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     Grammar Search "dala" has 2 results.
     
dala: neuter vocative singular stem: dala
dala: second person singular present imperative class 1 parasmaipadadal
     Amarakosha Search  
23 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
abhriḥFeminineSingularkāṣṭhakudālaḥa scraper or shovel
bimbaḥ1.3.15MasculineSingularmaṇḍalamthe disc of sun and moon
bodhidrumaḥ2.4.20MasculineSingularcaladala, pippalaḥ, kuñjarāśanaḥ, aśvatthaḥ
cakravālamNeuterSingularmaṇḍalamthe sensible horizon
caṇḍālaḥ2.10.19MasculineSingularantevāsī, janaṅgamaḥ, plavaḥ, pukkasaḥ, śvapacaḥ, divākīrttiḥ, cāṇḍālaḥ, niṣādaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ
cāṇḍālikā2.10.32FeminineSingularkāṇḍolavīṇā, caṇḍālavallakī
indraḥ1.1.45MasculineSingularmarutvān, pākaśāsanaḥ, puruhūtaḥ, lekharṣabhaḥ, divaspatiḥ, vajrī, vṛṣā, balārātiḥ, harihayaḥ, saṅkrandanaḥ, meghavāhanaḥ, ṛbhukṣāḥ, maghavā, vṛddhaśravāḥ, purandaraḥ, śakraḥ, sutrāmā, vāsavaḥ, vāstoṣpatiḥ, śacīpatiḥ, svārāṭ, duścyavanaḥ, ākhaṇḍalaḥ, viḍaujāḥ, sunāsīraḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, śatamanyuḥ, gotrabhid, vṛtrahā, surapatiḥ, jambhabhedī, namucisūdanaḥ, turāṣāṭ, sahasrākṣaḥindra, the king of the gods
jyāyān3.3.243MasculineSingulardalam
khaḍgaḥ2.8.90MasculineSingularkṛpāṇaḥ, asiḥ, riṣṭiḥ, kaukṣethakaḥ, maṇḍalāgraḥ, nistriṃśaḥ, karavālaḥ, candrahāsaḥ
koṭhaḥ2.6.54MasculineSingularmaṇḍalakam
kovidāraḥ2.4.22MasculineSingularyugapatrakaḥ, camarikaḥ, kuddālaḥ
mārjāraḥ2.2.7MasculineSingularotuḥ, viḍālaḥ, vṛṣadaṃśakaḥ, ākhubhuk
pariveṣaḥ1.3.32MasculineSingularparidhiḥ, upasūryakam, maṇḍalamhalo
pattramNeuterSingulardalam, parṇam, chadaḥ, palāśam, chadanam
saṃvarttikāFeminineSingularnavadalama new leaf of lotus
śeluḥ2.4.34MasculineSingularśleṣmātakaḥ, śītaḥ, uddālaḥ, bahuvārakaḥ
śuktiḥFeminineSingularnakham, śaṅkhaḥ, khuraḥ, koladalam
śyāmāFeminineSingularpālindī, suṣeṇikā, kālā, masūravidalā, ardhacandrā, kālameṣikā
cūḍālāFeminineSingularcakralā, uccaṭā
kuṇḍalam2.6.104NeuterSingularkarṇaveṣṭnam
caṇḍālaḥ2.10.4Ubhaya-lingaSingular
caṇḍālaḥ2.10.19MasculineSingularantevāsī, janaṅgamaḥ, plavaḥ, pukkasaḥ, śvapacaḥ, divākīrttiḥ, cāṇḍālaḥ, niṣādaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ
vidalam3.5.32NeuterSingular
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220 results for dala
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
दलn. (m. ) a piece torn or split off. fragment (see aṇḍa-, carma--, dvi--, veṇu--) (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. "part", a degree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. a half (see adhara--, ahar--, dyu--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. a hemistich View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. "unfolding itself."a small shoot, blade, petal, leaf (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' in names of plants) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. cinnamon leaf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. unclean gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. a clump, heap View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. a detachment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. equals utsedha-, dhavad-vastu-, avadravya- (apad- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलn. dividing, splitting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलm. Name of a prince , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलद्धृदयmfn. broken-hearted View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलजmfn. produced from petals (honey) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलकपाटm. a folded petal or leaf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलकोमलthe lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलकोशm. a kind of jasmine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलमालिनीf. leaf-cabbage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलमोदकm. petal-honey View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलनmf(ī-)n. splitting, tearing asunder, dispelling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलनn. breaking (of the heart) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलनn. destruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलनn. causing to burst, splitting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलनn. see nir-- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलनn. mānsa--. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलनगरn. Name (also title or epithet) of a town, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलनीf. a clod of earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलनिर्मोकm. "leaf-shedding", Betula Bhojpattra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलपm. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' gaRa cūrṇādi-) a weapon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलपm. gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलपतिm. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलपतिm. equals dhīśvara-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलपुष्पाf. Pandanus odoratissimus = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलपुष्पीf. Pandanus odoratissimus = View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलशालिनीf. Name of a pot-herb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलसारिणीf. Colocasia antiquorum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलशस्ind. ( -to go) to pieces . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलसायसीf. white basil View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलस्नसाf. the fibre of a leaf. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलसूचिm. "leaf-needle", a thorn View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलतरुm. Corypha Taliera View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलतृ gaRa arīhaṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलवीटकn. Name of an ear-ornament View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दलयोगm. Name of a constellation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदलmfn. leafless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अदलm. the plant Eugenia (or Barringtonia) Acutangula View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अधरदलn. a lip, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अहर्दलn. midday View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आह्लादलहरीf. Name (also title or epithet) of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आनन्दलहरि f. "wave of enjoyment", Name of a hymn by śaṃkarācārya- addressed to pārvatī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आनन्दलहरीf. "wave of enjoyment", Name of a hymn by śaṃkarācārya- addressed to pārvatī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
आनन्दलहरीस्तोत्रn. Name of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अण्डदलn. egg-shell. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अरविन्ददलप्रभn. copper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टदलmfn. having a flower of eight leaves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अष्टदलn. a lotus flower with eight leaves. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउदलm. a descendant of udala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
अउदलn. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बहुदलकनिशm. a particular species of grain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बैदलSee vaidala-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बालदलकm. "small-leafed", Acacia Catechu View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भुजदलm. "arm-leaf", the hand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
भुजादलm. equals bhuja-d- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बिदलn. (see vi-dala-) anything split off or produced by splitting (see compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बिदलकारीf. a woman employed in splitting bamboos View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बिदलसंहितmfn. composed or made up of halves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहद्दलm. a species of lodhra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
बृहद्दलm. Phoenix Paludosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चलदलm. "tremulous-leaved", Ficus religiosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चन्दलदेवीf. Name of the princess candralekhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चरदलn. equals -khaṇḍa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चरदलजाf. equals cara--, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चर्मदलn. a slight form of leprosy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
चतुर्दलm. "four-leaved", Marsilea quadrifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दिनव्यासदलn. "day-radius", the radius of a circle made by an asterism in its daily revolution
दोहदलक्षणn. "having morbid longing as its mark", a fetus or embryo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
दोहदलक्षणn. the period of passing from one season of life to another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्रोणीदलm. Pandanus Odoratissimus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विदलmfn. split in two, forked View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्विदलm. fork View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
द्युदलn. "sky-half."noon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गोपदलm. the betel-nut tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ग्रन्थिदलm. "knotty-leaved", a kind of perfume (coraka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुन्दलm. the sound of a small oblong drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
गुरुमर्दलm. a kind of drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हस्तिकर्णदलm. a sort of Butea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
हेमकन्दलm. having golden shoots, coral View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इन्दीवरदलn. the petal of a blue lotus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
इन्दुदलn. a portion of the moon, a digit, crescent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
जगद्दलm. Name of a king of the darad-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कदलmf(ī-[ ā- ]). the plantain or banana tree, Musa Sapientum (its soft, perishable stem is a symbol of frailty) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कदलn. the banana View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कदलकm. Musa Sapientum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कलहकन्दलm. Name of an actor. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलmfn. the cheek (or the cheek and temple) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलmfn. girth, girdle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलmfn. a new shoot or sprig View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलmfn. a low soft tone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलmfn. a portent (as an eclipse, supposed to forbode evil) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलmfn. reproach, censure View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलm. gold View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलm. war, battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलm. Name of a plant with white flowers (which appear very plentifully and all at once in the rainy season) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलm. lotus seed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलm. a flag, banner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलm. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलn. the flower of the kandalī- tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलmfn. filled with (compound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलताf. Name of a plant with a bulbous root View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कन्दलयNom. P. kandalayati-, to bring forth or produce in abundance or simultaneously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कर्कशदलm. Trichosanthes Dioeca View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कौक्कुटिकन्दलm. a species of snake (see kukkuṭābha-and ṭāhi-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कोलदलn. a kind of perfume View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कोमलदलm. n. "tender-leaved" equals kamala- (Lotus Nelumbium) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
क्षीरदलm. equals -cchada- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
कुद्दलm. = kudāra-2 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
लेख्यदलm. equals lekhārha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
माधवानलकामकन्दलकथाf. idem or ' f. idem or 'n. Name of a love-story' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
महमदएदलm. = $ Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मांसदलनm. Amoora Rohitaka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मर्दल(and laka- ) m. a kind of drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मर्दलध्वनिm. the sound of a drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
मसूरविदलm. or n. (?) prob."a split lentil" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनदलn. a leaf of the lotus flower (see nalinī-dala-and nava-nalina-dalāya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनदलm. the Indian crane (see puṣkara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनदलm. Carissa Carandas View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनदलm. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनिदल equals -d- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीदलn. a leaf of the lotus plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नलिनीदलमयmf(ī-)n. consisting of lotus leaves View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नवदलn. the fresh leaf of a lotus or any young leaf View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
नीलाङ्कितदल(prob.) wrong reading for til-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
निर्दलनn. ( dal-) splitting, cleaving asunder, breaking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पादलग्नmfn. sticking or hanging on the feet, lying at a person's feet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परमानन्दलहरीस्तोत्रn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
परिकन्दलmf(ā-)n. teeming with, full of (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पाषण्डदलनn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रदलm. an arrow (equals pra-dara-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रासादलक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
प्रविदलनn. pounding, crushing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
पुद्दल wrong reading for prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रक्तकन्दलm. coral View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
रत्नकन्दलm. coral View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शब्दलक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शब्दलक्षणरहस्यn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सदलंकारचन्द्रिकाf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सदलंकृतिf. a genuine ornament ( sadalaṃkṛtitā -- f.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सदलंकृतिताf. sadalaṃkṛti
षड्भागदलn. (prob.) the 12th part View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सहस्रदलmfn. having a thousand petals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सपादलक्षm. or n. one hundred thousand and a quarter of it id est 125, 000 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सपादलक्षmfn. Name of a district ( sapādalakṣmāpāla kṣmāpāla- m.a king of the above district; sapādalakṣaśikharin -śikharin- m.Name of a mountain) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सपादलक्षशिखरिन्m. sapādalakṣa
सपादलक्ष्मापालm. sapādalakṣa
शतदलn. a lotus-flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतदलf. a kind of flower View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शतदलf. the Indian white rose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सितासितकमलदलनयनताf. having eyes like the petals of a dark and white lotus (one of the 80 minor marks of a buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
शिवानन्दलहरीf. (or śiva-laharī-) Name of work of śaṃkarācārya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
स्निग्धदलm. "smooth-leaved", a species of karañja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
षोडशदलmfn. having 16 petals View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुभाषितसुधानन्दलहरीf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूचीदलm. Marsilea Quadrifolia View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुदलm. "having good leaves", Pterospermum Suberifolium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुदलm. a kind of creeper (equals kṣīra-moraṭa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सुधानन्दलहरी(dhān-) f. Name of a poem. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
सूक्ष्मदलm. mustard View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ताडीदलn. a kind of ear-ornament View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तालमर्दलm. a cymbal View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
तिलाङ्कितदलm. a kind of bulb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उदलm. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ऊदलn. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्दलm. Name of a pupil of yājñavalkya-'s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्दलनmfn. tearing out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
उद्दलनn. the act of splitting, causing to burst View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वादलm. liquorice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वादलm. a dark day (see bādara-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वाग्दलn. "speech-leaf", a lip View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैदलmf(ī-)n. (fr. vi-dala-) made of split bamboo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैदलm. any leguminous vegetable or grain (such as peas, beans etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैदलm. a kind of poisonous insect, worm etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैदलm. a kind of cake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैदलn. a wicker basket View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वैदलn. the shallow cup or platter belonging to a religious mendicant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वक्रदल wrong reading for vaktra-d-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वक्त्रदलn. "part of the mouth", the palate View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वार्दलetc. See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वार्दलmn. (only ; see prec.;prob. in the first meaning fr. vār-+ dala- according to to some fr. vārda-+ la-) a rainy day, bad weather View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वार्दलmn. an inkstand View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वार्दलm. ink. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेददलmfn. "four-leaved" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेदलक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेदलक्षणसूत्रवृत्तिf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेणुदलn. a split bamboo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेणुवैदलmfn. made of split bamboo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वेणुविदलn. split bamboo View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलmfn. (for 2.See vi-dal-) leafless View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलmf(ā-)n. (see bidala-;for 1.See) rent asunder, split View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलmf(ā-)n. expanded, blown View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलm. rending, dividing, separating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलm. sweetmeats, a cake View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलm. Bauhinia Variegata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलn. anything split or pared, a chip, piece, fragment etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलn. split bamboo, a cane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलn. wicker-work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलn. a split pea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलn. pomegranate bark View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलदलीकरणn. the act of rending asunder or dividing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलदलीकृतmfn. rent asunder, torn, cut, divided, separated View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलदलितmfn. burst or rent asunder etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलदलितmfn. expanded, blown View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलनn. the act of tearing or rending asunder, splitting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विदलनn. bursting (intrans.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विद्यादलm. Betula Bhojpatra (whose leaves are used for writing) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
विजयमर्दलm. equals -ḍiṇḍima- above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वीरमर्दल m. a war-drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वीरमर्दलकm. a war-drum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
वृक्षदलn. the leaf of a tree View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
व्याघ्रदलm. Ricinus Communis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
यजुर्वेदलक्षणn. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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dala दलः लम् [दल्-अच्] 1 (a) A piece, portion, part, fragment; वापीष्वन्तर्लीनमहानीलदलासु Śi.4.44. (b) A piece torn or split off. (c) Tearing, cutting. -2 A degree. -3 A half, the half. -4 A sheath, scabbard. -5 A small shoot or blade, a petal, leaf; ताम्बूलीनां दलैस्तत्र रचितापानभूमयः R.4.42; Ś.3.2,21. -6 The blade of any weapon. -7 A clump, heap, quantity. -8 A detachment, a body of troops. -9 Alloy or adulteration. -Comp. -आढकः 1 foam. -2 a cuttle-fish bone. -3 a ditch, moat. -4 a hurricane, high wind. -5 red chalk. -6 wild sesamum. -7 the Kunda creeper. -8 a Sūdra. -9 the headman of a village. -1 an elephant's ear. -आढ्यम् mud on the banks of a river. -उदर a. having a tapering (leaf-like) belly; पूररेचकसंविग्नवलि- वल्गुदलोदरम् Bhāg.4.24.51. -कपाटः a folded leaf. -कोमलम् a lotus. -कोषः the Kunda creeper. -निर्मोकः the Bhūrja tree. -पुष्पा the Ketaka plant. -सूचिः, -ची f. a thorn. -स्नसा the fibre or vein of a leaf.
dalanam दलनम् [दल्-करणे ल्युट्] Bursting, breaking, cutting, dividing, crushing, grinding, splitting; उत्तस्थुर्मेघदलना वैद्युता इव बह्नयः Bhāg.7.1.6; मत्तेभकुम्भदलने भुवि सन्ति शूराः Bh.1.59.
dala दलनी दलिः m., f. A clod of earth.
dalapaḥ दलपः 1 A weapon. -2 Gold. -3 Śāstra.
dalaśaḥ दलशः ind. By pieces, in fragments.
adala अदल a. 1 Leafless. -2 Without parts. -लः A plant हिज्जल Eugenia or Barringtonia Acutangula. (Mar. समुद्रफळ). -ला A plant (घृतकुमारी) Aloe Indica Royle. (Mar. कोरफड).
uddalana उद्दलन a. Tearing out. -नः The act of splitting, causing to burst (Jaina).
kadala कदलः कदलकः The plantain tree; ऊरुद्वयं मृगदृशः कदलस्य काण्डौ Amaru.95. -ला N. of several plants:-- पृश्नि, डिम्बिका and शाल्मलि. -ली 1 The plantain tree; किं यासि बालकदलीव विकम्पमाना Mk.1.2; यास्यत्यूरुः सरसकदली- स्तम्भगौरश्चलत्वम् Me.98,79; Ku.1.36; R.12.96; Y.3.8. -2 A kind of deer. -3 A flag carried by an elephant. -4 A flag or banner; कदली वैजयन्त्यां च रम्भायां च मृगे$पि च Nm. -Comp. -(ली) कुसुमम् the flower of the कदली plant. -(ली) क्षता 1 A sort of cucumber (Mar. प़डवळ). -2 A fine woman. -(ली) गर्भः the pith of the plantain. -दण्डः, -स्कन्धः a kind of illusion.
kandala कन्दलः लम् 1 A new shoot or sprout; मयालब्धः पाणिर्ललितलवलीकन्दलनिभः U.3.4. -2 Reproach, censure. -3 The cheek, or the cheek and temple. -4 A portent. -5 Sweet sound. -6 The plantain tree; कन्दलदलोल्लासाः पयोविन्दवः Amaru.48. -7 Collection; U.3.11. -लः 1 Gold. -2 War, battle. -3 (Hence) War of words, controversy. -लम् A Kandala flower; विदलकन्दलकम्पन- लालितः Śi.6.3; R.13.29.
dala कादल a. Belonging or relating to the kadali kind of deer; Rām.3.43.36. (मृदूच्चकर्बुरनीलाग्ररोमा मृगविशेषः कदली).
gundala गुन्दलः The sound of a small oblong drum.
nirdalanam निर्दलनम् Splitting, breaking, destroying.
parikandala परिकन्दल a. Full of, teeming with (in comp.).
pradala प्रदलः An arrow.
bidalam बिदलम् बिन्दलम् See विदल. Anything split off or produced by splitting. -Comp. -कारी a woman employed in splitting bamboos.
baidala बैदल See वैदल.
mardala मर्दलः A kind of drum; कृतसमार्जनमर्दलमण्डलध्वनिजया Śi.6.31; तडित्पताको$शनिशब्दमर्दलः Ṛs.2.1.
dala वादलः 1 Liquorice. -2 A dark day.
vārdalam वार्दलम् (Medinī spells with ब) A rainy day; -लः An inkpot.
vidala विदल a. 1 Split, rent asunder. -2 Opened, blown (as a flower &c.). -लः 1 Dividing, separating. -2 Rending, splitting. -3 A cake. -4 Mountain ebony. -लम् 1 A basket of split bamboos or any vessel of wicker-work; cf. Y.1.182. -2 The bark of pomegranate. -3 A twig; शिफाविदलरज्ज्वाद्यैर्विदध्यान्नृपतिर्दमम् Ms.9. 23. -4 The chips of a substance. -5 Split peas.
vidalanam विदलनम् Splitting, rending asunder, cutting, dividing.
vaidala वैदल (-ली f.) [विदलस्य विकारः अण्] Made of wicker or cane. -लः 1 A kind of cake. -2 Any leguminous vegetable or grain. -लम् 1 A shallow cup of a religious mendicant. -2 Any seat or vessel of wickerwork; चेलवच्चर्मणां शुद्धिर्वैदलानां तथैव च Ms.5.119;6.54.
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dala n. fragment, piece; part; half; leaf, petal (that which unfolds itself); -ana, n. bursting (int.); breaking, crushing, shat tering; annihilation.
dalaśas ad. in pieces: with yâ, go to pieces.
uddalana a. tearing out.
kadala m. plantain tree (symbol of frailty); i-kâ, f. plantain tree; flag, esp. on an elephant; î, f. plantain tree: -garbha, m. pith of the plantain: â, f. N.; -griha, n. plantain arbour; -sukham, ad. as easily as a plantain.
kandala n. flower of the plantain; -î, f. plantain tree; -ita, pp. produced in profusion; -in, a. covered with blossoms of the Kandalî; full of (--°ree;).
bidala v. vidala: -samhita, pp. com posed of halves.
mardala m. kind of drum.
vidala a. burst, split; expanded, blown (flower); splint; split bamboo; split pea; -dalana, n. cracking (of the earth); cleaving; -dalita, pp. expanded, blown; -dalî-kri, split.
vaidala a. made of split bamboo (vi dala); m. leguminous vegetable or grain; n. wicker-basket.
sadalaṃkṛti f. genuine orna ment: -tâ, f. abst. n.
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atri Neither Atri himself nor the Atris can claim any historical reality, beyond the fact that Mandala V. of the Rigveda is attributed, no doubt correctly, to the family of the Atris. The Atris as a family probably stood in close relations with the Priyamedhas and Kanvas, perhaps also with the Gotamas and Kāksīvatas. The mention of both the Parusnī and the Yamunā in one hymn of the fifth Mandala seems to justify the presumption that the family was spread over a wide extent of territory.
aruṇa aupaveśi gautama Is the full style of a teacher, who is repeatedly referred to in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas, and whose son was the famous Uddālaka Aruni. He was a pupil of Upaveśa, and a contemporary of the prince Aśvapati, by whom he was instructed. Cf. Aruna.
asitamṛga is the designation in the Aitareya Brāhmana1 of a family of the Kaśyapas who were excluded from a sacrifice by Janamejaya, but who took away the conduct of the offering from the Bhūtavīras, whom the king employed. In the Jaiminīya Brāhmana[1] and the Sadvimsa Brāhmana[2] the Asita- mrgas are called 4 sons of the Kaśyapas,’ and one is mentioned as Kusurubindu4 Auddālaki.
aruṇi Is the patronymic normally referring to Uddālaka, son of Aruna Aupaveśi. Uddālaka is probably also meant by Aruni Yaśasvin, who occurs as a teacher of the Subrahmanyā (a kind of recitation) in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. Arunis are referred to both in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana and in the Kāthaka Samhitā, as well as in the Aitareya Aranyaka.
aruṇeya An epithet of śvetaketu his descent from Uddālaka Aruni and Aruna Aupaveśi. It is apparently confined to the śatapatha Brāhmana and Chāndogya Upani¬sad, in which śvetaketu plays a great part.
