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     Grammar Search "arthe" has 7 results.
     
arthe: neuter nominative dual stem: artha
arthe: feminine nominative dual stem: artha
arthe: neuter accusative dual stem: artha
arthe: feminine accusative dual stem: artha
arthe: neuter locative singular stem: artha
arthe: masculine locative singular stem: artha
ārthe: neuter vocative dual stem: ārtha
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8 results for arthe
     
Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
arthe locative case ind. with 1. kṛ- (gaRa sakṣād-ādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthegamfn. following one's business or vocation, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthef. idem or 'f. desire of wealth ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthepsutāf. desire of wealth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arthetmfn. ( i-), active, hasty (said of running waters) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tvadartheind. on thy account, about thee. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yadartheind. on which account, for which purpose, wherefore, why etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yadartheind. as, since, because, whereas View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
     Apte Search  
36 results
     
añjaliḥ अञ्जलिः m. [अञ्ज्-अलि Uṇ.4.2.] 1 A cavity formed by folding and joining the open hands together, the hollow of the hands; hence, a cavity. full of anything (changed to अञ्जल or ˚लि after द्वि and त्रि in द्विगु comp., P.V.4.12); न वार्यञ्जलिना पिवेत् Ms.4.63; सुपूरो मूषि- काञ्जलिः Pt.1.25; अरण्यबीजाञ्जलिदानलालिताः Ku.5.15; प्रकीर्णः पुष्पाणां हरिचरणयोरञ्जलिरयम् Ve.1.1. a cavityful of flowers; so जलस्याञ्जलयो दश Y.3.15.1 cavityfuls or libations of water; श्रवणाञ्जलिपुटपेयम् Ve.1.4. to be drunk by the cavity of the ear; अञ्जलिं रच्, बन्ध्, कृ or आधा fold the hands together and raise them to the head in supplication or salutation; बद्धः, कातर्यादरविन्द- कुङ्मलनिभो मुग्धः प्रणामाञ्जलिः U.3.37. -2 Hence a mark of respect or salutation; कः शक्रेण कृतं नेच्छेदधिमूर्धानमञ्जलिम् Bk.8.84; बध्यतामभययाचनाञ्जलिः R.11.78. -3 A measure of corn = कुडव; another measure = प्रसृत, or one-half of a मानिका. -Comp. कर्मन् n. folding the hands, respectful salutation; लुब्धमर्थेन गृह्णीयात् क्रुद्धं चाञ्जलि- कर्मणा Chāṇ.33. -कारिका 1 an earthen doll making the अञ्जलि (?). -2 N. of a plant, Mimosa Pudica (लज्जालु) (Mar. लाजाळू). -पुटः-टम् the cavity formed by joining the hands together; hollowed plams of the hand.
āliñjaraḥ आलिञ्जरः [अलिञ्जर एव स्वार्थे अण्] A large earthen waterjar.
uddhiḥ उद्धिः [उद्-धा-कि] उपसर्गे धोः किः P.III.3.92. Ved. 1 A particular part of a carriage (the part which rests on the axles). -2 An earthen stand on which the Ukhā rests.
uṣṭraḥ उष्ट्रः [उष्-ट्रन्-किच्च Uṇ.4.161.] 1 Camel; अथोष्ट्रवामी- शतवाहितार्थम् R.5.32; Ms.3.162,4.12,11.22. -2 A buffalo. -3 A bull with a hump. -4 A cart or carriage. -ष्ट्री 1 A she-camel. -2 An earthen vessel in the shape of a camel. -3 Bignonia Spathacea (Mar. मेडशिंगी). [cf. Pers. ushtar; Zend ustra.] -Comp. -अक्षः A camel-eyed (horse) उष्ट्राक्षाः प्रियदर्शनाश्च सुभगाः श्वासैः सुगन्धैश्च ये; Bhoja's Śālilhotra. -कर्णिका (pl.) N. of a country or its inhabitants, in the south. -काण्डी A thistle dear to camels, Echinops echinatus (Mar. उंटकटारी). -क्रोशिन् a. making a noise like a camel. -गोयुगम् a couple of camels; यथा गोस्तद्वदुष्ट्रस्य युगं उष्ट्रगो- युगम् Mbh. on P.V.2.29. -ग्रीवः, -शिरोधरः piles. -निषदनम् A particular posture among Yogins. -पादिका Jasminum Zambac (Mar. मोगरा). -प्रमाणः A kind of fabulous eight-footed animal शरभ. -यानम् camel- litter.
uṣṭrikā उष्ट्रिका 1 A she-camel. -2 An earthen wine-vessel of the shape of a camel; पञ्चानामुष्ट्रिकाणां पूरणो घटः Mbh. on P.V.2.48. धूर्भङ्गसंक्षोभविदारितोष्ट्रिका Śi.12.26. उष्ण uṣṇa उष्णक uṣṇaka उष्मन् uṣman उष्ण उष्णक उष्मन् see under उष्.
kaṭoram कटोरम् An earthen vessel.
kaṭhina कठिन a. 1 Hard, stiff; कठिनविषमामेकवेणीं सारयन्तीम् Me. 93; Amaru.72; Mu.2.2; so ˚स्तनौ. -2 Hardhearted, cruel, ruthless; न विदीर्ये कठिनाः खलु स्त्रियः Ku.4.5; Pt.1.64; विसृज कठिने मानमधुना Amaru.7; so ˚हृदय; ˚चित्त -3 Inexorable, inflexible. -4 Sharp, violent, intense (as pain &c). नितान्तकठिनां रुजं मम न वेद सा मानसीम् V.2.11. -5 Giving pain. -नः A thicket. -ना 1 A sweetmeat made with refined sugar. -2 An earthen vessel for cooking; (n. also in this sense). -नी Chalk. See कठिनिका. -नम् 1 A Shovel, scoop; प्लवे कठिनकाजं च रामश्चक्रे समाहितः Rām.2.55.17. -2 An earthen vessel for cooking (स्थाली); कठिनं पूरयामास Mb. 3.297.1. -3 A strap or pole for carrying burden; P. IV.4.72. -Comp. -पृष्ठः, -कः a tortoise.
kamaṇḍaluḥ कमण्डलुः लु n., लू f. A water-pot (earthen or wooden) used by ascetics; कमण्डलूपमो$मात्यस्तनुत्यागो बहुग्रहः H.2.89. कमण्डलुनोदकम् सिक्त्वा; Ms.2.64; Y.1.133. -Comp. -तरुः the tree of which Kamanḍalus are made. -धरः an epithet of Śiva. कमण्डलुधराय धीमहि Māhānār.2.18.
kuḍikā कुडिका An earthen or wooden water-pot.
kumbhī कुम्भी 1 A small water-jar; Rām.2.91.72. -2 An earthen cooking vessel; आविष्कुर्वन्त्यखिलवचनेष्वत्र कुम्भी- पुलाकन्यायाज्ज्योतिर्नयगतिविदां निश्चलं मानभावम् Viś. Guṇa.534. -3 A measure of grain. -4 N. of several plants. like इभपाटला, वारिपर्णी, लघुदन्ती, जेपाळ, कायफळ &c. -Comp. -धान्यम् grain stored in jars sufficient for six days. -धान्यकः a householder who stores grain; Ms.4.7. -नसः a kind of venomous serpent; उद्वेल्लन्ति पुराणरोहिणतरु- स्कन्धेषु कुम्भीनसाः U.2.29. -नसी mother of Lavaṇa and sistar of Rāvaṇa; स च प्राप मधूपघ्नं कुम्भीनस्याश्च कुक्षिजः R.15.15. -पाकः 1 the contents of a cooking-vessel. -2 (sing. or pl.) a particular hell in which the wicked are baked like potter's vessels; Y.3.224; Ms.12.76. -मुखम् N. of a parlicular wound; Charaka. -वल्कम् (Mar. कायफळ.).
kuhana कुहन a. 1 Envious. -2 Hypocritical. -नः 1 A mouse -2 A snake. -ना 1 Hypocrisy; 'कुहना दम्भचर्यायामीर्ष्यालौ कुहनस्त्रिषु' Medini; Viś. Guṇā.388. -2 Assumed and false sanctity. -3 The interested performance of religious austerities, hypocrisy. -नम् 1 A small earthen vessel; 'कुहनं मृत्तिकाभाण्डविशेषे काचभाजने' Medini. -2 A glass vessel.
kaulālaka कौलालक a. Made by, or pertaining to, a potter. -कम् Earthenware, porcelain.
kvaṇ क्वण् 1 P. (क्वणति, क्वणित) 1 To sound (indistinctly), jingle, tinkle; इति घोषयतीव डिण्डिमः करिणो हस्तिपकाहतः क्वणन् H.2.86; क्वणन्मणिनूपुरौ Amaru.31. (v.l. रणन्) Ṛs..3.24; Me.37. -2 To hum warble (as bees &c); sing indistinctly; किंचित्क्वणत्किंनरमध्युवास Ku.1.54; U.3.24; Bk.6.84. -3 To blow (flute); वेणुं क्वणन्तम् (कृष्णम्) Bhāg.1.15.42. क्वणः kvaṇḥ क्वणनम् kvaṇanam क्वणितम् kvaṇitam क्वाणः kvāṇḥ क्वणः क्वणनम् क्वणितम् क्वाणः 1 A sound in general. -2 The sound of any musical instrument. -नः A small earthen pot or boiler.
ghaṭaḥ घटः [घट-अच्] 1 A large earthen water-jar, pitcher, jar, watering-pot; आकाशमेकं हि यथा घटादिषु पृथग्भवेत् Y. 3.144; कूपे पश्य पयोनिधावपि घटो गृह्णाति तुल्यं जलम् Bh.2.49. -2 The sign Aquarius of the zodiac (also called कुम्भ). -3 An elephant's frontal sinus. -4 Suspending the breath as a religious exercise. -5 A measure equal to 2 droṇas. -6 A part of a column; स्तम्भं विभज्य नवधा वहनं भागो घटो$स्य भागो$न्यः Bṛi. S.53.29. -7 A border. -8 A peculiar form of a temple; Bṛi. S.56.18,26. -9 The head; 'घटः समाधिभेदे ना शिरः कूटकटेषु च' Medinī; Mb.1.155.38. -Comp. -आटोपः covering for a carriage or any article of furniture. -उदरः N. of Gaṇeśa; घटोदरः शूर्पकर्णो गणाध्यक्षो मदोत्कटः Ks.55.165. -उद्भवः, -जः, -योनिः, -संभवः epithets of the sage Agastya. -ऊधस् f. (forming घटोध्नी) a cow with a full udder; गाः कोटिशः स्पर्शयता घटोध्नीः R.2.49. -कञ्चुकि n. a rite practised by Tāntrikas and Śāktas (in which the bodices of different women are placed in a receptacle (घट) and the men present at the ceremony are allowed to take them out one by one and then cohabit with the woman to whom each bodice belongs); Āgamapr. -कर्परः 1 N. of a poet. -2 a piece of a broken jar, pot-sherd; जीयेय येन कविना यमकैः परेण तस्मै वहेयमुदकं घट- कर्परेण Ghāṭ.22. -कारः, -कृत् m. a potter; Bṛi. S.15. 1;16.29. -ग्रहः a water-bearer. -दासी a procuress; cf. कुम्भदासी. -पर्यसनम् the ceremony of performing the funeral rites of a patita or apostate (who is unwilling to go back to his caste &c.) during his very life-time. -भवः, -योनिः Agastya. -भेदनकम् an instrument used in making pots. -राजः a water-jar of baked clay. -स्थापनम् placing a water-pot as a type of Durgā for nine days (नवरात्रम्).
ghaṭikā घटिका 1 A small water-jar, bucket, a small earthen vessel; नार्यः श्मशानघटिका इव वर्जनीयाः Pt.1.192; एष क्रीडति कूपयन्त्रघटिकान्यायप्रसक्तो विधिः Mk.1.59. -2 A measure of time equal to 24 minutes. -3 A water-pot used in calculating the Ghaṭikās of the day; -4 The ankle. -Comp. -मण्डलम् the equatorial circle. -यन्त्रम् See घटीयन्त्र.
nandā नन्दा [नन्दयति नन्द्-अच्] 1 Delight, joy, happiness. -2 Affluence, wealth, prosperity. -3 A small earthen water-jar. -4 A husband's sister. -5 The first, sixth and eleventh days of a lunar fortnight (considered as auspicious tithis;) नन्दा भद्रा जया रिक्ता पूर्णा च प्रतिपत् क्रमात् Jyotistattvam. -6 An epithet of Gaurī. -7 N. of a cave; नन्दागुहायामिव नागराजः Bu. Ch.1.19.
