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     Grammar Search "ase" has 2 results.
     
ase: masculine vocative singular stem: asi
ase: first person singular present present class 1 ātmanepadaas
     Amarakosha Search  
4 results
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
kukubhaḥMasculineSingularprasevakaḥthe belly below the neck of a lute
syūta2.9.27MasculineSingularprasevaḥ
paitṛṣvaseyaḥ2.6.25MasculineSingularpaitṛṣvasrīya
carmaprasevikā2.10.33FeminineSingularbhastrā
     Monier-Williams
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553 results for ase
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
asecanamfn. (also ā-sec- q.v) charming, lovely View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asecanaka([ ]) ([ ]) mfn. idem or 'mfn. (also ā-sec- q.v) charming, lovely ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asecanakadarśanamfn. lovely to see, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asecanīya([ ]) mfn. idem or 'mfn. lovely to see, ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asenya(4) mfn. not striking or wounding, not hurting (as words) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asef. not following or practising View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asef. disregard, inattention. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asevitamfn. neglected, unattended to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asevitamfn. abstained from. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aseviteśvaradvāramfn. not waiting at the doors of the great View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asevyamfn. not to be served or attended to
asevyamfn. not to be visited by (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
asevyamfn. not to be used or practised, not to be eaten, drunk, etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
abhyupasev -sevate-, to observe religiously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
adhyavaseyamfn. only to be conceived in the mind, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ādityasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agandhasevinmfn. not addicted to perfumes, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
agrasenam. Name of janamejaya-'s son. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āharase gaRa mayūra-vyaṃsakādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aindrasenim. a descendant of indra-sena View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alasekṣaṇamf(ā-)n. having languishing or tired looks View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
amitrasef. hostile army (= ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anaṅgasef. Name of a dramatic personage. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aṅgārasetum. Name of a prince, father of gāndhāra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āṅgiraseśvaratīrthan. Name of a tīrtha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anupasecanamfn. having nothing that moistens (exempli gratia, 'for example' no sauce) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvasenam. Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvasenam. of a son of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
aśvasenam. of the father of the twenty-third arhat- of the present avasarpiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
augrasenim. a descendant of ugra-sena- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
augrasenyam. idem or 'm. a descendant of ugra-sena- ' on vArttika 7 on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasecanan. sprinkling, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasecanan. water used for irrigating (trees) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasecanan. bathing View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasecanan. bleeding View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasecitamfn. equals -srkta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasekam. sprinkling, irrigating (as the ground) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasekam. syringing, administering a clyster , bleeding (with leeches) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avasekimam. a kind of cake (pulse ground and fried with oil or butter) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaseyamfn. to be ascertained, be understood, be made out, be learnt, from commentator or commentary etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avaseyamfn. "to be brought to a close", be destroyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayase Vedic or Veda infinitive mood fr. i- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayuddhasenamfn. whose arrows or armies are un conquered, irresistible View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasenam. Name of a warrior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
balasef. a strong army, an army, host View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ballālasenadevam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrasenam. Name of a man with the patronymic ājātaśatrava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrasenam. of a son of vasu-deva- and devakī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrasenam. of a son of ṛṣabha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrasenam. of a son of mahiṣmat- (also naka-)
bhadrasenam. of a king of kaśmīra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadrasenam. (with Buddhists) Name of the leader of the host of the evil spirit māra-pāpīyas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaimasena(bh/aima--) m. patronymic fr. bhīma-s-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaimasenim. (fr. bhīma-sena-) patronymic of divo-dāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaimasenim. of ghaṭotkaca- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaimasenyam. patronymic fr. bhima-sena- Va1rtt. 7 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhaiṣajyasenam. Name of a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bharatasenam. Name of Scholiast or Commentator on various poems (lived about 100 years ago) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāskarasenam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhāvasenam. Name of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhīmasenam. (bhīm/a--) "having a formidable army", Name of a deva-gandharva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhīmasenam. of a yakṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhīmasenam. of the second son of pāṇḍu- (see bhīm/a-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhīmasenam. of various other men etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhīmasenam. a kind of camphor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhīmasenamayamfn. consisting of bhīma-sena- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhogasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bījasektṛm. "sprinkler of seed", a generator on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
buddhasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caitrasenim. patronymic fr. citra-sena-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakrasenam. Name of a son of tārā-candra- and father of siṃha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cakrasef. Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrasenam. Name of a prince (son of samudra-sena-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrasenam. equals -vāhana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
candrasenam. Name of a hero of kālikā-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
caraṇasef. "service on one's feet", devotion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carmaprasevakam. equals -puṭa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
carmaprasevikāf. idem or 'm. equals -puṭa- ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
cirasevakam. an old servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenamfn. (tr/a--) having a bright spear, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. Name of a snake-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of a leader of the gandharva-s (son of viśvā-vasu-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of a son (of dhṛta-rāṣṭra- ;of parikṣit-, ;of śambara- ;of nariṣyanta- ;of the 13th manu- ;of gada- or kṛṣṇa- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of an adversary of kṛṣṇa-, 5059 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of tarāsandha-'s general (ḍimbhaka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. of a divine recorder of the deeds of men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. (equals -gupta-) the secretary of a man of rank View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasenam. Name of a scholiast on piṅgala-'s work on metres View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasef. Name of an apsaras- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasef. of one of the mothers in skanda-'s retinue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasef. of a courtesan View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
citrasef. of a river (see caitraseni-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daityasef. Name of a daughter of prajā-pati- and sister of deva-senā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍasenam. Name of a son of viṣvak-sena- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
daṇḍasenam. of another prince (equals -dhāra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dāntasenam. Name of men. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasenam. Name of a king of śrāvastī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasenam. of a king of pauṇḍra-vardhana- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasenam. of a cowherd View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasenam. of a arhat- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasef. a host of celestials etc. (plural the hosts of deva- or īśāna- ; devasenāpati -pati-[ ] m. and devasenāpriya -priya-[ ] m.Name of skanda-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasenam. Name of a daughter of prajā-pati- or niece (daughter ) of indra- and wife of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasenam. a particle of mūla-prakṛti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasenam. Name of commentator or commentary on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devasenāpatim. devasenā
devasenāpriyam. devasenā
dhanaṃjayasenam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharasenam. Name of 2 princes of the vallabhī- dynasty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmādharmasenāhananan. Name of chapter of the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmasenam. of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmasetum. barrier of law or justice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmasetum. Name of śiva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dharmasetum. of a son of āryaka-
dharmasevanan. fulfilment of duties View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhruvaseind. (dative case as infinitive mood) to stop or rest View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhruvasenam. Name of 2 valabhī- princes View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divaseśvaram. "day-lord", the sun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
divyarasendrasāram. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dṛḍhasenam. "having a strong army", Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
drumasenam. Name of a king (identified with the asura- gaviṣṭha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
durgasenam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvijasef. service of the twice-born (by śūdra-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dvijasevakam. equals -dāsa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gandhasevakamfn. using fragrances View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gīrvāṇasenāpatim. "army-chief of the gods", Name of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guhasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
guhasenam. of a merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haritasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hastimallasenam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
herambakasenam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
herambasenam. Name of a medicine author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hīnasef. attendance on base or low people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrasenam. Name of several men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrasenam. Name of a nāga- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrasenam. of a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrasef. indra-'s army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrasenam. Name of a goddess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrasenam. of several women View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrasenadvitīyamfn. attended by indra-sena-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indrāvasektam. plural "watered by indra-", Name (also title or epithet) of a class of ascetics who subsist only on vegetables, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
indriyasevanan. sensual enjoyment, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
iṣitasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
īśvarasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
īśvarasef. the worship of God. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jalasekam. sprinkling with water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jātasenam. Name of a man Va1rtt. 7 , View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jātasenyam. patronymic fr. -sena- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasenam. (equals jayat-s-) Name of a magadha- king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasenam. of a son (of adīna- or ahīna- ;of sārvabhauma-, ;of mahendra-varman- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasenam. of the father of the āvantyau- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasenam. of a Buddhist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasef. Name of a surāṅganā- Concl. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasef. of a female door-keeper View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayasef. of another woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jayendrasef. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jinasenam. Name of the author of trivarṇācāra-saṃhitā- harivaṃśa-- and triṣaṣṭilakṣaṇa-purāṇa- (completed by guṇa-bhadra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kakṣasenam. Name of a rājarṣi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākṣasenim. "son of kakṣasena-", Name of abhipratārin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākṣasenim. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaliṅgasef. Name of a princess View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalyāṇamitrasevanan. the becoming a disciple of buddha-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kalyāṇasenam. Name of a king. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmasenam. Name of a king of rāmavatī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmasef. the wife of nidhipati-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kanakasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kandarpasef. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kandarpasef. of a surāṅganā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karmasenīyamfn. belonging to that king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
karpūrasenam. Name of a king, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kaseruetc. See kaśeru-, etc.
kasetum. (equals kaseru-), Name of a part of bhārata-varṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kedārasetum. a dyke raised round a field View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
khaḍgasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kroḍakaserukam. Cyperus rotundus View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṛṣṇasevāhnikan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣīropasecanan. pouring milk upon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuberasef. Name (also title or epithet) of a courtezan, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kulasevakam. an excellent attendant or servant
kumārasenam. Name of a minister View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣmaṇasenam. a king of the sena- dynasty of Eastern India (founder of an era, beginning on October 7, D. 1119) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lakṣmīdharasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madanasef. Name of various women View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madaprasekam. idem or 'm. the issue of temple-juice (in a rutting elephant) ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madaprasekam. the aphrodisiacal fluid (of a woman) (perhaps"sprinkling with wine"). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhavasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhavasenam. of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mādhavasenārājanm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahasenanareśvaram. Name of the father of the 8th arhat- of the present avasarpiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāyakṣasenāpatim. a general of the great yakṣa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāyakṣasenāpatim. Name of a tantra- deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mānitasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛṣvaseyam. () a mother's sister's son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛsvase wrong reading for -ṣvasṛ- and -ṣvascyī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mātṛṣvasef. a mother's sister's daughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. Name of a gandharva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. of a son of the 12th manu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. of a grandson of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. of a king of the draviḍa- country View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mitrasenam. of a Buddhist View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mlecchataskarasevitamfn. infested by barbarians and robbers View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mṛgāṅkasenam. Name of a king of the vidyā-dhara-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukhasecakam. Name of, a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mukundasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mūtraprasekam. the urethra View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgarasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgasenam. Name of a sthavira- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgasenam. of a king of āryā-varta- and contemporary of samudra-gupta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nalasetum. " nala- bridge", the causeway constructed by the monkey nala- for rāma- from the continent to laṅkā- (the modern Adam's Bridge) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
navyaseind. recently, lately View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nihatasenamfn. having (their) armies smitten or destroyed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nityasevakamfn. always serving others View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādasef. "foot-salutation", service, duty View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādasevanan. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pādāvasecanan. water used for washing the feet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padmasenam. Name of several men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
padmasef. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛkaṣvaseyam. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛkaṣvasef. equals paitṛ-- above. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛṣvaseyamf(ī-)n. sprung from a father's sister or paternal aunt (see ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛṣvaseyam. a fathers's sister's son View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paitṛṣvasef. a father's sister's daughter View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradāropasevanafn. approaching or touching or courting another's wife or wives, adultery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paradeśasevinmfn. living abroad, a traveller View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
parasef. service of another View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryāyasef. service by rotation
pāṣāṇasetubandham. a barrier or dam of stone View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pinākasenam. "armed with pināka-", Name of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
piṇḍasektṛm. Name of a serpent-demon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prabhūtayavasendhanamfn. abounding in fresh grass and fuel View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pracaṇḍasenam. Name of a prince, of tāmra-liptikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pradhānasef. chief or principal service View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prākṛtasetum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasecanan. (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' f(ā-).) the bowl of a spoon or ladle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasecanavatmfn. having a bowl or spout (for pouring out fluids) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasedikā varia lectio for prasīdikā- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasedivasmfn. one who has become pleased or propitiated, favourable View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasedivasSee pra-- sad-, p.696. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekam. flowing forth, dropping, oozing, effusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekam. emission, discharge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekam. sprinkling, wetting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekam. exudation, resin View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekam. running or watering of the mouth or nose, vomiting, nausea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekam. ( prasekatā -- f. idem or 'm. running or watering of the mouth or nose, vomiting, nausea ' ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekam. the bowl of a spoon or ladle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
praseka pra-secana- etc. See under pra--. sic-, p.697. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekam(ind.p. of pra-- sic-) pouring out, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekatāf. praseka View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekinmfn. discharging a fluid View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasekinmfn. suffering from morbid flow of saliva View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasenam. or (n.?) f. a kind of jugglery View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasenam. Name of a prince (son of nighna- or nimna-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasenam. of a king of ujjayinī- (succeeded by vikramārka- or vikramāditya-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasenajitm. Name of several princes (especially of a sovereign of śrāvastī- contemporary with gautama- buddha- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasevam. ( siv-) a sack or a leather bottle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasevam. the damper on the neck of a lute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasevakam. a sack, bag View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasevakam. a damper (equals prec.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prasevikāf. See carma-prasevikā-.
pratiṣiddhasevanan. doing what is prohibited View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratiṣiddhasevinmfn. following or doing what is forbidden View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratītasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravarasenam. Name of 2 princes of kaśmīra- (see -nṛpati-and -bhūpati-) (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pravilasenaor pravilla-sena- m. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prayāgasetum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prāyaścittasetum. Name of work
premasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
priyasevakamfn. loving servants, kind towards servants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pulindasenam. Name (also title or epithet) of a kaliṅga- king, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇyasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puṇyasenam. of another man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
purīndrasena(purānd-) m. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrṇasenam. Name of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pūrvasef. first use or practice of (genitive case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
putrasena(putr/a--) m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rabhasenaind. rabhasa
rājakaserum. or f. Cyperus Rotundus (also rukā- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājakaserun. the root of Cyperus Pertenuis View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājaseSee under rāj-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājasef. royal service View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājasevakam. a kind's servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājasevakam. a Rajput View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājasevinm. a kind's servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājasevopajīvinm. equals next View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājopasef. royal service View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājopasevinm. a king's servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājyasenam. Name of a king of nandi-pura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rākṣasendra() m. " rākṣasa--king", Name of rāvaṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rākṣaseśa() m. " rākṣasa--king", Name of rāvaṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rākṣaseśvara() m. " rākṣasa--king", Name of rāvaṇa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasenam. Name of the author of the rasa-sārāmṛta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasenakam. Gentiana Cherayta View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasenakam. Myrica Sapida View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasetum. " rāma-s's bridge", the ridge of coral rocks by which rāma- crossed to Ceylon (now called Adam's bridge, see rāmeśvara- below) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasetum. Name of a poem (equals setu-bandha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasetupradīpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasevakam. Name of a son of devī-datta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāmasevakam. of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rāsabhasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasasetum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasekṣum. sugar-cane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasendram. "chief of fluids", quicksilver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasendram. the philosopher's stone (the touch of which turns iron to gold) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasendracintāmaṇim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasendracūdāmaṇim. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasendrakalpadrumam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasendramaṅgalan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasendrasaṃhitāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rasendrasārasaṃgraham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raseśvaram. "lord of fluids", quicksilver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raseśvaradarśanan. the science of the application of mercury, the doctrine of alchemy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raseśvaradarśanan. Name of work () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raseśvarasiddhāntam. Name of work (establishing the efficacy of mercury in alchemy) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ratnasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rohasenam. Name of a boy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ṛtasenam. Name of a gandharva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrasenam. Name of a warrior View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudrasef. rudra-'s army (plural) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūpamañjarīpādāmbujasevāprārthanāf. Name of stotra-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūpanārāyaṇasenam. Name of man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūpasenam. Name of a vidyā-dhara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rūpasenam. of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sadaśvasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sādhase(Ved. infinitive mood) for levelling or preparing land (with ks/aitrāya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sahasevinmfn. having intercourse with View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śailasetum. a stone embankment, stone bridge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śālvasenim. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śamasetupradīpam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samayasetuvāritamfn. restrained by the barrier of custom View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saṃgītasundarasetum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaṃkarasenam. Name of a writer on medicine View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samudrasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samudrasenam. of a merchant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samupasevA1. -sevate-, to make use of together ; to be addicted to, enjoy View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāṅgasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śāntasenam. Name of a son of subāhu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptapākayajñaseṣam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sāraseyamfn. gaRa sakhy-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śārdūlamṛgasevitamfn. frequented by tigers and deer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasenamfn. (s/arva--) leading all the host View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasenam. the lord of the whole host View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasenam. Name of a son of brahma-datta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasenam. of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasenam. of a place gaRa śaṇḍikodi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvasenam. (fr. sarva-s-) a particular pañca-rātra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasenādhinātham. () a commander in chief. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sarvasenāpatim. () a commander in chief. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvasenayajñamfn. (prob.) wrong reading for sarva-seniyajña- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvasef. patronymic of su-nanda- (the wife of bharata-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvasenim. (fr. id) patronymic of śauceya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvasenim. plural Name of a warrior tribe gaRa dāmany-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvasenīyam. a king of the sārvaseni-s gaRa many-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvaseniyajñam. a particular sacrifice View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sārvasenyamfn. coming or derived from sarva-sena-, gaRa śaṇḍikādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sasenamfn. with an army, commanding an army View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śataseyan. the obtaining of a hundred View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
satyasenam. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaurasenamf(ī-)n. relating to the śūra-sena-s, gaRa palady-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saurasenam. plural Name of a people (equals śūra-sena-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaurasef. (scilicet bhāṣā-) the language of the śūra- (a Prakrit dialect supposed to have been spoken at mathurā- and sometimes substituted for Sanskrit in the plays, especially as representing the speech of women of high rank) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaurasenikāf. equals -senī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śaurasenyamfn. (fr. -sena-) gaRa saṃkāśādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauraseyamfn. gaRa sakhy-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauraseyam. Name of skanda- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sauvakṣaseyam. patronymic fr. suvakṣas- gaRa śubhrādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
savṛtasemamfn. offering a soma- libation at the same time View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śayanāsanasevanan. the enjoyment of sleeping and sitting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sevyasevakaum. dual number master and servant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhāntasetukāf. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhasenam. "having a divine or perfect army", Name of kārttikeya- (god of war) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhasenam. of an astronomer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhasenadivākaram. Name of a son of sarva-jña- and pupil of vṛddha-vāda-sūri- (said to have induced vikramāditya- to tolerate the jaina-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhasenadivākṛtm. Name of a son of sarva-jña- and pupil of vṛddha-vāda-sūri- (said to have induced vikramāditya- to tolerate the jaina-s) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhasenasūrim. Name of author. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhasenavākyakāram. Name of author. () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siddhasevitam. "honoured or worshipped by siddha-s", Name of a form of bhairava- or śiva- (equals baṭuka-bhairava-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śikharasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
siṃhasenam. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivadāsasenam. Name of the author of the tattva-candrikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śivānandasenam. Name of the author of the kṛṣṇacaitanyāmṛta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śobhase Vedic or Veda infinitive mood of śubh- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasenam. Name of a son of śambara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
somasenam. of a king of Campaka-pura and soma-pura- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sparaseSee under root. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
spūrdhaseSee root. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śreṣṭhasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrīdharasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śriyase(dative case and Vedic or Veda infinitive mood), for beauty or splendour or glory, splendidly, gloriously View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasenam. having a famous army (Scholiast or Commentator) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasenam. Name of a brother (or son) of janam-ejaya- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasenam. of a son of saha-deva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasenam. of a son of parīkṣit- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasenam. of a son of bhīma-sena- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasenam. of a son of śatru-ghna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasenam. of a son of śambara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasenam. of a prince of go-karṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śrutasef. Name of a wife of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sthūṇāvaseṣamfn. having only the pillars left (said of a house) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sudāntasenam. Name of a medical writer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūdrasevanan. attendance on a śūdra- master, the being in the service of a śūdra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhasecakam. Name of a serpent-demon (Bombay edition mukha-s-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhasevyamfn. easy of access ( sukhasevyatva -tva- n.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sukhasevyatvan. sukhasevya
sundarasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sundarasenam. of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sundarasenabhāṣyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrasenam. Name of the country about mathurā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrasenam. a king of mathurā- (and ruler of the yadu-s, applied to viṣṇu- and ugra-sena-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrasenam. Name of a son of kārtavīrya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrasenam. of a son of śatru-ghna- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrasenam. of various other men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrasenam. plural Name of the people inhabiting the above country (also naka-and na-ja-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrasef. Name of the city of mathurā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sūrasenam. plural Name of a people (prob. wrong reading for śūra-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śūrasef. a princess of the śūra-sena-s (see ) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surasundarasef. the army of the gods ( surasundarasenāgaṇapati -gaṇa-pati- m."the chief of the celestial host") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surasundarasef. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surasundarasenāgaṇapatim. surasundarasenā
sūryasenam. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
suyavaseind. suyavasa
śvāpadasevitamfn. frequented or infested by wild beasts View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svasetu(sv/a--) mf(u-)n. forming one's own embankment or bridge View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svatvavyavasthārṇavasetubandham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmarasekṣaṇāf. a lotus eyed woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāmrasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāpasekṣum. a kind of sugar-cane View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tāpaseṣṭam. equals sa-priya-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tīrthasenif. Name of one of the mothers in skanda-'s retinue View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tīrthasef. equals -caryā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tīrthasef. worship of the 24 saints View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tīrthasevinm. "visiting tīrtha-s", Ardea nivea View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tiryagvātasef. "attending the side-wind", urining or evacuation by stool View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trillasenaanother man's N., . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trivikramasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tūlasecanan. "cotton-moistening", spinning View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tunnasevanīf. the suture of a wound View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tunnasevanīf. a suture of the skull View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udakasecanan. sprinkling w (according to to others,"a shower of rain"), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ugrasenam. Name of several princes exempli gratia, 'for example' of a brother of janam-ejaya- etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ugrasenajam. Name of kaṃsa- (the uncle and enemy of kṛṣṇa-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ugrasenānīm. Name of kṛṣṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ugrasef. Name of the wife of akrūra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ugrasevitamfn. inhabited by violent beings View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ukṣasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasecanamfn. pouring upon or sprinkling, serving for sprinkling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasecanan. the act of pouring upon, sprinkling View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasecanan. anything poured over or upon, infusion, juice (see anupa-and kṣīropa-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasecanīf. a ladle or cup for pouring X, 21, 2; 105, 10 View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasekam. sprinkling upon, infusion View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasektṛm. one who pours upon or sprinkles View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasektṛ upa-s/ecana- See upa-sic-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasenam. Name of a pupil of śākya-muni- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevA1. -sevate-, to frequent, visit, abide or stay at (a place) ; to stay with a person, attend on, serve, do homage, honour, worship etc. ; to have sexual intercourse with (accusative) ; to practise, pursue, cultivate, study, make use of, be addicted to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasef. homage, worship, courting View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasef. addiction to, use, enjoyment, employment View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevakamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' doing homage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevakamfn. courting (exempli gratia, 'for example' the wife of another) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevanan. the act of doing homage View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevanan. courting (exempli gratia, 'for example' the wife of another) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevanan. service, worship, honouring View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevanan. addiction to, using, enjoying View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevanan. experiencing, suffering View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevinmfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' serving, doing homage, worshipping View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
upasevinmfn. addicted or devoted to View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
uttaraṇasetum. a bridge for crossing over (genitive case), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaidyanarasiṃhasenam. Name of a scholiast View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vairasenim. (fr. vīra-sena-) patronymic of nala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaitasenam. (prob. derived fr. a misunderstanding of vaitas/ena- instrumental case ; see vaitas/a-), Name of purū-ravas- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vajrasenam. Name of a bodhi-sattva- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vajrasenam. of a king of śrāvastī-, satr-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vajrasenam. of a preceptor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṅgasenam. a kind of tree (see vaṅka-s-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṅgasenam. Name of a medical writer (author of the cikitsā-sāra-saṃgraha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṅgasenam. of a grammarian View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṅgasenākam. Agati Grandiflora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaṅkasenam. a kind of tree (see vaṅga-s-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārāṇaseyamfn. produced or born in Benares etc. gaRa nady-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vārasef. practice of harlotry or a set of harlots View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantasenam. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantasef. Name of various women View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsudevasenam. Name of author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasumatīcitrasenāvilāsam. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasumatīcitrasenīyan. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāyasekṣukam. Saccharum Spontaneum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vihitasenam. Name of a prince View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijayasenam. Name of various men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vijayasef. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikramasenam. Name of a king of pratiṣṭhāna- ( vikramasenacampū na-campū- f.Name of a poem) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vikramasenacampūf. vikramasena
vimuktasenam. Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīṇāprasevam. the damper on a lute View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vindhyasenam. Name of a king (varia lectio bimbisāra-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vinītasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viprasef. service of a Brahman master View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenam. "having an army of heroes", Name of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenam. of a king of niṣadha- (father of nala-) etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenam. of a king of siṃhala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenam. of a king of murala- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenam. of a king of kānyakubja- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenam. of a king of kaliṅga- (the murderer of his brother) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenam. of a general of agni-mitra- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenam. of a son of vigatāśoka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenam. of an author View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasena Name (also title or epithet) of a poet (400 D.), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenan. Name of a particular plant (equals āruka-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenajam. "son of vīra-sena-", Name of nala- (the hero of several well-known poems exempli gratia, 'for example' the nalopākhyāna-, naiṣadha-, nalodaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrasenasutam. "son of vīra-sena-", Name of nala- (the hero of several well-known poems exempli gratia, 'for example' the nalopākhyāna-, naiṣadha-, nalodaya-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīryasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣasecanamfn. emitting poison View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viṣayopasef. addiction to sensual pleasures, sensuality View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvanāthasenam. Name of author. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvasenam. Name of the 18th muhūrta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvasenam. of a preceptor View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viśvasenarājm. Name of the father of the 16th arhat- of the present avasarpiṇī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivādārṇavasetum. Name of a legal digest by bāṇeśvara- and others (compiled by order of Warren Hastings) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivādasetum. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vivakṣase(fr. vakṣ-,or vac-or vah-,either 2. sg. or Vedic or Veda infinitive mood), occurring only as refrain and without connection with other words in the hymns of vi-mada- (according to to ,3 equals mahat-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
viviktasevin() mfn. resorting to or seeking solitude View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhasenamfn. (vṛddh/a--) hearing large missiles (others"forming mighty hosts") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhasef. Name of the wife of sumati- (and mother of devatā-jit-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhasef. reverence for the aged View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhasevinmfn. reverencing one's elders View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhasevitvan. equals -sevā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛddhopasevinmfn. honouring the aged View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛkṣasecanan. the watering of trees View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣasenaSee under 2. vṛṣa-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣasenamfn. (prob.) having an army of men View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣasenam. Name of a son of the 10th manu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣasenam. of karṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛṣasenam. of a great-grandson of aśoka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vṛttaratnākarasetum. Name of Comm. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyāghrasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyavasitavaseyan. (impersonal or used impersonally) it is to be settled or determined View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñasenam. (yajñ/a--) Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñasenam. of drupada- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñasenam. of a king of vidarbha- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñasenam. of a dānava- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yajñasenam. of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yājñasenam. (fr. yajña-sena-) patronymic of śikhaṇḍin-, , (also ni- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yājñasef. patronymic of draupadī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yakṣasenam. Name of a king
yavanasenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yogasef. the practice or cultivation of religious abstraction View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yoginīhṛdayasetubandham. Name of work View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yugyāśanaprasevam. the nose-bag containing a horse's food View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktasenamfn. one whose army is ready (for marching) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuktasenīyamfn. relating to him View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yuvasenam. Name of a poet View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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anupasecana अनुपसेचन a. Having no उपसेचन i. e. some condiment, sauce, curds &c. to moisten food with.
upasektṛ उपसेक्तृ a. One who sprinkles or pours down.
upasecana उपसेचन a. Pouring, sprinkling. -नम्, उपसेकः 1 Pouring or sprinkling upon, watering; मृत्युर्यस्योपसेच- चनम् Kaṭh. Up.2.25. -2 Infusion; juice. -नी A ladle or cup for pouring.
upasev उपसेव् 1 Ā. 1 To serve, worship, honour; वैरिणं नोप- सेवते Ms.4.133. -2 To practise, follow, pursue, cultivate; as a vow; तान् सर्वानेवोपसेवेत Ch. Up.2.22.1. -3 To make use of. -4 To be addicted to, enjoy; अधिष्ठाय मनश्चायं विषयानुपसेवते Bg.15.9; so सुखम्, संधिम्, विग्रहम् &c. -5 To frequent, inhabit. -6 To rub or anoint with (sandal &c.). -7 To have sexual intercourse with.
upasevaka उपसेवक a. 1 Worshipping, serving. -2 Following, practising. -3 Enjoying (carnally); परदारोपसेवकः Y.3.136.
upasevanam उपसेवनम् सेवा 1 Worshipping, honouring, adoring. -2 Service; राज˚ Ms.3.64. -3 Addiction to; विषय˚ Ms.12.7. -4 Using, enjoying (carnally also); छाया˚; परदार˚ Ms.4.134. -5 Experiencing, suffering.
upasevin उपसेविन् a. Serving, practising; Rām.5.29.1.
augrasenaḥ औग्रसेनः Kaṁsa, the son of उग्रसेन.
kaseruḥ कसेरुः A kind of grass.
prasedivas प्रसेदिवस् a. One who has become pleased, favourable.
prasekaḥ प्रसेकः 1 Flowing forth, oozing, dropping -2 Sprinkling, wetting. -3 Emission, discharge; मत्तद्विरेफपरि- पीतमधुप्रसेकः Ṛs.3.6. -4 Vomiting. -5 Watering of the mouth or nose. -6 The bowl of a spoon or ladle.
prasekin प्रसेकिन् m. A kind of disease; मांसपिण्डवदुद्गताः प्रसेकिनो$- न्तःपूयवेदनावन्तो$श्वा$पानवदुद्धृतौष्ठाः Suśr.
prasedikā प्रसेदिका A small garden. प्रसेवः prasēvḥ प्रसेवकः prasēvakḥ प्रसेवः प्रसेवकः 1 A sack, bag for grain. -2 A leathern bottle. -3 A small instrument of wood placed under the neck of the lute to make the sound deeper.
bhaimaseniḥ भैमसेनिः न्यः A son of Bhīmasena.
yājñasenaḥ याज्ञसेनः निः A patronymic of Śikhanḍin; Mb. 7.14.44.
yājñase याज्ञसेनी A patronymic of Draupadī; याज्ञलेनीं पुरस्कृत्य षडेवाथ प्रवव्रजुः Mb; वल्गु चित्रपदं श्लक्ष्णं याज्ञसेनि त्वया वचः Mb.3.31.1.
śaurase शौरसेनी N. of a Prākṛita dialect.
saurasenāḥ सौरसेनाः m. pl. N. of a district and its people. -नी See शौरसेनी.
sauraseyaḥ सौरसेयः An epithet of Skanda.
     Macdonell Vedic Search  
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anamīva an-amīvá, a. (Bv.) diseaseless, iii. 59, 3; n. health, x. 14, 11 [ámīvā disease].
amīvā ámī-vā, f. disease, i. 35, 9; ii. 33, 2; vii. 71, 2; viii. 48, 11 [am harm, 3. s. ámī-ti].
avayātr ava-yātṛ́, m. appeaser, viii. 48, 2.
asūyant asūyánt, pr. pt. displeased, resentful, x. 135, 2.
i I go, II. P. émi, x. 34, 5; éti, iv. 50, 8; x. 34, 6; 168, 12; yánti, vii. 49, 1; approach (acc.), viii. 48, 10; áyan, pr. sb. pass, vii. 61, 4; attain, vii. 63, 4; pf. īyúr, x. 15, 1. 2. ánu- go after, vi. 54, 5; follow (acc.), viii. 63, 5.ápa- go away, x. 14, 9. abhí- come upon. ipf. á̄yan, vii. 103, 2.áva- appease: op. iyām, vii. 86, 4. á̄- come, ii. 33, 1; v. 83, 6; go to, x. 14, 8. úpa á̄- come to (acc.), i. 1, 7. úd- rise, vii. 61, 1; 63, 1-4; ipf. ait, x. 90, 4. úpa- approach, vii. 86, 3; 103, 3; x. 14, 10; 34, 10; flow to, ii. 35, 3.párā- pass away, pf. īyúr, x. 14, 2. 7. pári- surround, ii. 35, 4. 9. prá- go forth, i. 154, 3; x. 14, 7. ánu prá- go forth after, vi. 54, 6. sám- flow together, ii. 35, 3; unite, vii, 103, 2.
gṛbhāya gṛbh-āyá, den. P. grasp. úd- hold up, cease, v. 83, 10.
chand Chand seem, II. P. chántti; pf. cachánda, vii. 63, 3; seem good, please, 3. s. s ao. áchān, x. 34, 1.
jā be born, IV. Ā. já̄yate is born, v. 11, 3; 83, 4; x. 90, 5; já̄yase art born, v. 11, 6; ipf. ájāyata was born, x. 90, 9. 12. 132; 129, 3; 135, 6; ájāyanta, x. 90, 10.
tṛp tṛp be pleased, IV. P. tṛpṇoti; cs. tarpáya satisfy, i. 85, 11 [cp. Gk. τέρπω].
tṝ tṝ cross, VI. tirá. prá- extend, increase (family), vii. 61, 4; prolong (life), 103, 10; iṣ ao., viii. 48, 4. 7. 11. ví- run counter to (acc.), x. 34, 6.
paśutṛp paśu-tṛ́p, a. cattle-stealing, vii. 86, 5 [tṛp be pleased with].
prayasvant práyas-vant, a. offering oblations, iii. 59, 2 [práy-as enjoyment from prī please].
priya priy-á, a. dear, i. 85, 7; 154, 5; ii. 12, 15; viii. 48, 14; x. 15, 5 [prī please].
muc muc release, VI. muñcá: ppf. ámumuktam, vii. 71, 5.
ri ri release, IX. riṇá̄ti, ii. 12, 3. ánu- flow along, i. 85, 3.
vardhana várdh-ana, n. strengthening, ii. 12, 14 [vṛdh increase].
vasnya vásn-ya, a. for sale, x. 34, 3 [vasná, n. price, Gk. ὡνο-ς = ϝω̂σ-νο-ς ‘purchase price’, Lat. vēnu-m = ves-num].
visarga vi-sargá, m. release, vii. 103, 9 [ví + sṛj let go].
vṛdh vṛdh grow, I. várdha, i. 85, 7; ii. 35, 11; cause to prosper, iv. 50, 11; increase, pf. vāvṛdhúr, x. 14, 3; cs. vardháya strengthen, v. 11, 3. 5.
vṛdhe vṛdh-é, dat. inf. to increase, i. 85, 1.
sidh sidh repel, I. P. sédhati. ápa- chase away, i. 35, 10.
srāma srá̄ma, m. disease, viii. 48, 5.
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asenya a. not hitting or wounding.
ase f. non-addiction; -ita, pp. not frequented: -½îsvara-dvâra, a. not wait ing at grandees' doors.
asevaka m. no servant, indifferent servant.
upasevaka a. courting (--°ree;); -ana, n. courting; carnal intercourse with (--°ree;); addition to, indulgence in (--°ree;); â, f. carnal intercourse with; devotion to; indulgence in (--°ree;); -in, a.serving; reverencing; worship ping; practising (--°ree;).
upasecana n. besprinkling; î, f. butter-spoon.
divaseśvara m. (lord of day), sun.
nityasevaka a. constantly serving; -snâyin, a. constantly performing ablu tions; (nítya)-hotri, m. constant sacrificer.
nihatasena a. having one's forces destroyed; -½artha, a. of obsolete meaning: -tâ, f., -tva, n. use of an obsolete meaning; -½ushtra, a. whose camels have been slain; -hantavya, fp. to be slain ordestroyed; -hantri, m. slayer; destroyer; dispeller; preventer; -hava, m. summons, call; -hnava, m. denial; secrecy, conceal ment; contradiction; surpassing; expiation; excuse, craving pardon (a ceremony); -hnuti, f.denial; -hrâda, m. sound, note.
parase f. service of others.
puṣyase d. inf. of √ push.
praseka m. effusion; watering of the mouth, nausea; exudation, resin; spout (of a ladle); -sekin, a. discharging fluid; suffering from (excessive) salivation; -sena: -git, m. N. of various princes; -sevaka, m. sack, bag; damper on the neck of a lute.
rasendra m. quicksilver; -½îsvara, m. id.; -½ullâsa, m. awakening of desire for (--°ree;); -½ullâsin, a. feeling the awakening of desire for (--°ree;).
rākṣasendra m. prince of Râk shasas, sp. ep. of Râvana; -½îsvara, m. id.
vairaseni m. son of Vîrasena, pat. of Nala.
śaurasena a. (î) relating etc. to the Sûrasenas: î, f. language of the Sûra senas (a Prâkrit dialect).
svasetu a. having one's own bridge (RV.); -sainya, n. one's own army; -stara, m. self-strewn grass (as a couch).
       Bloomfield Vedic
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115 results
     
asenyā vaḥ paṇayo vacāṃsi RV.10.108.6a.
andhase svāhā # śB.12.6.1.5.
apasedhan (SV.JB. -dhaṃ) duritā soma mṛḍaya (SV.JB. no mṛḍa) # RV.9.82.2c; SV.2.668c; JB.3.259c.
apasedhan rakṣaso yātudhānān # RV.1.35.10c; VS.34.26c.
abhivayase tvā # MS.2.13.17: 164.14. See Apś.17.6.1.
abhivayase svāhā # MS.3.12.14: 164.9. See Apś.17.6.1.
amanase (KSA. amanaskāya) svāhā # TS.7.5.12.2; KSA.5.3.
amitrasenām abhijañjabhānaḥ # AVś.5.20.6c; AVP.9.27.6c.
amitrasenāṃ maghavan # AVś.3.1.3a; AVP.3.6.3a; SV.2.1215a.
ayuddhaseno vibhvā vibhindatā # RV.10.138.5a.
indrasyaujase svāhā # MS.2.6.12: 71.13; 4.4.6: 57.2. See under indrasya balāya.
ukthavāhase vibhve manīṣām # RV.8.96.11a.
upaśvase druvaye sīdatā yūyam # AVś.11.1.12a. P: upaśvase Kauś.61.29.
uruvyacase mahine suvṛktim # RV.7.31.11a; SV.2.1144a.
uṣase naḥ pari dehi # AVś.19.50.7a; AVP.14.9.7a. Cf. rātri mātar uṣase.
uṣase svāhā # TS.7.2.20.1; KSA.2.10; TB.3.1.6.3; 8.16.4 (bis); 18.6; śś.6.3.8; Apś.20.12.10.
ūrdhvavayase tvā # MS.2.13.17: 164.14. See Apś.17.6.1.
