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     Grammar Search "ayana" has 3 results.
     
āyanā: feminine nominative singular stem: āyana
ayana: neuter vocative singular stem: ayana
āyana: masculine vocative singular stem: āyana
     Amarakosha Search  
27 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
āsaṅgavacanam3.2.2NeuterSingularturāyaṇam
ayanam2.1.15NeuterSingularpadavī, mārgaḥ, vartanī, saraṇiḥ, panthāḥ, vartma, padyā, sṛtiḥ, adhvā, ekapadī, paddhatiḥ
ayanamNeuterSingulara year
bhairavam1.7.19MasculineSingularbhīṣaṇam, pratibhayam, bhīṣmam, ghoram, bhīmam, bhayānakam, dāruṇam, bhayaṅkaramhorrer
brahmavarcasam2.7.42NeuterSingularvṛttādhyayanardhiḥ
ekāgraḥ3.1.79MasculineSingularekatālaḥ, ananyavṛttiḥ, ekāyanaḥ, ekasargaḥ, ekāgryaḥ, ekāyanagataḥ
jayaḥ3.4.12MasculineSingularjayanam
karṇīrathaḥ2.8.52MasculineSingularayanam, pravahaṇam
locanam2.6.94NeuterSingulardṛṣṭiḥ, netram, īkṣaṇam, cakṣuḥ, akṣiḥ, dṛk, nayanam
nidrā1.7.36FeminineSingularśayanam, svāpaḥ, svapnaḥ, saṃveśaḥsleep
pradrāvaḥ2.8.116MasculineSingular‍vidravaḥ, dravaḥ, apakramaḥ, uddrāvaḥ, apayānam, saṃdrāvaḥ, saṃ‍dāvaḥ
puram3.3.191NeuterSingularcāmaraḥdaṇḍaḥ, śayanam, āsanam
rasāḥMasculinePluralkaruṇaḥ, adbhutaḥ, hāsyaḥ, bhayānakaḥ, śṛṅgāraḥ, vībhatsaḥ, vīraḥ, raudraḥone kind of acting,vigorous
sākalyavacanam3.2.2NeuterSingularparāyaṇam
saṃvatsaraḥMasculineSingularsamāḥ, vatsaraḥ, abdaḥ, hāyanaḥ, śarata year
saṃvīkṣaṇam2.4.30NeuterSingularmṛgaṇā, mṛgaḥ, vicayanam, mārgaṇam
śayyā1.2.138FeminineSingularśayanīyam, śayanam
śibikā2.8.53FeminineSingularyāpyayānam
sūnā3.3.120FeminineSingularjavanam, āpyāyanam, pratīvāpaḥ
sūraḥ1.3.28-30MasculineSingularsahasrāṃśuḥ, raviḥ, chāyānāthaḥ, jagaccakṣuḥ, pradyotanaḥ, lokabāndhavaḥ, aryamā, dhāmanidhiḥ, divākaraḥ, braghnaḥ, bhāsvān, haridaśvaḥ, arkaḥ, aruṇaḥ, taraṇiḥ, virocanaḥ, tviṣāṃpatiḥ, haṃsaḥ, savitā, tejasāṃrāśiḥ, karmasākṣī, trayītanuḥ, khadyotaḥ, sūryaḥ, bhagaḥ, dvādaśātmā, abjinīpatiḥ, ahaskaraḥ, vibhākaraḥ, saptāśvaḥ, vikartanaḥ, mihiraḥ, dyumaṇiḥ, citrabhānuḥ, grahapatiḥ, bhānuḥ, tapanaḥ, padmākṣaḥ, tamisrahā, lokabandhuḥ, dinamaṇiḥ, inaḥ, ādityaḥ, aṃśumālī, bhāskaraḥ, prabhākaraḥ, vivasvān, uṣṇaraśmiḥ, mārtaṇḍaḥ, pūṣā, mitraḥ, vibhāvasuḥ, aharpatiḥ(53)the sun
upahāraḥ2.8.28MasculineSingularupadā, upāyanam, upagrāhyam
viṣṇuḥ1.1.18-21MasculineSingularadhokṣajaḥ, vidhuḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, svabhūḥ, govindaḥ, acyutaḥ, janārdanaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, madhuripuḥ, devakīnandanaḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, kaṃsārātiḥ, kaiṭabhajit, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, mādhavaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvaksenaḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, trivikramaḥ, śrīpatiḥ, balidhvaṃsī, viśvambharaḥ, śrīvatsalāñchanaḥ, narakāntakaḥ, mukundaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, keśavaḥ, daityāriḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, śārṅgī, upendraḥ, caturbhujaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, śauriḥ, vanamālī(45)vishnu, the god
viṭapaḥ3.3.138MasculineSingulardivyagāyanaḥ, antarābhavasattvaḥ
vyomayānam1.1.49NeuterSingularvimānamthe car of indra
vātāyanamNeuterSingulargavākṣaḥ
śrayaṇam3.4.12NeuterSingularśrāyaḥ
hāyanaḥ3.3.115MasculineSingularśakraḥ, ghātukaḥ, varṣukābdaḥ
     Monier-Williams
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438 results for ayana
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
ayanamfn. going View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanan. walking a road a path (often in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' see naimiṣāyana-, puruṣāyana-, prasamāyana-, samudrāyaṇa-, svedāyana-), (in astronomy) advancing, precession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanan. (with gen[ exempli gratia, 'for example' /angirasām-, ādity/ānam-, gavām-,etc.] or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') "course, circulation", Name of various periodical sacrificial rites etc. the sun's road north and south of the equator, the half year etc., the equinoctial and solstitial points etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanan. way, progress, manner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanan. place of refuge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanan. a treatise (śāstra- see jyotiṣām-ayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanabhagam. (in astronomy) the amount of precession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanadṛkkarmann. calculation for ecliptic deviation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanagraham. a planet's longitude as corrected for ecliptic deviation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanakalāf. plural the correction (in minutes) for ecliptic deviation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanavṛttan. the ecliptic. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abdhiśayanam. "sleeping on the ocean (at the periods of the destruction and renovation of the world)", Name of viṣṇu-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyadhyayanan. studying (the veda- etc.) at any place (compound), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abjanayanamfn. lotus-eyed, having large fine eyes. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhiśayanamfn. lying on, sleeping on. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyayanan. reading, studying, especially the veda-s (one of the six duties of a Brahman), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyayanaetc. See adhī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyayanaalso going over, recitation, repetition (of the veda- etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyayanapuṇyan. religious merit acquired by studying. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyayanasaṃvṛttif. community of occupation in reciting (the veda- etc.), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyayanatapasīn. dual number study and penance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaśayanan. the sun's sleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityaśayanavratan. a particular vow or religious observance. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnicayanan. arranging to preparing the sacred or sacrificial fire-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agninayanan. the act of bringing out the sacrificial fire. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnipraṇayanan. equals -nayana- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnipraṇayanan. vessels for conveying the sacrificial fire, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agnīṣomapraṇayanan. bringing out the fire and the soma-, a ceremony in the jyotiṣṭoma- sacrifice. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āhvayanan. appellation, name View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājayanaSee 2. ā-ji-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ājayanan. (only for the etymology of 1. āj/i-) "conquering" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākāśaśayanan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) sleeping in open air View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anadhyayanan. not reading or studying, intermission of study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anālayanamfn. abodeless, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anantaśayanan. Travancore. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānayanan. bringing, leading near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānayanan. producing, working View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ānayanan. calculating. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgirasāmayanan. a sattra- sacrifice. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anilayanan. no home or refuge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antarayanam. Name of a country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anyonyapakṣanayanan. transposing (of numbers) from one side to another. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apanayanan. taking away, withdrawing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apanayanan. destroying, healing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apanayanan. acquittance of a debt. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apariṇayanan. ( -), non-marriage, celibacy. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
apyayanan. union, copulating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arālapakṣmanayanamfn. whose eyelashes are curved View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
araṇyādhyayanan. reading or study in a forest on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārdranayanamfn. moist-eyed, weeping, suffused with tears. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ārgayana(fr. ṛgayana- ) or ārgayaṇa- (gaRa girinady-ādi- on ) contained in or explanatory of the book ṛgayana-
arkanayanan. Name of an asura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asitanayanamfn. black-eyed. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
astamayanan. setting of the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asthisaṃcayanan. the ceremony of collecting the bones (after burning a corpse) commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśūnyaśayanan. the day on which viśvakarman- rests View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśūnyaśayanadvitīyāf. Name of ceremonies on that occasion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśūnyaśayanavratan. Name of ceremonies on that occasion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atiśayanamf(ī-)n. eminent, abundant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atiśayanamind. excessively View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
audayanamfn. relating to or coming from (the teacher) udayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aujjayanakamfn. relating to or coming from the town ujjayanī- gaRa dhūmādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avajayanan. means of subduing or healing a disease, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avanayanan. equals ava-nāya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avanayanan. pouring down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bahvadhyayana() mfn. consisting of many chapters gaRa guṇādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baijavāpayanam. patronymic fr. prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
baijavāpayanam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhagavadupanayanan. "initiation of bhagavat-", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhālanayana m. "having an eye in the forehead"Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhayanan. fear, alarm View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhṛtakādhyayanan. learning from a hired teacher, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūmiśayanan. () () the act of sleeping on the (bare) ground. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhūyaḥpalayanan. fleeing once more View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bījopanayanan. Name of work on algebra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cayanan. piling up (wood etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cayanan. stacked wood View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cayanan. collecting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cayanakārikāf. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cayanapaddhatif. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cayanaprayogam. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cayanasūtran. Name (also title or epithet) of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cūḍopanayanan. plural tonsure and initiation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dakṣiṇātinayana(ṇāt-) m. the mantra- with which the dakṣiṇā- cows are driven southwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍapraṇayanan. "infliction of punishment"Name of a chapter of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daśaśatanayanam. "thousand-eyed", indra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanaSee ḍī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanan. a bird's flight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayanan. a palanquin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
deśāntarabhāṇḍānayanan. importing wares from foreign countries View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhanasaṃcayanan. () collection of money, riches. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhāraṇādhyayanan. the conservative method of reading (id est the rehearsing of a work to keep it in memory, as opp. to grahaṇādh-,the acquisitive method) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dīptanayanam. "having glittering eyes", Name of an owl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
duradhyayayanamfn. equals adhīyāna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvijanayanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ekanayanam. the planet Venus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
eṇīnayanamf(ā-)n. idem or 'mfn. deer-eyed ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
galitanayanamfn. one who has lost his eyes, blind, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gavāmayanan. idem or 'm. "going of cows", Name of a ceremony ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
grāmādhyayanan. study in a village View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hariśayanan. viṣṇu-'s sleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hayanam. a year (see hāyana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hayanan. a covered carriage or palanquin (also read ḍayana-;See under ḍī-)
hayanaetc. See p.1288, columns 2, 3. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hṛdayanarapatim. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hvayanaSee ā-hv-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
iṣṭyayanan. a sacrifice lasting a long time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalaśayanam. "reposing on water (id est on his serpent-couch above the waters, during the 4 months of the periodical rains and during the intervals of the submersion of the world)", viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayanamf(ī-)n. victorious View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayanan. conquering, subduing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayanan. armour for cavalry or elephants etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayanayujmfn. caparisoned (a war horse) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jvalitanayanamfn. idem or 'mfn. fiery-eyed, looking angrily or fiercely ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kālānayanan. calculation of time commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kamalanayanam. "lotus-eyed", Name of a king. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
keliśayanan. a pleasure-couch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kokilanayanam. "having eyes like those of the Koil", a plant bearing a dark black flower (Capparis spinosa or Asteracantha longifolia or Barleria longifolia) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kramādhyayanan. reciting or reading according to the krama- method View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
krodhavinayanan. appeasing anger, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇanayanamfn. black-eyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtasvastyayanamf(ā-)n. blessed or commended to the protection of gods previous to any journey or undertaking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛtopanayanam. one who has been invested with the sacrificial cord View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣmāśayanan. lying or being buried in the earth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusmayanan. smiling improperly View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kusumaśayanan. a couch of flowers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuvalayanayanāf. idem or 'f. "lotus-eyed", a handsome woman ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
layanan. the act of clinging, adhering, lying etc., rest, repose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
layanan. a place of rest, house, cell etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohaśayanan. an iron bed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lohitanayanamfn. red-eyed, having eyes reddened with anger or passion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lolanayanamfn. having rolling eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
loṣṭacayanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madiranayanamf(ā-)n. idem or 'f. a fascinating woman ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāgnicayanan. Name of work (and mahāgnicayanakārikā na-kārikā- f. mahāgnicayanaprayoga na-prayoga- m. mahāgnicayanavyākhyā na-vyākhyā- f. mahāgnicayanasūtra na-sūtra- n.)
mahāgnicayanakārikāf. mahāgnicayana
mahāgnicayanaprayogam. mahāgnicayana
mahāgnicayanasūtran. mahāgnicayana
mahāgnicayanavyākhyāf. mahāgnicayana
mahāhiśayanan. the sleeping (of viṣṇu-) on the great serpent View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāśayanan. a great or lofty bed or couch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasanayanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānasanayanaprasādinīf. Name of commentator or commentary on it. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
maṇḍūkayogaśayanamfn. lying on the ground in the frog-meditation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manoramāpariṇayanacaritan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
manovinayanan. mental discipline View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māsapraveśānayanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
māyābhyudayana(māyābh-) m. Name of a kāyastha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
meghānayanan. Name of certain works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukulitanayanamf(ā-)n. having half-closed eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
muñjavivayanamf(ā-)n. matted or twisted out of Munja-grass View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
munyayanan. Name of a particular iṣṭi-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navagrahānayanakoṣṭhakan. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navapāṣāṇadarbhaśayanasaṃkalpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanan. leading, directing, managing, conducting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanan. carrying, bringing etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanan. (kālasya-) fixing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanan. drawing, moving (a man or piece in a game see naya-and naya-pīṭhī-) ; (plural) prudent, conduct, polity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanan. "the leading organ", the eye (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-or ī-).) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanabhūṣaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanabudbudan. eyeball View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanacandrikāf. moonshine, anything looking bright to the eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanacandrikāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanacaritan. play of the eyes, ogling, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanacchadam. eye-covering, an eyelid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanagocaramfn. being within the eye's range, visible (-tva- ; -kṛ-,to perceive or behold ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanajalan. "eye-water", tears View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanapadavīf. () range or field of sight. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanapatham. () range or field of sight. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanaplavam. swimming of the eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanaprabandham. the outer corner of the eye View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanaprasādinīf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanaprītif. "eye-delight", lovely sight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanapuṭam. or n. the eyelid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanasalilan. equals -jala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanaśāṇam. a particular ointment for the eye View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanasukham. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanatvan. condition of the eyes, sight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanauṣadhaa particular ointment for the eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanavārin. equals -jala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanavatmfn. having eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanaviṣayam. "range of sight", the horizon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nayanaviṣayībhāvam. the being within sight View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nihitanayanamf(ā-)n. having the eyes fixed or directed upon (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nilayanan. the act of going out (prob. identical with 2. ni-l-below) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nilayanan. settling down, alighting in or on (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nilayanan. hiding-place etc. equals prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ninayana yanīya- See ni-- below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ninayanan. pouring down or out (see svadhā-n-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ninayanan. carrying out, performance View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nirṇayanan. equals -ṇaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nyayanan. entry, entrance- or gathering-place, receptacle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padādhyayanan. the recitation of the veda- according to the pada-pāṭha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palyayanan. a saddle (equals paryāṇa-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
palyayanan. a rein, bridle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcakāṣṭakacayanasūtran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcāṅgānayanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pañcasvastyayanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pariṇayanan. the act of leading round (see prec.) , marrying, marriage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryadhyayanamfn. averse from study Va1rtt. 4 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryāptanayanamfn. having a sufficient number of eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryāyaśayanan. alternate sleeping and watching View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paśvayanan. a festival attended with animal sacrifices View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pātracayanan. () the act of putting the sacrificial utensils on the pyre by the side of the deceased View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
phalapracayanan. gathering fruits
phullanayana mfn. having eyes dilated (with joy), smiling, happy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracayanan. gathering, collecting (See phala--). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prādhyayanan. commencement of recitation or study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prakaṭaraktāntanayanamfn. having the eye-corners visibly red View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pralayanan. a place of repose, a bed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pramuditapralambasunayanam. Name of a gandharva- prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. bringing forwards, conducting, conveying, fetching etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. means or vessel for bringing or fetching (see agni--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. showing, betraying (see śraddhā--) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. (with daṇḍasya-or daṇḍa-.), applying (the rod), infliction of (punishment) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. establishing, founding (of a school) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. execution, performance, practice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. bringing forward, adducing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. composing, writing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇayanan. satisfying, satiating View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praṇītāpraṇayanan. the vessel in which holy water is fetched View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāṅnayanan. moving eastward View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praphullanayana() mfn. having fully opened or sparkling eyes, having eyes expanded with joy. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasayanaSee pra-- 1, si-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasayanan. used to explain pra-siti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratinayana(in the beginning of a compound), into the eye View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratisaṃlayanan. ( -) retirement into a lonely place, privacy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratisaṃlayanan. complete absorption View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyānayanan. leading or bringing back, recovery, restoration View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyayanamind. every half year View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyayanastvan. obtaining again, recovery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravātaśayanan. a bed placed in the middle of a current of air View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravilayanan. complete dissolution or absorption View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
protphullanayanamfn. having the eyes wide open View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarānayanan. leading back View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarupanayanan. a second initiation of a Brahman (when the first has been vitiated by partaking of forbidden food; see punaḥ-saṃskāra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarupanayanaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarupanayanavidhānan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
punarupanayanavidhim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇḍarīkanayanamfn. lotus-eyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇḍarīkanayanam. Name of viṣṇu- or kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇḍarīkanayanam. a species of bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrjayanan. "conquest of a fortress", Name of a particular ceremony View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrjayana pūr-dvār- etc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājaśayana n. () a king's couch, royal seat or throne. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktanayanamfn. red-eyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktanayanam. Perdix Rufa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathāṅgāhvayanamfn. having the name"wheel" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathāṅgāhvayanam. (with dvija-) the ruddy goose View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rathāṅgatulyāhvayanam. "having the same name as a chariot's-wheel", the above bird View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛgayanan. (not -ayaṇa- on ) going through the veda-, study of the complete veda-, a book treating on the study of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛṇāpanayanan. discharge or payment of debt. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rohiṇīcandraśayanan. Name of two religious observances View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūpanayanam. Name of a commentator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sabhāsaṃnayanan. on Va1rtt. 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sābhāsaṃnayanamfn. (fr. sabhā-s-) on Va1rtt. 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṣaḍunnayanamahātantran. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahādhyayanan. studying together, companionship in study View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasranayanamfn. thousand-eyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasranayanam. Name of indra- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasranayanam. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sajalanayanamfn. watery-eyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samācayanao. Putting or heaping together, accumulation, aggregation on Va1rtt. 3 ,
samadhyayanan. going over or studying together, (or) that which is gone over or repeated together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samānayanan. bringing together or near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samānayanan. pouring together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samayanayam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃcayanan. the act of piling or heaping together, heaping up, gathering, collecting (especially the ashes or bones of a body lately burntSee asthi-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃdaṣṭakusumaśayanamfn. indenting (by pressure of the limbs) a couch of flowers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃhitādhyayana(dh-) n. the repeating of the saṃhitā- of a veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samīpanayanan. leading near to, bringing to (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃlayanan. sitting or lying down View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃlayanan. the act of clinging or adhering to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃlayanan. dissolution View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sammayana(s/am--) n. erection of a sacrificial post View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃnayanan. leading or bringing together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃraktanayanamfn. having the eyes reddened (with passion or fury). () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samuccayanan. collecting or heaping together View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samudānayanan. bringing near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samunnayanan. raising up, arching (as the brows) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupanayanan. the act of leading near to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupānayanan. bringing near, procuring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃvādābhijayanan. obtaining the victory in disputes, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samyaktvādhyayanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaraśayanan. () or View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saśayanamf(ī-)n. lying or standing together, contiguous, neighbouring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saśayanamf(ī-)n. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāśrunayana mfn. having tearful eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saubhāgyaśayanavratan. idem or 'n. a particular religious observance ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saubhāgyaśayanavratakathāf. Name of chapter of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śavaśayanan. place (prepared) for (the cremation of) corpses (according to to Scholiast or Commentator also"a lotus-flower") . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvitracayanan. "arranging or preparing the agni- called sāvitra-", Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvitracayanapaddhatif. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvitracayanaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāvitrādikāṭhakacayanan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanamfn. lying down, resting, sleeping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanan. the act of lying down or sleeping, rest, repose, sleep etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) a bed, couch, sleeping-place (accusative with bhaj-, ā-- ruh-, saṃ-viś-etc.,"to go to bed or to rest";with Causal of ā-ruh-,"to take to bed, have sexual intercourse with [acc.]"; śayanaṃ- śṛta-or ne sthita- mfn.gone to bed, being in bed) etc.
śayanan. copulation, sexual intercourse View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanan. Name of a sāman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanaetc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sayanan. binding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sayanam. Name of a son of viśvāmitra- (Bombay edition seyana-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanabhūmif. "sleeping-place", a bed-chamber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanagṛhan. "sleeping-house", a bed-chamber (varia lectio) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanaikadaśīf. the 11sth day of the light half of the month āṣāḍha- (on which viṣṇu-'s sleep begins) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanapālikāf. the (female) keeper of a (royal) couch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanaracanan. the preparation of a bed or couch (one of the 64 arts) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanasakhīf. the female bed-fellow (of a woman) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanasthamfn. being or reclining on a couch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanasthānan. equals -bhūmi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanatalagatamfn. gone to bed, lying in bed, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanavāsasn. a sleeping-garment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanavidhamfn. having the form of a bedstead View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śeṣāvacayanan. gathering up remnants, collecting what remains View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantonnayanan. "the parting or dividing of the hair", Name of one of the 12 saṃskāra-s (observed by women in the fourth, sixth or eighth month of pregnancy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantonnayanamantram. plural Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantonnayanaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sindhuśayanam. "ocean-reclining", Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sitāsitakamaladalanayanaf. having eyes like the petals of a dark and white lotus (one of the 80 minor marks of a buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ślokābhinayanan. a dramatic performance accompanied by recitation of śloka-s. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śmaśayanan. (a compound artificially formed to explain śmaśāna-) place of repose for dead bodies or the bones of burnt corpses, cemetery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
smayanan. a smile, gentle laughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sodayanamfn. together with udayana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sphoṭitanayanamfn. having the eyes put out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śramāpanayanan. dispelling fatigue (in ati-śr-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śramavinayanamfn. dispelling fatigue (in adhva-śr-v-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutādhyayanasampannamfn. conversant with repetition or recitation of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stabdhanayanamfn. idem or 'mfn. having motionless (id est unwinking) eyes ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthaṇḍileśayanan. equals sthaṇḍila-śayyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
stimitanayanamfn. having the eyes intently fixed (see stabdhadṛṣṭi-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūdrāpariṇayanan. the marrying a śūdra- female View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūkaranayanan. "hog's eye", Name of a hole of a particular form in timber View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhaśayanan. placid rest or sleep View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sunayanamf(ā-)n. having beautiful eyes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sunayanam. a deer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūryodayanan. sunrise View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svadhāninayanan. performance of a śrāddha- rite with sva-dhā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svapnānayanamantram. Name of works. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarnayanamfn. leading to heaven View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyayanan. sg. and plural (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) auspicious progress, success View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyayanan. blessing, benediction, congratulation (with Causal of vac-,"to ask for a blessing") etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyayanan. a mantra- recited for good luck or the recitation of such a mantra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyayanan. a means of attaining prosperity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyayanan. a vessel full of water borne in front of a procession View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyayanamf(ī-)n. bringing or causing good fortune, auspicious (tama-,superl.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svastyayanagaṇam. a collection of mantra-s recited for good luck View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvāvillomāpanayanan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śvayanan. swelling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tapaścitāmayanan. equals ta-paścit/a- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
timiranayanamfn. suffering from partial blindness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiryagayanan. "horizontal course", the sun's annual revolution (opposed to its diurnal revolution in which it rises and sets vertically) See tairyagayanika-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trinayanam. equals -dṛś- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trinayanan. Name of a town, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ucchvayanan. swelling, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udagayanan. the sun's progress north of the equator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udagayanan. the half year from the winter to the summer solstice etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udagayanamfn. being on the path of the sun at its progress north of the equator View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udayanan. rise, rising (of the sun etc.) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udayanan. way out, outlet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udayanan. exit View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udayanan. outcome, result, conclusion, end View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udayanan. means of redemption View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udayanam. Name of several kings and authors. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udayanacaritan. Name of a drama. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udayanatasind. finally View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uḍḍayanaSee uḍ-ḍī-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uḍḍayanan. flying up, flying, soaring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ujjayanaetc. See uj-ji-, column 3. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ujjayanam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
umāpariṇayanan. " umā-'s wedding", Name of a work. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnayana(ud-na-;for 2.See column 2) mfn. having upraised eyes. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnayanan. (for 1.See sub voce, i.e. the word in the Sanskrit order column 1) the act of raising, elevating, lifting, up View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnayanan. taking out of, drawing out (a fluid) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnayanan. the vessel out of which a fluid is taken View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnayanan. making a straight line, or parting the hair (of a pregnant woman) upwards (See sīmantonnayana-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnayanan. conclusion, induction, inference. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unnayanapaṅktimfn. having the line of the eyes upraised View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanayanan. the act of leading to or near, bringing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanayanan. employment, application View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanayanan. introduction (into any science) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanayanan. leading or drawing towards one's self View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanayanan. that ceremony in which a Guru draws a boy towards himself and initiates him into one of the three twice-born classes (one of the twelve saṃskāra-s or purificatory rites [prescribed in the dharma-- sūtra-s and explained in the gṛhya-- sūtra-s] in which the boy is invested with the sacred thread [different for the three castes] and thus endowed with second or spiritual birth and qualified to learn the veda- by heart;a Brahman is initiated in the eighth year [or seventh according to hiraṇyakeśin-;or eighth from conception, according to śāṅkhāyana- etc.], a kṣatriya- in the eleventh, a vaiśya- in the twelfth;but the term could be delayed) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanayanan. See p.201 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upānayanan. the act of leading near or home (a wife) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanayanacintāmaṇim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upanayanalakṣaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upariśayanan. an elevated resting-place
ūrdhvanayanamfn. having eyes turned upwards View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ūrdhvanayanamfn. Name of the fabulous animal śarabha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vadhūṭīśayanan. "resting-place of women", a lattice, window View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaiśvasṛjacayanaprayogam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāryayanan. a reservoir of water, pond etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāryayanaetc. See . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantādhyayanan. studying in spring on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vayanan. the act of weaving etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedādhyayanan. the repetition or recitation of the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedānadhyayanan. remissness in repeating the veda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedāntanayanabhūṣaṇan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vedaśākhāpraṇayanan. establishing or founding a Vedic school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vibhrāntanayanamfn. one who rolls the eyes or casts side glances View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vicayanan. idem or 'm. search, investigation, examination ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīcayanan. equals vi-c- (See vi--2. ci-), research, inquiry View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vigatanayanamfn. eyeless, blind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihāraśayanan. a pleasure-couch View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijayanagaran. Name of a town in karṇāṭa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijayanandanam. Name of a cakra-vartin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijayanandinm. Name of authors View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikasitanayanavadanakamalamfn. opening (her) lotus-like eyes and mouth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilayanamfn. dissolving, liquefying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilayanan. dissolution, liquefaction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilayanan. melting (intrans.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilayanan. a particular product of milk View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilayanan. corroding, eating away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilayanan. removing, taking away View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vilayanan. attenuating or, an attenuant, escharotic (in medicine) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinayanamfn. taking away, removing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinayanan. the act of taming or training, education, instruction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinayanandinm. Name of the leader of a jaina- sect View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinirbhagnanayanamfn. one who has his eyes dashed out View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
virahaśayanan. a solitary couch or bed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīraśayanan. () the couch of a dead or wounded hero (formed of arrows). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśālanayanaf. having large eyes (one of the minor marks of a buddha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣamanayanamfn. "having an odd number of eyes","three-eyed", Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vismayanan. astonishment, wonder View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vismayotphullanayanamfn. (or -locana-) having eyes wide open or staring with astonishment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣṇuśayanabodhadinan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') the day of viṣṇu-'s lying down and of his awaking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivayanaSee under vi-ve-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivayanan. plaited work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivṛtasmayanan. an open smile (id est one in which the mouth is sufficiently open to show the teeth) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vratopanayanan. initiation into a religious vow etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttādhyayanan. moral conduct and repetition (of veda-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttādhyayanarddhif. (for ṛddhi-) welfare resulting from the above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttādhyayanasampattif. welfare resulting from the above View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyapanayapanayanan. tearing off, removing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyayanan. going apart, separation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajanādhyayanan. dual number sacrificing and studying the veda- (the duties incumbent on all twice-born) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvadadhyayanamind. during the recitation View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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ayana अयन a. [अय्-ल्युट्] Going (at the end of comp.); यथेमा नद्यः स्यन्दमानाः समुद्रायणाः Praśn. Up. 1 Going, moving, walking; as in रामायणम्. -2 A walk, path, way, road; आयन्नापो$यनमिच्छमानाः Rv.3.33.7. अगस्त्य- चिह्नादयनात् R.16.44. -3 A place, site, abode, place of resort; Bṛi. Up.2.4.11. ता यदस्यायनं पूर्वम् Ms. 1.1 (occurring in the derivation of the word नारायण). -4 A way of entrance, an entrance (to an array of troops or व्यूह); अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमव- स्थिताः Bg.1.11. -5 Rotation, circulation period; अङ्गिरसां अयनम्; इष्टि˚, पशु˚. -6 A particular period in the year for the performance of particular sacrificial or other religious works; N. of certain sacrificial performances; as गवामयनम्. -7 The sun's passage, north and south of the equator. -8 (Hence) The period of this passage, half year, the time from one solstice to another; see उत्तरायण and दक्षिणायन; cf. also सायन and निरयण. -9 the equinoctial and solstitial points; दक्षिणम् अयनम् winter solstice; उत्तरम् अयनम् summer solstice; -1 Method, manner, way. -11 A Śāstra, scripture or inspired writing. -12 Final emancipation; नान्यः पन्था विद्यते$यनाय Śvet. Up. -13 A commentary; treatise. -14 The deities presiding over the ayanas. -Comp. -अंशः, -भागः the arc between the vernal equinoctial point and beginning of the fixed zodiac or first point of Aries. -कलाः The correction (in minutes) for ecliptic deviation. Sūryasiddhānta. -कालः the interval between the solstices. -ग्रहः A planet's longitude as corrected for ecliptic deviation; ibid. -जः a month caused by ayanāṁśa. -परिवृत्तिः Change of the अयन; sun's passage from one side of the equator to the other; अयनपरिवृत्ति- र्व्यस्तशब्देनोच्यते । ŚB. on MS.6.5.37. -संक्रमः, -संक्रान्तिः f. passage through the zodiac. -वृत्तम् the ecliptic.
aṅgirasāmayanam अङ्गिरसामयनम् [अलुक् स.] A Sattra sacrifice.
atiśayana अतिशयन a. [शी-भावे-ल्युट] Surpassing, (in comp.); great, eminent, abundant. -नम् Excess, abundance, superfluity. -नी N. of a metre of four lines, also called चित्रलेखा.
adhyayanam अध्ययनम् 1 [इ-ल्युट्] Learning, study, reading (especially the Vedas); one of the six duties of a Brāhmaṇa. The study of the Vedas is allowed to the first 3 classes, but not to a Śūdra Ms.1.88.91. अध्ययनं च अक्षरमात्रपाठ इति वैदिकाः, सार्थाक्षरग्रहणमिति मीमांसकाः; the latter view is obviously correct; cf. यथा पशुर्भारवाही न तस्य भजते फलम् । द्विजस्तथार्थानभिज्ञो न वेदफलमश्रुते ॥ or better still Yāska's Nirukta : स्थाणुरयं भारहारः किलाभूदधीत्य वेदं न विजानाति यो$र्थम् । यो$र्थज्ञ इत् (अर्थविद्) सकलं भद्रमश्रुते नाकमेति ज्ञानविधूतपाप्मा ॥ See also under अनग्नि. -2 Muttering प्रणव mantra; वीतरागा महाप्रज्ञा ध्यानाध्ययनसम्पदा Mb. 12.3.49. (अध्ययनं प्रणवजपः इति टीका) -3 Teaching; कृत्वा चाध्ययनं तेषां शिष्याणां शतमुत्तमम् Mb.12.318.17 see अध्यापनम्.
apanayanam अपनयनम् 1 Taking away, removing, extracting &c. गण्डस्वेद˚ Me.26; नीतिश्रमापनयनाय Ś.5.6. -2 Healing, destroying, curing (disease &c.); रोगाच्चापनयने P.V. 4.49. -3 Discharge or acquittance of a debt or obligation. -4 Subtraction, deduction. -5 Injustice; शृणु राजन् स्थिरो भूत्वा तवापनयनो महान् Mb.6.49.22.
apyayanam अप्ययनम् 1 Union, junction. -2 Copulation.
abhipraṇayanam अभिप्रणयनम् Consecrating by sacred hymns.
āhvayana आह्वयन a. Taking one's name. -नम् Name, appellation.
uḍḍayanam उड्डयनम् Flying up, soaring; गतो विरुत्योड्डयने निराशताम् N.1.125.
udayanam उदयनम् 1 Rising, ascending, going up; सूर्यस्योदयना- दधि Rv.1.48.7. -2 Result, consequence. -3 End, conclusion. -नः 1 N. of Agastya. -2 N. of the king Vatsa; प्राप्यावन्तीनुदयनकथाकोविदग्रामवृद्धान् Me.3. [A celebrated Prince of the lunar race, who is usually styled Vatsarāja. He reigned at Kauśambī. Vāsavadattā, Princess of Ujjayinī, saw him in a dream and fell in love with him. He was decoyed to that city and there kept in prison by Chaṇḍamahāsena, the king. But on being released by the minister, he carried off Vāsava-dattā from her father and a rival suitor. Udayana is the hero of the play called Ratnāvalī and his life has been made the subject of several other minor compositions. See Vatsa also]. -Comp. -आचार्यः N. of a philosopher and author of several works.
unnayana उन्नयन a. With the eyes raised upwards; पुरुहूतध्वज- स्येव तस्योन्नयनपङ्क्तयः R.4.3. -नम् 1 Raising, elevating, lifting up. -2 Drawing up water. -3 The vessel out of which a fluid is taken. -4 Leading away, extracting. -5 Making straight, smoothing; सीमन्त˚. -6 Deliberation, discussion. -7 inference; श्रवणादनु पश्चादीक्षा अन्वीक्षा उन्नयनम्.
upanayanam उपनयनम् 1 Leading to or near. -2 Presenting, offering; धारासारोपनयनपरा नैगमाः सानुमन्तः V.4.13. -3 Investiture with the acred thread; गर्भाष्टमे ब्राह्मण उपनेय इत्युपनयनं संस्कारार्थम् Mbh.6.6.84. आसमावर्तनात्कुर्यात् कृतोपनयनो द्विजः Ms.2.18,173. -4 Employment, application. -5 Introduction (into any science).
upānayanam उपानयनम् The act of leading near or home (a wife); Bhāg.
cayanam चयनम् [चि भावे-ल्युट्] 1 The act of collecting (especially flowers &c.). -2 Piling, heaping. -3 Keeping the sacred fire. -4 Stacking wood.
jayanam जयनम् [जि करणे ल्युट्] Conquering, subduing. -2 Armour for cavalry, elephants &c. -Comp. -युज् 1 caparisoned. -2 victorious.
ayanam डयनम् 1 Flight. -2 A litter carried upon men's shoulders, palanquin.
nayanam नयनम् [नी-करणे ल्युट्] 1 Leading, guiding, conducting managing. -2 Taking, bringing to or near, drawing; पापापहं स्वर्नयनं दुस्तरं पार्थिवर्षभैः Rām.1.14.58. -3 Ruling, governing, polity; वाक्यैः पवित्रार्थपदैर्नयनैः प्राकृतैरपि Bhāg. 1.5.34. -4 Obtaining. -5 The eye. -6 Passing, spending (as time). -ना, -नी The pupil of the eye. -Comp. -अञ्चलः, -अन्तः 1 the eye-corner. -2 a side-glance. -अभिराम a. gladdening the sight, lovely to behold. (-मः) the moon. -आमोषिन् a. blinding the sight, obscuring. -उत्सवः 1 a lamp. -2 delight of the eyes. -3 any lovely object. -उपान्तः the corner of the eye; नयनोपान्तविलोकितं च यत् (स्मरामि) Ku.4.23. -गोचर a. visible, within the range of sight. -चरितम् the play of the eyes, ogling. -छदः an eyelid. -जम्, -जलम्, -वारि n. tears; देव त्वद्वैरिनारीनयननयनजैर्निर्ममे नीरधिर्न Sūkti.5.117. -पथः the range of sight. -पुटम् the cavity of the eye, eye-lid. -प्रबन्धः the outer corner of the eye. -प्रीतिः lovely sight. -प्लवः the swimming of the eyes. -बुद्बुदम् an eye-ball. -विषयः 1 any visible object; नयनविषयं जन्मन्येकः स एव महोत्सवः Māl.1.36. -2 the horizon. -3 the range of sight. -सलिलम् tears; तस्मिन् काले नयनसलिलं योषितां खण्डितानाम् (शान्तिं नेयम्) Me.41.
nayanatvam नयनत्वम् The condition of the eyes; बाष्पजलान्तरित- नयनत्वान्न पश्यामि ते मुखचन्द्रम् Ve.6.39/4.
ninayanam निनयनम् See under निनी.
ninayanam निनयनम् 1 Performance. -2 Performing, accomplishing. -3 Pouring out.
nilayanam निलयनम् 1 Setting in a place, alighting. -2 A place of refuge; निलयनं चानिलयनं च Tait. Up.2.6; Bhāg. 5.19.2. -3 A house, dwelling, habitation; नदीनिलयनाः सर्पा नदीकुटिलगामिनः । तिष्ठन्त्यावृत्य पन्थानमतो दुःखतरं वनम् ॥ Rām.2.28.2; Ki.7.2. -4 The act of going out.
palyayanam पल्ययनम् 1 A saddle. -2 A rein, bridle.
pracayanam प्रचयनम् Collecting, gathering.
praṇayanam प्रणयनम् 1 Bringing, fetching. -2 Conducting, conveying. -3 Carrying out, executing, performing; सर्गशेष- प्रणयनाद्विश्वयोनेरनन्तरम् Ku.6.9. -4 Writing, composing. -5 Decreeing, sentencing, awarding; as दण्डस्य प्रणयनम्. -6 Bringing forward, adducing. -7 Distributing. -8 Infliction of (punishment). -9 Founding (of a school).
pratiśayanam प्रतिशयनम् The act of lying down without food before a deity to secure some desired object.
pratyānayanam प्रत्यानयनम् Bringing back, recovery.
prasayanam प्रसयनम् 1 Binding, fastening. -2 A Net; प्रसितिः प्रसयनात् तन्तुर्वा जालं वा Nir.
prādhyayanam प्राध्ययनम् Reading, studying.
bhayanam भयनम् Fear, alarm.
layanam लयनम् [ली-ल्युट्] 1 Adhering, clinging, sticking. -2 Rest, repose. -3 A place of rest, house.
vadhūṭaśayana वधूटशयनः A lattice, window.
vayanam वयनम् Weaving.
vicayanam विचयनम् Searching, seeking &c.
vinayanam विनयनम् 1 Removing, taking away; वक्ष्यस्यध्वश्रम- विनयने तस्य शृङ्गे निषण्णः Me.54. -2 Education, instruction, training, discipline.
vilayanam विलयनम् 1 Dissolving, liquefying, dissolution. -2 Corroding. -3 Removing, taking away. -4 Attenuating. -5 An attenuant.
vismayanam विस्मयनम् Astonishment, wonder.
vyayanam व्ययनम् 1 Spending. -2 Wasting, destroying.
śayanam शयनम् [शी-ल्युट्] 1 Sleeping, sleep, lying down. -2 A bed, couch; शयनस्थो न भुञ्जीत Ms.4.74; R.1.95; V.3.1. -3 Copulation, sexual union. -Comp. -अ (आ)गारः, -रम्, -गृहम् a bed-chamber, sleeping apartments. -एकादशी the eleventh day of the bright half of Āṣāḍha when Viṣṇu lies down to enjoy his four months' repose. -तलगत a. gone to bed, lying in bed. -पालिका the (female) keeper of a (royal) bed. -भूमिः a bed-chamber. -रचनम् the preparation of a bed (one of the 64 arts). -वासस् n. sleeping garment. -सखी a bed-fellow. -स्थ a. being on a couch; शयनस्थो न भुञ्जीत Ms.4.74. -स्थानम् a sleeping apartment, bed-chamber.
saṃlayanam संलयनम् 1 Adhering or clinging to. -2 Dissolution. -3 Lying down, sleep.
saṃcayanam संचयनम् 1 Gathering, collecting. -2 Collecting the ashes and bones of a body after it has been burnt.
saṃnayanam संनयनम् 1 Bringing together or near. -2 Connecting, uniting.
samācayanam समाचयनम् Accumulation.
samānayanam समानयनम् Bringing together, collecting, conducting.
smayanam स्मयनम् A smile.
hayana हयनः A year. -नम् A covered carriage.
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nirayaṇa nir-áyaṇa, n. exit, x. 135, 6 [nís out + áy-ana going: i go].
sūpāyana sūpāyaná, a. (Bv.) giving easy access, easily accessible, i. 1, 9 [sú + upá̄yana].
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ayana a. going, coming; n. going; way; course; certain Soma sacrifice lasting a year; sun's course from one solstice to an other; half-year; solstice; resting-place.
adhyayana n. [going to a teacher], study, reading (esp. of sacred books); learning from (ab.); -sampradâna, n. guidance in study; -½âdâna, n. receiving instruction from (ab.).
anadhyayana n. neglect of study.
ānayana n. bringing near or back; procuring; producing; -itavya, fp. to be brought near.
uḍḍayana n. flying up, flight; -dâ mara, a. extraordinary; -dîna, n. flying up, flight; -dîyana, n. id.
udagayana n. sun's northern course; half year from winter to summer solstice; -âvritti, f. sun's turn to the north; -dasa, a. having the seam turned upward or northward; -dvâra, a. having a northern entrance.
udayana n. rise; end; m. N. of a king: &isharp;-ya, a. concluding.
unnayana n. raising; parting; in ference: -pa&ndot;kti, a. the rows of whose eyes are directed upwards.
gavāmayana n. N. of a sattra lasting a whole year; (m)-pati, m. bull (lord of cows); lord of rays, ep. of the sun or Agni.
cayana n. heaping up; layer of fuel; heap.
jayana a. (î) omnipotent.
nayanagocara a. being with in range of the eye; -gokarî-kri, behold; -kandrikâ, f. moonlight to the eyes; -kar ita, n. play of the eyes; -gala, n. tears; -patha, m. range of the eye; -padavî, f. id.; -payas, n. tears; -vat, a. having eyes; -vâ ri, n. tears; -vishaya, m. range of the eye; -salila, n. tears; -subhaga, a. pleasing to the eye.
nayana n. bringing, conducting, leading to (--°ree;); eye (guiding organ): -tva, n. abst. n.
nyayana n. entry, gathering-place.
pratyayanam ad. every year.
layana n. rest, repose; place of rest.
vyayana n. departure (RV.1); ex penditure, waste (C.).
śayana a. resting, sleeping (very rare); n. bed, couch; recumbency, sleep, re pose: -griha, n., -bhûmi, f. sleeping cham ber; -vâsas, n. sleeping garment; -sakhî, f. female bedfellow (of a woman); -½âvâsa, m. sleeping chamber.
śaraśayana n. couch formed of arrows for wounded warriors; -sayyâ, f. id.
sīmantonnayana n. parting the hair (of a pregnant woman).
svastyayana n. sg. pl. auspicious progress, success, good luck; blessing, bene diction, congratulation: ac. w. vâkaya, ask for a blessing.
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aṃśu Name of a protege of the Asvins in the Rigveda. Dhanamjayya, pupil of Amavasya Sandilyayana, according to the Vamsa Brahmana.
akṣata In one passage of the Atharvaveda,dealing with the Jayanya, mention is made of a remedy for sores designated both Aksita and Suksata, or, according to the reading of the Kausika Sutra, Aksata and Suksata, while Sayana has Aksita and Suksita. Bloomfield renders ' not caused by cutting ' and ' caused by cutting.' Formerly he suggested 'tumour' or 'boil.' Whitney thinks that two varieties of Jayanya are meant. Ludwig reads with Sayana aksita, which he renders by ' not firmly established ' in the invalid. Zimmer finds in it a disease Ksata.
akṣu The word occurs in two passages of the Atharvaveda and one of the Rigveda. Roth renders it by ‘net,’ while Bǒhtlingk suggests ‘ axle of a car.’ Geldner sees in it a stake or pole used with a fishermen’s net (Jāla), the pole of a wagon, and the pole of a house, whether vertical or horizontal, he leaves uncertain (see Vamśa). Bloomfield takes it as a covering of wickerwork stretched across a beam and sloping down to both sides—like a thatched roof, and this best explains the epithet ‘ thousand-eyed ’ {i.e., with countless holes) ascribed to it. In the other Atharvaveda passage he accepts the sense ‘ net,’ and doubts if the word in the Rigveda is not an adjective (a-ksu) as it is taken by Sāyana. See also Grha.
agāra to in the Brāhmanas, though the exact details and significance of the legend are variously treated by Oldenberg, Sieg, Hertel,8and von Schroeder.He also appears in a strange dialogue with Lopāmudrā in the Rigveda, which appears to show him as an ascetic who finally yields to temptation. Von Schroeder regards it as a ritual drama of vegetation magic.In another passage of the Rigveda he appears as helping in the Aśvins’ gift of a leg to Viśpalā. Sāyana holds that he was the Purohita of Khela, and Sieg accepts this view, while Pischel thinks that Khela is a deity, Vivasvant. Geldner shows from the Rigveda that Agastya, as brother of Vasistha—both being miraculous sons of Mitra and Varuna —introduces Vasistha to the Trtsus. There are two other references to Agastya in the Rigveda, the one including him in a long list of persons, the other alluding to his sister’s sons (nadbhyah), apparently Bandhu, etc. In the Atharvaveda he appears as connected with witchcraft, and in a long list of sages. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā cows, with a peculiar mark on their ears (vistya-karnyah), are associated with him. This rare word is found as ‘house’ in the Kausītaki Upanisad.
aṅgārāvakṣayaṇa A word of doubtful meaning found in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.It is rendered ‘tongs’ by Max Muller and Bǒhtlingk in their translations. The St. Petersburg Dictionary explains it as ‘ a vessel in which coals are extinguished,’ and Monier-Williams as ‘ an instrument for extinguishing coals.’ The smaller St. Petersburg Dictionary renders the word ‘ coal-shovel or tongs.’ Cf. Ulmukāva- ksayana.
aṅgiras The Añgirases appear in the Rigveda as semi- mythical beings, and no really historical character can be assigned even to those passages which recognize a father of the race, Añgiras. Later, however, there were definite families of Añgirases, to whose ritual practices {ayana, dvirātra) references are made.
atithigva This name occurs frequently in the Rigveda, apparently applying, in nearly all cases, to the same king, otherwise called Divodāsa. The identity of the two persons has been denied by Bergaigne, but is certainly proved by a number of passages, when the two names occur together, in connection with the defeat of Sambara. In other passages Atithigva is said to have assisted Indra in slaying Parnaya and Karañja. Sometimes he is only vaguely referred to, while once he is mentioned as an enemy of Turvaśa and Yadu. Again Atithigva is coupled with Ayu and Kutsa as defeated by Tūrvayāna. A different Atithigva appears to be referred to in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’), where his son, Indrota, is mentioned. Roth distinguishes three Atithigvas—the Atithigva Divodāsa, the enemy of Parnaya and Karañja, and the enemy of Tūrvayāna. But the various passages can be reconciled, especially if it is admitted that Atithigva Divodāsa was already an ancient hero in the earliest hymns, and was becoming almost mythical.
anukṣattṛ This word occurs in the list of victims at the Purusamedha, and means, according to Mahīdhara, ‘an attendant on the door-keeper,’ and, according to Sāyana, ‘an attendant on the charioteer ’ (sārathi). See also Ksattr.
anuśāsana In the plural denotes in the śatapatha Brāhmana some form of literature; according to Sāyana, the Vedāñgas
apacit This word occurs several times in the Atharvaveda. It is held by Roth, Zimmer, and others to denote an insect whose sting produced swellings, etc. (glau). But Bloomfield shows that the disease, scrofulous swellings, is what is really meant, as is shown by the rendering (ganda-mālā, ‘ inflammation of the glands of the neck ’) of Keśava and Sāyana, and by the parallelism of the later disease, apacī, the derivation being from apa and ci, ‘.to pick off.’
abhipraśnin This term occurs after Praśnin, and followed by Praśnavivāka in the list of victims for the Purusamedha given in the Taittirīya Brāhmana and the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The commentators, Sāyana and Mahīdhara, see in it merely a reference to an inquisitive man. But there can be little doubt that the term must have had a legal reference of some sort— perhaps indicating the defendant as opposed to plaintiff and judge.
abhyagrii aitaśāyana This man was, according to the Aitareya Brāhmana, unfortunate enough to quarrel with his father, Aitaśa. The result was that he and his progeny were called the worst of the Aurvas. In the version of the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the Aitaśāyana Ajāneyas take the place of the Abhyagnis and the Bhrgris of the Aurvas, the latter being probably a .branch of the former family.
argala The word which is usual later to denote the wooden pin of a door is found in the śānkhāyana Áranyaka in the compound argalesīke to denote the pin and bar of the door of a cow-pen. Cf. Isīkā.
asamāti rāthaprauṣṭha The story of the quarrel between Asamāti, the Iksvāku prince of the Rathaprostha family, and his priests, the Gaupāyanas, is found only in the later Brāhmanas. It appears to be based on a misreading of the Rigveda, where asamdti is merely an adjective. The later story is that the king was induced to abandon his family priests by two Asuras, Kirāta and Ákuli, who by their magic com¬passed the death of Subandhu, one of the brother priests, and that the others revived him by the use of the hymns.
asuravidyā the science of the Asuras,’ the term used in the śānkhāyana and Aávalāyana śrauta Sūtras as the equiva­lent of the term māyā employed in the śatapatha Brāhmana, clearly means ‘ magic,’ as it is rendered by Professor Eggeling.
ahan ‘Day.’ Like other peoples, the Indians used night as a general expression of time as well as day, but by no means predominantly.Night is also termed the dark (krsna), as opposed to the light (arjuna), day. Aho-rātra is a regular term for ‘ day and night ’ combined.The day itself is variously divided. In the Atharvaveda a division into ‘ the rising sun ’ (udyan sūryah), ‘ the coming together of the cows’ (sam-gava), ‘midday’ (madhyam-dina),*afternoon ’ (aparāhna), and ‘ sunset ’ (astam-yan) is found. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana the same series appears with ‘ early ’ (prātar) and ‘ evening ’ (sāyāhna) substituted for the first and last members, while a shorter list gives prātar, samgava, sāyam. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā there is the series ‘ dawn ’ (usas), samgava, madhyamdina, and aparāhna. The morning is also, according to Zimmer, called api-śarvara, as the time when the dark is just past. It is named svasara, as the time when the cows are feeding, before the -first milking at the samgava, or when the birds are awakening. It is also called pra-pitva, according to Zimmer. But Geldner points out that that term refers to the late midday, which also is called api-śarvara, as bordering on the coming night, being the time when day is hastening to its close, as in a race. From another point of view, evening is called abhi-pitva, the time when all come to rest. Or again, morning and evening are denoted as the dawning of the sun (uditā sūryasya)i or its setting (ni-mruc). The midday is regularly madhyam ahnām, madhye, or madhyamdina. Samgava16 is the forenoon, between the early morning (prātar) and midday (madhyamdina). The divisions of time less than the day are seldom precisely given. In the śatapatha Brāhmana, however, a day and night make up 30 muhūrtas; 1 muhūrta=ι5 ksipra; 1 ksipra — 15 etarhi; 1 etarhi= 15 idāni; 1 idāni = 15 breathings; 1 breath¬ing =1 spiration; 1 spiration = ι twinkling (nimesa), etc. In the śānkhāyana Áranyaka the series is dhvamsayo, nimesāh, kāsthāh, kalāh, ksanā, muhūrtā, ahorātrāh. A thirtyfold division of day as well as of night is seen in one passage of the Rigveda by Zimmer, who compares the Babylonian sixty¬fold division of the day and night. But the expression used— thirty Yojanas—is too vague and obscure—Bergaigne refers it to the firmament—to build any theory upon with safety.
ākuli This mythical priest plays, together with Kirāta, a part in the later tale of Asamāti and the Gaupāyanas.
āgastya appears as a teacher in the Aitareya and Sāñkhāyana Áranyakas
āṇi This word, which is found in the Rigveda,but rarely later, appears to be best taken with Roth and Zimmer4 as denoting the part of the axle of the chariot which is inserted into the nave of the wheel. Sāyana renders it as lynch-pin, and this sense is accepted by Leumann, being apparently also found in the Nirukta. In one place in the Rigveda the word appears by synecdoche to denote the whole chariot, but the passage is, according to Geldner, completely obscure.
āti an aquatic bird. The Apsarases in the legend of Purūravas and Urvaśī appear to him like Atis, probably swans. The birds appear also in the list of animals in the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’), where Mahīdhara renders them as the later Adi (Turdus ginginianus), and Sāyana quotes a view, according to which the Áti was the Cāsa, or blue jay (Coracias indica).
āyu Ayu appears in the Rigveda with Kutsa and Atithigva as having been defeated, with Indra’s aid, by Tūrvayāna, who is believed by Pischel to have been King of the Pakthas. Possibly he is elsewhere referred to as victorious, by Indra’s aid, over Veśa. Elsewhere he is quite mythical.
ārtava This expression denotes a portion of the year consisting of more seasons than one. But it does not bear the exact sense of half-year,’ as suggested by Zimmer. This is shown by the fact that it occurs regularly in the plural, not in the dual. In the Atharvaveda it occurs between seasons and years (hāyana), but also in the combinations, ‘seasons, Artavas, months, years’; half-months, months, Artavas, seasons’ ‘ seasons, Artavas, months, half-months, days and nights, day ’;and in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā ‘months, seasons, Artavas, the year,’ or simply with the seasons.
ārya Is the normal designation in the Vedic literature from the Rigveda onwards of an Aryan, a member of the three upper classes, Brāhmana, Ksatriya, or Vaiśya, as the formal division is given in the Satapatha Brāhmana. The Arya stands in opposition to the Dāsa, but also to the Sūdra. Sometimes the expression is restricted to the Vaiśya caste, the Brāhmana and the Ksatriya receiving special designations; but this use is not common, and it is often uncertain also whether Arya is not meant. The phrase śūdrāryau is espe¬cially ambiguous, but appears to have denoted originally the śūdra and the Aryan, for in the Mahāvrata ceremony the fight between a Sūdra and an Arya is represented in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as one between a Brāhmana and a śūdra, though the Sūtra treats it as a fight between a Vaiśya and a śūdra. The word Arya (fem. Aryā or An) also occurs frequently used as an adjective to describe the Aryan classes (viśah),Q or name (nāman), or caste (varna), or dwellings (dhāman) ; or again reference is made to the Aryan supremacy (vrata) being extended over the land. Aryan foes (vrtra)u are referred to beside Dāsa foes, and there are many references to war of Aryan versus Aryan, as well as to war of Aryan against Dāsa. From this it can be fairly deduced that even by the time of the Rigveda the Aryan communities had advanced far beyond the stage of simple conquest of the aborigines. In the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas the wars alluded to seem mainly Aryan wars, no doubt in consequence of the fusion of Arya and Dāsa into one community. Weber considers that the five peoples known to the Rigveda were the Aryans and the four peoples of the quarters (dis) of the earth, but this is doubtful. Aryan speech (vāc) is specially referred to in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Áranyakas
āla Appears to mean ‘ weed ’ in the Atharvaveda, and to form part of three other words, denoting, according to Sāyana, grass-creepers (sasya-vallī)—viz., Alasālā, Silañjālā, and Nīlā- galasāla. Whitney, however, does not think that the words can be given any determinate sense.
āśumga in the Atharvaveda seems to denote some sort of animal. It is qualified by the word ‘young’ (śiśuka), and Roth suggests that it may mean a bird (‘swift-flying’), or that the expression denotes ‘a foal going to its dam’ (ιūśu-ga). Sāyana, however, reads the accompanying word as śuśuka, which he assumes to denote an animal. Bloomfield renders the two words ‘ a swift (aśumga) foal (śiśuka),' thus agreeing with one of Roth’s suggestions in sense, though not in the explanation of Aśumga.
āśvatara āśvi These two expressions are used as patronymics of Budila, denoting, according to Sāyana, that he was son of Asva, and descendant of Aśvatara.
āsandī This is a generic term for a seat of some sort, occurring frequently in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas, but not in the Rigveda. In the Atharvaveda the settle brought for the Vrātya is described at length. It had two feet, length­wise and cross-pieces, forward and cross-cords, showing that it was made of wood and also cording. It was also covered with a cushion (Ástarana) and a pillow (Upabarhana), had a seat (Asāda) and a support (Upaśraya). Similar seats are described in the Kausītaki Upanisad and the Jaiminīya Brāhmana. The seat for the king at the royal consecration is described in very similar terms in the Aitareya Brāhmana, where the height of the feet is placed at a span, and the lengthwise and cross-pieces are each to be a cubit, while the interwoven part (vivayana) is to be of Muñja grass, and the seat of Udumbara wood. In another passage of the Atharvaveda Lanman seems to take the seat meant as a ‘ long reclining chair.’ There also a cushion (Upadhāna) and coverlet (Upavāsana) are mentioned. The śatapatha Brāhmana repeatedly describes the Ásandī in terms showing that it was an elaborate seat. In one place8 it is said to be made of Khadira wood, perforated (vi-trnnā), and joined with straps (vardhra-yutā) like that of the Bhāratas. At the Sautrāmanī rite (an Indra sacrifice) the seat is of Udumbara wood, is knee-high, and of unlimited width and depth, and is covered with plaited reed-work. The imperial seat10 is to be shoulder-high, of Udumbara wood, and wound all over with cords of Balvaja grass (.Eleusina indica). Elsewhere11 the seat is a span high, a cubit in width and depth, of Udumbara wood, and covered with reed-grass cords, and daubed with clay.
āsuri Occurs in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Bhāradvāja and teacher of Aupajandhani, but in the third as a pupil of Yājñavalkya and teacher of Asurāyana. He appears as a ritual authority in the first four books of the śatapatha Brāh¬mana, and as an authority on dogmatic, specially noted for his insistence on truth, in the last book.
itihāsa As a kind of literature, is repeatedlymentioned along with Purāna in the later texts of the Vedic period. The earliest reference to both occurs in the late fifteenth book of the Atharvaveda. Itihāsa then appears in the Satapatha Brāhmana, the Jaiminīya, Brhadāranyaka, and Chāndogya Upanisads. In the latter it is expressly declared with Purāna to make up the fifth Veda, while the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra makes the Itihāsa a Veda and the Purāna a Veda. The Itihāsa-veda and the Purāna-veda appear also in the Gopatha Brāhmana, while the śatapatha identifies the Itihāsa as well as the Purāna with the Veda. In one passage Anvākhyāna and Itihāsa are distinguished as different classes of works, but the exact point of distinction is obscure; probably the former was supplementary. The Taittirīya Áranyaka mentions Itihāsas and Purānas in the plural. There is nothing to show in the older literature what dis¬tinction there was, if any, between Itihāsa and Purāna; and the late literature, which has been elaborately examined by Sieg, yields no consistent result. Geldner has conjectured that there existed a single work, the Itihāsa-purāna, a collection. of the old legends of all sorts, heroic, cosmogonic, genealogical; but though a work called Itihāsa, and another called Purāna, were probably known to Patañjali, the inaccuracy of Geldner’s view is proved by the fact that Yāska shows no sign of having known any such work. To him the Itihāsa may be a part of the Mantra literature itself, Aitihāsikas being merely people who interpret the Rigveda by seeing in it legends where others see myths. The fact, however, that the use of the compound form is rare, and that Yāska regularly has Itihāsa, not Itihāsa-purāna, is against the theory of there ever having been one work. The relation of Itihāsa to Akhyāna is also uncertain. Sieg considers that the words Itihāsa and Purāna referred to the great body of mythology, legendary history, and cosmogonic legend available to the Vedic poets, and roughly classed as a fifth Veda, though not definitely and finally fixed. Thus, Anvākhyānas, Anuvyākhyānas, and Vyākhyānas could arise, and separate Ákhyānas could still exist outside the cycle, while an Akhyāna could also be a part of the Itihāsa-purāna. He also suggests that the word Akhyāna has special reference to the form of the narrative. Oldenberg, following Windisch, and followed by Geldner, Sieg, and others, has found in the Akhyāna form a mixture of prose and verse, alternating as the narrative was concerned with the mere accessory parts of the tale, or with the chief points, at which the poetic form was naturally produced to correspond with the stress of the emotion. This theory has been severely criticized by Hertel and von Schroeder. These scholars, in accordance with older suggestions of Max Muller and Levi, see in the so-called Ákhyāna hymns of the Rigveda, in which Oldenberg finds actual specimens of the supposed literary genus, though the prose has been lost, actual remains of ritual dramas. Elsewhere it has been suggested that the hymns in question are merely literary dialogues.
ibha Is a word of somewhat doubtful sense and inter­pretation. It is found only in the Samhitās, and especially in the Rigveda. According to Roth and Ludwig the sense is ‘retainer,’ and Zimmer thinks that it includes not only dependants and servants, but also the royal family and the youthful cadets of the chief families. In the opinion of Pischel and Geldner® it denotes ‘elephant.’ This view is supported by the authority of the commentators Sāyana and Mahīdhara; the Nirukta, too, gives ‘elephant’ as one of the senses of the word. Megasthenes and Nearchos tell us that elephants were a royal prerogative, and the derivative word Ibhya may thus be naturally explained as denoting merely ‘ rich ’ (lit., ‘ possessor of elephants ’).
iriṇa (neut.) occurs not rarely in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas in the sense of ‘ a cleft in the ground,’ usually natural (sva-krta). The same meaning is also, as Pischel shows, to be ascribed to it in three passages of the Rigveda, in one of which the hole is referred to as * made by water ’ (apā krtam). In another passage of the Rigveda the word refers to the place on which the dice are thrown. Hence Pischel concludes that the dicing-board must have been so called because it contained holes into which the dice had to be thrown if possible. LUders, however, points out that this assumption is not necessary; the dice (Aksa) were merely thrown on a space dug out, which could be called Irina, as being a hole in the ground, though not a natural one. This view is supported by the commentary of Sāyana, as well as by Durga in his note on the Nirukta.
iṣīkā ‘a stalk of reed grass,’ occurs frequently from the Atharvaveda onwards, often as an emblem of fragility. In the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka it seems to denote the pin fixed in the bar of a pen to keep cattle in (argalesīke, bolt and pin’). A basket (śūrpa) of Isīkā is referred to in the Satapatha Brāhmana.
ukṣaṇyāyana Uksanyāyana is mentioned in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) in the Rigveda along with Harayāṇa and Suṣāman. Ludwig thinks that all three are identical. Roth finds a reference to Ukṣan himself in the verb ukṣaṇyati and in the adjective ukṣaṇyu.
uttāna āṅgirasa Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as a quasi-mythical person who received all good things, and yet was not harmed, as he was really a form of the earth, according to Sāyaṇa’s explanation. His name occurs also in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā, the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Araṇyaka.