udīcyas The Brāhmanas of the northern parts are referred to in the śatapatha Brāhmana as engaging, with Svaidāyana Saunaka as their spokesman, in a dispute with the Kurupañcāla Brāhmana Uddālaka Aruni, and as vanquishing him. Their relation to the Kurupañcālas appears also from the fact that in the same Brāhmana reference is made to the speech of the north being similar to that of the Kurupañcālas. The speech of the Northerners was also celebrated for purity; hence Brāhmanas used to go to the north for purposes of study, according to the Kausītaki Brāhmana, while in the Buddhist texts the school of Taksaśilā (in Gandhāra) is famous as a resort of students. Possibly, too, Sanskrit was specially developed in Kaśmīr, as suggested by Franke. See also Kuru.
uddālaka aruṇi Uddālaka, son of Aruna, is one of the most prominent teachers of the Vedic period. He was a Brāh­mana of the Kurupañcālas, according to the śatapatha Brāh­mana. This statement is confirmed by the fact that he was teacher of Proti Kausurubindi of Kauśāmbī, and that his son Svetaketu is found disputing among the Pañcālas. He was a pupil of Aruna, his father, as well as of Patañcala Kāpya, of Madra, while he was the teacher of the famous Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya and of Kausītaki, although the former is represented elsewhere as having silenced him. He overcame in argument Prācīnayogya śauceya, and apparently also Bhadrasena Ajāta- śatrava, though the text here seems to read the name as Arani. He was a Gautama, and is often alluded to as such. As an authority on questions of ritual and philosophy, he is repeatedly referred to by his patronymic name Aruni in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and occasionally in the Aitareya, the Kausītaki, and the Sadvimśa Brāhmanas, as well as the Kausītaki Upanisad. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā he is not mentioned, according to Geldner, but only his father Aruna; his name does not occur, according to Weber, in the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, but in the Kāthaka Samhitā he is, as Aruni, known as a contemporary of Divodāsa Bhaimaseni, and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he is mentioned as serving Vāsistha Caikitāneya. In the Taittirīya tradition he seldom appears. There is an allusion in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Kusurubinda Auddālaki, and according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, Naciketas was a son of Vājaśravasa Gautama, who is made out to be Uddālaka by Sāyana. But the episode of Naciketas, being somewhat unreal, cannot be regarded as of historical value in proving relationship. Aruna is known to the Taittirīya Samhitā. A real son of Uddālaka was the famous śvetaketu, who is expressly reported by Apastamba to have been in his time an Avara or later authority, a statement of importance for the date of Aruni.
ṛṣi ‘Seer,’ is primarily a composer of hymns to the gods. In the Rigveda reference is often made to previous singers and to contemporary poets. Old poems were inherited and refurbished by members of the composer’s family, but the great aim of the singers was to produce new and approved hymns. It is not till the time of the Brāhmanas that the composition of hymns appears to have fallen into disuse, though poetry was still produced, for example, in the form of Gāthās, which the priests were required to compose them¬selves and sing to the accompaniment of the lute at the sacrifice. The Rsi was the most exalted of Brāhmanas, and his skill, which is often compared with that of a carpenter, was regarded as heaven-sent. The Purohita, whether as Hotr or as Brahman (see Rtvij), was a singer. No doubt the Rsis were normally attached to the houses of the great, the petty kings of Vedic times, or the nobles of the royal household. Nor need it be doubted that occasionally the princes them¬selves essayed poetry: a Rājanyarsi, the prototype of the later Rājarsi or * royal seer,’ who appears in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, though he must be mythical as Oldenberg points out, indicates that kings cultivated poetry just as later they engaged in philosophic disputations. Normally, how¬ever, the poetical function is Brahminical, Viśāmitra and others not being kings, but merely Brāhmanas, in the Rigveda. In the later literature the Rsis are the poets of the hymns preserved in the Samhitās, a Rsi being regularly16 cited when a Vedic Samhitā is quoted. Moreover, the Rsis become the representatives of a sacred past, and are regarded as holy sages, whose deeds are narrated as if they were the deeds of gods or Asuras. They are typified by a particular group of seven, mentioned four times in the Rigveda, several times in the later Samhitās, and enumerated in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as Gotama, Bharadvāja, Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Vasistha, Kaśyapa, and Atri. In the Rigveda itself Kutsa, Atri, Rebha, Agastya, the Kuśikas, Vasistha, Vyaśva, and others appear as Rsis; and the Atharvaveda contains a long list, including Añgiras, Agasti, Jamadagni, Atri, Kaśyapa, Vasistha, Bharadvāja, Gavisthira, Viśvāmitra, Kutsa, Kaksīvant, Kanva, Medhātithi, Triśoka, Uśanā Kāvya, Gotama, and Mudgala. Competition among the bards appears to have been known. This is one of the sides of the riddle poetry (Brahmodya) that forms a distinctive feature of the Vedic ritual of the Aśva¬medha, or horse sacrifice. In the Upanisad period such competitions were quite frequent. The most famous was that of Yājñavalkya, which was held at the court of Janaka of Videha, as detailed in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and which was a source of annoyance to Ajātaśatru of Kāśī. According to an analogous practice, a Brāhmana, like Uddālaka Aruni, would go about disputing with all he came across, and compete with them for a prize of money.
auddālaki Descendant of Uddālaka,’ is the patronymic of the teacher variously called Asurbinda or Kusurubinda, and of śvetaketu.
aupaveśi ‘Descendant of Upaveśa,’ is the patronymic borne by Aruna, father of Uddālaka.
kaṭa Denotes a ‘ mat,’ which was ‘made of reeds’ (vaitasa). The maker of mats from reeds (bidala-kārī) is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and the process of splitting reeds for the purpose is referred to in the Atharvaveda.
kāśi The name Kāśi denotes (in the plural1) the people of Kāśi (Benares), and Kāśya, the king of Kāśi. The Satapatha Brāhmana tells of Dhrtarāstra, king of Kāśi, who was defeated by Satānīka Sātrājita, with the result that the Kāśis, down to the time of the Brāhmana, gave up the kindling of the sacred fire. Sātrājita was a Bharata. We hear also of Ajātaśatru as a king of Kāśi; and no doubt Bhadrasena Ajātaśatrava, a contemporary of Uddālaka, was also a king of Kāśi. The Kāśis and Videhas were closely connected, as was natural in view of their geographical position. The compound name Kāśi-Videha occurs in the Kausītaki Upanisad; in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad Gārgī describes Ajātaśatru as either a Kāśi or a Videha king. The Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one Purohita as acting for the kings of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha; and the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions Kāśi and Videha in close proximity. Weber,8 indeed, throws out the suggestion that the Kāśis and the Videhas together con¬stitute the Uśīnaras, whose name is very rare in Vedic literature. As Kosala and Videha were in close connexion, Kāśi and Kosala are found combined in the compound name Kāśi- Kauśalyas of the Gopatha Brāhmana. Though Kāśi is a late word, it is quite possible that the town is older, as the river Varanāvatī referred to in the Athar¬vaveda may be connected with the later Vārānasī (Benares).It is significant that while the Kāśis, Kosalas, and Videhas were united, any relations which the Kuru-Pañcala peoples may have had with them were hostile. It is a fair conclusion that between these two great groups of peoples there did exist some political conflict as well as probably a difference of culture in some degree. The śatapatha Brāhmana,11 in the story of the advance of Aryan civilization over Kosala and Videha, preserves a clear tradition of this time, and a piece of evidence that in the Kuru-Pañcāla country lay the real centre of the Brāhmana culture (see also Kuru-Pañcāla). That the Kosala-Videhas were originally settlers of older date than the Kuru-Pañcālas is reasonably obvious from their geographical position, but the true Brāhmana culture appears to have been brought to them from the Kuru-Pañcala country. It is very probable that the East was less Aryan than the West, and that it was less completely reduced under Brahmin spiritual supremacy, as the movement of Buddhism was Eastern, and the Buddhist texts reveal a position in which the Ksatriyas rank above Brāhmanas. With this agrees the fact that the later Vedic texts display towards the people of Magadha a marked antipathy, which may be reasonably explained by that people’s lack of orthodoxy, and which may perhaps be traced as far back as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. It is, of course, possible that the Kosala-Videhas and Kāśis actually were merely offshoots of the tribes later known as the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that they by reason of distance and less complete subjugation of the aborigines lost their Brahminical culture. This hypothesis, however, appears less likely, though it might be supported by a literal inter-pretation of the legend of the Aryan migration in the śatapatha Brāhmana.
kuśika Is the probably mythical forefather of the Kuśikas, and especially the father of the most important member of that family, Viśvāmitra. The Kusikas are repeatedly referred to in the third Mandala of the Rigveda, and figure in the legend of śunahsepa in the Aitareya Brāhmana. They were clearly a family of priests who attached themselves to the service of the princes of the Bharatas. They were especially devoted to the worship of Indra; hence he is styled Kauśika even in the Rigveda.
gārgyāyaṇa Descendant of Gārgya,’ is mentioned as a pupil of Uddālakāyana in the second Vamśa in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad (Kānva).
gṛtsamada Is the name of a seer to whom the Sarvānu- kramanī attributes the authorship of the second Mandala of the Rigveda. This tradition is supported by the Aitareya Brāhmana and the Aitareya Aranyaka. The Kausītaki Brāhmana speaks of him as a Bhārgava, ‘ descendant of Bhrgu,’ with a variant Bābhrava, ‘ descendant of Babhru,’ but the later tradition keeps to the former patronymic.4 The Grtsamadas are often mentioned in the second Mandala of the Rigveda,5 and are also called Sunahotras,6 but never Gārtsamadas or Saunahotras, and Grtsamada himself never occurs there.
gomatī ‘Possessing cows,’ is mentioned as a river in the Nadī-stuti, or ‘Praise of Rivers,’ in the tenth Mandala of the Rigveda. In that hymn a river flowing into the Indus must be meant, and its identification with the Gomal, a western tributary of the Indus, cannot be doubted. In one other passage of the Rigveda the accentuation of Gomati shows that a river is meant. It is possible that in a third passage the reading should be changed to gomaiir from gomatīr. Geldner suggests that in the two last passages the Gumti, or rather its four upper arms (hence the use of the plural) is meant: this accords well with the later use of the name and with the general probability of the river here intended being in Kuruksetra, as the centre of Vedic civilization.
gautama ‘Descendant of Gotama,’ is a common patro­nymic, being applied to Aruna, Uddālaka Aruni, Kuśri, Sāti, Hāridrumata. Several Gautamas are mentioned in the Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as pupils of Agni- veśya, of Saitava and Prācīnayogya, of Saitava, of Bhārad- vaja, of Gautama, and of Vatsya. referred to elsewhere.
cāṇḍāla See Candāla
jana śārkarākṣya (* descendant of Sarkarāksa ’) is mentioned as a teacher in the śatapatha Brāhmana (x. 6, 1, 1. et seq.) and the Chāndogya Upanisad (v. 11, 1; 15, 1). He was a contemporary of Aśvapati Kaikeya, and of Aruna Aupaveśi and his son Uddālaka Aruni.
jarūtha Mentioned in three passages of the Rigveda, appears to denote a demon defeated by Agni. Ludwig, how­ever, followed by Griffith, sees in him a foe slain in a battle in which Vasistha, the traditional author of the seventh Mandala of the Rigveda, was Purohita, or domestic priest.
daśatayī In the Nirukta frequently denotes the text of the Rigveda as divided into ten Mandalas.
dāsa Like Dasyu, sometimes denotes enemies of a demoniac character in the Rigveda, but in many passages the word refers to human foes of the Aryans. The Dāsas are described as having forts (purafy), and their clans {viśah) are mentioned. It is possible that the forts, which are called ‘ autumnal ’ (śāradīh), may be mythical, but it is not essential, for the epithet may allude to their being resorted to in the autumn season. The Dāsa colour (Varna)6 is probably an allusion to the black skin of the aborigines, which is also directly mentioned. The aborigines (as Dasyus) are called anās, ‘nose¬less’ (?), and mrdhra-vāc, ‘ of hostile speech/9 and are probably meant by the phallus-worshippers (śiśna-devāh, ‘whose deity is a phallus ’) of the Rigveda. It is significant that constant. reference is made to the differences in religion between Arya and Dāsa or Dasyu. Since the Dāsas were in many cases reduced to slavery, the word Dāsa has the sense of * slave ’ in several passages of the Rigveda. Dāsī, the feminine, always has this sense from the Atharvaveda onwards. Aboriginal women were, no doubt, the usual slaves, for on their husbands being slain in battle they would naturally have been taken as servants. They would sometimes also become concubines; thus Kavasa was taunted with being the son of a female slave (dāsyāh putrah) in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Ludwig considers that in some passages Dāsa is applied, in the sense of enemy,’ to Aryan foes, but this is uncertain. Zimmer and Meyer think that Dāsa originally meant enemy in general, later developing in Iran into the name of the Dahae of the Caspian steppes, and in India into a desig¬nation of the aborigines. On the other hand, Hillebrandt argues that, as the Dāsas and the Panis are mentioned together, they must be deemed to be closely related tribes, identifying the Panis with the Parnians and the Dāsas of the Rigveda with the Dahae. This view, of course, necessitates a transfer of the scenes of the Rigveda, where Dāsas are prominent, and especially those in which Divodāsa—‘ the heavenly Dāsa’—plays an important part, to the far west. Hillebrandt justifies this by regarding the scene of the sixth book of the Rigveda as quite different from that of the seventh and third, in which Sudās, the Bharatas, Vasistha, and Viśvāmitra appear. The Sarasvatī of the sixth book he locates in Arachosia, that of the seventh in the Middle Country.’ It is, however, extremely doubtful whether this theory can be upheld. That Divodāsa should have been a Dāsa, and yet have fought against other Dāsas, is not in itself likely, especially when his son Sudās appears as a protagonist of Aryan civilization. It also seems unreasonable to seek in Arachosia for the river Sarasvatī, which it is natural to locate in the Middle Country. ’The wealth of the Dāsas was no doubt considerable, but in civilization there is no reason to suppose that they were ever equal to the invaders. Leading Dāsas were Ilībiśa, Cumuri and Dhuni, Pipru, Varcin, Sambara. For names of aboriginal tribes, see Kirāta, Kīkata, Candāla, Parnaka, Simyu.
div ‘Sky.’ The world as a whole is regarded as divided into the three domains of ‘earth/ ‘air’ or ‘atmosphere,’ and ‘heaven’ or ‘sky’ (div) or alternatively into ‘heaven and earth’ (dyāvā-prthivī), which two are then considered as com­prising the universe, the atmosphere being included in the sky. Lightning, wind, and rain belong to the atmosphere, solar and The shape of the earth is compared with a wheel in the Rigveda, and is expressly called * circular ’ (pari-mandala) in the Satapatha Brāhmana. When earth is conjoined with heaven, the two are conceived as great bowls (camvā) turned towards each other. In the Aitareya Aranyaka the two are regarded as halves of an egg. The distance of heaven from the earth is given by the Atharvaveda as a thousand days’ journey for the sun-bird, by the Aitareya Brāhmana as a thousand days’ journey for a horse, while the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana whimsically estimates the distance as equivalent to a thousand cows standing one on the top of the other.According to Zimmer, the Vedic poets conceived the atmosphere to be above the earth in its upper division only, but below it in its lower stratum. The evidence, however, for the latter assumption is quite insufficient. The theory of the Aitareya Brāhmana is that the sun merely reverses its bright side at night, turning its light on the stars and the moon while it retraverses its course to the east; and it has been shown that this is probably the doctrine of the Rigveda also. See also Sūrya and Candramās. For the Vedic knowledge of the planets, see Graha. There is no geographical division of the earth in Vedic literature. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana states that the centre of the earth is a span north of the Plaksa Prāsravanā, and that the centre of the sky is the constellation of the seven Esis, the Great Bear. For the quarters, see Diś.
naciketas Occurs in the well-known legend of the Taitti­rīya Brāhmana (where he is a Gotama, the son of Vāja- śravasa), and in the Katha Upanisad. His historical reality is extremely doubtful: in the Upanisad he is called son of Aruni Auddālaki or Vājaśravasa, an impossible attribution, and one due only to a desire to give Naciketas a connexion with the famous Aruni.
pāvamānī Means the verses (rcas) in the ninth Mandala of the Rigveda ‘relating to Soma Pavamāna’ (‘purifying itself’). The name is found in the Atharvaveda1 and later, possibly even in one hymn of the Rigveda itself.
paulkasa Is the name of one of the victims at the Puruṣa- medha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. The name also occurs in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as that of a despised race of men, together with the Cāndāla. The Maitrāyaηī Samhitā has the variant Puklaka or Pulkaka, clearly the same as Pulkasa, of which Paulkasa is a derivative form, showing that a caste is meant (cf Kaulāla, Pauñji§tha). In the accepted theory the Pulkasa is the son of a Niṣāda or śūdra by a Kṣatriya woman, but this is merely speculative; the Paulkasa may either have been a functional caste, or, as Fick5 believes, an aboriginal clan living by catching wild beasts, and only occasionally reduced to menial tasks.
praghātha Is the name given in the Aitareya Araṇyaka to the poets of the eighth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, so called because they composed Pragātha strophes (that is, verses con­sisting of a Brhatī or Kakubh followed by a Satobrhatī).
pravāhaṇa jaivali (‘Descendant of Jīvala ’) is the name of a prince, contemporary with Uddālaka, who appears in the Upaniṣads as engaged in philosophical discussions. He is probably identical with the Jaivali of the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana.
proti kauśāmbeya kausurubindi (‘Descendant of Kusuru- binda’) is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as a pupil and contemporary of Uddālaka. In the Taittirīya Sarphitā, on the other hand, Kusurubinda is called Auddālaki, ‘descendant of Uddālaka,’ a fact which seems to indicate that little value is to be attached to these patronymics and allegations of contemporaneousness.
bṛhaduktha Is mentioned in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda as a priest; in two hymns of the tenth Maṇdala he is definitely a Rṣi. He is also mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa as having consecrated Durmukha Pāñeāla, and is called Vāmadeva’s son in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he appears as Vāmneya, ‘ descendant of Vāmnī.’ Hopkins’ suggestion that he may have been there thought of as Vāmadevya also is quite probable.
brahmacarya Denotes the condition of life of the Brahma-cārin or religious student. The technical sense is first found in the last Maṇdala of the Rigveda. The practice of-studentship doubtless developed, and was more strictly regulated by custom as time went on, but it is regularly assumed and discussed in the later Vedic literature, being obviously a necessary part of Vedic society. The Atharvaveda has in honour of the Brahmacārin a hymn which already gives all the characteristic features of religious studentship. The youth is initiated (iipa-nī) by the teacher into a new life; he wears an antelope skin, and lets his hair grow long ;δ he collects fuel, and begs, learns, and practises penance. All these characteristics appear in the later literature. The student lives in the house of his teacher (ācārya-kala-vāsin ; ante-vāsin); he begs, looks after the sacrificial fires, and tends the house. His term of studentship might be long extended: it was normally fixed at twelve years, but much longer periods, such as thirty-two years, are mentioned. The age at which studentship began varied: śvetaketu commenced at twelve and studied for twelve years. It is assumed in the Grhya Sūtras that the three Aryan castes were all required to pass through a period of studentship. But that this is much more than priestly schematism is uncertain. No doubt individuals of the Kçatriya or Vaiśya caste might go through part of the period of studentship, just as Burmese boys of all classes now pass some time in a monastery as students. This is borne out by the reference in the Atharvaveda to the king guarding his country by Brahmacarya—though that is susceptible of a different interpretation—and more clearly by the reference in the Kāthaka Samhitā to a rite intended to benefit one who, although not a Brahmin, had studied (vidyūm anūcya), but had not gained renown, and by references in the Upaniṣads to kings who like Janaka studied the Vedas and the Upaniṣads. Normally, however, the Kṣatriya studied the art of war. One of the duties of the Brahmacārin was chastity. But reference is in several places made to the possibility of misconduct between a student and the wife of his preceptor, nor is any very severe penance imposed in early times later it is different for such a sin. In certain cases the ritual required a breach of chastity, no doubt as a magic spell to secure fertility. Even an old man might on occasion become a pupil, as the story of Árurii shows.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
bhadrasena ájātaśatrava (‘Descendant of Ajātaśatru ’) is the name of a man, presumably a prince, whom Uddālaka is said in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa to have bewitched.
bharata Is the name of a people of great importance in the Rigveda and the later literature. In the Rigveda they appear prominently in the third and seventh Maṇdalas in connexion with Sudās and the Tftsus, while in the sixth Maṇdala they are associated with Divodāsa. In one passage the Bharatas are, like the Tṛtsus, enemies of the Pūrus: there can be little doubt that Ludwig’s view of the identity of the Bharatas and and Tṛtsus is practically correct. More precisely Oldenberg considers that the Tṛtsus are the Vasiṣhas, the family singers of the Bharatas; while Geldner recognizes, with perhaps more probability, in the Tṛtsus the royal family of the Bharatas. That the Tṛtsus and Bharatas were enemies, as Zimmer holds, is most improbable even on geographical grounds, for the Tṛtsus in Zimmer’s view occupied the country to the east of the Paruçṇī (Ravi), and the Bharatas must therefore be regarded as coming against the Tṛtsus from the west, whereas the Rigveda recognizes two Bharata chiefs on the Sarasvatī, Ápayā, and Dpçadvatī that is, in the holy land of India, the Madhyadeśa. Hillebrandt sees in the connexion of the Tṛtsus and the Bharatas a fusion of two tribes; but this is not supported by any evidence beyond the fact that in his opinion some such theory is needed to explain Divodāsa's appearing in connexion with the Bharadvāja family, while Sudās, his son, or perhaps grandson {cf. Pijavana), is connected with the Vasiṣthas and the Viśvāmitras. In the later literature the Bharatas appear as especially famous. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as a king, sacrificer of the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and śatānīka Sātrājita, as another Bharata who offered that sacrifice. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as receiving the kingly coronation from Dlrghatamas Māmateya, and śatānīka as being consecrated by Somaśuçman Vājaratnāyana, a priest whose name is of quite late origin. The geographical position of the Bharata people is clearly shown by the fact that the Bharata kings win victories over the Kāśis, and make offerings on the Yamunā (Jumna) and Gañgfā (Ganges). Moreover, in the formula of the king’s proclamation for the people, the variants recorded include Kuravah, Pañcālāh, Kuru-Pañcālāh,, and Bharatāh ; and the Mahābhārata consistently recognizes the royal family of the Kurus as a Bharata family. It is therefore extremely probable that Oldenberg is right in holding that the Bharatas in the times of the Brāhmaṇas were merging in the Kuru-Pañcāla people. The ritual practices of the Bharatas are repeatedly mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Already in the Rigveda there is mention made of Agni Bhārata (‘of the Bharatas’). In the Apr! hymns occurs a goddess Bhāratī, the personified divine protective power of the Bharatas : her association in the hymns with Sarasvatī reflects the connexion 'of the Bharatas with the Sarasvatī in the Rigveda. Again, in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Agni is referred to as brāhmana Bhārata, ‘priest of the Bharatas,’ and is invited to dispose of the offering Manusvat Bharatavat, ‘like Manu,’ ‘like Bharata.’ In one or two passages Sudās or Divodāsa and, on the other hand, Purukutsa or Trasadasyu appear in a friendly relation. Possibly this points, as Oldenberg suggests, to the union of Bharatas and Pūrus with the Kurus. A Bharata is referred to in the fifth Mandala of the Rigveda who he was is uncertain.
bharadvāja Is the name of the reputed author of the sixth Mandala of the Rigveda. The attribution is so far correct that Bharadvāja and the Bharadvājas are repeatedly mentioned as singers in that Mandala. Judging by the tone of the references to Bharadvāja, he can hardly be deemed to have been a con­temporary of any of the hymns. According to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, he was the Purohita of Divodāsa. This interpretation is to be preferred to that of Roth, who suggests that he and Divodāsa were identical. His connexion with the house of Divodāsa also appears from the statement of the Kāthaka Samhitā that Bharadvāja gave Pratardana the kingdom. It is unnecessary to suppose that the same Bharadvāja was meant in both cases, and that Pratardana was a son of Divodāsa : the later Saṃhitās refer to Bharadvāja, like the other great sages, irrespective of chronology. The Bharadvājas in their poems mention Brbu, Brsaya, and the Pārāvatas. Hillebrandt has pointed out that they are also connected with the Srfljayas. In particular, the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions that Bharadvāja gained largesse from Prastoka Sārñjaya and Bṛbu. But it is very doubtful if it is correct to place all these people and Divodāsa in Arachosia and Drangiana. Bharadvāja as an author and a seer is frequently referred to in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas.
madhuchandas The reputed author of the first ten hymns of the first Maṇdala of the Rigveda, is mentioned as a Rṣi in the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa and the Aitareya Aranyaka. In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa he counts as the fifty-first son of Viávā- mitra, and his Praūga (hymn at the morning service) is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