ūrdhvavayase svāhā # MS.3.12.14: 164.9. See Apś.17.6.1.
ojase ca balāya ca # AVś.11.10.11d; 19.26.3b; 46.1d; AVP.1.82.3b; 4.23.1d; 4.25.7d.
ojase tvā # TS.4.3.7.2; KS.37.18.
ojase tvendriyāya bhakṣayāmi # śś.7.5.13; 18.21.9.
ojase balāya tvodyache vṛṣaṇe śuṣmāyāyuṣe varcase (MS.KS. vṛṣṇe śuṣmāya) # MS.1.6.2: 86.17; KS.7.13; TB.1.2.1.21; Apś.5.13.4. P: ojase balāya tvā Mś.1.5.4.3.
ojase me varcodā varcase pavasva # VS.7.28; VSK.9.1.3; śB.4.5.6.3.
ojase vīryāya kam # AVś.10.6.7e.
ojase sahase tvā # AVś.19.37.3b; AVP.1.54.4b.
ojase svāhā # TA.4.5.1.
kīlālavarcasena mā # AVP.8.20.2d.
girvāhase gira indrāya pūrvīḥ # RV.8.96.10c.
grasetām aśvā vi muceha śoṇā # RV.3.35.3c.
candramase kilāsam # VS.30.21. See next but two.
candramase ca tvā nakṣatrebhyaś ca (sc. unnayāmi) # Apś.6.8.1.
candramase namaḥ # KSA.11.4.
candramase mirmiram # TB.3.4.1.17. See prec. but two.
candramase rasaṃ kṛdhi # TA.1.12.1b.
candramase sam anamat # TS.7.5.23.1. See candrāya sam, and dikṣu candrāya.
candramase svāhā # TS.1.8.13.3; 7.1.15.1; 17.1; MS.3.12.7: 162.16; 3.12.10: 163.10; KS.15.3; KSA.1.6,8; TB.3.1.6.1; 10.7.1; Tā.10.67.2; MahānU.19.2. Cf. candrāya svāhā.
camasena bṛhaspatiḥ # AVś.7.110.3b.
citrase iṣubalā amṛdhrāḥ # RV.6.75.9c; AVP.15.10.9c; VS.29.46c; TS.4.6.6.3c; MS.3.16.3c: 186.14; KSA.6.1c.
jarase tvā jaradaṣṭiṃ pari dadāmi # AVP.1.80.4.
jarase tvā pari dadhmaḥ # AVP.1.61.5a. Cf. jarāyai tvā.
jarase tvām ṛṣayaḥ saṃ vyayantu # AVP.15.6.8c.
jarase ni dhuyāmasi # AVP.1.61.5b. Cf. jarāyai ni dhuvāmi.
jarase bhartavā aduḥ # AVś.19.30.2d; AVP.12.22.11d.
jarase mā jaradaṣṭiṃ vardhantu # AVś.18.3.10d.
jarase vahataṃ punaḥ # AVś.3.11.6d. Cf. jarimṇe nayataṃ.
jātavedase sunavāma somam # RV.1.99.1a; RVKh.10.127.5d; AB.4.30.12; 32.10; 5.2.16; 8.13; 15.7; 17.15; 19.17; 21.18; ā.1.5.3.13; TA.10.2.1a; MahānU.6.2a; Aś.7.1.14; N.7a (Roth's edition, p. 201); 14.33a. P: jātavedase BṛhPDh.9.327; Rvidh.1.22.4,6. Cf. BṛhD.3.130 (B).
jāyase tvaṃ sapatnahā # HG.1.11.8b.
jigīṣase paśur ivāvasṛṣṭaḥ # RV.10.4.3d.
tadokase puruśākāya vṛṣṇe # RV.3.35.7c.
tapase kaulālam # VS.30.7. See śramāya kau-.
tapase tvā # VS.7.30; MS.1.3.16: 36.11; 4.9.3: 123.9; KS.4.7; śB.4.3.1.19; TA.4.3.1; Apś.15.7.3.
tapase namaḥ # KS.26.12; Apś.20.1.17.
tapasendreṇa saṃśitam # AVś.6.104.2b.
tapase vā mahase vāvasṛṣṭā # AVP.1.95.4b; 3.10.3b.
tapase śūdram # VS.30.5; TB.3.4.1.1.
tapase svāhā # VS.22.31; 39.12; MS.3.12.13: 164.7; KSA.5.6; TB.3.1.6.4; 12.4.2.
tamase taskaram # VS.30.5; TB.3.4.1.1.
tavase bhandadiṣṭaye # RV.5.87.1d; SV.1.462d.
tejase 'japālam # VS.30.11; TB.3.4.1.9.
tejase tvā # VS.15.8; 19.6; KS.40.2; TB.2.6.1.4; Apś.2.6.5; 19.7.1. Cf. tejase vām.
tejase tvā brahmavarcasāya bhakṣayāmi # śś.7.5.12. Cf. next.
tejase tvā śriyai yaśase balāyānnādyāya prāśnāmi # HG.1.13.8. Cf. prec.
tejase ma ojase me varcase me vīryāya me varcodā varcase pavasva # Apś.12.18.20.
tejase me varcodā varcase (Mś. me varcodāḥ) pavasva # Apś.12.18.20; Mś.2.3.7.2.
tejase vām # KS.39.1; Apś.16.33.1. Cf. tejase tvā.
tejase svāhā # śB.14.9.3.8; TB.3.1.5.10; 6.4; BṛhU.6.3.8.
tenāvasena paro mūjavato 'tīhi # TS.1.8.6.2; MS.1.10.4: 144.14; 1.10.20: 160.15; KS.9.7; 36.14; Lś.5.3.12. See tena paro.
trāyase puruṣaṃ tvam # AVś.5.5.2b; AVP.6.4.2b.
tvayāvasena sam aśīmahi tvā # TS.5.7.2.4b; KS.13.15b; TB.2.4.8.7b; Aś.2.9.10b; Mś.1.6.4.25b; Kauś.74.19b; SMB.2.1.13b; PG.3.1.4b; JG.1.24b. See tvayā jvasena.
dīrghaśravase madhu kośo akṣarat # RV.1.112.11b.
durvāsase 'mataye mā no asyai # RV.7.1.19b.
devase upa spṛśata # HG.2.9.3; ApMB.2.18.40 (ApG.7.20.5).
devasenānām abhibhañjatīnām # RV.10.103.8c; AVś.19.13.9c; AVP.7.4.9c; SV.2.1206c; VS.17.40c; TS.4.6.4.3c; MS.2.10.4c: 136.7; KS.18.5c.
devasenābhyas pari # AVP.3.10.1d.
devasenābhyaḥ (ApMB. -bhya) svāhā # HG.2.9.3; ApMB.2.18.40,41.
dyumnaśravase mahi nṛmṇam arcata # RV.5.54.1d.
nabhase tvā # VS.7.30; MS.1.3.16: 36.10; KS.4.7; śB.4.3.1.16.
nabhase tvā svāhā # MG.1.10.11.
nabhase svāhā # VS.22.31; MS.3.12.13: 164.6.
namaseḍāmahe tvā # RV.10.85.22b; AVś.14.2.33b; ApMB.1.10.1b.
namased upa sīdata # RV.9.11.6a; SV.2.796a; AB.1.22.2; Aś.4.7.4; śś.5.10.7.
nṛcakṣase sumṛḍīkāya vedhaḥ # RV.4.3.3b.
nṛcakṣase svāhā # śB.12.6.1.31.
payasendraṃ vayodhasam # VS.28.39b.
payasendraṃ sarasvatī # TB.2.6.14.3b.
payasendram avardhatām # VS.28.16b; TB.2.6.10.3b.
payase hotrāṇāṃ svāhā # TS.3.2.8.1.
pāyasena samācaret # ViDh.78.53b.
purūravase sukṛte sukṛttaraḥ # RV.1.31.4b.
pṛthujrayase rīradhā suvṛktim # RV.10.30.1d.
pracetase tvā # TS.4.4.6.2; KS.22.5.
pracetase pra sumatiṃ kṛṇudhvam # RV.7.31.10b; AVś.20.73.3b; SV.1.328b; 2.1143b.
bādhase janān vṛṣabheva manyunā # RV.6.46.4a.
bṛhadvayase tvā # MS.2.13.17: 164.14.
bṛhadvayase svāhā # MS.3.12.14: 164.9.
brahmavarcasena mā samaṅgdhi # VārG.5.35.
brahmavarcasena me saṃtiṣṭhasva # TB.3.7.6.20; Tā.10.77; Apś.4.12.10.
brahmavarcasenānnādyena samedhaya (JG. adds svāhā) # AG.1.10.12d; HG.1.2.11d; JG.1.3c.
bharase svāhā # TB.3.1.6.4.
bhrājase svāhā # TB.3.1.6.4.
maṃsase śaṃ ca nas kṛdhi # AVś.7.20.2b.
manase cetase dhiye # AVś.6.41.1a; Kauś.54.11.
manase tvā # VS.6.25; 37.19; TS.1.3.13.1; 6.4.3.1; MS.1.3.1: 29.4; 4.5.3: 66.7; 4.9.6: 126.7; KS.3.9; śB.3.9.3.4; 14.1.4.14; TA.4.7.2; 5.6.6; KA.2.109; Vait.33.27; Mś.2.3.1.22.
manase namaḥ # KS.26.12; KSA.11.6; Apś.20.1.17.
manase svāhā # VS.22.23; TS.7.3.15.1; MS.3.12.9: 163.8; KSA.3.5; śB.14.9.3.4; TB.3.8.11.1; 12.4.5; TA.4.5.1; 15.1; BṛhU.6.3.4.
mahase tvā # VS.19.8; KS.37.18; TB.2.6.1.5; Apś.19.7.6.
mahase vīṇāvādam # VS.30.19; TB.3.4.1.13.
mṛjyase pavase matī # SV.2.320b. See mṛśase.
mṛjyase soma sātaye # RV.9.56.3c.
mṛśase pavase matī # RV.9.20.3b. See mṛjyase etc.
yamāyāṅgirase svadhā namaḥ # ViDh.21.8. See yamāya pitṛmate.
yaśase tejase brahmavarcasāya balāyendriyāya # SMB.1.7.4. P: yaśase tejase GG.3.4.17.
yaśasendrābṛhaspatī # PG.2.6.21b; MG.1.9.27b. See yaśo mendrā-.
yaśase brahmaṇe brahmavarcasāya # PG.2.6.11c.
yādase śābalyām (TB. śābulyām) # VS.30.20; TB.3.4.1.15.
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"ase" has 611 results.
     
asekṛt affix in the sense of the infinitive (तुमर्थे) in Vedic Literature,e.gजीवसे; confer, compare तुमर्थे सेसेनसेo P.III.4.9
ajitasenaauthor of the Cintāmaṇiprakāśika a gloss on Cintāmaṇi, the well known commentary by Yakṣavarman on the Sabdānuśāsana of Śākatāyana. Ajitasena was the grand pupil of Abhayadeva; he lived in the 12th century A.D.
kasenkṛt affix असे in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature; e. g. प्रेषे, श्रियसे्; confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 4. 9.
bhāvasenaa grammarian of the Kātantra school who wrote the works Kātantrarūpamālā and Kaumāra Vyākaraņa.
bhīmasenacalled भीमदास also, who flourished in the fourteenth century and wrote a treatise on grammar called भैमव्याकरण.
vaṅgasenaa grammarian who wrote a grammatical work on verbs named अाख्यातप्रकरण.
a(1)the first letter of the alphabet in Sanskrit and its derived languages, representing the sound a (अ): (2) the vowel a (अ) representing in grammatical treatises, except when Prescribed as an affix or an augment or a substitute,all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalisation or lengthening: (3) personal ending a (अ) of the perfeminine. second.pluraland first and third person.singular.; (4) kṛt affix c (अ) prescribed especially after the denominative and secondary roots in the sense of the verbal activity e. g. बुभुक्षा, चिन्ता, ईक्षा, चर्चा et cetera, and othersconfer, compare अ प्रत्ययात् et cetera, and others (P.III 3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist mentioned as añ (अङ्) or cañ (चङ्) by Pāṇini in P. III i.48 to 59 exempli gratia, for example अगमत्, अचीकरत्; (6) conjugational sign mentioned as śap (शप्) or śa (श) by Pāṇini in P. III.1.68, 77. exempli gratia, for example भवति, तुदति et cetera, and others; (7) augment am (अम्) as prescribed by P. VI.1.58; exempli gratia, for example द्रष्टा, द्रक्ष्यति; (8) augment aṭ (अट्) prefixed to a root in the imperfeminine. and aorist tenses and in the conditional mood e. g. अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् confer, compare P. VI.4.71; (8) kṛt affix a (अ) prescribed as अङ्, अच्, अञ्, अण्, अन्, अप्, क, ख, घ, ञ, ड् , ण, et cetera, and others in the third Adhyāya of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.; (9) taddhita affix. affix a (अ) mentioned by Pāṇini as अच्, अञ् अण्, अ et cetera, and others in the fourth and the fifth chapters of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini; (10) the samāsānta affix a (अ), as also stated in the form of the samāsānta affixes (डच् , अच्, टच्, ष्, अष् and अञ्) by Pāṇini in V.4.73 to 121;(11) substitute a (अश्) accented grave for इदम before case-affixes beginning with the inst. instrumental case. case: (12) remnant (अ) of the negative particle नञ् after the elision of the consonant n (न्) by नलोपो नञः P. vi.3.73.
aṃ(ं)nasal utterance called अनुस्वार and written as a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the vowel preceding it. confer, compare स्वरमनु संलीनं शब्द्यते इति; it is pronounced after a vowel as immersed in it. The anusvāra is considered (l) as only a nasalization of the preceding vowel being in a way completely amalgamated with it. confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as a nasal addition to the preceding vowel, many times prescribed in grammar as nuṭ (नुट् ) or num (नुम् ) which is changed into anusvāra in which case it is looked upon as a sort of a vowel, while, it is looked upon as a consonant when it is changed into a cognate of the following consonant (परसवर्ण) or retained as n (न्). confer, compare P. VIII.4.58; (3) as a kind cf consonant of the type of nasalized half g(ग्) as described in some treatises of the Yajurveda Prātiśākhya: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)1.22 V.Pr.14.148-9. The vowel element of the anusvāra became more prevalent later on in Pali, Prkrit, Apabhraṁśa and in the spoken modern languages while the consonantal element became more predominant in classical Sanskrit.
a,pೱ,(ೱ)Upadhmānīya represented by a sign like the temple of an elephants stated by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. who remarks "गजकुम्भाकृतिर्वर्ण उपध्मानीयसंज्ञो भवति." Kāt.I. It is a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( प् ) or ph ( फ ). It is looked upon as a letter ( वर्ण ), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. अ:कार name given to the nominative case. case in the Taittiriya Prātiśākhya. cf अ:कार इति प्रथमाविभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 23.
ak(1)condensed expression (प्रत्याहार ) representing the letters अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ in Pāṇini's Grammar confer, compare P. VI.1.12, 101; VII.4.2. (2) sign (विकरण) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root दृश् c. g. पितरं च दृशेयं P.III.l.86 V 2; ( 3 ) remnant of the termnination अकच् P. V. 3. 71 ; ( 4 ) substitute (अादेश) अकङ् for the last vowel of the word मुधातृ ( P.IV.1.97 ) e. g. सोघातकिः.
akathitanot mentioned by any other case-relation such as अपादान, संप्रदान and अधिकरण; stated with respect to the indirect object, governed by roots possessing two objects such as दुह्, याच् and others, which in the passive woice is put in the nominative case. The in-direct object is called akathita because in some cases there exists no other case-relation as, for example, in पौरवं गां याचते or भिक्षते, or माणवकं पन्थानं पृच्छति; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they exist, as for instance in गां दोग्धि पयः, अन्ववरुणद्धि गां व्रजम्; see अकथितं च P.1.4.51 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon.
akartṛa case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. confer, compare अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायाम् P. III.3.I9.
akarmakaintransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which cannot possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for suppression are briefly given in the well-known stanza ; धातोरर्थान्तरे वृत्तेर्धात्वर्थेनोपसंग्रहात् । प्रसिद्धेरविवक्षातः कर्मणोऽकर्मिकाक्रिया ॥ In the case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same individual viz. the agent or कर्ता confer, compare फलव्यापारयोरेकनिष्ठतायामकर्मकः Vāk. Pad.
akārathe letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. confer, compare अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet ( वर्णसमाम्नाय ) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra confer, compare ए ओ ऐ औ अा ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ अाः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः ೱ क ೱ पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं अां एवमुपदेशे et cetera, and others Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya.I. 4.
akṛtakāridoing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the expression is used in connection with grammatical operations like ह्रस्वकरण or दीर्घकरण only in cases where it is necessary i, e. where already there is no hrasva or drgha confer, compare अकृतकारि खल्वपि शास्त्रमग्निवत् । तद्यथा । अग्निर्यददग्धं तद्दहति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VI. 1.127. the rules of Grammar, like fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.
akṛtrimanon-technical: not formed or not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the application of affixes to crude bases and so on; natural; assigned only by accident. cf the gram. maxim कृत्रिमाकृतिमयोः कृत्रिमे कार्यसंप्रत्ययः which means "in cases of doubt whether an operation refers to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is expressed by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par. śek. Par.9 also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.28.
akṣarasamāmnāyaalphabet: traditional enumeration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (अ). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still, qualitatively they are much the same. The Śivasūtras, on which Pāṇini's grammar is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty five class-consonants and 4 | sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothongs (समानाक्षर) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (सन्ध्यक्षर ). The four semi-vowels y, v, r, l, ( य् व् र् ल् ) or antasthāvarṇa, the twenty five class-consonants or mutes called sparśa, and the four ūṣman letters ś, ṣ, s and h ( श् ष् स् ह् ) are the same in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works although in the Prātiśākhya works the semi-vowels are mentioned after the class consonants.The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the VājasaneyiPrātiśākhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the inclusion of the Ayogavāha letters, and their number. The Ayogavāha letters are anusvāra, visarjanīya,jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya, nāsikya, four yamas and svarabhaktī. The Ṛk Prātiśākhya does not mention l (लृ), but adding long ā (अा) i (ई) ,ū (ऊ) and ṛ (ऋ) to the short vowels, mentions 12 vowels, and mentioning 3 Ayogavāhas (< क्, = प् and अं) lays down 48 letters. The Ṛk Tantra Prātiśākhya adds the vowel l (लृ) (short as also long) and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and by adding 10 ayogavāhas viz. 4 yamas, nāsikya, visarjanīya, jihvāmulīya, upadhmānīya and two kinds of anusvāra, and thus brings the total number to 57. The Ṛk Tantra makes a separate enumeration by putting diphthongs first, long vowles afterwards and short vowels still afterwards, and puts semi-vowels first before mutes, for purposes of framing brief terms or pratyāhāras. This enumeration is called varṇopadeśa in contrast with the other one which is called varṇoddeśa. The Taittirīya prātiśākhya adds protracted vowels and lays down 60 letters : The Ṣikṣā of Pāṇini lays down 63 or 64 letters, while the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya gives 65 letters. confer, compare Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 1-25. The alphabet of the modern Indian Languages is based on the Varṇasamāmnāya given in the Vājasaneyi-prātiśākhya. The Prātiśākhyas call this enumeration by the name Varṇa-samāmnāya. The Ṛk tantra uses the terms Akṣara samāmnāya and Brahmarāśi which are picked up later on by Patañjali.confer, compare सोयमक्षरसमाम्नायो वाक्समाम्नायः पुष्पितः फलितश्चन्द्रतारकवत् प्रतिमण्डितो वेदितव्यो ब्रह्मराशिः । सर्ववेदपुण्यफलावाप्तिश्चास्य ज्ञाने भवति । मातापितरौ चास्य स्वर्गे लोके महीयेते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Ahnika.2-end.
aṅThe vikaraṇa before luṅ affixes, substituted for the affix cvi ( च्वि ) in the case of the roots mentioned by Pāṇini in sūtras III.1.52-59:(2) the Vikaraṇapratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by Pāṇini in Sūtra III.1.86; (3) kṛt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter ष् and the roots भिद्, छिद् and others. P.III.3 104-106.exempli gratia, for example जरा, त्रपा, भिदा, छिदा et cetera, and others
aṅitnot marked with the mute letter ṅ ( ङ्) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the guṇa or the vṛddhi substitute. cf अङिति गुणप्रतिषेधः ( वक्तव्यः ) M.Bh. III.3.83 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2. In the case of the preposition ā ( अा ) unmarked with ṅ (ड् ), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something confer, compare वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् exempli gratia, for example आ एवं नु मन्यसे, आ एवं किल तत् confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.l.14.
aṅga(1)the crude base of a noun or a verb to which affixes are added; a technical term in Pāṇini's grammar for the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e. g. उपगु in औपगव,or कृ in करिष्यति et cetera, and others confer, compare यस्मात् प्रत्ययविधिस्तदादि प्रत्ययेSङ्गम् P.I.4.13; (2) subordinate participle. constituent part confer, compare पराङ्गवद् in सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P. II.1.2, also विध्यङ्गभूतानां परिभाषाणां Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par. 93.10: (3) auxiliary for an operation, e. g. अन्तरङ्ग, बहिरङ्ग et cetera, and others confer, compare अत्राङगशब्देन शब्दरूपं निमित्तमेव गृह्यते Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Par.50; (4) element of a word or of an expression confer, compare अङ्गव्यवाये चाङ्गपरः Ṛktantra Prātiśākhya. 190, अङ्गे च क्म्ब्यादौ R.T. 127. व्यञ्जनं स्वराङ्गम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.21.1.
aṅgādhikāraa large section of Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. covering five quarters (VI.4.1 to the end of VII) in which the various operations undergone by crude bases before various affixes et cetera, and others are prescribedition
(1)taddhita affix. affix a ( अ ) with the mute letter ñ ( ञ्), prescribed (i) after the words उत्स and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in, produced in, come from et cetera, and othersP. IV.1.86, (ii) after the words विद and others in the sense of grandson and other descendents.P. IV.1.104. For other cases see P. IV. I. 141, 161; IV.2.12,14 et cetera, and others IV.3.7 et cetera, and others IV.4.49. The feminine is formed by adding i ( ई ) to words ending with this affix अञ्, which have the vṛddhi vowel substituted for their initial vowel which gets the acute accent also exempli gratia, for example औत्सः, औत्सी,औदपानः, बैदः, बैदी.
aṭ(1)token term standing for vowels and semi-vowels excepting l ( ल्) specially mentioned as not interfering with the substitution of ṇ ( ण् ) for n ( न् ) exempli gratia, for example गिरिणा, आर्येण, खर्वेण et cetera, and others Sec P.VIII.4.2; (2) augment a (अट्) with an acute accent, which is prefixed to verbal forms in the imperfect and the aorist tenses and the conditional mood. exempli gratia, for example अभवत्, अभूत्, अभविष्यत् Sec P.IV.4.71; (3) augment a ( अट् ) prescribed in the case of the roots रुद्, स्वप् et cetera, and others before a Sārvadhātuka affix beginning with any consonant except y ( य्), exempli gratia, for example अरोदत्, अस्वपत्, अजक्षत्, आदत् et cetera, and others; see P.VII.3, 99, 100;(4) augment a ( अट् ) prefixed sometimes in Vedic Literature to affixes of the Vedic subjunctive (लेट्) exempli gratia, for example तारिवत्, मन्दिवत् et cetera, and others see P.III.4.94.
aṇ(1)token term ( प्रत्याहार ) for all vowels and semivowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divisions as are caused by length, protraction accent or nasalization. cf अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः P. I.1.60;(2) token term for the vowels अ, इ and उ in all Pānini's rules except in the rule I.1.69 given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. e.g see ढ्रलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घोणः P.VI.3. 111, केऽणः P.VII.4.13. and अणोऽ प्रगृह्यस्य. P.VIII.4.57: (3) tad, affix. a ( अ ) prescribed generally in the various senses such as 'the offspring', 'dyed in,' 'belonging to' et cetera, and others except in cases where other specific affixes are prescribed cf प्राग्दीव्यतोऽण् P. IV.1.83; (4) kṛ. affix a ( अ ), applied, in the sense of an agent, to a root with an antecedent word (उपपद) standing as its object. e. g. कुम्भकारः, see P.III.2.1: काण्डलावः, see P.III.3.12.
at(1)tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar for short अ, cf तपरस्तत्कालस्य P. I. 1. 70; अदेङ् गुणः P.I.1.2; (2) personal ending अ for इ ( इट् ) of the Ist person. singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada in the Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) caseaffix in the case of युष्मद् and अस्मद् for ablative case. singular. and plural P.VII. 1.31,32: (4) tad-affix अत् (अ) prescribed after किम् in the sense of the locative case case before which किम् is changed to कु, क्व being the taddhita affix. formation; confer, compare P. V.3.12 and VII.2.105:(5) substitute अत्(शतृ) for लट् forming the present and future participles in the Parasmaipada. active voice confer, compare लटः शतृशानचौ. P.III. 2.124 and लृटः सद्वा P. III.3.14.
atideśaextended application; transfer or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or attributes of one thing to another. Atideśa in Sanskrit grammar is a very common feature prescribed by Pāṇini generally by affixing the taddhita affix. affix मत् or वत् to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another. e. g. लोटो लङ्वत् P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atideśa is noticed even without the affix मत् or वत्; exempli gratia, for exampleगाङ्कुटादिभ्योऽञ्णिन् ङित् P. 1.2.1 . Atideśa is generally seen in all grammatical terms which end with 'vadbhāva' e. g. स्थानिवद्भाव (P.I.1.56-59), सन्वद्भाव (P.VII.4.93), अन्तादिवद्भाव (P. VI.1.85), अभूततद्भाव (P.IV.60) and others. Out of these atideśas, the स्थानिवद्भाव is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation id est, that is substitution of the original form called sthānin in the place of the secondary form called ādeśa. This full representation is called रूपातिदेश as different from the usual one which is called कार्यातिदेश, confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VIII.1.90 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 1 and VIII.1.95. Vart.3. Regarding the use of अतिदेश there is laid down a general dictum सामान्यातिदेशे विशेषानतिदेशः when an operation depending on the general properties of a thing could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on special properties should not be taken by virtue of the same : e. g. भूतवत् in P. III.3.132 means as in the case of the general past tense and not in the case of any special past tense like the imperfect ( अनद्यतन ) , or the perfect ( परोक्ष ). See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 101, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 3. 132. There is also a general dictum अतिदेशिकमनित्यम्whatever is transferred by an extended application, need not, be necessarily taken. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. 93.6 as also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.123 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).4, I.2.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.3.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 et cetera, and others, Kaiyaṭa on II. 1.2 and VI.4.22 and Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P. I.1.56 and P. I.2.58 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8. The dictum अातिदेशिकमनित्यम् is given as a Paribhāṣā by Nāgeśa confer, compare Pari. Śek. 93. 6.
ātisparśaexcess of contact, which to a certain extent spoils the pronunciation and leads to.a fault. अतिस्पर्श is the same as दुःस्पर्श, the letter ळ being called दुःस्पृष्ट on account of excess of contact. This excess of contact ( अतिस्पर्श) in the case of the utterance of the letter र् results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering; confer, compare अतिस्पर्शो बर्बरता च रेफे, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV. 26.
atyalpaspṛṣṭahaving a very slight contact (with the organ producing sound),as in the case of the utterance of a vowel.
atyādigaṇathe group of prepositions headed by अति which are compounded with a noun in the acc. case ; confer, compare अत्यादयः क्रान्ताद्यर्थे द्वितीयया Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om P. II. 2.18.
adarśanaa term in ancient grammars and Prātiśākhyas meaning nonappearance of a phonetic member वर्णस्यादर्शनं लोपः (V. Pr 1. 141),explained as अनुपलब्धिः by उव्वट. Later on, the idea of non-appearance came to be associated with the idea of expectation and the definition of लोप given by Pāṇini in the words अदर्शनं लोपः (as based evidently on the Prātiśākhya definition) was explained as non-appearance of a letter or a group of letters where it was expected to have been present. See Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.60 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4 and Kaiyaṭa thereon.
adṅsubstitute for case affixes सु and अम् added to words ending with the affixes डतर and डतम and to the words अन्य, अन्यतर and इतर. confer, compare P,VII.1.25.
adhikaraṇa(1)support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. confer, compare अाधारोsधिकरणम् P.I.4.45; (2) one of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च P.II.4.36;(3)substance, 'dravya' confer, compare अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते M.Bh. on II.1.1.
adhikāragoverning rule consisting of a word (exempli gratia, for example प्रत्ययः, धातोः, समासान्ताः et cetera, and others) or words (exempli gratia, for example ङ्याप्प्रातिपदिकात्, सर्वस्य द्वे et cetera, and others) which follows or is taken as understood in every following rule upto a particular limit. The meaning of the word अधिकार is discussed at length by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on II.1.1, where he has given the difference between अधिकार and परिभाषा; confer, compare अधिकार: प्रतियोगं तस्यानिर्देशार्थ इति योगे योगे उपतिष्ठते। परिभाषा पुनरेकदेशस्था सती सर्वं शास्त्रमभिज्वलयति प्रदीपवत् । See also Mahābhāṣya on I.3.11, I. 4.49 and IV. I.83. The word or wording which is to repeat in.the subsequent rules is believed to be shown by Pāṇini by characterizing it with a peculiarity of utterance known as स्वरितोच्चार or स्वरितत्वेन उच्चारणम्. The word which is repeated in the following Sūtras is stated to be अधिकृत. The Śabda Kaustubha defines adhikāra as एकंत्रोपात्तस्यान्यत्र व्यापार: अधिकारः Śab. Kaus. on P.1.2.65. Sometimes the whole rule is repeated e. g. प्रत्यय: P.III.1.1, अङ्गस्य P.VI.4.1 समासान्ताः P.V.4.68 while on some occasions a part only of it is seen repeatedition The repetition goes on upto a particular limit which is stated as in असिद्धवदत्राभात् P.VI.4.22, प्राग्रीश्वरान्निपाताः P.I.4.56. Many times the limit is not stated by the author of the Sūtras but it is understood by virtue of a counteracting word occurring later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by the ancient traditional interpreters by means of a sort of convention which is called स्वरितत्वप्रतिज्ञा. This अधिकार or governance has its influence of three kinds: ( 1 ) by being valid or present in all the rules which come under its sphere of influence, e. g. स्त्रियाम् or अङ्गस्य; (2) by showing additional properties e. g. the word अपादान being applied to cases where there is no actual separation as in सांकाश्यकेभ्यः पाटलिपुत्रका अभिरूपतराः: (3) by showing additional force such as setting aside even subsequent rules if opposingular. These three types of the influence which a word marked with स्वरित and hence termed अधिकार possesses are called respectively अधिकारगति, अधिक क्रार्य and अधिक कार. For details see M.Bh. on I.3.11. This अधिकार or governing rule exerts its influence in three ways: (1) generally by proceeding ahead in subsequent rules like the stream of a river, (2)sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and (3)rarely by proceeding backward with a lion's glance; confer, compare सिंहावलोकितं चैव मण्डूकप्लुतमेव च ।; गड्गाप्रवाहवच्चापि अधिकारास्त्रिधा मताः ॥
adhunātaddhita affix. affix applied to the pronoun इदम् which is changed into इ before the affix and then elided by P. VI.4.148, or changed into अ in which case धुना or अधुना could be looked upon as a taddhita affix. affix.
anaḍ(1)substitute अन् as Samāsānta at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound in the feminine for the last letter of the word ऊधस् and for that of धनुस् in all genders exempli gratia, for example कुण्डोघ्नी (by applying ई to कुण्डोधन्), शार्ङ्गधन्वा, अधिज्यधन्वा; confer, compare P V.4.131, 132; (2) substitute अन् for the last letter of the words अस्थि, दधि et cetera, and others before the affixes of the instrumental and the following cases beginning with a vowel e. g. अस्थ्ना, दध्ना, अक्ष्णा et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VII. 1.75; (3) substitute अन् for the last letter of the word सखि, of words ending in ऋ,as also of उशनस् and others before the nominative singular. affix सु. e. g. सखा, कर्ता, उशना confer, compare P. VII.1.93, 94.
ananubanghakawithout any mute significatory letter attached; अननुबन्धकपरिभाषा is the short name given to the maxim-'अननुबन्धकग्रहणे न सानुबन्धकस्य ग्रह णम्' See M.Bh. on I.3.1: V.2.9. There is a reading in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. निरनुबन्धकग्रहणे for अननुबन्धकग्रहणे, in which case the परिभाषा is called निरनुबन्धकपरिभाषा. See Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 81.
anabhidhānainability to express the meaning desiredition The expression न वा अनभिधानात् frequently occurs in the Mahābhāṣya referring to such words or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could be used according to rules but,are not found in current use recognized by learned persons or scholars; confer, compare तच्चानभिधानं यत्राप्तैरुक्तं तत्रैव, अन्यत्र तु यथालक्षणं भवत्येव Padamañj. on III. 2.1;also confer, compare अनभिधानाद् व्यधिकरणानां बहुव्रीहिर्न भविष्यति । यत्र त्वभिधानमस्ति तत्र वैयधिकरण्येपि भवत्येव समासः, कण्ठेकाल इति; Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on II. 2.24: for examples of अनभिधान, sec also M.Bh.अभिधानलक्षणाः कृत्तद्धितसमासाः अनभिधानान्न भविष्यन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.3.19. also on III. 2.1. V.5, IV.2.1. See Kāś. on III,1.22, III.3.158.
anabhihitanot conveyed or expressed by another id est, that is by any one of the four factors viz.verbal affix, kṛt affix,taddhita affix and compound. The rule अनभिहिते (P. II.3.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Kārakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity, provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.mentioned four ways; e. g. see the acc. case in कटं करोति, the inst, case in दात्रेण लुनाति, the dative case case in देवदत्ताय गां ददाति, the ablative case. case in ग्रामादा गच्छति, or the locative casecase in स्थाल्यां पचति.
anavakāśatvaabsence of any opportunity of taking effect, scopelessness considered in the case of a particular rule, as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity confer, compare अनवकाशत्वं निरवकाशत्वं वा बाधकत्वे बीजम्. This अनवकाशत्व is slightly different from अपवादत्व or particular mention which is defined usually by the words सामान्यविधिरुत्सर्गः । विशेषविधिरपवादः ।
anavayavaliterally having no parts; impartite; without any concern with the individual component parts; application in totality; confer, compare सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयवविज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु P. VI. 1.84 Vārt 5 and the Bhāṣya thereon; अस्मिञ् शास्त्रे अनवयवेन शास्त्रार्थसंप्रत्ययः स्यात् । a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possible; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.
anitya(1)not nitya or obligatory optional; said of a rule or paribhāṣā whose application is voluntary). Regarding the case and con= jugational affixes it can be said that those affixes can, in a way: be looked upon as nitya or obligatory, as they have to be affixed to a crude nominal base or a root; there being a dictum that no crude base without an affix can be used as also, no affix alone without a base can be usedition On the other hand, the taddhita and kṛt affixes as also compounds are voluntary as, instead of them an independent word or a phrase can be used to convey the sense. For a list of such nitya affixes see Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on V. 4.7; (2) the word अनित्य is also used in the sense of not-nitya, the word नित्य being taken to mean कृताकृतप्रसङ्गि occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as अनित्य which does not do so. This 'nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Paribhāṣās 43-49 in the Paribhāṣenduśekhara.
anirdiṣṭārthawhose sense has not been specifically stated ; the word is used with reference to such affixes as are not prescribed in any specific sense or senses and hence as are looked upon as possessing the sense which the base after which they are prescribed has got: confer, compare अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे भवन्ति -affixes, to which no meaning has been assigned, convey the meaning of the bases to which they are added; confer, compare Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 113; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2.4, III, 2.67, III.3.19, III. 4.9, VI.1.162.
anudāttanon-udatta, absence of the acute accent;one of the Bāhyaprayatnas or external efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly refers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or उदात्त was recognized just as in English and other languages at present, This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels were uttered accentless.id est, that is अनुदात्त. Possibly with this idea.in view, the standard rule 'अनुदात्तं पदमेकवर्जम्'* was laid down by Panini. P.VI.1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented ( उदात्त ) syllable, was uttered with a very low tone, it was called अनुदात्ततर, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they happened to be consecutive and more than two, the syllable succeeding the उदात्त was given a mid-way tone, called स्वरितः confer, compare उदात्तादनुदात्तस्य स्वरितः. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित came in vogue and accordingly they are found defined in all the Prātiśākhya and grammar works;confer, compare उच्चैरुदात्तः,नीचैरनुदात्तः समाहारः स्वरितः P.I.2.29-31, T.Pr.I.38-40, V.Pr.I.108-110, Anudātta is defined by the author of the Kāśikāvṛtti as यस्मिन्नुच्चार्यमाणे गात्राणामन्ववसर्गो नाम शिथिलीभवनं भवति, स्वरस्य मृदुता, कण्ठविवरस्य उरुता च स: अनुदात्तः confer, compare अन्ववसर्गो मार्दवमुरुता स्वस्येति नीचैःकराणि शब्दस्य Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.2.29,30. Cfeminine. also उदात्तश्चानुदात्तश्च स्वरितश्च त्रयः स्वराः । अायामविश्रम्भोक्षपैस्त उच्यन्तेSक्षराश्रयाः ॥ Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.1. The term anudātta is translated by the word 'grave' as opposed to acute' (udātta,) and 'circumflex' (svarita); (2) a term applied to such roots as have their vowel अनुदात्त or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non-admission of the augment इ before an ārdhadhātuka affix placed after them. ( See अनिट्, ).
anuprayogasubsequent utterance; literally post-position as in the case of the roots कृ, भू and अम् in the periphrastic perfect forms; confer, compare आम्प्रत्ययवत् कृञोऽ नुप्रयोगस्य, P.I.3.63; यथाविध्यनुप्रयोगः पूर्वस्मिन् III.4.4.
anuvṛttirepetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on Pāṇini's grammar. This recurrence is generally continuous like the stream of a river ( गङ्गास्रोतोवत् ); sometimes however, when it is not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named मण्डूकप्लुत्यानुवृत्ति. In rare cases it is taken backwards in a sūtra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called अपकर्ष.
anuṣaṅga(1)literally attaching, affixing: augment, अनुषज्यते असौ अनुषङ्गः; (2) a term for the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare अव्यात्पूर्वे मस्जेरनुषङ्गसंयेगादिलोपार्थम् confer, compare P.I.1.47 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).2 and M.Bh. thereon; confer, compare थफान्तानां चानुषङ्गिणाम् Kat. IV. 1.13. The term अनुषङ्ग is defined in the kātantra grammar as व्यञ्जनान्नः अनुषङ्ग. The term is applied to the nasal consonant न् preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base: Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.1.12.
antaraṅgaa highly technical term in Pāṇini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pāṇini himselfeminine. The Vārtikakāra has used the term thrice ( Sec I. 4. 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 8, VI.1.106 Vart.10 and VIII.2.6 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). I) evidently in the sense of immediate', 'urgent', 'of earlier occurrence' or the like. The word is usually explained as a Bahuvrīhi compound meaning 'अन्त: अङ्गानि निमित्तानि यस्य' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed बहिरङ्ग). अन्तरङ्ग, in short, is a rule whose causes of operation occur earlier in the wording of the form, or in the process of formation. As an अन्तरङ्ग rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course अपवाद rules or exceptions, if the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vārtikakāra, hence, in giving preference to अन्तरङ्ग rules, uses generally the wording अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् which is paraphrased by अन्तरङ्गं बहिरङ्गाद् बलीयः which is looked upon as a paribhāṣā. Grammarians, succeeding the Vārtikakāra, not only looked upon the बहिरङ्ग operation as weaker than अन्तरङ्ग, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the अन्तरङ्ग operation had taken placcusative case. They laid down the Paribhāṣā असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे which has been thoroughly discussed by Nāgeśa in his Paribhāṣendusekhara. The अन्तरङ्गत्व is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians : (l) having causes of application within or before those of another e. g. स्येनः from the root सिव् (सि + उ+ न) where the यण् substitute for इ is अन्तरङ्ग being caused by उ as compared to guṇa for उ which is caused by न, (2) having causes of application occurring before those of another in the wording of the form, (3) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurring earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having संज्ञा (technical term) as a cause of its application, ( 6 ) not depending upon two words or padas, (7) depending upon a cause or causes of a general nature (सामान्यापेक्ष) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( विशेषापेक्ष).
antaraṅgaparibhāṣāthe phrase is used generally for the परिभाषा "असिद्धं बहिरङ्गमन्तरङ्गे' described a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. See the word अन्तरङ्ग. The परिभाषा has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like many other paribhāṣās this paribhāṣā is not a paribhāṣā of universal application.
antodāttaa word with its last vowel accented acute. Roots, crude : noun bases and compound words generally have their last vowel accented acute; confer, compare फिषः (प्रातिपदिकस्य ) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् Phiṭ Sūtra 1-1; धातोः (P. VI.1.162} अन्त उदात्तः स्यात्; समासस्य ( P.VI.1.223) अन्त उदात्तः स्यात् ।
anvakṣarasaṃdhia combination of letters according to the order of the letters in the Alphabet; a samdhi or euphonic combination of a vowel and a consonant, called अन्वक्षर-अनुलोमसंधि where a vowel precedes a consonant; and अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where a consonant precedes a vowel, the consonant in that case being changed into the third of its class; एष स्य स च स्वराश्च पूर्वे भवति व्यञ्जनमुत्तरं यदेभ्यः। तेन्वक्षरसेधयेानुलोमाः प्रतिलोमाश्च विपर्यये त एव ।। R Pr. II.8.9 e. g. एष देवः, स देवः and others are instances of अन्वक्षरानुलोमसंधि where विसर्ग after the vowel is dropped; while हलव्यवाड् अग्निः is an instance of अन्वक्षरप्रतिलोमसंधि where the consonant ट् precedes the vowel अ.
anvaya(1)construing, construction: arrangement of words according to their mutual relationship based upon the sense conveyed by them, शब्दानां परस्परमर्थानुगमनम् । (2) continuance, continuation;confer, compare घृतघटतैलवट इति ; निषिक्ते घृते तैले वा अन्वयाद्विशेषणं भवति अयं घृतघटः, अयं तैलघट इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.II. 1.1.
apakarṣa(1)deterioration of the place or instrument of the production of sound resulting in the fault called निरस्त; confer, compare स्थानकरणयेारपकर्षेण निरस्तं नाम दोष उत्पद्यते, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIV.2; (2) drawing back a word or words from a succeeding rule of grammar to the preceding one; confer, compare "वक्ष्यति तस्यायं पुरस्तादपकर्षः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.8. (3) inferiority (in the case of qualities) न च द्रव्यस्य प्रकर्षापकर्षौ स्तः ।
apādānadetachment, separation, ablation technical term for अपादानकारक which is defined as ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् in P.I.4.24 and subsequent rules 25 to 3l and which is put in the ablative case; confer, compare अपादाने पञ्चमी P. II.3.28.
abhayacandraa Jain grammarian , who wrote प्रक्रियासंग्रह, based on the Śabdānuśāsana Vyākaraṇa of the Jain Śākatāyana.His possible date is the twelfth century A. D.
abhedasaṃsargaa connection of unity, as noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the ending ति of a verb, which produces the sense.
abhyāhataomission of any sound; a fault of utterance. अम् (1)a technical brief term in Panini's grammar including vowels, semivowels, the letter ह् and nasals; (2) a significant term for the accusative case showing change or substitution or modification: confer, compare अं विकारस्य Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.28 explained as अमिति शब्दे विकारस्याख्या भवति । अमिति द्वितीय विभक्तेरुपलक्षणम् । (3) augment अ applied to the penultimate vowel of सृज् & दृश् (P. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) substitute tor Ist person. singular. affix मिप्, by P.III.4.101 (5) Acc. singular. case affix अम् .
artha(1)literally signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: confer, compare प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; confer, compare अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे; confer, compare also अर्थः पदम् Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.2, explained by उव्वट as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायतेSर्थोनेनेति पदम् । There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात, the first two kinds नाम and अाख्यात do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे, which means that च and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व, presents a riddle as to the meaning which च and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व or द्रव्य id est, that is a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व or द्रव्य, too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय and व्यतिरेक). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह, or समुदाय, which is the meaning conveyed by च in रामः कृष्णश्च, cannot be substituted for च as its Synonym in the sentence राम: कुष्णश्च. Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व as contrasted with वाचकत्व and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्गs) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; confer, compare also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one ( नित्य ), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; confer, compare 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम्' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.
arthavadgrahaṇaparibhāṣāa well known maxim or Paribha of grammarians fully stated as अर्थवद्ग्रहणे नानर्थकस्य ग्रहणम्, deduced from the phrase अर्थवद्ग्रहणात् frequently used by the Vārttikakāra. The Paribhāṣā lays down that 'when a combination of letters employed in Grammar, is possessed of a sense, it has to be taken as possessed of sense and not such an one as is devoid of sense.'
aluksamāsaa compound in which the case-affixes are not droppedition The Aluk compounds are treated by Pāṇini in VI.3.I to VI.3.24.
alontyavidhian operation, which, on the strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; confer, compare नानर्थकेलोन्त्यविधिरनभ्यासविकारे Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.65, confer, compare अलोन्त्यस्य । षष्ठीनिर्दिष्टोन्त्यस्यादेशः स्यात् S.K. on P. I.1.52.
avayavaṣaṣṭhīthe genitive case signifying or showing a part: confer, compare वक्ष्यत्यादेशप्रत्यययोरित्यवयवषष्ठी M.Bh. on I. 1.21.
avibhaktikawithout the application of a case termination.The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Pāṇini without any case-affix in his Sūtras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as an archaic usage; confer, compare अविभक्तिको निर्देशः । कृप उः रः लः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I 1. Āhnika of the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya. 2; also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.3 ; III.1.36, VII.1.3 et cetera, and others
aviravikanyāyaa maxim mentioned by Patañjali in connection with the word आविक where the taddhita affix ठक् (इक), although prescribed after the word अवि in the sense of 'flesh of sheep' (अवेः मांसम्), is actually put always after the base अविक and never after अवि. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use confer, compare द्वयोः शब्दयोः समानार्थयोरेकेन विग्रहोऽपरस्मादुत्पत्तिर्भविष्यति अविरविकन्यायेन । तद्यथा अवेर्मांसमिति विगृह्य अविकशब्दादुत्पत्तिर्भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.88; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV.1.89; IV.2.60; IV.3.131,V.1.7,28; VI.2.11.
avyayaindeclinable, literally invariant, not undergoing a change. Pāṇini has used the word as a technical term and includes in it all such words as स्वर्, अन्तर् , प्रातर् etc, or composite expressions like अव्ययीभावसमास, or such taddhitānta words as do not take all case affixes as also kṛdanta words ending in म् or ए, ऐ, ओ, औ. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. I.1.37 to 41; confer, compare सदृशं त्रिषु लिङ्गेषु सर्वासु च विभक्तिषु । वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यन्न व्येति तदव्ययम् Kāś. on P.I.1.37.