udīcyas The Brāhmanas of the northern parts are referred to in the śatapatha Brāhmana as engaging, with Svaidāyana Saunaka as their spokesman, in a dispute with the Kurupañcāla Brāhmana Uddālaka Aruni, and as vanquishing him. Their relation to the Kurupañcālas appears also from the fact that in the same Brāhmana reference is made to the speech of the north being similar to that of the Kurupañcālas. The speech of the Northerners was also celebrated for purity; hence Brāhmanas used to go to the north for purposes of study, according to the Kausītaki Brāhmana, while in the Buddhist texts the school of Taksaśilā (in Gandhāra) is famous as a resort of students. Possibly, too, Sanskrit was specially developed in Kaśmīr, as suggested by Franke. See also Kuru.
uddālaka aruṇi Uddālaka, son of Aruna, is one of the most prominent teachers of the Vedic period. He was a Brāh­mana of the Kurupañcālas, according to the śatapatha Brāh­mana. This statement is confirmed by the fact that he was teacher of Proti Kausurubindi of Kauśāmbī, and that his son Svetaketu is found disputing among the Pañcālas. He was a pupil of Aruna, his father, as well as of Patañcala Kāpya, of Madra, while he was the teacher of the famous Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya and of Kausītaki, although the former is represented elsewhere as having silenced him. He overcame in argument Prācīnayogya śauceya, and apparently also Bhadrasena Ajāta- śatrava, though the text here seems to read the name as Arani. He was a Gautama, and is often alluded to as such. As an authority on questions of ritual and philosophy, he is repeatedly referred to by his patronymic name Aruni in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and occasionally in the Aitareya, the Kausītaki, and the Sadvimśa Brāhmanas, as well as the Kausītaki Upanisad. In the Maitrāyanī Samhitā he is not mentioned, according to Geldner, but only his father Aruna; his name does not occur, according to Weber, in the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, but in the Kāthaka Samhitā he is, as Aruni, known as a contemporary of Divodāsa Bhaimaseni, and in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana he is mentioned as serving Vāsistha Caikitāneya. In the Taittirīya tradition he seldom appears. There is an allusion in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Kusurubinda Auddālaki, and according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana, Naciketas was a son of Vājaśravasa Gautama, who is made out to be Uddālaka by Sāyana. But the episode of Naciketas, being somewhat unreal, cannot be regarded as of historical value in proving relationship. Aruna is known to the Taittirīya Samhitā. A real son of Uddālaka was the famous śvetaketu, who is expressly reported by Apastamba to have been in his time an Avara or later authority, a statement of importance for the date of Aruni.
uddālakāyana Is mentioned as a pupil of Jābālāyana in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) contained in the Kānva recen­sion of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
upakvasa Is the name in the Atharvaveda of a noxious insect injurious to seed. Sāyana, however, reads the word as a plural adjective (a-pakvasah = a-dagdhāh), but the Paippalāda recension supports the form upakvasah.
upaniṣad in the Brāhmanas normally denotes the secret sense ’ of some word or text, sometimes the * secret rule ’ of the mendicant. But in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad it is already used in the plural as the designation of a class of writings, no doubt actually existing and similar to the Upanisads in the nature of their subject-matter and its treatment. Similarly the sections of the Taittirīya Upanisad end with the words ily upanisad. The Aitareya Aranyaka commences its third part with the title The Upanisad of the Samhitā/ and the title occurs also in the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka. The exact primary sense of the expression is doubtful. The natural derivation, adopted by Max Muller and usual ever since, makes the word mean firstly a session of pupils, hence secret doctrine, and secondly the title of a work on secret doctrine. Oldenberg, however, traces the use of the word to the earlier sense of ‘worship’ {cf. upāsana). Deussen considers the original sense to have been ‘secret word,’ next ‘secret text,’ and then ‘ secret import,’ but this order of meaning is im¬probable. Hopkins8 suggests that Upanisad denotes a sub¬sidiary treatise, but this sense does not account naturally for the common use as ‘ secret meaning,’ which is far more frequent than any other.
upānasa Is in the Atharvaveda opposed to Aksa, and must mean something like 4 the body of the wagon,’ though Sāyana suggests that it signifies either a granary ’ or a wagon full of grain.’ In the Rigveda, where the word occurs only once, its sense is doubtful. Pischel explains the form which occurs there not as an adjective, but as an infinitive.
ulmukāvakṣayaṇa Is an expression that occurs several times in the śatapatha Brāhmana, signifying a ‘means of extinguishing (ava-ksayana) a firebrand,’ or possibly more pre­cisely ‘ tongs.’ Compare Añgārāvaksayana.
ūrdara This word occurs once in the Rigveda, when reference is made to filling Indra with Soma as one fills an Urdara with grain (Yava). Sāyana renders it ‘ granary,’ but Roth and Zimmer seem more correct in simply making it a measure for holding grain, or * garner.’
ṛtuparṇa Appears in a Brāhmana-like passage of the Baudh- āyana śrauta Sūtra as son of Bhañgāśvina and king of Saphāla. In the Apastamba Srauta Sūtra are mentioned Rtuparna-Kayovadhī Bhañgyaśvinau.
ekāyana Denotes some object of study in the Chāndogya Upanisad. The St. Petersburg Dictionary renders it ‘ doctrine (ayana) of unity ’(eka), ‘ monotheism,’ while Max Muller prefers ‘ethics,’ and Monier-Williams in his Dictionary ‘worldly wisdom.
ekāṣṭakā That Astakā is the eighth day after the full moon appears clearly from the Atharvaveda. Ekāstakā, or ‘ sole Astakā,’ must denote not merely any Astakā, but some particular one. Sāyana, in his commentary on the Atharva­veda, in which a whole hymn celebrates the Ekāstakā, fixes the date meant by the term as the eighth day in the dark half of the month of Māgha (January—February). The Ekāstakā is declared in the Taittirīya Samhitā to be the time for the consecration (dīksā) of those who are going to perform a year­long sacrifice. See also Māsa.
etaśa Is in the Kausītaki Brāhmana the name of a sage who is said to have cursed his children because they interrupted him in the midst of a rite ; hence the Aitaśāyanas (descendants of Etaśa) are declared to be the worst of the Bhrgus. The same story appears in the Aitareya Brāhmana, where, how­ever, the sage’s name is Aitaśa, and the Aitaśāyanas are described as the worst of the Aurvas.
eraṇḍa The castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis), is first mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka
evāvada Is regarded by Ludwig in a very obscure passage of the Rigveda as the name of a singer beside Ksatra, Manasa, and Yajata. The commentator Sāyana also interprets the word as a proper name. Roth, however, considers it to be an adjective meaning ‘ truthful.' Translation of the Rigveda,
aitareya perhaps a patronymic from Itara, though the commentator Sāyana regards the word as a metronymic from Itarā, is an epithet of Mahidasa in the Aitareya Aranyaka and the Chāndogya Upanisad.
aitaśa See Etaśa, Etaśayana. The Aitaśa- pralāpa, or discourse of Aitaśa,’ is a part of the Atharvaveda.
aiṣāvīra The śatapatha Brāhmana once refers to the Aisā-vīras as officiating at a sacrifice, with the implication that they were bad sacrificers. Sāyana regards the word as a proper name (‘ descendants of Esavīra ’), denoting the members of a despised family. But Roth may be right in explaining the word both in the passage mentioned above and elsewhere as meaning ‘ weak ’or ‘ insignificant man.
aupajandhani Descendant of Upajandhana,’ is the patro­nymic of a teacher mentioned in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad1 as a pupil of Asuri, and also 2 as a pupil of Sāyakāyana.
aupamanyava ‘Descendant of Upamanyu,’ is the patro­nymic of various persons: see Kāmboja, Prācīnaśāla, Mahā- śāla. The best known bearer of the name is the grammarian who disagreed with the onomatopoetic theory of the derivation of names, and who is mentioned by Yāska. An Aupamanyavī- putra occurs in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra as a teacher.
aupoditi ‘Descendant of Upodita,’ is the patronymic applied in the Taittirīya Samhitā to Tumiñja, and in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra to Gaupālāyana, son of Vyāghrapad, Sthapati (‘ general ’) of the Kurus. In the form of Aupoditeya, a metro­nymic from Upoditā, the name is found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where the Kānva text calls him Tumiñja Aupo­diteya Vaiyāghrapadya.
kakṣīvant Is the name of a Rsi mentioned frequently in the Rigveda, and occasionally elsewhere. He appears to have been a descendant of a female slave named Uśij. He must have been a Pajra by family, as he bears the epithet Pajriya, and his descendants are called Pajras. In a hymn of the Rigveda he celebrates the prince Svanaya Bhāvya, who dwelt on the Sindhu (Indus), as having bestowed magnificent gifts on him ; and the list of Nārāśamsas (‘ Praises of Heroes ’) in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one by Kaksīvant Auśija in honour of Svanaya Bhāvayavya. In his old age he obtained as a wife the maiden Vrcayā. He appears to have lived to be a hundred, the typical length of life in the Vedas. He seems always to be thought of as belonging to the past, and in a hymn of the fourth book of the Rigveda he is mentioned with the semi-mythical Kutsa and Kavi Uśanas. Later, also, he is a teacher of bygone days. In Vedic literature he is not connected with Dīrghatamas beyond being once mentioned along with him in a hymn of the Rigveda. But in the Brhaddevatā he appears as a son of Dīrghatamas by a slave woman, Uśij. Weber14 considers that Kaksīvant was originally a Ksatriya, not a Brāhmana, quoting in favour of this view the fact that he is mentioned beside kings like Para Atnāra, Vītahavya Srāyasa, and Trasadasyu Paurukutsya. But that these are all kings is an unnecessary assumption : these persons are mentioned in the passages in question undoubtedly only as famous men of old, to whom are ascribed mythical sacrificial performances, and who thus gained numerous sons.
kaṅkata Is the name of an animal mentioned once in the Rigveda. According to Sāyana it is a destructive beast; perhaps, as Grassmann renders it, a ‘ scorpion.
kaṅkatīya Is the name of a family said in the Satapatha Brāhmana to have learned from Sándilya the piling up of the sacrificial fire (agni-tayana). In the Ápastamba Srauta Sūtra a Kañkati Brāhmana, no doubt the textbook of the school, is referred to. It may have been identical with the Chāgaleya Brāhmana, cited in the Baudhāyana Srauta Sūtra.
kapivana bhauvāyana Is mentioned as a teacher in the Yajurveda Samhitās and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. A rite called Kapivana’s Dvyaha (‘ceremony lasting two days’) is also referred to in the Kātyāyana śrauta Sūtra.
kaśīkā Is the name of an animal mentioned once in the Rigveda, and interpreted as ‘ weasel ’ by the commentator Sāyana. Fick suggests that the meaning is ‘pole-cat/ Geldner takes it as * female ichneumon.’
kahoḍa kauṣītaki Is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, as a teacher, contemporary with Yājña- valkya. Cf. Kāhodi.
kāṇvāyana (‘ descendant of Kanva ’) and Kānvyāyana (‘ descendant of Kānvya ’) are patronymics occurring in the Rigveda and the Sadvimśa Brāhmana respectively.
kātyāyanīputra ‘son of Kātyāyanī,’ is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Gotamīputra and of Kauśikīputra. A Jātū- karnya Kātyāyanīputra is named as a teacher in the Sāñkh¬āyana Aranyaka.
kānāndha Is mentioned in the Baudhāyana Srauta Sūtra as son of Vadhryaśva.
kāpaṭava sunītha Is mentioned in the Vamśa Brāhmana as a pupil of Sutemanas śāndilyāyana.
kāmapri (‘ descendant of Kāmapra ’) is the patronymic of Marutta in the Aitareya Brāhmana. In the St. Petersburg Dictionary it is suggested that the reading in this passage should be kāmapre, ‘ fulfilling desires,’ as an epithet of the sacrifice (yajñe). Kamalāyana (‘ descendant of Kamala ’) is the patronymic of Upakosala in the Chāndogya Upanisad.
kāśi The name Kāśi denotes (in the plural1) the people of Kāśi (Benares), and Kāśya, the king of Kāśi. The Satapatha Brāhmana tells of Dhrtarāstra, king of Kāśi, who was defeated by Satānīka Sātrājita, with the result that the Kāśis, down to the time of the Brāhmana, gave up the kindling of the sacred fire. Sātrājita was a Bharata. We hear also of Ajātaśatru as a king of Kāśi; and no doubt Bhadrasena Ajātaśatrava, a contemporary of Uddālaka, was also a king of Kāśi. The Kāśis and Videhas were closely connected, as was natural in view of their geographical position. The compound name Kāśi-Videha occurs in the Kausītaki Upanisad; in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad Gārgī describes Ajātaśatru as either a Kāśi or a Videha king. The Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one Purohita as acting for the kings of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha; and the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions Kāśi and Videha in close proximity. Weber,8 indeed, throws out the suggestion that the Kāśis and the Videhas together con¬stitute the Uśīnaras, whose name is very rare in Vedic literature. As Kosala and Videha were in close connexion, Kāśi and Kosala are found combined in the compound name Kāśi- Kauśalyas of the Gopatha Brāhmana. Though Kāśi is a late word, it is quite possible that the town is older, as the river Varanāvatī referred to in the Athar¬vaveda may be connected with the later Vārānasī (Benares).It is significant that while the Kāśis, Kosalas, and Videhas were united, any relations which the Kuru-Pañcala peoples may have had with them were hostile. It is a fair conclusion that between these two great groups of peoples there did exist some political conflict as well as probably a difference of culture in some degree. The śatapatha Brāhmana,11 in the story of the advance of Aryan civilization over Kosala and Videha, preserves a clear tradition of this time, and a piece of evidence that in the Kuru-Pañcāla country lay the real centre of the Brāhmana culture (see also Kuru-Pañcāla). That the Kosala-Videhas were originally settlers of older date than the Kuru-Pañcālas is reasonably obvious from their geographical position, but the true Brāhmana culture appears to have been brought to them from the Kuru-Pañcala country. It is very probable that the East was less Aryan than the West, and that it was less completely reduced under Brahmin spiritual supremacy, as the movement of Buddhism was Eastern, and the Buddhist texts reveal a position in which the Ksatriyas rank above Brāhmanas. With this agrees the fact that the later Vedic texts display towards the people of Magadha a marked antipathy, which may be reasonably explained by that people’s lack of orthodoxy, and which may perhaps be traced as far back as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. It is, of course, possible that the Kosala-Videhas and Kāśis actually were merely offshoots of the tribes later known as the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that they by reason of distance and less complete subjugation of the aborigines lost their Brahminical culture. This hypothesis, however, appears less likely, though it might be supported by a literal inter-pretation of the legend of the Aryan migration in the śatapatha Brāhmana.
kāśyapa (‘descendant of Kaśyapa’) is a common patro­nymic,and is applied specially to Rśyaśrñga, Devataras śyāvasāyana, Sūsa Vāhneya.
kāṣāyaṇa Kāsāyana is mentioned in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a teacher, pupil of Sāya- kāyana according to the Kānva, of Saukarāyana according to the Mādhyamdina recension.
kirāta In the story of Asamāti there appear, as the two priests who are opposed to the Gaupāyanas, Kirāta and Akuli according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, or Kilāta and Akuli according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. No doubt the name is chosen, not as that of a historic person, but as a suitable designation of a hostile priest; for it is probably identical with the name of the mountaineers described in the preceding article.
kilāta Is the form of the name. Kirata that appears in the śatapatha, śātyāyanaka, and Jaiminīya Brāhmanas.
kuṇḍṛṇācī Is the name of an animal of unknown character occurring in the lists of victims at the horse sacrifice (Aśva­medha) in the Yajurveda Samhitās. The word also occurs in one passage of the Rigveda, in which a bird would seem to be intended, though Sāyana interprets it as meaning ‘with crooked flight ’ (kutila-gatyā). In his commentary on the Taittirīya Samhitā he takes the word to denote the house- lizard (grha-godhikā).
kutsa Is the name of a hero frequently mentioned in the Rigveda, which, however, gives practically no information about him, for he was no doubt already a figure of the mythic past. He is several times called Arjuneya, ‘descendant of Arjuna,’ and is usually associated with Indra in the exploit of defeating the demon Susna and winning the sun. He is said to have defeated Smadibha, Tugra, and the Vetasus, but, on the other hand, he is several times mentioned with Atithigva and Ayu as being vanquished by Indra, his defeat in one passage being attributed to Tūrvayāna. Elsewhere he appears with Atithigva as a friend of Indra’s. In the later literature he is seldom mentioned except in connexion with the myth of his binding Indra, which is found in the Brāhmanas, and which is based on an obscure verse in the Rigveda. The Kutsas, or descendants of Kutsa, are mentioned in one hymn of the Rigveda.
kuru The Kurus appear as by far the most important people in the Brāhmana literature. There is clear evidence that it was in the country of the Kurus, or the allied Kuru- Pañcālas, that the great Brāhmanas were composed. The Kurus are comparatively seldom mentioned alone, their name being usually coupled with that of the Pañcālas on account of the intimate connexion of the two peoples. The Kuru-Pañcālas are often expressly referred to as a united nation. In the land of the Kuru-Pañcālas speech is said to have its particular home ; the mode of sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas is proclaimed to be the best ; the Kuru-Pañcāla kings perform the Rājasūya or royal sacrifice ; their princes march forth on raids in the dewy season, and return in the hot season Later on the Kuru-Pañcāla Brahmins are famous in the Upanisads. Weber and Grierson have sought to find traces in Vedic literature of a breach between the two tribes, the latter scholar seeing therein a confirmation of the theory that the Kurus belonged to the later stream of immigrants into India, who were specially Brahminical, as opposed to the Pañcālas, who were anti-Brahminical. In support of this view, Weber refers to the story in the Kāthaka Samhitā of a dispute between Vaka Dālbhya and Dhrtarāstra Vaicitravīrya, the former being held to be by origin a Pañcāla, while the latter is held to be a Kuru. But there is no trace of a quarrel between Kurus and Pañcālas in the passage in question, which merely preserves the record of a dispute on a ritual matter between a priest and a prince: the same passage refers to the Naimisīya sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas, and emphasizes the close connexion of the two peoples. Secondly, Weber conjectures in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā that Subhadrikā of Kāmpīla was the chief queen of the king of a tribe living in the neighbour¬hood of the clan, for whose king the horse sacrifice described in the Samhitā was performed. But the interpretation of this passage by Weber is open to grave doubt ; and in the Kānva recension of the Samhitā a passage used at the Rājasūya shows that the Kuru-Pañcālas had actually one king. More¬over, there is the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmana that the old name of the Pañcālas was Krivi. This word looks very like a variant of Kuru, and Zimmer plausibly conjectures that the Kurus and Krivis formed the Vaikarna of the Rigveda, especially as both peoples are found about the Sindhu and the Asikni.The Kurus alone are chiefly mentioned in connexion with the locality which they occupied, Kuruksetra. We are told, however, of a domestic priest (Purohita) in the service of both the Kurus and the Srñjayas, who must therefore at one time have been closely connected. In the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made to the Kurus being saved by a mare (aśvā), and to some disaster which befel them owing to a hailstorm. In the Sūtras, again, a ceremony (Vājapeya) of the Kurus is mentioned. There also a curse, which was pronounced on them and led to their being driven from Kuruksetra, is alluded to. This possibly adumbrates the misfortunes of the Kauravas in the epic tradition. In the Rigveda the Kurus do not appear under that name as a people. But mention is made of a prince, Kuruśravana (‘ Glory of the Kurus ^, and of a Pākasthāman Kaurayāna. In the Atharvaveda there occurs as a king of the Kurus Pariksit, whose son, Janamejaya, is mentioned in the śata¬patha Brāhmana as one of the great performers of the horse sacrifice.It is a probable conjecture of Oldenberg’s that the Kuru people, as known later, included some of the tribes referred to by other names in the Rigveda. Kuruśravana, shown by his name to be connected with the Kurus, is in the Rigveda called Trāsadasyava, * descendant of Trasadasyu,’ who is well known as a king of the Pūrus. Moreover, it is likely that the Trtsu- Bharatas, who appear in the Rigveda as enemies of the Pūrus, later coalesced with them to form the Kuru people. Since the Bharatas appear so prominently in the Brāhmana texts as a great people of the past, while the later literature ignores them in its list of nations, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they became merged in some other tribe. Moreover, there is evidence that the Bharatas occupied the territory in which the Kurus were later found. Two of them are spoken of in a hymn of the Rigveda as having kindled fire on the Drsadvatī, the Apayā, and the Sarasvatī—that is to say, in the sacred places of the later Kuruksetra. Similarly, the goddess Bhāratī (‘ belonging to the Bharatas ’) is constantly mentioned in the Aprī (‘ propitiatory ’) hymns together with Sarasvatī. Again, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana, one Bharata king was victorious over the Kāśis, and another made offerings to Gañgā and Yamunā, while raids of the Bharatas against the Satvants are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Nor is it without importance that the Bharatas appear as a variant for the Kuru-Pañcālas in a passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and that in the list of the great performers of the horse sacrifice the names of one Kuru and two Bharata princes are given without any mention of the people over which they ruled, while in other cases that information is specifically given.The territory of the Kuru-Pañcālas is declared in the Aitareya Brāhmana to be the middle country (Madhyadeśa). A group of the Kuru people still remained further north—the Uttara Kurus beyond the Himālaya. It appears from a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana that the speech of the Northerners— that is, presumably, the Northern Kurus—and of the Kuru- Pañcālas was similar, and regarded as specially pure. There seems little doubt that the Brahminical culture was developed in the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that it spread thence east, south, and west. Traces of this are seen in the Vrātya Stomas (sacrifices for the admission of non - Brahminical Aryans) of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and in the fact that in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka it is unusual for a Brahmin to dwell in the territory of Magadha. The repeated mention of Kuru- Pañcāla Brahmins is another indication of their missionary activity. The geographical position of the Kuru-Pañcālas renders it probable that they were later immigrants into India than the Kosala-Videha or the Kāśis, who must have been pushed into their more eastward territories by a new wave of Aryan settlers from the west. But there is no evidence in Vedic literature to show in what relation of time the immigration of the latter peoples stood to that of their neighbours on the west. It has, however, been conjectured, mainly on the ground of later linguistic phenomena, which have no cogency for the Vedic period, that the Kurus were later immigrants, who, coming by a new route, thrust themselves between the original Aryan tribes which were already in occupation of the country from east to west. Cf. also Krtvan. For other Kuru princes see Kauravya.
kuśri vājaśravasa Appears as a teacher concerned with the lore of the sacred fire in the Satapatha Brāhmana, and in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad he is mentioned as a pupil of Vājaśravas. It is not clear whether he is identical with the Kuśri of the last Vamśa of the Brhadāranyaka in the Kānva recension, and of the Vamśa in the tenth book of the śatapatha, who is mentioned as a pupil of Yajñavacas Rājastambāyana.
kuṣumbhaka Seems in one passage of the Rigveda to mean a poisonous insect, Kusumbha in the Atharvaveda clearly having the sense of a poison bag. Sāyaṇa renders it as 'ichneumon’ (nakula).
kṛtvan In one passage of the Rigveda the word Krtvan in the plural is mentioned with the Arjīkas and the five peoples. Pischel thinks that it means a people, and Sāyana expressly says that the Krtvans designate a country. The name in that case would point to some connexion with the Kurus or Krivis. Hillebrandt, however, thinks that the word is an adjective which qualifies Arjīkas and designates this people as magicians, being applied to them by an opponent. In favour of this view, he quotes Hiouen Thsang’s statement that the neighbouring kings held the base Kaśmīrians in such scorn as to refuse all alliance with them, and to give them the name of Ki-li-to, or Krtyas. He suggests that the Arjīkas settled in Kaśmīr in ancient times already had the same evil reputation as their successors in later days.
kṛṣṇa hārīta Is mentioned as a teacher in the Aitareya Áranyaka. The Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka has Krtsna in the parallel passage.
koka A word occurring in the Rigveda and the Atharva­veda, seems to denote the ‘ cuckoo.’ In all the three passages in which it is found, Sāyana explains it as the Cakravāka. Roth renders it in the Atharvaveda passages as a certain destructive parasitic animal. Cf. Anyavāpa.
kosala Is the name of a people not occurring in the earliest Vedic literature. In the story of the spread of Aryan culture told in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Kosala-Videhas, as the offspring of Videgha Māthava, appear as falling later than the Kuru-Pañcālas under the influence of Brahminism. The same passage gives the Sadānīrā as the boundary of the two peoples —Kosala and Videha. Elsewhere the Kausalya, or Kosala king, Para Atnāra Hairanyanābha, is described as having performed the great Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice. Connexion with Kāśi and Videha appears also from a passage of the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra. Weber points out that Áśvalāyana, who was very probably a descendant of Aśvala, the Hotr priest of Videha, is called a Kosala in the Praśna Upanisad. The later distinction of North and South Kosala is unknown to both Vedic and Buddhist literature. Kosala lay to the north-east of the Ganges, and corresponded roughly to the modern Oudh.
kauṇṭharavya Is mentioned as a teacher in the Aitareya and Sāñkhāyana Aranyakas.
kaurayāna Is apparently a patronymic of Pākasthāman in the Rigveda. Hopkins suggests that Kaurāyana may be meant.
kaurava Is the reading of the text of the Khilas and of some manuscripts of the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra for the Kaurama of the Atharvaveda, who appears in a Dānastuti (‘ Praise of Gifts ’) as a generous donor among the Ruśamas.
kauṣītaki (‘ descendant of Kusītaka ’) is the patronymic of a teacher, or series of teachers, to whom the doctrines set forth in the Kausītaki Brāhmana and in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka, and the śrauta and Grhya Sūtras, are referred. He is rarely mentioned elsewhere. The doctrine of Kausītaki is called the Kausītaka. The pupils of Kausītaki are known as the Kausī- takis in the Nidāna Sūtra, and in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana they with Kusītaka are stated to have been cursed by Luśākapi. Elsewhere they are called Kausītakins. If the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka can be trusted, there were among them at least two leading teachers, Kahoda and Sarvajit, the former of whom is mentioned elsewhere.
kausalya Prince of Kosala,’ is the designation of Para Atnāra in the śatapatha Brāhmana, and of Hiranyanābha in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra. Áśvalāyana is styled Kausalya, as ‘ belonging to the Kosala country,’ in the Praśna Upanisad, and the Kāśi-Kausalyāh, or the * Kāśis and people of Kosala,’ are mentioned in the Gopatha Brāhmana.
kravaṇa A word occurring only once in the Rigveda, is understood by Ludwig as the name of the Hotr priest or the sacrificer. Roth considered it an adjective without at first assigning a sense, but afterwards as meaning timid.’ Sāyana interprets it as ‘ worshipping.’ Oldenberg considers the meaning uncertain, suggesting as possible the slayer of the victim.
kṣattṛ Is a word of frequent occurrence in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas, denoting a member of the royal entourage, but the sense is somewhat uncertain. In the Rigveda it is used of a god as the ‘ distributor ’ of good things to his worshippers; the same sense seems to be found the Athar­vaveda and elsewhere. In one passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the interpretation ‘ doorkeeper ’ is given by the com­mentator Mahīdhara, a sense which seems possible in other passages, while Sāyana ascribes to it in one passage of the Satapatha Brāhmana the more dignified meaning of aηtah- purādhyaksa, ‘a chamberlain.’ In other passages, again, the sense of ‘ charioteer ’ is not unlikely. Later the Ksattr was regarded as a man of mixed caste.
kṣatriya As the origin of caste, the relation of the castes, intermarriage, and cognate matters may most conveniently be discussed under Varna, this article will be confined to deter­mining, as far as possible, the real character of the class called Ksatriyas, or collectively Ksatra. The evidence of the Jātakas points to the word Khattiya denoting the members of the old Aryan nobility who had led the tribes to conquest, as well as those families of the aborigines who had managed to maintain their princely status in spite of the conquest. In the epic also the term Ksatriya seems to include these persons, but it has probably a wider signification than Khattiya, and would cover all the royal military vassals and feudal chiefs, expressing, in fact, pretty much the same as the barones of early English history. Neither in the Jātakas nor in the epic is the term co-extensive with all warriors; the army contains many besides the Ksatriyas, who are the leaders or officers, rather than the rank and file.In the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas the Ksatriya stands as a definite member of the social body, distinct from the priest, the subject people, and the slaves, Brāhmana, Vaiśya, and Sūdra. It is significant that Rājanya is a variant to Ksatriya, and an earlier one. Hence it is reasonable to suppose that the Ksatriya and Rājanya are both of similar origin, being princely or connected with royalty. Moreover, the early use of Ksatriya in the Rigveda is exclusively con-nected with royal authority or divine authority. It is impossible to say exactly what persons would be in¬cluded in the term Ksatriya. That it covered the royal house and the various branches of the royal family may be regarded as certain. It, no doubt, also included the nobles and their families: this would explain the occasional opposition of Rājanya and Ksatriya, as in the Aitareya Brāhmana,8 where a Rājanya asks a Ksatriya for a place for sacrifice (deυa-yajana). Thus, when strictly applied, Ksatriya would have a wider denotation than Rājanya. As a rule, however, the two expressions are identical, and both are used as evidence in what follows. That Ksatriya ever included the mere fighting man has not been proved: in the Rigveda9 and later10 others than Ksatriyas regularly fought; but possibly if the nobles had retinues as the kings had, Ksatriya would embrace those retainers who had military functions. The term did not apply to all members of the royal entourage; for example, the Grāmanī was usually a Vaiśya. The connexion of the Ksatriyas with the Brahmins was very close. The prosperity of the two is repeatedly asserted to be indissolubly associated, especially in the relation of king (Rājan) and domestic priest (Purohita). Sometimes there was feud between Ksatriya and Brahmin. His management of the sacrifice then gave the Brahmin power to ruin the Ksatriya by embroiling him with the people or with other Ksatriyas. Towards the common people, on the other hand, the Ksa¬triya stood in a relation of well-nigh unquestioned superiority. There are, however, references to occasional feuds between the people and the nobles, in which no doubt the inferior numbers of the latter were compensated by their superior arms and prowess. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Vaiśya is described as tributary to another (anyasya bali-krt), to be devoured by another (anyasyādya), and to be oppressed at will (yathākāma-jyeya). Probably these epithets apply most strictly to the relation of the king and his people, but the passage shows that the people were greatly at the mercy of the nobles. No doubt the king granted to them the right, which may have been hereditary, to be supported by the common people, whose feudal superiors they thus became. In return for these privileges the Kṣatriyas had probably duties of protection to perform, as well as some judicial functions, to judge from an obscure passage of the Kāthaka Samhitā. The main duty of the Ksatriya in the small states of the Vedic period was readiness for war. The bow is thus his special attribute, just as the goad is that of the agriculturist; for the bow is the main weapon of the Veda. Whether the Ksatriyas paid much attention to mental occupations is uncertain. In the latest stratum of the Brāhmana literature there are references to learned princes like Janaka of Videha, who is said to have become a Brahmin (brahmā), apparently in the sense that he had the full knowledge which a Brahmin possessed. Other learned Ksatriyas of this period were Pravāhana Jaivali, Aśvapati Kaikeya, and Ajātaśatru Garbe, Grierson, and others believe they are justified in holding the view that the Ksatriyas developed a special philosophy of their own as opposed to Brahminism, which appears later as Bhakti, or Faith. On the other hand, there is clear evidence that the opinion of Ksatriyas on such topics were held in little respect, and it must be remembered that to attribute wisdom to a king was a delicate and effective piece of flattery. There are earlier references to royal sages (rājan- yarsi) but it is very doubtful if much stress can be laid on them, and none can be laid on the later tradition of Sāyana. Again, the Nirukta gives a tradition relating how Devāpi, a king’s son, became the Purohita of his younger brother Samtanu; but it is very doubtful if the story can really be traced with Sieg in the Rigveda itself. In any case, the stories refer only to a few selected Ksatriyas of high rank, while there is no evidence that the average Ksatriya was concerned with intellectual pursuits. Nor is there any reference to Ksatriyas engaging in agriculture or in trade or commerce. It may be assumed that the duties of administration and war were adequate to absorb his atten¬tion. On the other hand, we do hear of a Rājanya as a lute player and singer at the Aśvamedha or horse sacrifice. Of the training and education of a Ksatriya we have no record; presumably, as in fact if not in theory later on, he was mainly instructed in the art of war, the science of the bow, and the rudimentary administrative functions which would devolve on him. At this early state of the development of the nobility which appears to be represented in the Rigveda, it was probably not unusual or impossible for a Vaiśya to become a Ksatriya; at least, this assumption best explains the phrase ‘claiming falsely a Ksatriya’s rank ’ (ksatriyam mithuyā dhārayantam). The king and the Ksatriyas must have stood in a particularly close relation. The former being the Ksatriya par excellence, it is to him rather than to the ordinary Ksatriya that we must refer passages like that in the Satapatha Brāhmana, where it is said that the Ksatriya, with the consent of the clansmen, gives a settlement to a man : clearly a parallel to the rule found among many peoples that the chief, but only with the consent of the people, can make a grant of unoccupied land. In the same Brāhmana it is said that a Ksatriya consecrates a Ksatriya, a clear reference, as the commentator explains, to the practice of the old king consecrating the prince (kumāra) who is to succeed him ; and again, the Ksatriya and the Purohita are regarded as alone complete in contrast with other people, the parallel with the Purohita here suggesting that the Ksatriya par excellence is meant. On the other hand, the king is sometimes con¬trasted with the Rājanya. The Sūtra literature contains elaborate rules for the education and occupations of Ksatriyas, but their contents cannot always be traced in the Brāhmana literature, and their value is questionable.
khaḍga Is the reading in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā of the name of an animal which, in the text of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, variously appears as Khañga and Khadga. The rhinoceros seems clearly to be meant. In the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra a rhinoceros hide is mentioned as the covering of a chariot.
khaṇḍika audbhāri Descendant of Udbhāra ’) is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana as a teacher of Keśin, and in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā as having been defeated by Keśin as a sacrificer. A Khāndika appears in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra as an enemy of Keśin.
khalakula Is a word occurring in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, where Sāyana glosses it by Kulattha, a kind of pulse (Dolichos uηiflorus).
khāṇḍava Is mentioned in the Taittirīya Áranyaka as one of the boundaries of Kuruksetra. There seems no reason to doubt its identity with the famous Khāndava forest of the Mahābhārata. The name occurs also in the Pañcaviipśa Brāhmana and the śātyāyanaka.
khṛgala Or, as the Paippalāda recension of the Atharvaveda has it, Khugila, is an obscure expression found in two passages only—once in the Rigveda, and once in the Atharvaveda. In the former the meaning crutch * seems required; in the latter Sāyana glosses it by armour’ (taηu-trāηa), but the sense is quite uncertain.
khela occurs in one passage of the Rigveda, where Pischel considers that a god, Vivasvant, is meant, and that races were run in his honour, explaining thus the phrase ājā khelasya, as ‘in the race of Khela.’ Roth thinks that a man is meant, and Sieg, following Sāyana, sees in him a king whose Purohita was Agastya. See also Amśu.
gandharvāyaṇa bāleya (‘ descendant of Bali ’) Agniveśya is mentioned as a Pañcāla in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
gārgyāyaṇa Descendant of Gārgya,’ is mentioned as a pupil of Uddālakāyana in the second Vamśa in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad (Kānva).
go ‘ox’ or ‘cow.’ These were among the chief sources of wealth to the Vedic Indian, and are repeatedly referred to from the Rigveda onwards. The milk (Ksīra) was either drunk fresh or made into butter (Ghrta) or curds (Dadhi), or was mixed with Soma or used for cooking with grain (Ksīraudana).The cows were milked thrice a day, early (prātar-doha), in the forenoon (Samgava), and in the evening (.sāyam-doha). Thrice a day they were driven out to graze, according to the Taittirīya Brāhmana (prātah, saφgave, say am). The first milking was productive, the last two scanty. According to the Aitareya Brāhmana, among the Bharatas the herds in the evening are in the Gostha, at midday in the Samgavinī. This passage Sāyana expands by saying that the herds go home to the Sālā, or house for animals, at night so far as they consist of animals giving milk, while the others stayed out in the Gostha, or open pasturage ; but both were together in the cattle-shed during the heat of the day. The time before the Samgava, when the cows were grazing freely on the pastureland, was called Svasara. When the cows were out feeding they were separated from the calves, which were, how¬ever, allowed to join them at the Samgava, and sometimes in the evening. While grazing the cattle were under the care of a herdsman (Gopā, Gopāla) armed with a goad, but they were liable to all sorts of dangers, such as being lost, falling into pits, breaking limbs, and being stolen. The marking of the ears of cattle was repeatedly adopted, no doubt, to indicate ownership. Large herds of cattle were well-known, as is shown by the Dānastutis, or ‘ praises of gifts,’ in the Rigveda, even when allowances are made for the exaggeration of priestly gratitude. The importance attached to the possession of cattle is shown by the numerous passages in which the gods are asked to prosper them, and by the repeated prayers for wealth in kine. Hence, too, forays for cattle (Gavisti) were well known; the Bharata host is called the ‘ horde desiring cows ’ (gavyan grāmak) in the Rigveda j and a verbal root gup, ‘ to protect,’ was evolved as early as the Rigveda from the denominative go-pāya, ‘ to guard cows.’ The Vedic poets do not hesitate to compare their songs with the lowing of cows, or to liken the choir of the singing Apsarases to cows. The cattle of the Vedic period were of many colours: red (:rohita), light (śakra), dappled (prśni), even black (krsna). Zimmer sees a reference to cows with blazes on the face in one passage of the Rigveda, but this is uncertain. Oxen were regularly used for ploughing or for drawing wágons (anadvāh), in which case they were, it seems, usually castrated. Cows were not properly used for drawing carts, though they at times did so. The flesh of both cows and bulls was sometimes eaten (Māmsa). Cattle were certainly the objects of individual ownership, and they formed one of the standards of exchange and valuation (see Kraya). The term Go is often applied to express the products of the cow. It frequently means the milk, but rarely the flesh of the animal. In many passages it designates leather used as the material of various objects, as a bowstring, or a sling, or thongs to fasten part of the chariot, or reins,or the lash of a whip. See also Carman, with which Go is sometimes synonymous.
gotra Occurs several times in the Rigveda in the account of the mythic exploits of Indra. Roth interprets the word as cowstall,’ while Geldner thinks ‘ herd ’ is meant. The latter sense seems to explain best the employment which the term shows in the later literature as denoting the £ family or £ clan,’ and which is found in the Chāndogya Upanisad. In the Grhya Sūtras stress is laid on the prohibition of marriage within a Gotra, or with a Sapinda of the mother of the bridegroom—that is to say, roughly, with agnates and cognates. Senart has emphasized this fact as a basis of caste, on the ground that marriage within a curia, phratria, or caste (Varna) was Indo-European, as was marriage outside the circle of agnates and cognates. But there is no evidence at all to prove that this practice was Indo-European, while in India the Satapatha expressly recognizes marriage within the third or fourth degree on either side. According to Sāyana, the Kānvas accepted marriage in the third degree, the Saurāstras only in the fourth, while the scholiast on the Vajrasūcī adds to the Kānvas the Andhras and the Dāksinātyas, and remarks that the Vājasaneyins forbade marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother. All apparently allowed marriage with the daughter of a paternal uncle, which later was quite excluded. Change of Gotra was quite possible, as in the case of Sunah- śepa and Grtsamada, who, once an Añgirasa, became a Bhārgava.
gośruti vaiyāghrapadya (‘Descendant of Vyāghrapad’) is mentioned as a pupil of Satyakāma in the Chāndogya Upanisad. In the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka the name appears as Gośruta.
gaupāyana (‘Descendant of Gopa’). The Gaupāyanas appear in the legend of Asamāti, Kirāta, and Akuli, which is first met with in the Brāhmanas.
gaupālāyana (‘Descendant of Gopāla’) is the patronymic of Sucivrksa in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā. It is also the patro­nymic of Aupoditi, Sthapati of the Kurus, in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra, and, as Gaupāleya, of Upoditi or Aupoditi in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
ghṛta The modern Ghee or ‘clarified butter,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and later both as in ordinary use and as a customary form of sacrifice. According to a citation in Sāyana’s commentary on the Aitareya Brāhmana, the dis­tinction between Ghrta and Sarpis consisted in the latter being butter fully melted, while the former was butter melted and hardened (ghanī-bhūta), but this distinction cannot be pressed. Because the butter was thrown into the fire, Agni is styled ‘butter-faced’ (ghrta-pratīka), * butter-backed ’ (ghrta-prstha), and ‘ propitiated with butter ’ (ghrta-prasatta) ,β and ‘ fond of butter ’ (ghrta-prī). Water was used to purify the butter: the waters were therefore called butter-cleansing ’ (ghrta-pū). In the Aitareya Brāhmana it is said that Ajya, Ghrta, Ayuta, and Navanīta pertain to gods, men, Pitrs, and embryos respectively.
ghṛtakauśika Is mentioned in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Mādhyamdina recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Pārāśaryāyana.
ghoṣā Is mentioned as a protśgáe of the Aśvins in two passages of the Rigveda,probably as the recipient of a husband, who is perhaps referred to in another passage as Arjuna, though this is not likely. Sāyana finds a reference there to a skin disease, which is considered in the later tradition of the Brhaddevatā to have been the cause of her remaining unwed, but this view is not tenable. According to Sāyana, her son, Suhastya, is alluded to in an obscure verse of the Rigveda; Oldenberg, however, here sees a reference to Ghosā herself, while Pischel thinks that the form (ghose) is not a noun at all, but verbal.
carakabrahmaṇa Is the name of a work from which Sāyana quotes in his commentary on the Rigveda.
cīpudru Designates some substance mentioned in a hymn of the Atharvaveda as of use in healing. The commentator Sāyana reads Cīpadru, and explains the word as a kind of tree. This interpretation is supported by the fact that the Kauśika Sūtra refers to the employment of splinters of Palāśa wood in the ritual application of this hymn. Whitney suggests that the form of the word should be Cīpudu.
caikitāyana ‘Descendant of Cikitāyana or Cekita, is the patronymic of Dālbhya in the Chāndogya Upanisad.
cyavana Are variant forms of the name of an ancient Ṛṣi, or seer. The Rigveda represents him as an old decrepit man, to whom the Aśvins restored youth and strength, making him acceptable to his wife, and a husband of maidens. The legend is given in another form in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana, where Cyavana is described as wedding Sukanyā, the daughter of śaryāta. He is there called a Bhrgu or Añgirasa, and is represented as having been rejuvenated by immersion in a pond—the first occurrence of a motive, later very common in Oriental literature. Another legend about Cyavāna is apparently alluded to in an obscure hymn of the Rigveda, where he seems to be opposed to the Paktha prince Tūrvayāna, an Indra worshipper, while Cyavāna seems to have been specially connected with the Aśvins. This explanation of the hymn, suggested by Pischel, is corroborated by the Jaiminīya Brāhmana, which relates that Vidanvant, another son of Bhrgu, supported Cyavana against Indra, who was angry with him for sacrificing to the Aśvins; it is also note¬worthy that the Aśvins appear in the śatapatha Brāhmana as obtaining a share in the sacrifice on the suggestion of Sukanyā. But a reconciliation of Indra and Cyavana must have taken place, because the Aitareya Brāhmana relates the inauguration of śāryāta by Cyavana with the great Indra consecration (aindrena mahābhisekena). In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaça Cyavana is mentioned as a seer of Sāmans or Chants.
janaka King of Videha, plays a considerable part in the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, as well as in the Jaiminīya Brāhmana and the Kausītaki Upanisad. He was a contemporary of Yājñavalkya Vāja-saneya, of śvetaketu Aruneya, and of other sages.6 He had become famous for his generosity and his interest in the dis¬cussion of the nature of Brahman, as ultimate basis of reality, in the life-time of Ajātaśatru of Kāśi. It is significant that he maintained a close intercourse with the Brahmins of the Kuru-Pañcālas, such as Yājñavalkya and śvetaketu; for this indicates that the home of the philosophy of the Upanisads was in the Kuru-Pañcāla country rather than in the east. There is a statement in the śatapatha Brāhmana that he became a Brahmin (brahma). This does not, however, signify a change of caste, but merely that in knowledge he became a Brahmin (see Ksatriya). Janaka is occasionally mentioned in later texts: in the Taittirīya Brāhmana he has already become quite mythical; in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra a sapta-rātra or seven nights’ rite is ascribed to him. It is natural to attempt to date Janaka by his being a con¬temporary of Ajātaśatru, and by identifying the latter with the Ajātasattu of the Pāli texts11: this would make the end of the sixth century B.C. the approximate date of Janaka. But it is very doubtful whether this identification can be supported: Ajātaśatru was king of Kāśi, whereas Ajātasattu was king of Magadha, and his only connexion with Kāśi was through his marriage with the daughter of Pasenadi of Kosala. More¬over, the acceptance of this chronology would be difficult to reconcile with the history of the development of thought; for it would make the rise of Buddhism contemporaneous with the Upanisads, whereas it is reasonably certain that the older Upanisads preceded Buddhism Nor do the Vedic texts know anything of Bimbisāra or Pasenadi, or any of the other princes famed in Buddhist records. The identification of Janaka of Videha and the father of Sītā is less open to objection, but it cannot be proved, and is somewhat doubtful. In the Sūtras Janaka appears as an ancient king who knew of a time when wifely honour was less respected than later.
jambhaka As the name of a demon, presumably identical with the demon causing Jambha, is mentioned in the Vāja­saneyi Samhitā and the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka.
jaritṛ According to Sieg, mention is made in one hymn of the Rigveda of Jaritr, one of the śārñgas. That hymn he seeks to bring into connexion with the epic tradition of the Rsi Mandapāla, who wedded Jaritā, a female Sārñga bird—apparently a hen sparrow (catakā)—and had four sons. These being abandoned by him and exposed to the danger of being consumed by a forest fire, prayed to Agni with the hymn Rigveda. This interpretation is very doubtful, though Sāyana appears to have adopted it.
jala jātūkarnya (‘Descendant of Jātūkarna'), is mentioned in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra as having obtained the position of Purohita, or domestic priest, of the three peoples or kings of Kāśi, Videha, and Kosala.
jahakā The ‘ polecat,’ is mentioned as a victim at the Aśvamedha, or horse sacrifice, in the Yajurveda. Sāyana thinks it means a jackal living in holes (vila-vāsī krostā).
jahnu Occurs only in the plural in the legend of Sunahśepa, who is said to have obtained, as Devarāta, both the lordship of the Jahnus and the divine lore of the Gāthins. A Jāhnava, or descendant of Jahnu, was, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, Viśvāmitra, who is said, by means of a certain catū-rātra or four-night ’ ritual, to have secured the kingdom for the Jahnus in their conflict with the Vrcīvants. He is here described as a king. Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmana, Viśvāmitra is addressed as a rāja-putra, ‘prince,’ and Bharata- rsabha, ‘bull of the Bharatas.’ It is therefore clear that the Brāhmanas, though not the Samhitās, saw in him at once a priest and a prince by origin, though there is no trace whatever of their seeing in him a prince who won Brahmanhood as in the version of the later texts.A Jahnāvī is mentioned twice in the Rigveda, being either the wife of Jahnu, or, as Sāyana thinks, the race of Jahnu. The family must clearly once have been a great one, later merged in the Bharatas.
jāti which in the Pāli texts is the word denoting ‘caste,’ does not occur at all in the early Vedic literature; when it is found, as in the Kātyāyana Srauta Sūtra, it has only the sense of ‘family’ (for which cf. Kula, Gotra, and Viś). For the influence of the family system on the growth of caste, see Varna. To assume that it was the basis of caste, as does Senart, is difficult in face of the late appearance of words for family and of stress on family.
jātūkarṇya ‘Descendant of Jātūkarna,’ is the patronymic of several persons. (a) A pupil of Asurāyana and Yāska bears this name in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad in the Kānva recension. In the Mādhyamdina he is a pupil of Bhāradvāja. (b) A Kātyāyanī-putra, ‘son of Kātyāyanī,’ bears this name in the Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka. (c) A Jātūkarnya is mentioned in the Kausītaki Brāhmana as a contemporary of Alīkayu Vācaspatya and other sages. (d) Jātūkarnya is in the Sūtras5 frequently a patronymic of teachers whose identity cannot be determined. The same person or different persons may here be meant.
jātūṣṭhira Occurs in one verse of the Rigveda where Sāyana and Ludwig interpret the word as a proper name. Roth renders it as an adjective meaning ‘naturally powerful.
jāna (Descendant of Jana,’ is the patronymic of Vrśa in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana and apparently in the śātyāyanaka.
jānaśruti ‘Descendant of Jānaśruta,’ is the patronymic ot Pautrāyana in the Chāndogya Upanisad
jābālāyana ‘Descendant of Jābāla,’ is the patronymic of a teacher, a pupil of Mādhyamdināyana, who is mentioned in the second Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
jāratkārava (‘Descendant of Jaratkāru’) Artabhāga (‘de­scendant of Rtabhāga’) is the name of a teacher mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka and the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad.
jālāṣa See Jalāsa, which is read by Sāyana in the Athar­vaveda for Jālāsa.
jaivantāyana ‘Descendant of Jīvanta,’ is mentioned in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a teacher, with Saunaka and Raibhya, of Rauhināyana.
jñātṛ Occurs in two passages of the Atharvaveda and one of the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka with a somewhat obscure sense. Zimmer conjectures not unnaturally that the word is a technical term taken from law, meaning ‘witness.’ The reference is, perhaps, to a custom of carrying on transactions of business before witnesses as practised in other primitive societies. Roth suggests that the word has the sense of ‘surety.’ But Bloomfield and Whitney ignore these inter¬pretations.
takman Is a disease repeatedly mentioned in the Athar­vaveda, but later not known under this name. It is the subject of five hymns of the Atharvaveda, and is often mentioned else­where. Weber first identified it with fever,’ and Grohmann showed that all the symptoms pointed to that ailment. Refer­ence is made to the alternate hot and shivering fits of the patient, to the yellow colour of the jaundice which accompanies the fever, and to its peculiar periodicity. The words used to describe its varieties are aηye-dyuh, ubhaya-dyuh, trtīyaka, vi-trtīya, and sadam-di, the exact sense of most of which terms is somewhat uncertain. It is agreed that the first epithet designates the fever known as quotidiaηus, which recurs each day at the same hour, though the word is curious (lit.‘ on the other—i.e., next, day’). The ubhaya-dyuk (‘ on both days ’) variety appears to mean a disease recurring for two suc¬cessive days, the third being free; this corresponds to the rhythmus quartanus complicatus. But Sāyana considers that it means a fever recurring on the third day, the * tertian.’ The tvtīyaka, however,must be the ‘tertian’ fever, though Zimmer suggests that it may mean a fever which is fatal at the third paroxysm. Grohmann regards the vi-trtīyaka as equivalent to the tertiana duplicata, a common form in southern countries, in which the fever occurs daily, but with a correspondence in point of time or severity of attack on alternate days. Bloomfield suggests that it is identical with the ubhaya-dyuh, variety. The sadam-di type appears to be the kind later known as samtata-jvara (‘ continuous fever ’), in which there are attacks of several days’ duration, with an interval followed by a fresh period of attack. Fever occurred at different seasons, in the autumn (śārada), in the hot weather (graisma), in the rains (vārsika) but was especially prevalent in the first, as is indicated by the epithet viśva-śārada, occurring every autumn.’ The disease is said to arise when Agni enters the waters. From this Weber deduced that it was considered to be the result of a chill supervening on heat, or the influence of heat on marshy land. Grohmann preferred to see in this connexion of the origin of the disease with Agni’s entering the waters an allusion to the fact that fever arises in the rainy season, the time when Agni, as lightning, descends to earth with the rain. Zimmer, who accepts this view, further refers to the prevalence of fever in the Terai, and interprets vanya, an epithet of fever found in the Atharvaveda, as meaning ‘ sprung from the forest,’ pointing out that fever is mentioned as prevalent among the Mūjavants and Mahāvrsas, two mountain tribes of the western Himalaya. There is no trace of fever having been observed to be caused by the bite of the anopheles mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water : this theory has without reason been held to be known to classical Indian medicine. Among the symptoms of Takman, or among complications accompanying it, are mentioned ‘itch’ (Pāman), ‘headache’ (§īrsa-śoka),so ‘cough’ (Kāsikā), and ‘consumption,’ or perhaps some form of itch (Balāsa). It is perhaps significant that the Takman does not appear until the Atharvaveda. It is quite possible that the Vedic Aryans, when first settled in India, did not know the disease, which would take some generations to become endemic and recognized as dangerous. What remedies they used against it is quite uncertain, for the Atharvaveda mentions only spells and the Kustha, which can hardly have been an effective remedy, though still used in later times. Fever must, even in the Atharvan period, have claimed many victims, or it would not be mentioned so prominently.
takvan Seem in the Rigveda to denote a ‘ swift- flying bird.’ Sāyana explains Takvan as a swift steed.
taru The usual term for ‘tree’ in classical Sanskrit, never occurs in Vedic literature, except perhaps in one passage of the Rigveda, where Sāyana finds it, and where it can be so translated. But the form (tarubhih) is probably to be inter­preted otherwise.
tarya Is according to Sāyana, the name of a man in one passage of the Rigveda. But the verse is hopelessly obscure.
tāyu Was another name for thief, perhaps of a less distinguished and more domestic character than the highway­man, for though he is referred to as a cattle-thief, he is also alluded to as a stealer of clothes (vastra-mathi)u and as a debtor. In one passage the Tāyus are said to disappear at the coming of dawn (which is elsewhere called yāvayad-dvesas driving away hostile beings,’ and rta-pā, ‘ guardian of order ’), like the stars of heaven (naksatra). In the Satarudriya litany of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā Rudra is called lord of assailers (ā-vyādhin), thieves (stena), robbers (taskara), pickpockets (stāyu), stealers (musnant), and cutters (1vi-krnta); and designations of sharpers (grtsa) and bands (gana, vrāta), apparently of robbers, are mentioned. It is therefore not surprising that the Rigveda should contain many prayers for safety at home or on the way, or that the Atharvaveda should devote several hymns to night chiefly for protection against the evil doings of thieves and robbers. Pischel suggests that in one passage of the Rigveda Vasistha is represented as a burglar, but he admits that, since Vasistha was attacking the house of his father Varuna, he was only seeking to obtain what he may have regarded as his own. But the interpretation of the hymn is not certain. Sayana’s explanation of one passage of the Rigveda, as referring to professional cattle-trackers, like the Khojis of the Panjab, seems quite probable.The punishment of thieves appears primarily to have been left to the action of the robbed. The practice of binding them in stocks seems clearly referred to. But later, at any rate— and in all probability earlier also, as in other countries—a more severe penalty could be exacted, and death inflicted by the king. There is no hint in Vedic literature of the mode of conviction; a fire ordeal is not known to the Atharvaveda, and the ordeal known to the Chāndogya Upanisad is not said to be used in the case of theft. No doubt the stolen property was recovered by the person robbed if he could obtain it. Nothing is known as to what happened if the property had passed from the actual thief into the possession of another person.
tāṇḍa Seems to be the name of a sage to whose school belonged the Tānda Brāhmana mentioned in the Lātyāyana śrauta Sūtra.
tāṇḍavinda Is the name of a teacher mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka.
tāṇḍi Occurs as the name of a pupil of Bādarāyana in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the Sāmavidhāna Brāhmana.
tārukṣya Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Aranyakas. In the former passage Tārksya is a variant reading, and in the latter Tārksya is read, but this is probably only due to confusion with Tārksya, the reputed author of a Rigvedic hymn.
tārpya Denotes, in the Atharvaveda and later, a garment made of some material, the nature of which is uncertain. The commentators on the Kātyāyana śrauta Sūtra and the śata­patha Brāhmana suggest that a linen garment, or one thrice soaked in ghee, or one made of the trpā or of the triparna plant, is meant: it is doubtful whether the sense was known even to the author of the Brāhmana himself. Goldstucker’s rendering of the word is ‘silken garment/ which Eggeling is inclined to accept.
tirindira Is mentioned in a Dānastuti, or ‘ Praise of Gifts,’ in the Rigveda as having, along with Parśu, bestowed gifts on the singer. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra this state­ment is represented by a tale that the Kanva Vatsa obtained a gift from Tirindira Pāraśavya, Tirindira and Parśu being in this version thus treated as one and the same man. Ludwig sees in the Rigvedic passage a proof that the Yadus had gained a victory over Tirindira, and gave a part of the booty to the singers; but there is no proof whatever of the correctness of this interpretation, which Zimmer shows to be most unlikely. Yadu princes must be meant by Tirindira and Parśu, though Weber thinks that the singers were Yadus, not the princes. The latter he holds to have been Iranian (cf. TLpiβaζos, and see Parśu), and he thinks that in this there is evidence of continual close relations between India and Iran. This is perfectly possible, but the evidence for it is rather slight.
tiṣya Occurs twice in the Rigveda, apparently as the name of a star, though Sāyana takes it to mean the sun. It is doubtless identical with the Avestan Tistrya. Later it is the name of a lunar mansion : see Naksatra.
tūrvayāṇa Is the name of a prince mentioned in the Rigveda. He appears by name in two passages, and is clearly alluded to in a third, as an enemy of Atithigva, Ayu, and Kutsa. With this accords the fact that the Pakthas were opposed in the battle of the ten kings to the Trtsus, and that Tūrvayāna is shown by another passage of the Rigveda to have been a prince of the Pakthas. He is there represented as having been a protśge of Indra, who aided him against Cyavāna and his guardians, the Maruts. It is not probable that he is identical with Suśravas.
taila ‘Sesamum oil/ is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, where reference is made to keeping such oil in jars. In the Sāñkhāyana Aranyaka, reference is made to anointing with sesamum oil.
tauvilikā Occurring once in a hymn of the Atharvaveda, is a word of quite uncertain sense. Roth thinks it means some kind of beast; Zimmer and Whitney regard it as a sort of plant; Sāyana explains it as a disease-causing demon, while Bloomfield leaves the sense doubtful.
trasadasyu Son of Purukutsa, is mentioned in the Rigveda as king of the Pūrus. He was born to Purukutsa by his wife, Purukutsānī, at a time of great distress; this, according to Sāyana, refers to Purukutsa’s captivity: possibly his death is really meant. Trasadasyu was also a descendant of Giriksit and Purukutsa was a descendant of Durgaha. The genealogy, therefore, appears to be: Durgaha, Giriksit, Purukutsa, Trasa­dasyu. Trasadasyu was the ancestor of Tpksi, and, according to Ludwig, had a son Hiranin. Trasadasyu’s chronological position is determined by the fact that his father, Purukutsa, was a contemporary of Sudās, either as an opponent or as a friend. That Purukutsa was an enemy of Sudās is more probable, because the latter’s predecessor, Divodāsa, was apparently at enmity with the Pūrus, and in the battle of the ten kings Pūrus were ranged against Sudās and the Trtsus. Trasadasyu himself seems to have been an energetic king. His people, the Pūrus, were settled on the Sarasvatī, which was, no doubt, the stream in the middle country, that locality according well with the later union of the Pūrus with the Kuru people, who inhabited that country. This union is exemplified in the person of Kuruśravana, who is called Trāsadasyava, ‘ descendant of Trasadasyu,’ in the Rigveda, whose father was Mitrātithi, and whose son was Upamaśravas. The relation of Mitrātithi to Trksi does not appear. Another descendant of Trasadasyu was Tryaruna Traivrsna, who is simply called Trasadasyu in a hymn of the Rigveda. He was not only a 4 descendant of Trivrsan,’ but, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, he was also Traidhātva, descendant of Tridhātu.’ The order of these two predecessors of Tryaruna cannot be determined in any way from Vedic literature. According to the later tradition, a prince named Tridhanvan preceded Tryaruna in the succession. Vedic tradition further fails to show in what precise relation Trasadasyu stood to Trivrsan or Tryaruna.
tryaruṇa traivṛṣṇa trasadasyu Is the name of a prince whose generosity to a singer is celebrated in a hymn of the Rigveda. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana he appears as Tryaruna Traidhātva Aiksvāka, and is the hero of the following story. He was out in his chariot with his Purohita, or domestic priest, Vrśa Jāna, and by excessive speed in driving killed a Brahmin boy. This sin was atoned for by the Puro- hita’s using his Vārśa Sāman (chant). The Sātyāyana Brāh­mana, cited by Sāyana, elaborates the tale. As Vrśa had held the reins, king and priest accused each other of the murder. The Iksvākus being consulted threw the responsibility for the crime on Vrśa, who thereupon revived the boy by the Vārśa Sāman. In consequence of this unfairness of theirs—being Ksatriyas they were partial to a Ksatriya—Agni’s glow ceased to burn in their houses. In response to their appeal to restore it, Vrśa came to them, saw the Piśācī (demoness), who, in the form of Trasadasyu’s wife, had stolen the glow, and succeeded in restoring it to Agni. This version with some variations occurs also in the Brhaddevatā, which connects the story with a hymn of the Rigveda. Sieg’s attempt to show that the hymn really refers to this tale is not at all successful. It is clear that Trasadasyu must here mean ‘descendant of Trasadasyu,’ and not King Trasadasyu himself. The difference of the patronymics, Traivrsna and Traidhātva, by which he is referred to can best be explained by assuming that there were two kings, Trivrsan and Tridhātu (or possibly Tridhanvan), from whom Tryaruna was descended. The connexion with the Iksvākus is important (see Iksvāku).
tryāśir With three admixtures,’ is an epithet of Soma in the Rigveda. According to Sāyana this means mixed with, curds (Dadhi), meal (Saktu), and milk (Payas). More accurately it would seem to denote the milk (gavāsir), the barley (yavāśir), and the curds (dadhyāśir), which were used to mix with the Soma.
dakṣa pārvati (‘Descendant of Parvata’) is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana as having performed a certain rite which his descendants, the Dāksāyanas, still maintained, thus enjoying royal dignity down to the time of the Brāhmana itself. He appears in the Kausītaki Brāhmana also.
dakṣiṇāpatha (lit., ‘the road to the south’), ‘the south country,’ is found, probably as a designation of the Deccan, as early as the Baudhāyana Dharma Sūtra, coupled with Surāstra. A similar expression is daksinā padā, ‘ with southward foot,’ in the Rigveda, referring to the place where the exile (parā-vrj) goes on being expelled. This no doubt simply means ‘ the south ’beyond the limits of the recognized Aryan world, which even as late as the Kausītaki Upanisad appears as bounded by the Vindhyas on
daśan ‘Ten,’ forms the basis of the numerical system of the Vedic Indians, as it does of the Aryan people generally. But it is characteristic of India that there should be found at a very early period long series of names for very high numerals, whereas the Aryan knowledge did not go beyond 1,000. In the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the list is 1 ; 10; 100; 1,000 ; ιο,οοο {ayuta) \ ιοο,οοο (ηiyuta); ι,οοο,οοο(prayuta); 10,000,000 {arbuda); 100,000,000 (ηyarbuda)', 1,000,000,000 (samudra); 10,000,000,000 (madhya); ιοο,οοο,οοο,οοο (aηta); 1,000,000,000,000 {parārdha). In the Kāthaka Samhitā the list is the same, but ηiyuta and prayuta exchange places, and after ηyarbuda a new figure (badva) intervenes, thus increasing samudra to ιο,οοο,οοο,οοο, and so on. The Taittirīya Samhitā has in two places exactly the same list as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The Maitrāyanī Samhitā has the list ayuta, prayuta, then ayuta again, arbuda, ηyarbuda, samudra, madhya, aηta, parārdha. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmana has the Vājasaneyi list up to ηyarbuda inclusive, then follow ηikharvaka, badva, aksita, and apparently go = ι,οοο,οοο,οοο,οοο. The Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana list replaces nikharvaka by nikharva, badva by padma, and ends with aksitir vyomāntah. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra con¬tinues the series after nyarbuda with nikharvāda, samudra, salila, antya, ananta (=10 billions).But beyond ayuta none of these numbers has any vitality. Badva, indeed, occurs in the Aitareya Brāhmana, but it cannot there have any precise numerical sense j and later on the names of these high numerals are very much confused. An arithmetical progression of some interest is found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, where occurs a list of sacrificial gifts in which each successive figure doubles the amount of the preceding one. It begins with dvādaśa-mānam hiranyam, * gold to the value of 12 ’ (the unit being uncertain, but probably the Krsnala18), followed by ‘to the value of 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1,536, 3072/ then dve astāvimśati-śata-māne, which must mean 2 x 128 X 24 (the last unit being not a single māna, but a number of 24 mānas) = 6,144, then 12,288, 24,576, 49,152, 98,304, 196,608, 393,216. With these large numbers may be compared the minute theoretical subdivision of time found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where a day is divided into 15 muhūrtas—1 muhūrta =15 ksipras, 1 ksipra =15 etarhis, I etarhi = 15 idānis, 1 idāni =15 prānas. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra15 has a decimal division of the day into 15 muhūrtas—• i muhūrta = 10 nimesas, 1 nimesa = 10 dhvamsis. Few fractions are mentioned in Vedic literature. Ardha, pāda, śapha, and kalā denote J, J, TV respectively, but only the first two are common. Trtīya denotes the third part.16 In the Rigveda Indra and Visnu are said to have divided ι,οοο by 3, though how they did so is uncertain. Tri-pād denotes 4 three-fourths.’ There is no clear evidence that the Indians of the Vedic period had any knowledge of numerical figures, though it is perfectly possible.
dasyu A word of somewhat doubtful origin, is in many passages of the Rigveda clearly applied to superhuman enemies. On the other hand, there are several passages in which human foes, probably the aborigines, are thus designated. This may be regarded as certain in those passages where the Dasyu is opposed to the Aryan, who defeats him with the aid of the gods. The great difference between the Dasyus and the Aryans was their religion : the former are styled 4 not sacrificing,’ 4 devoid of rites,’ 4 addicted to strange vows,’ ‘ god- hating,’ and so forth. As compared with the Dāsa, they are less distinctively a people: no clans (viśah) of the Dasyus are mentioned, and while Indra’s dasyu-hatya,. slaughter of the Dasyus,’ is often spoken of, there is no corresponding use of dāsa-hatya. That the Dasyus were real people is, however, shown by the epitdet anās applied to them in one passage of the Rigveda. The sense of this word is not absolutely certain : the Pada text and Sāyana both take it to mean 4 without face ’ (an-ās), but the other rendering, 4 noseless ’ (a-nās), is quite possible, and would accord well with the flat-nosed aborigines of the Dravidian type, whose language still persists among the Brahuis, who are found in the north-west. This interpretation would receive some support from Vrtra’s being called * broken-nosed ’ if this were a correct explanation of the obscure word rujānās. The other epithet of the Dasyus is mrdhra-vāc, which occurs with anās, and which has been rendered ‘of stam¬mering, or unintelligible speech.’ This version is by no means certain, and since the epithet is elsewhere applied to Aryans, its correct meaning is more probably ‘of hostile speech.’ Dasyu corresponds with the Iranian dañliu, daqyu, which denotes a ‘ province.’ Zimmer thinks that the original meaning was ‘enemy,’ whence the Iranians developed the sense of ‘hostile country,’ ‘conquered country,’ ‘province,’ while the Indians, retaining the signification of ‘ enemy,’ extended it to include demon foes. Roth considers that the meaning of human enemy is a transfer from the strife of gods and demons. Lassen16 attempted to connect the contrast daqyu: dasyu with that of daeva : deva, and to see in it a result of the religious differences which, according to Haug’s theory, had separated the Iranians and the Indians. The word may have originally meant 4 ravaged land ’ as a result of invasion ;hence ‘enemies’ country,’ then ‘hostile people,’ who as human foes were more usually called by the cognate name of Dāsa. Individual Dasyus are Cumuri, Sambara, Susna, etc. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the word has, as later, the sense of uncivilized peoples generally.
dākṣāyaṇa Descendant of Daksa.’ The Dāksāyanas are mentioned in the Atharvaveda and the Yajurveda Samhitās as having given gold to Satānīka. In the Satapatha Brāhmana the word is actually used to denote * gold. ’ The Dāksāyanas appear there as a race of princes who, because of performing a certain rite, prospered down to the time of the Brāhmana itself.
dāna ('Distribution') seems in several passages of the Rigveda to be a designation of the sacrificial feast to which the god is invited (cf. δak, δatτη). In one passage Sāyana thinks that it denotes the mada-jalāni, ‘ drops of water falling from the temples of a rutting elephant,’ but this is doubtful. In another passage Roth thinks that ‘pasture land’ is meant.
dālbhya ‘Descendant of Dalbha,’ is a variant of Dārbhya. It is the patronymic of {a) Keśin in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana j (b) Caikitāyana in the Chāndogya Upanisad and the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana; (c) Vaka in the Chāndogya Upanisad and the Kāthaka Samhitā.
dāsaveśa Occurring only once in the Rigveda, probably designates a Dāsa named Veśa. Sāyana's interpretation of the word as ‘ destruction of foes ’can hardly be correct.
dīrghatamas (‘ Long darkness ’) Māmateya (* son of Mamatā ’) Aucathya (‘son of Ucatha’) is mentioned as a singer in one hymn of the Rigveda, and is referred to in several passages by his metronymic, Māmateya, alone. He is said, both in the Rigveda and in the Sāñkhāyana Áranyaka, to have attained the tenth decade of life. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he appears as the priest of Bharata. The Brhaddevatā contains a preposterous legend made up of fragments of the Rigveda,® according to which Dīrghatamas was born blind, but recovered his sight; in old age he was thrown into a river by his servants, one of whom, Traitana, attacked him, but killed himself instead. Carried down by the stream, he was cast up in the Añga country, where he married Uśij, a slave girl, and begot Kaksīvant. The two legends here combined are not even con­sistent, for the second ignores Dīrghatamas’ recovery of sight. To attach any historical importance to them, as does Pargiter, would seem to be unwise.
dīrghaśravas (‘ Far-famed ’) is the name of a royal seer who, according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, having been banished from his kingdom, and suffering from actual hunger, ‘saw’ a certain Sāman (chant), and thus obtained food. In one passage of the Rigveda an Auśija, a merchant (vanij), is mentioned as dīrgha-śravas, which may be a proper name, as Sāyana holds, or an adjective, as it is understood by Roth.
durgaha Is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda, where his grandsons are lauded for their generosity, though Sāyana renders the word adjectivally. In another passage of the Rigveda, however, Sāyana sees in the epithet Daurgaha a description of Purukutsa as Durgaha’s son, who was either captured by the enemy or slain, and whose wife, Purukutsānī, then obtained a son, Trasadasyu, to restore the line; he also quotes a story, not found in the Brhaddevatā, to support this interpretation. On the other hand, the śatapatha Brāhmana seems to take Daurgaha as meaning a horse. Sieg thinks that the same sense should be adopted in the Rigveda passage, which he interprets as referring to the sacrifice of a horse, Daurgaha, by King Purukutsa to gain a son; he also sees in Dadhikrāvan, with Pischel and Ludwig, a real horse, the charger of Trasadasyu. The śatapatha Brāhmana's inter­pretation of Daurgaha is, however, doubtful, and cannot be regarded as receiving support from the case of Dadhikrāvan, who was probably a divinity, and not a real horse at all.
devataras syāvasāyana kāśyapa (‘Descendant of Kaśyapa’) is mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana as a pupil of Rśyaśrñga. In the Vamśa Brāhmana, as śāvasāyana, he is a pupil of his father śavas, who again was a pupil of Kāśyapa.
daiyāṃpāti Descendant of Dayāmpāta,’ is the name of a teacher of the east, who was instructed by Sāçdilyāyana* according to the Satapatha Brāhmana in the lore of the construction of the fire-altar. The same patronymic is given, in the form of Dayyāmpāti, to Plaksa, the contemporary of Atyamhas in the Taittirīya Brāhmana.
dyotana Is, according to Sāyana, the name of a prince in the Rigveda. This is probably correct, though the word may also be interpreted as denoting 'glorification*; but it is not clear what relation existed between Dyotana and the other persons mentioned in the same passage, Vetasu, Daśoni, Tūtuji, and Tugra.
