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     Grammar Search "calam" has 3 results.
calam: neuter nominative singular stem: cala
calam: masculine accusative singular stem: cala
calam: neuter accusative singular stem: cala
     Amarakosha Search  
5 results
calanam3.1.73MasculineSingulartaralam, lolam, kampanam, pariplavam, cañcalam, calam, pāriplavam, calācalam, kampram
kācaḥ3.3.33MasculineSingularparidhānam, calam, jalaprāntaḥ
yavakṣāraḥ2.9.109MasculineSingularsauvarcalam, rucakam, ‍kāpotaḥ, ‍sukhavarcakaḥ
sauvarcalam2.9.43NeuterSingularakṣam, rucakam
158 results for calam
abhran. the ratan (Calamus Rotang) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhrapuṣpam. the cane Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhūtif. mischief, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyāpātam. calamity, misfortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adṛṣṭan. unforeseen danger or calamity, that which is beyond the reach of observation or consciousness, (especially the merit or demerit attaching to a man's conduct in one state of existence and the corresponding reward or punishment with which he is visited in another) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ambhojam. the plant Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṃhasaspatyan. power over calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anāpadf. absence of misfortune or calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anītif. freedom from a calamitous season. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anukūlan. (in poetry) narrative of calamity leading finally to happiness. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupaplavamfn. free from disaster or overwhelming calamity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupaplutamfn. not overwhelmed (with calamity). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpadf. misfortune, calamity, distress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpadāf. misfortune, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apadavāpadmfn. free from the calamity of fire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apāpāyamfn. free from calamity or danger, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpatkālikamfn. occurring in a time of calamity, belonging to such a time gaRa kāśy-ādi- () . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āpattif. incurring, misfortune, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apavipadmfn. free from misfortune or calamity, Nalac: View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apāyam. misfortune, evil, calamity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārch( ā-ṛch-) P. ārcchati-, to fall into (calamity or mischief) ; to obtain, partake of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārtamfn. (optionally also written ārtta-,whence erroneously derived fr. ṛt-or even regarded as irreg. formation fr. ard-;See also Weber in ) fallen into (misfortune) , struck by calamity, afflicted, pained, disturbed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atharvanmn. (ā-, a-) the fourth or atharva-- veda- (said to have been composed by atharvan-, and consisting chiefly of formulas and spells intended to counteract diseases and calamities) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyāhitan. great calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aupasargikamfn. (fr. upa-sarga-), superior to adversity, able to cope with calamity gaRa saṃtāpādi- superinduced, produced in addition to (or out of another disease) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
autpātikamf(ī-)n. astounding, portentous, prodigious, calamitous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avipadf. no calamity, ease. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāgyasaṃkṣayam. () bad fortune, calamity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāgyavaiṣamyan. () bad fortune, calamity. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhartṛvyasanapiḍitamfn. afflicted by a husband's or master's calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bilam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
deśakaṇṭakam. "country's thorn", public calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
desopasargam. distress of a country, calamity in a country
dṛṣṭakaṣṭamfn. who has experienced calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ducchunāf. (prob. fr. dus-and śun/a-) misfortune, calamity, harm, mischief (often personified as a demon) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duḥkhagatan. adversity, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durbhikṣavyasaninmfn. suffering from the calamity of famine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durjātan. misfortune, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
enasn. evil, unhappiness, misfortune, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhajaṭilāf. Acorus Calamus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhapuṣpam. Calamus Rotang
ikṣuparṇīf. Acorus Calamus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ikṣupattrīf. Acorus Calamus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ītif. (fr. 4. ī-?), plague, distress, any calamity of the season (as drought, excessive rain, swarm of rats, foreign invasion, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalavetasam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaṭilam. Acorus Calamus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalamam. a reed for writing with; ([ confer, compare Latin calamus; Greek ;and Arabic $]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalanam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalañjam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāntāran. a national calamity, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛcchramn. difficulty, trouble, labour, hardship, calamity, pain, danger (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' exempli gratia, 'for example' vana-vāsak-,the difficulties of living in a forest; mūtra-k- q.v; artha-kṛcchreṣu-,in difficulties, in a miserable situation ; prāṇakṛcchra-,danger of life ) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇavetram. the plant Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kupyan. base metal, any metal but silver and gold, copper, brass, etc., zinc, lapis calaminaris, pewter, tutenag View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuśaletaran. misfortune, calamity, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahādurgan. a great calamity or danger View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāgandham. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṅgalyāf. Acorus Calamus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mañjarīnamram. "bent down with clusters of flowers", Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mithoavadyapa(mith/o-av-) mfn. mutually averting calamities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nādeyam. Saccharum Spontaneum or Calamus, Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nadīkūlapriyam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
namrakam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
niculam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nikuñcakam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nīrapriyam. "water friend", Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirītimfn. free from calamities or afflictions View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirṛtif. (n/ir--) dissolution, destruction, calamity, evil, adversity etc. etc. (personified as the goddess of death and corruption and often associated with mṛtyu-, a-rāti- etc. ;variously regarded as the wife of a-dharma-, mother of bhaya-, mahā-bhaya- and mṛtyu-[ ]or as a daughter of a-dharma- and hiṃsā- and mother of naraka- and bhaya-[ ];binds mortals with her cords etc.;is regent of the south[ ]and of the asterism mūla-[ ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcavalkalan. a collection of the bark of 5 kinds of trees (viz. the Indian, glomerous, holy, and waved-leaf fig-tree, and Calamus Rotang id est Nyag-rodha, udumbara-, aśvattha-, plakṣa-, and vetasa-;but other trees are sometimes substituted) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāpmanm. evil, unhappiness, misfortune, calamity, crime, sin, wickedness etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parivyādham. Calamus Fasciculatus or Pterospermum Acerifolium View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pattramālam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pīḍanan. misfortune, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśamitāpadravamfn. one who has all calamities quelled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praśāntabādhamfn. one who has all calamities or hindrances quelled View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulomāf. Acorus Calamus (equals vacā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rakṣoghnīf. Acorus Calamus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāṣṭram. any public calamity (as famine, plague etc.), affliction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāṣṭraviplavam. calamity or ruin of a kingdom (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratham. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathābhram. Calamus Rotang (also -puṣpa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathaparyāyam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
riṣṭan. misfortune, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasravedhinm. Calamus Fasciculatus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śākhālam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sambandham. a particular kind of calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgaran. misfortune, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samparāyam. calamity, adversity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmparāyamfn. (fr. sam-parāya-) required by necessity or calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāmparāyam. need, distress, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samutpātam. a portent (boding some calamity) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntif. any expiatory or propitiatory rite for averting evil or calamity etc. (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śastrabhayan. fear or danger of arms, calamity of war View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śītam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopadravamf(ā-)n. visited with great calamities or afflictions, dangerous, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sopaplavamfn. afflicted with any great calamity, overrun or attacked by enemies View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthalavetasam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śubhasūcanīf. "indicating good", Name of a female deity (worshipped by women in times of calamity;she is also called su-vacanī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
supadmāf. (prob.) Acorus Calamus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suṣeṇam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
toyakāmam. "fond of water", Calamus fasciculatus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
toyapāṣāṇajamalan. calamine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tritam. "third"(), Name of a Vedic deity (associated with the marut-s, vāyu-, and indra-;fighting like the latter with tvāṣṭra-, vṛtra-, and other demons;called āptya- [ q.v ],"water-deity", and supposed to reside in the remotest regions of the world, whence[ ]the idea of wishing to remove calamity to tvāṣṭra-, and the view of the trita-s being the keepers of nectar[ ] , similarly [ ]the notion of trita-'s bestowing long life;also conceived as an inferior deity conquering the demons by order and with the help of indra-[ ];fallen into a well he begged aid from the gods [ ];as to this last myth on relates that 3 ṛṣi-s, ekata-, dvita-, and trita-, parched with thirst, looked about and found a well, and when tvāṣṭra- began to draw water, the other two, desirous of his property, pushed him down and closed up the well with a wheel;shut up there, tvāṣṭra- composed a hymn to the gods, and managed miraculously to prepare the sacrificial soma-, that he might drink it himself, or offer it to the deities and so be extricated: this is alluded to in [ confer, compare ] and described in ;also makes him a ṛṣi-, and he is the supposed author of ;in epic legends[ ] ekata-, dvita-, and tvāṣṭra- are described as 3 brothers, sons of gautama- or of prajā-pati- or brahmā-;elsewhere tvāṣṭra- is one of the 12 sons of manu- cākṣuṣa- by naḍvalā- ; confer, compare traitan/a-; Zend Thrita;, , etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ulbyan. any calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upadravam. that which attacks or occurs suddenly, any grievous accident, misfortune, calamity, mischief, national distress (such as famine, plague, oppression, eclipse, etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upadrutamfn. run after, persecuted, attacked, oppressed, visited (by calamities), tyrannized over etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upākṛtamfn. attended with evil omens, disastrous, calamitous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upākṛtam. disaster, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavam. any public calamity, unlucky accident, misfortune, disturbance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upaplavinmfn. afflicted or visited by a calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpātam. an unusual or startling event boding calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpātam. any public calamity (as an earthquake, meteor etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
utpātakamfn. causing misfortune or calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiṣamyan. difficulty, trouble, distress, calamity etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiśasan. slaughter, butchery, war, strife, injury, hurt, outrage, distress, calamity, ruin (with premṇaḥ-,ruin of affection) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaitasam. Calamus Fasciculatus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vajrāghātam. any sudden shock or calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vānīram. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a sort of cane or reed, Calamus Rotang etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vañjulam. Name of various trees and other plants (according to to Dalbergia Ougeinensis, Jonesia Asoka, Calamus Rotang or Hibiscus Mutabilis) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vetasam. (see veta-and vetra-) the ratan (Calamus Rotang) or a similar kind of cane, a reed, rod, stick etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vetram. n. (according to to ,fr.1. -;prob. connected with1. ve- see veṇu-) a kind of large reed (used for making sticks, prob. Calamus Rotang or Fasciculatus) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhīṣaṇam. Name of a brother of rāvaṇa- (his other brothers were kubera- [by a different mother] and kumbha-karṇa-;both rāvaṇa- and vibhīṣaṇa- are said to have propitiated brahmā- by their penances, so that the god granted them both boons, and the boon chosen by vibhīṣaṇa- was that he should never, even in the greatest calamity, stoop to any mean action;hence he is represented in the rāmāyaṇa- as endeavouring to counteract the malice of his brother rāvaṇa-, in consequence of which he was so ill-treated by him that, leaving laṅkā-, he joined rāma-, by whom, after the death of rāvaṇa-, vibhīṣaṇa- was placed on the throne of laṅkā-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhuran. adversity, calamity, distress ( also equals viśleṣa-, praviśleṣa-or pariśleṣa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidhuritan. plural adversities, calamities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vidulam. Calamus Rotang or Fasciculatus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinihatam. a great or unavoidable calamity, infliction caused by fate or heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinipātam. a great fall, ruin, loss, calamity etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipadf. going wrongly, misfortune, adversity, calamity, failure, ruin, death etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipadāf. misfortune, adversity, calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipaddaśāf. a state of misfortune, calamitous position View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipākam. calamity, distress, misfortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viparyayam. change for the worse, reverse of fortune, calamity, misfortune etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipatkālam. season of misfortune or calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipatphalamfn. resulting in misfortune, calamitous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipatsāgaram. "ocean of misfortune", heavy calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipattikaramfn. causing misfortune or calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viplavam. (for 1.See) confusion, trouble, disaster, evil, calamity, misery, distress etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vipluA1. -plavate- (mc. also P.), to float asunder, drift about, be dispersed or scattered ; to fall into disorder or confusion, go astray, be lost or ruined, perish etc.: Causal -plāvayati-, to cause to swim or float about ; to spread abroad, make known, divulge ; to bring to ruin or calamity, waste, destroy ; (-plav-), to perplex, confuse, confound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virodham. adversity, calamity, misfortune View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛjinamf(ā-)n. disastrous, calamitous View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛkṣamṛdbhūm. "tree-earth-born", a sort of cane or reed, Calamus Fascicularis or Rotang
vyādhighātam. Calamus Rotang View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāpadf. (see vi-pad-) misfortune, calamity, derangement, disorder, failure, ruin, death View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāpattif. falling into calamity or misfortune, suffering injury, failure, loss, ruin, death etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanan. evil predicament or plight, disaster, accident, evil result, calamity, misfortune (vyasanāni- plural misfortunes) , ill-luck, distress, destruction, defeat, fall, ruin etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanāgamam. approach of calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanānvitamfn. involved in or overwhelmed with calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanāplutamfn. involved in or overwhelmed with calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanaprahārinmfn. inflicting calamity, giving trouble or pain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanaprāptif. occurrence of calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanaprasāritakaramfn. having the hand stretched forth for (inflicting) calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanarakṣinmfn. preserving from calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanārtamfn. afflicted by calamity, suffering pain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanātyayam. the passing away of calamity or distress View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanāvāpam. receptacle or abode of calamity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasaninmfn. calamitous, unfortunate, unlucky with, suffering through or from (compound) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyasanodayamfn. followed by or resulting in calamities View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyatikaram. reverse, misfortune, calamity, accident, fatality
vyatīpātam. a great calamity or any portent indicating it View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
90 results
agha अघ a. [अघ्-कर्तरि अच्] 1 Bad, sinful, evil, wicked; अघायुरिन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति Bg.3.16. -घम् [अघ् भावे अच्] 1 Sin; अघं स केवलं भुङ्क्ते यः पचत्यात्मकारणात् Ms. 3.118, Bg.3.13; अघौघविध्वंसविधौ पटीयसीः Śi.1.18, हरत्यघं सम्प्रति हेतुरेष्यतः 26; ˚मर्षण &c.; misdeed, fault, crime; श्रेयान् द्विजातिरिव हन्तुमघानि दक्षम् Śi.4.37 sins and griefs also. -2 An evil, mishap, misfortune, accident, injury, harm; न वधूष्वघानि विमृशन्ति धियः Ki.6.45. do not think of doing harm or evil; क्रियादघानां मघवा विघातम् 3.52; अघोपघातं मघवा विभूत्यै 11.8; प्रजानां तमघावहम् R.15.51,19.52, See अनघ. -3 Impurity (अशौचम्); अनुरुन्ध्यादघं त्र्यहम् Ms.5.63; न वर्धयेदघाहानि 84. न राज्ञामघदोषो$स्ति 93; -4 Pain, suffering, grief, distress; उपप्लुतमघौघेन नात्मानमवबुद्ध्यसे Rām.2.7.14, Mb.3.237.19. Bhāg 1.14.2. दयालुमनघस्पृष्टम् R.1.19 not subject to grief. -5 Passion. cf. अंहोदुःखव्यसनेष्वघम् Nm. -घः N. of a demon, brother of Baka and Pūtanā and commander-in-chief of Kaṁsa. [Being sent by Kaṁsa to Gokula to kill Kṛiṣṇa and Balarāma he assumed the form of a huge serpent 4 yojanas long, and spread himself on the way of the cowherds, keeping his horrid mouth open. The cowherds mistook it for a mountain cavern and entered it, cows and all. But Kṛiṣṇa saw it, and having entered the mouth so stretched himself that he tore it to pieces and rescued his companions.] -घा The Goddess of sin; (pl.) the constellation usually called Maghā. -Comp. -असुरः See अघ above. -अहः (अहन्) a day of impurity (अशौचदिनम्) -आयुस् a. leading a wicked life. -कृद् a. sinful, wicked, evil-doer. -घ्नः = ˚नाशन. -नाश, -नाशन a. [अघं नाशयति] expiatory, destroying sin (such as gifts, muttering holy prayers &c.). (-नः) destroyer of the demon अघ; N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -भोजिन् a. [अघं पापफलकं भुङ्क्ते] a sinful eater (one who cooks and eats for his own sake and not for Gods, Manes guests &c.) -मर्षण a. [अघं मृष्यते उत्पन्नत्वे$पि नाशनेन कर्माक्षमत्वात् सह्यते अनेन मृष्-ल्युट्] expiatory, removing or destroying sin, usually applied to a prayer (सन्ध्या) repeated by Brāhmaṇas (the 19th hymn of Rv.1.); सर्वैनसामपध्वंसि जप्यं त्रिष्वघमर्षणं Ak.; यथाश्वमेधः क्रतुराट् सर्वपापापनोदनः । तथाघमर्षणं सूक्तं सर्वपापप्रणाशनम् ॥ The most heinous crimes, such as illicit intercourse with a preceptor's wife, one's own mother, sister, daughter-in-law &c. are said to be expiated by repeating this सूक्त thrice in water; पवित्राण्यघमर्षणानि जपन्त्याम् K.179,38. -मार a. [अघं मारयति नाशयति; मृ णिच्-अण्] destroying sin, an epithet of Gods (यमो मृत्युरघमारो निर्ऋतः). -रुद् a. [अघं रोदिति स्वकर्माक्षमतया यस्मात्, रुद्-अपा- दाने क्विप्] 1 'making sin weep and fly', N. of a Mantra which destroys sin; fearfully howling (?). -2 [अघे व्यसने रोदिति न तत्प्रतीकाराय घटते, क्विप्] one who only weeps in times of calamity, but does not try to get over them. -विषः [अघं व्यसनकारि विषं यस्य] a serpent; fearfully venomous (?). -शंसः अघस्य शंसः; शंस् भावे अच्] 1 indication or reporting of sin. -2 [अघं अनिष्टं शंसति इच्छति; शंस्-अण्] a wicked man, such as a thief. -3 wicked; sin-destroying (?). -शंसिन् a. reporting or telling one's sin or guilt. -हारः a noted robber; rumour of guilt (?).
aghārin अघारिन् a. [अघं व्यसनं ऋच्छति; ऋ-णिनि] Suffering from evil or calamity (व्यसनयुक्त) not anointing (?)
ativṛṣṭiḥ अतिवृष्टिः f. Excessive or heavy rain, one of the six calamities of the season. See. ईति.
atyāhitam अत्याहितम् [आधा-आधारे क्त, अत्यन्तमाधीयते तन्निवारणार्थं मनो दीयते यस्मिन् Tv.] A great calamity, danger or evil, misfortune, mishap, accident; न किमण्यत्याहितं Ś.1. किम् अत्याहितं सीतादेव्याः; -न केवलं ˚तं सापवादमपि U.2; मया ˚तमुपलब्धं V.4; किमिदमुच्चैरत्याहितम् Mv.6; श्रुतमत्याहितम् M.4 evil or evil news; oft. as an exclamation, 'Ah, me !' 'alas ! alas !', 'how bad it is !' Māl. 3,7; V.5. -2 A rash or daring deed (जीवानपेक्षि कर्म); अत्याहितं किमपि राक्षसकर्म कुर्यात् Mv.4.49. rash and demoniacal deed; पाण्डुपुत्रैर्न किमप्यत्याहितमाचेष्टितं भवेत् Ve.2. -3 Great fear; अराजके धनं नास्ति नास्ति भार्याप्यराजके । इदमत्याहितं चान्यत्कुतः सत्यमराजके ॥ Rām.2.67.11 cf. अत्याहितं महाभीतौ कर्म जीवानपेक्षि च Nm.
atharvan अथर्वन् m. [अथ-ऋ-वनिप् शकन्ध्वादि˚ Tv.; probably connected with some word like athar fire] 1 A priest who has to worship fire and Soma. -2 A Brāhmaṇa. -3 N. of the priest who is said to have first brought down fire from the heaven, offered Soma and recited prayers. [He is represented as the eldest son of Brahmā sprung from his mouth; as a Prajāpati appointed by Brahmā to create and protect sub-ordinate beings, who first learnt from Brahmā and then taught the Brahmavidyā and is considered to be the author of the Veda called after him. His wife was Śānti, daughter of Kardama Prajāpati. He had also another wife called Chitti; he is also considered identical with Aṅgiras and father of Agni.] -4 Epithet of Śiva, Vasiṣṭha. वृतपदपङ्क्तिरथर्वणेव वेदः Kir. 1.1. -(pl.) Descendants of Atharvan; hymns of this Veda; जिष्णुं जैत्रैरथर्वभिः R.17.13. -र्वा-र्व m. n., ˚वेदः The Atharvaveda, regarded as the fourth Veda. [It contains many forms of imprecations for the destruction of enemies and also contains a great number of prayers for safety and averting mishaps, evils, sins or calamities, and a number of hymns, as in the other Vedas, addressed to the gods with prayers to be used at religious and solemn rites; cf. Mv.2.24. मूर्तिमभिरामघोरां बिभ्रदिवाथर्वणो निगमः. It has nine Śākhās and five Kalpas, and is comprised in 2 Kāṇḍas. The most important Brāhmaṇa belonging to this Veda is the Gopatha Brāhmaṇa, and the Upaniṣads pertaining to it are stated to be 52, or, according to another account 31.] [cf. Zend atharvan, Pers. áturbán.] -Comp. -अधिपः N. of बुध Mercury (सामवेदाधिपो भौमः शशिजो$- थर्ववेदराट्). -निधिः, -विढ् m. receptacle of the (knowledge of) Atharvaveda, or conversant with it; गुरुणा- $थर्वविदा कृतक्रियः R.; (अथर्वविधिपदेन दुरितोपशमन- निमित्तशान्तिकपौष्टिकप्रवीणत्वं पौरोहित्यो चितत्वं द्योत्यते Malli.) -भूताः (pl.) those who have become Atharvans, Names of the 12 Maharṣis. -शिखा, -शिरस् n. (अथर्वणो वेदस्य शिखा शिर इव वा ब्रह्मविद्याप्रतिपादकत्वेन श्रेष्ठत्वात्) N. of an Upaniṣad dealing with Brahmavidyā. अथर्वशिरसो$ध्येता ब्रह्मचारी यतव्रतः Mb.13.9.29. -संहिता A text of collection of hymns of अथर्ववेद. अथर्वसंहितायाजी विदधे विधिवद्धुतम् Bm.1.869.
adṛṣṭa अदृष्ट a. 1 Invisible, not seen; ˚पूर्व not seen before. -2 Not known or experienced, not felt; ˚विरहव्यथम् H.1.125. -3 Unforeseen, not observed or thought of; unknown, unobserved. तस्माददृष्टं त्वां भयमागमिष्यति Mb. 1.3.9. -4 Not-permitted or sanctioned, illegal; न चादृष्टां (वृद्धिं) पुनर्हरेत् Ms.8.153. -ष्टः N. of some venomous substance or vermin. -ष्टम् 1 The invisible one. -2 Destiny, fate, luck (good or bad); दैवमिति यदपि कथयसि पुरुषगुणः सो$यदृष्टाख्यः Pt.5.3. -3 Virtue or vice as the eventual cause of pleasure or pain. (Fate is supposed to be the result of good or bad actions done in one state of existence and experienced in another, the performance of good deeds being rewarded with residence in Heaven, and of bad deeds, visited with condemnation to Hell; धर्माधर्मावदृष्टं स्यात् धर्मः स्वर्गादि- साधन...अधर्मो नरकादीनां हेतुर्निन्दितकर्मजः Bhāṣā P.161-2. The Vedāntins do not recognize अदृष्ट or luck; तैर्हि कर्मणः सूक्ष्मावस्थापन्नसंस्कारविशेष एव अदृष्टस्थानीयत्वेनाङ्गीक्रियते; अदृष्टम् आत्मदर्म इति नैयायिका वैशेषिकादयश्च, सांख्यपातञ्जलास्तु बुद्धिधर्म इत्यम्युपगच्छन्ति Tv.) -4 An unforeseen calamity or danger (such as from fire, water &c.) -Comp. -अर्थ a. [ब.] having a metaphysical or occult meaning, metaphysical; having an object not evident to the senses. -कर्मन् a. one who has had no practice or practical experience, not practical, inexperienced; कर्म- स्वदृष्टकर्मा यः शास्त्रज्ञो$पि विमुह्यति H.3.54. -कल्पना Supposition of an invisible object or idea. दृष्टे सत्यदृष्टकल्पना$- न्याय्या -नरः, -पुरुषः one of the 2 ways of peace-making, in which no third person is seen, said of a treaty concluded by the parties themselves without a mediator यत्र शत्रुः पणं कुर्यात्सो$दृष्टपुरुषः स्मृतः H.4.119. -फल a. [ब.] that of which the consequences are not yet visible. (लम्) the (future) result of good or bad actions; the result or consequence hidden in the future. -हन् a. destroying poisonous vermin (?).
