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     Grammar Search "anti" has 1 results.
     
anti
     Amarakosha Search  
Results for anti
     
WordReferenceGenderNumberSynonymsDefinition
aṅgāradhānikā2.9.30FeminineSingularaṅgāraśakaṭī, hasantī, hasa‍nī
anti2.9.29FeminineSingularuddhānam, adhiśryaṇī, culliḥ, aśmantam
antikam3.1.67MasculineSingularnediṣṭam
āranālaḥ2.9.38NeuterSingularabhiṣutam, avantisomam, dhānyāmlam, kuñjalam, sauvīram, kāñjikam, kulmāṣam
atimuktaḥMasculineSingularpuṇḍrakaḥ, vāsantī, mādhavīlatā
cakram3.3.190NeuterSingularrahaḥ, antikam
cākrikaḥ2.8.98MasculineSingularghāṇṭikaḥ
citrāFeminineSingularmūṣikaparṇī, pratyakśreṇī, dravantī, raṇḍā, vṛṣā, nyagrodhī, sutaśreṇī, śambarī, upacitrā
daivajñaḥ2.8.13MasculineSingularmauhūrttaḥ, sāṃvatsaraḥ, ‍kārtāntikaḥ, jyautiṣikaḥ, daivajñaḥ, gaṇakaḥ, mauhūrttikaḥ
dharmaḥ3.3.146MasculineSingularkrāntiḥ
gāṅgeyam3.3.163NeuterSingularpratibimbam, anātapaḥ, sūryapriyā, kāntiḥ
ghanaḥ3.3.117MasculineSingularsravantī
hastī2.8.35MasculineSingularpadmī, karī, gajaḥ, anekapaḥ, dantī, stamberamaḥ, vāraṇaḥ, mataṅgajaḥ, dviradaḥ, hāthī, ibhaḥ, kuñjaraḥ, dvipaḥ, dantāvalaḥ
jayā2.2.66FeminineSingulartarkārī, kaṇikā, vaijayanti, jayantī, jayaḥ, agnimanthaḥ, nādeyī, gaṇikārikā, śrīparṇam
joṣam3.3.259MasculineSingularantikam, madhyaḥ
kāmukī2.6.9FeminineSingularvṛṣasyantī
karkayā2.9.31FeminineSingularāluḥ, galanti
kiṅkiṇī2.6.111MasculineSingularkṣudraghaṇṭikā
lambanam2.6.105NeuterSingularlalanti
makūlakaḥMasculineSingularnikumbhaḥ, danti, pratyakśreṇī, udumbaraparṇī
nadī1.10.29-30FeminineSingularkūlaṅkaṣā, sravantī, dhunī, śaivalinī, rodhovakrā, apagā, dvīpavatī, hradinī, taraṅgiṇī, nirjhariṇī, nimnagā, srotasvatī, taḍinī, sarit, sarasvatīa river
naigamaḥ3.3.147MasculineSingularceṣṭā, alaṅkāraḥ, bhrāntiḥ
patākā2.8.102FeminineSingular‍vaijayantī, ketanam, ‍‍dhvajam
patākī2.8.73MasculineSingular‍vaijayantikaḥ
śamathaḥ3.2.3MasculineSingularśamaḥ, śāntiḥ
śobhā1.3.17FeminineSingularkāntiḥ, dyutiḥ, chaviḥbeauty of splendour
stomaḥ3.3.149MasculineSingularkṣitiḥ, kṣāntiḥ
strī2.6.2FeminineSingularsīmanti, abalā, mahilā, pratīpadarśinī, nārī, yoṣit, vanitā, vadhūḥ, yoṣā, vāmā
upaghnaḥ2.4.19MasculineSingularantikāśrayaḥ
vandāFeminineSingularvṛkṣaruhā, jīvanti, vṛkṣādanī
vārṣikamNeuterSingulartrāyamāṇā, trāyantī, balabhadrikā
vaśaḥ03.04.2008MasculineSingularkāntiḥ
vatsādanīFeminineSingularjīvanti, somavallī, chinnaruhā, viśalyā, guḍūcī, madhuparṇī, tantrikā, amṛtā
vīryam3.3.162NeuterSingulardanti
bhrāntiḥ1.5.4FeminineSingularmithyāmatiḥ, bhramaḥmistake
kiṃvadantī1.6.7FeminineSingularjanaśrutiḥrumour
kṣāntiḥFeminineSingulartitikṣāpatience,forbearance
akṣāntiḥFeminineSingularīrṣyādetraction
jīvantīFeminineSingularjīvanī, jīvā, jīvanīyā, madhuḥ, sravā
atyantīnaḥ2.8.77MasculineSingular
śāntiḥ3.2.3FeminineSingulardamathaḥ, damaḥ
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Devanagari
BrahmiEXPERIMENTAL
antiind. before, in the presence of near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antiind. (with genitive case) within the proximity of, to ([ confer, compare Latin ante; Greek ]) . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antif. an elder sister (in theatrical language) For 1. /anti- See column 2. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antideva(/anti--) mfn. being in the presence of the gods, near the gods View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antidevam. Name (also title or epithet) of an ancient king and sage, ibidem or 'in the same place or book or text' as the preceding ; View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antigṛha(/anti-.) m. neighbour View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikamfn. (with genitive case or ablative) near, proximate (Comparative degree nedīyas-,superl. nediṣṭha-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikan. vicinity, proximity, near exempli gratia, 'for example' antikastha-, remaining near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikan. near, close by View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikan. within the presence of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antif. an elder sister (in theatrical language;perhaps a corruption of attikā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antif. a fire-place View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antif. the plant Echites Scholaris. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikamfn. (fr. anta-), only in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' reaching to the end of, reaching to (exempli gratia, 'for example' nāsāntika-,reaching to the nose) , lasting till, until. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikagatif. going near. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikamind. (with genitive case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') until, near to, into the presence of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikāśrayam. contiguous support (as that given by a tree to a creeper) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikātind. from the proximity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikātind. in comparison with, than (genitive case), View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikatāf. nearness, vicinity, contiguity.
antikeind. (with genitive case or in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') near, close by, in the proximity or presence of View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antikenaind. (with genitive case) near. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimamfn. in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound' immediately following (exempli gratia, 'for example' daśāntima-,"the eleventh") View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimamfn. very near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimamfn. final, ultimate, last. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimāṅkam. the last unit, nine. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antimitra(/anti--) mfn. having friends near one's self View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antiṣadmfn. sitting near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antisumna(/anti--) mfn. at hand with kindness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antitamamfn. very near commentator or commentary View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antitaramfn. standing in the very front, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antitas(/anti--) ind. from near View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
antivāma(/anti--), mt(ā-)n. at hand with wealth or loveliness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācyudanti varia lectio for tanti- and tantīya-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācyutadantiand tīya- varia lectio for ācyutanti- and tīya- below. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ācyutantim. plural Name of a warrior-tribe (See acyuta-danta-), (gaRa dāmany-ādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ahantif. idem or 'f. equals ahata-- q.v ' ([ vv.ll. ahantya /a-hantya- mfn."indestructible" ahantva /a-hantva- mfn. idem or 'f. equals ahata-- q.v ' ]) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ākidantim. Name of a prince [or f(ntī-).of a princess ], (gaRa dāmany-ādi- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
alātaśantif. Name of the fourth chapter of gauḍapāda-'s commentary on the View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
anātyantikamfn. not perpetual, not final, intermittent, recurrent. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
arhantif. Name of a Buddhist nun View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātyantikamf(ī-)n. (fr. aty-anta-), continual, uninterrupted, infinite, endless etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ātyantikamf(ī-)n. entire, universal (as the world's destruction etc.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyantikamfn. too close View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
atyantikan. too great nearness View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avacarantif. (diminutive of pr. p. f. ntī-) stepping down from (ablative) (see pravar tamanak/a-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantim. plural Name of a country and its in habitants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantim. Name of a river. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantibhūpālam. the king of avanti- id est bhoja-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantibrahmam. a Brahman living in the country of the avanti-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantidevam. (equals -varman- q.v) Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantif. the modern Oujein (one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus to die at which secures eternal happiness), the language of the, avanti-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvantikamfn. belonging to or coming from avanti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvantikam. Name of a Buddhist school View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
āvantif. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantikhaṇḍan. a portion of the skanda-purāṇa- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantimihiram. Name (also title or epithet) of varāha-mihira-, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantinagarif. the city of the avanti-s, Oujein View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantipuran. idem or 'f. the city of the avanti-s, Oujein ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantipuran. Name of a town in kāśmīra-, built by avantivarman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantipurīf. Oujein View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantisenam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantisomam. sour gruel (prepared from the fermentation of, rice-water) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantisvāminm. Name of a sanctuary built by avantivarman- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantivardhanam. Name of a son of pālaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantivarmanm. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantivarmanm. of a poet, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
avantivatīf. Name of the wife of pālaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ayantiran. non restraint, not a means of restraining , (see paśv-/ayantra-.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhudantinm. Name of indra- (see bahudantī-suta-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bāhudantiputram. a son of indra- (Name of jaya-datta- author of a tantra-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhadradantif. a species of Croton View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhavantim. (?) time being, present time (see bhavantī-under bhavat-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bhuvantim. equals bhuvaṃ tanoti-, bhū-maṇḍa vistāraka- () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
bṛhajjīvanti() f. a kind of plant (= priyaṃ-karī-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
damayantif. Name of the mother of a Scholiast or Commentator on View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantādantimfn. (see ) tooth against tooth View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantifor t/in- q.v View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantidaityam. Name of a daitya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantidantam. "an elephant's tusk" View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantidantamayamfn. made of ivory View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantidurgam. Name of a man. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantif. equals tikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantif. (ika-) Croton polyandrum (yielding a pungent oil) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantilam. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantimadam. the juice flowing from a rutting elephant's temples View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantinmfn. tusked (gaṇeśa-) (ti- ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantinm. an elephant etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantinm. a mountain View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantif. equals tikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantisthamfn. seated on an elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dantivaktram. "elephant-faced", gaṇeśa-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dārḍhajayantisee vaipaścita-, parasmE-pada 1332. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dauḥṣanti(d/auḥ--) m. patronymic fr. duḥ-ṣanta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dauṣmanti wrong reading for prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dauṣyantim. patronymic of bharata- (wrong reading dauṣv-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
devadantinm. Name of śiva- (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhayantif. (diminutive of ntī-) sucking View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dhvasantim. Name of a man, 152, 23. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
digdantinm. equals dik-karin- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
dyudantinm. heavenly elephant (see dik-karin-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
galantif. a water-jar (with a hole in the bottom from which water drops upon a liṅga- or a tulasi- plant) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gāyantif. (fr. ntī- f.of gāyat-),"singing", Name of a cave in the himālaya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
gucchadantif. Musa sapientum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haimantikamfn. equals prec. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
haimantikamfn. equals hematam adhīte veda vā- gaRa vasantādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hantif. the root or verb han- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
hasantif. a portable fire-vessel, small fireplace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jaivantim. patronymic fr. jivanta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jānantim. (fr. jān/at-) Name of a teacher View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantim. Name of a man and (plural) his descendants View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantim. also in compound for -. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantif. a parasitical plant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantif. a kind of pot-herb View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantif. Cocculus cordifolius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantif. equals va-priyā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantikam. equals jīvāntaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantif. See taka-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantiśākathe plant jīvantī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
jīvantiśūlāmkṛto impale a woman alive View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākadantim. idem or 'm. a prince of the kāka-dantaki-s ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākaṇantif. the plant Abrus precatorius View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kākarantim. plural Name of a warrior-tribe, gaRa dāmany-ādi-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kāmadantif. varia lectio for -dattikā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kantimfn. idem or 'mfn. (fr. 1. kam- ind.), happy ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kantimfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. idem or 'mfn. happy, prosperous ' ' ' ' ' ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kiṃvadantif. equals -vadantī- before View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kṣāntāyantiSee View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
kuntākantiind. spear against spear, in close fight, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lalantif. (fr. lalantī- f.of pr. p. lalat-) a long pendulous necklace View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
lalantif. a lizard, chameleon View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madantif. (in music) a particular śruti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madayantif. Arabian jasmine, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
madayantif. Name of a woman, View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mahāpuruṣadantif. Asparagus Racemosus () View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mantif. gaRa tanoty-ādi- (see mati-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
mattadantinm. a furious or ruttish elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
naḍantif. "reed-destroying", Name of a river (see naṭānt-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
nāgadantif. Tragia Involucrata View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
paryantif. loss of all good qualities, depravity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pāryantikamf(ī-)n. (-anta-) final, concluding, last View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratidantinm. equals -kuñjara- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyantikamfn. being or situated at the border View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
prātyantikam. (fr. -anta-) a neighbouring chief View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pratyantimamfn. equals -antika- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
pṛṣantim. a drop of water View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puruṣadantif. Name of a medicinal root View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
puruṣanti( -s/anti-) m. Name of a man View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rājadantim. patronymic fr. -danta- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
raktadanti() () f. "red-toothed", Name of durgā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ramayantif. Name of a dancing girl View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantim. (1. raṇ-) a fighter, warrior (?) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantif. (for 1.See) loving to stay, abiding gladly with (locative case) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantif. pleasure, delight (used as a term of endearment for a cow) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantim. Name of a lexicographer (equals ranti-deva-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantibhāram. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantidevam. Name of viṣṇu- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantidevam. of a king of the lunar race (son of saṃkṛti-;he spent his riches in performing grand sacrifices and the blood which issued from the bodies of the slaughtered victims was changed into a river called carmaṇ-vatī- Scholiast or Commentator on ) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantidevam. of another king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantidevam. of a teacher of yoga- and various authors, especially of a lexicographer (= ranti-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantidevam. a dog View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rantināra m. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
rudanti f. "weeper", Name of a species of small succulent plant (equals amṛta-sravā-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saimantikan. (fr. sīmanta-) red-lead (so called because used to make a mark along hair-parting) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śakradantinm. indra-'s elephant (called airāvata-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
samantikamind. contiguously, near (Comparative degree ka-taram-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śantimfn. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santiSee sati-, . View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
santif. equals sati-, or sāti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śantivamf(ā-)n. beneficent, friendly, kind View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saptatantimfn. 7-stringed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatadantif. Tiaridium Indicum View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śatatantimfn. hundred-stringed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
saudantim. (fr. su-danta-) a patronymic View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
semantif. idem or 'f. the Indian white rose ' View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sevantikāpariṇayam. Name of a nāṭaka- or a kāvya- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantinmfn. parted (as hair) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantinmfn. wearing the hair parted (as a pregnant woman) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantif. a woman etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantif. Name of a woman View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
sīmantitamfn. marked by a straight line, parted (as hair) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
śucantim. Name of a person under the especial protection of the aśvin-s View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
surāṣṭrāvantim. plural the inhabitants or the countries of Surat and avanti- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svardantinm. a celestial elephant View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
svarṇajīvanti f. Hoya Viridiflora View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantif. ( ) a cord, line, string (especially a long line to which a series of calves are fastened by smaller cords) on xiii and (in fine compositi or 'at the end of a compound') View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantif. (ntī-) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantif. extension View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantim. a weaver View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantim. see 2. tati-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanti -, t/antu-, etc. See column 1. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tanticaramfn. going with (id est led by) a cord View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantijam. Name of a son of kanavaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantipālam. "guardian of (the calves kept together by) a tant/i- ", a N. assumed by saha-deva- at virāṭa-'s court View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantipālam. Name of a son of kanavaka- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tantipālakam. equals la-, Saha-deva View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
trāyantif. equals - View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
tritantimfn. having 3 chords (a lute) Scholiast or Commentator on and View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ubhādantiind. gaRa dvidaṇḍy-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
ubhayādantiind. gaRa dvidaṇḍy-ādi- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
udantif. satisfaction, satiety View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
unmattāvantim. Name of a king View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vadanti See kiṃ-v- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vadantikam. plural Name of a people View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaijayantikamf(ā-or ī-)n. bearing a flag, a flag-bearer View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaijayantif. a flag, banner View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaijayantif. a kind of pearl necklace (in Prakrit) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaijayantif. Sesbania Aegyptiaca View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vaijayantif. Premna Spinosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
valantif. a particular mode of gesticulation (varia lectio valabhikā-). View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vantif. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vasantif. wrong reading for vāsantikā-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantif. Gaertnera Racemosa View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantif. Name of a forest deity View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantif. of a drama (also vāsantikāpariṇaya -pariṇaya-,m.) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantikamf(ā-)n. relating to spring, vernal etc. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantikamf(ā-)n. equals vasantam adhīte veda vā- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantikam. the spring festival View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantikam. an actor dancer the buffoon in a drama (equals vidūṣaka- q.v) View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vāsantikāpariṇayam. vāsantikā
vijayantif. Name of a yoginī- View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vīrajayantif. a kind of dance performed by soldiers after a victory or on going to battle, war-dance, war, battle View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
vyantibhāvam. the being removed View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yantif. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
yāvantif. See rīti-. View this entry on the original dictionary page scan.
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anti अन्ति ind. [अन्त-इ] Ved. 1 Near, before, in the presence of; न ही नु वो मरुतो अन्त्यस्मे Rv.1.167.9; 1.79. 11. -2 (Prep.) To, in the vicinity of (with gen.); मुग्धप्रभीतवदुपेयतुरन्ति मात्रोः Bhāg.1.8.22. -तिः f. An elder sister (in dramas). -Comp. -ऊति a. ready with help. (-तिः f.) protection of what is near (आसन्नरक्षण); अर्चामि सुम्नयन्नहमन्त्यूतिं मयाभुवम् Rv.1.138.1. -गृहम् a house near one's own dwelling, the neighbourhood of the house. -देव a. being near the god; an adversary (at dice); पाथो हि ष्मा वृषणा अन्तिदवम् Rv.1.18.7. -मित्र, -वाम, -षुम्ण a. near or at hand with help, wealth, or kindness; अन्तिवामा दूरे Rv.7.77.4 (निकटस्थधना).
antika अन्तिक a. [अन्तः सामीप्यम् अस्यास्तीति मत्वथर्यिः ठन्; according to Nir. from आ-नी; अन्तिकं कस्मात् आनीतं भवति सन्निकृष्टत्वात्] 1 Near, proximate (with gen. or abl. P. II.3.34). वैरमन्तिकमासाद्य यः प्रीतिं कर्तुमिच्छति । मृन्मयस्येव भग्नस्य यथा सन्धिर्न विद्यते ॥ Mb.12.139.69. -2 Reaching to the end of, reaching to; नासान्तिक Ms.2.46. -3 Lasting till, until; as far as, up to; षट्त्रिंशदाब्दिकं चर्यं गुरौ त्रैवेदिकं व्रतम् Ms.3.1; ग्रहणान्तिकम् Y.1.36. -कम् Nearness, proximity, vicinity, presence; न त्यजन्ति ममान्तिकम् H. 1.43; oft. in comp.; ˚न्यस्त R.2.24; कर्ण-˚चरः Ś.1.23; सिंहासनान्तिकचरेण सहोपसर्पन् M.1.12 a servant in attendance upon the throne. -कः A class of two storeyed buildings; Māna.2.94.26-27. -adv. (with abl. or gen. or as last member of comp.) Near (to), in the vicinity; अन्तिकं ग्रामात् -ग्रामस्य वा Sk.; into the presence or proximity of; दूरस्थस्यैत्य चान्तिकम् Ms.2.197; प्रविष्टे पितुर- न्तिकम् Rām.; so जनान्तिकम्, मृगान्तिकम्; अन्तिकेन near (with gen.) अन्तिकेन ग्रामस्य P.II.3.35; अन्तिकात् near, closely, within the presence of; from the proximity of, from near, from (abl. or gen. or acc.); ˚कादागतः P.VI.2.49; रजःकणैःस्पृशद्भिर्गात्रमन्तिकात् Rām.; क्रीणीयाद्यस्त्वपत्यार्थं मातापित्रोर्यमन्तिकात् Ms.9.174 from; so नैव प्रवृत्तिं शृणुमस्तयोः कस्यचिदन्तिकाम् Rām.; अन्तिके near, closely, in the presence of or proximity of; दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत् Bg.13.15; दमयन्त्यास्तदान्तिके निपेतुः Nala. 1.22; ˚के स्त्रियाः Ms.2.22. -Comp. -आश्रयः resorting to what is near, contiguous support (that given by a tree to a creeper).
anti अन्तिका 1 An elder sister. -2 An oven, fire-place. -3 N. of a plant (सा-शा-तलाख्यौषधिः; Mar. शिकेकाई).
antima अन्तिम a. [अन्ते भवः, अन्त डिमच्] 1 Immediately following. -2 Last, final, ultimate; अजातमृतमूर्खाणां वरमाद्यौ न चान्तिमः H.1. -Comp. -अङ्कः the last digit, the number nine. -अङ्गुलिः the little finger (कनिष्ठिका).
antitaḥ अन्तितः ind. Ved. Near.
atyantika अत्यन्तिक a. [अत्यन्तं गच्छति; अत्यन्त-ठन्] 1 Going too much or too fast. -2 Very near. -3 Not near, distant. -कम् [अतिशयितम् अन्तिकं नैकठ्यम्] 1 Close proximity, immediate neighbourhood or being in close proximity. -2 [अतिक्रान्तम् अन्तिकम्.] Great distance.
anātyantika अनात्यन्तिक a. 1 Not constant or perpetual, not final. -2 Intermittent, recurrent.
arhanti अर्हन्तिका N. of a Buddhist nun. Dk.
ātyantika आत्यन्तिक a. (-की f.) [अत्यन्त भवार्थे ठञ्] 1 Continual, uninterrupted, endless, infinite, permanent, everlasting; स आत्यन्तिको भविष्यति Mu.4; विष्णुगुप्तहतकस्यात्यन्ति- कश्रेयसे 2.15; Ms.2.242; Bg.6.21. -2 Excessive, abundant, superlative. -3 Supreme, absolute; आत्यन्तिकी स्वत्वनिवृत्तिः Mitā. -Comp. -दुःखनिवृत्तिः f. absolution. -प्रलयः the grand or universal destruction of the world.
āvantika आवन्तिक a. (-की f.) Coming from or belonging to Avantī. -कः N. of a Buddhist school.
udanti उदन्तिका Satisfaction, satiety.
jīvantikaḥ जीवन्तिकः A fowler.
jīvanti जीवन्तिका f. 1 A goddess looking after the welfare of a child (Mar. जीवती); गणेशं जन्मदां षष्ठीं देवीं जीवन्तिकामपि Śiva. B.6.48. -2 N. of a plant.
tanti तन्तिः f. [तन्-कर्मणि क्तिच्] 1 A cord, line, string; सासज्जत शिचस्तन्त्यां महिषी कालयन्त्रिता Bhāg.7.2.52. -2 A row, series, (Mar. दावण); वत्सानां न तन्तयस्त इन्द्र Rv.6.24.4; यथा गावो नसि प्रोतास्तन्त्र्यां बद्धाः स्वदामभिः Bhāg.1.13.42. -3 Extension, expansion. -4 A cow. -5 A weaver. -Comp. -पालः 1 a guardian of (the rows of) cows. -2 N. assumed by Sahadeva when living at the house of Virāṭa.
dantādanti दन्तादन्ति ind. Tooth against tooth, biting one another; Mb.8. दन्तावलः dantāvalḥ दन्तिन् dantin दन्तावलः दन्तिन् m. An elephant; Bv.1.6; तृणैर्गुणत्वमापन्नेर्बध्यन्ते मत्तदन्तिनः H.1.35; R.1.71; Ku. 16.2; दृष्ट्यैवाङ्कुशमुद्रया निगडितो दारिद्र्यदन्तावलः Sūktisundara 5.3. The Nm. adds: दन्ती तु वारणे, क्रोडे, श्वाने, व्याघ्रे, मृगा- धिपे । ओषधीनागहेरम्बसोमेष्वप्यथ...... ॥ -Comp. -दन्तः ivory. -मदः the juice exuding from the temples of an elephant in rut. -वक्त्रः Gaṇeśa.
paryanti पर्यन्तिका Loss of good qualities, depravity, moral turpitude.
pāryantika पार्यन्तिक a. (-की f.) Final, last, conclusive.
pṛṣanti पृषन्तिः A drop of water; पयःपृषन्तिभिः स्पृष्टा वान्ति वाताः शनैः शनैः Bharata on Ak.
prātyantikaḥ प्रात्यन्तिकः 1 A prince of the Pratyantas, q. v. -2 A neighbouring chief.
bāhudantin बाहुदन्तिन् m., बाहुदन्तेयः An epithet of Indra.
rantidevaḥ रन्तिदेवः 1 N. of a king of the lunar race, sixth in descent from Bharata. [He was very pious and benevolent. He possessed enormous riches, but he spent them in performing grand sacrifices. So great was the number of animals slaughtered during his reign both in sacrifices as well as for use in his kitchen that a river of blood is supposed to have issued from their hides which was afterwards appropriately called चर्मण्वती; स्रोतोमूर्त्या भुवि परिणतां रन्तिदेवस्य कीर्तिम् Me.47 and Malli. thereon.] -2 N. of Viṣṇu. -3 A dog.
lalanti ललन्तिका 1 A long necklace; कण्ठसंसक्तगुच्छार्धगुच्छरत्न- ललन्तिकाम् Śiva B.2.7. -2 A lizard or chameleon.
vadanti वदन्तिः f. वदन्ती 1 Speech, discourse. -2 A story; L. D. B.
valanti वलन्तिका A particular mode of gesticulation.
vāsantika वासन्तिक a. (-की f.) Vernal; द्रुमान् वासन्तिकान् दृष्ट्वा बभूवुर्भयशङ्किताः Rām.4.53.4; वासन्तिकैस्तरुभिः Ś.6. -कः 1 The Vidūṣaka or buffoon in a drama. -2 An actor.
vṛṣasyanti वृषस्यन्ति 1 A woman longing for sexual intercourse (with acc. of male); रघुनन्दनं वृषस्यन्ती शूर्पणखा प्राप्ता Mv. 5; इति रामो वृषस्यन्तीं वृषस्कन्धः शशास ताम् R.12.34; Bk. 4.3. -2 A libidinous or lascivious woman. -3 A cow in heat.
vaijayantikaḥ वैजयन्तिकः A standard-bearer.
vaijayanti वैजयन्तिका 1 A banner, flag (fig. also); संचारिणीव देवस्य मकरकेतोर्जगद्वीजवैजयन्तिका काप्यागतवती Māl.1. -2 A kind oलf necklace of pearls.
sīmantita सीमन्तित a. 1 Parted (as hair). -2 Parted or marked by a line; समीरसीमन्तितकेतकीकाः (प्रदेशाः) Śi.3.8; रथाङ्गसीमन्तितसान्द्रकर्दमान् (पथः) Ki.4.18.
sīmanti सीमन्तिनी A woman; मा स्म सीमन्तिनी काचिज्जनयेत् पुत्र- मीदृशम् H.2.7; Me.12; Bk.5.22.
saimantikam सैमन्तिकम् Red lead.
hasanti हसन्तिका A portable fire-vessel.
haimantika हैमन्तिक a. [हेमन्ते काले भवः ठञ्] 1 Wintry, cold. -2 Growing in winter. -कम् A kind of rice.
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antitas ánti-tas, adv. from near, iii. 59, 2 [ánti in front, near].
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anti ad. opposite; before; near; prp. near to (g., --°ree;).
antika n. vicinity, presence: -m, ad. near, up to; ab. from near; close to; from; in., lc. near, close to, before (g., --°ree;); -kara, a. moving about (--°ree;).
antima a. last, final.
antitas ad. from near.
anantikastha a. not remain ing near.
arhanti f. Buddhist nun.
avanti m. pl. N. of a people; -deva, m. N. of a king; -nagarî, f. the city of Uggayinî; -pura, n., î, f. id.; -mâtri, -kâ, f. pl. the divine mothers of the Avantis; -vatî, f. N.; -vardhana, m. N.; -varman, m. N. of a king and of a poet; -sundarî, f. N.; -sena, m., â, f. N.; -svâmin, m. N. of a temple.
ātyantika a. (î) lasting to the end; unalterable; absolute.
āvantika a. relating to Avanti: â, f. N.
tanti f. (also î) cord, rope (esp. for tying calves).
dantin a. tusked; m. elephant; -ila, m. N.; -ura, a. having prominent teeth; uneven; thickly studded with, full of (--°ree;); ugly: -tâ, f. ugliness.
dantādanti ad. tooth against tooth=tooth and nail (of combatants).
dauṣyanti m. pat. of Bharata.
dauḥṣanti older form of Dau shyanti.
prātyantika m. neighbouring chief.
ranti f. [√ ram] abiding gladly, with (lc.; V.): -deva, m. N. of a king of the lunar race; N. of a lexicographer.
valanti f. kind of gesticulation.
vāsantika a. (î) vernal; m. spring festival.
śantiva a. peaceable, kind (AV.1).
sīmantin a. parted, having a parting (hair, pregnant woman): -î, f. woman.
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arya This word is not common in the older literature, in places where the quantity of the first vowel is fixed as short, except in a mere adjectival sense. Geldner, indeed, contends that no other sense is anywhere needed ; but Roth and Zimmer agree in thinking that in several passages of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā the word has the same sense as Arya, and this appears probable. Whether it is necessary to ascribe this sense to the word in the compound arya-patnī applied to the waters set free by Indra, is more doubtful. The commentator, Mahīdhara, suggests that the word means a Vaiśya, not an Arya generally. This view is supported by the explanation in the śatapatha Brāhmana of one of the passages of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā.8 But though the use of Arya to denote a Vaiśya became common later it is not clear that it was original.
ātreya Is the patronymic of a pupil of Mānti in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. An Atreya appears as a Purohita of Añga in the Aitareya Brāhmana. An Atreya was regularly the priest in certain rites, and an Átreyī occurs in an obscure passage in the Satapatha Brāhmana.
ālambāyanīputra Mentioned in a Vamśa or Genealogy of the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Alambl-putra. In the Mādhyandina recension the relation is reversed, for there he is teacher of Álambī-putra and pupil of Jāyantī-putra.