para पर a. [पॄ-भावे-अप्, कर्तरि अच्-वा] (Declined optionally like a pronoun in nom. voc. pl., and abl. and loc. sing. when it denotes relative position) 1 Other, different, another; see पर m also. -2 Distant, removed, remote; अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः Bg.4.4. -3 Beyond, further, on the other side of; म्लेच्छदेशस्ततः परः Ms.2.23;7.158. -4 Subsequent, following, next to, future, after (usually with abl.); बाल्यात् परामिव दशां मदनो$ध्युवास R.5.63; Ku.1.31. -5 Higher, superior; सिकतात्वादपि परां प्रपेदे परमाणुताम् R.15.22; इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहु- रिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः । मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ॥ Bg.3.42. -9 Highest, greatest, most distinguished, pre-eminent, chief, best, principal; क्षत्रात् परं नास्ति Bṛi. Up.1.4.11. न त्वया द्रष्टव्यानां परं दृष्टम् Ś.2; Ki.5.18; परतो$पि परः Ku.2.14 'higher than the highest'; 6.19; Ś7.27. -7 Having as a following letter or sound, followed by (in comp.). -8 Alien, estranged, stranger. -9 Hostile, inimical, adverse, -1 Exceeding, having a surplus or remainder, left over; as in परं शतम् 'exceeding or more than a hundred. -11 Final, last. -12 (At the end of comp.) Having anything as the highest object, absorbed or engrossed in, intent on, solely devoted to, wholly engaged or occupied in; परिचर्यापरः R.1.91; so ध्यानपर, शोकपर, दैवपर, चिन्तापर &c. -रः 1 Another person, a stranger, foreigner; oft. in pl. in this sense; यतः परेषां गुणग्रहीतासि Bv.1.9; Śi.2.74; see एक, अन्य also. -2 A foe, an enemy, adversary; उत्तिष्ठमानस्तु परो नोपेक्ष्यः पथ्यभिच्छता Śi.2.1; Pt.2.158; R.3.21. -3 The Almighty; तावदध्यासते लोकं परस्य परचिन्तकाः Bhāg.3.32.8. -रम् 1 The highest point or pitch, culminating point. -2 The Supreme Sprit; तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत् परम् Bg.5.16. -3 Final beatitude; असक्तो ह्याचरन् कर्म परमाप्नोति पूरुषः Bg.3.19. -4 The secondary meaning of a word. -5 (In logic) One of the two kinds of सामान्य or generality of notion; more extensive kind, (comprehending more objects); e. g. पृथ्वी is पर with respect to a घट). -6 The other or future world; परासक्ते च वस्तस्मिन् कथमासीन्मनस्तदा Mb.6.14.55. Note-The acc., instr. and loc. singulars of पर are used adverbially; e. g. (a) परम् 1 beyond, over, out of (with abl.); वर्त्मनः परम् R.1.17. -2 after (with abl.); अस्मात् परम् Ś.6.24; R.1.66;3.39; Me.12; भाग्यायत्त- मतः परम् Ś.4.17; ततः परम् &c. -3 thereupon, thereafter. -4 but, however. -5 otherwise. -6 in a high degree, excessively, very much, completely, quite; परं दुःखितो$स्मि &c. -7 most willingly. -8 only. -9 at the utmost. (b) परेण 1 farther, beyond, more than; किं वा मृत्योः परेण विधास्यति Māl.2.2. -2 afterwards; मयि तु कृतनिधाने किं विदध्याः परेण Mv.2.49. -3 after (with abl.) स्तन्यत्यागात् परेण U.2.7. (c) परे 1 afterwards, thereupon; अथ तेन दशाहतः परे R.8.73. -2 in future. -Comp. -अङ्गम् the hinder part of the body. -अङ्गदः an epithet of Śiva. -अणुः See परमाणु; Bhāg.1.14.11. -अदनः a horse found in the country of Persia or Arabia. -अधिकारचर्चा officiousness, meddlesomeness. -अधीन a. dependent on another, subject, subservient; अन्नमेषां पराधीनं देयं स्याद्भिन्नभाजने Ms.1.54,83; H.1.119. -अन्तः final death. (-ताः) m. (pl.) N. of a people. -अन्तकः an epithet of Śiva. -2 a frontier. -अन्तकालः the time of death; ते ब्रह्मलोकेषु परान्तकाले परामृताः परिमुच्यन्ति सर्वे Muṇḍ.3.2.6. -अन्न a. living or subsisting on another's food. (-न्नम्) the food of another; परगृहललिताः परान्नपुष्टाः Mk.4.28. ˚परिपुष्टता being fed with the food of others; Y.3.241. ˚भोजिन् a. subsisting on the food of others; रोगी चिरप्रवासी परान्नभोजी परावसथशायी । यज्जीवति तन्मरणं यन्मरणं सो$स्य विश्रामः ॥ H.1.12. -अपर a. 1 far and near, remote and proximate. -2 prior and posterior. -3 before and beyond, earlier and later. -4 higher and lower, best and worst. (-रः) a Guru of an intermediate class. (-रम्) (in logic) a property intermediate between the greatest and smallest numbers, a species (as existing between the genus and individual); e. g. पृथ्वी which is पर with _x001F_1respect to a घट is अपर with respect to द्रव्य; द्रव्यत्वादिक- जातिस्तु परापरतयोच्यते Bhāṣā. P.8. -अभिध्यानम् self-conceit; high opinion for self or body (देहाभिमान); स्वयं पराभिध्यानेन विभ्रंशितस्मृतिः Bhāg.5.14.1. -अमृतम् rain. -अयण (अयन) a. 1 attached or devoted to, adhering to. -2 depending on, subject to. -3 intent on, solely devoted to or absorbed in (at the end of comp.); प्रभुर्धनपरायणः Bh.2.56; so मोह˚; अथ मोहपरायणा सती विवशा कामवधूर्विबोधिता Ku.4.1; अग्निहोत्र˚ &c. -4 connected with. -5 being a protector (त्राता); अबर्हाश्चरणैर्हीनाः पूर्वेषां वः परायणाः Mb.1.23.4. -6 leading or conducive to. -(णम्) 1 the principal or highest objest, chief aim, best or last resort; एतत् परायणम् Praśna Up.1.1; तपसश्च परायणम् Rām.1.21.1; Mb.12.179.12. -2 essence, sum. -3 Ved. going away, departure, exit. -4 firm devotion. -5 a universal medicine, panacea. -6 a religious order. -अर्थ a. 1 having another aim or meaning. -2 intended or designed for another, done for another. (-र्थः) 1 the highest interest or advantage. -2 the interest of another (opp. स्वार्थ); स्वार्थो यस्य परार्थ एव स पुमानेकः सतामग्रणीः Subhāṣ.; R.1.29. -3 the chief or highest meaning. -4 the highest object (i.e. sexual intercourse). -5 the supreme good (मोक्ष); ज्ञात्वा प्रजहि कालेन परार्थमनुदृश्य च Mb.12.288.9. -6 Something else. Hence परार्थता or परार्थत्व means 'being subsidiary to something else; परार्थता हि गुणभावः ŚB. on MS.4.3. -7 an object which is meant for another's use (Sāṅ. Phil.); सङ्घातपरार्थत्वात् त्रिगुणादिविपर्ययादधिष्ठानात् Sāṅ. K.17. ˚वादिन् a. speaking for another; mediator, substitute. -अर्थिन् a. striving for the supreme good. (-र्थम् -र्थे) ind. for the sake of another. -अर्धम् 1 the other part (opp. पूर्वार्ध); the latter half; दिनस्य पूर्वार्धपरार्धभिन्ना छायेव मैत्री खलसज्जनानाम् Bh.2.6. -2 a particular high number; i. e. 1,,,,,; एकत्वादिपरार्धपर्यन्ता संख्या T. S. -अर्धक a. One half of anything. -अर्ध्य a. 1 being on the farther side or half. -2 most distant in number; हेमन्तो वसन्तात् परार्ध्यः Śat. Br. -3 most excellent, best, most exalted, highly esteemed, highest, supreme; R.3.27;8.27;1.64;16;39; आबद्धप्रचुरपरार्ध्यकिंकिणीकः Śi.8.45. -4 most costly; Śi.4.11; श्रियं परार्ध्यां विदधद् विधातृभिः Bu. Ch.1.1. -5 most beautiful or lovely, finest; R.6.4; परस्परस्पर्धिपरार्ध्यरूपाः पौरस्त्रियो यत्र विधाय वेधाः Śi.3.58. -6 Divine: असावाटीत् सङ्ख्ये परार्ध्यवत् Bk.9.64. (-र्ध्यम्) 1 a maximum. -2 an infinite number. -अवर a. 1 far and near; परावराणां स्रष्टारं पुराणं परमव्ययम् Mb.1.1.23. -2 earlier and later. -3 prior and posterior or subsequent. -4 higher and lower. -5 traditional; पुनाति पङ्क्तिं वंश्यांश्च सप्त सप्त परावरान् Ms.1. 15. -6 all-including; परावरज्ञो$सि परावरस्त्वम् Mb.3.232. 18. (-रा) descendants. (-रम्) 1 cause and effect. -2 the whole extent of an idea. -3 the universe. -4 totality. ˚ज्ञ, ˚दृश् a. knowing both the past and the future; परावरज्ञो ब्रह्मर्षिः Mb.1.6.5. -अवसथ- शायिन् a. sleeping in another's house; H.1.12. -अहः the next day. -अह्णः the afternoon, the latter part of the day. -आगमः attack of an enemy. -आचित a. fostered or brought up by another. (-तः) a slave. -आत्मन् m. the Supreme Spirit. -आयत्त a. 1 dependent on another, subject, subservient; परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथमिव रसं वेत्तु पुरुषः Mu.3.4. -2 Wholly subdued or overwhelmed by. -आयुस् m. an epithet of Brahman; नाहं परायुर्ऋषयो न मरीचिमुख्या जानन्ति यद्विरचितं खलु सत्त्वसर्गाः Bhāg.8.1.12. -आविद्धः 1 an epithet of Kubera. -2 of Viṣṇu. -आश्रय a. dependent upon another. (-यः) 1 dependence upon another. -2 the retreat of enemies. (-या) a plant growing on another tree. -आसङ्गः dependence upon another. -आस्कन्दिन् m. a thief, robber. -इतर a. 1 other than inimical; i. e. friendly, kind. -2 one's own; विधाय रक्षान् परितः परेतरान् Ki.1.14. -ईशः 1 an epithet of Brahman. -2 of Viṣṇu. -इष्टिः N. of Brahman. -इष्टुका a cow which has often calved. -उत्कर्षः another's prosperity. -उद्वहः the Indian cuckoo. -उपकारः doing good to others, benevolence, beneficence, charity; परोपकारः पुण्याय पापाय परपीडनम्. -उपकारिन् a. benevolent, kind to others. -उपजापः causing dissension among enemies; परोपजापात् संरक्षेत् प्रधानान् क्षुद्रकान् अपि Kau. A.1.13. -उपदेशः advising others; परोपदेशे पाण्डित्यम्. -उपरुद्ध a. besieged by an enemy. -उपसर्पणम् approaching another; begging. -ऊढा another's wife. -एधित a. fostered or brought up by another. (-तः) 1 a servant. -2 the (Indian) cuckoo. -कर्मन् n. service for another. ˚निरतः a servant. -कलत्रम् another's wife. ˚अभिगमनम् adultery; वरं क्लैब्यं पुसां न च परकलत्राभिगमनम् H.1.116. -कायप्रवेशनम् entering another's body (a supernatural art). -कारः The deeds of the enemy; राज्ञः समीपे परकारमाह प्रज्ञापनैषा विबि- धोपदिष्टा Kau. A.2.1. -कार्यम् another's business or work. ˚निरतः 1 a benevolent man. -2 a slave, servant. -काल a. relating to a later time, mentioned later. -कृतिः an example or precedent, a passage descriptive of the doings of men; MS.6.7.26. -क्रमः doubling the second letter of a conjunction of consonants. -क्रान्तिः f. inclination of the ecliptic. -क्षेत्रम् 1 another's body. -2 another's field; ये$क्षेत्रिणो बीजवन्तः परक्षेत्रप्रवापिणः । ते वै सस्यस्य जातस्य न लभन्ते फलं क्वचित् ॥ Ms.9.49. -3 another's wife; तौ तु जातौ परक्षेत्रे Ms.3.175. -गामिन् a. 1 being with another. -2 relating to another. -3 beneficial to another. -गुण a. beneficial to another. (-णः) the virtue of another; परगुणपरमाणून् पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यम् Bh.2.78. -ग्रन्थिः joint (as of a finger); an articulation. -ग्लानिः f. subjugation of an enemy; आत्मोदयः परग्लानिर्द्वयं नीतिरितीयती Śi.2.3. -चक्रम् 1 the army of an enemy. -2 invasion by an enemy, one of the six itis q. v. -3 a hostile prince. -छन्द a. dependent. (-दः) 1 the will of another. -2 dependence. ˚अनुवर्तनम् following the will of another. -छिद्रम् a weak or vulnerable point of another, a defect in another. -ज a. 1 stranger. -2 coming from a foe. -3 inferior. -जनः a stranger (opp. स्वजन); शक्तः परजने दाता Ms.11.9. -जन्मन् n. a future birth. -जात a. 1 born of another. -2 dependent on another for livelihood. (-तः) a servant. -जित a. 1 conquered by another. -2 maintained by another. (-तः) the (Indian) cuckoo. -तन्त्र a. dependent on another, dependent, subservient. -तन्त्रम् (a common group of) subsidiaries belonging to another; जैमिनेः परतन्त्रापत्तेः स्वतन्त्रप्रतिषेधः स्यात् MS.12.1.8. (see तन्त्रम्). -तर्ककः a suppliant, beggar; Dānasāgara, Bibliotheca Indica, 274, Fascicule 1, p.15; also परतर्कुक. -तल्पगामिन् m. One who approaches another man's wife. -तार्थिकः The adherent of another sect. -दाराः m. (pl.) another's wife; ˚अभिगमनम्, ˚अभिमर्षः Adultery. -दारिन् m. an adulterer. -दुःखम् the sorrow or grief of another; विरलः परदुःखदुःखितो जनः; महदपि परदुःखं शीतलं सम्यगाहुः V.4.13. -देवता the Supreme Being. -देशः a hostile or foreign country. -देशिन् m. a foreigner. -द्रोहिन्, -द्वेषिन् a. hating others, hostile, inimical. -धनम् another's property. -धर्मः 1 the religion of another; स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः Bg.3.35. -2 another's duty or business. -3 the duties of another caste; परधर्मेण जीवन् हि सद्यः पतति जातितः Ms.1.97. -ध्यानम् absolute meditation or contemplation; ध्येये मनो निश्चलतां याति ध्येयं विचिन्तयत् । यत् तद् ध्यानं परं प्रोक्तं मुनिभिर्ध्यानचिन्तकैः ॥ Garuḍa P. -निपातः the irregular posteriority of a word in a compound; i. e. भूतपूर्वः where the sense is पूर्वं भूतः; so राजदन्तः, अग्न्याहितः &c. -निर्वाणम् the highest निर्वाण; (Buddh.). -पक्षः the side or party of an enemy. -पदम् 1 the highest position, eminence. -2 final beatitude. -परिग्रह a. see पराधीन; स्ववीर्यविजये युक्ता नैते पर- परिग्रहाः Mb.7.144.22. -हः another's property (as wife &c); यथा बीजं न वप्तव्यं पुंसा परपरिग्रहे Ms.9.42-3. -परिभवः humiliation or injury suffered from others. -पाकनिवृत्त a. One who does not depend on others for his sustenance and performs the पञ्चयज्ञs faultlessly and takes food in his own house. -पाकरत a. one who depends upon others for his sustenance but performs the usual ceremonies before cooking; पञ्चयज्ञान् स्वयं कृत्वा परान्नमुपजीवति । सततं प्रातरुत्थाय परपाकरतस्तु सः ॥ -पाकरुचिः having a liking for others' food; परपाकरुचिर्न स्यादनिन्द्या- मन्त्रणादृते Y.1.112. -पिण्डः another's food, food given by another. ˚अद् a., ˚भक्षक a. one who eats another's food or one who feeds at the cost of another; यादृशो$हं परपिण्डभक्षको भूतः Mk.8.25/26; (-m.) a servant. ˚रत a. feeding upon another's food; परपिण्डरता मनुष्याः Bh. -पुरञ्जयः a conqueror, hero. -पुरुषः 1 another man, a stranger. -2 the Supreme Spirit, Viṣṇu. -3 the husband of another woman. -पुष्ट a. 1 fed or nourished by another. -2 Stranger. (-ष्टः) the (Indian) cuckoo. ˚महोत्सवः the mango tree. -पुष्टा 1 the (Indian) cuckoo. -2 a parasitical plant. -3 a harlot, prostitute. -पूर्वा a woman who has or had a former husband; Ms.3.166; पतिं हित्वा$पकृष्टं स्वमुत्कृष्टं या निषेवते । निन्द्यैव सा भवेल्लोके परपूर्वेति चोच्यते Ms.5.163. -प्रतिनप्तृ m. son of the great grand son. -प्रपौत्रः (see प्रतिनप्तृ). -प्रेष्यः a servant, menial, slave. -ब्रह्मन् n. the Supreme Spirit; cf. लीने परे ब्रह्मणि Bh. परे ब्रह्मणि को$पि न लग्नः Śaṅkara (चर्पटपञ्जरिका 7). -भागः 1 another's share. -2 superior merit. -3 good fortune, prosperity. -4 (a) excellence, superority, supremacy; दुरधिगमः परभागो यावत् पुरुषेण पौरुषं न कृतम् Pt.1.33;5.34. (b) excess, abundance, height; स्थलकमलगञ्जनं मम हृदय- रञ्जनम् जनितरतिरङ्गपरभागम् Gīt.1; आभाति लब्धपरभागतया- धरोष्ठे R.5.7; Ku.7.17; Ki.5.3;8.42; Śi.7.33; 8.51;1.86;12.15. -5 the last part, remainder. -भाव a. loving another. -भावः the being second member in a compound. -भाषा a foreign tongue. -भुक्त a. enjoyed or used by another; परभुक्तां च कान्तां च यो भुङ्क्ते स नराधमः । स पच्यते कालसूत्रे यावच्चन्द्रदिवाकरौ ॥ Brav. P. -भूत a. following, subsequent (as words). -भृत् m. a crow (said to nourish the cuckoo). -भृत a. nourished by another. -भृतः, -ता the (Indian) cuckoo; (so called because she is nourished by another i. e. by a crow); प्रागन्तरिक्षगमनात्- स्वमपत्यजातमन्यैर्द्विजैः परभृताः खलु पोषयन्ति Ś.5.22; Ku.6.2; R.9.43; Ś.4.1. -भतम् 1 another's opinion. -2 different opinion or doctrine; heterodoxy. -मर्मज्ञ a. knowing the secrets of another. -मृत्युः a crow. -रमणः a married woman's gallant or paramour; स्वाधीने पररमणे धन्यास्तारुण्यफलभाजः Pt.1.18. -लोकः the next (or furture) world; परलोकनवप्रवासिनः प्रतिपत्स्ये पदवीमहं तव Ku. 4.1. ˚गमः, ˚यानम् death. ˚विधि funeral rites; परलोक- विधौ च माधव स्मरमुद्दिश्य (निबपेः सहकारमञ्जरीः) Ku.4.38. -वश, -वश्य a. subject to another, dependent, dependent on others; सर्वं परवशं दुःखं सर्वमात्मवशं सुखम्. -वाच्यम् a fault or a defect of another; प्रकटान्यपि नैपुणं महत् परवाच्यानि चिराय गोपितुम् Śi.16.3. -वाणिः 1 a judge. -2 a year. -3 N. of the peacock of Kārtikeya. -वादः 1 rumour, report. -2 Objection, controversy. -वादिन् m. a disputant, controversialist. -वेश्मन् n. the abode of the Supreme Being. -व्रतः an epithet of Dhṛitarāṣṭra. -शब्दः a word expressive of something else; परशब्दस्य परत्र वृत्तौ तद्वद् भावो गम्यते ŚB. on MS.7.2.1. -श्वस् ind. the day after tomorrow. -संगत a. 1 associated with another. -2 fighting with another. -संज्ञकः the soul. -सवर्ण a. homogeneous with a following letter (in gram.). -सात् ind. into the hands of another. ˚कृता a woman given in marriage. -सेवा service of another. -स्त्री another's wife. -स्वम् another's property; व्यावृता यत् परस्वेभ्यः श्रुतौ तस्करता स्थिता R.1.27; Ms.7.123. ˚हरणम् seizing another's property. -हन् a. killing enemies. -हित a. 1 benevolent. -2 profitable to another. -तम् the welfare of another; सन्तः स्वयं परहिताभिहिताभियोगाः Bh.
pāḍinī पाडिनी 1 An earthen pot. -2 A boiler.
pātilī पातिली 1 A snare, trap. -2 A small earthen vessel (Mar. पातेलें). -3 A woman of a particular class. पातिव्रती pātivratī पातिव्रत्यम् pātivratyam पातिव्रती पातिव्रत्यम् Fidelity to a husband, chastity; Śāhendra.1.61.
pārthiva पार्थिव a. (-वी f.) [पृथिव्याः ईश्वरः इदं वा अण्] 1 Earthen, earthy, terrestrial, relating to the earth; यतो रजः पार्थिवमुज्जिहीते R.13.64. -2 Ruling the earth. -3 Princely, royal. -वः 1 An inhabitant of the earth. -2 A king, sovereign; अथ तस्य विवाहकौतुकं ललितं बिभ्रत एव पार्थिवः R.8.1. -3 An earthen vessel. -4 The body. -5 The विकार of the earth; अयं जनो नाम चलन् पृथिव्यां यः पार्थिवः पार्थिव कस्य हेतोः Bhāg.5.12.5. -6 A गृह्याग्नि of the naming ceremony (नामकरण). -वम् An earthy substance. -वा 1 A royal concubine. -2 Arsenic (see निघण्टरत्नाकर). -Comp. a prince, the son of a king. -नन्दिनी, -सुता, -कन्या the daughter of a king, princess. -आत्मजः, -नन्दनः, -सुतः, -पुत्रः the sun. ˚पौत्रः 'Yama's son', Yudhiṣṭhira; स वृत्तवांस्तेषु कृताभिषेकः सहानुजः पार्थिवपुत्रपौत्रः Mb.3.118.2.
piśīlam पिशीलम् लकम् Ved. An earthen vessel.
puṣpakam पुष्पकम् 1 Flower. -2 Calx of brass. -3 A cup of iron. -4 The car of Kubera (snatched off from him by Rāvaṇa and from him by Rāma); वैमानिकाः पुण्यकृतस्त्य- जन्तु मरुतां पथि, पुष्पकालोकसंक्षोभम् R.1.46;13.4. -5 A bracelet. -6 A kind of collyrium. -7 A particular disease of the eyes. -8 A bracelet of jewels. -9 A small earthen fireplace.
bhava भव a. [भवत्यस्मात्, भू-अपादाने अप्] (At the end of comp.) Arising or produced from, originating in. -वः 1 Being, state of being, existence, (सत्ता); तथाप्यहं योषिदतत्त्वविच्च ते दीना दिदृक्षे भव मे भवक्षितिम् Bhāg.4. 3.11. -2 Birth, production; भवो हि लोकाभ्युदयाय तादृशाम् R.3.14; S.7.27. -3 Source, origin. -4 Worldly existence; mundane or worldly life, life; as in भवार्णव, भवसागर &c.; कर्मबन्धच्छिदं धर्मं भवस्येव मुमुक्षवः Ku.2.51; भवोच्छेदकरः पिता ते R.14.74; Śi.1.35. -5 The world. -6 Well-being, health, prosperity; भवाय युष्मच्चरणानु- वर्तिनाम् Bhāg.1.27.9; कालेनानुगृहीतैस्तैर्यावद्वो भव आत्मनः Bhāg.8.6.19; Rām.5.27.6. -7 Excellence, superiority. -8 N. of Śiva; तमब्रवीद् भवो$सीति तद्यदस्य तन्नामाकरोत पार्जन्यं तद्रूपमभवत् पर्जन्यो वै भवः Śat. Br.; दक्षस्य कन्या भवपूर्व- पत्नी Ku.1.21;3.72. -9 A god, deity. -1 Acquisition (प्राप्ति). -वौ (dual) Śiva and Bhavānī. -Comp. -अग्रम् the farthest end of the world; Buddh. -अतिग a. overcoming worldly existence. -अन्तकृत् m. 1 N. of Buddha. -2 an epithet of Brahman. -अन्तरम् another existence (previous or future); शुभाशुभफलं सद्यो नृपाद्देवा- द्भवान्तरे Pt.1.121. -अब्धिः, -अर्णवः, -समुद्रः, -सागरः, -सिन्धुः the ocean of worldly life. -अभवौ (m. dual.) 1 existence. -2 prosperity and adversity. -अभीष्टम् bdellium. -अयना, -नी the Ganges. -अरण्यम् 'a forest of worldly life,' a dreary world. -आत्मजः an epithet of Gaṇeśa or Kārtikeya. -आर्त a. sick of the world, disgusted with worldly cares and troubles. -ईशः N. of Śiva. -उच्छेदः destruction of worldly existence; सतां भवोच्छेदकरः पिता ते R.14.74. -क्षितिः f. the place of birth. -घस्मरः a forest-conflagration. -छिद् a. cutting the (bonds of) worldly life, preventing recurrence of birth; भवच्छिदस्त्र्यम्बकपादपांशवः K.1. -छेदः prevention of recurring birth; मनुष्यजन्मापि सुरासुरान् गुणैर्भवान् भवच्छेद- करैः करोत्यधः Śi.1.35. -जलम् the water (or ocean) of worldly existence. -दारु n. the devadāru tree. -नाशिनी N. of the river Sarayū -प्रतिसंधिः coming into being. -बन्धेशः N. of Śiva. -भङ्गः delivery from births or transmigration. -भाज् a. living in the world of mortals. -भावन a. conferring welfare. -भीरु a. afraid of worldly existence. -भूतम् the source of all beings, i. e. the Supreme Being. -भूतिः N. of a celebrated poet (see App.II.); भवभूतेः संबन्धाद् भूधरभूरेव भारती भाति । एतत्कृतकारुण्ये किमन्यथा रोदिति ग्रावा ॥ Āryā. S.36. (-f.) welfare, prosperity. -भोगः the enjoyment or pleasure of the world. -मन्युः the resentment against the world. -मोचनः N. of Kṛiṣṇa. -रुद् m. a drum beaten at funeral ceremonies. -वीतिः f. 1 liberation from worldly existence; भववीतये हतबृहत्तमसामवबोधवारि रजसः शमनम् Ki.6. 41. -2 end of the world. -व्ययः (du.) birth and dissolution. -शेखरः the moon. -संगिन् a. attached to worldly existence. -संततिः an uninterrupted series of births and transmigrations.
bhūmaya भूमय a. (-यी f.) Earthen, earthly, made of or produced from earth.
mandāmaṇiḥ मन्दामणिः A big jar, earthern water vessel; Gīrvāṇa.
mallikā मल्लिका 1 A kind of jasmine; वनेषु सायंतनमल्लिकानां विजृम्भणोद्गन्धिषु कुड्मलेषु R.16.47; वनमल्लिकामतल्लिकोद्वेल्लितधमिल्लः Bhāratachampū मल्लिकाकुसुमदुण्डुभकेन N.21.43. -2 A flower of this jasmine; विन्यस्तसायंतनमल्लिकेषु (केशेषु) R.16. 5; Kāv.2.215. -3 A lamp-stand. -4 An earthen vessel of a particular form. -Comp. -गन्धम् a kind of agallochum. -छद्, -छदनम् n. a shade for a lamp.