anagha अनघ a. [न. ब.] 1 Sinless, innocent; अवैमि चैनामन- घेति R.14.4. -2 Free from blame, faultless, handsome; अखण्डं पुण्यानां फलमिव च तद् रूपमनघम् Ś.2.1; यस्य ज्ञानदयासिन्धोरगाधस्यानघा गुणाः Ak.; ˚सर्वगात्री Dk.123. -3 Without mishap or accident, free from danger, calamity &c.; safe, unhurt; यास्त्वामनघमद्राक्ष्म Dk.18; कच्चिन्मृगीणामनघा प्रसूतिः R.5.7; मृगवधूर्यदा अनघप्रसवा भवति S.4 safely delivered or brought to bed; ˚प्रसूतेः R.14.75. -4 Without grief or sorrow; दयालुमनघस्पृष्टम् R.1.19. -5 Free from dirt, impurities &c.; pure, spotless; R. 1.8;13.65; Si 3.31. -6 Tireless, not exhausted; Bhāg.2.7.32. -घः 1 White mustard. -2 N. of Viṣṇu; अनघो विजयो जेता; V. Sah.16. also of Śiva and of several other persons, a Gandharva, Sādhya &c. -Comp. -अष्टमी N. of the eighth day (spoken of in the fiftyfifth Adhyāya of Bhaviṣyottara Purā&na)
anayaḥ अनयः [अप्रशस्तो नयः] 1 Bad management or conduct; injustice; unfairness; समृद्धिरनयाद्विनश्यति Pt.1.169; Bh. 2.42. -2 Bad policy or course of conduct, evil course; अनयो नयसंकाशो हृदयान्नापसर्पति Pt.3.184. -3 Adversity, calamity, distress; जीवेदेतेन राजन्यः सर्वेष्वप्यनयं गतः Ms.1.95 reduced to straits; 12. -4 [अयः शुभावहो विधिस्तदन्यः अनयः] Misfortune, adversity; ill-luck. cf. अनयो व्यसने दैवे चाशुभे चापदि स्मृतः । Nm. -5 A variety of dice-play, gambling पतञ्जलि on P.V.2.9. शाणा वामवर्तेन अभीष्टस्थाननयनम् -6 A deceit, fraud; एवं चेदुपसर्पेतामनयं रामलक्ष्मणौ Rām.6.8.18.
anartha अनर्थ a. [न. ब.] 1 Useless, worthless; शुनः पुच्छमिवानर्थं पाण्डित्यं धर्मवर्जितम् Pt.3.97. -2 Unfortunate, unhappy. -3 Harmful, disastrous, bad; चित्तज्ञानानुवर्तिनो$नर्था अपि प्रियाः स्युः Dk.16; wicked (opp. दक्षिण). -4 Not having that meaning (but another); having no meaning, nonsensical, meaningless. -5 Poor. -र्थः [न. त.] 1 Nonuse or value. -2 A worthless or useless object. -3 A reverse, evil, calamity, misfortune; R.18.14; रन्ध्रोपनिपातिनो$नर्थाः Ś.6; एकैकमप्यनर्थाय किमु यत्र चतुष्टयम् H.1; cf. छिद्रेष्वनर्था बहुलीभवन्ति &c.; Ms.4.193, H.4.92; harmful object, danger; अर्थमनर्थं भावय नित्यम् Moha. M.2. -4 Nonsense, want of sense. -5 N. of Viṣṇu (आप्तसर्व- कामत्वात्तस्य तथात्वम्). -Comp. -अन्तरम् [न अर्थान्तरम्] sameness or identity. cf. आरम्भो व्यापारः क्रियेत्यनर्थान्तरम् ŚB. on MS.11.1.1. -कर a. (-री f.) 1 doing useless or unprofitable things. -2 mischievous, harmful; unprofitable, productive of evil. -नाशिन् m. N. of Śiva (destroyer of calamities). -भाव a malicious. -लुप्त a. [दृष्टार्थेन अलुप्तः] not devoid of the apparent meaning; free from all that is worthless. -संशयः [अनर्थकारी संशयः शाक. त.] 1 a great evil, hazardous adventure; प्रतिनिवर्त- तामस्मादनर्थसंशयात् Māl.5.2. [न. त.] not a risk of one's money; safety of one's wealth, अनर्थ्य anarthya अनर्थक anarthaka अनर्थ्य अनर्थक a. 1 Useless; meaningless; सर्वमप्ये- तदनर्थकम् Ve.1; ˚आयास K.18; not significant, as a particle used expletively. -2 Nonsensical. -3 Unprofitable. -4 Unfortunate. -कम् Nonsensical or incoherent talk.
anāgata अनागत a. [न आगतः, न. त.] 1 Not come or arrived; तावद्भयस्य भेतव्यं यावद्भयमनागतम् H.1.54. -2 Not got or obtained; वर्धिष्णुमाश्रयमनागतमभ्युपैति Śi.5.14; so ˚आर्तव. -3 Future, to come; see compounds below. -4 Not learnt or attained, unknown. -तम् The future time, future; ˚तं यः कुरुते स शोभते Pt.3.164 he shines (thrives, prospers) who provides for the future; अनागतवतीं चिन्तामसंभाव्यां करोति यः Pt.5.17. -Comp. -अवेक्षणम् looking to the future, provident thought, foresight. -आबाधः [अनागतः आबाधः दुःखम्] future (physical) trouble or calamities, illness &c. affecting the body in times to come; ˚प्रतिषेधनीयम् N. of chapter 24 of the चिकित्सास्थान in Suśruta. -आर्तवा [स्त्रीपुष्पविकासनम् आर्तवम्, न आगतमार्तवं यस्याः] a maiden who has not yet arrived at puberty. -विधातृ m. [अनागतम् उद्दिश्य विदधाति] one who provides for the future, provident, prudent (used as the name of a fish in Pt.1.138; H.4.6); अनागत- विधाता च प्रत्युत्पन्नमतिस्तथा । द्वावेतौ सुखमेधेते यद्भविष्यो विनश्यति ॥ (where Dr. Peterson translates the three names by 'Mr. Provider-against-a-future-evil', 'Mr. Cool-head', and 'Mr. what-will-be-will-be').
anāpad अनापद् f. Absence of calamity or misfortune; या वृत्तिस्तां समास्थाय विप्रो जीवेदनापदि Ms.4.2.
anira अनिर a. [न ईरयितुं शक्यते, ईर्-क पृ˚ ह्रस्वः] That cannot be propelled or driven along; अप त्या अस्थुरनिरा Rv. 8.48.11 (प्रेरयितुमशक्य). -रा 1 Want of food; utter destitution (अन्नरहितदारिद्र्यम्); युयुतमस्मदनिराममीवाम् Rv.7. 71.2. -2 [नास्ति इरा अन्नं यस्याः पं. ब.] A calamity such as अतिवृष्टि, अनावृष्टि (= ईति).
aniṣṭa अनिष्ट a. 1 Unwished, undesirable; unfavourable, disagreeable, ill (with gen.); ध्यायत्यनिष्टं यत्किञ्चित्पाणिग्राहस्य चेतसा Ms.9.21 whatever ill she thinks of her husband. -2 Evil, forbidden. -3 Bad, unlucky, ominous. -4 Not honoured with a sacrifice. -ष्टम् An evil, mishap, misfortune, calamity, disadvantage; a crime, offence, wrong, unwelcome thing; ˚एकबुद्धि Māl.8.12; भवत्यनिष्टादपि नाम दुःसहान्मनस्विनीनां प्रतिपत्तिरीदृशी Ku.5.42; ill-omen; प्रातरेव ˚दर्शनं जातम् H.1. -Comp. -अनुबन्धिन् a. followed by or attended with calamities; विषयोपभोगेषु ˚बन्धिषु यः सुखपुद्धिमारो- पयति K.155. -आपत्तिः f., -आपादनम् getting what is not desired, an undesired occurrence. -आशंसिन् a. (˚सूचक) indicating or boding ill. -ग्रहः an evil or malignant planet. -दुष्टधी a. having an evil and corrupt mind. -प्रसङ्गः 1 an undesired occurrence. -2 connection with a wrong object, argument or rule. -फलम् an evil result. -शङ्का fear of evil. -हेतुः an evil omen.
anītiḥ अनीतिः f. 1 Impropriety, immorality; injustice, wrong act; indiscretion, foolish conduct. -2 (न ईतिः) Freedom from calamity. -Comp. -ज्ञ, -विद् a. impolite, not discreet, not conversant with policy.
aneka अनेक a. 1 Not one; more than one, many; अनेक- पितृकाणां तु पितृतो भागकल्पना Y.2.12, अनेकराजन्यरथाश्वसंकुलम् Ki.1.16; several, various; तथात्मैको$प्यनेकश्च Y.3.144. -2 Separated; divided; oft. in comp.; ˚आकार having many shapes or forms; diverse, multiform; ˚कालम् -वारम् several times, many a time and oft.; ˚भार्य having more wives than one. -Comp. -अक्षर, -अच् a. having more than one vowel or syllable; polysyllabic. -अग्र a. 1 engaged in several pursuits. -2 not concentrated or fixed on one object. -3 Agitated. perplexed; स त्वनेकाग्रहृदयो द्वास्थं प्रत्यर्च्य तं जनम् Rām.2.41.34. -अन्त a. 1 [न. ब] not alone so as to exclude all others, uncertain, doubtful, variable; स्यादित्यव्ययमनेकान्तवाचकम् -2 = अनैकान्तिक q. v. (-न्तः) 1 unsettled condition, absence of permanence. -2 uncertainty, doubtfulness. -3 an unessential part, as the several anubandhas. ˚वादः scepticism. ˚वादिन् m. a sceptic, a Jaina or an Arhat of the Jainas. -अर्थ a. 1 having many (more than one) meanings, homonymous; as the words गो, अमृत, अक्ष &c.; ˚त्वम् Capacity to express more senses than one; अनेकार्थत्वमन्याय्यम् ŚB. on MS.7.3.55. अनेकार्थस्य शब्दस्य K.P.2. -2 having the sense of word अनेक. -3 having many objects or purposes. (-र्थः) multiplicity of objects, topics &c. -अल् a. having more than one अल् (letter) P.I.1.55. -आश्रय, -आश्रित a. (in Vais. Phil.) dwelling or abiding in more than one (such as संयोग, सामान्य); एते$नेकाश्रिता गुणाः Bhāsā. P.; dependence upon more than one. -कृत् m. 'doing much', N. of Śiva. -गुण a. of many kinds, manifold, diverse; विगणय्य कारणमनेकगुणम् Ki.6.37. -गुप्तः N. of a king; ˚अर्चितपादपङ्कजः K.3. -गोत्र a. belonging to two families (such as a boy when adopted) i. e. that of his own, and that of his adoptive father. -चर a. gregarious. -चित्त a. not of one mind, fickle-minded; कच्चिन्नानेकचित्तानां तेषां त्वं वशमागतः Rām. 6.24.26. ˚मन्त्रः not following the counsels of one; H.4.31. -ज a. born more than once. (-जः) a bird (गर्भाण्डाभ्यां जातत्वात्). -पः an elephant (so called because he drinks with his trunk and mouth); cf. द्विप; वन्येतरानेकपदर्शनेन R.5,47.; Śi.5.35,12.75. -2 -पद a. multi-numbered; having many component members (as in a Bahuvrīhi compound). e. g. बृहद् अस्य रथन्तरसाम इति बृहद्रथन्तरसामा ŚB. on MS.1.6.4. -भार्य a. Having more wives than one. -मुख a. (खी f.) a. 1 having many faces, many-faced. -2 scattered, dispersed, going in various directions, taking to various ways; (बलानि) जगाहिरे$नेकमुखानि मार्गान् Bk.2.54. -मूर्तिः 'having many forms', N. of Viṣṇu who assumed various forms to deliver the earth from calamities. -युद्धविजयिन्, -विजयिन् a. victorious in many battles; Pt.3.9,11. -रूप a. 1 of various forms, multiform. -2 of various kinds or sorts. -3 fickle, changeable, of a varying nature; वेश्याङ्गनेव नृपनीतिरनेकरूपा Pt.1.425. (-पः) epithet of the Supreme Being. -लोचनः N. of Śiva; also of Indra, and of the Supreme Being, he being said to be सहस्राक्षः सहस्रपात् &c. -वचनम् the plural number; dual also. -वर्ण a. involving more than one (unknown) quantity (the unknown quantities x. y. z. &c. being represented in Sanskrit by colours नील, काल &c.); ˚समीकरणम् simultaneous equation; ˚गुणनम्, ˚व्यवकलनम्, ˚हारः multiplication, subtraction or division of unknown quantities. -विध a. various, different. -शफ a. cloven-hoofed. -शब्द a. synonymous. -साधारण a. common to many, the common property of many persons Dk.83.
apāyaḥ अपायः [इ-अच्] 1 Going away, departure. -2 Separation; ध्रुवमपाये$पादानम् P.I.4.24. (अपायो विश्लेषः Sk.); येन जातं प्रियापाये कद्वदं हंसकोकिलम् Bk.6.75. -3 Disappearance, vanishing, absence; सूर्यापाये Me.82 at the time of sunset; क्षणदापायशशाङ्कदर्शनः R.8.74 close of night; जलापाय- विपाण़्डुराणि Śi.4.5;4.54;18.1. -4 Destruction, loss, death, annihilation; करणापायविभिन्नवर्णया R.8.42 loss, 83; मालत्यपायमधिगम्य Māl.1.9 death or disappearance of M. -5 An evil, ill, misfortune, risk, calamity, danger (oft. opp. उपाय); तदपि मरणापायचकितः Bh.3.9; तदनेन पापबुद्धिनोपायश्चिन्तितो नापायः Pt.1 not the danger (resulting from the plan); उपायं चिन्तयेत्प्राज्ञस्तथापायं च चिन्तयेत् Pt.1.46; अपायसंदर्शनजां विपत्तिमुपायसंदर्शनजां च सिद्धिप् 1.61; बह्वपाये वने Pt.1 exposed to many dangers, dangerous; कायः संनिहितापायः H.4.65 exposed to dangers or calamities; सत्ये$प्यपायमपेक्षते H.4.12; Ki.14.19. -6 Loss, detriment, injury. -7 The end (of a word).
abhibhā अभिभा Ved. [अभिभा-अङ्] 1 Apparition, phenomenon; an inauspicious omen. मा त्वा का चिदभिमा विश्व्या विदत् Rv.2.42.1. -2 A calamity, state of being overpowered. -3 Superiority.
abhiśastiḥ अभिशस्तिः f. 1 A curse. -2 Effect of an imprecation, misfortune, evil, calamity. -3 Censure, calumny, abuse, defamation, charge, insult. -4 Asking, begging. -5 What curses or injures; the cause or source of injury.
abhiṣaṅgaḥ अभिषङ्गः (also अभिसङ्गः) 1 Complete contact or union; attachment, connection, association; कन्यका दुन्वन्ति हृदयं मनुष्याणामीदृशाद् दुरभिसङ्गात् Māl.7 ill attachment or union; Māl 8; मुहुरिति वनविभ्रमाभिषङ्गात् Śi.7.68; K.146,29. -2 Defeat, mortification, discomfiture; जाताभिषङ्गे नृपतिः R.2.3. -3 A sudden blow, shock or grief, a sudden calamity or misfortune, unexpected reverse; ततो$भिषङ्गानिलविप्रविद्धा R.14.54,77; Ku.3.73; ˚जडं विजज्ञिवान् R.8.75. -4 Possession by devils or evil spirits; अभिघाताभिषङ्गाभ्यामभिचाराभिशापतः Mādh. N. -5 An oath. -6 Embracing; copulation. -7 A curse or imprecation, abuse. -8 A false charge or accusation, calumny or defamation. -9 Contempt, disrespect. -1 The state of being disturbed in mind; उच्चारितं मे मनसो$भिषङ्गात् Mb.5.3.1. cf. अभिषङ्गस्तु शपथे शापे सङ्गे पराभवे Nm. -Comp. -ज्वरः fever caused by the action of evil spirits.
abhyāpātaḥ अभ्यापातः A calamity, misfortune, evil. अभ्यामर्दः abhyāmardḥ मर्दनम् mardanam अभ्यामर्दः मर्दनम् War, battle, conflict, attack.
abhva अभ्व a. 1 Huge, large (महत् Nir.). -2 Mighty strong or powerful. -3 monstrous, immense, terrible; आ यो नो अभ्व ईषते Rv.1.39.8. -भ्वम् Immense power, immensity. -2 Monstrosity, hugeness; (the great pervading principle of the universe; water; a cloud; embarrassed state, calamity; a monster; अरीरमत् पतयत् कच्चिदभ्वम् Rv.6.71.5; closeness; offspring, given by B. and R.)
ariṣṭa अरिष्ट a. 1 Unhurt; perfect, complete; imperishable, undecaying, secure, safe; अरिष्टं गज्छ पन्थानम् Rām.1.24. 3; अरिष्टं मार्गमातिष्ठत् पुण्यं वा तु निषेवितम् Rām. -2 Auspicious, अक्षताभ्यामरिष्टाभ्यां हतः कर्णो महारथः Mb.8.66.2. -3 unauspicious; अरिष्टमैन्द्रं निशितम् Rām.6.67.164. -ष्टः 1 A heron (कङ्क). -2 A raven, crow. -3 An enemy; अरिष्टस्त्वाष्ट्रस्य Mv.4.18. -4 N. of various plants :-- (a) the soap-berry tree (Mar. रिठा); कुतपानामरिष्टकैः (शुद्धिः) Ms. 5.12. (b) another plant (Mar. निंब) Rām.2.94.9. Bhāg.8.2.12. -5 Garlic. -6 A distilled mixture. -7 N. of a demon killed by Kṛiṣṇa; a son of Bali. -ष्टा 1 A bandage. -2 N. of a medical plant (कटुका). -3 N. of a daughter of Dakṣa and one of the wives of Kaśyapa, and mother of महाश्वेता. -ष्टम् 1 Bad or ill luck, evil, misfortune, calamity. -2 A portentous phenomenon foreboding misfortune, unlucky omen (such as earth-quake). -3 Unfavourable symptom, especially of approaching death; रोगिणो मरणं यस्मादवश्यं भावि लभ्यते । तल्लक्षणमरिष्टं स्याद्रिष्टमप्यमिधीयते ॥ cf. also Pātañjala Yogadarśana 3.22. -4 Good fortune or luck, happiness. -5 The lying-in-chamber, delivery-room, women's apartments; कर्मारारिष्टशालासु ज्वलेदग्निः सुरक्षितः Mb.12.69.49; (अन्तःपुरम्); अपस्नात इवारिष्ठं प्रविवेश गृहोत्तमम् Rām. -6 Butter-milk. -7 Spirituous liquor; ग्लानिच्छेदी क्षुत्प्रबोधाय पीत्वा रक्तारिष्टम् Śi. 18.77. cf.... अरिष्टं सूतिकागृहे । अशुभे निम्बवृक्षे च शुभे तक्राङ्कयोः पुमान् । काके च फेनिले नीचे व्यसने$नर्थलम्बयोः । भग्यहीने... Nm. -Comp. -असु a. Ved. having one's life unhurt. अरिष्टासु सचेवहि बृहते वाजसातये Av.14.2.72. -गातु a. Ved. dwelling securely चा$रिष्टगातुः स होता सहोभरिः Rv.5.44.3. -गृहम the lying-in-chamber. -ग्राम a. Ved. of undivided group, having a complete troop; अरिष्टग्रामाः सुमतिं पिपर्तन Rv.1.166.6. -ताति a. Ved. making fortune or happy, auspicious. (-तिः f.) safeness, security, succession of good fortune, continuous happiness (अरिष्टं करोतीति ˚तातिः; अरिष्टस्य भावो वा शिवशमरिष्टस्य करे P.IV.4.143-4 Sk.); तदत्रभवता निष्पन्नाशिषां काममरिष्टतातिमाशास्महे Mv. 1. -दुष्टधी a. apprehensive of death, alarmed at the approach of death. -नेमिः N. of the 22nd तीर्थंकर of the Jainas; N. of the brother of Garuḍa. -पुरम् N. of a place; cf. अरिष्टाश्रितपुरम् P. VI.2.1. -भर्मन् a. granting security; देवेभिर्देव्यदिते$- रिष्टभर्मन्ना गहि Rv.8.18.4. -मथनः N. of Śiva or Viṣṇu. -शय्या a lying in couch; अरिष्टशय्यां परितो विसारिणा R. 3.15. -सूदनः, -हन् m. killer of Ariṣṭa, epithet of Viṣṇu.
ātañcanam आतञ्चनम् 1 Causing to coagulate or curdle, casting butter-milk into heated milk to turn it. -2 Causing to contract in general. -3 Curdled milk. -4 That which causes coagulation, a runnet. -5 A sort of whey. -6 Conveying. -7 Gratifying, satisfying. -8 Casting away, destroying. -9 Danger, calamity. -1 Speed, velocity. -11 Calcining, adding flux to metals in fusion. -12 The flux so used. -13 Making fat; cf. आतञ्चनं प्रतीवापे जवनाप्यायनार्थयोः Nm.
ātyayika आत्ययिक a. (-की f.) [अत्ययः नाशः प्रयोजनमस्य ठक्] 1 Destructive, disastrous. -2 Painful, unpropitious, ill-omened, distressing. -3 Pressing, urgent, emergent, ending quickly, not suffering delay; किंचिदात्ययिकं कार्यं तेषां त्वं दर्शनं कुरु Rām 6.32.37; Ms.7.165; H.3; K.294; अशिश्रयन्नात्ययिकं समेत्य Bk. कार्यगौरवादात्ययिकवशेन वा Kau. A.1.19; सर्वमात्ययिकं कार्यं शृणुयान्नातिपातयेत् ibid. extraordinary, special. -4 Delayed, already late; तां हत्वा पुनरेवाहं कृत्यमात्ययिकं स्मरन् Rām.5.58.46. -कम् 1 Difficulty, calamity; अगमन्नो मनः कर्णं बन्धुमात्ययिकेष्विव Mb.7.1.46. -2 Essential duty; Hch.4.
ādhiḥ आधिः m. [आधीयते स्थाप्यते प्रतीकाराय मनो$नेन, आ-धा-कि P.III.3.92; connected with आध्यै in some senses] 1 Mental pain or anguish, agony, anxiety (opp. व्याधि- which is bodily pain); न तेषामापदः सन्ति नाधयो व्याधय- स्तथा Mb; मनोगतमाधिहेतुम् Ś.3.1; R.8.27,9.54; Bh. 3.15; Bv.4.11; Māl.4; Ki.1.37. -2 A bane, curse, misery; यान्त्येवं गृहिणीपदं युवतयो वामाः कुलस्याधयः Ś.4.18; Mv.6.28. -3 A pledge, deposit, pawn, mortgage; Y.2.23; Ms.8.143; आधिश्चोपनिधिश्चोभौ न कालात्ययमर्हतः 145. -4 A place, residence. -5 Location, site. -6 Definition, epithet, attribute, title. -7 Misfortune, calamity (व्यसन). -8 Reflection on religion or duty (धर्मचिन्ता) -9 Hope, expectation. -1 A man solicitous for the maintenance of his family (कुटुम्बव्यापृत). -11 Punishment; एनमाधिं दापयिष्येद्यस्मात्तेन भयं क्वचित् Śukra.4.641. -Comp. -ज्ञ a. 1 suffering pain, distressed. -2 crooked. -भोगः the use or enjoyment of a deposit (as of a horse, cow &c. when pledged). -मन्युः (pl.) feverish heat or burning. -स्तेनः one who uses a deposit without the owner's consent.
āpattiḥ आपत्तिः f. [आ-पद्-क्तिन्] 1 Turning or changing into, entering into any state or condition. -2 Obtaining, procuring, getting; स्थानापत्तेर्द्रव्येषु धर्मलाभः Kāty. -3 Misfortune, calamity, adversity; Y.3.42. -4 A fault, transgression. -5 Remonstrance, expostulation. -6 (In phil.) An undesirable conclusion or occurrence (अनिष्टप्रसङ्ग).
āpad आपद् f. [आ-पद्-क्विप्] A calamity, misfortune, danger, distress, adversity; दैवीनां मानुषीणां च प्रतिहर्ता त्वमापदाम् R.1.6; अविवेकः परमापदां पदम् Ki.2.3,14; प्रायो गच्छति यत्र भाग्यरहितस्तत्रैव यान्त्यापदः Bh.2.9; आपदि स्था, आपदं प्राप् to fall into difficulty. -Comp. -कल्पः an alternative to be used in times of difficulty; -कालः days of adversity, time of distress, hour of danger; अब्राह्मणादध्ययनमापत्काले विधीयते Ms.2.241,11.28. -कालिक a. (-का, -की f.) occurring in time of difficulty. -गत, -ग्रस्त, -प्राप्त 1 fallen into misfortune, involved in difficulties. -2 unfortunate, unhappy, distressed. -धर्मः [आपदि कर्तव्यो धर्मः] a practice, profession, or course of procedure, not usually proper for a caste, but allowable in times of extreme distress or calamity; Ms.1.116, एते चतुर्णां वर्णानामापद्धर्माः प्रकीर्तिताः 1.13. (-मम्) 1 N. of a पर्व in Bhārata. -2 A series of calamities; पीडा चापदकालश्च Mb.12.59.47.
āpadā आपदा f. Misfortune, calamity.
ārta आर्त a. [आ-ऋ-क्त] 1 Afflicted with, struck by, suffering from, pained by; सा त्रियामा तदार्तस्य चन्द्रमण्डल- मण्डिता Rām.2.13.15; usually in comp., कामार्त, क्षुधार्त, तृषार्त &c. -2 Sick, diseased; आर्तस्य यथौषधम् R.1.28; Ms.4.236. -3 Distressed, afflicted, struck by calamity, oppressed, unhappy; आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी Bg.7.16; आर्तत्राणाय वः शस्त्रं न प्रहर्तुमनागसि Ś.1.11; R.2.28,8.31, 12.1,32. -4 Perishable (विनाशिन् अतो$न्यदार्तम्) Bṛi. Up.3.4.2. -5 Inconvenient; आर्ता यस्मिन् काले भवन्ति स आर्तः कालः । ŚB. on MS.6.5.37. -Comp. -नादः, -ध्वनिः, -स्वरः a cry of distress, -बन्धुः, -साधुः a friend of the distressed.
īti ईति a. [ई-क्तिच्] 1 Produced, effected. -तिः f. Plague, distress, a calamity of the season. The itis are usually said to be six :- (1) excessive rain; (2) drought; (3) locusts; (4) rats; (5) parrots; and (6) foreign invasions; अतिवृष्टिरनाव्रष्टिः शलभा मूषकाः शुकाः । प्रत्यासन्नाश्च राजानः षडेता ईतयः स्मृताः ॥ (some read for the second line स्वचक्रं परचक्रं च सप्तैता ईतयः स्मृताः ॥ making the total number seven); आशास्यमीतिविगमप्रभृति प्रजानाम् M.5.2; Mv.7.42; निरातङ्का निरीतयः R.1.63. -2 An infectious disease. -3 Travelling (in a foreign country), sojourning (प्रवास). -4 An affray.
utpātaḥ उत्पातः 1 Flying up, a spring, jump; एकोत्पातेन at one jump; एकोत्पातेन ते लङ्कामेष्यन्ति हरियूथपाः Rām.5.39. 4. -2 Rebounding, rising up (fig. also); करनिहतकन्दुक- समाः पातोत्पाता मनुष्याणाम् H.1. v. l. Upward jolt; विचलन् प्रथमोत्पाते हयानां भरतर्षभ Mb.3.168.4. -3 portent, any portentous or unusual phenomenon boding calamity; उत्पातेन ज्ञापिते च Vārt.. on P.I.4.44. Sk. ˚जलधरः K.111,287; Ve.1.22; सापि सुकुमारसुभगेत्युत्पातपरंपरा केयम् K. P.1; Mv.1.37. -4 Any public calamity (as an eclipse, earthquake &c.); a calamity (in general); अघर्मात्तु महोत्पातो भविष्यति हि सांप्रतम् Rām.5.26.32. ˚केतु K.5; ˚धूमलेखा Ketu; Māl.9.48. -Comp. -पवनः, -वातः, -वातालिः portentous or violent wind, whirlwind, a hurricane; R.15.23; Mv.1. ओषामासे मत्सरो- त्पातवातः Śi.18.35; उत्पातवाततरलीकृततारकाभम् Nāg.5.8. -प्रतीकारः provision made to counteract the evil portents; Kau. A.2.7.
utpātaka उत्पातक a. 1 Causing a calamity. -2 Flying up. -कः = उत्पादकः q. v.
upadravaḥ उपद्रवः 1 An unhappy accident, misfortune, calamity. -2 Injury, trouble, harm; पुंसामसमर्थानामुपद्रवाया- त्मनो भवेत्कोपः Pt.1.324; निरुपद्रवं स्थानम् Pt.1. -3 Outrage, violence. -4 A national distress (whether caused by the king or famine, seasons &c.). -5 A national disturbance, rebellion. -6 A symptom, a supervenient disease (one brought on whilst a person is suffering from another). -7 The sixth part of a Vedi sāman consisting of seven limbs. अथ सप्तविधस्य वाचि सप्तविधं सामोपासीत ...... यदुपेति स उपद्रवः Ch. Up.2.8.2. -8 A servant; अनृय्यजुरसामा च प्राजापत्य उपद्रवः Mb.12.6.44. -9 Loss, waste; अष्टकापितृदेवत्यमित्ययं प्रसृतो जनः । अन्नस्योपद्रवं पश्य मृतो हि किमशिष्यति ॥ Rām.2.18.14.
upadruta उपद्रुत p. p. 1 Visited by calamities, oppressed, attacked, infested; वेदनाभिरुपद्रुतम् H.4.88. -2 (In astr.) Eclipsed. -3 Boding evil, inauspicious. -तम् A term used by the Bāṣkalas for a kind of Sandhi, also called उद्ग्राहवत् q. v.
upapātaḥ उपपातः 1 An unexpected occurrence. -2 A calamity, misfortune, accident. उपपातो हि आर्तिसम्बद्धं द्रव्यम् । ŚB. on MS.6.4.23. -3 Destruction.
uparakta उपरक्त p. p. 1 Afflicted, overtaken by calamity, distressed. -2 Eclipsed; K.314. -3 Tinged, coloured; द्विषद्द्वेषोपरक्ताङ्गसङ्गिनीः Śi.2.18. -क्तः 1 The sun or moon in eclipse. -2 Rāhu.
uparāgaḥ उपरागः 1 An eclipse of the sun or moon; उपरागान्ते शशिनः समुपगता रोहिणी योगम् Ś.7.22; Śi.2.45. -2 Hence, Rāhu or the ascending node. -3 Redness, red colour, colour; कोपोपरागजनिताम् Ratn.3.14; Mk.4; कलहकोप˚ Māl.9. -4 A calamity, affliction, injury; blighting influence; मृणालिनी हैममिवोपरागम् R.16.7. -5 Misbehaviour, ill-conduct. -6 Reproach, blame, abuse.
upaplavaḥ उपप्लवः 1 Misfortune, evil, calamity, distress, adversity; अथ मदनवधूरुपप्लवान्तं ... परिपालयाम्बभूव Ku.4.46; जीवन्पुनः शश्वदुपप्लवेभ्यः प्रजाः पासि R.2.48; -2 (a) An unluky accident, injury, trouble; कच्चिन्न वाय्वादिरुपप्लवो वः R.5.6; Me.17. (b) An obstacle, impediment; तौ (अर्थकामौ) हि तत्त्वावबोधस्य दुरुच्छेदावुपप्लवौ Ki.11.2. -3 Oppression, harassing, troubling; उपप्लवाय लोकानां धूमकेतुरिवोत्थितः Ku. 2.32. -4 Danger, fear; see उपप्लविन् below. -5 Agitation, perturbation; इन्द्रिय˚ K.146. -6 A portent or natural phenomenon foreboding evil. -7 Particularly, an eclipse of the sun or moon; चन्द्रमिवोपप्लवान्मुक्तम् V.I.11. -8 N. of Rāhu, the ascending node, केतूपप्लवभौममन्दगतयः षष्ठे तृतीये शुभाः. -9 Anarchy. -1 N. of Śiva. -11 Doubt, scepticism (with Buddhists). -12 Loss, absence; मायया विभ्रमच्चित्तो न वेद स्मृत्युपप्लवात् Bhāg.1.84.25.
upaplavin उपप्लविन् a. One who has suffered a calamity, distressed, troubled; K.28. -2 Suffering oppression; नृपा इवोपप्लविनः परेभ्यः R.13.7.
upasargaḥ उपसर्गः 1 Sickness, disease, change occasioned by a disease; also a disease superinduced on another; क्षीणं हन्युश्चोपसर्गाः प्रभूताः Suśr. -2 Misfortune, trouble, calamity, injury, harm; प्रशमिताशेषोपसर्गाः प्रजाः Ratn.1.1; सोपसर्गं वो नक्षत्रम् M.4. sorrow; आपेदे उपसर्गस्तं तमः सूर्यमिवासुरम् Rām.2.63.2. -3 Portent, natural phenomenon foreboding evil. -4 An eclipse. -5 An indication or symptom of death. -6 Addition. -7 Possession by an evil spirit. -8 A preposition prefixed to roots; निपाताश्चादयो ज्ञेयाः प्रादयस्तूपसर्गकाः । द्योतकत्वात् क्रियायोगे लोकादवगता इमे ॥ उपसर्गास्तु विज्ञेयाः क्रियायोगेन विंशतिः । विवेचयन्ति ते ह्यर्थं नामाख्यातविभक्तिषु ॥ बृहद्देवता; आख्यातमुपगृह्यार्थविशेषमिमे तस्यैव सृजन्तीत्युपसर्गाः । Durga under Nirukta 1.3. उपेत्य नामाख्यातयोरर्थस्य विशेषं सृजन्त्युत्पादयन्ती- त्युपसर्गाः । Skanda. The नाट्यशास्त्र defines उपसर्ग thus: प्रातिपदिकार्थयुक्तं धात्वर्थमुपसृजन्ति ये स्वार्थैः । उपसर्गा उपदिष्टास्तस्मात् संस्कारशास्त्रे$स्मिन् ॥ A poetaster has framed the following समस्यापूरण stanza with the rule उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे (Pāṇini I.4.59); उपसर्गाः क्रियायोगे पाणिनेरपि संमयम् । निष्क्रियो$पि तवारातिः सोपसर्गः सदा कथम् ॥ Upasargas are 2 in number:- प्र, परा, अप, सम्, अनु, अव, निस् or निर्, दुस् or दुर्, वि, आ (ङ्), नि, अधि, अपि, अति, सु, उत्, अभि, प्रति, परि, उप; or 22 if निस्-निर् and दुस्-दुर् be taken as separate words. There are two theories as to the character of these prepositions. According to one theory roots have various meanings in themselves (अनेकार्था हि धातवः); when prepositions are prefixed to them they simply bring to light those meanings already existent but hidden in them, but they do not express them, being meaningless themselves; cf. Śi.1.15:- सन्तमेव चिरमप्रकृतत्वादप्रकाशितमदिद्युतदङ्गे । विभ्रमं मधुमदः प्रमदानां धातुलीनमुपसर्ग इवार्थम् ॥ According to the other theory prepositions express their own independent meanings; they modify, intensify, and sometimes entirely alter, the senses of roots; cf. Sk.:- उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते । प्रहाराहारसंहारविहारपरिहारवत् ॥ cf. also धात्वर्थं बाधते कश्चित्कश्चित्तमनुवर्तते । तमेव विशिनष्टयन्य उपसर्गगतिस्त्रिधा ॥ (The latter theory appears to be more correct. For a fuller exposition see Nirukta). -9 An obstacle; ते समाधावुपसर्गा व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः । योगसूत्रs 3.39.
upasarjanam उपसर्जनम् 1 Pouring on. -2 A misfortune, calamity (as an eclipse), portent; ज्योतिषां चोपसर्जने (अनध्यायान्) Ms.4.15. -3 Leaving. -4 Eclipsing. -5 Any person or thing subordinate to another, a substitute. -6 (In gram.) A word which either by composition or derivation loses its original independent character, while it also determines the sense of another word (opp. प्रधान); e. g. in पाणिनीयः a pupil of पाणिनि, पाणिनि becomes उपसर्जन; or in राजपुरुषः, राजन् is उपसर्जन, having lost its independent character; P.I.2.43,48,57; II.2.3; IV.1.14,54; VI.3.82; आचार्योपसर्जनश्चान्तेवासी. -7 A kind of war-manoeuvre; तथा प्राग्भवनं चापसरणं तूपसर्जनम् Śuka.4.115.
upākṛta उपाकृत p. p. 1 Brought near; उपाकृतं शशमानं यदस्था- त्प्रियं देवानामप्येतु पाथः Av.2.34.2. -2 Invited, called with प्रैष sentences. -3 Killed at a sacrifice (an animal). -4 Begun, commenced. -5 Ominous, disastrous, calamitous. -6 Consecrated with mantras; इति बालकमादाय सामर्ग्यजुरुपाकृतैः Bhāg.1.7.14. -7 Prepared, used for; यज्ञेषूपाकृतं विश्वं प्राहुरुत्तमसंज्ञितम् Mb.12.268.22. -तः 1 A sacrificial animal killed during the recitation of prescribed prayers. -2 A misfortune, portent. -तम् 1 Beginning, commencement. -2 the performance of the usual rites (संस्कार) over the sacrificial animal. -3 Invitation.
ulbyam उल्ब्यम् 1 Excess and vitiation of any one of the three humours of the body; i. e. Phlegm, bile, or wind (त्रिदोष). -2 Any calamity.
autpātika औत्पातिक a. (-की f.) Protentous, prodigious, calamitous; औत्पातिको मेघ इवाश्मवर्षम् R.14.53. -कम् A portent. औत्पातिकं तदिह देव विचिन्तनीयम् Udb.; Rām.3.24.1.