ālambiputra Is a pupil of Jāyantī-putra according to a Vamśa in the Kānva recension of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad but of ^lambāyanī-putra according to the Mādhy­andina
upavāka occurs in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Brāh­manas as a description of a species of grain, the Wrightia antidysenterica, known later as Indra-yava. The commentator Mahīdhara simply glosses it with the more general term Yava. According to the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, it formed the essential element of gruel (karambha), and Upavāka groats (saktavah) are mentioned in the śatapatha Brāhmana
kāśi The name Kāśi denotes (in the plural1) the people of Kāśi (Benares), and Kāśya, the king of Kāśi. The Satapatha Brāhmana tells of Dhrtarāstra, king of Kāśi, who was defeated by Satānīka Sātrājita, with the result that the Kāśis, down to the time of the Brāhmana, gave up the kindling of the sacred fire. Sātrājita was a Bharata. We hear also of Ajātaśatru as a king of Kāśi; and no doubt Bhadrasena Ajātaśatrava, a contemporary of Uddālaka, was also a king of Kāśi. The Kāśis and Videhas were closely connected, as was natural in view of their geographical position. The compound name Kāśi-Videha occurs in the Kausītaki Upanisad; in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad Gārgī describes Ajātaśatru as either a Kāśi or a Videha king. The Sāñkhāyana Srauta Sūtra mentions one Purohita as acting for the kings of Kāśi, Kosala, and Videha; and the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra mentions Kāśi and Videha in close proximity. Weber,8 indeed, throws out the suggestion that the Kāśis and the Videhas together con¬stitute the Uśīnaras, whose name is very rare in Vedic literature. As Kosala and Videha were in close connexion, Kāśi and Kosala are found combined in the compound name Kāśi- Kauśalyas of the Gopatha Brāhmana. Though Kāśi is a late word, it is quite possible that the town is older, as the river Varanāvatī referred to in the Athar¬vaveda may be connected with the later Vārānasī (Benares).It is significant that while the Kāśis, Kosalas, and Videhas were united, any relations which the Kuru-Pañcala peoples may have had with them were hostile. It is a fair conclusion that between these two great groups of peoples there did exist some political conflict as well as probably a difference of culture in some degree. The śatapatha Brāhmana,11 in the story of the advance of Aryan civilization over Kosala and Videha, preserves a clear tradition of this time, and a piece of evidence that in the Kuru-Pañcāla country lay the real centre of the Brāhmana culture (see also Kuru-Pañcāla). That the Kosala-Videhas were originally settlers of older date than the Kuru-Pañcālas is reasonably obvious from their geographical position, but the true Brāhmana culture appears to have been brought to them from the Kuru-Pañcala country. It is very probable that the East was less Aryan than the West, and that it was less completely reduced under Brahmin spiritual supremacy, as the movement of Buddhism was Eastern, and the Buddhist texts reveal a position in which the Ksatriyas rank above Brāhmanas. With this agrees the fact that the later Vedic texts display towards the people of Magadha a marked antipathy, which may be reasonably explained by that people’s lack of orthodoxy, and which may perhaps be traced as far back as the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. It is, of course, possible that the Kosala-Videhas and Kāśis actually were merely offshoots of the tribes later known as the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that they by reason of distance and less complete subjugation of the aborigines lost their Brahminical culture. This hypothesis, however, appears less likely, though it might be supported by a literal inter-pretation of the legend of the Aryan migration in the śatapatha Brāhmana.
kuru The Kurus appear as by far the most important people in the Brāhmana literature. There is clear evidence that it was in the country of the Kurus, or the allied Kuru- Pañcālas, that the great Brāhmanas were composed. The Kurus are comparatively seldom mentioned alone, their name being usually coupled with that of the Pañcālas on account of the intimate connexion of the two peoples. The Kuru-Pañcālas are often expressly referred to as a united nation. In the land of the Kuru-Pañcālas speech is said to have its particular home ; the mode of sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas is proclaimed to be the best ; the Kuru-Pañcāla kings perform the Rājasūya or royal sacrifice ; their princes march forth on raids in the dewy season, and return in the hot season Later on the Kuru-Pañcāla Brahmins are famous in the Upanisads. Weber and Grierson have sought to find traces in Vedic literature of a breach between the two tribes, the latter scholar seeing therein a confirmation of the theory that the Kurus belonged to the later stream of immigrants into India, who were specially Brahminical, as opposed to the Pañcālas, who were anti-Brahminical. In support of this view, Weber refers to the story in the Kāthaka Samhitā of a dispute between Vaka Dālbhya and Dhrtarāstra Vaicitravīrya, the former being held to be by origin a Pañcāla, while the latter is held to be a Kuru. But there is no trace of a quarrel between Kurus and Pañcālas in the passage in question, which merely preserves the record of a dispute on a ritual matter between a priest and a prince: the same passage refers to the Naimisīya sacrifice among the Kuru-Pañcālas, and emphasizes the close connexion of the two peoples. Secondly, Weber conjectures in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā that Subhadrikā of Kāmpīla was the chief queen of the king of a tribe living in the neighbour¬hood of the clan, for whose king the horse sacrifice described in the Samhitā was performed. But the interpretation of this passage by Weber is open to grave doubt ; and in the Kānva recension of the Samhitā a passage used at the Rājasūya shows that the Kuru-Pañcālas had actually one king. More¬over, there is the evidence of the Satapatha Brāhmana that the old name of the Pañcālas was Krivi. This word looks very like a variant of Kuru, and Zimmer plausibly conjectures that the Kurus and Krivis formed the Vaikarna of the Rigveda, especially as both peoples are found about the Sindhu and the Asikni.The Kurus alone are chiefly mentioned in connexion with the locality which they occupied, Kuruksetra. We are told, however, of a domestic priest (Purohita) in the service of both the Kurus and the Srñjayas, who must therefore at one time have been closely connected. In the Chāndogya Upanisad reference is made to the Kurus being saved by a mare (aśvā), and to some disaster which befel them owing to a hailstorm. In the Sūtras, again, a ceremony (Vājapeya) of the Kurus is mentioned. There also a curse, which was pronounced on them and led to their being driven from Kuruksetra, is alluded to. This possibly adumbrates the misfortunes of the Kauravas in the epic tradition. In the Rigveda the Kurus do not appear under that name as a people. But mention is made of a prince, Kuruśravana (‘ Glory of the Kurus ^, and of a Pākasthāman Kaurayāna. In the Atharvaveda there occurs as a king of the Kurus Pariksit, whose son, Janamejaya, is mentioned in the śata¬patha Brāhmana as one of the great performers of the horse sacrifice.It is a probable conjecture of Oldenberg’s that the Kuru people, as known later, included some of the tribes referred to by other names in the Rigveda. Kuruśravana, shown by his name to be connected with the Kurus, is in the Rigveda called Trāsadasyava, * descendant of Trasadasyu,’ who is well known as a king of the Pūrus. Moreover, it is likely that the Trtsu- Bharatas, who appear in the Rigveda as enemies of the Pūrus, later coalesced with them to form the Kuru people. Since the Bharatas appear so prominently in the Brāhmana texts as a great people of the past, while the later literature ignores them in its list of nations, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they became merged in some other tribe. Moreover, there is evidence that the Bharatas occupied the territory in which the Kurus were later found. Two of them are spoken of in a hymn of the Rigveda as having kindled fire on the Drsadvatī, the Apayā, and the Sarasvatī—that is to say, in the sacred places of the later Kuruksetra. Similarly, the goddess Bhāratī (‘ belonging to the Bharatas ’) is constantly mentioned in the Aprī (‘ propitiatory ’) hymns together with Sarasvatī. Again, according to the śatapatha Brāhmana, one Bharata king was victorious over the Kāśis, and another made offerings to Gañgā and Yamunā, while raids of the Bharatas against the Satvants are mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmana. Nor is it without importance that the Bharatas appear as a variant for the Kuru-Pañcālas in a passage of the Vājasaneyi Samhitā, and that in the list of the great performers of the horse sacrifice the names of one Kuru and two Bharata princes are given without any mention of the people over which they ruled, while in other cases that information is specifically given.The territory of the Kuru-Pañcālas is declared in the Aitareya Brāhmana to be the middle country (Madhyadeśa). A group of the Kuru people still remained further north—the Uttara Kurus beyond the Himālaya. It appears from a passage of the śatapatha Brāhmana that the speech of the Northerners— that is, presumably, the Northern Kurus—and of the Kuru- Pañcālas was similar, and regarded as specially pure. There seems little doubt that the Brahminical culture was developed in the country of the Kuru-Pañcālas, and that it spread thence east, south, and west. Traces of this are seen in the Vrātya Stomas (sacrifices for the admission of non - Brahminical Aryans) of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and in the fact that in the śāñkhāyana Áranyaka it is unusual for a Brahmin to dwell in the territory of Magadha. The repeated mention of Kuru- Pañcāla Brahmins is another indication of their missionary activity. The geographical position of the Kuru-Pañcālas renders it probable that they were later immigrants into India than the Kosala-Videha or the Kāśis, who must have been pushed into their more eastward territories by a new wave of Aryan settlers from the west. But there is no evidence in Vedic literature to show in what relation of time the immigration of the latter peoples stood to that of their neighbours on the west. It has, however, been conjectured, mainly on the ground of later linguistic phenomena, which have no cogency for the Vedic period, that the Kurus were later immigrants, who, coming by a new route, thrust themselves between the original Aryan tribes which were already in occupation of the country from east to west. Cf. also Krtvan. For other Kuru princes see Kauravya.
gaṅgā The modern Ganges, is mentioned directly in the Rigveda only once, in the Nadī-stuti or Praise of Rivers.’ But it is also referred to in the derivative form gāúgyah as an epithet of Urukaksa. The name of this river does not occurin the other Samhitās, but appears in the śatapatha Brāhmana, where victories of Bharata Dauhsanti on both Gañgā and Yamunā are referred to, and in the Taittirīya Aranyaka especial honour is assigned to those who dwell between the Gañgā and the Yamunā, this being, no doubt, the region in which that text originated. The identification of the Gañgā with the Apayā made by Ludwig must be rejected: see Apayā.
gupta Is the name in the Jaiminīya Upanisad Brāhmana of Vaipaścita Dārdhajayanti Gupta Lauhitya. All the three other names being patronymics show that he was descended from the families of Vipaścit, Drdhajayanta, and Lohita.
grāma The primitive sense of this word, which occurs frequently from the Rigveda onwards, appears to have been village.’ The Vedic Indians must have dwelt in villages which were scattered over the country, some close together, some far apart, and were connected by roads.The village is regularly contrasted with the forest (
jāyantīputra ‘Son of Jāyantī,’ is mentioned in the last Vamśa (list of teachers) in the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad as a pupil of Māndūkāyanīputra.
taranta Appears, along with Purumīdha, as a patron of Syāvāśva in the Rigveda. In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana and other Brāhmanas he, together with Purumīdha, is de­scribed as receiving gifts from Dhvasra and Purusanti; but since the receipt of gifts was forbidden to Ksatriyas, they for the nonce became Rsis, and composed a passage in honour of the donors. He, like Purumīdha, was a Vaidadaśvi, or son of Vidadaśva.
tejana Denotes in the Rigveda a rod or staff of reed used for measuring a field. In the Atharvaveda the sense of bamboo is found twice, the bamboo being specified in the second passage as ‘ of the spring ’(vāsantika); more particularly it denotes the shaft of an arrow, a sense often found in later Vedic texts.
durga ‘Hard to approach,’ occurs in the Rigveda as a neuter substantive only, sometimes in the sense of fort, ’stronghold.’ Cf Pur.
durya ‘Belonging to the door or house,’ appears in several passages of the Samhitās as a plural substantive denoting the door-posts,’ or more generally ‘dwelling.’
duḥṣanta See Dauhsanti.
dhvasanti Is in one passage of the Rigveda mentioned together with Purusanti as having been aided by the Aśvins. There can be no doubt that this is the longer form of the name Dhvasra, which is found with Purusanti both in the Rigveda and in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana.
dhvasra Is named with Purusanti in the Pañcavimśa Brāh­mana as giving gifts to Taranta and Purumīdha. These two, being kings, could not properly accept gifts which Brāhmanas alone could accept, but by becoming authors of a verse of the Rigveda they qualified themselves to accept them. The verse mentions the names in the dual as Dhvasrayofy Purusaηtyoh, ‘from the two, Dhvasra and Purusanti.’ In the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana5 the names occur in the dual as Dhvasre Purusanti, a reading which is confirmed by the Nidāna Sūtra. The former is necessarily a feminine form, though Sāyana, in his comment on the passage, explains it as really an irregular masculine. According to Roth, the feminine is a corruption based on the dual form in the verse of the Rigveda mentioned above; but the names may be those of women, as Benfey inclines to believe. Weber suggests that the two were demons, but this is, as Sieg shows, quite unnecessary. Dhvasra is no doubt identical with Dhvasanti.
nakṣatra Is a word of obscure origin and derivation. The Indian interpreters already show a great divergence of opinion as to its primary meaning. The śatapatha Brāhmana re­solves it into na-ksatra (‘ no power ’), explaining it by a legend. The Nirukta refers it to the root naks, ‘obtain/ following the Taittirīya Brāhmana. Aufrecht and Weber derived it from nakta-tra, ‘ guardian of night/ and more recently the derivation from nak-ksatra, ‘ having rule over night/ seems to be gaining acceptance. The generic meaning of the word therefore seems to be ‘star/ The Naksatras as Stars in the Rigveda and Later.—The sense of star ’ appears to be adequate for all or nearly all the passages in which Naksatra occurs in the Rigveda. The same sense occurs in the later Samhitās also : the sun and the Naksatras are mentioned together, or the sun, the moon, and the Naksatras, or the moon and the Naksatras, or the Naksatras alone; but there is no necessity to attribute to the word the sense of lunar mansion ’ in these passages. On the other hand, the names of at least three of the Naksatras in the later sense occur in the Rigveda. Tisya, however, does not seem to be mentioned as a lunar mansion. With Aghās (plur.) and Arjunī (dual) the case is different: it seems probable that they are the later lunar mansions called Maghās (plur.) and Phālgunī (dual). The names appear to have been deliberately changed in the Rigveda, and it must be remembered that the hymn in which they occur, the wedding hymn of Sūryā, has no claim to great age. Ludwig and Zimmer have seen other references to the Naksatras as 27 in the Rigveda, but these seem most improbable. Nor do the adjectives revatī (£ rich ’) and punarvasīi (‘ bringing wealth again’) in another hymn appear to refer to the Naksatras. The Naksatras as Lunar Mansions.—In several passages of the later Samhitās the connexion of the moon and the Naksatras is conceived of as a marriage union. Thus in the Kāthaka and Taittirīya Samhitās it is expressly stated that Soma was wedded to the mansions, but dwelt only with Rohinī; the others being angry, he had ultimately to undertake to live with them all equally. Weber hence deduced that the Naksatras were regarded as of equal extent, but this is to press the texts unduly, except in the sense of approximate equality. The number of the mansions is not stated as 27 in the story told in the two Samhitās: the Taittīriya has, and the Kāthaka no number; but 27 appears as their number in the list which is found in the Taittirīya Samhitā and elsewhere. The number 28 is much less well attested: in one passage of the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is practically marked as a new comer, though in a later book, in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and in the Atharvaveda list,27 it has found acceptance. It is perfectly possible that 28 is the earlier number, and that Abhijit dropped out because it was faint, or too far north, or because 27 was a more mystic (3x3x3) number: it is significant that the Chinese Sieou and the Arabic Manāzil are 28 in number.28 Weber, however, believes that 27 is the older number in India. The meaning of the number is easily explained when it is remembered that a periodic month occupies something between 27 and 28 days, more nearly the former number. Such a month is in fact recognized in the Lātyāyana and Nidāna Sūtras as consisting of 27 days, 12 months making a year of 324 days, a Naksatra year, or with an intercalary month, a year of 351 days. The Nidāna Sūtra makes an attempt to introduce the Naksatra reckoning into the civil or solar (sāvana) year of 360 days, for it holds that the sun spends 13J• days in each Naksatra (13^x27 = 360). But the month of 27 or 28 days plays no part in the chronological calculations of the Veda. The Names of the Naksatras.—In addition to the two mentioned in the Rigveda, the earlier Atharvaveda gives the names of Jyesthaghnī (the later Jyesthā) and Vicrtau, which are mentioned as in close connexion, and of Revatīs (plural) and Kyttikās. With reference to possible times for the ceremony of the Agnyādhāna, or Maying of the sacred fires/ the Kāthaka Samhitā, the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, and the Taittirīya Brāhmana mention the Naksatras called Krttikās, Rohinī, Phalgunyas, Hasta; the latter Brāhmana adds Punar- vasū, and in an additional remark excludes Pūrve Phālgunī in favour of Uttare Phālgunī. The śatapatha Brāhmana adds Mrgaśīrsa and Citrā as possibilities. On the other hand, Punarvasū is recommended by all authorities as suitable for the Punarādheya, 'relaying of the sacred fires,’ which takes place if the first fire has failed to effect the aim of its existence, the prosperity of the sacrificer. The Kāthaka Samhitā, however, allows Anurādhās also. In the ceremony of the Agnicayana, or 'piling of the fire- altar,’ the bricks are assumed to be equal in number to the Naksatras. The bricks number 756, and they are equated to 27 Naksatras multiplied by 27 secondary Naksatras, reckoned as 720 (instead of 729), with the addition of 36 days, the length of an intercalary month. Nothing can be usefully derived from this piece of priestly nonsense. But in connexion with this ceremony the Yajurveda Samhitās enumerate the 27, The Taittirīya Brāhmana has a list of the Naksatras which agrees generally with the list of the Samhitās. It runs as follows: Kyttikās, Rohinī, Invakās, Bāhū (dual), Tisya, Aśleṣās, Maghās, Pūrve Phālgunī, Uttare Phālgunī, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Rohinī, Mūlabarhanī, Pūrvā Asādhās', Uttarā Asādhās, Sronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Pūrve Prosthapadās, Uttare Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Apabharanīs. In a later book, however, the list grows to 28, and the full moon is inserted after number 14, and the new moon after number, as an attempt to bring the Naksatra (lunar) month into accordance with the Sāvana (solar) month of 30 days. The names in this second list are as in the Samhitās with the following exceptions. The seven stars of the Krttikās are named as Ambā, Dulā, Nitatnī, Abhrayantī, Meghayantī, Varsayantī, Cupunīkā, names found also in the Taittirīya and Kāthaka Samhitās. Beside Mrgaśīrsa, Invakās are also mentioned. Then come Ardrā, Punarvasū, Tisya, Aśresās, Maghās (beside which Anaghās, Agadās, and Arun- dhatīs are also mentioned), Phalgunyas (but elsewhere in the dual, Phalgunyau), Phalgunyas, Hasta, Citrā, Nistyā, Viśākhe, Anūrādhās, Jyesthā, Mūla, Asādhās, Asā(jhās, Abhijit, śronā, Sravisthās, Satabhisaj, Prosthapadās, Prosthapadās, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas, but also Apabharanīs. Abhijit, which occurs also in an earlier part of the Brāhmana, is perhaps interpolated. But Weber’s argument that Abhijit is out of place in this list because Brāhmana is here mentioned as the 28th Naksatra, loses some force from the fact (of course unknown to him) that the list in the Maitrāyanī Samhitā contains 28 Naksatras, including Abhijit, and adds Brāhmana at the end as another. In another passage the Taittirīya Brāhmana divides the Naksatras into two sets, the Deva Naksatras and the Yama Naksatras, being 1-14 and 15-27 (with the omission of Abhijit) respectively. This division corresponds with one in the third book of the Brāhmana60 where the days of the light half of the month and those of the dark half are equated with the Naksatras. The Brāhmana treats the former series as south, the latter as north; but this has no relation to facts, and can only be regarded as a ritual absurdity. The late nineteenth book of the Atharvaveda contains a list of the Naksatras, including Abhijit. The names here (masc.), Viśākhe, Anurādhā, Jyesthā, Mūla, Pūrvā Asādhās, Uttarā Asādhās, Abhijit, śravana, śravisthās, śatabhisaj, Dvayā Prosthapadā, Revatī, Aśvayujau, Bharanyas. The Position of the Naksatras.—There is nothing definite in Vedic literature regarding the position of most of the Naksatras, but the later astronomy precisely locates all of them, and its statements agree on the whole satisfactorily with what is said in the earlier texts, though Weber was inclined to doubt this. The determinations adopted below are due to Whitney in his notes on the Sūrya Siddhānta. 1.Krttikās are unquestionably η Tauri, etc., the Pleiades. The names of the seven stars forming this constellation, and given above from Yajurveda texts, include three --------abhrayantī, forming clouds meghayantī, ‘making cloudy’; varsayantī, ‘causing rain’—which clearly refer to the rainy Pleiades. The word krttikā possibly means ‘web/ from the root krt, spin.’ 2. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy,’ is the name of the conspicuously reddish star, a Tauri or Aldebaran, and denotes the group of the Hyades, <* θ y 8 e Tauri. Its identification seems absolutely assured by the legend of Prajāpati in the Aitareya Brāhmana. He is there represented as pursuing his daughter with incestuous intention, and as having been shot with an arrow (Isu Trikāndā, ‘ the belt of Orion ’) by the huntsman ’ (Mrgavyādha, Sirius ’). Prajāpati is clearly Orion (Mrgaśiras being the name of the little group of stars in Orion’s head). 3.Mrgaśīrsa or Mrgaśiras, also called Invakā or Invagā, seems to be the faint stars λ, φ,1 φ2 Orionis. They are called Andhakā, * blind,’ in the śāntikalpa of the Atharvaveda, probably because of their dimness. 4.Ardrā, ‘ moist,’ is the name of the brilliant star, α Orionis. But the names by which it is styled, in the plural as Árdrās in the śāñkhāyana Grhya Sūtra and the Naksatrakalpa, and in the dual as Bāhú, in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, point to a constellation of two or more stars, and it may be noted that the corresponding Chinese Sieou includes the seven brilliant stars composing the shoulders, the belt, and the knees of Orion. 5. Punarvasu, the two that give wealth again,’ denotes the two stars, a and β Geminorum, on the heads of Castor and Pollux. The name is no doubt connected with the beneficent character of the Aśvins, who correspond to the Dioscuri. 6.Tisya or Pusya includes the somewhat faint group in the body of the Crab, 7, δ, and θ Cancri. The singular is rather curious, as primarily one star would seem to have been meant, and none of the group is at all prominent. 7. Aśresās or Aślesās, which in some texts is certainly to be read Aśresās or Aślesas, denotes δ, e, η, p, σ, and perhaps also ζ, Hydrse. The word means ‘embracer,’ a name which admirably fits the constellation. 8. Maghās, the ‘bounties,’ are the Sickle, or α, γ, ζ, μ, e Leonis. The variants Anaghā, the ‘ sinless one,’ etc.,clearly refer to the auspicious influence of the constellation. 9. 10. Phālgunī, Phalgunyau, Phalgū, Phalg-unīs, Phal- gunyas, is really a double constellation, divided into Pūrve, ‘ former,’ and Uttare, ‘latter.’ The former is δ and θ Leonis, the latter β and Leonis. According to Weber, the word denotes, like Arjunī, the variant of the Rigveda, a ‘ bright- coloured ’ constellation. 11. Hasta, ‘hand,’ is made up of the five conspicuous stars (δ> Ί, e, a, β) in Corvus, a number which the word itself suggests. According to Geldner, the ‘ five bulls ’ of the Rigveda are this constellation. 12. Citrā, ‘bright,’ is the beautiful star, a Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya Brāhmana, and in that of the ‘ two divine dogs ’ (divyau śvānau) in the śatapatha Brāhmana. 13. Svāti or Nistyā is later clearly the brilliant star Arcturus or a Bootis, its place in the north being assured by the notice in the śāntikalpa, where it is said to be ‘ ever traversing the northern way ’ (nityam uttara-mārgagam). The Taittirīya Brāhmana, however, constructs an asterismal Prajāpati, giving him Citrā (α Virginis) for head, Hasta (Corvus) for hand, the Viśākhe (α and β Librae) for thighs, and the Anurādhās (β, δ, and 7r Scorpionis) for standing place, with Nistyā for heart. But Arcturus, being 30° out, spoils this figure, while, on the other hand, the Arabic and Chinese systems have respectively, instead of Arcturus, Virginis and κ Virginis, which would well fit into the Prajāpati figure. But in spite of the force of this argument of Weber’s, Whitney is not certain that Nistyā here must mean a star in Virgo, pointing out that the name Nistyā, ‘outcast,’ suggests the separation of this Naksatra from the others in question. 14.Viśākhe is the couple of stars a and β Librae. This mansion is later called Rādhā according to the Amarakośa, and it is curious that in the Atharvaveda the expression rādho Viśākhe, the Viśākhe are prosperity,’ should occur. But probably Rādhā is merely an invention due to the name of the next Naksatra, Anurādhā, wrongly conceived as meaning that which is after or follows Rādhā.’ 15. Anūrādhās or Anurādhā, propitious,’ is β, δ, and tγ (perhaps also p) Scorpionis. 16. Rohinī, ‘ ruddy ’; Jyesthaghnī, * slaying the eldest ’; or Jyesthā, ‘eldest,’ is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, a, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis). 17.Vicrtau, ‘ the two releasers ’; Mūla, ‘ root or Mūla- barhanī, ‘ uprooting,’ denote primarily λ and v at the extremity of the tail of the Scorpion, but including also the nine or eleven stars from e to v. 18.19. Asādhās (‘ unconquered ’), distinguished as Pūrvās, ‘ former,’ and Uttarās, ‘ latter,’ are really two constellations, of which the former is composed of γ, δ, e, and η Sagittarii, or of 8 and e only, and the latter of θ, σ, t, and ξ Sagittarii, or of two, σ and ζ, only. It is probable that originally only four stars forming a square were meant as included in the whole constellation —viz., σ and f, with 8 and e. 20. Abhijit is the brilliant star a Lyrse with its two companions e and ζ. Its location in 6o° north latitude is completely discordant with the position of the corresponding Arabian and Chinese asterisms. This fact is considered by Oldenberg to support the view that it was a later addition to the system; its occurrence, however, as early as the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, which he does not note, somewhat invalidates that view. In the Taittirīya Brāhmana Abhijit is said to be ‘over Asādhās, under śronā,’ which Weber held to refer to its position in space, inferring thence that its Vedic position corresponded to that of the Arab Manāzil and the Chinese Sieou—viz., a, β Capricorni. But Whitney argues effectively that the words ‘ over ’ and ‘ under ’ really refer to the place of Abhijit in the list, ‘ after ’ Asādhās and ‘ before ’ Sronā. 21. Sronā, ‘lame,’ or Sravana, ‘ ear,’ denotes the bright star a Aquilai with β below and 7 above it. Weber very need- lessly thinks that the name Sravana suggested two ears and the head between. It is quite out of correspondence with the Manāzil and the Sieou, and is clearly an Indian invention. 22. śravisthās, ‘ most famous,’ or later Dhanisthās, ‘most wealthy,’ is the diamond-shaped group, α, β, δ, and 7, in the Dolphin, perhaps also ζ in the same constellation. Like the preceding Naksatra, it is out of harmony with the Manāzil and Sieou. 23. Satabhisaj or śatabhisa, ‘having a hundred physicians,’ seems to be λ Aquarii with the others around it vaguely conceived as numbering a hundred. 24. 25. Prostha-padās (fem. plur.), ‘ feet of a stool,’ or later Bhadra-padās,100 ‘auspicious feet,’ a double asterism forming a square, the former (pūrva) consisting of a and β Pegasi, the latter (uttara) of γ Pegasi and a Andromedse. 26. Revatī, ‘ wealthy,’ denotes a large number of stars (later 32), of which ζ Piscium, close upon the ecliptic where it was crossed by the equator of about 570 a.d., is given as the southernmost. 27. Aśva-yujau, ‘the two horse-harnessers,’ denotes the stars β and ζ Arietis. Aśvinyau101 and Aśvinī102 are later names. 28. Apabharanīs, Bharanīs, or Bharanyas, ‘ the bearers,’ is the name of the small triangle in the northern part of the Ram known as Musca or 35, 39, and 41 Arietis. The Naksatras and the Months.—In the Brāhmanas the Naksatra names are regularly used to denote dates. This is done in two ways. The name, if not already a feminine, may be turned into a feminine and compounded with pūrna-māsa, ‘the full moon,’ as in Tisyā-pūrnamāsa, ‘the full moon in the Naksatra Tisya.’103 Much more often, however, it is turned into a derivative adjective, used with paurnamāsī, ‘the full moon (night)/ or with amāvāsyā, ‘the new moon (night)/ as in Phālgunī paurnamāsl, ‘the full-moon night in the Naksatra Phālgunī’;104 or, as is usual in the Sūtras, the Naksatra adjective alone is used to denote the full-moon night. The month itself is called by a name derived105 from that of a Naksatra, but only Phālguna,106 Caitra,107 Vaiśākha,108 Taisya,109 Māgha110 occur in the Brāhmanas, the complete list later being Phālguna, Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaistha, Asādha, Srāvana, Prausthapada, Aśvayuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrsa, Taisya, Māgha. Strictly speaking, these should be lunar months, but the use of a lunar year was clearly very restricted: we have seen that as early as the Taittirīya Brāhmana there was a tendency to equate lunar months with the twelve months of thirty days which made up the solar year (see Māsa). The Naksatras and Chronology.