mārttika मार्त्तिक a. (-की f.) [मृत्तिकया निर्मितम् अण्] Made of clay, earthen. -कः 1 A kind of pitcher. -2 The lid of a pitcher. -कम् A clod or lump of earth; गुरुमध्ये हरिणाक्षी मार्त्तिकशकलैर्निहन्तुकामं माम् Bv.2.49.
māheya माहेय a. (-यी f.) 1 Terrestrial. -2 Made of earth, earthen; शातकुम्भमयैः कुम्भैर्माहेयैश्चाभिमन्त्रितैः Mb.8.1.44. -यः 1 The planet Mars. -2 The demon Naraka. -3 Coral.
mṛd मृद् f. [मृद्यते मृद् कर्मणि क्विप्] 1 Clay, earth, loam; आमोदं कुसुमभवं मृदेव धत्ते मृद्गन्धं न हि कुसुमानि धारयन्ति Subhāṣ.; प्रभवति शुचिर्बिम्बोद्ग्राहे मणिर्न मृदां चयः U.2.4. -2 A piece of earth, lump of clay; मृदः शुद्धिमभीप्सता Ms.5.136. -3 A mound of earth. -4 A kind of fragrant earth. -Comp. -कणः a small clod or lump of earth. -करः a potter. -कांस्यम् an earthen vessel. -किरा an earthworm. -क्षारम् a radish. -ग a. growing in clay. (-गः) a kind of fish. -घटः an earthen pot, pitcher. -चयः (मृच्चयः) a heap of earth. -पचः a potter. -पात्रम्, -भाण्डम् earthen-ware, a vessel of clay. -पिण्डः a clod of earth, a lump of clay. ˚बुद्धिः 'clodpated', a blockhead; मया च मृत्पिण्डबुद्धिना तथैव गृहीतम् Ś.6. -प्रक्षेपः scattering earth over (for purification); मृत्प्रक्षेपेण शुध्यति Ms.5.125. -फली Costus Speciosus (कोष्ठ). -लोष्टः a clod of earth. -शकटिका (मृच्छकटिका) a small car of earth, a toy-cart; (it is the name of a celebrated play by Sūdraka). -स्तोमः a heap of earth.
mṛnma मृन्म (ण्म) य a. Earthen; स मृण्मये वीतहिरण्मयत्वात् पात्रे निधायार्घ्यमनर्घशीलः R.5.2.
śarāvaḥ शरावः वम् [शरं दध्यादिसारमवति अव्-अण् Tv.] 1 A shallow dish, platter, an earthenware vessel, tray; मोदकशरावं गृहीत्वा V.3; Ms.6.56. -2 A cover, lid. -3 A measure equal to 2 Kudavas.
śālā शाला [शाल्-अच्] 1 An apartment, a room, saloon, hall; न तत्र च आरामविहारार्थाः शालाः स्युः Kau. A.2.1; गृहैर्विशालैरपि भूरिशालैः Śi.3.5; so संगीतशाला, रंङ्गशाला &c.; निजमधिरुह्य विलोकनीयशालम् Śiva B.26.78. -2 A house, an abode; तस्यान्त इह भूयास्म महाशाला महाकुलाः । -3 The upper or main branch of a tree. -4 The trunk of a tree. -5 A stable, stall; as in वाजिशाला, गर्दभशाला &c.; शाला- विधिस्तम्भगतैश्च नागैः R.16.41. -6 A pavilion erected for making gifts; Dānasāgara, Bibl. Ind.274, Fasc.1. p. 146. -Comp. -अजिरः, -रम् a hollow earthen cup. -मुखम् the front of a house. (-खः) a kind of rice. -मृगः a jackal. -वृकः 1 a dog; सिंहानां च सुखेन मूर्धसु पदं धास्यन्ति शालावृकाः Bv.1.72. -2 a wolf. -3 a deer. -4 a cat. -5 a jackal. -6 a monkey. -सद् a. one who stays at home; शालासदां प्रजानाम् Ait. Br.1.14.
sthālī स्थाली 1 An earthen pot or pan, a cooking-pot, caldron, kettle; न हि भिक्षुकाः सन्तीति स्थाल्यो निधिश्रीयन्ते Sarva. S.; स्थाल्यां वैडूर्यमय्यां पचति तिलखलीमिन्धनैश्चन्दनाद्यैः Bh.2.1. -2 A particular vessel used in the preparation of Soma. -3 The trumpet-flower. -Comp. -द्रुमः Ficus Benjamina or Indica (Mar. नादुरखी). -पाकः 1 a particular religious act performed by a householder. -2 a dish of rice boiled in milk. -पुरीषम् the sediment or dirt sticking to a cooking-pot; स्थालीपुरीषादीन्यप्यमृतवद- भ्यवहरति Bhāg.5.9.11. -पुलाकः boiled rice in a cooking-pot; यथा स्थालीपुलाकेन MS.7.4.12; अलिङ्गास्वपि स्थाली- पुलाकवत् सिद्धिः ŚB. on MS.8.1.11. ˚न्यायः see under न्याय; also see तुल्यन्याय and तुल्यपाक. -बिलम् the interior or hollow of a caldron; P.V.1.7. -बिलीयम्, -बिल्यम् a. fit for cooking (rice etc.).
haṇḍā हण्डा ind. A vocative particle used in addressing a female of inferior rank, or by equals of the lowest caste in addressing each other; हण्डे हञ्जे हलाह्वाने नीचां चेटी सखीं प्रति Ak. -f. 1 A large earthen vessel (?). -2 A low caste female; cf. हञ्जा.
haṇḍikā हण्डिका हण्डी An earthen pot.
hāṭaka हाटक a. (-की f.) Golden. -कम् 1 Gold; नवहाटकेष्टक- चितं ददर्श सः क्षितिपस्य पस्त्यमथ तत्र संसदि Śi.13.63. -2 The thorn-apple. -3 A kind of magical drink; या वै विलायनं प्रविष्टं पुरुषं रसेन हाटकाख्येन साधयित्वा Bhāg.5.24.16. -Comp. -ईशः, -ईशानः, -ईश्वरः N. of a form of Śiva; ततो$धस्ताद्वितले हरो भगवान् हाटकेश्वरः स्वपार्षदभूतगणावृतः Bhāg. 5.24.17. -हाडिका An earthen pot. -गिरिः the mountain Meru.
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para pár-a, a. farther, ii. 12, 8; higher, x. 15, 1; remote, x. 15, 10 [pṛ pass].
parama para-má, spv. a. farthest, iv. 50, 3; x. 14, 8; 129, 7; highest, i. 154, 5. 6; ii. 35, 14; iv. 50, 4.
pāra pār-á, m. farther shore, ii. 33, 3 [pr pass = crossing; Gk. πόρο-ς ‘passage’].
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para a. [leading beyond: √ 2. pri], 1. of place: farther, than (ab.); remoter, ulterior; opposite (shore); next (life); 2. of time: past, previous; future, subsequent; following (ab.); latest, extreme (age), high (time); 3. of amount: exceeding, more than (ab., --°ree;); remaining over; 4. of sequence: following, coming next after (ab., --°ree;); repeated: each successive; 5. of degree: superior, higher, better, worse, than (ab.; rarely --°ree;); supreme, pre-eminent, best; utmost, deepest, greatest; 6. of range: transcending (ab.); 7. of relation: other; alien, strange, hostile; different, from (ab.); m. descendant; stranger; adversary, foe, enemy; universal soul, the Absolute; n. remotest distance; height, summit, acme; supreme bliss; extreme limit (--°ree;); further or wider meaning of a word (--°ree;, a. synonymous with); chief aim, main thing: --°ree;, a. having -as the main thing=intent on, absorbed in, deeply affected with, mainly consisting in, chiefly meant for, altogether based on; -m, ad. afterwards, subsequently; beyond, after (ab.); highly, excessively; completely; at the most; nothing but, only; however, but; atah param, beyond that; after that; next; hereafter; still further; itah param, henceforth; tatah or tatas ka --, id.; thereupon; na½asmât param, no more of that, enough; na param - api, not only--but also; na param--yâvat, not only--but even; yadi param, if at all, perhaps; param tu or kim tu, however, but; param na--api na, not only not--but also not.
parama spv. farthest, remotest, extreme, last; highest, chief, primary; su preme, transcendant; most excellent, best, greatest; worst; better, greater, worse, than (ab.); n. extreme limit; chief aim, main thing: only --°ree; a. amounting at the most to; wholly occupied with, doing nothing but, solely intent on, engrossed with: -m, ad. very well, yes (expressing assent); °ree;--, ad. extremely, exceedingly, greatly, very.
parāvara a. farther and nearer, preceding and following, superior and inferior; all-comprising; n. cause and effect; totality.
pāka m. (--°ree;, a. î) cooking, baking; boiling (int.); baking (of bricks and earthen ware); digestion; ripening, maturing; ap pearance of consequences (of an action), accomplishment, fulfilment; result; maturity, full development; N. of a demon: -kriyâ, f. cooking; -ga, a. produced by cooking or baking: -tva, n. abst. n.
pāraga a. crossing to the farther bank; having gone to the end of anything, having accomplished, -thoroughly studied, fully conversant with (g., lc., --°ree;); deeply learned; -gata, pp. having reached the oppo site bank, having safely crossed (g.); -grâm ika, a. hostile: -m vidhim âkikîrshati, prepares for hostilities.
pāra a. [√ 2. pri] taking across; (m.) n. opposite or farther bank or boundary; bank; extreme limit, extremity, end, goal; -kâma, a. wishing to reach the other bank.
punaḥpāka m. repeated cooking; repeated burning (of earthenware); -pratyu pakâra, m. retribution; -prepsâ, f. desire to regain.
pṛthivīkampa m. earthquake; -kshit, a. inhabiting the earth; earth-ruling; m. prince, king; -kandra, m. N. of a prince of Trigarta; -tala, n. surface of the earth, ground; also=world, infernal regions (bot tom of the earth); -danda-pâla, m. chief constable of the country: -tâ, f. office of --; -devî, f. N.; -pati, m. lord of the earth, prince, king; -paripâlaka, m. prince, king; -pâla: -ka, m. keeper of the earth, king, sovereign; -bhug, m. enjoyer of the earth, prince, king; -bhugamga, m. spouse of the earth, prince, king; -bhrit, m. support of the earth, mountain; -máya, formed of earth, earthen; -râgya, n. dominion over the land, sovereignty; -ruha, m. (growing out of the earth), plant, tree; -½îsa, -½îsvara, m. lord of the earth, prince, king; -½âpîda, m. N. of two princes of Cashmere.
pradakṣiṇit ad. in such a manner that one's right side is turned towards an object; -dakshinî-kri, turn one's right side towards (ac.), walk round (ac.) from left to right; -dakshinena, in. ad. from left to right; towards the south; -dagdhavya, fp. to be burnt; -datta, pp. (√ dâ) given up, re stored: -nayana½utsava, a. affording a feast to the eyes; -dará, m. dispersion (of an army); cleft, fissure (in the ground); -darsa, m. ap pearance (--°ree;); direction, injunction: -ka, a. showing, indicating; propounding, teaching; m. teacher; -darsana, n. appearance (often --°ree;); showing, exhibition, designation; teach ing; example: â, f. indication; -darsin, a. (--°ree;) beholding, seeing; showing, indicating; -darsya, cs. gd. having exhibited or shown; -dahana, n. burning (of earthenware).
prathas n. breadth; extension: -vat, a. broad, extensive; -â, f. spreading out; fame, celebrity; origin (--°ree;); -ita, pp. √ prath; -i-mán, m. breadth; extension, enlargement; -ishtha, spv., -îyas,cpv. of prithú; -u, a. distant, long (journey); reaching farther than (ab.).