drapsa Is a common word from the Rigveda onwards for a drop’: according to Sāyana, a ‘thick drop’ as opposed to stoka, a * small drop.’ Hence there frequently occurs the ex­pression dadfyi-drapsa,’ drop of curds.’In the Rigveda the word normally denotes the thick drops of Soma or the Soma itself. In two passages Roth sees the sense of‘banner,’ which is adopted by Oldenberg. Geldner, on the other hand, considers that ‘ dust * is meant, but this interpretation is not very probable. Max Muller9 renders the word ‘rain-drop’ in one of the passages.
drāpi Occurs several times in the Rigveda in the sense of * mantle ’ or ‘ cloak. 'Sāyana, however, renders the word by ‘ coat of mail’ (kavaca). This seems needless, but none of the passages are very decisive one way or the other.
drughaṇa Is found in the Mudgala hymn of the Rigveda and in the Atharvaveda. The sense is uncertain. Yāska renders it as a ‘ ghana made of wood,’ probably, as Roth takes it, meaning a ‘club of wood.’ Geldner thinks that it was a wooden bull used by Mudgala as a substitute for a second bull when he wanted to join in a race. But this interpretation of the legend is very improbable. Whitney translates the word as ‘ tree-smiter ’ in the Atharvaveda, quoting Sāyana, who explains it as a ‘ cutting instrument,’ so called because trees are struck with it.
dhānva Is the patronymic of Asita in the śatapatha Brāh­mana. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra the form of the name is Dhānvana.
dhenā Denotes a ‘ milch cow,’ or in the plural, ‘ draughts of milk.’ In two passages Roth takes the word to mean mare,’ and in another the * team’ of Vāyu’s chariot. Benfey, on the other hand, renders it ‘ lips ’ in one passage, with Sāyana and with Durga’s commentary on the Nirukta. Geldner assigns to the word the senses of ‘ lips,’ ‘ speech,’cow,’‘ beloved,’ and ‘ streams.’
dhvasra Is named with Purusanti in the Pañcavimśa Brāh­mana as giving gifts to Taranta and Purumīdha. These two, being kings, could not properly accept gifts which Brāhmanas alone could accept, but by becoming authors of a verse of the Rigveda they qualified themselves to accept them. The verse mentions the names in the dual as Dhvasrayofy Purusaηtyoh, ‘from the two, Dhvasra and Purusanti.’ In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana5 the names occur in the dual as Dhvasre Purusanti, a reading which is confirmed by the Nidāna Sūtra. The former is necessarily a feminine form, though Sāyana, in his comment on the passage, explains it as really an irregular masculine. According to Roth, the feminine is a corruption based on the dual form in the verse of the Rigveda mentioned above; but the names may be those of women, as Benfey inclines to believe. Weber suggests that the two were demons, but this is, as Sieg shows, quite unnecessary. Dhvasra is no doubt identical with Dhvasanti.
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nanāndṛ Is a word occurring only once in the Rigveda, where it denotes, according to Sāyana, the ‘ husband’s sister,’ over whom the wife is to rule. This interpretation is confirmed by the fact that the same position is ascribed to the husband’s sister—no doubt while unmarried and living in her brother’s care—by the Aitareya Brāhmana.
narya (‘Manly ’) is in two passages of the Rigveda understood by the commentator Sāyana as the proper name of a man. See also Nārya.
nalada ‘Nard’ (N ardastachys Jatamansi) is a plant mentioned in the Atharvaveda, in the Aitareya and the śāñkhāyana Aranyakas (where it is mentioned as used for a garland), as well as in the Sūtras. In the Atharvaveda the feminine form of the word, Naladī, occurs as the name of an Apsaras, or celestial nymph.
nābhānediṣṭha (‘Nearest in descent ’) Mānava (‘ descendant of Manu ’) is famous in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas for the way in which he was treated when his father Manu divided his property among his sons, or they divided it: Nābhānedistha was left out, but was solaced by obtaining, through his father’s advice, cows from the Añgirases, a feat which is regarded in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra as on a level with the exploits of other seers who celebrated their patrons in hymns, and as giving rise to the hymn, Rigveda Nābhānedistha’s hymn is repeatedly mentioned in the Brāh­manas, but beyond its authorship nothing is recorded of him. In the Samhitā itself he seems to be spoken of as a poet in one passage, which is, however, of quite uncertain meaning. Nābhānedistha is etymologically connected in all probability with Nabānazdista in the Avesta, which refers to the Fravasi of the paoiryδ-tkaesha and the Fravasi of the Nabānazdista. Lassen saw in the legend a reminiscence of an Indo-Iranian split; but Roth showed conclusively that this was impossible, and that Nābhānedistha meant simply ‘nearest in birth,’and Weber admits that the connexion of the words is not one of borrowing on either side, but that in the Avesta it has kept its original sense of ‘ nearest relation,’ while in the Rigveda it has become a proper name.
nāman ‘Name,’ is a common word from the Rigveda onwards. The Grhya Sūtras give elaborate rules for the formation of the names of children, but more important is the distinction between the secret (guhya) and the ordinary name, though the rules as to the secret name are not at all consistent. The secret name is already recognized in the Rigveda, and is referred to in the Brāhmanas, one secret name, that of Arjuna for Indra, being given in the Satapatha Brāhmana. It is to be noted that the rule as to giving the designation of a Naksatra (lunar asterism) as the secret name or otherwise is not illustrated by a single recorded name of a teacher in the Brāhmanas. The śatapatha Brāhmana several times mentions the adoption of a second name with a view to securing success, and also refers to the adoption of another name for purposes of distinction. In actual practice two names are usually found in the Brāhmanas, the second being a patronymic or a metronymic, as in Kaksīvant Auśija (if the story of the slave woman Uśij as his mother is correct), or Brhaduktha Vāmneya, ‘ son of Vāmnī,’ though the relationship may, of course, be not direct parentage, but more remote descent. Three names are less common—for example, Kūśāmba Svāyava Lātavya, ‘ son of Svāyu, of the Lātavya (son of Latu) family,’ or Devataras Syāvasāyana Kāśyapa, where the patronymic and the Gotra name are both found. In other cases the names probably have a local reference—e.g., Kauśāmbeya and Gāñgya. Fre¬quently the patronymic only is given, as Bhārgava, Maudgalya, etc., or two patronymics are used. The simple name is often used for the patronymic—e.g., Trasadasyu. In a few cases the name of the wife is formed from the husband’s name, as Uśīnarānī, Purukutsānī, Mudgalānī.
nāya In two passages of the Rigveda is, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, probably a proper name. Sāyana takes the word to mean ‘leader,’ while Pischel considers it a gerund with passive sense.
nārāśaṃsī (scil. Rc), ‘ (verse) celebrating men,’ is mentioned as early as the Rigveda, and is distinguished from Gāthā in a number of passages in the later literature. The Kāthaka Samhitā, while distinguishing the two, asserts that both are false (aηγtam). It is hardly probable that the two were abso­lutely distinct, for the Taittirīya Brāhmana has the phrase ‘a Gāthā celebrating men’ (nārāśamsī). What such verses were may be seen from the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, which enumerates the Nārāśamsāni at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice.’ They may legitimately be reckoned as a source of the epic.The term Nārāśamsī is restricted in some passages to a particular group of three verses of the Atharvaveda, but Oldenberg must be right in holding that the restricted sense is not to be read into the Rigveda. Not even in the Taittirīya Samhitā is the technical sense certain, and the Brhaddevatā gives the word a general application.
nigut Occurs in two passages of the Rigveda, where Sāyana takes it to mean ‘enemy,’ a possible interpretation. Ludwig suggests that non-Aryan foes are meant.
nigustha Is a term of unknown meaning applied in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra to the peoples of Kāśi, Videha, and Kosala.
ninditāśva (‘Possessing contemptible steeds’) is the name of a patron in the Rigveda. The name may suggest connexion with Iran, but such a reference is not at all necessary. Sāyana ingeniously turns the name—probably a nickname— into a compliment by rendering it ‘ one who puts to shame the horses of his rivals.’
nirāla Occurs once in the Atharvaveda, where Sāyana regards it as the name of a disease. Bloomfield, with the Padapātha, explains it as two words, understanding nir as an elliptical imperative, (go) out,’ with the vocative āla, a kind of weed. Whitney at first took āla to be a verbal form, but finally came to the conclusion that the expression is one word, nirāla, of unknown sense.
niṣāda Is found in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas. The word seems to denote not so much a particular tribe, but to be the general term for the non-Aryan tribes who were not under Aryan control, as the Sūdras were, for Aupamanyava took the five peoples (pañca jaηāh) to be the four castes (catvāro varnāh) and the Nisādas, and the commentator Mahīdhara explains the word where it occurs in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā as meaning a Bhilla, or Bhīl. A village of Nisādas is men¬tioned in the Lātyāyana Srauta Sūtra, and a Nisāda Sthapati, a leader of some kind, is referred to in the Kātyāyana Srauta Sūtra and in a Brāhmana cited by the scholiast on that passage. Weber thinks that the Nisādas were the settled aborigines (from ni, ‘down,’ and sad, ‘settle’), a view sup-ported by the fact that the ritual of the Viśvajit sacrifice requires a temporary residence with Nisādas; for the Nisādas who would permit an Aryan to reside temporarily amongst them must have been partially amenable to Aryan influence. But the name might easily be applied to the whole body of aborigines outside the Aryan organization. Von Schroeder thinks that the Nisādas were most probably identical with the Nysseans, who, according to the Greek account, sent an embassy to Alexander when he was in the territory of the Aśvakas, but this identification is doubtful.
naicāśākha Is found in one passage of the Rigveda, where Sāyana renders it as ‘ of low origin,’ but elsewhere he explains it as the name of a place. The former sense is accepted by Grassmann and Ludwig in their versions, and by Zimmer, but Hillebrandt points out that the reference is rather to the low-branched ’ Soma plant. Cf. Kīkata and Pramaganda.
nau Is the regular word in the Rigveda and later for a 4 boat ’ or 4 ship.’ In the great majority of cases the ship was merely a boat for crossing rivers, though no doubt a large boat was needed for crossing many of the broad rivers of the Panjab as well as the Yamunā and Gañgā. Often no doubt the Nau was a mere dug-out canoe (
nyocanī Is found in the marriage hymn of the Rigveda, where some kind of ornament worn by women seems to be meant. The commentator Sāyana interprets it as female slave.
paktha Is the name of a people in the Rigveda, where they appear as one of the tribes that opposed the Trtsu-Bharatas in the Dāśarājña, or ‘ battle of the ten kings.’ Zimmer compares them with the tribe of Tlá/cτves and their country ΤΙακτυική, mentioned as in the north-west of India by Herodotus,4 and with the modern Pakhthūn in Eastern Afghanistan, holding that they were a northern tribe; this is probable, since the Bharatas seem to have occupied the Madhyadeśa, or ‘ Middle Land.’ In three passages of the Rigveda5 a Paktha is referred to as a protágá of the Aśvins. The second connects him wifh Trasadasyu, whose tribe, the Pūrus, were aided by the Pakthas in their unsuccessful onslaught on Sudās. In the third passage he seems specified as Tūrvāyana, and appears as an opponent of Cyavāna.6 Probably, therefore, Paktha in all cases denotes the king of the Paktha people.
pajra Is the name of the family from which Kaksīvant sprang (Pajriya). It is mentioned several times in the Rigveda. According to Pischel, the epithet prksa-yāmas applied to them means ‘carrying out brilliant sacrificial performances,’ which won for them Srutaratha’s generosity. In two passages Roth sees a Pajra called Sāman. This is uncertain, but in any case a Pajra seems clearly alluded to. Elsewhere it is very doubtful whether the word is a proper name at all. In the śātyāyana the Pajras are declared to be Añgirases.
pañcajanāḥ The ‘five peoples,’ are mentioned under various names in Vedic literature. Who are meant by the five is very uncertain. The Aitareya Brāhmana explains the five to be gods, men, Gandharvas and Apsarases, snakes, and the Fathers. Aupamanyava held that the four castes (Varna) and the Nisādas made up the five, and Sāyana is of the same opinion. Yāska thinks that the five are the Gandharvas, fathers, gods, Asuras, and Raksases. No one of these explanations can be regarded as probable. Roth and Geldner think that all the peoples of the earth are meant: just as there are four quarters (Diś), there are peoples at the four quarters (N. E. S. W.), with the Aryan folk in the middle. Zimmer opposes this view on the ground that the inclusion of all peoples in one expression is not in harmony with the distinction so often made between Aryan and Dāsa ; that neither janāsah, ‘ men,’ nor mānusāh, ‘people,’ could be used of non-Aryans; that the Soma is referred to as being among the five tribes; that the five tribes are mentioned as on the Sarasvatī, and that Indra is pāñca- jany a, ‘ belonging to the five peoples.’ Pie concludes that Aryans alone are meant, and in particular the five tribes of the Anus, Druhyus, Yadus, Turvaśas, and Pūrus, who are all mentioned together in one or perhaps two hymns of the Rigveda, and four of whom occur in another hymn. But he admits that the expression might easily be used more generally later. Hopkins has combated Zimmer’s view, but his own opinion rests mainly on his theory that there was no people named Turvaśa, but only a king of the Yadus called Turvaśa, and that theory is not very probable. In the śatapatha Brāhmana and the Aitareya Brāhmana the five peoples are opposed to the Bharatas, and in the former work seven peoples are alluded to.
pañcālacaṇḍa Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya and the śāñkhāyana Aranyakas.
paḍbīśa The foot-fetter ’ of a horse in five passages, two in the Rigveda, and one each in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, the Chāndogya Upanisad, and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka. Elsewhere its uses are metaphorical. According to Roth,® the literal sense is ‘foot-fastening’ (pad being = pad, ‘foot,’ and bīśa, written visa in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, being connected with the Latin viηcire, ‘bind’). Pischel[2] objects that the sense of * foot-fastening’ involves the absurdity, in the Upanisad passages, of a fine horse from the Sindhu (Indus) being spoken of as tearing up the peg to which it is fastened. He suggests instead the meaning of ‘ hobble,’ which must be right.8
para āṭṇāra (‘Descendant of Atnāra ’) appears in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas as one of the ancient great kings who won sons by performing a particular sacrifice. In the śatapatha Brāhmana he is styled Hairanyanābha, de­scendant of Hiranyanābha,’ and in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra he is called Para Ahlāra Vaideha, a fact testifying to the close connexion of Kosala and Videha. A Yajña-gāthā, or ‘sacrificial verse,’ there cited mentions Hiraçyanābha Kausalya in connexion with Para.
parāvṛj Is a term found in four passages of the Rigveda, in all of which it refers to a person in a forlorn condition, while one of them also speaks of him as going south. Sāyana’s view that the word is a proper name is most unlikely, while Grassmann’s explanation of it as ‘cripple’ is still less probable.
paricarmaṇya Denotes a thong of leather in the Kausītaki Brāhmana and the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka.
paridhāna Denotes ‘garment,’ probably * under garment,’ in the Atharvaveda and the Brhadāranyaka Upani­sad. A garment of saffron is mentioned in the śānkhāyana Aranyaka.
paruṣa Seems to mean * reed ’ in the Atharvaveda and ‘arrow’ in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
parṇaka Is the name of a man included in the list of victims at the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmana. According to Mahī- dhara, a Bhilla is meant—i.e., presumably a wild hillman, for he glosses Nisāda in the same way. Sāyana explains the word as meaning ‘ one who catches fish by putting over the water a parna with poison,’ but this is apparently a mere etymological guess. Weber’s rendering of the term as refer­ring to a savage ‘wearing feathers ’ is ingenious, but uncertain.
parśu Occurs in one passage in a Dānastuti (‘praise of gifts ’) in the Rigveda as the name of a man. It is not certain that he is identical with Tirindira, but the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions Tirindira Pāraśavya as the patron of Vatsa Kānva. In another passage occurring in the Vrsākapi hymn, Parśu Mānavī occurs, apparently as a woman, daughter of Manu, but who is meant it is quite impossible to say. Excepting these two, there are no other occurrences in which the word has with any probability the value of a proper name in the Rigveda. Ludwig, however, sees in several other places an allusion to the Parśus. Thus in one passage of the Rigveda he finds a reference to the defeat of Kuruśravana by the Parśus; in another he finds a reference to the Prthus and Parśus i.e., the Parthians and the Persians. He also sees the Parthians in Pārthava, a name found in one hymn. The same view is taken by Weber, who holds that historical connexions with the Persians are referred to. But Zimmer points out that this conclusion is not justified; the Parśus were known to Pānini as a warrior tribe; the Pāraśavas were a tribe in south-west Madhyadeśa; and the Periplus knows a tribe of Parthoi in north India. At most the only conclusion to be drawn is that the Indians and Iranians were early connected, as was of course the case. Actual historical contact cannot be asserted with any degree of probability.
pākadūrvā Is, in a verse of the Rigveda, included with Kiyāmbu and Vyalkaśā among the plants used for growing on the spot where the corpse of the dead man has been consumed with fire. The verse is repeated in the Taittirīya Aranyaka. with the variant Kyāmbu. In the Atharvaveda the word is read śāndadūrvā. Pākadūrvā is probably, as Sāyana understands it, parifiakva-dūrvā, ‘ ripe or edible millet.’ śāndadūrvā is explained by the commentator in various ways, as millet * having egg-shaped roots ’ (i.e., sānda, not śānda), or as * having long joints,’ with the additional remark that it was called brhad- dūrvā, ‘ large millet.’ In the Taittirīya Aranyaka, on the other, hand, the commentary explains Pākadūrvā as small millet.
pāthya A word occurring only once in the Rigveda, is either an epithet meaning ‘being in heaven’ (pāthas), or a patronymic, as Sāyana interprets it, of Vrsan.
pāraśavya ‘Descendant of Paraśu,’ is the patronymic of Tirindira in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra. Cf. Parśu.
pārikṣita ‘Descendant of Pariksit,’ is the patronymic of Janamejaya in the Aitareya Brāhmana and the śatapatha Brāhmana. The Pāriksitīyas appear in the śatapatha Brāh­mana and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra as performers of the horse sacrifice. In a Gāthā there cited they are called Pāri- ksitas. Apparently they were the brothers of Janamejaya, named Ugrasena, Bhīmasena, and Srutasena. In the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad the question whither they have gone is made the subject of a philosophical discussion. It is clear that the family had passed away before the time of the Upanisad, and it is also clear that there had been some serious scandal mingled with their greatness which they had, in the opinion of the Brahmins, atoned for by their horse sacrifice with its boundless gifts to the priests. Weber sees in this the germ of the Epic stories which are recorded in the Mahābhārata. The verses relating to Pariksit in the Atharvaveda are called Pāriksityah in the Brāhmanas.
pārthya ‘Descendant of Prthi,’ is the patronymic of some donor in a hymn of the Rigveda. The form of the name in the Áśvalāyana śrauta Sūtra is Pārtha.
pāśadyumna vāyata Is the name of a king to whom the Vasisthas claim to have been preferred by Indra in one hymn of the Rigveda. Apparently he was, as Sāyana says, son of Vayat, who may be compared with the Vya£ of another passage of the Rigveda. Ludwig sees in him a priest of the Prthus and Parśus, but this is most improbable.
piṅgā Is found in one passage of the Rigveda, where it is explained by the St. Petersburg Dictionary with Sāyana as ‘bowstring,’ but where Hillebrandt thinks that a musical instrument of some kind is meant.
pitṛyāṇa The ‘ way of the fathers,’ mentioned in the Rigveda and later, is opposed to the Deva-yāna, or ‘way of the gods.’ Tilak considers that the Devayāna corresponds with the Uttarāyana, ‘northern journey’ of the sun, and the Pitryāna with the Daksināyana, its ‘southern journey.’ He concludes from a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana, where three of the seasons spring, summer, and the rains are ascribed to the gods, but the others to the Pitrs, or Fathers, that the Devayāna began with the vernal equinox, and the Pitryāna with the autumnal equinox. With this he connects the curious distinction of Deva- and Yama-Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana. These conclusions are, however, very improbable. C/. Naksatra and Sūrya.
piśa Is found in one passage of the Rigveda, where Sāyana takes it to mean a deer (ruru).
piśīla Is found in the Satapatha Brāhmana as the name of a wooden vessel or dish. In the Lātyāyana Srauta Sūtra a Piśīla-vīnā is mentioned, which seems to have been a kind of guitar, with strings stretched over a body of wood.
punardatta (‘ Given again ’) is the name of a teacher in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka.
purāṇa Denoting a tale ‘of olden times,’ is often found in the combination Itihāsa-Purāna, which is probably a Dvandva compound meaning * Itihāsa and Purāna.’ It some­times occurs as a separate word, but beside Itihāsa, no doubt with the same sense as in the Dvandva. Sāyana defines a Purāna as a tale which deals with the primitive condition of the universe and the creation of the world, but there is no ground for supposing that this view is correct, or for clearly distinguishing Itihāsa and Purāna. See Itihāsa.
purumīḷha Is mentioned twice in the Rigveda as an ancient sage, in which capacity he appears in the Atharvaveda also. Perhaps the same Purumīlha is intended in an obscure hymn in the Rigveda, where, according to the legends reported in the Brhaddevatā and by Sadguruśisya in his commentary on the Sarvānukramanī, and by Sāyana in his commentary on the Rigveda, he as well as Taranta was a son of Vidadaśva, and a patron of the singer Syāvāśva. The correctness of the legend has been shown to be most improbable by Oldenberg, who points out that the legend misinterprets the Rigveda by making Purumīlha a Vaidadaśvi, for he is there only compared in generosity to one. In another legend found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and based on a hymn of the Rigveda, Purumīlha and Taranta appear as persons who received gifts from Dhvasra and Puru- isanti, and as sons of Vidadaśva. The legend, which also occurs in the śātyāyanaka, is apparently best explained by Sieg, who says that as the two were kings they could not under the rules of caste accept gifts, unless for the nonce they became singers. The legend has no claim at all, as Oldenberg shows, to validity.
puruṣa Is the generic term for man ’ in the Rigveda and later. Man is composed of five parts accord­ing to the Atharvaveda, or of six according to the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, or of sixteen, or of twenty, or of twenty-one, or of twenty-four, or of twenty-five, all more or less fanciful enumerations. Man is the first of animals, but also essentially an animal (see Paśu). The height of a man is given in the Kātyāyana śrauta Sūtra as four Aratnis (‘cubits’), each of two Padas ('feet’), each of twelve Añgulis ('finger’s breadths’); and the term Puruṣa itself is found earlier as a measure of length. Puruṣa is also applied to denote the length of a man’s life, a ‘generation’ ;the * pupil ’ in the eye ; and in the gram¬matical literature the * person of the verb.
puruṣanti Is a name that occurs twice in the Rigveda, in the first passage denoting a protágá of the Aśvins, in the second a patron who gave presents to one of the Vedic singers. In both cases the name is joined with that of Dhvasanti or Dhvasra. The presumption from the manner in which these three names are mentioned is that they designate men, but the grammatical form of the words might equally well be feminine. Females must be meant, if the evidence of the Paficavimśa Brāhmaṇa is to be taken as decisive, for the form of the first of the two names there occurring, Dhvasre Purusantī, ‘ Dhvasrā and Puruṣanti,’ is exclusively feminine, though here as well as elsewhere Sāyaṇa interprets the names as masculines. See also Taranta and Purumīlha.
purohita (‘Placed in front,’ ‘appointed’) is the name of a priest in the Rigveda and later. The office of Purohita is called Purohiti and Purodhā. It is clear that the primary function of the Purohita was that of ‘ domestic priest ’ of a king, or perhaps a great noble; his quite exceptional position is shown by the fact that only one Purohita seems ever to be mentioned in Vedic literature. Examples of Purohitas in the Rigveda are Viśvāmitra or Vasiçtha in the service of the Bharata king,.Sudās. of the Trtsu family; the Purohita of Kuruśravana ; and Devāpi, the Purohita of Santanu. The Purohita was in all religious matters the alter ego of the king. In the ritual it is laid down that a king must have a Purohita, else the gods will not accept his offerings. He ensures the king's safety and victory in battle by his prayers ; he procures the fall of rain for the crops j he is the flaming fire that guards the kingdom. Divodāsa in trouble is rescued by Bharadvāja; and King Tryaruna Traidhātva Aikçvāka reproaches his Purohita, Vj?śa Jāna, when his car runs over a Brahmin boy and kills him. The close relation of king and Purohita is illustrated by the case of Klltsa Aurava, who slew his Purohita, UpagfU Sauśravasa, for disloyalty in serving Indra, to whom Kutsa was hostile. Other disputes between kings and priests who officiated for them are those of Janam- ejaya and the Kaśyapas, and of Viśvantara and the śyā- parnas ;lβ and between Asamāti and the Gaupāyanas. In some cases one Purohita served more than one king; for example, Devabhāg a Srautarṣa was the Purohita of the Xufus and the Sfñjayas at the same time, and Jala Jātū- karnya was the Purohita of the kings of Kāśi, Videha, and Kosala. There is no certain proof that the office of Purohita was hereditary in a family, though it probably was so. At any rate, it seems clear from the relations of the Purohita with King Kuruśravana, and with his son Upamaśravas, that a king would keep on the Purohita of his father. Zimmer thinks that the king might act as his own Purohita, as shown by the case of King Viśvantara, who sacrificed without the help of the śyāparṇas, and that a Purohita need not be a priest, as shown by the case of Devāpi and śantanu. But neither opinion seems to be justified. It is not said that Viśvantara sacrificed without priests, while Devāpi is not regarded as a king until the Nirukta, and there is no reason to suppose that Yāska's view expressed in that work is correct. According to Geldner, the Purohita from the beginning acted as the Brahman priest in the sacrificial ritual, being there the general superintendent of the sacrifice. In favour of this view, he cites the fact that Vasiṣtha is mentioned both as Purohita and as Brahman: at the sacrifice of Sunahśepa he served as Brahman, but he was the Purohita of Sudās; Bṛhaspati is called the Purohita and the Brahman of the gods; and the Vasisthas who are Purohitas are also the Brahmans at the sacrifice. It is thus clear that the Brahman was often the Purohita; and it was natural that this should be the case when once the Brahman’s place became, as it did in the later ritual, the most important position at the sacrifice. But the Brahman can hardly be said to have held this place in the earlier ritual; Oldenberg seems to be right in holding that the Purohita was originally the Hotr priest, the singer par excellence, when he took any part at all in the ritual of the great sacrifices with the Rtvijs. So Devāpi seems clearly to have been a Hotr; Agni is at once Purohita and Hotr; and the two divine Hotṛs ’ referred to in the Apr! litanies are also called the ‘two Purohitas.’ Later, no doubt, when the priestly activity ceased to centre in the song, the Purohita, with his skill in magic, became the Brahman, who also required magic to undo the errors of the sacrifice. There is little doubt that in the original growth of the priest¬hood the Purohita played a considerable part. In historical times he represented the real power of the kingship, and may safely be deemed to have exercised great influence in all public affairs, such as the administration of justice and the king’s conduct of business. But it is not at all probable that the Purohita represents, as Roth and Zimmer thought, the source which gave rise to caste. The priestly clcss is already in existence in the Rigveda (see Varṣa).
pṛthivī Denotes the ‘ earth’ as the ‘ broad’ one in the Rigveda and later, being often personified as a deity both alone and with Div, ‘heaven,’ as Dyāvā-Pṛthivī. Mention is often made of three earths, of which the world on which we live is the highest. The earth is girdled by the ocean, according to the Aitareya Brāhmana. The Nirukta places one of the three earths in each of the worlds into which the universe is divided (see Div). In the śatapatha Brāhmana the earth is called the ‘ firstborn of being,’ and its riches (vitta) are referred to ; hence in a late passage of the śānkhāyana Aranyaka the earth is styled vasu-matī, ‘ full of wealth.’ The word also occurs in the Rigveda, though rarely, in the form of Pṛthvī.
pṛthuśravas (‘Far-famed’) is mentioned in connexion with Vaśa in two hymns of the Rigveda. In the second passage the generosity of Pṛthuśravas Kānīta to Vaśa Aśvya is celebrated, and the śānkhāyana śrauta Sūtra refers to the episode.
pṛśniparṇī (‘Having a speckled leaf ’) is the name of a plant mentioned in a hymn of the Atharvaveda as a protection against evil beings procuring abortion, called Kanvas (pre­sumably a sign of hostility to the Kaçva family). It also appears in the śatapatha Brahmana, being identified with Hermionitis cordifolia by the St. Petersburg Dictionary, but Roth in a subsequent contribution suggests that it is the same as a plant later called laksmanā, and regarded as curing barrenness. The scholiast on the Kātyāyana śrauta Sūtra thinks that the Glycine debilis is meant.
pṛṣadhra Occurs in a Vālakhilya hymn of the Rigveda as the name of a man. He is also mentioned in the śānkhāyana śrauta Sūtra as a patron of Praskaçva, and called Prṣadhra Medhya Mātariśvan (or Mātariśva); but for once there is a discrepancy between the statement of the Sūtra and the text of the Rigveda, for the hymns there attributed to Praskaṇva as in praise of Prṣadhra have nothing in them connected with Prṣadhra, while the Anukramanī (Index) ascribes to Prṣadhra himself the authorship of one of them. On the other hand, Medhya and Mātariśvan appear as separate persons in the Rigveda along with Pṛṣadhra.
peśitṛ Is the name of one of the victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. The sense is quite uncertain. The word is rendered by the St. Petersburg Dictionary and by Weber as ‘one who cuts in pieces,’ a ‘carver,’ but Sāyana thinks that it means one who causes an enmity which has been lulled to rest to break out again.
pautimāṣyāyaṇa Descendant of Pautimāṣya', is the patronymic of a teacher, who, with Kauṇḍinyāyana, taught Raibhya in the first two Vaṃśas (lists of teachers) of the Mādhyaṃdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad
pauṣkarasādi (‘Descendant of Puṣkarasādi ’) is the name of a teacher mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, as well as the Taittirlya Prātiśākhya. A Puṣkarasādi is mentioned in the Dharma Sūtra of Apastamba and elsewhere.
prakaritṛ Is the name of one of the victims at the Purusa- medha (‘ human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. The exact sense is uncertain; the commentator Sāyana on the Taittirlya Brāh­mana explains it to mean the ‘ divider of dear ones by producing enmity,’ but the sense of ‘ sprinkler ’—that is, ‘ seasoner ’—is more likely.
pratithi devataratha Is the name of a teacher, pupil of Devataras śāvasāyana in the Vamśa Brāhmaria.
prativeśya Is mentioned in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka as the pupil of Bphad- diva. Cf. Prātiveśya.
pratīdarśa śvaikna Is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāh­mana as sacrificing with the Dākṣāyana offering, and as teaching Suplan Sārñjaya, who thence became Sahadeva Sārñjaya. In a second passage he is called Pratīdarśa Aibhāvata, and again brought into connexion with Suplan Sārñjaya. According to Eggeling, he is to be deemed a king of the śviknas ; apparently, too, he was a descendant of Ibhāvant. A Pratīdarśa is also mentioned in the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmana.
pratyenas Is found with Ugra and Sūta-grāmanī in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, clearly denoting an officer of police. The sense must be that of the humbler ‘servants’ of the king rather than ‘ magistrates,’ as Max Muller, in his translation, takes it. In the Kāthaka Samhitā and the Sāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra the word means, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, the next heir, who is responsible for the debts of a dead man.
praskaṇva Is the name of a Rsi who is credited by the Anukramam (Index) with the authorship of certain hymns of the Rigveda, where he is mentioned several times. The statement in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra that he obtained bounty from Ppsadhra Medhya Mātariśvan is apparently a blunder.
prastoka Is the name of a generous donor in the Rigveda, where Ludwig identifies him with Divodāsa Atithigva and Aśvattha or Aśvatha. According to the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, Bharadvāja obtained gifts from Prastoka Sārñjaya, ‘descendant of Srñjaya.
prākāra In the śañkhāyana śrauta Sūtra denotes a walled mound supporting a raised platform (prāsāda) for spectators.
prācya Denotes in the plural ‘dwellers in the east.’ They are mentioned in the list of peoples in the Aitareya Brāhmaria. It is very probable that the Kāśis, Kosalas, Videhas, and perhaps Magfadhas, are meant, as Oldenberg supposes. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the Easterns are said to call Agni by the name of śarva, and their mode of making tombs is there referred to with disapproval. The Lātyāyana śrauta Sūtra explains the Vipatha, ‘rough car,’ of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana as a car of the Easterns (prācya-raiha). In the Samhitopaniṣad Brāhmana reference is made to the Prācya- Pāñcālas.
prāṇa Properly denoting ‘breath,’ is a term of wide and vague significance in Vedic literature. It is frequently men­tioned from the Rigveda onwards; in the Áranyakas and Upanisads it is one of the commonest symbols of the unity of the universe. In the narrow sense Prāṇa denotes one of the vital airs, of which five are usually enumerated—Prāna, Apāna, Vyāna, Udāna, and Samāna; but often only two, Prāna and Apāna, or Prāna and Vyāna, or Prāṇa and Udāna; or three, Prāṇa, Apāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Vyāna, or Prāṇa, Udāna, and Samāna; or four, Prāṇa, Apāna, Vyāna, and Samāna, or Prāṇa, Apāna, Udāna, Vyāna. The exact sense of each of these breaths when all are mentioned cannot be determined. Prāṇa is also used in a wider sense to denote the organs of sense, or as Sāyana puts it, the ‘orifices of the head,’ etc. These are given as six in one passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana, presumably the eyes, ears, and nostrils. More frequently there are stated to be seven in the head, the mouth being then included. Sometimes again they are mentioned as nine, or as seven in the head and two below. Ten are counted in the śatapatha Brāhmaria and the Jaiminiya Brāhmana, while even eleven are mentioned in the Kāthaka Upanisad, and twelve in the Kāthaka Samhitā, where the two breasts are added. Exactly what organs are taken to make up the numbers beyond seven is not certain. The tenth is the navel (nābhi) in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā j when eleven are named the Brahma-randhra (suture in the crown) may be included; in the Atharvaveda, as interpreted by the Brhad- āraṇyaka Upaniṣad, the seventh and eighth are the organs of taste and speech respectively. But usually these make one only, and the eighth and ninth are either in the breast or below (the organs of evacuation). The word Prāṇa has sometimes merely the general sense of breath, even when opposed to Apāna. But its proper sense is beyond question ‘ breathing forth,’ ‘ expiration,’ and not as the St. Petersburg Dictionary explains it, ‘ the breath inspired,’ a version due to the desire to interpret Apāna as ‘expiration,’ a meaning suggested by the preposition apa, ‘away.’ This being clearly shown both by the native scholiasts and by other evidence, Bǒhtlingk later accepted the new view.
prātiveśya Is mentioned in the Vamśa (list of teachers) in the śānkhāyana Aranyaka as a pupil of Prativeśya.
prātībodhīputra ‘Son of a female descendant of Pratī-bodha,’ is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya and the śāñkhāyana Araṇyakas.
prāśnīputra (‘Son of Prāśnī’) Ásuri-vāsin is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Ásurāyaṇa
priyavrata somāpi Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, in which he is said to be the son of Somapa. The name Priya- vrata is also found in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where a Rauhināyana of that name is mentioned as a teacher.
plākṣi ‘Descendant of Plakṣa,’ is the name of a man mentioned in the Taittirīya Áraṇyaka and the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya. In the same Prātiśākhya3 a Plākçāyana, or ‘ descendant of Plākṣa,’ is mentioned.
plāyogi ‘Descendant of Playoga,’ is the patronymic of Asanga in the Rigveda. According to the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, Asañga was a woman, but became a man. This version, repeated by Sāyaṇa in his commentary on the Rigveda, is a mere blunder based on the fact that an additional verse, tacked on to the hymn, contains the expression śaśvatl mrī, which has been taken to mean ‘his wife śaśvatī,’ instead of merely * every woman.’
pharvara A word occurring only once in the Rigveda, cannot be interpreted with certainty. It may mean a ‘ field in bloom.’ Sāyaṇa explains it as ‘filler,’ and Grassmann as perhaps a ‘sower.’
balāsa Is the name of a disease mentioned several times in the Atharvaveda and occasionally later. Mahīdhara and Sāyana interpret the term as ‘consumption.’ Zimmer supports this view on the ground that it is mentioned as a kind of Yakçma, makes the bones and joints fall apart (asthi-srainsa, paruh-srainsa), and is caused by love, aversion, and the heart, characteristics which agree with the statements of the later Hindu medicine. It is in keeping with a demon of the character of consumption that Balāsa should appear as an accompaniment of Takman. Grohmann, however, thought that a ‘sore* or ‘swelling’ (in the case of fever caused by dropsy) was meant. Bloomfield considers that the question is still open. Ludwig renders the word by ‘dropsy. As remedies against the disease the salve (Áñjasa) from Trikakud and the Jañgida plant are mentioned.
balhika prātipīya Is the name of a Kuru king in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where he appears as having been opposed to the restoration of Duçtarītu Paumsāyana to his hereditary sovereignty over the Srñjayas, but as having failed to prevent the restoration being carried out by Revottaras Pā^ava Cākra Sthapati. The epithet Prātipīya is curious: if it connects him with Pratīpa (whose son he is in the Epic), the form is remarkable, Zimmer indeed tacitly altering it to Prātīpīya. In the Epic and the Purānas he is in the form of Vāhlīka made a brother of Devāpi and śantanu, and a son of Pratīpa. To base chronological conclusions on this would be utterly misleading, for the facts are that Devāpi was son of çṣ^iṣena and a priest, while śantanu was a Kura prince of unknown parentage, but not probably a son of Pratīpa, who seems to be a late figure in the Vedic age, later than Parikçit, being his great-grandson in the Epic. Very possibly Balhika was a descendant of Pratīpa. Why he bore the name Balhika must remain uncertain, for there is no evidence of any sort regarding it.
basta rāmakāyana Is the name of a teacher in the MaitrāyanI Samhitā. The patronymic is variously read Samakāyana.
bādhva Is the name of a teacher in the Aitareya Aranyaka. The reading in the śānkhāyana Aranyaka is Vātsya.
bāleya Is a patronymic (‘ descendant of Bali ’) of Gandhar- vāyana in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
bāṣkiha Descendant of Baṣkiha,’ is the patronymic of śunaskarṇa in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. In the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra he is a descendant of śibi.
bilva Is the name of the wood-apple tree (Aigle marmelos). It is mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas and in the Atharvaveda, where a reference to its valuable fruit may be intended. According to the Taittirīya Samhitā, the sacrificial post was made of Bilva wood in some cases. The śāñkhāyana Aran­yaka contains a hymn in praise of the virtues of an amulet of Bilva (irā-mani bailva).
bṛbu Is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda, where he is described as a most generous giver (sahasra-dātama), and as at the head of the Paijis. According to the śānkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, Bharadvāja received gifts from Bṛbu Takṣan and Prastoka Sārfijaya, a fact alluded to in the Mānava Dharma śāstra, where taksan is treated as a descriptive attribute,‘ a carpenter.’ Apparently Bṛbu was a Paṇi, though the words of the Rigveda might be taken to mean that he was one who had overthrown them entirely. If so, Paṇi must here certainly mean a merchant in a good sense, Brbu being then a merchant prince. According to Weber, the name suggests connexion with Babylon, but this conjecture must be regarded as quite improbable. Hillebrandt sensibly expresses no opinion as to Bṛbu, while Brunnhofer’s attempt to recognize a people named Táσtcot, and to connect them with the Vedic word taksan, is valueless, especially considering the fact that Taksan is not found as an epithet of Brbu in the Rigveda.
bṛhaddiva Appears in a hymn of the Rigveda as its author, calling himself an Atharvan. He is mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, and is named in the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka as a pupil of Sumnayu.
bṛhaspatisava Is the name of a sacrifice by which, according to the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, the priest who desired to become a Purohita obtained that office. According to the Aśvalāyana śrauta Sūtra, it was the sacrifice to be performed by a priest after the Vājapeya, while the king performed the Rājasūya. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, the Brhaspati- sava is identified with the Vājapeya; but such identity is clearly not primitive.
baijavāpāyana ‘Descendant of Bayavāpa,’ is the name of a teacher in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Mādhyaipdina recension of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. The name is also spelt Vaijavāpāyana.
bainda Is the name of one of the victims at the Purusamedha (* human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda. According to the commentator Mahīdhara, the word denotes a Niṣāda, but according to Sāyaṇa a catcher of fish. See Mpgfayu.
baudhāyana ‘ Descendant of Budlia or Bodha,’ is the name of a teacher who is mentioned in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra, and under whose name are current a śrauta Sūtra described and in part edited by Caland, and a Dharma Sūtra which has been edited and translated, while the Gṛhya Sūtra is still unedited.
brāmaṇa Descendant of a Brahman' (i.e., of a priest), is found only a few times in the Rigveda, and mostly in its latest parts. In the Atharvaveda and later it is a very common word denoting ‘priest,’ and it appears in the quadruple division of the castes in the Purusa-sūkta (‘hymn of man’) of the Rigveda. It seems certain that in the Rigveda this Brāhmaṇa, or Brahmin, is already a separate caste, differing from the warrior and agricultural castes. The texts regularly claim for them a superiority to the Kṣatriya caste, and the Brahmin is able by his spells or manipulation of the rite to embroil the people and the warriors or the different sections of the warriors. If it is necessary to. recognize, as is sometimes done, that the Brahmin does pay homage to the king at the Rājasūya, nevertheless the unusual fact is carefully explained away so as to leave the priority of the Brahmin unaffected. But it is expressly recognized that the union of the Ksatriya and the Brāhmaṇa is essential for complete prosperity. It is admitted that the king or the nobles might at times oppress the Brahmins, but it is indicated that ruin is then certain swiftly to follow. The Brahmins are gods on earth, like the gods in heaven, but this claim is hardly found in the Rigveda. In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Brahmin is said to be the ‘ recipient of gifts * (ādāyt) and the * drinker of the offering ’ (āpāyT). The other two epithets applied, āvasāyī and yathā- kāma-prayāpya, are more obscure; the former denotes either ‘ dwelling everywhere ’ or ‘ seeking food ’; the latter is usually taken as * moving at pleasure,’ but it must rather allude to the power of the king to assign a place of residence to the Brahmin. In the śatapatha Brāhmana the prerogatives of the Brah¬min are summed up as Arcā, ‘honour’; Dāna, ‘gifts’; Aj'yeyatā,‘ freedom from oppression ’; and Avadhyatā, ‘ freedom from being killed.’ On the other hand, his duties are summed up as Brāhmanya, ‘ purity of descent’; Pratirūpa-caryā, ‘devotion of the duties of his caste’; and Loka-pakti, ‘the perfecting of people ’ (by teaching). ī. Respect paid to Brahmins. The texts are full of references to the civilities to be paid to the Brahmin. He is styled bhagavant, and is provided with good food and entertain¬ment wherever he goes. Indeed, his sanctity exempts him from any close inquiry into his real claim to Brahminhood according to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana. Gifts to Brahmins. The Dānastuti (‘Praise of gifts’) is a recognized feature of the Rigveda, and the greed of the poets for Dakṣiṇās, or sacrificial fees, is notorious. Vedic texts themselves recognize that the literature thence resulting (Nārā- śamsī) was often false to please the donors. It was, however, a rule that Brahmins should not accept what had been refused by others; this indicates a keen sense of the danger of cheapening their wares. So exclusively theirs was the right to receive gifts that the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa has to explain how Taranta and Purumīlha became able to accept gifts by composing a Rigvedic hymn. The exaggerations in the celebration of the gifts bestowed on the priests has the curious result of giving us a series of numerals of some interest (Daśan). In some passages certain gifts those of a horse or sheep are forbidden, but this rule was not, it is clear, generally observed. Immunities of Brahmins. The Brahmin claimed to be exempt from the ordinary exercise of the royal power. When a king gives all his land and what is on it to the priests, the gift does not cover the property of the Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The king censures all, but not the Brahmin, nor can he safely oppress any Brahmin other than an ignorant priest. An arbitrator (or a witness) must decide (or speak) for a Brahmin against a non-Brahmin in a legal dispute. The Brahmin’s proper food is the Soma, not Surā or Parisrut, and he is forbidden to eat certain forms of flesh. On the other hand, he alone is allowed to eat the remains of the sacrifice, for no one else is sufficiently holy to consume food which the gods have eaten. Moreover, though he cannot be a physician, he helps the physician by being beside him while he exercises his art. His wife and his cow are both sacred. 4.Legal Position of. Brahmins.—The Taittirīya Samhitā lays down a penalty of a hundred (the unit meant is unknown) for an insult to a Brahmin, and of a thousand for a blow ; but if his blood is drawn, the penalty is a spiritual one. The only real murder is the slaying of a Brahmin according to the śatapatha Brāhmana. The crime of slaying a Brahmin ranks above the sin of killing any other man, but below that of killing an embryo (bhrūna) in the Yajurveda ; the crime of slaying an embryo whose sex is uncertain is on a level with that of slaying a Brahmin. The murder of a Brahmin can be expiated only by the horse sacrifice, or by a lesser rite in the late Taittirīya Araṇyaka.The ritual slaying of a Brahmin is allowed in the later ceremonial, and hinted at in the curious legend of śunahśepa ; and a Purohita might be punished with death for treachery to his master. 5.Purity of Birth. The importance of pure descent is seeη in the stress laid on being a descendant of a Rṣi (ārseya). But, on the other hand, there are clear traces of another doctrine, which requires learning, and not physical descent, as the true criterion of Rsihood. In agreement with this is the fact that Satyakāma Jābāla was received as a pupil, though his parentage was unknown, his mother being a slave girl who had been connected with several men, and that in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the ceremony on acceptance as a pupil required merely the name of the pupil. So Kavasa is taunted in the Rigveda Brāhmaṇas as being the son of a female slave (Dāsī), and Vatsa cleared himself of a similar imputation by a fire ordeal. Moreover, a very simple rite was adequate to remove doubts as to origin. In these circumstances it is doubtful whether much value attaches to the Pravara lists in which the ancestors of the priest were invoked at the beginning of the sacrifice by the Hotṛ and the Adhvaryu priests.66 Still, in many parts of the ritual the knowledge of two or more genera¬tions was needed, and in one ceremony ten ancestors who have drunk the Soma are required, but a literal performance of the rite is excused. Moreover, there are clear traces of ritual variations in schools, like those of the Vasisthas and the Viśvāmitras. 6. The Conduct of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required to maintain a fair standard of excellence. He was to be kind to all and gentle, offering sacrifice and receiving gifts. Especial stress was laid on purity of speech ; thus Viśvan- tara’s excuse for excluding the Syaparnas from his retinue was their impure (apūtā) speech. Theirs was the craving for knowledge and the life of begging. False Brahmins are those who do not fulfil their duties (cf, Brahmabandhu). But the penances for breach of duty are, in the Sūtras, of a very light and unimportant character. 7. Brahminical Studies. The aim of the priest is to obtain pre-eminence in sacred knowledge (brahma-varcasam), as is stated in numerous passages of Vedic literature. Such distinction is not indeed confined to the Brahmin: the king has it also, but it is not really in a special manner appropriate to the Kṣatriya. Many ritual acts are specified as leading to Brahmavarcasa, but more stress is laid on the study of the sacred texts : the importance of such study is repeatedly insisted upon. The technical name for study is Svādhyāya : the śatapatha Brāhmana is eloquent upon its advantages, and it is asserted that the joy of the learned śrotriya, or ‘student,’ is equal to the highest joy possible. Nāka Maudgfalya held that study and the teaching of others were the true penance (tapas).7δ The object was the ‘ threefold knowledge’ (trayī vidyā), that of the Rc, Yajus, and Sāman, a student of all three Vedas being called tri-śukriya or tn-sukra, ‘thrice pure.’ Other objects of study are enumerated in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the Taittirīya Aranyaka, the Chāndogya Upanisad, etc. (See Itihāsa, Purāna; Gāthā, Nārāśamsī; Brahmodya; Anuśās- ana, Anuvyākhyāna, Anvākhyāna, Kalpa, Brāhmaria; Vidyā, Ksatravidyā, Devajanavidyā, Nakçatravidyā, Bhūta- vidyā, Sarpavidyā; Atharvāñgirasah, Daiva, Nidhi, Pitrya, Rāśi; Sūtra, etc.) Directions as to the exact place and time of study are given in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka and in the Sūtras. If study is carried on in the village, it is to be done silently (manasā); if outside, aloud (vācā). Learning is expected even from persons not normally competent as teachers, such as the Carakas, who are recognized in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as possible sources of information. Here, too, may be mentioned the cases of Brahmins learning from princes, though their absolute value is doubtful, for the priests would naturally represent their patrons as interested in their sacred science: it is thus not necessary to see in these notices any real and independent study on the part of the Kṣatriyas. Yājñavalkya learnt from Janaka, Uddālaka Aruni and two other Brahmins from Pravāhaṇa Jaivali, Drptabālāki Gārgya from Ajātaśatru, and five Brahmins under the lead of Aruṇa from Aśvapati Kaikeya. A few notices show the real educators of thought: wandering scholars went through the country and engaged in disputes and discussions in which a prize was staked by the disputants. Moreover, kings like Janaka offered rewards to the most learned of the Brahmins; Ajātaśatru was jealous of his renown, and imitated his generosity. Again, learned women are several times mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. A special form of disputation was the Brahmodya, for which there was a regular place at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and at the Daśarātra (‘ ten-day festival,). The reward of learning was the gaining of the title of Kavi or Vipra, ‘ sage.’ 8. The Functions of the Brahmin. The Brahmin was required not merely to practise individual culture, but also to give others the advantage of his skill, either as a teacher or as a sacrificial priest, or as a Purohita. As a teacher the Brahmin has, of course, the special duty of instructing his own son in both study and sacrificial ritual. The texts give examples of this, such as Áruṇi and Svetaketu, or mythically Varuṇa and Bhṛgu. This fact also appears from some of the names in the Vamśa Brāhmana" of the Sāmaveda and the Vamśa (list of teachers) of the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka. On the other hand, these Vamśas and the Vamśas of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa show that a father often preferred to let his son study under a famous teacher. The relation of pupil and teacher is described under Brahmacarya. A teacher might take several pupils, and he was bound to teach them with all his heart and soul. He was bound to reveal everything to his pupil, at any rate to one who was staying with him for a year (saηivatsara-vāsin), an expression which shows, as was natural, that a pupil might easily change teachers. But, nevertheless, certain cases of learning kept secret and only revealed to special persons are enumerated. The exact times and modes of teaching are elaborately laid down in the Sūtras, but not in the earlier texts. As priest the Brahmin operated in all the greater sacrifices; the simple domestic {grhya) rites could normally be performed without his help, but not the more important rites {śrauta). The number varied : the ritual literature requires sixteen priests to be employed at the greatest sacrifices (see Rtvij), but other rites could be accomplished with four, five, six, seven, or ten priests. Again, the Kauçītakins had a seventeenth priest beside the usual sixteen, the Sadasya, so called because he watched the performance from the Sadas, seat.’ In one rite, the Sattra (‘sacrificial session') of the serpents, the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, adds three more to the sixteen, a second Unnetṛ, an Abhigara, and an Apagara. The later ritual places the Brahman at the head of all the priests, but this is probably not the early view (see Brahman). The sacrifice ensured, if properly performed, primarily the advantages of the sacrificer (yajamāna), but the priest shared in the profit, besides securing the Daksiṇās. Disputes between sacrificers and the priests were not rare, as in the case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas, or Janamejaya and the Asitamrgras and the Aiçāvīras are referred to as undesirable priests. Moreover, Viśvāmitra once held the post of Purohita to Sudās, but gave place to Vasiṣtha. The position of Purohita differed considerably from that of the ordinary priest, for the Purohita not merely might officiate at the sacrifice, but was the officiator in all the private sacrifices of his king. Hence he could, and undoubtedly sometimes did, obtain great influence over his master in matters of secular importance; and the power of the priesthood in political as opposed to domestic and religious matters, no doubt rested on the Purohita. There is no recognition in Vedic literature of the rule later prevailing by which, after spending part of his life as a Brahma- cārin, and part as a householder, the Brahmin became an ascetic (later divided into the two stages of Vānaprastha, ‘forest-dweller,’ and Samnyāsin, ‘mystic ’). Yājñavalkya's case shows that study of the Absolute might empty life of all its content for the sage, and drive him to abandon wife and family. In Buddhist times the same phenomenon is seen applying to other than Brahmins. The Buddhist texts are here confirmed in some degree by the Greek authorities. The practice bears a certain resemblance to the habit of kings, in the Epic tradition,of retiring to the forest when active life is over. From the Greek authorities it also appears what is certainly the case in the Buddhist literature that Brahmins practised the most diverse occupations. It is difficult to say how far this was true for the Vedic period. The analogy of the Druids in some respects very close suggests that the Brahmins may have been mainly confined to their professional tasks, including all the learned professions such as astronomy and so forth. This is not contradicted by any Vedic evidence ; for instance, the poet of a hymn of the Rigveda says he is a poet, his father a physician (Bhiṣaj), and his mother a grinder of corn (Upala-prakṣiṇī). This would seem to show that a Brahmin could be a doctor, while his wife would perform the ordinary household duties. So a Purohita could perhaps take the field to assist the king by prayer, as Viśvāmitra, and later on Vasiṣtha do, but this does not show that priests normally fought. Nor do they seem normally to have been agriculturists or merchants. On the other hand, they kept cattle: a Brahmacarin’s duty was to watch his master’s cattle.129 It is therefore needless to suppose that they could not, and did not, on occasion turn to agricultural or mercan¬tile pursuits, as they certainly did later. But it must be remembered that in all probability there was more purity of blood, and less pressure of life, among the Brahmins of the Vedic age than later in Buddhist times, when the Vedic sacrificial apparatus was falling into grave disrepute. It is clear that the Brahmins, whatever their defects, represented the intellectual side of Vedic life, and that the Kṣatriyas, if they played a part in that life, did so only in a secondary degree, and to a minor extent. It is natural to suppose that the Brahmins also composed ballads, the precursors of the epic; for though none such have survived, a few stanzas of this character, celebrating the generosity of patrons, have been preserved by being embedded in priestly compositions. A legend in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa shows clearly that the Brahmins regarded civilization as being spread by them only: Kosala and Videha, no doubt settled by Aryan tribes, are only rendered civilized and habitable by the influence of pious Brahmins. We need not doubt that the non-Brahminical tribes (see Vrātya) had attained intellectual as well as material civilization, but it is reasonable to assume that their civilization was inferior to that of the Brahmins, for the history of Hinduism is the conquest by the Brahmins not by arms, but by mind of the tribes Aryan and non-Aryan originally beyond the pale.
bhaṅgāśvina Is the name of the father of Rtuparna in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra. In the Mahābhārata he is called Bhāñgāsuri. In the Apastamba śrauta Sūtra mention is made of Rtuparṇa-KayovadhI as the Bhañgyaśvinau.
bhayamāna Is, according to Sāyaṇa, the name of a man in one hymn of the Rigveda, which is ascribed by the Anukra- maṇī (Index) to his authorship. The interpretation is, how­ever, uncertain.
bharata Is the name of a people of great importance in the Rigveda and the later literature. In the Rigveda they appear prominently in the third and seventh Maṇdalas in connexion with Sudās and the Tftsus, while in the sixth Maṇdala they are associated with Divodāsa. In one passage the Bharatas are, like the Tṛtsus, enemies of the Pūrus: there can be little doubt that Ludwig’s view of the identity of the Bharatas and and Tṛtsus is practically correct. More precisely Oldenberg considers that the Tṛtsus are the Vasiṣhas, the family singers of the Bharatas; while Geldner recognizes, with perhaps more probability, in the Tṛtsus the royal family of the Bharatas. That the Tṛtsus and Bharatas were enemies, as Zimmer holds, is most improbable even on geographical grounds, for the Tṛtsus in Zimmer’s view occupied the country to the east of the Paruçṇī (Ravi), and the Bharatas must therefore be regarded as coming against the Tṛtsus from the west, whereas the Rigveda recognizes two Bharata chiefs on the Sarasvatī, Ápayā, and Dpçadvatī that is, in the holy land of India, the Madhyadeśa. Hillebrandt sees in the connexion of the Tṛtsus and the Bharatas a fusion of two tribes; but this is not supported by any evidence beyond the fact that in his opinion some such theory is needed to explain Divodāsa's appearing in connexion with the Bharadvāja family, while Sudās, his son, or perhaps grandson {cf. Pijavana), is connected with the Vasiṣthas and the Viśvāmitras. In the later literature the Bharatas appear as especially famous. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as a king, sacrificer of the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and śatānīka Sātrājita, as another Bharata who offered that sacrifice. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as receiving the kingly coronation from Dlrghatamas Māmateya, and śatānīka as being consecrated by Somaśuçman Vājaratnāyana, a priest whose name is of quite late origin. The geographical position of the Bharata people is clearly shown by the fact that the Bharata kings win victories over the Kāśis, and make offerings on the Yamunā (Jumna) and Gañgfā (Ganges). Moreover, in the formula of the king’s proclamation for the people, the variants recorded include Kuravah, Pañcālāh, Kuru-Pañcālāh,, and Bharatāh ; and the Mahābhārata consistently recognizes the royal family of the Kurus as a Bharata family. It is therefore extremely probable that Oldenberg is right in holding that the Bharatas in the times of the Brāhmaṇas were merging in the Kuru-Pañcāla people. The ritual practices of the Bharatas are repeatedly mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Already in the Rigveda there is mention made of Agni Bhārata (‘of the Bharatas’). In the Apr! hymns occurs a goddess Bhāratī, the personified divine protective power of the Bharatas : her association in the hymns with Sarasvatī reflects the connexion 'of the Bharatas with the Sarasvatī in the Rigveda. Again, in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Agni is referred to as brāhmana Bhārata, ‘priest of the Bharatas,’ and is invited to dispose of the offering Manusvat Bharatavat, ‘like Manu,’ ‘like Bharata.’ In one or two passages Sudās or Divodāsa and, on the other hand, Purukutsa or Trasadasyu appear in a friendly relation. Possibly this points, as Oldenberg suggests, to the union of Bharatas and Pūrus with the Kurus. A Bharata is referred to in the fifth Mandala of the Rigveda who he was is uncertain.
bharadvāja Is the name of the reputed author of the sixth Mandala of the Rigveda. The attribution is so far correct that Bharadvāja and the Bharadvājas are repeatedly mentioned as singers in that Mandala. Judging by the tone of the references to Bharadvāja, he can hardly be deemed to have been a con­temporary of any of the hymns. According to the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, he was the Purohita of Divodāsa. This interpretation is to be preferred to that of Roth, who suggests that he and Divodāsa were identical. His connexion with the house of Divodāsa also appears from the statement of the Kāthaka Samhitā that Bharadvāja gave Pratardana the kingdom. It is unnecessary to suppose that the same Bharadvāja was meant in both cases, and that Pratardana was a son of Divodāsa : the later Saṃhitās refer to Bharadvāja, like the other great sages, irrespective of chronology. The Bharadvājas in their poems mention Brbu, Brsaya, and the Pārāvatas. Hillebrandt has pointed out that they are also connected with the Srfljayas. In particular, the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions that Bharadvāja gained largesse from Prastoka Sārñjaya and Bṛbu. But it is very doubtful if it is correct to place all these people and Divodāsa in Arachosia and Drangiana. Bharadvāja as an author and a seer is frequently referred to in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmanas.
bharant ‘Bearing,’ in the plural denotes in one passage of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, according to Bδhtlingk, following Sāyana, ‘the warrior caste,’ but the sense is not certain. Weber was inclined to see a reference to the Bharatas, though the form of the word is that of the present participle.
bhāgadugha ‘Dealer out of portions,’ distributor,’ is the name of one of the king’s ‘jewels’ (Ratnin) in the Yajurveda Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas. What his functions exactly were is uncertain. Sāyana in some places renders the word by ‘tax-collector but in others as ‘carver/ thus making this functionary either a revenue officer or a mere court official.
bhāradvāja ‘Descendant of Bharadvāja is the patronymic of many teachers. In the Vaṃśas (lists of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad, Bhāradvājas are mentioned as pupils of Bhāradvāj'a, Pārāśarya, Balākākauśika, Aitareya, Asurāyaṇa, and Ba\javāpāyana.β A Bhāradvāja occurs in the Rigveda, and śūça Vālmeya is mentioned as a Bhāradvāja in the Vamśa Brāhmana.
bhāvya Is the name of a patron, as it seems, in the Rigveda. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra the form given is Bhāva­yavya, being a patronymic of Svanaya, who is the patron of Kaksīvant. This combination is borne out by the Rigveda, where Kaksīvant and Svanaya are mentioned in the same verse, while Svanaya must be meant in the verse of the same hymn, where Bhāvya is mentioned as ‘ living on the Sindhu ’ (Indus). Roth’s view that Bhāvya here is perhaps a gerundive meaning to be ‘ reverenced ’ is not probable. Ludwig® thinks Svanaya was connected with the Nahusas.
bhujyu lāhyāyani (‘Descendant of Lahyāyana ’) is the name of a teacher, a contemporary of Yājflavalkya, in the Bṛhad- āraṇyaka Upaniṣad (iii. 3, 1).
bhṛgu Is a sage of almost entirely mythical character in the Rigveda and later. He counts as a son of Varuṇa, bearing the patronymic Vāruni. In the plural the Bhṛgus are repeatedly alluded to as devoted to the fire cult. They are clearly no more than a group of ancient priests and ancestors with an eponymous Bhṛgu in the Rigveda, except in three passages, where they are evidently regarded as an historic family. It is not clear, however, whether they were priests or warriors: in the battle of the ten kings the Bhṛgus appear with the Druhyus, perhaps as their priests, but this is not certain. In the later literature the Bhṛgus are a real family, with sub-divisions like the Aitaśāyana, according to the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa. The Bhṛgus are mentioned as priests in connexion with various rites, such as the Agnisthāpana and the Daśa- peyakratu. In many passages they are conjoined with the Añgirases :u the close association of the two families is shown by the fact that Cyavana is called either a Bhārgava or an Añgirasa in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. In the Atharvaveda the name of Bhṛgu is selected to exemplify the dangers incurred by the oppressors of Brahmans: the Srfijaya Vaitahavyas perish in consequence of an attack on Bhṛgu. In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa u also Bhṛgu has this representative character. Cf. Bhrgravāṇa and Bhārgava.
magadha Is the name of a people who appear throughout Vedic literature as of little repute. Though the name is not actually found in the Rigveda, it occurs in the Atharvaveda, where fever is wished away to the Gandhāris and Mūjavants, northern peoples, and to the Añgfas and Magadhas, peoples of the east. Again, in the list of victims at the Purusamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda,3 the Māgadha, or man of Magadha, is included as dedicated to ati-krusta, ‘ loud noise ’ (?), while in the Vrātya hymn of the Atharvaveda[1] the Māgadha is said to be connected with the Vrātya as his Mitra, his Mantra, his laughter, and his thunder in the four quarters. In the śrauta Sūtras6 the equipment characteristic of the Vrātya is said to be given, when the latter is admitted into the Aryan Brahminical community, to a bad Brahmin living in Magadha ·(brahma-bandhu Māgadha-deśīya), but this point does not occur in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. On the other hand, respectable Brahmins sometimes lived there, for the Kausītaki Araṇyaka mentions Madhyama, Prātībodhī-putra, as Magadha-vāsin, ‘living in Magadha.’ Oldenberg, however, seems clearly right in regarding this as unusual. The Magadhas are evidently a people in the Baudhāyana and other Sūtras, possibly also in the Aitareya Araṇyaka. It is therefore most improbable that Zimmer can be right in thinking that in the Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda the λlāgadha is not a man of Magadha, but a member of the mixed caste produced by a Vaiśya marrying a Kṣatriya woman. But the theory of mixed castes, in any case open to some doubt, cannot be accepted when used to explain such obviously tribal names as Māgadha. The fact that the Māgadha is often in later times a minstrel is easily accounted for by the assumption that the country was the home of minstrelsy, and that wandering bards from Magadha were apt to visit the more western lands. This class the later texts recognize as a caste, inventing an origin by intermarriage of the old-established castes. The dislike of the Magadhas, which may be Rigvedic, since the Kīkatas were perhaps the prototype of the Magadhas, was in all probability due, as Oldenberg13 thinks, to the fact that the Magadhas were not really Brahminized. This is entirely in accord with the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa14 that neither Kosala nor Videha were fully Brahminized at an early date, much less Magadha. Weber15 suggests two other grounds that may have influeṇced the position—the persistence of aboriginal blood and the growth of Buddhism. The latter consideration is hardly applicable to the Yajurveda or the Atharvaveda; but the imperfect Brahminization of the land, if substituted for it in accordance with Oldenberg’s suggestion, would have some force. The former motive, despite Olden- berg’s doubt, seems fully justified. Pargiter18 has gone so far as to suggest that in Magadha the Aryans met and mingled with a body of invaders from the east by sea. Though there is no evidence for this view in the Vedic texts, it is reason¬able to suppose that the farther east the Aryans penetrated, the less did they impress themselves upon the aborigines. Modern ethnology confirms this a priori supposition in so far as it shows Aryan types growing less and less marked as the eastern part of India is reached, although such evidence is not decisive in view of the great intermixture of peoples in India.
maṅgala Is the name of a teacher in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra
mañjiṣṭhā Madder,’ is mentioned in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Araṇyakas.
maṇi Is the name in the Rigveda and later of a ‘jewel’ used as an amulet against all kinds of evil. That either ‘pearl’ or ‘diamond’ is denoted is not clear. It is evident that the Maṇi could be strung on a thread (sūtra), which is referred to in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa and elsewhere; the Maṇi was certainly also worn round the neck, for in the Rigveda occurs the epithet mani-grīva, ‘ having a jewel on the neck.’ An amulet of Bilva is celebrated in the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka, and many varieties of amulet are there enumerated. The ‘jeweller’ (mani-kāra) is mentioned in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda.
madhyadeśa The ‘Middle Country,’ is, according to the Mānava Dharma śāstra, the land between the Himālaya in the north, the Vindhya in the south, Vinaáana in the west, and Prayāga (now Allahabad) in the east that is, between the place where the Sarasvatī disappears in the desert, and the point of the confluence of the Yamunā (Jumna) and the Gañgā (Ganges). The same authority defines Brahmarsi-deśa as denoting the land of Kuruksetra, the Matsyas, Pañcālas, and śūrasenakas, and Brahmāvarta as meaning the particularly holy land between the Sarasvatī and the Drṣadvatī. The Baudhāyana Dharma Sūtra4 defines Áryāvarta as the land east of Vinaśana; west of the Kālaka-vana, ‘ Black Forest,’ or rather Kanakhala, near Hardvār; south of the Himālaya; and north of the Pāriyātra or the Pāripātra Mountains; adding that, in the opinion of others, it was confined to the country between the Yamunā and the Gañgā, while the Bhāllavins took it as the country between the boundary-river (or perhaps the Saras-vatī) and the region where the sun rises. The Mānava Dharma śāstra, in accord with the Vasiṣṭha Dharma Sūtra, defines Áryāvarta as the region between the Vindhya and the Himālaya, the two ranges which seem to be the boundaries of the Aryan world in the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad also. The term Madhyadeśa is not Vedic, but it is represented in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa by the expression madhyamā pratisthā diś, ‘ the middle fixed region,’ the inhabitants of which are stated to be the Kurus, the Pañcālas, the Vaśas, and the Uśīnaras. The latter two peoples practically disappear later on, the Madhyadeśa being the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, the land where the Brāhmaṇas and the later Samhitās were produced, bounded on the east by the Kosala-Videhas, and on the west by the desert. The western tribes are mentioned with disapproval both in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, while the tradition of the Brahminization of the Kosalas and the Videhas from the Kuru-Pañcāla country is preserved in the former Brāhmaṇa.
madhyamavah Occurs in one passage of the Rigveda as an epithet of the chariot. The exact interpretation is doubtful. Roth assigns to it the expression the sense of ‘driving with a single horse between the shafts.’ According to Sāyana's explanation, it means ‘driving with middling speed.’ It might mean ‘driving in the middle’ that is, ‘only half-way.’
manasa Occurring in one passage of the Rigveda, seems clearly to be the name of a Rṣi, in accordance with Sāyaṇa's interpretation.
mantha In the Rigveda and later denotes a drink in which solid ingredients are mixed with a fluid by stirring, usually parched barley-meal (Saktu) with milk. All sorts of mixed beverages of this type are mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka.
manthāvala Is the name of an animal in the Aitareya Brāh­mana, a sort of snake according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary. Sāyaṇa understands it to be a kind of animal which hangs head downwards from the branches of trees, meaning, presumably, the flying fox. Cf. Mānthāla, Mān- thīlava.
mandīra Is perhaps the name of a man whose cattle, according to a Mantra in the Kātyāyana śrauta Sūtra, did not drink the water of the Gangfā (Ganges). See Mañgīra
mamatā Is, according to Sāyaṇa, in one passage of the Rigveda, the wife of Ucathya and the mother of Dīrg*hatamas. But the word may be merely an abstract noun meaning ‘ self­interest,’ a sense which it often has in the later language. Oldenberg finds a mention of Mamata (masc.) in a verse of the Rigveda as the name of a Bharadvāja.
marka Is found in one passage of the Rigveda, where Roth sees in the expression sñro markah the ‘eclipse of the sun.’ Sāyaṇa thinks the meaning is ‘purifying.’
mahāvṛṣa Is the name of a tribe mentioned along with the ! Mμjavants in the Atharvaveda as a locality to which fever is to be relegated. It is reasonable to suppose that they were northerners, though Bloomfield suggests that the name may be chosen more for its sound and sense (as ‘of mighty strength’ to resist the disease) than for its geographical position. In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad3 the place Raikvaparṇa is said to be in the Mahāvrṣa country. The king of the Mahāvrṣas in the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa is said to be Hrtsvāśaya. The Mahāvṛṣas are also known from a Mantra in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
māṇḍavya Descendant of Maṇdu,’ is mentioned as a teacher in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka, and in the Sūtras. He is also mentioned as a pupil of Kautsa in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad.
mātariávan Is mentioned in a Vālakhilya hymn of the Rigveda as a sacrificer along with Medhya and Ppçadhra. He seems to be mentioned also in one other passage, possibly in two. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra a patron, Pfçadhra Medhya Mātariávan or Mātariśva is created by a misunder­standing of the Rigvedic text.
manthālava Are the names in the Yajurveda Samhitās of a victim at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’). What it was is unknown : the commentator Mahīdhara thinks it was a kind of mouse; Sāyana explains it as a ‘water-cock’ Possiby, if Sāyaṇa’s version of the parallel word Manthāvala is to be trusted, the ‘flying fox’ may be meant.
