṣkāsya vartulākārakoṣṭakaṃ niṣkāsyate।

dhyama

madhyamapuruṣaḥ   

vyākaraṇe saḥ puruṣaḥ yena saha vārtālāpaḥ jāyate।

tvam yuvāṃ yūyam iti madhyamapuruṣasya nirdeśakāḥ।

dhyama

arjunaḥ, dhanañjayaḥ, pārthaḥ, śakranandanaḥ, gāṇḍivī, madhyamapāṇḍavaḥ, śvetavājī, kapidhvajaḥ, rādhābhedī, subhadreśaḥ, guḍākeśaḥ, bṛhannalaḥ, aindriḥ, phālgunaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, kirīṭī, śvetavāhanaḥ, bībhatsuḥ, vijayaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, savyasācī, kṛṣṇaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ   

kunteḥ tṛtīyaḥ putraḥ।

arjunaḥ mahān dhanurdharaḥ āsīt।

dhyama

jambūvṛkṣaḥ, kṛṣṇaphalā, dīrghapatrā, madhyamā, svarṇamātā, śukapriyā, rājaphalā, nīlaphalā, sudarśanaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yasya phalāni kṛṣṇavarṇīyāni tathā ca yaḥ ciraharitaḥ asti।

tasya udyāne pañca jambūvṛkṣāḥ santi।

dhyama

madhye, madhyamasthāne   

madhyamuddiśya।

grāmasya madhye śivasya mandiram asti।

dhyama

madhyamasvaraḥ   

saṅgītasya saptasvareṣu caturthaḥ svaraḥ।

sā madhyamasvare gāyati। /madhyamasvaraḥ krauñcasvaratulyaḥ asti।

dhyama

madhyasthaḥ, madhyamapuruṣaḥ, madhyasthitaḥ, carapuṣṭaḥ   

yaḥ dvayoḥ pakṣayoḥ madhye bhūtvā tayoḥ vyavahāre sulabhatām ānayati svasya kṛte lābhañca sampādayati।

rāmaśyāmayoḥ kalahe sohanaḥ madhyasthaḥ āsīt।

dhyama

yuvatī, yuvatiḥ, taruṇī, yūnī, talunī, dikkarī, dhanikā, dhanīkā, madhyamā, dṛṣṭarajāḥ, madhyamikā, īśvarī, varyā   

prāptayauvanā strī। (prāg yauvanā yuvatiḥ iti vātsyāyanaḥ।);

yo yaṃ vicintayati yāni sa tanmayatvam। yassmād ataḥ subhagayā iva gatā yuvatyaḥ॥

dhyama

madhyama   

yaḥ ākāreṇa bṛhat laghuḥ vā nāsti।

asya vṛkṣasya phalāni ākṛtyā madhyamāni santi।

dhyama

kṛśodarī, tanūdarī, alpamadhyamā, śātodarī   

yasyāḥ sūkṣmā kaṭiḥ।

ekā kṛśodarī nartakī nṛtyati।

dhyama

pṛthivī, bhūḥ, bhūmiḥ, acalā, anantā, rasā, viśvambharā, sthirā, dharā, dharitrī, dharaṇī, kṣauṇī, jyā, kāśyapī, kṣitiḥ, sarvasahā, vasumatī, vasudhā, urvī, vasundharā, gotrā, kuḥ, pṛthvī, kṣmā, avaniḥ, medinī, mahī, dharaṇī, kṣoṇiḥ, kṣauṇiḥ, kṣamā, avanī, mahiḥ, ratnagarbhā, sāgarāmbarā, abdhimekhalā, bhūtadhātrī, ratnāvatī, dehinī, pārā, vipulā, madhyamalokavartmā, dhāraṇī, gandhavatī, mahākāntā, khaṇḍanī, girikarṇikā, dhārayitrī, dhātrī, acalakīlā, gauḥ, abdhidvīpā, iḍā, iḍikā, ilā, ilikā, irā, ādimā, īlā, varā, ādyā, jagatī, pṛthuḥ, bhuvanamātā, niścalā, śyāmā   

martyādyadhiṣṭhānabhūtā।

pṛthivī pañcamam bhūtam

dhyama

madhyama   

yat mahat nāsti laghu api nāsti।

asmin vane ākāreṇa madhyamāḥ vanaspatayaḥ santi।

dhyama

madhyamātreyaḥ   

ṛṣiviśeṣaḥ।

madhyamātreyasya varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

dhyama

alpamadhyama   

kṛśayā kaṭyā yuktaḥ।

alpamadhyamaḥ nartakaḥ sarveṣāṃ manāṃsi ākarṣati।

dhyama

madhyamavargīya   

ārthikastaraṃ sāmājikastaraṃ vā anusṛtya kṛte vibhāge uttamādhamayoḥ antarā sthitasya vargasya ghaṭakaḥ tadvargasambandhī ca।

na kadāpi svīkurmaḥ vayaṃ madhyamavargīyāṃ kanyāṃ vivāhārtham।

dhyama

madhyamavargaḥ   

uccanimnayoḥ madhyastarīyaḥ vargaḥ।

vastūnāṃ mūlyavardhanena nimnavargeṇa saha madhyamavargaḥ api trastaḥ asti।

dhyama

prasāramādhyamam   

janatāyai vārtāṃ preṣayituṃ prayuktaṃ sādhanam।

dūradarśanam ākāśavāṇī ityādīni prasāramādhyamāni santi।

dhyama

pracāramādhyamam   

vārtāpatrasya lekhakānāṃ vṛttāntalekhakānāṃ vā samūhaḥ।

mantrimahodayena pracāramādhyame svasya aparādhaḥ svīkṛtaḥ।

dhyama

prasāramādhyamakarmī   

yaḥ prasāramādhyame kāryaṃ karoti।

ārakṣakāḥ prasāramādhyamakarmiṇaḥ prāharan।

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