—(i) An endeavour has been made to ascertain from the names of the months the period at which the systematic employment of those names was intro¬duced. Sir William Jones111 refers to this possibility, and Bentley, by the gratuitous assumption that śrāvana always marked the summer solstice, concluded that the names of the months did not date before b.c. Ii8I. Weber112 considered that there was a possibility of fixing a date by this means, but Whitney113 has convincingly shown that it is an impossible feat, and Thibaut114 concurs in this view. Twelve became fixed as the number of the months because of the desire, evident in the Brāhmanas, somehow or other to harmonize lunar with solar time; but the selection of twelve Naksatras out of twenty-seven as connected with the night of full moon can have no chronological significance, because full moon at no period occurred in those twelve only, but has at all periods occurred in every one of the twenty-seven at regularly recurrent intervals. (2) All the lists of the Naksatras begin with Krttikās. It is only fair to suppose that there was some special reason for this fact. Now the later list of the Naksatras begins with Aśvinī, and it was unquestionably rearranged because at the time of its adoption the vernal equinox coincided with the star ζ Piscium on the border of Revatī and Aśvinī, say in the course of the sixth century A.D. Weber has therefore accepted the view that the Krttikās were chosen for a similar reason, and the date at which that Naksatra coincided with the vernal equinox has been estimated at some period in the third millennium B.C. A very grave objection to this view is its assumption that the sun, and not the moon, was then regarded as connected with the Naksatras; and both Thibaut and Oldenberg have pronounced decidedly against the idea of connecting the equinox with the Krttikās. Jacobi has contended that in the Rigveda the commencement of the rains and the summer solstice mark the beginning of the new year and the end of the old, and that further the new year began with the summer solstice in Phālgunī.121 He has also referred to the distinction of the two sets of Deva and Yama Naksatras in the Taittirīya Brāhmana as supporting his view of the connexion of the sun and the Naksatras. But this view is far from satisfactory: the Rigveda passages cannot yield the sense required except by translating the word dvādaśa123 as 4 the twelfth (month) * instead of consisting of twelve parts,’ that is, ‘year/ the accepted interpretation; and the division of the Naksatras is not at all satisfactorily explained by a supposed connexion with the sun. It may further be mentioned that even if the Naksatra of Krttikās be deemed to have been chosen because of its coincidence with the vernal equinox, both Whitney and Thibaut are pre¬pared to regard it as no more than a careless variant of the date given by the Jyotisa, which puts the winter solstice in Māgha. (3) The winter solstice in Māgha is assured by a Brāhmana text, for the Kausītaki Brāhmana12® expressly places it in the new moon of Māgha (māghasyāmāυāsyāyām). It is not very important whether we take this with the commentators as the new moon in the middle of a month commencing with the day after full moon in Taisa, or, which is much more likely, as the new moon beginning the month and preceding full moon in Māgha. The datum gives a certain possibility of fixing an epoch in the following way. If the end of Revatī marked the vernal equinox at one period, then the precession of the equinoxes would enable us to calculate at what point of time the vernal equinox was in a position corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha, when the solstitial colure cut the ecliptic at the beginning of Sravisthās. This would be, on the strict theory, in the third quarter of Bharanī, 6f asterisms removed from Sravisthās, and the difference between that and the beginning of Aśvinī = if asterisms = 23 (27 asterisms being = 360°). Taking, the starting-point at 499 a.d., the assured period of Varāha Mihira, Jones arrived at the date B.C. 1181 for the vernal equinox corresponding to the winter solstice in Māgha—that is, on the basis of ι° = 72 years as the precession. Pratt arrived at precisely the same date, taking the same rate of precession and adopting as his basis the ascertained position in the Siddhantas of the junction star of Maghā, a Leonis or Regulus. Davis and Colebrooke arrived at a different date, B.C. 1391, by taking as the basis of their calculation the junction star of Citrā, which happens to be of uncertain position, varying as much as 30 in the different textbooks. But though the twelfth century has received a certain currency as the epoch of the observation in the Jyotisa, it is of very doubtful value. As Whitney points out, it is impossible to say that the earlier asterisms coincided in position with the later asterisms of 13J0 extent each. They were not chosen as equal divisions, but as groups of stars which stood in conjunction with the moon; and the result of subsequently making them strictly equal divisions was to throw the principal stars of the later groups altogether out of their asterisms. Nor can we say that the star ζ Piscium early formed the eastern boundary of Revatī; it may possibly not even have been in that asterism at all, for it is far remote from the Chinese and Arabic asterisms corresponding to Revatī. Added to all this, and to the uncertainty of the starting-point— 582 a.d., 560 a.d., or 491 a.d. being variants —is the fact that the place of the equinox is not a matter accurately determin¬able by mere observation, and that the Hindu astronomers of the Vedic period cannot be deemed to have been very accurate observers, since they made no precise determination of the number of days of the year, which even in the Jyotisa they do not determine more precisely than as 366 days, and even the Sūrya Siddhānta136 does not know the precession of the equinoxes. It is therefore only fair to allow a thousand years for possible errors,137 and the only probable conclusion to be drawn from the datum of the Kausītaki Brāhmana is that it was recording an observation which must have been made some centuries B.C., in itself a result quite in harmony with the probable date of the Brāhmana literature,138 say B.C. 800-600. (4) Another chronological argument has been derived from the fact that there is a considerable amount of evidence for Phālguna having been regarded as the beginning of the year, since the full moon in Phālgunī is often described as the ‘ mouth (mukham) of the year.’139 Jacobi140 considers that this was due to the fact that the year was reckoned from the winter solstice, which would coincide with the month of Phālguna about B.C. 4000. Oldenberg and Thibaut, on the other hand, maintain that the choice of Phālguna as the ‘ mouth ’ of the year was due to its being the first month of spring. This view is favoured by the fact that there is distinct evidence of the correspondence of Phālguna and the beginning of spring : as we have seen above in the Kausītaki Brāhmana, the new moon in Māgha is placed at the winter solstice, which puts the full moon of Phālgunī at a month and a half after the winter solstice, or in the first week of February, a date not in itself improbable for about B.C. 800, and corresponding with the February 7 of the veris initium in the Roman Calendar. This fact accords with the only natural division of the year into three periods of four months, as the rainy season lasts from June 7-10 to October 7-10, and it is certain that the second set of four months dates from the beginning of the rains (see Cāturmāsya). Tilak, on the other hand, holds that the winter solstice coincided with Māghī full moon at the time of the Taittirīya Samhitā (b.c. 2350), and had coincided with Phālgunī and Caitrī in early periods—viz., B.C. 4000-2500, and B.C. 6000¬4000. (5) The passages of the Taittirīya Samhitā and the Pañca¬vimśa Brāhmana, which treat the full moon in Phālguna as the beginning of the year, give as an alternative the full moon in Caitra. Probably the latter month was chosen so as to secure that the initial day should fall well within the season of spring, and was not, as Jacobi believes, a relic of a period when the winter solstice corresponded with Caitra. Another alternative is the Ekāstakā, interpreted by the commentators as the eighth day after the full moon in Maghās, a time which might, as being the last quarter of the waning half of the old year, well be considered as representing the end of the year. A fourth alternative is the fourth day before full moon; the full moon meant must be that of Caitra, as Álekhana quoted by Ápastamba held, not of Māgha, as Asmarathya, Laugāksi and the Mīmāmsists believed, and as Tilak believes. (6) Others, again, according to the Grhya ritual, began the year with the month Mārgaśīrsa, as is shown by its other name Agrahāyana (‘ belonging to the commencement of the year ’). Jacobi and Tilak think that this one denoted the autumn equinox in Mrgaśiras, corresponding to the winter solstice in Phālgunī. But, as Thibaut shows clearly, it was selected as the beginning of a year that was taken to commence with autumn, just as some took the spring to commence with Caitra instead of Phālguna. (7) Jacobi has also argued, with the support of Buhler, from the terms given for the beginning of Vedic study in the Grhya Sūtras, on the principle that study commenced with the rains (as in the Buddhist vassā) which mark the summer solstice. He concludes that if Bhādrapada appears as the date of commencing study in some texts, it was fixed thus because at one time Prosthapadās (the early name of Bhadra- padās) coincided with the summer solstice, this having been the case when the winter solstice was in Phālguna. But Whitney155 has pointed out that this argument is utterly illegitimate; we cannot say that there was any necessary connexion between the rains and learning—a month like Srāvana might be preferred because of its connexion with the word Sravana, 4 ear ’—and in view of the precession of the equinoxes, we must assume that Bhādrapada was kept because of its traditional coincidence with the beginning of the rains after it had ceased actually so to coincide. the other astronomical phenomena; the discovery of a series of 27 lunar mansions by them would therefore be rather surprising. On the other hand, the nature of such an operation is not very complicated ; it consists merely in selecting a star or a star group with which the moon is in conjunction. It is thus impossible a priori to deny that the Vedic Indians could have invented for themselves a lunar Zodiac. But the question is complicated by the fact that there exist two similar sets of 28 stars or star groups in Arabia and in China, the Manāzil and the Sieou. The use of the Manāzil in Arabia is consistent and effective ; the calendar is regulated by them, and the position of the asterisms corresponds best with the positions required for a lunar Zodiac. The Indians might therefore have borrowed the system from Arabia, but that is a mere possibility, because the evidence for the existence of the Manāzil is long posterior to that for the existence of the Naksatras, while again the Mazzaroth or Mazzaloth of the Old Testament may really be the lunar mansions. That the Arabian system is borrowed from India, as Burgess held, is, on the other hand, not at all probable. Biot, the eminent Chinese scholar, in a series of papers published by him between. 1839 and 1861, attempted to prove the derivation of the Naksatra from the Chinese Sieou. The latter he did not regard as being in origin lunar mansions at all. He thought that they were equatorial stars used, as in modern astronomy, as a standard to which planets or other stars observed in the neighbourhood can be referred; they were, as regards twenty-four of them, selected about B.C. 2357 on account of their proximity to the equator, and of their having the same right ascension as certain circumpolar stars which had attracted the attention of Chinese observers. Four more were added in B.C. IIOO in order to mark the equinoxes and solstices of the period. He held that the list of stars commenced with Mao (= Krttikās), which was at the vernal equinox in B.C. 2357. Weber, in an elaborate essay of i860, disputed this theory, and endeavoured to show that the Chinese literary evidence for the Sieou was late, dating not even from before the third century B.C. The last point does not appear to be correct, but his objections against the basis of Biot’s theory were rein¬forced by Whitney, who insisted that Biot’s supposition of the Sieou’s not having been ultimately derived from a system of lunar mansions, was untenable. This is admitted by the latest defender of the hypothesis of borrowing from China, Lśopold de Saussure, , but his arguments in favour of a Chinese origin for the Indian lunar mansions have been refuted by Oldenberg, who has also pointed out that the series does not begin with Mao ( = Krttikās). There remains only the possibility that a common source for all the three sets—Naksatra, Manāzil, and Sieou—may be found in Babylonia. Hommel has endeavoured to show that recent research has established in Babylonia the existence of a lunar zodiac of twenty-four members headed by the Pleiades ( = Krttikās); but Thibaut’s researches are not favourable to this claim. On the other hand, Weber, Whitney, Zimmer, and Oldenberg all incline to the view that in Babylonia is to be found the origin of the system, and this must for the present be regarded as the most probable view, for there are other traces of Babylonian influence in Vedic literature, such as the legend of the flood, perhaps the Adityas, and possibly the word Manā.
nārmara Occurs once in a corrupt verse of the Rigveda. Ludwig regards the word as the proper name of the prince of a fort, Urjayantī, but Roth as that of a demon.
nāhuṣa Like Nahus, means, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, in some passages of the Rigveda ‘ neighbouring ’ as an adjective, and once as a substantive ‘neighbour.’ If, on the other hand, Nahus is taken as a proper name, then Nāhusa no doubt denotes ‘belonging to the Nahus people/ and, as a substantive, ‘ King of the Nahus.’
pakva ‘Cooked,’ is used substantively as meaning * cooked food’ or ‘cooked milk.’ The word is also used of ‘baked’ bricks.
pati Under these words denoting primarily, as the evidence collected in the St. Petersburg Dictionary shows, ‘ lord ’ and ‘ lady,’ and so * husband ’ and * wife,’ it is convenient to consider the marital relations of the Vedic community. Child Marriage.—Marriage in the early Vedic texts appears essentially as a union of two persons of full development. This is shown by the numerous references to unmarried girls who grow old in the house of their fathers (amā-jur), and who adorn themselves in desire of marriage, as well as to the paraphernalia of spells and potions used in the Atharvavedic tradition to compel the love of man or woman respectively, while even the Rigveda itself seems to present us with a spell by which a lover seeks to send all the household to sleep when he visits his beloved. Child wives first occur regularly in the Sūtra period, though it is still uncertain to what extent the rule of marriage before puberty there obtained. The marriage ritual also quite clearly presumes that the marriage is a real and not a nominal one: an essential feature is the taking of the bride to her husband’s home, and the ensuing cohabitation. Limitations on Marriage.—It is difficult to say with certainty within what limits marriage was allowed. The dialogue of Yama and Yam! in the Rigveda seems clearly to point to a prohibition of the marriage of brother and sister. It can hardly be said, as Weber thinks, to point to a practice that was once in use and later became antiquated. In the Gobhila Grhya Sūtra and the Dharma Sūtras are found prohibitions against marriage in the Gotra (‘ family ’) or within six degrees on the mother’s or father’s side, but in the śatapatha Brāh-mana marriage is allowed in the third or fourth generation, the former being allowed, according to Harisvamin, by the Kanvas, and the second by the Saurāstras, while the Dāksi- nātyas allowed marriage with the daughter of the mother’s brother or the son of the father’s sister, but presumably not with the daughter of the mother’s sister or the son of the father’s brother. The prohibition of marriage within the Gotra cannot then have existed, though naturally marriages outside the Gotra were frequent. Similarity of caste was also not an essential to marriage, as hypergamy was permitted even by the Dharma Sūtras, so that a Brāhmana could marry wives of any lower caste, a Ksatriya wives of the two lowest castes as well as of his own caste, a Vaiśya a Sūdrā as well as a Vaiśyā, although the Sūdrā marriages were later disapproved in toto. Instances of such intermarriage are common in the Epic, and are viewed as normal in the Brhaddevatā. It was considered proper that the younger brothers and sisters should not anticipate their elders by marrying before them. The later Samhitās and Brāhmanas present a series of names expressive of such anticipation, censuring as sinful those who bear them. These terms are the pari-vividāna, or perhaps agre-dadhus, the man who, though a younger brother, marries before his elder brother, the latter being then called the parivitta; the agre-didhisu, the man who weds a younger daughter while her elder sister is still unmarried; and the Didhisū-pati, who is the husband of the latter. The passages do not explicitly say that the exact order of birth must always be followed, but the mention of the terms shows that the order was often broken. Widow Remarriage. The remarriage of a widow was apparently permitted. This seems originally to have taken the form of the marriage of the widow to the brother or other nearest kinsman of the dead man in order to produce children. At any rate, the ceremony is apparently alluded to in a funeral hymn of the Rigveda ; for the alternative explanation, which sees in the verse a reference to the ritual of the Purusamedha (‘human sacrifice’), although accepted by Hillebrandt and Delbruck, is not at all probable, while the ordinary view is supported by the Sūtra evidence. Moreover, another passage of the Rigveda clearly refers to the marriage of the widow and the husband’s brother {devr), which constitutes what the Indians later knew as Niyoga. This custom was probably not followed except in cases where no son was already born. This custom was hardly remarriage in the strict sense, since the brother might—so far as appears—be already married himself. In the Atharvaveda, a verse refers to a charm which would secure the reunion, in the next world, of a wife and her second husband. Though, as Delbruck thinks, this very possibly refers to a case in which the first husband was still alive, but was impotent or had lost caste (patita), still it is certain that the later Dharma Sūtras began to recognize ordinary remarriage in case of the death of the first husband Pischel finds some evidence in the Rigveda to the effect that a woman could remarry if her husband disappeared and could not be found or heard of. Polygamy. A Vedic Indian could have more than one wife. This is proved clearly by many passages in the Rigveda; Manu, according to the Maitrāyanī Samhitā, had ten wives ; and the Satapatha Brāhmana explains polygamy by a characteristic legend. Moreover, the king regularly has four wives attributed to him, the Mahisī, the Parivrktī, the Vāvātā, and the Pālāgalī. The Mahisī appears to be the chief wife, being the first, one married according to the śata¬patha Brāhmana. The Parivrktī, ‘ the neglected,’ is explained by Weber and Pischel as one that has had no son. The Vāvātā is ‘the favourite,’ while the Pālāgalī is, according to Weber, the daughter of the last of the court officials. The names are curious, and not very intelligible, but the evidence points to the wife first wedded alone being a wife in the fullest sense. This view is supported by the fact emphasized by Delbruck, that in the sacrifice the Patnī is usually mentioned in the singular, apparent exceptions being due to some mythological reason. Zimmer is of opinion that polygamy is dying out in the Rigvedic period, monogamy being developed from pologamy; Weber, however, thinks that polygamy is secondary, a view that is supported by more recent anthropology. Polyandry.—On the other hand, polyandry is not Vedic. There is no passage containing any clear reference to such a custom. The most that can be said is that in the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda verses are occasionally found in which husbands are mentioned in relation to a single wife. It is difficult to be certain of the correct explanation of each separate instance of this mode of expression; but even if Weber’s view, that the plural is here used majestatis causa, is not accepted, Delbruck’s explanation by mythology is probably right. In other passages the plural is simply generic. Marital Relations.—Despite polygamy, however, there is ample evidence that the marriage tie was not, as Weber has suggested, lightly regarded as far as the fidelity of the wife was concerned. There is, however, little trace of the husband’s being expected to be faithful as a matter of morality. Several passages, indeed, forbid, with reference to ritual abstinence, intercourse with the strī of another. This may imply that adultery on the husband’s part was otherwise regarded as venial. But as the word strī includes all the ‘womenfolk,’ daughters and slaves, as well as wife, the conclusion can hardly be drawn that intercourse with another man’s ‘wife’ was normally regarded with indifference. The curious ritual of the Varunapraghāsās, in which the wife of the sacrificer is questioned as to her lovers, is shown by Delbruck to be a part of a rite meant to expiate unchastity on the part of a wife, not as a normal question for a sacrificer to put to his own wife. Again, Yājñavalkya’s doctrine in the Satapatha Brāhmana, which seems to assert that no one cares if a wife is unchaste (parah-pumsā) or not, really means that no one cares if the wife is away from the men who are sacrificing, as the wives of the gods are apart from them during the particular rite in question. Monogamy is also evidently approved, so that some higher idea of morality was in course of formation. On the other hand, no Vedic text gives us the rule well known to other Indo-Germanic peoples that the adulterer taken in the act can be killed with impunity, though the later legal literature has traces of this rule. There is also abundant evidence that the standard of ordinary sexual morality was not high. Hetairai. In the Rigveda there are many references to illegitimate love and to the abandonment of the offspring of such unions,ββ especially in the case of a protege of Indra, often mentioned as the parāvrkta or parāvrj. The ‘son of a maiden ’ (kumārī-putra) is already spoken of in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā. Such a person appears with a metronymic in the Upanisad period: this custom may be the origin of metro- nymics such as those which make up a great part of the lists of teachers (Vamśas) of the Brhadāranyaka Upanisad. The Vājasaneyi Samhitā refers to illicit unions of śūdra and Arya, both male and female, besides giving in its list of victims at the Purusamedha, or ‘human sacrifice,’ several whose designations apparently mean ‘ courtesan (atītvarī) and ‘ procuress of abortion ’ (
purumīḷha Is mentioned twice in the Rigveda as an ancient sage, in which capacity he appears in the Atharvaveda also. Perhaps the same Purumīlha is intended in an obscure hymn in the Rigveda, where, according to the legends reported in the Brhaddevatā and by Sadguruśisya in his commentary on the Sarvānukramanī, and by Sāyana in his commentary on the Rigveda, he as well as Taranta was a son of Vidadaśva, and a patron of the singer Syāvāśva. The correctness of the legend has been shown to be most improbable by Oldenberg, who points out that the legend misinterprets the Rigveda by making Purumīlha a Vaidadaśvi, for he is there only compared in generosity to one. In another legend found in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, and based on a hymn of the Rigveda, Purumīlha and Taranta appear as persons who received gifts from Dhvasra and Puru- isanti, and as sons of Vidadaśva. The legend, which also occurs in the śātyāyanaka, is apparently best explained by Sieg, who says that as the two were kings they could not under the rules of caste accept gifts, unless for the nonce they became singers. The legend has no claim at all, as Oldenberg shows, to validity.
puruṣanti Is a name that occurs twice in the Rigveda, in the first passage denoting a protágá of the Aśvins, in the second a patron who gave presents to one of the Vedic singers. In both cases the name is joined with that of Dhvasanti or Dhvasra. The presumption from the manner in which these three names are mentioned is that they designate men, but the grammatical form of the words might equally well be feminine. Females must be meant, if the evidence of the Paficavimśa Brāhmaṇa is to be taken as decisive, for the form of the first of the two names there occurring, Dhvasre Purusantī, ‘ Dhvasrā and Puruṣanti,’ is exclusively feminine, though here as well as elsewhere Sāyaṇa interprets the names as masculines. See also Taranta and Purumīlha.
pṛśnigu Is the name of a man who is mentioned with Purukutsa and śucanti as a protgá of the Aśvins in one hymn of the Rigveda. Possibly the word is only an epithet of Purukutsa.
bharata Is the name of a people of great importance in the Rigveda and the later literature. In the Rigveda they appear prominently in the third and seventh Maṇdalas in connexion with Sudās and the Tftsus, while in the sixth Maṇdala they are associated with Divodāsa. In one passage the Bharatas are, like the Tṛtsus, enemies of the Pūrus: there can be little doubt that Ludwig’s view of the identity of the Bharatas and and Tṛtsus is practically correct. More precisely Oldenberg considers that the Tṛtsus are the Vasiṣhas, the family singers of the Bharatas; while Geldner recognizes, with perhaps more probability, in the Tṛtsus the royal family of the Bharatas. That the Tṛtsus and Bharatas were enemies, as Zimmer holds, is most improbable even on geographical grounds, for the Tṛtsus in Zimmer’s view occupied the country to the east of the Paruçṇī (Ravi), and the Bharatas must therefore be regarded as coming against the Tṛtsus from the west, whereas the Rigveda recognizes two Bharata chiefs on the Sarasvatī, Ápayā, and Dpçadvatī that is, in the holy land of India, the Madhyadeśa. Hillebrandt sees in the connexion of the Tṛtsus and the Bharatas a fusion of two tribes; but this is not supported by any evidence beyond the fact that in his opinion some such theory is needed to explain Divodāsa's appearing in connexion with the Bharadvāja family, while Sudās, his son, or perhaps grandson {cf. Pijavana), is connected with the Vasiṣthas and the Viśvāmitras. In the later literature the Bharatas appear as especially famous. The śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as a king, sacrificer of the Aśvamedha (‘ horse sacrifice ’) and śatānīka Sātrājita, as another Bharata who offered that sacrifice. The Aitareya Brāhmaṇa mentions Bharata Dauh- ṣanti as receiving the kingly coronation from Dlrghatamas Māmateya, and śatānīka as being consecrated by Somaśuçman Vājaratnāyana, a priest whose name is of quite late origin. The geographical position of the Bharata people is clearly shown by the fact that the Bharata kings win victories over the Kāśis, and make offerings on the Yamunā (Jumna) and Gañgfā (Ganges). Moreover, in the formula of the king’s proclamation for the people, the variants recorded include Kuravah, Pañcālāh, Kuru-Pañcālāh,, and Bharatāh ; and the Mahābhārata consistently recognizes the royal family of the Kurus as a Bharata family. It is therefore extremely probable that Oldenberg is right in holding that the Bharatas in the times of the Brāhmaṇas were merging in the Kuru-Pañcāla people. The ritual practices of the Bharatas are repeatedly mentioned in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, and the Taittirīya Aranyaka. Already in the Rigveda there is mention made of Agni Bhārata (‘of the Bharatas’). In the Apr! hymns occurs a goddess Bhāratī, the personified divine protective power of the Bharatas : her association in the hymns with Sarasvatī reflects the connexion 'of the Bharatas with the Sarasvatī in the Rigveda. Again, in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Agni is referred to as brāhmana Bhārata, ‘priest of the Bharatas,’ and is invited to dispose of the offering Manusvat Bharatavat, ‘like Manu,’ ‘like Bharata.’ In one or two passages Sudās or Divodāsa and, on the other hand, Purukutsa or Trasadasyu appear in a friendly relation. Possibly this points, as Oldenberg suggests, to the union of Bharatas and Pūrus with the Kurus. A Bharata is referred to in the fifth Mandala of the Rigveda who he was is uncertain.
mandhātṛ Occurs in several passages of the Rigveda, in all of which Roth takes the word as merely an adjective used substantively, ‘the pious man.’ In one passage the word, being applied to Agni, is thus used, but in another Mandhātrvat being parallel with Angirasvat, ‘like Añgiras,’ is naturally to be understood as a proper name, which is probably also the sense of the word in the preceding hymn. A different Mandhātr may be meant in the first Mandala, where he is mentioned as a protágś of the Aśvins, and evidently as a king. To equate these persons, and make a Rājarṣi out of Mandhātr, as Ludwig and Griffith do, is unnecessary and improbable.
māsa Denotes a 'month' a period of time repeatedly mentioned in the Rigveda and lateṛ The Characteristic days (or rather nights) of the month were those of new moon, Amā-vasya, 'home-staying (night),' and 'of the full moon,' Paurṇa-māsi. Two hymns of the Atharvveda celebrate these days respectively. A personification of the phases of the moon is seen in the four names Sinīvālī the day before new moon; Kuhū also called Guṅgū, the new moon day;Anumati, the day before full moon; and Rākā, the day of new mooṇ The importance of the new and full moon days respectively. One special day in the month, the Ekāṣṭakā, or eighth day after full moon, was importanṭ In the Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa there stated to be in the year twelve such, mentioned between the twelve days of full moon and twelve days of new moon. But one Ekāṣṭakā is referred to in the Yajurveda Saṃhitas and elsewhere as of quite special importance. This was, in the accordant opinion of most comentators, the eighth day after the full moon of Magha. It marked the end of the year, or the begining of the new year. Though the Kauṣītaki Brāmaṇa places places the winter solstice in the new moon of Māgha, the latter date probably means the new moon preceding full moon in Māgha, not the new moon following full moon; but it is perhaps possible to account adequately for the importance of the Ekāstakā as being the first Aṣṭakā after the beginning of the new year. It is not certain exactly how the month was reckoned, whether from the day after new moon to new moon—the system known as amānta, or from the day after full moon to full moon—the pūr- nimānta system, which later, at any rate, was followed in North India, while the other system prevailed in the south. Jacobi argues that the year began in the full moon of Phālguna, and that only by the full moon’s conjunction with the Nakṣatra could the month be known. Oldenberg12 points to the fact that the new moon is far more distinctively an epoch than the full moon; that the Greek, Roman, and Jewish years began with the new moon; and that the Vedic evidence is the division of the month into the former (j>ūrva) and latter (apara) halves, the first being the bright (śukla), the second the dark (krsna) period. Thibaut considers that to assume the existence of the pīirnimānta system for the Veda is unnecessary, though possible. Weber assumes that it occurs in the Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa as held by the scholiasts. But it would probably be a mistake to press that passage, or to assume that the amānta system was rigidly accepted in the Veda: it seems at least as probable that the month was vaguely regarded as beginning with the new moon day, so that new moon preceded full moon, which was in the middle, not the end or. the beginning of the month. That a month regularly had 30 days is established by the conclusive evidence of numerous passages in which the year is given 12 months and 360 days. This month is known from the earliest records, being both referred to directly and alluded to. It is the regular month of the Brāhmaṇas, and must be regarded as the month which the Vedic Indian recognized. No other month is mentioned as such in• the Brāhmaṇa literature ; it is only in the Sūtras that months of different length occur. The Sāmaveda Sūtras10 refer to (i) years with 324 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each; (2) years with 351 days—i.e., periodic years with 12 months of 27 days each, plus another month of 27 days; (3) years with 354 days—i.e., 6 months of 30 days, and 6 with 29 days, in other words, lunar synodic years; (4) years with 360 days, or ordinary civil (sāvana) years; (5) years with 378 days, which, as Thibaut clearly shows, are third years, in which, after two years of 360 days each, 18 days were added to bring about correspondence between the civil year and the solar year of 366 days. But even the Sāmasūtras do not mention the year of 366 days, which is first known to the Jyotiṣa and to Garga. That the Vedic period was acquainted with the year of 354 days cannot be affirmed with certainty. Zimmer, indeed, thinks that it is proved by the fact that pregnancy is estimated at ten months, or sometimes a year. But Weber may be right in holding that the month is the periodic month of 27 days, for the period is otherwise too long if a year is taken. On the other hand, the period of ten months quite well suits the period of gestation, if birth takes place in the tenth month, so that in this sense the month of 30 days may well be meant. The year of 12 months of 30 days each being admittedly quite unscientific, Zimmer23 is strongly of opinion that it was only used with a recognition of the fact that intercalation took place, and that the year formed part of a greater complex, normally the five year Yuga or cycle. This system is well known from the Jyotiṣa: it consists of 62 months of 29£4 days each = 1,830 days (two of these months being intercalary, one in the middle and one at the end), or 61 months of 30 days, or 60 months of 30^ days, the unit being clearly a solar year of 366 days. It is not an ideal system, since the year is too long; but it is one which cannot be claimed even for the Brāhmaṇa period, during which no decision as to the true length of the year seems to have been arrived at. The references to it seen by Zimmer in the Rigveda are not even reasonably plausible, while the pañcaka yuga, cited by him from the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, occurs only in a quotation in a commentary, and has no authority for the text itself. On the other hand, there was undoubtedly some attempt to bring the year of 360 days—a synodic lunar year—roughly into connexion with reality. A Sāmasūtra27 treats it as a solar year, stating that the sun perambulates each Naxatra in days, while others again evidently interpolated 18 days every third year, in order to arrive at some equality. But Vedic literature, from the Rigveda downwards,29 teems with the assertion of the difficulty of ascertaining the month. The length is variously given as 30 days, 35 days,31 or 36 days. The last number possibly indicates an intercalation after six years (6x6 = 36, or for ritual purposes 35), but for this we have no special evidence. There are many references to the year having 12 or 13 months. The names of the months are, curiously enough, not at all ancient. The sacrificial texts of the Yajurveda give them in their clearest form where the Agnicayana, ‘building of the fire-altar,’ is described. These names are the following: (1) Madhu, (2) Mādhava (spring months, vāsantikāv rtū); (3) Sukra, (4) Suci (summer months, graismāv rtū); (5) Nabha (or Nabhas), (6) Nabhasya (rainy months, vārsikāv rtū); (7) Iṣa, (8) ūrja (autumn months, śāradāυ rtū); (9) Saha (or Sahas),35 (10) Sahasya (winter months, haimantikāυ rtū); (II) Tapa (or Tapas),35 (12) Tapasya (cool months, śaiśirāv rtū). There are similar lists in the descriptions of the Soma sacrifice and of the horse sacrifice, all of them agreeing in essentials. There are other lists of still more fanciful names, but these have no claim at all to represent actual divisions in popular use. It is doubtful if the list given above is more than a matter of priestly invention. Weber points out that Madhu and Mādhava later appear as names of spring, and that these two are mentioned in the Taittirīya Aranyaka as if actually employed; but the evidence is very inadequate to show that the other names of the months given in the list were in ordinary use. In some of these lists the intercalary month is mentioned. The name given to it in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā is Amhasas- pati, while that given in the Taittirīya and Maitrāyaṇī Sarphitās is Sarpsarpa. The Kāthaka Sarphitā gives it the name of Malimluca, which also occurs elsewhere, along with Samsarpa, in one of the lists of fanciful names. The Atharvaveda describes it as sanisrasa, ‘slipping,’ owing no doubt to its unstable condition. The other method of naming the months is from the Nakçatras. It is only beginning to be used in the Brāhmaṇas, but is found regularly in the Epic and later. The Jyotisa mentions that Māgha and Tapa were identical: this is the fair interpretation of the passage, which also involves the identifica¬tion of Madhu with Caitra, a result corresponding with the view frequently found in the Brāhmanas, that the full moon in Citrā, and not that in Phalgunī, is the beginning of the year. In the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa are found two curious expressions, yava and ayava, for the light and dark halves of the month, which is clearly considered to begin with the light half. Possibly the words are derived, as Eggling thinks, from yu, ‘ ward off,’ with reference to evil spirits. The word Parvan (‘ joint ’ = division of time) probably denotes a half of the month, perhaps already in the Rigveda. More precisely the first half, the time of the waxing light, is called pūrva-paksa, the second, that of the waning light, apara-paka. Either of these might be called a half-month (ardha-ināsa).