kaṭaḥ कटः 1 A straw mat; Ms.2.24. -2 The hip; Mb.13.53.42. -3 Hip and loins; the hollow above the hips. -4 The temples of an elephant; कण्डूयमानेन कटं कदाचित् R.2.37,3.37,4.47. -5 A particular throw of the dice in hazard; नर्दितदर्शितमार्गः कटेन विनिपातितो यामि Mk.2.8. -6 A kind of grass; दग्धव्यौ वा कटाग्निना Ms.8.377. -7 Excess (as in उत्कट). -8 A corpse; कट- धूमस्य सौरभ्यमवघ्राय व्रजौकसः Bhāg.1.6.41. -9 A hearse, bier. -1 An arrow. -11 A custom. -12 A cemetery, burial ground. -13 A time or season. -14 The plant Saccharum Sara (शर). -15 An annual plant. -16 Grass (in general). -17 A thin piece of wood, plank. -18 See कटाक्ष; घ्नन्तीवैक्षत्कटाक्षेपौः Bhāg.1.32.6. -टी Long pepper. -टम् Dust of flowers. -Comp. -अक्षः a glance, a side-long look, leer; गाढं निखात इव मे हृदये कटाक्षः Māl.1.29; also 25, 28; Me. 37. ˚मुष्ट a. caught by a glance. ˚विशिखः an arrow-like look of love. -अग्निः a fire kept up with dry grass or straw; the straw placed round a criminal to be burnt. दग्धव्यौ वा कटाग्निना Ms.8.377; Y.2.282. -अन्तः the extremity of the temples; आताम्राभा रोषभाजः कटान्तात् Śi.18.42. -उदकम् 1 water for a funeral libation; कृत्वा कटोदकादीनि भ्रातुःपुत्रानसान्त्वयत् Bhāg.7.2.17, -2 rut, ichor (issuing from an elephant's temples). -कारः a mixed tribe (of low social position); (शूद्रायां वैश्यतश्चौर्यात् कटकार इति स्मृतः Uśanas). -कुटिः m. A straw hut; स्वलंकृताः कटकुटिकम्बलाम्बराद्युपस्करा ययुरधियुज्य सवतः Bhāg. 1.71.16. -कृत् m. A plaiter of straw mats; ददार करजैर्वक्षस्येरकां कटकृद्यथा Bhāg.1.3.18. -कोलः a spittingpot. -खादक a. eating much, voracious. (-कः) 1 a jackal. -2 a crow. -3 a glass vessel, a tumbler or bowl. -घोपः a hamlet inhabited by herdsmen. -पूतनः, -ना a kind of departed spirits; अमेध्यकुणपाशी च क्षत्रियः कटपूतनः Ms.12.71; उत्तालाः कटपूतनाप्रभृतयः सांराविणं कुर्वते Māl.5.11. (पूतन v. l.); also 23. -पूर्णः Designation of an elephant in the first stage of must; Mātaṅga. L. -प्रभेदः opening of the temples, appearance of rut; बभूव तेनातितरा सुदुःसहः कटप्रभेदेन करीव पार्थिवः R.3.37. -प्रू a. acting by will. (-प्रूः) 1 Śiva. -2 an imp or goblin. -3 one who gambles or plays with dice. -4 a worm. -5 a kind of demi-god, (of the class of Vidyādharas). -प्रोथः, -थम् the buttocks. -भङ्गः 1 gleaning corn with the hands. -2 any royal calamity or misfortune. -3 To break through a close rank of the army; 'कटभङ्गस्तु सस्यानां हस्तच्छेदे नृपात्यये' इति मेदिनी. -भीः N. of several plants ज्योतिष्मती, अपराजिता &c. -भू f. The cheek of an elephant; कण्डूयतः कटभुवं करिणो मदेन Śi.5.46. -मालिनी wine or any vinous liquor. -व्रणः N. of Bhīmasena. -शर्करा 1 a fragment of a mat broken off or of straw. -2 N. of a plant, (गाङ्गेष्टी). -स्थलम् 1 the hips and loins. -2 an elephant's temples. -स्थालम् A corpse.
kilbiṣam किल्बिषम् 1 Sin; Ms.4.243;1.118; यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः सन्तो मुच्यन्ते सर्वकिल्बिषैः Bg.3.13,6.45; R.11.34. -2 A fault, offence, injury, guilt; तस्य तत्किल्बिषं नित्यं हृदि वर्तति भार्गव Mb.1.5.2. Ms.8.235. -3 A disease, sickness. -4 A calamity, adversity; पितेव पुत्रं धर्मात्मंस्त्रातुमर्हसि किल्बिषात् Rā.m.1.62.7. -5 Fraud, deceit; यदयं किल्बिषा- द्भेदः कृतो$प्येवं न गृह्यते Rām.2.23.13. -6 Enmity, hostility; भास्करस्यौरसः पुत्रो वालिना कृतकिल्बिषः Rām.3.72.21. -षः as किल्बिषम्; प्राणायामैर्दहेद्दोषान्धारणाभिश्च किल्बिषान् Bhāg. 3.28.11. -a. Sinful; नैतन्मनसि वाक्यं मे किल्बिषं प्रतितिष्ठति Rām.5.24.7.
kuhuḥ कुहुः कुहूः f. 1 New moon day i. e. the last day of a lunar month when the moon is invisible; Mb.8.34.32; करगतैव गता यदियं कुहूः N.4.57. -2 The deity that presides over this day; Ms.3.86. -3 The cry of the (Indian) cuckoo; पिकेन रोषारुणचक्षुषा मुहुःकुहूरुताहूयत चन्द्र- वैरिणी N.1.1; उन्मीलन्ति कुहूः कुहूरिति कलोत्तालाः पिकानां गिरः Gīt.1; पिकविधुस्तव हन्ति समन्तमस्त्वमपि चन्द्रविरोधि-कुहूरवः Udb. -4 The first day of the first quarter on which the moon rises. -Comp. -कण्ठः, -मुखः, -रवः, -शब्दः the (Indian) cuckoo. -कालः The last day of the lunar month when the moon is invisible; न च कुहूकाले$पि संक्षीयते ...... त्वत्कीर्तिचन्द्रः सदा Sūktisundar 5.83. -पालः the king of turtles. -मुखः 1 The Indian cuckoo. -2 a calamity. -मुखम् new moon.
kṛcchra कृच्छ्र a. [cf. Uṇ2.21] 1 Causing trouble, painful; तथात्यजन्निमं देहं कृच्छ्राद् ग्राहाद्विमुच्यते Ms.6.78. -2 Bad, miserable, evil. -3 Wicked, sinful. -4 Being in a difficult or painful situation. -च्छ्रः, -च्छ्रम् 1 A difficulty, trouble, hardship, misery, calamity, danger; कृच्छ्रं महत्तीर्णः R.14.6;13.77. -2 Bodily mortification, penance, expiation; Ms.4.222;5.21;11.16. -3 Torment, torture. -4 A particular kind of religious penance (प्राजापत्य); कृच्छ्राणि चीर्त्वा च ततो यथ्क्तानि द्विजोत्तमैः Mb.13. 1.64. -च्छ्रः Ischury. -च्छ्रम् Sin. -च्छ्रम्, कृच्छ्रेत्, कृच्छ्रत् ind. With great difficulty, painfully, miserably; लब्धं कृच्छ्रेण रक्ष्यते H.1.163. -Comp. -अर्धः a. penance lasting for six days only. -कृत् a. Undergoing a penance; कृच्छ्रकृद्धर्मकामस्तु महतीं श्रियमाप्नुयात् Y.3. 327. -प्राण a. 1 one whose life is in danger. -2 breathing with difficulty. -3 hardly supporting life. -साध्य a. 1 curable with difficulty (as a patient or disease). -2 accomplished with difficulty. -सांतपनम् a kind of expiatory vow laid down in the स्मृतिs; गोमूत्रं गोमयं क्षीरं दधि सर्पिः कुशोदकम् । एकरात्रोपवासश्च कृच्छ्रं सांतपनं स्मृतम् ॥ Ms.11.212.
duḥkha दुःख a. [दुष्टानि खानि यस्मिन्, दुष्टं खनति खन्-ड, दुःख्-अच् वा Tv.] 1 Painful, disagreeable, unpleasant; सिंहानां निनदा दुःखाः श्रोतुं दुःखमतो वनम् Rām. -2 Difficult, uneasy. -खम् 1 Sorrow, grief, unhappiness, distress, pain, agony; सुखं हि दुःखान्यनुभूय शोभते Mk.1.1; यदेवोपनतं दुः- खात्सुखं तद्रसवत्तरम् V.3.21; so दुःखसुख, समदुःखसुख &c. -2 Trouble, difficulty; Ś. Til.12; अर्थानामर्जने दुःखमर्जितानां च रक्षणे । आये दुःखं व्यये दुःखं धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः ॥ Pt.1.163. (दुःखम् and दुःखेन are used as adverbs in the sense of 'hardly' 'with difficulty' 'or trouble' Ś.7.13. अव्यक्ता हि गतिर्दुःखं देहवद्भिरवाप्यते Bg.12.5; Ku.4.13; Pt.1.; R.19.49; H.1.158). -Comp. -अतीत a. freed from pain. -अन्तः final emancipation. -आर्त, -अन्वित a. pained, afflicted, distressed. -कर a. painful, troublesome, -गतम् adversity, calamity; Mb.12. -ग्रामः 'the scene of suffering', worldly existence. -छिन्न a. 1 tough, hard. -2 pained, distressed. -च्छेद्य also दुःखो- च्छेद्य a. 1 hard. -2 to be conquered with difficulty. प्रजानुरागाद्धर्माच्च दुःखोच्छेद्यो हि धार्मिकः H.4.24. -जात a. feeling pain. -जीविन् a. living in pain or distress; Ms. 11.9. -त्रयाभिघातः unbearable association of the three sufferings; दुःखत्रयाभिघाताज्जिज्ञासा Sāṅ. K.1. -दुःखम् (instr.) with great difficulty; (धारयन्ती) शय्योत्सङ्गे निहित- मसकृद्दुःखदुःखेन गात्रम् Me.95. -दुःखिन् a. having sorrow upon sorrow; मया रक्षति दुःखदुःखी Bhāg.11.11.19. -दोह्या (a cow) difficult to be milked. -प्राय, बहुल a. full of trouble or grief. -भागिन्, -भाज् a. unhappy. Ms.4.157. भोगः occurrence of trouble or misery. -योगः infliction of pain; Ms. -लव्य a. hard to be pierced or cut; B. R.4.11. -लोकः worldly life, the world as a scene of constant suffering. -शील a. 1 hard to please or manage, bad tempered, irritable; उपेत्य सा दोहददुःख- शीलताम् R.3.6; Ś.4. -2 accustomed to the misery of; कामेकपत्नीव्रतदुःखशीलाम् Ku.3.7; 'who is accustomed to (suffer) the misery (hard lot) of a perfectly chaste life. -संचार a. 1 passing (time) unhappily. -2 impassable -सागरः 'the sea of troubles'; worldly life.
dur दुर् ind. (A prefix substituted for दुस् before words beginning with vowels or soft consonants in the sense of 'bad'. 'hard' or 'difficult to do a certain thing'; for compounds with दुस् as first member see दुस् s. v.). -Comp. -अक्ष a. 1 weak-eyed. -2 evileyed. (-क्षः) 1 a loaded or false die. -2 dishonest gambling. -अक्षरम् an evil word; श्रुतिं ममाविश्य भवद्दुरक्षरं सृजत्यदः कीटकवदुत्कटा रुजः N.9.63. -अतिक्रम a. difficult to be overcome or conquered, unconquerable; सर्वं तु तपसा साध्यं तपो हि दुरति- क्रमम् Ms.11.2.38; स्वभावो दुरतिक्रमः 'nature cannot be changed'; स्वजातिर्दुरतिक्रमा Pt.1. -2 insurmountable, impassable; B. R.6.18-19. -3 inevitable. (-मः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अत्यय a. 1 difficult to be overcome; स्वर्गमार्गपरिघो दुरत्ययः R.11.88. -2 hard to be attained or fathomed; स एष आत्मा स्वपरेत्यबुद्धिभिर्दुरत्यया- नुक्रमणो निरूप्यते Bhāg.7.5.13. -अदृष्टम् ill-luck, misfortune. -अधिग, -अधिगम a. 1 hard to reach or attain, unattainable; Bhāg.3.23.8; दुरधिगमः परभागो यावत्पुरुषेण पौरुषं न कृतम् Pt.1.33. -2 insurmountable. -3 hard to be studied or understood; इह दुरधिगमैः किञ्चि- देवागमैः Ki.5.18. -अधिष्ठित a. badly performed, managed, or executed. (-तम्) improper stay at a place. -अधीत a. badly learnt or read. -अध्यय a. 1 difficult of attainment; सहस्रवर्त्मा चपलैर्दुरध्ययः Śi.12.11. -2 hard to be studied. -अध्यवसायः a foolish undertaking. -अध्वः a bad road; स्वयं दुरध्वार्णवनाविकाः कथं स्पृशन्तु विज्ञाय हृदापि तादृशीम् N.9.33. -अन्त a. 1 whose end is difficult to be reached, endless, infinite; संकर्षणाय सूक्ष्माय दुरन्तायान्तकाय च Bhāg. -2 ending ill or in misery, unhappy; अहो दुरन्ता बलवद्विरोधिता Ki.1.23; नृत्यति युवति- जनेन समं सखि विरहिजनस्य दुरन्ते (वसन्ते) Gīt.1; इयमुदरदरी- दुरन्तधारा यदि न भवेदभिमानभङ्गभूमिः Udb. -3 hard to be understood or known. -4 insurmountable. -अन्तक a. = दुरन्त q. v. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -अन्वय a. 1 difficult to be passed along; Mb.14.51.17. -2 hard to be carried out or followed. -3 difficult to be attained. or understood; बुद्धिश्च ते महाप्राज्ञ देवैरपि दुरन्वया Rām.3. 66.18. -4 not suitable, improper; वचो दुरन्वयं विप्रास्तूष्णी- मासन्भ्रमद्धियः Bhāg.1.84.14. (-यः) 1 a wrong conclusion, one wrongly inferred from given premisses. -2 (in gram.) a false agreement. -अपवादः ill report. slander. -अभिग्रह a. difficult to be caught. -अभि- मानिन् a. vain-glorious, disagreeably proud. -अवगम a. incomprehensible; Bhāg.5.13.26. -अवग्रह a. 1 difficult to be restrained or subjugated; भक्ता भजस्व दुरवग्रह मा त्यजास्मान् Bhāg.1.29.31. -2 disagreeable. -अवग्राह a. difficult to be attained; Bhāg.7.1.19. -अवच्छद a. difficult to be hidden; हेतुभिर्लक्षयांचक्रुराप्रीतां दुरवच्छदैः Bhāg.1.62.28. -अवबोध a. unintelligible. Bhāg.1.49.29. -अवसित a. unfathomed, difficult to be ascertained, द्युपतिभिरजशक्रशंकराद्यैर्दुरवसितस्तवमच्युतं नतो$स्मि Bhāg.12.12.67. -अवस्थ a. ill off, badly or poorly circumstanced. -अवस्था, -स्थानम् a wretched or miserable state; Bhāg.5.3.12. -अवाप a. difficult to be gained or fulfilled; Ś.1. -अवेक्षितम् an improper look. -अह्नः a bad day. -आकृति a. ugly, mis-shaped. -आक्रन्द a. crying bitterly or miserably; किं क्रन्दसि दुराक्रन्द स्वपक्ष- क्षयकारक Pt.4.29. -आक्रम a. 1 invincible, unconquerable. -2 difficult to be passed. -आक्रमणम् 1 unfair attack. -2 difficult approach. -आगमः improper or illegal acquisition. -आग्रहः foolish obstinacy, headstrongness, pertinacity; ममाहमित्यूढदुराग्रहाणां पुंसाम् Bhāg.3. 5.43. -आचर a. 1 hard to be performed. -2 incurable (as a disease). -आचार a. 1 ill-conducted, badly behaved. -2 following bad practices, wicked, depraved; अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक् Bg.9.3. (-रः) bad practice, ill-conduct, wikedness. -आढ्य a. not rich, poor. -आत्मता vileness, baseness, wickedness. -आत्मन् a. evil-natured, low, wicked, vile, base, mean; ये च प्राहुर्दुरात्मानो दुराराध्या महीभुजः Pt.1.39. (-m.) a rascal, villain, scoundrel. -आधर a. difficult to be withstood or overpowered, irresistible. -आधर्ष a. hard to be approached or assailed, unassailable जगन्नाथो दुराधर्षो गङ्गां भागीरथीं प्रति Mb. -2 not to be attacked with impunity. -3 haughty. (-र्षः) white mustard. -आधारः an epithet of Śiva. -आधिः (m.) 1 distress or anxiety of mind; निरस्तनारीसमया दुराधयः Ki.1.28. -2 indignation. -आधी a. Ved. malignant, thinking ill of. -आनम a. difficult to bend or draw; स विचिन्त्य धनुर्दुरानमम् R.11.38. -आप a. 1 difficult to be obtained; श्रिया दुरापः कथमीप्सितो भवेत् Ś.3.13; R.1.72;6.62. -2 difficult to be approached; Pt.1.67. -3 hard to be overcome. -आपादन a. difficult to be brought about; किं दुरापादनं तेषाम् Bhāg.3.23.42. -आपूर a. difficult to be filled or satisfied; Bhāg.7.6.8. -आबाध a. hard to be molested. (-धः) N. of Śiva. -आमोदः bad scent, stench; शवधूमदुरामोदः शालिभक्ते$त्र विद्यते Ks.82.22. -आराध्य a. difficult to be propitiated, hard to be won over or conciliated; दुराराध्याः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहाः Pt.1.38. -आरुह a. difficult to be mounted. (-हः) 1 the Bilva tree. -2 the cocoanut tree. -3 the date tree. -आरोप a. difficult to be strung (bow); दुरारोपमैन्दुशेखरं धनुर्दुर्निवारा रावणभुजदण्डाः B. R.1.46-47. -आरोह a. difficult of ascent. (-हः) 1 The cocoanut tree. -2 the palm tree. -3 the date tree. -आलापः 1 a curse, imprecation. -2 foul of abusive language. -आलोक a. 1 difficult to be seen or perceived. -2 painfully bright, dazzling; दुरालोकः स समरे निदाघाम्बररत्नवत् K. P.1. (-कः) dazzling splendour. -आव(वा)र a. 1 difficult to be covered or filled up; दुरावरं त्वदन्येन राज्यखण्डमिदं महत् Rām.2.15.5. -2 difficult to be restrained, shut in, kept back or stopped. -आवर्त a. difficult to be convinced or set up; भवन्ति सुदुरावर्ता हेतुमन्तो$पि पण्डिताः Mb.12.19.23. -आशय a. 1 evil-minded, wicked, malicious, स्फुटनिर्भिन्नो दुराशयो$धमः Śi. उपेयिवान् मूलमशेषमूलं दुराशयः कामदुघाङ्घ्रिपस्य Bhāg.3.21.15. -2 having a bad place or rest. (-m.) the subtle body which is not destroyed by death (लिङ्गदेह); एतन्मे जन्म लोके$स्मिन्मुमुक्षूणां दुराशयात् Bhāg.3.24. 36. -आशा 1 a bad or wicked desire. -2 hoping against hope. -आस a. difficult to be abided or associated with; संघर्षिणा सह गुणाभ्यधिकैर्दुरासम् Śi.5.19. -आसद a. 1 difficult to be approached or overtaken; स सभूव दुरासदः परैः R.3.66; 8.4; Mv.2.5; 4.15. -2 difficult to be found or met with. -3 unequalled, unparalleled. -4 hard to be borne, insupportable. -5 difficult to be conquered, unassailable, unconquerable; जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् Bg.3.43. (-दः) an epithet of Śiva. -इत a. 1 difficult. -2 sinful. (-तम्) 1 a bad course, evil, sin; दरिद्राणां दैन्यं दुरितमथ दुर्वासनहृदां द्रुतं दूरीकुर्वन् G. L.2; R.8.2; Amaru.2; Mv.3.43. -2 a difficulty, danger. -3 a calamity, evil; अपत्ये यत्तादृग्- दुरितमभवत् U.4.3. -इतिः f. Ved. 1 a bad course. -2 difficulty. -इष्टम् 1 a curse, imprecation. -2 a spell or sacrificial rite performed to injure another person. -ईशः a bad lord or master. -ईषणा, -एषणा 1 a curse, an imprecation. -2 an evil eye. -उक्त a. harshly uttered; Pt.1.89. -उक्तम्, -उक्तिः f. offensive speech, reproach, abuse, censure; लक्ष्मि क्षमस्व वचनीयमिदं दुरुक्तम् Udb. -उच्छेद a. difficult to be destroyed. -उत्तर a. 1 unanswerable. -2 difficult to be crossed; दुरुत्तरे पङ्क इवान्धकारे Bk.11.2; प्राप्तः पङ्को दुरुत्तरः Ki.15.17. -उदय a. appearing with difficulty, not easily manifested; यो$ नात्मनां दुरुदयो भगवान्प्रतीतः Bhāg.3.16.5. -उदर्क a. having bad or no consequences; N.5.41. -उदाहर a. difficult to be pronounced or composed; अनुज्झितार्थसंबन्धः प्रबन्धो दुरुदाहरः Śi.2.73. -उद्वह a. burdensome, unbearable. -उपसद a. difficult of approach; Ki.7.9. -उपसर्पिन् a. approaching incautiously; एकमेव दहत्यग्निर्नरं दुरुपसर्पिणम् Ms.7.9. -ऊह a. abstruse; जानीते जयदेव एव शरणः श्लाघ्ये दुरूहद्रुते Gīt. -एव a. Ved. 1 having evil ways. -2 irresistible, unassailable. (-वः) a wicked person. -ओषस् a. Ved. slow, lazy. -ग 1 difficult of access, inaccessible, impervious, impassable; दुर्गस्त्वेष महापन्थाः Mb.12.3. 5; दुर्गं पथस्तत्कवयो वदन्ति Kaṭh.1.3.14. -2 unattainable. -3 incomprehensible. -4 following wicked path, vicious; Rām.2.39.22. (-गः, -गम्) 1 a difficult or narrow passage through a wood or over a stream, mountain &c., a defile, narrow pass. -2 a citadel. fortress, castle; न दुर्गं दुर्गमित्येव दुर्गमं मन्यते जनः । तस्य दुर्गमता सैव यत्प्रभुस्तस्य दुर्गमः ॥ Śiva. B.16.61. -3 rough ground. -4 difficulty, adversity, calamity, distress, danger; निस्तारयतिं दुर्गाच्च Ms.3.98;11.43; मच्चित्तः सर्व- दुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि; Bg.18.58. (-गः) 1 bdellium. -2 the Supreme Being. -3 N. of an Asura slain by Durgā (thus receiving her name from him). ˚अध्यक्षः, ˚पतिः, ˚पालः the commandant or governor of a castle. ˚अन्तः The suburb of a fort; दुर्गान्ते सिद्धतापसाः Kau. A. 1.12. ˚कर्मन् n. fortification. ˚कारक a. making difficult. (-कः) the birch tree. ˚घ्नी N. of Durgā. ˚तरणी an epithet of Sāvitrī. सावित्री दुर्गतरणी वीणा सप्तविधा तथा Mb. ˚मार्गः a defile, gorge. ˚लङ्घनम् surmounting difficulties. (-नः) a camel. ˚संचरः 1 a difficult passage as to a fort &c., a bridge &c. over a defile. ˚संस्कारः Repairs to the old forts; अतो दुर्गसंस्कार आरब्धव्ये किं कौमुदीमहोत्सवेन Mu. ˚सिंहः N. of the author of कलापपरिशिष्ट. ˚व्यसनम् a defect or weak point in a fortress. (-र्गा) an epithet of Pārvatī, wife of Śiva. -2 the female cuckoo -3 N. of several plants. ˚नवमी the 9th day of the bright half of कार्तिक. ˚पूजा the chief festival in honour of दुर्गा in Bengal in the month of Āśvina. -गत a. 1 unfortunate, in bad circumstances; समाश्वसिमि केनाहं कथं प्राणिमि दुर्गतः Bk.18.1. -2 indigent, poor. -3 distressed, in trouble. -गतता ill-luck, poverty, misery; तावज्जन्मातिदुःखाय ततो दुर्गतता सदा Pt.1.265. -गतिः f. 1 misfortune, poverty, want, trouble, indigence; न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद् दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति Bg.6.4. -2 a difficult situation or path. -3 hell. -गन्ध a. ill-smelling. (-न्धः) 1 bad odour, stink -2 any ill-smelling substance. -3 an onion. -4 the mango tree. (-न्धम्) sochal salt. -गन्धि, -गन्धिन् a. ill-smelling. -गम a. 1 impassable, inaccessible, impervious; कामिनीकायकान्तारे कुचपर्वतदुर्गमे Bh.1.86; Śi. 12.49. -2 unattainable, difficult of attainment. -3 hard to be understood. (-मम्) a difficult place like hill etc; भ्राम्यन्ते दुर्गमेष्वपि Pt.5.81. -गाढ, -गाध, -गाह्य a. difficult to be fathomed or investigated, unfathomable. -गुणितम् not properly studied; चिराम्यस्तपथं याति शास्त्रं दुर्गुणितं यथा Avimārakam.2.4. -गोष्ठी evil association; conspiracy. वृद्धो रक्कः कम्पनेशो दुर्गोष्ठीमध्यगो$भवत् Rāj. T.6. 17. -ग्रह a. 1 difficult to be gained or accomplished. -2 difficult to be conquered or subjugated; दुर्गाणि दुर्ग्रहाण्यासन् तस्य रोद्धुरपि द्विषाम् R.17.52. -3 hard to be understood. (-हः) 1 a cramp, spasm. -2 obstinacy. -3 whim, monomania; कथं न वा दुर्ग्रहदोष एष ते हितेन सम्य- ग्गुरुणापि शम्यते N.9.41. -घट a. 1 difficult. कार्याणि घटयन्नासीद् दुर्घटान्यपि हेलया Rāj. T.4.364. -2 impossible. -घण a. 1 closely packed together, very compact. -घुरुटः An unbeliever; L. D. B. -घोषः 1 a harsh cry. -2 a bear. -जन a. 1 wicked, bad, vile. -2 slanderous, malicious, mischievous; यथा स्त्रीणां तथा वाचां साधुत्वे दुर्जनो जनः U.1.6. (-नः) a bad or wicked person, a malicious or mischievous man, villain; दुर्जनः प्रियवादी च नैतद्विश्वास- कारणम् Chāṇ.24,25; शाम्येत्प्रत्यपकारेण नोपकारेण दुर्जनः Ku.2.4. (दुर्जनायते Den. Ā. to become wicked; स्वजनो$पि दरिद्राणां तत्क्षणाद् दुर्जनायते Pt.1.5.). (दुर्जनीकृ [च्वि] to make blameworthy; दुर्जनीकृतास्मि अनेन मां चित्रगतां दर्शयता Nāg.2). -जय a. invincible. (-यः) N. of Viṣṇu. -जर a. 1 ever youthful; तस्मिन्स्तनं दुर्जरवीर्यमुल्बणं घोराङ्कमादाय शिशोर्दधावथ Bhāg.1.6.1. -2 hard (as food), indigestible. -3 difficult to be enjoyed; राजश्रीर्दुर्जरा तस्य नवत्वे भूभुजो$भवत् Rāj. T.5.19. -जात a. 1 unhappy, wretched. -2 bad-tempered, bad, wicked; Rāj. T.3. 142. -3 false, not genuine. ˚जीयिन् a. one who is born in vain; यो न यातयते वैरमल्पसत्त्वोद्यमः पुमान् । अफलं जन्म तस्याहं मन्ये दुर्जातजायिनः ॥ Mb. (-तम्) 1 a misfortune, calamity, difficulty; त्वं तावद् दुर्जाते मे$त्यन्तसाहाय्यकारिणी भव M.3; दुर्जातबन्धुः R.13.72. 'a friend in need or adversity.' -2 impropriety. -जाति a. 1 bad natured, vile, wicked; रुदितशरणा दुर्जातीनां सहस्व रुषां फलम् Amaru.96. -2 outcast. (-तिः f.) misfortune, ill condition. -ज्ञान, -ज्ञेय a. difficult to be known, incomprehensible. उच्चावचेषु भुतेषु दुर्ज्ञेयामकृतात्मभिः Ms.6.73. (-यः) N. of Śiva. -णयः, -नयः, -नीतिः 1 bad conduct. -2 impropriety -3 injustice. -णामन्, -नामन् a. having a bad name. -णीत a. 1 ill-behaved. -2 impolitic. -3 forward. (-तम्) misconduct; दुर्णीतं किमिहास्ति किं सुचरितं कः स्थानलाभे गुणः H. -दम, -दमन, -दम्य a. difficult to be subdued, untamable, indomitable. -दर्श a. 1 difficult to be seen. -2 dazzling; सुदुर्दर्शमिदं रूपं दृष्टवानसि यन्मन Bg.11.52. -दर्शन a. ugly, ill-looking; दुर्दर्शनेन घटतामियमप्यनेन Māl.2.8. -दशा a misfortune, calamity. -दान्त a. 1 hard to be tamed or subdued, untamable; Śi.12.22. -2 intractable, proud, insolent; दुर्दान्तानां दमनविधयः क्षत्रियेष्वायतन्ते Mv.3.34. (-तः) 1 a calf. -2 a strife, quarrel. -3 N. of Śiva. -दिन a. cloudy, rainy. (-नम्) 1 a bad day in general; तद्दिनं दुर्दिनं मन्ये यत्र मित्रागमो हि न Subhāṣ. -2 a rainy or cloudy day, stormy or rainy weather; उन्नमत्यकालदुर्दिनम् Mk.5; Ku.6 43; Mv.4.57. -3 a shower (of anything); द्विषां विषह्य काकुत्स्थस्तत्र नाराचदुर्दिनम् ॥ सन्मङ्गलस्नात इव R.4.41,82;5.47; U.5.5. -4 thick darkness; जीमूतैश्च दिशः सर्वाश्चक्रे तिमिरदुर्दिनाः Mb. (दुर्दिनायते Den. Ā. to become cloudy.) -दिवसः a dark or rainy day; Pt.1.173. -दुरूटः, -ढः 1 an unbeliever -2 an abusive word. -दृश a. 1 disagreeable to the sight, disgusting; दुर्दृशं तत्र राक्षसं घोररूपमपश्यत्सः Mb.1.2.298. -2 difficult to be seen; पादचारमिवादित्यं निष्पतन्तं सुदुर्दृशम् Rām.7.33.5. -दृष्ट a. illjudged or seen, wrongly decided; Y.2.35. -दैवम् ill-luck, misfortune. -द्यूतम् an unfair game. -द्रुमः onion (green). -धर a. 1 irresistible, difficult to be stopped. -2 difficult to be borne or suffered; दुर्धरेण मदनेन साद्यते Ghat.11; Ms.7.28. -3 difficult to be accomplished. -4 difficult to be kept in memory. (-रः) quicksilver. -धर्ष a. 1 inviolable, unassailable. -2 inaccessible; संयोजयति विद्यैव नीचगापि नरं सरित् । समुद्रमिव दुर्धर्षं नृपं भाग्य- मतः परम् ॥ H. Pr.5. -3 fearful, dreadful. -4 haughty. -धी a. stupid, silly. -नयः 1 arrogance. -2 immorality. -3 evil strategy; उन्मूलयितुमीशो$हं त्रिवर्गमिव दुर्नयः Mu.5.22. -नामकः piles. ˚अरिः a kind of bulbous root (Mar. सुरण). -नामन् m. f. a cockle. (-n.) piles. -निग्रह a. irrepressible, unruly; मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् Bg.6.35. -निमित a. carelessly put or placed on the ground; पदे पदे दुर्निमिते गलन्ती R.7.1. -निमित्तम् 1 a bad omen; R.14.5. -2 a bad pretext. -निवार, -निवार्य a. difficult to be checked or warded off, irresistible, invincible. -नीतम् 1 misconduct, bad policy, demerit, misbehaviour; दुर्णीतं किमि- हास्ति Pt.2.21; H.1.49. -2 ill-luck. -नीतिः f. maladministration; दुर्नीतिं तव वीक्ष्य कोपदहनज्वालाजटालो$पि सन्; Bv.4.36. -नृपः a bad king; आसीत् पितृकुलं तस्य भक्ष्यं दुर्नृप- रक्षसः Rāj. T.5.417. -न्यस्त a. badly arranged; दुर्न्यस्त- पुष्परचितो$पि Māl.9.44. -बल a. 1 weak, feeble. -2 enfeebled, spiritless; दुर्बलान्यङ्गकानि U.1.24. -3 thin, lean, emaciated; U.3. -4 small, scanty, little; स्वार्थोप- पत्तिं प्रति दुर्बलाशः R.5.12. -बाध a. Unrestrained (अनिवार); दुर्बाधो जनिदिवसान्मम प्रवृद्धः (आधिः); Mv.6.28. -बाल a. 1 bald-headed. -2 void of prepuce. -3 having crooked hair. -बुद्धि a. 1 silly, foolish, stupid. -2 perverse, evil-minded, wicked; धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः (समा- गताः) Bg.1.23 -बुध a. wicked-minded, silly; Mb. 11.4.18. -बोध a. unintelligible, unfathomable, inscrutable; निसर्गदुर्बोधमबोधविक्लवाः क्व भूपतीनां चरितं क्व जन्तवः Ki. 1.6. -भग a. 1 unfortunate, unlucky; श्रीवल्लभं दुर्भगाः (निन्दन्ति) Pt.1.415. -2 not possessed of good features, ill-looking. -भगा 1 a wife disliked by her husband; दुर्भगाभरणप्रायो ज्ञानं भारः क्रियां विना H.1.17. -2 an ill-tempered woman, a shrew. -3 a widow; -भर a. insupportable, burdensome, heavily laden with (comp.); ततो राजाब्रवीदेतं बहुव्यसनदुर्भरः Ks.112.156. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. (ग्यम्) ill-luck. -भावना 1 an evil thought. -2 a bad tendency. -भिक्षम् 1 scarcity of provisions, dearth, famine; Y.2.147; Ms.8.22; उत्सवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे... यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः H.1.71; Pt.2. -2 want in general. -भिद, -भेद, -भेद्य a. firm; सुजनस्तु कनकघटवद् दुर्भेद्यश्चाशु संध्येयः Subhāṣ. -भृत्यः a bad servant. -भिषज्यम् incurability; Bṛi. Up.4.3.14. -भ्रातृ m. a bad brother. -मङ्कु a. obstinate, disobedient. -मति a. 1 silly, stupid, foolish, ignorant. -2 wicked, evilminded; न सांपरायिकं तस्य दुर्मतेर्विद्यते फलम् Ms.11.3. -मद a. drunken, ferocious, maddened, infatuated; Bhāg.1.15.7. -दः foolish pride, arrogance. -दम् the generative organ; ग्रामकं नाम विषयं दुर्मदेन समन्वितः Bhāg.4.25.52. -मनस् a. troubled in mind, discouraged, disspirited, sad, malancholy; अद्य बार्हस्पतः श्रीमान् युक्तः पुष्येण राघवः । प्रोच्यतै ब्राह्मणैः प्राज्ञैः केन त्वमसि दुर्मनाः ॥ Rām. [दुर्मनायते Den. Ā. to be troubled in mind, be sad, meditate sorrowfully, to be disconsolate, become vexed or fretted; Māl.3]. -मनुष्यः a bad or wicked man. -मन्त्रः, -मन्त्रितम्, -मन्त्रणा evil advice, bad counsel; दुर्मन्त्रान्नृपतिर्विनश्यति; Pt.1.169. -मरम् a hard or difficult death; Mb.14.61.9. -मरी a kind of दूर्वा grass. -मरणम् violent or unnatural death. -मर्ष a. 1 unbearable; Bhāg.6.5.42. -2 obstinate, hostile. -मर्षणः N. of Viṣṇu. -मर्षित a. provocated, encouraged; एवं दुर्मर्षितो राजा स मात्रा बभ्रुवाहनः Mb.14. 79.13, -मर्याद a. immodest, wicked. -मल्लिका, -मल्ली a minor drama, comedy, farce; S. D.553. -मित्रः 1 a bad friend. -2 an enemy. -मुख a. 1 having a bad face, hideous, ugly; Bh.1.9. -2 foul-mouthed, abusive, scurrilous; Bh.2.69. (-खः) 1 a horse. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 N. of a serpent king (Nm.) -4 N. of a monkey (Nm.) -5 N. of a year (29th year out of 6 years cycle). -मूल्य a. highly priced, dear. -मेधस् a. silly, foolish, dull-headed, dull; Pt.1. (-m.) a dunce, dull-headed man, blockhead; ग्रन्थानधीत्य व्याकर्तु- मिति दुर्मेधसो$प्यलम् Śi.2.26. -मैत्र a. unfriendly, hostile; Bhāg.7.5.27. -यशस् n. ill-repute, dishonour. -योगः 1 bad or clumsy contrivance. -2 a bad combination. -योध, -योधन a. invincible, unconquerable. (-नः) the eldest of the 11 sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra and Gāndhārī. [From his early years he conceived a deep hatred for his cousins the Pāṇḍavas, but particularly Bhīma, and made every effort he could to compass their destruction. When his father proposed to make Yudhiṣṭhira heir-apparent, Duryodhana did not like the idea, as his father was the reigning sovereign, and prevailed upon his blind father to send the Pāṇḍavas away into exile. Vāraṇāvata was fixed upon as their abode, and under pretext of constructing a palatial building for their residence, Duryodhana caused a palace to be built mostly of lac, resin and other combustible materials, thereby hoping to see them all destroyed when they should enter it. But the Paṇḍavas were forewarned and they safely escaped. They then lived at Indraprastha, and Yudhiṣṭhira performed the Rājasuya sacrifice with great pomp and splendour. This event further excited the anger and jealousy of Duryodhana, who was already vexed to find that his plot for burning them up had signally failed, and he induced his father to invite the Pāṇḍavas to Hastināpura to play with dice (of which Yudhiṣṭhira was particularly fond). In that gambling-match, Duryodhana, who was ably assisted by his maternal uncle Śakuni, won from Yudhiṣṭhira everything that he staked, till the infatuated gambler staked himself, his brothers, and Draupadī herself, all of whom shared the same fate. Yudhiṣṭhira, as a condition of the wager, was forced to go to the forest with his wife and brothers, and to remain there for twelve years and to pass one additional year incognito. But even this period, long as it was, expired, and after their return from exile both the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas made great preparations for the inevitable struggle and the great Bhāratī war commenced. It lasted for eighteen days during which all the Kauravas, with most of their allies, were slain. It was on the last day of the war that Bhīma fought a duel with Duryodhana and smashed his thigh with his club.] मोघं तवेदं भुवि नामधेयं दुर्योधनेतीह कृतं पुरस्तात् न हीह दुर्योधनता तवास्ति पलायमानस्य रणं विहाय Mb.4.65.17. -योनि a. of a low birth, न कथंचन दुर्योनिः प्रकृतिं स्वां नियच्छति Ms.1.59. -लक्ष्य a. difficult to be seen or perceived, hardly visible. -क्ष्यम् bad aim; मनः प्रकृत्यैव चलं दुर्लक्ष्यं च तथापि मे Ratn.3.2. -लभ a. 1 difficult to be attained, or accomplished; R.1.67;17.7; Ku.4.4;5.46,61; दुर्लभं भारते जन्म मानुष्यं तत्र दुर्लभम् Subhāṣ. -2 difficult to be found or met with, scarce, rare; शुद्धान्तदुर्लभम् Ś.1.17. -3 best, excellent, eminent. -ग्रामः a village situated close to a large village and inhabited by the free-holders (अग्र- हारोपजीविनः); Māna.1.79-8. -4 dear, beloved. -5 costly. -ललित a. 1 spoilt by fondling, fondled too much, hard to please; हा मदङ्कदुर्ललित Ve.4; V.2.8; Māl.9. -2 (hence) wayward, naughty, illbred, unruly; स्पृहयामि खलु दुर्ललितायास्मै Ś.7. (-तम्) waywardness, rudeness. -लेख्यम् a forged document. Y.2.91. -वच a. 1 difficult to be described, indescribable. अपि वागधिपस्य दुर्वचं वचनं तद् विदधीत विस्मयम् Ki.2.2. -2 not to be talked about. -3 speaking improperly, abusing. (-चम्) abuse, censure, foul language. -वचस् n. abuse, censure; असह्यं दुर्वचो ज्ञातेर्मेघा- न्तरितरौद्रवत् Udb. -वर्ण a. bad-coloured. -र्णः 1 bad colour. -2 impurity; यथा हेम्नि स्थितो वह्निर्दुवर्णं हन्ति धातु- जम् Bhāg.12.3.47. (-र्णम्) 1 silver. दुर्वर्णभित्तिरिह सान्द्रसुधासुवर्णा Śi.4.28. -2 a kind of leprosy. -वस a. difficult to be resided in. -वसतिः f. painful residence; R.8.94. -वह a. heavy, difficult to be borne; दुर्वहगर्भखिन्नसीता U.2.1; Ku.1.11. -वाच् a. speaking ill. (-f.) 1 evil words, abuse. -2 inelegant language or speech. -वाच्य a. 1 difficult to be spoken or uttered. -2 abusive, scurrilous. -3 harsh, cruel (as words). (-च्यम्) 1 censure, abuse. -2 scandal, ill-repute. -वातः a fart. ˚वातय Den. P. to break wind or fart; इत्येके विहसन्त्येनमेके दुर्वातयन्ति च Bhāg.11.23.4. -वादः slander, defamation, calumny. -वार, -वारण a. irresistible, unbearable; R.14.87; किं चायमरिदुर्वारः पाणौ पाशः प्रचेतसः Ku.2.21. -वासना 1 evil propensity, wicked desire; कः शत्रुर्वद खेददानकुशलो दुर्वासनासंचयः Bv. 1.86. -2 a chimera. -वासस् a. 1 ill-dressed. -2 naked. (-m.) N. of a very irascible saint or Ṛiṣi, son of Atri and Anasūyā. (He was very hard to please, and he cursed many a male and female to suffer misery and degradation. His anger, like that of Jamadagni, has become almost proverbial.) -वाहितम् a heavy burden; उरोजपूर्णकुम्भाङ्का सदुर्वाहितविभ्रमा Rāj. T.4.18. -विगाह, -विगाह्य a. difficult to be penetrated or fathomed, unfathomable. -विचिन्त्य inconceivable, inscrutable -विद a. difficult to be known or discovered; नूनं गतिः कृतान्तस्य प्राज्ञैरपि सुदुर्विदा Mb.7.78. 2. -विदग्ध 1 unskilled, raw, foolish, stupid, silly. -2 wholly ignorant. -3 foolishly puffed up, elated. vainly proud; वृथाशस्त्रग्रहणदुर्विदग्ध Ve.3; ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं ब्रह्मापि नरं न रञ्जयति Bh.2.3. -विद्ध a. Badly perforated (a pearl); Kau. A.2.11. -विद्य a. uneducated; Rāj. T.1.354. -विध a. 1 mean, base, low. -2 wicked, vile. -3 poor, indigent; विदधाते रुचिगर्वदुर्विधम् N.2.23. -4 stupid, foolish, silly; विविनक्ति न बुद्धिदुर्विधः Śi.16.39. -विनयः misconduct, imprudence. -विनीत a. 1 (a) badly educated, ill-mannered; ill-behaved, wicked; शासितरि दुर्विनीतानाम् Ś.1.24. (b) rude, naughty, mischievous. -2 stubborn, obstinate. (-तः) 1 a restive or untrained horse. -2 a wayward person, reprobate. -विपाक a. producing bad fruit; श्रितासि चन्दनभ्रान्त्या दुर्विपाकं विषद्रुमम् U.1.46. (-कः) 1 bad result or consequence; U.1.4; किं नो विधिरिह वचने$प्यक्षमो दुर्विपाकः Mv. 6.7. -2 evil consequences of acts done either in this or in a former birth. -विभाव्य a. inconceivable; also दुर्विभाव; असद्वृत्तेरहो वृत्तं दुर्विभावं विधेरिव Ki.11.56. -विमर्श a. difficult to be tried or examined; यो दुर्विमर्शपथया निजमाययेदं सृष्ट्वा गुणान्विभजते तदनुप्रविष्टः Bhāg.1.49.29. -विलसितम् a wayward act, rudeness, naughtiness; डिम्भस्य दुर्विलसितानि मुदे गुरूणाम् B. R.4.6. -विलासः a bad or evil turn of fate; U.1. -विवाहः a censurable marriage; इतरेषु तु शिष्टेषु नृशंसानृतवादिनः । जायन्ते दुर्विवाहेषु ब्रह्मधर्मद्विषः सुताः ॥ Ms.3.41. -विष a. ill-natured, malignant. (-षः) N. of Śiva. -विषह a. unbearable, intolerable, irresistible. (-हः) N. of Śiva. -वृत्त a. 1 vile, wicked, ill-behaved. -2 roguish. (-त्तम्) misconduct, ill-behaviour. दुर्वृत्तवृत्तशमनं तव देवि शीलम् Devīmāhātmya. -वृत्तिः f. 1 misconduct. -2 misery, want, distress. -3 fraud. -वृष्टिः f. insufficient rain, drought. -वेद a. difficult to be known or ascertained. -व्यवहारः a wrong judgment in law. -व्यवहृतिः f. ill-report or rumour. -व्यसनम् 1 a fond pursuit or resolve; Mu.3. -2 bad propensity, vice; तेन दुर्व्यसनेनासीद्भोजने$पि कदर्थना Ks.73.73. -व्रत a. not conforming to rules, disobedient. -हुतम् a badly offered sacrifice. -हृद् a. wicked-hearted, ill-disposed, inimical; अकुर्वतोर्वां शुश्रूषां क्लिष्टयोर्दुर्हृदा भृशम् Bhāg.1.45.9. (-m.) an enemy. -हृदय a. evil-minded, evil-intentioned, wicked. -हृषीक a. having defective organs of sense.