mandhātṛ Occurs in several passages of the Rigveda, in all of which Roth takes the word as merely an adjective used substantively, ‘the pious man.’ In one passage the word, being applied to Agni, is thus used, but in another Mandhātrvat being parallel with Angirasvat, ‘like Añgiras,’ is naturally to be understood as a proper name, which is probably also the sense of the word in the preceding hymn. A different Mandhātr may be meant in the first Mandala, where he is mentioned as a protágś of the Aśvins, and evidently as a king. To equate these persons, and make a Rājarṣi out of Mandhātr, as Ludwig and Griffith do, is unnecessary and improbable.
mahāsūkta m. plur., the ‘composers of the long hymn’ of the tenth Mandala of the Rigveda are mentioned in the Aitareya Aranyaka and the Sūtras. Cf. Kṣudra-sūkta.
yājñavalkya ‘Descendant of Yajñavalkya,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as an authority on questions of ritual. He is, however, also given as an authority on questions of philosophy in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, but Oldenberg is, no doubt, right in thinking that no possible importance can be attached to the mention of Yājñavalkya in the latter capacity. He is said to have been a pupil of Uddālaka Arum, whom he opposed successfully in a dispute.5 His two wives, Maitreyī and Kātyāyanī, are mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, which concludes with a passage ascribing to Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya the ‘white Yajus ’ {śuklāni yajUmsi). It is remarkable that Yājñavalkya is never mentioned in any other Vedic text outside the śatapatha Brāhmana y except the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, where, however, both/\ references are merely transcripts from the śatapatha. It has been supposed by Oldenberg10 and others that Yājñavalkya belonged to Videha, but despite the legend of Janaka’s patronage of him, his association with Uddālaka, the Kuru-Pañcāla, renders this doubtful.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vasiṣṭha Is the name of one of the most prominent priestly figures of Vedic tradition. The seventh Maṇdala of the Rigveda is ascribed to him ; this ascription is borne out by the fact that the Vasisthas and Vasistha are frequently mentioned in that Maṇdala, besides being sometimes referred to elsewhere. That by the name Vasiṣçha a definite individual is always meant is most improbable, as Oldenberg shows; Vasiṣtha must normally mean simply ‘ a Vasiṣtfia.’ But it is not necessary to deny that a real Vasiṣtha existed, for one hymn seems to show clear traces of his authorship, and of his assist­ance to Sudās against the ten kings. The most important feature of Vasiṣtha’s life was apparently his hostility to Viśvāmitra. The latter was certainly at one time the Purohita (‘ domestic priest ’) of Sudās, but he seems to have been deposed from that post, to have joined Sudās’ enemies, and to have taken part in the onslaught of the kings against him, for the hymn of Sudās’ triumph has clear references to the ruin Viśvāmitra brought on his allies. Oldenberg, however, holds that the strife of Viśvāmitra and Vasistha is not to be found in the Rigveda. On the other hand, Geldner is hardly right in finding in the Rigveda a compressed account indicating the rivalry of śakti, Vasiṣṭha’s son, with Viśvāmitra, the acquisition by Viśvāmitra of special skill in speech, and the revenge of Viśvāmitra, who secured the death of śakti by Sudās’ servants, an account which is more fully related by Sadguruśiṣya, which appeared in the śātyāya- naka, and to which reference seems to be made in the brief notices of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa regarding Vasiṣtha's sons having been slain, and his overcoming the Saudāsas. But it is important to note that no mention is made in these authorities of Sudās himself being actually opposed to Vasistha, while in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa Vasiṣtha appears as the Purohita and consecrator of Sudās Paijavana. Yāska recognizes Viśvāmitra as the Purohita of Sudās; this accords with what seems to have been the fact that Viśvāmitra originally held the post. Probably, however, with the disappearance of Sudās, Viśvāmitra recovered his position, whereupon Vasiṣtha in revenge for the murder of his sons secured in some way unspecified the defeat of the Saudāsas. At any rate it is hardly necessary to suppose that the enmity of the Saudāsas and Vasiṣthas was permanent. There is evidence that the Bharatas had the Vasisthas as Purohitas, while other versions regard them as Purohitas for people (prajāh) generally. It seems that the Vasiṣthas were pioneers in adopting the rule that Purohitas should act as Brahman priest at the sacrifice: the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa states that the Vasiṣthas were once the only priests to act as Brahmans, but that later any priest could serve as such. A rivalry with Jamadgni and Viśvāmitra is reported in the Taittirīya Samhitā. Parāśara and śatayātu are associated with Vasiṣtha in the Rigveda, being apparently, as Geldner thinks, the grandson and a son of Vasiṣtha. According to Pischel, in another hymn, Vasiṣtha appears as attempting to steal the goods of his father Varuṇa; Geldner also shows that the Rigveda contains a clear reference to Vasistha’s being a son of Varuṇa and the nymph Urvaśī. Perhaps this explains the fact that the Vasiṣthas are called the Tptsus in one passage of the Rigveda; for being of miraculous parentage, Vasistha would need adoption into a Gotra, that of the princes whom he served, and to whom Agastya seems to have introduced him. There are numerous other references to Vasistha as a Ṛṣi in Vedic literature, in the Sūtras, and in the Epic, where he and Viśvāmitra fight out their rivalry.
vāmadeva Is credited by tradition with the authorship of the fourth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, and he is once mentioned in that Maṇdala. He is, moreover, credited with the authorship of the fourth hymn of the Maṇdala by the Yajur­veda Samhitās. He there appears as a son of Gotama, while in one hymn of the fourth Maṇdala of the Rigveda4 Gotama is mentioned as the father of the singer, and in another the Gotamas occur as praising Indra. In the Bṛhaddevatā two absurd legends are narrated of Vāmadeva. One describes Indra as revealing himself in the form of an eagle to the seer as he cooked the entrails of a dog; the other tells of his successful conflict with Indra, whom he sold among the seers. Sieg has endeavoured to trace these tales in the Rigveda but without any success. Moreover, though Vāmadeva is mentioned in the Atharvaveda and often in the Brāhmaṇas, he never figures there as a hero of these legends.
viśvāmitra (‘Friend of all ’) is the name of a Rṣi who is mentioned in the Rigveda, and to whom the third Maṇdala is attributed by tradition. In one hymn which appears to be his own composition, he praises the rivers Vipāś (Beas) and śutudrī (Sutlej'). There he calls himself the son of Kuśika, and seems unquestionably to be the helper of the Bharatas, whom he mentions. The tribe, engaged in a raid, apparently came to the rivers from the east. Anxious to cross them, they The Viśvāmitras are mentioned in several other passages of the Rigveda, and are also designated as a family by the term Kuśikas. In the Epic Viśvāmitra is represented as a king, who becomes a Brahmin. There is no trace of his kingship in the Rigveda, but the Nirukta calls his father, Kuśika, a king; the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa10 refers to śunahśepa as succeeding to the lordship of the Jahnus, as well as the ‘divine lore’ (daiva vedd) of the Gāthinsj^and the Pañcavirçiśa Brāhmana17 mentions Viśvāmitra as a king. But there is no real trace of this kingship of Viśvāmitra: it may probably be dismissed as a mere legend, with no more foundation at most than that Viśvā¬mitra was of a family which once had been royal. But even this is doubtful.
vyaśva Is the name of a Rṣi, a protágś of the Aśvins, mentioned in several hymns of the eighth Maṇdala, which may have been the composition of a descendant of his, Viśva- manas. In two other passages he is referred to only as a Rṣi of the past, and Oldenberg points out that none of his own work appears in the Samhitā. The Rigveda also mentions5 the Vyaśvas, with whom Ludwig is inclined to connect Vaśa Aśvya. An Angirasa Vyaśva occurs as a seer of Sāmans or Chants in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa.
śambara Is the name of an enemy of Indra in the Rigveda. He is mentioned along with śuṣṇa, Pipru, and Varcin, being in one passage called a Dāsa, son of Kulitara. In another passage he is said to have deemed himself a godling (devaka). His forts, ninety, ninety-nine, or a hundred in number, are alluded to, the word itself in the neuter plural once meaning the ‘forts of śambara.’ His great foe was Divodāsa Ati- thigva, who won victories over him by Indra’s aid. It is impossible to say with certainty whether śambara was a real person or not. Hillebrandt9 is strongly in favour of the theory that he was a real chief as enemy of Divodāsa: he relies on the statistics of the mention of the name to show that, whereas he was conceived as a real foe in the hymns of the time of Divodāsa, later texts, like those of the seventh Maṇdala, make him into a demon, as a result of the change of scene from Arachosia to India. As a matter of fact, apart from this theory, śambara was quite possibly an aboriginal enemy in India, living in the mountains.
śūdra Is the designation of the fourth caste in the Vedic state (see Varṇa). It is quite unknown in the Rigveda except in the Purusasūkta (‘hymn of man’) in the tenth Maṇdala, where in the earliest version of the origin of the castes the śūdra for the first time appears. The Rigveda, on the other hand, knows Dasyu and Dāsa, both as aborigines independent of Aryan control and as subjugated slaves: it is reasonable to reckon the śūdra of the later texts as belonging to the aborigines who had been reduced to subjection by the Aryans. Strictly speaking, the defeated aborigines must have been regarded as slaves, but it is obvious that, except on occasions when most of the men were slain, which may have occurred quite often, there must have remained too many of them to be used as slaves of individual owners. The villages of the aborigines must have continued to subsist, but under Aryan lordship and control: there may be this amount of truth in Baden Powell’s theory, which practically traced all the early cultivating villages in India to Dravidian origin. On the other hand, the term śūdra would also cover the wild hill tribes which lived by hunting and fishing, and many of which would acknowledge the superiority of their Aryan neighbours: it could, in fact, be applied to all beyond the pale of the Aryan state. This view of the śūdra suits adequately the Vedic references to his condition, which would not apply adequately to domestic slaves only. The śūdra is continually opposed to the Aryan, and the colour of the śūdra is compared with that of the Aryan, just as his ways are so contrasted. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, in its account of the castes, declares that the śūdra is anyasya presya, ‘the servant of another’; kāmotthāpya, ‘to be expelled at will’; andyathākāmaυadhya, ‘to be slain at will.’ All these terms well enough describe the position of the serf as the result of a conquest: the epithets might have been applied to the English serf after the Norman Conquest with but slight inaccuracy, especially if his master had received a grant of jurisdiction from the Crown. The Pañcavimśa Brāh- mapa explains that even if prosperous (bahu-paśu, having many cows’) a śūdra could not be other than a servant: his business was pādāvanejya, ‘ the washing of the feet ’ of his superiors. The Mahābhārata says out and out that a śūdra has no property (a hi svam asti śūdrasya, ‘ the śūdra has nothing he can call his own’). On the other hand, just as in England the royal justice would protect the serf in life and limb,8 so it appears that the slaying of a śūdra involved a wergeld of ten cows according to both Baudhāyana and Ápastamba. It may, indeed, be held that this wergeld was only due in case of murder by another than the master, but such limitation is nowhere stated. In sacred matters the distinction between Aryan and śūdra was, of course, specially marked. The texts do not hesitate to declare that the upper castes were ‘all,’ ignoring the śūdras; the śūdra is prohibited from milking the cow for the milk required at the Agnihotra (‘oblation to Agni ’); and the śatapatha Brāhmana forbids a man who has been consecrated (1dlksita) for a sacrifice to speak to a śūdra at all for the time, though the śāṭyāyanaka seems to have relaxed this rule by confining it to cases in which the śūdra was guilty of some sin. At the sacrifice itself the śūdra could not be present in the śālā, ‘hall’; he is definitely classed in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana10 as unfit for ‘ sacrifice ’ (ayajñtya); and declared in the Kāçhaka Samhitā not to be admitted to drink Soma. At the Pravargya (introductory Soma) rite the performer is not allowed to come in contact with a śūdra, who here, as in the Kāthaka Samhitā,17 is reckoned as excluded from a share in the Soma-draught. On the other hand, the śūdra is one of the victims at the Puruṣa- medha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yaj’urveda, and a fight between an Aryan and a śūdra, in which, of course, the former wins, forms a part of the Mahāvrata rite, being perhaps a precursor of the Indian drama. Other indications, however, exist, showing that it would be undesirable to ignore the real importance of the śūdra, which again reminds us of the condition of the serf, who, though legally restrained, still gradually won his way to the rank of a free man. Rich śūdras are mentioned in the early texts, just as śūdra gahapatis, ‘householders,’ occur in the Buddhist texts, and śūdra kings in the legal literature. Sin against śūdra and Aryan is mentioned; prayers for glory on behalf of śūdras, as well as of the other castes occur; and the desire to be dear to śūdra as well as to Aryan is expressed. The Sūtras also, while they emphasize as general rules points earlier not insisted on, such as their inferiority in sitting, etc., their exclusion from the study of the Vedas, the danger of contact with them or their food, still recognize that śūdras can be merchants, or even exercise any trade.Moreover, the Sūtras permit the marriage of a śūdrā woman with members of all castes. Though it was a reproach to Vatsa and to Kavaṣa that they were the sons of a śūdrā and a Dāsī respectively, still the possibility of such a reproach shows that marriages of this kind did take place. Moreover, illicit unions of Arya and śūdrā, or śūdra and Aryā, are referred to in the Samhitās of the Yajurveda. The origin of the term śūdra is quite obscure, but Zimmer points out that Ptolemy mentions tvBpoi as a people, and he thinks that the Brāhui may be meant. Without laying any stress on this identification, it is reasonable to accept the view that the term was originally the name of a large tribe opposed to the Aryan invasion. See also Niṣāda.
śvetaketu áruṇeya (‘Descendant of Aruṇa’) or Auddālaki (‘son of Uddālaka’) is mentioned repeatedly in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. In the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad he appears as śvetaketu, son of Áruṇi, and as a Gautama. In the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa he is quoted as an authority on the vexed question of the duty of the Sadasya, or the seventeenth priest, at the ritual of the Kauṣītakins, to notify errors in the sacrifice; Áruṇi, his father, is also cited. He was a person of some originality, for he insisted on eating honey despite the general prohibition of the use of that delicacy by Brahmacārins or religious students. He was a contemporary of, and was instructed by the Pañcāla king Pravāhaṇa Jaivala. He was also a contemporary of Janaka, of Videha, and figured among the Brahmin disputants at his court. A story is told of him in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra:[6] Jala Jātūkarṇyā was lucky enough to become the Purohita of three peoples or kings, of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha. Seeing this, śvetaketu felt annoyed and reproached his father with his excessive devotion to sacrifice, which merely enriched and glorified others, not himself. His father replied, forbidding him to speak thus: he had learned the true method of sacrificing, and his ambition in life had been to discuss it with every Brahmin. All the references to śvetaketu belong to the latest period of Vedic literature. It is, therefore, not surprising that the Ápa- stamba Dharma Sūtra should refer to him as an Avara, or person of later days, who still became a Rṣi by special merit. His date, however, must not be fixed too low, because the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa in which he plays so marked a part is certainly earlier than Pāṇini, and was apparently even in that grammarian’s time believed to be an ancient work; hence 500 B.c. is probably rather too late than too early a period for śvetaketu as a rough approximation to a date.
śvaitreya Occurs in two passages of the Rigveda, where Sāyaṇa sees in the word the name of a man, a ‘ descendant of śvitrā.’ The first passage is almost identical with one in the sixth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, where, however, Daśadyu appears alone without śvaitreya. Ludwig identifies Daśadyu with śvaitreya (‘son of śvitrl’), and considers him a son of Kutsa. Bergaigne and Baunack think he is really Bhujyu. Geldner considers that he was a bull used for fighting, the sonof a śvitrā cow, but this is very doubtful, though the term śvaitreya is elsewhere applied to a bull. śvitrya seems to have the same sense as śvaitreya.
sapatna Rival,’ is a common word in the later Samhitās, being also found in the tenth Maṇdala of the Rigveda. It is a curious masculine formed J>y analogy from Sa-patnī, 'co-wife,’ and so female rival.’
sapatnī Occurs in the Rigveda in the sense of 'co-wife’ in the first and the last Maṇdalas it means co-wife as a 'rival.' In post-Vedic Sanskrit the word becomes a synonym for 'rival.'
sarasvatī Is the name of a river frequently mentioned in the Rigveda and later. In many passages of the later texts it is certain the river meant is the modern Sarasvatī, which loses itself in the sands of Patiala (see Vinaśana). Even Roth admits that this river is intended in some passages of the Rigveda. With the Drṣadvatī it formed the western boundary of Brahmāvarta (see Madhyadeśa). It is the holy stream of early Vedic India. The Sūtras mention sacrifices held on its banks as of great importance and sanctity. In many other passages of the Rigveda, and even later, Roth held that another river, the Sindhu (Indus), was really meant: only thus could it be explained why the Sarasvatī is called the ‘foremost of rivers’ (nadītamā), is said to go to the ocean, and is referred to as a large river, on the banks of which many kings, and, indeed, the five tribes, were located. This view is accepted by Zimmer and others. On the other hand, Lassen and Max Muller maintain the identity of the Vedic Sarasvatī with the later Sarasvatī. The latter is of opinion that in Vedic times the Sarasvatī was as large a stream as the Sutlej, and that it actually reached the sea either after union with the Indus or not, being the 'iron citadel,’ as the last boundary on the west, a frontier of the Panjab against the rest of India. There is no conclusive evidence of there having been any great change in the size or course of the Sarasvatī, though it would be impossible to deny that the river may easily have diminished in size. But there are strong reasons to accept the identification of the later and the earlier Sarasvatī throughout. The insistence on the divine character of the river is seen in the very hymn which refers to it as the support of the five tribes, and corresponds well with its later sacredness. Moreover, that hymn alludes to the Pārāvatas, a people shown by the later evidence of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa to have been in the east, a very long way from their original home, if Sarasvatī means the Indus. Again, the Pūrus, who were settled on the Sarasvatī, could with great difficulty be located in the far west. Moreover, the five tribes might easily be held to be on the Sarasvatī, when they were, as they seem to have been, the western neighbours of the Bharatas in Kurukçetra, and the Sarasvatī could easily be regarded as the boundary of the Panjab in that sense. Again, the ‘seven rivers’ in one passage clearly designate a district: it is most probable that they are not the five rivers with the Indus and the Kubhā (Cabul river), but the five rivers, the Indus and the Sarasvatī. Nor is it difficult to see why the river is said to flow to the sea: either the Vedic poet had never followed the course of the river to its end, or the river did actually penetrate the desert either completely or for a long distance, and only in the Brāhmaṇa period was its disappear ance in the desert found out. It is said, indeed, in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā21 that the five rivers go to the Sarasvatī, but this passage is not only late (as the use of the word Deśa shows), but it does not say that the five rivers meant are those of the Panjab. Moreover, the passage has neither a parallel in the other Samhitās, nor can it possibly be regarded as an early production; if it is late it must refer to the later Sarasvatī. Hillebrandt,22 on the whole, adopts this view of the Saras¬vatī,23 but he also sees in it, besides the designation of a mythical stream, the later Vaitaraṇī,24 as well as the name of the Arghandab in Arachosia.25 This opinion depends essentially on his theory that the sixth Mandala of the Rigveda places the scene of its action in Iranian lands, as opposed to the seventh Maṇdala: it is as untenable as that theory itself. Brunn-hofer at one time accepted the Iranian identification, but later decided for the Oxus, which is quite out of the question. See also Plakṣa Prāsravaṇa.
soma Was the famous plant which was used for the prepara­tion of the libation of Soma made at the Vedic sacrifice. Its importance is sufficiently shown by the fact that the whole of the ninth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, and six hymns in other Maṇdalas, are devoted to its praise. Nevertheless, little is actually known of the plant. Its twigs or shoots are described as brown (babhru), ruddy (aruna), or tawny (hari).s Possibly its twigs hang down if the epithet Naicāśākha refers to the plant as Hillebrandt thinks. The shoot is called amśu, while the plant as a whole is called andhas, which also denotes the juice. Parvan is the stem. Kξip, ‘finger,’ is used as a designation of the shoots, which may therefore have resembled fingers in shape; vaksanā and vāna also seem to have the sense of the shoot. There is some slight evidence to suggest that the stem was not round, but angular. The plant grew on the mountains, that of Mūjavant being specially renowned. These notices are inadequate to identify the plant. It has been held to be the Sarcostemma viminalc or the Asclepias acida (Sarcostemma brevistigma). Roth held that the Sarcostemma acidiim more nearly met the requirements of the case. Watt suggested the Afghan grape as the real Soma, and Rice thought a sugar-cane might be meant, while Max Mūller and Rājendralāla Mitra suggested that the juice was used as an ingredient in a kind of beer—i.e., that the Soma plant was a species of hop. Hillebrandt considers that neither hops nor the grape can explain the references to Soma. It is very probable that the plant cannot now be identified. In the Yajurveda the plant is purchased ere it is pressed. Hillebrandt considers that the sale must be assumed for the Rigveda. It grew on a mountain, and could not be obtained by ordinary people: perhaps some special tribe or prince owned it, like the Kīkatas. As it stands, the ritual performance is clearly an acquisition of the Soma from the Gandharvas (represented by a śūdra), a ritual imitation of the action which may have been one of the sources of the drama. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining the real plant from a great distance, several substitutes were allowed in the Brāhmaṇa period. The plant was prepared for use by being pounded with stones or in a mortar. The former was the normal method of pro¬cedure, appearing in the Rigveda as the usual one. The stones are called grāvan or αdn, and were, of course, held in the hands. The plant was laid on boards one beside the other (Adhiṣavana), and, according at least to the later ritual, a hole was dug below, so that the pounding of the plant by means of the stones resulted in a loud noise, doubtless a prophylactic against demoniac influences. The plant was placed on a skin and on the Vedi—-which was no longer done in the later ritual—Dhiṣaṇā in some passages denoting the Vedi. Sometimes the mortar and pestle were used in place of the stones. This use, though Iranian, was apparently not common in Vedic times. Camū denotes the vessel used for the offering to the god, Kalaśa and Camasa those used for the priests to drink from. Sometimes the Camū denotes the mortar and pestle. Perhaps the vessel was so called because of its mortar-like shape. The skin on which the shoots were placed was called Tvac, or twice go (‘cow-hide). Kośa, Sadhastha, Dru, Vana, Droṇa, are all terms used for Soma vessels, while Sruva denotes the ladle.’ Apparently the plant was sometimes steeped in water to increase its yield of juice. It is not possible to describe exactly the details of the process of pressing the Soma as practised in the Rigveda. It was certainly purified by being pressed through a sieve (Pavitra). The Soma was then used unmixed (βukra, śuci) for Indra and Vāyu, but the Kanvas seem to have dropped this usage. The juice is described as brown (babhru)," tawny (hart), or ruddy (aruna), and as having a fragrant smell, at least as a rule. Soma was mixed with milk (Gavāśir), curd or sour milk (Dadhyāśir), or grain (Yavāśir). The admixtures are alluded to with various figurative expressions, as Atka, ‘ armour ’j Vastra or Vāsas, 'garment'; Abhiśrī, 'admixturerūpa, ‘beautyJ; śrl, ‘splendour’; rasa, ‘flavour’; prayas, ‘ dainty ’; and perhaps nabhas, ‘ fragrance.’ The adjective tīvra denotes the ‘ pungent ’ flavour of Soma when so mixed. The Soma shoots, after the juice has been pressed out, are denoted by rjīsa, ‘residue.’ It seems probable that in some cases honey was mixed with Soma: perhaps the kośa madhti-ścut, ' the pail distilling sweetness,’ was used for the mixing. It seems doubtful if Surā was ever so mixed. There were three pressings a day of Soma, as opposed to the two of the Avesta. The evening pressing was specially connected with the Rbhus, the midday with Indra, the morning with Agni, but the ritual shows that many other gods also had their share. The drinker of Soma and the nondrinker are sharply discriminated in the texts. Localities where Soma was consumed were Árjīka, Pastyāvant, śaryaṇāvant, Suṣomā, the territory of the Pañcajanāh or ‘five peoples,’ and so on. The effects of Soma in exhilarating and exciting the drinkers are often alluded to. It is difficult to decide if Soma was ever a popular, as opposed to a hieratic drink. The evidence for its actual popularity is very slight, and not decisive.
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arāmadantam avadalam # AVP.6.14.2a.
etair ādityamaṇḍalam # TA.1.2.1c.
grāme cāṇḍālasaṃyute # Kauś.141.38d.
na māṃsam asi nodalam (HG. no dalam) # ApMB.2.11.19b; HG.2.3.3b.
nārkavindān nārvidālān # AVP.12.2.3a.
padmapriye padmadalāyatākṣi # RVKh.5.87.26b.
piśācebhyo bidalakārīm (TB. -ram) # VS.30.8; TB.3.4.1.5.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"dala" has 1 results.
     