rajata As an adjective with Hiraṇya designates ‘ silver,’ and ornaments (Rukma), dishes (Pātra), and coins (Niska) ‘made of silver’ are mentioned. The word is also used alone as a substantive to denote silver.’
lāji In the Vājasaneyi Saiphitā and the Taittirlya Brāhmaṇa is a word of uncertain meaning: according to Sāyaṇa, it is a vocative of Lājin, * having parched grain’; according to Mahīdhara, it denotes a ‘quantity of parched grain.’
loha Primarily an adjective meaning ‘red,’ is used as a neuter substantive to designate a metal, probably ‘ copper,’ but possibly ‘bronze.’ It is mentioned in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittīriya Samhitā as distinguished from śyāma. It also occurs several times in the Brāhmaṇas. See Ayas.
lohita Often occurring as an adjective meaning ‘red,’ is used as a neuter substantive in the Atharvaveda to denote a metal, presumably ‘ copper.’ As a proper name it is found in Apastamba śrauta Sūtra.
lauhitya ‘Descendant of Lohita,’ is the patronymic of a large number of teachers in the Jaiminlya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa, which clearly must have been the special object of study of the Lauhitya family. See Kpçṇadatta, Kpçṇarāta, Jayaka, Tri- veda Kyçṇarāta, Dakṣa Jayanta, Palligupta, Mitrabhūti, Yaśasvin Jayanta, Vipaácit Dpdhajayanta, Vaipaścita Dārdhajayanti, Vaipaścita Dārdhajayanti Dpdhajayanta, śyā- majayanta, śyāmasujayanta, Satyaáravas. A Lauhitya or Lauhikya is also mentioned as a teacher in the śāñkhāyana Araṇyaka. The form of name (Jayanta) affected by the family, and the silence of the older texts, proves that they were modern.
varṇa (lit. ‘colour’) In the Rigveda is applied to denote classes of men, the Dāsa and the Aryan Varṇa being contrasted, as other passages show, on account of colour. But this use is confined to distinguishing two colours: in this respect the Rigveda differs fundamentally from the later Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, where the four castes (varnūh) are already fully recognized. (a) Caste in the Rigveda.—The use of the term Varṇa is not, of course, conclusive for the question whether caste existed in the Rigveda. In one sense it must be admitted to have existed: the Puruṣa-sūkta, ‘hymn of man,’ in the tenth Maṇdala clearly contemplates the division of mankind into four classes—the Brāhmaṇa, Rājanya, Vaiśya, and śūdra. But the hymn being admittedly late,6 its evidence is not cogent for the bulk of the Rigveda.' Zimmer has with great force com- batted the view that the Rigveda was produced in a society that knew the caste system. He points out that the Brāhmaṇas show us the Vedic Indians on the Indus as unbrah- minized, and not under the caste system; he argues that the Rigveda was the product of tribes living in the Indus region and the Panjab; later on a part of this people, who had wandered farther east, developed the peculiar civilization of the caste system. He adopts the arguments of Muir, derived from the study of the data of the Rigveda, viz.: that (a) the four castes appear only in the late Purusasūkta; (6) the term Varṇa, as shown above, covers the three highest castes of later times, and is only contrasted with Dāsa; (c) that Brāhmaṇa is rare in the Rigveda, Kṣatriya occurs seldom, Rājanya only in the Purusasūkta, where too, alone, Vaiśya and śūdra are found; (d) that Brahman denotes at first ‘poet,’ ‘sage,’ and then ‘ officiating priest,’ or still later a special class of priest; (e) that in some only of the passages where it occurs does Brahman denote a ‘priest by profession,’ while in others it denotes something peculiar to the individual, designating a person distinguished for genius or virtue, or specially chosen to receive divine inspiration. Brāhmaṇa, on the other hand, as Muir admits, already denotes a hereditary professional priesthood. Zimmer connects the change from the casteless system of the Rigveda to the elaborate system of the Yajurveda with the advance of the Vedic Indians to the east, comparing the Ger¬manic invasions that transformed the German tribes into monarchies closely allied with the church. The needs of a conquering people evoke the monarch; the lesser princes sink to the position of nobles ; for repelling the attacks of aborigines or of other Aryan tribes, and for quelling the revolts of the subdued population, the state requires a standing army in the shape of the armed retainers of the king, and beside the nobility of the lesser princes arises that of the king’s chief retainers, as the Thegns supplemented the Gesiths of the Anglo-Saxon monarchies. At the same time the people ceased to take part in military matters, and under climatic influences left the conduct of war to the nobility and their retainers, devoting themselves to agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade. But the advantage won by the nobles over the people was shared by them with the priesthood, the origin of whose power lies in the Purohitaship, as Roth first saw. Originally the prince could sacrifice for himself and the people, but the Rigveda itself shows cases, like those of Viśvāmitra and Vasiçtha illustrating forcibly the power of the Purohita, though at the same time the right of the noble to act as Purohita is seen in the case of Devāpi Arṣtisena.le The Brahmins saw their opportunity, through the Purohitaship, of gaining practical power during the confusion and difficulties of the wars of invasion, and secured it, though only after many struggles, the traces of which are seen in the Epic tradition. The Atharvaveda also preserves relics of these conflicts in its narration of the ruin of the Spñjayas because of oppressing Brahmins, and besides other hymns of the Atharvaveda, the śatarudriya litany of the Yajurveda reflects the period of storm and stress when the aboriginal population was still seething with discontent, and Rudra was worshipped as the patron god of all sorts of evil doers. This version of the development of caste has received a good deal of acceptance in it's main outlines, and it may almost be regarded as the recognized version. It has, however, always been opposed by some scholars, such as Haug, Kern, Ludwig, and more recently by Oldenberg25 and by Geldner.25 The matter may be to some extent simplified by recognizing at once that the caste system is one that has progressively developed, and that it is not legitimate to see in the Rigveda the full caste system even of the Yajurveda; but at the same time it is difficult to doubt that the system was already well on its way to general acceptance. The argument from the non- brahminical character of the Vrātyas of the Indus and Panjab loses its force when it is remembered that there is much evidence in favour of placing the composition of the bulk of the Rigveda, especially the books in which Sudās appears with Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra, in the east, the later Madhyadeśa, a view supported by Pischel, Geldner, Hopkins,30 and Mac¬donell.81 Nor is it possible to maintain that Brahman in the Rigveda merely means a ‘poet or sage.’ It is admitted by Muir that in some passages it must mean a hereditary profession ; in fact, there is not a single passage in which it occurs where the sense of priest is not allowable, since the priest was of course the singer. Moreover, there are traces in the Rigveda of the threefold or fourfold division of the people into brahma, ksafram, and vitofi, or into the three classes and the servile population. Nor even in respect to the later period, any more than to the Rigveda, is the view correct that regards the Vaiśyas as not taking part in war. The Rigveda evidently knows of no restriction of war to a nobility and its retainers, but the late Atharvaveda equally classes the folk with the bala, power,’ representing the Viś as associated with the Sabhā, Samiti, and Senā, the assemblies of the people and the armed host. Zimmer explains these references as due to tradition only; but this is hardly a legitimate argument, resting, as it does, on the false assumption that only a Kṣatriya can fight. But it is (see Kçatriya) very doubtful whether Kṣatriya means anything more than a member of the nobility, though later, in the Epic, it included the retainers of the nobility, who increased in numbers with the growth of military monarchies, and though later the ordinary people did not necessarily take part in wars, an abstention that is, however, much exaggerated if it is treated as an absolute one. The Kṣatriyas were no doubt a hereditary body; monarchy was already hereditary (see Rājan), and it is admitted that the śūdras were a separate body: thus all the elements of the caste system were already in existence. The Purohita, indeed, was a person of great importance, but it is clear, as Oldenberg37 urges, that he was not the creator of the power of the priesthood, but owed his position, and the influence he could in consequence exert, to the fact that the sacrifice required for its proper performance the aid of a hereditary priest in whose possession was the traditional sacred knowledge. Nor can any argument for the non-existence of the caste system be derived from cases like that of Devāpi. For, in the first place, the Upaniṣads show kings in the exercise of the priestly functions of learning and teaching, and the Upaniṣads are certainly contemporaneous with an elaborated caste system. In the second place the Rigvedic evidence is very weak, for Devāpi, who certainly acts as Purohita, is not stated in the Rigveda to be a prince at all, though Yāska calls him a Kauravya; the hymns attributed to kings and others cannot be vindicated for them by certain evidence, though here, again, the Brāhmaṇas do not scruple to recognize Rājanyarṣis, or royal sages’; and the famous Viśvāmitra shows in the Rigveda no sign of the royal character which the Brāhmaṇas insist on fastening on him in the shape of royal descent in the line of Jahnu. (6) Caste in the later Samhitās and Brāhmanas. The relation between the later and the earlier periods of the Vedic history of caste must probably be regarded in the main as the hardening of a system already formed by the time of the Rigveda. etc. Three castes Brāhmaṇa, Rājan, śūdraare mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and two castes are repeatedly mentioned together, either Brahman and Kṣatra, or Kṣatra and Viś. 2.The Relation of the Castes. The ritual literature is full of minute differences respecting the castes. Thus, for example, the śatapatha prescribes different sizes of funeral mounds for the four castes. Different modes of address are laid down for the four castes, as ehi, approach ’; āgaccha, ‘come’; ādrava, run up ’; ādhāva, hasten up,’ which differ in degrees of politeness. The representatives of the four castes are dedicated at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’) to different deities. The Sūtras have many similar rules. But the three upper castes in some respects differ markedly from the fourth, the śūdras. The latter are in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa declared not fit to be addressed by a Dīkṣita, consecrated person,’ and no śūdra is to milk the cow whose milk is to be used for the Agnihotra ('fire-oblation’). On the other hand, in certain passages, the śūdra is given a place in the Soma sacrifice, and in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa there are given formulas for the placing of the sacrificial fire not only for the three upper castes, but also for the Rathakāra, chariot-maker.’ Again, in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, the Brāhmaṇa is opposed as eater of the oblation to the members of the other three castes. The characteristics of the several castes are given under Brāhmaṇa, Kçatriya and Rājan, Vaiśya, śūdra: they may be briefly summed up as follows : The Viś forms the basis of the state on which the Brahman and Kṣatra rest;®3 the Brahman and Kṣatra are superior to the Viś j®4 while all three classes are superior to the śūdras. The real power of the state rested with the king and his nobles, with their retainers, who may be deemed the Kṣatriya element. Engaged in the business of the protection of the country, its administration, the decision of legal cases, and in war, the nobles subsisted, no doubt, on the revenues in kind levied from the people, the king granting to them villages (see Grāma) for their maintenance, while some of them, no doubt, had lands of their own cultivated for them by slaves or by tenants. The states were seemingly small there are no clear signs of any really large kingdoms, despite the mention of Mahārājas. The people, engaged in agriculture, pastoral pursuits, and trade (Vaṇij), paid tribute to the king and nobles for the protection afforded them. That, as Baden- Powell suggests, they were not themselves agriculturists is probably erroneous; some might be landowners on a large scale, and draw their revenues from śūdra tenants, or even Aryan tenants, but that the people as a whole were in this position is extremely unlikely. In war the people shared the conflicts of the nobles, for there was not yet any absolute separation of the functions of the several classes. The priests may be divided into two classes the Purohitas of the kings, who guided their employers by their counsel, and were in a position to acquire great influence in the state, as it is evident they actually did, and the ordinary priests who led quiet lives, except when they were engaged on some great festival of a king or a wealthy noble. The relations and functions of the castes are well summed up in a passage of the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, which treats of them as opposed to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is a receiver of gifts (ā-dāyī), a drinker of Soma (ā-pāyī), a seeker of food (āvasāyī), and liable to removal at will (yathākāma-prayāpyaīi).n The Vaiśya is tributary to another (anyasya balikrt), to be lived on by another (anyasyādyal}), and to be oppressed at will (yathā- kāma-jyeyal}). The śūdra is the servant of another (anyasya j>resyah), to be expelled at will (kāmotthāpyah), and to be slain at pleasure {yathākāma-vadhyah). The descriptions seem calculated to show the relation of each of the castes to the Rājanya. Even the Brāhmaṇa he can control, whilst the Vaiśya is his inferior and tributary, whom he can remove without cause from his land, but who is still free, and whom he cannot maim or slay without due process. The śūdra has no rights of property or life against the noble, especially the king. The passage is a late one, and the high place of the Kṣatriya is to some extent accounted for by this fact. It is clear that in the course of time the Vaiśya fell more and more in position with the hardening of the divisions of caste. Weber shows reason for believing that the Vājapeya sacrifice, a festival of which a chariot race forms an integral part, was, as the śāñkhāyana śrauta Sūtra says, once a sacrifice for a Vaiśya, as well as for a priest or king. But the king, too, had to suffer diminution of his influence at the hands of the priest: the Taittirīya texts show that the Vājapeya was originally a lesser sacrifice which, in the case of a king, was followed by the Rājasūya, or consecration of him as an overlord of lesser kings, and in that of the Brahmin by the Bṛhaspatisava, a festival celebrated on his appointment as a royal Purohita. But the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa exalts the Vājapeya, in which a priest could be the sacrificer, over the Rājasūya, from which he was excluded, and identifies it with the Bṛhaspatisava, a clear piece of juggling in the interests of the priestly pretentions. But we must not overestimate the value of such passages, or the exaltation of the Purohita in the later books of the śatapatha and Aitareya Brāhmanas as evidence of a real growth in the priestly power: these books represent the views of the priests of what their own powers should be, and to some extent were in the Madhyadeśa. Another side of the picture is presented in the Pāli literature, which, belonging to a later period than the Vedic, undoubtedly underestimates the position of the priests ; while the Epic, more nearly contemporaneous with the later Vedic period, displays, despite all priestly redaction, the temporal superiority of the nobility in clear light. Although clear distinctions were made between the different castes, there is little trace in Vedic literature of one of the leading characteristics of the later system, the impurity communicated by the touch or contact of the inferior castes, which is seen both directly in the purification rendered necessary in case of contact with a śūdra, and indirectly in the prohibition of eating in company with men of lower caste. It is true that prohibition of eating in company with others does appear, but hot in connexion with caste: its purpose is to preserve the peculiar sanctity of those who perform a certain rite or believe in a certain doctrine; for persons who eat of the same food together, according to primitive thought, acquire the same characteristics and enter into a sacramental communion. But Vedic literature does not yet show that to take food from an inferior caste was forbidden as destroying purity. Nor, of course, has the caste system developed the constitution with a head, a council, and common festivals which the modern caste has; for such an organization is not found even in the Epic or in the Pāli literature. The Vedic characteristics of caste are heredity, pursuit of a common occupation, and restriction on intermarriage. 3. Restrictions on Intermarriage. Arrian, in his Indica, probably on the authority of Megasthenes, makes the prohibi¬tion of marriage between <γevη, no doubt castes,’ a characteristic of Indian life. The evidence of Pāli literature is in favour of this view, though it shows that a king could marry whom he wished, and could make his son by that wife the heir apparent. But it equally shows that there were others who held that not the father’s but the mother’s rank determined the social standing of the son. Though Manu recognizes the possibility of marriage with the next lower caste as producing legitimate children, still he condemns the marriage of an Aryan with a woman of lower caste. The Pāraskara Gṛhya Sūtra allows the marriage of a Kṣatriya with a wife of his own caste or of the lower caste, of a Brahmin with a wife of his own caste or of the two lower classes, and of a Vaiśya with a Vaiśya wife only. But it quotes the opinion of others that all of them can marry a śūdra wife, while other authorities condemn the marriage with a śūdra wife in certain circumstances, which implies that in other cases it might be justified. The earlier literature bears out this impression: much stress is laid on descent from a Rṣi, and on purity of descent ; but there is other evidence for the view that even a Brāhmaṇa need not be of pure lineage. Kavaṣa Ailūṣa is taunted with being the son of a Dāsī, ‘slave woman,’ and Vatsa was accused of being a śūdrā’s son, but established his purity by walking unhurt through the flames of a fire ordeal. He who is learned (śiiśruvān) is said to be a Brāhmaṇa, descended from a Rṣi (1ārseya), in the Taittirīya Samhitā; and Satyakāma, son of Jabālā, was accepted as a pupil by Hāridrumata Gautama, though he could not name his father. The Kāthaka Samhitā says that knowledge is all-important, not descent. But all this merely goes to show that there was a measure of laxity in the hereditary character of caste, not that it was not based on heredity. The Yajurveda Samhitās recognize the illicit union of Árya and śūdrā, and vice versa: it is not unlikely that if illicit unions took place, legal marriage was quite possible. The Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, indeed, recognizes such a case in that of Dīrghatamas, son of the slave girl Uśij, if we may adopt the description of Uśij given in the Brhaddevatā. In a hymn of the Atharvaveda extreme claims are put forward for the Brāhmaṇa, who alone is a true husband and the real husband, even if the woman has had others, a Rājanya or a Vaiśya: a śūdra Husband is not mentioned, probably on purpose. The marriage of Brāhmaṇas with Rājanya women is illustrated by the cases of Sukanyā, daughter of king śaryāta, who married Cyavana, and of Rathaviti’s daughter, who married śyāvāśva. 4.Occupation and Caste.—The Greek authorities and the evidence of the Jātakas concur in showing it to have been the general rule that each caste was confined to its own occupations, but that the Brāhmaṇas did engage in many professions beside that of simple priest, while all castes gave members to the śramaṇas, or homeless ascetics. The Jātakas recognize the Brahmins as engaged in all sorts of occupations, as merchants, traders, agriculturists, and so forth. Matters are somewhat simpler in Vedic literature, where the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas appear as practically confined to their own professions of sacrifice and military or administrative functions. Ludwig sees in Dīrgliaśravas in the Rigveda a Brahmin reduced by indigence to acting as a merchant, as allowed even later by the Sūtra literature; but this is not certain, though it is perfectly possible. More interesting is the question how far the Ksatriyas practised the duties of priests; the evidence here is conflicting. The best known case is, of course, that of Viśvāmitra. In the Rigveda he appears merely as a priest who is attached to the court of Sudās, king of the Tftsus ; but in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa he is called a king, a descendant of Jahnu, and the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa refers to śunahśepa’s succeeding, through his adoption by Viśvāmitra, to the divine lore (daiva veda) of the Gāthins and the lordship of the Jahnus. That in fact this tradition is correct seems most improbable, but it serves at least to illustrate the existence of seers of royal origin. Such figures appear more than once in the Pañcavimśa Brāhmana, which knows the technical terms Rājanyarçi and Devarājan corresponding to the later Rājarṣi, royal sage.’ The Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa says of one who knows a certain doctrine, ‘being a king he becomes a seer’ (rājā sann rsir bhavati), and the Jaiminiya Upanisad Brāhmana applies the term Rāj'anya to a Brāhmaṇa. Again, it is argued that Devāpi Árstiseṇa, who acted as Purohita, according to the Rigveda, for śantanu, was a prince, as Yāska says or implies he was. But this assumption seems to be only an error of Yāska’s. Since nothing in the Rigveda alludes to any relationship, it is impossible to accept Sieg’s view that the Rigveda recognizes the two as brothers, but presents the fact of a prince acting the part of Purohita as unusual and requiring explanation. The principle, however, thus accepted by Sieg as to princes in the Rigveda seems sound enough. Again, Muir has argued that Hindu tradition, as shown in Sāyaṇa, regards many hymns of the Rigveda as composed by royal personages, but he admits that in many cases the ascription is wrong; it may be added that in the case of Prthī Vainya, where the hymn ascribed to him seems to be his, it is not shown in the hymn itself that he is other than a seer; the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa calls him a king, but that is probably of no more value than the later tradition as to Viśvāmitra. The case of Viśvantara and the śyāparṇas mentioned in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa has been cited as that of a king sacrificing without priestly aid, but the interpretation iś quite uncertain, while the parallel of the Kaśyapas, Asitamrgas, and Bhūtavīras mentioned in the course of the narrative renders it highly probable that the king had other priests to carry out the sacrifice. Somewhat different are a series of other cases found in the Upaniṣads, where the Brahma doctrine is ascribed to royal persons. Thus Janaka is said in the śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to have become a Brahman; Ajātaśatru taught Gārgya Bālāki Pravāhaṇa Jaivali instructed śvetaketu Áruṇeya, as well as śilaka śālāvatya and Caikitāyana Dālbhya; and Aśvapati Kaikeya taught Brahmins. It has been deduced from such passages that the Brahma doctrine was a product of the Kṣatriyas. This conclusion is, however, entirely doubtful, for kings were naturally willing to be flattered by the ascription to them of philosophic activity, and elsewhere the opinion of a Rājanya is treated with contempt. It is probably a fair deduction that the royal caste did not much concern itself with the sacred lore of the priests, though it is not unlikely that individual exceptions occurred. But that warriors became priests, that an actual change of caste took place, is quite unproved by a single genuine example. That it was impossible we cannot say, but it seems not to have taken place. To be distinguished from a caste change, as Fick points out, is the fact that a member of any caste could, in the later period at least, become a śramaṇa, as is recorded in effect of many kings in the Epic. Whether the practice is Vedic is not clear: Yāska records it of Devāpi, but this is not evidence for times much anterior to the rise of Buddhism. On the other hand, the Brahmins, or at least the Purohitas, accompanied the princes in battle, and probably, like the mediaeval clergy, were not unprepared to fight, as Vasistha and Viśvāmitra seem to have done, and as priests do even in the Epic from time to time. But a priest cannot be said to change caste by acting in this way. More generally the possibility of the occurrence of change of caste may be seen in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa,138 where śyāparṇa Sāyakāyana is represented as speaking of his off¬spring as if they could have become the nobles, priests, and commons of the śalvas; and in the Aitareya Brāhmana,139 where Viśvantara is told that if the wrong offering were made his children would be of the three other castes. A drunken Rṣi of the Rigveda140 talks as if he could be converted into a king. On the other hand, certain kings, such as Para Átṇāra, are spoken of as performers of Sattras, ‘sacrificial sessions.’ As evidence for caste exchange all this amounts to little; later a Brahmin might become a king, while the Rṣi in the Rigveda is represented as speaking in a state of intoxication; the great kings could be called sacrificers if, for the nonce, they were consecrated (dīksita), and so temporarily became Brahmins.The hypothetical passages, too, do not help much. It would be unwise to deny the possibility of caste exchange, but it is not clearly indicated by any record. Even cases like that of Satyakāma Jābāla do not go far; for ex hypothesi that teacher did not know who his father was, and the latter could quite well have been a Brahmin. It may therefore be held that the priests and the nobles practised hereditary occupations, and that either class was a closed body into which a man must be born. These two Varṇas may thus be fairly regarded as castes. The Vaiśyas offer more difficulty, for they practised a great variety of occupations (see Vaiśya). Fick concludes that there is no exact sense in which they can be called a caste, since, in the Buddhist literature, they were divided into various groups, which themselves practised endogamy such as the gahapatis, or smaller landowners, the setthis, or large merchants and members of the various guilds, while there are clear traces in the legal textbooks of a view that Brāhmana and Kṣatriya stand opposed to all the other members of the community. But we need hardly accept this view for Vedic times, when the Vaiśya, the ordinary freeman of the tribe, formed a class or caste in all probability, which was severed by its free status from the śūdras, and which was severed by its lack of priestly or noble blood from the two higher classes in the state. It is probably legitimate to hold that any Vaiśya could marry any member of the caste, and that the later divisions within the category of Vaiśyas are growths of divisions parallel with the original process by which priest and noble had grown into separate entities. The process can be seen to-day when new tribes fall under the caste system: each class tries to elevate itself in the social scale by refusing to intermarry with inferior classes on equal terms—hypergamy is often allowed—and so those Vaiśyas who acquired wealth in trade (śreṣthin) or agriculture (the Pāli Gahapatis) would become distinct, as sub-castes, from the ordinary Vaiśyas. But it is not legitimate to regard Vaiśya as a theoretic caste; rather it is an old caste which is in process of dividing into innumerable sub-castes under influences of occupation, religion, or geographical situation. Fick denies also that the śūdras ever formed a single caste: he regards the term as covering the numerous inferior races and tribes defeated by the Aryan invaders, but originally as denoting only one special tribe. It is reasonable to suppose that śūdra was the name given by the Vedic Indians to the nations opposing them, and that these ranked as slaves beside the three castes—nobles, priests, and people—just as in the Anglo-Saxon and early German constitution beside the priests, the nobiles or eorls, and the ingenui, ordinary freemen or ceorls, there was a distinct class of slaves proper; the use of a generic expression to cover them seems natural, whatever its origin (see śūdra). In the Aryan view a marriage of śūdras could hardly be regulated by rules; any śūdra could wed another, if such a marriage could be called a marriage at all, for a slave cannot in early law be deemed to be capable of marriage proper. But what applied in the early Vedic period became no doubt less and less applicable later when many aboriginal tribes and princes must have come into the Aryan community by peaceful means, or by conquest, without loss of personal liberty, and when the term śūdra would cover many sorts of people who were not really slaves, but were freemen of a humble character occupied in such functions as supplying the numerous needs of the village, like the Caṇdālas, or tribes living under Aryan control, or independent, such as the Niṣādas. But it is also probable that the śūdras came to include men of Aryan race, and that the Vedic period saw the degradation of Aryans to a lower social status. This seems, at any rate, to have been the case with the Rathakāras. In the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa the Rathakāra is placed as a special class along with the Brāhmaṇas, Rājanyas, and Vaiśyas: this can hardly be interpreted except to mean that the Rathakāras were not included in the Aryan classes, though it is just possible that only a subdivision of the Vaiśyas is meant. There is other evidence that the Rathakāras were regarded as śūdras. But in the Atharvaveda the Rathakāras and the Karmāras appear in a position of importance in connexion with the selection of the king; these two classes are also referred to in an honourable way in the Vājasaneyi Sarphitā; in the śata¬patha Brāhmaṇa, too, the Rathakāra is mentioned as a a person of high standing. It is impossible to accept the view suggested by Fick that these classes were originally non- Aryan ; we must recognize that the Rathakāras, in early Vedic times esteemed for their skill, later became degraded because of the growth of the feeling that manual labour was not dignified. The development of this idea was a departure from the Aryan conception; it is not unnatural, however undesirable, and has a faint parallel in the class distinctions of modern Europe. Similarly, the Karmāra, the Takṣan the Carmamna, or ‘tanner,’ the weaver and others, quite dignified occupations in the Rigveda, are reckoned as śūdras in the Pāli texts. The later theory, which appears fully developed in the Dharma Sūtras, deduces the several castes other than the original four from the intermarriage of the several castes. This theory has no justification in the early Vedic literature. In some cases it is obviously wrong; for example, the Sūta is said to be a caste of this kind, whereas it is perfectly clear that if the Sūtas did form a caste, it was one ultimately due to occupation. But there is no evidence at all that the Sūtas, Grāmaηīs, and other members of occupations were real castes in the sense that they were endogamic in the early Vedic period. All that we can say is that there was a steady progress by which caste after caste was formed, occupation being an important determining feature, just as in modern times there are castes bearing names like Gopāla (cowherd ’) Kaivarta or Dhīvara ('fisherman'), and Vaṇij (‘merchant’). Fick finds in the Jātakas mention of a number of occupations whose members did not form part of any caste at all, such as the attendants on the court, the actors and dancers who went from village to village, and the wild tribes that lived in the mountains, fishermen, hunters, and so on. In Vedic times these people presumably fell under the conception of śūdra, and may have included the Parṇaka, Paulkasa, Bainda, who are mentioned with many others in the Vājasaneyi Samhitā and the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the list of victims at the Puruṣamedha (‘human sacrifice’). The slaves also, whom Fick includes in the same category, were certainly included in the term śūdra. 5. Origin of the Castes.—The question of the origin of the castes presents some difficulty. The ultimate cause of the extreme rigidity of the caste system, as compared with the features of any other Aryan society, must probably be sought in the sharp distinction drawn from the beginning between the Aryan and the śūdra. The contrast which the Vedic Indians felt as existing between themselves and the conquered population, and which probably rested originally on the difference of colour between the upper and the lower classes, tended to accentuate the natural distinctions of birth, occupation, and locality which normally existed among the Aryan Indians, but which among other Aryan peoples never developed into a caste system like that of India. The doctrine of hypergamy which marks the practical working of the caste system, seems clearly to point to the feeling that the Aryan could marry the śūdrā, but not the śūdra the Aryā. This distinction probably lies at the back of all other divisions: its force may be illustrated by the peculiar state of feeling as to mixed marriages, for example, in the Southern States of America and in South Africa, or even in India itself, between the new invaders from Europe and the mingled population which now peoples the country. Marriages between persons of the white and the dark race are disapproved in principle, but varying degrees of condemnation attach to (1) the marriage of a man of the white race with a woman of the dark race; (2) an informal connexion between these two; (3) a marriage between a woman of the white race and a man of the dark race; and (4) an informal connexion between these two. Each category, on the whole, is subject to more severe reprobation than the preceding one. This race element, it would seem, is what has converted social divisions into castes. There appears, then, to be a large element of truth in the theory, best represented by Risley, which explains caste in the main as a matter of blood, and which holds that the higher the caste is, the greater is the proportion of Aryan blood. The chief rival theory is undoubtedly that of Senart, which places the greatest stress on the Aryan constitution of the family. According to Senart the Aryan people practised in affairs of marriage both a rule of exogamy, and one of endogamy. A man must marry a woman of equal birth, but not one of the same gens, according to Roman law as interpreted by Senart and Kovalevsky ; and an Athenian must marry an Athenian woman, but not one of the same γez/oç. In India these rules are reproduced in the form that one must not marry within the Gotra, but not without the caste. The theory, though attractively developed, is not convincing; the Latin and Greek parallels are not even probably accurate ; and in India the rule forbidding marriage within the Gotra is one which grows in strictness as the evidence grows later in date. On the other hand, it is not necessary to deny that the development of caste may have been helped by the family traditions of some gentes, or Gotras. The Patricians of Rome for a long time declined intermarriage with the plebeians; the Athenian Eupatridai seem to have kept their yevη pure from contamination by union with lower blood; and there may well have been noble families among the Vedic Indians who intermarried only among themselves. The Germans known to Tacitus163 were divided into nobiles and ingenui, and the Anglo-Saxons into eorls and ceorls, noble and non-noble freemen.1®4 The origin of nobility need not be sought in the Vedic period proper, for it may already have existed. It may have been due to the fact that the king, whom we must regard as originally elected by the people, was as king often in close relation with, or regarded as an incarnation of, the deity;165 and that hereditary kingship would tend to increase the tradition of especially sacred blood: thus the royal family and its offshoots would be anxious to maintain the purity of their blood. In India, beside the sanctity of the king, there was the sanctity of the priest. Here we have in the family exclusiveness of king and nobles, and the similar exclusiveness of a priesthood which was not celibate, influences that make for caste, especially when accompanying the deep opposition between the general folk and the servile aborigines. Caste, once created, naturally developed in different directions. Nesfield166 was inclined to see in occupation the one ground of caste. It is hardly necessary seriously to criticize this view considered as an ultimate explanation of caste, but it is perfectly certain that gilds of workers tend to become castes. The carpenters (Tak§an), the chariot-makers (Rathakāra), the fisher¬men (Dhaivara) and others are clearly of the type of caste, and the number extends itself as time goes on. But this is not to say that caste is founded on occupation pure and simple in its first origin, or that mere difference of occupation would have produced the system of caste without the interposition of the fundamental difference between Aryan and Dāsa or śūdra blood and colour. This difference rendered increasingly important what the history of the Aryan peoples shows us to be declining, the distinction between the noble and the non-noble freemen, a distinction not of course ultimate, but one which seems to have been developed in the Aryan people before the separation of its various.branches. It is well known that the Iranian polity presents a division of classes comparable in some respects with the Indian polity. The priests (Athravas) and warriors (Rathaesthas) are unmistakably parallel, and the two lower classes seem to correspond closely to the Pāli Gahapatis, and perhaps to the śūdras. But they are certainly not castes in the Indian sense of the word. There is no probability in the view of Senart or of Risley that the names of the old classes were later superimposed artificially on a system of castes that were different from them in origin. We cannot say that the castes existed before the classes, and that the classes were borrowed by India from Iran, as Risley maintains, ignoring the early Brāhmaṇa evidence for the four Varnas, and treating the transfer as late. Nor can we say with Senart that the castes and classes are of independent origin. If there had been no Varṇa, caste might never have arisen; both colour and class occupation are needed for a plausible account of the rise of caste.