(1)Pratyāhāra or a brief term standing for all vowels, semivowels, and the fifth, fourth and third of the class-consonants; all letters excepting the surds and sibilants; (2) substitute अ for the word इदम् before affixes of cases beginning with the instrumental, and for एतद् before the taddhita affix. affixes त्र and तस्; see P.II.4.32 and 33; (3) substitute अ for the genitive case singular. case-affix ङस् after the words युष्मद् and अस्मद्; see P.VII.1.27.
aṣṭamaa term used by ancient grammarians for the vocative case.
as(1)case affix of the nominative and accusative plural and the ablative and genitive singular (जस् , शस्, ङसि and ङस् ) (2) taddhita affix अस् ( असि ) added to पूर्व, अधर and अवर, by P.V.3.39: (3) compoundending अस् ( असिच् ) applied to the words प्रजा and मेधा standing at the end of a Bahuvrīhi compound (P.V.4.122): (4) Uṇādi affix अस् prescribed by the rule सर्वधातुभ्योऽसुन् and subsequent rules (628-678) to form words such as मनस्,सरस् et cetera, and others(5) ending syllable अस्, with or without sense, of words in connection with which special operations are given in grammar; confer, compare P.VI.4.14; confer, compare also अनिनस्मन्ग्रहणान्यर्थवता चानर्थकेन च तदन्तविधिं प्रयोजयन्ति Par.Śek. Pari. 16.
asaṃnikarṣa(1)separatedness as in the case of two distinct words;(2) absence of co-alescence preventing the sandhi; cf R.T. 68,70.
asamartha(1)syntactically not connected, e. g. राज्ञः and पुरुषः in the sentence भार्या राज्ञः पुरुषो देवदत्तस्य (2) unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in connection with a word which cannot be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely with another word: confer, compare सापेक्षमसमर्थं भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). II.1.1.; exempli gratia, for example the words कष्टं and श्रितः in the sentence महत् कष्टं श्रितः.
asarvavibhaktinot admitting all caseaffixes to be attached to it; confer, compare तद्धितश्चासर्वविभक्ति: P.I.1.38: यस्मान्न सर्वविभक्तेरुत्पत्तिः सोसर्वविभक्तिः । ततः यतः तत्र यत्र । Kāś. on I.1.38.
asiddhainvalid; of suspended validity for the time being: not functioning for the time being. The term is frequently used in Pāṇini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented, or held in suspense, in connection with their application in the process of the formation of a word. The term (असिद्ध) is also used in connection with rules that have applied or operations that have taken place, which are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have been prevented by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidatedition Pāṇini has laid down this invalidity on three different occasions (1) invalidity by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम् VIII.2.1. which makes a rule or operation in the second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. invalid when any preceding rule is to be applied, (2) invalidity by the rule असिद्धवदत्राभात् which enjoins mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the Ābhīya section beginning with the rule असिद्धवत्राभात् (VI. 4.22.) and going on upto the end of the Pāda (VI.4.175), (3) invalidity of the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ष् is to be substituted for स्, or the letter त् is to be prefixed, confer, compare षत्वतुकोरसिद्धः (VI. 1.86). Although Pāṇini laid down the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set, that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Subsequent grammarians found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subseguent rule which they did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of Pāṇini. The author of the Vārttikas, hence, laid down the doctrine that rules which are nitya or antaraṅga or apavāda, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the anitya, bahiraṅga and utsarga rules respectively. Later gram marians have laid down in general, the invalidity of the bahiraṅga rule when the antaraṅga rule occurs along with it or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vvyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya(D. E. Society's edition) pages 217-220. See also Pari. Śek. Pari. 50.
asukthe augment अस् seen in Vedic Literature added to the nominative case. plural case-affix जस् following a nounbase ending in अ; e.g, जनासः, देवासः et cetera, and others cf आज्जसेरसुक् P. VII.1.50,51.
asuḍsubstitute अस् for the last letter of the word पुंस् before the सर्वनामस्थान affixes i. e. before the first five case affixes,exempli gratia, for example पुमान् पुमांसौ et cetera, and others; confer, compare पुंसोsसुङ् P.VII.1.89
astātitaddhita affix. affix अस्तात् in the sense of the base itself, but called विभक्ति, prescribed after words in the sense of 'direction', e. g. पुरस्तात्, अधस्तात् et cetera, and others confer, compare दिक्शब्देभ्यः सप्तमीपञ्चमीप्रथमाभ्येा दिग्देशकालेषु अस्तातिः P. V.3.27.
ā(1)the long form of the vowel अ called दीर्घ,consisting of two mātrās, in contrast with (l) the short अ which consists of one mātrā and the protracted आ३ which consists of three mātrās; (2) substitute अा of two mātrās when prescribed by the word दीर्घ or वृद्धि for the short vowel अ; (3) upasarga अा (अाङ्) in the sense of limit exempli gratia, for example अा कडारादेका संज्ञा (P.I.4.1.) आकुमारं यशः पाणिनेः K. on II.1.13. आ उदकान्तात् (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14.) (4) indeclinable आ in the sense of remembrance e. g. आ एवं नु मन्यसे; confer, compare ईषदर्थे क्रियायोगे मर्यादाभिविधौ च यः । एतमातं ङितं विद्याद्वाक्यस्मरणयोरङित् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.14; (5) augment अा ( अाक् ) as seen in चराचर, वदावद et cetera, and others confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI.1.12 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 6; (6) augment अा(आट्) prefixed to roots in the tenses लुङ्, लङ् and लृङ् (7) substitute अा prescribed for the last letter of pronouns before the taddhita affix. affixes दृक्,दृश, दृक्ष and वत्, as in तादृक्दृ, तादृश et cetera, and others; (8) feminine affix आ (टाप्, डाप् or चाप् ) added to nouns ending in अा; (9) substitute आ ( आ or अात्, or डा or आल् ) for case affixes in Vedic literature उभा यन्तारौ, नाभा पृथिव्याः et cetera, and others
aākhyātaverbal form, verb; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातं सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.1; चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्यातोपसर्गनिपाताश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1. Āhnika 1 ; also A.Prāt. XII. 5, अाकार अाख्याते पदादिश्च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.2.37 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2, आख्यातमाख्यातेन क्रियासातत्ये Sid. Kau. on II.1.72, क्रियावाचकमाख्यातं Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.V.1; confer, compare भारद्वाजकमाख्यातं भार्गवं नाम भाष्यते । भारद्वाजेन दृष्टत्वादाख्यातं भारद्वाजगोत्रम् V. Prāt. VIII. 52; confer, compare also Athar. Prāt.I.I.12, 18; 1.3.3,6; II.2.5 where ākhyāta means verbal form. The word also meant in ancient days the root also,as differentiated from a verb or a verbal form as is shown by the lines तन्नाम येनाभिदधाति सत्त्वं, तदाख्यातं येन भावं स धातुः R.Pr.XII.5 where 'आख्यात' and 'धातु' are used as synonyms As the root form such as कृ, भृ et cetera, and others as distinct from the verbal form, is never found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb.In the passages quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. from the Nirukta and the Mahābhāṣya referring to the four kinds of words, the word ākhyāta could be taken to mean root (धातु) or verb (क्रियापद). The ākhyāta or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being and bccoming while nouns (नामानि) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with every process and entity; confer, compare पूर्वापूरीभूतं भावमाख्यातेनाचष्टे Nir.I.;अस्तिभवतिविद्यतीनामर्थः सत्ता । अनेककालस्थायिनीति कालगतपौर्वापर्येण क्रमवतीति तस्याः क्रियात्वम् । Laghumañjūṣā. When a kṛt (affix). affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a word ending with a kṛt (affix). affix in the sense of bhāva or verbal activity is treated as a noun and regularly declined;confer, compareकृदभिहितो भावे द्रव्यवद् भवति M.Bh. on II.2.19 and III. 1.67, where the words गति, व्रज्या, पाक and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words ending with kṛt (affix). affixes such as कर्तुं, कृत्वा, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be,in a way, looked upon as ākhyātas; confer, compare अव्ययकृतो भावे Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇa.
aāgamina base to which an augment is added; confer, compare एवमपि पञ्च अागमास्त्रय आगमिनः M.Bh.I.1. Āhnika 2.
aāṭ(1)augment अा prefixed to roots beginning with a vowel in the imperfect, aorist and conditional, which is always accented (उदात्त); confer, compare P.VI.4.72; (2) augment अा prefixed to the imperative first person terminations, exempli gratia, for example करवाणि, करवै et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.III.4.92: (3) augment अा to be prefixed to caseaffixes which are डित् after nouns called nadī: exempli gratia, for example कुमार्यं; cf P.VII. 3.112.
aāt(1)long अा as different from short or protracted अ prescribed by the wofd वृद्धि or दीर्घ in the case of अ, or by the word अात् when substituted for another vowel, as for example in the rule आदेच उपदेशेऽशिति and the following: confer, compare P.VI.1.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ङस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare P. VII.1.12; (3) substitute अात् for a case affix in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example न ताद् ब्राह्मणाद् निन्दामि Kāś. on VII. 1.39.
ādeśa(1)substitute as opposed to sthānin, the original. In Pāṇini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that 'the substitute behaves like the original' (स्थानिवदादेशः अनल्विधौ P.I.1.56.); the application of this maxim is called स्थानिवद्भाव; for purposes of this स्थानिवद्भाव the elision (लोप) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute;confer, compare उपधालेपस्य स्थानिवत्त्वात् Kāś. on P.I.1.58. Grammarians many times look upon a complete word or a word-base as a substitute for another one, although only a letter or a syllable in the word is changed into another, as also when a letter or syllable is added to or dropped in a word; confer, compare पचतु, पचन्तु ... इमेप्यादेशाः । कथम् । अादिश्यते यः स आदेशः । इमे चाप्यादिश्यन्ते । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.56; cf also सर्वे सर्वपदादेशा दाक्षीपुत्रस्य पाणिनेः M.Bh. on P. I.1.20; confer, compare also अनागमकानां सागमका आदेशाः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.20: (2) indication, assignment; confer, compare योयं स्वरादेशः अन्तोदात्तं, वधेराद्युदात्तत्वं, स्वः स्वरितमिति अादेशः R.Pr.I.30-32; confer, compare also अादेशः उपदेशः commentary on Tai.-Prāt. II.20: confer, compare also अनादेशे अविकारः V.Pr.IV.131, where Uvvaṭa's Bhāṣya on the Prātiśākhya works.remarks यत्र उदात्तादीनां स्वराणां सन्धौ आदेशो न क्रियते तत्र अविकारः प्रत्येतव्यः । confer, compare also एकारो विभक्त्यादेशः छन्दसि A.Pr. II.1.2, where ए is prescribed as a substitute for a caseaffix and त्ये and अस्मे are cited as examples where the acute acent is also prescribed for the substitute ए.
ādya(1)premier; confer, compare इदमाद्यं पदस्थानं (व्याकरणनामकं ) सिद्धिसोपानपर्वणाम् Vāk. Pad. I.16; (2) preceding as opposed to succeeding (उत्तर); confer, compare सहाद्यैर्व्यञ्जनैः V.Pr.I.100 (3) original; confer, compare आद्यप्रकृतिः परमप्रकृतिः (original base) Bhāṣā Vṛtti. IV.1.93; (4) first, preceding, आद्ये योगे न व्यवाये तिङः स्यु; M.Bh. on III.1-91.
ādyantavattvaअाद्यन्तवद्भाव, consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial or the final one according to requirements for opcrations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Both these notions --the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe आद्यन्तवद्भाव in the case of a single letter; confer, compareअाद्यन्तवदेकस्मिन् । आदौ इव अन्त इव एकस्मिन्नपि कार्यं भवति । यथा कर्तव्यमित्यत्र प्रत्ययाद्युदात्तत्वं भवति एवमौपगवमित्यत्रापि यथा स्यात् । Kāś. on P.I.1.21 ; confer, compare also अाद्यन्तवच्च । अपृक्तस्य आदिवदन्तवच्च कार्यं भवति । Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.55. This अाद्यन्तवद्भाव of Pāṇini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadeśivadbhāva by virtue of which "an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letter, affects likewise that which stands alone;" confer, compare Pari.Śek. Pari. 30.
ādyudāttaa word beginning with an acute-accent id est, that is which has got the first vowel accented acute: words in the vocative case and words formed with an affix marked with a mute ञ् or न् are ādyudātta; confer, compareP. VI.1.197, 198: for illustrations in detail see P.VI.1.189-216.
aādhārādheyabhāvaa non-differential relation (अभेदसंसर्ग) between the personal endings तिप् , तस् et cetera, and others and the noun in the nominative case which is the subject of the verbal activity;relation of a thing and its substratum: confer, compare निपातातिरिक्तनामार्थधात्वर्थयोर्भेदान्वयस्य अव्युत्पन्नत्वात्.
ānantarya(1)close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature: अनन्तरस्य भावः आनन्तर्यम्; confer, compare नाजानन्तर्ये वहिष्ट्वप्रक्लृप्तिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 21: Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 51. This close proximity of one letter or syllable or so, with another, is actually id est, that isphonetically required and generally so found out also, but sometimes such proximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule पूर्वत्रासिद्धम्. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. confer, compare कचिच्च संनिपातकृतमानन्तर्ये शास्त्रकृतमनानन्तर्ये यथा ष्टुत्वे, क्वचिच्च नैव संनिपातकृतं नापि शास्त्रकृतं यथा जश्त्वे । यत्र कुतश्चिदेवानन्तर्यं तदाश्रयिष्यामः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VIII.3.13. (2) close connection by mention together at a common place et cetera, and others;confer, compare सर्वाद्यानन्तर्यं कार्यार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.27.
āp(1)common term for the feminine. endings टाप्, डाप् and चाप् given by Pāṇini in Adhy. IV, Pāda 1; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II.4.82. P.IV.1.1.; P.VI.1.68; confer, compare also P.VI.3.63. P.VII.3.44; P.VII.3.106, 116; P.VII.4.15. et cetera, and others; (2) a brief term for case-affixes beginning with the inst. sing and ending with the locative case plural confer, compare अनाप्यकः P. VII.2.112.
abādha(1)similarity of one phonetic element, for instance, in the case of ऐ with आ resulting from Saṁdhi: e. g. प्रजाया अरातिं निर्ऋत्या अकः where प्रजाया and निर्ऋत्या stand for प्रजायै and निर्ऋत्यै confer, compare एकारान्तानि अाकारबाधे Āth. Pr. II.1.4; (2) Similarity of accent of words in the Saṁhitāpāṭha and Padapāṭha; (3) followed by confer, compare Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. II.1.14; (4) distress; confer, compare आबाधे च, P. VIII.1.10.
ām(1)augment आ prescribed in connection with the words चतुर् and अनडुह् before the case-affixes called सर्वनामस्थान; confer, compare चतुरनडुहोराम् उदात्तः P.VII.1.98; (2) the affix आम् added before लिट् or a perfect termination by rules कास्प्रत्ययादाम् अमन्त्रे लिटि and the following (P. III 1.35-39), as for instance, in कासांचक्रे, ऊहांचक्रे, दयांचक्रे, जागरांचकार, विभयांचकार et cetera, and others; (3) geni. plural caseaffix आम् as in दृषदाम्, शरदाम्, with न् prefixed in रामाणाम् et cetera, and others, and with स् prefixed in सर्र्वेषाम् et cetera, and others; (4) locative case singular. case-affix अाम् substituted for इ (ङि); confer, compare ङेराम् नद्याम्नीभ्यः P.VI.4.116.
aāmantrita(1)a word in the vocative singular. confer, compare सामन्त्रितम् P.II.3.48: a tech. term in Pāṇini's grammar, the peculiar features of which are पराङ्गवद्भाव (confer, compare P.II.1.2), अविद्यमानवद्भाव (confer, compare P.VIII.1.72), द्वित्व (confer, compare P.VIII. 1.8), अद्युदात्तत्व (confer, compare P.VI.1.198), सर्वानुदात्तत्व(confer, compare P.VIII.1.19), splitting of ए into अा and इ, exempli gratia, for example अग्रे into अग्ना ३ इ (confer, compare P.VIII.2.107 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3); (2) Vocative case, confer, compare ओकार अामन्त्रितजः प्रगृह्यः Ṛk. Prāt. I.28; Vāj. Pr. III.139: II.17: II.24 VI.1.
aāmantryaa word in the vocative case; literally a word possessed of the sense of invocation; confer, compare अामन्त्र्यमाणेर्थं वर्तमानः शब्द अामन्त्र्यः Śāk. I.3.88; confer, compare also अमन्त्रयते यत्तदामन्त्र्यम् commentary on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II.1.25.
ārthasamājacombination of the meanings (of the base and affix); see the word अार्थ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
ālcase affix in Vedic literature exempli gratia, for example वनन्ता यजेत Kāś. on VII.1.39.
āśubodha(1)name of a work on grammar written by Tārānātha called Tarka-vācaspatī, a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the 19th century A.D. who compiled the great Sanskrit Dictionary named वाचस्पत्यकेाश and wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called अाशुबोध is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by रामकिंकरसरस्वती, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
id(1)augment इ prefixed,in general in the case of all roots barring a few roots ending in vowels except ऊ and ऋ and roots शक्, पच्, et cetera, and others, to such affixes of non-conjugational tenses and moods as begin with any consonant except ह् and य्; confer, compare आर्धधातुकस्येड् वलादेः P.VII.2.35 to 78 and its exceptions P.VII.2.8 to 34; (2) personal ending of the third person singular. or Ātmanep. Ātmanepada
it(1)a letter or a group of letters attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken language: cf अप्रयोगी इत्, Śāk. I.1.5, Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana.1.1.37. The इत् letters are applied to a word before it, or after it, and they have got each of them a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formation of the complete word. Pāṇini has not given any definition of the word इत् , but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as इत्; (confer, compare उपदेशेजनुनासिक इत् , हलन्त्यम् । et cetera, and others P. I.3.2 to 8) and stated that these letters are to be dropped in actual use, confer, compareP.I.3.9. It appears that grammarians before Pāṇini had also employed such इत् letters, as is clear from some passages in the Mahābhāṣya as also from their use in other systems of grammar as also in the Uṇādi list of affixes, for purposes similar to those found served in Pāṇini 's grammar. Almost all vowels and consonants are used as इत् for different purposes and the इत् letters are applied to roots in the Dhātupāṭha, nouns in the Gaṇapāṭha, as also to affixes, augments and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places they are attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometimes the इत् letters, especially vowels, which are said to be इत्, when uttered as nasalized by Pāṇini, are recognised only by convention; confer, compare प्रतिज्ञानुनासिक्याः पाणिनीयाः(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word इत्, which literally means going away or disappearing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. In Pāṇini's grammar, the mute vowel अ applied to roots indicates the placing of the Ātmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudātta and of affixes of both the padas if uttered svarita; confer, compare P.I.3. 12, 72. The mute vowel आ signifies the prevention of इडागम before the past part, affixes; confer, compare P. VII. 2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel इ signfies the augment न् after the last vowel of the root; confer, compareP.VII.1.58; ई signifies the prevention of the augment इ before the past participle.affixes cfP.VII.2.14;उ signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; confer, compareP.I.1.69, and the optional addition of the augment इ before त्वा; confer, compare P.VII.2. 56; ऊ signifies the optional application of the augment इट्;confer, compareP.VII. 2.44; क signifies the prevention of ह्रस्व to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, confer, compareVII.4.2: लृ signifies the vikarana अङ् in the Aorist cf P.III.1.55; ए signifies the prevention of vrddhi in the Aorist,confer, compare P.VII.2.55; ओ signifies the substitution of न् for त् of the past participle. confer, compare P VIII.2.45; क् signifies the Prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compareP, I. 1.5; ख् signifies the addition of the augment मुम्(म्)and the shortening of the preceding vowel: confer, compareP.VI.3 65-66: ग् signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5 घ् signifies कुत्व, confer, compare P.VII.3.62; ङ्, applied to affixes, signifies the prevention of गुण and वृद्धि, confer, compare P.I.1.5; it causes संप्रसारणादेश in the case of certain roots, confer, compare P. VI.1.16 and signifies आत्मनेपद if applied to roots; confer, compare P.I. 3.12, and their substitution for the last letter if applied to substitutes. confer, compare P I.1.53. च् signifies the acute accent of the last vowel;confer, compareP.VI.1. 159; ञ् signifies उभयपद i.e the placing of the affixes of both the podas after the root to which it has been affixed;confer, compareP.I.3.72, ट् in the case of an augment signifies its application to the word at the beginning: confer, compareP I.1.64, while applied to a nominal base or an affix shows the addition of the feminine. affix ई (ङीप्) confer, compareP.IV.1. 15;ड् signifies the elision of the last syllable; confer, compare P.VI.4.142: ण् signifies वृद्धि, confer, compareP.VII.2.115;त् signifies स्वरित accent, confer, compare VI.1.181, as also that variety of the vowel ( ह्रस्व, दीर्ध or प्लुत) to which it has been applied confer, compare P.I.1.70; न् signifies आद्युदात्त, confer, compare P.VI.1.193:प् signifies अनुदात्त accent confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III.1.4. as also उदात्त for the vowel before the affix marked with प् confer, compare P.VI.1.192: म् signifies in the case of an augment its addition after the final vowel.confer, compareP.I.1.47,while in the case of a root, the shortening of its vowel before the causal affix णि,confer, compare P.VI.4.92: र् signifies the acute accent for the penultimate vowel confer, compare P.VI.1.217,ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix marked with ल्; confer, compareP.VI. 193; श् implies in the case of an affix its सार्वधातुकत्व confer, compare P. II1.4.113, while in the case of substitutes, their substitution for the whole स्थानिन् cf P.I.1.55; प् signifies the addition of the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) confer, compareP.IV-1.41 ;स् in the case of affixes signifies पदसंज्ञा to the base before them, cf P.I.4.16. Sometimes even without the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be looked upon as possessed of that mute letter for the sake of a grammatical operation exempli gratia, for example सार्वधातुकमपित् P.I.2.4; असंयेागाल्लिट कित् P.I.2.5: गोतो णित् P.VII.1.90 et cetera, and others (2) thc short vowel इ as a substitute: confer, compare शास इदङ्हलोः P.VI.4.34.
iditpossessed of the mute indicatory letter इ; e. g the roots नदि, विदि and the like, in whose case the augment नुम् ( न् ) is affixed to the last vowel; cf इदितो नुम् धातोः P. VII.1.58.
in(1)substitute for the inst. case ending in अा (टा) after bases ending in अ ; confer, compare टाङसिङसामिनात्स्याः P.VII.1. 12; (2) taddhita affix.aff इन affixed to पूर्व e. g. पथिभिः पूर्विणैः confer, compare P. IV. 4. 133.
indraname of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before Pāṇini; confer, compare the famous verse of Bopadeva at the commencement of his Dhātupāṭha इन्द्रश्चन्द्र: काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः । पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्रा जयन्त्यष्टादिशाब्दिका: ॥ No work of Indra is available at present. He is nowhere quoted by Pāṇini. Many quotations believed to have been taken from his work are found scattered in grammar works, from which it appears that there was an ancient system prevalent in the eastern part of India at the time of Pāṇini which could be named ऐन्द्रव्याकरणपद्धति, to which Pāṇini possibly refers by the word प्राचाम्. From references,it appears that the grammar was of the type of प्रक्रिया, discussing various topics of grammar such as alphabet, coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns and roots, conjugation, and changes in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Śākaṭāyana and writers of the Kātantra school.For details see Mahābhāṣya edition by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.
ipa technical term for द्वितीया (accusative case ) in the Jainendra grammar; confer, compare कर्मणीप् Jain. 1.4.2.
īpa technical term in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for सप्तमी (the locative case).
imaugment इ added to the base तृणह, after the last vowel, e. g. तृणोढि; confer, compare तृणह इम् P.VII.3.92.
imanor इमनिच् taddhita affix. affix इमन् applied to the words पृथु, मृदु, महत्, लघु, गुरु, words showing colour and words such as दृढ, परिवृढ, भृश, शीत, उष्ण et cetera, and others in the sense of 'quality' or 'attribute': cf Pāṇ. V. 1.122, 123. For changes in the base before the affix इमन् see P. VI.4.154-163.
iyaṅsubstitute for the last इ before a vowel generally in the case of monosyllabic roots ending in इ and the word स्त्री; exempli gratia, for example चिक्षियुः, नियौ नियः, स्त्रियौ स्त्रियः; confer, compare अचि क्षुधातुभ्रुवां य्वोरियङुवङौ P.VI. 4.77-80.
iyācase-ending for inst. singular. in Vedic Literature; e. g. उर्विया, दार्विया; confer, compare P.VII.1.39. and Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).1 there on.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
iṣṭhavadbhāvapossession of the same properties for causing grammatical operations as the taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् possesses, as for instance, the elision of the syllable beginning with the last vowel ( टिलोप ), substitution of the masculine gender. base for the feminine. base (पुंवद्भाव) et cetera, and others, before the denom affix णिच्; exempli gratia, for example एतयति in the sense of एनीं आचष्टे; similarly प्रथयति, पटयति, दवयति, confer, compare M.Bh. on. P.VI.4. 155 Vārt, 1.
īthe long vowel ई which is technically included in the vowel इ in Pāṇini's alphabet being the long tone of that vowel; (2) substitute ई for the vowel अा of the roots घ्रा and ध्मा before the frequentative sign यङ् as for example in जेघ्रीयते, देध्मीयते, confer, compare P.VII. 4.31; (3) substitute ई for the vowel अ before the affixes च्वि and क्यच् as, for instance, in शुक्लीभवति, पुत्रीयति et cetera, and others; confer, compareP.VII.4.32, 33; (4) substitute ई for the vowel अा at the end of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel आ of bases ending in the conjugational sign ना, exempli gratia, for example मिमीध्वे, लुनीतः et cetera, and others; cf P.VI. 4.113; (5) substitute ई for the locative case case affix इ ( ङि ) in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example सरसी for सरसि in दृतिं न शुश्कं सरसी शयानम्,: confer, compare Kāś. on P. VII.1.39: (6) taddhita affix. affix ई in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance in रथीः,सुमङ्गलीः, confer, compare Kāś on. P.V.2.109: (7) the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् , ङीञ् or ङीन् ); confer, compare P.IV.1.58, 15-39, IV.1.40-65, IV.1.13.
u(1)labial vowel standing for the long ऊ and protracted ऊ3 in Pāṇini's grammar unless the consonant त् is affixed to it, उत् standing for the short उ only: (2) Vikaraṇa affix उ of the 8th conjugation ( तनादिगण ) and the roots धिन्व् and कृण्व्;confer, compareP.III. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (उ) for the vowel अ of कृ,exempli gratia, for example कुरुतः, कृर्वन्ति before weak Sārvadhātuka affixes, confer, compareP.VI 4.110; (4) kṛt (affix). affix उ added to bases ending in सन् and the roots आशंस्, भिक्ष्, विद्, इष् as also to bases ending in क्यच् in the Vedic Literature,exempli gratia, for example चिकीर्षुः भिक्षुः, बिन्दुः,इच्छुः,सुम्नयु; confer, compare P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Uṅādi affix उ ( उण् ) e.g, कारुः, वायुः, साधुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Uṅādi I.1; (6) mute vowel उ added to the first letters of a class of consonants in Pāṇini's grammar to show the whole class of the five letters; exempli gratia, for example कु, चु, टु, तु, पु which stand for the Guttural, the palatal the lingual, the dental and the labial classes respectively; confer, compare also ष्टुना ष्टुः P.VIII.4.41(7) उ added to न् showing the consonant न् as nasalized n; cf, नुः V.Pr. III.133.
uktipadaउक्तिपदानि a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, compounds et cetera, and others written mostly in Gujarati.
uktiratnākara'a short grammar work, written by साधुसुन्दर, explaining declension, cases and their meanings, compounds, et cetera, and others and giving a list of Prākṛta words with their Sanskrit equivalents.
uccaritapronounced or uttered; the phrase उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः is used in connection with the mute indicatory letters termed इत् in Pāṇini's grammar, as these letters are not actually found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish immediately after their purpose has been servedition The phrase 'उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनोSनुबन्धा:' has been given as a Paribhāṣā by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.(Pari.11), in the Cāndra Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 14), in the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa (Pari.54) and also in the Kalāpa Vyākaraṇa ( Par. 71). Patañjali has used the expression उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः in connection with ordinary letters of a word, which have existence for a moment and which also vanish immediately after they have been uttered; confer, compare उच्चरितप्रध्वंसिनः खल्वपि वर्णा: ...न वर्णो वर्णस्य सहायः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.4. 109.
uccāraṇapronunciation, enunciation (in the Śāstra). The phrase उच्चारणसामर्थ्यात् is often found used in the Mahābhāṣya and elsewhere in connection with the words of Pāṇini, everyone of which is believed to , have a purpose or use in the Śāstra, which purpose, if not clearly manifest, is assigned to it on the strength (सामर्थ्य) of its utterance; confer, compare उच्चारणसामर्थ्यादत्र ( हिन्येाः ) उत्वं न भविष्यति M.Bh. on III.4.89 V.2; confer, compare also M.Bh. on IV.4.59, VI.4.163, VII.1.12,50, VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter is found used by Pāṇini which cannot be assigned any purpose but which has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be उच्चारणार्थ; confer, compare जग्धि: । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:। नानुबन्धः । Kāś. on II.4.36.च्लि लुडि. । इकार उच्चारणार्थ:; चकारः स्वरार्थः । Kāś, on III.1. 43. The expressions मुखसुखार्थः and श्रवणार्थः in the Mahābhāṣya mean the same as उच्चारणार्थः.
uṇādiprātipadikaword form or crude base, ending with an affix of the uṇ class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes un and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; confer, compare उणादयोS व्युत्पन्नानि प्रातिपदिकानि । व्युत्पन्नानीति शाकटायनरीत्या । पाणिनेस्त्वव्युत्पत्तिपक्ष एवेति शब्देन्दुशेखरे निरूपितम्. Pari. Śek. on Paribhāṣa 22.
udgrāhaalleviation, ease, relief; name given to a Saṁdhi in the Prātiśākhya works when a visarga and a short vowel अ preceding it are changed into short अ, (e. g. यः + इन्द्र: = य इन्द्र:), as also when the vowel ए or ओ is changed into अ being followed by a dissimilar vowel; e. g. अग्ने + इन्द्रः = अग्न इन्द्रः; confer, compare R.Pr.II.10.
uddeśyareferred to; pointed out, subject, as contrasted with the predicate मानान्तरप्राप्तमुद्देश्यम् ; confer, compare उद्दश्यप्रतिनिर्दिश्यमानयोरैक्यमापद्यत् सर्वनाम पर्यायेण तत्तल्लिङभाक् । तद्यथा | शैत्यं हि यत्सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य, शैत्यं हि य यत्तत्प्रकृतिर्जलस्य वा । उद्देश्य in grammar refers to the subjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate-participle. In the sentence वृद्धिरादैच् the case is strikingly an opposite one and the explanation given by Patañjali is very interesting;confer, compare तदेतदेकं मङ्गलार्थं आचार्यस्य मृष्यताम् । माङ्गलिक अाचार्यः महतः शास्त्रौघस्य मङ्गलार्थं वृद्धिशब्दमादितः प्रयुङ्कते, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.1.
upagrahaa term used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of the Parasmaipada and the Ātmanepada affixes. The word is not found in Pāṇini's Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī.. The Vārttikakāra has used the word in his Vārttika उपग्रहप्रतिषेधश्च on P. III.2.127 evidently in the sense of Pada affixes referring to the Ātmanepada as explained by Kaiyaṭa in the words उपग्रहस्य आत्मनेपदसंज्ञाया इत्यर्थ: । The word occurs in the Ślokavārttika सुप्तिङुपग्रहलिङ्गनराणां quoted by Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya on व्यत्ययो बहुलम् P. III. 1.85, where Nāgeśa writes लादेशव्यङ्ग्यं स्वार्थत्वादि । इह तत्प्रतीतिनिमित्ते परस्मै-पदात्मनेपदे उपग्रहशब्देन लक्षणयोच्येते । The word is found in the sense of Pada in the Mahābhāṣya on P. III. 1.40. The commentator on Puṣpasūtra explains the word as उपगृह्यते समीपे पठ्यते इति उपग्रहः. The author of the Kāśikā on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the reading चूर्णादीन्यप्राण्युपग्रहात् instead of चूर्णादीन्यप्राणिषष्ठ्याः and made the remark तत्रेापग्रह इति षष्ठ्यन्तमेव पूर्वाचार्योपचारेण गृह्यते. This remark shows that in ancient times उपग्रह meant षष्ठ्यन्त i. e. a word in the genitive case. This sense gave rise to, or was based upon, an allied sense, viz. the meaning of 'षष्ठी' i. e. possession. Possibly the sense 'possession' further developed into the further sense 'possession of the fruit or result for self or others' referring to the तिङ् affixes which possessed that sense. The old sense 'षष्ठ्यन्त' of the word 'उपग्रह' having gone out of use, and the sense 'पद' having come in vogue, the word षष्ठी' must have been substituted for the word 'उपग्रह' by some grammarians before the time of the Kāśikākāras. As Patañjali has dropped the Sūtra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether the change of reading took place before Patañjali or after him.
upapadaliterallya word placed near; an adjoining word. In Pāṇini's grammar, the term उपपद is applied to such words as are put in the locative case by Pāṇini in his rules prescribing kṛt affixes in rules from 1 II. 1, 90 to III. 4 end; confer, compare तत्रोपपदं सप्तमीस्थम् P.III.1.92; exempli gratia, for example कर्मणि in कर्मण्यण् P. III.2.1. The word is also used in the sense of an adjoining word connected in sense. e. g. युष्मद्युपपदे as also प्रहासे च मन्योपपदे P.I.4.105,106; confer, compare also क्रियार्थायां क्रियायामुपपदे धातोर्भविष्यति काले तुमुन्ण्वुलौ भवतः Kāś. on P.III.3.10; confer, compare also इतरेतरान्योन्योपपदाच्च P.I.3.10, मिथ्योपपदात् कृञोभ्यासे P.I.3.71, as also उपपदमतिङ् P.II.2.19; and गतिकारकोपपदात्कृत् P. VI.2.139. Kaiyaṭa on P.III.1. 92 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2 explains the word उपपद as उपोच्चारि or उपोच्चारितं पदं उपपदम्. The word उपपद is found used in the Prātiśākhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change: confer, compare च वा ह अह एव एतानि चप्रभृतीनि यान्युपपदानि उक्तानि आख्यातस्य विकारीणिo Uvaṭa on Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VI. 23.
upapadavibhaktia case termination added to a word on account of the presence of another word requiring the addition;confer, compare the well-known Paribhāṣā,उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी. Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 94; and M.Bh. on I.4. 96 stating the possession of greater force in the case of a kāra-kavibhakti than in the case of an upapadavibhakti.
upapadasamāsathe compound of a word, technically termed as उपपद by Pāṇini according to his definition of the word in III.1.92., with another word which is a verbal derivative; confer, compare कुम्भकारः, नगरकारः Here technically the compound of the words कुम्भ, नगर et cetera, and others which are upapadas is formed with कार,before a case-termination is added to the nominal base कार; confer, compare गतिकारकोपपदानां कृद्भिः सह समासवचनं प्राक् सुबुत्पत्तेः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 75.
upamitaan object which is comparedition The word is found in Pāṇinisūtra उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः P.II.1.56, where the Kāśikā paraphrases it by the word उपमेय and illustrates it by the word पुरुष in पुरुषव्याघ्र.
upasaṃyoga(1)union;confer, compare नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति prepositions are signs to show that such a union with another sense has occurred in the case of the noun or verb to which they are prefixed, Nirukta of Yāska.I.3.; (2) addition; confer, compare अक्रियमाणे हि संज्ञाग्रहणे गरीयानुपसंयोगः कर्तव्यः स्यात् M.Bh. on P. IV.2.21. Vārt, 2.
upaskāraintroduction of the necessary changes in the wording of the base, such as elision, or addition or substitution of a letter or letters as caused by the addition of suffixes.
ubhayathāin both the ways (in the case of an option, of course); confer, compare छन्दस्युभयथा P.III.4.117 where the word ubhayathā refers to both the alternative uses exempli gratia, for example Sārvadhātuka and Ārdhadhātuka;so also vidhiliṅ and āśīrliṅ; confer, compare Kāśikā on P.III.4.117. The term ubhayatha is described as synonymous with 'bahulam' or 'anyatarasyām' or 'vā' or ekeśām'; confer, compare बहुलमन्यतरस्यामुभयथा वा एकेषामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.44: Vart. 19; confer, compare also अध्यायान्तेषूभयथा स्मरन्ति R.Pr.XV.8.
ubhayaprāptia case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur, as for instance, the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal derivative noun (कृदन्त); confer, compare उभयप्राप्तौ कर्मणि । उभयोः प्राप्तिः यस्मिन् कृति सोयमुभयप्राप्तिः तत्र कर्मण्येव षष्ठी स्यात् न कर्तरि । आश्चर्यो गवां दोहः अगोपालकेन Kāś. on P. II.3.66.
us(1)substitute for झि ending of the third person.plu., in the perfect tense and in the present tense in the case of the roots विद् and ब्रू, exempli gratia, for example विदुः and आहुः confer, compare P. III.4.82-84 ; (2) substitute जुस् (उस्) for झि in the potential and the benedictive moods, as also after the aorist sign स् and after roots of the third conjugation, roots ending in आ and the root विद्, e. g. पचेयुः भूयासुः अकार्षुः, अबिभयुः अदुः, अविदुः, et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāś. on III.4.108-112.
ūṅfeminine. affix ऊ prescribed after masculine nouns ending in the vowel ऊ and denoting a human being as also after some other specific masculine bases cf ऊङुतः P.IV. I.66 and the following sūtras. exempli gratia, for example कुरूः, पङ्गूः श्वश्रूः, करभोरूः, भद्रबाहूः et cetera, and others
ūditmarked with the mute indicatory letter ऊ; confer, compare स्वरतिसूतिसूयतिधूञूदितो वा । prescribing the addition of the augment इ optionally in the case of ऊदित् roots P. VII.2.44.
ūhamodification of a word, in a Vedic Mantra, so as to suit the context in which the mantra is to be utilised, generally by change of case affixes; adaptation of a mantra: confer, compare ऊहः खल्वपि । न सर्वैर्लिङ्गैर्न च सर्वाभिर्विभक्तिभिर्वेदे मन्त्रा निगदिताः । ते च अवश्यं यज्ञगतेन यथायथं विपरिणमयितव्याः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.1.1 Āhnika 1.