aāstārapaṅkatia variety of पङ्कक्ति metre of 40 letters with 8 letters in the first and second quarters or pādas and 12 letters in the third and fourth quarters confer, compare अास्तारपङ्कक्तिरादितः R.Pr.XVI.40. For instances of आस्तारपङ्क्ति see Ṛgveda sūkta 2l, Mandala X.
     Vedabase Search  
52 results
     
dala a leafCC Adi 3.104
dala and leavesSB 10.22.36
dala leavesCC Madhya 8.211
dala like a leafSB 12.9.22-25
dala like a leaf of a banyan treeSB 4.21.16
dala like the banyan leafSB 4.24.50
dala lotus flowersCC Madhya 21.21
dala petalsSB 3.28.13
dala with a featherCC Antya 15.63
dala-āyata spread wide like the petalsSB 10.55.10
dala-āyata spread wide like the petalsSB 10.55.10
dala-i the gatekeeperCC Antya 16.80
dala-i the gatekeeperCC Antya 16.80
dala-śreṇī the bunches of outlying petalsCC Madhya 21.7
dala-śreṇī the bunches of outlying petalsCC Madhya 21.7
dalaiḥ by nice leaves of flowersSB 10.13.9
dalaiḥ like flower petalsSB 10.35.16-17
SB 10.39.49-50
dalana subduingCC Madhya 1.106
dalana tramplingCC Madhya 2.64
dalanam subduingCC Madhya 17.210
aravinda-dala (like) lotus petalsBs 5.30
aṣṭa-dalam having eight petalsSB 11.27.25-26
dala rainfallCC Madhya 13.49
caudda mādala fourteen mṛdańgasCC Antya 7.75
yāvat yaṣṭi-viṣāṇa-veṇu-dala-śik not only like their bodies but exactly like their bugles, flutes, sticks, lunch bags and so onSB 10.13.19
veṇu-dala a flute made from the branch of a bamboo treeSB 10.14.47
su-dala made from selected leavesCC Antya 16.119
sahasra-dala-sampanne on a lotus of a thousand petalsBs 5.26
aravinda-dala (like) lotus petalsBs 5.30
aṣṭa-dalam having eight petalsSB 11.27.25-26
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana of trampling the atheistsCC Adi 3.76
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana subduing atheistic menCC Antya 3.149
megha-dalanāḥ that which goes through the cloudsSB 7.10.60
dvi-dalayoḥ in the two halvesSB 5.21.2
dvi-dalayoḥ in the two halvesSB 5.21.2
kadalaka bananasCC Madhya 14.26
kondala quarrelCC Adi 10.23
dala drumsCC Madhya 13.48
caudda mādala fourteen mṛdańgasCC Antya 7.75
megha-dalanāḥ that which goes through the cloudsSB 7.10.60
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana of trampling the atheistsCC Adi 3.76
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana subduing atheistic menCC Antya 3.149
sahasra-dala-sampanne on a lotus of a thousand petalsBs 5.26
sahasra-dala-sampanne on a lotus of a thousand petalsBs 5.26
yāvat yaṣṭi-viṣāṇa-veṇu-dala-śik not only like their bodies but exactly like their bugles, flutes, sticks, lunch bags and so onSB 10.13.19
su-dala made from selected leavesCC Antya 16.119
yāvat yaṣṭi-viṣāṇa-veṇu-dala-śik not only like their bodies but exactly like their bugles, flutes, sticks, lunch bags and so onSB 10.13.19
veṇu-dala a flute made from the branch of a bamboo treeSB 10.14.47
yāvat yaṣṭi-viṣāṇa-veṇu-dala-śik not only like their bodies but exactly like their bugles, flutes, sticks, lunch bags and so onSB 10.13.19
yāvat yaṣṭi-viṣāṇa-veṇu-dala-śik not only like their bodies but exactly like their bugles, flutes, sticks, lunch bags and so onSB 10.13.19
yāvat yaṣṭi-viṣāṇa-veṇu-dala-śik not only like their bodies but exactly like their bugles, flutes, sticks, lunch bags and so onSB 10.13.19
     DCS with thanks   
55 results
     
dala noun (masculine neuter) a clump (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a degree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a detachment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a half (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a hemistich (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a piece torn or split off (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a small shoot (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
blade (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cinnamon leaf (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dividing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fragment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
heap (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
leaf (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
petal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
unclean gold (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pattratālaka; a kind of haritāla a mixture of a metal with mercury or another metal
Frequency rank 1083/72933
dala noun (masculine) name of a prince (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 35603/72933
dalaja noun (masculine) the nectar of a flower
Frequency rank 35604/72933
dalaka noun (neuter) dala leaf
Frequency rank 54272/72933
dalalāṅgala noun (masculine) [medic.] a kind of incision; ardhalāṅgala
Frequency rank 54274/72933
dalana noun (neuter) breaking (of the heart) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
causing to burst (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
destruction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
splitting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14195/72933
dalana adjective dispelling (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
splitting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
tearing asunder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13540/72933
dalapuṣpā noun (feminine) Pandanus odoratissimus (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54273/72933
dalay verb (class 10 parasmaipada) to cause to burst (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
to expel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 21434/72933
analadala noun (neuter) a metal colored yellow by use of mercury or other metals
Frequency rank 42754/72933
aravindadalaprabha noun (neuter) copper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 44838/72933
arkadala noun (masculine) common sunflower dala of copper ?
Frequency rank 32539/72933
aśmadala noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 45637/72933
aṣṭadala noun (neuter) a lotus flower with eight leaves (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14713/72933
uddalana adjective tearing out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47329/72933
kadala noun (masculine feminine) Musa sapientum Linn. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
plantain or banana tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1882/72933
kandala noun (masculine feminine neuter) censure (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cheek (or the cheek and temple) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
girdle (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
girth (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
low soft tone (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
new shoot or sprig (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
portent (as an eclipse) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reproach (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33787/72933
kandala noun (neuter) flower of the Kandalī tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
green ginger
Frequency rank 33788/72933
kandala noun (feminine) name of a plant with a bulbous root (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33789/72933
kandalay verb (denominative parasmaipada)
Frequency rank 33790/72933
koladala noun (neuter) a kind of perfume (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 50209/72933
kṣīradala noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 50594/72933
gopadala noun (masculine) the betel-nut tree (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51551/72933
granthidala noun (masculine) a kind of perfume (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51697/72933
candradala noun (neuter) a metal colored white by use of mercury or other metals
Frequency rank 52053/72933
carmadala noun (masculine) Betula bhojpatra
Frequency rank 52147/72933
carmadala noun (neuter) a slight form of leprosy (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15701/72933
caladala noun (masculine) Ficus religiosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52175/72933
tilāṅkitadala noun (masculine) a kind of bulb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 53598/72933
dinavyāsadala noun (neuter) the radius of a circle made by an asterism in its daily revolution (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54424/72933
dvidala noun (masculine) fork (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55216/72933
navadala noun (neuter) the fresh leaf of a lotus or any young leaf (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55747/72933
nirdala adjective leafless img/min.bmp
Frequency rank 13024/72933
nirdalana noun (neuter) breaking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cleaving asunder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
splitting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 56212/72933
bahudalakaṇiśa noun (masculine) a kind of grain
Frequency rank 60106/72933
bṛhaddala noun (masculine) a species of Lodhra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Phoenix Paludosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 37697/72933
mardala noun (masculine) a kind of drum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15992/72933
masīlekhyadala noun (masculine) a kind of palm-tree
Frequency rank 61619/72933
masūravidala noun (masculine neuter) "a split lentil " (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 61629/72933
yugdala noun (neuter) name of a plant
Frequency rank 63069/72933
raktadala noun (neuter) [medic.] a kind of kuṣṭha
Frequency rank 63184/72933
vidala noun (neuter) a cane (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a chip (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a split pea (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
anything split or pared (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fragment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
piece (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pomegranate bark (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
split bamboo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wicker-work (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9938/72933
vidala noun (masculine) a cake (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Bauhinia Variegata (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dividing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Daitya (?) rending (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
separating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sweetmeats (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 65576/72933
vidala adjective leafless (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 65578/72933
veṇuvaidala adjective made of split bamboo (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 66559/72933
vaidala noun (masculine) a class of grain ("pulse") a kind of venomous insect (kīṭa)
Frequency rank 18491/72933
vaidala adjective
Frequency rank 18492/72933
vyāghradala noun (masculine) Ricinus Communis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 66891/72933
śālmalīdala noun (masculine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 67500/72933
śīrṇadala noun (masculine) the neem tree
Frequency rank 67784/72933
sadalaṃkṛti adjective
Frequency rank 68705/72933
sudala noun (masculine) a kind of creeper (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Pterospermum Suberifolium (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 70838/72933
sūkṣmadala noun (masculine) mustard (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71626/72933
sūcīdala noun (masculine) Marsilea Quadrifolia (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71645/72933
snigdhadala noun (masculine) a species of Karañja (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 71860/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
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ānandadala

Go to candradala.

auddālaka

Plant dogbane, Cerbera addolam.

biḍa,biḍālavaṇa

salt obtained from excreta, ammonium chloride.

biḍāla

1. cat, female cat; 2. eye-ball.

candradala

a metal treated with mercury or other metals attains whitenss or yellowness.

carmadala

wart; exfoliative dermatosis; cracked skin.

dālana

1. toothache, 2. tooth crack

ḍālana

pouring of smelted metal into liquids, a process in medicinal alchemy.

kṛṣnamanḍala

black of the eye, cornea and iris.

kunḍala

ear ring.

manḍala

1. nonlepromatous lesion, 2. territory, 3. unit of forty days; 4. an area or a sphear in eye; 5. ringworm.

manḍalāgra

round pointed; manḍalāgraśastra surgeon’s circular knife.

manḍalakuṣṭa

lepromatous lesion.

uddāla

Plant Indian barnyard millet, Echinochloa frumentacea.

uddālaka

1. a kind of honey; 2. Plant seeds of Vigna catiang; 3. Plant Assyrian plum, Cordia myxa.

vaidala

pulses.

vidalavaṇa

Go to bidalavaṇa

     Wordnet Search "dala" has 687 results.
     

dala

kāñcanāraḥ, kovidāraḥ, camarikaḥ, kuddālaḥ, yugapatrakam, kaṇakārakaḥ, kāntapuṣpaḥ, karakaḥ, kāntāraḥ, yamalacchadaḥ, kāñcanālaḥ, tāmrapuṣpaḥ, kudāraḥ, raktakāñcanaḥ, vidālaḥ, kuṇḍalī, raktapuṣpaḥ, campaḥ, yugapatraḥ, kanakāntakaḥ, kanakārakaḥ, karbudāraḥ, gaṇḍāriḥ, girijaḥ, camarikaḥ, tāmrapuṣpakaḥ, mahāpuṣpaḥ, yugmaparṇaḥ, yugmapatraḥ, varalabdhaḥ, vidalaḥ, śoṇapuṣpakaḥ, satkāñcanāraḥ, siṃhāsyaḥ, hayavāhanasaṅkaraḥ, hayavāhanaśaṅkaraḥ, suvarṇāraḥ, svalpakesarī, āsphotaḥ, kaṣāyaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yasya puṣpāṇi śobhanīyāni santi।

udyānapālaḥ kāñcanārasya śākhāṃ adhogṛhītvā puṣpāṇi vicinoti।

dala

kāñcanāraḥ, kovidāraḥ, camarikaḥ, kuddālaḥ, yugapatrakam, kaṇakārakaḥ, kāntapuṣpaḥ, karakaḥ, kāntāraḥ, yamalacchadaḥ, kāñcanālaḥ, tāmrapuṣpaḥ, kudāraḥ, raktakāñcanaḥ, vidālaḥ   

kāñcanāravṛkṣasya puṣpam।

udyānapālaḥ kāñcanārasya mālāṃ viracayati।

dala

prabhāmaṇḍalam, ābhāmaṇḍalam   

devatānāṃ divyapuruṣāṇāṃ ca mukhaṃ paritaḥ vartamānaṃ tejomaṇḍalaṃ yat citreṣu mūrtiṣu vā dṛśyate।

sāmānyajanānāṃ prabhāmaṇḍalasya dīptiḥ kṣīṇā ataḥ na dṛśyate।

dala

nailamaṇḍala, nīlamaṇḍalīya, nailacarma, nailavarṇa, pāvanombuja   

nīlamaṇḍalasya phalasya varṇīyaḥ।

mīrā nailamaṇḍalā śāṭī dhārayati।

dala

rājyam, prāntaḥ, kṣetram, maṇḍalam, cakram, deśaḥ, pradeśaḥ, nirgaḥ, rāṣṭram, grāmaśatam, kṣatram, janapadaḥ   

deśasya tadbhāgaḥ yasya prajāyāḥ bhāṣā tathā ca ācāravicārapaddhatiḥ bhinnā svatantrā ca asti।

adhunā bhāratadeśe navaviṃśarājyāni santi।

dala

maṇḍalam, upavartanam, gocaraḥ   

kasyāpi pradeśasya vibhāgasya saḥ bhāgaḥ yasmin ekasya eva maṇḍalādhyakṣasya ādhipatyam asti।

ekasmin rājye naikāni maṇḍalāni santi।

dala

upamaṇḍalam, anumaṇḍalam   

maṇḍalasya laghuvibhāgaḥ।

upamaṇḍalasya mukhyādhikārī upamaṇḍalādhyakṣaḥ asti।

dala

pikaḥ, kokīlaḥ, vasantadūtaḥ, parabhṛtaḥ, parapuṣṭā, paraidhitaḥ, madālāpī, cātakaḥ, śāraṅgaḥ, vanapriyaḥ   

khagaviśeṣaḥ- kṛṣṇavarṇamadhurasvarapakṣī।

pikasya kūjanaṃ manohāri asti।

dala

parṇin, patrin, parṇasa, dalasa, bahupatra, bahuparṇa, pracūraparṇa, sapatra, parṇamaya, parṇavat   

yasmin parṇāni santi।

āmrasya parṇinīṣu śākhāsu parṇāni lagnāni।

dala

biḍālajātīyapaśuḥ   

yaḥ biḍālavaṃśyaḥ asti।

sihaḥ biḍālajātīyapaśuḥ asti।

dala

samudāyaḥ, saṅghaḥ, samūhaḥ, saṅghātaḥ, samavāyaḥ, sañcayaḥ, gaṇaḥ, gulmaḥ, gucchaḥ, gucchakaḥ, gutsaḥ, stavakaḥ, oghaḥ, vṛndaḥ, nivahaḥ, vyūhaḥ, sandohaḥ, visaraḥ, vrajaḥ, stomaḥ, nikaraḥ, vātaḥ, vāraḥ, saṃghātaḥ, samudayaḥ, cayaḥ, saṃhatiḥ, vṛndam, nikurambam, kadambakam, pūgaḥ, sannayaḥ, skandhaḥ, nicayaḥ, jālam, agram, pacalam, kāṇḍam, maṇḍalam, cakram, vistaraḥ, utkāraḥ, samuccayaḥ, ākaraḥ, prakaraḥ, saṃghaḥ, pracayaḥ, jātam   

ekasmin sthāne sthāpitāni sthitāni vā naikāni vastūni।

asmin samudāye naikāḥ mahilāḥ santi।

dala

khagolīyakṣetram, khamaṇḍalam, ākāśamaṇḍalam, nabhamaṇḍalam   

tatsthānaṃ yatra khagolīyapiṇḍāḥ santi।

śyāmaḥ khagolīyakṣetrasya viṣaye jñātum icchati।

dala

jālma, pāpiṣṭha, durātmā, narādhama, khala, caṇḍāla   

yasya saṃkalpaḥ duṣṭaḥ।

jālmaḥ anyasya hitaṃ na paśyati।

dala

pravālaḥ, prabālaḥ, vidrumaḥ, pravālam, ratnavṛkṣaḥ, mandaṭaḥ, mandāraḥ, raktakandaḥ, raktakandalaḥ, hemakandalaḥ, ratnakandalaḥ, latāmaṇiḥ, aṅgārakamaṇiḥ, māheyaḥ, pārijātaḥ, pāribhadraḥ, krimiśatruḥ, bhaumaratnam, bhomīrāḥ, supuṣpaḥ, raktapuṣpakaḥ   

ratnaviśeṣaḥ, māṅgalyārthe paridhīyamāṇaḥ raktavarṇavartulākāraghanagolaviśeṣaḥ;

gauraṃ raṅgajalākrāntaṃ vakrasukṣmaṃ sakoṭaraṃ rūkṣakṛṣṇaṃ laghuśvetaṃ pravālam aśubhaṃ tyajet

dala

adhināyikā, dalanāyikā   

dalasya samājasya vā pradhānā strī।

rājñī lakṣmī kuśalā adhināyikā āsīt।

dala

kuṇḍalam   

karṇayoḥ ābhūṣaṇam।

śrotram śrutenaiva na kuṇḍalena śobhate।

dala

paridhiḥ, maṇḍalam, cakravālaḥ   

paridhīyate anena।

asya vṛtteḥ paridhiṃ gaṇaya।/

paridhermukta ivoṣṇadīdhitiḥ।

dala

dalasadasyaḥ   

yaḥ kasyāpi dalasya samudāyasya vā sadasyaḥ asti।

dalasadasyayoḥ kalahena dalaḥ durbalaṃ bhavati।

dala

pṛthvī, dharatī, dharā, bhū, vasundharā, dharaṇī, dharitrī, avanī, urvī, ratnagarbhā, vasudhā, kṣitiḥ, mahiḥ, mahī, acalakīlā, acalā, bhūmaṇḍalaḥ, pṛthivīmaṇḍalam, viśvambharā, prathī, viśvadhāriṇī, medinī, viśvadhenā   

sauramālāyāṃ sūryaṃ paritaḥ bhramamāṇaḥ sūryāt tṛtīyaḥ martyādyadhiṣṭhānabhūtaḥ grahagolaḥ।

candraḥ pṛthveḥ upagrahaḥ asti।

dala

khaṇḍalaḥ, khaṇḍalam, kāṇḍī   

parimāṇaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ gaṇanasaṃkhyāṃ sūcayati।

ahaṃ haṭāt dve khaṇḍale dravye kretum icchāmi।

dala

adhināyakaḥ, gaṇanāyakaḥ, dalapatiḥ   

yaḥ kasyāpi dalasya samudāyasya vā pradhānaḥ asti।

aṭala bihārī vājapeyī mahodayaḥ bhāratīya janatā pārṭī iti dalasya adhināyakaḥ asti।

dala

indraḥ, devarājaḥ, jayantaḥ, ṛṣabhaḥ, mīḍhvān, marutvān, maghavā, viḍojā, pākaśāsanaḥ, vṛddhaśravāḥ, sunāsīraḥ, puruhūtaḥ, purandaraḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, lekharṣabhaḥ, śakraḥ, śatamanyuḥ, divaspatiḥ, sutrāmā, gotrabhit, vajrī, vāsavaḥ, vṛtrahā, vṛṣā, vāstospatiḥ, surapatiḥ, balārātiḥ, śacīpatiḥ, jambhabhedī, harihayaḥ, svārāṭ, namucisūdanaḥ, saṃkrandanaḥ, duścyavanaḥ, turāṣāṭ, meghavāhanaḥ, ākhaṇḍalaḥ, sahastrākṣaḥ, ṛbhukṣā, mahendraḥ, kośikaḥ, pūtakratuḥ, viśvambharaḥ, hariḥ, purudaṃśā, śatadhṛtiḥ, pṛtanāṣāḍ, ahidviṣaḥ, vajrapāṇiḥ, devarājaḥ, parvatāriḥ, paryaṇyaḥ, devatādhipaḥ, nākanāthaḥ, pūrvadikkapatiḥ, pulomāriḥ, arhaḥ, pracīnavarhiḥ, tapastakṣaḥ, biḍaujāḥ, arkaḥ, ulūkaḥ, kaviḥ, kauśikaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ   