dus दुस् A prefix to nouns and sometimes to verbs meaning 'bad, evil, wicked, inferior, hard or difficult, &c.' (N. B. The स् of दुस् is changed to र् before vowels and soft consonants, see दुर्; to a Visarga before sibilants, to श् before च् and छ्, and to ष् before क् and प्.) -Comp. -उपस्थान a. difficult to be approached; यो रणे दुरुपस्थानो हस्तरोधं दधद् धनुः Bk.5.32. -कर a. 1 wicked, acting badly; काँल्लोकांस्तु गमिष्यामि कृत्वा कर्म सुदुष्करम् Mb.12. 27.18. -2 hard to be done or accomplished, arduous, difficult; वक्तुं सुकरं कर्तुं दुष्करम् 'sooner said than done'; Amaru.46; Mk.3.1.; Ms.7.55. (-रम्) 1 a difficult or painful task or act, difficulty. -2 atmosphere, ether. -कर्मन् n. 1 any bad act, sin, crime. -2 any difficult or painful act. -3 A wicked man; ततो वसति दुष्कर्मा नरके शाश्वतीः समाः Mb. -कालः 1 bad times; दुष्काले$पि कलाव- सज्जनरुचौ प्राणैः परं रक्षता Mu.7.5. -2 the time of universal destruction. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -कुलम् a bad or low family; (आददीत) स्त्रीरत्नं दुष्कुलादपि Ms.2.238. -कुलीन a. low-born. -कुह a. hypocritical; अतीन्द्रियेणात्मनि दुष्कुहो$यं मया जनो योजयितुं न शक्यः Bu. Ch.1.18. -कृत्, -कृतिन् m. a wicked person; विनाशाय च दुष्कृताम् Bg.4.8; पुनः पुनर्दुष्कृतिनं निनिन्द R.14.57. -कृतम्, -कृतिः f. a sin, misdeed; उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते Bg.2.5; (ददर्श) ततस्तान् भिद्यमानांश्च कर्मभिः दुष्कृतैः स्वकैः Rām.7.21.21. -क्रम a. ill-arranged, unmethodical, unsystematic. -क्रिया a misdemeanour, bad act. -क्रीत a. not properly purchased; क्रीत्वा मूल्येन यो द्रव्यं दुष्क्रीतं मन्यते क्रयी Nārada Smṛiti. -चर a. 1 hard to be performed or accomplished, arduous, difficult; चरतः किल दुश्चरं तपस्तृण- बिन्दोः परिशङ्कितः पुरा R.8.79; Ku.7.65. -2 inaccessible, unapproachable. -3 acting ill, behaving wickedly. (-रः) 1 a bear. -2 a bi-valve shell. ˚चारिन् a. practising very austere penance. -चरित a. wicked, ill-behaved, abandoned. (-तम्) misbehaviour, ill-conduct; तथा दुश्चरितं सर्वं वेदे त्रिवृति मज्जति Ms.11.263. -चर्मन् a. affected with a disease of the skin, leprous. (-m.) 1 a circumcised man, or one whose prepuce is naturally wanting. -चिकित्स्य a. difficult to be cured, incurable. सुदुश्चिकि- त्स्यस्य भवस्य मृत्योर्भिषक्तमं त्वाद्य गतिं गताः स्म Bhāg.4.3.38. -चिक्यम् the third लग्नराशि; दुश्चिक्यं स्यात्तृतीयकम् Jyotistattvam. -चित्त a. melancholy, sad. -चेष्टितम् misconduct, error. -च्यवनः an epithet of Indra; अत्तुं महेन्द्रियं भागमेति दुश्च्यवनो$धुना Bk.5.11. -च्यावः an epithet of Śiva. -च्छद a difficult to be clothed, tattered. -तर a. (दुष्टर or दुस्तर) 1 difficult to be crossed; तितीर्षुर्दुस्तरं मोहादुडुपेनास्मि सागरम् R.1.2; Ms;4.242; प्रविशेन्मुखमाहेयं दुस्तरं वा महार्णवम् Pt.1.111. -2 difficult to be subdued, insuperable, invincible. -3 not to be surpassed or excelled. -4 difficult to be borne or endured. -तर्कः false reasoning. -पच (दुष्पच) a. difficult to be digested. -पतनम् 1 falling badly. -2 a word of abuse, abusive epithet (अपशब्द). -परिग्रह a. difficult to be seized, taken, or kept; Pt.1.67. लोकाधाराः श्रियो राज्ञां दुरापा दुष्परिग्रहाः Kām. (-हः) a bad wife. -पान a. difficult to be drunk. -पार a. 1 difficult to be crossed. -2 difficult to be accomplished. -पूर a. difficult to be filled or satisfied; दुष्पूरो- दरपूरणाय पिबति स्रोतःपतिं वाडवः Bh.; Bg.3.39. -प्रकाश a. obscure, dark, dim. -प्रक्रिया little authority; Rāj. T.8.4. -प्रकृति a. ill-tempered. evilnatured. -प्रजस् a. having bad progeny. -प्रज्ञ (दुष्प्रज्ञ) a. weakminded, stupid. -प्रज्ञानम् bad intellect. -प्रणीत a. ill-arranged or managed. (-तम्) impolitic conduct; Mb.8.5.2. -प्रतर a. difficult to be overcome or understood; धर्मं सूक्ष्मतरं वाच्यं तत्र दुष्प्रतरं त्वया Mb.12.19.7. -प्रतीक a. difficult to know or recognise; दुष्प्रतीकमरण्ये$स्मिन्किं तात वनमागतः Rām.2.1.5. -प्रद a. causing pain or sorrow; अद्य भीताः पलायन्तु दुष्प्रदास्ते दिशो दश Rām.2.16.29. -प्रधर्ष, -प्रधृष्य 1 un assailable; see दुर्धर्ष; सा दुष्प्रधर्षा मनसापि हिंस्रैः R.2.27. -2 secure from assault, intangible. -प्रमेय a. immeasurable. -प्रवादः slander, calumnious report, scandal. -प्रवृत्तिः f. bad news, evil report; तेषां शूर्पणखैवैका दुष्प्रवृत्तिहराभवत् R.12.51. -प्रसह (दुष्प्रसह) a. 1 irresistible, terrible. -2 hard to bear or endure; M.5.1; R.3.58. -प्राप, -प्रापण a. unattainable, hard to get; R.1.48; असंयता- त्मना योगो दुष्प्राप इति मे मतिः Bg.6.36. -प्रीति f. displeasure. -मरम् a sad demise; अकाले दुर्मरमहो यज्जीवामस्तया विना Bk.6.14. -शंस a. Ved. evil-minded, malevolent, wicked. -शक, -शक्त a.powerless, weak. -शकुनम् a bad omen. -शला N. of the only daughter of धृतराष्ट्र given in marriage to Jayadratha. -शासन a. difficult to be managed or governed, intractable. (-नः) N. of one of the 1 sons of धृतराष्ट्र. [He was brave and warlike, but wicked and intractable. When Yudhiṣṭhira staked and lost even Draupadī, Duhśāsana dragged her into the assembly by her hair and began to strip her of every clothing; but Krisna, ever ready to help the distressed, covered her from shame and ignominy. Bhīma was so much exasperated at this dastardly act of Duhśāsana that he vowed in the assembly that he would not rest till he had drunk the villain's blood. On the 16th day of the great war Bhīma encountered Duhśāsana in a single combat, killed him with ease, and drank, according to his resolution, his blood to his heart's content.] -शील (दुश्शील) a. ill-mannered or ill behaved, reprobate. -शृङ्गी a disloyal wife. -ष्ठु see दुस्थ a. unsettled, in calamity; कथं दुष्ठुः स्वयं धर्मे प्रजास्त्वं पालयिष्यसि Bk.6.132. -संचार a. difficult to be passed; दुःसंचारासु नगरवीथीषु; Pt.1.173. -षम (दुःषम or दुष्षम), -सम (दुःसम or दुस्सम) a. 1 uneven, unlike, unequal. -2 adverse, unfortunate, -3 evil, improper, bad. -षमम्, -समम् ind. ill, wickedly. -सत्त्वम् an evil being. -सथः 1 a dog. -2 a cock; L. D. B. -संधान, -संधेय a. difficult to be united or reconciled. -मृद्धटवत् सुखभेद्यो दुःसन्धानश्च दुर्जनो भवति Subhāṣ. -संस्थित a. very sinful or ugly to look at; Rām.2.9.4. -सह (दुस्सह) a. unbearable, irresistible, insupportable. भवत्यनिष्टादपि नाम दुःसहात् Ku. -साक्षिन् m. a false witness. -साध, -साध्य a. 1 difficult to be accomplished or managed. -2 difficult to be cured. -3 difficult to be conquered. -साधिन् m. door-keeper; L. D. B. -सुप्त a. having bad dreams (in one's sleep). -स्थ, -स्थित a. (written also दुस्थ and दुस्थित) 1 ill-conditioned, poor, miserable. -2 suffering pain, unhappy, distressed; कल्पान्तदुःस्था वसुधा तथोहे Bk. -3 unwell, ill. -4 unsteady, disquieted. -5 foolish, unwise, ignorant. -स्थम् ind. badly, ill, unwell; दुःस्थं तिष्ठसि यच्च पथ्यमधुना कर्तास्मि तच्छ्रो- ष्यसि; Amaru. -स्थितिः f. 1 bad condition or situation, unhappiness, misery. -2 instability. -स्पृष्टम् (दुः-दुस्पृ- ष्टम्) 1 slight touch or contact. -2 slight touch or action of the tongue which produces the sounds य्, र्, ल् and व्; दुस्पृष्टश्चेति विज्ञेयो लृकारः प्लुत एव च. -स्फाटः a kind of weapon; L. D. B. -स्मर a. hard or painful to remember; U.6.34. -स्वप्नः a bad dream.
deśaḥ देशः [दिश्-अच्] 1 A place or spot in general; देशः को नु जलावसेकशिथिलः Mk.3.12 (often used after words like कपोल, स्कन्ध, अंस, नितम्ब &c., without any meaning; स्कन्धदेशे Ś.1.19 'on the shoulder'). -2 A region, country, province, land, territory; यं देशं श्रयते तमेव कुरुते बाहुप्रतापार्जितम् H.1.15. -3 A department, part, side, portion (as of a whole); as in एकदेश, एकदेशीय q. v. -4 An institute, an ordinance. -5 Range, compass; दृष्टिदेशः Pt.2. -Comp. -अटनम् roaming through a country, travelling. -अतिथिः a foreigner. -अन्तरम् 1 another country, foreign parts; Ms.5.78. -2 longitude. -अन्तरिन् m. a foreigner. -आचारः, -धर्मः a local law or custom, the usage or custom of any country; देश- धर्मान् जातिधर्मान् कुलधर्मांश्च शाश्वतान् Ms.1.118. -कष्टकः a public calamity. -कारी N. of a Rāgiṇī. -कालौ m. (du.) time and place; न देशकालौ हि यथार्थधर्माववेक्षते कामरतिर्मनुष्यः Rām.4.33.55. (-लम्) ind. according to time and place; सत्पात्रं महती श्रद्धा देशकालं यथोचितम् Pt.2.72. -कालज्ञ a. knowing the proper place and time. -च्युतिः banishment or flight from one's country. -ज, -जात a. 1 native, indigenous. -2 produced in the right country. -3 genuine, of genuine descent. -दृष्ट a. 1 seen in a country. -2 customary in a place; Ms.8.3. -भाषा the dialect of a country; आलोच्य लक्ष्यमधिगम्य च देशभाषाः Kāvyāl.4.35. -रूपम् propriety, fitness; Mb.12. -विद्ध a. properly perforated (pearl); Kau. A.2.11. -वृत्तम् a circle depending upon its relative position to the place of the observer. -व्यवहारः a local usage, custom of the country.
dhātuḥ धातुः [धा-आधारे तुन्] 1 A constituent or essential part, an ingredient. -2 An element, primary or elementary substance, i. e. पृथिवी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु and आकाश; Bhāg.7.15.6. -3 A secretion, primary fluid or juice, essential ingredients of the body (which are considered to be 7:-- रसासृङ्मांसमेदो$स्थिमज्जाशुक्राणि धातवः, or sometimes ten if केश, त्वच् and स्नायु be added); Mb.3.213.1. -4 A humour or affection of the body, (i.e. वात, पित्त and कफ); यस्यात्मबुद्धिः कुणपे त्रिधातुके Bhāg.1.84.13. -5 A mineral, metal, metallic ore; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र Ku.1.7; त्वामालिख्य प्रणयकुपितां धातुरागैः शिलायाम् Me.17; R.4.71; Ku.6.51. -6 A verbal root; भूवादयो धातवः P.I.3.1; पश्चादध्ययनार्थस्य धातोरधिरिवाभवत् R.15.9. -7 The soul. -8 The Supreme Spirit; धातुप्रसादान्महिमानमात्मनः Kaṭha. -9 An organ of sense. -1 Any one of the properties of the five elements, i. e. रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द; तत्र तत्र हि दृश्यन्ते धातवः पाञ्चभौतिकाः । तेषां मनुष्यास्तर्केण प्रमाणानि प्रचक्षते Mb.6.5.11. -11 A bone. -12 A part, portion. -13 A fluid mineral of a red colour. -14 Ved. A supporter. -15 Anything to be drunk, as milk &c. -f. A milch cow. -Comp. -उपलः chalk. -काशीशम्, -कासीसम् red sulphate of iron. -कुशल a. skilful in working in metals, metallurgist. -क्रिया metallurgy, mineralogy -क्षयः waste of the bodily humours, a wasting disease, a kind of consumption. -गर्भः, -स्तपः a receptacle for ashes, Dagoba; Buddh. ˚कुम्भः a relic urn. -ग्राहिन् m. calamine. -घ्नम्, -नाशनम् sour gruel (prepared from the fermentation of rice-water). -चूर्णम् mineral powder. -जम् bitumen -द्रावकः borax. -पः the alimentary juice, the chief of the seven essential ingredients of the body. -पाठः a list of roots arranged according to Pāṇini's grammatical system (the most important of these lists called धातुपाठ being supposed to be the work of Pāṇini himself, as supplementary to his Sūtras). -पुष्टिः f. nutrition of the bodily humours. -प्रसक्त a. devoted to alchemy; -भृत् m. a mountain. -मलम् 1 impure excretion of the essential fluids of the body; कफपित्तमलाः केशः प्रस्वेदो नखरोम च । नेत्रविट् चक्षुषः स्नेहो धातूनां क्रमशो मलाः ॥ Suśruta. -2 lead. -माक्षिकम् 1 sulphuret of iron. -2 a mineral substance. -मारिणी borax. -मारिन् m. sulphur. -रसः a mineral or metalic fluid; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र (भूर्जत्वचः) Ku.1.7. -राजकः, -कम् semen. -वल्लभम् borax. -वादः 1 mineralogy, metallurgy. -2 alchemy. -वादिन् m. a mineralogist. -विष् f. lead. -वैरिन् m. sulphur. -शेखरन् green sulphate of iron, green vitriol. -शोधनम्, -संभवम् lead. -साम्यम् good health, (equilibrium of the three humours). -हन् m. sulphur.
nāśaḥ नाशः [नश्-भावे घञ्] 1 Disappearance; गता नाशं तारा उपकृतमसाधाविव जने Mk.5.25. -2 Frustration, destruction, ruin, loss; नेहाभिक्रमनाशो$स्ति Bg.2.4; R.8.88;12. 67: so वित्त˚, बिद्धि˚ &c. -3 Death. -4 Misfortune, calamity. -5 Abandonment, desertion. -6 Flight, retreat. -7 (In arith.) Elimination. -8 Want of apprehension, non-perception (अनुपलम्भ).
nir निर् ind. A substitute for निस् before vowels and soft consonants conveying the senses of 'out of', 'away from'. 'without', 'free from', and be frequently expressed by 'less', 'un', used with the noun; see the compounds given below; see निस् and cf. अ also. -Comp. -अंश a. 1 whole, entire. -2 not entitled to any share of the ancestral property. -अक्षः the place of no latitute; i. e. the terrestrial equator (in astronomy). ˚देशः 1 a first meridian, as Laṅkā. -2 a place where the sun is always vertical and the days and nights are equal. -3 the equatorial region. -अक्षर a. Not knowing the letters, illiterate. -अग्नि a. having lost or neglected the consecrated fire; स संन्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः Bg.6.1. -अग्र (क) a. divisible without remainder. -अङ्कुश a. 'not curbed by a hook', unchecked, uncontrolled; unruly, independent, completely free, unfettered; निरङ्कुश इव द्विपः Bhāg.; कामो निकामनिरङ्कुशः Gīt.7; निरङ्कुशाः कवयः Sk.; Bh.3.15; Mv.3.39; विनयरुचयः सदैव निरङ्कुशाः Mu.3.6. ˚ता self-will, independence. -अघ a. sinless, blameless. -अङ्ग a. 1 having no parts. -2 deprived of expedients or resources. -अजिन a. skinless. -अञ्जन a. 1 without collyrium; निरञ्जने साचिविलोलिकं दृशौ Ki.8.52. -2 unstained, untinged. -3 free from falsehood; तदा विद्वान् पुण्यपापे विधूय निरञ्जनं परमं साम्यमुपैति Munda 3.1.3. -4 simple, artless. (-नः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 N. of the Supreme Being. (-ना) 1 the day of full moon. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -अतिशय a. unsurpassed, matchless, unrivalled; निरतिशयं गरिमाणं तेन जनन्याः स्मरन्ति विद्वांसः Pt.1.3. (-यः) the Supreme Being. -अत्यय a. 1 free from danger, secure, safe; तद्भवान् वृत्तसंपन्नः स्थितः पथि निरत्यये Rām.4.29.12; R.17.53. -2 free from fault, unblamable, faultless, disinterested; Ki.1.12, शक्तिरर्थपतिषु स्वयंग्रहं प्रेम कारयति वा निरत्ययम् 13.61. -3 completely successful. -अधिष्ठान a. 1 supportless. -2 independent. -अध्व a. one who has lost one's way. -अनुक्रोश a. pitiless, merciless, hard-hearted. (-शः) mercilessness, hard-heartedness. -अनुग a. having no followers. -अनुग्रह a. Ungracious, unkind; Bhāg.5. 12.7. -अनुनासिक a. not nasal. -अनुमान a. not bound to conclusions or consequences. -अनुयोज्य a. unblamable, faultless. -अनुरोध a. 1 unfavourable, unfriendly. -2 unkind, unamiable; Māl.1. -अन्तर a. -1 constant, perpetual, uninterrupted, incessant; निरन्त- राधिपटलैः Bv.1.16; निरन्तरास्वन्तरवातवृष्टिषु Ku.5.25. -2 having no intervening or intermediate space, having no interval, close, closely contiguous, in close contact; मूढे निरन्तरपयोधरया मयैव Mk.5.15; हृदयं निरन्तरबृहत्कठिनस्तन- मण्डलावरणमप्यभिदन् Śi.9.66. -3 compact, dense; परितो रुद्धनिरन्तराम्बराः Śi.16.76. -4 coarse, gross. -5 faithful, true (as a friend). -6 not hidden from view. -7 not different, similar, identical. -8 sincere, sympathetic; सुहृदि निरन्तरचित्ते (निवेद्य दुःखं सुखीभवति) Pt.1.341. -9 abounding in, full of; निपात्यमानैर्ददृशे निरन्तरम् Rām.7.7. 54; गुणैश्च निरन्तराणि Mv.4.12. (-रम्) ind. 1 without interruption, constantly, continually, incessantly. -2 without intervening space or interval. -3 closely, tightly, firmly; (परिष्वजस्व) कान्तैरिदं मम निरन्तरमङ्गमङ्गैः Ve.3.27; परिष्वजेते शयने निरन्तरम् Ṛs.2.11. -4 immediately. ˚अभ्यासः constant study, diligent exercise or practice. -अन्तराल a. 1 without an intervening space, close. -2 narrow. -अन्धस् a. foodless, hungry. -अन्वय a. 1 having no progeny, childless. -2 unconnected, unrelated; Ms.8.198. -3 not agreeing with the context (as a word in a sentence). -4 without logical connection or regular sequence, unmethodical. -5 without being seen, out of sight; निरन्वयं भवेत् स्तेयम् Ms.8. 332. -6 without retinue, unaccompanied, see अन्वय. -7 sudden, unexpected; U.7. -8 exterminatory, without leaving any species or trace; प्रागाधारनिरन्वयप्रमथनादुच्छेदमे- वाकरोः... Mv.3.13; (com. नाशो द्विविधः--स्वान्वयविनाशः, निरन्वयविनाशश्चेति......निर्वापणादिना सजातीयज्वालोदयानर्हविनाशस्तु निरन्वयविनाशः ।). -अपत्रप a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold. -अपराध a. guiltless, innocent, faultless, blameless. (-धः) innocence. -अपवर्त a. 1 not turning back. -2 (in arith.) leaving no common divisor, reduced to the lowest terms. -अपवाद a. 1 blameless. -2 not admitting of any exception. -अपाय a. 1 free from harm or evil. -2 free from decay, imperishable. -3 infallible; उपायो निरपायो$यमस्माभिरभिचिन्तितः Rām.1.1.2. -अपेक्ष a. 1 not depending on, irrespective or independent of, having no need of (with loc.); न्यायनिर्णीतसारत्वा- न्निरपेक्षमिवागमे Ki.11.39. -2 disregarding, taking no notice of. -3 free from desire, secure; निरपेक्षो न कर्तव्यो भृत्यैः स्वामी कदाचन H.2.82. -4 careless, negligent, indifferent -5 indifferent to worldly attachments or pursuits; समुपोढेषु कामेषु निरपेक्षः परिव्रजेत् Ms.6.41. -6 disinterested, not expecting any reward from another; दिशि दिशि निरपेक्ष- स्तावकीनं विवृण्वन् Bv.1.5. -7 without purpose. (-क्षा) indifference, disregard. -अपेक्षित a. 1 disregarded. -2 regardless. -अपेक्षिन् a. disregarding, indifferent. -अभिभव a. 1 not subject to humiliation or disgrace. -2 not to be surpassed, unrivalled. -अभिमान a. 1 free from self-conceit, devoid of pride or egotism. -2 void of self-respect. -3 unconscious. -अभिलाष a. not caring for, indifferent to; स्वसुखनिरभिलाषः खिद्यसे लोकहेतोः Ś.5.7. -अभिसंधानम् absence of design. -अभ्र a. cloudless. -अमर्ष a. 1 void of anger, patient. -2 apathetic. -अम्बर a. naked. -अम्बु a. 1 abstaining from water. -2 waterless, destitute of water. -अर्गल a. without a bolt, unbarred, unobstructed, unrestrained, unimpeded, completely free; M.5; मरणसमये त्यक्त्वा शङ्कां प्रलापनिरर्गलम् Māl.5.26. (-लम्) ind. freely. -अर्थ a. 1 void of wealth, poor, indigent; स्त्रियः कृतार्थाः पुरुषं निरर्थं निष्पीडितालक्तकवत्त्यजन्ति Pt.1.194. -2 meaningless, unmeaning (as a word or sentence). -3 non-sensical. -4 vain, useless, purposeless. (-र्थः) 1 loss, detriment. -2 nonsense. -अर्थक a. 1 useless, vain, unprofitable. -2 unmeaning, nonsensical, conveying no reasonable meaning; इत्थं जन्म निरर्थकं क्षितितले$रण्ये यथा मालती S. D. -3 (a consonant) not followed by a vowel. (-कम्) an expletive; निरर्थकं तु हीत्यादि पूरणैकप्रयोजनम् Chandr.2.6. -अलंकृतिः (in Rhet.) want of ornament, simplicity. -अवकाश a. 1 without free space. -2 without leisure. -अवग्रह a. 1 'free from restraint', unrestrained, unchecked, uncontrolled, irresistible. -2 free, independent. -3 self-willed, head-strong. (-हम्) ind. 1 uninterruptedly. -2 intensely, strongly. -अवद्य a. 1 blameless, faultless, unblameable, unobjectionable; हृद्य- निरवद्यरूपो भूपो बभूव Dk.1. -2 an epithet of the Supreme Being (having no passions). -अवधि a. having no end, unlimited; कथं तूष्णीं सह्यो निरवधिरयं त्वप्रतिविधः U. 3.44;6.3; Māl.1.6. -2 continuous; महानाधिव्याधि- र्निरवधिरिदानीं प्रसरतु Māl.4.3. -अवयव a. 1 without parts. -2 indivisible. -3 without limbs. -अवलम्ब a. 1 unsupported, without support; Ś.6. -2 not affording support. -3 not depending or relying on. -अवशेष a. whole, complete, entire, (निरवशेषेण ind. completely, entirely, fully, totally). -अवसाद a. cheerful; Gīt. -अव्यय a. eternal, immutable. -अशन a. abstaining from food. (-नम्) fasting. -अश्रि a. even; Kau. A.2.11. -अष्ट a. Ved. driven away, scattered. (-ष्टः) a horse twentyfour years old. -अस्त्र a. weaponless, unarmed. -अस्थि a. boneless. -अहंकार, -अहंकृति a. free from egotism or pride, humble, lowly; Bg.12.13. -अहंकृत a. 1 having no egotism or self-consciousness. -2 without individuality. -3 unselfish. -अहम् a. free from egotism or self-conceit; ह्यनामरूपं निरहं प्रपद्ये Bhāg. 5.19.4. -आकाङ्क्ष a. 1 wishing nothing, free from desire. -2 wanting nothing to fill up or complete (as the sense of a word or sentence). -आकार a. 1 devoid of form, formless, without form. -2 ugly, deformed. -3 disguised. -4 unassuming, modest. (-रः) 1 the universal spirit, Almighty. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. ˚ज्ञानवादः the doctrine that the perception of the outer world does not arise from images impressed on the mind; Sarva. S. -आकृति a. 1 formless, shapeless. -2 deformed. (-तिः) 1 a religious student who has not duly gone through a course of study, or who has not properly read the Vedas. -2 especially, a Brāhmaṇa who has neglected the duties of his caste by not going through a regular course of study; a fool; ग्रामधान्यं यथा शून्यं यथा कूपश्च निर्जलः । यथा हुतमनग्नौ च तथैव स्यान्निराकृतौ ॥ Mb.12.36.48. -3 one who neglects the five great religious duties or yajñas; Ms.3.154. -आकाश a. leaving no free space, completely filled or occupied, -आकुल a. 1 unconfused, unperplexed, unbewildered; Ki.11.38. -2 steady, calm; सुपात्रनिक्षेपनिरा- कुलात्मना (प्रजासृजा) Śi.1.28. -3 clear. -4 perspicuous; अलिकुलसङ्कुलकुसुमसमूहनिराकुलबकुलकलापे Gīt.1. (-लम्) 1 calmness serenity. -2 perspicuity, clearness. -आक्रन्द a. not crying or complaining. (-दः) a place where no sound can be heard. -आक्रोश a. unaccused, unreviled. -आगम a. not founded on revelation or scripture, not derived from the Vedas. -आगस् a. faultless, innocent, sinless; कथमेकपदे निरागसं जनमाभाष्यमिमं न मन्यसे R.8.48. -आचार a. without approved customs or usages, lawless, barbarian. -आडम्बर a. 1 without drums. -2 without show, unostentatious. -आतङ्क a. 1 free from fear; R.1.63; निरातङ्को रङ्को विहरति चिरं कोटिकनकैः Śaṅkara (देव्यपराधक्षमापनस्तोत्रम् 6). -2 without ailment, comfortable, healthy. -3 not causing pain. -4 unchecked, unhampered; निरातङ्कः पङ्केष्विव पिशितपिण्डेषु विलसन् Māl. 5.34. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आतप a. sheltered from heat, shady, not penetrated by the sun's rays. (-पा) the night. -आदर a. disrespectful. -आदान a. 1 taking or receiving nothing; Mb.3. -2 an epithet of Buddha. -आधार a. 1 without a receptacle. -2 without support, supportless (fig. also); निराधारो हा रोदिमि कथय केषामिह पुरः G. L.4.39. -आधि a. secure, free from anxiety. -आनन्द a. cheerless, sad, sorrowful. -आन्त्र a. 1 disembowelled. -2 having the entrails hanging out. -आपद् a. free from misfortune or calamity. (-f.) prosperity. -आबाध a. 1 unvexed, unmolested, undisturbed, free from disturbance. -2 unobstructed. -3 not molesting or disturbing. -4 (in law) frivolously vexatious (as a suit or cause of complaint); e. g. अस्मद्- गृहप्रदीपप्रकाशेनायं स्वगृहे व्यवहरति Mitā. -आमय a. 1 free from disease or illness, sound, healthy, hale. -2 untainted, pure. -3 guileless. -4 free from defects or blemishes. -5 full, complete. -6 infallible. -7 not liable to failure or miscarriage. (-यः, यम्) freedom from disease or illness, health, well-being, welfare, happiness; कुरूणां पाण्डवानां च प्रतिपत्स्व निरामयम् Mb.5.78.8. (-यः) 1 a wild goat. -2 a hog or boar. -आमिष a. 1 fleshless; निरुपमरसप्रीत्या खादन्नरास्थि निरामिषम् Bh. -2 having no sensual desires or covetousness; Ms.6.49. -3 receiving no wages or remuneration. -आय a. yielding no income or revenue, profitless. -यः an idler living from hand to mouth. -आयत a. 1 full-stretched or extended; निरायतपूर्वकायाः Ś.1.8. -2 contracted, compact. -आय- -तत्वम् shortness, compactness; निरायतत्वादुदरेण ताम्यता Ki.8.17. -आयति a. one whose end is at hand; नियता लघुता निरायतेः Ki.2.14. -आयास a. not fatiguing, easy. -आयुध a. unarmed, weaponless. -आरम्भ a. abstaining from all work (in good sense); Mb.3.82.11. -आलम्ब a. 1 having no prop or support (fig. also); ऊर्ध्वबाहुं निरालम्बं तं राजा प्रत्यभाषत Rām.7.89.1; निरालम्बो लोकः कुलमयशसा नः परिवृतम् Mv.4.53. -2 not depending on another, independent. -3 self-supported, friendless, alone; निरालम्बो लम्बोदरजननि कं यामि शरणम् Jag. (-म्बा) spikenard. (-म्बम्) Brahman. -आलोक a. 1 not looking about or seeing. -2 deprived of sight. -3 deprived of light, dark; निरालोकं लोकम् Māl.5.3; Bhāg.8.24.35. -5 invisible. (-कः) an epithet of Śiva. -आवर्ण a. manifest, evident. -आश a. 1 devoid of hope, despairing or despondent of; मनो बभूवेन्दुमतीनिराशम् R.6.2. -2 depriving (one) of all hope. -आशक, -आशिन् a. hopeless; अद्य दुर्योधनो राज्याज्जीविताच्च निराशकः (भविष्यति) Mb.8.74.13. -आशङ्क a. fearless. -आशा hopelessness, despair. -आशिस् a. 1 without a boon or blessing, without virtues; आश्रमा विहिताः सर्वे वर्जयित्वा निराशिषम् Mb.12.63.13. -2 without any desire, wish or hope, indifferent; निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा Bg.4.21; जगच्छ- रण्यस्य निराशिषः सतः Ku.5.76. -आश्रय a. 1 without a prop or support, supportless, unsupported; न तिष्ठति निराश्रयं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.41. -2 friendless, destitute, alone, without shelter or refuge; निराश्रयाधुना वत्सलता. -3 not deep (as a wound). -आस्वाद a. tasteless, insipid, unsavoury. -आहार a. 