ṛkprātiśākhyaone of the Prātiśākhya works belonging to the Aśvalāyana Śākha of the Ṛg Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one,possibly written a century or so after Pāṇini's time. It is possible that the work, which is available, is based upon a few ancient Prātiśākhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Śaunaka.The work is a metrical one and consists of three books or Adhyāyas, each Adhyāya being made up of six Paṭalas or chapters. It is written, just as the other Prātiśākhya works, with a view to give directions for the proper recitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvaṭa and another one by Kumāra who is also called Viṣṇumitra. See अाश्वलायनप्रातिशाख्य.
ediphthong vowel ए made up of अ and इ, and hence having कण्ठतालुस्थान as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pāṇini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel इ is looked upon as its short form. Patañjali in his Mahābhāṣya has observed that followers of the Sātyamugri and Rāṇāyanīya branches of the Sāmaveda have short ए ( ऍ ) in their Sāmaveda recital and has given सुजाते अश्वसूनृते, अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् as illustrations; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1-48; as also the article on.
ekapadamade up of one word; consisting of one word; confer, compare अथवा सन्त्येकपदान्यप्यवधारणानि । यथा अब्भक्षो वायुभक्षः । अप एव भक्षयति वायुमव भक्षयति । M.Bh. first Āhnika; (2) a continuous word paraphrased as अखण्डपद and समानपद by commentators; confer, compare तेनानन्तरा षष्ठयेकपदवत् V.Pr.II. 18: (3) every individual word: confer, compare बहुक्रमे क्रमेत तस्यैकपदानि नि:सृजन् R.Pr.XI.18.
ekavacanasingular number; affix of the singular numberin Pāṇini's grammar applied to noun-bases ( प्रातिपदिक) and roots when the sense of the singular number is to be conveyed; the singular sense can be of the form of an individual or collection or genus. The word एकवचन in the technical sense of singular number is found used in the Prātiśākhyas and Nirukta also.
ekavibhaktia pada having the same case in the various dissolutions of the compound word; e. g. the word कौशाम्बी in the compound word निष्कौशाम्बिः, which stands only in the ablative case कौशाम्ब्याः, although the word निष्क्रान्त, which stands for the word निस्, could be used in many cases. The word नियतविभक्तिक is also used in the same sense.
ekaśeṣaa kind of composite formation in which only one of the two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; confer, compare एकः शिष्यते इतरे निवर्तन्ते वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ । Kāśikā on सरूपाणामेकशेष एक-विभक्तौ P.I.2.64; confer, compare also सुरूपसमुदायाद्धि विभक्तिर्या विधीयते । एकस्तत्रार्थवान् सिद्धः समुदायस्य वाचकः ।। Bhāṣāvṛtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a dictum of grammarians that every individual object requires a separate expression to convey its presence. Hence, when there is a dual sense, the word has to be repeated, as also the word has to be multiplied when there is a plural sense. In current spoken language, however, in such cases the word is used only once. To justify this single utterance for conveying the sense of plurality, Pāṇini has laid down a general rule सरूपाणामेकशेष एकविभक्तौ and many other similar rules to cover cases of plurality not of one and the same object, but plurality cased by many objects, such as plurality caused by ideas going in pairs or relations such as parents, brothers and sisters, grand-father and grand-son, male and female. For example, see the words वृक्षश्च वृक्षश्च वृक्षौ; Similarly वृक्षाः for many trees, पितरौ for माता च पिता च; देवौ for देवी च देवश्च; confer, compare also the words श्वशुरौ, भ्रातरौ, गार्ग्यौ (for गार्ग्य and गार्ग्यायण),आवाम् (for त्वं च अहं च), यौ (for स च यश्च) and गावः feminine. अजा feminine. अश्वाः masculine gender. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pāṇini has devoted 10 Sūtras to this topic of Ekaśeṣa. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patanjali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of एकशेघ did not exist in the original Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahābhāṣya especially the Pūrvapakṣa therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the case be, the Vārttikakāra has commented upon it at length; hence, the addition must have been made immediately after Pāṇini, if at all there was any. For details see Mahābhāṣya on I.1.64 to 73 as also,Introduction p. 166-167, Vol.7 of the Mahābhāṣya published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ekaśeṣanirdeśastatement by subsistence of one word out of many. The phrase is very often used in the Mahābhāṣya where the omission of an individual thing is explained by saying that the expression used is a composite one including the omitted thing along with the thing already expressed; confer, compare एकशेषनिर्देशोयम् । सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि च सर्वादीनि । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.I.27, on I.1.59, I.2.39, as also on I.3.1 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5,I.4. 101 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3, II.1.1. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19 et cetera, and others
ekaśrutithat which has got the same accent or tone; utterance in the same tone; monotone. The word is applied to the utterance of the vocative noun or phrase calling a man from a distance, as also to that of the vowels or syllables following a Svarita vowel in the Saṁhitā id est, that is the continuous utterance of Vedic sentences; confer, compare एकश्रुति दूरात्संबुद्वौ and the foll. P.I.2.33-40 and the Mahābhāṣya thereon. In his discussion on I.2.33 Patañjali has given three alternative views about the accent of Ekaśruti syllables : (a) they possess an accent between the उदात्त (acute) and अनुदात्त (grave), (b) they are in the same accent as is possessed by the preceding vowel, (c) Ekaśruti is looked upon as the seventh of the seven accents; confer, compare सैषा ज्ञापकाभ्यामुदात्तानुदात्तयोर्मध्यमेकश्रुतिरन्तरालं ह्रियते। ... सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति | उदात्तः, उदात्ततर:, अनुदात्तः, अनुदात्ततर:, स्वरितः स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः, एकश्रुतिः सप्तमः । M.Bh. on P.I.2.33.
enaptaddhita affix. affix एन applied to उत्तर, अधर, and दक्षिण optionally instead of the taddhita affix. affix आति in the senses of दिक्, देश and काल, exempli gratia, for example उत्तरेण, उत्तरतः उत्तरात्, Words with this एन at the end govern the acc. case of the word syntactically connected with them. e. g. तत्रागारं धनपतिगूहान् उत्तरेण Kālidāsa: Meghadūta;confer, compareएनपा द्वितीया P.II.3.31.
aikapadyatreatment as one single word especially found in the case of compound words (सामासिकपद) which, as a result of such treatment, have only one accent (acute) and one case affix after the whole word; confer, compare अयं खल्वपि बहुव्रीहिरस्त्येव प्राथमकल्पिकः । यस्मिन्नैकपद्यमैकस्व र्यमेकविभक्तित्वं च Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P.I.1.29. See एकपद.
aittvasubstitution of ऐ for ए by the rule एत ऐ prescribing the substitution of the vowel ऐ for ए in the case of the imperative first person terminations; cf P. III.4.93.
aindraname of an ancient school of grammar and of the treatise also, belonging to that school, believed to have been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patañjali mentions that Bṛhaspati instructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and still did not finish his instructions in words': (Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I.1.1 ). The Taittirīya Saṁhitā mentions the same. Pāṇini has referred to some ancient grammarians of the East by the word प्राचाम् without mentioning their names, and scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the word प्राचाम्. The Bṛhatkathāmañjarī remarks that Pāṇini's grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalāpa grammar which is available today is based upon Aindra,just as Cāndra is based upon Pāṇini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found in the commentary on the Sārasvata Vyākaraṇa, in the Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahābhārata by Devabodha.Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the work. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre-Pāṇinian treatise on Grammar assigned to इन्द्र which was called Aindra-Vyākaraṇa.For details see Dr.Burnell's 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 124-126 of Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya, edited by the D.E.Society, Poona.
aissubstitute for the case affix भिस् after words ending in अ; confer, compare अतो भिस एस्. P.VII.I.9 to 11.
otthe vowel ओ; confer, compare ओत् PI.1.15,16 prescribingप्रगृह्यसंज्ञा for Nipātas like अहो, उताहो and others with a view that the wowel at their end should not coalesce with the following vowel. The Prātiśākhya works prohibit the coalescence of ओ in many cases with the succeeding vowel; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.70; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.94.
oṣṭhayaliterally produced upon the lip: a letter ofthe labial class;letters उ,ऊ, ओ, औ, प्, फ्, ब्, भ्, म् and व् are given as ओष्ठय letters in the Ṛk Prātiśākhya, confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 20. See the word ओष्ठ a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For the utterance of the letter व् tips of the teeth. are also employed; hence the letter व् is said to have दन्तौष्ठ as its स्थान.. ओस् the case affix ओस् of the genitive case and the loc, dual number
au(1)the vowel औ; diphthong vowel made up of आ and ओ; ( 2 ) the substitute औ for the final letter उ of the word मनु before the fem, affix ई; confer, compare मनोः स्त्री मनायी, मनावी,मनुः Kāś. on P. IV. 1. 38; ( 3 ) case ending of the nominative case. and acc. dual called औङ् also.
oṅa term used by ancient grammarians for the affix औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual number The vowel ई (शी) is substituted for औ in the case of nouns of the feminine and neuter genders; confer, compare औङः शी P. VII. 1.18, 19.
auṭthe case ending औ of the acc. dual; confer, compare P.IV.1.2.
aut(1)the letter औ included in the वृद्धि vowels अा, ऐ and औ, and hence called वृद्धि in Pāṇini's grammar, (2) substitute for the caseending इ ( ङि ) in Pāṇini's grammar; confer, compare P. VII.3.118, 119.
aupamikafigurative metaphorical application or statement: confer, compare ( विराट् ) पिपीलिकमध्या इत्यौपमिकम् Nirukta of Yāska.VII. 13. औपश्लेषिक resulting from immediate contact immediately or closely connected; one of the three types of अधिकरण or location which is given as the sense of the locative case; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं-व्यापकम् ओपश्लेषिकम्, वैषयिकमिति ... इको यणचि | अचि उपाश्लिष्टस्येति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). VI. 1.72.
auśsubstitute औ for the nominative case. and acc. case endings applied to the numeral अष्टन्; confer, compare अष्टाभ्य औश् P.VII. 1.21.
{{c|-( anusvāra ) ṃanusvāraor nasal (l) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel Preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with अ although its form in writing is only a dot a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the line cf अं इत्यनुस्वारः । अकार इह उच्चारणर्थ इति बिन्दुमात्रो वर्णोनुस्वारसंज्ञो भवति Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.Vyāk I.1.19; (2) anusvāra,showing or signifying Vikāra id est, that is अागम and used as a technical term for the second विभक्ति or the accusative case. See the word अं a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. on page 1.
k(1)taddhita affix.affix क applied to the words of the ऋश्य group in the four senses called चातुरर्थिक e. g. ऋश्यकः, अनडुत्कः, वेणुकः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P.IV.2.80; (2) taddhita affix. affix क applied to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure, pity et cetera, and others e. g. अश्वक्रः, उष्ट्रकः, पुत्रकः, confer, compare P.V. 3.70-87: (3) taddhita affix. affix क in the very sense of the word itself ( स्वार्थे ) exempli gratia, for example अविकः, यावकः, कालकः; confer, compare P.V.4.2833; (4) Uṇādi affix क exempli gratia, for example कर्क, वृक, राका, एक, भेक, काक, पाक, शल्क et cetera, and others by Uṇādi sūtras III. 40-48 before which the angment इट् is prohibited by P. VII.2.9; (5) kṛt affix क ( अ ) where क् is dropped by P. I. 3.8, applied, in the sense of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P.III.1.135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to 7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 exempli gratia, for example बुध:, प्रस्थः, गृहम्, कम्बलदः, द्विपः, मूलविभुजः, सामगः, सुरापः et cetera, and others; (6) substitute क for the word किम् before a case affix, confer, compare P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samāsānta affix कप् (क) at the end of Bahuvrīhi compounds as prescribed by P.V.4.151-160.
karaviṇīor कर्विणी name of a svarabhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel लृ, noticed in the case of the consonant ल् when followed by the sibilant ह्; confer, compare करेणू रहयोर्योगे कर्विणी लहकारयोः । हरिणी रशसानां च हारिता लशकारयोः ॥ करेणुः बर् हिः । कर्विणी भलहाः Com. on Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXI. 15. See स्वरभक्ति.
kariṇīname of a svarabhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel ऋ noticed in the case of the consonant र्. when it is followed by ह् e. g. बर् हिः करिणी is named करेणु also.
kartṛagent of an action, subject; name of a kāraka or instrument in general, of an action, which produces the fruit or result of an action without depending on any other instrument; confer, compare स्वतन्त्रः कर्ता P. I.4.54, explained as अगुणीभूतो यः क्रियाप्रसिद्धौ स्वातन्त्र्येण विवक्ष्यते तत्कारकं कर्तृसंज्ञं भवति in the Kāśikā on P.I. 4.54. This agent, or rather, the word standing for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (confer, compare P.I.4.54), in the instrumental case in the passive voice (cf P. II.3.18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (confer, compare P.II.3.65).
karmadhārayaname technically given to a compound-formation of two words in apposition i. e. used in the same case, technically called समानाधिकरण showing the same substratutm; confer, compare तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः I 2.42. The karmadhāraya compound is looked upon as a variety of the tatpuruṣa compound. There is no satisfactory explanation of the reason why such a compound is termed कर्मधारय. Śākaṭāyana defines Karmadhāraya as विशेषणं व्यभिचारि एकार्थं कर्मधारयश्च where the word विशेषण is explained as व्यावर्तक or भेदक (distinguishing attribute) showing that the word कर्म may mean भेदकक्रिया. The word कर्मधारय in that case could mean 'कर्म भेदकक्रिया, तां धारयति असौ कर्मधारयः' a compound which gives a specification of the thing in hand.
karman(1)object of a transitive verb, defined as something which the agent or the doer of an action wants primarily to achieve. The main feature of कर्मन् is that it is put in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म, कर्मणि द्वितीया; P. I.4.49; II.3.2. Pāṇini has made कर्म a technical term and called all such words 'karman' as are connected with a verbal activity and used in the accusative case; confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् ; अकथितं च and गतिबुद्धिप्रत्यवसानार्थशब्दकर्माकर्मकाणामणि कर्ता स णौ P.I.4.49-52;cf also यत् क्रियते तत् कर्म Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.II.4.13, कर्त्राप्यम् Jain I. 2. 120 and कर्तुर्व्याप्यं कर्म Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. II. 2. 3. Sometimes a kāraka, related to the activity ( क्रिया) as saṁpradāna, apādāna or adhikaraṇa is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or desired as apādāna,saṁpradāna et cetera, and others It is termed अकथितकर्म in such cases; confer, compare अपादानादिविशेषकथाभिरविवक्षितमकथितम् Kāś. on I.4.51. See the word अकथित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. Karman or object is to be achieved by an activity or क्रिया; it is always syntactically connected with a verb or a verbal derivative.When connected with verbs or verbal derivatives indeclinables or words ending with the affixes उक, क्त, क्तवतु, तृन् , etc, it is put in the accusative case. It is put in the genitive case when it is connected with affixes other than those mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare P, II.3.65, 69. When, however, the karman is expressed ( अभिहित ) by a verbal termination ( तिङ् ), or a verbal noun termination (कृत्), or a nounaffix ( तद्धित ), or a compound, it is put in the nominative case. exempli gratia, for example कटः क्रियते, कटः कृतः, शत्यः, प्राप्तोदकः ग्रामः et cetera, and others It is called अभिहित in such cases;confer, compare P.II.3.1.Sec the word अनभिहित a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..The object or Karman which is ईप्सिततम is described to be of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is obtained from the activity. It is called विकार्य when a transformation or a change is noticed in the object as a result of the verbal activity, e. g. काष्ठानि भस्मीकरोति, घटं भिनत्ति et cetera, and others It is called प्राप्य when no change is seen to result from the action, the object only coming into contact with the subject, e. g. ग्रामं गच्छति, आदित्यं पश्यति et cetera, and others It is called निर्वर्त्य when the object is brought into being under a specific name; exempli gratia, for example घटं करोति, ओदनं पचति; confer, compare निर्वर्त्ये च विकार्यं च प्राप्यं चेति त्रिधा मतम् । तत्रेप्सिततमम् Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4.49: confer, compare also Vākyapadīya III.7.45 as also Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on 1.4.49. The object which is not ईप्सिततम is also subdivided into four kinds e. g. (a) अनीप्सित (ग्रामं गच्छन् ) व्याघ्रं पश्यति, (b) औदासीन्येन प्राप्य or इतरत् or अनुभय exempli gratia, for example (ग्रामं गच्छन्) वृक्षमूलानि उपसर्पति, (c) अनाख्यात or अकथित exempli gratia, for example बलिं in बलिं याचते वसुधाम् (d) अन्यपूर्वक e.g अक्षान् दीव्यति, ग्राममभिनिविशते; confer, compare Padamañjarī, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Haradatta. on I.4 49, The commentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra Vyākaraṇa mentions seven kinds प्राप्य, विषयभूत, निर्वर्त्य, विक्रियात्मक, ईप्सित, अनीप्सित and इतरत्, defining कर्म as कर्त्रा क्रियया यद् आप्यं तत् कारकं कर्म; confer, compare कर्त्राप्यम् Jain. Vy. I.2.120 and commentary thereon. जेनेन्द्रमधीते is given therein as an instance of विषयभूत. (2) The word कर्मन् is also used in the sense of क्रिया or verbal activity; confer, compare उदेनूर्ध्वकर्मणि P.I.3.24; आदिकर्मणि क्तः कर्तरि च P.III.4.71, कर्तरि कर्मव्यतिहारे P.I.3.14. (3) It is also used in the sense of activity in general, as for instance,the sense of a word; e. g. नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयोगद्योतका भवन्ति Nirukta of Yāska.I. 3.4, where Durgācārya's commentary on the Nirukta.explains karman as 'sense' ( अर्थ ).
karmāpadiṣṭaoperations prescribed specifically for objects i. e. prescribed in the case of objects which are described to be functioning as the subject to show facility of the verbal action: e. g. the vikaraṇa यक् or the affix च्णि; confer, compare कर्मापदिष्टाविधय: कर्मस्थभावकानां कर्मस्थक्रियाणां वा भवन्ति । कर्तृस्थभावकाश्च दीपादयः M.Bh.on I.1.44.
kalmanthe same as karman or object of an action especially when it is not fully entitled to be called karman, but looked upon as karman only for the sake of being used in the accusative case; subordinate karman, as for instance the cow in गां पयो दोग्धि. The term was used by ancient grammarians; confer, compare विपरीतं तु यत्कर्म तत् कल्म कवयो विदुः M.Bh. on P.I.4.51. See कर्मन्.
kātantraname of an important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini. It ignores many unimportant rules of Pāṇini, adjusts many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of Pāṇini. It lays down the Sūtras in an order different from that of Pāṇini dividing the work into four adhyāyas dealing with technical terms, saṁdhi rules,declension, syntax compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes ) conjugation, voice and verbal derivatives in an order. The total number of rules is 1412 supplemented by many subordinate rules or Vārttikas. The treatise is believed to have been written by Śarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Śarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Sātavāhana kings. The belief that Pāṇini refers to a work of Kalāpin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV.3.48 and that Patañjali's words कालापम् and माहवार्तिकम् support it, has not much strength. The work was very popular especially among those who wanted to study spoken Sanskrit with ease and attained for several year a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especially in Bihar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses and commentary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at present. Its last chapter (Caturtha-Adhyāya) is ascribed to Vararuci. As the arrangement of topics is entirely different from Pāṇini's order, inspite of considerable resemblance of Sūtras and their wording, it is probable that the work was based on Pāṇini but composed on the models of ancient grammarians viz. Indra, Śākaṭāyana and others whose works,although not available now, were available to the author. The grammar Kātantra is also called Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra.. A comparison of the Kātantra Sūtras and the Kālāpa-vyākaraṇasūtra. Sūtras shows that the one is a different version of the other. The Kātantra Grammar is also called Kaumāra as it is said that the original 1nstructions for the grammar were received by the author from Kumāra or Kārttikeya. For details see Vol. VII Patañjala Mahābhāṣya published by the D.E. Society, Poona, page 375.
kātantraparibhāṣāvṛtti(1)name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha written by Bhāvamiśra, probably a Maithila Pandit whose date is not known. He has explained 62 Paribhāṣās deriving many of them from the Kātantra Sūtras. The work seems to be based on the Paribhāṣā works by Vyāḍiparibhāṣāsūcana.and others on the system of Pāṇini, suitable changes having been made by the writer with a view to present the work as belonging to the Kātantra school; (2) name of a gloss on the Paribhāṣāpaṭha of the Kātantra school explaining 65 Paribhāṣās. No name of the author is found in the Poona manuscript. The India Office Library copy has given Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. as the author's name; but it is doubted whether Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. was the author of it. See परिभाषासंग्रह edition by B. O. R. I. Poona.
kātantrarūpamālāa work, explaining the various forms of nouns and verbs according to the rules of the Kātantra grammar, ascribed to Bhāvasena of the fifteenth century.
kātyāyanathe well-known author of the Vārttikas on the sūtras of Pāṇini. He is also believed to be the author of the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya and many sūtra works named after him. He is believed to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark प्रियतद्धिता दाक्षिणात्याः made by Patañjali in connection with the statement 'यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषु' which is looked upon as Kātyāyana's Vārttika. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which case the Vārttikakāra Vararuci Kātyāyana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Kātantra grammar are ascribedition For details see The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pages I93-223 published by the D. E.Society, Poona.See also वार्तिकपाठ below.
kānacaffix अान forming perfect partciples which are mostly seen in Vedic Literature. The affix कानच् is technically a substitute for the लिट् affix. Nouns ending in कानच् govern the accusative case of the nouns connected with them: exempli gratia, for example सोमं सुषुवाणः; confer, compare P. III.3.106 and P.II.3.69.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
kārakavibhakticase affix governed by a verb or verbal derivative as contrasted with उपपदविभक्ति a case affix governed by a noun, not possessing any verbal activity. See the word कारक a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., See also the word उपपदविभक्ति.
kārakavibhaktibalīyastvathe dictum that a Kāraka case is stronger than an Upapada case,e. g. the accusative case as required by the word नमस्कृत्य,which is stronger than the dative case as required by the word नमः. Hence the word मुनित्रयं has to be used in the sentence : मुनित्रयं नमस्कृत्य and not the word मुनित्रयाय confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari. 94.
kārmanāmikathe word is found used in Yāska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word संस्कार where it means belonging to nouns derived fromroofs (कर्मनाम)"like पाचक,कर्षक et cetera, and othersThe changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words i. e. words showing action are termed कार्मनामिकसंस्कार; confer, compare कर्मकृतं नाम कर्मनाम। तस्मिन् भवः कार्मनामिकः Durgavṛtti on Nirukta of Yāska.I.13. कार्य(l) brought.into existence by activity (क्रियया निर्वृत्तं कार्यम् ) as oppo- sed to नित्य eternal; confer, compare एके वर्णाञ् शाश्वतिकान् न कार्यान् R.Pr. XIII.4 confer, compare also ननु च यस्यापि कार्याः ( शब्दाः ) तस्यापि पूजार्थम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.44 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 17;(2) which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation: confer, compare कार्य एत्वे सयमीकारमाहुः ।| अभैष्म इत्येतस्य स्थाने अभयीष्मेति । R.Pr. XIV.16; confer, compare also विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- tion as for instance in the phrases द्विकार्ययोगे, त्रिकार्ययोगे et cetera, and others; confer, compare also गौणमुख्ययोर्मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 15;(4) object of a transitive verb: confer, compare शेषः कार्ये Śāk.
kāśikā(1)name given to the reputed gloss (वृत्ति) on the Sūtras of Pāṇini written by the joint authors.Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. Nothing definitely can be said as to which portion was written by Jayāditya and which by Vamana, or the whole work was jointly written. Some scholars believe that the work was called Kāśikā as it was written in the city of Kāśī and that the gloss on the first five Adhyāyas was written by Jayāditya and that on the last three by Vāmana. Although it is written in a scholarly way, the work forms an excellent help to beginners to understand the sense of the pithy Sūtra of Pāṇini. The work has not only deserved but obtained and maintained a very prominent position among students and scholars of Pāṇini's grammar in spite of other works like the Bhāṣāvṛtti, the Prakriyā Kaumudi, the Siddhānta Kaumudi and others written by equally learned scholars. Its wording is based almost on the Mahābhāṣya which it has followed, avoiding, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in the Mahābhāṣya. It appears that many commentary works were written on it, the wellknown among them being the Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā or Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. written by Jinendrabuddhi and the Padamañjari by Haradatta. For details see Vyākaraṇamahābhāṣya Vol.VII pp 286-87 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name Kāśikā is sometimes found given to their commentaries on standard works of Sanskrit Grammar by scholars, as possibly they were written at Kāśī; as for instance, (a) Kāśikā on Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra by Hari Dīkṣita, and ( b ) Kāśikā on Paribhāṣenduśekhara by Vaidyanātha Pāyaguṇḍe.
ki(1)kṛt affix इ prescribed after धु roots with a prefix attached;exempli gratia, for exampleप्रदिः प्रधिः confer, compare P.III.3.92, 93; (2) kṛt affix इ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplication and accusative case of the noun connected, found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in अा, the root ऋ, and the roots गम्, हन् and जन्; exempli gratia, for example पपि; सोमं, जगुरिः, जग्मिः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. III.2.171: (2) a term used in the Jainendra Vyākaraṇa for the term संबुद्वि.
kumārīstanayugākṛtia phrase used in the gloss on the कातन्त्र by Durgasiṁha's Kātantra-Sūtravṛtti. to give along with the definition of र्विसर्जनीय or विसर्ग a graphic description of it as shown in script confer, compare Kāt, I.1.16 commentary
kṛtādeia class of words such as कृत, मित, मत, भूत, उक्त and others with which the words श्रेणि, एक, पूग, कुण्ड, राशि and others are compounded, provided both the words forming the compound are in the same case;.exempli gratia, for example श्रेणिकृता:, एककृताः, कुण्डभूताः et cetera, and others cf Kāś. on P.II.1.59.
kṛtārthalit which has got its purpose served: a term used in connection with a rule that has been possible to be applied (without clash with another rule) in the case of certain instances, although it comes into conflict in the case of other istances confer, compare तत्र कृतार्थत्वाद् दिकशब्दपक्षे परेण ठञ्जतौ स्याताम् Kāś. P.IV. 3.5. The word चरितार्थ is used almost in the same sense.
kṛtrimākṛtrimaparibhāṣāa term popularly used by grammarians for the परिभाषा or maxim that out of the two senses, the technical and the derived ones, the technical sense should be preferred; in rare cases, the other too, is preferred confer, compare Pari. Śek. Pari.9.
kṛllukthe elision of a kṛt affix: the word is found used along with the words प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः, and प्रकृतिवत् कारकं भवति in the Vārttika अाख्यानात्कृतस्तदाचष्टे इतेि कृल्लुक् प्रकृतिप्रत्यापत्तिः प्रकृतिवच्च कारकम् by means of which the phrase कंसं घातयति is formed for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे.
kaumāra,komāravyākaraṇa(1)an alternative name of the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa given to it on the strength of the traditional belief that the original inspiration for writing it was received by Sarvavarman from Kumara or Kārtikeya; (2) small treatises bearing the name Kaumāravyākaraṇa written by Munipuṅgava and Bhāvasena. The latter has written Kātantrarūpamāla also.
ktavatukṛt affix तवत् which also is called निष्ठा. It is prescribed in the active sense of somebody who has done a thing sometime in the past. A word ending in it is equivalent to the past active participle; exempli gratia, for example भुक्तवान् ब्राह्मणः cf P.I.1.26. The feminine. affix डीप् ( ई ) is added to nouns ending in क्तवतु to form feminine bases; confer, compare P.IV.1.6.
ktāntaa noun base ending in the kṛt affix क्त; past passive participle; confer, compare क्षेपे सप्तम्यन्तं क्तान्तेन सह समस्यते । अवतप्तेनकुलस्थितं त एतत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on II.2. 47.
ktvākṛt (affix). affix त्वा added to roots (1) in the sense of prohibition conveyed by the word अलं or खलु preceding the root, exempli gratia, for example अलं कृत्वा, खलु कृत्वा; confer, compare P. III.4.18; (2) in the sense of exchange in the case of the root मा, e. g. अपमित्य याचते; confer, compare P. III.4.19; (3) to show an activity of the past time along with a verb or noun of action showing comparatively a later time, provided the agent of the former and the latter activities is the same; exempli gratia, for example भुक्त्वा व्रजति, स्नात्वा पीत्वा भुक्त्वा व्रजति; confer, compare P. III.4. 21. This kṛt affix is always added to roots when they are without any prefix; when there is a prefix the indeclinable, ending in त्वा, is always compounded with the prefix and त्वा is changed into य (ल्यप्), exempli gratia, for example प्रकृत्य, प्रहृत्य; confer, compare समासेऽनञ्पूर्वे क्त्वो ल्यप् P. VII. 1.37. The substitution of य is at will in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example कृष्णं वासो यजमानं परिधापयित्वा ( instead of परिधाप्य ), confer, compare P. VII.1.38, while sometimes, य is added after त्वा as an augment e. g. दत्वाय सविता धियः confer, compare P. VII.l.47, as also sometimes त्वी or त्वीनम् is substituted for त्वा e. g. इष्ट्वीनं देवान्, स्नात्वी मलादिव, confer, compare P. VII.1.48, 49.
kriyāviśeṣaṇadeterminant or modifier of a verbal activity; confer, compare क्रियाविशेषणं चेति वक्तव्यम् । सुष्टु पचति दुष्टु पचति M.Bh. on II.1.1; nouns used as Kriyāviśeṣaṇa are put in the neuter gender, and in the nominative case. or the acc. case in the singular. number; confer, compare क्रियाविशेषणानां कर्मत्वं नपुंसकलिङ्गता च Pari.Bhāśkara Pari.56.
gaṇaratnamahodadhia grammar work, consisting of a metrical enumeration of the words in the Gaṇapāṭha of Pāṇini, written by Vardhamāna, a Jain grammarian of the 12th century, who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lakṣmaṇasena of Bengal. Vardhamāna has written a commentary also, on his Gaṇaratnamahodadhi. Besides Vardhamāna's commentary, there are other commentaries written by गोवर्धन and गङ्गाधर.
gāvaa technical term for the term अाङ्ग (pertaining to the base in the grammar of Panini); confer, compare वार्णात् गावं बलीयः Kat. Pari. 72.
gūḍhabhāvavṛttia commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriya Kaumudi by Krsnasesa of the famous Sesa family of grammarians. The date of this Krsnasesa is the middle of the sixteenth century. For details about Krsnasesa and the Sesa family see introduction to Prakriyakaumudi B. S. S. No. 78.
gonardīyaliterally inhabitant of Gonarda which was the name of a district. in the province of Oudh in the days of the Mahabhasyakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda was the name of the district named Gonda at present The expression गोनर्दीय अाह occurs four times in the Mahabhasya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time; cf M.Bh. on I. 1.21 ; I. 1.29; III. I.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata paraphrases the words गेानर्दीयस्त्वाह as भाष्यकारस्त्वाह, scholars say that गेीनर्दीय was the name taken by the Mahabhasyakara himself who was a resident of Gonarda. Hari Diksita, however, holds that गोनर्दीय was the term used for the author of the . Varttikas; confer, compare Brhacchabdaratna.
gopāla( देव )known more by the nickname of मन्नुदेव or मन्तुदेव who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-known grammatical treatises such as the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara, Laghusabdendusekhara, Paribhasendusekhara et cetera, and others He is believed to have written a treatise on Ganasutras also; (2) a grammarian different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. मन्नुदेव who has written an explanatory work on the Pratisakhyas;.(3) a scholar of grammar, different from the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. who is believed to have written a gloss named Visamarthadipika on the Sarasvata Vyakarana at the end of the sixteenth century.
govindawriter of a commentary known as अम्बाकर्त्री by reason of that work beginning with the stanza अम्बा कर्त्रींó, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa.
gaurādia class of words to which the affix ई ( ङीष्) is added to form the feminine base; exempli gratia, for example गौरी, मत्सी, हयी, हरिणी; the class contains a large number of words exceeding 150; for details see Kasika on P.IV.1. 41; (2) a small class of eleven words, headed by the word गौर which do not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tatpurusa compound when they are placed after the preposition उप; confer, compare P. VI.2.194.
gha(l)consonant घ्, अ being added at the end for facility of pronunciation; confer, compareTai. Pr.I.21; (2) technical term for the taddhita affix. affixes तरप् and तमप्, confer, compare P.I.1.22, causing the shortening of ई at the end of bases before it, under certain conditions, confer, compare P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to be changed into तराम् and तमाम् after किम्, verbs ending in ए, and indeclinables; confer, compare P.V.4.11; (3) taddhita affix. affix घ ( इय) in the sense of 'a descendant' applied to क्षत्र, and in the sense of 'having that as a deity' applied to अपोनप्तृ अपांनप्तृ and also to महेन्द्र and to the words राष्ट्र et cetera, and others, exempli gratia, for example क्षत्रियः, अपोनाप्त्रिय:, अपांनप्त्रियः, महेन्द्रियम्,राष्ट्रियः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV.1.138, IV.2.27, 29, 93; (4) taddhita affix. affix घ, applied to अग्र, समुद्र and अभ्र in the sense of 'present there', to सहस्र in the sense of 'possession', to, नक्षत्र without any change of sense, and to यज्ञ and ऋत्विज् in the sense of 'deserving'; confer, compare P.IV.4.117,118,135, 136,141, V.1.71 ; (5) krt affix अ when the word to which it has been applied becomes a proper noun id est, that isa noun in a specific sense or a technical term; confer, compare III.3. 118, 119,125.
ghi(1)a tech. term applied to noun bases or Prātipadikas ending in इ and उ excepting the words सखि and पति and those which are termed नदी; confer, compare P. I. 4.79; (2) a conventional term for लधु ( a short vowel) found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
ghuṭa conventional term for the first five case-affixes; confer, compare घुटि च Kat. II. 1.68. The term घुट् is used in the Katantra Vyakarana and corresponds to the term सर्वनामस्थान of Panini.
ṅasending of the genitive case singular; स्य is substituted for ङस् after bases ending in अ; cf P. IV. l . 2 and VII. 1. 12.
ṅasicase-ending of the ablative case, changed into अात् after bases ending in अ and into स्मात् after pronouns; confer, compareP.IV.1.2,VII.1.12,15.
ṅicase-ending of the locative case, changed into (a) अाम् after bases termed Nadi, feminine. bases ending in अा and the word नी, (b) into औ after bases ending in इ and उ, and (c) into स्मिन् after bases of pronouns;confer, compare P.IV. 1. 2, VII. 3. 116, 117, 118, 119 and VII. 1. 15, 16.
ṅit(l)affixes with the mute letter ङ् attached to them either before or after, with a view to preventing the guna and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding इ, उ, ऋ, or लृ, as for example, the affixes चङ्, अङ् and others (2) affixes conventionally called ङित् after certain bases under certain conditions; confer, compare गाङ्कुटादिम्यो ञ्णिन्ङित् P. I. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ङ् signifying the application of the Atmanepada terminations to them: (4) substitutes marked with mute ङ् which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which they are prescribed as substitutes; (5) case affixes marked with mute letter ङ् which cause the substitution of guna to the last vowel इ or उ of words termed घि.
ṅīṣfeminine. afix ई, which is udatta, applied to words in the class of words headed by गौर, as also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with.mute ष्, as also to words mentioned in the class headed by बहुः confer, compare P.IV.1.41-46.It is also added in the sense of 'wife of' to any word denoting a male person; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 48, and together with the augment आनुक् (आन्) to the words इन्द्र, वरुण etc exempli gratia, for example इन्द्राणी, वरुणानि, यवनानि meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' confer, compare P. IV. 1.49. It is also added words ending in क्रीत and words ending in क्त and also to words expressive of ' limbs of body ' under certain conditions; confer, compare P.IV.1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.
ṅedative case termination changed into य after bases ending in short अ and into स्मै after pronouns; confer, compare P.IV.1.2, VII, 1.13, 14.
ṅyantanoun bases ending with the feminine. affix ङी (ङीप्, ङीत्र्, or ङीन्); confer, compare ङ्यन्तादित्येवं भविष्यति M.Bh. on P.I. 1.89 Vart. 16.
vaturthīa term used by ancient grammarians for the dative case; confer, compare उतो त्वस्मै तन्वं विसस्रे इति चतुर्थ्याम्; Nirukta of Yāska.I. 9.३.
caturthīsamāsathe tatpurusa compound with the first word in the dative case in its dissolution; confer, compare वतुर्थीसमासे सति पूर्वपदकृतिस्वरत्वेन भवितव्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II. 1.36.
candraa famous Buddhist Sanskrit grammarian whose grammar existing in the Tibetan script, is now available in the Devanagar script. The work consists of six chapters or Adhyayas in which no technical terms or sanjnas like टि, घु are found. There is no section on Vedic Grammar and accents. The work is based on Panini's grammar and is believed to have been written by Candra or Candragomin in the 5th centnry A. D. Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya refers to him; confer, compare स नीतो बहुशाखत्वं चन्द्राचार्यादिभिः पुनः Vakyapadiya II. 489. A summary of the work is found in the Agnipurana, ch. 248-258.
candragominnamed also चन्द्र, a Buddhist scholar who has written an easy Sanskrit Grammar based on the Astadhyayi of Panini. He is believed to have lived in North India in the fifth century A.D. See चन्द्र.
caritārthawhich has got already a scope of application; the term is used by commentators in connection with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of some instances and hence which cannot be said to be ब्यर्थ (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawn from it according to the dictum ब्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति confer, compare अपवादो यद्यन्यत्र चरितार्थस्तर्ह्यन्तरङ्गेण बाध्यते Par. Sek. Pari. 65.
carkarītaa term used by the ancient grammarians in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term यङ्लुगन्त is used by comparatively modern grammarians in the same sense. The चर्करीत roots are treated as roots of the adadi class or second conjugation and hence the general Vikarana अ ( शप् ) is omitted after them.The word is based on the 3rd person. sing form चर्करीति from .the root कृ in the sense of frequency; exempli gratia, for example चर्करीति, चर्कर्ति, बोभवीति बोभोति; confer, compare चर्करीतं च a gana-sutra in the gana named ’adadi’ given by Panini in connection with अदिप्रभृतिभ्य; शपः Pāṇini. II.4.72; confer, compare also चर्करीतमिति यङ्लुकः प्राचां संज्ञा Bhasa Vr. on P. II. 4.72, The word चेक्रीयित is similarly used for the frequentative when the sign of the frequentative viz. य ( यङ् ) is not elidedition See चेक्रीयित.
cāndraname of a treatise on grammar written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammar is based upon that of Panini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and accents. See the word चन्द्र a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. For details see pp. 375376 Patanjali Mahabhasya. Vol. VII, D.E. Society's Edition.
ciccandrikāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in reply to the treatise named दूषकरदोद्भेदः See विष्णुशास्त्रिन्. For details see pp. 39, 40 of Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
ciṇsubstitute इ causing vrddhi, in the place of the aorist vikarana affix च्लि, prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots पद्, दीप्, जन् et cetera, and others in the active voice before the affix त of the third person. singular. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104. cf P. III. 1.60-66.
citaffixes or substitutes or bases marked with the mute letter च् signifying the acute accent for the last vowel; e. g. अथुच्, धुरच्, कुण्डिनच् et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1. 163, 164.
citprabhāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara by ब्रह्मानन्दसरस्वती.
cidrūpāśrayanamed also चिद्रूपाश्रम who wrote a learned commentary named विषमी on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesabhatta
cekīyitathe sign य ( यङ् of Panini ) of the frequentative or intensive. The word is mostly used in the Katantra Grammar works confer, compare धातोर्यशब्दश्चेक्रीयितं क्रियासमभिहारे, Kat. III. 2. 14. The word चेक्रीयित is used in the Mahabhasya in the sense of यङन्त where Kaiyata remarks थडः पूर्वाचार्यसंज्ञा चेकीयितमिति confer, compare प्रदीप on M.Bh. on P. IV.1.78 Vartika. The word चेकीयितान्त means यङन्त in Panini’s terminology meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense of intensity. The word चर्करीतान्त is used for the frequentative bases in which य, the sign of the frequentative, is omittedition See चर्करीत।
coradthe crude form of the word चोर with the mute consonant ट् added to signify the addition of ङीप् to form the feminine base e. g. चोरी; confer, compare P. IV. 1. 15.
cilathe sign of the aorist ( लुड् ) for which generally सिच् and अङ्, क्स, चङ् and चिण् are substituted in specified cases; confer, compare P. III. 1. 43-66.
chastaddhita affix. affix ईय added to the word भवत् in the general शैषिक senses, e. g. भवदीयः; cf P. IV.2.115. The mute letter स् has been attached to the affix छस् So that the base भवत् before it could be termed pada (confer, compare सिति च P, I.4.16) and as a result have the consonant त् changed into द् by P. VIII.2.39.
jaṭāa kind of Vedic recital wherein each word is repeated six times. जटा is called one of the 8 kinds ( अष्टविकृति) of the Kramapatha, which in its turn is based on the Padapatha; confer, compare जटा माला शिखा रेखा ध्वजो दण्डो रथो घनः। अष्टौ बिकृतय: प्रोक्ताः क्रमपूर्वा मनीषिभिः । जटा is defined as अनुलोमविलोमाभ्यां त्रिवारं हि पठेत् क्रमम् । विलोमे पदवत्संधिः अनुलोमे यथाक्रमम् । The recital of ओषधयः संवदन्ते संवदन्ते सोमेन can be illustrated as ओषधयः सं, समोषधयः, ओषधयः सं, सं वदन्ते, वदन्ते सं, सेवदन्ते, वदन्ते सोमेन,सोमेन वदन्ते , वदन्ते सोमेन ।
jaśbhāvathe same as जश्त्व, which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..जस् case termination अस् of the nominative case. plural: confer, compareP. IV. 1.2.
jasicase termination अस् of the nominative case. plural mentioned as जस् by Panini in IV. 1.2, but referred to as जसि by him; confer, compare P.IV.1.31 and VII.1.50.
jahaddharmatvaabandonment or giving up of properties in the case of a word included in a वृत्ति or composite expression; confer, compare जहद्धर्मत्वाच्छब्दप्रवृत्तेः Durghata Vrtti on P. II. 2.6.
jusverbal termination उस् substituted for the original झि of the third person. pl, in certain cases mentioned inP.III.4.108,109,110,111, and 112.
jainendravyākaraṇaname of a grammar work written by Pujyapada Devanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the Astadhyay of Panini,the section on Vedic accent and the rules of Panini explaining Vedic forms being,of course, neglectedition The grammar is called Jainendra Vyakarana or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The work is available in two versions, one consisting of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 sutras. it has got many commentaries, of which the Mahavrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details see Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction published by the Bharatiya Jnanapitha Varadasi.
jñāpakasamuccayaa work giving a collection of about 400 Jñāpakas or indicatory wordings found in the Sūtras of Pānini and the conclusions drawn from them. It was written by Purușottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of Pāņini's grammar in the twelfth century A. D., who was probably the same as the famous great Vaiyākaraņa patronized by Lakșmaņasena.See पुरुषेत्तमदेव.
ñit(1)an afix marked with the mute letter ञ्; causing the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, but, causing vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is added in case the affix is a taddhita affix. affix: confer, compare P.VII.2, 115, 116, 117; (2) a root marked with the consonant ञ् , taking verb-endings of both the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada kinds; exempli gratia, for example करोति, कुरुते, बिभर्ति, बिभृते, क्रीणाति, क्रीणीते elc.; confer, compare स्वरितञितः कत्राभिप्राये, क्रियाफले P.I.3.72.
ṭācase ending of the third case (तृतीया) singular. number; confer, compare P. IV.1.2,
ṭhaka very common taddhita affix. affix इक, or क in case it is added to words ending in इस् , उस् , उ, ऋ, ल् and त् according to P. VII. 3. 51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which it is addedition ठक् is added to (1) रेवती and other words in the sense of descendant ( अपत्य ) e. g. रैवतिकः:, दाण्डग्राहिकः, गार्गिकः, भागवित्तिकः यामुन्दायनिकः, confer, compare P. IV. 1.146-149; (2) to the words लाक्षा,रोचना et cetera, and others in the sense of 'dyed in', e. g. लाक्षिकम्, रौचनिकम् ; confer, compare P. IV. 2.2; (3) to the words दधि and उदश्वित् in the sense of संस्कृत 'made better ', e. g. दाधिकम् , औदश्वित्कम् ( क instead of इक substituted for टक् ), confer, compare P. IV.2. 18, 19; (4) to the words अाग्रहायुणी, अश्वत्थ et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) to words expressive of inanimate objects, to the words हस्ति and धेनु, as also to the words केश and अश्व in the sense of 'multitude '; confer, compare P. IV. 2. 47, 48; (6) to the words क्रतु, उक्थ and words ending in सूत्र, वसन्त et cetera, and others, in the sense of 'students of' ( तदधीते तद्वेद ), confer, compare P. IV. 2.59, 60, 63; (7) to the words कुमुद and others as also to शर्करा as a चातुरर्थिक affix; confer, compare P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words कन्था, भवत् and वर्षा in the Saisika senses; confer, compare P. IV. 2.102, 115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words उपजानु and others in the sense 'generally present '; confer, compare P. IV. 3. 40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and the words ऋक्, ब्राह्मण et cetera, and othersin the sense of 'explanatory literary work'; confer, compare P. IV.3.72: ( 11) to words meaning 'sources of income ' in the sense of 'accruing from’; confer, compare P. IV. 3.75; (12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place in the sense of ' भक्ति ', cf P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words हल् and सीर in the sense of 'belonging to', confer, compare P. IV. 3.124. The taddhita affix. affix ठक् is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses like 'तेन दीव्यति, ' 'तेन खनति,' 'तेन संस्कृतम्' et cetera, and others; cf P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words हल, सीर, कथा, विकथा, वितण्डा et cetera, and others in specified senses, confer, compare P. IV.4. 81, 102 ठक् is also added as a general taddhita affix. affix or अधिकारविहितप्रत्यय, in various specified senses, as prescribed by P. V.1.19-63,and to the words उदर, अयःशूल,दण्ड, अजिन, अङ्गुली, मण्डल, et cetera, and others and to the word एकशाला, in the prescribed senses; confer, compare P. V. 2.67,76, V. 3.108,109; while, without making any change in sense it is added to अनुगादिन् , विनय, समय, उपाय ( औपयिक being the word formed), अकस्मात्, कथंचित्; (confer, compareआकस्मिक काथंचित्क), समूह,विशेष, अत्यय and others, and to the word वाक् in the sense of 'expressed'; confer, compare P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The feminine. affix ङीप् ( ई ) is added to words ending in the affix टक् to form feminine. bases.