viṣa In the Rigveda and later regularly denotes ‘poison’ as an antidote, for which the Atharvaveda supplies spells.
vaipaścita ('Descendant of Vipaścit') Dārdha-jayanti ('descendant of Dr Hιajayanta') Gupta Lauhitya (‘ descendant of Lohita ’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Vaipaácita Dārdhajayanti Drdhajayanta Lauhitya, in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa (iii. 42, 1).
vaipaścita (‘Descendant of Vipaścit ’) Dārdhajayanti (‘descendant of Drdhajayanta’) Drdhajayanta Lauhitya (‘descendant of Lohita’) is the name of a teacher, a pupil of Vipaścit Drdhajayanta Lauhitya, in a Vamśa (list of teachers) of the Jaiminiya Upaniṣad Brāhmaṇa.
śamī Is the name of a tree in the Atharvaveda and later. It is described in the Atharvaveda as destructive to the hair, as producing intoxication, and as broad-leaved. These charac­teristics are totally wanting in the two trees, Prosopis spicigera or Mimosa sum a, with which the śamī is usually identified. From the soft wood of the śamī was formed the lower of the two sticks (aranX) used for kindling the sacred fire, the upper one (the drill) being of Aśvattha. The fruit of the tree is called śamīdhānya.
śāmbara Properly an adjective in the sense of ‘relating to śambara,’ appears in one passage of the Rigveda (iii. 47, 4) to be used as a substantive denoting ‘ the contest with śambara.’
śārṅga The Anukramaṇī (Index) of the Rigveda ascribes a hymn of that text to the śārñgas, Jaritṛ, Droṇa, Sārisṛkva, and Stambamitra. The Mahābhārata contains a tale describing how the four śārñgas, sons of the Rṣi Mandapāla, were saved from the great fire in the Khāṇdava forest by means of prayers. Sieg has attempted to use this tale for the elucida­tion of the hymn in question, but without substantial success. As Oldenberg says, the tale is based on the hymn rather than vice versa.
saṃvatsara ‘Year,’ is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Its duration was, according to the concurrent evidence of the Samhitās and Brāhmaṇas, 360 days, divided into months, being, no doubt, roughly a lunar synodic year, which, however, it exceeded in length by days. As a solar year it appears only in the Nidāna Sūtra of the Sāmaveda, where the sun is stated to spend days in each of the Nakṣatras. The year being obviously out of harmony with the solar year (whether sidereal or tropical), efforts were certainly made to effect an assimilation of the natural and the accepted year. As has been seen (see Māsa), the evidence goes strongly to show that the intercalation was not an easy matter in the Brāh¬maṇa period, though there are traces of what may be re¬garded as a five-yearly or six-yearly intercalation. But there is no conclusive evidence that these periods were really observed. Zimmer,4 indeed, considers that the evidence required is afforded by the lists of the years, which are sometimes enumerated as five : Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Idvatsara, and Vatsara ;δ or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Iduvatsara, Vatsara;® or Samvatsara, Idāvatsara, Iduvat- sara, Idvatsara, Vatsara;7 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvat- sara, Anuvatsara, Udvatsara;8 or Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idāvatsara, Anuvatsara, Idvatsara.9 But it must be noted not merely that the names vary considerably, but that four only are mentioned in some places,10 in others11 three, in others12 two, and in yet others13 six. Moreover, in none of these enumera¬tions is there any reference to the names being connected with a system of intercalation. It is most probable that here we have no more that a mere series of priestly variations of Vatsara, based on the older and more genuine Saipvatsara and Parivatsara as variants of the simple Vatsara, ‘year.’ The key to the invention of the series is probably to be found in passages like that of the Pañcavimśa Brāhmaṇa, where the several Cāturmāsya ( four-monthly ’) sacrifices are equated with the different years. Particularly unjustifiable is the attempt of Zimmer to see in the two-year series a series of two years of 354 days each, with an intercalary month in the second; for the year of 354 days, as such, is not known to have existed before the Sūtra period. Zimmer ® also finds an attempt at intercalation in the famous 12 days in which the Rbhus are said to have slept in the house of Agohya. He thinks that they represent twelve days added at the winter solstice to equate the lunar year of 354 days and the solar year of 366 days ; and from the rever¬ence paid in German antiquity to the ‘ 12 nights,’ he infers that this mode of intercalation is Indo-Germanic. There can be little doubt that this view is wrong, and that the 12 days are merely the ' reflexion of the year ’ (samvatsarasya pratima) in the sense that they represent the twelve months, and have no relation to chronology at all. A reference to the use of Samvatsara alone as the fifth year of the cycle is seen by Shamasastry in the peculiar dating of certain notices in the Baudhāyana śrauta Sūtra, but this view is improbable.
saṃgrāma Denotes primarily, it seems, ‘assembly ’ either in peace or in war, when it means an ‘ armed band.’ Its normal sense in the Atharvaveda and later is ‘war,’ ‘battle.’ Little is known of Vedic warfare, but it seems to have been simple. A body of foot soldiers with charioteers composed every army, the two going together, and the foot soldiers being often overthrown by the charioteers, who were doubtless the Kṣatriyas and their foremost retainers. Probably the foot soldiers bore little armour, and used only the bow for offence, as is suggested by the account that Herodotus gives of the Indian contingent of the army with which Xerxes invaded Greece. The nobles, on the other hand, may have had cuirass (Varman), helmet (śiprā), and hand-guard (Hastaghna) as a protection from the friction of the bowstring. On the car was the charioteer, and on his left the warrior (Sārathi, Savya§thā). Riding is never mentioned in war, and would hardly have been suited to Vedic ideas, for the warrior mainly depended on his bow, which he could not have used effectively from horse¬back. The offensive weapon (Áyudha) was practically the bow; spear and sword and axe were very seldom used. Whether there was a strict tribal organization of the host, such as is once alluded to in the Homeric poems, and is also recognized in Germany by Tacitus, is uncertain (cf. Vrāta), but in the Epic relations (Jñāti) fight together, and this rule, no doubt, applied more or less in Vedic times also. Cities were besieged and invested (upa-sad, pra-bhid), probably as a rule by blockade, since the ineffective means of assault of the time would have rendered storming difficult and expensive. Hillebrandt thinks that the pur carisnū of the Rigveda was a kind of chariot; it may—like the Trojan horse—have been an Indian anticipation of the Roman means of assaulting a town. Besides ordinary wars of defence and conquest, raids into neighbouring territory seem to have been frequent and normal, no doubt because of the booty (Udāja, Nirāja) which wai to be won, and which the king had to share with the'people. Banners (Dhvaja) were borne in war, and musical instruments (Dundubhi, Bakura) were used by the combatants.
sāmaveda ‘The Veda of the Sāman chants,’ is the name of a collection of verses for chanting, often mentioned in the Brāhmaṇas. The Sāman itself is repeatedly referred to in the Rigveda, and the triad Rc, Yajus, and Sāman is common from the Atharvaveda onwards. These texts know also the Sāma-ga, the ‘Sāman-chanter,’ who occurs later.
suvarṇa Beautiful coloured, is an epithet' of gold (Hiraṇya), and then comes to be used as a substantive denoting gold.’
saudyumni (‘Descendant of Sudyumna ’) is the patronymic of king Bharata Dauhṣanti in the Satapatha Brāhmaṇa
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Results for anti129 results
     
anti cit santam aha RV.8.11.4a.
anti dūre padīṣṭa saḥ RV.1.79.11b.
anti dūre sato agne TB.2.4.2.3a.
anti nūnam aśvinopastuteha RV.5.76.2b; SV.2.1103b.
anti ṣad bhūtu vām avaḥ RV.8.73.1c--18c.
anti santaṃ na jahāti AVś.10.8.32a.
anti santaṃ na paśyati AVś.10.8.32b.
antikād iva paśyati AVś.4.16.1b.
antikām agnim ajanayat RVKh.10.142.2a.
antimitraś (TS. antyamitraś) ca dūre amitraś (MS. 'mitraś) ca gaṇaḥ VS.17.83; TS.4.6.5.6; MS.2.6.6: 67.16; 2.11.1: 140.2; KS.18.16.
antisumne mahivrate AVś.7.112.1b; 14.2.45b.
antivāmā dūre amitram ucha RV.7.77.4a.
ajanti vahniṃ sadanāny acha # RV.9.91.1d. See mṛjanti vahniṃ.
añjanti tvām adhvare devayantaḥ # RV.3.8.1a; MS.4.13.1a: 199.2; KS.15.12a; TB.3.6.1.1a; AB.2.2.1a; KB.10.2; Aś.3.1.8; N.8.18a. P: añjanti tvām śś.5.15.2; Mś.5.2.8.8. Cf. BṛhD.3.28; 4.100.
añjanti mitraṃ (ApMB. vṛkṣaṃ) sudhitaṃ na gobhiḥ # RV.5.3.2c; ApMB.1.5.12c. See añjanti vipraṃ.
añjanti yaṃ dakṣiṇato havirbhiḥ # RV.1.95.6d; AVP.8.14.6d.
añjanti yaṃ prathayanto na viprāḥ # RV.5.43.7a; MS.4.9.3a: 123.13; TA.4.5.2a; AB.1.19.6; KB.8.4; śB.14.1.3.13; Aś.4.6.3. Ps: añjanti yaṃ prathayantaḥ Apś.15.7.5; añjanti yam KA.2.78; śś.5.9.8; añjanti Kś.26.2.19; Mś.4.2.19. Cf. BṛhD.5.41.
añjanti vipraṃ sukṛtaṃ na gobhiḥ # VārG.16.7c. See añjanti mitraṃ.
añjanti vṛkṣaṃ etc. # see añjanti mitraṃ etc.
añjanti suprayasaṃ pañca janāḥ # RV.6.11.4d; MS.4.14.15d: 241.5. See yuñjantu suprajasaṃ.
adanti tvā kakkaṭāsaḥ # AVP.4.21.2a.
adanti tvā pipīlikāḥ # AVś.7.56.7a; AVP.1.48.4a.
adhikṣiyanti pūravaḥ # RV.7.96.2b.
adhikṣiyanti bhuvanāni viśvā # RV.1.154.2d; AVś.7.26.3b; VS.5.20d; MS.1.2.9d: 19.13; KS.2.10d; śB.3.5.3.23d; TB.2.4.3.4d; Apś.11.9.1d; NṛpU.2.4d.
anukṣaranti kākudam # RV.8.69.12c; AVś.20.92.9c; MS.4.7.8c: 104.12; N.5.27c.
anutanvanti kīkasāḥ # AVś.9.8.14b.
abhipraghnanti dhṛṣṇuyā # RV.6.46.10b; AVś.20.83.2b.
arcanti toke tanaye pariṣṭiṣu # RV.10.147.3c.
arcanti tvā marutaḥ pūtadakṣāḥ # RV.5.29.1c.
arcanti nārīr apaso na viṣṭibhiḥ # RV.1.92.3a; SV.2.1107a.
arcanti śuṣmaṃ vṛṣaṇo vasūyā # RV.1.165.1d; MS.4.11.3d: 168.7; KS.9.18d.
arcayanti tapaḥ satyam # MahānU.13.1. Cf. footnote at TA.10.15.1.
arṣanti pūtadakṣasaḥ # RV.8.94.7c.
āvartayanti dāvane # RV.8.69.17d; AVś.20.92.14d.
āśṛṇvanti navamānasya martāḥ # RV.1.190.1d.
āhanti gabhe pasaḥ # VS.23.22c; śB.13.2.9.6. See under āhataṃ gabhe.
ichanti tvā somyāsaḥ sakhāyaḥ # RV.3.30.1a; VS.34.18a; AB.6.18.2; 19.4; GB.2.6.1 (bis). P: ichanti tvā Aś.7.5.20; śś.12.5.22; VHDh.6.46. Cf. BṛhD.4.105.
ichanti devāḥ sunvantam # RV.8.2.18a; AVś.20.18.3a; SV.2.71a.
iyakṣanti pracetasaḥ # RV.9.64.21b.
ukṣanti tvā vājinam āghṛte naḥ (comm. āghṛtena) # TB.2.5.2.4c.
upacinvanti vedhasaḥ # TS.1.1.7.2b; 5.10.3b; MS.1.1.8b: 4.14; 4.1.8b: 10.13; KS.1.7b; 31.6; Kś.2.8.16b.
upaprayanti yācitum # AVś.12.4.31d.
anti ghā te amṛtāsa etat # RV.10.10.3a; AVś.18.1.3a.
ṛchanti ṣma niṣpado mudgalānīm # RV.10.102.6d.
kanikranti pavitra ā # RV.9.43.5b.
kanikranti vṛṣṇo aśvasya retaḥ # SV.2.1194d.
kanikranti harir ā sṛjyamānaḥ # RV.9.95.1a; SV.1.530a. P: kanikranti Svidh.1.4.20. Cf. Svidh.1.5.11 (kānīty etad gāyet).
kīrtayanti purā viduḥ # GB.1.5.24b.
kīrtayiṣyanti ye dvijāḥ # RVKh.10.127.8b.
kratūyanti kratavo hṛtsu dhītayaḥ # RV.10.64.2a.
kratūyanti kṣitayo yoga ugra # RV.4.24.4a.
krīḍanti krīḍā vidatheṣu ghṛṣvayaḥ # RV.1.166.2b.
kṣaranti piṅgalā ekarūpāḥ # TA.3.11.10b.
kṣiṇanti śatrūṃr anapavyayantaḥ # RV.6.75.7d; AVP.15.10.7d; VS.29.44d; TS.4.6.6.3d; MS.3.16.3d: 186.6; KSA.6.1d.
khananti tvā taimātāḥ # AVP.4.21.1a.
gāyanti tvā gāyatriṇaḥ # RV.1.10.1a; SV.1.342a; 2.694a; TS.1.6.12.2a; JB.1.189a; 3.277a; KB.24.7; PB.8.9.10; Aś.7.8.3; śś.18.6.2; N.5.5a; Mahābh.12.284.78a. P: gāyanti tvā śś.11.11.12; 12.26.22.
gṛṇanti girvaṇasaṃ śaṃ tad asmai # RV.6.34.3d.
gṛṇanti deva kṛṣṭayaḥ # RV.8.75.10b; SV.1.11b; 2.998b; TS.2.6.11.2b; MS.4.11.6b: 175.12; KS.7.17b.
gṛṇanti vipra te dhiyaḥ # RV.1.14.2b; AVP.6.17.11b.
gṛbhṇanti jihvayā sasam # RV.8.72.3c.
gṛbhṇanti yoṣaṇo daśa # RV.9.1.7b.
ghnanti rājāna eṣām # RV.1.41.3b.
caranti yan nadyas tasthur āpaḥ # RV.5.47.5b.
caranti vidyuto divi # RV.9.41.3c; SV.2.244c; JB.3.60c.
chandayanti maghattaye # RV.5.79.5b.
janiyanti nāv agravaḥ # AVś.14.2.72a. See janīyanto.
jānanti-bāhavi-gārgya-gautama-śākalya-bābhravya-māṇḍavya-māṇḍūkeyāḥ (sc. tṛpyantu) # AG.3.4.4. Cf. śG.4.10.3.
jānanti vṛṣṇo aruṣasya śevam # RV.3.7.5a.
jinvanti viśve taṃ devāḥ # AVś.9.4.18c.
tanti tvā sarvasya veda # HG.1.23.1.
tantir aham asya janapadasya bhūyāsam # HG.1.23.1.
tapanti śatruṃ svar na bhūma # RV.7.34.19a.
tiṣṭhanti svādurātayaḥ # RV.8.68.14c.
tiṣṭhanti svāruho yathā # TS.1.6.12.2b. See rohanti pūrvyā.
tiṣṭhanti hatavartmanaḥ # N.3.4d. See tiṣṭhantu.
duvasyanti svasāro ahrayāṇam # RV.1.62.10d.
duhanti śakmanā payaḥ # RV.9.34.3c.
duhanti saptaikām # RV.8.72.7a; AB.1.22.2; Aś.4.7.4; 5.12.15. P: duhanti sapta śś.5.10.8.
dauḥṣantir atyagād rājñaḥ # AB.8.23.6c. See saudyumnir.
dauḥṣantir yamunām anu # AB.8.23.5b; śB.13.5.4.11b.
dhamanti bākuraṃ dṛtim # RV.9.1.8b; JB.2.396.
dhāvanti bahu bibhyatīḥ # AVś.5.21.5b.
nakṣanti rudrā avasā namasvinam # RV.1.166.2c.
namasyanti dhiyeṣitāḥ # RV.3.62.12c.
nayanti duritā tiraḥ # RV.1.41.3c.
nahyanti dharuṇāya kam # RV.10.60.8b.
nighnanti tathaiveti (śś. tathā mama) # AVś.20.136.6d; śś.12.24.2.7d.
nelayanti kadā cana # AVś.10.7.37d; AVP.9.29.6b.
nyañjanti madhāv adhi # AVś.9.1.17b; AVP.6.6.8b.
pacanti te vṛṣabhāṃ atsi teṣām # RV.10.28.3c.
patanti miha (MS. mihaḥ; KS. mihas) stanayanty abhrā # RV.1.79.2d; TS.3.1.11.5d; MS.4.12.5d: 193.10; KS.11.13d.
patanti reṣmabhiḥ saha # AVP.1.89.3b.
patanti vasya"iṣṭaye # RV.1.25.4b.
pariṣkṛṇvanti dharṇasim # RV.9.14.2c; SV.2.427b; JB.3.143b.
paśyanti tve na tve paśyanty enām # AVś.8.9.9d.
paśyanti dhīrāḥ pracaranti pākāḥ # TB.2.8.8.1d.
paśyanti sarve cakṣuṣā # AVś.10.8.14c; AVP.1.107.5c.
piṃṣanti tathaiveti # AVś.20.136.7d.
pibanti tena tvām indro varuṇo bṛhaspatiḥ # N.5.11c, according to Durga (see Roth's Erl"auterungen, p. 61). See under evāsmān.
pibanti mitro aryamā # RV.8.94.5a; SV.2.1136a.
pibanti (SV.JB. -tu) varuṇaḥ kave # RV.9.64.24b; SV.2.428b; JB.3.143b.
pīyanti te surāśvaḥ # RV.8.21.14b; AVś.20.114.2b; SV.2.740b.
punanti dhīrā apaso manīṣā # RV.3.8.5c; MS.4.13.1c: 199.12; AB.2.2.27; TB.3.6.1.3c.
punanti somaṃ mahe dyumnāya # RV.9.109.11b; SV.2.683b.
pṛñcanti su vāṃ pṛcaḥ # RV.5.74.10d.
pṛñcanti somaṃ na minanti bapsataḥ # RV.10.94.13d.
pṛṇanti śūra rādhase # RV.8.49 (Vāl.1).3d.
pratigṛhṇanti karhi cit # śG.1.10.8d.
bharanti vāṃ manmanā saṃyatā giraḥ # RV.1.151.8c.
bhavanti kṛtapuṇyānām # RVKh.5.87.20c.
bhavanti satyā samithā mitadrau # RV.9.94.4d.
madanti devagopāḥ # RV.8.46.32e.
madanti devā ubhayāni havyā # AVś.7.109.2d. See madantu etc.
madanti devīr amṛtā ṛtāvṛtaḥ (Mś.Apś. -vṛdhaḥ) # Vait.13.20; Apś.11.1.9; Mś.2.2.1.11. P: madanti śB.3.4.3.22; Kś.8.2.12. Metrical.
madanti vīrā vidatheṣu ghṛṣvayaḥ # RV.1.85.1d.
mṛjanti tvā daśa kṣipaḥ # RV.9.8.4a; SV.2.531a; Aś.5.12.15; śś.7.15.7.
mṛjanti tvā nadyaḥ sapta yahvīḥ # RV.9.92.4d.
mṛjanti tvā sam agruvaḥ # RV.9.66.9a.
mṛjanti devatātaye # RV.9.17.7c.
mṛjanti yoṣaṇo daśa # RV.9.6.5b.
mṛjanti vahniṃ sadaneṣv acha # SV.1.543d. See ajanti vahniṃ.
mṛjanti sapta dhītayaḥ # RV.9.15.8b.
mṛjanti sindhumātaram (JB. once, -mātaram ihā) # RV.9.61.7b; SV.2.431b; JB.3.153 (bis).
mehanti bahulaṃ śriyam # TA.3.11.6b.
yatrāvahanti kavayaḥ purūṇi # Mś.1.7.3.42b.
yanti giro na saṃyataḥ # SV.2.1119b; Aś.6.2.6b; śś.9.6.6b.
yanti pramādam atandrāḥ # RV.8.2.18c; AVś.20.18.3c; SV.2.71c.
yuñjanti (Mś.9.2.4.2, erroneously, yuñjati) bradhnam aruṣam # RV.1.6.1a; AVś.20.26.4a; 47.10a; 69.9a; SV.2.818a; VS.23.5a; TS.7.4.20.1a; MS.3.12.18a: 165.9; 3.16.3a: 185.4; KSA.4.9a; KB.25.15; śB.13.2.6.1; TB.3.9.4.1; Aś.6.4.10; śś.9.17.1; 12.1.4; Vait.26.12; 27.19; 33.2; 39.4; ApMB.1.6.2a (ApG.2.5.20). P: yuñjanti bradhnam Kś.20.5.10; Apś.20.16.1; Mś.9.2.3.19; 9.2.4.2; MG.1.13.2.
yuñjanti harī iṣirasya gāthayā # RV.8.98.9a; AVś.20.100.3a; SV.2.62a.
     Dictionary of Sanskrit
     Grammar
     KV Abhyankar
"anti" has 47 results.
     
antiaffix of the present tense. 3rd person. plural Paras, substituted for the original affix झि, e. g. कुर्वन्ति, भवन्ति.
aṇuthe minimum standard of the guantity of sound, which is not perceived by the senses, being equal to one-fourth of a Mātrā; confer, compare अणोस्तु तत्प्रमाणं स्यात् मात्रा तु चतुराणवात् ॥ see T.Pr. 21.3, Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.1.60, A.Pr. III.65. Ṛk. tantra, however, defines अणु as half-a-mātrā. confer, compare अर्धमणु ( R.T. 1.41 ).
abhedānvayarelation of non-difference as stated by the vaiyākaraṇas between an adjective and the substantive qualified by it. e, g. नीलमुत्पलम् is explained as नीलाभिन्नमुत्पलम्.
iṣṭhathe superlative taddhita affix. affix इष्ठन् in the sense of अतिशायन or अतिशय ( excellence ). The commentators, however, say that the taddhita affixes तम and इष्ठ,like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes showing the sense of the base itself ( स्वार्थे ); e. g गुरुतमः, गरिष्ठः; पटुतमः, पठिष्ठः; पचतितमाम्, कर्तृतमः, करिष्ठः et cetera, and others; confer, compare P.V.3.55-64 The affixes ईयस् and इष्ठ are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; confer, compare P.V.3.58.
īyastad-affix ईयसुन् , showing superiority or excellence of one individual over another in respect of a quality, added to a substantive expresive of quality; when the substantive ends in the affix तृ, that affix तृ is removed: exempli gratia, for example पटीयान्, लघीयान्, गरीयान्, दोहीयसी (धेनुः) confer, compareP.V.3.57-64.
ūnadeficient, wanting; often in compounds exempli gratia, for example पादोन, ह्यून, एकोन; confer, compare व्यूहैः संपत्समीक्ष्योने Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) VIII. 28; एकह्यूनाधिकता सैव निवृदूनाधिका भुरिक् Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XVII.1.
kalpathe taddhita affix. affix कल्पप् added to any substantive in the sense of slightly inferior, or almost complete; exempli gratia, for example पट्कल्पः, मृदुकल्प; confer, compare P.V.3.67 and Kāśikā thereon.
kārakaliterally doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारकशब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्थान्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: confer, compare also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण , कर्मन् and कर्तृ to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया and प्रथमा are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; confer, compare उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa The Volume of the introduction in Marathi to the Pātañjala Mahābhāṣya, written by K. V. Abhyankar and published by the O. E. Society, Poona.. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
ktvāntagerund; a mid-way derivative of a verbal root which does not leave its verbal nature on the one hand although it takes the form of a substantive on the other hand.
kyaṅaffix य taking Ātmanepada terminations after it, added in the sense of similar behaviour to a substantive. The substantive to which this affix य is added, becomes a denominative root; e. g. काकः श्येनायते, कुमुदं पुष्करायते, confer, compare Kāś. on P. III. 1.11-12, also on P. III, 1.14-18.
kvip(1)kṛt affix zero, added to the roots सद्, सू, द्विष् and others with a preceding word as upapada or with a prefix or sometimes even without any word, as also to the root हन् preceded by the words ब्रह्मन्, भ्रूण and वृत्र, and to the root कृ preceded by सु, कर्मन् et cetera, and others, and to the roots सु, and चि under certain conditions exempli gratia, for example उपसत्, सूः, प्रसूः, पर्णध्वत्, ब्रह्महा, वृत्रहा, सोमसुत्, अग्निचित्; confer, compareP.III. 2.61, 76, 77, 87-92: 177-179; (2) the denominative affix zero applied to any substantive in the sense of behaviour अश्वति, गर्दभति et cetera, and others; confer, compare M.Bh. and Kāś, on P.III.1.11.
kvibantaa substantive ending with the kṛt affix क्विप् (zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action (भाव). The words ending with this affix having got the sense of verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations सु, औ, जस् et cetera, and others and not ति, तः et cetera, and others placed after them; confer, compare कृदभिहितो भावो द्रव्यवद् भवति. However, at the same time, these words undergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because the kṛt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; confer, compare क्विबन्ता धातुत्वं न जहति. Kaiyaṭa's Prad. on VII.1.70.
caritakriyahaving kriya or verbactivity hidden in it. The term is used by Bhartrhari in connection with a solitary noun-word or a substantive having the force of a sentence, and hence which can be termed a sentence on account of the verbal activity dormant in it. exempli gratia, for example पिण्डीम्; confer, compare वाक्यं तदपि मन्यन्ते यत्पदं वरितक्रियम् Vakyapad.II. 326, and चरिता गर्भीकृता आख्यातक्रिया यस्य तद्गर्भीकृतक्रियापदं नामपदं वाक्यं प्रयुञ्जते ! Com. on Vakyapadya II.326.
jātigenus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kindeclinable The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति is the denotation or व्यक्ति is the denotation. The word जाति is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनिर्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्वलिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.