māsa Denotes a 'month' a period of time repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and lateṛ The Characteristic days (or rather nights) of the month were those of new moon, Amā-vasya, 'home-staying (night),' and 'of the full moon,' Paurṇa-māsi. Two hymns of the Atharvveda celebrate these days respectively. A personification of the phases of the moon is seen in the four names Sinīvālī the day before new moon; Kuhū also called Guṅgū, the new moon day;Anumati, the day before full moon; and Rākā, the day of new mooṇ The importance of the new and full moon days respectively. One special day in the month, the Ekāṣṭakā, or eighth day after full moon, was importanṭ In the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa there stated to be in the year twelve such, mentioned between the twelve days of full moon and twelve days of new moon. But one Ekāṣṭakā is referred to in the Yajurveda Saṃhitas and elsewhere as of quite special importance. This was, in the accordant opinion of most comentators, the eighth day after the full moon of Magha. It marked the end of the year, or the begining of the new year. Though the Kauṣītaki Brāmaṇa places places the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, the latter date probably means the new moon preceding full moon in Māgha, not the new moon following full moon; but it is perhaps possible to account adequately for the importance of the Ekāstakā as being the first Aṣṭakā after the beginning of the new year. It is not certain exactly how the month was reckoned, whether from the day after new moon to new moon—the system known as amānta, or from the day after full moon to full moon—the pūr- nimānta system, which later, at any rate, was followed in North India, while the other system prevailed in the south. Jacobi argues that the year began in the full moon of Phālguna, and that only by the full moon’s conjunction with the Nakṣatra could the month be known. Oldenberg12 points to the fact that the new moon is far more distinctively an epoch than the full moon; that the Greek, Roman, and Jewish years began with the new moon; and that the Vedic evidence is the division of the month into the former (j>ūrva) and latter (apara) halves, the first being the bright (śukla), the second the dark (krsna) period. Thibaut considers that to assume the existence of the pīirnimānta system for the Veda is unnecessary, though possible. Weber assumes that it occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa as held by the scholiasts. But it would probably be a mistake to press that passage, or to assume that the amānta system was rigidly accepted in the Veda: it seems at least as probable that the month was vaguely regarded as beginning with the new moon day, so that new moon preceded full moon, which was in the middle, not the end or. the beginning of the month. That a month regularly had 30 days is established by the conclusive evidence of numerous passages in which the year is given 12 months and 360 days. This month is known from the earliest records, being both referred to directly and alluded to. It is the regular month of the Brāhmaṇas, and must be regarded as the month which the Vedic Indian recognized. No other month is mentioned as such in• the Brāhmaṇa literature ; it is only in the Sūtras that months of different length occur. The Sāmaveda Sūtras10 refer to (i) years with 324 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each; (2) years with 351 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each, plus another month of 27 days; (3) years with 354 days—i.e., 6 months of 30 days, and 6 with 29 days, in other words, lunar synodic years; (4) years with 360 days, or ordinary civil (sāvana) years; (5) years with 378 days, which, as Thibaut clearly shows, are third years, in which, after two years of 360 days each, 18 days were added to bring about correspondence between the civil year and the solar year of 366 days. But even the Sāmasūtras do not mention the year of 366 days, which is first known to the Jyotiṣa and to Garga. That the Vedic period was acquainted with the year of 354 days cannot be affirmed with certainty. Zimmer, indeed, thinks that it is proved by the fact that pregnancy is estimated at ten months, or sometimes a year. But Weber may be right in holding that the month is the periodic month of 27 days, for the period is otherwise too long if a year is taken. On the other hand, the period of ten months quite well suits the period of gestation, if birth takes place in the tenth month, so that in this sense the month of 30 days may well be meant. The year of 12 months of 30 days each being admittedly quite unscientific, Zimmer23 is strongly of opinion that it was only used with a recognition of the fact that intercalation took place, and that the year formed part of a greater complex, normally the five year Yuga or cycle. This system is well known from the Jyotiṣa: it consists of 62 months of 29£4 days each = 1,830 days (two of these months being intercalary, one in the middle and one at the end), or 61 months of 30 days, or 60 months of 30^ days, the unit being clearly a solar year of 366 days. It is not an ideal system, since the year is too long; but it is one which cannot be claimed even for the Brāhmaṇa period, during which no decision as to the true length of the year seems to have been arrived at. The references to it seen by Zimmer in the Rigveda are not even reasonably plausible, while the pañcaka yuga, cited by him from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, occurs only in a quotation in a commentary, and has no authority for the text itself. On the other hand, there was undoubtedly some attempt to bring the year of 360 days—a synodic lunar year—roughly into connexion with reality. A Sāmasūtra27 treats it as a solar year, stating that the sun perambulates each Naxatra in days, while others again evidently interpolated 18 days every third year, in order to arrive at some equality. But Vedic literature, from the Rigveda downwards,29 teems with the assertion of the difficulty of ascertaining the month. The length is variously given as 30 days, 35 days,31 or 36 days. The last number possibly indicates an intercalation after six years (6x6 = 36, or for ritual purposes 35), but for this we have no special evidence. There are many references to the year having 12 or 13 months. The names of the months are, curiously enough, not at all ancient. The sacrificial texts of the Yajurveda give them in their clearest form where the Agnicayana, ‘building of the fire-altar,’ is described. These names are the following: (1) Madhu, (2) Mādhava (spring months, vāsantikāv rtū); (3) Sukra, (4) Suci (summer months, graismāv rtū); (5) Nabha (or Nabhas), (6) Nabhasya (rainy months, vārsikāv rtū); (7) Iṣa, (8) ūrja (autumn months, śāradāυ rtū); (9) Saha (or Sahas),35 (10) Sahasya (winter months, haimantikāυ rtū); (II) Tapa (or Tapas),35 (12) Tapasya (cool months, śaiśirāv rtū). There are similar lists in the descriptions of the Soma sacrifice and of the horse sacrifice, all of them agreeing in essentials. There are other lists of still more fanciful names, but these have no claim at all to represent actual divisions in popular use. It is doubtful if the list given above is more than a matter of priestly invention. Weber points out that Madhu and Mādhava later appear as names of spring, and that these two are mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka as if actually employed; but the evidence is very inadequate to show that the other names of the months given in the list were in ordinary use. In some of these lists the intercalary month is mentioned. The name given to it in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā is Amhasas- pati, while that given in the Taittirīya and Maitrāyaṇī Sarphitās is Sarpsarpa. The Kāthaka Sarphitā gives it the name of Malimluca, which also occurs elsewhere, along with Samsarpa, in one of the lists of fanciful names. The Atharvaveda describes it as sanisrasa, ‘slipping,’ owing no doubt to its unstable condition. The other method of naming the months is from the Nakçatras. It is only beginning to be used in the Brāhmaṇas, but is found regularly in the Epic and later. The Jyotisa mentions that Māgha and Tapa were identical: this is the fair interpretation of the passage, which also involves the identifica¬tion of Madhu with Caitra, a result corresponding with the view frequently found in the Brāhmanas, that the full moon in Citrā, and not that in Phalgunī, is the beginning of the year. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa are found two curious expressions, yava and ayava, for the light and dark halves of the month, which is clearly considered to begin with the light half. Possibly the words are derived, as Eggling thinks, from yu, ‘ ward off,’ with reference to evil spirits. The word Parvan (‘ joint ’ = division of time) probably denotes a half of the month, perhaps already in the Rigveda. More precisely the first half, the time of the waxing light, is called pūrva-paksa, the second, that of the waning light, apara-paka. Either of these might be called a half-month (ardha-ināsa).
māsara Is mentioned as a beverage in the Yajurveda Sam­hitās. Its composition is described fully in the Kātyāyana śrauta Sūtra. It seems to have been a mixture of rice and Syāmāka with grass, parched barley, etc.
māhitthi ‘Descendant of Mahittha,’ is the patronymic of a teacher mentioned several times in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. He is said to be a pupil of Vāmakakçāyaṇa in the Bṛhad­āraṇyaka Upanisad.
mudga Denoting a kind of bean (PJiaseolus Mungo), occurs in a list of vegetables in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā.A soup of rice with beans ’ (mudgaudana) is mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka and the Sūtras. Cf perhaps Mudgala.
mūcīpa Is the variant in the Śāñkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra of the Mūtiba of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa as the name of a barbarian tribe.
mūtiba Appears in the Aitareya Brāhmana as the name of one of the barbarous peoples enumerated as nominally Viśvā- mitra’s outcast offspring. The śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra gives the name as Mūcīpa or Mūvīpa.
mṛga In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa denotes, according to Sāyaṇa's commentary, the constellation Mrgaśiras. But it seems more probable that Mṛga there really covers the whole of Orion, not merely the inconspicuous group of stars in the head of Orion that make up the Nakṣatra Mṛgaśiras, but also the star a in his shoulder, which is reckoned as Ardrā, and γ in his left shoulder. Tilak, however, makes Mṛga or Mṛgaśiras into a different group, consisting of the belt of Orion, with two stars in the knees and one in the left shoulder, which he deems to resemble a deer’s head with an arrow through it, an implausible and unlikely theory. Cf Mṛgavyādha.
mṛgayu Hunter,’ occurs in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas, but not very often. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, however, in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) include a number of names which seem to be those of persons who make a liveli­hood by fishing or by hunting, such as the Mārgāra, ‘ hunter,’ the Kaivarta or Kevarta, Pauñji§tha, Dāśa, Maināla, * fisher-man,’ and perhaps the Bainda and the Ánda, who seem to have been some sort of fishermen. It is not probable that even in the earliest Vedic period hunting formed the main source of livelihood for any of the Vedic tribes: pastoral pursuits and agriculture (Κṛṣί) were, no doubt, the mainstay of their existence. But it would be unreasonable to suppose that not much hunting was done, both for recreation and for purposes of food, as well as for protection of flocks from wild beasts. The Rigveda is naturally our chief source of information in regard to hunting. The arrow was sometimes employed, but, as is usual with primitive man, the normal instruments of capture were nets and pitfalls. Birds were regularly caught in nets (Pāśa, Nidhā, Jāla ), the bird-catcher being called nidhā-pati, ‘master of snares.’ The net was fastened on pegs (as is done with modern nets for catching birds). Another name of net is apparently Mukṣījā. Pits were used for catching antelopes (Rśya), and so were called rśya-da, ‘antelope-catching.’ Elephants were captured as in Greek times, perhaps through the instrumentality of tame females (see Mpga Hastin). Apparently the boar was captured in the chase, dogs being used, but the passage from which this view is deduced is of uncertain mythological content. There is also an obscure reference to the capture of the buffalo (Gaura), but it is not clear whether the reference is to shooting with an arrow or capturing by means of ropes, perhaps a lasso, or a net. The lion was captured in pitfalls, or was surrounded by the hunters and slain ; one very obscure passage refers to the lion being caught by ambuscade, which perhaps merely alludes to the use of the hidden pit. The modes of catching fish are little known, for the only evidence available are the explanations of the various names mentioned in the Yajurveda. Sāyana18 says that Dhaivara is one who takes fish by netting a tank on either side; Dāśa and śauçkala do so by means of a fish-hook (badiśa); Bainda, Kaivarta, and Maināla by means of a net (jāla); Mārgāra catches fish in the water with his hands; Anda by putting in pegs at a ford (apparently by building a sort of dam); Parṇaka by putting a poisoned leaf on the water. But none of these explanations can claim much authority.
medhya Is the name of a man, an ancient sacrificer, in a hymn of the Rigveda. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra he is erroneously transmuted into Ppçadhra Medhya Mātariávan, the patron of Praskaṇva Kāṇva.
maitrāyamya brāhmaṇa Is the name of a text mentioned in the śulba Sūtra of Baudhāyana.
maināla Occurs in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yaj'urveda. It seems clearly to mean ‘fisherman’ from Mina, ‘fish,’ as Sāyana and Mahī- dhara explain it.
maudgalya ‘Descendant of Mudgala,’ is the patronymic of several persons, Nāka, śatabalākça, and Lāñgalāyana. A Brahmacārin of the name is mentioned in the Gopatha Brāhmana4 as disputing with Glāva Maitreya.
mleccha Occurs in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa in the sense of a barbarian in speech. The Brahmin is there forbidden to use barbarian speech. The example given of such speech is he Ίανο, explained by Sāyana as he ’rayah, ‘ ho, foes.’ If this is correct—the Kāṇva recension has a different reading—the barbarians referred to were Aryan speakers, though not speakers of Sanskrit, but of a Prākṛta form of speech. Cf Vāc.
yājñavalkya ‘Descendant of Yajñavalkya,’ is repeatedly mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa as an authority on questions of ritual. He is, however, also given as an authority on questions of philosophy in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, but Oldenberg is, no doubt, right in thinking that no possible importance can be attached to the mention of Yājñavalkya in the latter capacity. He is said to have been a pupil of Uddālaka Arum, whom he opposed successfully in a dispute.5 His two wives, Maitreyī and Kātyāyanī, are mentioned in the Brhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, which concludes with a passage ascribing to Yājñavalkya Vājasaneya the ‘white Yajus ’ {śuklāni yajUmsi). It is remarkable that Yājñavalkya is never mentioned in any other Vedic text outside the śatapatha Brāhmana y except the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, where, however, both/\ references are merely transcripts from the śatapatha. It has been supposed by Oldenberg10 and others that Yājñavalkya belonged to Videha, but despite the legend of Janaka’s patronage of him, his association with Uddālaka, the Kuru-Pañcāla, renders this doubtful.
rathītara (‘Good charioteer’) is the name of a teacher mentioned in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra and the Bṛhad- devatā.
rambha Seems to mean a ‘ staff ’ or ‘ support ’ in one passage of the Rigveda. In another place a man is described as Rambhin, apparently as carrying a staff to support himself in old age; Sāyaṇa explains this word as ‘ door-keeper ’ (like one of the senses of dandin, ‘ staff-bearer,’ in later Sanskrit).
rājamātra Is found in the Kausitaki Brāhmaṇa and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, where it seems to include ‘ the whole class of persons (who could be called) Rājan’ i.e., the Rājaputras and the Rājanyas.
rājasūya Is the name in the Atharvaveda and the later literature of the ceremony of the ‘royal consecration.’ The rite is described at great length in the Sūtras, but its main features are clearly outlined in the Brāhmaṇas, while the verses used in the ceremony are preserved in the Samhitās of the Yaj'urveda. Besides much mere priestly elaboration, the ritual contains traces of popular ceremonial. For example, the king is clothed in the ceremonial garments of his rank, and provided with bow and arrow as emblems of sovereignty. He is formally anointed; he performs a mimic cow raid against a relative of his; or engages in a sham fight with a Rājanya. A game of dice is played in which he is made to be the victim; he symbolically ascends the quarters of the sky as an indication of his universal rule; and steps on a tiger skin, thus gaining the strength and the pre-eminence of the tiger. A list of the consecrated kings is given in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, where the royal inauguration is called the ‘great unctioni (vtahābhiseka) connected with Indra. It corresponds generally with a list of Aśvamedhins, ‘ performers of the horse sacrifice,’ given in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
rāthītara ‘ descendant of Rathītara,’ is the patronymic of Satyavacas in the Taittirīya Upaniṣad (i. 9, 1), and occurs several times as the name of a teacher in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra (vii. 4, etc.).
rādheya Descendant of Rādhā,' is the metronymic of a teacher in the śāñkhāyana Áraṇyaka.
reṇu Is the name of a son of Viśvāmitra in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
revottaras Is the name of Pāava Cākra Sthapati, who was expelled, with Duçtarītu Paumsāyana, by the Spftjayas, and who was in part instrumental in the restoration of his master to power, despite the opposition of Balhika Prātipīya, the Kuru king.
raibhya Descendant of Rebha,’ is the name of a teacher in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) in the Mādhyamdina recension of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanisad, where he is said to be a pupil of Pautimāsyāyaṇa and Kauṇdin- yāyana.
lāji In the Vājasaneyi Saiphitā and the Taittirlya Brāhmaṇa is a word of uncertain meaning: according to Sāyaṇa, it is a vocative of Lājin, * having parched grain’; according to Mahīdhara, it denotes a ‘quantity of parched grain.’
lāmakāyana Descendant of Lamaka,’ is often mentioned as an authority in the Lātyāyana śrauta Sūtra, the Nidāna Sūtra, and the Drāhyāyaṇa śrauta Sūtra; also with the name Samvargajit in the Vamśa Brāhmaṇa.
lopā Is mentioned in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) in the Taittirīya Samhitā, where Sāyaṇa explains it as a kind of bird, perhaps the carrion crow (śmaśāna- śakunt).
lauhitya ‘Descendant of Lohita,’ is the patronymic of a large number of teachers in the Jaiminlya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, which clearly must have been the special object of study of the Lauhitya family. See Kpçṇadatta, Kpçṇarāta, Jayaka, Tri- veda Kyçṇarāta, Dakṣa Jayanta, Palligupta, Mitrabhūti, Yaśasvin Jayanta, Vipaácit Dpdhajayanta, Vaipaścita Dārdhajayanti, Vaipaścita Dārdhajayanti Dpdhajayanta, śyā- majayanta, śyāmasujayanta, Satyaáravas. A Lauhitya or Lauhikya is also mentioned as a teacher in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka. The form of name (Jayanta) affected by the family, and the silence of the older texts, proves that they were modern.
vaṃśa (lit. ‘Bamboo’) in the sense of * spiritual gene- alogy,’ ‘ list of teachers/ is found in the śatapatha Brāhmana, the Vamśa Brāhmaṇa, and the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka.
vaṇga The designation of Bengal proper, is not found in the earlier Vedic literature unless it is to be recognized in the curious word Vañgāvagadhāh, which occurs in the Aitareya Araṇyaka, and which suggests amendment to Vañga-Magadhāh, ‘the Vangas and the Magadhas,’ two neighbouring peoples. The name is certainly found in the Baudhāyana Dharma Sūtra.
vatsa Occurs several times in the Rigveda as the name of a singer, a son or descendant of Kaṇva. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is said to have passed successfully through a fire ordeal to which he resorted for the purpose of proving to his rival, Medhātithi, the purity of his descent. He is also mentioned in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra as the recipient of bounty from Tirindara Pāraśavya.
vayya Occurs in several passages of the Rigveda in con­nexion with Turvīti, of whom the word is, according to Sāyaṇa, a patronymic in one passage. Roth is inclined to think that the sense of ‘ companion ’ would suit all passages.
varaṇāvatī Is found in one passage of the Atharvaveda. It seems to be, as Roth thought, the name of a stream, and is regarded by Ludwig as the Ganges. Bloomfield, while con­sidering that a plant may, as Sāyaṇa thinks, be meant, yet regards a reference to a river as probable. Cf. Kāśi.
varu Is held by Sāyaṇa to be a proper name in several passages of the Rigveda, where it is accented as a vocative followed by susāntne. Roth considers that the name must be Varosuṣāman, despite its doubtful formation.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
vaśa aśvya Is the name in the Rigveda of a protg of the Aśvins. He is also mentioned in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra as having received bounty from Ppthuśravas Kānīta. He is the reputed author of a Rigvedic hymn, which is repeatedly referred to by his name Vaśa. Cf. also Vyaśva.
vāc ‘Speech,’ plays a great part in Vedic speculation, but only a few points are of other than mythological significance. Speech is in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa divided into four kinds —that of men, of animals, of birds (vayāψsi), and of small creeping things (ksudram sañsrpam). The discrimination or making articulate of speech is ascribed to Indra by the Saiphitās. The speech ’ of the following musical instruments — Tūṇava, Vīṇā, Dundubhi — is mentioned, and in one Samhitā also that of the axle of a chariot. The speech of the Kuru-Pañcālas was especially renowned, as well as that of the northern country, according to the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa, so that men went there to study the language. On the other hand, barbarisms in speech were known, and were to be avoided. One division of speech referred to* is that of the divine (daivī) and the human (mānusī), of which some specimens are given, such as om, the divine counterpart of tathā, and so forth. The Brahmin is said to know both ; it seems best to regard the distinction not as between Sanskrit and Apabhramśa, as Sāyaṇa suggests, but as between the Sanskrit of the ritual and the hymns and that of ordinary life. Reference is also made to Aryan11 and to Brahmin12 speech, by which Sanskrit, as opposed to non-Aryan tongues, seems to be meant. The Vrātyas are described as speaking the language of the initiated (dlksita-vāc), though not themselves initiated (a-dīksita), but as calling that which is easy to utter (a-durukta), difficult to utter. This may mean that the non-Brahminical Indians were advancing more rapidly than the Brahminical tribes to Prākrit speech, especially if it is legitimate to connect the Vrātyas with the barbarians in speech alluded to in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa.
vājapeya Is the name of a ceremony which, according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and later authorities, is only per­formed by a Brahmin or a Kṣatriya. The same Brāhmaṇa insists that this sacrifice is superior to the Rājasūya, but the consensus of other authorities assigns to it merely the place of a preliminary to the Bphaspatisava in the case of a priest, and to the Rājasūya in the case of a king, while the śatapatha is compelled to identify the Bṛhaspatisava with the Vājapeya. The essential ceremony is a chariot race in which the sacrificer is victorious. There is evidence in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra® showing that once the festival was one which any Aryan could perform. Hillebrandt, indeed, goes so far as to compare it with the Olympic games; but there is hardly much real ground for this: the rite seems to have been developed round a primitive habit of chariot racing, transformed into a ceremony which by sympathetic magic secures the success of the sacrificer. In fact Eggeling seems correct in holding that the Vājapeya was a preliminary rite performed by a Brahmin prior to his formal installation as a Purohita, or by a king prior to his consecration. The Kuru Vājapeya was specially well known.
vājaśravasa Descendant of Vājaśravas,' is the patro­nymic of Kuśri in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. It is also the patronymic of the father of Naciketas in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa, where the name is apparently Uśant, though it is understood by Sāyaṇa as a participle in the sense of ‘desiring.’ The Vājaśravases are in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa said to have been sages. They were Gotaraas.
vātsya Descendant of Vatsa' is the name of one or more teachers. One is mentioned in the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka, where the Aitareya Araṇyaka in the parallel passage has Bādhva. Others occur in the Vaṃśas (lists of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad as pupils of Kuśri, śāṇdilya, or another Vātsya, while a Vātsya is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana.
vārdhrāṇasa Is the name of an animal in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda Samhitās. The meaning seems to be, as taken by Sāyaṇa, ‘rhinoceros.’ Bohtlingk quotes as other interpretations ‘an old white he-goat or ‘a kind of crane.’
vāliśikhāyani Is the name of a teacher in the śāṅkhāyana Araṇyaka.
vāśī Is mentioned in the Rigveda both as a weapon of the Maruts and as held by the god Tvaṣtṛ, as well as in other mythical surroundings. It is used, however, in the Atharva­veda of the carpenter’s knife; here it may mean ‘awl,’ in accordance with Sāyaṇa's view.
videha Is the name of a people who are not mentioned before the Brāhmaṇa period. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the legend of Videgha Māthava preserves clearly a tradition that in Videha culture came from the Brahmins of the West, and that Kosala was brahminized before Videha. The Videhas, however, derived some fame later from the culture of their king Janaka,who figures in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad as one of the leading patrons of the Brahman doctrine. In the Kausītaki Upaniṣad the Videhas are joined with the Kāśis ; in the list of peoples in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa the Videhas are passed over, probably because, with Kosala and Kāśi, they are included in the term Prāeyas, easterners.’ Again, in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra it is recorded that the Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha kingdoms had each the one Purohita, Jala Jātūkarṇya; and in another passage of the same text the connexion between the Videha king, Para Átṇāra, and the Kosala king, Hiraṇya- nābha, is explained, while the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa speaks of Para Atṇāra as the Kosala king, descendant of Hiranyanābha. Another king of Videha was Namī Sāpya, mentioned in the Pañcavirpśa Brāhmaṇa. In the Samhitās of the Yajurveda ‘cows of Videha’ seem to be alluded to, though the com¬mentator on the Taittirīya Samhitā merely takes the adjective vaidehī as ‘having a splendid body’ (viśista-deha-sambandhinī), and the point of a place name in the expression is not very obvious. The Videhas also occur in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra in Brāhmana-like passages. The boundary of Kosala and Videha was the Sadānīrā, probably the modern Gandak (the Kondochates of the Greek geographers), which, rising in Nepal, flows into the Ganges opposite Patna. Videha itself corresponds roughly to the modern Tirhut.
vidyā In the Atharvaveda and later denotes ‘knowledge,’ especially that of the three Vedas, which are called the trayī vidyā, ‘the threefold knowledge,’ as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa. In a more special sense Vidyā occurs in lists of objects of study in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. What exactly the expression here means is uncertain : Sāyaṇa suggests the philosophic systems; Geldner the first Brāhmaṇas; and Eggeling, more probably, special sciences like the Sarpavidyā or the Visavidyā.
vipṛthu In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra is apparently equivalent to the Vipatha, rough cart,’ of other texts. It is probably a mere blunder.
viṣavidyā The ‘science of poison,’ is enumerated with other sciences in the Aśvalāyana śrauta Sūtra. Cf. Vidyā.
viṣṭhāvrājin Is a word of doubtful significance in the śata­patha Brāhmaṇa. According to Sāyaṇa, it means ‘ remaining in one and the same place if this is right, the rendering of the St. Petersburg Dictionary and of Bohtlingk’s Dictionary, ‘ one whose herd is stationary,’ seems legitimate. But, as Eggeling points out, the Kāṇva recension of the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa in another passage8 seems to treat the word as denoting a disease: thus Viṣthāvrājin may mean ‘one afflicted by dysentery.’
vṛtraghna Occurs in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, where in a Gāthā reciting the prowess of Bharata it is said that he bound horses on the Yamunā (Jumna) and Gangū (Ganges) Vrtraghne, which Sāyaṇa renders ‘ at Vṛtraghna,’ as the name of a place. Roth, however, seems right in interpreting the form as a dative, ‘for the slayer of Vṛtra’—i.e., Indra.
vṛtraśaṅku Literally ‘Vṛtra-peg,’ found in one passage of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, is said by the scholiast on the Kātyāyana śrauta Sūtra to denote a stone pillar. This improbable interpretation is based on another passage in the same Brāhmaṇa.
vṛddhadyumna ábhipratāriṇa (‘Descendant of Abhipra- tārin ’) is the name of a prince (rājanya) in the Aitareya Brāh­maṇa, where his priest, śucivrksa Gaupalāyana, is praised. In the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, on the contrary, he is said to have erred in the sacrifice, when a Brahmin prophesied that the result would be the expulsion of the Kurus from Kurukṣetra, an event which actually came to pass.
vrśa jāna (‘Descendant of Jana’) is the name of a famous Purohita, who was unfortunate enough, while with his royal master, Tryaruṇa, to see a boy killed by the chariot which the king drove too fast. He thereupon recalled the boy to life. The story is told briefly in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa,1 the śātyāyanaka,2 the Tāndaka,3 was also narrated in the Bhāllavi Brāhmaṇa,4 and is preserved in the Bṛhaddevatā.5 Sieg® has endeavoured to trace the story in part in the Rigveda,7 but there is a consensus of opinion8 against the correctness of such a view.
vaijāna ‘Descendant of Vijāna,’ is Sāyaṇa’s version of the patronymic of Vpśa in the Pañcavirnśa Brāhmaṇa. The real reading is vai Jānah, as pointed out by Weber.
vaidhasa ‘Descendant of Vedhas,’ is the patronymic of Hariścandra in the Aitareya Brāhmana and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
vaiyāghrapadya ‘Descendant of Vyāghrapad,’ is the patro­nymic of Indradyumna Bhāllaveya in the śatapatha Brāh­maṇa and the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, of Budila Áśvatarāśvi in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, and of Gośruti in that Upaniṣad and in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka. In the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa the patronymic is applied to Rāma Krātiyāteya.
vaira Seem to have in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas the definite and technical sense of ‘wergeld,’ the money to be paid for killing a man as a compensation to his relatives. This view is borne out by the Sūtras of Apa­stamba and Baudhāyana. Both prescribe the scale of 1,000 cows for a Kṣatriya, 100 for a Vaiśya, 10 for a śūdra, and a bull over and above in each case. Apastamba leaves the destination of the payment vague, but Baudhāyana assigns it to the king. It is reasonable to suppose that the cows were intended for the relations, and the bull was a present to the king for his intervention to induce the injured relatives to abandon the demand for the life of the offender. The Apa­stamba Sūtra allows the same scale of wergeld for women, but the Gautama Sūtra puts them on a level with men of the śūdra caste only, except in one special case. The payment is made for the purpose of vaira-yātana or vaira-niryātana, 'requital of enmity,' 'expiation' he Rigveda preserves, also, the important notice that a man’s wergeld was a hundred (cows), for it contains the epithet śata-dāya, ‘one whose wergeld is a hundred/ No doubt the values varied, but in the case of śunaháepa the amount is a hundred (cows) in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. In the Yajurveda Samhitās śata-dāya again appears. The fixing of the price shows that already public opinion, and perhaps the royal authority, was in Rigvedic times diminishing the sphere of private revenge; on the other hand, the existence of the system shows how weak was the criminal authority of the king (cf. Dharma).
vaiṣṭhapureya ‘Descendant of Viṣthapura,’ is the name of a teacher in the first two Vamśas (lists of teachers) of the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad in the Mādhyamdina recension (ii. 5, 20; iv. 5, 25). He was a pupil of śāṇdilya and Rauhiṇāyana.
vyacha In go-vyacha, the name of one of the victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda, is of uncertain signification. According to Sāyaṇa, the compound denotes a ‘ driver out of cows.’ Perhaps it means a ‘tormentor of cows,’ as the St. Petersburg Dictionary takes it. Weber renders it as ‘knacker of cows,’ Eggeling as ‘one who approaches cows.’
śakti Is said in the Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa to have been the son of Vasiṣtha, and to have been cast into the fire by the Viśvāmitras. According to Sadguruśiṣya, who appears to follow the śātyāyanaka, the story of śakti is as follows : Viśvāmitra, being defeated in a contest by śakti, had recourse to Jamadagni, who taught him the Sasarparī; later he revenged himself on śakti by having him burnt in the forest. The Bṛhaddevatā relates the first part of the tale only. Geldner sees in the Rigveda a description of the death struggle of śakti, but this interpretation is more than doubtful.
śaṅga śāṭyāyani (‘Descendant of śātyāyana’) Átreya (‘ descendant of Atri ’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Nagarin, in the Jaiminlya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
śarīra ‘Body,’ is a word of frequent occurrence in Vedic literature. The interest of the Vedic Indians seems early to have been attracted to the consideration of questions connected with the anatomy of the body. Thus a hymn of the Atharva­veda enumerates many parts of the body with some approach to accuracy and orderly arrangement. It mentions the heels (pārsnf), the flesh (māmsa), the ankle-bones (gulphau), the fingers (angulīh), the apertures (kha), the two metatarsi (uchlakau), the tarsus (pratisthā), the two knee-caps (astliī- vantau), the two legs {janghe), the two knee-joints (jānunoh sandhī). Then comes above the two knees (jānū) the four­sided (catuçtaya), pliant (śithira) trunk (kabandha). The two hips (śronī) and the two thighs (ūrū) are the props of the frame (ktisindha). Next come the breast-bone (uras), the cervical cartilages (grīvāh), the two breast pieces (stanau), the two shoulder-blades (/kaphodau), the neck-bones (skandhau), and the backbones (prstīh), the collar-bones (amsau), the arms (bāhu), the seven apertures in the head (sapta khāni śīrsani), the ears (karnau), the nostrils (nāsike), the eyes (caksanī), the mouth (mukha), the jaws (hanū), the tongue (jihvā), the brain (mas- tiska), the forehead (lalāta), the facial bone (kakātikā), the cranium (kapāla), and the structure of the jaws (cityā hanvoh). This system presents marked similarities with the later system of Caraka and Suśruta,4 which render certain the names ascribed to the several terms by Hoernle. Kaphodau, which is variously read in the manuscripts,5 is rendered ‘ collar-bone ’ by Whitney, but ‘ elbow ’ in the St. Petersburg Dictionary. Skandha in the plural regularly denotes 'neck-bones,’ or, more precisely, ‘cervical vertebrae,’ a part denoted also by usnihā in the plural. Prsii denotes not * rib,’ which is parśu, but a transverse process of a vertebra, and so the vertebra itself, there being in the truncal portion of the spinal column seventeen vertebrae and thirty-four transverse processes. The vertebrae are also denoted by kīkasā in the plural, which sometimes is limited to the upper portion of the vertebral column, sometimes to the thoracic portion of the spine. Anūka also denotes the vertebral column, or more specially the lumbar or thoracic portion of the spine; it is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa that there are twenty transverse processes in the lumbar spine (udara) and thirty-two in the thoracic, which gives twenty-six vertebrae, the true number (but the modern division is seven cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, and two false—the sacrum and the coccyx). The vertebral column is also denoted by karūkara, which, however, is usually found in the plural denoting the transverse processes of the vertebrae, a sense expressed also by kuntāpa. Grīvā, in the plural, denotes cervical vertebrae, the number seven being given by the Satapatha Brāhmana, but usually the word simply means windpipe, or, more accurately, the cartilaginous rings under the skin. Jatru, also in the plural, denotes the cervical cartilages, or possibly the costal cartilages, which are certainly so called in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where their number is given as eight. Bhamsas, which occurs thrice in the Atharvaveda, seems to denote the pubic bone or arch rather than the ‘buttocks’ or ‘fundament,’ as Whitney takes it. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa the number of bones in the the human body is given as 360. The number of the bones of the head and trunk are given in another passage as follows: The head is threefold, consisting of skin (tvac), bone (1asthi), brain (matiska); the neck has 15 bones : 14 transverse processes (karūkara) and the strength (vīrya)—i.e., the bone of the centre regarded as one—as the 15th ; the breast has 17: 16 cervical cartilages (Jatru), and the sternum (uras) as the 17th ; the abdominal portion of the spine has 21 : 20 transverse processes (kimtāpa), and the abdominal portion (udara) as the 21st; the two sides have 27: 26 ribs (parśu), and the two sides as the 27th; the thoracic portion of the spine (anūka) has 33: 32 transverse processes, and the thoracic portion as 33rd. There are several enumerations of the parts of the body, not merely of the skeleton, in the Yajurveda Samhitās. They include the hair (lomāni), skin (tvac), flesh (māinsá), bone (1asthi), marrow (majjan), liver (yakrt), lungs (kloman), kidneys (matasne), gall (pitta), entrails (āntrāni), bowels (gudāh), spleen (ptīhan), navel (nābht), belly (udara), rectum (vanisthu), womb (yoni), penis (plāśi and śepa), face (mukha), head (śiras), tongue (jihvā), mouth (āsan), rump (pāyu), leech (vāla), eye (caksus), eyelashes (paksmāni), eyebrows (utāni), nose (was), breath (iiyāna), nose-hairs (nasyāni), ears (karnau), brows (bhrū), body or trunk (ātman), waist (upastha), hair on the face (śmaśrūni), and on the head (keśāh). Another enumeration gives śiras, mukha, keśāh, śmaśrūni, prāna (breath), caksus, śrotra (ear), jihvā, vāc (speech), manas (mind), arigulik, añgāni (limbs), bāhū, hastau (hands), karnau, ātmā, uras (sternum), prstllj, (vertebrae), udara, amsau, grīvāh, śronī, ūrū, aratnī (elbows), jānūni, nūbhi, pāyu, bhasat (fundament), āndau (testicles), pasas (membrum virile), jañghā, pad (foot), lomāni, tvac, māmsa, asthi, majjan. Another set of names includes vanisthu, purītat (pericardium), lomāni, tvac, lohita (blood), medas (fat), māmsāni, snāvāni (sinews), asthīni, majjānah, ret as (semen), pāyu, kośya (flesh near the heart), pārśvya (intercostal flesh), etc. The bones of the skeleton of the horse are enumerated in the Yajurveda Samhitās. In the Aitareya Araṇyaka the human body is regarded as made up of one hundred and one items ; there are four parts, each of twenty-five members, with the trunk as one hundred and first. In the two upper parts there are five four-jointed fingers, two kakçasī (of uncertain meaning), the arm (dos), the collar-bone (akça), and the shoulder-blade (artisa-phalaka). In the two lower portions there are five four-jointed toes, the thigh, the leg, and three articulations, according to Sāyaṇa’s commentary. The śānkhāyana Araṇyaka enumerates three bones in the head, three joints (parvāni) in the neck, the collar-bone {akṣa), three joints in the fingers, and twenty-one transverse processes in the spine (anūka).sg The Maitrāyaṇī Samhitā enumerates four constituents in the head {prāna, caksns, śrotra, vāc), but there are many variations, the number going up to twelve on one calculation. In the Taittirīya Upaniṣad an enumeration is given consisting of carma (skin), māinsa, snāvan, asthi, and majjan; the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has lomāni, mānμa, tvac, asthi, majjan, and the Aitareya Araṇyaka couples majjānah, snāvāni, and asthīni. Other terms relating to the body are kañkūsa, perhaps a part of the ear, yoni (female organ), kaksa (armpit), Danta (tooth), nakha (nail), prapada (forepart of the foot), hallks'tia (gall).
śaryaṇāvant Occurs in several passages of the Rigveda, in all of which Sāyaṇa sees a local name. According to his account, Saryaṇāh (masc. plur.) is a district in Kurukçetpa, śaryanāvant being a lake not far from it in the back part (jaghanārdhe) of Kurukṣetra. The unusual consistency of his statements on this point is in favour of the word being a place name; it is also to be noted that Kurukṣetra contained the lake Anyatahplakçā. Roth, however, thought that in two passages the word denoted merely a ‘lake,’ literally ‘ (water) covered with a thicket of reeds ’ (śaryana), and in the others a Soma vessel. Zimmer inclines to this rendering. On the other hand, Pischel accepts Sāyaṇa's view. Hillebrandt also sees in the word a place name, but he is inclined to locate it among the ‘five tribes,’ which is not quite inconsistent with its being in Kurukṣetra, for the connexion of the PūPUS with the later Kupus is known; or perhaps, he suggests, śaryaṇāvant is an old name for the Wular sea of Kaśmīr, which was only a reminiscence in Vedic times. This is not probable; still less so is Ludwig’s hypothesis that the śaryanāvant is the later eastern Sapasvatī. Bergaigne regards the name as that of a celestial preparer of Soma.
śaluna Is found in the Atharvaveda denoting a ‘worm.’ The Paippalāda recension reads śalūla, and Sāyaṇa śalga.
śākalya ‘Descendant of śakala,’ is the patronymic of Vidag'dha in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and of Sthavira in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Aranyakas. An undefined śākalya is mentioned in the same Araṇyakas, in the Nirukta, and often later, as a teacher dealing with the text of the Rigveda. Weber is inclined to identify Vidagdha with the śākalya who is known as the maker of the Pada Pātha of the Rigveda, but Oldenberg thinks that the latter was later than the Brāhmana period. Geldner8 identifies the two; this view, however, is not very probable.
śāñkhāyana As the name of a teacher is not mentioned in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa, but it occurs in the Vaipśa (list of teachers) at the end of the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka, where Gunākhya is given as the authority for that work. In the śrauta Sūtras the name of śāñkhāyana never occurs, but the Gṛhya Sūtras seem to recognize as a teacher Suyajña śāñkhā¬yana. In later times the school flourished in Northern Gujarat, śāñkhāyana appears in the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya along with Kāṇdamāyana.
śāṭyāyana ‘Descendant of śāṭya,’ is the patronymic of a teacher mentioned twice in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa1 and often in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.2 In a Vamśa (list of teachers) in the latter work3 he is called a pupil of Jvālāyana, while in the Vamśa at the end of the Sāmavidhāna Brāhmaṇa he appears as a pupil of Bādarāyaṇa. The śātyā- yanins, his followers, are frequently mentioned in the Sūtras,4 the śātyāyani Brāhmaṇa5 and the śātyāyanaka® being also referred to in them. It has been shown by Oertel[1] that this Brāhmaṇa bore a close resemblance to, and probably belonged to the same period as, the Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa.
śāri Occurring in one passage of the Rigveda, is said by Sāyaṇa to mean 'arrow' This is uncertain, but connexion with śara or i. śāri is quite possible.
śārga Is the name of a bird in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda Samhitās. Sāyaṇa on the Taittirīya Samhitā calls it the ‘wild Cataka.’
śālāvatya ‘Descendant of śalāvant,’ is the patronymic of śilaka in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, and of Galūnasa Árkçākāyaṇa in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
śitikakṣī In the Taittirīya Sarphitā is explained by Sāyaṇa as a 'white-breasted' (pāndarodara) vulture. The word may, however, well be only an adjective.
śiphā Is found in one passage of the Rigveda, where Sāyaṇa explains the word as the name of a river, quite a possible interpretation.
śibi Son of Uśīnara, is mentioned in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra1 as a protágá of Indra, who sacrificed for him on the Varṣiṣthīya plain, and saved him from fear of foreign invasion.
śimbala In the Rigveda denotes, according to Sāyana, the flower of the śālmali (= śalmali), ‘silk-cotton tree.’
śilaka śālāvatya (‘Descendant of śalāvant’) is the name of a teacher, a contemporary of Caikitāyana Dālbhya and Pra- vāhaṇa Jaivala, in the Chāndogya Upanisad.
śiáuka In the Atharvaveda seems to be an adjective meaning ‘young,’ but according to Bloomfield it has the sense of ‘ foal.’ The commentator, Sāyaṇa, reads śuśuka, which he explains as a ‘wild animal so called.’ Cf Áśumga.
śunaḥśepa ‘Dog’s tail,’ is the name of a man with the patronymic Ajlg’arti. According to a tale told in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, he was purchased as a victim by Rohita, King Hariścandra’s son, who had been promised by his father to Varuṇa as a sacrifice. He was actually bound to the stake, but was released in time through his supplications, supposed to be preserved in certain hymns of the Rigveda. He was adopted by Viśvāmitra, to whose advice he owed the inspiration to ask the gods to release him, and became his son as Devarāta, much to the annoyance of some of Viśvāmitra's sons, who in consequence were cursed by their father. The Rigveda, however, contains merely the statement of śunahśepa’s deliverance from peril of death by the divine help, and the Yajurvedas4 simply say that he was seised by Varuna (perhaps with dropsy), but saved himself from Varuna’s bonds.
śuśulūka Is found in the Rigveda in the compound śuśulūka- yātu, the name of a demon. According to Sāyana, the word means a ‘ small owl.’ It appears in the feminine form, śuśu- lūkā, in the list of victims at the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) in the Maitrāyaṇī Samhitā.
śūdra Is the designation of the fourth caste in the Vedic state (see Varṇa). It is quite unknown in the Rigveda except in the Purusasūkta (‘hymn of man’) in the tenth Maṇdala, where in the earliest version of the origin of the castes the śūdra for the first time appears. The Rigveda, on the other hand, knows Dasyu and Dāsa, both as aborigines independent of Aryan control and as subjugated slaves: it is reasonable to reckon the śūdra of the later texts as belonging to the aborigines who had been reduced to subjection by the Aryans. Strictly speaking, the defeated aborigines must have been regarded as slaves, but it is obvious that, except on occasions when most of the men were slain, which may have occurred quite often, there must have remained too many of them to be used as slaves of individual owners. The villages of the aborigines must have continued to subsist, but under Aryan lordship and control: there may be this amount of truth in Baden Powell’s theory, which practically traced all the early cultivating villages in India to Dravidian origin. On the other hand, the term śūdra would also cover the wild hill tribes which lived by hunting and fishing, and many of which would acknowledge the superiority of their Aryan neighbours: it could, in fact, be applied to all beyond the pale of the Aryan state. This view of the śūdra suits adequately the Vedic references to his condition, which would not apply adequately to domestic slaves only. The śūdra is continually opposed to the Aryan, and the colour of the śūdra is compared with that of the Aryan, just as his ways are so contrasted. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, in its account of the castes, declares that the śūdra is anyasya presya, ‘the servant of another’; kāmotthāpya, ‘to be expelled at will’; andyathākāmaυadhya, ‘to be slain at will.’ All these terms well enough describe the position of the serf as the result of a conquest: the epithets might have been applied to the English serf after the Norman Conquest with but slight inaccuracy, especially if his master had received a grant of jurisdiction from the Crown. The Pañcavimśa Brāh- mapa explains that even if prosperous (bahu-paśu, having many cows’) a śūdra could not be other than a servant: his business was pādāvanejya, ‘ the washing of the feet ’ of his superiors. The Mahābhārata says out and out that a śūdra has no property (a hi svam asti śūdrasya, ‘ the śūdra has nothing he can call his own’). On the other hand, just as in England the royal justice would protect the serf in life and limb,8 so it appears that the slaying of a śūdra involved a wergeld of ten cows according to both Baudhāyana and Ápastamba. It may, indeed, be held that this wergeld was only due in case of murder by another than the master, but such limitation is nowhere stated. In sacred matters the distinction between Aryan and śūdra was, of course, specially marked. The texts do not hesitate to declare that the upper castes were ‘all,’ ignoring the śūdras; the śūdra is prohibited from milking the cow for the milk required at the Agnihotra (‘oblation to Agni ’); and the śatapatha Brāhmana forbids a man who has been consecrated (1dlksita) for a sacrifice to speak to a śūdra at all for the time, though the śāṭyāyanaka seems to have relaxed this rule by confining it to cases in which the śūdra was guilty of some sin. At the sacrifice itself the śūdra could not be present in the śālā, ‘hall’; he is definitely classed in the śatapatha Brāh¬mana and the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana10 as unfit for ‘ sacrifice ’ (ayajñtya); and declared in the Kāçhaka Samhitā not to be admitted to drink Soma. At the Pravargya (introductory Soma) rite the performer is not allowed to come in contact with a śūdra, who here, as in the Kāthaka Samhitā,17 is reckoned as excluded from a share in the Soma-draught. On the other hand, the śūdra is one of the victims at the Puruṣa- medha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yaj’urveda, and a fight between an Aryan and a śūdra, in which, of course, the former wins, forms a part of the Mahāvrata rite, being perhaps a precursor of the Indian drama. Other indications, however, exist, showing that it would be undesirable to ignore the real importance of the śūdra, which again reminds us of the condition of the serf, who, though legally restrained, still gradually won his way to the rank of a free man. Rich śūdras are mentioned in the early texts, just as śūdra gahapatis, ‘householders,’ occur in the Buddhist texts, and śūdra kings in the legal literature. Sin against śūdra and Aryan is mentioned; prayers for glory on behalf of śūdras, as well as of the other castes occur; and the desire to be dear to śūdra as well as to Aryan is expressed. The Sūtras also, while they emphasize as general rules points earlier not insisted on, such as their inferiority in sitting, etc., their exclusion from the study of the Vedas, the danger of contact with them or their food, still recognize that śūdras can be merchants, or even exercise any trade.Moreover, the Sūtras permit the marriage of a śūdrā woman with members of all castes. Though it was a reproach to Vatsa and to Kavaṣa that they were the sons of a śūdrā and a Dāsī respectively, still the possibility of such a reproach shows that marriages of this kind did take place. Moreover, illicit unions of Arya and śūdrā, or śūdra and Aryā, are referred to in the Samhitās of the Yajurveda. The origin of the term śūdra is quite obscure, but Zimmer points out that Ptolemy mentions tvBpoi as a people, and he thinks that the Brāhui may be meant. Without laying any stress on this identification, it is reasonable to accept the view that the term was originally the name of a large tribe opposed to the Aryan invasion. See also Niṣāda.
śailūṣa Is included in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. An ‘ actor ’ or ‘ dancer ’ may be meant. Sāyana says it is a man who lives on the prostitution of his wife.
śaunaka ‘Descendant of śunaka,’ is a common patronymic. It is applied to Indrota and Svaidāyana. A śaunaka appears as a teacher of Rauhiṇāyána in the Brhadāranyaka Upaniṣad. A śaunaka-yajña, or śaunaka sacrifice, occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmana. In the Chāndogya Upaniṣad Atidhanvan śaunaka appears as a teacher. That Upaniṣad and the Jaiminīya Upaniṣad Brāhmana mention a śaunaka Kāpeya who was a contemporary of Abhipratārin Kakçaseni, whose Purohita śaunaka was according to another passage of the latter Upaniṣad. In the Sūtras, the Bṛhaddevatā, etc., a śaunaka appears as a great authority on grammatical, ritual, and other matters.
śaulbāyana ‘Descendant of śulba,’ is the patronymic of a teacher, Udañka. According to the śata­patha Brāhmana, a śaulbāyana was the Adhvaryu, or sacrificing priest, of those who had Ayasthūṇa as Grhapati (‘ householder,’ the title of the sacrificer who has precedence at a sattra, or sacrificial session).
śauṣkala Is the name of one of the sacrificial victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda. It means, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, ‘ living on dried fish or flesh,’ or, according to the native lexicographers, ‘selling dried fish,’ while Sāyana's commentary on the Taittirlya Brāh­maṇa explains the meaning to be one who catches fish with a hook, ‘angler.’
śyāva In one passage of the Rigveda seems clearly, as Sāyaṇa thinks, to denote śyāvāśva.
śyāvasāyana Is the patronymic of Devataras in the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. The form is perhaps an error for śāvasāyana.
śyāvāśva Is the name of a man mentioned several times in the Rigveda. The Anukramanī (Index) assigns to him a series of hymns in the fifth, eight, and ninth books. In one of the hymns śyāvāśva mentions, apparently as his patrons, Taranta (a son of Vidadaśva) and Purumīlha, as well as Rathavīti. On this hymn is based a legend found in the Bṛhaddevatā, that he was the son of Arcanānas, who was sacrificing for Rathavīti Dālbhya. The father was anxious to obtain the king’s daughter for his son in marriage; but though the father was willing, his wife insisted on her son-in-law being a Rṣi. The father and son, repulsed, were returning home, when they met on the way Taranta and Purumīdha, former patrons of the father. These showed him respect, while Taranta’s wife, śaśīyasī, presented śyāvāśva with much wealth. The son was then fortunate enough to meet the Maruts in the forest, and praised them, thus becoming a seer. As a result the king himself ultimately offered his daughter to śyāvāśva. Sieg seeks to show that this legend is presupposed in the Rigveda; but it is difficult to accept this view, since the references in the Rigveda are very obscure, and śaśīyasī is probably no more than an epithet. That there is some Itihāsa at the back of the hymn is clear: what it is can hardly now be determined. śyāvāśva's obtaining gifts from Vaidadaśvi is referred to also in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra. His name occurs in the Atharvaveda in two lists of persons, of which the former includes Purumīdha, the latter also Arcanānas and Atri. A Sāman is ascribed to him in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, and he is perhaps referred to in the Taittirīya Araṇyaka. In the śānkhāyana śrauta Sūtra and the Pañcaviφśa Brāhmana he is styled Arcanānasa, ‘ son of Arcanānas,’ and later he is called Atreya, ‘descendant of Atri.’
śravaṇadatta (‘Given by śravaṇa’) Kauhala (‘ descendant of Kohala’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Suśārada śālañkāyana in the Vamśa Brāhmaṇa.
śvayatha In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa means ‘swelling.’ Possibly ślyathu, the disease prevalent in Videha according to the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra, was a kind of ‘swelling’ (? goitre).
śvetaketu áruṇeya (‘Descendant of Aruṇa’) or Auddālaki (‘son of Uddālaka’) is mentioned repeatedly in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. In the Kauṣītaki Upaniṣad he appears as śvetaketu, son of Áruṇi, and as a Gautama. In the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa he is quoted as an authority on the vexed question of the duty of the Sadasya, or the seventeenth priest, at the ritual of the Kauṣītakins, to notify errors in the sacrifice; Áruṇi, his father, is also cited. He was a person of some originality, for he insisted on eating honey despite the general prohibition of the use of that delicacy by Brahmacārins or religious students. He was a contemporary of, and was instructed by the Pañcāla king Pravāhaṇa Jaivala. He was also a contemporary of Janaka, of Videha, and figured among the Brahmin disputants at his court. A story is told of him in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra:[6] Jala Jātūkarṇyā was lucky enough to become the Purohita of three peoples or kings, of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha. Seeing this, śvetaketu felt annoyed and reproached his father with his excessive devotion to sacrifice, which merely enriched and glorified others, not himself. His father replied, forbidding him to speak thus: he had learned the true method of sacrificing, and his ambition in life had been to discuss it with every Brahmin. All the references to śvetaketu belong to the latest period of Vedic literature. It is, therefore, not surprising that the Ápa- stamba Dharma Sūtra should refer to him as an Avara, or person of later days, who still became a Rṣi by special merit. His date, however, must not be fixed too low, because the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa in which he plays so marked a part is certainly earlier than Pāṇini, and was apparently even in that grammarian’s time believed to be an ancient work; hence 500 B.c. is probably rather too late than too early a period for śvetaketu as a rough approximation to a date.
śvaikna ‘King of the śviknas,’ is the title of Pratīdarśa, who was, according to the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, one of those who offered the Dākṣāyaṇa sacrifice. He also taught Suplan Sāriyaya the sácrifice : hence Weber has inferred a connexion of the śviknas and the Spry ayas.
śvaitreya Occurs in two passages of the Rigveda, where Sāyaṇa sees in the word the name of a man, a ‘ descendant of śvitrā.’ The first passage is almost identical with one in the sixth Maṇdala of the Rigveda, where, however, Daśadyu appears alone without śvaitreya. Ludwig identifies Daśadyu with śvaitreya (‘son of śvitrl’), and considers him a son of Kutsa. Bergaigne and Baunack think he is really Bhujyu. Geldner considers that he was a bull used for fighting, the sonof a śvitrā cow, but this is very doubtful, though the term śvaitreya is elsewhere applied to a bull. śvitrya seems to have the same sense as śvaitreya.
saṃvatsara ‘Year,’ is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Its duration was, according to the concurrent evidence of the Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, 360 days, divided into months, being, no doubt, roughly a lunar synodic year, which, however, it exceeded in length by days. As a solar year it appears only in the Nidāna Sūtra of the Sāmaveda, where the sun is stated to spend days in each of the Nakṣatras. The year being obviously out of harmony with the solar year (whether sidereal or tropical), efforts were certainly made to effect an assimilation of the natural and the accepted year. As has been seen (see Māsa), the evidence goes strongly to show that the intercalation was not an easy matter in the Brāh¬maṇa period, though there are traces of what may be re¬garded as a five-yearly or six-yearly intercalation. But there is no conclusive evidence that these periods were really observed. Zimmer,4 indeed, considers that the evidence required is afforded by the lists of the years, which are sometimes enumerated as five : Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Idvatsara, and Vatsara ;δ or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Iduvatsara, Vatsara;® or Samvatsara, Idāvatsara, Iduvat- sara, Idvatsara, Vatsara;7 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Anuvatsara, Udvatsara;8 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Anuvatsara, Idvatsara.9 But it must be noted not merely that the names vary considerably, but that four only are mentioned in some places,10 in others11 three, in others12 two, and in yet others13 six. Moreover, in none of these enumera¬tions is there any reference to the names being connected with a system of intercalation. It is most probable that here we have no more that a mere series of priestly variations of Vatsara, based on the older and more genuine Saipvatsara and Parivatsara as variants of the simple Vatsara, ‘year.’ The key to the invention of the series is probably to be found in passages like that of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, where the several Cāturmāsya ( four-monthly ’) sacrifices are equated with the different years. Particularly unjustifiable is the attempt of Zimmer to see in the two-year series a series of two years of 354 days each, with an intercalary month in the second; for the year of 354 days, as such, is not known to have existed before the Sūtra period. Zimmer ® also finds an attempt at intercalation in the famous 12 days in which the Rbhus are said to have slept in the house of Agohya. He thinks that they represent twelve days added at the winter solstice to equate the lunar year of 354 days and the solar year of 366 days ; and from the rever¬ence paid in German antiquity to the ‘ 12 nights,’ he infers that this mode of intercalation is Indo-Germanic. There can be little doubt that this view is wrong, and that the 12 days are merely the ' reflexion of the year ’ (samvatsarasya pratima) in the sense that they represent the twelve months, and have no relation to chronology at all. A reference to the use of Samvatsara alone as the fifth year of the cycle is seen by Shamasastry in the peculiar dating of certain notices in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra, but this view is improbable.
saṃśliṣṭakā Is the name of an animal mentioned in the Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa and the śātyāyanaka along with the Godhā.
saṃgrahītṛ Is found in the later Samhitās and the Brāh­maṇas. He is an official who figures among the Ratnins of the king. The sense of ‘ charioteer ’ seems adequate for every passage, but Sāyaṇa in some passages inclines to think that the meaning is ‘treasurer’ of the king.
satīnakaṅkata Is, in the Rigveda, the name of some animal, according to Sāyana an 'aquatic snake.'
sabhāvin In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa denotes, according to the commentator Sāyaṇa, the 'keeper of a gambling hall.'
sarpis Denotes ‘melted butter,’ whether in a liquid or solidified condition, and not differing from Ghrta according to the St.Petersburg Dictionary. Roth there rejects the defini­tion cited by Sāyaṇa in his commentary on the Aitareya Brāh­maṇa, which discriminates Sarpis as the liquid and Ghṛta as the solid condition of the butter. The word is repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and later.
salva Is the name of a people mentioned in a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana, which records a boast by Syāparṇa Sāyakāyana that if a certain rite of his had been completed, his race would have been the nobles, Brahmins, and peasants of the Salvas, and even as it was his race would surpass the Salvas. This people appears also to be alluded to as Sālvīh (prajāh) in the Mantra Pātha, where they are said to have declared that their king was Yaugandhari when they stayed their chariots on the banks of the Yamunā. There is later evidence indicating that the Sālvas or śālvas were closely connected with the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that apparently some of them, at least, were victorious near the banks of the Yamunā. There is no good evidence to place them in the north-west in Vedic times.
sahadeva Is the name of a prince in the Rigveda, where he is victorious over the śimyus and Dasyus. It is quite prob­able that he is identical with King Sahadeva Sārñjaya, who is mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana as having once been called Suplan Sārñjaya, and as having changed his name because of his success in performing the Dākṣāyaṇa sacrifice. In the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa he is mentioned with Somaka Sāhadevya, who also appears in the Rigveda.
sahojit See Jaitrāyaṇa.
sākamaśva devarāta Is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Viśvāmitra, in the Vamśa (list of teachers) which concludes the śāñkhāyana Aranyaka.
sādin In the Atharvaveda denotes the ‘rider’ of a horse as opposed to a-sāda, ‘pedestrian.’ An aśva-sādin, ‘horse-rider,’ is known to the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. The Taittirīya Brāh­maṇa and the Rigveda itself contain clear references to horse-riding, while the Aitareya Araṇyaka refers to mounting a horse sideways. Aśvalāyana knows sādya as a ‘riding horse’ opposed to vahya, a ‘draught animal.’
sārñjaya Is found in the Rigveda in a Dānastuti (‘praise of gifts’) where the word probably denotes the ‘Spñjaya king’ rather than a ‘descendant of Srñjaya.’ According to the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, he was Prastoka, mentioned in the same hymn, but this conclusion is not very cogent. He was clearly a patron of the Bharadvājas. The same epithet belongs to Sahadeva, alias Suplan.
sīlamāvatī In the Rigveda is, according to Ludwig, the name of a river ; but this is most improbable. Sāyaṇa thinks the word means ‘rich in Jiemp.’
sudās Is the name of the Tṛtsu king who won a famous victory over the ten kings, as described in a hymn of the Rigveda. At one time Viśvāmitra was his Purohita, and accompanied him in his victorious raids over the Vipāś (Beās) and śutudrī (Sutlej). The Aśvins gave him a queen, Sudevī, and also helped him on another occasion. He appears with Trasadasyu in a late hymn without hint of rivalry, but elsewhere he seems to be referred to as defeated by Pupukutsa, Trasadasyu’s father. In the Aitareya Brāhmana he is recognized as a great king, with Vasiṣha as his Puro­hita, and similarly in the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra, where his generosity to his priest is related. His exact ancestry is a little uncertain, because he is called Paijavana, ‘son of Pijavana,’ as Yāska explains the patro¬nymic. If this explanation is correct, Divodāsa must have been his grandfather. If he was the son of Divodāsa, Pijavana must be understood as a more remote ancestor. The former alternative seems the more probable. Cf. Turvaśa, Dāśarājña. Paijavana, Bharata, Saudāsa.
sudevalā Was the name of Rtuparṇa as a woman according to the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
suplan sārñjaya Is the name of a prince of the Spηjayas who was taught the Dākṣāyaṇa sacrifice by Pratīdarśa, and took the name of Sahadeva as a token of his success.
subandhu In the hymns of the Rigveda is taken by Sāyaṇa to be a proper name; but this is not certain, Roth seeing in the passages only an ordinary noun meaning ‘a good friend.’ The later tradition explains that Subandhu and his brothers, called Gaupāyanas, were priests of Asamāti, who cast them off and took two others, Kirāta and Ákuli. By these two in pigeon form Subandhu was caused to swoon, but was revived by his three brothers, who recited certain hymns.
sumnayu Is mentioned in the Varpśa (list of teachers) at the end of the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka as a pupil of Uddā- laka.
suyajña śāṇḍilya Is the name of a pupil of Kamsa Vārakya in the Jaiminlya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa. Another Suyajña is a śāñkhāyana, author of the Gṛhya Sūtra.
suśravas Is the name of a man in the Rigveda according to Sāyaṇa.
sūnu Is a common word for ‘son’ from the Rigveda onwards. The etymological sense seems to be ‘he who is borne,’ and then ‘the begotten.’ But the use of Sūnu in the Rigveda3 is predominantly in relation to the father, and only rarely in its connexion with words for mother.4 Thus a father is ‘ easy of access’ (sūpāyana) to his son (sūnu);5 but in another passage,® where the same term is applied to earth as a mother, the word used for son is Putra. No conclusion as to matriarchy can of course be drawn from the etymology. On the relation of son and father, see Pitṛ.
sūrya The ‘sun,’ plays a great part in Vedic mythology and religion, corresponding with the importance of the sun as a factor in the physical life of the peninsula. In the Rigveda2 the sun is normally regarded as a beneficent power, a not unnatural view in a people which must apparently have issued from the cold regions of the Himālaya mountains. Its heat is, however, alluded to in some passages of the Rigveda, as well as referred to in the Atharvaveda and the literature of the Brāhmaṇas. In one myth Indra is said to have vanquished Sūrya and to have stolen his wheel: this is possibly a reference to the obscuration of the sun by a thunderstorm. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa presents a naive conception of the course of the sun, which it regards„ as bright on one side only, and as returning from west to east by the same road, but with the reverse side turned towards the earth, thus at night illumining the stars in heaven. In the Rigveda wonder is expressed that the sun does not fall. There are several references to eclipses in the Rigveda. In one passage Svarbhānu, a demon, is said to have eclipsed the sun with darkness, while Atri restores the light of the sun, a similar feat being elsewhere attributed to his family, the Atris. In the Atharvaveda Rāhu appears for the first time in connexion with the sun. Indra’s defeat of Sūrya may also be explained as alluding to an eclipse; in two other passages such an interpretation seems at least probable. Ludwig not only argues that the Rigveda knows the theory of eclipses caused by an occultation of the sun by the moon, and regards the sun as going round the earth, but even endeavours to identify an eclipse referred to in the Rigveda with one that occurred in 1029 B.C. These views are completely refuted by Whitney. The sun as a maker of time determines the year of 360 days, which is the civil year and the usual year (Saipvatsara) of Vedic literature. This solar year is divided into two halves— the Uttarāyaṇa, when the sun goes north, and the Dakṣiṇā- yana, when it goes south. There can be no doubt that these periods denote the time when the sun turns north from the winter solstice, and when it turns south from the summer solstice, for the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa says so in perfectly clear language. The alternative theory is to regard the periods as those when the sun is in the north—i.e., when it is north of the equator, and when it is in the south, taking as points of departure the equinoxes, not the solstices; but this view has no support in Vedic literature, and is opposed to the fact that the equinoxes play no part in Vedic astronomical theory. There are only doubtful references to the solstices in the Rigveda. The Brāhmanas, and perhaps the Rigveda, regard the moon as entering the sun at new moon. According to Hillebrandt, the Rigveda recognizes that the moon shines by the borrowed light of the sun, but this seems very doubt-ful. See also Aryamṇalj Panthā, Nakṣatra, and Sapta Sūryāh.
sūryanakṣatra Is found in the śatapatha Brāhmana in a passage where Sāyana takes it as denoting a Nakçatra, which gives out rays of light like the sun. But the real sense (as the Kāṇva text helps to show) is that the sacrificer may take the sun for his Nakṣatra—i.e., he may neglect the Nakṣatras altogether and rely on the sun.
sṛjaya Is the name of one of the victims at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda. What it was is unknown : Mahīdhara on the Vājasaneyi passage calls it a kind of bird ; Sāyaṇa on the Taittirīya Samhitā gives the alternatives ‘ black fly ’ (when sηayā must be read), ‘ white serpent,’ and ‘ black buffalo.’
sṛñjaya Is the name of a people mentioned as early as the Rigveda. Sṛñjaya (that is, the king of this people) Daivavāta is celebrated as victorious over the Turvaśas and the Vrcī- vants, and his sacrificial fire is referred to. In connexion with Daivavāta is also mentioned Sāhadevya Somaka, no doubt another prince; for in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa we find Somaka Sāhadevya and his father, Sahadeva (originally Suplan) Sārñjaya, as kings who were anointed by Parvata and Nārada. The Rigveda has also a Dānastuti (‘praise of gifts’) of Prastoka, a Sṛñjaya, who is lauded along with Divodāsa. Moreover, Vītahavya seems to have been a Sṛñjaya, though Zimmer prefers to take the derivative word, Vaitahavya, not as a patronymic, but as an epithet. It seems probable that the Sṛñjayas and the Tptsus were closely allied, for Divodāsa and a Sṛñjaya prince are celebrated together, and the Turvaśas were enemies of both. This view is borne out by the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, which recognizes Devabhāga śrautarṣa as Purohita of the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas. On the other hand, some disaster certainly befel the Srujayas, at least the Vaitahavyas, for they are said in the Atharvaveda to have offended the BhrgTUS and to have ended miserably. There is, it is true, no precise confirmation of this notice, but both the Kāthaka Saiphitā and the Taittirīya Samhitā, in independent passages, refer to the Sṛñjayas having sustained some serious loss, though the notice is in each case coupled with a ritual error, much as in the Old Testament the fate of kings depends on their devotion to Jahve or their dis¬obedience. It is justifiable to recognize some disaster in this allusion. The geographical position of the Sṛñjayas is uncertain. Hillebrandt suggests that in early times they must be looked for west of the Indus with Divodāsa; he also mentions, though he does not definitely adopt, the suggestion of Brunnhofer that the Sṛñjayas are to be compared with the Xapáyyai10 of the Greeks, and to be located in Drangiana. Zimmer is inclined to locate them on the upper Indus; but it is difficult to decide definitely in favour of any particular location. They may well have been a good deal farther east than the Indus, since their allies, the Tṛtsus, were in the Madhyadeśa, and were certainly absorbed in the Kurus. Of the history of this clan we have one notice. They expelled Duçtarītu Pauηisāyana, one of their kings, from the hereditary monarchy—of ten generations—and also drove out Revottaras Pā^ava Cākra Sthapati, probably his minister, who, however, succeeded in effecting the restoration of the king, despite the opposition of the Kuru prince, Balhika Prātīpya. Very probably this Kuru prince may have been at the bottom of the movement which led to the expulsion of the king and his minister. But the restoration of the king can hardly be regarded, in accordance with Bloomfield’s view, as a defeat of the Sṛñjayas.
saitava ‘Descendant of Setu,’ is the name of a teacher in the first two Vamśas (list of teachers) in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad. He is described as a pupil of Pārāśarya or of Pārāśaryāyaṇa.
soma prātiveśya (‘Descendant of Prativeśya’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Prativeśya, in the Vamśa (list of teachers) at the end of the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka.
saukarāyaṇa Is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Kāṣāyaṇa or Traivaṇi, in the second Varpśa (list of teachers) of the Brhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad.
saumapi ‘Descendant of Somāpa,’ is the patronymic of a teacher called Priyavrata in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka.
sthapati Is the name of a royal official mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and often later. Revottaras Cākra was the Sthapati of the exiled Duçtarītu Paumsāyana, a king of the Sp\jayas, and succeeded in restoring him to his royal dignity.8 The exact sense of the term is not certain: ‘governor’ is possible, but perhaps ‘chief judge’ is more likely; as in the case of the early English judges, his functions may have been both executive and judicial. He is inferior in position to the king’s brother.
sthavira Literally ‘elder,’ is used as a sort of epithet of several men; Sthavira śākalya occurs in the Aitareya Araṇ- yaka and the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka, and Sthavira Jātūkarṇya in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa. Cf. the names Hrasva and Dīrgha.
snāvanya Appears to be the name of a people in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
sparśu Is apparently the name of a western people in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
svanaya bhāvya Is the name of a prince on the Sindhu (Indus) who bestowed gifts on Kakṣīvant, according to the Rigveda. He is called Svanaya Bhāvayavya in the Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra.
svara Denotes in the Upaniṣads the sound of a vowel: these are described as being ghosavant, ‘sonant,’ and also as balavant, ‘ uttered with force.’ The precise word for a mute is sparśa, ‘ contact,’ while ūsman denotes a ‘sibilant,’ and svara a ‘vowel,’ in the Aitareya and śāñkhāyana Áraṇyakas. The semivowels are there denoted by anta-sthā (‘intermediate’) or aksara. Another division in the Aitareya Aranyaka is into ghosa, ūsman, and vyañjana, apparently ‘vowels,’ ‘ sibilants,’ and ‘consonants’ respectively. Ghosa elsewhere in that Aran­yaka seems to have the general sense of ‘sounds.’ The Taittirlya Upaniṣad refers to mātrā, a ‘ mora ’; bala, ‘ force ’ of utterance, and varna, ‘letter,’ an expression found else­where in the explanation of om, as compacted of a + u -f- in. The Aitareya Araṇyaka and the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka recognize the three forms of the Rigveda text as pratrnna, nirbhuja, and'ubhayain-antarena, denoting respectively the Sarphitā, Pada, and Krama Pāthas of the Rigveda. The same authorities recognize the importance of the distinction of the cerebral and dental n and s, and refer to the Māṇdūkeyas’ mode of recitation. They also discuss Sandhi, the euphonic ‘combination’ of letters. The Prātiśākhyas of the several Samhitās develop in detail the grammatical terminology, and Yāska's Nirukta contains a good deal of grammatical material. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa distinguishes the genders, and the Pañcaviφśa Brāhmana the division of words in the Sāman recitation.
harayāṇa In the Rigveda is clearly the name of a man mentioned along with Uksaṇyāyana and Suṣāman.
hariyūpīyā Is mentioned in a hymn of the Rigveda as the scene of the defeat of the Vrcīvants by Abhyāvartin Cāya- mana. It may denote either a place or a river, since many battles seem to have been fought on the banks of rivers. Ludwig took it as the name of a town on the river Yavyāvatī, which is identified with it in Sāyaṇa’s commentary on the passage. Hillebrandt thinks that it is the river Iryāb (Haliāb), a tributary of the Kurum (Krumu), but this is not at all probable.
hariścandra vaidhasa (‘Descendant of Vedhas’) Aikṣvāka (‘descendant of Ikṣvāku’) is the name of a probably mythical king whose rash vow to offer up his son Rohita to Varuna is the source of the tale of śunahśepa in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra.
halikṣṇa Is mentioned as one of the victims at the Aśvamedha (‘horse sacrifice’) in the Yajurveda Samhitās. The commentator Mahīdhara thinks that it is a kind of lion, Sāyaṇa that a green Cataka bird or a lion (trna-hiψsa)δ is meant. In the Atharvaveda Halīkṣṇa seems to be some par­ticular intestine, but Weber thinks it may mean ‘gall.’
hastaghna Denotes in the Rigveda a hand-guard,’ a covering used as a protection of the hand and arm from the impact of the bowstring. The word is of remarkable and still unexplained formation. Lātyāyana has hasta-tra and the Epic hastāvāpa as its equivalent in sense.
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ayana mā vivadhīr (Tā. -badhīr) vikramasva TA.3.15.1d; Tā.10.49d.
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"ayana" has 119 results.
     