'foodless', fasting, abstaining from food. (-रः) fasting; कालो$ग्निः कर्म मृद् वायुर्मनो ज्ञानं तपो जलम् । पश्चात्तापो निराहारः सर्वे$मी शुद्धिहेतवः ॥ Y.3.31. -इङ्ग a. immovable, stationary; यथा दीपो निवातस्थो निरिङ्गो ज्वलते पुनः Mb.12.46.6. -इच्छ a. without wish or desire, indifferent. -इन्द्रिय a. 1 having lost a limb or the use of it. -2 mutilated, maimed. -3 weak, infirm, frail; Kaṭh.1.1.3. -4 barren. -5 without प्रमाण or means of certain knowledge; निरिन्द्रिया ह्यमन्त्राश्च स्त्रियो$नृत- मिति स्थितिः Ms.9.18. -6 destitute of manly vigour, impotent (Ved.). -इन्धन a. destitute of fuel. -ईति a. free from the calamities of the season; निरातङ्का निरीतयः R.1.63; see ईति. -ईश्वर a. godless, atheistic. -˚वाद atheistic doctrine. -ईषम् the body of a plough. -ईह a. 1 desireless, indifferent; निरीहाणामीशस्तृणमिव तिरस्कारविषयः Mu.3.16. -2 inactive; निरीहस्य हतद्विषः R.1.24. (-हा), -निरीहता, -त्वम् 1 inactivity. -2 indifference. -उच्छ्वास a. 1 breathless, without breathing; निरुच्छ्वासं हरिं चक्रुः Rām.7.7.6. -2 narrow, contracted; उपेयुषो वर्त्म निरन्तराभिरसौ निरुच्छ्वासमनीकिनीभिः Śi.3.32. -3 dead; निरुच्छ्वासाः पुनः केचित् पतिता जगतीतले Rām.6.58.13. (-सः) absence of breath; लोका निरुच्छ्वासनिपीडिता भृशम् Bhāg.4. 8.8. -उत्तर a. 1 answerless, without a reply. -2 unable to answer, silenced. -3 having no superior. -उत्थ a. irrecoverable. -उद्धति a. not jolting (a chariot); अभूतल- स्पर्शतया निरुद्धतिः Ś.7.1. (v. l.) -उत्सव a. without festivities; विरतं गेयमृतुर्निरुत्सवः R.8.66. -उत्साह a. 1 inactive, indolent. -2 devoid of energy. (-हः) 1 absence of energy. -2 indolence. -उत्सुक a. 1 indifferent. -2 calm, tranquil. -उदक a. waterless. -उदर a. 1 having no belly or trunk. -2 thin (अतुन्दिल); श्रीमान्निरुदरो महान् Rām.3.16.31. -उद्यम, -उद्योग a. effortless, inactive, lazy, idle. उद्विग्न, -उद्वेग a. free from excitement or perturbation, sedate, calm. -उपक्रम a. 1 without a commencement. -2 incurable. -उपद्रव a. 1 free from calamity or affliction, not visited by danger or adversity, lucky, happy, undisturbed, unmolested, free from hostile attacks. -2 free from national distress or tyranny. -3 causing no affliction. -4 auspicious (as a star). -5 secure, peaceful. -उपधि a. guileless, honest; U.2.2. ˚जीवन a. leading an honest life. (v. l.). -उपपत्ति a. unsuitable. -उपपद a. 1 without any title or designation; अरे आर्यचारुदत्तं निरुपपदेन नाम्नालपसि Mk.1.18/19. -2 unconnected with a subordinate word. -उपप्लव a. 1 free from disturbance, obstacle or calamity, unharmed; निरुपप्लवानि नः कर्माणि संवृत्तानि Ś3. -2 not causing any affliction or misery. -3 an epithet of Śiva. -उपभोग a. without enjoyment; संसरति निरुपभोगं भावैरधिवासितं लिङ्गम् Sāṅ. K.4. -उपम a. peerless, matchless, incomparable. -उपसर्ग free from portents. -उपस्कृत a. not corrupted, pure; of self-denying temperament; शमेन तपसा चैव भक्त्या च निरुपस्कृतः । शुद्धात्मा ब्राह्मणो रात्रौ निदर्शनमपश्यत ॥ Mb.12.271.14. -उपहत a. 1 not injured, unhurt. -2 auspicious, lucky. -उपाख्य a. 1 unreal, false, non-existent (as वन्ध्यापुत्र). -2 immaterial. -3 invisible. (-ख्यम्) the supreme Brahman. -उपाधि (क) a. without qualities, absolute. -उपाय a. 1 without expedients, helpless. -2 unsuccessful. -उपेक्ष a. 1 free from trick or fraud. -2 not neglectful. -उष्मन् a. devoid of heat, cold. -गन्ध a. void of smell, scentless, unfragrant, inodorous; निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः. ˚पुष्पी f. the Śālmali tree. -गर्व a. free from pride. -गवाक्ष a. windowless. -गुण a. 1 stringless (as a bow). -2 devoid of all properties. -3 devoid of good qualities, bad, worthless; निर्गुणः शोभते नैव विपुलाड- म्बरो$पि ना Bv.1.115. -4 without attributes; साकारं च निराकारं सगुणं निर्गुणं विभुम् Brahmavai. P. -5 having no epithet. (-णः) the Supreme Spirit. ˚आत्मक a. having no qualities. -गृहः a. houseless, homeless; सुगृही निर्गृही- कृता Pt.39. -गौरव a. 1 without dignity, undignified. -2 devoid of respect. -ग्रन्थ a. 1 freed from all ties or hindrances; आत्मारामाश्च मुनयो निर्ग्रन्था अप्युरुक्रमे । कुर्वन्त्यहैतुकीं भक्तिम् Bhāg.1.7.1. -2 poor, possessionless, beggarly. -3 alone, unassisted. (-न्थः) 1 an idiot, a fool. -2 a gambler. -3 a saint or devotee who has renounced all worldly attachments and wanders about naked and lives as a hermit. -4 A Buddha Muni. -ग्रन्थक a. 1 clever, expert. -2 unaccompanied, alone. -3 deserted, abandoned. -4 fruitless. (-कः 1 a religious mendicant. -2 a naked devotee. -3 a gambler. -ग्रन्थिक a. clever. (-कः) a naked mendicant, a Jaina mendicant of the Digambara class. -घटम् 1 a free market. -2 a crowded market. -घण्टः See निघण्टः. -घृण a. 1 cruel, merciless, pitiless. -2 shameless, immodest. -घृणा cruelty. -घोष a. noiseless, still, calm. -जन a. 1 tenantless, uninhabited, unfrequented, lonely, desolate. -2 without any retinue or attendants; भूयश्चैवाभिरक्षन्तु निर्धनान्निर्जना इव Mb.12.151.7. (-नम्) a desert, solitude, lonely place. -जन्तु a. free from living germs; H. Yoga. -जर a. 1 young, fresh. -2 imperishable, immortal. (-रः) a deity, god; (nom. pl. निर्जराः -निर्जरसः) (-रम्) ambrosia, nectar. -जरायु a. Ved. skinless. -जल a. 1 waterless, desert, destitute of water. -2 not mixed with water. (-लः) a waste, desert. ˚एकादशी N. of the eleventh day in the bright half of Jyeṣṭha. -जाड्य free from coldness. -जिह्वः a frog. -जीव a. 1 lifeless. -2 dead; चिता दहति निर्जीवं चिन्ता दहति जीवितम्. -ज्ञाति a. having no kinsmen, alone. -ज्वर a. feverless, healthy. -दण्डः a Śūdra. -दय a. 1 merciless, cruel, pitiless, unmerciful, unkind. -2 passionate. -3 very close, firm or fast, strong, excessive, violent; मुग्धे विधेहि मयि निर्दयदन्तदंशम् Gīt.1; निर्दयरति- श्रमालसाः R.19.32; निर्दयाश्लेषहेतोः Me.18. -4 unpitied by any; निर्दया निर्नमस्कारास्तन्मनोरनुशासनम् Ms.9.239. -दयम् ind. 1 unmercifully, cruelly. -2 violently, excessively; न प्रहर्तुमलमस्मि निर्दयम् R.11.84. -दश a. more than ten days old; यदा पशुर्निर्दशः स्यादथ मेध्यो भवे- दिति Bhāg.9.7.11. -दशन a. toothless. -दाक्षिण्य a. uncourteous. -दुःख a. 1 free from pain, painless. -2 not causing pain. -दैन्य a. happy, comfortable. -दोष a. 1 faultless, defectless; न निर्दोषं न निर्गुणम् -2 guiltless, innocent. -द्रव्य a. 1 immaterial. -2 without property, poor. -द्रोह a. not hostile, friendly, well-disposed, not malicious. -द्वन्द्व a. 1 indifferent in regard to opposite pairs of feelings (pleasure or pain), neither glad nor sorry; निर्द्वन्द्वो निर्ममो भूत्वा चरिष्यामि मृगैः सह Mb.1.85.16; निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् Bg.2.45. -2 not dependent upon another, independent. -3 free from jealousy or envy. -4 not double. -5 not contested, undisputed. -6 not acknowledging two principles. -धन a. without property, poor, indigent; शशिनस्तुल्यवंशो$पि निर्धनः परिभूयते Chāṇ.82. (-नः) an old ox. ˚ता, ˚त्वम् poverty, indigence. -धर्म a. unrighteous, impious, unholy. -धूम a. smokeless. -धौत a. cleansed, rendered clean; निर्धौत- दानामलगण्डभित्तिर्वन्यः सरित्तो गज उन्ममज्ज R.5.43. -नमस्कार a. 1 not courteous or civil, not respecting any one. -2 disrespected, despised. -नर a. abandoned by men, deserted. -नाणक a. coinless, penniless; Mk.2. -नाथ a. without a guardian or master. ˚ता 1 want of protection. -2 widowhood. -3 orphanage. -नाभि a. going or reaching beyond the navel; निर्नाभि कौशेयमुपात्तबाणम् Ku.7.7. -नायक a. having no leader or ruler, anarchic. -नाशन, -नाशिन् a. expelling, banishing. -निद्र a. sleepless, wakeful. -निमित्त a. 1 causeless. -2 disinterested. -निमेष a. not twinkling. -बन्धु a. without kindred or relation, friendless. -बल n. powerless, weak, feeble. -बाध a. 1 unobstructed. -2 unfrequented, lonely, solitary. -3 unmolested. (-धः) 1 a part of the marrow. -2 a knob. -बीज a. seedless, impotent. (-जा) a sort of grape (Mar. बेदाणा). -बुद्धि a. stupid, ignorant, foolish. -बुष, -बुस a. unhusked, freed from chaff. -भक्त a. taken without eating (as a medicine). -भय a. 1 fearless, undaunted. -2 free from danger, safe, secure; निर्भयं तु भवेद्यस्य राष्ट्रं बाहुबलाश्रितम् Ms.9.255. -भर a. 1 excessive, vehement, violent, much, strong; त्रपाभरनिर्भर- स्मरशर &c. Gīt.12; तन्व्यास्तिष्ठतु निर्भरप्रणयिता मानो$पि रम्यो- दयः Amaru.47. -2 ardent. -3 fast, close (as embrace); कुचकुम्भनिर्भरपरीरम्भामृतं वाञ्छति Gīt.; परिरभ्य निर्भरम् Gīt.1. -4 sound, deep (as sleep). -5 full of, filled with (at the end of comp.); आनन्द˚, गर्व˚ &c. (-रः) a servant receiving no wages. (-रम्) excess. (-रम् ind.) 1 excessively, exceedingly, intensely. -2 soundly. -भाग्य a. unfortunate, unlucky. -भाज्य a. to be separated; स निर्भाज्यः स्वकादंशात् किंचिद्दत्वोपजीवनम् Ms.9.27. -भृतिः a. without wages, hireless. -भोगः a. not fond of pleasures. -मक्षिक a. 'free from flies', undisturbed, private, lonely. (-कम्) ind. without flies, i. e. lonely, private; कृतं भवतेदानीं निर्मक्षिकम् Ś.2,6. -मज्ज a. fatless, meagre. -मत्सर a. free from envy, unenvious; निर्मत्सरे मत्समे वत्स... वसुन्धराभारमारोप्य Rāmāyaṇachampū. -मत्स्य a. fishless. -मद a. 1 not intoxicated, sober, quiet. -2 not proud, humble. -3 sad, sorry. -4 not in rut (as an elephant). -मनुज, -मनुष्य a. tenantless, uninhabited, deserted by men. -मन्तु a. faultless, innocent. -मन्त्र a. 1 a ceremony, unaccompanied by holy texts. -2 not familiar with holy texts; Mb.12.36.43. -मन्यु, -मन्युक a. free from anger; Mb.5.133.4. -मम a. 1 free from all connections with the outer world, who has renounced all worldly ties; संसारमिव निर्ममः (ततार) R.12.6; Bg.2.71; निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः 3.3. -2 unselfish, disinterested. -3 indifferent to (with loc.); निर्ममे निर्ममो$र्थेषु मथुरां मधुराकृतिः R.15.28; प्राप्तेष्वर्थेषु निर्ममाः Mb. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -मर्याद a. 1 boundless, immeasurable. -2 transgressing the limits of right or propriety, unrestrained, unruly, sinful, criminal; मनुजपशुभिर्निर्मर्यादैर्भवद्भिरुदायुधैः Ve.3.22. -3 confused. -4 insolent, immodest. (-दम्) ind. confusedly, topsyturvy. (-दम्) confusion, disorder. -मल a. 1 free from dirt or impurities, clear, pure, stainless, unsullied (fig. also); नीरान्निर्मलतो जनिः Bv.1.63. -2 resplendent, bright; Bh.1.56. -3 sinless, virtuous; निर्मलाः स्वर्गमायान्ति सन्तः सुकृतिनो यथा Ms.8.318. (-लम्) 1 talc. -2 the remainings of an offering made to a deity. ˚उपलः a crystal. -मशक a. free from gnats. -मांस a. fleshless; स्वल्प- स्नायुवसावशेषमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकम् Bh.2.3. -मान a. 1 without self-confidence. -2 free from pride. -मानुष a. uninhabited, desolate. -मार्ग a. roadless, pathless. -मिथ्य a. not false, true; H. Yoga. -मुटः 1 a tree bearing large blossoms. -2 the sun. -3 a rogue. (-टम्) a large free market or fair. -मूल a. 1 rootless (as a tree). -2 baseless, unfounded (statement, charge &c.). -3 eradicated. -मेघ a. cloudless. -मेध a. without understanding, stupid, foolish, dull. -मोह a. free from illusion. (-हः) an epithet of Śiva. -यत्न a. inactive, lazy, dull. -यन्त्रण a. 1 unrestrained, unobstructed, uncontrolled, unrestricted. -2 unruly, self-willed, independent. (-णम्) 1 squeezing out. -2 absence of restraint, independence. -यशस्क a. without fame, discreditable, inglorious. -युक्त a. 1 constructed, built. -2 directed. -3 (in music) limited to metre and measure. -युक्ति f. 1 disunion. -2 absence of connection or government. -3 unfitness, impropriety. -युक्तिक a. 1 disjoined, unconnected. -2 illogical, unmeaning. -3 unfit, improper. -यूथ a. separated from the herd, strayed from the flock (as an elephant). -यूष = निर्यास. -योगक्षेम a. free from care (about acquisition); Bg.2. 45. -रक्त a. (-नीरक्त) colourless, faded. -रज, -रजस्क a. (-नीरज, नीरजस्क) 1 free from dust. -2 devoid of passion or darkness. (-जः) an epithet of Śiva. -रजस् (नरिजस्) a. see नीरज. (-f.) a woman not menstruating. ˚तमसा absence of passion or darkness. -रत (नीरत) a. not attached to, indifferent. -रन्ध्र a. (नीरन्ध्र) 1 without holes or interstices, very close or contiguous, thickly situated; नीरन्ध्रनीरनिचुलानि सरित्तटानि U.2.23. -2 thick, dense. -3 coarse, gross. -रव a. (-नीरव) not making any noise, noiseless; गतिविभ्रमसाद- नीरवा (रसना) R.8.58. -रस a. (नीरस) 1 tasteless, unsavoury, flavourless. -2 (fig.) insipid, without any poetic charm; नीरसानां पद्मानाम् S. D.1. -3 sapless, without juice, withered or dried up; Ś. Til.9. -4 vain, useless, fruitless; अलब्धफलनीरसान् मम विधाय तस्मिन् जने V.2.11. -5 disagreeable. -6 cruel, merciless. (-सः) the pomegranate. -रसन a. (नीरसन) having no girdle (रसना); Ki.5.11. -रुच् a. (नीरुच्) without lustre, faded, dim; परिमलरुचिराभिर्न्यक्कृतास्तु प्रभाते युवतिभिरुप- भोगान्नीरुचः पुष्पमालाः Śi.11.27. -रुज्, -रुज a. (नीरुज्, नीरुज) free from sickness, healthy, sound; नीरुजस्य किमौषधैः H.1. -रूप a. (नीरूप) formless, shapeless. (-पः) 1 air, wind. -2 a god. (-पम्) ether. -रोग a. (नीरोग) free from sickness or disease, healthy, sound; यथा नेच्छति नीरोगः कदाचित् सुचिकित्सकम् Pt.1.118. -लक्षण a. 1 having no auspicious marks, ill-featured. -2 undistinguished. -3 unimportant, insignificant. -4 unspotted. -5 having a white back. -लक्ष्य a. invisible. -लज्ज a. shameless, impudent. -लाञ्छनम् the marking of domestic animals (by perforating the nose &c.). -लिङ्ग a. having no distinguishing or characteristic marks. -लिप्त a. 1 unanointed. -2 undefiled, unsullied. -3 indifferent to. (-प्तः) 1 N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -2 a sage. -लून a. cut through or off. -लेप a. 1 unsmeared, unanointed; निर्लेपं काञ्चनं भाण्डमद्भिरेव विशुध्यति Ms.5.112. -2 stainless, sinless. (-पः) a sage. -लोभ a. free from desire or avarice, unavaricious. -लोमन् a. devoid of hair, hairless. -वंश a. without posterity, childless. -वचन a. 1 not speaking, silent. -2 unobjectionable, blameless; (for other senses see the word separately). -नम् ind. silently; माल्येन तां निर्वचनं जघान Ku.7.19. -वण, -वन a. 1 being out of a wood. -2 free from woods. -3 bare, open. -वत्सल a. not loving or fondling (esp. children); निर्वत्सले सुतशतस्य विपत्तिमेतां त्वं नानुचिन्तयसि Ve.5.3. -वर = निर्दरम् q. v. -वसु a. destitute of wealth, poor. -वाच्य a. 1 not fit to be said. -2 blameless, unobjectionable; सखीषु निर्वाच्य- मधार्ष्ट्यदूषितं प्रियाङ्गसंश्लेषमवाप मानिनी Ki.8.48. -वात a. free or sheltered from wind, calm, still; हिमनिष्यन्दिनी प्रातर्निर्वातेव वनस्थली R.15.66. (-तः) a place sheltered from or not exposed to wind; निर्वाते व्यजनम् H.2.124. -वानर a. free from monkeys. -वायस a. free from crows. -वार्य a. 1 irresistible. -2 acting fearlessly or boldly. -विकल्प, -विकल्पक a. 1 not admitting an alternative. -2 being without determination or resolution. -3 not capable of mutual relation. -4 conditioned. -5 undeliberative. -6 recognizing no such distinction as that of subject and object, or of the knower and the known; as applied to समाधि or contemplation, it is 'an exclusive concentration upon the one entity without distinct and separate consciousness of the knower, the known, and the knowing, and without even self-consciousness'; निर्विकल्पकः ज्ञातृज्ञानादिविकल्पभेद- लयापेक्षः; नो चेत् चेतः प्रविश सहसा निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Bh.3.61; आत्मारामा विहितरतयो निर्विकल्पे समाधौ Ve.1.23. -7 (in phil.) not arising from the relation of the qualifier and the qualified, (विशेषणविशेष्यसंबन्धानवगाहि प्रत्यक्षं ज्ञानम्) said of knowledge not derived from the senses, as घटत्व. (-ल्पम्) ind. without hesitation or wavering. -विकार a. 1 unchanged, unchangeable, immutable. -2 not disposed; तौ स्थास्यतस्ते नृपती निदेशे परस्परावग्रहनिर्विकारौ M.5.14. -3 disinterested; तरुविटपलतानां बान्धवो निर्विकारः Ṛs.2.28. (-रः) the Supreme deity. -विकास a. unblown. -विघ्न a. uninterrupted, unobstructed, free from impediments; निर्विघ्नं कुरु मे देव सर्वकार्येषु सर्वदा. (-घ्नम्) absence of impediment. -विचार a. not reflecting, thoughtless, inconsiderate; रे रे स्वैरिणि निर्विचारकविते मास्मत्प्रकाशीभव Chandr. 1.2. (-रम्) ind. thoughtlessly, unhesitatingly. -वि- चिकित्स a. free from doubt or reflection. -विचेष्ट a. motionless, insensible; यो हि दिष्टमुपासीनो निर्विचेष्टः सुखं शयेत् Mb.3.32.14. -वितर्क a. unreflecting. -विनोद a. without amusement, void of pastime, diversion or solace; शङ्के रात्रौ गुरुतरशुचं निर्विनोदां सखीं ते Me.9. -विन्ध्या N. of a river in the Vindhya hills; निर्विन्ध्यायाः पथि भव रसाभ्यन्तरः सन्निपत्य Me.28. -विमर्श a. 1 void of reflection, thoughtless. -2 not having विमर्श Sandhi. -विवर a. 1 having no opening or cavity. 2 without interstices or interval, close, compact; घटते हि संहततया जनितामिदमेव निर्विवरतां दधतोः Śi.9.44. -विवाद a. 1 not contending or disagreeing. -2 undisputed, not contradicted or disputed, universally acknowledged. -विवेक a. indiscreet, void of judgment, wanting in discrimination, foolish. -विशङ्क a. fearless, undaunted, confident; Ms.7.176; यस्मिन्कृत्यं समावेश्य निर्विशङ्केन चेतसा । आस्यते सेवकः स स्यात् कलत्रमिव चापरम् ॥ Pt.1.85. -विशेष a. showing or making no difference, indiscriminating, without distinction; निर्विशेषा वयं त्वयि Mb.; निर्विशेषो विशेषः Bh.3.5. 'a difference without distinction'. -2 having no difference, same, like, not differing from (oft. in comp.); निर्विशेषाकृति 'having the same form'; प्रवातनीलो- त्पलनिर्विशेषम् Ku.1.46; स निर्विशेषप्रतिपत्तिरासीत् R.14.22. -3 indiscriminate, promiscuous. (-षः) absence of difference. (निर्विशेषम् and निर्विशेषेण are used adverbially in the sense of 'without difference', 'equally', indiscriminately'; क्रुद्धेन विप्रमुक्तो$यं निर्विशेषं प्रियाप्रिये Rām.7.22.41. स्वगृहनिर्विशेषमत्र स्थीयताम् H.1; R.5.6.). -विशेषण a. without attributes. -विष a. poisonless (as a snake); निर्विषा डुण्डुभाः स्मृताः. -विषङ्ग a. not attached, indifferent. -विषय a. 1 expelled or driven away from one's home, residence or proper place; मनोनिर्विषयार्थकामया Ku.5.38; R.9.32; also -निर्विषयीकृत; वने प्राक्कलनं तीर्थं ये ते निर्विषयी- कृताः Rām.2.14.4. -2 having no scope or sphere of action; किंच एवं काव्यं प्रविरलविषयं निर्विषयं वा स्यात् S. D.1. -3 not attached to sensual objects (as mind). -विषाण a. destitute of horns. -विहार a. having no pleasure. -वीज, -बीज a. 1 seedless. -2 impotent. -3 causeless. -वीर a. 1 deprived of heroes; निर्वीरमुर्वीतलम् P. R.1.31. -2 cowardly. -वीरा a woman whose husband and children are dead. -वीर्य a. powerless, feeble, unmanly, impotent; निर्वीर्यं गुरुशापभाषितवशात् किं मे तवेवायुधम् Ve.3.34. -वीरुध, -वृक्ष a. treeless. -वृत्ति f. accomplishment, achievement; अत आसां निर्वृत्त्या अपवर्गः स्यात् । आतण्डुलनिर्वृत्तेः आ च पिष्टनिर्वृत्तेरभ्यास इति ॥ ŚB. on MS.11.1.27. -a. having no occupation, destitute. See निर्वृति. -वृष a. deprived of bulls. -वेग a. not moving, quiet, calm. -वेतन a honorary, unsalaried. -वेद a. not acknowledging the Vedas, an atheist, infidel. -वेष्टनम् a. a weaver's shuttle. -वैर a. free from enmity, amicable, peaceable. (-रम्) absence of enmity. -वैलक्ष्य a. shameless. -व्यञ्जन a. 1 straight-forward. -2 without condiment. (-नम् ind.) plainly, in a straight-forward or honest manner. -व्यथ, -न a. 1 free from pain. -2 quiet, calm. -व्यथनम् a hole; छिद्रं निर्व्यथनम् Ak. -व्यपेक्ष a. indifferent to, regardless of; मृग्यश्च दर्भाङ्कुरनिर्व्यपेक्षास्तवागतिज्ञं समबोधयन् माम् R.13.25;14.39. -व्यलीक a. 1 not hurting or offending. -2 without pain. -3 pleased, doing anything willingly. -4 sincere, genuine, undissembling. -व्यवधान a. (ground) uncovered, bare. -व्यवश्थ a. moving hither and thither. -व्यसन a. free from bad inclination. -व्याकुल a. calm. -व्याघ्र a. not haunted or infested by tigers. -व्याज a. 1 candid, upright, honest, plain. -2 without fraud, true, genuine. -3 got by heroism or daring deeds (not by fraud or cowardly conduct); अशस्त्रपूतनिर्व्याजम् (महामांसम्) Māl.5.12. (v. l.) -4 not hypocritical; धर्मस्य निर्व्याजता (विभूषणम्) Bh.2.82. (-जम् ind.) plainly, honestly, candidly; निर्व्याजमालिङ्गितः Amaru.85. -व्याजीकृत a. made plain, freed from deceit. -व्यापार a. 1 without employment or business, free from occupation; तं दधन्मैथिलीकण्ठनिर्व्यापारेण बाहुना R.15.56. -2 motionless; U.6. -व्यावृत्ति a. not involving any return (to worldly existence). -व्रण a. 1 unhurt, without wounds. -2 without rents. -व्रत a. not observing vows. -व्रीड a. shameless, impudent. -हिमम् cessation of winter. -हेति a. weaponless. -हेतु a. causeless, having no cause or reason. -ह्रीक a. 1 shameless, impudent. -2 bold, daring.
nirṛtiḥ निर्ऋतिः f. 1 Decay, destruction, dissolution; विद्याद- लक्ष्मीकतमं जनानां मुखे निबद्धां निर्ऋतिं वहन्तम् Mb.1.87.9;5.36.8. -2 A calamity, evil, bane, adversity; हिंसाया निर्ऋतेर्मृत्यो- र्निरयस्य गुदः स्मृतः Bhāg.2.6.9; सा हि लोकस्य निर्ऋतिः U. 5.3. -3 An imprecation, a curse. -4 Death or destruction personified, the goddess of death or destruction, the regent of the south-western quarter; Bhāg. 1.19.4; पाकयज्ञविधानेन यजेत निर्ऋतिं निशि Ms.11.119. -5 The bottom of the earth. -6 The asterism Mūla. -m. 1 Death or genius of death; राज्यकामो मनून् देवान्निर्ऋतिं त्वभि- चरन् यजेत् Bhāg.2.3.9. -2 N. of one of the 8 Vasus. -3 N. of a Rudra.
nirghātaḥ निर्घातः 1 Destruction. -2 A whirlwind, a violent gust of wind, hurricane. -3 The noise of contending winds (vapours ?) &c. in the sky; कुरुकुलनिधनोत्पातनिर्घात- वातः Ve.1.22; निर्घातोग्रैः कुञ्जलीनाञ् जिघांसुर्ज्यानिर्घोषैः क्षोभया- मास सिंहान् R.9.64; Ms.1.38;4.15,7; Y.1.145; (वायुना निहतो वायुर्गगनाच्च पतत्यधः । प्रचण्डघोरनिर्घोषो निर्घात इति कथ्यते ॥.) -4 An earth-quake. -5 A thunderstroke; निर्घातश्च महानासीत् साकं च स्तनयित्नुभिः Bhāg.1.14.15. -6 A stroke in general; अहह दारुणो दैवनिर्घातः U.2. -7 An unusual event boding calamity (उत्पात); तस्मिन्मुहूर्ते संप्राप्ते निर्घाताश्चापतन्मुहुः Mb.3.4.23; Ms.1.38; Bhāg.3.17.8.
parama परम a. [परं परत्वं माति-क Tv.] 1 Most distant, last. -2 Highest, best, most excellent, greatest; प्राप्नोति परमां गतिम् Ms.4.14;7.1;2.13. -3 Chief, principal, primary, supreme; सर्वथा ब्राह्मणाः पूज्याः परमं दैवतं हि तत् Ms.9.319. -4 Exceeding, extreme. -5 Adequate, sufficient; परमं यत्नमातिष्ठेत् स्तेनानां निग्रहे नृपः Ms.8.32. -6 Worst. -7 Higher than, superior to; न मन्ये वाणि- ज्यात् किमपि परमं वर्तनमिह Pt.1.11. -मम् The utmost or highest; the chief or prominent part; (at the end of comp.) consisting principally of, solely occupied with; कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः Bg.16.11; Ms.6.96. -मम् ind. 1 A particle of assent, acceptance or agreement (well, very well, yes, be it so); ततः परममित्युक्त्वा प्रतस्थे मुनिमण्डलम् Ku.6.35. -2 Exceedingly, very much; परमक्रुद्धः &c. -Comp. -अक्षरम् the sacred syllable 'om' or Brahmā. -अङ्गना an excellent woman. -अणुः an infinitesimal particle, an atom; सिकतात्वादपि परां प्रपेदे पर- माणुताम् R.15.22; परगुणपरमाणून् पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यम् Bh.2.78; पृथ्वी नित्या परमाणुरूपा T. S; (a परमाणु is thus defined:-- जालान्तरस्थसूर्यांशौ यत् सूक्ष्मं दृश्यते रजः । भागस्तस्य च षष्ठो यः परमाणुः स उच्यते ॥ Tarka K., or less accurately:-- जाला- न्तरगते रश्मौ यत् सूक्ष्मं दृश्यते रजः । तस्य त्रिंशत्तमो भागः परमाणुः स उच्यते ॥) ˚अङ्गकः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -अद्वैतम् 1 the Supreme Spirit. -2 pure unitarianism. -अन्नम् rice boiled in milk with sugar. -अपमः the inclination of a planet's orbit to the ecliptic. -अर्थः 1 the highest or most sublime truth, true spiritual knowledge, knowledge about Brahman or the Supreme Spirit; इदं हि तत्त्वं परमार्थभाजाम् Mv.7.2. -2 truth, reality, earnestness; परिहासविजल्पितं सखे परमार्थेन न गृह्यतां वचः Ś.2.19; oft in comp. in the sense of 'true' or 'real'. ˚मत्स्याः R.7.4. Mv.4.3. -3 any excellent or important object. -4 the best sense. -5 the best kind of wealth. ˚दरिद्र really poor; Mk. ˚भाज a. partaking of the highest truth; Mv. ˚विद् a philosopher. -अर्थतः ind. truly, really, exactly, accurately; विकारं खलु परमार्थतो$ज्ञात्वा$नारम्भः प्रतीकारस्य Ś.4; उवाच चैनं परमार्थतो हरं न वेत्सि नूनं यत एवमात्थ माम् Ku.5.75; Pt.1.136. -अहः an excellent day. -आत्मन् m. the Supreme Spirit or Brahman; न च योगविधेर्नवेतरः स्थिरधीरा परमात्मदर्शनात् R.8.22; स्वर्गापवर्गयो- र्मार्गमामनन्ति मनीषिणः । यदुपास्तिमसावत्र परमात्मा निरूप्यते ॥ Kusum. -आनन्दः 'supreme felicity', Supreme Spirit. -आपद् f. the greatest calamity or misfortune. -आयु- धम् the wheel (चक्र); शूलैः प्रमथिताः केचित् केचित्तु परमायुधैः Rām.6.58.12. -आर्यः a Bodhisattva (q. v.). -इष्वासः an excellent archer. -ईशः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -ईश्वरः 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -2 of Indra. -3 of Śiva. -4 the Almighty god, the Supreme Being. -5 N. of Brahman. -6 a universal monarch, sovereign of the world; see चक्रवर्तिन्. -ऋषिः a great sage. -ऐश्वर्यम् supremacy. -काण़्डः, -ण्डम् a very auspicious moment. -क्रान्तिः f. the sine of the greatest declination. -गतिः f. 1 any chief object or refuge (as a god). -2 final beatitude, emancipation. -गवः an excellent bull or cow. -गहन a. very myserious, profound. -तत्त्वम् the highest truth. -धर्मात्मन् a. very dutiful, virtuous. -पदम् 1 the best position, highest rank. -2 final beatitude; विष्णोः पदे परमे मध्व उत्सः Rv.1.154.5. -परम a. most excellent of all. -पुंस् the Supreme Spirit; N. of Viṣṇu. -पुरुषः, -पूरुषः the Supreme Spirit. -प्रख्य a. celebrated, renowned. -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit. -मुद्रा f. One of the poses of goddess त्रिपुरा. -रसः butter-milk mixed with water. -राजः a supreme monarch. -समुदय a. very auspicious or successful; परमसमुदयेनाश्वमेधेन चेष्ट्वा Mk.1.4. -सम्मत a. highly esteemed; much revered. -हंसः an ascetic of the highest order, one who has controlled and subdued all his senses by abstract meditation; cf. कुटीचक; कुटीचको बहूदकः हंसश्चैव तृतीयकः । चतुर्थः परमो हंसो यो यः पश्चात् स उत्तमः ॥ Hārītāsmṛiti. ˚परिव्राजकाचार्यः N. of Śaṅkarāchārya.
pāka पाक a. 1 Small. -2 Praiseworthy. -3 Of perfected or matured intellect. -4 Ved. Very young. -5 Simple, genuine. -6 Honest, sincere. -7 Ignorant. -कः [पच्-घञ्1 Cooking, dressing, baking, boiling. -2 Burning, (as bricks), baking; पुनः पाकेन मृन्मयम् (शुद्ध्यति) Ms. 5.122; Y.1.187; एक एवायमर्थः पाको नाम । तस्यार्थान्तरे वैरूप्यं भवति । अन्यथालक्षण ओदनस्य पाकः अन्यथालक्षणो गुडस्य । ŚB. on Ms.7.2.2. -3 Digestion (as of food); रूपं चक्षुस्तथा पाकस्त्रिविधं तेज उच्यते Mb.12.194.1. -4 Ripeness; ओषध्यः फलपाकान्ताः Ms.1.46; फलमभिमुखपाकं राज- जम्बूद्रुमस्य V.4.27; Māl.9.31. -5 Maturity, full or perfect development; धी˚, मति˚ -6 Completion, accomplishment, fulfilment; युयोज पाकाभिमुखैर्भृत्यान् विज्ञापनाफलैः R.17.4. -7 Result, consequence, fruit, fruition (fig. also); आशीर्भिरेधयामासुः पुरः पाकाभिरम्बिकाम् Ku.6.9; पाकाभिमुखस्य दैवस्य U.7.4; Mv.4.14. -8 Development of the consequences of acts done. -9 Grain, corn, नीवारपाकादि R.5.9. (d>पच्यते इति पाकः धान्यम्). -1 Ripeness; suppuration (as of a boil). -11 Greyness of hair caused by old age. -12 A domestic fire. -13 An owl. -14 A child, young one. -15 N. of a demon killed by Indra. -16 An abscess, ulcer. -17 A vessel, cookingutensil. -18 General fear and panic such as causes a revolution or some national calamity. -19 The subversion of a country. -2 Inflammation, suppuration. -Comp. -अगारः, -रम्, -आगारः, -रम्, -शाला, -स्थानम् a kitchen. -अतीसारः chronic dysentery. -अत्ययः obscuration of the cornea after inflammation. -अभिमुख a. 1 ready for ripeness or development; युयोज पाकाभिमुखै- र्भृत्यान् विज्ञापनाफलैः R.17.4. -2 inclined to favour; -कुटी a potter's kiln, pottery. -क्रिया the act of cooking. -ज a. produced by heat. (-जम्) 1 black salt. -2 flatulence. -पण्डितः a master in the art of cooking. -पात्रम्, -भाण्डम् a cooking-utensil. -पुटी a potter's kiln. -भेदकः a particular class of criminals. -यज्ञः a simple or domestic sacrifice (for some varieties of it-हुत, प्रहुत, ब्रह्मयज्ञ-- see Kull. on Ms.2.143); वर्तन्ते पाकयज्ञाश्च यज्ञकर्म च नित्यदा Mb.3.3.15. (com. पाकयज्ञाः गृह्याग्निसाध्या इष्टयः); Bhāg.6.19.24. -शासनः, -द्विष्, -हन्तृ m. epithets of Indra; तत्र निश्चित्य कन्दर्पमगमत् पाकशासनः Ku.2. 63; Ki.11.1. -शासनिः 1 an epithet of Jayanta, son of Indra. -2 of Vāli. -3 of Arjuna. -शास्त्रम् the science of cooking. -शुक्ला chalk; पाकशुक्ला शिलाधातुः कडिनी करवटी खडी Śabdachandrikā. -स्थानम् 1 a kitchen. -2 a potter's kiln.