ṇinikrt affix इन् signifying vrddhi (1) applied to the roots headed by ग्रह् ( i. e. the roots ग्रह्, उद्वस्, स्था et cetera, and others ) in the sense of an agent;e. g. ग्राही, उद्वासी, स्थायी. confer, compare P. III.1.134; (2) applied to the root हन् preceded by the word कुमार or शीर्ष as उपपद: e. g. कुमारघाती, शीर्षघाती, confer, compare P. III.2.51: (3) applied to any root preceded by a substantive as upapada in the sense of habit, or when compari son or vow or frequency of action is conveyed, or to the root मन्, with a substantive as उपपद e. gउष्णभोजी, शीतभोजी, उष्ट्रकोशी, ध्वाङ्क्षरावीः स्थण्डिलशायी, अश्राद्धभोजीः क्षीरपायिण उशीनराः; सौवीरपायिणो वाह्रीकाः: दर्शनीयमानी, शोभनीयमानी, confer, compare P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to the root यज् preceded by a word referring to the करण of यागफल as also to the root हन् preceded by a word forming the object ( कर्मन् ) of the root हन् , the words so formed referring to the past tense: e. g. अग्निष्टो याजी, पितृव्याघाती, confer, compare P. III 2.85, 86; (5) applied to a root when the word so formed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; confer, compare अवश्यंकारी, शतंदायी, सहस्रदायी confer, compare P. III.4. 169-170: (6) tad-affix इन् , causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words काश्यप and कौशिक referring to ancient sages named so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of कलापि or of वैशम्पायन, as also to the words शुनक, वाजसनेय et cetera, and others in the sense of 'students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e. g. काश्यपिनः, ताण्डिनः, हरिद्रविणः शौनकिनः, वाजसनेयिनः et cetera, and others; cf P. IV.3, 103 104, 106; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancient sages who are the speakers of ancient Brahmana works in the sense of 'pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sense of those कल्प works; e. g. भाल्लविनः, एतरेयिणः । पैङ्गी कल्पः अरुणपराजी कल्पः; cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV. 3.105: (8) applied to the words पाराशर्य and शिलालिन् in the sense of 'students reading the Bhiksusutras (of पाराशार्य) and the Nata sutras ( of शिलालिन् ) respectively; e. g. पाराशरिणो भिक्षव:, शैलालिनो नटाः: cf Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. IV.3.110.
ṇvikrt, affix ण्वि i. e. zero, causing vrddhi, applied to the root भज् and to सह् and वह् in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposition ( उपसर्ग ) or a substantive as the upapada ; e. g. अर्द्धभाक्, प्रभाक्, तुराषाट् , दित्यवाट्; confer, compare Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. III, 2.62, 63, 64.
taddhitaa term of the ancient prePaninian grammarians used by Panini just like सर्वनामन् or अव्यय without giving any specific definition of it. The term occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya ; confer, compare अथ तद्वितसमासेषु एकपर्वसु चानेकपर्वसु पूर्वे पूर्वमपरमपरं प्रविभज्य निर्ब्रूयात् । द्ण्डय्ः पुरुषः । दण्डमर्हतीति वा, दण्डेन संपद्यते इति वा Nirukta of Yāska.II.2; also confer, compare तिङ्कृत्तद्धितचतुथ्यसमासाः इाब्दमयम् Vaj Prati.I. 27. It is to be noted that the word तद्वित is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive ( प्रातिपादक ) by the application of suffixes like अ, यत् et cetera, and others, and not in the sense of words derived from roots by affixes like अन, ति et cetera, and others which were termed नामकरण, as possibly contrasted with the word ताद्धित used by Yaska in II. 5. Panini has used the word तद्धित not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in I. 1.38, IV.1.17, 76, VI.1.61 et cetera, and others). in fact, he has begun the enumeration of taddhita affixes with the rule तद्धिता: (P.IV.1. 76) by putting the term तद्धित for affixes such as ति, ष्यङ्, अण् et cetera, and others which are mentioned thereafter. In his rule कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च and in the Varttika समासकृत्तद्धिताव्यय(I.4.1Vart. 41) which are similar to V.Pr.1. 27 quoted a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. the word तद्धित appears to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word कृत् which also means words derived from roots, although commentators have explained there the terms कृत् and तद्धित for कृदन्त and तद्धितान्त. The term तद्वित is evidently echoed in the Sutra तस्मै हितम् which, although it is not the first Sutra there were possibly long lists of secondary nouns with the senses of secondary suffixes, and तद्धित was perhaps,the first sense given there. The number of taddhita suffixes mentioned by Panini is quite a large one; there are in fact 1110 rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas viz. from P. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyaya. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentioned by commentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178), Raktadyarthaka (IV.2.1 to 91), Saisika {IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168), Pragvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74), Pragghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109), Arhiya (V.1.1 to 71),Thanadhikarastha (V. 1.72 to V. 1.1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. 1.115 to V.1.136), Pancamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibhaktisamjaaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samasanta affixes (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
dikśabdaa word denoting a direction such as पूर्व, उत्तर and the like, used as a substantive, e. g. पूर्वो ग्रामात् , or showing the direction of another thing being its adjective, e. g. इयमस्याः पूर्वा; cf Kas, on P. II.3.29.
drutāone of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance mentioned in the Pratisakhya works and quoted in the Mahabhasya; confer, compareतित्रो वृत्तीरुपदिशन्ति वाचो विलम्बितां मध्यमां च दुतां च । अभ्यासार्थे दुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणामुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्ति विलम्बिताम् । Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII. 18, 19; confer, compare ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायां, ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलाम्बितायाम् । Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I.1.70, Vart. 4. The utterance of a letter takes ,1/3 rd time more in the मध्यमवृत्ति than in the द्रुतवृत्ति, while in the विलम्बितवृत्ति it takes 1/3 rd more than in the मध्यमवृत्ति. In short, the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis, Druta, Vilambita and Madhyama the quantity of time in the proportion of 9:12:16 respectively.
dhātvartheliterally meaning of a root, the verbal activity, named क्रिया or भावः . confer, compare धात्वर्थः क्रिया; Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on III.2. 84, III.2.115. The verbal activity is described generally to be made up of a series of continuous subordinate activities carried on by the different karakas or agents and instruments of verbal activity helping the process of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is complete, the completed activity is looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as पाक,or याग does not get conjugational affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun.Just as स्वार्थ, द्रब्य, लिङ्ग, संख्या, and कारक are given as प्रातिपदिकार्थ, in the same manner क्रिया, काल, पुरुष, वचन or संख्या, and कारक are given as धात्वर्थ, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly speaking verbal activity (क्रियorभाव) alone is the sense of a root, as stated in the Mahbhasya. For details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sara, where it is said that fruit ( फल) and effort ( ब्यापार ) are expressed by a root, confer, compare फलव्यापारयोर्धातुः. The five senses given a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or अाख्यात or तिडन्त.
nāmannoun, substantive; one of the four categories of words given in the Nirukta and other ancient grammer works; confer, compare चत्वारि पदजातानि नामाख्याते चोपसर्गनिपाताश्च, Nirukta of Yāska.I.1. The word is defined as सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि by standard grammarians; confer, compare Nirukta of Yāska.I. 1.; confer, compare also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम, Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) XIII.8; Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 49 and commentary thereon. Panini divides words into two categories only, viz. सुबन्त and तिङन्त and includes नामन् ,उपसर्ग and निपात under सुबन्त. The Srngarapraksa defines नामन् as follows-अनपेक्षितशब्दव्युत्पत्तीनि सत्त्वभूतार्थाभिधायीनि नामानि। तानि द्विविधानि। आविष्टलिङ्गानि अनाविष्टलिङ्गानि च । The word नामन् at the end of a sasthitatpurusa compound signifies a name or Samjna e. g. सर्वनामन्, दिङ्नामन् , छन्दोनामन्; confer, compare also. Bhasavrtti on संज्ञायां कन्थोशीनरेषु P. II.4. 20 and संज्ञायां भृत्. P. III. 2.46 where the author of the work explains the word संज्ञायां as नाम्नि. The word is used in the sense of 'a collection of words' in the Nirukta, confer, compare अन्तरिक्षनामानि, अपत्यनामानि, ईश्वरनामानि, उदकनामानि, et cetera, and others
prakṛta(1)in context, in question; the word is frequently used in connection with words in the preceding rules which are drawn on to the following rules by anuvrtti or continuation; confer, compare प्रकृतं गुणवृद्धिग्रहणमनुवर्तते, M.Bh. on I.1.3 Vart. 2: (2) found or available in a large quantity; confer, compare तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् । प्राचुर्येण प्रस्तुतं प्रकृतम् । Kāśikā of Jayāditya and Vāmana. on P. V. 4.21.
prātilomyain inverse order, antithesis. reverse sense; e. g. प्र and परा mean the reverse of अा, or प्रति means the reverse of अभि; cf अा इत्यर्वागर्थे । प्र परेत्येतस्य प्रातिलोम्यम् et cetera, and others Nirukta of Yāska.I. 4.
matuptaddhita affix. affix मत् changed in some cases to वत् (cf मादुपधायाश्च मतोर्वोऽयवादिभ्यः P. VIII. 2.9), applied to any noun or substantive in the sense of 'who possesses that,' or 'which contains it,' or in the sense of possession as popularly expressedition The affix is called possessive affix also, and is very commonly found in use; e. g. गोमान्, वृक्षवान् , यवमान् , et cetera, and others confer, compare तदस्यास्त्यस्मिन्निति मतुप् P. V. 2.94. The very general sense of 'possession' is limited to certain kinds of possession by the Vārttikakāra in the following stanza; भूमनिन्दाप्रशंसासु नित्ययोगेतिशायने | संसर्गेऽस्तिविवक्षायां भवन्ति मतुबादय: confer, compare Kāś. on P. V. 2.94. There are other taddhita affix. affixes prescribed in the same sense as मतुप्, such as the affixes लच् (V. 2.96-98), इलच् (99, 100, 105, 117), श and न (100), ण (101), विनि (102, 121, 122), इनि (102, 115, 116, 128, 129-137), अण् (103, 104), उरच् (106), र (107), म (108), व ( 109, 110), ईरन् and ईरच् (111), वलच् (112, 113), ठन् (115, 116), ठञ् (118, 119), यप् (120), युस् (123, 138, 140), ग्मिनि (124), आलच् and आटच् (125), अच् (127), and ब, भ, यु, ति, तु, त and यस् each one applied to specifically stated words. मतुप् is also specially prescribed after the words headed by रस (confer, compare रसादिभ्यश्च P. V. 2.95) in supersession of some of the other affixes mentioned a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. which would take place in such cases, if मतुप् were not prescribed by the rule रसादिभ्यश्च. The portion of the Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. prescribing the possessive affixes is named मतुबधिकार (P. V. 2.92 to 140).
mayataddhita affix. affix मयट् (1) in the sense of proceeding therefrom (तत आगत: P. IV.3.92) added to words showing cause or meaning human being; exempli gratia, for example सममयम्, देवदत्तमयम्: (2) in the sense of product (विकार) or part (अवयव) added optionally with अण् to any word, exempli gratia, for example अश्ममयम् , आश्मनम् मूर्वामयम् मौर्वम्, and necessarily to words beginning with आ, ऐ and औ, words of the class headed by the word शर and the words गो, पिष्ट, व्रीहि, तिल and some others: confer, compare P. IV. 3. 143-150; (3) in the sense of proportion, added to a numeral; e. g. द्विमयमुदश्विद्यवानाम्; confer, compare P. V. 2.47; (4) in the sense of "made up of' added to the thing of which there is a large quantity; exempli gratia, for example अन्नमयम्, अपूपमयम् cf; तत्प्रकृतवचने मयट् P.V.4.21,22.
mātrā(1)measure, quantity ; cf भवति हि तत्र या च यावती च अर्थमात्रा Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P.I.2.45 and II.1.1 ; (2) mora, prosodial unit of one instant id est, that is the length of time required to pronounce a short vowel: confer, compare भूयसी मात्रा इवर्णोवर्णयोः, अल्पीयसी अवर्णस्य, M.Bh. on I.1.48 Vart. 4: confer, compare मात्रा ह्रस्वस्ता वदवग्रहान्तरं, द्वे दीर्धः,तिस्रः प्लुत उच्यते स्वरः Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.)I.16: cf also Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) I.34, T.Pr.I.37, V.Pr.I.59, R.T.28 also cf अर्धमात्रालाघवेन पुत्रोत्सवं मन्यन्ते वैयाकरणाः Par. Sek. Pari. 132. The instant is taken to be equal to the throbbing of the eye, or a flash of lightning, or a note of a wood-cock.
mukhyamain, , principal, primary substantive as contrasted with a gualifying substantive;confer, compareगौणमुख्ययोमुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्यय: Par. Sek. Pari. 15.
viliṅga(1)a substantive which is declined in all the three genders confer, compare Hemacandra III. 1.142: (2) of a different gender (although in the same case); confer, compare विलिङ्ग हि भवान् लोके निर्देशे करोति M.Bh. on P. I. 1.44 Vārt 5.
viśeṣyaubstantive, as opposed to विशेषण adjective or qualifying; confer, compare भेदकं विशेषणम्,भेद्यं विशेष्यम् Kāś. on P. II.1.57: confer, compare also विशेषणविशेष्यभावो विवक्षानिबन्धन: Kāś. on P.II.1.36.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇaa well-known work on the grammatical interpretation of words written by Kondabhatta as an explanatory work (व्याख्यान) on the small work in verse consisting of only 72 Karikas written by his uncle Bhattoji Diksita. The treatise is also named Brihadvaiyakaranabhusana. A smaller work consisting of the same subjectmatter but omitting discussions, is written by the author for facilitating the understanding of students to which he has given the name Vaiyakarahabhusanasara. This latter work has got three commentary works written on it named Kasika, Kanti and Matonmajja and one more scholarly one Sankari, recently written by Shankar Shastri Marulkar.
vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāraṭīkāa commentary written on the well-known work on the sense of words and syntax written by Kondabhatta. There are many commentaries out of which, the well-known ones are (1) Darpana by Harivallabha, (2) Laghubhushanakanti by Gopaladeva, a pupil of Balambhatta Payagunde, and (3) Kasika by Harirama Kesava Kale and Sankari by Sankarasastri Marulakara
śabdatattvaliterally the essence of a word; the ultimate sense conveyed by the word which is termed स्फोट by the Vaiyakaranas. Philosophically this Sabdatattva or Sphota is the philosophical Brahman of the Vedantins, which is named as Sabdabrahma or Nadabrahma by the Vaiykaranas,and which appears as the Phenomenal world of the basis of its own powers such as time factor and the like; confer, compare अनादिनिधनं ब्रह्म शब्दतत्वं यदक्षरम् ! विवर्ततेर्थभावेन प्रक्रिया जगतो यतः ॥ vakyapadiya, I.1: cf। also Vakyapadiya II.31.
śākaṭāyana(1)name of an ancient reputed scholar of Grammar and Pratisakhyas who is quoted by Panini. He is despisingly referred to by Patanjali as a traitor grammarian sympathizing with the Nairuktas or etymologists in holding the view that all substantives are derivable and can be derived from roots; cf तत्र नामान्याख्यातजानीति शाकटायनो नैरुक्तसमयश्च Nir.I.12: cf also नाम च धातुजमाह निरुक्ते व्याकरणे शकटस्य च तोकम् M. Bh on P.III.3.1. Sakatayana is believed to have been the author of the Unadisutrapatha as also of the RkTantra Pratisakhya of the Samaveda ; (2) name of a Jain grammarian named पाल्यकीर्ति शाकटायन who lived in the ninth century during the reign of the Rastrakuta king Amoghavarsa and wrote the Sabdanusana which is much similar to the Sutrapatha of Panini and introduced a new System of Grammar. His work named the Sabdanusasana consists of four chapters which are arranged in the form of topics, which are named सिद्धि. The grammar work is called शब्दानुशासन.
saṃbandhiśibdarelative term; the term refers to words connected in such a way by their meaning that if one of them is uttered, the other has to be anticipated and understood; e. g. पितृ, भ्रातृ, मातृ, भार्या et cetera, and others confer, compare तद्यथा । संबन्धिशब्दाः । मातरि वर्तितव्यम् । पितरि शूश्रूषितव्यम् । न चोच्यते स्वस्यां मातरि स्वस्मिन्वा पितरि इति । confer, compare also M.Bh. on I 1.71 ; confer, compare also प्रधानमुपसर्जनं च संबन्धिशब्दावेतौ Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.43 Vart. 5; I. 2.48 Vart, 4,
satvaan aspect of सत्ता of the type.of the static existence possessed by substantives as contrasted with भाव the dynamic type of existence possessed by verbs; confer, compare भावप्रधानमाख्यातम् ! सत्त्वप्रधानानि नामानि. Nirukta of Yāska.I: cf also सत्त्वाभिधायकं नाम निपातः पादपूरण: R.Pr. XII. 8. Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.VIII. 50.
sattvaguṇaqualities of a substantive such as स्त्रीत्व, पुंस्त्व, नपुंसकत्व, or एकत्व, द्वित्व and बहुत्व confer, compare स्त्रीपुंनपुंसकानि सत्त्वगुणाः एकत्वद्वित्वबहुवचनानि च। Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 1.38 Vart. 6, also on P. I. 2.64 Vart, 53.
saptasvaralit, the seven accents; the term refers to the seven accents formed of the subdivisions of the three main Vedic accents उदात्त, अनुदात्त and स्वरित viz उदात्त, उदात्ततर, अनुदात्त, अनुदात्ततर, स्वरित, स्वरितोदात्त,and एकश्रुति: cf त एते तन्त्रे तरनिर्देशे सप्त स्वरा भवन्ति ( उदात: । उदात्ततरः । अनुदात्तः ! अनुदात्ततरः । स्वरित: । स्वरिते य उदात्तः सोन्येन विशिष्टः । एकश्रुतिः सप्तम: ॥ M. Bh on P. I. 2. 33. It is possible that these seven accents which were turned into the seven notes of the chantings of the samans developed into the seven musical notes which have traditionally come down to the present day known as सा रे ग म प ध नी; confer, compare उदात्ते निषादगान्धारौ अनुदात्ते ऋषभधैवतौ । स्वरितप्रभवा ह्येते षड्जमध्यमपञ्चमाः। Pāṇini. Siksa. The Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya mentions the seven accents differently; confer, compare उदात्तादयः परे सप्त । यथा-अभिनिहितक्षैप्र-प्राशश्लिष्ट-तैरोव्यञ्जन-तैरोविराम-पादवृत्तताथाभाव्याः Uvvata on V.Pr.I.l l4.
samuccayaaccumulation which is one of the four senses of the indeclinable च and which means the anticipation of an allied another by the express mention of one, in which sense the Dvandva compound prescribed by the rule चार्थे द्वन्द्वः does not take place; confer, compare समुच्चय: | प्लक्षश्च इत्युक्ते गम्यत एतन्न्यग्रोधश्चेति Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. II. 2.29 Vart. 15.
sāttvaof a substantive, belonging to the object: confer, compare सत्त्वस्य इदम् । अपि वा मेदसश्च पशोश्च सात्त्वं द्विवचनं स्यात् । Nirukta of Yāska.VI. 16.
svara(l)vowel, as contrasted with a consonant which never stands by itself independently. The word स्वर is defined generally :as स्वयं राजन्ते ते स्वराः ( Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on pan. The word स्वर is always used in the sense of a vowel in the Pratisakhya works; Panini however has got the word अच् (short term or Pratyahara formed of अ in 'अइउण्' and च् at the end of एऔच् Mahesvara sutra 4 ) always used for vowels, the term स्वर being relegated by him to denote accents which are also termed स्वर in the ancient Pratisakhyas and grammars. The number of vowels, although shown differently in diferent ancient works, is the same, viz. five simple vowels अ,इ,उ, ऋ, लृ, and four diphthongs ए, ऐ, ओ, and अौ. These nine, by the addition of the long varieties of the first four such as आ, ई, ऊ, and ऋ, are increased to thirteen and further to twentytwo by adding the pluta forms, there being no long variety for लृ and short on for the diphthongs. All these twentytwo varieties have further subdivisions, made on the criterion of each of them being further characterized by the properties उदात्त, अनुदIत्त and स्वरित and निरनुनासिक and सानुनासिक. (2) The word स्वर also means accent, a property possessed exclusively by vowels and not by consonants, as they are entirely dependent on vowels and can at the most be said to possess the same accent as the vowel with which they are uttered together. The accents are mentioned to be three; the acute ( उदात्त ), the grave अनुदात्त and the circumflex (स्वरित) defined respectively as उच्चैरुदात्तः, नीचैरनुदात्तः and समाहारः स्वरितः by Panini (P. I. 2.29, 30,3l). The point whether समाहार means a combination or coming together one after another of the two, or a commixture or blending of the two is critically discussed in the Mahabhasya. (vide Mahābhāṣya of Patañjali on the Sūtras of Pāṇini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). on P. I. 2.31). There are however two kinds of svarita mentioned by Panini and found actually in use : (a) the independent स्वरित as possessed by the word स्वर् (from which possibly the word स्वरित was formed) and a few other words as also many times by the resultant vowel out of two vowels ( उदात्त and अनुदात्त ) combined, and (b) the enclitic or secondary svarita by which name, one or more grave vowels occurring after the udatta, in a chain, are called cf P. VIII. 2.4 VIII. 2.6 and VIII 4.66 and 67. The topic of accents is fully discussed by the authors of the Pratisakhyas as also by Panini. For details, see Ṛgvedaprātiśākhya by Śaunaka ( Sanskrit Sāhityapariṣad Edition, Calcutta.) III. 1.19; T.Pr. 38-47 Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya.I. 108 to 132, II. I.65 Atharvaveda Prātiśākhya. Adhyaya l padas 1, 2, 3 and Rk. Tantra 51-66; see also Kaiyata on P. I. 2.29; (3) The word स्वर is used also in the sense of a musical tone. This meaning arose out of the second meaning ' accent ' which itself arose from the first viz. 'vowel', and it is fully discussed in works explanatory of the chanting of Samas. Patanjali has given Seven subdivisions of accents which may be at the origin of the seven musical notes. See सप्तस्वर a reference to some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page..
harivallabhaa grammarian who has written commentaries named दर्पणा on the Vaiyakaranabhusanasara of Kondabhatta, and Laghubhusanakanti on the Sabdakaustubha of Bhattoji Diksita.