abhayanandina reputed jain Grammarian of the eighth century who wrote an extensive gloss on the जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण. The gloss is known as जैनेन्द्रव्याकरणमहावृत्ति of which वृहज्जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण appears to be another name.
vyākaraṇādhyayanaprayojanathe purpose of the study of Grammar which is beautifully summed up and discussed in the first Ahnika by Patanjali in his Mahabhasya.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
goṣṭhaca taddhita affix.affix applied to words like गो and others in the sense of 'a place'; confer, compare गेष्ठजादयः स्थानादिषु पशुनाम। पशुनामादिभ्य उपसंख्यानम् | गवां स्थानं गोगोष्ठम्, अश्वगोष्ठम्: महिषीगोष्ठम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.1. varia lectio, another reading,2.29 It is very likely that words like गोष्ठ, दघ्न and others were treated as pratyayas by Panini and katyayana who followed Panini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never independently.
cintāmaṇiname of a commentary on the Sutras of the Sakatayana Vyakarana written by यक्षवर्मन्, It is also called लधुवृत्ति.
jātipakṣathe view that जाति, or genus only, is the denotation of every word. The view was first advocated by Vajapyayana which was later on held by many, the Mimamsakas being the chief supporters of the view. See Mahabhasya on P. I. 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari. 40.
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
jainendravyākaraṇamahāvṛttiname of a commentary on the Jainendra Vyakarana, written by Abhayanandin in the ninth century A. D. see जैनेन्द्रव्याकरण a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
tīvrataraextreme sharpness of the nasalization at the time of pronouncing the anusvara and the fifth letters recommended by Saityayana.e. g. अग्नीररप्सुषदः, वञ्चते परिवञ्चते. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XVII. 1.
trimuni(1)the famous three ancient grammarians Panini (the author of the Sutras), Katyayana (the author of the Varttikas), and Patanjali (the author of the Mahabhasya;) (2) the grammar of Panini, called so, being the contribution of the reputed triad of Grammarians.
dvisdouble reduplicated; the word is frequently used in connection with doubling of consonants or words in the PratiSakhya Literature as also in the Katantra, Sakatayana and Haima grammars confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1, XV. 5, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 101, R, T. 264; confer, compare also Kat. III. 8.10, Sak. IV. 1.43; Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. IV. 1.1.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhāturatnākaraa work dealing with roots believed to have been written by Narayana who was given the title वन्द्य. He lived in the seventeenth century; a work named सारावलि व्याक्ररण is also believed to have been written by him.
dhātuvṛttia general term applied to a treatise discussing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Madhavacārya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vijayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, on the Dhatupatha ot Panini. The work is generally referred to as माधवीया-धातुवृति to distinguish it from ordinary commentary works called also धातुवृत्ति written by grammarians like Wijayananda and others.
nārāyaṇavandyaa grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named Saravali, and a treatise on roots named Dhatuparayana.
niruktaname of a class of works which were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of these viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana,Sakapuni,Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Nirukta of Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B. C. i. e. a century or two before Panini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics ( शिक्षा ), rituals ( कल्प ), grammar (व्याकरण) prosody (छन्दस्) and astronomy(ज्योतिष)and a mention of them is found made in the Chandogyopanisad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtful whether the Nirukta works could be called scientific treatises. The work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commentators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one by Durgacarya is a scholarly one.It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durgasimha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss on the Katantra Vyakarana. The word निरुक्त is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'explained' and not in the sense of derived; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XV 6; V.Pr. IV. 19, 195.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
paribhāṣāsūcanaan old work on the Paribhasas in the system of Panini's Grammar, believed to have been written by Vyaadi, who lived after Kaatyayana and before Patanjali. The work is written in the old style of the MahabhaSya and consists of a short commentary on 93 Paribhasas.
paribhāṣenduśekharathe reputed authoritative work on the Paribhasas in the system of Paanini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A.D. at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 commentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. Well-known among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha Payagunde ( called गदा ), by BhairavamiSra ( called मिश्री), by Raghavendraacaarya Gajendragadakara ( called त्रिपथगा ), by Govindacarya Astaputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called भावार्थदीपिका), by BhaskaraSastri Abhyankar of Satara (called भास्करी ), and by M. M. Vaasudevasaastri Abhyankar of Poona (called तत्त्वादर्श ). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Taatya Sastri Patawardhana,Ganapati Sastri Mokaate, Jayadeva Misra, VisnuSastri Bhat, Vishwanatha Dandibhatta, Harinaatha Dwiwedi Gopaalacarya Karhaadkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Naarayana Shastri Galagali, Venumaadhava Shukla, Brahmaananda Saraswati, ManisiSeSaSarma,Manyudeva, Samkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimacarya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikaar, Cidrupasraya, Bhimabhatta, LakSminrsimha and a few others. Some of these works are named by their authors as Tikaas, others as Vyaakhyaas and still others as Tippanis or Vivrtis.
parisaṃkhyānaliterally enumeration; enunciation;mention ; the word is found generally used by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras at the end of their Varttikas. The words वक्तव्यम्, वाच्यम् , and the like, are similarly usedition
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravārtikaname given to the collection of explanatory pithy notes of the type of SUtras written. mainly by Kaatyaayana. The Varttikas are generally written in the style of the SUtras, but sometimes they are written in Verse also. The total number of Varttikas is well-nigh a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. 5000, including Varttikas in Verse.There are three kinds of Varttikas; confer, compareउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तानां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते । तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिणः । Naagesa appears to have divided Varttikas into two classes as shown by his definition 'सूत्रेऽ नुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिकत्वम् '. If this definition be followed, many of the Vaarttikas given in the Maahibhaasya as explaining and commenting upon the Sutras will not strictly be termed as Vaarttikaas, and their total number which is given as exceeding 5000, will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript copies which give this reduced number, and it may be said that only these Vārttikas were written by Kātyāyana while the others were added by learned grammarians after Kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāșya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Vārttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Vārttikas. At some places the Mahābhāșyakāra has quoted the names of the authors of some Vārttikas or their schools, in words such as क्रोष्ट्रीयाः पठन्ति, भारद्वाजीयाः पठन्ति, सौनागाः पठन्ति. et cetera, and others Many of the Vārttikas given in the Mahābhāșya are not seen in the Kāśikāvŗtti, while some more are seen in the Kāśikā-vŗtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patańjali, as they have not been noticed by the Mahābhāșyakāra. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the Bhāșyakāra popularly named 'ișțis' from the Vārttikas of Kātyāyana and others. For details see Vol. VII Mahābhāșya, D.E. Society's edition pp. 193-224.
prakriyāsaṃgrahaa work on grammar by Abhayacandra in which the Sutras of Sakatayana's Sabdanusasana are arranged in the form of different sections dealing with the different topics of grammar.
prāgdeśadistricts of the east especially districts to the east of Ayodhya and Pataliputra, such as Magadha, Vanga and others; nothing can definitely be said as to which districts were called Eastern by Panini and his followers Katyayana and Patanjali. A Varttika given in the Kasika but not traceable in the Mahabhasya defines Pragdesa as districts situated to the east of शरावती (probably the modern river Ravi or a river near that river ): confer, compare प्रागुदञ्चौ विभजते हंसः क्षीरोदके यथा । विदुषां शब्दसिद्ध्यर्थे सा नः पातु शरावती ॥ Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on एङ् प्राचां देशे P. I. 1.75. There is a reading सरस्वती in some manuscript copies and सरस्वती is a wellknown river in the Punjab near Kuruksetra, which disappears in the sandy desert to the south: a reading इरावती is also found and इरावती may stand for the river Ravi. शरावती in Burma is simply out of consideration. For details see Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. pp. 202-204 and 141-142 D. E. Society's Edition.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
mahābhāṣyavyākhyāname given to each of the explanatory glosses on the Mahabhasya written by grammarians prominent of whom were Purusottamadeva, Narayana Sesa, Visnu, Nilakantha and others whose fragmentary works exist in a manuscript form. महामिश्र name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on Jinendrabuddhi's Nyasa. The commentary is known by the name Vyakaranaprakasa. महाविभाषा a rule laying down an option for several rules in a topic by being present in every rule: confer, compare महाविभाषया वाक्यमपि. विभाषा (P.II.1.11) and समर्थानां प्रथमाद्वा (P. IV.1.82) are some of the rules of this kindeclinable
mitavṛtyarthasaṃgrahaname ofa grammatical work on the SUtras of Paanini by Udayana.
yakṣavarmanaauthor of the commentary called चिन्तामणि on the SabdaanuSaasana of Sakataayana.
rāmasiṃhṛvarmāpossibly the same king of Sringaberapura who patronised Nagesabhatta. He is said to have written some Small comments on " the Ramayana and a small grammar work named धातुरत्नमञ्जरी.
vararuci(1)a reputed ancient grammarian who is identified with Katyayana, the prominent author of the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. Both the names वररुचि and कात्यायन are mentioned in commentary works in connection with the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and it is very likely that Vararuci was the individual name of the scholar, and Katyayana his family name. The words कात्य and कात्यायन are found used in Slokavarttikas in the Mahabhasya on P.III.2.3 and III.2.118 where references made are actually found in the prose Varttikas (see कविधेो सर्वत्र प्रसारणिभ्यो ड: P.III. 2. 3 Vart and स्मपुरा भूतमात्रे न स्मपुराद्यतने P.III.2.118 Vart. 1)indicating that the Slokavarttikakara believed that the Varttikas were composed by Katyayana. There is no reference at all in the Mahabhasya to Vararuci as a writer of the Varttikas; there is only one reference which shows that there was a scholar by name Vararuci known to Patanjali, but he was a poet; confer, compare वाररुचं काव्यं in the sense of 'composed' ( कृत and not प्रोक्त ) by वररुचि M.Bh. on P. IV. 2.4. ( 2 ) वररुचि is also mentioned as the author of the Prakrta Grammar known by the name प्राकृतप्रकाश or प्राकृतमञ्जरी, This वररुचि, who also was कात्यायन by Gotra name, was a grammarian later than Patanjali, who has been associated with Sarvvarman, (the author of the first three Adhyayas of the Katantra Sutras), as the author of the fourth Adhyaya. Patanjali does not associate वररुचि with Kityayana at alI. His mention of वररुचि as a writer of a Kavya is a sufficient testimony for that. Hence, it appears probable that Katyayana, to whom the authorship of the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya and many other works allied with Veda has been attributed, was not associated with Vararuci by Patanjali, and it is only the later writers who identified the grammarian Vararuci,who composed the fourth Adhyaya of the Katantra Grammar and wrote a Prakrit Grammar and some other grammar' works, with the ancient revered Katyayana, the author of Varttikas, the Vijasaneyi Pratisakhya and the Puspasutra; (3) There was a comparatively modern grammariannamed वररुचि who wrote a small treatise on genders of words consisting of about 125 stanzas with a commentary named Lingavrtti, possibly written by the author himselfeminine. (4) There was also another modern grammarian by name वररुचि who wrote a work on syntax named प्रयोगमुखमण्डन discuss^ ing the four topics कारक, समास, तद्धित and कृदन्त.
varṣaname of an ancient scholar of grammar and Mimamsa, cited by some as the preceptor of कात्यायन and Panini. If not of Panini, he may have been a preceptor of Katyayana
vākyakāraa term used for a writer who composes a work in pithy, brief assertions in the manner of sutras, such as the Varttikas. The term is found used in Bhartrhari's Mahabhasyadipika where by contrast with the term Bhasyakara it possibly refers to the varttikakara Katyayana; confer, compare एषा भाष्यकारस्य कल्पना न वाक्यकारस्य Bhartrhari Mahabhasyadipika. confer, compare also Nagesa's statement वाक्यकारो वार्तिकरमारभते: confer, compare also चुलुम्पादयो वाक्यकारीया ; Madhaviya Dhatuvrtti.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vārarucaa work attributed to वररुचि: confer, compare वाररुचे काव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P. IV.3.101 cf also वाररुनो ग्रन्थ: S.K.on P.IV.3. 101 This work possibly was not a grammar work and its author also was not the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. See वरुरुचि a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. The name वाररुचव्याकरण was given possibly to Katyayana's Prakrit Grammar, the author of which was वररुचि surnamed Katyayana. For details see p.395 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
vārarucakārikāan ancient grammarwork in verse believed to have been written by an ancient scholar of grammar, who, if not the same as Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas, was his contemporary and to whom the authorship of the Unadi Sutras is ascribed by some scholars. See वररुचि.
vārttikaa statement which is as much authoritative as the original statement to which it is given as an addition for purposes of correction, completion or explanation. The word is defined by old writers in an often-guoted verseउक्तानुक्तदुरुक्तनां चिन्ता यत्र प्रवर्तते | तं ग्रन्थं वार्तिकं प्राहुर्वार्तिकज्ञा मनीषिण:|This definition fully applies to the varttikas on the Sutras of Panini. The word is explained by Kaiyata as वृत्तौ साधु वार्त्तिकम् which gives strength to the supposition that there were glosses on the Sutras of Panini of which the Varttikas formed a faithful pithy summary of the topics discussedition The word varttika is used in the Mahabhasya at two places only हन्तेः पूर्वविप्रविषेधो वार्तिकेनैव ज्ञापित: M.Bh. on P.III. 4.37 and अपर आह् यद्वार्त्तिक इति M.Bh. on P. II.2.24 Vart. 18. In अपर अहृ यद्वार्त्तिक इति the word is contrasted with the word वृत्तिसूत्र which means the original Sutra (of Panini ) which has been actuaIly quoted, viz. संख्ययाव्ययासन्नाo II.2. 25. Nagesa gives ' सूत्रे अनुक्तदुरुक्तचिन्ताकरत्वं वार्तिक्रत्वम् as the definition of a Varttika which refers only to two out of the three features of the Varttikas stated a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. If the word उक्त has been omitted with a purpose by Nagesa, the definition may well-nigh lead to support the view that the genuine Varttikapatha of Katyayana consisted of a smaller number of Varttikas which along with a large number of Varttikas of other writers are quoted in the Mahabhasya, without specific names of writers, For details see pages 193-223 Vol. VII Patanjala Mahabhasya, D.E, Society's Edition.
vārttikakārabelieved to be Katyayana to whom the whole bulk of the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya is attributed by later grammarians. Patafijali gives the word वार्तिककार in four places only (in the Mahabhasya on P.I.1.34, III.1.44: III.2.118 and VII.1.1) out of which his statement स्यादिविधिः पुरान्तः यद्यविशेषणं भवति किं वार्तिककारः प्रातिषेधेनं करोति in explanation of the Slokavarttika स्यादिविधिः...इति हुवता कात्यायनेनेहृ, shows that Patanjali gives कात्यायन as the Varttikakara (of Varttikas in small prose statements) and the Slokavarttika is not composed by Katyayana. As assertions similar to those made by other writers are quoted with the names of their authors ( भारद्वाजीयाः, सौनागाः, कोष्ट्रियाः et cetera, and others) in the Mahabhasya, it is evident that the Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya(even excluding the Slokavarttikas) did not all belong to Katyayana. For details see pp. 193-200, Vol. VII, Vyakarana Mahabhasya, D. E. Society's Edition.
vārtikapāṭhathe text of the Varttikas as traditionally handed over in the oral recital or in manuscripts As observed a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.(see वार्त्तिक),although a large number of Varttikas quoted in the Mahabhasya are ascribed to Katyayana, the genuine Varttikapatha giving such Varttikas only, as were definitely composed by him, has not been preserved and Nagesa has actually gone to the length of making a statement like " वार्तिकपाठ: भ्रष्टः" ; confer, compare . Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on P.I.l.I2 Varttika 6.
vijayāname of a commentary on the Laghusabdendusekhara by Sivanarayana.
vyutpattipakṣathe view that every word is derived from a suitable root as contrasted with the other view viz. the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष. The grammarians hold that Panini held the अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष,id est, that is the view that not all words in a language can be derived but only some of them can be so done, and contrast him (id est, that isPanini) with an equally great grammarian Sakatayana who stated that every word has to be derived: confer, compare न्यग्रोधयतीति न्यग्रोध इति व्युत्पत्तिपक्षे नियमार्थम् ! अव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष विध्यर्थम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.VII.3.6.
śabdabhūṣaṇaname of a short gloss on the Sutras of Panini, written by Narayana Pandita.
śabdamañjarīname of a short grammar work written by Narayana Pandita.
śabdānuśāsanaliterally science of grammar dealing with the formation of words, their accents, and use in a sentence. The word is used in connection with standard works on grammar which are complete and self-sufficient in all the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned features. Patanjali has begun his Mahabhasya with the words अथ शब्दानुशासनम् referring possibly to the vast number of Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini, and hence the term शब्दानुशासन according to him means a treatise on the science of grammar made up of the rules of Panini with the explanatory and critical varttikas written by Katyayana and other Varttikakaras.The word शब्दानुशासन later on, became synonymons with Vyakarana and it was given as a title to their treatises by later grammarians, or was applied to the authoritative treatise which introduced a system of grammar, similar to that of Panini. Hemacandra's famous treatise, named सिद्धहैमचन्द्र by the author,came to be known as हैमशब्दानुशासन. Similarly the works on grammar written by पाल्यकीर्तिशाकटायन and देवनन्दिन् were called शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and जैनेन्द्र' शब्दानुशासन respectively.
śākaṭāyana(1)name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन.
śākaṭāyanataraṅgiṇīa commentary on Sakatayana's Sabdanusana.
śākaṭāyanavyākaraṇathe treatise on grammar written by sakatayana। See शाकटायन.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śrutakevalina term of a very great honour given to such Jain monks as have almost attained perfection; the term is used in connection with Palyakirti Sakatayana, the Jain grammarian शाकटायन, whose works शाकटायनशब्दानुशासन and its presentation in a topical form named शाकटायनप्रक्रिया are studied at the present day in some parts of India. See शाकटायन a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
sāpyafurnished with अाप्य or object; a transitive root;the term is used in the Sakatayana, Haimacandra and Candra grammars; confer, compare Candra I.4.100, Hema. III.3.21, Sakat. IV. 3.55.
sāyaṇa,sāyaṇācāryathe celebrated Vedic scholar and grammarian of Vijayanagar who flourished in the 14th century and wrote, besides the monumental commentary works on the Vedas, a grammatical work on roots and their forms known by the name माधवीया धातुवृत्ति. As the colophon of the work shows, the Dhatuvrtti was written by Sayanacarya, but published under the name of Madhava, the brother of Sayanacarya: confer, compare इति महामन्त्रिणा मायणसुतेन माधवसहोदरेण सायणाचार्येण विरचितायां माधवीयायां धातुवृत्तौ...Madhaviya Dha tuvrtti at the end; cf also तेन मायणपुत्रेण सायणेन मनीषिणा । व्याख्येया माधवी चेयं धातुवृत्तिर्विरच्यते । Mad. Dhatuvrtti at the beginning.
sārasvataṭīkāname in general given to commentary works on the Sarasvata Vyakarana out of which those written by Ramanarayana, Satyaprabodha, Ksemamkara, Jagannatha and Mahidhara are known to scholars.
sūtrakārathe original writer of the sutras; e. g. पाणिनि, शाकटायन, शर्ववर्मन् , हेमचन्द्र and others. In Panini's system, Panini is called Sutrakara, as contrasted with Katyayana,who is called the Varttikakara and Patanjali, who is called the Bhasyakara;confer, compare पाणिने: सूत्रकारस्य M.Bh. on P.II 2.1.1.
spardhaa word used in the sense of 'a conflict of two rules' ( विप्रतिषेध ) in some grammars such as those of Jainendra, Sakatayana and Hemacandra; cf Jain. I.2.39,Sak. I.1.46 and Hema. VII.4. l l9.
sva(1)personal-ending of the second person singular. Atmanepada in the imperative mood; cf थास: से | सवाभ्यां वामौ | P.III.4.80, 91 ; (2) a term used in the sense of स्ववर्गीय (belonging to the same class or category) in the Pratisakhya works; cf स्पर्श: स्वे R.T.25; confer, compare also कान्त् स्वे Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 1. 55;confer, comparealso R, Pr.IV.1 ; and VI.1 ;(3) cognate, the same as सवर्ण defined by Panini in तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् P. P.I.1.9; the term is found used in the Jain grammar works of Jainendra, Sakatayana and Hemacanda cf ]ain. I.1.2 SikI. 1.2; Hema. I.1.17.
haimaliṅānuśāsanavyākhyāa commentary named उद्धार also, written by Jayananda on the हैमलिङ्गानुशासन.
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360 results
     