ṭhacataddhita affix. affix इक or क (by P.VII.3.51) with the vowel अ accented acute applied to (1) कुमुद and others as a Caturarthika affix; confer, compare P. IV.2.80; (2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with उप which are proper nouns for persons; confer, compare P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word एकशाला in the sense of इव; confer, compare P. V.3.109. The base, to which टच् is added, retains generally two syllables or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ठच् e. g. देविकः, वायुकः, पितृकः शेबलिकः et cetera, and others from the words देवदत्त, वायुदत्त, पितृदत्त, शेवलदत्त et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. V,3.83, 84.
ṭhantaddhita affix. affix इक or क (according to P. VII.3.51), causing the addition of आ, and not ई,..for forming the feminine base, applied (1) to the word नौ and words with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; confer, compare P.IV.4. 7; exempli gratia, for example नाविकः नाविका, बाहुकः बाहुक्रा; (2) to the words वस्र, क्रय, and विक्रय and optionally with छ to अायुघ in the sense of maintaining (तेन जीवति) ; confer, compare P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word प्रतिपथ, words ending with अगार, to the word शत, to words showing completion ( पूरणवाचिन् ), to the words अर्ध, भाग, वस्त्र, द्रव्य, षण्मास and. श्राद्ध in specified senses; confer, compare P. IV 4.42, 70, V. 1.21, 48, 49, 51, 84, V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words ending in अ as also to the words headed by व्रीहि, and optionally with the affix इल्च् to तुन्द and with the affix व to केशin the sense of मतुप्(possession); cf P.V. 2. 115, 116, 117 and 109.
ṭhitmarked with the mute letter ठ्. There is no affix or word marked with mute ठ् (at the end) in Panini's grammar, but to avoid certain technical difficulties, the Mahabhasyakara has proposed mute ठ् instead of 'ट् in the' case of the affix इट् of the first person. singular. perf Atm. and ऊठ् prescribed as Samprasarana substitute by P. VI. 4.132 e: g. प्रष्ठौहः, प्रष्ठौहा; confer, compare M.Bh. on III.4.79 and VI.4.19.
ḍāverb-ending आ, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd person. sing, affix तिप् of the first future; exempli gratia, for example क्रर्ता ; confer, compare P.II.4.85; (2) case ending आ substituted in Vedic Literature for any case affix as noticed in Vedic usages; exempli gratia, for example नाभा पृथिव्याम्: confer, compare P. VII.1.39
ḍiyāccase affix इया for Inst.singular.seen in Vedic Literature: exempli gratia, for example सुक्षेत्रिया, सुगात्रिया; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VII.1.39.
ḍyācase affix या seen in vedic Literature e. g. अनुष्ठथा उच्च्यावयतात् confer, compare S. K. on P. VII. 1.39.
(1)fourth consonant of the lingual class of consonants possessed of the properties नादानुप्रदान, घोष, संवृतकण्ठत्व and महृाप्राणत्व; (2) the consonant ढ् which is elided when followed by ढ् and the preceding vowel is lengthened; e. g. गाढा, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111 ; (3) substitute ढ् for ह् at the end of a पद, or, if followed by any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with द् or the roots द्रुह्, मुह् et cetera, and others as also वह् and अाह् confer, compare P. VIII. 2.31, 32, 33, 34; (4) ढ् at the beginning of a taddhita affix. affix which has got एय् substituted for it; confer, compare गाङ्गेय:, वैनतेयः ; confer, compare P. V. 3.102.
ḍhañtaddhita affix. affix एय causing Vrddhi substituted for the first vowel of the base and the addition of the feminine. affix ङीप् (इ), applied (1) to words meaning quadrupeds and words in the class of words headed by गृष्टि in the sense of अपत्य; e. g. कामण्डलेयः, गार्ष्टेयः, हालेय:, बालेयः etc; confer, compare P. IV.1.135,136; (2) to the word क्षीर, words of the class headed by सखि, the words कोश, दृति, कुक्षि, कलशि, अस्ति, अहि,ग्रीवा,वर्मती,एणी,पथि,अतिथि,वसति,स्वपति, पुरुष, छदि्स, उपधि, बलि, परिखा, and वस्ति in the various senses mentioned in connection with these words; exempli gratia, for exampleक्षेरेयः, .साखेयम् कौशेयम् दात्र्ऱेयम् , कौक्षेयम् etc, cf Kas'. on P. IV. 2. 20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, IV.4.1 04, V.1.10,13,17, V.3.101.
ṇa(1)krt affix अ, added optionally to the roots headed by ज्वल् and ending with कस् in the first conjugation (see ज्वलिति a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root श्यै, roots ending with अा and the roots व्यध्, आस्रु, संस्रु, इ with अति, सो with अव, हृ with अव, लिह्, श्लिष् and श्वस्, to the roots दु and नी without any prefix and optionally to ग्रह्: e. g. ज्वालः or ज्वलः, अवश्यायः, दायः, धायः, व्याधः, अास्त्रावः, संस्त्रवः, अत्यायः, अवसायः, अवहार:, लेहः, श्लेष:, श्वास:, दावः, नाय:, ग्रहः or ग्राहः: ; in the case of the root ग्रह् the affix ण is applied by ब्यवस्थितविभाषा, the word ग्रहः meaning a planet and the word ग्राहः meaning a crocodile; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.140-143; (2) krt affix अ in the sense of verbal activity ( भाव ) applied along with the affix अप् to the root अद् with नि; exempli gratia, for exampleन्यादः निघसः; confer, compare P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix ण prescribed by the Varttikakara after the roots तन्, शील्. काम, भक्ष् and चर् with आ; confer, compare P.III.1.140 Vart 1, and III. 2.l Vart. 7; (4) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added along with टक् also, to a word referring to a female descendant (गेीत्रस्त्री) if the resultant word indicates censure ; e. g. गार्भ्यः गार्गिकः confer, compare P. IV.1.147, 150; (5) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of अपत्य added also with the affix फिञ्, to the word फाण्टाहृति: (6) taddhita affix. affix अ in the sense of 'a game' added to a word meaning 'an instrument in the game'; exempli gratia, for example दाण्डा, मौष्टा: confer, compare P. IV.2.57: {7) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the word छत्त्र and others in the sense of 'habituated to' exempli gratia, for example छात्र:, शैक्षः, पौरोहः चौर:: confer, compare P.IV. 4.62: (8) taddhita affix. affix अ added to the words अन्न, भक्त, सर्व, पथिन् , यथाकथाच, प्रज्ञा, श्रद्धा, अर्चा, वृत्तिं and अरण्य in the senses specified with respect to each ; exempli gratia, for example आन्नः (मनुष्यः) भाक्तः ( शालिः ), सार्वे ( सर्वस्मै हितम् ), पान्थः, याथाकथाचं (कार्यम्), प्राज्ञः or प्रज्ञावान् , श्राद्धः or श्रद्धावान् , अार्चः or अर्चावान् , घार्त्तः or वृत्तिमान् and अारण्याः ( सुमनसः ); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV. 4.85, 100, V.1.10, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV.2.104 Varttika.
ṇalpersonal ending अ substituted for तिप् and मिप् in लिट् or the perfect, and in the case of विद् and ,ब्रू in लट् or the present tense. tense optionally; cf P. III, 4. 82, 83, 84. The affix णल् on account of being marked by the mute letter ण् causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st person. ( मिप् ) confer, compare P. VII.1.91. अौ is substituted for णल् after roots ending in आ; confer, compare P. VII .1.34.
ṇiṅaffix इ causing vrddhi, prescribed after the root कम् , the base ending in इ i. e. कामि being called a root: confer, compare P. III. 1.30, 32. The mute letter ङ् signifies that the root कामि is to take only the Atmanepada affixes e. g. कामयते, अचीकमत.
ṇicaffix इ causing Vrddhi (1) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( चुरादिगण ) such as चुर् , चित् et cetera, and others e. g. चोरयति, चोरयते; confer, compare P. III. 1.25: (2) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e. g. भावयति from भू, गमयति from गम्: confer, compare हेतुमति च P. III. 1.26: (3) applied to the words मुण्ड, मिश्र etc, in the sense of making, doing, practising et cetera, and others ( करण ); e. g. मुण्डं करोति मुण्डयति, व्रतयति (eats something or avoids it as an observance), हलं गृह्नाति हलयति et cetera, and others; cf P. III. 1.21; (4) applied to the words सत्य, पाश, रूप, वीणा, तूल, श्लोक, सेना, लोमन, त्वच्, वर्मन्, वर्ण and चूर्ण in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in इ: e. g. सत्यापयति, पाशयति etc; confer, compare P. III.1.25: (5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing, exempli gratia, for example सूत्रं करोति सूत्रयति, et cetera, and others: (6)applied to a verbal noun ( कृदन्त ) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of the krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e. g. कंसं घातयति for the sentence कंसवधमाचष्टे or बलिं बन्धयति for बलिबन्धमाचष्टे,or रात्रिं विवासयति, सूर्यमुद्गमयति, पुष्येण योजयति et cetera, and others: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in णिच् (णिजन्त) take the conjugational endings of both the Parasmaipada and the, Atmanepada: confer, compare णिचश्च P. I. 3.74. They have perfect forms by the addition of अाम् with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root कृ, भू or अस् placed after अाम्, the word ending with अाम् and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. g. कारयां चकार कारयां चक्रे et cetera, and others; cf P. III.1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the Vikarana चङ् ( अ ) for च्लि before which the root is reduplicated; e. g. अचीकरत्, अबीभवत् et cetera, and others: confer, compare P.III.1.48, VI.1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
ṇijantaroots ending in णिच्; the term is generally applied to causal bases of roots. See णिच्.
ṇopadeśaa root mentioned in the Dhatupatha by Panini as beginning with ण् which subsequently is changed to न् ( by P. VI. 1.65) in all the forms derived from the root; e. g. the roots णम, णी and others. In the case of these roots the initial न् is again changed into ण् after a prefix like प्र or परा having the letter र् in it and having a vowel or a consonant of the guttural or labial class intervening between the letter र् and the letter न्; e. g. प्रणमति, प्रणयकः et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VIII. 4.14.
ṇvul(1)a very general krt affix अक, causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding the affix, applied to a root optionally with तृ (i. e. तृच् ) in the sense of an agent e. g कारकः हारकः also कर्ता, हर्ता ; Cf P. III. 1.33; (2) krt. affix अक applied optionally with the affix तुम् to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the principal verb; e. g. भोजको व्रजति or भोक्तुं व्रजति; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on तुमुन्ण्वुलौ क्रियायां क्रियार्थायाम्; P. III. 3.10; (3) krt affix अक, necessarily accompanied by the feminine. affix अा added to it, applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query ; e. g. प्रवाहिका, प्रच्छर्दिका, शालभञ्जिका, तालभञ्जिका, कारिक, confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III. 3.108, 109, 110.
t(1)personal ending of the third pers singular. Atm: confer, compare P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ते in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute चिण् for च्लि in the aorist; confer, compare P.VI.4.04: (2) personal ending substituted for the affix थ of the Paras. 2nd person. plural in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional for which, तात्, तन and थन are substituted in Vedic Literature, and also for हि in case a repetition of an action is meant; confer, compare P. III. 4. 85, 10l as also VII. 1. 44, 45 and III. 4. 2-5. cf P. III. 4. 85 and III. 4. 10I ; (3) taddhita affix. affix त applied to the words कम् and शम् e. g. कन्तः, शन्त:, confer, compare P. V. 2. 138: (4) taddhita affix. affix त applied to दशत् when दशत् is changed to श; confer, compare दशानां दशतां शभावः तश्च प्रत्ययः । दश दाशतः परिमाणमस्य संधस्य शतम्, Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. l. 59; (5) .general term for the affix क्त of the past passive voice. part, in popular use: (6) a technical term for the past participle affixes (त) क्त and तवत् ( क्तवतु ) called निष्ठा by Panini; confer, compare P. I.1.26; the term त is used for निष्ठI in the Jainendra Vyakararna.
tattvādarśaname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by M. M. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar in 1889 A. D. The commentary is more critical than explanatory,wherein the author has given the purpose and the gist of the important Paribhasas and has brought out clearly the differences between the school of Bhattoji and the school of Nagesa in several important matters.
tatpuruṣaname of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष id est, that is ( तस्य पुरुषः ), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष. No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार, the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय; acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (called द्विगु by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं confer, compare P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2.6, उपपदतत्पुरुष confer, compare P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष confer, compare P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष confer, compareP.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास. Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः: confer, compare M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, et cetera, and others, and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; confer, compare परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम्, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; confer, compare P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष or उपपदतत्पुरुष are called नित्य and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; confer, compare P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ as a compound-ending ( समासान्त ) is added: exempli gratia, for example राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् ; confer, compare P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् ( अ ) is added: confer, compare P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् ( अ ) is added, the mute letter ट् signifying the addition of ङीप् ( ई) in the feminine gender; confer, compareP.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
tadantavidhia peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of Panini, laid down by the author of the Sutras himself by virtue of which an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; confer, compare येन विधिस्तदन्तस्य P.I.1.72.This feature is principally noticed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which Occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word प्रातिपदिकात्, put in P.IV.1.1, is valid in every rule upto the end of chapter V and the words अतः, उतः, यञः et cetera, and others mean अदन्ताद् , उदन्तात् , यञन्तात् et cetera, and others Similarly the words धातोः (P.III.1.91) and अङ्गस्य (P.VI. 4.1 ) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to them, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those words,but words ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature of तदन्तविधि is not desirable, as it, goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from Panini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 16,23, 31 : also Mahabhasya on P.I.1.72.
tadādividhia convention similar to the तदन्तविधि of Panini,laid down by the Varttikakara laying down that in case an operation is prescribed for something followed by a single letter, that single letter should be taken to mean a word beginning with that single letter: confer, compare यस्मिन्विधिस्तदादावल्ग्रहणे P.I.1.72 Vart. 29: Par. Sek. Pari. 33.
tamaptaddhita affix. affix तम added without a change of sense, i. e. in the sense of the base itself to noun bases possessing the sense of excellence, as also to verbal forms showing excellence: e. g. आढ्यतमः, दर्शनीयतमः, श्रेष्ठतमः, पचतितमाम् confer, compare Kas on P. V. 3.55-56. The affix तमप् is termed घ also; confer, compare P. I. 1.22.
tarataddhita affix. affix तरप् added to bases showing excellence (अतिशायन ) when the excellence shown is between two persons; e. g. अनयोः सुकुमारतरः सुकुमारतरा, पचतितराम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.3.57. The affix तरप् is called घ just like तमप्; cf P.I. 1.22.
tasi(1)taddhita affix.affix तस् showing direction by means of a thing exempli gratia, for example वृक्षमूलतः, हिमवत्तः; confer, compare Kas on P.IV.3.114,115; (2) taddhita affix.affix तस् applied in the sense of the ablative case. case and substituted for the ablative case. case affix: exempli gratia, for example ग्रामतः अागच्छति, चोरतो विभेति; sometimes the affix is applied instead of the instrumental or the genitive case also. e. g. वृत्ततः न व्यथते for वृत्तेन न व्यथते; देवा अर्जुनतः अभवन्, for अर्जुनस्य पक्षे अभवन् confer, compare Kas, on P.V.4.44-49.
(1)a technical term for the genitive case affix used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; (2) the taddhita affix. affix तल् which is popularly called ता as the nouns ending in तल् id est, that is त are declined in the feminine. gender with the feminine. affix अा added to them.
tānaone uniform accent or tone एकश्रुति, as observed at the time of sacrifices in the case of the recital of the hymns; confer, compare तानलक्षणमेकं स्वरमाहुर्यज्ञकर्मणि Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.130; confer, compare also P.I. 2.34.
tipthe personal ending of the 3rd person. singular. substituted for ल (लकार) in the Parasmaipada. For substitutes for तिप् in special cases, see P. VI.1.68, III.4.82, 83, 84.
tulyādhikaraṇahaving got the same substratum; denoting ultimately the same object; expressed in the same case the same as samanadhikarana in the grammar of Panini, confer, compare Kat. II.5.5.
tṛjantaa word ending in the affix तृच् and hence getting the guna vowel (i. e. अ ) substituted for the final vowel ऋ before the Sarvanamasthana (i. e. the first five) case affixes; confer, compare तृजन्त आदेशॊ भविष्यति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on VII. 1.96.
tṛtīyāthe third case; affixes of the third case ( instrumental case or तृतीयाविभक्ति ) which are placed (1) after nouns in the sense of an instrument or an agent provided the agent is not expressed by the personal-ending of the root; e. g. देवदत्तेन कृतम्, परशुना छिनत्ति: confer, compare P. III. 3.18; (2) after nouns connected with सह्, nouns meaning defective limbs, nouns forming the object of ज्ञा with सम् as also nouns meaning हेतु or a thing capable of produc ing a result: e. g. पुत्रेण सहागतः, अक्ष्णा काणः, मात्रा संजानीते, विद्यया यशः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.3.19,23; (3) optionally with the ablative after nouns meaning quality, and optionally with the genitive after pronouns in the sense of हेतु, when the word हेतु is actually used e. g. पाण्डित्येन मुक्तः or पाण्डित्यान्मुक्त:; केन हेतुना or कस्य हेतोर्वसति; it is observed by the Varttikakara that when the word हेतु or its synonym is used in a sentence, a pronoun is put in any case in apposition to that word id est, that is हेतु or its synonym e.g, केन निमित्तेन, किं निमित्तम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 3. 25, 27; (4) optionally after nouns connected with the words पृथक्, विना, नाना, after the words स्तोक, अल्प, as also after दूर, अन्तिक and their synonyms; exempli gratia, for example पृथग्देवदत्तेन et cetera, and others स्तोकेन मुक्तः, दूरेण ग्रामस्य, केशैः प्रसितः; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.3.32, 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally with the locative case after nouns meaning constellation when the taddhita affix. affix after them has been elided; exempli gratia, for example पुष्येण संप्रयातोस्मि श्रवणे पुनरागतः Mahabharata; confer, compare P.II.3.45; (6) optionally with the genitive case after words connected with तुल्य or its synonyms; exempli gratia, for exampleतुल्यो देवदत्तेन, तुल्यो देवदत्तस्य; confer, compare P. II.3.72.
tṛn(1)krt affix तृ with the acute accent on the first vowel of the word formed by its application, applied to any root in the sense of 'an agent' provided the agent is habituated to do a thing, or has his nature to do it, or does it well; exempli gratia, for example वदिता जनापवादान् , मुण्डयितारः श्राविष्ठायना -भवन्ति वधूमूढाम् , कर्ता कटम्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III.2.135; words ending with तृन् govern the noun connected with them in the accusative case; (2) the term तृन् , used as a short term ( प्रत्याहार ) standing for krt affixes beginning with those prescribed by the rule लटः शतृशानचौ (P.III.2.124) and ending with the affix तृन् (in P.III.3.69); confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.4.69.
taittirīyaprātiśākhyacalled also कृष्णयजुःप्रातिशाख्य and hence representing possibly all the different branches or Sakhas of the कृष्णयजुर्वेद, which is not attributed definitely to a particular author but is supposed to have been revised from time to time and taught by various acaryas who were the followers of the Taittiriya Sakha.The work is divided into two main parts, each of which is further divided into twelve sections called adhyayas, and discusses the various topics such as letters and their properties, accents, euphonic changes and the like, just as the other Pratisakhya works. It is believed that Vararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya wrote Bhasyas on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at present, only two important commentary works on it are available(a) the 'Tribhasyaratna', based upon the three Bhasyas mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. as the title shows, written by Somayarya and (b) the 'Vaidikabharana' written by Gopalayajvan. For details see Introduction to 'Taittiriya Pratisakhya' edition Govt Oriental Library Series, Mysore.
traa common term for the krt affixes ष्ट्रन् and इत्र (P.III. 2. 181-186) in case the vowel इ of इत्र is looked upon as equivalent to an augment, as also for the unadi affix ष्ट्रन् and the taddhita affix. affixes त्र and त्रल् (P. IV. 2.51 and V.3.10); the tad, affix त्र is added in the sense of समूह or collection to the word गॊ, exempli gratia, for example गोत्रा; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.2.51.
traltaddhita affix. affix termed Vibhakti added to pronouns excepting द्वि and others, and to the words बहु and किम् when they end with the locative case case termination: exempli gratia, for example कुत्र, तत्र, बहुत्र et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V. 1.10, 14.
trātaddhita affix. affix त्रा in the sense of something donated, as also to the words देव, मनुष्य, पुरुष, पुरु and मर्त्य ending in the accusative or the locative case; e. g. व्राह्मणत्रा करोति, देवत्रा वसतिः confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V.4.55,56. ’There is avagraha before the taddhita affix. affix त्रा. देवत्रेति देवSत्रा्; confer, compare V.Pr. V.9.
trikaliterally triad; a term used in the Mahabhasya in connection with the Vibhakti affixes id est, that is case endings and personal endings which are in groups of three; confer, compare त्रिकं पुनर्विभक्तिसंज्ञम् M.Bh. on P.I.1,38: confer, compare also कस्यचिदेव त्रिकस्य प्रथमसंज्ञा स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om P.I.4.101 ; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.23, V.1.52, V.1.58.
tripathagāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Raghavendracarya Gajendragadkar, a resident of Satara and a pupil of Nilakanthasastri Thatte. He lived in the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth century and wrote comentaries on important grammar works.
tribhāṣyaratnaname of a commentary on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya written by Somayarya. The commentary is said to have been based on the three Bhasya works attributed to the three ancient Vedic scholarsVararuci, Mahiseya and Atreya.
triśikhāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara written by Laksminrsimha in the 18th century.
tryambakaa grammarian of the nineteenth century, who resided at Wai in Satara District and wrote a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara which is named त्र्यम्बकी after the writer.
tryambakīa commentary on the Paribhasendusekhae by म्बव्यकः see त्र्यम्बक.
thalpersonal ending थ substituted for सिप् of the 2nd person.singular. Parasmaipada in the perfect tense as also in the present tense in specific cases; confer, compare P. III. 4.82, 88,84.
daghnactaddhita affix. affix दघ्न prescribed optionally with द्वयस and मात्र in the sense of measure ( प्रमाणे ), with ङीप् ( ई ) to be added further to form the feminine. base, e. g. जानुदघ्नम्, जानुद्वयसम्, जानुमात्रम् , जानुदघ्नी, confer, compare P. V. 2.37 and IV.1.15; दघ्नच् is added optionally along with अण् as also with द्वयस and मात्र to the words पुरुष and हस्तिन् exempli gratia, for example पुरुषद्वयसम्, पौरुषम् पुरुषदघ्नम्, पुरुषमात्रम्; confer, compare P. V. 2.38.
taddhita affix. affix named 'vibhakti' applied to the words सर्व, एक, अन्य, किं, यत्,तत् and इदम् in the locative case; exempli gratia, for example सर्वदा, एकदा, कदा: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.15,19,20,21.
taddhita affix. affix named 'vibhakti' applied to the words सर्व, एक, अन्य, किं, यत्,तत् and इदम् in the locative case; exempli gratia, for example सर्वदा, एकदा, कदा: confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.15,19,20,21.
dānīmtaddhita affix. affix called विभक्ति, applied to तद् and इदम् in the sense of the locative case exempli gratia, for example तदानीम्, इदानीम्; confer, compare P. V.3.18, 19.
duḥśliṣṭaa word, or words whose case affixes can be syntactically connected only with some difficulty; confer, compareबहुव्रीहौ सक्थ्यक्ष्णोः स्वाङ्गात् षच्। स्वाङ्गवाची यः सक्थिशब्दः अक्षिशब्दश्च तदन्ताद् बहुव्रीहेः षच् भवति । सूत्रे तु दुःश्लिष्टविभक्तीनि पदानि Kas, on P. V. 4.I13. .
durgasiṃhathe famous commentator of the Katantra sutras, whose Vrtti on the sutras is the most popular one. It is called , कातन्त्रसूत्रवृत्ति or कातन्तवृत्ति or दौर्गसिंहीवृत्ति , also. A work on Paribhasas named परिभाषावृति, in which Paribhasas are explained and established as based on the Katantra Vyakarana sutras, is attributed to Durgasimha. It is doubtful whether this commentator Durgasimha is the same as Durgacarya, the famous commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. There is a legend that Durgasimha was the brother of Vikramaditya, the founder of the Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss on the Katantra sutras, some grammar works such as a gloss on the unadi sutras, a gloss ( वृत्ति ) on Kalapa-Vyakarana Sutras, a commentary on Karakas named षट्कारकरत्न, Namalinganusasana and Paribhasavrtti are ascribed to Durgasimha. Some scholars believe that the term अमरसिंह was only a title given to Durgasimha for his profound scholarship, and it was Durgasimha who was the author of the well-known work Amarakosa.
durvalācāryaa grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar दुर्वलीयव्याकरण, named after him. Besides this treatise, he has written commentaries on Nagesa's Laghumanjusa and Paribhasendusekhara.
dūṣakaradodbhedaname of a commentary, on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa, believed to have been written by Gopalacārya Karhadkar, a grammarian of the 19th century and attributed to Bhimacarya. This commentary, which was written to criticize the commentary written by Visnusastri Bhat, was again criticized in reply by Visnusastri Bhat in his Ciccandrika ( चिच्चन्द्रिका ). See विष्णुशास्त्री भट.
devanandincalled also पूज्यपाद or पूज्यपाददेवनन्दिन् believed to have lived in the fifth century A. D. and written the treatise on grammar, of course based om Panini Sutras, which is known as जैनेन्द्र-व्याकरण or जैनेन्द्रशब्दानुशासन. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as जैनेन्द्र in the usually guoted verse of Bopadeva :इन्द्रश्चन्द्रः काशकृत्स्नापिशली शाकटायनः पाणिन्यमरजैनेन्द्र जयन्त्यष्टादेिशाब्दिकाः. देवनन्दिन् was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which सर्वार्थसिद्धि, the commentary on the तत्त्वार्थाधिगमसूत्र, is well-known.
dyotakaindicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are said to be 'dyotaka' and not 'vacaka' by standard grammarians headed by the Varttikakara; confer, compare निपातस्यानर्थकस्यापि प्रातिपदिकत्वम् P.I.2.45 Varttika 12; confer, compare Kaiyata also on the a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf also निपाता द्योतकाः केचित्पृथगर्थाभिधायिनः Vakyapadiya II.194;, गतिवाचकत्वमपि तस्य ( स्थाधातोः ) व्यवस्थाप्यते, उपसर्गस्तु तद्योतक एव commentary on Vakyapadiya II. 190; confer, compare पश्चाच्छ्रोतुर्बोधाय द्योतकोपसर्गसंबन्ध: Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf also इह स्वरादयो वाचकाः चादयो द्योतका इति भेदः Bhasa Vr. om P.I.1.37.The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, confer, compare क्रियाया द्योतको नायं न संबन्धस्य वाचकः । नापि क्रियापदाक्षेपीं संबन्धस्य तु भेदकः Vakyapadiya II.206; the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka'; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युर्द्वित्त्वादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya II. 165.
dyotya(sense)conveyed by suggestion indirectly and not directly expressed, as in the case of karmapravacaniyas, the krt affixes and the tad, affixes: confer, compare अनुशब्दो लक्षणे द्योत्ये कर्मप्रवचनीयसंज्ञो भवति Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 4.84.
dravyavadbhāvabehaviour like a dravya as noticed in the case of the bhava or kriya found in a root after a krt afix is added to it confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद्भवति. Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.2.19, III.1.67 et cetera, and others
drutabodhaname of a treatise on grammar written for beginners by Bharatasena or Bharatamalla of Bengal in the sixteemth century.
dvanddhaname of a compound, formed of two or more words used in the same case, showing their collection together; confer, compare चार्थे द्वन्द्वः P. II.2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indeclinable च, viz. समुच्चय अन्वाचय, इतरेतरयोग and समाहार, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (as in प्लक्षन्यग्रोधौ et cetera, and others) and समाहारद्वन्द्व (as in वाक्त्वचम् et cetera, and others) respectively For details see Mahabhasya on II.2.29. The dvandva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioning the several objects together id est, that is when there is, in short, सहविवक्षा orयुगपदधिकरणवचनता; confer, compare अनुस्यूतेव मेदाभ्यां एका प्रख्योपजायते । यस्यां सहविवक्षां तामाहुर्द्वन्द्वैकशेषयोः । Sr. Pr. II. The gender of a word in the द्वन्द्वसमास is that of the last word in the case of the इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the समाहारद्वन्द्व.
dvikarmakaa term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, exempli gratia, for example दुह् in, गां दोग्धि पयः; the term कर्म according to the strict definition of the term कर्तुरीप्सिततमं कर्म or अाप्यं कर्म applies to one of the two, which is called the प्रधानकर्म or the direct object, the other one, which, in fact, is related to the verbal activity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabhasya and Kasika on P.I.4.51. Some roots in their causal formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual one while the other is the subject of the primitive root. exempli gratia, for example गमयति माणवकं ग्रामम्; बोधयति माणवकं धर्मम्; cf Kas on P.I.4.52. See for details Mahabhasya on P. I. 4.52.
dvitīyāthe second case; the accusative case, mainly prescribed for a word which is related as a karmakaraka to the activity in the sentence; cf P. II. 3.2 to 5,
dvitvadoubling, reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix अाम् is added to the root before the personal ending: exempli gratia, for example बभूव, चकार, ऊर्णुनाव et cetera, and others cf P. VI. 1.1,2; (2) a root before the vikarana affixes सन्, यङ्, श्लु and चङ् e. g. बुभूषति, चेक्रीयते, चर्करीति, जुहोति, अचीकरत् et cetera, and others confer, compare P. VI. 1.9l l ; (3) a word ending in अम् . ( णमुल् ) in the sense of repetition, e. g. स्मारं स्मारं वक्ष्ये, भोजं भोजं व्रजति confer, compare आभीक्ष्ण्ये द्वे भवतः P. VIII. 1.12 Vart. 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetition, (c) showing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incomplete possess-, ion, or (d) in the vocative case at the beginning of a sentence in some specified senses; reduplication is also prescribed for the prepositions परि, प्र, सम्, उप, उद्, उपरि, अधि, अघस् in some specified senses confer, compare P. VIII. 1.1 to 15. A letter excepting हृ and र्, is also repeated, if so desired, when (a) it occurs after the letter ह् or र् , which is preceded by a vowel e g. अर्क्कः अर्द्धम् et cetera, and others cf VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant e. g. दद्ध्यत्र, म्द्धवत्र confer, compare P. VIII. 4.47. For details see Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on VIII. 4.46-52. The word द्वित्व is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.2.51. The words द्वित्व, द्विर्वचन and द्विरुक्त are generally used as synonymanuscript. Panini generally uses the word द्वे. For द्वित्व in Vedic Literature confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. 1.4; Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XIV. 1-8 V, Pr. IV. 101-118.
dvivacanaa case affix of the dual number; dual number; a word in the dual number; cf Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1,11, I. 4.21 et cetera, and others: confer, compare द्वयोरर्थयोर्वचनं द्विवचनम् Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 3.57.
ghaa technical term in the Jainendra Vyakarana for the term सर्वनामस्थान of Panini used for the first five case affixes सु, औ, अस्, अम्, ओ and इ (nominative case. and acc. plural neuter gender); cf P. I. I. 42, 43.
dharmadefined as ऋषिसंप्रदाय, the traditional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; confer, compareकेवलमृषिसंप्रदायो धर्म इति कृत्वा याज्ञिक्राः शास्त्रेण अनुविदधते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika I ; cf also धर्मशास्त्रं in एवं च कृत्वा धर्मशास्त्रं प्रवृत्तम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.64, as also धर्मसूत्रकाराः in नैवेश्वर आज्ञापयति नापि धर्मसूत्रकाराः पठन्ति अपवादैरुत्सर्गा बाध्यन्तामिति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. l.47; (2) religious merit, confer, compare धर्मोपदेशनमिदं शास्त्रमस्मिन्ननवयवेन शास्त्रार्थः संप्रतीयते , Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. I. 84, cf also ज्ञाने घमै इति चेत्तथाSधर्मः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I. 1. Ahnika l ; ' 3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e. g. वर्णधर्म; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I. 2.29; cf also Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II. 1, 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. confer, compare also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 et cetera, and others: ( 4 ) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase अयं घटः the dharma viz.घटत्व is predicated of this (इदम्) or, in other words the designation pot ( घटसंज्ञा ) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as घटत्ववान् इदंपदार्थः or घटाभिन्नः इदंपदार्थ:
dharmin(1)a thing possessed of properties, द्रव्यः confer, compare धर्मशब्देन धर्मी भण्यते Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.3.77;cf also the common expression धर्मिग्राहकमानात् Par. Sek. on Pari. 55, 66, 79, 82: (2) the same as dharma in rare cases according to the dictum धर्मघर्मिणोरभेदोपचारः e. g. वर्णैकं देहि, पुराणैकं देहि; confer, compare Durghata Vr. on P. II. 1. 49.
dhātua root; the basic word of a verbal form,defined by the Bhasyakara as क्रियावचनो धातुः or even as भाववचने धातु:, a word denoting a verbal activity. Panini has not defined the term as such, but he has given a long list of roots under ten groups, named dasagani, which includes about 2200 roots which can be called primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary roots can be divided into two main groups ( l ) roots derived from roots ( धातुजधातवः ) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( नामधातवः ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions : (a) causative roots or णिजन्त, (b) desiderative roots or सन्नन्त, (c) intensive roots or यङन्त and यङ्लुगन्त: while roots derived from nouns or denominative roots can further be divided into क्यजन्त, काम्यजन्त, क्यङन्त, क्यषन्त, णिङन्त, क्विबन्त and the miscellaneous ones ( प्रकीर्ण ) as derived from nouns like कण्डू( कण्ड्वादि ) by the application of the affix यक् or from nouns like सत्य,वेद, पाश, मुण्ड,मिश्र, et cetera, and others by the application of the affix णिच्. Besides these, there are a few roots formed by the application of the affix अाय and ईय (ईयङ्). All these roots can further be classified into Parasmaipadin or Parasmaibhasa, Atmanepadin or Atmanebhasa and Ubhayapadin. Roots possessed of a mute grave ( अनुदात्त ) vowel or of the mute consonant ङ् added to the root in the Dhatupatha or ending in the affixes यड्, क्यङ् et cetera, and others as also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanepadin: while roots ending with the affix णिच् as also roots possessed of a mute circumflex vowel or a mute consonant ञ़़् applied to them are termed Ubhayapadin. All the rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters or syllables applied by Panini to the roots in his Dhatupatha for specific purposes; exempli gratia, for example ए at the end to signify prohibition of vrddhi to the penultimate अ in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अकखीत् confer, compare P. VII.2.5; इर् to signify the optional substitution of अ or अङ् for the affix च्लि of the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अभिदत्, अभैत्सीत् ; confer, compare P.III. 1.57; उ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) before क्त्वा exempli gratia, for example शमित्वा, शान्त्वा; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 56; ऊ to signify the optional application of the augment इ ( इट् ) exempli gratia, for example गोप्ता, गेीपिता, confer, compare P.VII.2.44; अा to signify the prohibition of the augment इट् in the case of the past passive voice. participle. exempli gratia, for example क्ष्विण्णः, स्विन्नः, confer, compare P. VII.2.16; इ to signify the addition of a nasal after the last vowel e. g. निन्दति from निदि, confer, compare P. VII.1.58: ऋ to signify the prohibition of ह्रस्व to the penultimate long vowel before णिच्, e. g. अशशासत्, confer, compare P.VII. 4.2;लृ to signify the substitution of अङ् for च्लि in the aorist, exempli gratia, for example अगमत् confer, compare P. III.1.55: ओ to signify the substitution of न् for त् of the past passive voice.participle. exempli gratia, for example लग्नः, अापीनः, सूनः, दून: et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VIII. 2.45. Besides these,the mute syllables ञि, टु and डु are prefixed for specific purposes; confer, compare P. III.2.187, III.3.89 and III. 3.88. The term धातु is a sufficiently old one which is taken by Panini from ancient grammarians and which is found used in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya works, signifying the 'elemental (radical)base' for nouns which are all derivable from roots according to the writers of the Nirukta works and the grammarian Siktaayana; confer, compare नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III.3.1. Some scholars have divided roots into six categories; confer, compare तत्र धातवः षोढा (a) परिपठिताः भूवादयः, (b) अपरिपठता अान्दोलयत्यादयः, (c) परिपठितापरिपठिताः ( सूत्रपठिताः ) स्कुस्कम्भस्तम्भेत्यादयः, (d) प्रत्ययधातवः सनाद्यन्ताः, (e) नामघातवः कण्ड्वादयः, (f) प्रत्ययनामधातवः होडगल्भक्ली. बप्रभृतयः; cf Sringara Prak. I. For details see M.Bh. on P.I.3.I as also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyakarana-Mahabhasya published by the D.E. Society, Poona.
dhātupāṭha(1)name given in general to the several collections of roots given generally with their meanings by grammarians belonging to the various different schools of grammar. These collections are given as necessary appendices named खिल to their grammars by the well known grammarians of Sanskrit such as Panini, Sakatayana, and others; (2) a small treatise on roots written by Bhimasena of the 14th century.
dhātuvyākaraṇaa grammar dealing with Verbs believed to have been written by Vangasena.
dhruva(1)fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव) which is termed अपादान and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound ( नाद ) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; confer, compare Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VI. II and XI. 24.
dhvanitasuggested, as opposed to उक्त expressed; the word is found frequently used in the Paribhasendusekhara and other works in connection with such dictums as are not actually made, but indicated in the Mahabhasya.
na(1)the consonant न् (see न् a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) with the vowel added to it for facility of utterance, confer, compare Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I. 21 ; (2) taddhita affix. affix न added to words headed by पामन् in the sense of possession; exempli gratia, for example पामनः, हेमनः et cetera, and others, cf P. V. 2.100; (3) taddhita affix. affix न as found in the word ज्योत्स्ना derived from ज्योतिष्, cf P. V. 2.114; (4) unadi affix न as found in the word स्योनः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. VI.4.19; (5) the krt affix नङ् as also नन् prescribed after the roots यज्, याच्, यत्, विच्छ्, प्रच्छ्, रक्ष् and स्वप् , e g. यज्ञ:, याञ्चा, प्रश्नः et cetera, and others, cf P. III. 3.90, 91; (6) the negative particle न given by Panini as नञ् and referred to in the same way, which (id est, that is न.) when compounded with a following word is changed into अ or अन् or retained in rare cases as for instance in नभ्राट्, नासत्यौ, नक्षत्रम् et cetera, and others cf P. VI.3.73-75;(7) taddhita affix.affix न (नञ्) applied to the words स्त्री and पुंस् in senses given from P. IV. 1.92 to V. 2.1 e. g. स्त्रैणं, पौंस्नम् confer, compare IV. 1.87.
nañsvarabalīyastvathe superiority, or strength of the accent caused by नञ्समास which sets aside the accent caused by the case affix; confer, compare विभक्तिस्वरान्नञ्स्वरो बलीयान् P. VI. 2.158 Vart. 13,
nadīa technical term applied in Panini's grammar to words in the feminine gender ending in ई and ऊ excepting a few like स्त्री,श्री, भ्रू and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in इ and उ, of course in the feminine. gender, before case affixes of the dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular. The term was probably in use before Panini and was taken from the feminine. word नदी which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like नद् ( नदट्) चोर ( चोरट् ) et cetera, and others which were given as ending in ट् and to which the affix ई (ङीप्) was added for forming the feminine base;the first word नदी so formed, was taken as a model and all words in the list and similar others were called नदी; confer, compare P. I 4. 3-6.