pravarga m. large earthenware pot (used in the Pravargya ceremony); -vargyã, m. introductory ceremony of the Soma sacri fice, at which fresh milk is poured into a red-hot pot: -vat, a. connected with the Pravargya ceremony; -várgana, n. perform ance of the Pravargya rite, placing in or near the fire; -vartaka, a. (ikâ) causing to roll onward, setting in motion; promoting, insti gating; causing, producing; m.founder, author; n. entrance of a previously announced person on the stage (at the end of the intro duction); -vartana, n. advance, forward movement; emergence from (ab.); flow (of water); walking; activity; occupation with, engaging in (in., lc.); going on, proceeding, coming to pass, occurrence; procedure, be haviour; moving onward; erection, execu tion (of works); stimulation, promotion, pro duction, introduction, employment (of, g. or --°ree;): â, f. incitement to activity; -vartanî ya, fp. to be employed; -commenced; -vart ayitri, m. instigator, of (g.), to (lc.); erector, introducer; employer: -tva, n. instigation; -vartita, cs. pp.administered, dispensed; al lowed to take its course; enforced; -varti tavya, fp. n. imps. one should act; -varti tri, m. producer, bringer; one who fixes or settles; -vartin, a. issuing, streaming forth; moving forward, flowing; engaging in action; causing to flow; producing; employing; in troducing, propagating; -vartya, fp. being incited; -vardha-ka, a. (ikâ) augmenting, increasing (--°ree;); -vardhana, a. id.; -varsha, m. rain (sts. pl.):-na, n. raining; first rain; -varshin, a. raining, shedding (--°ree;); -varha, v. -barha; -valha, m. riddle; -vasathá, n. departure; separation (pl.) from (ab.); -vas ana, n. setting out on travel; dying, de cease; -vaha, a.carrying, wafting; m. one of the seven winds which set the planets in motion; one of the seven tongues of fire; reservoir for receiving water; -vahana, n. giving a girl in marriage; carriage; ship (also î, f.: --°ree; a. â): -bha&ndot;ga, m. shipwreck.
prāktana a. (î) anterior, former, previous; ancient; -tanaya, m. former pu pil; -tarâm, ad. farther east; -tûla, a. having the tufts directed eastwards: -tâ, f. eastward direction (of sacrificial utensils);-pada, n. first member of a compound (gr.); -pravana, a. sloping towards the east.
mallikā f. kind of jasmine (Jas minum Sambac: both flower and plant); earthen vessel of a particular shape (Pr.).
mahāpakṣa a. having many ad herents, having a large following; -pa&ndot;ka, n. (?) deep mud; -pa&ndot;kti, f. a metre of forty-eight syllables; -pandita, a. extremely learned; m. great scholar; -patha, m. prin cipal street; high road; the great journey, pilgrimage to the other world (-m yâ, die); a certain hell; a. having a great path: -giri, m. N. of a mountain; -padma, n. a certain high number; m. one of the eight treasures connected with the magic art padminî; N. of a Nâga: -pati, m. lord of millions, ep. of Nanda, -saras, n. N. of a lake, -salila, n. id.; -padya-shatka, n. T. of a poem (at tributed to Kâlidâsa) consisting of six classi cal verses; -½aparâdha, m. great crime or injury; -parvata, m. high mountain; -pasu, m. large cattle; -pâta, m. long flight; a. flying far (arrow); -pâtaka, n. great crime or sin (of which there are five: killing a Brâhman, drinking spirituous liquor, theft, adultery with a teacher's wife, and asso ciation with persons guilty of those four crimes); -pâtakin, a. guilty of a capital sin; -pâtra, n. prime minister; -pâda, a. large footed; -pâpa, n.great crime; -pâpman, a. very harmful; -pâra, 1. m. a certain per sonification; 2. a. having distant banks, wide (sea); -pârsva, a. having broad sides (leech); N.; -pâsupata, a. with vrata, n. the great vow of a worshipper of Siva Pasupati; m. zealous worshipper of Siva Pasupati; -pîtha, n. high seat; -pumsa, m. great man; -punya, a. very auspicious (day); very good or beau tiful; very holy; -purá, n. great fortress: î, f. great citadel; -purusha, m. great or eminent man; supreme spirit; -pûta, pp. extremely pure; -prishtha, a. broad-backed; -pai&ndot;gya, n. T. of a Vedic text; -prakarana, n. main treatment of a subject; -pragâpati, m. great lord of creatures, ep. of Vishnu; -pratâpa, m. of great dignity, majestic; -pratîhâra, m. head janitor; -pradâna, n. great gift; -prapañka, m. the great world; -prabha, a. of great lustre, very splendid; -prabhâ, f. great brightness;-prabhâva, a. very mighty; -prabhu, m. great lord, sovereign; chief; ep. of Vishnu; -pramâna, a. very exten sive; -pralaya, m. great dissolution of the universe at the end of a cosmic age: -kâla, m. time of the --; -prasna,m. great or im portant question; -prasâda, m. great pre sent; a. very gracious; -prasthâna, n. great departure, decease; -prâgña, a. very wise or prudent (person); -prâna, m. hard breath ing, aspirate sound; great strength; a. pro nounced with a hard breathing, aspirated; of great endurance or physical strength; -plava, m. great flood, deluge; -phala, n. large fruit; great reward; a. producing a great reward; -bala, a. very strong, power ful, or effective; m. N.; -bâdha, a. very in jurious; -bâhu, a. long-armed, strong-armed; m. ep. of Vishnu; N.; -bila, n. deep hole; -buddhi, a. of great intellect, extremely clever; m. N. of an Asura; N.; -brihatî, f. a metre (8+8+8+8+12 syllables); -brah ma: -n, m. the great Brahman (the god); -brâhmaná, m. great Brâhman (also used sarcastically); n. Great (=Tândya) Brâh mana; -bhata, m. great warrior; N.; -bha ya, n. great danger or straits; -bhâga, a. having great good fortune, very lucky, greatly blessed; greatly distinguished, very illus trious (frequently used as a term of address); -bhâgin, a. very fortunate, greatly blessed; -bhâgya, n.high position, great importance or power; a. extremely fortunate: -tâ, f. great good fortune; -bhânda½agâra, n. chief treasury; -bhârata, a. (± a word meaning &open;battle&close;), the Great Battle of the Bharatas; n.(± âkhyâna), the Great Story of the Bharatas, T. of the well-known great Epic (which contains about 100,000 slokas); -bhâshya, n. the Great Commentary of Patañgali on the Sûtras of Pânini and the Vârttikas of Kâtyâyana (probably composed in the second century b. c.); -bhikshu, m. the great mendicant, ep. of Sâkyamuni; -½abhi- gana, m. high descent, noble birth; -½abhi yoga, m. great plaint or charge; -½abhishava, m. N. of a prince; -½abhisheka, m. great inauguration; T. of the fourteenth Lambaka of the Kathâsaritsâgara; -bhîta, pp. greatly terrified; -½abhîsu, a. brilliant, lustrous; -bhuga, a. long-armed; -bhûta, pp. being great, large (E.); m. great creature; n. gross element (ether, air, fire, water, earth); -bhû mi, f. great realm; whole territory (of a king); -½âbhoga, a. of great extent, wide spreading; -bhoga, 1. a. having great coils (serpent); m. serpent; -bhoga, 2. m. great enjoyment; -bhoga, m. great prince; -½abhra, n. great or thick cloud; -makha, m. great sacrifice (=-yagña); -mani, m. costly jewel; -mati, a. of great wit, clever; m. N.; (&asharp;) manas, a. lofty-minded, proud, haughty; high-minded, magnanimous; -manushya, m. great man, man of rank; -mantra, m. very efficacious spell (esp. against snake-poison); -mantrin, m. chief counsellor, prime minister; -mahá, a. high and mighty (RV.); -mah as, n. great luminary; -mahiman, m. true greatness; a. truly great; -mahima-sâlin, a. possessed of true greatness; -mahâ½upâ dhyâya, m. very great preceptor (a desig nation applied to great scholars, e.g. Malli nâtha); -mâmsa, n. delicious flesh (esp. human flesh); -½amâtya, m. prime minister; -mâtra, a. of great measure, great; greatest, best (of, --°ree;); m. man of high rank, high state official, king's minister; elephant-driver; -mânin, a. extremely proud; -mâya, a. at tended with great deception; practising great deception; m. N.; -mâyâ, f. the great illu sion (which makes the world appear really existent and thus in a sense creates it); -mây ûra, n. a kind of medicine; kind of prayer (--°ree;); -mârga, m. main road: -pati, m. chief inspector of roads; -mâhesvara, m. great worshipper of Mahesvara or Siva; -mukha,n. large mouth (also of rivers); a. (î) large mouthed; -muni, m. great sage; -mûdha, a. very stupid; m. great simpleton; -mûrkha, m. great fool; -mûrdhan, a. large-headed (Siva); -mriga, m. large wild animal; ele phant;-mridha, n. great battle; -megha, m. great or dense cloud; -medha, m. great sacrifice; (&asharp;)-meru, m. the great Mount Meru; -moha, m. great mental confusion or infatuation; -mohana, a. causing great men tal confusion; -moha-mantra, m. very effi cacious spell: -tva, n. abst. n.; -yaksha, m. great Yaksha, prince of the Yakshas; -yag- ñá, m. great or chief sacrifice (one of the five daily sacrifices of the householder, called bhûta-, manushya-, pitri-, deva-, and brah ma-yagña); -yantra, n. great mechanical work: -pravartana, n. execution of great mechanical works; -yama-ka, n. a great Yamaka (a stanza, all the four lines of which contain identically the same words but differ in meaning, e.g. Kirâtârgunîya XV, 52); -yasas, a. very famous, illustrious (person); -yâna, n. the Great Vehicle (a later form of Buddhistic doctrine originated by Nâgâr guna: opp.hîna-yâna); N. of a prince of the fairies (having a great car); -yuga, n. a great Yuga (equal to four ordinary Yugas or 4,320,000 years); -yuddha, n. great battle; -½âyudha, a. bearing great weapons (Siva); -ragana, n.saffron; a. coloured with saffron; -rana, m. great battle; -½aranya, n. great forest; -ratna, n. precious jewel: -maya, a. consisting of costly jewels, -vat, a. adorned with costly jewels; -rathá, m. great chariot; great warrior; N.; -rathyâ, f. main road; -½ârambha, m. great under taking; a. enterprising, active; -rava, m. great roar or yell; a. making a loud noise, shouting loud; m. N.; -rasa, a. extremely savoury; -râgá, m. great king, reigning prince, sovereign: -½adhirâga, m. lord of great kings, emperor; -râgñî, f. reigning princess, queen; ep. of Durgâ; -râgya, n. sovereign rule; -râtra, n. advanced time of night, end of the night; -râtri, f. id.; great night follow ing the dissolution of the world; -râva, m. loud yell; -râshtra, m. pl. the Mahrattas: î, f. Mahratta language, Mahrattî: a-ka, a. (ikâ) belonging to the Mahrattas; m. pl. the Mahrattas; -rug, -ruga, a. very painful; -roga, m. dangerous disease; -roman, a. very hairy (Siva); -raudra, a. extremely terrible; -½argha, a. of great price, precious, valuable; expensive: -tâ, f. preciousness, great