sā devatā yā svargasya adhipatiḥ iti manyate।

vedeṣu indrasya sūktāni santi।

dala

nāgaramustā, nāgarotthā, nāgarādighanasaṃjñakā, cakrāṅkā, nādeyī, cūḍālā, piṇḍamustā, śiśirā, vṛṣadhmāṅkṣī, kaccharuhā, cārukesarā, uccaṭā, pūrṇakoṣchasaṃjñā, kalāpinī, jaṭā   

tṛṇaviśeṣaḥ yasya mūlāni kaphapittajvarātisārārucyādiṣu bheṣajarupeṇa yujyate।

vaidyena bheṣajārthe samūlaṃ nāgaramustā ānītā।

dala

gajaḥ, hastī, karī, dantī, dvipaḥ, vāraṇaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ, mataṅgaḥ, kuñjaraḥ, nāgaḥ, dviradaḥ, ibhaḥ, radī, dvipāyī, anekapaḥ, viṣāṇī, kareṇuḥ, lambakarṇaḥ, padmī, śuṇḍālaḥ, karṇikī, dantāvalaḥ, stamberamaḥ, dīrghavaktraḥ, drumāriḥ, dīrghamārutaḥ, vilomajihvaḥ, śakvā, pīluḥ, māmṛgaḥ, mataṅgajaḥ, ṣaṣṭhihāyanaḥ   

paśuviśeṣaḥ- saḥ paśuḥ yaḥ viśālaḥ sthūlaḥ śuṇḍāyuktaḥ ca।

gajāya ikṣuḥ rocate।

dala

apatra, adala, aparṇa, apalāśa, kuṭhi, niṣpattra, niṣpattraka, vidala, vipalāśa, praparṇa   

yasya parṇāni galitāni।

śiśire prāyaḥ vṛkṣāḥ apatrāḥ bhavanti।

dala

śrītālaḥ, mṛdutālaḥ, lakṣmītālaḥ, mṛducchadaḥ, viśālapatraḥ, lekhārhaḥ, masīlekhyadalaḥ, śirālapatrakaḥ, yāmyodabhūtaḥ   

tālavṛkṣasya prakāraḥ yaḥ jalāśayasya taṭe vardhate।

saḥ jalāśayaṃ nirmāya tasya taṭe sarvatra śrītālān api avapat।

dala

jogīrādalam   

gāyakavādakānāṃ viśeṣaḥ dalaprakāraḥ।

jogīrādalaṃ grāme grāme gatvā gāyanaṃ vādanaṃ ca karoti।

dala

gaṇḍamaṇḍala, gaṇḍasthala   

karṇanetrayoḥ madhyagataṃ sthānam।

tena gaṇḍamaṇḍalaṃ gullikāyāḥ lakṣyaṃ kṛtam।

dala

gaṇaḥ, dala   

kāryasya uddeśyasya vā siddhyarthe nirmitaṃ maṇḍalam।

adhunā samāje pratidine nūtanaḥ gaṇaḥ udeti।

dala

khaḍgaḥ, asiḥ, kṛpāṇaḥ, candrahāsaḥ, kaukṣeyakaḥ, maṇḍalāgraḥ, karabālaḥ, karapālaḥ, nistriṃśaḥ, śiriḥ, viśasanaḥ, tīkṣṇadhāraḥ, durāsadaḥ, śrīgarbhaḥ, vijayaḥ, dharmapālaḥ, kaukṣeyaḥ, taravāriḥ, tavarājaḥ, śastraḥ, riṣṭiḥ, ṛṣṭiḥ, pārerakaḥ   

śastraviśeṣaḥ।

khaḍgasya yuddhe rājñī lakṣmī nipuṇā āsīt।

dala

maṇḍalādhikārī   

maṇḍalasya sarvoccaḥ adhikārī।

asmākaṃ maṇḍale maṇḍalādhikāriṇaḥ adhyakṣatāyāṃ sākṣaratā-abhiyānaṃ pracalati।

dala

kaśmīrīkuṇḍalam   

sphaṭikayuktaṃ karṇakuṇḍalam।

tasya karṇe kaśmīrīkuṇḍale śobhete।

dala

durgā, umā, kātyāyanī, gaurī, brahmāṇī, kālī, haimavatī, īśvarā, śivā, bhavānī, rudrāṇī, sarvāṇī, sarvamaṅgalā, aparṇā, pārvatī, mṛḍānī, līlāvatī, caṇaḍikā, ambikā, śāradā, caṇḍī, caṇḍā, caṇḍanāyikā, girijā, maṅgalā, nārāyaṇī, mahāmāyā, vaiṣṇavī, maheśvarī, koṭṭavī, ṣaṣṭhī, mādhavī, naganandinī, jayantī, bhārgavī, rambhā, siṃharathā, satī, bhrāmarī, dakṣakanyā, mahiṣamardinī, herambajananī, sāvitrī, kṛṣṇapiṅgalā, vṛṣākapāyī, lambā, himaśailajā, kārttikeyaprasūḥ, ādyā, nityā, vidyā, śubhahkarī, sāttvikī, rājasī, tāmasī, bhīmā, nandanandinī, mahāmāyī, śūladharā, sunandā, śumyabhaghātinī, hrī, parvatarājatanayā, himālayasutā, maheśvaravanitā, satyā, bhagavatī, īśānā, sanātanī, mahākālī, śivānī, haravallabhā, ugracaṇḍā, cāmuṇḍā, vidhātrī, ānandā, mahāmātrā, mahāmudrā, mākarī, bhaumī, kalyāṇī, kṛṣṇā, mānadātrī, madālasā, māninī, cārvaṅgī, vāṇī, īśā, valeśī, bhramarī, bhūṣyā, phālgunī, yatī, brahmamayī, bhāvinī, devī, acintā, trinetrā, triśūlā, carcikā, tīvrā, nandinī, nandā, dharitriṇī, mātṛkā, cidānandasvarūpiṇī, manasvinī, mahādevī, nidrārūpā, bhavānikā, tārā, nīlasarasvatī, kālikā, ugratārā, kāmeśvarī, sundarī, bhairavī, rājarājeśvarī, bhuvaneśī, tvaritā, mahālakṣmī, rājīvalocanī, dhanadā, vāgīśvarī, tripurā, jvālmukhī, vagalāmukhī, siddhavidyā, annapūrṇā, viśālākṣī, subhagā, saguṇā, nirguṇā, dhavalā, gītiḥ, gītavādyapriyā, aṭṭālavāsinī, aṭṭahāsinī, ghorā, premā, vaṭeśvarī, kīrtidā, buddhidā, avīrā, paṇḍitālayavāsinī, maṇḍitā, saṃvatsarā, kṛṣṇarūpā, balipriyā, tumulā, kāminī, kāmarūpā, puṇyadā, viṣṇucakradharā, pañcamā, vṛndāvanasvarūpiṇī, ayodhyārupiṇī, māyāvatī, jīmūtavasanā, jagannāthasvarūpiṇī, kṛttivasanā, triyāmā, jamalārjunī, yāminī, yaśodā, yādavī, jagatī, kṛṣṇajāyā, satyabhāmā, subhadrikā, lakṣmaṇā, digambarī, pṛthukā, tīkṣṇā, ācārā, akrūrā, jāhnavī, gaṇḍakī, dhyeyā, jṛmbhaṇī, mohinī, vikārā, akṣaravāsinī, aṃśakā, patrikā, pavitrikā, tulasī, atulā, jānakī, vandyā, kāmanā, nārasiṃhī, girīśā, sādhvī, kalyāṇī, kamalā, kāntā, śāntā, kulā, vedamātā, karmadā, sandhyā, tripurasundarī, rāseśī, dakṣayajñavināśinī, anantā, dharmeśvarī, cakreśvarī, khañjanā, vidagdhā, kuñjikā, citrā, sulekhā, caturbhujā, rākā, prajñā, ṛdbhidā, tāpinī, tapā, sumantrā, dūtī, aśanī, karālā, kālakī, kuṣmāṇḍī, kaiṭabhā, kaiṭabhī, kṣatriyā, kṣamā, kṣemā, caṇḍālikā, jayantī, bheruṇḍā   

sā devī yayā naike daityāḥ hatāḥ tathā ca yā ādiśaktiḥ asti iti manyate।

navarātrotsave sthāne sthāne durgāyāḥ pratiṣṭhāpanā kriyate।

dala

kadalī, tṛṇasārā, gucchaphalā, vāraṇavuṣā, rambhā, mocā, kāṣṭhīlā, aṃśumatphalā, vāravuṣā, suphalā, sukumārā, sakṛtphalā, hastiviṣāṇī, gucchadantikā, niḥsārā, rājeṣṭā, bālakapriyā, ūrustambhā, bhānuphalā, vanalakṣmīḥ, kadalakaḥ, mocakaḥ, rocakaḥ, locakaḥ, vāravṛṣā, vāraṇavallabhā   

phalaviśeṣaḥ tat phalam yad gurutaram madhuram tathā ca puṣṭam।

saḥ kadalīm atti।

dala

kadalī, tṛṇasārā, gucchaphalā, vāraṇavuṣā, rambhā, mocā, kāṣṭhīlā, aṃśumatphalā, vāravuṣā, suphalā, sukumārā, sakṛtphalā, hastiviṣāṇī, gucchadantikā, niḥsārā, rājeṣṭā, bālakapriyā, ūrustambhā, bhānuphalā, vanalakṣmīḥ, kadalakaḥ, mocakaḥ, rocakaḥ, locakaḥ, vāravṛṣā, vāraṇavallabhā   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ-saḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya parṇāni dīrghāṇi tathā ca phalaṃ gurutaraṃ madhuraṃ puṣṭam asti।

tasya prāṅgaṇe kadalī asti।

dala

piṭakaḥ, peṭakaḥ, peṭā, ḍalakam, ḍallakaḥ, karaṇḍaḥ, mañjūṣā, kaṇḍolaḥ   

vaṃśavetrādimayasamudgakaḥ।

saḥ śirasi piṭakam ādhṛtya śākān vikrīṇāti।

dala

śīrṣam, śīrṣakam, śiras, mūrdhā, mastakaḥ, muṇḍaḥ, muṇḍakam, mauliḥ, kenāraḥ, cūḍālam, varāṅgam, uttamāṅgam, sīmantaḥ, keśabhūḥ   

śarīrasya saḥ bhāgaḥ yaḥ kaṇṭhasya urdhvabhāge asti।

kālyāḥ kaṇṭhe śīrṣāṇāṃ mālā śobhate।/ śīrṣasya kṣatiḥ maraṇasya kāraṇam।

dala

samūhaḥ, pariṣad, saṅghaḥ, nikāyaḥ, gaṇaḥ, anīkaḥ, vargaḥ, ṣaṇḍaḥ, sārthaḥ, maṇḍalam, vṛndam   

kasyāpi viśeṣasya kāryādeḥ pūrtyarthe sammilitāḥ janāḥ।

asmākaṃ nagare citrakūṭastha rāmalīlāyāḥ samūhaḥ āgataḥ।

dala

ari, cakram, maṇḍalam   

yānādiṣu kīle yuktaṃ tad vartulam yasya gatyā yānādayaḥ calanti।

asya yānasya agram ari upahatam।

dala

śabdālaṅkāraḥ   

saḥ alaṅkāraḥ yasmin śabdena kṛtā camatkṛtiḥ asti।

alaṅkārāḥ dvividhāḥ śabdālaṅkāraḥ arthālaṅkāraśca।

dala

karamardaḥ, karamardī, karāmbukaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, kṛṣṇapākaḥ, kṣīraphalaḥ, ḍiṇḍimaḥ, nalinadalaḥ, pākakṛṣṇaḥ, pākaphalaḥ, pāṇimardaḥ, phalakṛṣṇaḥ, phalapākaḥ, vanāmalaḥ, varālakaḥ, varāmraḥ, vārivaraḥ, vaśaḥ, vighnaḥ, suṣeṇaḥ   

kaṇṭakayuktaḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya phalāni laghuni tathā ca amlāni santi।

tena karamardaḥ unmūlitaḥ।

dala

yamunā, yamunānadī, kālindī, sūryatanayā, śamanasvasā, tapanatanūjā, kalindakanyā, yamasvasā, śyāmā, tāpī, kalindalandinī, yamanī, yamī, kalindaśailajā, sūryasutā, tapanatanayā, aruṇātmajā, dineśātmajā, bhānujā, ravijā, bhānusutā, sūryasutā, sūryajā, yamānujā, arkatanayā, arkasutā, arkajā   

bhāratīyanadīviśeṣaḥ sā tu himālayadakṣiṇadeśād nirgatya prayāge gaṅgāyāṃ miśritā।

sarnāṇi hṛdayāsthāni maṅgalāni śubhāni ca। dadāti cepsitān loke tena sā sarvamaṅgalā॥ saṅgamād gamanād gaṅgā loke devī vibhāvyate। yamasya bhaginī jātā yamunā tena sā matā॥

dala

pippalaḥ, kalahapriyā, kalahākulā, kuñjaraḥ, kuñjarāśanaḥ, kṛṣṇāvāsaḥ, gajabhakṣakaḥ, guhyapatraḥ, caladalaḥ, tatpadaḥ, tārāyaṇaḥ, mahādrumaḥ, nāgabandhuḥ, keśavālayaḥ   

bṛhadvṛkṣaḥ yaḥ hindūnāṃ kṛte pavitraḥ asti।

snānādanantaraṃ saḥ pippalāya jalaṃ dadāti।

dala

karamardaḥ, karamardī, karāmbukaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, kṛṣṇapākaḥ, kṣīraphalaḥ, ḍiṇḍimaḥ, nalinadalaḥ, pākakṛṣṇaḥ, pākaphalaḥ, pāṇimardaḥ, phalakṛṣṇaḥ, phalapākaḥ, vanāmalaḥ, varālakaḥ, varāmraḥ, vārivaraḥ, vaśaḥ, vighnaḥ, suṣeṇaḥ   

kaṇṭakayuktaḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya phalāni laghūni tathā ca amlāni santi।

mātuḥ karamardasya vyañjanaṃ nirmāti।

dala

upamaṇḍalādhikārī   

upamaṇḍalasya saḥ pradhānaḥ adhikārī yaḥ kṛṣakebhyaḥ kṣetrakaram upārjayati tathā ca paṇasambandhī abhiyogaṃ śṛṇoti।

tasya pitā upamaṇḍalādhikārī asti।

dala

kuṇḍalam   

bṛhat vartulākāraṃ karṇābhūṣaṇam।

gītā kuṇḍalāni paridhārayati।

dala

dala   

gaṇaveṣadhāriṇaḥ sainikānāṃ laghuḥ samudāyaḥ।

saṃsadīya-nirvācanārthe sthāne sthāne senāyāḥ dalāḥ sthāpitāḥ।

dala

dundubhiḥ, paṭahaḥ, bherī, mṛdaṅgaḥ, murajaḥ, mardalaḥ, ḍiṇḍimaḥ, ānakaḥ, ḍhakkā   

nādavādyaviśeṣaḥ।

dundubheḥ nādaṃ śrutvā bālakāḥ sammilanti।

dala

niṣkāsaya, utsāraya, niḥsāraya, niras, nirdhū, niryāpaya, nirvad, nirvāsaya, uccāṭaya, samutpāṭaya, samudīraya, cālaya, samudvāsaya, avarudh, udākṛ, utkālaya, uddhū, tyājaya, nāśaya, vipravāsaya, vivāsaya, samākṣip, vyaparopaya, vyas, saṃcālaya, sañcālaya, nirvivah, nirhan, nirhṛ, dālaya, nistyaj, udas, utkliś, apacyu, avahan, aparudh, udaj, udvas, ji, niṣkṛ, parinirhan, parivṛj, prāmarjaya, vitathīkṛ, viropaya   

balāt sthānatyāgapreraṇānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

rājīvaḥ dvāri tiṣṭhantaṃ śvānaṃ nirakāsayat।

dala

dvādaśa, sūrya, māsa, rāśi, saṃkrānti, guhabāhu, sārikoṣṭha, guhanetra, rājamaṇḍala   

dvyādhikā daśa।

naukāyāṃ dvādaśāḥ puruṣāḥ santi।

dala

puṣpadalam, dalam, puṣpapatram   

puṣpasya citrāṇi patrāṇi।

bālakaḥ kamalasya puṣpadalaṃ kṛntati।

dala

dalaḥ, pakṣaḥ   

viśeṣamatasya samarthakānāṃ samūhaḥ।

bhavataḥ dalaḥ kaḥ।

dala

kandala, kala, komala   

yaḥ sāmānyāt nimnaḥ asti।

sītā kandale svare gāyati।

dala

rājanaitikadalam   

tat dalaṃ yat rājanītyā sambandhitam asti।

bhārate naikāni rājanaitikadalāni santi।

dala

setuḥ, piṇḍalaḥ, piṇḍilaḥ, saṃvaraḥ, sambaraḥ   

nadyādayaḥ jalapravāhān vāhanena padbhyāṃ vā ullaṅghanārthe lohakāṣṭharañjvādibhiḥ vinirmitaṃ śilpam।

nadyāṃ sthāne sthāne naike setavaḥ baddhāḥ।

dala

tulasīdalam, tulasīpatram   

tulasīkṣupasya patram।

tulasīdalam auṣadhasya rūpeṇa upayujyate।

dala

mārjāraḥ, biḍālaḥ, otuḥ, kundamaḥ, mūṣakārātiḥ, ākhubhuk, vṛṣadaṃśakaḥ, payaspaḥ, vyāghrāsyaḥ, dīptākṣaḥ   

vyāghrajātīyaḥ grāmyapaśuḥ yaḥ vyāghrāt laghuḥ asti।

mārjāraḥ mūṣakaṃ harati।

dala

biḍālaḥ, kāhalaḥ   

naraḥ mārjāraḥ।

śvānaṃ dṛṣṭvā biḍālaḥ vṛkṣe ārohitaḥ।

dala

khanitram, khanitrakam, khātram, kaṭhinam, vaṇḍālaḥ, vaṇṭālaḥ, vaṇṭhālaḥ, kaṭhinakaḥ, phālaḥ   

ekam upakaraṇaṃ yena mṛttikādi unnīya anyatra sthāpyate athavā anyad kimapi vastuḥ tasmin pūrayate।

saḥ khanitreṇa aṅgāram unnīya kaṇḍole sthāpayati।

dala

bāndāmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

tulasīdāsasya janmasthānaṃ bāndāmaṇḍalasya rājāpuram āsīt।

dala

vibhājanam, vibhāgaḥ, vibhaktiḥ, vicchedaḥ, vibhedaḥ, khaṇḍanam, pṛthakkaraṇam, viyogaḥ, viśleṣaḥ, dalanam   

vibhinneṣu bhāgeṣu vastūnāṃ vitaraṇam।

rāmaḥ svaputrayoḥ kṛte gṛhasya vibhājanam akarot।

dala

ūdalaḥ, rudala   

mahobedeśasya rājñaḥ paramālasya putraḥ yaḥ vīraḥ āsīt।

jaganikasya ālha-khaṇḍe ūdalasya śauryasya varṇanam asti।

dala

vicchedaḥ, sambhedaḥ, khaṇḍaḥ, vibhaṅgaḥ, bhaṅgaḥ, khaḍaḥ, prabhaṅgaḥ, nirdalanam, vicaṭanam, āmoṭanam, dalanam, bhidyam, sambhedanam, avadaraṇam, daraṇam   

khaṇḍanasya kriyā।

rāmaḥ śivadhanuṣaḥ vicchedaṃ cakāra।

dala

vāyumaṇḍalam   

pṛthivyāṃ paritaḥ vartamānaḥ vāyuḥ।

vāyumaṇḍalam dūṣitaṃ na bhavet iti hetoḥ asmābhiḥ vāyumaṇḍalaṃ rakṣitavyam।

dala

dalamālinī   

śākaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ parṇaiḥ baddhaḥ asti।

mātā dalamālinyāḥ śākaṃ nirmiyate।

dala

bhūmadhyarekhā, nirakṣaḥ, viṣuvadvṛttam, vyakṣaḥ, bhūvārāhavṛttam, viṣṇugolaḥ, viṣuvanmaṇḍalam, viṣuvadvalayam   

pṛthivyāḥ madhyabhāgaṃ sūcayantī ekā kālpanikī rekhā yasyāḥ dvau dhruvau samāne antare staḥ।

bhūmadhyarekhāṃ parītaḥ adhikā uṣṇatā bhavati।

dala

krāntivalayaḥ, krāntivalayam, krāntimaṇḍalam, krāntivṛttam ayanavṛttam   

karkamakararekhayoḥ vartamānaḥ pṛthivyāḥ bhāgaḥ।

krāntivalayasya pradeśeṣu adhikā uṣṇatā bhavati।

dala

karmakaradalam   

samakāle kāryaṃ kriyamāṇānāṃ janānāṃ dalam।

karmakaradalam adya kāryaṃ kartuṃ na āgatam।

dala

kṛṣivargaḥ, kṛṣakadalam   

kṛṣakāṇāṃ vargaḥ।

śāsanena kṛṣivargasya samasyāṃ prati avadhānaṃ dātavyam।

dala

gṛharakṣakadalam   

sainikadalatulyam ekaṃ dalaṃ yat svatantre bhāratadeśe sthānikāyāḥ śāntatāyai surakṣāyai ca nirmitam।

gaṇatantradivasasya samārohe gṛharakṣakadalamapi niyojitam।

dala

alakaḥ, alakam, āvartaḥ, kamujā, kuntalaḥ, kurulaḥ, keśī, keśamaṇḍalam, keśastukaḥ, keśāntaḥ, khaṅkaraḥ, guḍālakaḥ, guḍālakam, cūḍā, cūrṇakuntalaḥ, śikhaṇḍakaḥ, śikhā, śikhāsūtram   

pṛṣṭhabhāge vāmabhāge dakṣiṇabhāge ca itastataḥ avakīrṇāḥ keśāḥ।

tasyāḥ alakena yuktaṃ mukhaṃ aparicitaḥ iva abhāsata।

dala

vidyāpīṭham, viśvavidyālayaḥ, vidyālayamaṇḍalam, vidyālayagaṇaḥ, śālāmaṇḍalam   

tad pīṭhaṃ yatra nānāvidyāśākhānām uccastarīyam adhyāpanaṃ bhavati tathā ca yad tatsaṃlagnān vidyālayān samadhitiṣṭhati।