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anti dear shelterCC Antya 7.42
CC Madhya 19.210
anti into the presenceSB 10.31.16
anti just beforeSB 2.7.8
anti nearCC Madhya 8.146
SB 10.86.47
anti nearbySB 10.12.35
anti present nearbySB 10.14.28
anti to the proximitySB 10.89.58
anti mātroḥ toward Their mothersSB 10.8.22
anti mātroḥ toward Their mothersSB 10.8.22
antikam at the vicinitySB 10.81.21-23
antikam into the proximitySB 10.77.10
antikam nearbySB 10.29.17
SB 6.18.71
antikam the proximitySB 10.54.36
antikam the shelterSB 8.22.11
antikam the vicinityCC Antya 1.155
antikam to the presenceSB 10.28.3
antikam to the presence (of his master)SB 10.28.2
antikam to the proximitySB 10.57.22
antikāt presently alsoSB 9.24.9
antike (situated) nearbySB 8.12.22
antike close bySB 6.1.58-60
antike in frontSB 10.1.18
SB 11.3.42
antike in the near futureSB 10.46.36
antike in the proximitySB 10.89.26-27
antike nearBG 13.16
SB 10.77.19
SB 7.7.13
antike nearbySB 10.85.48-49
SB 12.3.3-4
SB 8.23.13
SB 8.24.8
antike standing nearbySB 11.10.20
antike staying nearbySB 3.4.26
antike very nearIso 5
SB 7.9.3
abhibhavanti overcomeSB 6.1.12
abhibhavanti do overcomeSB 10.8.18
abhibhavanti they are able to killSB 10.11.56
abhibhavanti do overcomeSB 10.26.21
abhibhaviṣyanti will be able to conquerSB 8.22.34
abhidhāsyanti will callSB 3.12.10
na abhidruhyanti never become maliciousSB 4.20.3
abhigacchanti enter intoIso 3
abhigarjanti roarSB 8.2.6
abhigṛhṇanti bearSB 3.29.41
abhijānanti they knowBG 9.24
abhimṛśanti they considerSB 10.87.26
abhivadanti the ṛg Veda mantras praiseSB 5.23.1
abhivarṣanti directly give rainSB 10.24.8
abhivijvalanti and are blazingBG 11.28
abhiyanti goesSB 4.3.13
abhiyanti goSB 4.3.16
abhiyanti almost always come to visitSB 7.10.48
abhiyanti come to visit (just like ordinary persons)SB 7.15.75
ācaranti they actSB 12.10.29
adanti swallowsSB 1.15.25-26
adanti eatSB 3.5.49
adanti devourSB 4.8.66
adanti will eatSB 8.24.24
adanti they eat or enjoySB 11.12.22-23
ādhāsyanti will begetSB 3.21.29
adhigacchanti come to knowSB 12.6.33
adhikramanti traversingSB 1.14.38
adhiyanti achieveSB 8.6.12
ādiśanti offerSB 8.22.4
āgacchanti are comingSB 4.13.30
āhvayanti are callingSB 6.14.57
ājñāpayanti are orderingSB 10.68.27
ākramanti step uponSB 10.87.27
sva-ālaya-antike in the vicinity of their own homeSB 11.7.63
ālińgayanti they embraceSB 5.26.20
āmananti they call it soSB 2.1.35
āmananti do they knowSB 2.2.18
āmananti worshipSB 2.6.46
āmananti do acceptSB 2.7.10
āmananti they acceptSB 3.1.34
āmananti acknowledgeSB 3.8.4
āmananti discussSB 5.11.1
āmananti they honorSB 7.9.37
āmananti they saySB 8.7.25
āmananti is called by standard authoritiesSB 11.23.42
āmananti great authorities saySB 12.4.20-21
āmananti they designateSB 12.6.32
ambikā-antikam the presence of AmbikāSB 10.53.44
āmṛjanti cleanseSB 9.9.5
ānamanti offered their respectsSB 1.15.21
kṛta-anta-antika-varti always given the facility for deathSB 8.22.11
bhasma-anti near the stack of ashesSB 9.8.19
pūḥ-devī-anti in the presence of a village deity (grāmya-devatā)SB 10.13.56
kṛta-anta-antika-varti always given the facility for deathSB 8.22.11
saroruha-antikam near the lotusSB 2.2.37
mama antikam near MeSB 3.16.12
yama-antikam to the abode of Lord YamarājaSB 6.2.21
ātmaja-antikam near her sonSB 6.14.47
caraṇa-antikam to the shelter of the lotus feetSB 6.16.29
tat-antikam near himSB 9.14.14
varuṇa-antikam to the place of VaruṇaSB 9.15.7
bhartuḥ antikam unto her husbandSB 9.20.19
kṛṣṇa-antikam to the proximity of Lord KṛṣṇaSB 10.29.6-7
ambikā-antikam the presence of AmbikāSB 10.53.44
pada-antikam near the lotus feetSB 11.5.5
jala-antikāt from out of the waterSB 10.15.51
tad-antike in the vicinitySB 6.17.4-5
gṛha-antike near the residenceSB 7.5.1
kapila-antike near the āśrama of KapilaSB 9.8.9-10
tat-antike near to himSB 9.14.14
salila-antike near the waterSB 10.20.29
bhavat-antike in your presenceSB 10.45.4
arbhaka-antike near the childSB 10.56.20
sva-ālaya-antike in the vicinity of their own homeSB 11.7.63
tomāra antike near youCC Antya 15.40
anudhāvanti follow behindSB 4.11.20
anugṛhṇanti do any favorSB 3.14.43
anukīrtayanti they chantSB 8.4.15
anumodanti take to heartSB 11.26.29
anumodayanti make fragrantSB 5.16.22
anupaśyanti can seeBG 15.10
anupaśyanti does see by following authoritiesSB 2.4.21
anupaśyanti constantly seeSB 10.41.31
anupatanti grievingSB 1.17.8
anuprāṇanti follow the living symptomsSB 2.10.16
anuśīlayanti and imitateSB 11.3.32
anusmaranti constantly remembersSB 1.5.36
anusmaranti constantly remembersSB 3.1.23
na anusmaranti do not rememberSB 10.82.19
anuśocanti lamentBG 2.11
anuśocanti they lamentSB 4.27.25
anuśocanti lament very muchSB 9.19.2
anuśuṣyanti gradually become weaker and weaker, with less potencySB 10.10.16
anutiṣṭhanti execute regularlyBG 3.31
anutiṣṭhanti regularly performBG 3.32
anutiṣṭhanti just to followSB 2.8.25
anutiṣṭhanti those who followSB 11.20.37
anutṛpyanti will become satisfiedSB 10.41.13
anuvarṇayanti describeSB 5.23.4
rantideva-anuvartinaḥ the followers of King Rantideva (that is, his servants, his family members, his friends and others)SB 9.21.18
anuvindanti experienceSB 4.14.24
anuyanti understandSB 10.87.19
anvicchanti they also desireSB 10.44.7
anvicchanti they seek outSB 10.56.8
apānanti all others stopSB 2.10.16
āpnuvanti attainBG 8.15
āpnuvanti achieveSB 2.2.23
āpnuvanti can achieveSB 8.3.19
ārādhayanti worshipSB 5.20.32
arbhaka-antike near the childSB 10.56.20
arcanti worshipsSB 3.8.5
arcanti worshipSB 4.9.9
tvām arcanti worship youSB 8.7.22
arcanti they worshipSB 11.27.1
arcanti worshipSB 12.10.20-21
arciṣyanti will worshipSB 10.2.10
arhanti deserveSB 2.10.44
arhanti are ableSB 5.6.1
arhanti deserveSB 6.1.43
arhanti deserveSB 6.3.26
arhanti deserve to takeSB 8.8.39-40
arhanti can be savedSB 9.8.28
arhanti deserveSB 10.19.10
ārohanti climbSB 10.18.21
ārurukṣanti persons who desire to come to the upper planetary systemsSB 8.11.5
aśnanti enjoyBG 9.20
aśnanti they eatSB 5.26.23
aspṛhayanti they do not desireSB 3.25.37
atirocanti reproachSB 3.14.22
atitaranti transcendBG 13.26
atitaranti can overcomeSB 2.7.42
atitaranti surpassSB 2.7.46
atitaranti surpassCC Madhya 6.235
atitaranti cross overCC Madhya 24.190
ātmaja-antikam near her sonSB 6.14.47
ātyantikaḥ the highest platformSB 3.29.14
ātyantikaḥ finalSB 6.1.11
ātyantikaḥ finalSB 12.4.38
ātyantikaḥ ultimateSB 12.7.17
ātyantikaḥ the ultimate goal of lifeCC Madhya 19.174
ātyantikam supremeBG 6.20-23
ātyantikam the ultimateSB 1.15.46
ātyantikam liberationSB 3.15.48
ātyantikam uninterruptedSB 5.6.17
ātyantikam supremeSB 11.2.30
ātyantikam ultimateSB 12.4.34
ātyantikam supremeCC Madhya 22.85
ātyantikam absoluteMM 15
ātyantikatayā most importantSB 4.22.35
ātyantikena excessiveSB 3.6.28
ātyanti unlimitedSB 3.27.30
ātyanti the ultimateSB 5.17.3
ātyantikīm the supremeSB 9.4.64
āvahanti they can offerSB 8.22.20
avajānanti derideBG 9.11
avajānanti disrespectSB 4.14.24
avajānanti neglectSB 10.86.55
avajānanti disrespectSB 11.5.3
avajānanti or who neglectCC Madhya 22.28
avajānanti or who neglectCC Madhya 22.112
avajānanti or who neglectCC Madhya 24.142
avajānanti decryCC Madhya 25.39
avamanyanti they disrespectSB 11.5.9
avanti-pura in the city of Avantī (modern Ujjain)SB 10.45.30-31
avantiṣu in the Avantī countrySB 11.23.6
avasīdanti are disheartenedSB 8.1.15
avatāravanti in many incarnations such as Lord ṛṣabhadevaSB 5.6.13
avayanti considerSB 8.12.9
avayanti describeSB 8.12.9
avayanti they considerSB 10.87.15
avayanti thinkSB 10.87.37
badhnanti conditionsSB 2.5.19
badhnanti they tie upSB 10.41.36
badhnanti they bind upSB 11.23.36
bhajanti render serviceBG 9.13
bhajanti render transcendental serviceBG 9.29
bhajanti do worshipSB 1.2.26
bhajanti do worshipSB 1.2.27
bhajanti do render serviceSB 1.15.17
bhajanti flattersSB 2.2.5
bhajanti they worshipSB 3.25.39-40
bhajanti they worshipSB 4.20.29
bhajanti worshipSB 4.21.43
bhajanti enjoy, resort toSB 5.2.9
bhajanti offer transcendental loving serviceSB 9.13.9
bhajanti show respectSB 10.32.16
bhajanti reciprocateSB 10.32.16
bhajanti reciprocateSB 10.32.17
bhajanti they devotedly serveSB 10.32.18
bhajanti reciprocateSB 10.32.19
bhajanti worshipSB 10.60.14
bhajanti worshipSB 10.60.52
bhajanti worshipSB 10.72.5
na bhajanti do not worshipSB 10.72.5
bhajanti honorSB 10.80.4
bhajanti worshipSB 10.87.16
bhajanti worshipSB 10.88.1
bhajanti they worshipSB 10.89.14-17
bhajanti worshipSB 11.2.6
bhajanti who worshipSB 11.5.1
bhajanti worshipSB 11.5.3
bhajanti worshipSB 11.11.33
bhajanti serve and take shelter ofSB 11.13.40
bhajanti worshipSB 12.8.46
bhajanti worshipCC Madhya 22.28
bhajanti worshipCC Madhya 22.112
bhajanti flatterCC Madhya 23.114
bhajanti they worshipCC Madhya 24.123
bhajanti worshipCC Madhya 24.142
bhakṣayiṣyanti will virtually devourSB 12.1.39-40
bhartuḥ antikam unto her husbandSB 9.20.19
bhasma-anti near the stack of ashesSB 9.8.19
bhavanti growBG 3.14
bhavanti come aboutBG 10.4-5
bhavanti areBG 16.1-3
bhavanti flourishSB 3.11.25
bhavanti sma became manifestedSB 3.12.47
bhavanti becomeSB 3.25.25
bhavanti abideSB 4.14.26-27
bhavanti existSB 4.31.17
na bhavanti do not appearSB 4.31.17
bhavanti areSB 5.16.6
bhavanti there areSB 5.16.13-14
bhavanti areSB 5.16.25
bhavanti areSB 5.21.4
bhavanti areSB 5.21.5
bhavanti areSB 5.23.5
bhavanti areSB 5.24.13
bhavanti become possibleSB 5.26.2
bhavanti areSB 6.4.31
bhavanti areSB 6.7.24
bhavanti ariseSB 6.12.13
bhavanti are generatedSB 6.15.4
bhavanti are generatedSB 6.15.4
bhavanti becomeSB 6.16.5
bhavanti appearSB 7.2.41
na bhavanti disappearSB 7.2.41
bhavanti areSB 7.9.9
bhavanti areSB 7.9.46
bhavanti becomeSB 7.10.21
bhavanti areSB 7.15.4
bhavanti all become possibleSB 8.17.10
bhavanti are existingSB 9.1.5
bhavanti can becomeSB 9.4.56
bhavanti can becomeSB 9.4.56
bhavanti they becomeSB 9.21.12
bhavanti becomeSB 10.64.40
bhavanti sma they have becomeSB 10.78.25-26
bhavanti ariseSB 10.85.31
bhavanti becomeSB 10.87.15
bhavanti come into beingSB 10.87.31
bhavanti they manifestSB 11.2.43
bhavanti they becomeSB 11.3.32
bhavanti they existSB 11.6.14
bhavanti come into beingSB 11.22.43
na bhavanti go out of beingSB 11.22.43
bhavanti ariseSB 11.23.43
bhavanti areSB 12.4.26
na bhavanti are notSB 12.4.26
bhavanti appearCC Adi 1.60
bhavanti areCC Adi 4.211
bhavanti becomeCC Madhya 6.108
bhavanti areCC Madhya 20.113
bhavanti appearCC Madhya 22.86
bhavanti appearCC Madhya 23.16
bhavanti becomeCC Antya 18.40
bhavanti they originateBs 5.51
bhavat-antike in your presenceSB 10.45.4
bhāvayanti as also protectSB 1.15.24
bhāvayanti meditateSB 3.15.6
bhāvayiṣyanti will purifySB 3.14.46
bhaviṣyanti will beBG 11.32
bhaviṣyanti will existSB 3.18.5
bhaviṣyanti will becomeSB 5.6.10
bhaviṣyanti they will becomeSB 6.4.53
bhaviṣyanti will beSB 8.6.22-23
bhaviṣyanti will becomeSB 8.13.15-16
bhaviṣyanti will becomeSB 8.13.19
bhaviṣyanti will becomeSB 8.13.31
bhaviṣyanti will generateSB 9.14.39
bhaviṣyanti na never will becomeSB 10.7.17
bhaviṣyanti there will beSB 11.5.38-40
bhaviṣyanti will becomeSB 12.1.6-8
bhaviṣyanti will take birthSB 12.1.10
bhaviṣyanti will beSB 12.1.27
bhaviṣyanti will beSB 12.1.29-31
bhaviṣyanti will becomeSB 12.1.36
bhaviṣyanti will becomeSB 12.2.21
bhaviṣyanti will be in the futureSB 12.2.25
bhaviṣyanti they will becomeSB 12.3.39-40
bhindanti transgressSB 5.26.22
bhokṣyanti would enjoySB 1.17.27
bhokṣyanti they will enjoySB 12.1.3
bhokṣyanti they will ruleSB 12.1.6-8
bhokṣyanti will enjoySB 12.1.10
bhokṣyanti will rule overSB 12.1.11
bhokṣyanti they will ruleSB 12.1.14
bhokṣyanti will enjoySB 12.1.15-17
bhokṣyanti they will ruleSB 12.1.19
bhokṣyanti will ruleSB 12.1.21-26
bhokṣyanti will ruleSB 12.1.29-31
bhokṣyanti will ruleSB 12.1.29-31
bhokṣyanti will ruleSB 12.1.37
bhramanti wanderSB 9.8.25
bhramanti they wanderSB 10.87.22
bhramanti they wanderSB 11.23.49
bhraśyanti fall downSB 10.2.33
bodhayanti wakingSB 10.70.2
bodhayanti they awakenSB 10.87.12-13
bṛhanti observeSB 4.22.12
bṛṃhayiṣyanti they will increaseSB 3.24.14
rantidevaḥ ca and a son named RantidevaSB 9.21.2
caraṇa-antikam to the shelter of the lotus feetSB 6.16.29
caranti practiceBG 8.11
caranti pass timeSB 3.1.35
caranti do wanderSB 3.4.25
caranti wanderSB 3.5.3
caranti moveSB 3.14.23
caranti moveSB 4.9.20-21
caranti engage inSB 4.12.36
caranti behaveSB 4.22.12
caranti they traverseSB 5.13.23
caranti traverseSB 5.23.3
caranti they executeSB 5.26.23
caranti they moveSB 6.3.17
caranti wanderSB 6.15.11
caranti wanderSB 6.15.12-15
caranti they wander (in places like the Himalayan forests, where they have no touch with the activities of the materialists)SB 7.9.44
caranti roaming (in the forest)SB 8.2.22
caranti practiceSB 8.3.7
caranti they actSB 10.33.34
caranti they pursueSB 10.47.18
caranti serveSB 10.72.4
caranti function (by referring)SB 10.87.1
pari ye caranti who worshipSB 10.87.27
caranti they travelSB 11.2.23
caranti they move aboutSB 11.2.28
caranti actSB 11.3.35
caranti moveSB 11.28.35
cārayanti they grazeSB 10.43.34
chindanti can cut to piecesBG 2.23
chindanti cutSB 1.2.15
chindanti pierceSB 4.25.8
chindanti cut offSB 11.26.26
chindanti cut offCC Adi 1.59
cintayanti constantly thinkingSB 8.17.2-3
codayanti driveSB 12.11.47-48
cyavanti fall downBG 9.24
dahanti chastiseSB 2.7.7
dahanti subjugateSB 2.7.7
dantinoḥ of elephantsSB 10.72.36
darśayanti shall manifestSB 1.14.20
darśayanti they showSB 10.50.19
darśayanti demonstrateSB 10.77.19
dāsyanti indicatingSB 1.14.11
dāsyanti will deliverSB 9.4.4-5
dāsyanti will deliverSB 9.14.42
dāsyanti they will giveSB 10.23.14
dauṣmanti the son of Mahārāja DuṣmantaSB 9.20.27
dauṣyantiḥ iva like Bharata, the son of DuṣyantaSB 1.12.20
pūḥ-devī-anti in the presence of a village deity (grāmya-devatā)SB 10.13.56
dhārayanti possessSB 5.16.13-14
dhārayanti they possessSB 5.16.20-21
dhārayanti utilizeSB 5.24.16
dhārayanti wearSB 5.24.17
dhārayanti they hold onSB 10.46.6
dharṣayanti bewilderSB 3.20.41
dhunvanti destroySB 6.1.15
dhyāyanti meditate uponSB 3.19.28
dhyāyanti meditate uponSB 10.72.4
dhyāyanti meditate uponSB 12.8.42
dhyāyanti meditateCC Madhya 22.163
dhyāyanti meditateMM 48
diśanti give in charitySB 2.2.5
diśanti bestowSB 11.26.34
diśanti giveCC Madhya 23.114
dīvyanti playSB 10.61.35
drakṣyanti seeSB 3.16.10
drakṣyanti they will seeSB 10.39.25
dravanti glideBG 11.28
dravanti are fleeingBG 11.36
dravanti running awaySB 8.2.21
druhyanti they harmSB 11.5.14
duhanti they supplySB 11.19.33-35
duhyanti allow milkingSB 1.14.19
duhyanti take advantage ofSB 3.32.5
na duhyanti do not giveSB 9.19.13
durvātayanti pass foul airSB 11.23.38-39
dviṣanti hateSB 10.60.18
dyumanti splendidSB 3.23.29
dyumanti gleamingSB 10.81.29-32
eṣyanti they will comeSB 10.68.4
gacchanti they reachBG 2.51
gacchanti goBG 5.17
gacchanti goBG 8.24
gacchanti goBG 14.18
gacchanti goBG 14.18
gacchanti attainBG 15.5
gacchanti they goSB 1.5.31
gacchanti they goSB 9.11.22
gacchanti reachSB 10.51.38
gacchanti they goSB 11.25.21
gamiṣyanti will goSB 4.3.9
gaṇayanti countSB 5.26.7
gaṇayanti they care forSB 6.7.24
garhayanti forbidSB 6.7.33
gāsyanti will broadcastSB 3.14.44-45
gāyanti do singSB 1.5.11
gāyanti chantSB 1.8.36
gāyanti chantSB 1.11.20
gāyanti chant in glorificationSB 2.6.38
gāyanti singSB 3.15.17
gāyanti sangSB 3.24.7
gāyanti are singingSB 5.2.9
gāyanti chantSB 5.6.13
gāyanti sing aboutSB 5.6.13
gāyanti chantSB 5.19.21
gāyanti singSB 5.26.31
gāyanti will singSB 9.5.21
gāyanti will glorifySB 9.10.15
gāyanti glorifySB 9.11.21
gāyanti are glorifyingSB 10.8.47
gāyanti sma they would singSB 10.15.18
gāyanti singSB 10.38.13
gāyanti singSB 10.40.16
gāyanti they singSB 10.44.15
gāyanti they singSB 10.71.9
gāyanti singSB 11.3.32
gāyanti they have declaredSB 11.22.1-3
gāyanti chantSB 11.26.29
gāyanti do singSB 12.12.52
gāyanti they sing aboutSB 12.13.1
gāyanti singNBS 34
ghātayanti killSB 5.26.12
ghātayanti cause to be killedSB 6.18.42
ghātayanti murderSB 11.5.16
ghnanti will killSB 1.18.44
ghnanti they killSB 6.18.42
ghnanti breakSB 6.18.46
ghnanti they killSB 9.14.37
ghnanti they kill (as it is practically seen)SB 10.1.65-66
ghnanti killSB 10.41.36
ghnanti destroySB 10.84.12
ghnanti they murderSB 11.5.8
ghnanti they destroySB 11.23.21
ghnanti destroySB 11.23.22
ghnanti they killSB 12.3.8
grahīṣyanti will acceptSB 4.13.33
graiṣma-vāsantikān for four months, beginning with Caitra, on the fifteenth of MaySB 5.9.5
grasanti eatSB 5.26.33
grasanti takes awaySB 12.4.14
gṛha-antike near the residenceSB 7.5.1
gṛhṇanti acceptsSB 2.10.35
gṛhṇanti take notice ofSB 3.18.10
gṛhṇanti do acceptSB 3.29.13
gṛhṇanti findSB 4.4.12
gṛhṇanti acceptSB 4.13.26
gṛhṇanti acceptSB 4.13.28
gṛhṇanti are acceptingSB 4.13.30
gṛhṇanti they seizeSB 10.21.15
gṛhṇanti they will acceptSB 10.23.30
gṛhṇanti touchSB 10.64.37-38
gṛhṇanti do they acceptSB 10.65.13
gṛhṇanti they acceptSB 10.65.13
gṛhṇanti they acceptSB 11.22.35-36
gṛhṇanti acceptCC Adi 4.207
gṛhṇanti do acceptCC Madhya 6.270
gṛhṇanti acceptCC Madhya 9.268
gṛhṇanti acceptCC Madhya 19.173
na gṛhṇanti do not takeCC Antya 3.189
gṛṇanti are offering prayersBG 11.21
gṛṇanti do acceptSB 1.5.11
gṛṇanti takes onSB 1.5.36
gṛṇanti takeSB 1.8.36
gṛṇanti they take it soSB 2.1.27
gṛṇanti they saySB 2.1.31
gṛṇanti invokeSB 3.9.15
gṛṇanti followSB 3.14.27
gṛṇanti acceptSB 3.33.7
gṛṇanti sma offered prayersSB 4.7.24
gṛṇanti sma they were talkingSB 4.23.24
gṛṇanti describeSB 8.1.2
gṛṇanti sing aboutSB 9.9.49
gṛṇanti chant and spreadSB 10.31.9
gṛṇanti and describe in their wordsSB 10.72.4
gṛṇanti do acceptSB 12.12.52
gṛṇanti chantCC Madhya 11.192
gṛṇanti chant and spreadCC Madhya 14.13
gṛṇanti chantCC Madhya 19.72
gṛṇanti chantCC Antya 16.27
haniṣyanti they will killSB 12.3.41
hanti killsBG 2.19
hanti killsBG 2.21
hanti killsBG 18.17
hanti killSB 1.7.36
hanti annihilatesSB 1.8.16
hanti destroysSB 2.1.20
hanti curesSB 2.7.21
hanti destroysSB 3.16.5
hanti killsSB 3.18.4
hanti destroysSB 4.4.14
hanti annihilatesSB 4.11.25
hanti used to killSB 4.13.40
hanti destroysSB 5.25.11
hanti destroysSB 6.3.26
hanti killsSB 6.15.6
hanti will vanquishSB 10.2.21
hanti destroysSB 10.4.46
hanti killsSB 10.10.12
hanti will killSB 10.24.37
hanti killedSB 10.30.17
hanti and destroysSB 10.46.40
hanti destroysSB 10.57.15
hanti destroysSB 10.64.35
hanti and destroysSB 10.74.20-21
hanti destroysSB 11.23.16
hanti destroysSB 12.3.47
hanti destroysCC Madhya 15.270
hanti destroysCC Madhya 25.84
haranti throwBG 2.60
haranti do take awaySB 1.14.37
haranti are attractingSB 1.15.27
haranti offer, take awaySB 3.15.8
haranti offerSB 3.18.5
haranti bearSB 4.11.27
haranti offerSB 4.14.20
haranti presentSB 4.23.36
haranti they take awaySB 4.29.21
haranti they take awaySB 5.13.2
haranti they forcibly take awaySB 5.14.3
haranti take awaySB 7.12.7
haranti shall removeSB 9.9.6
haranti will bringSB 10.45.14
haranti stealSB 10.49.22
haranti carrySB 10.60.37
haranti they take awaySB 10.84.12
haranti they take awaySB 12.11.45
hariścandraḥ rantidevaḥ Hariścandra and RantidevaSB 10.72.21
hariṣyanti will offerSB 4.16.21
hariṣyanti they will offerSB 6.4.53
hasanti laugh atSB 3.14.28
hasanti they laughSB 11.3.32
hiṃsanti hurtSB 6.9.55
hiṃsanti they are enviousSB 7.10.20
hinvanti give upSB 5.1.5
hinvanti they dispelSB 10.77.32
hrasanti become shorterSB 5.16.8
hṛṣyanti take pleasureSB 1.14.19
hṛṣyanti takes pleasureSB 1.18.50
hṛṣyanti are jubilantSB 4.30.20
hṛṣyanti become jubilantSB 8.11.8
icchanti they desireSB 4.9.9
na icchanti do not desireSB 6.18.74
icchanti they wishSB 7.14.6
icchanti they desireSB 8.6.24
icchanti desireSB 9.4.67
na icchanti they do not desireSB 10.68.31
icchanti they wantSB 11.5.38-40
icchanti desireSB 11.20.12
na icchanti do not desireCC Adi 4.208
na icchanti do not desireCC Madhya 24.183
dauṣyantiḥ iva like Bharata, the son of DuṣyantaSB 1.12.20
jaganti universesSB 10.14.18
jaganti the universesBs 5.32
jaganti the worldsBs 5.62
jala-antikāt from out of the waterSB 10.15.51
jānanti do knowSB 4.29.56
jānanti knowSB 8.12.10
jānanti knowSB 9.4.68
jānanti they knowSB 11.10.19
jānanti knowSB 11.21.28
jānanti knowCC Adi 1.62
jānanti they knowCC Adi 4.213
jānanti knowCC Adi 4.213
janayanti createSB 10.3.14
jayanti they conquerSB 11.8.20
jeṣyanti they try to conquerSB 12.3.6
jighranti smellSB 3.9.5
jīvanti do liveSB 1.4.12
jīvanti live like animalsSB 1.10.25
jīvanti liveSB 2.3.18
jīvanti liveSB 8.5.33
jīvanti liveSB 10.14.3
jīvanti they liveSB 10.89.28
jīvanti can they liveSB 11.17.57
jīvanti liveCC Adi 5.71
jīvanti liveCC Madhya 8.67
jīvanti liveCC Madhya 20.281
jīvanti liveCC Madhya 21.41
jīvanti liveBs 5.48
jugupsanti do not likeSB 4.15.25
juṣanti experienceSB 11.14.17
kalayanti manifestBs 5.32
kalpayanti imagineSB 2.5.36
kalpayanti will provideSB 10.47.14
kalpayanti they conceive ofSB 12.11.2-3
kalpayiṣyanti will imagineSB 5.15.1
kapila-antike near the āśrama of KapilaSB 9.8.9-10
kariṣyanti will doSB 3.12.30
kariṣyanti will executeSB 7.3.19
kariṣyanti will doSB 10.4.32
kariṣyanti will they doSB 10.68.3
karmāṇi utsīdanti fruitive activities disappearSB 5.14.4
kathayanti they chantSB 3.25.23
kathayanti they tellSB 11.23.4
kathayiṣyanti will speakBG 2.34
kathayiṣyanti will speak ofSB 10.76.31
khādanti eatSB 2.3.18
khādanti devourSB 5.26.27
khādanti eatSB 5.26.31
khādanti they will eatSB 9.14.35
khādanti they eatSB 11.5.14
khādayanti they make eatSB 10.45.6
kledayanti moistensBG 2.23
kliśyanti struggleSB 10.14.4
kliśyanti accept increased difficultiesCC Madhya 22.22
kliśyanti accept increased difficultiesCC Madhya 24.140
kliśyanti accept increased difficultiesCC Madhya 25.31
paricań kramanti revolve all aroundSB 5.23.3
krandanti are cryingSB 10.29.21-22
krīḍanti are relishingSB 1.14.35-36
krīḍanti they playSB 4.6.25
krīḍanti enjoyed sportingSB 8.15.13
kṛṣṇa-antikam to the proximity of Lord KṛṣṇaSB 10.29.6-7
kṛta-anta-antika-varti always given the facility for deathSB 8.22.11
kṣaranti drippingMM 26
kṣayam yāsyanti they will become ruinedSB 12.1.41
kṣipanti are thrownSB 3.15.23
kṣipanti destroySB 6.1.13-14
kṣipanti throwSB 7.15.46
kṣipanti they commit insultSB 10.54.41
kṣipanti they criticizeSB 11.23.37
kṣobhayanti agitateSB 10.31.10
kurvanti they doBG 3.25
kurvanti they performBG 5.11
kurvanti do renderSB 1.2.22
kurvanti inspiresSB 1.3.39
kurvanti doSB 1.7.10
tīrthī-kurvanti make into a holy place of pilgrimageSB 1.13.10
kurvanti are keepingSB 1.14.13
kurvanti actSB 3.9.7
kurvanti performSB 3.25.22
kurvanti performSB 3.29.4
kurvanti performSB 3.32.16
kurvanti doSB 4.6.48
kurvanti createSB 6.4.31
kurvanti effect or bringSB 7.7.39
kurvanti executeSB 8.20.7
kurvanti they makeSB 9.4.66
kurvanti will giveSB 10.2.10
kurvanti they makeSB 10.2.30
kurvanti such things are doneSB 10.6.3
kurvanti executeSB 10.8.18
kurvanti are makingSB 10.15.7
kurvanti they performSB 10.23.26
kurvanti executeSB 10.26.21
kurvanti they showSB 10.29.33
kurvanti createSB 10.30.30
kurvanti executeSB 10.80.30
kurvanti createSB 11.18.14
kurvanti they awardSB 11.19.4
kurvanti causeSB 11.21.11
kurvanti they createSB 11.23.48
tīrthī-kurvanti make into holy places of pilgrimageCC Adi 1.63
kurvanti doCC Madhya 6.108
kurvanti doCC Madhya 6.186
tīrthī-kurvanti make into holy places of pilgrimageCC Madhya 10.12
kurvanti doCC Madhya 17.140
tīrthī-kurvanti make into holy placesCC Madhya 20.57
kurvanti doCC Madhya 24.5
kurvanti-pada the word kurvantiCC Madhya 24.25
kurvanti they performCC Madhya 24.305
kurvanti doCC Madhya 25.159
kurvanti they makeNBS 69
kurvanti they makeNBS 69
kurvanti they makeNBS 69
kuṣanti tearSB 3.16.10
limpanti do affectBG 4.14
lumpanti and loot (his house)SB 10.41.36
lunanti annihilateSB 7.9.40
lunanti pull in many directionsSB 11.9.27
luṭhanti overwhelmsSB 1.15.18
majjanti sinkSB 6.7.14
majjanti they drownSB 11.4.11
mama antikam near MeSB 3.16.12
mānayanti glorifySB 3.15.19
vṛtti-manti possessing the functionsBs 5.32
mārganti searching afterSB 3.5.41
mathnanti stirSB 5.18.36
mehanti discharge semenSB 2.3.18
mṛḍayanti gives protectionSB 1.3.28
mṛḍayanti make happyCC Adi 2.67
mṛḍayanti makes them happyCC Adi 5.79
mṛḍayanti make happyCC Madhya 9.143
mṛḍayanti make happyCC Madhya 20.156
mṛḍayanti make happyCC Madhya 25.134
mṛgayanti search outSB 10.14.28
mṛgayanti they searchSB 11.7.23
muhyanti are bewilderedBG 5.15
muhyanti are illusionedSB 1.1.1
muhyanti bewilderedSB 1.9.16
muhyanti become bewilderedSB 4.20.4
muhyanti are bewilderedSB 4.29.57
muhyanti are bewilderedSB 4.30.20
muhyanti become illusionedSB 5.18.4
muhyanti are bewilderedSB 7.5.13
muhyanti become bewilderedSB 9.4.3
muhyanti become confusedSB 11.3.43
muhyanti bewilderedSB 11.5.5