value, -rûpa, a. having a splendid form; -½arghya, a. precious, valuable: -tâ, f. preciousness; -½arnava, m. great sea, ocean; -½artha, m. great matter; a. having great wealth, rich; of great significance, important; m. N. of a Dânava; -½arha, a.valuable, costly, splen did; -lakshmî, f. the Great Lakshmî, Nârâ yana's Sakti; also=Durgâ or Sarasvatî; -li&ndot;ga, n. a great Li&ndot;ga; -vamsya, a. of high lineage; -vanig, m. great merchant; -vada, m. great teacher (i.e. of the most essential Vedic knowledge); (&asharp;)-vadha, a. having a mighty weapon (RV.); -vana, n. great forest; -varâha, m. great boar (i.e. Vishnu's incarnation as a boar); N. of a prince; -vallî, f. great creeper; -vâkya, n. long composition, literary work; great pro position; -vâta, m. violent wind, gale; -vâyu, m. id.; -vârttika, n. the Great Vârttika, N. of Kâtyâyana's Vârttikas to the Sûtras of Pânini; -vâstu, n. great space; a. occupy ing a great space; -vikrama, a. of great courage, very valiant; m. N. of a lion; -vighna, m. n. great obstacle; -vigña, a. very sensible; -vidagdha, pp. very clever; -viraha, m. grievous separation; -visha,a. very poisonous; -vistara, a. very prolix (book); -vîki, m. (having great waves), a certain hell; -vîrá, m. great hero; large earthenware fire-pot (mostly used at the Pravargya cere mony); N. of various princes; N. of an Arhat, founder of the Jain sect: -karita, n. life of the great hero (Râma), T. of a play by Bhavabhûti, -karitra, n. life of Mahâ vîra (the Arhat), T. of a work; (&asharp;)-vîrya, a. mighty, very potent; -vrikshá, m. great tree; -vriddha, pp. very aged; -vrishá, m. great bull: pl. N. of a people in the western Himâlayas; -vega, a. greatly agitated (sea); very swift; -vaipulya, n. great extent; -vaira, n. great enmity; -vairâga, n. N. of a Saman;-vyâdhi, m. serious disease; -vyâhriti, f. the great exclamation (i.e. bh&usharp;r bhúvah svãh); -vratá, n. great or fundamental duty; great vow; great religious observance; N. of a Sâ man or Stotra to be chanted on the last day but one of the Gavâmayana (also applied to the day and the ceremony); rules of the worshippers of Siva Pasupati; a. having undertaken great duties or a great vow, practising great aus terity, very devotional; following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratika, a. following the rules of the Pâsupatas; m. a Pâsupata; -vratin, a., m., id.; a. practis ing the five fundamental duties of the Jains; -vratîya, a. relating to the Mahâvrata cere mony (day); -vrîhi, m. large rice; -sakti, a. very mighty (Siva); -sa&ndot;kha, m. great conch; -½asana, a. eating much, voracious (leech); m. great eater, glutton; -½asani dhvaga, m. flag with a great thunderbolt; -sabda, m. loud sound; title beginning with &open;mahâ&close; or the corresponding office; -½âsaya, 1. m. ocean; 2. a. high-minded, noble; -sayyâ, f. splendid couch; -sarîra, a. having a large body; -salka,m. kind of sea-crab; -salkalin, a. having large scales (fish); -sastra, n. mighty weapon; -sâka, n. kind of vegetable; -sâkya, m. great or distinguished Sâkya; -sânti, f. great appeasement (a kind of rite to avert evil);(&asharp;)-sâla, possessor of a great house, great householder; -sâlîna, a. very modest; -sâsana, n. great sway; a. exer cising great sway; -siras, a. large-headed; m. kind of serpent; -sûdra, m. Sûdra in a high position, upper servant; -saila, m. great rock or mountain; -½asman, m. precious stone; -smâsâna, n. large cemetery; ep. of Benares; -srotriya, m. great theologian or spiritual teacher; -½asva, m. N.: -sâlâ, f. great stable; office of head groom; -svetâ, f. N. of a god dess; N.; -samkata, n. great danger or straits; -satî, f. extremely faithful wife, pattern of wifely fidelity; -sattrá, n. great Soma sacrifice; -sattva, m. great creature; a. strong-minded; high-minded, noble; very courageous; containing large animals: -tâ, f. strength of character and containing large animals; -½âsana, n. splendid seat; -samdhi- -vigraha, m. office of chief minister of peace and war; -sabhâ, f. great dining hall; -samudra, m. ocean; -sarga, m. great crea tion (after a great dissolution); -sâdhana bhâga, m. head of the executive; -sâdhu, a. extremely good: v-î, f. pattern of wifely fidelity; -sâmtâpana,m. kind of penance; -sâmdhi-vigrah-ika, m. chief minister of peace and war; -sâmânya, n. generality in the widest sense; -sâra, a. strong; valuable, costly; -sârtha, m. great caravan; -sâhas ika, a. very daring, excessively rash; m. highwayman, robber: -tâ, f. great energy: in. with the utmost decision; -simha, m. great lion; N.; -siddha, (pp.) m. great saint; -siddhânta, m. great manual of as tronomy, T. of a work by Âryabhata the younger; -siddhi, f. great magical power; -subhiksha, n. great abundance of provisions, very good times (pl.); -sûkta, n. great hymn: pl. the great hymns of the tenth book of the Rig-veda (1 to 128); m. composer of the great hymns of RV. X; -sûkshma, a. extremely minute; -sûki, a. w. vyûha, m. kind of array of troops in battle; (&asharp;)-sena, a. having a large army; m. ep. of Skanda; N. of various princes; -senâ, f. great army; -stoma, a. having a great Stoma (day); -½astra, n. great or mighty missile; -sthâna, n. high place or position; -sthûla, a. very gross; -snâna, n. great ablution; -½âspada, a. mighty; -sva na, m. loud sound; a. loud-sounding, shout ing loud; loud (noise); -½âsvâda, a. very savoury; -hanu, a. having great jaws; -harm ya, n. great palace; -½âhava, m. great battle; -hava, m. great sacrifice; -hasta, a. large handed (Siva); -hâsa, m.loud laughter; a. laughing loud; -½ahí, m. great serpent: -sayana, n. sleep (of Vishnu) on the great serpent (Sesha); -½ahna, m. advanced day time, afternoon; -hrada, m. great pond.
mahīkampa m. earthquake; -kshit, m. ruler of earth, king; -kara, -kâr in, a. moving or walking on the earth (opp. air); -ga, m. plant, tree; planet Mars; -tala, n. surface of the earth, ground; -durga, a. inaccessible owing to the nature of the ground; n. fortress protected by the nature of the ground or by earth-works; -dhara, a. sup porting the earth; m. mountain; N., esp. of a commentator on the VS.; -dhra,m. moun tain; -½ina, m. lord of earth, king; -nâtha, m. id.; -½indra, m. id.: -½indra, m. an Indra among princes; -pa, m. protector of earth, king; -patana, n. falling on the ground, obeisance down to the ground; -pati,m. lord of earth, king; -pâla, m. protector of earth, king; N. of various princes: -putra, m. son of a king, prince; -putra, m. son of earth; planet Mars; -prishtha, n. surface of the earth, ground; -prakampa, m.earthquake; -praroha, m. (growing out of the earth), tree; -bhartri, m. supporter of earth, king; -bhug, m. enjoyer of the earth, king; -bhrit, m. (supporter of the earth), mountain; king; -maghavan, m. lord of earth, king; mand ala, n. circle of the earth, entire earth; -ma ya, a. (î) earthen; -mahikâmsu, m. moon on earth, illustrious king; -mahendra, m. great lord of earth, sovereign.
mārttika a. (î) made of clay, earthen; n. earthenware vessel.
māheya a. [fr. mahî] earthen; m. met. son of earth, planet Mars.
mṛdghaṭa m. earthen jar; -bhânda, n. earthenware vessel: -½avasesham, ad. leaving only the earthenware vessels=every thing but the earthenware vessels (steal).
mṛnmaya a. (î) made of clay or earth, earthen: with grihá, n. house of clay, grave; m. or n. earthenware object or vessel.
yadanna a. eating which food; -abhâva, m.: lc. in absence or default of which; -artha, a. having which object in view: -m, ad. wherefore, on which account; for whose sake; since, because (rare); -arthe, lc. ad. id.; -asana, a. eating which food.
varīyas cpv. (V.) wider, broader, than (ab.); freer; n. ad. farther, -off; n. wider space, than (ab.); free space, freedom.
vitata pp. √ tan: -tva, n. great ex tent; -tati, f. extent, length; extension, ex pansion; great extent, quantity; overstep ping of bounds; -tatî-kri, extend; -tatha, a. [not so: -tathâ] untrue, false; futile, use less, vain; free from (ab.; rare): -m kri, revoke, annul; -tatha-ya, P. make untrue, accuse of falsehood; -tatha½abhinivesa, m. inclination to falsehood: -vat, a. prone to falsehood; -tathî-kri, render futile, frus trate; (ví)-tanu, a. (v-î) extremely slender; bodiless; m. god of love (=ana&ndot;ga); -tan trî, f. (nm. -s) string out of tune; -tamas, a. free from darkness, light: -ka, a. id.; -tara- na, n. transference of (--°ree;); bestowal; dona tion, gift; -tarám, cpv. ad. farther, -off (RV.); -tar&asharp;m, cpv. ad. id.; more; -tari tri, m. bestower; -tarka, m. conjecture, sup position (ord. mg.); doubt; consideration, deliberation: indor vitarkât, because the moon was supposed to be in it; -tardi, f. ter race in a court-yard, verandah: -kâ, f. id.; -tala, n. N. of one of the seven hells; depth of hell.
vyaya a. (going asunder), perishable (only with a-vyaya); m. destruction, down fall; disappearance, loss; diminution, failure; abandonment, sacrifice; expenditure or out lay of (money, g. or --°ree;); expense, cost, of (--°ree;), on behalf of (-arthe); means, money (rare); declension (gr.; rare): -ka, a. disbursing; -karman, n. office of paymaster.
śarāva m. n. shallow earthenware dish, plate; flat dish-cover; a measure of corn (=2 prasthas): -ka, °ree;-a. (ikâ) plate; -sampâta, m. appearance of dishes: e vritte, when the dishes have ceased to appear, when the meal is over.
saṃgatha m. [√ gam] coming to gether, convergence, centre (V.); -gamá, m. meeting (of friends or foes), union, associa tion, intercourse (also sexual), with (in. ± saha, g., --°ree;); confluence; connexion, con tact, with (in., --°ree;); acquirement of (g.): anarthena --, harm, injury: -datta, m. N.; -gámana, V. a. (î) gathering together; m. assembler of (g.; V.); n. meeting, union, with (--°ree;; V., C.); coming into contact with, acquirement of (in.; C.); -gama-svâmin, m. N.