ayana the bodySB 5.18.37
ayana the motionCC Adi 2.46
ayana the sheltersCC Adi 2.42
ayana-śabdete by the word ayanaCC Adi 2.38
ayana-śabdete by the word ayanaCC Adi 2.38
ayana bringingSB 10.84.37
ayanaiḥ whose place of residenceSB 10.68.49
ayanam a reservoirSB 12.2.6
ayanam ayanaSB 5.22.6
ayanam lying in placeSB 2.10.10
ayanam movementSB 3.7.16
ayanam shelterSB 10.42.12
SB 10.42.24
SB 11.26.32
ayanam the demigod in charge of the passing of the sunSB 7.15.50-51
ayanam the movement of the sun in six monthsSB 3.11.11
ayanam the movements of the stars and planets in relationship to human societySB 10.8.5
ayanam the shelterSB 5.6.16
he nayana-abhirāma O most beautiful to My eyesCC Madhya 2.65
nayana-abhirāmam very pleasing to the eyesSB 3.2.20
nayana-abjayoḥ from the lotuslike eyesSB 1.14.23
adhyayana studyingSB 5.9.1-2
adhyayana study of Vedic literatureSB 5.9.6
adhyayana study of scriptureSB 7.9.46
adhyayana studies of the VedasSB 7.11.13
adhyayana-ādīni reading the Vedas, etcSB 7.11.14
adhyayana study of scriptureSB 10.84.39
adhyayana study of various śāstrasSB 11.6.9
adhyayana Vedic studySB 11.17.40
adhyayana studyingCC Adi 15.3
adhyayana-līlā pastimes of studyingCC Adi 15.7
adhyayana studyCC Madhya 6.126
adhyayana studyCC Madhya 11.191
chāḍi' adhyayana giving up so-called studies of VedāntaCC Madhya 25.22
karena adhyayana was engaged in studyCC Antya 3.169
kara adhyayana studyCC Antya 13.113
nāhi adhyayana without educationCC Antya 16.75
adhyayanaiḥ or Vedic studyBG 11.48
ānayana-ādi of the bringing and other such tasksSB 5.10.21
upanayana-ādi beginning with offering the sacred thread or training the conditioned soul to qualify as a bona fide brāhmaṇaSB 5.14.30
adhyayana-ādīni reading the Vedas, etcSB 7.11.14
nayana-amburuham the lotus eyesSB 3.9.25
amṛta-ayanam the reservoir of nectarSB 12.10.26
manaḥ-nayana-amṛtam nectar for the mind and eyesCC Madhya 2.74
manaḥ-nayana-ānandana pleasing to the mind and eyesSB 5.3.2
ānayana-ādi of the bringing and other such tasksSB 5.10.21
ānayana-kāmyayā with a desire to bring the Ganges to this material world to deliver his forefathersSB 9.9.1
ānayanam bringing himSB 1.7.43
ānayanam the bringing backSB 12.12.35
caraṇa-anuśayana surrendering unto the lotus feetSB 5.1.36
anuśayanam the lying down of the puruṣa incarnation Mahā-Viṣṇu in mystic slumberSB 2.10.6
aravinda-nayanasya of the lotus-eyed LordSB 3.15.43
aravinda-nayanasya of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose eyes are like the petals of a lotusCC Madhya 17.142
aravinda-nayanasya of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose eyes are like the petals of a lotusCC Madhya 24.45
aravinda-nayanasya of the lotus-eyed LordCC Madhya 24.115
aravinda-nayanasya of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose eyes are like the petals of a lotus flowerCC Madhya 25.158
rādhā-āsya-nayana the face and eyes of Śrīmatī RādhārāṇīCC Madhya 14.179
praṇaya-bāṣpa-niruddha-avaloka-nayana awakening of tears of love in the eyes, obstructing the visionSB 5.7.12
prāṇa-ayana of the movement of the life airSB 4.29.71
dakṣiṇa-ayana of passing to the southern side of the equatorSB 5.21.3
indriya-ayana by the resting place of the senses (the mind)SB 11.22.42
karṇa-rasa-ayana most pleasing to the earCC Madhya 8.255
mahā-rasa-ayana the complete abode of transcendental mellowsCC Madhya 24.38
eka-ayana the body of an ordinary living being is fully dependent on the material elementsSB 10.2.27
naimiṣa-ayanaiḥ who were assembled in the forest of NaimiṣaSB 3.20.7
gīta-ayanaiḥ accompanied with musicSB 4.4.5
uttara-ayanam when the sun passes on the northern sideBG 8.24
dakṣiṇa-ayanam when the sun passes on the southern sideBG 8.25
svasti-ayanam all-blissfulSB 1.3.40
svasti-ayanam perception of all happinessSB 2.6.36
kṛta-svasti-ayanam decorated with auspicious marksSB 3.23.30
dhyāna-ayanam easily meditated uponSB 3.28.33
svasti-ayanam creating auspiciousnessSB 4.12.45
guṇa-ayanam one who has acquired all the good qualitiesSB 4.21.44
svasti-ayanam auspiciousnessSB 4.23.34
svasti-ayanam the abode of auspiciousnessSB 5.14.46
dakṣiṇa-ayanam the sun passes to the southern sideSB 5.21.6
bila-ayanam the subterranean planetsSB 5.24.16
svasti-ayanam the means of liberationSB 6.2.7
svasti-ayanam brings good fortune for allSB 6.13.22-23
svasti-ayanam Vedic mantras (by the brāhmaṇas)SB summary
svasti-ayanam auspicious hymnsSB 10.7.13-15
svasti-ayanam the auspicious chantsSB 10.24.32-33
para-ayanam the ultimate shelterSB 11.13.39
mańgala-ayanam which brings good fortuneSB 11.30.9
amṛta-ayanam the reservoir of nectarSB 12.10.26
rasa-ayanam mellowCC Madhya 1.211
rasa-ayanam the elixirMM 37
mānasa-ayanau together in the Mānasa LakeSB 4.28.54
praṇaya-bāṣpa-niruddha-avaloka-nayana awakening of tears of love in the eyes, obstructing the visionSB 5.7.12
nayana-bhańge by activities of the eyesCC Madhya 8.194
bharila nayana eyes become filledCC Madhya 15.57
nayana bhariyā to the fulfillment of the eyesCC Madhya 12.21
sa-bhaya-nayana just now sitting there with fearful eyesSB 10.8.31
kṛṣṇera bhojana-śayana in this way offering eatables to Kṛṣṇa and laying Him down to restCC Madhya 24.334
bhūmite śayana lying on the floorCC Antya 13.15
bila-ayanam the subterranean planetsSB 5.24.16
nayana-cakora eyes that are like cakora birdsCC Antya 19.36
caraṇa-anuśayana surrendering unto the lotus feetSB 5.1.36
chāḍi' adhyayana giving up so-called studies of VedāntaCC Madhya 25.22
dakṣiṇa-ayanam when the sun passes on the southern sideBG 8.25
dakṣiṇa-ayana of passing to the southern side of the equatorSB 5.21.3
dakṣiṇa-ayanam the sun passes to the southern sideSB 5.21.6
dhyāna-ayanam easily meditated uponSB 3.28.33
dvi-nayana two eyesCC Madhya 21.134
eka-ayana the body of an ordinary living being is fully dependent on the material elementsSB 10.2.27
gīta-ayanaiḥ accompanied with musicSB 4.4.5
guṇa-ayanam one who has acquired all the good qualitiesSB 4.21.44
he nayana-abhirāma O most beautiful to My eyesCC Madhya 2.65
nayana-hṛdaya the eyes and mindCC Madhya 13.117
indriya-ayana by the resting place of the senses (the mind)SB 11.22.42
śayana kailā lay downCC Antya 18.108
kamala-nayana Kamala-nayanaCC Adi 10.111
kamala-nayana lotus-eyedCC Madhya 5.137
kamala-nayana the lotus eyesCC Madhya 8.270
kamala-nayana the lotus-eyed Lord JagannāthaCC Madhya 11.35
kamala-nayana lotus eyesCC Madhya 12.58
kamala-nayana eyes like the petals of a lotus flowerCC Madhya 17.108
ānayana-kāmyayā with a desire to bring the Ganges to this material world to deliver his forefathersSB 9.9.1
kara adhyayana studyCC Antya 13.113
śayana karāi' making Him lie downCC Antya 17.8
karāiha śayana cause to lie downCC Antya 13.9
karāilā śayana they made to lie downCC Antya 14.57
karāilā śayana made to lie downCC Antya 15.94
karena śayana lies downCC Adi 5.55
karena śayana lies downCC Madhya 20.268
karena adhyayana was engaged in studyCC Antya 3.169
karena śayana he sleepsCC Antya 6.155
karena śayana lies downCC Antya 10.83-84
śayana karena lies downCC Antya 13.20
karena śayana lies downCC Antya 19.68
karena śayana he lies downCC Antya 19.71
karila śayana lay downCC Adi 5.100-101
karilā śayana took restCC Adi 14.76
karila śayana lay downCC Madhya 14.89
karilā śayana took restCC Madhya 14.94
karilā śayana took restCC Madhya 17.90
śayana karila lay downCC Madhya 20.286
karila śayana went to sleepCC Antya 12.151
śayana karilā He lay downCC Antya 13.12
karilā śayana lay downCC Antya 17.9
karite śayana to take restCC Madhya 11.240
karite śayana to take restCC Antya 10.81
kariyāche śayana was lying downCC Madhya 17.28
kariyāche śayana was lying downCC Antya 11.17
kariyāchena śayana was lying downCC Antya 10.85
kariyāchena śayana was taking restCC Antya 14.17
karṇa-rasa-ayana most pleasing to the earCC Madhya 8.255
kṛṣṇera bhojana-śayana in this way offering eatables to Kṛṣṇa and laying Him down to restCC Madhya 24.334
kṛta-svasti-ayanam decorated with auspicious marksSB 3.23.30
kṛta-svastyayanam engaging them in chanting auspicious Vedic hymnsSB 10.7.5
kṛta-svastyayanam immediately performed a ritualistic ceremony for good fortuneSB 10.7.11
adhyayana-līlā pastimes of studyingCC Adi 15.7
mahā-rasa-ayana the complete abode of transcendental mellowsCC Madhya 24.38
manaḥ-nayana-vardhanam very pleasing to the eyes and the mindSB 4.8.49
manaḥ-unnayanau very agitating to the mindSB 5.2.12
manaḥ-nayana-ānandana pleasing to the mind and eyesSB 5.3.2
manaḥ-nayana-amṛtam nectar for the mind and eyesCC Madhya 2.74
manaḥ-nayana mind and eyesCC Madhya 6.145-146
manaḥ-nayana to the mind and eyesCC Antya 17.51
mānasa-ayanau together in the Mānasa LakeSB 4.28.54
mańgala-ayanam which brings good fortuneSB 11.30.9
miśra-nayana Nayana MiśraCC Adi 12.81
nayana-mūlam face to faceSB 3.15.46
nāga-śayana O You who sleep on the serpent bed (of Ananta Śeṣa)MM 1
nāhi adhyayana without educationCC Antya 16.75
naimiṣa-ayanaiḥ who were assembled in the forest of NaimiṣaSB 3.20.7
nalina-nayana of the lotus-eyed LordCC Madhya 23.65
nayana-abjayoḥ from the lotuslike eyesSB 1.14.23
nayana-abhirāmam very pleasing to the eyesSB 3.2.20
nayana-amburuham the lotus eyesSB 3.9.25
nayana eyesSB 3.15.45
nayana-mūlam face to faceSB 3.15.46
nayana of the eyesSB 3.16.27
nayana eyesSB 3.28.16
nayana to the eyesSB 3.28.26
manaḥ-nayana-vardhanam very pleasing to the eyes and the mindSB 4.8.49
nayana of his eyesSB 4.9.44
nayana eyesSB 5.2.5
nayana for the eyesSB 5.2.6
manaḥ-nayana-ānandana pleasing to the mind and eyesSB 5.3.2
nayana with eyesSB 5.5.31
nayana eyesSB 5.25.5
tri-nayana O maintainer and seer of the three worldsSB 6.9.40
nayana eyesSB 7.9.36
sa-bhaya-nayana just now sitting there with fearful eyesSB 10.8.31
nayana for the eyesSB 10.36.15
nayana for the eyesSB 10.58.12
nayana whose eyesSB 10.90.15
nayana of the two eyesCC Adi 4.196
nayana eyesCC Adi 4.242-243
nayana eyesCC Adi 4.250
sahasra-nayana thousands of eyesCC Adi 5.100-101
nayana eyesCC Adi 5.165
nayana our eyesCC Adi 7.104
kamala-nayana Kamala-nayanaCC Adi 10.111
miśra-nayana Nayana MiśraCC Adi 12.81
nayana eyesCC Madhya 2.29
he nayana-abhirāma O most beautiful to My eyesCC Madhya 2.65
manaḥ-nayana-amṛtam nectar for the mind and eyesCC Madhya 2.74
nayana the eyesCC Madhya 3.142
kamala-nayana lotus-eyedCC Madhya 5.137
manaḥ-nayana mind and eyesCC Madhya 6.145-146
nayana-bhańge by activities of the eyesCC Madhya 8.194
kamala-nayana the lotus eyesCC Madhya 8.270
nayana my eyesCC Madhya 10.18
kamala-nayana the lotus-eyed Lord JagannāthaCC Madhya 11.35
nayana bhariyā to the fulfillment of the eyesCC Madhya 12.21
kamala-nayana lotus eyesCC Madhya 12.58
nayana-yugala two eyesCC Madhya 12.212
nayana-hṛdaya the eyes and mindCC Madhya 13.117
nayana-yugala a pair of eyesCC Madhya 13.168
nayana the eyesCC Madhya 14.36
rādhā-āsya-nayana the face and eyes of Śrīmatī RādhārāṇīCC Madhya 14.179
nayana-yugam the pair of eyesCC Madhya 14.189
bharila nayana eyes become filledCC Madhya 15.57
nayana the eyesCC Madhya 15.91
kamala-nayana eyes like the petals of a lotus flowerCC Madhya 17.108
nayana eyesCC Madhya 21.68
nayana eyesCC Madhya 21.131
dvi-nayana two eyesCC Madhya 21.134
nalina-nayana of the lotus-eyed LordCC Madhya 23.65
nayana by whose beautiful eyesCC Antya 1.165
nayana your eyesCC Antya 3.33
nayana My eyesCC Antya 15.61
manaḥ-nayana to the mind and eyesCC Antya 17.51
uttāna-nayana with open eyesCC Antya 18.54
nayana the eyesCC Antya 18.86
nayana-cakora eyes that are like cakora birdsCC Antya 19.36
nayana from the eyesCC Antya 20.40
nayana from the eyeMM 22
praṇaya-bāṣpa-niruddha-avaloka-nayana awakening of tears of love in the eyes, obstructing the visionSB 5.7.12
sa-tri-nayana with Lord Śiva, who has three eyesSB 10.1.19
nayanaiḥ with their eyesSB 10.43.20
nayanaiḥ with reasoningSB 10.50.32-33
nayanaiḥ from their eyesSB 10.82.14
nayanam eyesBG 11.10-11
nayanam their eyesSB 11.30.3
nayanam the eyesCC Antya 20.36
nayanam of Him whose eyesMM 34
aravinda-nayanasya of the lotus-eyed LordSB 3.15.43
aravinda-nayanasya of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose eyes are like the petals of a lotusCC Madhya 17.142
aravinda-nayanasya of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose eyes are like the petals of a lotusCC Madhya 24.45
aravinda-nayanasya of the lotus-eyed LordCC Madhya 24.115
aravinda-nayanasya of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose eyes are like the petals of a lotus flowerCC Madhya 25.158
nayanayoḥ in the eyesMM 35
nilayanam the abode, SatyalokaSB 6.7.23
praṇaya-bāṣpa-niruddha-avaloka-nayana awakening of tears of love in the eyes, obstructing the visionSB 5.7.12
para-ayanam the ultimate shelterSB 11.13.39
prāṇa-ayana of the movement of the life airSB 4.29.71
praṇaya-bāṣpa-niruddha-avaloka-nayana awakening of tears of love in the eyes, obstructing the visionSB 5.7.12
śākhā-praṇayanam the expansion of the branchesSB 12.7.25
praṇayanam the disseminationSB 12.12.45
rādhā-āsya-nayana the face and eyes of Śrīmatī RādhārāṇīCC Madhya 14.179
rasa-ayanam mellowCC Madhya 1.211
karṇa-rasa-ayana most pleasing to the earCC Madhya 8.255
mahā-rasa-ayana the complete abode of transcendental mellowsCC Madhya 24.38
rasa-ayanam the elixirMM 37
sa-tri-nayana with Lord Śiva, who has three eyesSB 10.1.19
sa-bhaya-nayana just now sitting there with fearful eyesSB 10.8.31
sahasra-nayana thousands of eyesCC Adi 5.100-101
śākhā-praṇayanam the expansion of the branchesSB 12.7.25
sañcayana accumulationCC Antya 10.111
śava-śayana dead bodiesSB 4.7.33
śayana sleepingSB 1.10.11-12
śayana lying downSB 1.11.16-17
śava-śayana dead bodiesSB 4.7.33
śayana lying downSB 5.8.11
śayana lying downSB 7.5.38
śayana bedsSB 10.48.2
śayana putting to bedSB 10.59.45
śayana arranging His bedSB 10.61.6
śayana in taking restSB 11.5.47
śayana in the activities of lying downSB 11.5.48
śayana restSB 12.3.39-40
karena śayana lies downCC Adi 5.55
śayana on the bedCC Adi 5.99
karila śayana lay downCC Adi 5.100-101
śayana lying downCC Adi 14.6
karilā śayana took restCC Adi 14.76
śayana lying down to restCC Madhya 3.59
śayana lying downCC Madhya 3.102
śayana lying downCC Madhya 3.135
śayana lying down for restCC Madhya 4.91
śayana lying downCC Madhya 4.125
śayana restCC Madhya 4.126
śayana sleepingCC Madhya 4.157
śayana lying downCC Madhya 4.205
śayana lying downCC Madhya 7.23
śayana lying downCC Madhya 8.299
śayana lie down to restCC Madhya 9.353
karite śayana to take restCC Madhya 11.240
karila śayana lay downCC Madhya 14.89
karilā śayana took restCC Madhya 14.94
kariyāche śayana was lying downCC Madhya 17.28
karilā śayana took restCC Madhya 17.90
śayana restingCC Madhya 19.90
śayana lying down to sleepCC Madhya 19.127
karena śayana lies downCC Madhya 20.268
śayana karila lay downCC Madhya 20.286
kṛṣṇera bhojana-śayana in this way offering eatables to Kṛṣṇa and laying Him down to restCC Madhya 24.334
karena śayana he sleepsCC Antya 6.155
śayana sleepingCC Antya 8.42
karite śayana to take restCC Antya 10.81
śayana lying downCC Antya 10.82
karena śayana lies downCC Antya 10.83-84
kariyāchena śayana was lying downCC Antya 10.85
kariyāche śayana was lying downCC Antya 11.17
karila śayana went to sleepCC Antya 12.151
śayana lying downCC Antya 13.5
karāiha śayana cause to lie downCC Antya 13.9
śayana karilā He lay downCC Antya 13.12
bhūmite śayana lying on the floorCC Antya 13.15
śayana karena lies downCC Antya 13.20
kariyāchena śayana was taking restCC Antya 14.17
karāilā śayana they made to lie downCC Antya 14.57
karāilā śayana made to lie downCC Antya 15.94
śayana karāi' making Him lie downCC Antya 17.8
karilā śayana lay downCC Antya 17.9
śayana lying downCC Antya 18.107
śayana kailā lay downCC Antya 18.108
karena śayana lies downCC Antya 19.68
karena śayana he lies downCC Antya 19.71
nāga-śayana O You who sleep on the serpent bed (of Ananta Śeṣa)MM 1
śayana lyingSB 3.1.19
śayanam a bedSB 10.48.4
śayanam lying downCC Madhya 24.135
svasti-ayanam all-blissfulSB 1.3.40
svasti-ayanam perception of all happinessSB 2.6.36
kṛta-svasti-ayanam decorated with auspicious marksSB 3.23.30
svasti-ayanam creating auspiciousnessSB 4.12.45
svasti-ayanam auspiciousnessSB 4.23.34
svasti-ayanam the abode of auspiciousnessSB 5.14.46
svasti-ayanam the means of liberationSB 6.2.7
svasti-ayanam brings good fortune for allSB 6.13.22-23
svasti-ayanam Vedic mantras (by the brāhmaṇas)SB summary
svasti-ayanam auspicious hymnsSB 10.7.13-15
svasti-ayanam the auspicious chantsSB 10.24.32-33
svastyayana ritualistic performanceSB 8.15.7
svastyayanam good fortuneSB 1.15.51
svastyayanam pleasingSB 3.2.13
svastyayanam auspiciousSB 8.1.32
kṛta-svastyayanam engaging them in chanting auspicious Vedic hymnsSB 10.7.5
kṛta-svastyayanam immediately performed a ritualistic ceremony for good fortuneSB 10.7.11
tri-nayana O maintainer and seer of the three worldsSB 6.9.40
sa-tri-nayana with Lord Śiva, who has three eyesSB 10.1.19
udagayana of passing to the northern side of the equatorSB 5.21.3
udagayanam the sun passes to the northern sideSB 5.21.6
unnayanaiḥ carryingSB 10.44.5
manaḥ-unnayanau very agitating to the mindSB 5.2.12
upanayana-ādi beginning with offering the sacred thread or training the conditioned soul to qualify as a bona fide brāhmaṇaSB 5.14.30
upanayanaiḥ and bringing homeSB 10.69.33
upanayanam His marriageSB 10.53.30
upanayanam Gāyatrī initiationSB 11.17.22
uttāna-nayana with open eyesCC Antya 18.54
uttara-ayanam when the sun passes on the northern sideBG 8.24
manaḥ-nayana-vardhanam very pleasing to the eyes and the mindSB 4.8.49
nayana-yugala two eyesCC Madhya 12.212
nayana-yugala a pair of eyesCC Madhya 13.168
nayana-yugam the pair of eyesCC Madhya 14.189
     DCS with thanks   
74 results
     