pramādaḥ प्रमादः 1 Carelessness, negligence, inattention, inadvertence, oversight; विजिगीषुमिवानयप्रमादौ Ki.13.29; ज्ञातुं प्रमादस्खलितं न शक्यम् Ś.6.25; विद्यां प्रमादगुणितामिव चिन्तयामि Ch. P.1. -2 Intoxication, drunkenness. -3 (a) Fainting, swoon. (b) Insanity, madness. -4 A mistake, blunder, mistaken judgment; Pt.1.39. -5 An accident, mishap, calamity, danger; अहो प्रमादः MāI.3; U.3.
praśānta प्रशान्त p. p. 1 Calmed, tranquillized, composed; जितात्मनः प्रशान्तस्य परमात्मा समाहितः Bg.6.7. -2 Calm. serene, quiet, sedate, still; अहो प्रशान्तरमणीयतोद्यानस्य. -3 Tamed, subdued, quelled. -4 Ended, ceased, over; तत् सर्वमेकपद एव मम प्रशान्तम् Māl.9.36; प्रशान्तमस्त्रम् U.6. 'ceased to work or withdrawn'. -5 Dead, deceased; (see शम् with प्र). -6 Allayed, removed; त्यक्त्वा भयं सर्प इव प्रशान्तः Rām.7.69.39. -Comp. -आत्मन् a. composed in mind, peaceful, calm. -ऊर्ज a. weakened, enervated, prostrated. -काम a. content. -चित्त a. calm. -चेष्ट a. resting, ceased to work. -बाध a. having all obstacles or calamities removed; प्रशान्तबाधं दिशतो$भिरक्षया Ki.1.18.
bhāgyam भाग्यम् a. [भज्-ण्यत् कुत्वम्] 1 To be divided, divisible. -2 Entitled to a share. -3 Forming a part. -4 Subject to fractional deduction. -5 Lucky, fortunate. -ग्यम् 1 Fate, destiny, luck, fortune; स्त्रियाचरित्रं पुरुषस्य भाग्यं देवो न जानाति कुतो मनुष्यः Subhāṣ; oft. in pl.; सा निन्दन्ती स्वानि भाग्यानि बाला Ś.5.3. -2 Good fortune or luck; R.3.13. -3 Prosperity, affluence; भाग्येष्वनुत्सेकिनी Ś.4.18. -4 Happiness, welfare. (भाग्येन fortunately, happily). -Comp. -आयत्त a. dependent on fate; भाग्यायत्तमतः परम् Ś.4.17; cf. also भाग्येषु शेषमायत्तं दृष्टपूर्वं न चान्यथा Pratijñā Y.2.5. -उदयः 1 dawn of good fortune, lucky occurrence. -ऋक्षम् (भाग्यर्क्षम्) the asterism पूर्वा- फल्गुनी. -क्रमः course or turn of fortune; भाग्यक्रमेण हि धनानि भवन्ति यान्ति Mk.1.13. -पञ्चः a kind of pavilion; Vastuvidyā. -योगः a lucky or fortunate juncture. रहित a. deserted by fortune, miserable; प्रायो गच्छति यत्र भाग्यरहितस्तत्रैव यान्त्यापदः Bh.2.9. -विप्लवः ill-luck, adverseness of fate; अथवा मम भाग्यविप्लवादशनिः कल्पित एष वेधसा R.8.47. -वशात् ind. through the will of fate, luckily, fortunately. -संक्षयः bad fortune, calamity. -संपद् good fortune, prosperity.
mahā महा The substitute of महत् at the beginning of Karmadhāraya and Bahuvrīhi compounds, and also at the beginning of some other irregular words. (Note : The number of compounds of which महा is the first member is very large, and may be multiplied ad infinitum. The more important of them, or such as have peculiar significations, are given below.) -Comp. -अक्षः an epithet of Śiva. ˚पटलिक a chief keeper of archives. -अङ्ग a. huge, bulky. -(ङ्गः) 1 a camel. -2 a kind of rat. -3 N. of Śiva. -अञ्जनः N. of a mountain. -अत्ययः a great danger or calamity. -अध्वनिक a. 'having gone a long way', dead. -अध्वरः a great sacrifice. -अनसम् 1 a heavy carriage. -2 cooking utensils. (-सी) a kitchen-maid. (-सः, -सम्) a kitchen; सूपानस्य करिष्यामि कुशलो$स्मि महानसे Mb.4.2.2. -अनिलः a whirlwind; महानिलेनेव निदाघजं रजः Ki.14.59. -अनुभाव a. 1 of great prowess, dignified, noble, glorious, magnanimous, exalted, illustrious; ग्रहीतुमार्यान् परिचर्यया मुहुर्महानु- भावा हि नितान्तमर्थिनः Śi.1.17; Ś.3. -2 virtuous, righteous, just. (-वः) 1 a worthy or respectable person. -2 (pl.) people of a religious sect in Mahārāṣtra founded by Chakradhara in the 13th century. -अन्तकः 1 death. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -अन्धकारः 1 thick darkness. -2 gross (spiritual) ignorance. -अन्ध्राः (pl.) N. of a people and their country. -अन्वय, -अभिजन a. nobly-born, of noble birth. (-यः, -नः) noble birth, high descent. -अभिषवः the great extraction of Soma. -अमात्यः the chief or prime minister (of a king). -अम्बुकः an epithet of Śiva. -अम्बुजम् a billion. -अम्ल a. very sour. (-म्लम्) the fruit of the tamarind tree. अरण्यम् a great (dreary) forest, large forest. -अर्घ a. very costly, costing a high price; महार्घस्तीर्थानामिव हि महतां को$प्यतिशयः U.6.11. (-र्घः) a kind of quail. -अर्घ्य a. 1 valuable, precious. -2 invaluable; inestimable; see महार्ह below. -अर्चिस् a. flaming high. -अर्णवः 1 the great ocean. -2 N. of Śiva. -अर्थ a. 1 rich. -2 great, noble, dignified. -3 important, weighty. -4 significant. -अर्बुदम् one thousand millions. -अर्ह a. 1 very valuable, very costly; महार्हशय्यापरिवर्तनच्युतैः स्वकेशपुष्पैरपि या स्म दूयते Ku.5.12. -2 invaluable, inestimable; महार्हशयनोपेत किं शेषे निहतो भुवि Rām.6.19. 2. (-र्हम्) white sandal-wood. -अवरोहः the fig-tree. -अशनिध्वजः a great banner in the form of the thunderbolt; जहार चान्येन मयूरपत्रिणा शरेण शक्रस्य महाशनि- ध्वजम् R.3.56. -अशन a. voracious, gluttonous; Mb. 4. -अश्मन् m. a precious stone, ruby. -अष्टमी the eighth day in the bright half of Āśvina sacred to Durgā; आश्विने शुक्लपक्षस्य भवेद् या तिथिरष्टमी । महाष्टमीति सा प्रोक्ता ...... -असिः a large sword. -असुरी N. of Durgā. -अह्नः the afternoon. -आकार a. extensive, large, great. -आचार्यः 1 a great teacher. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -आढ्य a. wealthy, very rich. (-ढ्यः) the Kadamba tree. -आत्मन् a. 1 high-souled, high-minded, magnanimous, noble; अयं दुरात्मा अथवा महात्मा कौटिल्यः Mu.7; द्विषन्ति मन्दाश्चरितं महात्मनाम् Ku.5.75; U.1.49; प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् Bh.1.63. -2 illustrious, distinguished, exalted, eminent; किमाचाराः किमाहाराः क्व च वासो महात्मनाम् Mb.3. 1.4. -3 mighty (महाबल); अथायमस्यां कृतवान् महात्मा लङ्केश्वरः कष्टमनार्यकर्म Rām.5.9.74. (-m.) 1 the Supreme Spirit; युगपत्तु प्रलीयन्ते यदा तस्मिन् महात्मनि Ms.1.54. -2 the great principle, i. e. intellect of the Sāṅkhyas. (महात्मवत् means the same as महात्मन्). -आनकः a kind of large drum. -आनन्दः, -नन्दः 1 great joy or bliss. -2 especially, the great bliss of final beatitude. (-न्दा) 1 spirituous liquor. -2 a festival on the ninth day in the bright half of Māgha. -आपगा a great river. -आयुधः an epithet of Śiva. -आरम्भ a. undertaking great works, enterprizing. (-म्भः) any great enterprize. -आलयः 1 a temple in general. -2 a sanctuary, an asylum. -3 a great dwelling. -4 a place of pilgrimage. -5 the world of Brahman. -6 the Supreme Spirit. -7 a tree &c. sacred to a deity. -8 N. of a particular dark fortnight. -9 पितृश्राद्ध in the month of Bhādrapada. (-या) N. of a particular deity. -आशय a. highsouled, nobleminded, magnanimous, noble; दैवात् प्रबुद्धः शुश्राव वराहो हि महाशयः Ks; राजा हिरण्यगर्भो महाशयः H.4; see महात्मन्. (-यः) 1 a noble-minded or magnanimous person; महाशयचक्रवर्ती Bv.1.7. -2 the ocean. -आस्पद a. 1 occupying a great position. -2 mighty, powerful. -आहवः a great or tumultuous fight. -इच्छ a. 1 magnanimous, noble-minded, high-souled, noble; मही महेच्छः परिकीर्य सूनौ R.18.33. -2 having lofty aims or aspirations, ambitious; विद्यावतां महेच्छानां ...... नाश्रयः पार्थिवं विना Pt.1.37. -इन्द्रः 1 'the great Indra', N. of Indra; इयं महेन्द्रप्रभृतीनधिश्रियः Ku.5.53; R.13.2; Ms.7.7. -2 a chief or leader in general. -3 N. of a mountain range; पतिर्महेन्द्रस्य महोदधेश्च R.6.54;4.39,43. ˚चापः rain-bow. ˚नगरी N. of Amarāvatī, the capital of Indra. ˚मन्त्रिन् m. an epithet of Bṛihaspati. ˚वाहः the elephant Airāvata; महेन्द्रवाहप्रतिमो महात्मा Mb.9.17.52. -इभ्य a. very rich. -इषुः a great archer; अधिरोहति गाण्डीवं महेषौ Ki.13.16. -इष्वासः a great archer, a great warrior; अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भामार्जुनसमा युधि Bg.1.4. -ईशः, -ईशानः N. of Śiva; महेशस्त्वां धत्ते शिरसि रसराजस्य जयिनीम् Udb. ˚बन्धुः the Bilva tree. -ईशानी N. of Pārvatī. -ईश्वरः 1 a great lord, sovereign; महेश्वरस्त्र्यम्बक एव नापरः R.; गोप्तारं न निधीनां कथयन्ति महेश्वरं विबुधाः Pt.2.74. -2 N. of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 a god (opp. प्रकृति). -5 the Supreme Being (परमात्मा); मायां तु प्रकृतिं विद्यान्मायिनं तु महेश्वरम् Śvet. Up.4.1. ˚सखः N. of Kubera; यया कैलासभवने महेश्वरसखं बली Mb.9.11.55. (-री) 1 N. of Durgā. -2 a kind of bell-metal. -उक्षः (for उक्षन्) a large bull; a full grown or strong bull; महोक्षतां वत्सतरः स्पृशन्निव R.3.32;4.22;6.72; Śi.5.63. -उत्पलम् a large blue lotus. (-लः) the Sārasa bird. -उत्सवः 1 a great festival or occasion of joy; नयनविषयं जन्मन्येकः स एव महोत्सवः Māl.1.36. -2 the god of love. -उत्साह a. possessed of great energy, energetic, persevering; अहं च कर्णं जानामि ...... सत्यसंधं महोत्साहं ...... Mb.3.91.2. (-हः) 1 perseverance. -2 great pride; ये जात्यादिमहो- त्साहान्नरेन्द्रान्नोपयान्ति च । तेषामामरणं भिक्षा प्रायश्चितं विनिर्मितम् ॥ Pt.1.38. -उदधिः 1 the great ocean; महोदधेः पूर इवेन्दु- दर्शनात् R.3.17. -2 an epithet of Indra. ˚जः a conchshell, shell. -उदय a. very prosperous or lucky, very glorious or splendid, of great prosperity. (-यः) 1 (a) great elevation or rise, greatness, prosperity; नन्दस्त्वतीन्द्रियं दृष्ट्वा लोकपालमहोदयम् Bhāg.1.28.1; अपवर्ग- महोदयार्थयोर्भुवमंशाविव धर्मयोर्गतौ R.8.16. (b) great fortune or good luck. (c) greatness, pre-eminence. -2 final beatitude. -3 a lord, master. -4 N. of the district called Kānyakubja or Kanouja; see App. -5 N. of the capital of Kanouja. -6 sour milk mixed with honey. -7 = महात्मन् q. v.; संसक्तौ किमसुलभं महोदयानाम Ki.7.27. ˚पर्वन् a time of union of the middle of श्रवण नक्षत्र and the end of व्यतिपात (generally in the month of माघ or पौष at the beginning of अमावास्या). -उदर a. big-bellied, corpulent. -(रम्) 1 a big belly. -2 dropsy. -उदार a. 1 very generous or magnanimous. -2 mighty, powerful. -उद्यम a. = महोत्साह q. v; महोद्यमाः कर्म समा- रभन्ते. -उद्योग a. very industrious or diligent, hardworking. -उद्रेकः a particular measure (= 4 प्रस्थs). -उन्नत a. exceedingly lofty. (-तः) the palmyra tree. -उन्नतिः f. great rise or elevation (fig. also), high rank. -उपकारः a great obligation. -उपाध्यायः a great preceptor, a learned teacher. -उरगः a great serpent; वपुर्महोरगस्येव करालफणमण्डलम् R.12.98. -उरस्क a. broad-chested. (-स्कः) an epithet of Śiva. -उर्मिन् m. the ocean; ततः सागरमासाद्य कुक्षौ तस्य महोर्मिणः Mb.3.2.17. -उल्का 1 a great meteor. -2 a great fire-brand. -ऋत्विज् m. 'great priest', N. of the four chief sacrificial priests. -ऋद्धि a. very prosperous, opulent. (-f.) great prosperity or affluence. -ऋषभः a great bull. -ऋषिः 1 a great sage or saint; यस्मादृषिः परत्वेन महांस्त- स्मान्महर्षयः; (the term is applied in Ms.1.34 to the ten Prajāpatis or patriarchs of mankind, but it is also used in the general sense of 'a great sage'). -2 N. of Sacute;iva. -3 of Buddha. -ओघ a. having a strong current. -घः a very large number; शतं खर्व- सहस्राणां समुद्रमभिधीयते । शतं समुद्रसाहस्रं महौघमिति विश्रुतम् ॥ Rām.6.28.37. -ओष्ठ (महोष्ठ) a. having large lips. (-ष्ठः) an epithet of Śiva. -ओजस् a. very mighty or powerful, possessed of great splendour or glory; महौजसा मानधना धनार्चिताः Ki.1.19. (-m.) a great hero or warrior, a champion. (-n.) great vigour. -ओजसम् the discus of Viṣṇu (सुदर्शन). (-सी) N. of plant (Mar. कांगणी). -ओदनी Asparagus Racemosus (Mar. शतावरी). -ओषधिः f. 1 a very efficacious medicinal plant, a sovereign drug. -2 the Dūrvā grass. -3 N. of various plants ब्राह्मी, श्वेतकण्टकारी, कटुका, अतिविष &c. ˚गणः a collection of great or medicinal herbs:-- पृश्निपर्णी श्यामलता भृङ्गराजः शतावरी । गुड्चा सहदेवी च महौषधिगणः स्मृतः ॥ cf. also सहदेवी तथा व्याघ्री बला चातिबला त्वचा । शङ्खपुष्पी तथा सिंही अष्टमी च सुवर्चला ॥ महौषध्यष्टकं प्रोक्तं... . -औषधम् 1 a sovereign remedy, panacea. -2 ginger. -3 garlic. -4 a kind of poison (वत्सनाभ). -कच्छः 1 the sea. -2 N. of Varuṇa. -3 a mountain. -कन्दः garlic. -कपर्दः a kind of shell. -कपित्थः 1 the Bilva tree. -2 red garlic. -कम्बु a. stark naked. (-म्बुः) an epithet of Śiva. -कर a. 1 large-handed. -2 having a large revenue. -कर्णः an epithet of Śiva. -कर्मन् a. doing great works. (-m.) an epithet of Śiva. -कला the night of the new moon. -कल्पः a great cycle of time (1 years of Brahman); Bhāg.7.15.69. -कविः 1 a great poet, a classical poet, such as कालिदास, भवभूति, बाण, भारवि &c. -2 an epithet of Śukra. -कषायः N. of a plant (Mar. कायफळ). -कान्तः an epithet of Śiva. (-ता) the earth. -काय a. big-bodied, big, gigantic, bulky. (-यः) 1 an elephant. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 of Viṣṇu. -4 of a being attending on Śiva (= नन्दि). -कारुणिक a. exceedingly compassionate. -कार्तिकी the night of full-moon in the month of Kārtika. -कालः 1 a form of Śiva in his character as the destroyer of the world; महाकालं यजेद्देव्या दक्षिणे धूम्रवर्णकम् Kālītantram. -2 N. of a celebrated shrine or temple of Śiva (Mahākāla) (one of the 12 celebrated Jyotirliṅgas) established at Ujjayinī (immortalized by Kālidāsa in his Meghadūta, which gives a very beautiful description of the god, his temple, worship &c., together with a graphic picture of the city; cf. Me.3-38; also R.6.34); महाकालनिवासिनं कालीविलासिनमनश्वरं महेश्वरं समाराध्य Dk.1.1. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -4 N. of a kind of gourd. -5 N. of Śiva's servant (नन्दि). ˚पुरम् the city of Ujjayinī. ˚फलम् a red fruit with black seeds; पक्वं महाकालफलं किलासीत् N.22.29. -काली an epithet of Durgā in her terrific form. -काव्यम् a great or classical poem; (for a full description of its nature, contents &c., according to Rhetoricians see S. D.559). (The number of Mahākāvyas is usually said to be five:-रघुवंश, कुमारसंभव, किरातार्जुनीय, शिशुपालवध and नैषधचरित or six, if मेघदूत-- a very small poem or खण़्डकाव्य-- be added to the list. But this enumeration is apparently only traditional, as there are several other poems, such as the भट्टिकाव्य, विक्रमाङ्कदेवचरित, हरविजय &c. which have an equal claim to be considered as Mahākāvyas). -कीर्तनम् a house. -कुमारः the eldest son of a reigning prince, heir-apparent. -कुल, -कुलीन a. of noble birth or descent, sprung from a noble family, nobly born. (-लम्) a noble birth or family, high descent. -कुहः a species of parasitical worm. -कृच्छ्रम् a great penance. -केतुः N. of Śiva. -केशः, -कोशः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 a large sheath. -क्रतुः a great sacrifice; e. g. a horse-sacrifice; तदङ्गमग्ऱ्यं मघवन् महाक्रतोरमुं तुरङ्गं प्रतिमोक्तुमर्हसि R.3.46. -क्रमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -क्रोधः an epithet of Śiva. -क्षत्रपः a great satrap. -क्षीरः sugar-cane. -क्षीरा f. a She-buffalo; Nighaṇṭaratnākara. -खर्वः, -र्वम् a high number (ten billions ?). -गजः a great elephant; see दिक्करिन्. -गणपतिः a form of the god Gaṇeśa. -गदः fever. -गन्ध a. exceedingly fragrant. (-न्धः) a kind of cane. (-न्धम्) a kind of sandalwood. (-न्धा) N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -गर्तः, -गर्भः -गीतः N. of Śiva. -गर्दभगन्धिका N. of a plant, भारङ्गी. -गल a. longnecked. -गवः Bos gavaeus. -गुण a. very efficacious, sovereign (as a medicine); त्वया ममैष संबन्धः कपिमुख्य महागुणः Rām.5.1.12. (-णः) a chief quality, cardinal virtue. -गुरुः a highly respectable or venerable person; (these are three, the father, mother and preceptor; पिता माता तथाचार्यो महागुरुरिति स्मृतः). -गुल्मा the Soma plant. -गृष्टिः f. a cow with a large hump. -ग्रहः 1 an epithet of Rāhu. -2 the sun; महाग्रहग्राहविनष्टपङ्कः Rām.5.5.6. -ग्रामः N. of the ancient capital of Ceylon, the modern Māgama. -ग्रीवः 1 a camel. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -ग्रीविन् m. a camel. -घूर्णा spirituous liquor. -घृतम् ghee kept for a long time (for medicinal purposes). -घोष a. noisy, loud-sounding. (-षम्) a market, fair. (-षः) a loud noise, clamour. -चक्रम् the mystic circle in the शाक्त ceremonial. -चक्रवर्तिन् m. a universal monarch. -चण्डा N. of Chāmuṇḍā. -चपला a kind of metre. -चमूः f. a large army. -छायः the fig-tree. -जङ्घः a camel. -जटः an epithet of Śiva. -जटा 1 a great braid of hair. -2 the matted hair of Śiva. -जत्रु a. having a great collar-bone. (-त्रुः) an epithet of Śiva. -जनः 1 a multitude of men, a great many beings, the general populace or public; महाजनो येन गतः स पन्थाः Mb.3.313. 117; आगम्य तु ततो राजा विसृज्य च महाजनम् 6.98.25. -2 the populace, mob; विलोक्य वृद्धोक्षमधिष्ठितं त्वया महाजनः स्मेरमुखो भविष्यति Ku.5.7. -3 a great man, a distinguished or eminent man; महाजनस्य संसर्गः कस्य नोन्नतिकारकः । पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम् Pt.3.6. -4 the chief of a caste or trade. -5 a merchant, tradesman. -जवः an antelope. -जातीय a. 1 rather large. -2 of an excellent kind. -जालिः, -ली N. of a plant (Mar. सोनामुखी) -जिह्वः an epithet of Śiva. -ज्ञानिन् m. 1 a very learned man. -2 a great sage. -3 N. of Śiva. -ज्यैष्ठी the day of fullmoon in the month of Jyeṣṭha; ताभिर्दृश्यत एष यान् पथि महाज्यैष्ठीमहे मन्महे N.15.89; पूर्णिमा रविवारेण महाज्यैष्ठी प्रकीर्तिता Agni P.121.63. -ज्योतिस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -ज्वरः great affliction. -ज्वाल a. very brilliant or shining. (-लः) 1 N. of Śiva. -2 a sacrificial fire. -डीनम् a kind of flight; 'यानं महाडीनमाहुः पवित्रामूर्जितां गतिम्' Mb.8.41.27 (com.). -तपस् m. 1 a great ascetic. -2 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -तलम् N. of one of the seven lower regions; see पाताल. -तारा N. of a Buddhist goddess. -तिक्तः the Nimba tree. -तिथिः the 6th day of a lunation. -तीक्ष्ण a. exceedingly sharp or pungent. (-क्ष्णा) the markingnut plant. -तेजस् a. 1 possessed of great lustre or splendour. -2 very vigorous or powerful, heroic. (-m.) 1 a hero, warrior. -2 fire. -3 an epithet of Kārtikeya. (-n.) quick-silver. -त्याग, -त्यागिन् a. very generous. (-m.) N. of Śiva. -दंष्ट्रः a species of big tiger. -दन्तः 1 an elephant with large tusks. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -दण्डः 1 a long arm. -2 a severe punishment. -दम्भः an epithet of Śiva. -दशा the influence exercised (over a man's destiny) by a predominant planet. -दानम् the gift of gold equal to one's own weight; अथातः संप्रवक्ष्यामि महादानस्य लक्षणम्. -दारु n. the devadāru tree. -दुर्गम् a great calamity; Pt. -दूषकः a kind of grain. -देवः N. of Śiva. (-वी) 1 N. of Pārvatī. -2 the chief queen. -द्रुमः the sacred fig-tree. -द्वारम् a large gate, the chief or outer gate of a temple. -धन a. 1 rich. -2 expensive, costly; हेमदण्डैर्महाधनैः Rām.7. 77.13. (-नम्) 1 gold. -2 incense. -3 a costly or rich dress. -4 agriculture, husbandry. -5 anything costly or precious. -6 great booty. -7 a great battle (Ved.). -धनुस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -धातुः 1 gold. -2 an epithet of Śiva. -3 lymph. -4 N. of Meru. -धी a. having a great understanding. -धुर्यः a full-grown draught ox. -ध्वजः a camel. -ध्वनिक a. dead. -नग्नः an athlete; Buddh. -नटः an epithet of Śiva; महानटः किं नु ...... तनोति ...... साम्प्रतमङ्गहारम् N.22.7; महानटबाहुनेव बद्धभुजाङ्केन Vās. -नदः a great river. -नदी 1 a great river, such as Gaṅgā, Kṛiṣṇā; मन्दरः पर्वतश्चाक्षो जङ्घा तस्य महानदी Mb.8.34.2; संभूयाम्भोधिमभ्येति महानद्या नगापगा Śi.2.1. -2 N. of a river falling into the bay of Bengal. -नन्दा 1 spirituous liquor. -2 N. of a river. -3 ninth day of the bright half of the month of Māgha; माघमासस्य या शुक्ला नवमी लोकपूजिचा । महानन्देति सा प्रोक्ता ... . -नरकः N. of one of the 21 hells. -नलः a kind of reed. -नवमी the ninth day in the bright half of Āśvina, sacred to the worship of Durgā ततो$नु नवमी यस्मात् सा महानवमी स्मृता. -नाटकम् 'the great drama', N. of a drama, also called Hanumannāṭaka, (being popularly ascribed to Hanumat); thus defined by S. D. :-- एतदेव यदा सर्वैः पताकास्थानकैर्युतम् । अङ्कैश्च दशभिर्धीरा महानाटकमूचिरे ॥ -नाडी sinew, tendon. -नादः 1 a loud sound, uproar. -2 a great drum. -3 a thunder-cloud. -4 a shell. -5 an elephant. -6 a lion. -7 the ear. -8 a camel. -9 an epithet of Śiva. (-दम्) a musical instrument. -नाम्नी 1 N. of a परिशिष्ट of Sāmaveda. -2 (pl.) N. of 9 verses of Sāmaveda beginning with विदा मघवन् विदा. -नायकः 1 a great gem in the centre of a string of pearls. -2 a great head or chief. -नासः an epithet of Śiva. -निद्र a. fast asleep. (-द्रा) 'the great sleep', death. -निम्नम् intestines, abdomen. -नियमः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -निर्वाणम् total extinction of individuality (according to the Buddhists). -निशा 1 the dead of night, the second and third watches of the night; महानिशा तु विज्ञेया मध्यमं प्रहरद्वयम् -2 an epithet of Durgā. -नीचः a washerman. -नील a. dark-blue. (-लः) a kind of sapphire or emerald; इन्द्रनीलमहानीलमणिप्रवरवेदिकम् Rām.5.9.16; महा- महानीलशिलारुचः Śi.1.16;4.44; R.18.42; Kau. A.2.11. 29. ˚उपलः a sapphire. -नृत्यः, -नेत्रः an epithet of Śiva. -नेमिः a crow. -न्यायः the chief rule. -पक्ष a. 1 having many adherents. -2 having a large family or retinue; महापक्षे धनिन्यार्थे निक्षेपं निक्षिपेद् बुधः Ms.8.179. (-क्षः) 1 an epithet of Garuḍa. -2 a kind of duck. (-क्षी) an owl. -पङ्क्तिः, -पदपङ्क्तिः a kind of metre. -पञ्चमूलम् the five great roots:-- बिल्वो$ग्निमन्थः श्योनाकः काश्मरी पाटला तथा । सर्वैस्तु मिलितैरेतैः स्यान्महापञ्चमूलकम् ॥ -पञ्चविषम् the five great or deadly poisons:-- शृङ्गी च कालकूटश्च मुस्तको वत्सनाभकः । शङ्खकर्णीति योगो$यं महापञ्चविषाभिधः ॥ -पटः the skin. -पथः 1 chief road, principal street, high or main road; संतानकाकीर्णमहापथं तत् Ku.7.3. -2 the passage into the next world, i. e. death. -3 N. of certain mountain-tops from which devout persons used to throw themselves down to secure entrance into heaven. -4 an epithet of Śiva. -5 the long pilgrimage to mount Kedāra. -6 the way to heaven. -7 the knowledge of the essence of Śiva acquired in the pilgrimage to Kedāra. -पथिक a. 1 undertaking great journeys. -2 one receiving Śulka (toll) on the high way; cf. Mb.12.76.6 (com. महापथिकः समुद्रे नौयानेन गच्छन् यद्वा महापथि शुल्कग्राहकः) -पद्मः 1 a particular high number. -2 N. of Nārada. -3 N. of one of the nine treasures of Kubera. -4 N. of the southernmost elephant supporting the world. -5 an epithet of Nanda. -6 a Kinnara attendant on Kubera. (-द्मम्) 1 a white lotus. -2 N. of a city. ˚पतिः N. of Nanda. -पराकः a. a particular penance; Hch. -पराङ्णः a late hour in the afternoon. -पवित्रः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पशुः large cattle; महापशूनां हरणे ... दण्डं प्रकल्पयेत् Ms.8.324. -पातः a long flight; Pt.2.58. -पातकम् 1 a great sin, a heinous crime; ब्रह्महत्या सुरापानं स्तेयं गुर्वङ्गनागमः । महान्ति पातकान्याहुस्तत्संसर्गश्च पञ्चमम् ॥ Ms.1154. -2 any great sin or transgression. -पात्रः a prime minister. -पादः an epithet of Śiva. -पाप्मन् a. very sinful or wicked. -पुराणम् N. of a Purāṇa; महापुराणं विज्ञेयमेकादशकलक्षणम् Brav. P. -पुंसः a great man. -पुरुषः 1 a great man, an eminent or distinguished personage; शब्दं महापुरुषसंविहितं निशम्य U. 6.7. -2 the Supreme Spirit. -3 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -पौरुषिकः a worshipper of Viṣṇu; तदहं ते$भिधास्यामि महापौरुषिको भवान् Bhāg.2.1.1. -पुष्पः a kind of worm. -पूजा great worship; any solemn worship performed on extraordinary occasions. -पृष्ठः a camel. -पोटगलः a kind of large reed. -प्रजापतिः N. of Viṣṇu. -प्रतीहारः a chief door-keeper. -प्रपञ्चः the great universe. -प्रभ a. of great lustre. (-भः) the light of a lamp. -प्रभुः 1 a great lord. -2 a king, sovereign. -3 a chief. -4 an epithet of Indra. -5 of Śiva -6 of Viṣṇu. -7 a great saint or holy man. -प्रलयः 'the great dissolution', the total annihilation of the universe at the end of the life of Brahman, when all the lokas with their inhabitants, the gods, saints &c. including Brahman himself are annihilated; महाप्रलयमारुत ...... Ve.3.4. -प्रश्नः a knotty question. -प्रसादः 1 a great favour. -2 a great present (of food offered to an idol); पादोदकं च निर्माल्यं नैवेद्यं च विशेषतः । महाप्रसाद इत्युक्त्वा ग्राह्यं विष्णोः प्रयत्नतः -प्रस्थानम् 1 departing this life, death. -2 setting out on a great journey for ending life; इहैव निधनं याम महाप्रस्थानमेव वा Rām.2.47.7 (com. महाप्रस्थानं मरणदीक्षा- पूर्वकमुत्तराभिमुखगमनम्); Mb.1.2.365. -प्राणः 1 the hard breathing or aspirate sound made in the pronunciation of the aspirates. -2 the aspirated letters themselves (pl.); they are:-ख्, घ्, छ्, झ्, ठ्, ढ्, थ्, ध्, फ्, भ्, श्, ष्, स्, ह्. -3 a raven. -प्राणता possession of great strength or essence; अन्यांश्च जीवत एव महाप्राणतया स्फुरतो जग्राह K. -प्रेतः a noble departed spirit. -प्लवः a great flood, deluge; ... क्षिप्तसागरमहाप्लवामयम् Śi.14.71. -फल a. 1 bearing much fruit. -2 bringing much reward. (-ला) 1 a bitter gourd. -2 a kind of spear. (-लम्) 1 a great fruit or reward. -2 a testicle. -फेना the cuttle-fish bone. -बन्धः a peculiar position of hands or feet. -बभ्रुः a kind of animal living in holes. -बल a. very strong; नियुज्यमानो राज्याय नैच्छद्राज्यं महाबलः Rām (-लः) 1 wind, storm. -2 a Buddha. -3 a solid bamboo. -4 a palm. -5 a crocodile. -बला N. of a plant; महाबला च पीतपुष्पा सहदेवी च सा स्मृता Bhāva. P. (-लम्) lead. ˚ईश्वरः N. of a Liṅga of Śiva near the modern Mahābaleśwara. -बाध a. causing great pain or damage. -बाहु a. long-armed, powerful. (-हुः) an epithet of Viṣṇu. -बि(वि)लम् 1 the atmosphere. -2 the heart. -3 a water-jar, pitcher. -4 a hole, cave. -बिसी a variety of skin (चर्म), a product of द्वादशग्राम in the Himālayas. -बी(वी)जः an epithet of Śiva. -बी (वी)ज्यम् the perinæum. -बुध्न a. having a great bottom or base (as a mountain). -बुशः barley. -बृहती a kind of metre. -बोधिः 1 the great intelligence of a Buddha. -2 a Buddha. -ब्रह्मम्, -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit. -ब्राह्मणः 1 a great or learned Brāhmaṇa. -2 a low or contemptible Brāhmaṇa. -भटः a great warrior; तदोजसा दैत्यमहाभटार्पितम् Bhāg. -भद्रा N. of the river Gaṅgā. -भाग a. 1 very fortunate or blessed, very lucky or prosperous. -2 illustrious, distinguished, glorious; उभौ धर्मौ महाभागौ Mb.12.268.3; महाभागः कामं नरपतिरभिन्नस्थितिरसौ Ś.5.1; Ms.3.192. -3 very pure or holy, highly virtuous; पतिव्रता महाभागा कथं नु विचरिष्यति Mb.4.3.16. -भागता, -त्वम्, -भाग्यम् 1 extreme good fortune, great good luck, prosperity. -2 great excellence or merit. -भागवतम् the great Bhāgavata, one of the 18 Purāṇas. (-तः) a great worshipper of Viṣṇu. -भागिन् a. very fortunate or prosperous. -भाण्डम् a chief treasury. -भारतम् N. of the celebrated epic which describes the rivalries and contests of the sons of Dhṛitarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu. (It consists of 18 Parvans or books, and is said to be the composition of Vyāsa; cf. the word भारत also); महत्त्वाद्भारतत्वाच्च महाभारतमुच्यते -भाष्यम् 1 a great commentary. -2 particularly, the great commentary of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini. -भासुरः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -भिक्षुः N. of Śākyamuni. -भीता a kind of sensitive plant (लाजाळू). -भीमः an epithet of king Śantanu. -भीरुः a sort of beetle or fly. -भुज a. long-armed, powerful. -भूतम् a great or primary element; see भूत; तस्यैतस्य महाभूतस्य निःश्वसितमेतद्यदृग्वेदः Up.; तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना R.1. 29; Ms.1.6. (-तः) 1 the Supreme Being. -2 a great creature. -भोगः 1 a great enjoyment. -2 a great coil or hood; great winding. -3 a serpent. (-गा) an epithet of Durgā. -मणिः 1 a costly or precious jewel; संस्कारोल्लिखितो महामणिरिव क्षीणो$पि नालक्ष्यते Ś.6.5. -2 N. of Śiva. -मति a. 1 high-minded. -2 clever. (-तिः) N. of Bṛihaspati or Jupiter. -मत्स्यः a large fish, sea-monster. -मद a. greatly intoxicated. (-दः) an elephant in rut. -मनस्, -मनस्क a. 1 high-minded, nobleminded, magnanimous; ततो युधिष्ठिरो राजा धर्मपुत्रो महामनाः Mb.4.1.7. -2 liberal. -3 proud, haughty. (-m) a fabulous animal called शरभ q. v. -मन्त्रः 1 any sacred text of the Vedas. -2 a great or efficacious charm, a powerful spell. -मन्त्रिन् m. the prime-minister, premier. -मयूरी N. of Buddhist goddess. -मलहारी a kind of Rāgiṇi. -महः a great festive procession; Sinhās. -महस् n. a great light (seen in the sky). -महोपाध्यायः 1 a very great preceptor. -2 a title given to learned men and reputed scholars; e. g. महामहो- पाध्यायमल्लिनाथसूरि &c. -मांसम् 'costly flesh', especially human flesh; न खलु महामांसविक्रयादन्यमुपायं पश्यामि Māl.4; अशस्त्रपूतं निर्व्याजं पुरुषाङ्गोपकल्पितम् । विक्रीयते महामांसं गृह्यतां गृह्यतामिदम् 5.12 (see Jagaddhara ad loc.). -माघी the full-moon day in the month of Māgha. -मात्र a. 1 great in measure, very great or large. -2 most excellent, best; वृष्ण्यन्धकमहामात्रैः सह Mb.1.221.27; 5.22.37. (-त्रः) 1 a great officer of state, high stateofficial, a chief minister; (मन्त्रे कर्मणि भूषायां वित्ते माने परिच्छदे । मात्रा च महती येषां महामात्रास्तु ते स्मृताः); Ms. 9.259; गूढपुरुषप्रणिधिः कृतमहामात्रापसर्पः (v. l. महामात्यापसर्पः) पौरजानपदानपसर्पयेत् Kau. A.1.13.9; Rām.2.37.1. -2 an elephant-driver or keeper; मदोन्मत्तस्य भूपस्य कुञ्जरस्य च गच्छतः । उन्मार्गं वाच्यतां यान्ति महामात्राः समीपगाः ॥ Pt.1.161. -3 a superintendent of elephants. (-त्री) 1 the wife of a chief minister. -2 the wife of a spiritual teacher. -मानसी N. of a Jain goddess. -मान्य a. being in great honour with; मकरन्दतुन्दिलानामरविन्दानामयं महामान्यः Bv.1.6. -मायः 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -माया 1 worldly illusion, which makes the material world appear really existent. -2 N. of Durgā; महामाया हरेश्चैषा यया संमोह्यते जगत् Devīmāhātmya. -मायूरम् a particular drug. (-री) N. of an amulet and a goddess; Buddh. -मारी 1 cholera, an epidemic. -2 an epithet of Durgā. -मार्गः high road, main street. ˚पतिः a superintendent of roads. -मालः N. of Śiva. -माहेश्वरः a great worshipper of Maheśvara or Śiva. -मुखः a crocodile. -मुद्रा a particular position of hands or feet (in practice of yoga). -मुनिः 1 a great sage. -2 N. of Vyāsa. -3 an epithet of Buddha. -4 of Agastya. -5 the coriander plant. (-नि n.) 1 coriander seed. -2 any medicinal herb or drug. -मूर्तिः N. of Viṣṇu. -मूर्धन् m. an epithet of Śiva. -मूलम् a large radish. (-लः) a kind of onion. -मूल्य a. very costly. (-ल्यः) a ruby. -मृगः 1 any large animal. -2 an elephant, -3 the fabulous animal called शरभ. -मृत्युः, -मेधः N. of Śiva. -मृत्युंजयः a kind of drug. -मृधम् a great battle. -मेदः the coral tree; महामेदाभिधो ज्ञेयः Bhāva. P. -मेधा an epithet of Durgā. -मोहः great infatuation or confusion of mind. (ससर्ज) महामोहं च मोहं च तमश्चाज्ञानवृत्तयः Bhāg.3.12.2. (-हा) an epithet of Durgā. -यज्ञः 'a great sacrifice', a term applied to the five daily sacrifices or acts of piety to be performed by a house-holder; अध्यापनं ब्रह्मयज्ञः पितृयज्ञस्तु तर्पणम् । होमो दैवो (or देवयज्ञः) बलिर्भौतो (or भूतयज्ञः) नृयज्ञो$तिथिपूजनम् ॥ Ms.3.7,71, (for explanation, see the words s. v.). -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -यमकम् 'a great Yamaka', i. e. a stanza all the four lines of which have exactly the same words, though different in sense; e. g. see Ki.15.52, where विकाशमीयुर्जगतीशमार्गणाः has four different senses; cf. also बभौ मरुत्वान् विकृतः समुद्रः Bk.1.19. -यशस् a. very famous, renowned, celebrated. -यात्रा 'the great pilgrimage', the pilgrimage to Benares. -यानम् N. of the later system of Buddhist teaching, firstly promulgated by Nāgārjuna (opp. हीनयान). -याम्यः an epithet of Viṣṇu. -युगम् 'a great Yuga', consisting of the four Yugas of mortals, or comprising 4,32, years of men. -योगिन् m. 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 of Viṣṇu. -3 a cock. -योनिः f. excessive dilation of the female organ. -रक्तम् coral. -रङ्गः a large stage. -रजतम् 1 gold; उच्चैर्महारजतराजिविराजितासौ Śi.4.28. -2 the thorn-apple. -रजनम् 1 safflower. -2 gold. -3 turmeric; तस्य हैतस्य पुरुषस्य रूपं यथा महारजनं वासः Bṛi. Up.2.3.6. -रत्नम् 1 a precious jewel; वज्रं मुक्ता प्रवालं च गोमेदश्चेन्द्रनीलकः ॥ वैडूर्यः पुष्करागश्च पाचिर्माणिक्यमेव च । महारत्नानि चैतानि नव प्रोक्तानि सूरिभिः ॥ Śukra.4.155-56. -रथः 1 a great chariot. -2 a great warrior or hero; द्रुपदश्च महारथः Bg.1.4; कुतः प्रभावो धनंजयस्य महारथजयद्रथस्य विपत्तिमुत्पादयितुम् Ve.2; दशरथः प्रशशास महारथः R.9.1; Śi.3.22; (a महारथ is thus defined:-- एको दशसहस्राणि योधयेद्यस्तु धन्विनाम् ॥ शस्त्रशास्त्र- प्रवीणश्च विज्ञेयः स महारथः ॥). -3 desire, longing; cf. मनोरथ. -रवः a frog. -रस a. very savoury. (-सः) 1 a sugarcane. -2 quicksilver. -3 a precious mineral. -4 the fruit of the date tree. -5 any one of the eight substances given below :-दरदः पारदं शस्ये वैक्रान्तं कान्तमभ्रकम् । माक्षिकं विमलश्चेति स्युरेते$ष्टौ महारसाः ॥ (-सम्) sour ricewater. -राजः 1 a great king, sovereign or supreme ruler; पञ्चाशल्लक्षपर्यन्तो महाराजः प्रकीर्तितः Śukra.1.184. -2 a respectful mode of addressing kings or other great personages (my lord, your majesty, your highness); इति सत्यं महाराज बद्धो$स्म्यर्थेन कौरवैः Mb. -3 a deified Jaina teacher. -4 a fingernail. ˚अधिराजः a universal emperor, paramount sovereign. ˚चूतः a kind of mango tree. -राजिकः N. of Viṣṇu. -राजिकाः (m. pl.) an epithet of a class of gods (said to be 22 or 236 in number.). -राज्यम् the rank or title of a reigning sovereign. -राज्ञी 1 the reigning or chief queen, principal wife of a king. -2 N. of Durgā. -रात्रम् midnight, dead of night. -रात्रिः, -त्री f. 1 see महाप्रलय; ब्रह्मणश्च निपाते च महाकल्पो भवेन्नृप । प्रकीर्तिता महारात्रिः. -2 midnight. -3 the eighth night in the bright half of Āśvina. -राष्ट्रः 'the great kingdom', N. of a country in the west of India, the country of the Marāṭhās. -2 the people of Mahārāṣṭra; the Marāṭhās (pl.). (-ष्ट्री) N. of the principal Prākṛita; dialect, the language of the people of the Mahārāṣṭra; cf. Daṇḍin:-महाराष्ट्राश्रयां भाषां प्रकृष्टं प्राकृतं विदुः Kāv.1.34. -रिष्टः a kind of Nimba tree growing on mountains. -रुज्, -ज a. very painful. -रुद्रः a form of Śiva. -रुरुः a species of antelope. -रूप a. mighty in form. (-पः) 1 an epithet of Śiva. -2 resin. -रूपकम् a kind of drama. -रेतस् m. an epithet of Śiva. -रोगः a dangerous illness, grievous malady; (these are eight :-उन्मादो राजयक्ष्मा च श्वासस्त्वग्दोष एव च । मधुमेहश्चाश्मरी च तथो- दरभगन्दरौ ॥). -रौद्र a. very dreadful. (-द्री) an epithet of Durgā. -रौरवः N. of one of the 21 hells; Ms.4.88-9. -लक्ष्मी 1 the great Lakṣmī, or Śakti of Nārāyaṇa; सेवे सैरिभमर्दिनीमिह महालक्ष्मीं सरोजस्थिताम्. -2 a young girl who represents the goddess Durgā at the Durgā festival. -लयः 1 a great world destruction. -2 the Supreme Being (महदादीनां लयो यस्मिन्). -लिङ्गम् the great Liṅga or Phallus. (-ङ्गः) an epithet of Śiva. -लोलः a crow. -लोहम् a magnet. -वंशः N. of a wellknown work in Pali (of the 5th century). -वक्षस् m. epithet of Śiva. -वनम् a large forest in Vṛindāvana. -वरा Dūrvā grass. -वराहः 'the great boar', an epithet of Viṣṇu in his third or boar incarnation. -वर्तनम् high wages; -वल्ली 1 the Mādhavī creeper. -2 a large creeping plant. -वसः the porpoise. -वसुः silver; Gīrvāṇa. -वाक्यम् 1 a long sentence. -2 any continuous composition or literary work. -3 a great proposition, principal sentence; such as तत्त्वमसि, ब्रह्मैवेदं सर्वम् &c. -4 a complete sentence (opp. अवान्तरवाक्य q. v.); न च महावाक्ये सति अवान्तरवाक्यं प्रमाणं भवति ŚB. on MS.6.4.25. -वातः a stormy wind, violent wind; महावातातैर्महिषकुलनीलैर्जलधरैः Mk.5.22. -वादिन् m. a great or powerful disputant. -वायुः 1 air (as an element). -2 stormy wind, hurricane, tempest. -वार्तिकम् N. of the Vārtikas of Kātyāyana on Pāṇini's Sūtras. -विडम् a kind of factitious salt. -विदेहा N. of a certain वृत्ति or condition of the mind in the Yoga system of philosophy. -विद्या the great lores; काली तारा महाविद्या षोडशी भुवनेश्वरी । भैरवी छिन्नमस्ता च विद्या धूमवती तथा । बगला सिद्धविद्या च मातङ्गी कमला- त्मिका । एता दश महाविद्याः ... ॥ -विपुला a kind of metre. -विभाषा a rule giving a general option or alternative; इति महाविभाषया साधुः. -विभूतिः an epithet of Śiva. -विषः a serpent having two mouths. -विषुवम् the vernal equinox. ˚संक्रान्तिः f. the vernal equinox (the sun's entering the sign Aries). -विस्तर a. very extensive or copious. -वीचिः N. of a hell. -वीरः 1 a great hero or warrior. -2 a lion. -3 the thunderbolt of Indra. -4 an epithet of Viṣṇu. -5 of Garuḍa. -6 of Hanumat. -7 a cuckoo. -8 a white horse. -9 a sacrificial fire. -1 a sacrificial vessel. -11 a kind of hawk. ˚चरितम् N. of a celebrated drama by Bhavabhūti. -वीर्य a. of great valour, very powerful. (-र्यः) 1 N. of Brahman. -2 the Supreme Being. (-र्या) the wild cotton shrub. -2 an epithet of संज्ञा, the wife of the sun. -वृषः a great bull. -वेग a. 1 very sw
rāṣṭram राष्ट्रम् [राज्-ष्ट्रन् Uṇ.4.167] 1 A kingdom, realm, empire; राष्ट्रदुर्गबलानि च Ak; सामदण्डौ प्रशंसन्ति नित्यं राष्ट्राभि- वृद्धये Ms.7.19;1.61. -2 A district, territory, country, region; as in महाराष्ट्र; नगराणि च राष्ट्राणि धनधान्य- युतानि च Rām.1.1.93; स्वराष्ट्रे न्यायवृत्तः स्यात् Ms.7.32. -3 The people, nation, subjects; तस्य प्रक्षुभ्यते राष्ट्रम् Ms. 9.254. -ष्ट्रः, -ष्ट्रम् Any national or public calamity. -Comp. -अभिवृद्धिः increase of a kingdom. -कर्षणम् distressing a kingdom; तथा राज्ञामपि प्राणाः क्षीयन्ते राष्ट्रकर्षणात् Ms.7.112. -तन्त्रम् administration. -पतिः, -पालः a sovereign. -भेदः division of a kingdom.
raudra रौद्र a. (-द्रा-द्री f.) [रुद्र-अण्] 1 'Rudra-like', violent, irascible, wrathful. -2 Fierce, savage, terrible, wild. -3 Addressed to Rudra (as a hymn). -4 Bringing misfortune; calamitous. -5 Relating to Rudra; रौद्रं व्रतं समास्थाय नियतो नियतेन्द्रियः Rām.7.13.21. -द्रः 1 A worshipper of Rudra. -2 Heat, ardour, warmth, passion, wrath. -3 The sentiment of wrath or furiousness; रौद्रः क्रोधस्थायिभावो रक्तो रुद्राधिदैवतः S. D.232 or K. P.4. -4 N. of Yama. -5 Winter. -6 N. of a संवत्सर. -द्रम् 1 Wrath, rage -2 Formidableness, fierceness, savageness. -3 Heat, warmth; solar heat. -Comp. -कर्मन् a. doing dreadful acts. (-n.) a terrible magic rite. -दर्शन a. frightful-looking, terrific.
vajra वज्र a. [वज्-रन् Uṇ.2.28] 1 Hard, adamantine. -2 Severe. -3 Forked, zigzag. -4 Cross. -ज्रः, -ज्रम् 1 A thunderbolt, the weapon of Indra (said to have been formed out of the bones of the sage Dadhīchi q. v.); आशंसन्ते समितिषु सुराः सक्तवैरा हि दैत्यैरस्याधिज्ये धनुषि विजयं पौरुहूते च वज्रे Ś.2.16. -2 Any destructive weapon like the thunderbolt. -3 A diamond-pin, an instrument for perforating jewels; मणौ वज्रसमुत्कीर्णे सूत्रस्येवास्ति मे गतिः R.1.4. -4 A diamond in general, an adamant; वज्रादपि कठोराणि मृदूनि कुसुमादपि U.2.7; R.6.19; मुक्तां मरकतं पद्मरागं वज्रं च विद्रुमम् Śiva B.3.12. -5 Sour gruel. -ज्रः 1 A form of military arrray. -2 A kind of Kuśa grass. -3 N. of various plants. -4 A kind of pillar. -ज्रम् 1 Steel. -2 A kind of talc. -3 Thunderlike or severe language. -4 A child. -5 Emblic myrobalan. -6 The blossom of the sesamum or Vajra plant. -7 Denunciation in strong language. -8 A particular posture in sitting. -Comp. -अंशुकम् cloth marked with various patterns. -अङ्क a. studded with diamonds (Mar. हिरेजडित); ततो जाम्बूनदीः पात्रीर्वज्राङ्का विमलाः शुभाः Mb.12.171.16. -अङ्कित a. marked with Vajra-like symbol. -अङ्गः a snake. -अभ्यासः cross-multiplication. -अशनिः the thunderbolt of Indra; वज्राशनिसम- स्पर्शा अर्जुनेन शरा युधि Mb.6.119.6 -अस्थिः f. Asteracantha Longifolia (Mar. तालिमखाना). -आकरः a diamond mine; बभूव वज्राकरभूषणायाः (पतिः) R.18.21. -आकार, -आकृति a. 1 shaped like वज्र. -2 a crossshaped symbol. -आख्यः a kind of mineral spar. -आघातः 1 a stroke of thunder or lightning. -2 (hence fig.) any sudden shock or calamity. -आभः a kind of spar or valuable stone. -आयुधः an epithet of Indra. -आसनम् 1 a diamond-seat. -2 a particular posture in sitting (the hands being placed in the hollow between the body and the crossed feet). -कङ्कटः an epithet of Hanumat. -कवचः, -चम् 1 adamantine mail. -2 a particular Samādhi. -कालिका N. of the mother of Śākyamuni. -कीटः a kind of insect (boring holes in wood and stone). -कीलः a thunderbolt, an admantine shaft; जीवितं वज्रकीलम् Māl.9.37; cf. U.1.47. -कूटः a mountain consisting of diamonds; स वज्रकूटाङ्गनिपातवेगविशीर्णकुक्षिः स्तनयन्नुदन्वान् Bhāg.3.13.29. -केतुः N. of the demon Naraka. -क्षारम् an alkaline earth. -गोपः = इन्द्रगोपः q. v. -घोष a. sounding like a thunderbolt; R.18.21. -चञ्चुः a vulture. -चर्मन् m. a rhinoceros. -जित् m. N. of Garuḍa. -ज्वलनम्, -ज्वाला lightning. -तरः N. of a kind of very hard cement; Bṛi. S.57.7. -तुण्डः 1 a vulture. -2 mosquito, gnat. -3 N. of Garuḍa. -4 of Gaṇeṣa. -तुल्यः lapis lazuli or azure stone. -दंष्ट्रः a kind of insect. -दक्षिणः N. of Indra. -दण्ड a. having a staff studded with diamonds. -दन्तः 1 a hog. -2 a rat. -दंशनः a rat. -देह, -देहिन् a. having an adamantine or very hardy frame. -धरः 1 an epithet of Indra; वज्रधरप्रभावः R.18.21. -2 an owl. -धारणम् artificial gold. -नाभ a. having a hard nave (said of a wheel); see next word. -नाभः the discus of Kṛiṣṇa; वज्रनाभं ततश्चक्रं ददौ कृष्णाय पावकः Mb. 1.225.23 (com. वज्रं वरत्रासा नाभौ यस्य तत् । सूत्रबद्धशकुनिवत् पुनः प्रयोक्तुर्हस्तमायातीत्यर्थः ॥). -निर्घोषः, -निष्पेषः a clap or peal of thunder. -पञ्जरः a secure refuge, protector; वज्रपञ्जरनामेदं यो रामकवचं स्मरेत् Rāma-rakṣā 13. -पाणिः 1 an epithet of Indra; वज्रं मुमुक्षन्निव वज्रपाणिः R.2.42. -2 an owl. -पातः, -पतनम् a stroke of lightning, fall of thunder-bolt; एतद्वैशसवज्रघोरपतनम् U.4.24; यावन्निष्ठुर- वज्रपातसदृशं देहीति नो भाषते Udb. -पुष्पम् 1 the blossom of sesamum. -2 a valuable flower. -भृत् m. an epithet of Indra. -मणिः a diamond, an adamant; छेत्तुं वज्रमणी- ञ्शिरीषकुसुमप्रान्तेन संनह्यते Bh.2.6. -मय a. 1 hard, adamantine. -2 cruel, hard-hearted. -मुखः 1 a kind of insect; कृत्ते वज्रमुखेन नाम कृमिणा दैवान्ममोरुद्वये Karṇabhāra 1.1. -2 a kind of Samādhi. -मुष्टिः 1 an epithet of Indra. -2 an adamantine clenched fist. -3 a kind of weapon. -रदः a hog. -लिपिः a particular style of writing. -लेपः 1 a kind of very hard cement; वज्रलेपघटितेव Māl.5. 1; U.4 (for its preparation see Bṛi. S., Chapter 57 'वज्रलेपलक्षणः'). -2 The being ineffaceable, permanent one; अन्यक्षेत्रे कृतं पापं पुण्यक्षेत्रे विनश्यति । पुण्यक्षेत्रे कृतं पापं वज्र- लेपो भविष्यति ॥ Subhāṣ. -लोहकः a magnet. -वधः 1 death by thunderbolt. -2 cross-multiplication. -वारकः a title of respect. -व्यूहः a kind of military array. -शल्यः a porcupine. -संघातः N. of a kind of hard cement; Bṛi. S.57.8. -a. having the hardness of adamant; ततः स वज्रसंघातः कुमारो न्यपतद्गिरौ Mb.1.123.27. -सार a. as hard as adamant, having the strength of the thunderbolt, adamantine; क्व च निशितनिपाता वज्रसाराः शरास्ते Ś.1.1; त्वमपि कुसुमबाणान् वज्रसारीकरोषि 3.4. -सूचिः, -ची f. a diamond-needle. -हृदयम् an adamantine heart.
vinipātaḥ विनिपातः 1 Falling down, a fall. -2 A great fall, calamity, an evil, loss, ruin, destruction; विवेकभ्रष्टानां भवति विनिपातः शतमुकः Bh.2.1 (where it has sense 1 also); विधिहेतुरहेतुरागसां विनिपातो$पि समः समुन्नतेः Ki.2.34. -3 Decay, death. -4 Hell, perdition; Ś.5. -5 Occurrence, happening. -6 Pain, distress; जपतां जुह्वतां चैव विनिपातो न विद्यते Ms.4.146. -7 Disrespect. -Comp. -गत a. fallen into misfortune; भर्तारं नानुमन्यन्ते विनिपातगतं स्त्रियः Rām.2.39.2. -शंसिन् a. portentous, foreboding ruin.
vinihata विनिहत p. p. 1 Struck down, wounded. -2 Killed. -3 Completely overcome. -तः 1 Any great or unavoidable calamity, such as that inflicted by fate or heaven. -2 A portent, comet. -Comp. -आत्मन् one who has lost his soul; स त्वां विनिहतात्मानं ...... जाने पापसमाचारम् Rām.4.17.22.
vipattiḥ विपत्तिः f. 1 A calamity, misfortune, disaster, mishap, adversity; संपत्तौ च विपत्तौ च महतामेकरूपता Śubhāṣ. -2 Death, destruction; अतिरभसकृतानां कर्मणामाविपत्तेर्भवति हृदयदाही शल्यतुल्यो विपाकः Bh.2.99; R.19.56; Ve. 4.6; हिमसेकविपत्तिः नलिनी R.8.45. -3 Agony, torment (यातना). -4 Cessation, end. -त्तिः (m.) An excellent or distinguished footsoldier; स्यन्दना नो च तुरगाः सुरेभा वा विपत्तयः Ki.15.16. -Comp. -कालः season of adversity.
vipad विपद् f. 1 Calamity, misfortune, adversity, distress; तत्त्वनिकषग्रावा तु तेषां (मित्राणां) विपद् H.1.183. -2 Death; सिंहादवापद्विपदं नृसिंहः R.18.35. -Comp. -उद्धरणम्, उद्धारः relieving or extricating (one) from misfortune. -कालः times of need, season of calamity, adversity. -ग्रस्त, -युक्त a. overtaken by or involved in calamity, unhappy, unfortunate. -सागरः 'sea of misery', a very heavy calamity or disaster.
viparyaya विपर्यय a. Reversed, inverted, perverse; यदा वृश्चिका- दिषु पञ्चसु वर्तते तदाहोरात्राणि विपर्ययाणि भवन्ति Bhāg.5.21.5. -यः 1 Contrariety, reverse, inversion; आहितो जयविपर्ययो$पि मे श्लाध्य एव परमेष्ठिना त्वया R.11.86. स्वशरीरशरीरिणावपि श्रुतसंयोगविपर्ययौ यदा 8.89; नभसः स्फुटतारस्य रात्रेरिव विपर्ययः (न भाजनम्) Ki.11.44; विपर्यये तु Ś.5 'if it be otherwise', if contrary be the case; विपर्यये त्वस्याधिपतेरुल्लङ्घितः क्षात्रधर्मः स्यात् Ve.5. -2 Change (of purpose, dress &c.); कथमेत्य मतिर्विपर्ययं करिणी पङ्कमिवावसीदति Ki.2.6; so वेषविपर्ययः Pt.1. -3 Absence or non-existence; समुद्रगारूपविपर्यये$पि Ku.7.42; त्यागे श्लाघाविपर्ययः R.1.22. -4 Loss; राघवाणा- मयुक्तो$यं कुलस्यास्य विपर्ययैः Rām.1.21.2; निद्रा संज्ञाविपर्ययः Ku.6.44 'loss of consciousness'. -5 Complete destruction, annihilation; दुःशासनवधं श्रुत्वा कर्णस्य च विपर्ययम् Mb. 11.1.16; Rām.7.6.5. -6 Exchange, barter. -7 Error, trespass, mistake, misapprehension. -8 A calamity, misfortune, adverse fate; प्रियं त्वत्कृतमिच्छामि मम गर्भविपर्यये Rām.1.47.3. -9 Hostility, enmity. -1 Perverseness, opposition. -11 The destruction of the world (प्रलय); हरिं विशन्ति स्म शरा लोका इव विपर्यये Rām.7. 7.4. -12 Misapprehension; भयं द्वितीयाभिनिवेशतः स्यादीशा- दपेतस्य विपर्ययो$स्मृतिः Bhāg.11.2.37; Mv.3.35.
vipākaḥ विपाकः 1 Cooking, dressing. -2 Digestion; रूपं चक्षुर्विपाकश्च त्रिधा ज्योतिर्विधीयते Mb.12.248.1; also bad digestion. -3 Ripening, ripeness, maturity, development (fig. also); अमी पृथुस्तम्बमृतः पिशङ्गतां गता विपाकेन फलस्य शालयः Ki.4.26; वाचां विपाको मम Bv.4.42 'my mature, full-developed, or dignified words'. -4 Consequence, fruit, result, the result of actions either in this or in a former birth; अहो मे दारुणतरः कर्मणां विपाकः K.354; ममैव जन्मान्तरपातकानां विपाकविस्फूर्जथुरप्रसह्यः R.14. 62; Bh.2.99; Mv.5.56. -5 (a) Change of state; कष्टं बतान्यदिव दैववशेन जाता दुःखात्मकं किमपि भूतमहो विपाकः U.4.6. (b) An unexpected event or occurrence, a reverse, adverse turn of fate, distress, calamity; ईदृशानां विपाको$पि जायते परमाद्भुतः U.3.3; विपाके घोरे$स्मिन्नथ खलु विमूढा तव सखी 4.12. -6 Difficulty, embarrassment. -7 Flavour, taste. -8 Withering, fading. -Comp. -कालः the time of maturing. -दारुण a. terrible in results. -दोषः morbid affection of digestive powers.
viplava विप्लव a. Perflexed, confused; मुमूर्षूणां हि मन्दात्मन्ननु स्युर्विप्लवा गिरः Bhāg.7.8.12. -वः 1 Floating or drifting about, floating in different directions. -2 Opposition, contrariety. -3 Confusion, perplexity. -4 Tumult, scuffle, affray; M.1. -5 Devastation, predatory warfare, danger from an enemy. -6 Extortion. -7 Loss, destruction; सत्त्वविप्लवात् R.8.41; तद्वाग्विसर्गो जनताघविप्लवः Bhāg.1.5. 11. -8 Adverseness, evil turn; अथवा मम भाग्यविल्पवात् R. 8.47. -9 The rust on a mirror (dust accumulating on its surface); अपवर्जितविप्लवे शुचौ ... मतिरादर्श इवाभिदृश्यते Ki.2.26 (where विप्लव also means प्रमाणबाधः 'absence of reasoning'). -1 Transgression, violation; गुरूपदिष्टेन रिपौ सुते$पि वा निहन्ति दण्डेन स धर्मविप्लवम् Ki.1.13. -11 An evil, a calamity. -12 Sin, wickedness, sinfulness. -13 Terrifying an enemy by shouts and gestures. -14 Divulging, making public. -15 Profanation of the Veda by unseasonable study. -16 Shipwreck.
virodhaḥ विरोधः 1 Opposition, obstruction, impediment. -2 Blockade, siege, investment. -3 Restraint, check. -4 Inconsistency, incongruity, contradiction; विरोधो न विद्यते ब्रह्माद्वितीयमेव सत्यम् । (-त्रिपाद्विभूतिमहानारायणोपनिषत् 4.2.) -5 Antithesis, contrast. -6 Enmity, hostility; विरोधो विश्रान्तः U.6.11; Pt.1.332; R.1.13. -7 A quarrel, disagreement. -8 A calamity, misfortune. -9 (In Rhet.) An apparent incongruity which is merely verbal and is explained away by properly construing the passage; it consists in representing objects as antithetical to one another though in the nature of things they are not so; representing things as being together though really they cannot be together; (this figure is largely used by Bāṇa and Subandhu; पुष्पवत्यपि पवित्रा, कृष्णो$प्यसुदर्शनः, भरतो$पि शत्रुघ्नः being familiar instances;) it is thus defined by Mammaṭa :-- विरोधः सो$विरोधे- $पि विरुद्धत्वेन यद्वचः K. P.1; this figure is also called विरोधाभास). -Comp. -उक्तिः f., -वचनम् contradiction, opposition. -उपमा (in Rhet.) a comparison founded on opposition; शतपत्रं शरच्चन्द्रस्त्वदाननमिति त्रयम् । परस्परविरोधीति सा विरोधोपमा मता ॥ Kāv.2.33. -कारिन् a. fomenting quarrels. -कृत् a. opposing. (-m.) an enemy. -परिहारः reconciliation; Kull. on Ms.7.152.
vṛjana वृजन [वृजेः क्युः Uṇ.3.77] a. 1 Crooked. -2 Ved. Strong. -3 Ved. Moving. -4 (Hence) Perishable, transient. -नः 1 Hair. -2 Curled hair. -नम् 1 Sin. -2 A calamity. -3 Sky. -4 An enclosed piece of ground, an enclosure; especially a field cleared for pasture or agriculture. -5 Energy, strength. -6 A battle, fight.
vaiṣamyam वैषम्यम् [विषमस्य भावः ष्यञ्] 1 Unevenness. -2 Roughness, harshness. -3 Inequality. -4 Injustice. -5 Difficulty, misery, calamity. -6 Solitariness. -7 An error, mistake.
vyatikara व्यतिकर a. 1 Reciprocal. -2 Spreading, pervading. -3 Contiguous, near. -रः 1 Mixture, intermixture, mixing, blending together; तीर्थे तोयव्यतिकरभवे जह्नुकन्या- सरय्वोः R.8.95; व्यतिकर इव भीमस्तामसो वैद्युतश्च U.5.13; Māl.9.52; Bhāg.11.1.34. -2 Contact, union, combination; रुद्रेणेदमुमाकृतव्यतिकरे स्वाङ्गे विभक्तं द्विधा M.1.4; Māl.7; Śi.4.53;7.28. -3 Striking against; कठोरास्थि- ग्रन्थिव्यतिकररणत्कारमुखरः Māl.5.34. -4 Obstruction; मार्गाचलव्यतिकराकुलितेव सिन्धुः Ku.5.85. -5 An incident, occurrence, affair, a thing, matter; एवंविधे व्यतिकरे 'such being the case'. -6 An opportunity. -7 Misfortune, calamity. -8 Mutual relation, reciprocity. -9 Exchange, interchange; सो$यं स्थितिव्यतिकरोपशमाय सृष्टान् Bhāg.4.1. 57. -1 Alternation. -11 Provocation (क्षोभ); कालाद्गुण व्यतिकरः परिणामः स्वभावतः Bhāg.2.5.22. -12 Destruction; प्रजोपप्लवमालक्ष्य लोकव्यतिकरं च तम् Bhāg.1.7.32. -13 Spreading, pervading; Bhāg.5.3.4.
vyatīpātaḥ व्यतीपातः 1 Total departure, complete deviation. -2 Any great portentous calamity, or a portent foreboding a great calamity. -3 Disrespect, contempt. -4 The seventeenth of the astronomical Yogas. -5 The day of full-moon (when it falls on a Monday.) -6 A malignant or evil aspect of the sun and moon (considered to be inauspicious for the performance of any action).
vyasanam व्यसनम् 1 Casting away, dispelling. -2 Separating, dividing. -3 Violation, infraction; शीलव्यसनमेतत्ते नाभिजाना- म्यहं पुरा Rām.2.12.57; Ki.3.45. -4 Loss, destruction, defeat, fall; defection, weak point; अमात्यव्यसनम् Pt.3; स्वबलव्यसने Ki.13.15; Śi.2.57. -5 (a) A calamity, misfortune, distress, evil, disaster, ill-luck; अज्ञातभर्तृव्यसना मुहूर्तं कृतोपकारेव रतिर्बभूव Ku.3.73;4.3; R.12.57. (b) Adversity, need; स सुहृद् व्यसने यः स्यात् Pt.1.327 'a friend in need is a friend indeed'. -6 Setting (as of the sun &c.); तेजोद्वयस्य युगपद् व्यसनोदयाभ्याम् Ś.4.1 (where व्यसन means 'a fall' also). -7 Vice, bad practice, evil habit; मिथ्यैव व्यसनं वदन्ति मृगयामीदृग् विनोदः कुतः Ś.2.5; R.18.14; Y.1.31; (these vices are usually said to be ten; see Ms.7.47-48); समानशीलव्यसनेषु सख्यम् Subhāṣ. -8 Close or intent application, assiduous devotion; विद्यायां व्यसनम् Bh.2.62,63. -9 Inordinate addiction. -1 Crime, sin. -11 Punishment. -12 Inability, incompetency. -13 Fruitless effort. -14 Air, wind. -15 Individuality. -Comp. -अतिभारः heavy calamity or distress; सा मुक्तकण्ठं व्यसनातिभारात् (चक्रन्द) R.14.68. -अन्वित, -आर्त, -पीडित a. overtaken by calamity, involved in distress. -आवापः an abode of calamity; व्यसनावाप एतस्मिन् पतितानां स्वकर्मभिः Bhāg.4.22.13. -कालः time of need. -प्रहारिन् a. 1 hurting, attacking, giving trouble. -2 striking (an enemy) in his weak point. -ब्रह्मचारिन् a fellow-sufferer. -वर्गः an aggregate of calamities; प्रकृतिव्यसनवर्गः Kau. A.7. -संस्थित a. one who indulges in any whim.
vyāpattiḥ व्यापत्तिः f. 1 Ruin, calamity, misfortune; व्यापत्तिं कर्मणां दृष्ट्वा जुगुप्सन्ति जनाः सदा Mb.12.265.34; औदासीन्यं न युक्तं प्रियसुहृदि गते मत्कृते चातिघोरां । व्यापत्तिम् Mu.6.2; Mk.6.1. -2 Substitution of one thing for another. -3 Death; तयोस्तस्मिन्नवीभूतपितृव्यापत्तिशोकयोः R.12.56.
śamalam शमलम् [शम्-कलच् Uṇ.1.13] 1 Feces, ordure, excrement. -2 Impurity, sediment. -3 Sin, moral impurity; आशंसमानः शमलं गङ्गायां दुःखितो$पतत् Bhāg.1.13.32. -4 A calamity, misfortune. a. sinful; साध्व्यः कृताञ्जलिपुटाः शमलस्य भर्तुः Bhāg.1.16.32.
śāntika शान्तिक a. (-की f.) Expiatory, propitiatory. -कम् Observances or ceremonies calculated to remove calamities.
śikhaṇḍin शिखण्डिन् a. [शिखण्डो$स्त्यस्य इनि] Crested, tufted. -m. A peacock; नदति स एष वधूसखः शिखण्डी U.3.18; R.1.39; Ku.1.15. -2 A cock. -3 An arrow. -4 A peacock's tail. -5 A kind of jasmine. -6 N. of Viṣṇu. -7 N. of a son of Drupada; शिखण्डी च महारथः Bg.1.17. [Śikhaṇḍin was originally a female, being Ambā born in the family of Drupada for wreaking her revenge upon Bhīṣma; (see Ambā). But from her very birth the girl was given out as a male child and brought up as such. In due course she was married to the daughter of Hiraṇyavarman, who was extremely sorry to find that she had got a veritable woman for her husband. Her father, therefore, resolved to attack the kingdom of Drupada for his having deceived him; but Śikhaṇḍin contrived, by practising austere penance in a forest, to exchange her sex with a Yakṣa and thus averted the calamity which threatened Drupada. Afterwards in the great Bhāratī war he proved a means of killing Bhīṣma, who declined to fight with a woman, when Arjuna put him forward as his hero. He was afterwards killed by Aśvatthāman.]
śyenaḥ श्येनः [श्यै-इनन् Uṇ.2.45] 1 The white colour. -2 Whiteness. -3 A hawk, falcon. -4 Violence. -5 Ved. A horse. -6 A kind of array in battle. -Comp. -अवपातः the swoop of a hawk; श्येनावपातचकिता वनवर्ति- केव Māl.8.8. -कपोतीय a. (from Śibi story) sudden (calamity). -करणम्, -करणिका 1 burning on a separate funeral pile. -2 a hawk-like, i. e. rash and desperate, act. -चित्, -जीविन् m. falconer; Ms.3.164. -पातः the swoop of a hawk or eagle; वडवे इव संयुक्ते श्येनपाते दिवौकसाम् Mb.3.133.26.
saṃgaraḥ संगरः 1 A promise, an agreement; तथेति तस्या वितथं प्रतीतः प्रत्यग्रहीत् संगरमग्रजन्मा R.5.26;11.48; पलितसंगराय 13.65. -2 Accepting, undertaking. -3 A bargain. -4 War, battle, fight; छलबहुलमरीणां संगरं हा हतो$स्मि Ve.5.21; अतरत् स्वभुजौजसा मुहुर्महतः संगरसागरानसौ Śi.16. 67. -5 Knowledge. -6 Devouring. -7 Misfortune, calamity. -8 Poison. -रम् The fruit of the Śamī tree.
saṃparāyaḥ संपरायः 1 Conflict, encounter, war, battle. -2 A calamity, misfortune. -3 Future state, futurity. -4 A son. -5 Decease, death.
sāṃparāya सांपराय a. (-यी f.) 1 Relating to war, warlike. -2 Relating to the other world, future. -यः, -यम् 1 Conflict, contention. -2 Future life, the future; योगिनां सांपराय- विधिमनुशिक्षयन् Bhāg.5.6.6. -3 The means of attaining the future world. -4 Inquiry into the future; यस्य प्रमाणं मृगवः सांपराये Bhāg.8.19.2. -5 Inquiry, investigation. -6 Uncertainty. -7 A helper; Mb.1.3.58. -8 Need, distress, calamity; उक्तपूर्वं कुतो राजन् सांपराये स वक्ष्यति Mb.1.48.11.
sopadrava सोपद्रव a. Visited with calamities or afflictions.
sopaplava सोपप्लव a. 1 Afflicted with any great calamity. -2 Invaded or overrun by enemies. -3 Eclipsed (as the sun or moon); ब्रह्मघोषैर्विरहितः पर्वतो$यं न शोभते । रजसा तमसा चैव सोमः सोपप्लवो यथा ॥ Mb.12.328.13.
sopasarga सोपसर्ग a. 1 Afflicted or visited by any great calamity or misfortune. -2 Portentous. -3 Possessed by an evil spirit. -4 Preceded by a prepositional prefix (in gram.).
     Vedabase Search  
25 results
calam and changeSB 11.25.14
calam flickeringBG 17.18
BG 6.35
calam flickering, subject to end at any momentSB 9.13.3
calam movingSB 8.5.28
acalam unmovingBG 6.13-14
acalam immovableBG 12.3-4
acalam Sumeru MountainSB 5.21.8-9
mandara-acalam the hill known as MandarācalaSB 7.7.2
govardhana-acalam Govardhana HillSB 10.25.19
kula-acalam the principal mountain rangeSB 10.79.16-17
acalam steadySB 11.20.18
acañcalam free from disturbancesSB 3.28.9
calam Him whose cornersCC Adi 4.196
netra-añcalam whose borders of the eyesCC Antya 1.166
cañcalam flickeringBG 6.26
cañcalam flickeringBG 6.34
govardhana-acalam Govardhana HillSB 10.25.19
kula-acalam the principal mountain rangeSB 10.79.16-17
kulācalam unto KulācalaSB 4.28.33
kulācalam known as MandaraSB 8.7.9
mandara-acalam the hill known as MandarācalaSB 7.7.2
mandarācalam the Mandarācala HillSB 1.3.16
netra-añcalam whose borders of the eyesCC Antya 1.166
niścalam free from sense gratificationSB 11.11.22
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calamūrdhatā noun (feminine) a kind of disease
Frequency rank 52179/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
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calamine (smithsonite), zinc ore, zinc carbonate.