mānasī muṃbaī iti vidyāpīṭhe adhyayanaṃ karoti।

dala

dala   

annādeḥ cūrṇīkaraṇārthe vidyutsāhāyyena pracālyamānaṃ yantram।

asyāḥ dalanyāḥ cūrṇaṃ sthūlam asti।

dala

vṛtta, kuṇḍalākāra, cakra, kuṇḍalin, cakravata, cakkala, cakraka, cakruvṛtta, cākra, cākrika, parimaṇḍala, parimaṇḍalita, parivartula, vaṭin   

vartulasya ākāraḥ iva ākāraḥ yasya saḥ।

asya vṛkṣasya phalāni vṛttāni santi।

dala

cāṇḍālaḥ   

patitaḥ manuṣyaḥ (gāliḥ)।

tena saḥ vārtāṃ mā karotu saḥ cāṇḍālaḥ asti।

dala

maṇḍalam   

sūryasya candsya vā paritaḥ vartamānaḥ saṃniveśaḥ।

sūryasya maṇḍale vividhāḥ grahāḥ paribhramanti।

dala

kakṣā, parimaṇḍalam   

niyataḥ prāyaḥ vartulākāraḥ mārgaḥ yasmin kimapi vastu viśeṣataḥ khagolīyagolakaḥ niyatarūpeṇa paribhramati।

pṛthivī svasya kakṣāyām eva paribhramati।

dala

paridhi, maṇḍala   

paridhīyate anena;

anṛṇatvamupeyivān babhau paridhermukta uvoṣṇadīdhiti

[śa.ka]

dala

ketakaḥ, ketakī, indukalikā, tīkṣṇapuṣpā, dīrghapatraḥ, pāṃsukā, amarapuṣpaḥ, amarapuṣpakaḥ, kaṇṭadalā, kanakaketakī, kanakapuṣpī, droṇīdalaḥ, karatṛṇam, krakacacchadaḥ, gandhapuṣpaḥ, dalapuṣpā, dalapuṣpī, cakṣuṣyaḥ, cāmarapuṣpaḥ, chinnaruhā, jambālaḥ, jambulaḥ, dhūlipuṣpikā, nṛpapriyā, pharendraḥ, valīnakaḥ, viphalaḥ, vyañjanaḥ, śivadviṣṭā, sugandhinī, sūcipuṣpaḥ, sūcikā, strībhūṣaṇam, sthiragandhaḥ, svarṇaketakī, hanīlaḥ, halīmaḥ, hemaketakī, haimaḥ   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ- yasya savāsikasya puṣpasya patrāṇi krakacasya iva tīkṣṇāni santi।

adhunā udyānasthasya ketakasya puṣpaṃ vikasati।

dala

dalavādyam   

baṅgālaprānte vartamānaṃ pakhavājasya sadṛśaṃ vādyam।

kālīpūjane janāḥ kīrtanakāle mādalavādyaṃ vādayanti।

dala

lohitālulatā, lohitāluvallī, śabarakandalatā, śabarakandavallī, lohitāluḥ, madhvālulatā, madhvāluvallī, māluvā, śabarakandaḥ, madhvālukam, madhvālu, khaṇḍakālu, khaṇḍakālukam   

latāviśeṣaḥ- yasya raktatvacaḥ madhurāḥ kandāḥ khādyante।

kṛṣakaḥ lohitālulatāyāḥ upari kīṭanāśakaṃ dravyam abhipruṣāyati।

dala

trimaṇḍalā   

lūtābhedaḥ।

trimaṇḍalā viṣamayī bhavati।

dala

svaramaṇḍalam   

vādyaviśeṣaḥ।

svaramaṇḍale tantryaḥ santi।

dala

maṇḍalapucchakam   

kīṭaviśeṣaḥ।

maṇḍalapucchake sarpasadṛśaṃ prāṇanāśakaṃ viṣam asti।

dala

parimaṇḍalatā, maṇḍalatvam, maṇḍalatā, maṇḍalībhāvaḥ, vṛttatvam   

vartulākārasya avasthā।

laḍḍukasya parimaṇḍalatā sādhvī nāsti।

dala

upakrīḍāmaṇḍalam   

manorañjanārthe vinetṛbhiḥ viśeṣarūpeṇa śikṣitānāṃ paśūnāṃ tathā ca vividhānāṃ kalākārāṇāṃ samūhaḥ, yaḥ upajīvikārthe tasya krīḍāpāṭavaṃ janān pradarśayati।

asmin upakrīḍāmaṇḍale gajāśvasahitam bhālūkaḥ api āsīt।

dala

caṇḍāla-keśaḥ   

lalāṭe vardhamānaḥ sthūlaḥ keśaḥ।

caṇḍāla-keśam aśubhaṃ manyate।

dala

madālasā   

viśvāvasunāmakasya gandharvasya kanyā।

ekadā pātālaketunāmakaḥ daityaḥ madālasāyāḥ apaharaṇaṃ kṛtvā pātālam anayat।

dala

mardala   

mṛdaṅgaḥ iva vādyam।

mardalasya prayogaḥ prācīnakāle bhavati sma।

dala

kumārī, kaṇṭakaprāvṛtā, kanyāgṛhakanyā, taraṇi, brahmaghnī, vipulāśravā, sthūladalā, kapilaḥ   

ekaḥ auṣadhīyaḥ kṣupaviśeṣaḥ।

vaidyaḥ udyāne kumārīṃ ropayati।

dala

maṇḍalabrāhmaṇa-upaniṣad, maṇḍalabrāhmaṇaḥ   

ekā upaniṣad;

maṇḍalabrāhmaṇa-upaniṣad yajurvedena sambandhitā।

dala

bokāromaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya jhārakhaṇḍaprāntasya ekaṃ nagaram।

bokāromaṇḍalam āyasasya udyogāya prasiddham।

dala

khalatā, cāṃḍālatā, adhamatā, durvṛttatā, cāṇḍālatvam, khalatvam, adhavatvam, durvṛttatvam   

krūraḥ svabhāvaḥ।

kaṃsasya khalatā parisīmānam aticakrame yadā tena svapitā bandīkṛtaḥ।

dala

dalāīlāmāmahodayaḥ   

pramukhaḥ lāmāmahodayaḥ।

dalāīlāmāmahodayaḥ bhāratasya yātrāṃ karoti।

dala

colamaṇḍalam   

ekaḥ prācīnaḥ deśaḥ।

colamaṇḍalaṃ bhāratasya dakṣiṇe āsīt।

dala

nirlekhanam, kṣṇūḥ, abhriḥ, kuddālaḥ   

upakaraṇaviśeṣaḥ।

nirlekhanena pātrebhyaḥ dugdhaṃ dadhi ityādi niṣkāsyate।

dala

saragujāmaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājyasya ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

saragujāmaṇḍalaṃ śailāṭīyaiḥ janaiḥ paripūrṇaṃ kṣetram asti।

dala

jagadalapuram   

chattīsagaḍharājyasya ekaṃ nagaram।

jagadalapuraṃ bastaramaṇḍalasya mahiṣṭhaṃ nagaram asti।

dala

bastaramaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājyasya ekaṃ śailāṭīyaṃ maṇḍalam।

bastaramaṇḍalasya pradhānakāryālayaḥ jagadalapure asti।

dala

kuḍālanagaram   

mahārāṣṭre vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

sindhudurgasya mukhyālayaḥ kuḍālanagare asti।

dala

baharāicamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

asmākaṃ grāmaḥ baharāicamaṇḍale asti।

dala

baliyāmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

baliyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ baliyānagare asti।

dala

balarāmapūramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

balarāmapūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ balarāmapūranagare asti।

dala

barelimaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

barelimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥbarelinagare asti।

dala

badāyumaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

badāyumaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥbadāyunagare asti।

dala

phaijābādamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

phaijābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ayodhyānagaryām asti।

dala

pharukhābādamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

pharukhābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥpharukhābādanagare asti।

dala

pratāpagaḍhamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

pratāpagaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pratāpagaḍhanagare asti।

dala

pīlībhītamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

pīlībhītamaṇḍalasya arthavyavasthā kṛṣyādhāritā asti।

dala

devariyāmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

devariyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥdevariyānagare asti।

dala

jyotibāphulenagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jyotibāphulenagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥjyotibāphulenagare asti।

dala

jaunapūramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jaunapūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥjaunapūranagare asti।

dala

citrakūṭamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

citrakūṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ citrakūṭanagare vartate।

dala

citrakūṭamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

citrakūṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ citrakūṭanagare asti।

dala

gautamabuddhanagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gautamabuddhanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gautamabuddhanagare asti।

dala

goṇḍāmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

goṇḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ goṇḍā nagare asti।

dala

gājīpūramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gājīpūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gājīpūranagare asti।

dala

gājiyābādamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

gājiyābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gājiyābādanagare asti।

dala

kauśāmbīmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kauśāmbīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kauśāmbīnagare asti।

dala

jhāsīmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jhāsīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jhāsīnagare asti।

dala

auraiyāmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

auraiyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ auraiyānagare asti।

dala

eṭāmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

eṭāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ eṭānagare asti।

dala

unnāvamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

unnāvamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ unnāvanagare asti।

dala

kannaujamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kannaujamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kannaujanagare asti।

dala

iṭāvāmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

iṭāvāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ iṭāvānagare asti।

dala

ājamagaḍhamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ājamagaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ājamagaḍhamagare asti।

dala

ambeḍakaranagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ambeḍakaranagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ambeḍakaranagare asti।

dala

solāpūramaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

solāpūramaṇḍalasya pracchadapaṭāḥ atīva prasiddhāḥ।

dala

sāṅgalīmaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sāṅgalīmaṇḍale nava upamaṇḍalāni santi।

dala

sātārāmaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sātārāmaṇḍale ekasmin dhārmika-sammelane sasaṃbhramaṃ palāyanaṃ jātam।

dala

vāśīmamaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mustākha-ahamadamahodayaḥ vāśīmamaṇḍalasya ekasmin grāme nivasati।

dala

vardhāmaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

vardhāmaṇḍalasya kṛṣakāḥ ṛṇapratyarpaṇasya asamarthatvāt ātmahananaṃ kurvanti।

dala

lāturamaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

lātūramaṇḍale nava upamaṇḍalāni santi।

dala

rāyagaḍamaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam;

rāyagaḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ alibāganagare asti।

dala

ratnāgirīmaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ratnāgirīmaṇḍalasya āmraphalāni atīva prasiddhāni।

dala

yavatamālamaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭre vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

yavatamālamaṇḍalasyadakṣiṇī sīmā āndhrapradeśasya sīmayā lagnā।

dala

nandurabāramaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nandurabāramaṇḍalasya sīmā gujarātarājyena lagnā asti।

dala

dhulemaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhulemaṇḍalaṃ nandurabāramaṇḍalasya jalagāvamaṇḍalasya ca madhye asti।

dala

gondiyāmaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gondiyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gondiyānagare asti।

dala

gaḍacirolimaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gaḍacirolimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gaḍacirolinagare asti।

dala

nāndeḍamaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nāndeḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nāndeḍanagare asti।

dala

usmānābādamaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

usmānābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥusmānābādanagare asti।

dala

ahamadanagaramaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ahamadanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ahamadanagare asti।

dala

amarāvatimaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

amarāvatimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ amarāvatinagare asti।

dala

akolāmaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

akolāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ akolānagare asti।

dala

koriyāmaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

koriyāmaṇḍalaṃ navanirmitam asti।

dala

nāśikamaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nāśikamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥnāśikanagare asti।

dala

bīḍamaṇḍalam   

mahārāṣṭrarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bīḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bīḍanagare asti।

dala

jaśapūramaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jaśapūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥjaśapūranagare asti।

dala

korabāmaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

korabāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥkorabānagare asti।

dala

jāñjagīra-cāmpāmaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jāñjagīra-cāmpāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥjāñjagīranagare asti।

dala

kavardhāmaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kavardhāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥkavardhānagare asti।

dala

mahāsamundamaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mahāsamundamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mahāsamundanagare asti।

dala

rājanāndagāvamaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rājanāndagāvamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥrājanāndagāvanagare asti।

dala

dhamatarimaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhamatarimaṇḍalaṃ 6 julai1998 tame varṣe nirmitam।

dala

kāṅkeramaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kāṅkeramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kāṅkeranagare asti।

dala

dantevāḍāmaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dantevāḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dantevāḍānagare asti।

dala

kabīradhāmamaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mukhyamantrī ramanasiṃhamahodayaḥ kabīradhāmamaṇḍalasya nivāsī asti।

dala

rāyagaḍhamaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rāyagaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rāyagaḍhanagare asti।

dala

bilīsapūramaṇḍalam   

chattīsagaḍharājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bilāsapūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bilāsapūranagare asti।

dala

anūpapūramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

anūpapūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥanūpapūranagare asti।

dala

aśokanagaramaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

aśokanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ aśokanagare asti।

dala

indauramaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

indauramaṇḍasya mukhyālayaḥ indauranagare asti।

dala

ujjainamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ujjainamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ujjainanagare asti।

dala

umariyāmaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

umariyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ umariyānagare asti।

dala

kaṭanimaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kaṭanimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kaṭanīnagare asti।

dala

chindavāḍāmaṇḍalam.   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

chindavāḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ chindavāḍānagare asti।

dala

jhābuāmaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jhābuāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jhābuānagare asti।

dala

ṭīkamagaḍhamaṇḍalam.   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ṭīkamagaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ṭīkamagaḍhanagare asti।

dala

datiyāmaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

datiyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ datiyānagare asti।

dala

damohamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

damohamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ damohanagare asti।

dala

devāsamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

devāsamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ devāsanagare asti।

dala

dhāramaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhāramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dhāranagare asti।

dala

narasiṃhapūramaṇḍalam.   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

narasiṃhapūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ narasiṃhapūranagare asti।

dala

nīmucamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nīmucamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥnīmucanagare asti।

dala

pannāmaṇḍalam, pannājilhā   

bhāratadeśe madhyapradeśaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalaṃ jilhāpradeśaḥ vā।

lokapālāḥ yācanāpūrtyarthe pannāmaṇḍale samāyātāḥ।

dala

bāravānimaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bāravānimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥbāravāninagare asti।

dala

bālāghāṭamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bālāghāṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bālāghāṭanagare asti।

dala

baitulamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

baitulamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ baitulanagare asti।

dala

bhiṇḍamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bhiṇḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bhiṇḍanagare asti।

dala

maṇḍalānagaram   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

maṇḍalānagarasya nirmalaḥ ṛtuḥ adyāpi smaryate।

dala

maṇḍalāmaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

maṇḍalāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maṇḍalānagare asti।

dala

maṇḍasauramaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

maṇḍasauramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maṇḍasauranagare asti।

dala

muraināmaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

muraināmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥmurainānagare asti।

dala

ratalāmamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ratalāmamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ratalāmanagare asti।

dala

rājagaḍhamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rājagaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rājagaḍhanagare asti।

dala

rāyasenamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rāyasenamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rāyasenanagare asti।

dala

rīvāmaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rīvāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rīvānagare asti।

dala

vidiśāmaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

vidiśāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ vidiśānagare asti।

dala

śājāpūramaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

śājāpūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥśājāpūranagare asti।

dala

śahaḍolamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

śahaḍolamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śahaḍolanagare asti।

dala

śivapūramaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

śivapūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śivapūranagare asti।

dala

śivapurimaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

śivapurimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śivapurinagare asti।

dala

sāgaramaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sāgaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sāgaranagare asti।

dala

sidhimaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sidhimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sidhinagare asti।

dala

sīhoramaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sīhoramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sīhoranagare asti।

dala

haradāmaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

radāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ haradānagare asti।

dala

hośaṅgābādamaṇḍalam   

madhyapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

hośaṅgābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hośaṅgābādanagare asti।

dala

uḍupimaṇḍalam.   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ḍupimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ uḍupinagare asti।

dala

uttarakannaḍamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

uttarakannaḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ karavāranagare asti।

dala

koḍagumaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

koḍagumaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maḍikerinagare asti।

dala

koppalamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

koppalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ koppalanagare asti।

dala

kolāramaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kolāramaṇḍalaṃ tatra vartamānānām ākarāṇāṃ kṛte prasiddhaḥ।

dala

gaḍagamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gaḍagamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gaḍaganagare asti।

dala

gulabargamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

gulabargamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gulabarganagare asti।

dala

cāmarājanagaramaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

cāmarājanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ cāmarājanagare asti।

dala

cikamagalūramaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

cikamagalūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ cikamagalūranagare asti।

dala

citradurgamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

citradurgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ citradurganagare asti।

dala

tumakuramaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

tumakuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tumakuranagare asti।

dala

dhāravāḍamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhāravāḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dhāravāḍanagare asti।

dala

dakṣiṇakannaḍamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dakṣiṇakannaḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maṅgalauranagare asti।

dala

baṅgaluru-ānugrāmikamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

baṅgaluru-ānugrāmikamaṇḍale aṣṭa upamaṇḍalāni santi।

dala

kānapūramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kānapūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kānapūranagare asti।

dala

kānapūradehātamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kānapūradehātamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ akabarapūranagare asti।

dala

bagalakoṭamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bagalakoṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bagalakoṭanagare asti।

dala

bījāpūramaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bījāpūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bījāpūranagare asti।

dala

belagāmamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

belagāmamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ belagāmanagare asti।

dala

bellārimaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bellārimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bellārinagare asti।

dala

maṇḍyāmaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

maṇḍyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maṇḍyānagare asti।

dala

maisūramaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

maisūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maisūranagare asti।

dala

rāyacūramaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rāyacūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rāsacūranagare asti।

dala

śimogāmaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

śimogāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śimogānagare asti।

dala

hasanamaṇḍalam   

karnāṭakarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

hasanamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hasananagare asti।

dala

hāverīmaṇḍalam   

karṇāṭakasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

hāverīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hāverīnagare asti।

dala

dāvaṇageremaṇḍalam   

karṇāṭakasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

dāvaṇageremaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dāvaṇagerenagare asti।

dala

anantapuramaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

anantapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ anantapure asti।

dala

cittūramaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

cittūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ cittūranagare asti।

dala

kaḍapāmaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

kaḍapāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kaḍapānagare asti।

dala

pūrvagodāvarīmaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

pūrvagodāvarīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kākīnāḍānagare asti।

dala

guṇṭuramaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

guṇṭuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ guṇṭuranagare vartate।

dala

haidarābādamaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

haidarābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ haidarābādanagare asti।

dala

khammamamaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

khammamamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ khammamanagare asti।

dala

kṛṣṇāmaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

kṛṣṇāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ macilīpaṭananagare asti।

dala

kurnūlamaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

kurnūlamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kurnūlanagare asti।

dala

mahabūbanagaramaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

mahabūbanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mahabūbanagare asti।

dala

meḍakamaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

meḍakamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ saṅgareḍḍīnagare vartate।

dala

nālagoṇḍāmaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

nālagoṇḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nālagoṇḍānagare asti।

dala

nellūramaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

nellūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nellūranagare vartate।

dala

raṅgāreḍḍīmaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

raṅgāreḍḍīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ haidarābādanagare vartate।

dala

śrīkākulamaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

śrīkākulamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śrīkākulanagare vartate।

dala

viśākhāpaṭṭaṇamaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

viśākhāpaṭṭaṇamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ viśākhāpaṭṭaṇanagare vartate।

dala

vijiyāmaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

vijiyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ vijiyānagare asti।

dala

paścimagodāvarīmaṇḍalam   

āndhrapradeśasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

paścimagodāvarīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ īrlurunagare asti।

dala

alappujhāmaṇḍalam   

keralasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

alappujhāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ alappujhānagare asti।

dala

idukkīmaṇḍalam   

keralasya maṇḍalaviśeṣaḥ।

idukkīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pināvunagare asti।

dala

kunnūramaṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kunnūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kunnūranagare asti।

dala

kasārāgoḍamaṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kasārāgoḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kasārāgoḍanagare asti।

dala

kojhīkoḍamaṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kojhīkoḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kojhīkoḍanagare asti।

dala

koṭṭāyam-maṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

koṭṭāyam-maṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ koṭṭāyam-nagare asti।

dala

kollam-maṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kollam-maṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kollam-nagare asti।

dala

tiruanantapuram-maṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

tiruanantapuram-maṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tiruanantapuram-nagare asti।

dala

trisūramaṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

trisūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ trisūranagare asti।

dala

palakkaḍamaṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

palakkaḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ palakkaḍunagare asti।

dala

mālappuram-maṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mālappuram-maṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mālappuram-nagare asti।

dala

vāyānadamaṇḍalam   

keralarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

vāyānadamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kalapeṭṭānagare asti।

dala

īruḍamaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

īruḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ īruḍanagare asti।

dala

kanyākumārīmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kanyākumārīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nāgarakoīlanagare asti।

dala

kāñcīpuram-maṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kāñcīpuram-maṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kāñcīpuram-nagare asti।

dala

kaḍalūramaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kaḍalūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kaḍalūranagare asti।

dala

karuramaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

karuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ karuranagare asti।

dala

kṛṣṇagirimaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kṛṣṇagirimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kṛṣṇagiri nagare asti।

dala

koyambatūramaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

koyambatūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ koyambatūranagare asti।

dala

diṇḍakalamaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

diṇḍakalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ diṇḍakalanagare asti।

dala

tricirāpallīmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

tricirāpallīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tricīrāpallīnagare asti।

dala

tirunellavelīmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

tirunellavelīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tirunellavelīnagare asti।

dala

tiruvannāmalaīmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

tiruvannāmalaīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tiruvannāmalaīnagare asti।

dala

tiruvaruramaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

tiruvaruramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tiruvaruranagare asti।

dala

tiruvallūramaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

tiruvallūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tiruvallūranagare asti।

dala

tūtukuḍīmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

tūtukuḍīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tūtukuḍīnagare asti।

dala

tenīmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

tenīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tenīnagare asti।

dala

dharmapurīmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dharmapurīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dharmapurīnagare asti।

dala

nāmakkalamaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nāmakkalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nāmakkalanagare asti।

dala

nāgāpaṭṭinam-maṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nāgāpaṭṭinam-maṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nāgāpaṭṭinam-nagare asti।

dala

nilagirimaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nīlagirimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nīlagirinagare asti।

dala

pudukoṭṭemaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

pudukoṭṭemaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pudukoṭṭenagare asti।

dala

perambalūramaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

perambalūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ perambalūranagare asti।

dala

maduraīmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

maduraīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maduraīnagare asti।

dala

rāmanāthapuram-maṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rāmanāthapuram-maṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rāmanāthapuram-nagare asti।

dala

virudhunagaramaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

virudhunagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ virudhunagare asti।

dala

vilupuram-maṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

vilupuram-maṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ vilupuram-nagare asti।

dala

vellūramaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

vellūramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ vellūranagare asti।

dala

śivagaṅgāmaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

śivagaṅgāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śivagaṅgānagare asti।

dala

selamamaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

selamamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ selamanagare asti।

dala

āṅgulamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

āṅgulamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ āṅgulanagare asti।

dala

kaṭakamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

kaṭakamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kaṭakanagare asti।

dala

kālāhaṇḍīmaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kālāhaṇḍīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bhavānīpaṭanānagare asti।

dala

kendujharamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

kendujharamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kendujharanagare asti।