ayana noun (neuter) (in astron.) advancing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a path (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a road (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a treatise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
manner (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
precession (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
progress (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
walking (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
way (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 2894/72933
ayana adjective going (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26621/72933
adhyayana noun (neuter) reading (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
studying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1992/72933
adhyayanasaṃpradānīya noun (masculine) name of ch. Suśr., Sū. 3
Frequency rank 42540/72933
anadhyayana noun (neuter) intermission of study (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not reading or studying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26263/72933
anuḍḍayana noun (neuter) non-flying non-motion
Frequency rank 43104/72933
apanayana adjective removing
Frequency rank 43615/72933
apanayana noun (neuter) acquittance of a debt (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
atonement destroying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
healing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
taking away (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
withdrawing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8390/72933
abhinayana noun (neuter) [dram.] representation
Frequency rank 44168/72933
abhyadhyayana noun (neuter) study
Frequency rank 44455/72933
aśūnyaśayana noun (neuter) the day on which Viśvakarman rests (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26790/72933
asthisaṃcayana noun (neuter) the ceremony of collecting the bones (after burning a corpse) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26861/72933
ādityaśayana noun (neuter) the sun's sleep (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 33047/72933
ānayana noun (neuter) bringing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
calculating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
leading near (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
producing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
working (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 9131/72933
āhvayana noun (neuter) appellation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46846/72933
ujjayanaka noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 47077/72933
uḍḍayana noun (neuter) flying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
flying up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
soaring (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 47095/72933
udagayana noun (neuter) the half year from the winter to the summer solstice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the sun's progress north of the equator (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 16575/72933
udayana noun (masculine) name of several kings and authors (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15551/72933
udayana noun (neuter) conclusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
end (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
exit (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
means of redemption (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
outcome (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
outlet (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
result (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rise (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rising (of the sun etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
way out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11965/72933
unnayana noun (neuter) conclusion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drawing out (a fluid) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
elevating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
induction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
inference (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lifting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
making a straight line (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
parting the hair (of a pregnant woman) upwards (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
taking out of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of raising (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the vessel out of which a fluid is taken (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 27161/72933
upanayana noun (neuter) application (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bringing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
employment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
introduction (into any science) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
leading or drawing towards one's self (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
that ceremony in which a Guru draws a boy towards himself and initiates him into one of the three twice-born classes; one of the twelve Saṃskāras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of leading to or near (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 7076/72933
upādhyayana noun (neuter) recitation (of the Veda) (?)
Frequency rank 47727/72933
aujjayanaka adjective relating to or coming from the town Ujjayanī (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 48164/72933
candraśayana noun (neuter) name of a vrata
Frequency rank 52070/72933
cayana noun (neuter) collecting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
piling up (wood etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
stacked wood (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23954/72933
jayana noun (neuter) armour for cavalry or elephants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conquering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
subduing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 52718/72933
jhaṣanayana noun (masculine) mīnākṣī
Frequency rank 53133/72933
trinayana noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 16832/72933
dhayana noun (neuter) drinking sucking
Frequency rank 55326/72933
nayana noun (neuter) (kālasya) fixing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bringing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
carrying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conducting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
directing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
drawing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
leading (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
managing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
moving (a man or piece in a game) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
polity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
prudent conduct (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the eye (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1150/72933
nayana noun (masculine) a leader name of a man (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55699/72933
nayanajala noun (neuter) tears (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55700/72933
nayanaviṣaya noun (masculine) the horizon (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55701/72933
nayanauṣadha noun (neuter) a kind of plant; paṭṭikārodhra (Aruṇadatta (0), 677)
Frequency rank 55703/72933
ninayana noun (neuter) carrying out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
performance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
pouring down or out (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28649/72933
nilayana noun (neuter) alighting in or on (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
hiding-place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
settling down (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28723/72933
niścayana noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 56402/72933
pariṇayana noun (neuter) marriage (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
marrying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of leading round (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 36654/72933
praṇayana noun (neuter) adducing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
applying (the rod) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
betraying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bringing forward (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bringing forwards (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
composing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conducting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
conveying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
establishing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
execution (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
fetching (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
founding (of a school) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
infliction of (punishment) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
means or vessel for bringing or fetching (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
performance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
practice (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
satiating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
satisfying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
showing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
writing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 10147/72933
pratinayana noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 58785/72933
pratyayanam indeclinable every half year (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 29192/72933
pratyānayana noun (neuter) a means to restore (ifc.) Gegenmittel (gegen Zauber) leading or bringing back (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
recovery (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
restoration (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13651/72933
pravilayana noun (neuter) complete dissolution or absorption (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59411/72933
prādhyayana noun (neuter) commencement of recitation or study (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 59654/72933
phaṇinayana noun (neuter) sarpākṣī
Frequency rank 59863/72933
rohiṇīcandraśayana noun (neuter) name of two religious observances (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 63874/72933
ūrdhvanayana noun (masculine) name of the fabulous animal Śarabha (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 63926/72933
layana noun (neuter) a place of rest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
adhering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
cell (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
house (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
lying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
repose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of clinging (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 38881/72933
lohitanayana adjective having eyes reddened with anger or passion (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
red-eyed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 64364/72933
vinayana noun (neuter) education (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
instruction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of taming or training (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39359/72933
virūpanayana noun (masculine) name of a Dānava dying during the destruction of Tripura (?)
Frequency rank 66018/72933
vilayana noun (neuter) a particular product of milk (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an attenuant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
attenuating (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
corroding (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
dissolution (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
eating away (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
escharotic (in medicine) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
liquefaction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
melting (intrans.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
removing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
taking away (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18471/72933
vilayana adjective dissolving (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
liquefying (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 66025/72933
vismayana noun (neuter) astonishment (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wonder (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 39595/72933
śayana noun (neuter) a bed (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
copulation (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
couch (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a Sāman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
repose (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
rest (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sexual intercourse (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sleep (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sleeping-place (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of lying down or sleeping (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1141/72933
śayana adjective lying down (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
resting (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sleeping (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67244/72933
śayanaracana noun (neuter) the preparation of a bed or couch (one of the 64 arts) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 67245/72933
śaraśayana noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 67276/72933
śvānalomāpanayana noun (neuter) name of a Tīrtha (?); Śvānalohmāpaha?
Frequency rank 68354/72933
samupānayana noun (neuter) bringing near (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
procuring (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69206/72933
sahasranayana noun (masculine) name of Indra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Vishnu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14534/72933
sahādhyayana noun (neuter) companionship in study (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
studying together (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40592/72933
saṃcayana noun (neuter) collecting (esp. the ashes or bones of a body lately burnt) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
gathering (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
heaping up (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of piling or heaping together (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 22579/72933
saṃnayana noun (neuter) leading or bringing together (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 69908/72933
saṃlayana noun (neuter) sitting or lying down (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the act of clinging or adhering to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 40713/72933
sābhāsaṃnayana adjective
Frequency rank 70318/72933
sīmantonnayana noun (neuter) name of one of the 12 Saṃskāras (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11850/72933
sunayana adjective having beautiful eyes (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 70892/72933
saubhāgyaśayanavrata noun (neuter) a particular religious observance (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41129/72933
svarnayana adjective leading to heaven (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 72185/72933
svastyayana noun (neuter) auspicious progress (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
benediction (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
blessing (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
bringing or causing good fortune (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
success (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 5801/72933
haranayanaphalā noun (feminine) name of a plant (?)
Frequency rank 72336/72933
hiraṇyanayana noun (masculine) hiraṇyākṣa
Frequency rank 31284/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