supervening disease, calamity, complication.


Plant sweet flag, orris root, Acorus calamus.

     Wordnet Search "calam" has 5 results.


vastrāñcalam, añcalam, vastrakoṭiḥ   

vastrasya prānte suśobhanārthe syūtaḥ viralāṃśukamaya- ūrmmivad- uttānato vastrālaṅkāraḥ।

saḥ vastrāñcalasya nirmitikāryaṃ karoti।


samudāyaḥ, saṅghaḥ, samūhaḥ, saṅghātaḥ, samavāyaḥ, sañcayaḥ, gaṇaḥ, gulmaḥ, gucchaḥ, gucchakaḥ, gutsaḥ, stavakaḥ, oghaḥ, vṛndaḥ, nivahaḥ, vyūhaḥ, sandohaḥ, visaraḥ, vrajaḥ, stomaḥ, nikaraḥ, vātaḥ, vāraḥ, saṃghātaḥ, samudayaḥ, cayaḥ, saṃhatiḥ, vṛndam, nikurambam, kadambakam, pūgaḥ, sannayaḥ, skandhaḥ, nicayaḥ, jālam, agram, pacalam, kāṇḍam, maṇḍalam, cakram, vistaraḥ, utkāraḥ, samuccayaḥ, ākaraḥ, prakaraḥ, saṃghaḥ, pracayaḥ, jātam   

ekasmin sthāne sthāpitāni sthitāni vā naikāni vastūni।

asmin samudāye naikāḥ mahilāḥ santi।


śikhā, āñcalam, śukam   

śāṭikāyāḥ uttarīyasya vā saḥ bhāgaḥ yaḥ skandhāt agre gamyamānaḥ vastrasya bhāgaḥ।

bālakaḥ mātuḥ śāṭikāyāḥ śikhāṃ gṛhṇāti।


kampanam, calanam, kampram, calam, lolam, cañcalam, pāriplavam, pariplavam, vepathuḥ   


vyādhigrastasya tasya śarīre kampanāni santi।


astaṃ gam, astaṃ vraj, astaṃ yā, astaṃ i, astācalam avalaṃb, astaśikharam avalaṃb, astācalam prāp, astaśikharam prāp, sāgare masj   

sūryasya candrasya vā astaṃ prati gamanānukūlaḥ vyāpāraḥ।

sūryaḥ paścimadiśi astaṃ gacchati।

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