(1)taddhita affix. affix ना as also नाञ् prescribed respectively after वि and नञ् (negative particle न ) in the sense of separation; e. g. विना, नाना ; (2) case ending ना substituted for the inst. instrumental case. singular. affix टा (called also अाङ् in ancient grammars) in the masculine gender after words called घि i. e. words ending in इ or उ excepting such as are called नदी.
nāgeśathe most reputed modern scholar of Panini's grammar, who was well-versed in other Sastras also, who lived in Benares in the latter half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century. He wrote many masterly commentaries known by the words शेखर and उद्द्योत on the authoritative old works in the different Sastras, the total list of his small and big works together well nigh exceeding a hundredition He was a bright pupil of Hari Diksita, the grandson of Bhattoji Diksita. He was a renowned teacher also, and many of the famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present are his spiritual descendants. He was a Maharastriya Brahmana of Tasgaon in Satara District, who received his education in Benares. For some years he stayed under the patronage of Rama, the king of Sringibera at his time. He was very clever in leading debates in the various Sastras and won the title of Sabhapati. Out of his numerous works, the Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.on Kaiyata's Mahabhasyapradipa, the Laghusabdendusekhara on the Siddhanta Kaumudi and the Paribhasendusekhara are quite wellknown and studied by every one who wishes to get proficiency in Panini's grammar. For details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol. VII of the Patanjala Mahabhasya edition D. E. Society, Poona.
nighaṇṭua name given to a collection of words which are mainly Vedic. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises on derivation such as the Nirukta of Yaska were based upon them; confer, compare निघण्टवः कस्मात् । निगमा इमे भवन्ति । छन्दोभ्यः समाहृत्य समाहृत्य समाम्नातास्ते निगन्तव एव सन्तो निगमनान्निघण्टव उच्यन्ते इत्यौपमन्यवः । अपि वा आहननादेव स्युः | समाहता भवन्ति । यद्वा समाहृता भवन्ति (Nir.I.1) where the word is derived from गम्,or हन् or हृ. The word निघण्टु is taken as synonymous with निगम by Durgacarya.
nityānandaparvatīyaa scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who wrote glosses on the Mahabhasyapradipa, on the Laghusabdendusekhara and on the Paribhasendusekhara. He was a resident of Benares where he coached many pupils in Sanskrit Grammar. He lived in the first half of the nineteenth century.
nipātaa particle which possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elidedition Nipata is given as one of the four categories of words viz नामन्, आख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात by all the ancient writers of Pratisakhya, Vyakarana and Nirukta works;confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika l, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8 et cetera, and others The word is derived from the root पत् with नि by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Niptas उपमार्थे, कर्मोपसंग्रहार्थे and पदपूरणे; confer, compare अथ निपाताः । उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्ति । अप्युपमार्थे । अपि कर्मोपसंग्रह्यार्थे । अपि पदपूरणाः । Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4. The Nipatas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; confer, compare निपातः पादपूरणः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XII. 8, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50, ( commentary by Uvvata ). Panini has not given any definition of the word निपात, but he has enumerated them as forming a class with च at their head in the rule चादयोऽसत्वे where the word असत्वे conveys an impression that they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds सत्त्व and भाव, and the Nipatas not possesssing any one of the two. The impression is made rather firm by the statement of the Varttikakra'निपातस्यानर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम्' P. I. 2. 45 Vart. 12. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answeredition Although the Rkpratisakhya in XII.8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; confer, compare निपातानामर्थवशान्निपातनादनर्थकानामितरे च सार्थकाः on which Uvvata remarks केचन निपाताः सार्थकाः, केचन निरर्थकाः । The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciledition This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense but they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said that the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by Panini; it is a certain kind of relation and that too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicatedition Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as:-जात्यादिप्रवृत्तिनिमित्तानुपग्राहित्वेनासत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायिनः अलिङ्गसंख्याशक्तय उच्चावचेष्वर्थेषु निपतन्तीत्यव्ययविशेषा एव चादयो निपाताः । He gives six varieties of them, viz. विध्यर्थ, अर्थवादार्थ, अनुवादार्थ, निषेधार्थ, विधिनिषेधार्थ and अविधिनिषेधार्थ, and mentions more than a thousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya II. 189-206.
nipātanaa word given, as it appears, without trying for its derivation,in authoritative works of ancient grammarians especially Panini;confer, compareदाण्डिनायनहास्तिनयनo P. VI.4.174, as also अचतुरविचतुरo V.4.77 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others The phrase निपातनात्सिद्धम् is very frequently used by Patanjali to show that some technical difficulties in the formation of a word are not sometimes to be taken into consideration, the word given by Panini being the correct one; confer, compare M.Bh.on I.1.4, III.1.22 et cetera, and others et cetera, and others; cf also the usual expression बाधकान्येव निपातनानि. The derivation of the word from पत् with नि causal, is suggested in the Rk Pratisakhya where it is stated that Nipatas are laid down or presented as such in manifold senses; cf Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)XII.9; cf also घातुसाधनकालानां प्राप्त्यर्थं नियमस्य च । अनुबन्घविकाराणां रूढ्यर्थ च निपातनम् M. Bh Pradipa on P. V.1.114: confer, comparealso Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.1.27.
nimittasaptamīlocative case, used in the sense of a cause as prescribed by निमित्तात्कर्मसंयोगे, P. II.3 36 Vart. 6 and illustrated by the usually quoted verse चर्मणि द्वीपिनं हन्ति दन्तयोर्हन्ति कुञ्जरम् । केशेषु चमरीं हन्ति सीम्नि पुष्कलको हत: M.Bh.on II.3.36 Vart. 6, also confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. I.1.57.
nirākṛta(1)set aside; answered; the word is frequently used in connection with faults which are stated to occur or present themselves if a particular explanation is given; (2) prevailed over by another; confer, compare तदा न रूपं लभते निराकृतम् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XI. 30, where Uvvata paraphrases निराकृत as विस्मृत.
nirūḍhalakṣaṇāpotentiality of implicaion which gives the meaning of a word which is based upon implication; e. g. रथो गच्छति.
niṣṭhitaalso निःष्ठित completed, accomplished; used in connection with a grammatically formed word by applying affixes to the bases; confer, compare अङ्गवृत्ते पुनर्वृत्तावविधिर्निष्ठितस्य Siradeva Pari. 94, where Siradeva has explained the word निष्ठित as प्रयोगार्ह-अङ्ग.
nuṭaugment न् prefixed (l) to the genitive case plural ending in अाम् after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ई or ऊ of feminine bases termed nadi, or in अा of the feminine affix ( टाप् डाप् or चाप्); e g. वृक्षाणाम्, अग्नीनाम् , कर्तॄणाम् , कुमारीणाम् , मालानाम् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P. VII.1.54; (2) to the affix अाम् after numerals termed षट् and the numeral चतुर् as also after the words श्री, ग्रामणी and गो in Vedic Literature, e. g. षण्णाम् , पञ्चानाम् , चतुर्णाम्, श्रीणाम्, ग्रामणीनाम्, गोनाम्; confer, compare P. VII.1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two consonants, as also of the root अश् of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative syllable ending in अा, which is substituted for अ; exempli gratia, for example अानञ्ज, व्यानशे; confer, compare P.VII.4. 71,72; (4) to the affix मतुप् after a base ending in अन् as also to the affixes तरप् and तमप् after a base ending in न् in Vedic Literature, exempli gratia, for example मूर्धन्वती, अक्षण्वन्तः, सुपथिन्तरः et cetera, and others;confer, compare P. VIII. 2.16, 17: (5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having अ of नञ् as the first member; e. g. अनघः, confer, compare P.VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel after न् which is preceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word exempli gratia, for example कुर्वन्नास्ते, confer, compare P. VIII. 3.32.
numaugment न् inserted after the last vowel (1) of a root given in the Dhātupātha as ending with mute इ; exempli gratia, for example निन्दति, क्रन्दति, चिन्तयति, जिन्वति et cetera, and others; confer, compare P VII.1.58; (2) of roots मुच् and others before the conjugational sign अ ( श ); e. g. मुञ्चति, लुम्पति; confer, compare P. VII.1.59; (3) of the roots मस्ज्, नश्, रध्, जभ् and लभ् under certain specified conditions, exempli gratia, for exampleमङ्क्त्वा, नंष्टा, रन्धयति, जम्भयति, लम्भयति, आलम्भ्यः et cetera, and others confer, compare P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declinable bases marked with the mute indicatory letter उ, ऋ or ऌ as also of the declinable wording अञ्च् from the root अञ्च् and युज्, exempli gratia, for exampleभवान्, श्रेयान् , प्राङ्, युङ्, confer, compare Kās. on P. VII.1. 70, 71; (5) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with a vowel or with any consonant excepting a semivowel or a nasal, before a case-ending termed Sarvanāmasthāna; exempli gratia, for example यशांसि, वनानि, जतूनि et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās. on VII.1.72; (6) of the declinable base in the neuter gender, ending with इ, उ,ऋ or ऌ before a case-ending beginning with a vowel; exempli gratia, for example मधुने, शुचिने et cetera, and others, confer, compare Kās, on P. VII.1.73; (7) of the affix शतृ ( अत् of the present tense. participle.) under certain conditions याती यान्ती; पचन्ती, सीव्यन्ती, confer, compare I .VII.78-8 : (8) of the word अनडुह् before the nominative case. and vocative case. singular. affix सु;exempli gratia, for example अनड्वान् , हे अनड्वन्, confer, compare P. VII.1. 82; (9) of the words दृक्, स्ववस् and स्वतवस् before the nominative case. and vocative case.singular.affix सु in Vedic Literature, e. g. यादृङ्, स्ववान् , स्वतवान् , confer, compare P.VII.1.83.
numāgamaaugment न् inserted after the last vowel of a root or a noun-base in specified cases. See नुम्. नृचक्ष-ं name of the second Yama letter.
nyāyamaxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; confer, compare the words अग्नौकरवाणिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II 2.24, अपवादन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 3.9, अविरविकन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, शालिपलालन्याय M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, confer, compare न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.
nyāyaratnamañjūṣāa work dealing with Vyākarana Paribhāsas or maxims as found in Hemacandra's system of grammar, written bv Hemahamsaganin, a pupil of Ratnasekhara, in 1451. The author has written a commentary also on the work, named Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa..
pañcapadīa term used in the AtharvaPrātiśākhya for the strong case affixes viz. the nominative case affixes and the accusative singular. and dual affixes; confer, compare चत्वारि क्षैप्रञ्च पञ्चपद्यामन्तोदात्तादीनि यात् Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. I. 3.14. The term corresponds to the Sarvanāmasthāna of Pāņini, which is also termed सुट् ; confer, compare सुडनपुंसकस्य P. I. 1.43.
pañcamī(1)the fifth case;ending of the fifth or ablative case as prescribed by rules of Pāņini confer, compare अपादाने पञ्चमी, P. II. 3-7, 10, et cetera, and others (2) the imperative mood; confer, compare Kāt.III.1.18.
pañcamīnirdeśastatement by the abla-tive case, confer, compare डः सि धुट् P. VIII. 3.29;confer, compare उभयनिर्देशे पञ्चमीनिर्देशे; बलीयान् e. g. ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण्नित्यम् P. VIII. 3.32, Par. Sek. Pari. 70; confer, compare also उभयानिर्देशे विप्रतिषेधात्पञ्चमीनिर्देशः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I. 1.67 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3.
paṭhanaoral recital, the word is used in connection with the use of words by the author himself in his text which he is supposed to have handed over orally to his disciples, as was the case with the ancient Vedic and Sūtra works; confer, compare the words पठित, पठिष्यते, पठ्यते and the like, frequently used in the Mahābhāșya in connection with the mention of words in the Sūtras of Pāņini.
patañjalithe reputed author of the Mahābhāșya, known as the Pātañjala Mahābhāșya after him. His date is determined definitely as the second century B.C. on the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mahābhāșya itselfeminine. The words Gonardiya and Gonikāputra which are found in the Mahābhāșya are believed to be referring to the author himself and, on their strength he is said to have been the son of Goņikā and a resident of the country called Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the internal evidence supplied by the Mahābhāșya, it can be said that Patañjali received his education at Takșaśila and that he was,just like Pāņini, very familiar with villages and towns in and near Vāhika and Gāndhāra countries. Nothing can definitely be said about his birthplace, and although it might be believed that his native place was Gonarda,its exact situation has not been defined so far. About his parentage too,no definite information is available. Tradition says that he was the foster-son of a childless woman named Gonikā to whom he was handed over by a sage of Gonarda, in whose hands he fell down from the sky in the evening at the time of the offering of water-handfuls to the Sun in the west; confer, compareपतत् + अञ्जलि, the derivation of the word given by the commentators. Apart from anecdotes and legendary information, it can be said with certainty that Patañjali was a thorough scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who had studied the available texts of the Vedic Literature and Grammar and availed himself of information gathered personally by visiting the various schools of Sanskrit Grammar and observing the methods of explanations given by teachers there. His Mahābhāșya supplies an invaluable fund of information on the ways in which the Grammar rules of Pāņini were explained in those days in the various grammar schools. This information is supplied by him in the Vārttikas which he has exhaustively given and explainedition He had a remarkable mastery over Sanskrit Language which was a spoken one at his time and it can be safely said that in respect of style, the Mahābhāșya excels all the other Bhāșyas in the different branches of learning out of which two, those of Śabaraswāmin and Śańkarācārya,are selected for comparison. It is believed by scholars that he was equally conversant with other śāstras, especially Yoga and Vaidyaka, on which he has written learned treatises. He is said to be the author of the Yogasūtras which,hence are called Pātañjala Yogasūtras, and the redactor of the Carakasamhitā. There are scholars who believe that he wrote the Mahābhāșya only, and not the other two. They base their argument mainly on the supposition that it is impossible for a scholar to have an equally unmatching mastery over three different śāstras at a time. The argument has no strength, especially in India where there are many instances of scholars possessing sound scholarship in different branches of learning. Apart from legends and statements of Cakradhara, Nāgesa and others, about his being the author of three works on three different śāstras, there is a direct reference to Patañjali's proficiency in Grammar, Yoga and Medicine in the work of King Bhoja of the eleventh century and an indirect one in the Vākyapadīya of Bhartŗhari of the seventh century A. D. There is a work on the life of Patañjali, written by a scholar of grammar of the South,named Ramabhadra which gives many stories and incidents of his life out of which it is difficult to find out the grains of true incidents from the legendary husk with which they are coveredition For details,see Patañjala Mahābhāșya D.E.Society's edition Vol. VII pages 349 to 374. See also the word महाभाष्य.
padaa word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; confer, compare अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; confer, compare पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् ' (Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a case-affix is placed and elided according to him; confer, compare अव्ययादाप्सुपः P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and taddhita affix. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् are also termed पद by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम् , भिस्, सु et cetera, and others as also before the taddhita affix. affixes मत्, वत् et cetera, and others which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; confer, compare स्वादिष्वसर्वनामस्थाने P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ. There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, अाख्यात, उपसर्ग and निपात in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; confer, compare also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2. 64 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् Kātantra vyākaraṇa Sūtra.I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 2; confer, compare also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् and others are also called पद. The word पद in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै or अात्मने preceding it. The term परस्मैपद stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस्, ...मस्,while the term आत्मनेपद stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् ... महिङ्. confer, compare ल: परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम्. It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद also, the term पद could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद and अात्मनेपद were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद and आत्मनेपद and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् and तद्धित. Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् et cetera, and others, (b) तद्धित (words derived from nouns ) such as गार्ग्यः , काषायम् , et cetera, and others, (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति, and (d) Ātmanepada words id est, that is verbs like एधते, वर्धते, et cetera, and othersVerbs करोति and कुरुते or हरति and हरते were looked upon as both परस्मैपद words and आत्मनेपद words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद् , गो, अश्व, and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
padakāṇḍa(1)a term used in connection with the first section of the Vākyapadīya named ब्रह्मकाण्ड also, which deals with padas, as contrasted with the second section which deals with Vākyas; (2) a section of the Așțadhyāyī of Pāņini, which gives rules about changes and modifications applicable to the pada, or the formed word, as contrasted with the base (अङ्ग) and the suffixes. The section is called पदाधिकार which begins with the rule पदस्य P.VIII.1.16. and ends with the rule इडाया वा VIII. 3. 54.
padaprakṛtia term used in connection with the Samhitā text or संहितापाठ which is believed to have been based upon words ( पदानि प्रकृति: यस्याः सा ) or which forms the basis of words or word-text or the padapātha (पदानां प्रकृतिः); cf पदप्रकृतिः संहिता Nir.I.17.
padavidhian operation prescribed in connection with words ending with case or verbal affixes and not in connection with noun-bases or root-bases or with single letters or syllables. पदविधि is in this way contrasted with अङ्गविधि ( including प्रातिपदिकविधि and धातुविधि ), वर्णविधि and अक्षरविधि, Such Padavidhis are given in Pāņini's grammar in Adhyāya2, Pādas l and 2 as also in VI.1.158, and in VIII. 1.16 to VIII.3.54 and include rules in connection with compounds, accents and euphonic combinations. When, however, an operation is prescribed for two or more padas, it is necessary that the two padas or words must be syntactically connectible; confer, compare समर्थः पदविधिः P. II.1.1.
padasaṃskārapakṣaan alternative view with वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष regarding the formation of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According to the Padasamskāra alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word has been understood; confer, compare सुविचार्य पदस्यार्थं वाक्यं गृह्णन्ति सूरयः Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz. वाक्यसंस्कारपक्ष, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed exempli gratia, for example राम +सु, गम् + अ + ति । Both the views have got some advantages and some defects; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
padasphoṭaexpression of the sense by the whole word without any consideration shown to its division into a base and an affix. For instance, the word रामेण means 'by Rama' irrespective of any consideration whether न is the affix or इन is the affix which could be any of the two, or even one, different from the two; confer, compare उपायाः शिक्षमाणानां वालानामपलापनाः Vākyapadīya II.240.
padādi(1)beginning of a word, the first letter of a word; confer, compare सात्पदाद्योः P. VIII.3.111; confer, compare also स्वरितो वानुदात्ते पदादौ P. VIII.2.6. Patañjali, for the sake of argument has only once explained पदादि as पदादादिः confer, compare M.Bh.on I. 1. 63 Vāŗt. 6; (2) a class of words headed by the word पद् which is substituted for पद in all cases except the nominative case. and the acc. singular and dual; this class, called पदादि, contains the substitutes पद् , दत्, नस् et cetera, and others respectively for पाद दन्त, नासिका et cetera, and others confer, compare Kās on P. VI. 1.63; (3) the words in the class, called पदादि, constiting of the words पद्, दत्, नस्, मस् हृत् and निश् only, which have the case affix after them accented acute; confer, compare P. VI. 1.171.
para(l)subsequent,as opposed to पूर्व or prior the word is frequently used in grammar in connection with a rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; ( 2 ) occurring after ( something ); confer, compare प्रत्ययः परश्च P. III. 1.1 and 2; confer, compare also तत् परस्वरम् T.Pr. XXI.2.(3)The word पर is sometimes explained in the sense of इष्ट or desired, possibly on the analogy of the meaning श्रेष्ठ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word पर in the rule विप्रातिषेधे परं कार्यं with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवति M.Bh. on I.1.3.Vārt, 6; परशब्दः इष्टवाची M.Bh. on I. 2.5, I. 4.2. Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 7; II. 1.69 et cetera, and others
paranipātaliterallyplacing after; the placing of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with पूर्वनिपात . A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, confer, compare उपसर्जनं पूर्वम्; in some exceptional cases however, this general rule is not observed as in the cases of राजदन्त and the like, where the subordinate word is placed after the principal word, and which cases, hence, are taken as cases of परनिपात. The words पूर्व and पर are relative, and hence, the cases of परनिपात with respect to the subordinate word ( उपसर्जन ) such as राजद्न्त, प्राप्तजीविक et cetera, and others can be called cases of पूर्वनिपात with respect to the principal word ( प्रधान ) confer, compare परश्शता: राजदन्तादित्वात्परनिपात: Kaas. on P. II.1.39.
paramaprakṛtithe most original base; the original of the original base; the word is used in connection with a base which is not a direct base to which an affix is added, but which is a remote base;confer, compare अापत्यो वा गेात्रम् | परमप्रकृतश्च अापत्यः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.IV.1.89; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). om IV.1.93,98,163.
parasaptamīa locative case in the sense of 'what follows', as contrasted with विषयसप्तमी, अधिकरणसप्तमी and the like; confer, compare लुकीति नैषा परसप्तमी शक्या विज्ञातुं न हि लुका पौर्वापर्यमस्ति । का तर्हि । सत्सप्तमी M.Bh. on P.I.2. 49.
parāṅgavadbhāvabehaviour as having become a part and parcel of another ; treatment of a word as a part of another. The term is used by Panini in connection with a word followed by and connected with a word in the vocative case of which it is looked upon as a part for purposes of accent, e. g. कुण्डेनाटन् , मद्राणां राजन् et cetera, and others Here the words अटन् and राजन् , being in the vocative case, are अाद्युदात्त, id est, that is अ ( at the beginning of अटन्) and अा (in राजन्) are acute and as a result all the other vowels in कुण्डेनाटन् and मद्राणां राजन् become अनुदात्त or grave; confer, compare सुबामन्त्रिते पराङ्गवत्स्वरे P.II.1.2.
paribhāṣāan authoritative statement or dictum, helping (1) the correct interpretation of the rules (sūtras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words, (पदसिद्धि), or (3) the formation of correct words. Various definitions of the word परिभाषा are given by commentators, the prominent ones beingपरितो व्यापृतां भाषां परिभाषां प्रचक्षते(न्यास);or, परितो भाष्यते या सा परिभाषा प्रकीर्तिता. The word is also defined as विधौ नियामकरिणी परिभाषा ( दुर्गसिंहवृत्ति ). परिभाषा can also be briefiy defined as the convention of a standard author. Purusottamadeva applies the word परिभाषा to the maxims of standard writers, confer, compare परिभाषा हिं न पाणिनीयानि वचनानि; Puru. Pari. 119; while Haribhaskara at the end of his treatise परिभाषाभास्कर, states that Vyaadi was the first writer on Paribhaasas. The rules तस्मिन्निति निर्दिष्टे पूर्वस्य, तस्मादित्युत्तरस्य and others are in fact Paribhaasa rules laid down by Panini. For the difference between परिभाषा and अधिकार, see Mahabhasya on II.1.1. Many times the writers of Sutras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribhasas. In Panini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent collections of Paribhasas by Vyadi, Bhojadeva, Purusottamadeva, Siradeva, Nilakantha, Haribhaskara, Nagesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribhasas in the Katantra, Candra, Sakatayana,Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribhasas are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systemanuscript. Generally the collections of Paribhasas have got scholiums or commentaries by recognised grammarians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribhaasendusekhara of Nagesa is an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Paninis Grammar, which is commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during the last two or three centuries. The total number of Paribhasas in the diferent systems of grammar may wellnigh exceed 500. See परिभाषासंग्रह.
paribhāṣāsegraha'a work containing a collection of independent works on Paribhasas in the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar, compiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collectlon consists of the following works (i) परिभाषासूचन containing 93 Paribhasas with a commentary by Vyadi, an ancient grammarian who lived before Patanjali; ( ii ) ब्याडीयपरिभाषापाठ, a bare text of 140 Paribhaasaas belonging to the school of Vyadi (iii) शाकटायनपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 98 Paribhasa aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Saka-tayana, or belonging to that school; [iv) चान्द्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 86 Paribhasa aphorisms given at the end of his grammar work by Candragomin; (v) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a gloss on 65 Paribhas aphorisms of the Katantra school by Durgasimha; (vi) कातन्त्रपारभाषासूत्रवृत्ति a short gloss on 62 Paribhasa aphorisms of the Katantra school by Bhavamisra; (vii) कातन्त्रपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 96 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Katantra school without any author's name associated with it; (viii) कालापपरिभाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules belonging to the Kalapa school without any author's name associated with it; (ix) जैनेन्द्रपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss written by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar ( the compiler of the collection), on 108 Paribhasas or maxims noticeable in the Mahavrtti of Abhayanandin on the Jainendra Vyakarana of Pujyapada Devanandin; (x) भोजदेवकृतपरि-भाषासूत्र a text of 118 Paribhasa rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikanthabharana; (xi) न्यायसंग्रह a bare text of 140 paribhasas(which are called by the name nyaya) given by Hema-hamsagani in his paribhasa.work named न्यायसंग्रह; (xii) लधुपरिभाषावृत्ति a gloss on 120 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Puruso-ttamadeva; (xiii) वृहत्परिभाषावृत्ति con-taining 130 Paribhasas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short,gloss on the commentary by Srimanasarman ( xiv ) परिभाषावृत्ति a short gloss on 140 Paribhasas of the Panini school written by Nilakantha; (xv) परिभाषाभास्कर a collection of 132 Paribhasas with a commentary by Haribhaskara Agnihotri; (xvi) bare text of Paribhasa given and explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribhasendusekhara. The total number of Paribhasas mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundredition
parimāṇaa word used by Panini in तदस्य परिमाणम् V.1.19 and explained by Patanjali as सर्वतो मानम् .Samkhya ( number ) is also said to be a parimana. Parimana is of two kindsनियत or definite as in the case of Khaari, drona etc; and अनियत, as in the case of Gana, Samgha, PUga, Sartha, Sena et cetera, and others The term परिमाण, in connection with the utterance of letters, is used in the sense of मात्राकाल or one mora.
paryudāsa(1)exclusion; negation with a view to exclude; one of the two senses ( प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध and पर्युदास ) of the negative particle नञ्, generally found in cases when the particle नञ् is compounded with a noun, and not used independently with a verbal form or a verbal activity ; e. g. अब्राह्मणः; अनचि च ; confer, compare अनपुंसकात् । नायं प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधो नपुंसकस्य नेति । किं तर्हि । पर्युदासोयं यदन्यन्नपुंसकादिति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.43: cf also प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः स्यात् क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदास: स विज्ञेयो यत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ॥ (2) removal in general, not by the use of a negative particle: confer, compare पाठात्पर्युदासः कर्तव्यः । शुद्धानां पठितानां संज्ञाः कर्तव्या । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.27 Vaart. 3.
paspaśācalled also पस्पशाह्निक; name given to the first or introductory chapter ( अाह्निक ) of the Maahabhaasya of Patanjali. The word occurs first in the SiSupaalavadha of Maagha. The word is derived from पस्पश् , the frequentative base of स्पर्श to touch or to see (ancient use). Possibly it may be explained as derived from स्पश् with अप; cf . शब्दबिद्येव नो भाति राजनीतिरपस्पशा Sis.II.112. Mallinatha has understood the word पस्पश m. and explained it as introduction to a Saastra treatise; confer, compare पस्पशः शास्त्रारम्भसमर्थक उपेद्वातसंदर्भग्रन्थः । Mallinaatha on SiS. II.112.
pāṭha(1)recital of a sacred Vedic or Sastra work; the original recital of an authoritative text;(2) the various artificial ways or methods of such a recital; c.g. पदपाठ, क्रमपाठ et cetera, and others in the case of Vedic Literature: (3) an original recital such as the सुत्रपाठ, धातुपाठ, गणपाठ, वार्तिकपाठ and परिभाषापाठ in the case of the several systems of Sanskrit Grammar; the five Paathas are called पञ्चपाठी; (4) recitation; confer, compare नान्तरेण पाठं स्वरा अनुबन्धा वा शक्या विज्ञातुम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.3.1 Vaart. 13; (5) reading, variant: confer, compare चूर्णादीनि अप्राण्युपग्रहादिति सूत्रस्य पाठान्तरम् Kaas. on P.V.2.134.
pāṇinithe illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is wellknown by his magnum opus, the Astaka or Astaadhyaayi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparalleled upto the present day by any other work on grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but ofany other language, classical as well as spoken. His mighty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of accentuation and formation of Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast country. The result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation ofeminine.the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonderful and monumental work, the Astaadhyaayi,which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to have a complete exposition of which,several life times have to be spent,in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and not a language teacher's. Some Western scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence,or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place,parentage or personal history. The account given about these in the Kathaasaritsaagara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. C., if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the Kaasikavivaranapanjikaa or Nyasa, has stated that the word शलातुर् mentioned by him in his sUtra ( IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word शालातुरीय derived by him from the word शलातुर by that sUtra was, in fact his own name, based upon the name of the town which formed his native placcusative case. Paanini has shown in his work his close knowledge of, and familiarity with, the names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near Vaahika, the north-western Punjab of the present day, and it is very likely that he was educated at the ancient University of Taksasilaa. Apart from the authors of the Pratisaakhya works, which in a way could be styled as grammar works, there were scholars of grammar as such, who preceded him and out of whom he has mentioned ten viz., Apisali, Saakataayana, Gaargya, Saakalya, Kaasyapa, Bharadwaja, Gaalava, Caakravarmana Senaka and Sphotaayana. The grammarian Indra has not been mentioned by Paanini, although tradition says that he was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely that Paanini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same time it can be said that the works of some grammarians , mentioned by Panini such as Saakaatyana, Apisali, Gaargya and others had been based on the work of Indra. The mention of several ganas as also the exhaustive enumeration of all the two thousand and two hundred roots in the Dhaatupaatha can very well testify to the existence of systematic grammatical works before Paarnini of which he has made a thorough study and a careful use in the composition of his Ganapaatha and Dhaatupatha. His exhaustive grammar of a rich language like Sanskrit has not only remained superb in spite of several other grammars of the language written subsequently, but its careful study is felt as a supreme necessity by scholars of philology and linguistics of the present day for doing any real work in the vast field of linguistic research. For details see pp.151154 Vol. VII of Paatanjala Mahaabhsya, D. E. Society's Edition.
pāṇinisūtravṛttia gloss on the grammer rules of Pāņini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Sûtras of Pāņini, out of which the most important and the oldest one is the one named Kāśikāvŗtti, written by the joint authors Jayāditya and Vāmana in the 7th century A.D. It is believed that the Kāśikāvŗtti was based upon some old Vŗttis said to have been written by कुणि, निर्लूर, चुल्लि, श्वोभूति, वररुचि and others.Besides Kāśikā,the famous Vŗtti, and those of कुणि,निर्लूर and others which are only reported, there are other Vŗttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are : the Bhāșāvŗtti by Purusottamadeva, Vyākaranasudhānidhi by Viśveśvara, Gūdhārthadīpinī by Sadāsivamiśra, Sūtravŗtti by Annambhatta, Vaiyākaraņasarvasva by Dharaņīdhara, Śabdabhūșaņa by Nārāyaņa Paņdita, Pāņinisūtravŗtti by Rāmacandrabhațța Tāre and Vyākaranadīpikā by Orambhațța. There are extracts available from a Sūtravŗtti called Bhāgavŗtti which is ascribed to Bhartŗhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer (विमलमति according to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhāravi and Māgha quoted in it as noticed by Sīradeva's Paribhāṣāvṛttiin his vŗtti on Pari.76. Glosses based upon Pāņini Sūtras, but having a topical arrangements are also available, the famous ones among these being the Praķriyākaumudī by Rāmacandra Śeșa and the Siddhāntakaumudī by Bhațțojī Dĩkșita. The मध्यमकौमुदी and the लघुकौमुदी can also be noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhānta Kaumudī. There are Vŗttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by Bōhtlingk, Basu and Renou are well-known.
pitmarked with the mute letter प् which is indicative of a grave accent in the case of affixes marked with it, as for example, the affixes तिप् , सिप् and मिप् ; confer, compare अनुदात्तौ सुप्पितौ P. III. 1.4. A Sarvadhātuka affix, marked with the mute consonant प्, in Pāņiņi's Grammar has been described as instrumental in causing many operations such as (a) the substitution of guņa; (cf P. VII. 3 84,9l). (b) the prevention of guņa in the case of a reduplicative syllable as also in the case of the roots भू and सू ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.87, 88 ); (c) the substitution of Vŗddhi, (confer, compare P. VII. 3.89, 90 ), (d) the augments इ and ई in the case of the roots तृह् and ब्रू respectively ( confer, compare P. VII. 3.92, 93, 94 ), and (e) acute accent for the vowel preceding the affix in the case of the roots भी, हृी, भृ and others ( confer, compare P. VI. 1.192 ). A short vowel (of a root) gets त् added to it when followed by a kŗt affix marked with प्: exempli gratia, for example, विजित्य​, प्रकृत्य, et cetera, and others:(confer, compare P. VI. 1.71 ).
puruṣottamadevaa famous grammarian believed to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lakșmaņasena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ones among which are the Bhāșāvŗtti and the Paribhāșāvŗtti, the Gaņavŗtti and the Jñapakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahābhāșya called Prāņapaņā of which only a fragment is available. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of which Hārāvalī, Trikāņdaśeșa, Dvirūpakosa, and Ekaaksarakosa are the prominent ones. The Bhasavrtti has got a lucid commentary on it written by Srstidhara.
pūrvanipātaplacing first (in a compound); priority of a word in a compound, as in the case of an adjectival word, For special instructions in grammar about priority see P. II.2.30 to 38.
pūrvapadaprakṛtisvararetention of the original acute accent of the first member in a compound as is generally noticed in the bahuvrihi compound and in special cases in other compounds; cf बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम् and the following rules P. WI. 2.1 to 63.
pūrvapadārthaprādhānyaimportance in sense possessed by the first member of a compound as noticed generally in the case of the avyayibhava com pound, which hence is defined as पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानोव्ययीभावः M.Bh on P.I I. I.6, II.1.20, II. 1.49.
pūrvavipratiṣedhaconflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; cf विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum विप्रतिषेधे परम्. The author of the Mahabhasya has brought these cases of the पूर्वविप्रतिषेध, which are, in fact, numerous, under the rule विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् by taking the word पर in the sense of इष्ट 'what is desired '?; confer, compare इष्टवाची परशब्दः । विप्रतिषेधे परं यदिष्टं तद्भवतीति l Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.3; I.2, 5: I. 4.2: II.1.69, IV.1.85et cetera, and others confer, comparealso पूर्वविप्रतिषेधो नाम अयं र्विप्रतिषेधे परमित्यत्र परशब्दस्य इष्टवाचित्वाल्लब्धः सूत्रार्थः परिभाषारुपेण पाठ्यते Puru. Pari 108; for details see page 217 Vol. VII Mahabhasya D. E. Society's edition.
pūrvasthānikaa variety of antarangatva mentioned by Nagesa in the Paribhasendusekhara, where an operation, affecting a part of a word which precedes that portion of the word which is affected by the other operation, is looked upon as antaranga; e. g. the टिलोप in स्रजिष्ठ ( स्रग्विन् + इष्ठ ) is looked upon as अन्तरङ्ग with respect to the elision of विन् which is बहिरङ्ग. This kind of antarangatva is, of course, not admitted by Nagesa although mentioned by him; confer, compare Par. Sek. Pari. 50,
paunaḥpunyafrequency; repetition a sense in which the frequentative affix यङ् and in some cases the imperative mood are prescribed; confer, compareपौनःपुन्यं भृशार्थश्च क्रियासमभिहारः:S.K. on P.1II. 1.22: confer, compare also S. K on P.III.4.2.
paurvāparya(1)a relation between two operations or rules based upon their anterior and ulterior positions, which is many times taken into consideration for deciding their relative strength; (2) the order of words; cf शब्देनार्थान्वाच्यान् दृष्ट्वा बुद्धौ कुर्यात् पौर्वापर्यम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ).on P 1.4.109 Vart. 10 cf also पौर्वापर्यमकालव्यपेतं सेहिता, P. I. 4.109 Vart. 8.
prakampadepression of the voice after raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view to show the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly, in spite of the fact that such a depression is generally looked upon as a.fault; confer, compare असन्दिग्धान् स्वरान् ब्रूयादविकृष्टानकाम्पितान् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III.18 as also जात्योभिानिहितश्चैव क्षैप्रः प्रश्लिष्ट एव च । एते स्वराः प्रकम्पन्ते यत्रोच्चस्वरितोदयाः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 19.
prakṛti(1)material cause: confer, compare. तदर्थे विकृते: प्रकृतौ । प्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana.on P.V.1.12; (2) original, as opposed to modified' ( विकृति ); the original base of a word which is used in language by the addition of affixes. There are mentioned three kinds of such original words in grammar, roots ( धातु ), noun bases ( प्रातिपदिक ) and affixes (प्रत्यय). प्रकृति is defined as शास्त्रप्रक्रियक्रियाव्यवहारे प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागकल्पनय शब्दार्थभावनायां प्रत्ययात् प्रथममुपादानकारणामिव या उपादीयते तां प्रकृतिरिति व्यापदिशन्ति' in the Sringaraprakasa; confer, compare अपशब्दो ह्यस्य प्रकृति: । न चापशब्द: प्रकृतिः , न ह्यपशब्दा उपदिश्यन्ते न चानुपदिष्टा प्रकृतिरस्ति । M.Bh. on Siva Sutra 2; confer, compare also कृत्प्रकृतिर्धातु: M.Bh. on P. VI. 2. 139 Vart. 2; पदप्रकृति: संहिता । पदप्रक्तीनि सर्वचरणानां पार्षदानि Nirukta of Yāska.I.17.
prakṛtiniyamarestriction regarding the base, as contrasted with प्रत्ययनियम, confer, compare किमयं प्रत्ययनियम: प्रकृतिपर एव प्रत्ययः प्रयोक्तव्यः अप्रकृतिपरो नेति । अाहोस्वित् प्रकृतिनियमः । प्रत्ययपरैव प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या अप्रत्ययप्ररा नेति [ M.Bh. on P.III. 1.2.
prakṛtipratyayavibhāgadivision of a word (in use in a language) into the base and the affix, which is looked upon as the main function of grammar.
prakṛtibhāvaphonetical maintenance of a wording without allowing any euphonic modifications as found in the case of a dual form ending in ई,ऊ or ए,as also in other specified cases; confer, compareईदूदेद्विवचनं प्रगृह्यम् and the following rules P.I. 1.11 to 19, as also प्लुतप्रगृह्या अचि नित्यम् VI.1.125
prakṛtyantaradifference in the radical base; a different radical base; confer, compare कथमुपबर्हणम् l बृहिः प्रकृत्यन्तरम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I.1.4; cf also प्रत्ययार्थस्याव्यतिरेकात्प्रकृत्यन्तरेषु मन्यामहे धातुरेव क्रियामाहेति M.Bh. on P.I. 3.1.
prakṛtyarthaniyamarestriction regarding the sense of the radical base; confer, compare प्रकृत्यर्थनियमे अन्येषां प्रत्ययानामभावः । अनुदात्तङितस्तृजादयो न प्राप्नुवन्ति M.Bh. on P. I. 3.12 Vart. 5
prakriyāprakāśaname of the learned commentary on the प्रक्रियाकौमुदी, called also प्रक्रियाक्रौमुदीप्रक्राश by Krsnasesa, the son of Nrsimhasesa, which is, in a way an improvement upon the commentary Prasada of Vitthalesa.
pratiṣedhaprohibition, negation, prohibition of a rule or operation; generaliy प्रतिषेध or प्रसज्यप्रतिषेध is laid down by the use of the negative particle ( नञ् ) connected with a verbal activity, and not with a noun in a compound in which case the negation is named पर्युदास; confer, compare प्रसज्ज्यप्रतिषेधो यः क्रियया सह यत्र नञ् । पयुदासः स विज्ञेयः थत्रोत्तरपदेन नञ् ।
pratyayaaffix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति the base; confer, compare प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः; confer, compare also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं ( शब्दः ) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत्; रेफिसंज्ञो भवति; Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.30; confer, compare प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः confer, compare विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप् , श्यन् et cetera, and others), the signs of tenses and moods ( च्लि, सिच् , स्य, ताम् et cetera, and others) and the compound endings(समासान्त) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार) of the rule प्रत्ययः III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter ( अध्याय ). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय , तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (exempli gratia, for example in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय et cetera, and others) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय. The word प्रत्यय is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ in the word त्यय means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः; confer, compare मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय Nirukta of Yāska.I.15.
pratyayalakṣaṇaan operation caused by an affix which takes place even though the affix is elided: exempli gratia, for example the term षद is applied to अग्निचित्, सोमसुत् et cetera, and others on account of the words ending with a case affix although the affix of the nominative case. singular. has been elided; confer, compare प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम्. P.I.1. 62 and Kas, thereon.
pratyayānta( प्रकृति )a base ending in an affix, a secondary base as opposed to the original base, which is described to be of six kinds. सुप्प्रत्ययान्ता (प्रकृतिः) as in अहंयुः, सायंतनम् et cetera, and others; तिङ्प्रत्ययान्ता as in पचतितराम् , आस्तिकः, पचतभृज्जता et cetera, and others; कृत्प्रत्ययान्ता as in कृत्रिमम् सांराविणम् et cetera, and others; तद्धितप्रत्ययान्ता as in गार्ग्यायणः, तत्रत्यः et cetera, and others; धातुसंज्ञाप्रत्ययान्ता as in चिकीर्षा, कण्डूया et cetera, and others; स्त्रीप्रत्ययान्ता as in गङ्गेयः, गौरेयः, काद्रवेयः et cetera, and others
pratyayārthathe meaning of an affix. Generally meanings are assigned to affixes when they are prescribedition When the meanings are not assigned, the affix is supposed to bear the sense of the base; confer, compare अनिर्दिष्टार्थाः प्रत्ययाः स्वार्थे Par. Sek. on Pari. 113. The sense given by a word in language is the composite sense of the base and the affix together; confer, compare प्रकृतिप्रत्ययौ सहार्थं ब्रूतः । न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या, न केवलः प्रत्ययः । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.64 Vart. 5.
pratyāhāraliterally bringing together; bringing together of several letters ( or words in a few cases, such as roots or nouns ) by mentioning the first and the last only for the sake of brevity; the term प्रत्याहार is generally used in connection with brief terms such as अण्, अक् , अच् , हल् and the like, created by Panini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associating it with any mute final letter ( अनुबन्ध ) of the fourteen Sivasutras, with a view to include all letters beginning with the letter uttered and ending with the letter which precedes the ( mute ) letter. The practice of using such abbreviations was in existence before Panini, possibly in the grammar attributed to Indra. The term प्रत्याहार is not actually used by Panini; it is found in the Rk. Tantra; confer, compare प्रत्याहारार्थो वर्णोनुबन्धो व्यञ्जनम् R.T.I.3. The term appears to have come into use after Panini. Panini has not given any definition of the term प्रत्याहार. He has simply given the method of forming the Pratyaharas and he has profusely used them; confer, compare आदिरन्त्येन सहेता P. I. 1.71. The word कृञ् in P. III.1.40 and तृन् in P. II. 3.69 are used as Pratyaharas. For a list of the Pratyharas which are used by Panini see Kasika on the Maheswara Sutras.
pratyudāharaṇacounter instance. In order to explain the wording of a grammatical rule clearly, it is customary to give along with the instances of the rule (where the rule has been effectively employed), a few words which would have resulted into other faulty words by the application of the particular rule in case that rule had not been stated or a word or more of it had been omitted; confer, compare न केवलानि चर्चापदानि व्याख्यानं वृद्धिः आत् ऐच् इति । किं तर्हि । उदाहरणं प्रत्युदाहरणं वाक्याध्याहारः इत्येतत् समुदितं व्याख्यानं भवति । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1.
prathamalit, premier, first; the word is used in connection with the personal affixes तिप् , तस्, झि ( अन्ति ) of verbal formanuscript. See the word पुरुष a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; confer, compare अस्तिर्भवन्तीपरः प्रथमपुरुषः अप्रयुज्यमानोप्यस्तीति । वृक्षः प्लक्षः। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 3.1 and 4. The word प्रथम is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of the first consonants of the five vargas or groups of consonants; confer, compare प्रथमैर्द्वितीयास्तृतीयैश्चतुर्थाः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.IV. 110 confer, compare प्रथमतृतीयादीनामादेशादित्वादेत्वाभावः, M.Bh. on P. VI. 4.120 Vart 3, also confer, compare Katantra I. 4.1 and Hemacandra's Śabdānuśāsana. I. 3.35. The word is also used (in the feminine gender) in the sense of the case affixes सु ( स् ), औ, जस् ( अस् ) of the nominative case. The word is also used in the sense of the premier accent उदात्त (acute); confer, compare प्रथमभाविनः उदात्तभाविनः Uvvata on Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 8.
prathamāthe nominative case; case affixes of the nominative case. confer, compare प्रातिपदिकार्थलिङ्गपरिमाणवचनमात्रे प्रथमा P.II. 3.46.
pradīpapopular name of the famous commentary on the Mahabhasya of Patanjali written by the reputed grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh century A. D. The cornmentary is a very scholarly and critical one and really does justice to the well-known compliment given to it, viz. that the Pradipa has kept the Mahabhasya alive which otherwise would have remained unintelligible and consequently become lost. The commentary प्रदीप is based on the commentary महाभाष्यदीपिका,or प्रदीपिका written by Bhartrhari, which is available at present only in a fragmentary form. The Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the Mahabhasya in spite of the presence of a few other commentaries on it which are all thrown into the back-ground by it.