sthāla n. bowl, dish, pot; hollow of a tooth (rare): &isharp;, f. earthen dish, cooking-pot, caldron: (sth&asharp;lî)-pâka (AV.) or -pâká (SB.), m. food cooked in a pot, dish of barley or rice boiled in milk (often as an offering).
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āpayā Is the name of a river mentioned once only in the Rigveda, when it occurs between the Drsadvatī and the Sarasvatī. Ludwig was inclined to identify it with the Apagā as a name for the Ganges, but Zimmer correctly places it near the Sarasvatī, either as the small tributary which flows past Thānesar or the modern Indramatī farther west, while Pischel4 assigns it to Kuruksetra, of which the Apayā is mentioned as a famous river in the Mahābhārata.
uśīnara In the Aitareya Brāhmana the Kuru-Pañcālas are mentioned as dwelling together in the * Middle Country ’ with the Vaśas and the Uśīnaras. In the Kausītaki Upanisad also the Uśīnaras are associated with the Kuril-Pañcālas and Vaśas, but in the Gopatha Brāhmana the Uśīnaras and Vaśas are re­garded as northerners. In the Rigveda the people is alluded to in one passage by reference to their queen, Uśīnarānī. Zimmer thinks that the Uśīnaras earlier lived farther to the north-west, but for this there is no clear evidence. His theory is based merely on the fact that the Anukramanī (Index) of the Rigveda ascribes one hymn to śibi Auśīnara, and that the śibis were known to Alexander’s followers as Xiβoc, living between the Indus and the Akesines (Chenab). But this is in no way conclusive, as the Sibis, at any rate in Epic times, occupied the land to the north of Kuruksetra, and there is no reason whatever to show that in the Vedic period the Uśīnaras were farther west than the ‘ Middle Country.’
pañcanada Having five streams is not found until the epic period as the name of the Panjāb, which has no desig­nation in the earlier literature. The importance of the Panjāb as the home of the Rigveda has been greatly diminished by recent research, Hopkins, Pischel, and Geldner having on different grounds shown reason for believing that the Rigveda, at least in great part, was composed farther east, in the Madhyadeśa, which admittedly was the home of the later Vedic culture. Hillebrandt considers that the Rigveda belongs in part to the Panjāb, or rather to Arachosia, and in part to the Middle· Country. See also Kuru, Trtsu.
pāra In accordance with its derivation (pr, ‘bring across’), denotes the ‘ farther bank ’ of a river or stream, in which sense it occurs in the Rigveda and later.
pīlumatī Is in the Atharvaveda the name of the intermediate heaven lying between the udanvatī, watery,’ and the pra-dyauh, farthest heaven.’ It presumably means * rich in Pīlu.’ Cf Div.
magadha Is the name of a people who appear throughout Vedic literature as of little repute. Though the name is not actually found in the Rigveda, it occurs in the Atharvaveda, where fever is wished away to the Gandhāris and Mūjavants, northern peoples, and to the Añgfas and Magadhas, peoples of the east. Again, in the list of victims at the Purusamedha (‘ human sacrifice ’) in the Yajurveda,3 the Māgadha, or man of Magadha, is included as dedicated to ati-krusta, ‘ loud noise ’ (?), while in the Vrātya hymn of the Atharvaveda[1] the Māgadha is said to be connected with the Vrātya as his Mitra, his Mantra, his laughter, and his thunder in the four quarters. In the śrauta Sūtras6 the equipment characteristic of the Vrātya is said to be given, when the latter is admitted into the Aryan Brahminical community, to a bad Brahmin living in Magadha ·(brahma-bandhu Māgadha-deśīya), but this point does not occur in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa. On the other hand, respectable Brahmins sometimes lived there, for the Kausītaki Araṇyaka mentions Madhyama, Prātībodhī-putra, as Magadha-vāsin, ‘living in Magadha.’ Oldenberg, however, seems clearly right in regarding this as unusual. The Magadhas are evidently a people in the Baudhāyana and other Sūtras, possibly also in the Aitareya Araṇyaka. It is therefore most improbable that Zimmer can be right in thinking that in the Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda the λlāgadha is not a man of Magadha, but a member of the mixed caste produced by a Vaiśya marrying a Kṣatriya woman. But the theory of mixed castes, in any case open to some doubt, cannot be accepted when used to explain such obviously tribal names as Māgadha. The fact that the Māgadha is often in later times a minstrel is easily accounted for by the assumption that the country was the home of minstrelsy, and that wandering bards from Magadha were apt to visit the more western lands. This class the later texts recognize as a caste, inventing an origin by intermarriage of the old-established castes. The dislike of the Magadhas, which may be Rigvedic, since the Kīkatas were perhaps the prototype of the Magadhas, was in all probability due, as Oldenberg13 thinks, to the fact that the Magadhas were not really Brahminized. This is entirely in accord with the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa14 that neither Kosala nor Videha were fully Brahminized at an early date, much less Magadha. Weber15 suggests two other grounds that may have influeṇced the position—the persistence of aboriginal blood and the growth of Buddhism. The latter consideration is hardly applicable to the Yajurveda or the Atharvaveda; but the imperfect Brahminization of the land, if substituted for it in accordance with Oldenberg’s suggestion, would have some force. The former motive, despite Olden- berg’s doubt, seems fully justified. Pargiter18 has gone so far as to suggest that in Magadha the Aryans met and mingled with a body of invaders from the east by sea. Though there is no evidence for this view in the Vedic texts, it is reason¬able to suppose that the farther east the Aryans penetrated, the less did they impress themselves upon the aborigines. Modern ethnology confirms this a priori supposition in so far as it shows Aryan types growing less and less marked as the eastern part of India is reached, although such evidence is not decisive in view of the great intermixture of peoples in India.
mahāvīra (‘Great hero’) is the name in the later Samhitās and the Brāhmaṇas of a large earthenware pot which could be placed on the fire, and which was especially employed at the introductory Soma ceremony called Pravargya.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
sṛñjaya Is the name of a people mentioned as early as the Rigveda. Sṛñjaya (that is, the king of this people) Daivavāta is celebrated as victorious over the Turvaśas and the Vrcī- vants, and his sacrificial fire is referred to. In connexion with Daivavāta is also mentioned Sāhadevya Somaka, no doubt another prince; for in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa we find Somaka Sāhadevya and his father, Sahadeva (originally Suplan) Sārñjaya, as kings who were anointed by Parvata and Nārada. The Rigveda has also a Dānastuti (‘praise of gifts’) of Prastoka, a Sṛñjaya, who is lauded along with Divodāsa. Moreover, Vītahavya seems to have been a Sṛñjaya, though Zimmer prefers to take the derivative word, Vaitahavya, not as a patronymic, but as an epithet. It seems probable that the Sṛñjayas and the Tptsus were closely allied, for Divodāsa and a Sṛñjaya prince are celebrated together, and the Turvaśas were enemies of both. This view is borne out by the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, which recognizes Devabhāga śrautarṣa as Purohita of the Kurus and the Sṛñjayas. On the other hand, some disaster certainly befel the Srujayas, at least the Vaitahavyas, for they are said in the Atharvaveda to have offended the BhrgTUS and to have ended miserably. There is, it is true, no precise confirmation of this notice, but both the Kāthaka Saiphitā and the Taittirīya Samhitā, in independent passages, refer to the Sṛñjayas having sustained some serious loss, though the notice is in each case coupled with a ritual error, much as in the Old Testament the fate of kings depends on their devotion to Jahve or their dis¬obedience. It is justifiable to recognize some disaster in this allusion. The geographical position of the Sṛñjayas is uncertain. Hillebrandt suggests that in early times they must be looked for west of the Indus with Divodāsa; he also mentions, though he does not definitely adopt, the suggestion of Brunnhofer that the Sṛñjayas are to be compared with the Xapáyyai10 of the Greeks, and to be located in Drangiana. Zimmer is inclined to locate them on the upper Indus; but it is difficult to decide definitely in favour of any particular location. They may well have been a good deal farther east than the Indus, since their allies, the Tṛtsus, were in the Madhyadeśa, and were certainly absorbed in the Kurus. Of the history of this clan we have one notice. They expelled Duçtarītu Pauηisāyana, one of their kings, from the hereditary monarchy—of ten generations—and also drove out Revottaras Pā^ava Cākra Sthapati, probably his minister, who, however, succeeded in effecting the restoration of the king, despite the opposition of the Kuru prince, Balhika Prātīpya. Very probably this Kuru prince may have been at the bottom of the movement which led to the expulsion of the king and his minister. But the restoration of the king can hardly be regarded, in accordance with Bloomfield’s view, as a defeat of the Sṛñjayas.
sthālī Denotes a 'cooking pot,' usually of earthenware, in the Atharvaveda and later.
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arthe asya jahitaḥ TB.3.7.9.7; Apś.9.16.7.
artheta stha TS.1.8.11.1; TB.1.7.5.1; Apś.18.13.1. See next two.
artheta stha rāṣṭradāḥ VS.10.3 (bis); śB.5.3.4.7 (bis). See prec. and next.
artheta sthādhvagataḥ Apś.16.32.5; arthetaḥ sthānvagataḥ KS.39.1. See prec. two.
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"arthe" has 1 results.
     