dala

kendrapāḍāmaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kendrapāḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kendrapāḍānagare asti।

dala

korāpuṭamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

korāpuṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ korāpuṭanagare asti।

dala

khurdāmaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ nagaram।

khurdāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ khurdānagare asti।

dala

gañjāmamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gañjāmamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ chatrapūranagare asti।

dala

gajapatimaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gañjāmamaṇḍalaṃ vibhajya gajapatimaṇḍalaṃ nirmitam।

dala

jagatasiṃhapuramaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jagatasiṃhapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jagatasiṃhapuranagare asti।

dala

jājapuramaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jājapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jājapuranagare asti।

dala

jhārasuguḍāmaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jhārasuguḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jhārasuguḍānagare asti।

dala

devagaḍhamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

devagaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ devagaḍhanagare asti।

dala

dhekanālamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhekanālamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dhekanālanagare asti।

dala

malkānagirimaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

malkānagirimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ malkānagirinagare asti।

dala

navagaṅgapuramaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

navaraṅgapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ navaraṅgapuranagare asti।

dala

nayāgaḍhamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nayāgaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nayāgaḍhanagare asti।

dala

nuāpaḍāmaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nuāpaḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nuāpaḍānagare asti।

dala

bāragaḍhamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bāragaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bāragaḍhanagare asti।

dala

bāleśvaramaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bāleśvaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bāleśvaranagare asti।

dala

balāṅgiramaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

balāṅgiramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ balāṅgiranagare asti।

dala

bauḍhamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bauḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bauḍhanagare asti।

dala

bhadrakamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bhadrakamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bhadrakanagare asti।

dala

purīmaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

purīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ purīnagare asti।

dala

rāyagaḍhāmaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rāyagaḍhāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rāyagaḍhānagare asti।

dala

sambalapuramaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sambalapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sambalapuranagare asti।

dala

sundaragaḍhamaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sundaragaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sundaragaḍhanagare asti।

dala

sonapuramaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sonapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sonapuranagare asti।

dala

uttaracaubīsaparaganāmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

uttaracaubīsaparaganāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bārāsātanagare asti।

dala

uttaradinājapuramaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

uttaradinājapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rāyagañjanagare asti।

dala

dakṣiṇadinājapuramaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dakṣiṇadinājapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bāluraghāṭanagare asti।

dala

kūcabihāramaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kūcabihāramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kūcabihāranagare asti।

dala

kolakātāmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kolakātāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kolakātānagare asti।

dala

jalapāīguḍīmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jalapāīguḍīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jalapāīguḍīnagare asti।

dala

dakṣiṇacaubīsaparaganāmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dakṣiṇacaubīsaparaganāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ alipuranagare asti।

dala

dārjiliṅgamaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dārjiliṅgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dārjiliṅganagare asti।

dala

nādiyāmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nādiyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kṛṣṇanagare asti।

dala

puruliyāmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

puruliyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ puruliyānagare asti।

dala

paścimamedinīpuramaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

paścimamedinīpuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ paścimamedinīpuranagare asti।

dala

pūrvamedinīpuramaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

pūrvamedinīpuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pūrvamedinīpuranagare asti।

dala

bāṅkurāmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bāṅkurāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bāṅkurānagare asti।

dala

bīrabhūmamaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bīrabhūmamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sūrīnagare asti।

dala

māladāmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

māladāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ iṅgaliśabājāranagare asti।

dala

murśidābādamaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

murśidābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ beharāmapuranagare asti।

dala

hāvaḍāmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

hāvaḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hāvaḍānagare asti।

dala

hugalīmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

hugalīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ cinsurāhanagare asti।

dala

vardhamānamaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

vardhamānamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ vardhamānanagare asti।

dala

kacaramaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kacaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ silacaranagare asti।

dala

kāmarupamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kāmarupamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ guvahāṭīnagare asti।

dala

karbī-āṅgalāṅgamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

karbī-āṅgalāṅgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ diphūnagare asti।

dala

kokarājhāḍamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kokarājhāḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kokarājhāḍanagare asti।

dala

gvālapāḍāmaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gvālapāḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gvālapāḍānagare asti।

dala

karīmagañjamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

karīmagañjamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ karīmagañjanagare asti।

dala

ḍibrūgaḍhamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ḍibrūgaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ḍibrūgaḍhanagare asti।

dala

darāṅgamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

darāṅgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maṅgaladāīnagare asti।

dala

dhubarīmaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhubarīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dhubarīnagare asti।

dala

dhemājīmaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhemājīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dhemājīnagare asti।

dala

nalabāḍīmaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nalabāḍīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nalabāḍīnagare asti।

dala

nāgāvamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

nāgāvamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nāgāvanagare asti।

dala

bārapeṭāmaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bārapeṭāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bārapeṭānagare asti।

dala

boṅgāīgāvamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

boṅgāīgāvanagarasya mukhyālayaḥ boṅgāīgāvanagare asti।

dala

marīgāvamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

marīgāvamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ marīgāvanagare asti।

dala

uttarakacarahilsamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

uttarakacarahilsamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hāphalām̐ganagare asti।

dala

lakhimapuramaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

lakhimapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ lakhimapuranagare asti।

dala

sibasāgaramaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sibasāgaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sibasāgaranagare asti।

dala

śoṇitapuramaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

śoṇitapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śoṇitapuranagare asti।

dala

hailākāṇḍīmaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

hailākāṇḍīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hailākāṇḍīnagare asti।

dala

golāghāṭamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

golāghāṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ golāghāṭanagare asti।

dala

āgarāmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

āgarāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ āgarānagare asti।

dala

ilāhabādamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ilāhabādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ilāhabādanagare asti।

dala

bāgapatamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bāgapatamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bāgapatanagare asti।

dala

bārābaṅkīmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bārābaṅkīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bārābaṅkīnagare asti।

dala

bijanauramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bijanauramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bijanauranagare asti।

dala

bulundaśaharamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bulundaśaharamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bulundaśaharanagare asti।

dala

phirojābādamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

phirojābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ phirojābādanagare asti।

dala

gautamabuddhanagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gautamabuddhanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ noeḍānagare asti।

dala

gorakhapuramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

gorakhapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gorakhapuranagare asti।

dala

hamīrapuramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

hamīrapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hamīrapuranagare asti।

dala

haradoīmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

haradoīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ haradoīnagare asti।

dala

mahāmāyānagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānaṃ nagaram।

mahāmāyānagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mahāmāyānagare vartate।

dala

jhāsīmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānaṃ ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jhāsīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jhasīnagare vartate।

dala

kuśīnagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānaṃ ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kuśīnagaramaṇḍalaṃ pūrvaṃ devariyāmaṇḍalasya bhāgaḥ āsīt।

dala

lalitapuramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

lalitapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ lalitapuranagare asti।

dala

lakhanaūmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

lakhanaūmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ lakhanaūnagare asti।

dala

mahārājagañjamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mahārājagañjamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mahārājagañje vartate।

dala

mainapurīmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mainapurīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mainapurīnagare asti।

dala

mirjāpuramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mirjāpuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mirjāpure vartate।

dala

mujaphpharanagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mujaphpharanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mujaphpharanagare vartate।

dala

murādābādamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

murādābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ murādābāde vartate।

dala

meraṭhamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

meraṭhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ meraṭhe vartate।

dala

maūmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam। maūmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maūnagare vartate।

dala

mathurāmaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mathurāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mathurāyāṃ vartate।

dala

rāmapuramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rāmapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rāmapure vartate।

dala

santaravidāsamaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

santaravidāsanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ santaravidāsanagare vartate।

dala

sahāranapuramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sahāranapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sahāranapure vartate।

dala

siddhārthanagaramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

siddhārthanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ navagaḍhe vartate।

dala

sītāpuramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sītāpuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sītāpure vartate।

dala

sonabhadramaṇḍalam   

uttarapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sonabhadramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ raॉbarṭsagañje vartate।

dala

amarelīmaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

amarelīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ amarelyāṃ vartate।

dala

ahamadābādamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ahamadābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ahamadābāde vartate।

dala

ānandamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ānandamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ānande vartate।

dala

banāsakāṇṭhāmaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

banāsakāṇṭhāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pālanapure vartate।

dala

bharucamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam। bharucamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bharuce vartate।

dala

dāhodamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam। dāhodamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dāhode vartate।

dala

ḍāṅgamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ḍāṅgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ḍāṅge vartate।

dala

jūnāgaḍhamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jūnāgaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jūnāgaḍhe vartate।

dala

kheḍāmaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kheḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kheḍānagare vartate।

dala

kacchamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kacchamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bhujanagare vartate।

dala

mehasānāmaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mehasānāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mehasānānagare vartate।

dala

narmadāmaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

narmadāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rājapipalānagare vartate।

dala

navasārīmaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

navasārīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ navasārīnagare vartate।

dala

pañcamahalamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

pañcamahalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ godharānagare vartate।

dala

pāṭanamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

pāṭanamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pāṭanānagare vartate।

dala

sābarakāṇṭhāmaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

sābarakāṇṭhāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ himmatanagare vartate।

dala

surendranagaramaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

surendranagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ surendranagare vartate।

dala

vaḍodarāmaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

vaḍodarāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ vaḍodarānagare vartate।

dala

valasāḍamaṇḍalam   

gujarātaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

valasāḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ valasāḍe vartate।

dala

udayapuramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

udayapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ udayapure vartate।

dala

koṭāmaṇḍalam   

rājasthānaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

koṭāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ koṭānagare vartate।

dala

jayapuramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jayapurāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jayapure vartate।

dala

jāloramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jāloramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jāloranagare vartate।

dala

jaisalameramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jaisalameramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jaisalameranagare vartate।

dala

jhālavāramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

jhālavāramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jhālavāranagare vartate।

dala

ṭoṅkamaṇḍalam   

rājasthānaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ṭoṅkamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ṭoṅkanagare vartate।

dala

ḍūṅgarapuramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

ḍūṅgarapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ḍūṅgarapure vartate।

dala

dhaulapuramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhaulapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dhaulapure vartate।

dala

nīlamaṇḍalaḥ, nīlacarmā, nīlavarṇaḥ, pavanombujaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yasya phalāni kalāyāt kānicit bṛhanti santi।

nīlamaṇḍalasya phalāni raktavarṇīyāni santi।

dala

vāyuguṇaḥ, vāyumaṇḍalam   

kasmin api sthāne viśiṣṭasamaye varṣāyāḥ tathā ca vāyoḥ yā ācakriḥ sthitiḥ asti tām abhisamīkṣya tasya sthānasya yad varṇanaṃ kriyate tad।

adya vāyuguṇaḥ atīva śītaramyaḥ asti।

dala

caṇḍālikā, caṇḍāla-vīṇā   

tumbaravādyaviśeṣaḥ।

śyāmā caṇḍālikāṃ vādayati।

dala

nāgauramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

nāgauramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nāgauranagare asti।

dala

bāḍameramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bāḍameramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bāḍameranagare asti।

dala

būndīmaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

būndīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ būndīnagare asti।

dala

bharatapuramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bharatapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bharatapuranagare asti।

dala

bhīlavāḍāmaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bhīlavāḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bhīlavāḍānagare asti।

dala

rājasamandamaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

rājasamandamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rājasamandanagare asti।

dala

savāīmādhopuramaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

savāīmādhopuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ savāīmādhopuranagare asti।

dala

hanumānagaḍamaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

hanumānagaḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hanumānagaḍanagare asti।

dala

ambālāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

ambālāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ambālānagare asti।

dala

karnālamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

karnālamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ karnālanagare asti।

dala

kurukṣetramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kurukṣetramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kurukṣetre asti।

dala

kaithalamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kaithalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kaithalanagare asti।

dala

guḍagāvamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

guḍagāvamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ guḍagāvanagare asti।

dala

jīndamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

jīndamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jīndanagare asti।

dala

jhajjaramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

jhajjaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jhajjaranagare asti।

dala

pañcakulāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pañcakulāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pañcakulānagare asti।

dala

pānīpatamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pānīpatamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pānīpatanagare asti।

dala

phatehābādamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

phatehābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ phatehābādanagare asti।

dala

pharīdābādamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pharīdābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pharīdābādanagare asti।

dala

bhavānīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bhavānīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bhavānīnagare asti।

dala

mahendragaḍhamaṇḍalam   

hariyāṇāprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mahendragaḍhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ naranaule vartate।

dala

yamunānagaramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

yamunānagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ yamunānagare asti।

dala

revāḍīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

revāḍīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ revāḍīnagare asti।

dala

rohatakamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

rohatakamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rohatakanagare asti।

dala

sirasāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

sirasāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sirasānagare asti।

dala

sonīpatamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

sonīpatamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sonīpatanagare asti।

dala

hisāramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

hisāramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hisāranagare asti।

dala

bilāsapuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bilāsapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bilāsapuranagare asti।

dala

hamīrapuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

hamīrapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hamīrapuranagare asti।

dala

kāṅgarāmaṇḍalam   

himācalapradeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

kāṅgarāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dharmaśālāyāṃ vartate।

dala

maṇḍīmaṇḍalam   

himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

maṇḍīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ maṇḍīnagare vartate।

dala

śimalāmaṇḍalam   

himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

śimalāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śimalānagare vartate।

dala

siramauramaṇḍalam   

himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

siramaurāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ siramauranagare vartate।

dala

sonalamaṇḍalam   

himācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

sonalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sonalanagare vartate।

dala

bhaṭiṇḍāmaṇḍalam   

pañjābaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

bhaṭiṇḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bhaṭiṇḍānagare vartate।

dala

phirojapuramaṇḍalam   

pañjābaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

phirojapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ phirojapure vartate।

dala

pharīdakoṭamaṇḍalam   

pañjābaprānte vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

pharīdakoṭamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pharīdakoṭanagare vartate।

dala

hośiyārapuramaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

hośiyārapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hośiyārapuranagare asti।

dala

jālandharamaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

jālandharamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jālandharanagare asti।

dala

kapūrathalāmaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kapūrathalāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kapūrathalānagare asti।

dala

ludhiyānāmaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

ludhiyānāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ludhiyānānagare asti।

dala

mānasāmaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

mānasāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mānasānagare asti।

dala

mogāmaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

mogāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mogānagare asti।

dala

muktasaramaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

muktasaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ muktasaranagare asti।

dala

navāmaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

navāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ navānagare asti।

dala

paṭiyālāmaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

paṭiyālā maṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ paṭiyālānagare asti।

dala

rūpanagaramaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

rūpanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rūpanagare asti।

dala

saṅgaruramaṇḍalam   

pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

saṅgaruramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ saṅgaruranagare asti।

dala

anantanāgamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

anantanāgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ anantanāganagare asti।

dala

baḍagāmamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

baḍagāmamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ baḍagāmanagare asti।

dala

varāhamūlamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

varāhamūlamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ varāhamūlanagare asti।

dala

ḍoḍāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

ḍoḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ḍoḍānagare asti।

dala

jammūmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

jammūmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jammūnagare asti।

dala

kāragilamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kāragilamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kāragilanagare asti।

dala

kaṭhuāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kaṭhuāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kaṭhuānagare asti।

dala

kupavāḍāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kupavāḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kupavāḍānagare asti।

dala

lehamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

lehamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ lehanagare asti।

dala

puñchamaṇḍalam   

bhārate kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

puñchamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ puñchanagare asti।

dala

pulavāmāmaṇḍalam   

bhārate kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pulavāmāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pulavāmānagare asti।

dala

rajaurīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

rajaurīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rajaurīnagare asti।

dala

śrīnagaramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

śrīnagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śrīnagaranagare asti।

dala

udhamapuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya kaśmīre vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

udhamapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ udhamapuranagare asti।

dala

almoḍāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

almoḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ almoḍānagare asti।

dala

camolīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

camolīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gopeśvaranagare asti।

dala

campāvatamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

campāvatamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ campāvatanagare asti।

dala

haridvāramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

haridvāramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ haridvāranagare asti।

dala

nainītālamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

nainītālamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ nainītālanagare asti।

dala

pauḍīgaḍhavālamaṇḍalam   

uttarāñcalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pauḍīgaḍhavālamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pauḍīnagare vartate।

dala

ṭiharīgaḍhavālamaṇḍalam   

uttarāñcalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

ṭiharīgaḍhavālamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ṭiharīnagare vartate।

dala

pithauragaḍamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pithauragaḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pithauragaḍanagare asti।

dala

rudraprayāgamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

rudraprayāgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rudraprayāganagare asti।

dala

udhamasiṃhanagaramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

udhamasiṃhanagaramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ udhamasiṃhanagare asti।

dala

uttarakāśīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya uttarāñcale vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

uttarakāśīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ uttarakāśīnagare asti।

dala

andamānamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya andamāna-nikobārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

andamānamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ porṭableyaranagare asti।

dala

nikobāramaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya andamāna-nikobārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

nikobāramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kāranikobāranagare asti।

dala

añjāmaṇḍalam   

aruṇācalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

añjāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ havāīnagare vartate।

dala

cāṅgalāṅgamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya aruṇācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

cāṅgalāṅgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ cāṅgalāṅganagare asti।

dala

tirapamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya aruṇācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

tirapamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ khonsānagare asti।

dala

lohitamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya aruṇācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

lohitamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tejūnagare asti।

dala

ūparīdibāṅgaghāṭīmaṇḍalam   

aruṇācalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

ūparīdibāṅgaghāṭīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ anīnīnagare vartate।

dala

nicalīdibāṅgaghāṭīmaṇḍalam   

aruṇācalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

nicalī dibāṅgaghāṭīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ roiṅganagare vartate।

dala

pūrvakāmeṅgamaṇḍalam   

aruṇācalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pūrvakāmeṅgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sepānagare vartate।

dala

paścimakāmeṅgamaṇḍalam   

aruṇācalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

paścimakāmeṅgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bomaḍilānagare vartate।

dala

tavāṅgamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya aruṇācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

tavāṅgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ tavāṃganagare asti।

dala

papumapāremaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya aruṇācalapradeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

papumapāremaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ yupiānagare asti।

dala

ūparisubanasirīmaṇḍalam   

aruṇācalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

ūparisubanasirīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ḍaporijonagare vartate।

dala

nicalīsubanasirīmaṇḍalam   

aruṇācalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

nicalīsubanasirīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jīronagare vartate।

dala

kuruṅgakumamaṇḍalam   

aruṇācalaprānte vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kuruṅgakumamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kuruṅgakumanagare vartate।

dala

arariyāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

arariyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ arariyānagare asti।

dala

auraṅgābādamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

auraṅgābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ auraṅgābādanagare asti।

dala

aravalamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

aravalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ aravalanagare asti।

dala

bāṃkāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bāṃkāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bāṃkānagare asti।

dala

begusarāyamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

begusarāyamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ begusarāyanagare asti।

dala

bhāgalapuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bhāgalapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bhāgalapuranagare asti।

dala

bhojapuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bhojapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ārānagare asti।

dala

bhūgolaḥ, bhūmaṇḍalam, bhūbimbam, bhūgolakaḥ, dharaṇīmaṇḍalam, kṣitimaṇḍalam, ilāgolaḥ   

mānavanirmitā pṛthivyāḥ pratikṛtiḥ yasmin pṛthivyāḥ mānacitraṃ mudritam asti।

adhyāpakaḥ bhūgolaṃ darśayitvā mahāsāgarāṇāṃ sthānāni apāṭhayat।

dala

darabhaṅgāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

darabhaṅgāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ darabhaṅgānagare asti।

dala

gopālagañjamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

gopālagañjamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gopālagañjanagare asti।

dala

jumaīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

jumaīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jumaīnagare asti।

dala

jahānābādamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

jahānābādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jahānābādanagare asti।

dala

khagaḍiyāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

khagaḍiyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ khagaḍiyānagare asti।

dala

kiśanagañjamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kiśanagañjamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kiśanagañjanagare asti।

dala

kaimuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kaimuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bhabhuānagare asti।

dala

kaṭihāramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kaṭihāramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kaṭihāranagare asti।

dala

lakhīsarāyamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

lakhīsarāyamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ lakhīsarāyanagare asti।

dala

madhubanīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

madhubanīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ madhubanīnagare asti।

dala

muṅgeramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

muṅgeramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ muṅgeranagare asti।

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madhepurāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

madhepurāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ madhepurānagare asti।

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mujaphpharapuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

mujaphpharapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mujaphpharapuranagare asti।

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nālandāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

nālandāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bihāraśarīphanagare asti।

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navādāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

navādāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ navādānagare asti।

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paṭanāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

paṭanāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ paṭanānagare asti।

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pūrṇiyāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pūrṇiyāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pūrṇiyānagare asti।

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rohatāsamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

rohatāsamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sāsārāmanagare asti।

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saharasāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

saharasāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ saharasānagare asti।

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samastīpuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

samastīpuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ samastīpuranagare asti।

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śivaharamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

śivaharamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śivaharanagare asti।

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śekhapurāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

śekhapurāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ śekhapurānagare asti।

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saranamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

saranamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ chaparānagare asti।

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sītāmaḍhīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

sītāmaḍhīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sītāmaḍhīnagare asti।

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supaulamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

supaulamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ supaulanagare asti।

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sīvānamaṇḍalasam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

sīvānamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sīvānanagare asti।

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vaiśālīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya bihārarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

vaiśālīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hājīpuranagare asti।

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curācāndapuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya maṇipurarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

curācāndapuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ curācāndapuranagare asti।

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ukharulamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya maṇipurarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

ukharulamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ukharulanagare asti।

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senāpatimaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya maṇipurarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

senāpatimaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ senāpatinagare asti।

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thaubalamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya maṇipurarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

thaubalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ thaubalanagare asti।

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bokāromaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bokāromaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ bokāronagare asti।

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catarāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

catarāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ catarānagare asti।

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devagharamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

devagharamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ devagharanagare asti।

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dhanabādamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhanabādamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dhanabādanagare asti।

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dumakāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

dumakāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dumakānagare asti।

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gaḍhavāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

gaḍhavāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gaḍhavānagare asti।

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girīḍīgamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

girīḍīhamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ girīḍāhanagare asti।

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goḍḍāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

goḍḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ goḍḍānagare asti।

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gumalāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

gumalāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gumalānagare asti।

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hajārībāgamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

hajārībāgamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ hajārībāganagare asti।

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koḍaramāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

koḍaramāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ koḍaramānagare asti।

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loharadaggāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

loharadaggāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ loharadaggānagare asti।

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pākuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

pākuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ pākuranagare asti।

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palāmumaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

palāmumaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ palāmunagare asti।

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rāñcīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

rāñcīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ rāñcīnagare asti।

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sāhibagañjamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

sāhibagañjamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sāhibagañjanagare asti।

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jāmatāḍāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

jāmatāḍāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ jāmatāḍānagare asti।

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lātehāramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

lātehāramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ lātehāranagare asti।

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simaḍegāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya jhārakhaṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

simaḍegāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ simaḍegānagare asti।

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khaṇḍavāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya madhyapradeśarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

khaṇḍavāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ khaṇḍavānagare asti।

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kharagonamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya madhyapradeśarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kharagonamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kharagonanagare asti।