prapāṭhakaa term used for a division of a work by an ancient writer, as for instance in the case of the Atharvapratisakhya.
prayoganiyamageneral rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as (l) a word recognised as correct should always be used, confer, compare एवमिहापि समानायामर्थगतौ शब्देन चापशब्देन च धर्मनियमः क्रियते शब्देनैवार्थोभिधेयो नापशब्देनेति । एवंक्रियमाणमभ्युदयकारि भवति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. I. Ahnika l, (2) never a base alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the necessary affix should be used; confer, compare यावता समयः कृतो न केवला प्रकृतिः प्रयोक्तव्या न केवलः प्रत्ययः M. Bh, on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 8, also on P. III. 1.94 Vart. 3; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating the sense should not be used; confer, compare उक्तार्थानामप्रयोगः. Besides these, many minor regulations of the type of Paribhasas are laid down by grammarians. For details see Paribhashasamgraha Introduction.
prayojyathat which is employed or incited or urged; the word which is the subject in the primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction, and as a result, which is put in the accusative case being प्रयोज्यकर्म. As, however, the प्रयोज्यकर्म originally occupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction, the term प्रयोज्यकर्ता ( प्रयोज्यश्चासौ कर्ता च ) is often used in connection with it, as contrasted with the term प्रयोजककर्ता which is used with respect to the subject in the causal construction; confer, compare इह च भेदिका देवदत्तस्य यज्ञदत्तस्य काष्ठानामिति प्रयोज्ये कर्तरि षष्ठी न प्राप्नोति । M.Bh. on P. III. 1.26 Vart. l ; confer, compare also Kaiy. on P. I. 2.65.
prasajyapratiṣedhaprohibition of the possible application of a rule, generally laid down by the use of the negative particle न, together with, or connected with, a verbal activity: e.g न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.63, नामि P.VI. 4.3, न माङ्योगे VI.4.74 et cetera, and others etc: confer, compare प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधोSयं क्रियया सह यत्र नञ्; confer, comparealso प्रसज्यायं क्रियागुणौ ततः पश्चान्निवृतिं करोति M.Bh. on P.II.2.6. In some cases the negative particle in a compound has also to be taken as stating a negation by प्रसज्यप्रतिषेधः;confer, compare M.Bh. on सुडनपुंसकस्य P.1.1.43, सार्वधातुकमपित् I.4.2, चादयोsसत्त्वे I. 4. 57.
prācyapadavṛttisuccession of two vowels where the former vowel, which is either ए, or ओ remains without coalescence with the following vowel अ, even though by rules it is liable to be changed; exempli gratia, for exampleसुजाते अश्वसूनृते । अध्वर्यो अद्रिभिः सुतम् । In such cases the vowel अ is pronounced like ए. This view is held by the senior Sakalya (स्थविरशाकल्य); confer, compare प्राच्यपञ्चाल-उपधानिभोदयाः शाकल्यस्य स्थविरस्येतरा स्थितिः, R.Pr. II.44; confer, compare also स पूर्वस्यार्धसदृशमेकेषाम् Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XI.19 and the commentaries thereon; confer, compare also छन्दोगानां सात्यमुग्रिराणायनीया अर्धमेकारमर्धमोकारं चाधीयते । सुजाते ए अश्वसूनृते । अध्वर्यो ओ अद्रिभिः सुतम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on Siva Sutra 3, 4 as also on P.I.1.48.
prācyāvaiyākaraṇaan eastern grammarian; the term प्राच्य (eastern) being a relative term, the east is to be taken with respect to the place in the context. The word प्राचां occurs many times in Panini's Sutras and the term प्राक् may refer to countries east of the river शरावती or सरस्वती in the Punjab. See प्राग्देश a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.. प्राचां is understood by some commentators as referring to time, in which case, the word may refer to ancient grammarians आपिशलि, शाकटायन, इन्द्र and others who lived before Panini; confer, compare प्राचीनवैयाकरणतन्त्रे वाचनिकानि ...Par. Sek. Pari. 1. The word प्राचीन is, of course, mostly used in the sense of ancient, rather than the word प्राच्. For specific peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp. 148-149 Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's Edition.
prātipadikaliterallyavailable in every word. The term प्रातिपादिक can be explained as प्रतिपदं गृह्णाति तत् प्रातिपदिकम् cf P.IV. 4. 39. The term प्रातिपदिक, although mentioned in the Brahmana works, is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use. The regular division of a word into the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix ( प्रत्यय ) is available, first in the grammar of Panini, who has given two kinds of bases, the noun-base and the verb-base. The noun-base is named Pratipadika by him while the verb-base is named Dhatu. The definition of Pratipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense, but which is neither a root nor a suffix; confer, compare अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम् . P.I. 2.45. Although his definition includes, the krdanta words,the taddhitanta words and the compound words, still, Panini has mentioned them separately in the rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च P. I. 2.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun-bases which are mentioned in the rule अर्थवदधातुरप्रत्ययः प्रातिपदिकम्, Thus,Panini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas मूलभूत, कृदन्त, तद्धितान्त and समास, The Varttikakara appears to have given nine kinds-गुणवचन, सर्वनाम, अव्यय, तद्धितान्त, कृदन्त, समास, जाति, संख्या and संज्ञा. See Varttikas 39 to 44 on P. I. 4. 1. Later on, Bhojaraja in his SringaraPrakasa has quoted the definition अर्थवदधातु given by Panini, and has given six subdivisions.: confer, compare नामाव्ययानुकरणकृत्तद्धितसमासाः प्रातिपदिकानि Sr. Prak. I. page 6. For the sense conveyed by a Pratipadika or nounbase, see प्रातिपदिकार्थ.
prātipadikakāryacorresponding to अङ्गकार्य in the case of the declinables, which the Sutrakara mentions specifically with respect to the noun-base.
prātipadikagrahaṇaexpress mention by wording of a noun-base as in दित्यदित्यादित्य , सुधातुरकङ् च et cetera, and others, and not by description as अदन्त in अत इञ् (P.IV.1.95) or in a group of words ( गण ) ; confer, compare प्रातिपदिकग्रहणे लिङ्गविशिष्टस्यापि ग्रहणम् Par. Sek. Pari. 71, which recommends the feminine form of the base for an operation, provided the base is specifically expressed and not merely describedition e. g युवतिः खलतिः युवखलतिः, चटकस्यापत्यं चाटकैरः, वह्नीनां पूरणी बहुतिथी et cetera, and others
prātipadikārthadenoted sense of a Pratipadika or a noun-base. Standard grammarians state that the denotation of a pratipadika is five-fold viz. स्वार्थ, द्रव्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या and कारक. The word स्वार्थ refers to the causal factor of denotation or प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त which is of four kinds जाति, गुण, क्रिया and संज्ञा as noticed respectively in the words गौः, शुक्लः, चलः and डित्ः. The word द्रव्य refers to the individual object which sometimes is directly denoted as in अश्वमानय, while on some occasions it is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general notion as in ब्राह्मणः पूज्य:, लिङ्ग the gender, संख्या the number and कारक the case-relation are the denotations of the case-terminations, but sometimes as they are conveyed in the absence of a case-affix as in the words पञ्च, दश, and others, they are stated as the denoted senses of the Pratipadika, while the case-affixes are said to indicate them; confer, compare वाचिका द्योतिका वा स्युः शब्दादीनां विभक्तयः Vakyapadiya.
prātiśākhyaa work on Vedic grammar of a specific nature, which is concerned mainly with the changes, euphonic and others, in the Pada text of the Samhita as compared with the running text, the Samhita itselfeminine. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words, nor with their division into bases and affixes, nor with their etymology. They contain, more or less,Vedic passages arranged from the point of view of Samdhi. In the Rk Pratisakhya, available to-day, topics of metre, recital, phonetics and the like are introduced, but it appears that originally the Rk Pratisakhya, just like the Atharva Pratisakhya, was concerned with euphonic changes, the other subjects being introduced later on. The word प्रातिशाख्य shows that there were such treatises for everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many of which later on disappeared as the number of the followers of those branches dwindledition Out of the remaining ones also, many were combined with others of the same Veda. At present, only five or six Pratisakhyas are available which are the surviving representatives of the ancient ones - the Rk Pratisakhya by Saunaka, the Taittiriya Pratisakhya, the Vajasaneyi PratiSakhya by Katyayana, the Atharva Pratisakhya and the Rk Tantra by Sakatayana, which is practically a Pratisakhya of the Sama Veda. The word पार्षद or पारिषद was also used for the Pratisakhyas as they were the outcome of the discussions of learned scholars in Vedic assemblies; cf परिषदि भवं पार्षदम्. Although the Pratisakhya works in nature, are preliminary to works on grammar, it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas, which are the revised and enlarged editions of the old ones, are written after Panini's grammar, each one of the present Prtisakhyas representing, of course, several ancient Pratisakhyas, which were written before Panini. Uvvata, a learned scholar of the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the Rk Pratisakhya and another one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. The Taittiriya PratiSakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya, called Tribhasyaratna and the other called Vaidikabharana written by Gopalayajvan. There is a commentary by Ananta bhatta on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. These commentaries are called Bhasyas also.
prāpyaliterally which is arrived at; an object which is to be reached; confer, compare प्राप्यं कर्म; the word प्राप्य is used as a word qualifying the word कर्म, in which case it is called प्राप्यकर्म, as for example ग्रामं in ग्रामं गच्छति देवदत्तः or वेदमधीते माणवकः. The term प्राप्य is defined as क्रियाकृतविशेषानवगतौ कर्तुः क्रियया अनास्थितं अास्थितं वा यदवाप्यते तत् प्राप्यं कर्म । confer, compare कर्तुरीप्सितमं कर्म । ततु त्रिविधं निर्वर्त्ये विकार्यं प्राप्यमिति । यस्य क्रियाकृतानां विशेषाणां सर्वथानुपलब्धिः तत् प्राप्यम्. Srngara Prakasa IV.
prāmāṇikaauthoritative; those that talk with authority; confer, compare प्रामाणिकमतमेतत्, a phrase often used by commentators.
priyādia class of words headed by the word प्रिया which do not allow their previous word in a bahuvrihi compound to take the masculine base by the rule स्त्रियाः पुंवत्.. P. VI. 3.84: e. g. कल्याणीप्रियः For details, see Kas, on P. VI. 3.34.
balīyastvarelative superiority in strength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on rules of grammar. This Superiority is decided generally on any one or more of the four recognised criteria such as परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व. The phrase अन्तरङ्गबलीयस्त्वात् very frequently occurs in the varttikas and in the Mahabhasya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, VI.i.17, 85 Vart. 15, VI. 4.62 and VII.1.1.
bahulaliterally variously applicable; the word is used in the rules of Panini in connection with a grammatical rule or affix or the like that is seen necessarily applied in some cases, optionally applied in a few other cases and not at all applied in the other cases still. The word बहुलम् is used by Panini in all such cases. See P. II. 1.32, 57; II. 3.62; II.4.39, 73, 76, 84, III. 1.34 et cetera, and others; confer, compare the usual explanation of बहुलम् given by grammarians in the lines क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः क्वचिद्विभाषा क्वचिदन्यदेव । विधेर्विधानं बहुधा समीक्ष्य चतुर्विधं बाहुलकं वदन्ति Com. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.III.18.
bahuvacanathe plural number; the affixes of the plural number applied to noun-bases as also to roots; confer, compare बहुषु बहुवचनम् P. I. 4.21.
bahuvrīhia compound similar in meaning to the word बहुव्रीहि ( possessed of much rice ) which, in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound; a relative or adjective compound. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as समानाधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुव्रीहि, दिग्बहुव्रीहि, सहबहुव्रीहि, नञ्बहुव्रीहि, and अनेकपदबहुव्रीहि which depend upon the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. Panini in his grammar has not given any definition of बहुव्रीहि, but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz. अव्ययीभाव, द्वन्द्व and तत्पुरुष, is बहुव्रीहि and cited under Bahuvrihi all cases mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.; cf शेषो बहुव्रीहिः II. 3.23-28; also confer, compare अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.6; II. 1.20; II. 1.49.
bahuvrīhiprakṛtisvarathe accent peculiar to, or specifically mentioned in the case of the Bahuvrihi compound viz. the retention of its own accents by the first member, in spite of the general rule that a compound word has the last vowel accented acute id est, that is उदात्त. confer, compare बहुव्रीहौ प्रकृत्या पूर्वपदम्. P. VI. 2.1. The expression बहुव्रीहिस्वर in this very sense is used in the Mahabhasya confer, compare बहुव्रीहिस्वरं शास्ति समासान्तविधेः सुकृत् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VI. 2.1.
bahvādia class of words headed by बहु to which the feminine. affix ई ( ङीप् ) is added to form the feminine base; the words ending in अ in this class take the feminine. affix अा ( टाप् ) in case ई which is optional, is not added; other words remain as they are, if ई, is not added; e. g. बह्वी, बहुः; पद्धतिः, पद्धती; गतिः, _ गती; चण्डी, चण्डा; et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.45.
bādhakatvathe same as बाध ; sublation; setting aside; this sublation is described to be of two types(1) complete sublation when the rule set aside, is for ever set aside and cannot, by the maxim called तक्रकौण्डिन्यन्याय, be applied again; confer, compare दधि ब्राह्मणेभ्यो दीयतां तक्रं कौण्डिन्यायेति सत्यपि संभवे दधिदानस्य तक्रदानं निवर्तकं भवति । confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.47; VI. 1.2. VI. 2.1. et cetera, and others; ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the rule set aside, can be applied, if possible after the special rule has been applied; confer, compare सर्वथा अनवकाशत्वादेव बाधकत्वे स्वस्य (अनवकाशशास्त्रस्य) पूर्वप्रवृत्तिरित्येव बाधः । तत्र बाधके प्रवृत्ते यद्युत्सर्गप्राप्तिर्भवति तदा भवत्येव यथा तत्रैव याडादयः Par.Sek.on Pari.57, The sublation or बाधकत्व is not only in the case of सामान्यविशेषभाव and अनवकाशत्व as given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., but a rule or operation which is पर (cited later), or नित्य, or अन्तरङ्ग sets aside the rule or operation which is पूर्व,or अनित्य,or बहिरङ्ग respectively. This बाध्यबाधकभाव occupies a very important position in respect of the application of grammar rules for arriving at the correct forms (इष्टरूपसिद्धि) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribhasas in the field of बाध्यबाधकभाव.
bālaṃbhaṭṭa( बाळंभट्ट )surnamed Payagunda or Payagunde, who has written a commentary on the commentary Mitaksara on the याज्ञवल्क्यस्मृति. Some scholars say that he was also a great grammarian and identical with वैद्यनाथ पायगुंडे who has written the commentary काशिका or गदा on the Paribhasendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the Laghusabdendusekhara and commentaries on the Vaiyakaranabhusana,Sabdakaustubha and Bhasyapradipoddyota. Other scholars believe that Balambhatta was the son of Vaidyanatha and that he wrote only the commentary on Mitaksara called Balambhatti after him. (2) There was also a comparatively modern grammarian of Tanjore who has written small grammar works बालबोधिनी and बालरञ्जनी.
bidādia class of words headed by the word बिद to which the affix अ (अञ्) is added in the sense of a grandchild and further descendants; exempli gratia, for example बैदः, और्वः, काश्यप:, कौशिकः et cetera, and others The words in this class are mostly names of sages. In the case of such words as are not names of sages, the affix अ is added in the sense of the offspring and not any descendant. exempli gratia, for example पौत्रः, दौहित्रः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.104.
bodhyaa technical term for the vocative case in the Jainendra Vyakarana.
bha(1)the letter or sound भ् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; (2) a technical term in the Grammar of Panini given to a noun base before such case and taddhita affixes as begin with any vowel or with the consonant य्. The utility of this designation of भ to the base is (l) to prevent the substitutes which are enjoined for the final vowel or consonant of a pada (a word ending with a case-affix or a base before case and taddhita affix. affixes beginning with any consonant excepting य् ) just as the substitution of Visarga, anusvara, the first or third consonant, and others given in P. VIII. 4.37 and the following. For the various changes and operations for a base termed भ see P. VI. 4.129 to 175.
bhasaṃjñāthe term भ applied to the noun-base in contrast with the term पद. For details see the word भ.
bhāgavata hariśāstrīa modern scholar of grammar who has written a commentary named Vakyarthacandrika on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa; he lived in the first half of the eighteenth century.
bhāṣitapuṃskaa word or a noun-base which has the same sense in the masculine gender as in the neuter gender: generally words of quality or adjectives like शुचि, मधु et cetera, and others fall in this category;cf तृतीयादिषु भाषितपुंस्कं पुंवद्गालवस्य P. VII. 1. 74; confer, compare also भाषितः पुमान् यस्मिन्नर्थे प्रवृत्तिानिमित्ते स भाषितपुंस्कशब्देनोच्यते । तद्योगादभिधेयमपि यन्नपुसकं तदपि भाषितपुंस्कम् | तस्य प्रतिपादकं यच्छब्दरूपं तदपि भाषितपुंस्कम् | Kāś. on VII.1.74.
bhāṣyaa learned commentary on an original work, of recognised merit and scholarship, for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind; generally every Sūtra work of a branch of technical learning (or Śāstra) in Sanskrit has got a Bhāṣya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. Out of the various Bhāṣya works of the kind given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., the Bhāṣya on the Vyākaraṇa sūtras of Pāṇini is called the Mahābhāṣya, on the nature of which possibly the following definition is based "सूत्रार्थो वर्ण्यते यत्र पदैः सूत्रानुकारिभिः| स्वपदानि च वर्ण्यन्ते भाष्यं भाष्यविदो विदुः ।" In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word भाष्य is used always for the Mahābhāṣya. The word भाष्य is sometimes used in the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali (confer, compare उक्तो भावभेदो भाष्ये III.3.19, IV.4.67) where the word may refer to a work like लघुभाष्य which Patañjali may have written, or may have got available to him as written by somebody else, before he wrote the Mahābhāṣya.
bhisaffix of the instrumental plural before which the base is looked upon as a Pada and sometimes split up in the Padapāṭha, especially when the preceding word has got no change for its last letter or syllable.
bhīmādia class of words headed by the word भीम in which the Uṇādi affixes म and others, as prescribed by specific Uṇādi sūtras, are found added in the sense of the 'apādāna' case-relation; exempli gratia, for example भीमः in the sense 'बिभेति अस्मात्'. Similarly भीष्मः, भूमि:, रज: et cetera, and others confer, compare Kāś. on P.III.4.74.
bhojathe well-known king of Dhārā who was very famous for his charities and love of learning. He flourished in the eleventh century A.D. He is said to have got written or himself written several treatises on various śāstras. The work Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa which is based on the Astādhyāyi of Pāṇini, but which has included in it the Vārttikas and Paribhāṣās also, has become in a way a Vyākaraṇa or a general work in grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-Vyākaraṇa.
bhyascase-affix of the dative and ablative plural: confer, compare स्वौजसमौट् P.IV. 1. 2.
bhyāmcase-affix of the instrumental, dative and ablative dual; confer, compare स्वौजसमौट् P. IV. 1. 2.
ma(1)the consonant म् with the vowel अ added for facility of utterance; cf Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.I.2.1 ; (2) The substitute म for मस् of the 1st person. plural in the perfect tense confer, compare P परस्मैपदानां ... णल्वमाः III. 4.82 and in the present tense also in the case of the root विद्; (3) taddhita affix. affix म added to the word मध्य in the Śaiṣika senses,and to the words द्यु and द्रु in the sense of possession; confer, compare P.IV.3.8,V.2. 108.
matuptaddhita affix. affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly expressedition The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , et cetera, and others confer, compare तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस (confer, compare रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140).
mahābhāṣyaliterally the great commentary. The word is uniformly used by commentators and classical Sanskrit writers for the reputed commentary on Pāṇini's Sūtras and the Vārttikas thereon by Patañjali in the 2nd century B. C. The commentary is very scholarly yet very simple in style, and exhaustive although omitting a number of Pāṇini's rules. It is the first and oldest existing commentary on the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. of Pāṇini, and, in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia, written later on to explain the Sutras of Panini, it has remained supremely authoritative and furnishes the last and final word in all places of doubt: confer, compare the remarks इति भाष्ये स्थितम्, इत्युक्तं भाष्ये, इत्युक्तमाकरे et cetera, and others scattered here and there in several Vyaakarana treatises forming in fact, the patent words used by commentators when they finish any chain of arguments. Besides commenting on the Sutras of Paanini, Patanjali, the author, has raised many other grammatical issues and after discussing them fully and thoroughly, given his conclusions which have become the final dicta in those matters. The work, in short, has become an encyclopedic one and hence aptly called खनि or अकर. The work is spread over such a wide field of grammatical studies that not a single grammatical issue appears to have been left out. The author appears to have made a close study of the method and explanations of the SUtras of Paanini given at various academies all over the country and incorporated the gist of those studies given in the form of Varttikas at the various places, in his great work He has thoroughly scrutinized and commented upon the Vaarttikas many of which he has approved, some of which he has rejected, and a few of which he has supplementedition Besides the Vaarttikas which are referred to a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page., he has quoted stanzas which verily sum up the arguments in explanation of the difficult sUtras, composed by his predecessors. There is a good reason to believe that there were small glosses or commentaries on the SUtras of Paanini, written by learned teachers at the various academies, and the Vaarttikas formed in a way, a short pithy summary of those glosses or Vrttis. . The explanation of the word वृत्तौ साधु वार्तिकम् given by Kaiyata may be quoted in support of this point. Kaiyata has at one place even stated that the argument of the Bhaasyakaara is in consonance with that of Kuni, his predecessor. The work is divided into eighty five sections which are given the name of lesson or आह्लिक by the author, probably because they form the subject matter of one day's study each, if the student has already made a thorough study of the subject and is very sharp in intelligence. confer, compare अह्ला निर्वृत्तम् आह्लिकम्, (the explanation given by the commentatiors).Many commentary works were written on this magnum opus of Patanjali during the long period of twenty centuries upto this time under the names टीका, टिप्पणी, दीपिका, प्रकाशिका, व्याख्या, रत्नावली, स्पूर्ति, वृत्ति, प्रदीप, व्याख्यानं and the like, but only one of them the 'Pradipa' of कैयटीपाध्याय, is found complete. The learned commentary by Bhartrhari, written a few centuries before the Pradipa, is available only in a fragment and that too, in a manuscript form copied down from the original one from time to time by the scribes very carelessly. Two other commentaries which are comparatively modern, written by Naarayanasesa and Nilakantha are available but they are also incomplete and in a manuscript form. Possibly Kaiyatabhatta's Pradipa threw into the background the commentaries of his predecessors and no grammarian after Kaiyata dared write a commentary superior to Kaiyata's Pradipa or, if he began, he had to abandon his work in the middle. The commentary of Kaiyata is such a scholarly one and so written to the point that later commentators have almost identified the original Bhasya with the commentary Pradipa and many a time expressed the two words Bhasya and Kaiyata in the same breath as भाष्यकैयटयोः ( एतदुक्तम् or स्पष्टमेतत् ).
miśrīa popular name given to the commentary written by मैरवमिश्र on the Paribhaasendusekhara in popular use by grammarians.
mīyataddhita affix. affix मीय along with म ( मण्) applied to the word मध्य in the sense of a case-affix ( locative case-affix) exempli gratia, for example मध्यमीय ; cf मण्मीयौ च प्रत्ययौ वक्तव्यौ Kaas. on P. IV.3.60.
mutvathe substitution of मु for the syllable beginning with द् in certain cases; confer, compare अदसोसेर्दादु दो मः P. VIII.2.80.
mūlaprakṛtithe original base of the word used in language; the root and the praatipadika; the word परमप्रकृति , is also used in the same sense.
mṛtathe crude base of a declinable word; the pratipadika; the term is found used in the Jainendra Vyakarana; cf Jain. Vyak. I..1.5.
y(1)the consonant य् with अ added to it merely for the sake of facility in pronunciation; यकार is also used in the same sense: e. g. लिटि वयो यः: P.VI.1.38 confer, compare T.Pr.I: 17,21;(2) krt affix (यत्) prescribed as कृत्य or potential passive participle; exempli gratia, for exampleचेयम्, गेयम्, शाप्यम् , शक्यम् , गद्यम् , अजर्यम् पण्यम् et cetera, and others: confer, compare अचो यत्...अजर्यं संगतम् P.III. 1.97-105; (3) krt. affix क्यप् which is also an affix called krtya; e. gब्रह्मोद्यम् , भाव्यम्, घात्यम् , स्तुत्यम् , कल्प्यम् , खेयम् , भृत्यः:, भिद्यः, पुष्य:, कृत्यम्,also कार्यम् ; confer, compare P. III. 1.106-128:(4) krt affix ण्यत् ( which is also कृत्य ), e. g कार्यम् , हार्यम् , वाक्यम् , लाव्यम्, कुण्डपाय्यम्. et cetera, and others: cf P. III. 1.124-132: (5) taddhita affix. affix य affixed (a) in the sense of collection to पाश, वात et cetera, and others, as also to खल, गो and रथ, e. g. पाद्या, रथ्या et cetera, and others confer, compare P. IV. 2. 49, 50ः (b) in the चातुरर्थिक senses to बल, कुल, तुल et cetera, and others e. g. वल्यः,.कुल्यम् efeminine. P V.2. 80, (c) as a Saisika taddhita affix. affix to ग्राम्यहः' along with the affix खञ्ज e. g. ग्राम्यः, ग्रामीणः: cf P: IV. 2.94 (d) in the sense of 'good therein' ( तत्र साधुः ) and other stated senses affixed to सभा, सोदर पूर्व, and सोम: e. g. सभ्य:, पूर्व्यः; .et cetera, and others. confer, compare P. IV. 4.105, 109, 133, 137, 138: (e) in the sense of 'deserving it' to दण्ड and other words, e. g. दण्ड्य, अर्ध्र्य, मध्य, मेध्य, et cetera, and others: cf P. V. 1.66: ( f ) in the sense of quality or action to सखि e. g. सख्यम् ; cf P. V. 1.126: (6) taddhita affix. affix यत् applied to (a) राजन् श्वशुर, कुल, मनु in the sense of offspring, (b) शूल्, उखा, वायु, ऋतु and others, under certain conditions; confer, compare P. IV. 2.17, 31, 32, 101, (c) to अर्ध, परार्ध, words in the class headed by दि्श, छन्दस and others in specific senses; cf P. IV. 3-46, 54 et cetera, and others and (d) in specific senses to specific words mentioned here and there in a number of sUtras from IV.4, 75 to V.4.25; (e) to शाखा, मुख, जघन and others in the sense of इव (similar to) exempli gratia, for example शाख्यः, मुख्य:, et cetera, and others: confer, compare P. V. 3. 103; (7) case-ending य substituted for ङे of the dative sing; e. g. रामाय confer, compare P. VII. 3.102: (8) verb-affix यक् applied to the nouns कण्डू and others to make them ( denominative ) roots; e. g. कण्डूय,सन्तूय et cetera, and others confer, compare कण्ड्वादिभ्यो यक् P. III. 1.27 (9) | Vikarana य ( यक् ) applied to any root before the Saarvadhaatuka personal endings to form the base for the passive voice as also the base for the 'Karmakartari' voice e g क्रियते, भूयते, confer, compare सार्वधातुके यक् P. III. 1.67 (10) Unaadi affix य ( यक् ) applied to the root हृन् to form the Vedic word अघ्न्य: cf अघ्न्यादयश्च: ( 11 ) augment य ( यक् ) added to the affix क्त्वा in Vedic Literature: e. g. दत्त्वायः confer, compare क्त्वो यक् P. VII.1.47; (12) verb affix यङ् added to a root to form its Intensive base ( which sometimes is dropped ) and the root is doubledition e. g. चेक्रीयते,चर्करीति;. confer, compare P. III. 1.22,24; (13) short term ( प्रत्याहृार ) supposed to be beginning with य in the affix यइ in the sUtra धातेरेकाचो ... यङ् III. 1.22, and ending with ङ् in the sUtra लिड्याशिष्यङ्क III. 1.86, with a view to include the various verb affixes and conjugational signs.
yatna(1)effort in the utterance of a letter: the word which is generally used for such an effort is प्रयत्न. This effort is described to be oftwo kinds अाभ्यन्तर internal id est, that is below the root of the tongue and बाह्य a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the root of the tongue id est, that is inside the mouth; confer, compare यत्नं द्विधा | अाभ्यन्तरो बाह्यश्च | S. K. on P. I. 1.9; (2) specific effort, by adding a word to a rule for drawing some inference, with a view to removing some technical difficulty: cf तेन पये धावतीत्यादौ यत्नान्तरमास्थेयम् Kaas. on P. VIII. 2. 25. The phrase कर्तव्योत्र यत्न: often occurs in the Mahaabhaasya.
yathāgṛhītaṃas they are actually found in Vedic recital with some irregularties of euphonic changes,lengthening of the vowel and the like. Specimens of such phrases are given in R.Pr.II.33 to 39.
yathānyāsaṃas it is actually put in the rule or a treatise by the author. The phrase is often used in the Mahaabhaasya when after a long discussion, involving further and further difficulties, the author reverts to the original stand and defends the writing of the sUtra as it stands. सिध्यत्येवमपाणिनीयं तु भवति or सूत्रं भिद्यते । तर्हि यथान्यासमेवास्तु is the usual expression found in the Mahaabhaasya; cf, M.Bh. I.1. Aahnika 1, I.1.1, 9, 20, 62, 65 et cetera, and others
yathālakṣaṇaṃas formed according to rules. The phrase यथालक्षणमप्रयुक्ते is very often found in the Mahaabhaasya as a general guiding remark that noun-forms or wordforms which are not found in use in the language of the people or in literature should be understood as they are derived by observing all the rules that are applicable.
yathodeśa( परिभाषा)a short phrase or term for the Paribhaasaa or guiding statement यथोद्देशं संज्ञापरिभाषम् 'technical terms and Paribhaasaas are to be interpreted at the place where they are stated, and not at the place or places of their application or utility'.
yastaddhita affix. affix य with mute स् to indicate the application of the term पद् to the preceding base as a consequence of which the final म् of the words कम् and शम्, after which यस् is prescribed, gets changed into anusvara e. g. कंयु:, दंयु:: cf P.W.2.138.
substitute for a case affix in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example उरुया, धृष्णुया for उरुणा, धृष्णुना, confer, compare सुपां सुलुक्o P.VII. 1.39.
yācsubstitute for a case affix found and the in Vedic Literature; e. g. साधुया for साधु: confer, compare सुपां सुलुक् .. ... याजाल: P. VII. 1. 39.
yājakādeia class of words headed by the words याजक, पूजक, परिचारक and others with which a word in the genitive case is compounded, in spite of the prohibition of compounds with such words, laid down by the rule कर्तरि च P. II. 2.16; exempli gratia, for exampleब्राह्मणयाजकः. ब्राह्मणपूजक: et cetera, and others: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. II.2.9. These words, याजक and others standing as the second members of compounds have their last vowel accented acute;confer, compareP.VI . 2.151.
yāṭaugment या prefixed to the caseaffixes marked with the mute letter ङ् (i,e. the dative case singular. the ablative case. sing the genitive case singular. and the loc singular.) after a feminine base ending in आ; e. g. रमायै, रमाया:, रमायाम्: cf याडापः P.VII.3.113.
yāsuṭaugment यास् prefixed to the parasmaipada case-endings of लिङ् (the potential and the benedictive) which is accented acute; exempli gratia, for example कुर्यात्, क्रियात्.
yiṭaugment य् prefixed to the taddhita affix. affix इष्ठ when it is applied to the word बहु,in which case बहु is changed intoभू: exempli gratia, for example भूयिष्ठ: cf बहोर्लोपो भू च बहोः; इष्ठस्य यिट् व; P. VI. 4.168,159.
yukaugment य् (1) added to a verbbase or a root ending in अा before the affix चिण् and krt affixes marked with mute ञ् or णु: exempli gratia, for example अदायि, दायक: confer, compare आतो युक् चिण्कृतोः, P.VII.3.33; (2) added to the roots शा, ( शो ), छा ( छो ), सा ( सो ), ह्वा ( ह्वे ), व्या ( व्ये ) वा ( वै ) and पा ( पा and पे ) before the causal affix णिच् ; e. g. निशाययति पाययति et cetera, and others cf शाच्छासाह्वाव्यावेपां युक् P. VII.3.37; (3) added in Vedic Literature to the frequentative base of the root मृज् of which मर्मज्य is the form of perf Ist and 3rd person. singular. instead of ममार्ज: confer, compare दाधर्ति...ममृज्यागनीगन्तीति च P.VII.4.65.
yukta(1)proper, appropriate, justified; the word is very frequently used in the Mahabhasya and other grammar works; (2) the sense of the original base which is connected with the sense of the affix; confer, compare अथवा युक्तः प्रकृत्यर्थः प्रत्ययार्थेन संबद्धः, Ks. on P. I. 2.51 ; (3) connected with; confer, compare उकारश्चेतिकरणेन युक्त: Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I. 29; तथायुक्तं चानीप्सितम् P. I. 4.50.
yuktavatthe sense of the original base,the affix after which is dropped by means of the term लुप् as contrasted with the terms लोप and लुक् which are used in the same sense: confer, compare लुप्तवदिति निष्ठाप्रत्ययेन क्तवतुना प्रकृत्यर्थ उच्यते । स हि प्रत्ययार्थमात्मना युनक्ति ' KS. on P. I. 3.51.
yuktavadbhāvaliterally behaviour like the original base. The term is used in the sense of possession of, or getting, the same gender and number as was possessed by the base to which the taddhita affix. affix was added and subsequently dropped by a rule of Panini in which the word लुप् is put in the sense of dropping: e. g. कुरयः देश: or अङ्गाः देश: in the sense of कुरूणां or अङ्गानां निवासो जनपदः confer, compare जनपदे लुप् P. IV.3.81 and लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने P.I.2.51;confer, compare also M.Bh. on P. I. 2.51 and 52.
yugapatprasaṅgasimultaneous possibility of the application of two rules or operations, when in grammar no option re : their application is admissible as it is admissible according to Mimamsa rules re : two operations enjoined by Vedic behests. In Grammar, only one of such rules applies, the priority of application being based upon the criteria of परत्व, नित्यत्व, अन्तरङ्गत्व and अपवादत्व: confer, compare शब्दपरविप्रतिषेधो नाम भवति यत्रोभयोर्युगप्रसङ्ग: | M.Bh. on VI. 1.158 Vart, 12.
yuvanliterally young person; masculine; the word is given as a technical term in grammar in the sense of one, who is the son of the grandson or his descendant, provided his father is alive; the term is also applied to a nephew, brother, or a paternal relative of the grandson or his descendant, provided his elderly relative, if not his his father, is alive; it is also applied to the grandson, in case respect is to be shown to him: confer, compare P. IV. 1.163-167. The affixes prescribed in the sense of युवन् are always applied to a word ending with a taddhita affix. affix applied to it in the sense of an offspring (अपत्य) or grandson (गोत्र), in spite of the ruling that in the sense of grandson or his descendant (गोत्र), one affix only इञ् or अण् or the like is added to the base; exempli gratia, for example गार्ग्यस्यापत्यं गार्ग्यायण:, दाक्षेरपत्यं दाक्षाय्ण: गार्ग्ये जीवति तस्य भ्राता सपिण्डो वा गाम्यार्यण: तत्रभवान् गार्ग्यः; गार्ग्यायणो वा.
yuvapratyayataddhita affix. affix फक् ( अायन ), फिञ् ( अायनि ) or any other in the sense of युवन् which is to be applied to a base ending with an affix in the sense of offspring ( अपत्यप्रत्ययान्त ) or with an affix in the sense of a grandson ( गोत्रप्रत्ययान्त ). The affix is not applied when a female offspring is meant.
yaugikabased on derivation; etymological; one of the kinds of words रूढ, यौगिक, योगरूढ and यौगिकरूढ; confer, compare सैन्धवशब्दो लवणे उभयलिङ्ग:। यौगिकस्याभिधेयवल्लिङ्गम् l Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.4.31.
rāmatarkavāgīśaa learned grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय and भट्टाचार्य, He was an advocate of the Mugdhabodha School and wrote commentaries on (1) the Mugdhabodha, (2) the Kavikalpadruma, (3) the Amarakosa and (4) the Unadi sutras. He also wrote a short gloss on case-relations, his treatise on the subject being named कारकटिप्पणी,
riṅsubstitute रि for a verbal base ending in ऋ before श (the sign of the 6th conjugation) यक् (sign of the passive voice. voice) and a लिङ् affix beginning with य which is not a Sārvadhātuka affix; e. g. अाद्रियते, क्रियते, क्रियात्; confer, compare रिङ् शयग्लिङ्क्षु P.VII.4.28.
rīkaugment री added optionally with रुक् and रिक् to the reduplicative syllable ( अभ्यास ) of the frequentative base of roots having ऋ as their penultimate vowel; exempli gratia, for example वरीवृश्च्यते वरीवृश्चीति, नरीनर्ति, चरीकर्ति; cf रीगृदुपधस्य च P.VII. 4.90.
rīṅsubstitute री for the vowel ऋ at the end of a base ( अङ्ग ) before the affix च्चि as also before य which does not belong to a krt or Sarvadhatuka affix; exempli gratia, for example मात्रीभूतः, मात्रीयते; confer, compare रीङ् ऋतः P.VII.4.27.
ru(1)substitute र् for the consonant स् at the end of a word as also for the ष् of सजुत्र् , न् of अहन् and optionally with र् for the final स् of अम्नस्, ऊधस् and अवस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example अग्निरत्र, वायुरत्र, सजूर्देवोभिः confer, compare P.VIII.2.66; the र् of this रु (as contrasted with the substitute र् which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.) is further changed into उ before a soft consonant and before the vowel अ provided it is preceded by the vowel अ, while र् , prescribed as substitute र (which see a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page.), remains unchanged; e g. शिवोर्च्यः, शिवो वन्द्य: as contrasted with अहरत्र, अहर्गण:; (2) substitute र् for the final ज् of अवयज् (e. g, अवयाः), for ह् of श्वेतवह् (exempli gratia, for example श्वेतवाः), and for श् of पुरोडाश् (exempli gratia, for example पुगेडा:) before the case affix सु ; confer, compareP.VIII.4.67;(3)substitute र् (or द्) for the final स् or द् of a verb-form ending with the personal ending सिप् of the 2nd person. sing; confer, compare P. VIII.2.74,75;(4)substitute र् for the final न् of words ending with the affix मत् or वस् in Veda; exempli gratia, for example मरुत्व: हरिवः ; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.VIII.3.1; (5) substitute र् for the final न् at the end of a word when it is followed by a छव् letter id est, that is the first or a second consonant excepting ख् and फ्; exempli gratia, for example भवांश्चिनोति; confer, compare P.VIII. 3.7; (6) substitute र् for the final न् of नॄन् before the letter प् as also for the final न् of स्वतवान् and कान् under certain conditions; confer, compare P. VIII.3. 10.12.
rudādia term used for the five roots headed by the root रुद्,which have the augment इ added to a Sārvadhātuka affix in certain cases; exempli gratia, for example रोदिति, श्वसिति, अरोदीत्, अस्वपीत् et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.VII. 2. 76, VII.3.98.
rūpa(1)word-form which is complete with प्रकृति ( the base ) and प्रत्यय, id est, that is the affix which is attached to it; confer, compare रूपनिर्ग्रहश्च शब्दस्य नान्तरेण लौकिकं प्रयोगम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.22 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 3; confer, compare also the usual expression का रूपसिद्धिः in the Mahābhāșya; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on I. 1.51, 1.2.58 et cetera, and others ; the word is also used in the sense of a word-base ( धातु or प्रातिपदिक ); confer, compare स्वं रूपं शब्दस्याशब्दसंज्ञा P. I. 1.68; (2) the word form as characterized by its derivation and properties confer, compare तस्य रूपान्यत्वे वर्णान्यत्वम् explained as तस्य शब्दस्य अनुप्रदानादिभिः कारणौ रूपभेदे जन्यमाने वर्णभेदः संपद्यते Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXII. 2
rūpaptaddhita affix. affix in the sense of 'praise' which is, in fact, possessed by the word to which the affix रूपप् is added, without making any change in the sense of the word, the affix being called 'स्वार्थे' i. e. an affix in the sense of the base or प्रकृति confer, compareस्वार्थिकाः प्रत्ययाः प्रकृत्यर्थविशेषस्य द्योतका भवन्ति | प्रशस्तो वैयाकरणो वैयाकरणरूपः | याज्ञिकरूप: । प्रकृत्यर्थस्य वैशिष्ट्ये प्रशंसा भवति | वृषलरूपोयं य: पलाण्डुना सुरां पिबति | चोररूप: | Kāś. on P. V. 3.66.
rūpya(1)a taddhita affix. affix applied to a word meaning 'a cause' or expressing 'a human being' in the sense of 'proceeding therefrom' exempli gratia, for example समादागतं समरूप्यम्; देवदत्तरूप्यम् ; confer, compare हेतुमनुष्येभ्येन्यतरस्यां रूप्यः P. IV. 3.81 ; (2) a taddhita affix. affix applied to a word in the genitive case in the sense of भूतपूर्व, 'formerly belonging to' ; e. g. देवदत्तस्य भूतपूर्वो गौः देवदत्तरूप्य:; confer, compare Kāś. on षष्ठया रूप्य च P. V. 3.54.
rauḍhyādianother name given to the क्रौड्यादि class of words which are headed by क्रौडि and which take the affix ष्यङ् to form their base in the feminine; e. g. क्रौड्या लाड्या; confer, compare सिद्धं तु रौड्यादिषूपसंख्यानात् । के पुना रौढ्यादयः | ये क्रौड्यादय; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. IV. 1.79.
rhil(1)a taddhita affix. affix termed also विभक्ति which is applied to the word इदभ् in the sense of the locative case, the word इदम् being changed into एत; e. g. एतर्हि; confer, compare इदमो र्हिल् P. V. 3.16 and एतेतौ रथो: P. V. 3.4. (2) taddhita affix. affix applied in Veda to तत् and other pronouns: exempli gratia, for exampleतर्हि, कर्हि, यर्हि, confer, compare P. V. 3.20, 21.