ācāra

good conduct, acceptable and established rule of conduct; ācārarasāyana ethical behavior as a way of preventing diseases.

ādāna

to suck or extract; ādānakāla the first half of the year (uttarāyana or northern solstice); it includes śiśira (winter); vasanta (spring) and grīṣma (summer).

aṣṭāṅga

eight branches of ayurveda : kāya, bāla, śalya, śalākya, graha, agada, rasāyana, vajīkaraṇa.

ayana

path; half of the year.

āyurvedarasāyana

a commentary on Āṣṭāngahṛdaya by Hemādri in 13th Century

badarāyana

teacher and founder of Vedāntadarśana, one of the six philosophical streams of thinking

gandhakarasāyana

herbo-mineral preparation used in the treatment of skin diseases.

hemādri

author of Āyurvedarasāyana, a commentary on Aṣṭāngahṛdaya, native of Devagiri, Maharashtra region (13th Century ).

kāmasūtra

a treatise on sexual love authored by Vātsyāyana, apparently belonged to the period between 4th and 6th centuries during the Gupta empire.

kaṅkāyanaguṭika

herbo-mineral preparation used in heamorrhoids.

kūpipakvarasāyana

pharmaceutical preparation made from substances of mineral and metallic origin using a glass flask (kāckūpi), ex: makaradhvaja.

kuṭipraveśa

entering an isolated treatment enclosure for rasāyana (rejuvenating) therapy.

lohita

blood; lohitakṣaya a condition resulting in amenorrhoea; lohitanayana a kind of fish.

mahānārāyanataila

medicated oil to reduce muscular spasm and arthritis.

nārāyanataila

a medicated oil used as external application to reduce vāta symptoms. a joint and muscle toner.

patanjali

compiler of Yogasūtras (–2nd Century ), author of Mahābhāṣya commentary (on Kātyāyana vārtīka) and on Pāṇiṇi’s Aṣṭādhyāyi.

pāyana

watering, moistening.

rasāyana

nourishment of the seven dhatus; promotive therapy; a medicine supposed to prevent the ageing process and prolong life, rejuvenating therapy, alchemy, ayurvedic venation therapy, alchemical elixir.

śayana

scholar of Hampi, the capital of Viajayanagara empire (14th – 15th Century ), author of Ayurveda sudhanidhi, the manuscript is not available.

simhanāda

an expert in rasāyana and vājīkaraṇa and believer of Jainism.

upanayana

one of the sixteen rites.

vaidyarājavallabha

a treatise of āyurveda authored by Laxmanapandita in Hampi, Vijayanagara empire in 14th Century

vilayana

liquefying, dissolving, compression.

yogaratnākara

a treatise of āyurveda authored by Nayanasekhara (17th Century ).

     Wordnet Search "ayana" has 325 results.
     

ayana

gai, anugai, abhigai, pragai, nigai, parigai, udgai, gāyanaṃ kṛ, gānaṃ kṛ   

ālāpena saha dhvanīnām uccāraṇa-vyāpāraḥ yaḥ svaratālabaddhaḥ asti।

sā madhureṇa svareṇa gāyati।

ayana

svārthapara, svārthabuddhi, svārthaparāyaṇa, svārthīn, svārthaparāyaṇa   

yaḥ svalābhaparāyaṇaḥ।

svārthaparaiḥ mitratā na karaṇīyā।

ayana

aśvayānam   

aśvasahitaṃ dvicakrikāvat yānam।

vayaṃ aśvayānena grāmam abhi gatavantaḥ।

ayana

aśvayānavān, aśvayānavatī   

yaḥ aśvayānaṃ cālayati।

aśvayānavatā aśvayānaṃ ruddhaṃ tadā vayaṃ sarve tasyopari āruḍhāḥ।

ayana

atyāhārin, atibhojin, udara parāyaṇa   

yaḥ atyadhikam atti।

atyāhārī manuṣyaḥ atyadhikam odanam atti।

ayana

paryyaṅkaḥ, palyaṅkaḥ, śayyā, śayanam, talpaḥ, khaṭvā, saṃstaraḥ, starimā, śayanīyam, mañcaḥ, mañcakaḥ, prastaraḥ, āstaraṇam   

kāṣṭhādiracitaśayyādhāraḥ।

mātā bālakaṃ paryaṅke śāyayati।

ayana

sīmantonnayanam   

hindūdharmānusāreṇa garbhadhāraṇasamaye uttamāpatyasya kāṅkṣayā caturthe ṣaṣṭe aṣṭame vā māse kṛtaḥ tṛtīyaḥ saṃskāraḥ।

sīmaṃtonnayanena bālakasya ujjvalabhaviṣyena sahitaṃ dīrghāyuḥ kāmyate।

ayana

upanayanam   

hindūdharmānusāreṇa ṣoḍaśasaṃskāreṣu ekaḥ yasmin bālakaḥ yajñopavītaṃ dhārayati।

mama upanayanam navame varṣe abhavat।

ayana

śikharam, śṛṅgam, kūṭaḥ, kakud, kakudaḥ, kakudam, cūḍā, parvatāgram, śailāgram, adriśṛṅgam, daśanaḥ, vātarāyaṇaḥ, ṭaṅkaḥ, giriśṛṅgaḥ   

parvatasya śiro'gram।

bhāratīyena parvatārohiṇā himālayasya śikhare bhāratasya trivarṇāḥ dhvajaḥ adhiropitā।

ayana

daivapara, daivādhīna, daivāyatta, daivaparāyaṇa, daivacintaka, daivavādin   

yaḥ daive viśvasati।

asmin karmapradhānayuge daivaparaḥ vyaktiḥ paścātāpadagdhaḥ bhavati।

ayana

jalayāna-upakaraṇam, jalayānopakaraṇam   

tad upakaraṇaṃ yad jalayānena sambaddham asti।

cappū iti jalayāna-upakaraṇam asti।

ayana

vahitrayānam   

tat yānaṃ yad vahitrena gacchati।

saḥ vahitrayānena nagarīṃ gacchati

ayana

lokayānam   

tad yānaṃ yena yātrīgaṇāḥ yātrāṃ kurvanti।

basa iti lokayānasya prakāraḥ asti।

ayana

dūtaḥ, sandeśaharaḥ, sandeśahārakaḥ, vārtābaraḥ, vārtāyanaḥ, vācikaharaḥ, ākhyāyakaḥ, adhvagaḥ, prayojyaḥ, sañcārakaḥ, cāraḥ, dhāvakaḥ, samācāradāyakaḥ, kāryaṅkaraḥ, nisṛṣṭārthaḥ   

yaḥ sandeśaṃ harati।

aṅgadaḥ rāmasya dūtaḥ bhūtvā rāvaṇasya pārśve gataḥ।

ayana

lubdha, lobhin, saspṛha, sākāṃkṣa, īpsu, abhīpsu, prepsu, pariprepsu, iṣṭī, jighṛkṣu, āśaṃsu, lālasin, tṛṣṇaka, kamra, icchu, icchuka, icchuka, icchāvat, icchānvita, abhilāṣin, abhilāṣuka, vāñchin, arthin, kāmin, kāmuka, kāmavat, kāmāyāna   

āśayā yuktaḥ।

bālakāḥ miṣṭānnaṃ lubdhayā dṛṣṭyā paśyanti।

ayana

sthalayānam   

tat yānam yad sthale calati vā bhūmimārgeṇa vā gacchati।

basayānādīni sthalayānāni santi।

ayana

ākāśayānam, nabhayānam   

tat yānam yad ākāśamārgeṇa gacchati।

vimānam ākāśayānam asti।

ayana

lokayānasthānakam   

lokayānasya prārambhikam antimaṃ ca sthānakam yatra janānāṃ gamanāgamanavyavasthā bhavati।

horā yāvat sā svanagaraṃ gacchat lokayānaṃ pratīkṣate।

ayana

lohayānasthānakam   

yatra yātriṇāṃ gamanāgamanārthaṃ lohayānam viramati।

saḥ sāranāthadeśe gamanārthe vārāṇasī lohayānasthānake avatarati।

ayana

palāyin, apakramin, palāyanaśīla   

yasya svabhāvaḥ palāyanam।

yuddhāt palāyinaḥ sainikāḥ senāpatinā golikayā ghātitāḥ।

ayana

vidyālayaḥ, śālā, pāṭhaśālā, vidyālayam, vidyāveśma, vidyāgṛham, vidyābhyāsagṛham, vidyābhyāsaśālā, śikṣāgṛham, śikṣālayam, śikṣālayaḥ, adhyayanaśālā, adhyayanagṛham, maṭhaḥ, āśramaḥ, avasathaḥ, avasathyaḥ   

vidyāyāḥ ālayaḥ।

asmākaṃ vidyālaye ekādaśa prakoṣṭhāḥ santi/prātaḥ sarve chātrāḥ vidyālayaṃ gacchanti।

ayana

prasthānam, prayāṇam, gamanam, apagamaḥ, vyapagamaḥ, vigamaḥ, apāyaḥ, apayānam, samprasthānam, apāsaraṇam, apasaraṇam, apakramaḥ, apakramaṇam, utkramaṇam, atyayaḥ, nirgamaḥ, visargaḥ, viyogaḥ   

ekasmāt sthānāt anyasthāne yānasya kriyā।

rāmasya vanāya prasthānam duḥkhakārakam।

ayana

icchuka, icchu, icchaka, icchāvat, icchānvita, abhilāṣin, abhilāṣuka, vāñchin, ākāṅkṣin, arthin, kāmin, kāmuka, kāmavat, kāmayāna, lobhin, lubdha, spṛhayālu, jātaspṛha, saspṛha, sākāṅkṣa, īpsu, abhīpsu, prepsu, pariprepsu, iṣṭin, jighṛkṣu, āśāyukta, lālasin, tṛṣṇaka, kamra   

yaḥ icchati।

rāmaḥ pustakaṃ kretum icchukaḥ asti।

ayana

akṣayanavamī   

kārtikamāsasya śuklapakṣasya navamī tithiḥ।

saḥ akṣayanavamyāṃ jātaḥ।

ayana

aṅkuśaḥ, todanam, totram, pratodaḥ, prājanam, śṛṇiḥ, sṛṇiḥ, pravayaṇam   

hasticālanārthalohamayavakrāgrāstram।

hāstikaḥ aṅkuśeṇa naikavāraṃ gajam āhanyat।

ayana

kāmadevaḥ, kāmaḥ, madanaḥ, manmathaḥ, māraḥ, pradyumnaḥ, mīnaketanaḥ, kandarpaḥ, darpakaḥ, anaṅgaḥ, pañcaśaraḥ, smaraḥ, śambarāriḥ, manasijaḥ, kusumeṣuḥ, ananyajaḥ, ratināthaḥ, puṣpadhanvā, ratipatiḥ, makaradhvajaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, brahmasūḥ, viśvaketuḥ, kāmadaḥ, kāntaḥ, kāntimān, kāmagaḥ, kāmācāraḥ, kāmī, kāmukaḥ, kāmavarjanaḥ, rāmaḥ, ramaḥ, ramaṇaḥ, ratināthaḥ, ratipriyaḥ, rātrināthaḥ, ramākāntaḥ, ramamāṇaḥ, niśācaraḥ, nandakaḥ, nandanaḥ, nandī, nandayitā, ratisakhaḥ, mahādhanuḥ, bhrāmaṇaḥ, bhramaṇaḥ, bhramamāṇaḥ, bhrāntaḥ, bhrāmakaḥ, bhṛṅgaḥ, bhrāntacāraḥ, bhramāvahaḥ, mohanaḥ, mohakaḥ, mohaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ, bhṛṅganāyakaḥ, gāyanaḥ, gītijaḥ, nartakaḥ, khelakaḥ, unmattonmattakaḥ, vilāsaḥ, lobhavardhanaḥ, sundaraḥ, vilāsakodaṇḍaḥ   

kāmasya devatā।

kāmadevena śivasya krodhāgniḥ dṛṣṭaḥ।

ayana

śayanāgāraḥ, śayanagṛhaḥ, svapnaniketanam, nidrāśālā, viśrāmaśālā, vāsagṛham, vāsāgāram, svapnagṛham   

śayanasya kṛte kakṣaḥ।

kaḥ asti śayanāgāre।

ayana

mṛtyuḥ, maraṇam, nidhanam, pañcattvam, pañcatā, atyayaḥ, antaḥ, antakālaḥ, antakaḥ, apagamaḥ, nāśaḥ, nāśa, vināśaḥ, pralayaḥ, saṃsthānam, saṃsthitiḥ, avasānam, niḥsaraṇam, uparatiḥ, apāyaḥ, prayāṇam, jīvanatyāgaḥ, tanutyāgaḥ, jīvotsargaḥ, dehakṣayaḥ, prāṇaviyogaḥ, mṛtam, mṛtiḥ, marimā, mahānidrā, dīrghanidrā, kālaḥ, kāladharmaḥ, kāladaṇḍaḥ, kālāntakaḥ, narāntakaḥ, diṣṭāntakaḥ, vyāpadaḥ, hāndram, kathāśeṣatā, kīrtiśeṣatā, lokāntaratā   

bhavanasya nāśaḥ- athavā śarīrāt prāṇanirgamanasya kriyā।

dhruvo mṛtyuḥ jīvitasya।

ayana

mṛtyukālaḥ, prayāṇakālaḥ, antasamayaḥ, antavelā   

antimaśvāsasya kālaḥ।

tasya mṛtyukālaḥ samīpam eva।

ayana

viṣṇuḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, svabhūḥ, daityāriḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, govindaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, acyutaḥ, śārṅgī, viṣvaksenaḥ, janārdanaḥ, upendraḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, madhuripuḥ, vāsudevaḥ, trivikramaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, śauriḥ, śrīpatiḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, vanamālī, balidhvaṃsī, kaṃsārātiḥ, adhokṣajaḥ, viśvambharaḥ, kaiṭabhajit, vidhuḥ, śrīvatsalāñachanaḥ, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, vṛṣṇiḥ, śatadhāmā, gadāgrajaḥ, ekaśṛṅgaḥ, jagannāthaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, sanātanaḥ, mukundaḥ, rāhubhedī, vāmanaḥ, śivakīrtanaḥ, śrīnivāsaḥ, ajaḥ, vāsuḥ, śrīhariḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, nṛhariḥ, vibhuḥ, madhujit, madhusūdanaḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, śrīgarbhaḥ, śrīkaraḥ, śrīmān, śrīdharaḥ, śrīniketanaḥ, śrīkāntaḥ, śrīśaḥ, prabhuḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, ajitaḥ, jitāmitraḥ, ṛtadhāmā, śaśabinduḥ, punarvasuḥ, ādidevaḥ, śrīvarāhaḥ, sahasravadanaḥ, tripāt, ūrdhvadevaḥ, gṛdhnuḥ, hariḥ, yādavaḥ, cāṇūrasūdanaḥ, sadāyogī, dhruvaḥ, hemaśaṅkhaḥ, śatāvarttī, kālanemiripuḥ, somasindhuḥ, viriñciḥ, dharaṇīdharaḥ, bahumūrddhā, vardhamānaḥ, śatānandaḥ, vṛṣāntakaḥ, rantidevaḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, dāśārhaḥ, abdhiśayanaḥ, indrānujaḥ, jalaśayaḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, tārkṣadhvajaḥ, ṣaḍbinduḥ, padmeśaḥ, mārjaḥ, jinaḥ, kumodakaḥ, jahnuḥ, vasuḥ, śatāvartaḥ, muñjakeśī, babhruḥ, vedhāḥ, prasniśṛṅgaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, suvarṇabinduḥ, śrīvatsaḥ, gadābhṛt, śārṅgabhṛt, cakrabhṛt, śrīvatsabhṛt, śaṅkhabhṛt, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, lakṣmīpatiḥ, murāriḥ, amṛtaḥ, ariṣṭanemaḥ, kapiḥ, keśaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, janārdanaḥ, jinaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, vikramaḥ, śarvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ hindudharmānusāraṃ jagataḥ pālanakartā।

ekādaśastathā tvaṣṭā dvādaśo viṣṇurucyate jaghanyajastu sarveṣāmādityānāṃ guṇādhikaḥ।

ayana

cakṣuḥ, locanam, nayanam, netram, īkṣaṇam, akṣi, dṛk, dṛṣṭiḥ, ambakam, darśanam, tapanam, vilocanam, dṛśā, vīkṣaṇam, prekṣaṇaṃ, daivadīpaḥ, devadīpaḥ, dṛśiḥ, dśī   

avayavaviśeṣaḥ-darśanendriyam।

tasyāḥ cakṣuṃṣī mṛgīvat staḥ।

ayana

kṛṣṇaḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, acyutaḥ, govindaḥ, janārdanaḥ, giridharaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, mādhavaḥ, śauriḥ, ahijitaḥ, yogīśvaraḥ, vaṃśīdharaḥ, vāsudevaḥ, kaṃsārātiḥ, vanamālī, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, mukundaḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, vāsuḥ, muralīdharaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, nandātmajaḥ, gopālaḥ, nandanandanaḥ, yādavaḥ, pūtanāriḥ, mathureśaḥ, dvārakeśaḥ, pāṇḍavāyanaḥ, devakīsūnuḥ, gopendraḥ, govardhanadharaḥ, yadunāthaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, trivikramaḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, viśvambharaḥ, viśvarujaḥ, sanātanaḥ, vibhuḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, prabhuḥ, jitāmitraḥ, sahasravadanaḥ   

yaduvaṃśīya vasudevasya putraḥ yaḥ viṣṇoḥ avatāraḥ iti manyate।

sūradāsaḥ kṛṣṇasya paramo bhaktaḥ।

ayana

kāmuka, kāmin, kāmavṛtti, kāmapravaṇa, kāmāsakta, sakāma, kāmana, kamana, kamra, kamitṛ, kāmayitā, ratārthin, maithunārthin, suratārthin, maithunābhilāṣin, sambhogābhilāśin, maithunecchu, vyavāyin, anuka, abhīka, abhika, lāpuka, abhilāṣuka, vyavāyaparāyaṇa, lampaṭa, strīrata, strīpara, kāmārta, kāmātura, kāmāndha, kāmānvita, kāmāviṣṭa, kāmagrasta, kāmādhīna, kāmayukta, kāmākrānta, kāmajita, jātakāma, kāmopahata   

yaḥ strīsambhogābhilāṣī asti।

saḥ kāmukaḥ vyaktiḥ asti।

ayana

āvāsaḥ, nivāsaḥ, kṣayaṇaḥ, gṛbhaḥ, avasitam, ākṣit, astam, astatātiḥ   

tat sthānaṃ yatra kaḥ api vasati।

eṣaḥ vṛkṣaḥ pakṣiṇām āvāsaḥ।

ayana

adhyayanam, paṭhanam, adhigamanam, jñānārjanam   

kasyāpi viṣayasya jñānaprāptyarthaṃ kṛtā kriyā।

saḥ saṃskṛtasya adhyayanārthe kāśīnagaraṃ gatavān।

ayana

unnatiḥ, pragatiḥ, vikāsaḥ, abhyudayaḥ, unnayanam   

vartamānāvasthāyāḥ apekṣayā unnatāvasthāṃ prati gamanam।

bhāratadeśasya unnatiṃ bhāratīyāḥ eva kurvanti।

ayana

praśikṣaṇam, vinītiḥ, vinayanam   

kasyāpi vyavasāyasya kauśalyasya vā kriyātmakaṃ śikṣaṇam।

sītā grāme grāme gatvā yantradvārā sīvanasya praśikṣaṇaṃ dadāti।

ayana

gajaḥ, hastī, karī, dantī, dvipaḥ, vāraṇaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ, mataṅgaḥ, kuñjaraḥ, nāgaḥ, dviradaḥ, ibhaḥ, radī, dvipāyī, anekapaḥ, viṣāṇī, kareṇuḥ, lambakarṇaḥ, padmī, śuṇḍālaḥ, karṇikī, dantāvalaḥ, stamberamaḥ, dīrghavaktraḥ, drumāriḥ, dīrghamārutaḥ, vilomajihvaḥ, śakvā, pīluḥ, māmṛgaḥ, mataṅgajaḥ, ṣaṣṭhihāyanaḥ   

paśuviśeṣaḥ- saḥ paśuḥ yaḥ viśālaḥ sthūlaḥ śuṇḍāyuktaḥ ca।

gajāya ikṣuḥ rocate।

ayana

vātāyanam, jālakam   

vāyvarthe prakāśārthe ca bhittyāṃ vinirmitaḥ jālayuktaḥ chedaḥ।

gṛhe vāyvādhikyārthe tena pratikakṣe vātāyanaṃ vinirmitam।

ayana

gavākṣaḥ, vātāyanam, badhūdṛgayanam, jālam, jālakam   

vātasya gamanāgamanamārgaḥ।

asmin koṣṭhe ekaḥ gavākṣaḥ asti।

ayana

yātrā, vrajyā, prayāṇam, gamanam, prasthānam, abhiniryāṇam   

ekasmāt sthānāt anyat sthānaṃ prati vrajanam।

saḥ yātrāṃ prārabhat।

ayana

niścayaḥ, nirṇayaḥ, nirṇayaṇam, niścitam, niṣpattiḥ, siddhīḥ   

ūhādinā kasyāpi vastunaḥ sthiteḥ niścitiḥ।

bhūri nirikṣaṇānantaram asmākam ayaṃ nirṇayaḥ jātaḥ yat rāmaḥ sajjanaḥ puruṣaḥ iti।

ayana

lokayānacīṭikā   

lokayānena yātrāṃ kartuṃ krītā cīṭikā।

ahaṃ mahābaleśvaranagaraṃ gantuṃ lokayānacīṭikāṃ krītavān।

ayana

sadaśvaḥ, sukaraḥ, sukhacāraḥ, sukhāyanaḥ, vitantuḥ   

saḥ aśvaḥ yaḥ ārohaṇārthe yogyaḥ।

prācīnakālīnaḥ rājānaḥ sadaśve āruhya vane mṛgayārthe gacchanti sma।

ayana

dhārmika, dharmaniṣṭha, dharmaparāyaṇa   

dharmoktamārgeṇa jīvamānaḥ।

dhārmikaḥ vipattau api dharmaviruddhaṃ kim api na ācarati।

ayana

bhayaṅkara, bhairava, dāruṇa, bhīṣma, ghora, bhīma, bhayānaka, pratibhaya, bhayāvaha, raudra, bhīṣaṇa   

bhayajanakam।

mahiṣāsuraṃ hantuṃ devī mahākālī raudraṃ rūpam adhārayat।

ayana

gaṅgā, mandākinī, jāhnavī, puṇyā, alakanandā, viṣṇupadī, jahnutanayā, suranimnagā, bhāgīrathī, tripathagā, tistrotāḥ, bhīṣmasūḥ, arghyatīrtham, tīrtharījaḥ, tridaśadīrghikā, kumārasūḥ, saridvarā, siddhāpagā, svarāpagā, svargyāpagā, khāpagā, ṛṣikulyā, haimavratī, sarvāpī, haraśekharā, surāpagā, dharmadravī, sudhā, jahnukanyā, gāndinī, rudraśekharā, nandinī, sitasindhuḥ, adhvagā, ugraśekharā, siddhasindhuḥ, svargasarīdvarā, samudrasubhagā, svarnadī, suradīrghikā, suranadī, svardhunī, jyeṣṭhā, jahnusutā, bhīṣmajananī, śubhrā, śailendrajā, bhavāyanā, mahānadī, śailaputrī, sitā, bhuvanapāvanī, śailaputrī   

bhāratadeśasthāḥ pradhānā nadī yā hindudharmānusāreṇa mokṣadāyinī asti iti manyante।

dharmagranthāḥ kathayanti rājñā bhagīrathena svargāt gaṅgā ānītā।

ayana

spardhāvayanam   

sā pratiyogitā yasyāṃ pratiyoginaḥ sammelanānantaraṃ tatkāle eva svecchayā pratiyogī vicinute।

asmākaṃ grāme prativarṣe nāgapañcamyāṃ spardhāvayanasya āyojanaṃ kriyate।

ayana

sāntvanā, pratyāyanā, sāntvanam, āśvāsanam, parisāntvanam, kleśāpahaḥ, pramārjanam, aśrupramārjanam   

ākulitasya manuṣyasya kleśasya apahānam।

gṛhe steyam abhavat ataḥ bāndhavāḥ gṛhasvāminaḥ sāntvanām akurvan।

ayana

śivā, haritakī, abhayā, avyathā, pathyā, vayaḥsthā, pūtanā, amṛtā, haimavatī, cetakī, śreyasī, sudhā, kāyasthā, kanyā, rasāyanaphalā, vijayā, jayā, cetanakī, rohiṇī, prapathyā, jīvapriyā, jīvanikā, bhiṣgavarā, bhiṣakpriyā, jīvanti, prāṇadā, jīvyā, devī, divyā   

haritakīvṛkṣasya phalaṃ yad haritapītavarṇīyam asti।

śuṣkakāse śivā atīva upayuktā asti।

ayana

caṭakā, gṛhanīḍā, vṛṣāyaṇā, gṛhabalibhuk, kalaviṅkā, kalaviṅkakā, kalāvikalā   

khagaviśeṣaḥ laghupakṣiṇī yasyāḥ nīḍaṃ prāyaḥ gṛhe asti।

caṭakā śiśum annaṃ bhojayati।

ayana

vyāsaḥ, vedavyāsaḥ, maharṣivyāsaḥ, kṛṣṇadvaipāyanaḥ, pārāśaraḥ, bādarāyaṇaḥ, vāsaveyaḥ, sātyavataḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ   

ekaḥ ṛṣiḥ yena vedāḥ saṃgṛhītāḥ tathā ca sampāditāḥ।

vyāsena mahābhārataṃ likhituṃ śrīgaṇeśaḥ āmantritaḥ।

ayana

vayanavṛttiḥ   

vayanasya vṛttiḥ।

pārvatī pañcāśat rupyakāṇi iti yāvat ekasya patalacchandasya vayanavṛttiṃ gṛhṇāti।

ayana

vivāhaḥ, upayamaḥ, pariṇayaḥ, udvāhaḥ, upayāmaḥ, pāṇipīḍanam, dārakarmaḥ, karagrahaḥ, pāṇigrahaṇam, niveśaḥ, pāṇikaraṇam, saṃbandhaḥ, pāṇigrahaḥ, dārasambandhaḥ, udvahaḥ, dāropasaṃgrahaḥ, pāṇigrāhaḥ, parigrahaḥ, prodvāhaḥ, saṃgrahaḥ, samudvāhaḥ, pariṇītam, adhigamanam, udvahanam, udvāhanam, karārpaṇam, dārādhigamanam, niveśanam, patitvam, patitvanam, parigrahatvam, pariṇayanam, bāndhukyam, maithunam   

saḥ dhārmikaḥ sāmājikaḥ vā saṃskāraḥ yena strīpuruṣau parasparaṃ patipatnīrūpeṇa svīkurutaḥ।

sohanasya vivāhaḥ rādhayā saha jātaḥ।

ayana

gandharvaḥ, gātuḥ, divyagāyanaḥ, hāhāḥ   

nṛtyagāyanādiṣu nipuṇā devayoniḥ।

gandharvāḥ nṛtyagāyanena devatānāṃ vinodanaṃ kurvanti।

ayana

paryāṇam, aśvasajjā, palyayanam   

aśvādīn āruhya gamanārthaṃ kṛtaṃ pīṭham।

tena paryāṇam aśvāt avatīrya adhaḥ sthāpitam।

ayana

prayāṇam   

yuddhārthe kṛtaṃ prasthānam।

rāmasya senā laṅkāṃ prati prayāṇam akarot।

ayana

kārayānam, svayaṃpreritarathaḥ   

catuścakrikāyuktaṃ laghuyānam।

pradhānamantrī kārayānena kṣetrasya abhyāgamaṃ karoti।

ayana

pathikayānam   

relayānasya śakaṭaḥ।

yānasya pratyeke pathikayāne atīva saṃnayaḥ āsīt।

ayana

agnirathaḥ, relayānam, lohapathagāminī   

bāṣpavidyudādīnāṃ yantreṇa lohamārge dhāvati।

agnirathaḥ samaye virāmasthānam āgataḥ।

ayana

gānam, gāyanam   

saptasvarayuktasya gītasya nirvartitā kriyā।

adya vayaṃ paṇḍitaḥ jasarājamahodayasya gānaṃ śruṇumaḥ।

ayana

vāgolayānam   

vāgolasadṛśaṃ yānam।

vimānanirmiteḥ prāk vaijñānikāḥ vāgolayānena antarikṣasya yātrām akurvan।

ayana

vātāyanakāṣṭham   

kāṣṭhadaṇḍānāṃ catuṣkoṇātmakaṃ sthāpatyaṃ yasmin dvārasya vātāyanasya vā kavāṭāni avasthāpyante।

takṣakaḥ vātāyanakāṣṭhe araram avasthāpayati।

ayana

pippalaḥ, kalahapriyā, kalahākulā, kuñjaraḥ, kuñjarāśanaḥ, kṛṣṇāvāsaḥ, gajabhakṣakaḥ, guhyapatraḥ, caladalaḥ, tatpadaḥ, tārāyaṇaḥ, mahādrumaḥ, nāgabandhuḥ, keśavālayaḥ   

bṛhadvṛkṣaḥ yaḥ hindūnāṃ kṛte pavitraḥ asti।

snānādanantaraṃ saḥ pippalāya jalaṃ dadāti।

ayana

virāmaḥ, anujñā, avasānam, anadhyayanam   

kāryāt anujñāpūrvako virāmaḥ।

adhunā virāmasya avasaro nāsti।

ayana

jalayānam   

tad yānaṃ yad jale upayujyate।

naukā iti ekaṃ jalayānam।

ayana

mūṣyāyaṇa   

vivāhetarasambandhāt jātaḥ।

janāḥ mūṣyāyaṇam apatyaṃ sahajarityā na svīkurvanti।

ayana

mārgaḥ, pathaḥ, panthāḥ, adhvā, vartma, vartmanī, vartmaniḥ, ayanam, varttanam, varttanī, varttaniḥ, saraṇī, saraṇiḥ, padavī, paddhatiḥ, paddhatī, padyā, padvā, padaviḥ, sṛtiḥ, sañcaraḥ, padvaḥ, upaniṣkramaṇam, ekapadī, ekapād, taraḥ, vīthiḥ, śaraṇiḥ, ekapadī, ekapād, taraḥ, vīthiḥ, mācaḥ, māṭhaḥ, māṭhyaḥ, prapāthaḥ, pitsalam, khullamaḥ   

ekasthānād anyasthānaṃ gantum upayujyamānaḥ bhūbhāgaḥ yaḥ gamanasya ādhāro bhavati।

mama gṛham asmin eva mārgasya vāmataḥ vartate।

ayana

bhāravāhakam, saṃvṛtayānam   

tad yānaṃ yad bhāraṃ vahati।

śramikāḥ bhāravāhakāt vastūni avataranti।

ayana

palāyanam, apagamanam   

dhāvanasya kriyā।

ārakṣikāṇāṃ āgamanād prāg eva coraḥ palāyitavān।