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gunāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya madhyapradeśarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

gunāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gunānagare asti।

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rībhoīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya mijorāmarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

rībhoīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ noṅgapohanagare asti।

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camphāīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya mijorāmarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

camphāīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ camphāīnagare asti।

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kolāsibamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya mijorāmarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

kolāsibamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ kolāsibanagare asti।

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mamitamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya mijorāmarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

mamitamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mamitanagare asti।

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saihāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya mijorāmarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

saihāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ saihānagare asti।

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serachipamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya mijorāmarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

serachipamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ serachipanagare asti।

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dīmāpuramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya nāgālaॅṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

dīmāpuramaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ dīmāpuranagare asti।

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phekamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya nāgālaॅṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

phekamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ phekanagare asti।

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vokhāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya nāgālaॅṇḍarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

vokhāmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ vokhānagare asti।

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karāīkalamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya paṇḍicerīrājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

karāīkalamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ karāīkalanagare asti।

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mahemaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya paṇḍicerīrājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

mahemaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ mahenagare asti।

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paṇḍicerīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya paṇḍicerīrājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

paṇḍicerīmaṇḍalaṃ paṇḍicerīnagare asti।

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yamanamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya paṇḍicerīrājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

yamanamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ yamananagare asti।

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paścimasikkimamaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya sikkimarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

paścimasikkimamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ gejiṅganagare asti।

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dhalāīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratasya tripurārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

dhalāīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ ambāsānagare asti।

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cittauḍamaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

cittauḍamaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ cittauḍanagare asti।

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sirohīmaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

sirohīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaḥ sirohīnagare asti।

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pālīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya rājasthānarājyasya ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

pālīmaṇḍalasya mukhyālayaṃ pālīnagaryāṃ vartate।

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viśeṣasenābalam, ārakṣitasenādalam   

sā senā yā kevalaṃ āpatkāle (samayocitamuhūrte) upayujyate anyasamaye ca tasyāḥ na kimapi viśeṣakāryam।

viśeṣasenāyāḥ āgamanānantarameva durgamaparisthiteḥ niyaṃtraṇam abhavat।

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gaṇaḥ, samūhaḥ, dalam, vṛndam, maṇḍalam, saṅghaḥ   

ānandaprāptihetunā samāgatānāṃ janānāṃ saṅghātaḥ।

bhojanoparāntaṃ sā teṣāṃ gaṇe nṛtyādikrīḍāsu magnā abhavat।

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vibhāgaḥ, maṇḍalam   

kasya api rāṣṭrasya śāsanasya viśiṣṭaviṣayārtham uttaradāyīṇāṃ adhikārīṇāṃ gaṇaḥ yasya netṛtvaṃ ko'pi mantrī karoti।

saḥ phrāṃsadeśasya rakṣāvibhāgaviṣaye kimapi kathayati।

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śāsanam, rājy, mantrīmaṇḍalam   

kasya api rāṣṭrasya vyavasthāpakaṃ lokanirvācitam athavā rājñā niyojitam maṇḍalam।

acirāt eva śāsanaṃ ṣaṭ nūtanāḥ yojanāḥ udgoṣayiṣyati।

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maṇḍalam   

te janāḥ yeṣāṃ sāmājikī tathī ca ārthikī avasthā samānā asti।

adhunāpi śramikāṇāṃ maṇḍale adhikāḥ vyādhigrastā janāḥ dṛśyante।

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gajaḥ, hastī, karī, dantī, dvipaḥ, vāraṇa-, mātaṅgaḥ, mataṅgaḥ, kuñjaraḥ, nāgaḥ, dviradaḥ, ibhaḥ, radī, dvipāyī, anekapaḥ, viṣāṇī, kareṇuḥ, padmī, lambakarṇaḥ, śuṇḍālaḥ, karṇikī, dantāvalaḥ, stamberamaḥ, dīrghavaktraḥ, drumāriḥ, dīrghamārutaḥ, vilomajihvaḥ, śakvā, pīluḥ, mahāmṛgaḥ, mataṅgajaḥ, ṣaṣṭhihāyanaḥ   

vanyapaśuḥ , yasya vakṣo atha kakṣāvalayaḥ,ślathāśca lambodarasaḥ tvagbṛhatīgalaśca pecakena saha sthūlā kukṣiḥ asti। tathā ca yaḥ śuṇḍāvān asti।

hayā jiheṣire harṣād gambhīraṃ jagajuḥ gajāḥ।

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vīramardala   

paṭahaviśeṣaḥ yaḥ yuddhakāle vādayate।

vīramardalasya dhvaniṃ śrutvā sainikāḥ siddhāḥ jātāḥ।

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uddālakaḥ   

ṛṣiviśeṣaḥ yaḥ naciketasaḥ pitā।

uddālakena putryāḥ sujātāyāḥ vivāhaḥ svaśiṣyeṇa kahoḍena saha kārayitaḥ।

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vināśaḥ, nāśaḥ, vidhvaṃsaḥ, dhvaṃsanam, pradhvaṃsaḥ, nipātaḥ, nibarhaṇam, vicchedaḥ, ucchedanam, upasaṃhāram, kṣayam, dalanam, vimardaḥ, mardanam, samudghātaḥ   

keṣāṃcana vastvādīnāṃ nāśanasya kriyā।

īśvaraḥ śatrūṇāṃ vināśāya eva avatarati।

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biḍālākṣī   

rākṣasīviśeṣaḥ।

biḍālākṣyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu asti।

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mārjārī, biḍālā   

strītvaviśiṣṭaḥ mārjāraḥ।

mārjārī svasya śāvakān dugdhaṃ pāyayati।

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biḍālākṣī   

rākṣasīviśeṣaḥ।

biḍālākṣyāḥ varṇanaṃ purāṇeṣu prāpyate।

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bāṃsavāḍāmaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bāṃsavāḍāmaṇḍalaṃ bhinnaiḥ janajātiyuktaḥ deśaḥ asti।

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sīkaramaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

sīkaramaṇḍalasya samīpe eva jhuñjhunumaṇḍalam asti।

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jhuñjhunumaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

jhuñjhunumaṇḍalaṃ marusthalayuktaṃ sthānam asti।

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gaṅgānagaramaṇḍalam, gaṅgānagaram   

bhāratadeśasya rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

gaṅgānagaramaṇḍalasya dakṣiṇadiśi bīkāneramaṇḍalam vartate।

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bahāvalapuramaṇḍalam, bahāvalapuram   

pākistānadeśasya pañjābarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

rājasthānarājyasya gaṅgānagaramaṇḍalasya sīmni bahāvalapuramaṇḍalaṃ vartate।

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kāṇḍalānagaram   

gujarātarājye vartamānaṃ nagaram।

saḥ kāṇḍalānagare sthite vidyālaye paṭhati।

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ḍalasarovaraḥ   

ḍala ityākhyaḥ kaśmīraprāntasthaḥ bṛhat sarovaraḥ।

paryaṭakāḥ ḍalasarovare naukāyānena mahān ānandasya anubhavaḥ kurvanti।

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bhīnamālopamaṇḍalam   

rājasthānarājyasya jālauramaṇḍale vartamānam upamaṇḍalam।

bhīnamālopamaṇḍale naikāni darśanīyāni sthānāni santi।

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karaulīmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

karaulīmaṇḍale naikāni darśanīyāni sthalāni santi।

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bārāmaṇḍalam   

bhāratadeśasya rājasthānarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

saḥ bārāmaṇḍalasya nivāsī asti।

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ūṭi, uṭakamaṇḍalam   

tamilanāḍurājye vartamānaṃ prasiddhaṃ paryaṭanasthānam।

ūṭi manoharaṃ parvatīyaṃ sthānam asti।

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jessoramaṇḍalam, jessoraḥ   

bhāratasya baṅgālarājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

saḥ jessoramaṇḍalasya nivāsī asti।

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dalam   

kasyāpi yau samasamānau parasparalagnau khaṇḍau staḥ tayoḥ ekaḥ khaṇḍaḥ yaḥ kiñcit utpīḍanena saṃlagnād anyat khaṇḍāt āsphuṭyate ।

dve dale staḥ caṇakādīnāṃ dhānyānāṃ bīje।

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dvidala   

dve dale yasya।

caṇakatuvaryādīni dvidalāni dhānyāni santi।

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bṛhadala   

rāmaputrasya kuśasya vaṃśajaḥ।

mahābhāratayuddhe bṛhadalaḥ kauravāṇāṃ pakṣe āsīt।

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kuntalaḥ, keśāntaḥ, keśastukaḥ, khaṅkaraḥ, cūrṇakuntalaḥ, keśamaṇḍalaḥ, guḍālakaḥ   

keśānāṃ kalakaḥ।

kapolasthān kuntalān sā saṅkocati।

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kuṇḍalaḥ   

dvāviṃśateḥ mātrāṇāṃ chandoviśeṣaḥ।

kuṇḍale dvādaśe daśame ca sthāne virāmaḥ vartate tathā ante dvau guruvarṇau bhavataḥ।

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aṣṭadalam   

aṣṭadalayuktaṃ kamalam।

taḍāgaḥ aṣṭadalaiḥ ācchāditaḥ asti।

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aṣṭadala   

aṣṭābhiḥ dalaiḥ yuktam।

prati guruvāsare aṣṭadalena kamalena lakṣmīṃ pūjaya।

dala

vastikuṇḍalikā, vastikuṇḍalam   

mūtrāśayasya rogaḥ।

vastikuṇḍalikāyāṃ mūtrāśaye granthiḥ bhavati।

dala

palavalamaṇḍalam   

hariyāṇārājye vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

bhāratīyasvatantratāsaṅgrāme palavalamaṇḍalasya viśeṣaṃ yogadānam āsīt।

dala

cāṇḍālakarma   

cāṇḍālasya kāryam।

vipatsamaye rājñā hariścandreṇa api cāṇḍālakarma kṛtam।

dala

mucukundaḥ, chatravṛkṣaḥ, citrakaḥ, prativiṣṇukaḥ, bahuputraḥ, sudalaḥ, parivallabhaḥ, supuṣpaḥ, arghyārhaḥ, lakṣaṇakaḥ, raktaprasavaḥ   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ।

mucukundasya valkalaḥ puṣpāṇi ca bheṣajarūpeṇa upayujyante।

dala

kovidāraḥ, camarikaḥ, kuddālaḥ, yugapatrakaḥ, kāñcanāraḥ, kaṇakārakaḥ, tāmrapuṣpaḥ, kudāraḥ, raktakāñcanaḥ, vidala   

vibhūṣaṇārtham upayujyamānānāṃ vividhavarṇayuktānāṃ puṣpāṇāṃ vṛkṣaḥ।

vāṭikāyāṃ kovidārasya bhinnaprakārakāḥ vṛkṣāḥ santi।

dala

viṣuvadvṛttam, viṣuvanmaṇḍalam   

bhūmadhyarekhayā nirmitaṃ vṛttam।

viṣuvadvṛttasya vyāsārdhaṃ 6,378:137 ki:mī iti asti।

dala

rāṣṭramaṇḍalam   

svatantrāṇāṃ 53 deśānāṃ viśvasamūhaḥ yasya mukhyālayaḥ landananagare asti।

paurvasya briṭenadeśasya adhinasthāḥ sarve deśāḥ rāṣṭramaṇḍalasya sadasyāḥ santi।

dala

janatādalayūnāiṭeḍapakṣaḥ   

bhāratadeśasya rājanaitikaṃ dalam।

asmin nirvācane janatādalayunāiṭeḍapakṣaḥ parājitaḥ।

dala

rāṣṭrīya-janatā-dala   

bhāratadeśasya rājanaitikaṃ dalam।

bihārarājye hyaḥ rāṣṭrīya-janatā-dalasya netṛbhiḥ sthāne-sthāne sabhāḥ āyojitāḥ।

dala

pratinidhimaṇḍalam   

pratinidhīnāṃ maṇḍalam।

amerikādeśāt āgatena pratinidhimaṇḍalena saha rāṣṭrapatiḥ śvaḥ meliṣyati।

dala

agniśāmakadala   

agniśāmakakarmakarāṇāṃ dalam।

agniśāmakadalaḥ antataḥ agniṃ śamayituṃ saphalībhūtaḥ।

dala

svātamaṇḍalam   

pākistānadeśe vartamānaṃ maṇḍalam।

svātamaṇḍale adya katicana ātaṅkavādinaḥ gṛhītāḥ।

dala

cālakadala   

kasyāpi vāhanasya cālakānāṃ dalaḥ।

vimānasya cālakadalaḥ ātaṅkavādibhiḥ svādhikāre kṛtaḥ।

dala

śiṣṭamaṇḍalaḥ   

keṣāñcit janānām saḥ dalaḥ yaḥ viśeṣakāryārthe abhyāgamaṃ karoti।

bhārate āgate pākisthānadeśasya śiṣṭamaṇḍale daśādhikāḥ sadasyāḥ santi।

dala

tārāmaṇḍalam, nakṣatramaṇḍalam   

tārakāṇāṃ samūhaḥ।

antarīkṣe naikāni tārāmaṇḍalāni santi।

dala

sañcālaka-maṇḍalam   

kasyāḥ api saṃsthāyāḥ sañcalanārthe nirvācitaḥ samūhaḥ।

sañcālaka-maṇḍalena vṛttivardhanasya upāyāḥ sūcitāḥ।

dala

citavanamaṇḍalam   

nepāladeśasya nārāyaṇī iti kṣetre vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

citavanamaṇḍale kṛṣṇikāyāḥ śasyaṃ samyak bhavati।

dala

makavānapuramaṇḍalam   

nepāladeśe vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mama ekaṃ mitraṃ makavānapuramaṇḍale nivasati।

dala

malakānagirīmaṇḍalam   

uḍīsārājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

malakānagirīmaṇḍalasya maṇḍalādhikārī māovādibhiḥ baddhaḥ।

dala

hamabanṭoṭāmaṇḍalam   

śrīlaṅkādeśasya dakṣiṇadiśi vartamānam ekaṃ kṣetram।

hamabanṭoṭāmaṇḍalasya rājadhānī hamabanṭoṭānagaram asti।

dala

celiṅghamamaṇḍalam   

dakṣiṇabhāratarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mamatābanarjīmahodayā celiṅghamamaṇḍale relakakṣānāṃ yantraśālām ārapsyate iti udghoṣitavatī।

dala

nandīgrāmaṇḍalam   

paścimabaṅgālarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mamatābanarjīmahodayā nandīgrāmaṇḍale relakakṣānāṃ yantraśālām ārapsyate iti udghoṣitavatī।

dala

nyū-boṅgāīgāvamaṇḍalam   

asamarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

mamatābanarjīmahodayā nyū-boṅgāīgāvamaṇḍale relakakṣānāṃ yantraśālām ārapsyate iti udghoṣitavatī।

dala

phaisalābādamaṇḍalam   

pākistānadeśasya pañjābarājyasya ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

rahīmaḥ phaisalābādamaṇḍalasya kasmiñcit grāme nivasati।

dala

motīhārīmaṇḍalam   

bihārarājye vartamānam ekaṃ maṇḍalam।

saḥ motīhārīmaṇḍalasya kasyacit grāmasya nivāsī āsīt।

dala

maṇḍalādhikārikāryālayaḥ   

maṇḍalādhikāriṇaḥ kāryālayaḥ।

adya maṇḍalādhikārikāryālaye bhūriḥ saṃnayaḥ asti।

dala

kuḍālagācchi:   

ekaḥ grāma: ।

kuḍālagācchim rāmaḥ gacchati

dala

kuḍālagācchi:   

ekaḥ grāma: ।

kuḍālagācchim rāmaḥ gacchati

dala

kuṇḍala:   

ekā nadī ।

kuṇḍalasya tīre sūtaputraḥ vyaramat

dala

kuṇḍala:   

ekā jāti: ।

mahābhārate yuddhe kuṇḍalāḥ samāhūtāḥ

dala

kuṇḍalā   

ekā strī ।

mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇe kuṇḍalā ullikhitā

dala

kuddālakhātam   

ekam nagaram ।

kuddālakhātam pāṇininā samullikhitam

dala

vikuṇḍalaḥ   

prācīne granthe varṇitaḥ kaścit puruṣaḥ ।

vivaraṇapustikāyāṃ vikuṇḍalasya varṇanam asti

dala

kuṇḍalaḥ   

ekaḥ nāgaḥ ।

kuṇḍalasya varṇanaṃ mahābhārate vartate

dala

kuṇḍalaḥ, sarpiṇī   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

kuṇḍalasya varṇanaṃ kośe vartate

dala

kuṇḍalaḥ, kuṇḍalīcālanaḥ   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

kuṇḍalasya varṇanaṃ kośe vartate

dala

cūḍālā   

ekā strī ।

cūḍālāyāḥ ullekhaḥ bāhvādigaṇe vartate

dala

dala   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

dalasya ullekhaḥ mahābhārate vartate

dala

dalapatiḥ   

ekaḥ rājaputraḥ ।

dalapateḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

dala

nalinadala   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

nalinadalasya ullekhaḥ pravaragranthe vartate

dala

kuḍālagācchiḥ   

ekaḥ grāma: ।

kuḍālagācchim rāmaḥ gacchati

dala

kuṇṭhaka:, kuṇḍalaḥ   

ekā jāti: ।

mahābhārate kuṇṭhakāḥ ullikhitāḥ dṛśyante

dala

kuṇḍalaḥ   

ekā nadī ।

kuṇḍalasya tīre sūtaputraḥ vyaramat

dala

kuṇḍala:, kuṇṭhakaḥ   

ekā jāti: ।

mahābhārate yuddhe kuṇḍalāḥ samāhūtāḥ

dala

kuṇḍalā   

ekā strī ।

mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇe kuṇḍalā ullikhitā

dala

kuddālakhātam   

ekam nagaram ।

kuddālakhātam pāṇininā samullikhitam

dala

madālasā   

ekaḥ strīkaviḥ ।

madālasāyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

dala

madālasā   

ekā gandharvakanyā ।

madālasā viśvāvasoḥ kanyā asti

dala

madālasā   

ekā rākṣasakanyā ।

madālasā bhramaraketoḥ kanyā āsīt

dala

kuḍālagācchiḥ   

ekaḥ grāma: ।

kuḍālagācchim rāmaḥ gacchati

dala

kuṇṭhaka:, kuṇḍalaḥ   

ekā jāti: ।

mahābhārate kuṇṭhakāḥ ullikhitāḥ dṛśyante

dala

kuṇḍalaḥ   

ekā nadī ।

kuṇḍalasya tīre sūtaputraḥ vyaramat

dala

kuṇḍala:, kuṇṭhakaḥ   

ekā jāti: ।

mahābhārate yuddhe kuṇḍalāḥ samāhūtāḥ

dala

kuṇḍalā   

ekā strī ।

mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇe kuṇḍalā ullikhitā

dala

kuddālakhātam   

ekam nagaram ।

kuddālakhātam pāṇininā samullikhitam

dala

sapādalakṣaḥ   

ekaḥ janapadaḥ ।

sapādalakṣasya ullekhaḥ uttamacaritra-kathānake praśastyām ca asti

dala

bhāulācāryaḥ, bhāḍalācāryaḥ   

ekaḥ lekhakaḥ ।

kośeṣu bhāulācāryasya nirdeśaḥ asti

dala

gucchavadhrā, guṇḍālā, jalodbhūtā, jalāśayā   

kṣudrakṣupaviśeṣaḥ asyā guṇāḥ kaṭutvam tiktatvam uṣṇatvam śothavraṇanāśitvañca ।

gucchavadhrāyāḥ varṇanaṃ rājanirghaṇṭe vartate

dala

cakradantī, dantī, śīghrā, śyenaghaṇṭā, nikumbhī, nāgasphotā, dantinī, upacitrā, bhadrā, rūkṣā, recanī, anukūlā, niḥśalyā, viśalyā, madhupuṣpā, eraṇḍaphalā, taruṇī, eraṇḍapatrikā, aṇurevatī, viśodhanī, kumbhī, uḍumbaradalā   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ asyā guṇāḥ kaṭutvam uṣṇatvam śūlāmatvagdoṣārśovraṇāśmarī-śalyaśodhanatvam dīpanatvañca ।

cakradantī kośe varṇitā asti

dala

caṇḍālakandaḥ   

ekaḥ kandīyakṣupaḥ ।

caṇḍālakandasya varṇanaṃ kośe vartate

dala

candalā   

ekā mahilā ।

candalā rājataraṅgiṇyām ullikhitā asti

dala

marumaṇḍalaḥ   

ekaḥ deśaḥ ।

uttamacaritra-kathānake marumaṇḍalasya ullekhaḥ vartate

dala

kalahakandala   

ekaḥ abhinetā ।

kalahakandalasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

dala

kandalāyanaḥ   

ekaḥ prācīnaḥ ṛṣiḥ ।

kandalāyanasya ullekhaḥ sarvadarśanasaṅgrahe asti

dala

kandala   

granthiyuktena mūlena yuktaḥ kṣupaḥ ।

kandalatāyāḥ ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

dala

uddālakaḥ   

ekaḥ śikṣakaḥ ।

uddālakasya ullekhaḥ śatapatha-brāhmaṇe asti

dala

udalākāśyapaḥ   

kṛṣikarmaṇaḥ devatā ।

udalākāśyapasya ullekhaḥ pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtre asti

dala

udala   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

udalasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

dala

ānandalaharīstotram   

ekaṃ kāvyam ।

ānandalaharīstotrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

dala

ānandalaharīstotram   

ekaṃ kāvyam ।

ānandalaharīstotrasya ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

dala

carmamaṇḍalaḥ   

ekaḥ janasamūhaḥ ।

carmamaṇḍalasya varṇanaṃ mahābhārate vartate

dala

calakuṇḍalaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

calakuṇḍalasya varṇanaṃ pravaragranthe matsyapurāṇe ca samupalabhyate

dala

cāṇḍālakaḥ   

ekaḥ puruṣaḥ ।

cāṇḍālakasya varṇanaṃ pravaragranthe vartate

dala

dagdharuhā, dagdhikā, sthaleruhā, romaśā, karkaśadalā, bhasmarohā, sudagdhikā   

ekaḥ kṣupaḥ asya guṇāḥ kaṭutvaṃ kaṣāyatvam uṣṇatvaṃ kaphavātanāśitvaṃ pittaprakopanatvaṃ jaṭharānaladīpanatvaṃ ca ।

dagdharuhāyāḥ ullekhaḥ rājanirghaṇṭave vartate

dala

dalayogaḥ   

ekaḥ yogaḥ ।

dalayogaḥ laghujātake parigaṇitaḥ

dala

kāmakandalā   

ekā strī ।

kāmakandalāyāḥ ullekhaḥ kośe vartate

dala

nandalālaḥ   

lekhakanāmaviśeṣaḥ ।

nandalālaḥ iti nāmakānāṃ naikeṣāṃ lekhakānām ullekhaḥ koṣe asti

Parse Time: 0.917s Search Word: dala Input Encoding: Devanagari IAST: dala