laghukaumudīknown as लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी also, an abridged work based upon the Siddhāntakaumudi of Bhațțojī Dīkşita, written by Bhațțojī's pupil Varadarāja. The work is very valuable and helpful to beginners in grammar. It has got the same topics as the Siddhāntakaumudī, but arranged differently. The work, named सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी is the same as लघुसिध्दान्तकौमुदी. Possibly सारसिद्धान्तकौमुदी was the original name given by the author.
laghuprakriyāname of a grammar treatise based on the Sabdānuśāsana of Hemacandra written by Vinayavijaya where the sūtras of Hemacandra are arranged in different topics as in the Siddhāntakaumudī of Bhoțțojī.
laghuprayatnatararequiring still less effort for utterance than that required for the usual utterance; the term is used in connection with the utterance of the consonant य् which is substituted for Visarga following upon long अा and followed by any vowel. In such cases य् is not pronounced at all according to Śākalya, while it is somewhat audibly pronounced according to Śākațāyana; confer, compare व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य P. VIII. 3.18.
lasārvadhātukaa personal ending substituted for ल् which in certain cases gets the grave accent in, spite of the general rule that affixes ( which include personal endings ) are acute; confer, compare तास्यनुदात्तेन्डिद्दुपदेशाल्लसार्वधातुकमह्न्विङोः P. VI. 1. 186.
liṅgavācakapratyayaan affix such as अा , ( टाप्, डाप्, चाप्) or ई (ङीप्, ङीष्, ङीन् ) which is added to a masculine base; confer, compare P.IV. 1.3 to IV.1.77.
litan affix marked with the mute letter ल् such as ल्युट्, तातिल्, तल्, तसिल्, विधल्, भक्तल् et cetera, and others where the mute ल् signifies the acute accent for the vowel of the base which immediately precedes the affix; e. g. चिकीर्षक:;in which the vowel ई is acute; confer, compare लिति VI.1.193.
luelision of an affix or its part in the process of the formation of a word as prescribed by the specific mention of the words लुक्, श्लु and लुप् which have the syllable लु as common. The specific feature of the elision by the use of these letters is the prohibition of any such operation for the preceding base as is conditioned by the elided affix; confer, compare प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् | न लुमताङ्गस्य P.I.1.62,63.
lupdisappearance ( लुप्यते इति लुप् ); a term used by Pāņini with reference to the disappearance of an affix or its part under specified conditions by the express mention of the word लुप्. Although after the disappearance of an affix no operation for the base before, can take place as conditioned by the affix, i. e. although there is no प्रत्ययलक्षण, still, when the disappearanee is mentioned as लुप्, the base gets the gender and number of that original form of it which existed before the affix, which has disappeared, was applied; confer, compare कुरव: दश:, चञ्चेव पुरुष: चञ्चा; confer, compare लुपि युक्तवद् व्यक्तिवचने. P. I. 2.51 and Kāśikā thereon.
leṭa general term for the affixes of the Vedic subjunctive, the usual personal-endings ति, तस् et cetera, and others being substituted for लेट् as in the case of other tenses and moods. The augments अट् and आट् are sometimes prefixed to the लेट् affix and the sign ( विकरण ) स् ( सिप् ) is sometimes added to the roots. The forms of लेट् are to be arrived at as they are found actually used in Vedic language, even by placing personal-endings of a person or number different from what is actually requiredition
lokāśrayatvadependence upon the people for the use.The phrase लोकाश्रयत्वाल्लिङ्गस्य, referring to the fixation of gender depending entirely on the people's usage, is very common in the Mahābhāșya; confer, compare M.Bh. on P. II.1.36, II.2.29, et cetera, and others
lopadisappearance of a word or part of a word enjoined in grammar for arriving at the required forms of a word; confer, compare अदर्शनं लोपः P. I.1.52: confer, compare अदर्शनमश्रवणमनुच्चारणमनुपलब्धिरभावो वर्णविनाश इत्यनर्थान्तरम् । एतैः शब्दैर्योर्थोभिधीयते तस्य लोप इतीयं संज्ञा भवति Kāś. on P.I.1. 52. This disappearance in the case of an affix is tantamount to its notional presence or imaginary presence, as operations caused by it do take place although the word element has disappeared; confer, compare प्रत्ययलोपे प्रत्ययलक्षणम् । प्रत्यये लुप्तेपि तद्धेतुकं कार्ये भवति Kāś. on P. I.1.62.
lohitādi(1)a class of words headed by लोहित to which the affix क्यव् ( य ) is added in the sense of 'becoming', to form a denominative root-base which gets the verb-endings of both the padas; e. g. लोहितायति, लोहितायते; निद्रायति, निद्रायते; the class लोहितादि is considered as अाकृतिगण so that similar denominative verb-bases could be explained; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.III.1. 13; (2) a class of words headed by लेहित, to which the feminine. affix ष्फ ( अायनी ) is added after they have got the taddhita affix यञ् added to them in the sense of 'a grandchild'; e. g. लौहित्यायनी, कात्यायनी et cetera, and others; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 1.18.
v(1)fourth letter of the class of consonants headed by य्, which are looked upon as semi-vowels; व् is a dental, soft, non-aspirate consonant pronounced as ब् in some provinces and written also sometimes like ब्, especially when it stands at the beginning of a word; (2) substitute for उ which is followed by a vowel excepting उ; e. g, मधु+अरि: = मध्वरि:; confer, compare इको यणचि P. VI. I. 77; (3) the consonant व्, which is sometimes uttered with very little effort when it is at the end of a word and followed by a vowel or a semivowel, or a fifth, fourth or third consonant or the consonant ह्. In such cases it is called लघूच्चारण; confer, compare यस्योच्चारणे जिह्वाग्रोपाग्रमध्यमूलानां शैथिल्यं जायते स लघूच्चारण: S. K. on P.VIII.3. 18;(4) solitary remnant of the affixes क्विप्,क्विन्, ण्वि and the like, when the other letters which are mute are dropped and the affix क्वप् or the like becomes a zero affix. This व् also is finally dropped; confer, compare वेरपृक्तस्य P. VI.1.67.
v(1)the semivowel व्: see व्; (2) personal-ending substituted for वस् in the perfect ( लिट् ) first person (उत्तमपुरुष), and in the present tense in the case of the root विद्; confer, compare परस्मैपदानां णलतुसुस्० and विदो लटो वा. P. III. 4.82,83; (3) krt affix क्विप् , क्विन् or वि of which only व् remains; confer, compare अनिगन्तोञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये P. VI. 2.52; confer, compare also विष्वग्देवयोश्र्च टेरद्यञ्चतौ वप्रत्यये VI.3.92.the affix is mentioned as वप्रत्यय by Panini, but, in fact, it is व् , अ being added for ease in pronunciation; (4) taddhita affix. affix in the sense of possession added along with the other affixes इन् , इक, and वत् to the word केश and to some other words such as मणि, हिरण्य, राजी, अर्णस् et cetera, and others as also to गाण्डी and अजग; confer, compare P. V. 2. 109, 110.
varaor वरच् krt affix वर applied to the roots स्था, ईश्, भास्, पिस् and कस्,as also to the intensive base of या in the sense of a habituated agent; e. g. स्थावर, ईश्वर, यायावर et cetera, and others confer, compare स्थेशभासपिसकसो वरच् ) यश्च यडः P. III. 2. 175, 176.
varṇasamāmnāyaa collection of letters or alphabet given traditionally. Although the Sanskrit alphabet has got everywhere the same cardinal letters id est, that is vowels अ, इ et cetera, and others, consonants क्, ख् etc : semivowels य्, र्, ल्, व, sibilants श् ष् स् ह् and a few additional phonetic units such as अनुस्वार, विसर्ग and others, still their number and order differ in the different traditional enumerations. Panini has not mentioned them actually but the fourteen Siva Sutras, on which he has based his work, mention only 9 vowels and 34 consonants, the long vowels being looked upon as varieties of the short ones. The Siksa of Panini mentions 63 or 64 letters, adding the letter ळ ( दुःस्पृष्ट ); confer, compare त्रिषष्टि: चतुःषष्टिर्वा वर्णाः शम्भुमते मताः Panini Siksa. St.3. The Rk Pratisakhya adds four (Visarga, Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya and Anusvara ) to the forty three given in the Siva Sutras and mentions 47. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya mentions 52 letters viz. 16 vowels, 25class consonants, 4 semivowels,six sibilants (श्, ष् , स्, ह् , क्, प् , ) and anusvara. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions 65 letters 3 varieties of अ, इ, उ, ऋ and लृ, two varieties of ए, ऐ, ओ, औ, 25 class-consonants, four semivowels, four sibilants, and जिह्वामूलीय, उपध्मानीय, अनुस्वार, विसर्जनीय, नासिक्य and four यम letters; confer, compare एते पञ्चषष्टिवर्णा ब्रह्मराशिरात्मवाचः Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 25. The Rk Tantra gives 57 letters viz. 14 vowels, 25 class consonants, 4 semivowels, 4 sibilants, Visarga,.Jihvamuliya, Upadhmaniya, Anunasika, 4_yamas and two Anusvaras. The Rk Tantra gives two different serial orders, the Uddesa (common) and the Upadesa (traditional). The common order or Uddesa gives the 14 vowels beginning with अ, then the 25 class consonants, then the four semivowels, the four sibilants and lastly the eight ayogavahas, viz. the visarjanya and others. The traditional order gives the diphthongs first, then long vowels ( अा, ऋ, लॄ, ई and ऊ ) then short vowels (ऋ, लृ, इ, उ, and lastly अ ), then semivowels, then the five fifth consonants, the five fourths, the five thirds, the five seconds, the five firsts, then the four sibilants and then the eight ayogavaha letters and two Ausvaras instead of one anuswara. Panini appears to have followed the traditional order with a few changes that are necessary for the technigue of his work.
varṇikuberanāthaor वर्णिकुवेरानन्द an old writer on grammar who has written a work named शब्दविवरण on the meanings of words. The work forms a part of his bigger work दानभागवत. Both the works are incomplete. The शब्दविवरण is based mostly upon ancient grammar works of Patanjali Vararuci, Varttikakara, Sarvavarman, Bhartrhari and others.
vas(1)pres participle affix वसु substituted for शतृ applied to the root विद्: exempli gratia, for example विद्वस्, confer, compare विदेः शतृर्वसुः P.VII. l.36; (2) perf part, affix क्वसु substituted for the general affix लिट् mostly in Vedic Literature, but in specific cases in spoken language; e. g.see सेदिवस्, शुश्रुवस् उपेयिवस् confer, compare P III.2. 107-9. See क्वसु.
vākinādia class of words headed by the word वाकिन to which the taddhita affix आयनि( फिञ् ) is added in the sense of an 'offspring' when along with the taddhita affix. affix अायनि,the augment क् ( कुक् ) is added to the base ( वाकिन or the like ); e. g. वाकिनकायनिः ; confer, compareKāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.IV.1.158.
vākyasaṃskārapakṣathe grammarian's theory that as the individual words have practically no existence as far as the interpretation or the expression of sense is concerned, the sentence alone being capable of conveying the sense, the formation of individual words in a sentence' is explained by putting them in a sentence and knowing their mutual relationship. The word गाम् cannot be explained singly by showing the base गो and the case ending अम् unless it is seen in the sentence गाम् अानय; confer, compare यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे कृष्णादिसंबुद्धयन्त उपपदे ऋधेः क्तिनि कृते कृष्ण ऋध् ति इति स्थिते असिद्धत्वात्पूर्वमाद्गुणे कृते अचो रहाभ्यामिति द्वित्वं .. Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 99The view is put in alternation with the other view, viz. the पदसंस्कारपक्ष which has to be accepted in connection with the गौणमुख्यन्याय; cf पदस्यैव गौणार्थकत्वस्य ग्रहेण अस्य ( गौणमुख्यन्यायस्य) पदकार्यविषयत्वमेवोचितम् | अन्यथा वाक्यसंस्कारपक्षे तेषु तदनापत्तिः Par. Sek. on Pari. 15, The grammarians usually follow the वाक्यसंकारपक्ष.
vākyārthacandrikāname of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara by Hari Sastri Bhagawata.
vājapyāyanaan ancient grammarian who holds the view that words denote always the jati i.e they always convey the generic sense and that the individual object or the case is understood in connection with the statement or the word,as a natural course,when the purpose is not served by taking the generic sense; confer, compare अाकृत्यभिधानाद्वा एकं शब्दं विभक्तौ वाजप्यायन अाचार्यो न्याय्यं मन्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.2.64 Vart. 35.
vājasaneyeiprātiśākhyathe Pratisakhya work belonging to the Vajasaneyi branch of the White Yajurveda, which is the only Pratisakhya existing to-day representing all the branches of the Sukla Yajurveda. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana, and on account of its striking resemblance with Panini's sutras at various places, its author Katyayana is likely to be the same as the Varttikakara Katyayana. It is quite reasonable to expect that the subject matter in this Pratisakhya is based on that in the ancient Prtisakhya works of the same White school of the Yajurveda.The work has a lucid commentary called Bhasya written by Uvvata.
vāṇīspeech; utterance; the same as वाच् which is believed to be of four kinds as cited by the grammarians and explained by Bhartrhari; the four kinds are based upon the four places of origin, the three first places belonging to the inarticulate speech and the fourth belonging to the articulate one: cfचत्वारि वाक्परिमिता पदानि तानि विदुर्ब्राह्मण य मनीषिणः | गुहा त्रीणि निहिता नेङ्गयन्तिं तुरीयं वाचेी मनुष्या वदन्ति, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). I Ahnika l and the Pradipa and Mahābhāṣya-Pradīpoddyota by Nāgeśa.thereon.
vāsudeva( शास्त्री)surnamed Abhyankar, who lived from 1863 to l942 and did vigorous and active work of teaching pupils and writing essays, articles, commentary works and original works on various Shastras with the same scholarship, zeal and acumen for fifty years in Poona. He wrote गूढार्थप्रकाश a commentary on the LaghuSabdendusekhara and तत्त्वादर्श a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara in 1889. His edition of the Patanjala Mahabhasya with full translation and notes in Marathi can be called his magnum opus. See अभ्यंकर.
vikāraliterally change: modification; modification of a word-base or an affix, caused generally by the addition of suffixes: confer, compare प्रकृतेरवस्थान्तरं विकार: Kas, on P. IV.3.134: confer, compare also लेपागमवर्णविकारज्ञो हि सम्यग्वेदान् परिपालयिष्यति Mahabhasya Ahnika 1.
vigṛhītashown by separating the combined elements, for instance, the two or more words in a compound or, the base or affix from a word which is a combination of the base ( प्रकृति ) and the affix (प्रत्ययः); confer, compare तदेव सूत्रं विगृहीतं व्याख्यानं भवति M.Bh. on I.1. Ahnika 1, Vart. 11, 14; also confer, compare अवारपाराद् विगृहीतादपि P. IV.2. 93 Vart.1.
vijñeyaa matter of special understanding; the phrase अवश्यं चैतद्विज्ञेयम् very frequently occurs in the Mahabhasya; cf M.Bh. on P.I.1.1, 3, 5, 22, I.2.47, 48, 64, I.4.23 et cetera, and others
viṭkrt affix ( वि, व् or nil) applied to the roots जन्, सन्, खन् , कम् and गम् and to the root अद् in special cases as seen in Vedic Literature; exempli gratia, for example अब्जाः, गोषाः, कूपखा:, दधिक्रा:, et cetera, and others
vipariṇāmachange; confer, compare कार्यविपरिणामाद्वा सिद्धम् | कार्यस्य संप्रत्ययस्य विपरिणामः कार्यविपरिणामः M.Bh. on I.1.56 Vart. 14. The word is very frequently used in connection with a change of the case of a word in a grammar rule which becomes necessary for interpretation; confer, compare विभक्तिविपरिणामाद्वा सिद्वम् as also अर्थाद्विभक्तिविपरिणामो भवति । M.Bh. on P.I.3.9,12:V.3.60, VI.1 . 4, VII.3.50.
vipratiṣedhaconfict, opposition; opposition or conflict between two rules of equal strength, which become applicable simultaneously when Pāṇini's dictum विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् applies and the rule mentioned later on, or subsequently, in the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. is allowed to apply: confer, compare विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् P.I.4.2: confer, compare also यत्र द्वौ प्रसङ्गौ अन्यार्थौ एकस्मिन्युगपत् प्राप्नुतः स तुल्यबलविरोधी विप्रतिषेध: Kāś. on P.I. 4.2: confer, compare also विप्रतिषेध उत्तरं बलवदलोपे Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I.159. The dictum of the application of the subsequent rule is adopted only if the conflicting rules are of equal strength; hence, rules which are either nitya, antaraṅga or apavāda, among which each subsequent one is more powerful than the preceding one and which are all more powerful than the पर or the subsequent rule, set aside the पर rule. There is another dictum that when by the dictum about the subsequent rule being more powerful, an earlier rule is set aside by a later rule, the earlier rule does not apply again in that instance, barring a few exccptional cases; confer, compare सकृद्गतौ विप्रतिषेधे यद् वाधितं तद् बाधितमेव | पुनःप्रसङ्गविज्ञानात् सिद्वम् Paribhāṣenduśekhara of Nāgeśa. Pari. 40, 39.
vibhaktiliterally division, separation; separation of the base id est, that is that factor which shows the base separately। The word विभक्ति is generally used in the sense of case affixes; but in Pāṇini's grammar the term विभक्ति is applied also to personal endings applied to roots to form verbs; confer, compareविभक्तिश्च । सुप्तिङौ विभक्तिसंज्ञौ स्तः S.K.on Pāṇ. I.4.104. The term is also applied to taddhita affix.affixes which are applied to pronouns, किम् and बहु, ending in the ablative or in the locative case or in other cases on rare occasions. Such affixes are तस् (तसिल् ), त्र, (त्रल्), ह, अत्, दा, ऋहिल्, दानीम्, था ( थाल् ) and थम् given in P.V.3.1 to V.3.26.The case affixes are further divided into उपपदविभक्ति affixes and कारकविभक्ति affixes. For details see P.II.3.1 to 73.
vibhaktipratirūpakaa term applied to such words ending with kṛt affixes as appear similar to words ending with case-affixes; such words have no further case affixes put after them, and hence, they are called by the term 'avyaya'; exempli gratia, for example कर्तुम् confer, compare विभक्तिप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम् similar to उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाताः gaṇasūtra inside the Cādigaṇa P. I.4.57.
vibhāktisvarapratirūpakasimilar in form to a word ending in a case-affix or to a vowel. Such words are looked upon, and are treated as indeclinables exempli gratia, for example शनै:, चिरेण, अस्ति, उ, ए et cetera, and others; confer, compare the usual expressions तिडन्तप्रतिरूपकमव्ययम् et cetera, and others confer, compare विभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाता भवन्ति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII.3.1: confer, compare also उपसर्गविभक्तिस्वरप्रतिरूपकाश्च निपाताः । a gaṇasūtra inside the चादिगण mentioned in P.I.4.57.
vibhaktyarthaliterally the sense of a case-affix, as also of a personal affix; the term is applied to the Kāraka Prakarana or Kāraka chapter or topic in grammar where senses of the विभक्ति affixes are fully discussed and illustrated; confer, compare विभक्त्यर्था: a chapter in the Siddhānta-kaumudi of Bhaṭṭojī Dīkṣita.
vibhaktyarthanirṇayaa general term given to a chapter on case-affixes as also to treatises discussing the sense and relations of case-affixes. There is a treatise of this name written by Giridhara and another written by Jayakṛṣna Maunī.
vibhaktyarthapradhānaan indeclinable, which is generally described as having the sense of a case affix as predominant in it: exempli gratia, for example तत्र, अधः, नीचैः et cetera, and others; some indeclinables have the sense of a root viz. the verb-activity as predominant: confer, compare किंचिदव्ययं विभक्त्यर्थप्रधानं किचित् क्रियाप्रधानम् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.38.
vibhajyānvākhyānaa method of forming a word, or of arriving at the complete form of a word by putting all the constituent elements of the word such as the base, the affix, the augment, the modification, the . accent, et cetera, and others one after another and then arriving at the form instead of completing the formation stage by stage; e. g. in arriving at the form स्नौघ्नि the wording स्नौघ्न + अ +ई is to be considered as it stands and not स्नौघ्न + अ = स्नौघ्न and then स्नौघ्न +ई. The विभज्यान्वाख्यानपक्ष in connection with the formation of a word corresponds to the पदसंस्कारपक्ष in connection with the formation of a sentence.
vibhāga(1)lit, division, splitting; the splitting of a sentence into its constituent parts viz. the words; , the splitting of a word into its constituent parts viz. the base, the affix, the augments and the like: (2) understanding or taking a thing separately from a group of two or more; confer, compareअवश्यं खल्वपि विभज्योपपदग्रहणं कर्तव्यं यो हि बहूनां विभागस्तदर्थम् ! सांकाश्यकेभ्यश्च पाटलिपुत्रकेभ्यश्च माथुरा अभिरूपतराः, Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.V.3.57: (3) splitting of a Saṁhitā text of the Vedas into the Pada text: confer, compare अथादावुत्तरे विभागे ह्रस्वं व्यञ्जनपरः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.III.l, where विभाग is explained as पदविभाग by the commentator confer, compare also R.Pr.XVII.15; (4) the capacity of the Kārakas (to show the sense) confer, compare कारकशक्तिः विभागः Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā, a commentary on the Kāśikāvṛtti by Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyāsa. on Kāś.I.2.44.
viliṅga(1)a substantive which is declined in all the three genders confer, compare Hemacandra III. 1.142: (2) of a different gender (although in the same case); confer, compare विलिङ्ग हि भवान् लोके निर्देशे करोति M.Bh. on P. I. 1.44 Vārt 5.
vivibhaktipossessed of a different caseaffix confer, compare एवमपि विविभक्तीनां न प्राप्नोति । समर्थात् समर्थे पदात् पदे इति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.1. Vārt 19; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.27, VI.4.1; VII. 2.82.
viśrāntavidyādharaname of a grammar work of a general type which once occupied a prominent position and was studied as a text book of grammar, representing an independent system. The work is referred to by Hemacandra and Haribhadra. It is attributed to Vāmana who may be the same as one of the joint writers of the Kāśikāvṛtti. In that case the date of the work is the 7th century A. D.;confer, compare the popular verse परेत्र पाणिनीयज्ञाः केचित्कालपकोविदा: । एकेकं विश्रान्तविद्याः स्युरन्ये संक्षिप्तसारकाः quoted in Vol.VII p. 388 Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya D.E. Society's edition.
viṣayasaptamīlocative case denoting the domain or province of a particular suffix or a substitute or the like, which could be actually applied later on; this विषयसप्तमी is contrast ed with परसप्तमी when the thing mentioned in the locative case is required, to be present in front; confer, compareअसति पौर्वापर्ये विषयसप्तमी विज्ञास्यते Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 4.35; confer, compare also अार्धधातुके इति विषयसप्तमी Kāś, on P.II. 4.35; confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. III. 1.26 and IV. 1.90.
vihitaprescribed by a rule; that for which a vidhi or injunction has been laid down. The word is very frequently used by grammarians with respect to an affix prescribed after a base.
vihitaviśeṣaṇaan adjectival word generally in a different case from that of the word to which it is applied as an adjective, and hence, translated as 'prescribed after' and not as 'belonging to' confer, compare विहितविशेषणं धातुग्रहणम् । धातोर्यो विहित इति | Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.1.5 Vārt 3: confer, compare also Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on II.4.74. Vārt 1.
vṛtti(1)treatment, practice of pronunciation; (2) conversion of one phonetic element into another; confer, compare R.Pr.I.95;(3) position of the padas or words as they stand in the Saṁhhitā text, the word is often seen used in this way in the compound word पदवृत्ति; आन्पदा: पदवृत्तयः R.Pr. IV.17: (4) modes of recital of the Vedic text which are described to be three द्रुत, मध्य and विलम्बित based upon the time of the interval and the pronunciation which differs in each one; confer, compare Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.4. 109, Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini). 4; also I.l.69 Vārttika (on the Sūtra of Pāṇini).ll ; ( 5 ) nature confer, compare गुर्वक्षराणां गुरुवृत्ति सर्वम् R.Pr.XVIII.33; (6) interpretation of a word; (7) verbal or nominal form of a root; confer, compare अर्थनित्यः परीक्षेत केनचिद् वृत्तिसामान्येन Nirukta of Yāska.II.1; (8)mode or treatment followed by a scientific treatise; cf का पुनर्वृत्तिः । वृत्तिः शास्त्रप्रवृत्तिः | M.Bh. in Āhnika l on वृत्तिसमवायार्थ उपदेश: Vārttika 10; (9) manner of interpretation with the literal sense of the constituents present or absent, described usually as two-fold जहत्स्वार्था and अजहत्स्वार्था, | but with a third kind added by some grammarians viz. the जहदजहत्स्वार्था; (10) a compound word giving an aggregate sense different from the exact literal sense of the constituent words; there are mentioned five vṛittis of this kind; confer, compare परार्थाभिधानं वृत्तिः । कृत्तद्धितसमासैकदेशधातुरूपाः पञ्च वृत्तयः | वृत्त्यर्थावबोधकं वाक्यं विग्रहः S. K. at the end of the Ekaśeṣaprakaraṇa; ( 11 ) interpretation of a collection of statements; the word was originally applied to glosses or comments on the ancient works like the Sūtra works, in which the interpretation of the text was given with examples and counterexamples where necessary: confer, compare वृत्तौ भाष्ये तथा नामधातुपारायणादिषु; introductory stanza in the Kāśikā.Later on, when many commentary works were written,the word वृत्ति was diferentiated from भाष्य, वार्तिक, टीका,चूर्णि, निर्युक्ति, टिप्पणी, पञ्जिका and others, and made applicable to commentary works concerned with the explanation of the rules with examples and counter-examples and such statements or arguments as were necessary for the explanation of the rules or the examples and counter examples. In the Vyākaraṇa-Śāstra the word occurs almost exclusively used for the learned Vṛtti on Pāṇini-sūtras by Vāmana and Jayāditya which was given the name Kāśikā Vṛtti; confer, compare तथा च वृत्तिकृत् often occurring in works on Pāṇini's grammar.
vaidyanāthaVaidyanatha Payagunde, a famous grammarian of the eighteenth century, who was one of the chief pupils of Nagesa and who prepared a line of pupils at Varanasi. He has written learned commentaries on standard works on grammar, the principal ones being the Prabha on the Sabdakaustubha, the Bhavaprakasika on the Brhaccabdendusekhara, the Cidasthimala on the LaghuSabdendusekhara, the Kasika or Gada on the Paribhasendusekhara and an independent short treatise named Rapratyaya-khandana
vebhaktabelonging to a case-affix; confer, compare क्राभ्यां सॊ वैभक्तः ( मूर्धन्यमापद्यते )। ऋक्षु। वणिक्षु । confer, compare also वैभक्तस्य णत्वे P. VI. 1.85 Varttika 6.
vaiyādhikaraṇyaIit. possession of separate residences, as contrasted with सामानाधिकरण्य: absence of apposition; use in different cases, non-agreement in case.
vaiyarthyaabsence of any purpose or utility; the word is used many times in the case of a rule, or a word or two of it, in whose case वैयर्थ्य or absence of utility is shown, and, with a view to prevent its being looked upon as a serious fault, something is deduced and the purpose is shown; cf सूत्रवैयर्थ्यप्रसङ्गात् and व्यर्थं सज्ज्ञापयति used in grammar treatises.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakārikāa very scholarly work by Bhattoji Diksita on the interpretation of words and sentences, based upon the learned discussions on that subject introduced in the Mahabhasya, Vakyapadiya, Pradipa, et cetera, and others and discussed fully in his Sabdakaustubha by the author himselfeminine. The work although scholarly and valuable, is compressed in only 72 verses ( karikas ) and has to be understood with the help of the Vaiyakaranabhusana or BhuSansara written by Kondabhatta, the nephew of the author. See वैयाकरणभूषण and वैयाकरणभूषणसार.
vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntakaimudīan extremely popular work on the subject of Sanskrit grammar written for the use of students, which, although difficult at a few places, enables the students by its careful study to get a command over the subject. and enable him to read other higher works on grammar. The work is based on the Astadhyayi of Panini without omitting a single Sutra. The arrangement of the Sutras is, entirely different, as the author, for the sake of facility in understanding, has divided the work into different topics and explained the Sutras required for the topic by bringing them together in the topic. The main topics or Prakaranas are twelve in number, viz. (1) संज्ञापरिभाषा, (2) पञ्चसंधि, (3) सुबन्त or षड्लिङ्ग, (4) स्त्रीप्रत्यय, (5) कारक, (6) समास, (7) तद्धित, (8) तिङन्त, (9) प्रक्रिया, (10) कृदन्त, (11) वैदिकी and (12) स्वर which are sometimes styled as व्याकरणद्वादशी. The work is generally known by the term सिद्धान्तकौमुदी, or even कौमुदी, and it has got a large number of scholarly and ordinary commentaries as also commentaries on commentaries, all numbering a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. twelve, and two abridgments the Madhyakaumudi and the Laghukaumudi. The work was written by the reputed scholar Bhattoji Diksita of Varanasi in the seventeenth century. See Bhattoji Diksita.
veṣāyika(1)pertaining to the word विषय in the sutra विषयो देशे P. IV.2. 52; the term refers to the taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the sense of ’country' or ’district' (विषय) in P. IV. 2.52-54 as contrasted with नैवासिक affixes prescribed in the sense of 'inhabited district' by P. IV. 2.69-80 (2) one of the three senses of the locative case, viz. the sense 'substratum' of the locative case, which is not physical but which is a topical one, forming an object or aim of an , action as specified by the word 'about'; confer, compare अधिकरणं नाम त्रिप्रकारं व्यापकमौपश्लेषिकं वैषयिकमिति |
vyadhikaraṇacharacterized by different case-relations or case-affixes; possessed of different case-affixes; क: प्रसङ्गो यद् व्यधिकरणानां समासः स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 1.67.
vyartha(l)useless, serving no purpose, superfluous; the word is usually used in the sense of useless or futile in connection with a rule or its part, which serves no purpose, its purpose or object being served otherwise; such words or rules have never been condemned as futile by commentators, but an attempt is made invariably by them to deduce something from the futile wording and show its necessity; confer, compare व्यर्थे सज्ज्ञापयति a remark which is often found in the commentary literature; confer, compare अन्यथा अन्तरङ्गत्वाद्दीर्घे कृत एव प्रत्ययप्राप्त्या तद्यर्थता स्पष्टैव । Par. Sek. Pari. 56; (2) possessed of various senses such as the words अक्षा: माषा: et cetera, and others: confer, compare व्यर्थेषु च मुक्तसंशयम् । M.Bh.on P.I.2.64 Vart. 52. The word व्यर्थ possibly stands for विविधार्थ in such cases. It appears that the word व्यर्थ in the sense of futile was rarely used by ancient grammarians; the word अनर्थक appears to have been used in its placcusative case. See Mahabhasya in which the word व्यर्थ does not occur in this sense while the word अनर्थक occurs at several places.
vyavasthitavibhāṣāan option which does not apply universally in all the instances of a rule which prescribes an operation optionally, but applies necessarily in : some cases and does not apply at all in the other cases, the total result being an option regarding the conduct of the rule. The rules अजेर्व्यघञपॊ: P. II. 4.56, लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे III. 2.124 and वामि I. 4.5 are some of the rules which have got an option described as व्यवस्थितविभाषा. The standard instances of व्यवस्थितविभाषा are given in the ancient verse देवत्रातो गलो ग्राहः इतियोगे च सद्विधिः | मिथस्ते न विभाष्यन्ते गवाक्षः संशितव्रतः|| M. Bh, on P, III. 3.156; VII.4.41.
vyākaraṇaratnāvalīa short work on grammar written by विद्यारत्न गौरमॊदन. व्याकरणसंग्रह a small grammar work written by a grammar scholar Gangadhara which is based upon the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.
śaṃkarabhaṭṭaname of a grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote a commentary, called शांकरी after him, on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara.
śakandhukaname of a class of words in whose case the last vowel of the first word does not coalesce with the first vowel of the next word; e. g. शक अन्धुक ईश । अक्षपा असि | वपा इव त्मना | सुपथा अकृण्वन् [ confer, compare शकन्धुकादीनाम् R.T.87 which is explained by the commentator as शकन्धुकादीनां च न संनिकृष्यत.
śakyawhich forms the object pointed out by means of the potentiality to the hearer by the word (id est, that is शब्द) which directly communicates the sense, in which case it is termed वाचक as contrasted with भेदक or द्योतक when the sense,which is of the type of संबन्ध is conveyed rather indirectly. This nice division into वाचकता and भेदकता was introduced clearly by भर्तृहरि: confer, compare Vakyapadtya Kanda 2.
śāṅkaṭactaddhita affix. affix शङ्कट applied optionally with the affix शालच् ( शाल ) to the prefix वि in the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे); exempli gratia, for example विशङ्कटम् ! विशालम् ।; confer, compare S.K. on P.V. 2.28; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.V.2.28 which states विशाले विशङ्कटे शृङ्गे । तस्माद् गौरपि विशङ्कट उच्यते !
śatṛkrt affix अत् in the sense of ' the agent of the present time ', applied to any root which takes the Parasmaipada personal affixes confer, compare लट: शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे P. III. 2.126,8. The words formed with this शतृ (अत्) affix are termed present participles in the declension of which, by virtue of the indicatory vowel ऋ in शतृ, the augment नुम् is inserted after the last vowel of the base, and the root receives such modifications as are caused by a Sarvadhatuka affix, the affix शतृ being looked upon as a Sarvadhatuka affix on account of the indicatory letter श्. The word ending in this affix शतृ governs a noun forming its object, in the accusative case.
śatṛsvarathe acute accent specifically stated for the vowel of the caseaffix beginning with a vowel et cetera, and others prescribed by the rule शतुरनुमे। नद्यजादी P. VI. 1.173: confer, compare शतृस्वर , तुदती नुदती ... शतुरनुमो नद्यजादिरन्तांदात्तादित्वेष स्वरो यथा स्यात् Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. VIII. 2.6. Vart 2.
śabdaliterally "sound" in general; confer, compare शब्दं कुरु शब्दं मा कार्षीः | ध्वनिं कुर्वनेवमुच्यते | M.Bh. in Ahnika I; confer, compare also शब्दः प्रकृतिः सर्ववर्णानाम् | वर्णपृक्तः: शब्दो वाच उत्पत्तिः Taittirīya Prātiśākhya.XXIII.1, XXIII.3.In grammar the word शब्द is applied to such words only as possess sense; confer, compare प्रतीतपदार्थको लोके ध्वनि: शब्द: Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). in Ahnika 1: confer, comparealso येनोच्चरितेन अर्थः प्रतीयते स शब्दः Sringara Prakasa I; confer, compare also अथ शब्दानुशासनम् M.Bh. Ahnika 1. In the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, शब्द् is said to be constituted of air as far as its nature is concerned, but it is taken to mean in the Pratisakhya and grammar works in a restricted sense as letters possessed of sense, The vajasaneyiPratisakhya gives four kinds of words तिडू, कृत्, तद्धित and समास while नाम, आख्यात, निपात and उपसर्ग are described to be the four kinds in the Nirukta. As शब्द in grammar, is restricted to a phonetic unit possessed of sense, it can be applied to crude bases, affixes, as also to words that are completely formed with case-endings or personal affixes. In fact, taking it to be applicable to all such kinds, some grammarians have given tweive subdivisions of शब्द, vizप्रक्रुति, प्रत्यय,उपत्कार, उपपद, प्रातिपदिक, विभक्ति, उपसर्जन, समास, पद, वाक्य, प्रकरण and प्रबन्ध; confer, compare Sringara Prakasa I.
śabdakaustubhaa treatise on grammar, critically explaining and discuss ing the meaning of Panini's Sutras in the order of the author himselfeminine. the work is written by Bhattoji Diksita and is mainly based on the Mahabhasya.
śabdarūpāvalia very brief treatise on declension giving the forms of the seven cases of a few choice-words. The work is studied as the first elementary work and is very common without the name of any specific author.There are different works named शब्दरूपावलि giving declensions of different words which are all anonymous, although from the dates of manuscripts mentioned, they appear to be more than five or six hundred years old.
śabdasiddhi(1)formation of a complete word fit for use by adding proper suffixes to the crude base and . making the necessary modifications confer, compare नैव व्याकरणादृते शब्दसिद्धिः | ( 2 ) name of a commentary by महादेव on the Katantra sutravrtti by Durgasimha.
śabdārthavyākaraṇaexplanation of the sense of a word as arising from the word by stating the base, the affixes and the modifications to the base and the affixes.
śarvavarmāa reputed grammarian who is believed to have been a contemporary of the poet Gunadhya in the court of Satavahana. He wrote the Grammar rules which are named the Katantra Sutras which are mostly based on the Sutras of Panini. In the grammar treatise named 'the Katantra Sutra' written by Sarvavarman the Vedic section and all the intricacies and difficult elements are carefully and scrupulously omitted by him, with a view to making his grammar useful for beginners and students of average intelligence.
śas(l)case affix (अस् ) of the accusative plural;confer, compare स्वौजसमौट्शस्o P.IV. 1.2; (2) taddhita affix.affix applied to words meaning much or little as also to a numeral: exempli gratia, for example बहुशो ददाति, अल्पशो ददाति, द्विश:, त्रिश:, पादशः et cetera, and others, confer, compare P. V.4.42, 43.
śāṃkari(1)name of a glo:s on Kondabhatta's Vaiyakaranabhusanasara by Samkara; (2) name of a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesa written by Sankarabhatta; (3) The Vyakarana vidya or instructions in Grammar given by God Siva to Panini on which the Siksa of Panini has been basedition
śānac(1)krt affix ( अान ) substituted for the Atmanepada लट् affixes, to which म् is prefixed if the base before the affix ends in अ; e. g. एधमान, विद्यमान, etc; cf P. III. 2. 124, 125, 126; (2) Vikarana affix ( अान ) substituted for श्ना before the personal ending हि of the imperative second person singular, if the preceding root ends in a consonant: e. g. पुषाण, मुषाण, confer, compare P. III. 1. 83.
śālactaddhita affix. affix शाल applied to the prefix वि in the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ). See शङ्कटच्.
śicase-affix इ substituted for the case-affixes जस् and शस् of the nominative case. plural and the acc. plural in the neuter gender; confer, compare जश्शसोः शिः P. VII. 1.20. This affix शि is called सर्वनामस्थान just like the first five caseaffixes in the masculine and feminine. gender. This case affix is seen dropped in Vedic passages; confer, compare शेच्छन्दसि बहुलं ( लोप: ) P. VI. 1.70.
śiṣyahitā(वृत्ति)a work on grammar written by उग्रभूति of which a mention is made by Al Beruni in his work. शी (1) case affix (ई) substituted for the nominative case. plural affix जस् (अस् ) in the declension of the pronouns, when the affix जस् is preceded by the vowel अ; exempli gratia, for example सर्वे, विश्वे; confer, compare kas. on P VII.1.17; (2) case affix (ई ) substituted for औ of the nominative case. and the acc. dual after feminine. bases ending in आ, as also after bases in the neuter gender; exempli gratia, for example खट्वे रमे; कुण्डे, वने; confer, compare Kas on P. VII.1.18, 19.
śuklayajuḥprātiśākhyaname of the Pratisakhya treatise pertaining to the White Yajurveda which is also called the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. This work appears to be a later one as compared with the other PratiSakhya works and bears much similarity with some of the Sutras of Panini. It is divided into eight chapters by the author and it deals with letters, their origin and their classification, the euphonic and other changes when the Samhita text is rendered into the Pada text, and accents. The work appears to be a common work for all the different branches of the White Yajurveda, being probably based on the individually different Pratisakhya works of the different branches of the Shukla Yajurveda composed in ancient times. Katyayana is traditionally believed to be the author of the work and very likely he was the same Katyayana who wrote the Varttikas on the Sutras of Panini.
śecase-ending seen in Vedic Literature substituted for any one of the 2l case-endings as found in Vedic Language; words ending in this शे ( ए ) are not coalesced with a vowel that follows; e.g अस्मे इन्द्रबृहस्पती; confer, compare P.VII.1.39 and I.1.13.
śeṣacakrapāṇia grammarian of the Sesa family who wrote a small treatise on case-relations named कारकतत्त्व.
śeṣaśarbhanalso known by the name मनीषिशेषशर्मन्, a grammarian who has written सर्वमङ्गला, a commentary on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara.
śeṣaśāstrīa grammarian who wrote a commentary on the Paribhasendusekhara of Nagesabhatta.
śeṣa ṣaṣṭhīthe genitive case used in any other senses than those given in the specific rules. The expression शेषे षष्ठी भविष्यति is often found in commentary works.
śauṇḍādia class of words headed by the word शौण्ड which are compounded with a noun in the locative case to form a locative tatpurusa compound; e. g. अक्षशौण्डः, अक्षधूर्तः et cetera, and others; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P.II.1.40.
śrīdharaa grammarian of the last century who has written a commentary named श्रीधरी after him, on the Paribhasendusekhara.
śrīdharīname of commentary on the Paribhasendueskhara written by Sridhara. See श्रीधर.
śrīmaṇikaṇṭhaa famous grammarian who held the titles महामहोपाध्याय, प्रगल्भतर्कसिंह and भट्टाचार्य and who has written a systematic work on caserelations named कारकखण्डनमण्डन; the work is also known by the name षट्कारकखण्डनमण्डन.
śrīmānaśarmāa famous grammarian of Eastern India who has written a short scholarly gloss named Vijaya on Nagesa's Paribhasendusekhara. For details refer to Paribhasasamgraha.
ślua term used in the sense of elision or lopa in the case of the affix शप् when it is elided after the roots headed by हु, i. e. roots of the third conjugation as also after any root wherever it is so seen in the Vedic Literature: confer, compare बहुलं छन्दसि P. III. 4. 76. This श्लु is looked upon as a substitute zero, or nil for the general vikarana शप् in the case of these roots; confer, compare जुहोत्यादिभ्यः श्लुः P. II. 4. 75. The specific feature of this elision of the vikarana शप् by means of the term श्लु, is that it causes reduplication of the roots to which it is added; confer, compare लुकि प्रकृते श्लुविधानं द्विर्वचनार्थम् Kas, on. P. II. 4. 75 and P. III. 1. 10.
śluvadbhāvatreatment as before the elision named श्लु, i. e. reduplication of the preceding root. This श्लुवद्भाव is prescribed in the case of the roots भी, ह्री, भृ and हु; confer, compare भीह्रीभृहुवां श्लुवच्च P. III. 1. 39.
(l)a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार and महाप्राण ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष्, attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् et cetera, and others showing the addition of the feminine affix ई ( ङीष् ); confer, compare षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् when placed at the beginn