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
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208 results
     
arthe about the welfareSB 10.85.16
arthe by the meaningCC Adi 2.66
CC Antya 5.134
CC Antya 5.147
arthe factual causeSB 4.29.35
arthe for the benefitSB 7.1.1
arthe for the matter ofSB 4.22.35
arthe for the purposeSB 7.7.41
arthe for the sakeBG 1.32-35
SB 10.46.9-13
SB 10.56.23
SB 10.65.11-12
SB 10.80.40
SB 10.90.47
SB 12.3.41
SB 5.2.7
arthe for the sake ofSB 1.7.51
SB 12.2.6
arthe for their own interestsSB 6.18.42
arthe in economic developmentSB 11.25.7
arthe in the goals of human life, such as sense gratification, liberation, and attainment of heavenSB 11.20.4
arthe in the interest ofSB 2.2.3
arthe in the matterBG 2.27
arthe in the matter ofSB 3.3.5
arthe in the meaningCC Adi 2.87
arthe in the senseCC Adi 16.77
CC Madhya 24.171
arthe in truthSB 11.22.56
arthe matterSB 4.8.12
arthe meaningCC Adi 7.111
arthe meaningsCC Antya 7.87
arthe real causeSB 11.28.13
SB 3.27.4
arthe sense objectsSB 4.29.73
arthena a purpose or meaningSB 3.7.10
arthena by direct explanationSB 2.10.2
arthena by explanationCC Adi 2.91-92
arthena by the moneySB 6.1.64
arthena by wealthSB 11.23.21
arthena for thatSB 3.5.17
arthena substance or realitySB 6.15.24
arthena their manifest productSB 12.4.27
arthena with economic developmentSB 4.8.64
arthera of importsCC Madhya 24.312
arthera of the meaningCC Adi 16.77
arthera of the meaningsCC Madhya 24.34
arthera bhāṇḍāra storehouse of knowledgeCC Madhya 24.284
arthera bhāṇḍāra storehouse of knowledgeCC Madhya 24.284
arthera prakāśa manifestation of importCC Madhya 24.294
arthera prakāśa manifestation of importCC Madhya 24.294
artheṣu in acquiring interestsSB 6.7.33
artheṣu in all affairsCC Madhya 20.359
CC Madhya 25.148
CC Madhya 8.266
artheṣu in self-interestSB 5.24.24
artheṣu in the matter ofSB 3.4.15
artheṣu in the objectsSB 11.11.9
artheṣu in the sense objectsSB 3.32.24
artheṣu purposesSB 1.1.1
sei arthera adhīna comes under that different importCC Madhya 24.147
aihika-artheṣu simply to bring about better worldly comfortsSB 5.14.32
akhila-arthe for fulfillmentSB 4.7.29
alpa-arthe for a slight reasonSB 9.14.37
amṛta-arthe for the sake of nectarSB 8.6.32
amṛta-arthe for gaining nectarSB 8.7.1
amṛta-arthe for the sake of nectarSB 12.12.20
anyonya-arthe to help one another in the importsCC Madhya 24.67
arbhaka-arthe for the sake of fatherless childrenSB 3.1.40
mat-arthe for my sakeBG 1.9
indriyasya arthe in the sense objectsBG 3.34
śubha-arthe for the sake of the LordSB 2.1.18
arbhaka-arthe for the sake of fatherless childrenSB 3.1.40
saṃyama-arthe with a view to perfect controlSB 3.5.16
saṃyama-arthe for the dissolution alsoSB 3.5.43
yat-arthe for the purpose of whichSB 3.5.51
kriyā-arthe for actingSB 3.5.51
mat-arthe on my accountSB 3.23.6
para-arthe for the wealth of othersSB 3.30.11
akhila-arthe for fulfillmentSB 4.7.29
yajña-arthe for the purpose of performing sacrificesSB 4.18.7
sva-arthe in self-interestSB 5.5.7
evaṃ-vidha-arthe to execute such principlesSB 5.8.10
sva-arthe in what is good for meSB 6.18.40
yat-arthe for whomSB 7.14.12
amṛta-arthe for the sake of nectarSB 8.6.32
amṛta-arthe for gaining nectarSB 8.7.1
tat-arthe for the sake of nectarSB 8.8.38
vṛtti-arthe for earning one's livelihood, as in businessSB 8.19.43
go-brāhmaṇa-arthe for the sake of cow protection and brahminical cultureSB 8.19.43
tat-arthe for the sake of Saubhari MuniSB 9.6.44
guru-arthe for the sake of keeping the promise of His fatherSB 9.10.4
alpa-arthe for a slight reasonSB 9.14.37
kārya-arthe for executing businessSB 10.1.25
sva-arthe about our own real interestSB 10.23.41
priyā-arthe for the sake of His belovedSB 10.30.32
jagati-arthe for the benefit of the universeSB 10.38.28-33
mat-arthe for My sakeSB 10.46.4
mat-arthe for My sakeSB 10.46.4
asati arthe in that which is not realSB 10.54.48
bāṇa-arthe for Bāṇa's sakeSB 10.63.6
tat-arthe for His sakeSB 11.3.27-28
sura-arthe for the sake of the demigodsSB 11.4.20
mat-arthe for My pleasureSB 11.11.23-24
mat-arthe for My sakeSB 11.19.20-24
sva-arthe in the real self-interestSB 11.23.29
amṛta-arthe for the sake of nectarSB 12.12.20
mukhya-arthe direct meaningCC Adi 7.137
kalpanā-arthe because of imaginative meaningCC Madhya 6.132
dui-arthe by two interpretationsCC Madhya 6.273
saṃhāra-arthe for the purpose of dissolutionCC Madhya 20.307
pālana-arthe for maintenanceCC Madhya 20.317
kṛṣṇa-arthe for the sake of KṛṣṇaCC Madhya 22.126
krama-arthe in the sense of successionCC Madhya 24.18
anyonya-arthe to help one another in the importsCC Madhya 24.67
buddhimān-arthe by the meaning of intelligentCC Madhya 24.91
eva-arthe in the sense of evaCC Madhya 24.225
gāyatrīra arthe with the meaning of Brahma-gāyatrīCC Madhya 25.147
sei arthe in that meaningCC Antya 1.77
parama-arthe in spiritual mattersCC Antya 4.159
ei arthe in understanding the purposeCC Antya 15.77
kare arthe describes the meaningCC Antya 17.50
indriya-arthebhyaḥ from the sense objectsBG 2.58
indriya-arthebhyaḥ from sense objectsBG 2.68
indriya-arthebhyaḥ from the object of the sensesSB 11.14.36-42
puruṣa-arthera sīmā the limit of goals of lifeCC Madhya 9.261
sei arthera adhīna comes under that different importCC Madhya 24.147
kailā arthera nirbandha has clarified the real meaningCC Antya 20.62
indriya-artheṣu in sense gratificationBG 5.8-9
indriya-artheṣu in sense gratificationBG 6.4
indriya-artheṣu in the matter of the sensesBG 13.8-12
indriya-artheṣu to sense gratificationSB 3.23.54
indriya-artheṣu for sense gratificationSB 4.22.52
aihika-artheṣu simply to bring about better worldly comfortsSB 5.14.32
indriya-artheṣu from the objects of sense enjoymentSB 10.80.6
mat-artheṣu for the sake of serving MeSB 11.19.20-24
pada-artheṣu within material objectsSB 12.7.20
mat-artheṣu for the sake of My serviceCC Madhya 11.29-30
yukta-pada-artheṣu the appropriate application of thingsCC Madhya 24.69
indriya-artheṣu sense gratificationCC Madhya 24.160
asati arthe in that which is not realSB 10.54.48
bāṇa-arthe for Bāṇa's sakeSB 10.63.6
go-brāhmaṇa-arthe for the sake of cow protection and brahminical cultureSB 8.19.43
buddhimān-arthe by the meaning of intelligentCC Madhya 24.91
dui-arthe by two interpretationsCC Madhya 6.273
ei arthe in understanding the purposeCC Antya 15.77
eva-arthe in the sense of evaCC Madhya 24.225
evaṃ-vidha-arthe to execute such principlesSB 5.8.10
gāyatrīra arthe with the meaning of Brahma-gāyatrīCC Madhya 25.147
go-brāhmaṇa-arthe for the sake of cow protection and brahminical cultureSB 8.19.43
guru-arthe for the sake of keeping the promise of His fatherSB 9.10.4
indriya-arthebhyaḥ from the sense objectsBG 2.58
indriya-arthebhyaḥ from sense objectsBG 2.68
indriya-artheṣu in sense gratificationBG 5.8-9
indriya-artheṣu in sense gratificationBG 6.4
indriya-artheṣu in the matter of the sensesBG 13.8-12
indriya-artheṣu to sense gratificationSB 3.23.54
indriya-artheṣu for sense gratificationSB 4.22.52
indriya-artheṣu from the objects of sense enjoymentSB 10.80.6
indriya-arthebhyaḥ from the object of the sensesSB 11.14.36-42
indriya-artheṣu sense gratificationCC Madhya 24.160
indriyasya arthe in the sense objectsBG 3.34
jagati-arthe for the benefit of the universeSB 10.38.28-33
kailā arthera nirbandha has clarified the real meaningCC Antya 20.62
kalpanā-arthe because of imaginative meaningCC Madhya 6.132
kare arthe describes the meaningCC Antya 17.50
kārya-arthe for executing businessSB 10.1.25
krama-arthe in the sense of successionCC Madhya 24.18
kriyā-arthe for actingSB 3.5.51
kṛṣṇa-arthe for the sake of KṛṣṇaCC Madhya 22.126
mat-arthe for my sakeBG 1.9
mat-arthe on my accountSB 3.23.6
mat-arthe for My sakeSB 10.46.4
mat-arthe for My sakeSB 10.46.4
mat-arthe for My pleasureSB 11.11.23-24
mat-artheṣu for the sake of serving MeSB 11.19.20-24
mat-arthe for My sakeSB 11.19.20-24
mat-artheṣu for the sake of My serviceCC Madhya 11.29-30
mukhya-arthe direct meaningCC Adi 7.137
kailā arthera nirbandha has clarified the real meaningCC Antya 20.62
pada-artheṣu within material objectsSB 12.7.20
yukta-pada-artheṣu the appropriate application of thingsCC Madhya 24.69
pālana-arthe for maintenanceCC Madhya 20.317
para-arthe for the wealth of othersSB 3.30.11
parama-arthe in spiritual mattersCC Antya 4.159
priyā-arthe for the sake of His belovedSB 10.30.32
puruṣa-arthera sīmā the limit of goals of lifeCC Madhya 9.261
saṃhāra-arthe for the purpose of dissolutionCC Madhya 20.307
saṃyama-arthe with a view to perfect controlSB 3.5.16
saṃyama-arthe for the dissolution alsoSB 3.5.43
sei arthera adhīna comes under that different importCC Madhya 24.147
sei arthe in that meaningCC Antya 1.77
puruṣa-arthera sīmā the limit of goals of lifeCC Madhya 9.261
śubha-arthe for the sake of the LordSB 2.1.18
sura-arthe for the sake of the demigodsSB 11.4.20
sva-arthe in self-interestSB 5.5.7
sva-arthe in what is good for meSB 6.18.40
sva-arthe about our own real interestSB 10.23.41
sva-arthe in the real self-interestSB 11.23.29
tat-arthe for the sake of nectarSB 8.8.38
tat-arthe for the sake of Saubhari MuniSB 9.6.44
tat-arthe for His sakeSB 11.3.27-28
evaṃ-vidha-arthe to execute such principlesSB 5.8.10
vṛtti-arthe for earning one's livelihood, as in businessSB 8.19.43
vyarthena in vainSB 11.28.37
yajña-arthe for the purpose of performing sacrificesSB 4.18.7
yat-arthe for the purpose of whichSB 3.5.51
yat-arthe for whomSB 7.14.12
yukta-pada-artheṣu the appropriate application of thingsCC Madhya 24.69
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arthedaśamahāmūla noun (masculine) name of Carakasaṃhitā, Sū. 30
Frequency rank 44937/72933
arthedaśamahāmūlīya noun (masculine) name of Suśrutasaṃhitā, Sū. 30
Frequency rank 32549/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
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ḍamaruyantra,ḍamarukayantra

hour-glass apparatus used in medicinal alchemy; two small drums or earthen pots joined at mouths.

garbhayantra

a device to collect oils; one small earthen pot kept in another earthern pot and closed with a third earthern pot and heated. The top earthen pot is filled with water and heated water is constantly changed till the inner part yields the product.

kumbhapuṭa

also known as bhānḍapuṭa, an earthern mud pot is used as furnace.

kumbhisveda

earthern pot used for sudation.

vidyādharayantra

a device to purify mercury; two earthern pots, one over the other, are sealed and heated on fire with mercury in the lower pot and water in the upper pot.

     Wordnet Search "arthe" has 1 results.
     

arthe

sāhasika, gṛdhru, arthet, śīghrya   

yaḥ kārye śīghratā karoti।

manoharaḥ nirutsakaḥ sāhasikaḥ ca asti।

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