muhyanti are bewilderedSB 11.10.33
muhyanti become bewilderedSB 12.6.29
muhyanti become bewilderedSB 12.8.49
muhyanti become bewilderedSB 12.10.2
muhyanti are bewilderedCC Madhya 8.266
muhyanti are bewilderedCC Madhya 20.359
muhyanti are bewilderedCC Madhya 25.148
mūtrayanti they urinate uponSB 11.23.35
anti na do not get out ofSB 1.5.40
na abhidruhyanti never become maliciousSB 4.20.3
na paśyanti do not observeSB 4.29.42-44
na bhavanti do not appearSB 4.31.17
na paśyanti do not seeSB 5.21.8-9
na niṣpunanti cannot purifySB 6.1.18
na nandayanti do not give pleasureSB 6.14.25
na icchanti do not desireSB 6.18.74
na bhavanti disappearSB 7.2.41
na vidanti could not understandSB 7.13.14
na śaknuvanti are unableSB 8.19.21
na duhyanti do not giveSB 9.19.13
na paśyanti do not seeSB 10.4.27
bhaviṣyanti na never will becomeSB 10.7.17
na vismaranti persons do not forgetSB 10.14.44
na santi there are noneSB 10.56.11
na icchanti they do not desireSB 10.68.31
na santi do not occurSB 10.70.17
na bhajanti do not worshipSB 10.72.5
na smaranti do not rememberSB 10.77.30
na anusmaranti do not rememberSB 10.82.19
na vidanti they do not knowSB 10.85.44
na patanti they do not fall downSB 10.87.18
na parilaṣanti do not wish forSB 10.87.21
na samuddharanti they do not uprootSB 10.87.39
na paśyanti they cannot seeSB 11.5.12
na vidanti do not recognizeSB 11.21.27
na bhavanti go out of beingSB 11.22.43
na paśyanti they do not seeSB 12.3.3-4
na rakṣiṣyanti they will not protectSB 12.3.42
yakṣyanti na they do not worshipSB 12.3.44
na bhavanti are notSB 12.4.26
na upadhakṣyanti cannot burnSB 12.5.10
na icchanti do not desireCC Adi 4.208
na icchanti do not desireCC Madhya 24.183
na gṛhṇanti do not takeCC Antya 3.189
nadanti are vibrating in jubilationSB 8.21.23
nadanti they thunderSB 12.4.12
namanti bow downSB 1.4.11
namanti offer respectSB 4.9.47
namanti they are bowing downSB 10.15.5
namanti they offer obeisancesSB 12.10.28
namasyanti are offering respectsBG 11.36
namasyanti offer respectful obeisancesSB 6.8.41
nandanti take pleasureSB 1.8.36
nandanti take great pleasureSB 11.3.32
na nandayanti do not give pleasureSB 6.14.25
nańkṣyanti will loseSB 3.25.38
nańkṣyanti will be lostSB 7.3.7
nańkṣyanti will perishCC Madhya 22.162
naśyanti vanishesSB 1.17.10-11
naśyanti vanquishedSB 1.19.34
naśyanti are vanquishedSB 7.10.8
naśyanti are vanquished (death occurs to the aggressor)SB 10.11.56
naśyanti are destroyedSB 11.20.29
nayanti conductSB 8.14.3
nayanti lead forthSB 12.11.33
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.34
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.35
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.36
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.37
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.38
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.39
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.40
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.41
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.42
nayanti ruleSB 12.11.44
nibadhnanti do bindBG 4.41
nibadhnanti bindBG 9.9
nibadhnanti do conditionBG 14.5
nighnanti do killSB 1.15.24
nighnanti killSB 5.26.24
nihanti killsSB 4.11.18
nihanti destroysSB 10.13.45
nikṣipanti throwSB 7.15.46
nimajjanti they become submergedSB 10.63.40
nimlocanti setSB 5.21.11
ninamanti how down toSB 12.8.42
nindanti they scornSB 11.13.5
nipatanti fall downSB 5.26.22
nipatanti fallSB 5.26.23
nipatanti fall downSB 5.26.33
niramanti take pleasureSB 1.5.10
nirundhanti confineSB 5.26.34
nirundhanti confineSB 5.26.34
nirviśanti enterSB 10.36.3-4
niṣedhanti order to stopSB 6.17.12
niṣiñcanti they pour intoSB 5.26.29
niṣkarṣanti they pull him outSB 5.26.21
niṣkarṣanti extractSB 6.4.27-28
niṣkuṣanti tear to piecesSB 5.26.19
na niṣpunanti cannot purifySB 6.1.18
nivartanti they come backBG 15.3-4
nivasanti liveSB 5.24.8
nivasanti liveSB 5.24.31
nivasanti they liveSB 5.26.5
niviśanti they enterSB 5.26.37
nṛtyanti dancedSB 3.24.7
nṛtyanti sma dancedSB 4.1.54-55
nṛtyanti were dancingSB 4.15.7
nṛtyanti danceSB 5.26.31
nṛtyanti are dancingSB 10.15.7
nṛtyanti danceSB 10.69.9-12
nṛtyanti they danceSB 11.3.32
nṛtyanti danceSB 12.11.47-48
nṛtyanti danceNBS 71
pacanti prepare foodBG 3.13
pada-antikam near the lotus feetSB 11.5.5
kurvanti-pada the word kurvantiCC Madhya 24.25
pālayanti execute the orderSB 8.14.6
paṇayiṣyanti will engage in commerceSB 12.3.35
parāyanti becomes exhaustedSB 2.8.26
pārayiṣyanti will be able to finishSB 10.23.28
pari ye caranti who worshipSB 10.87.27
paricań kramanti revolve all aroundSB 5.23.3
na parilaṣanti do not wish forSB 10.87.21
parivayanti stitchSB 5.26.36
pariyanti circumambulateSB 4.12.25
paryaṭanti move aboutSB 6.16.6
paśyanti seeBG 1.37-38
paśyanti seeBG 13.25
paśyanti can seeBG 15.10
paśyanti can seeBG 15.11
paśyanti seeBG 15.11
paśyanti seeSB 1.2.12
paśyanti seeSB 1.3.4
paśyanti can seeSB 1.8.36
paśyanti can seeSB 1.10.23
paśyanti seeSB 1.10.27
paśyanti can seeSB 3.5.45
paśyanti seeSB 3.15.33
paśyanti seeSB 3.25.35
paśyanti seeSB 4.3.17
paśyanti they seeSB 4.16.19
paśyanti do observeSB 4.28.62
na paśyanti do not observeSB 4.29.42-44
paśyanti they see in tranceSB 5.18.4
na paśyanti do not seeSB 5.21.8-9
paśyanti seeSB 6.1.19
paśyanti seeSB 7.4.9-12
paśyanti they seeSB 8.6.11
paśyanti observeSB 8.11.8
paśyanti observeSB 10.2.28
na paśyanti do not seeSB 10.4.27
paśyanti seeSB 10.28.15
pāsyanti they will drinkSB 10.39.23
paśyanti they seeSB 10.44.16
paśyanti seeSB 10.61.21
paśyanti they seeSB 10.63.34
na paśyanti they cannot seeSB 11.5.12
paśyanti they seeSB 11.16.4
na paśyanti they do not seeSB 12.3.3-4
paśyanti they seeSB 12.13.1
paśyanti they seeCC Adi 3.89
paśyanti they seeCC Antya 3.92
paśyanti seeBs 5.32
patanti fall downBG 1.41
patanti they glide downBG 16.16
patanti flySB 1.18.23
patanti degradesSB 2.6.34
patanti fallSB 3.32.21
patanti are manifestSB 4.9.16
patanti fall downSB 5.16.16
patanti fall downSB 5.23.3
patanti fall downSB 5.24.15
patanti fall downSB 7.15.21
patanti fall outSB 9.7.12
patanti they fallSB 10.2.32
patanti are fallingSB 10.15.22
patanti would fall downSB 10.16.4
patanti fallSB 10.36.3-4
na patanti they do not fall downSB 10.87.18
patanti they fallSB 11.5.3
patanti they fallSB 11.5.15
patanti fallCC Madhya 22.28
patanti fallCC Madhya 22.30
patanti fallCC Madhya 22.112
patanti fallCC Madhya 24.131
patanti fallCC Madhya 24.141
patanti fallCC Madhya 24.142
patanti fall downCC Madhya 24.166
patanti fall downCC Madhya 24.213
patanti fallCC Madhya 25.32
paṭhanti they study itSB 2.1.26
paṭhanti are recitingSB 5.2.9
paṭhanti it is saidSB 7.15.42
paṭhanti all the members of the old generation reciteSB 9.24.9
paṭhanti they reciteMM 38
pāvayanti they purifyNBS 68
phalanti activeSB 1.10.5
phalanti bear fruitSB 10.87.41
phalanti end inCC Madhya 21.15
vṛkṣāḥ phalanti different varieties of trees bear fruitCC Madhya 24.300
pibanti relishesSB 1.10.28
pibanti suckSB 1.14.19
pibanti who drinkSB 2.2.37
pibanti drinkSB 4.6.26
pibanti drinkSB 4.29.39-40
pibanti drinkSB 5.26.31
pibanti they drinkSB 10.44.14
pibanti drinkSB 10.83.3
pibanti drinkSB 11.5.38-40
pibanti they drinkCC Adi 4.156
pibanti they drinkCC Madhya 21.112
pibanti people drinkMM 38
plāvayanti inundateSB 3.11.31
prabhajanti they take to fullySB 10.27.7
prabhavanti become manifestBG 8.18
prabhavanti flourishBG 16.9
prabhavanti are ableSB 3.26.71
prabhavanti are eligibleSB 4.12.41
prabhavanti is generatedSB 4.31.15
prabhavanti are ableSB 8.2.32
prabhavanti it is possibleSB 8.7.34
prabhavanti can become equally ableSB 8.24.49
prabhavanti have powerSB 11.29.37
prabhavanti they are predominantly manifestSB 12.3.27
prabhavanti are ableCC Adi 3.87
prabhavanti are effectiveMM 10
pracaranti they moveSB 6.16.24
pracaranti are performingSB 10.38.9
pradiśanti will giveSB 4.14.22
praduṣyanti become pollutedBG 1.40
pragāyanti sing loudlySB 12.11.47-48
praharanti strikeSB 4.17.20
praharanti they beatSB 5.26.15
praharanti attackSB 6.11.17
prahiṇvanti abandonSB 10.49.23
prakramanti circumambulateSB 5.22.17
prakurvanti they makeSB 7.4.35
prāṇanti they give lifeSB 10.38.12
praṇaśyanti become vanquishedBG 1.39
prapaśyanti directly seeSB 8.3.27
prapaśyanti they clearly seeSB 11.7.21
prapatiṣyanti will fall downSB 5.6.11
prāpnuvanti achieveBG 12.3-4
prāpsyanti will getSB 9.20.29
prapunanti totally purifySB 11.26.28
praśaṃsanti sma praised, glorifiedSB 4.15.7
praśaṃsanti the saintly persons praiseSB 8.19.36
prasīdanti they are pleasedSB 3.24.27
prasīdanti become pleasedSB 4.22.8
prasīdanti will be satisfiedSB 10.43.35
pratapanti are scorchingBG 11.30
pratigrahīṣyanti will accept religious charitySB 12.3.38
pratikurvanti counteractSB 1.18.48
pratiyanti are waiting (for pacification of Your anger)SB 7.9.14
pratiyanti they realizeSB 10.2.36
pravadanti sayBG 2.42-43
pravadanti sayBG 5.4
pravadanti they callSB 3.25.31
pravadanti is calledSB 11.3.37
pravadanti they go on discussingSB 11.5.10
praviśanti enterBG 2.70
praviśanti enterBG 2.70
praviśanti take shelter ofSB 3.25.43
praviśanti entersSB 4.31.15
praviśanti they enterSB 11.3.15
praviśanti enter intoIso 9
praviśanti enter intoIso 12
prayacchanti deliverSB 6.6.9
prayacchanti they bestowSB 6.19.26-28
prayacchanti they presentSB 10.17.2-3
prīṇanti try to pleaseSB 7.9.54
pūḥ-devī-anti in the presence of a village deity (grāmya-devatā)SB 10.13.56
punanti sanctifySB 1.1.15
punanti sanctifySB 1.19.8
punanti purifySB 2.2.37
punanti and purifySB 10.38.12
punanti purifySB 10.48.31
punanti purifySB 10.84.11
punanti purifySB 10.86.52
punanti purifySB 10.87.27
punanti purifySB 12.10.23
avanti-pura in the city of Avantī (modern Ujjain)SB 10.45.30-31
rakṣanti they protectSB 6.3.18
na rakṣiṣyanti they will not protectSB 12.3.42
ramanti enjoy transcendental blissBG 10.9
ramanti they take pleasureSB 10.87.22
ramayanti enjoy sex pleasureSB 5.24.16
rantideva-anuvartinaḥ the followers of King Rantideva (that is, his servants, his family members, his friends and others)SB 9.21.18
rantidevaḥ RantidevaSB 1.12.24
rantidevāḥ RantidevaSB 2.7.43-45
rantidevaḥ ca and a son named RantidevaSB 9.21.2
hariścandraḥ rantidevaḥ Hariścandra and RantidevaSB 10.72.21
rantidevasya of RantidevaSB 9.21.2
rantināvaḥ the son named RantināvaSB 9.20.6
ṛcchanti attainSB 3.33.11
rohanti do grow (produce other bodies)SB 6.16.39
rudanti cryingSB 1.14.19
rudanti seem to be cryingSB 1.14.20
rudanti they crySB 11.3.32
sabhājayanti they praiseSB 11.5.36
sabhājayanti worshipCC Madhya 20.347
sādhayanti executeSB 4.23.27
śaknuvanti are ableSB 6.12.11
na śaknuvanti are unableSB 8.19.21
śaknuvanti were ableSB 10.89.30-31
salila-antike near the waterSB 10.20.29
samabhyudyanti riseSB 5.21.11
samadanti will eatSB 6.11.16
samadanti and partake ofSB 10.87.28
samadhigacchanti they attainSB 5.22.4
samāmananti they fully describeSB 5.21.13
samāmananti the experienced scholars describeSB 5.22.7
samāmananti they saySB 8.5.34
samarpayanti dedicateCC Madhya 23.23
samavagacchanti very easily obtainSB 5.14.39
sambhavanti they appearBG 14.4
sambhavanti there areSB 6.1.44
sambhavanti become possibleSB 8.22.32
sambhavanti ariseSB 11.26.28
sambodhayanti pacifySB 3.16.11
sameṣyanti will all comeSB 10.70.42
sameṣyanti will enter simultaneouslySB 12.2.24
sampāyayanti force to drinkSB 5.26.26
śaṃsanti praisedSB 10.30.18
saṃsaranti do rotateSB 3.9.10
saṃsaranti they move through the cycle of birth and deathSB 10.85.15
saṃsaranti undergo material existenceSB 11.21.1
saṃspṛhayanti verily desireSB 3.2.19
saṃstuvanti offer prayersSB 5.21.17
saṃstuvanti glorifySB 12.11.47-48
samudāharanti recommendMM 15
na samuddharanti they do not uprootSB 10.87.39
samuddharanti they deliverSB 11.7.19
samuddharanti upliftSB 11.17.44
samudrāyanti create an oceanNBS 45
saṃvardhayanti increase happinessSB 9.4.25
sañcaranti moveSB 3.15.29
sañcaranti they wanderSB 10.86.51
sañcaranti wander aboutCC Antya 8.49
sañcārayanti reestablishSB 8.14.5
santi there areSB 2.1.2
santi there isSB 2.2.5
santi existSB 2.10.12
santi existSB 2.10.12
santi are possibleSB 4.5.8
santi existSB 4.20.23
santi existsSB 4.22.14
santi existSB 5.10.10
santi areSB 5.17.10
santi there areSB 5.19.16
santi there areSB 5.19.16
santi areSB 5.26.37
santi are thereSB 6.3.4
santi areSB 7.5.27
santi can becomeSB 7.7.54
santi areSB 7.8.9
santi there areSB 8.19.4
santi what there is in stockSB 9.20.14
santi may beSB 10.5.31
santi there areSB 10.8.15
santi becomeSB 10.11.57
santi they areSB 10.15.22
santi there areSB 10.26.18
santi are aliveSB 10.51.18
santi there areSB 10.51.36
na santi there are noneSB 10.56.11
santi they areSB 10.60.50
na santi do not occurSB 10.70.17
santi there areSB 10.79.33
santi existSB 10.85.14
santi there areSB 10.85.58
santi they areSB 10.87.33
santi there areSB 11.7.22
santi there areSB 11.7.32
santi there areSB 11.10.14-16
santi existSB 11.18.17
santi they are presentSB 11.22.4
santi they areSB 11.22.35-36
santi areCC Madhya 6.109
santi areCC Madhya 8.211
santi areCC Madhya 23.114
śapanti will do harmSB 1.18.44
śapanti condemnSB 10.2.22
śapanti they would curseSB 10.82.39
śapanti curseCC Adi 4.153
saroruha-antikam near the lotusSB 2.2.37
sīdanti are quiveringBG 1.28
sīdanti sufferSB 10.60.13
sīdanti suffer frustrationSB 10.60.41
sīdanti suffer distressSB 10.89.24
sīdanti they sufferSB 11.5.17
siddhyanti become successfulSB 1.18.7
sidhyanti are generatedSB 8.5.33
sidhyanti are very successfulSB 8.6.24
sidhyanti become successfulSB 8.24.60
sidhyanti maintain their existenceSB 10.24.23
sidhyanti become perfectSB 11.23.25
ślāghayanti glorify as very importantSB 7.15.37
bhavanti sma became manifestedSB 3.12.47
nṛtyanti sma dancedSB 4.1.54-55
gṛṇanti sma offered prayersSB 4.7.24
praśaṃsanti sma praised, glorifiedSB 4.15.7
vasanti sma livedSB 4.18.32
gṛṇanti sma they were talkingSB 4.23.24
gāyanti sma they would singSB 10.15.18
sravanti sma are miscarriedSB 10.36.3-4
taranti sma transcendedSB 10.43.28
vadanti sma they spokeSB 10.53.39
bhavanti sma they have becomeSB 10.78.25-26
smaranti rememberSB 1.8.36
smaranti do rememberSB 1.14.32-33
smaranti do meditate upon HimSB 2.2.8
smaranti rememberSB 4.9.12
smaranti they rememberSB 5.26.32
smaranti will rememberSB 7.9.14
smaranti rememberSB 8.4.17-24
smaranti they rememberSB 10.49.8
na smaranti do not rememberSB 10.77.30
smaranti declare authoritativelySB 10.87.25
smaranti they rememberCC Madhya 24.156
smārayanti they remindSB 10.47.50
śocanti lamentSB 4.30.20
śocanti they lamentSB 7.2.37
śocanti they lament forSB 7.2.49
śocanti lamentSB 8.11.8
śocanti lamentSB 10.89.28
spandanti begin to actSB 12.8.40
spardhanti rival one anotherSB 6.16.35
sphuranti quiveringSB 1.14.11
sphuranti being made manifestBs 5.27
spṛhayanti they desireSB 3.25.34
spṛśanti touchSB 4.29.39-40
spṛśanti can touchSB 6.16.23
spṛśanti touchSB 12.8.42
sravanti flowSB 3.29.42
sravanti flowSB 4.29.39-40
sravanti slip outSB 5.24.15
sravanti dwindleSB 7.15.19
sravanti sma are miscarriedSB 10.36.3-4
sravanti flow downSB 11.14.5-7
sṛjanti createSB 11.10.31
sṛjanti they createSB 11.22.18
śṛṇvanti do hearSB 1.5.11
śṛṇvanti hearSB 1.8.36
śṛṇvanti hearSB 3.15.23
śṛṇvanti they hearSB 3.25.23
śṛṇvanti they hearSB 3.32.19
śṛṇvanti continue to hearSB 6.13.22-23
śṛṇvanti hearSB 9.5.28
śṛṇvanti they hearSB 10.21.14
śṛṇvanti hearSB 11.26.29
śṛṇvanti do hearSB 12.12.52
śṛṇvanti hearCC Madhya 24.176
stavayanti offer prayersSB 4.15.23
sthāpayiṣyanti are going to establishSB 10.89.45
ṣṭhīvanti they spitSB 11.23.35
stunvanti praiseSB 12.13.1
stuvanti are singing hymnsBG 11.21
stuvanti do praySB 2.7.8
stuvanti offer prayersSB 4.30.10
stuvanti they offer prayersSB 4.30.41
stuvanti offer prayersSB 8.4.25
stuvanti they praiseSB 11.5.31
stuvanti praiseSB 12.8.42
stuvanti they praiseSB 12.10.28
stuvanti they praiseSB 12.10.29
stuvanti they offer praiseSB 12.11.49
stuvanti they praiseCC Adi 3.51
stuvanti offer prayersCC Madhya 6.102
stuvanti offer praiseBs 5.36
sūcayanti indicatingSB 5.8.23
śuddhyanti cleansesSB 1.19.33
śudhyanti at once purifiedSB 2.4.18
śudhyanti become purifiedSB 10.5.4
śudhyanti become purifiedCC Madhya 24.179
śudhyanti become purifiedCC Madhya 24.209
śudhyanti become purifiedCC Antya 7.10
sukhayanti give pleasureSB 6.13.11
śumbhanti make beautifulSB 10.38.12
śuṣyanti dry upSB 7.2.9
sva-ālaya-antike in the vicinity of their own homeSB 11.7.63
śvasanti breatheSB 2.3.18
śvasanti liveSB 6.12.8
śvasanti also endeavorSB 6.16.48
śvasanti they breatheSB 10.87.17
svidyanti perspiringSB 1.14.20
tad-antike in the vicinitySB 6.17.4-5
tāḍayanti they beatSB 11.23.36
tapanti inflict sufferingSB 3.25.23
taranti overcomeBG 7.14
taranti cross overSB 3.16.19
taranti cross overSB 10.14.24
taranti sma transcendedSB 10.43.28
taranti cross beyondSB 10.80.33
taranti they may cross overSB 11.3.17
taranti cross overCC Madhya 20.121
taranti cross overCC Madhya 22.23
taranti cross overCC Madhya 24.138
tariṣyanti people will cross overSB 11.1.6-7
tariṣyanti they will cross overSB 11.6.24
tarjayanti they cajoleSB 11.23.36
tarpayanti ingratiateSB 10.81.9
tat-antikam near himSB 9.14.14
tat-antike near to himSB 9.14.14
tāvanti so manySB 3.26.12
tāvanti of the same numberSB 10.14.18
tīrthī-kurvanti make into a holy place of pilgrimageSB 1.13.10
tīrthī-kurvanti make into holy places of pilgrimageCC Adi 1.63
tīrthī-kurvanti make into holy places of pilgrimageCC Madhya 10.12
tīrthī-kurvanti make into holy placesCC Madhya 20.57
tiṣṭhanti dwellBG 14.18
tiṣṭhanti they remainSB 12.2.27-28
titīrṣanti cross overSB 4.22.40
titīrṣanti they try to cross beyondSB 10.25.4
tomāra antike near youCC Antya 15.40
trasanti are afraidSB 9.6.33-34
tṛpyanti are satedSB 3.25.2
tṛpyanti are satisfiedSB 4.31.14
tṛpyanti become satisfiedSB 7.9.45
tṛpyanti are satisfiedCC Madhya 22.63
tudanti they biteSB 3.31.27
tudanti prickSB 11.23.3
tuṣyanti become pleasedBG 10.9
tvām arcanti worship youSB 8.7.22
tvarayanti hurrySB 10.39.27
tyajanti abandonSB 10.37.14
tyajanti abandonSB 10.47.7
tyajanti rejectSB 10.87.26
tyajanti abandonSB 10.88.8
tyajanti they rejectSB 11.6.44
tyajanti they give upSB 11.21.31
tyajanti they give upSB 11.23.21
tyakṣyanti they will abandonSB 12.3.36
tyakṣyanti they will rejectSB 12.3.41
uccakanti perceiveSB 6.16.48
uccalanti as if going outSB 1.14.20
udāharanti reciteSB 5.4.6
udāharanti the wise declareSB 5.14.2
udāharanti the authorities of the Vedas saySB 5.14.23
udāharanti they chantSB 5.20.32
udāharanti they saySB 5.20.42
udāharanti they give as an exampleSB 6.1.20
udāharanti they citeSB 7.2.27
udāharanti the learned sages recite as an exampleSB 7.13.11
udāharanti they relate as an exampleSB 10.88.13
udāharanti is given as an exampleSB 11.2.14
udāharanti they cite as exampleSB 11.7.24
uddhanti exactsSB 2.7.22
udgrathayanti root outSB 4.22.39
udvahanti they carrySB 5.17.3
udvahanti carrySB 10.87.28
udvejayanti cause unnecessary painSB 5.26.33
unmajjanti they rise to the surfaceSB 10.63.40
unnahyanti bind upSB 12.11.47-48
upadekṣyanti they will initiateBG 4.34
na upadhakṣyanti cannot burnSB 12.5.10
upadhāvanti they worshipSB 5.18.1
upadiśanti saintly persons indicateSB 5.14.38
upadiśanti learned scholars describeSB 5.19.29-30
upadiśanti instructSB 5.21.2
upadiśanti they (learned scholars) teachSB 5.21.7
upadiśanti they instructSB 5.22.5
upadiśanti they callSB 5.26.9
upadiśanti were proposingSB 10.57.31
upadiśanti teachSB 10.87.25
upagāyanti they singSB 5.14.42
upagāyanti singSB 5.15.8
upajīvanti execute livelihoodSB 4.21.10
upajīvanti they sustain their livesSB 10.24.10
upakalpayanti are situatedSB 5.23.5
upākrāmanti are approachingSB 3.20.26
uparandhayanti cookSB 5.26.13
upaspṛśanti touchSB 5.19.17-18
upaspṛśanti they approach to associate withSB 11.6.19
upatiṣṭhanti appearSB 11.15.1
upatiṣṭhanti they arriveSB 11.15.25
upatiṣṭhanti approachSB 11.15.31
upayanti are able to expressSB 11.29.6
upayanti are able to expressCC Adi 1.48
upayanti are able to expressCC Madhya 22.48
upayojayanti give happinessSB 5.16.24
anti thinkSB 1.5.10
anti na do not get out ofSB 1.5.40
anti attractsSB 10.8.12
anti considerSB 12.8.46
utkṣipanti forcibly throwSB 3.5.39
utpatanti can flySB 5.24.6
utpāṭayanti pluck outSB 5.26.35
karmāṇi utsīdanti fruitive activities disappearSB 5.14.4
utsisṛpsanti or want to be liberated by such false attemptsSB 8.11.5
utsṛjanti they throw awaySB 11.4.11
vācayanti they try to make speakSB 11.23.36
vadanti sayBG 8.11
vadanti they saySB 1.2.11
vadanti they saySB 2.4.21
vadanti they saySB 2.5.12
vadanti do they saySB 3.1.10
vadanti do saySB 3.4.13
vadanti do saySB 3.8.15
vadanti they speakSB 3.25.35
vadanti they saySB 3.31.39
vadanti explainSB 4.11.22
vadanti they saySB 4.25.40
vadanti they saySB 5.11.7
vadanti they saySB 5.11.9
vadanti saySB 5.12.11
vadanti the great learned sages saySB 5.16.28
vadanti they say authoritativelySB 5.18.4
vadanti they saySB 5.24.3
vadanti they suggest (in regard to one's means of livelihood)SB 7.14.6
vadanti all learned men saySB 8.5.43
vadanti saySB 8.6.12
vadanti they callSB 9.24.27
vadanti the learned Vedic scholars concludeSB 10.3.19
vadanti are lodging this complaintSB 10.8.34
vadanti they saySB 10.43.29
vadanti people callSB 10.51.39-40
vadanti sma they spokeSB 10.53.39
vadanti they saySB 10.68.45
vadanti saySB 10.77.30
vadanti (the Vedas) saySB 10.87.20
vadanti speakSB 11.3.32
vadanti they speakSB 11.5.6
vadanti speakSB 11.5.8
vadanti they speakSB 11.14.1
vadanti they speakSB 11.14.9
vadanti propoundSB 11.14.10
vadanti they saySB 11.15.33
vadanti speakSB 11.21.26
vadanti (expert astrologers) saySB 11.23.53
vadanti they saySB 11.27.2
vadanti they saySB 11.30.36
vadanti they sayCC Adi 2.11
vadanti they sayCC Adi 2.63
vadanti they sayCC Madhya 20.158
vadanti they sayCC Madhya 24.74
vadanti they sayCC Madhya 24.81
vadanti they sayCC Madhya 25.132
vadanti they speakNBS 83
vadiṣyanti will sayBG 2.36
vadiṣyanti will they saySB 11.1.18
vahanti do bearSB 1.13.41
vahanti carry onSB 1.13.42
vahanti observeSB 3.16.7
vahanti carrySB 5.21.15
vahanti carrySB 6.3.13
vahanti carrySB 10.18.21
vahanti they carrySB 10.74.2
vakṣyanti will speak aboutSB 12.3.38
vāñchanti desireSB 4.9.36
vāñchanti desireSB 8.3.20-21
vāñchanti jñānīs desireSB 9.13.9
vāñchanti desireSB 10.16.37
vāñchanti desireSB 10.39.2
vāñchanti they desireSB 10.47.58
vāñchanti hanker afterSB 10.52.43
vāñchanti they desireSB 10.60.53
vāñchanti they desireSB 10.83.43
vāñchanti desireSB 11.20.34
vāñchanti desireCC Adi 4.163
vāñchanti desireCC Madhya 8.216
vāñchanti desireCC Antya 4.63
vandanti offer prayersSB 9.18.5
vandanti glorifySB 12.10.20-21
vārayanti keep offSB 10.22.31-32
varjayanti do not enterSB 9.1.33
varṇayanti describeSB 1.3.35
varṇayanti they describeSB 2.10.2
varṇayanti the learned scholars describeSB 5.22.10
varṇayanti describeCC Adi 2.91-92
varṣanti are rainingSB 1.14.16
varṣanti pour downSB 10.24.23
varṣanti they pour down rainSB 12.4.12
kṛta-anta-antika-varti always given the facility for deathSB 8.22.11
varuṇa-antikam to the place of VaruṇaSB 9.15.7
vasanti they liveSB 3.15.14
vasanti sma livedSB 4.18.32
vasanti they liveSB 5.24.30
vasanti are livingSB 10.2.7
vasanti resideSB 10.52.34
vasanti resideCC Adi 5.39
vasanti resideCC Antya 10.21
graiṣma-vāsantikān for four months, beginning with Caitra, on the fifteenth of MaySB 5.9.5
vibhavanti they existBs 5.51
vibhāvayanti they specifically think ofSB 3.9.11
vibhāvayanti contemplate uponCC Adi 3.111
vicaranti they moveSB 10.2.33
vicaranti are travelingSB 12.2.31
vidanti knowSB 2.6.38
vidanti they can only understandSB 2.6.40-41
vidanti do knowSB 2.7.46
vidanti understandSB 4.7.30
vidanti they enjoy, they knowSB 4.16.25
vidanti perceiveSB 7.1.9
vidanti understandSB 7.9.49
na vidanti could not understandSB 7.13.14
vidanti knowSB 10.60.37
vidanti knowSB 10.84.23
na vidanti they do not knowSB 10.85.44
vidanti they knowSB 11.13.8
na vidanti do not recognizeSB 11.21.27
vidanti understandCC Madhya 24.190
vidhamanti disperseSB 5.24.31
vidhamiṣyanti will eradicateSB 12.3.16
vidhyanti pierceSB 5.26.24
vigaṇayanti care forSB 3.15.48
vigarhayanti disapprovingSB 1.7.13-14
vihanti give upSB 10.2.21
viharanti they enjoy sportsSB 5.16.15
viharanti engage in sportive enjoymentSB 5.17.13
viharanti they sportSB 5.24.29
vihasanti they make funSB 11.5.7
vihasanti ridiculeSB 11.23.38-39
vihiṃsanti they hurtSB 5.26.11
vijigīṣanti they are desiring to conquerSB 12.3.1
vilokayanti they seeSB 5.25.4
vilokayanti they seeSB 5.25.5
vilokayanti seeBs 5.38
vilumpanti they plunderedSB 4.27.14
vilumpanti plunder, regularly taking away all the possessionsSB 5.13.2
vilumpanti kidnappedSB 5.13.10
vilumpanti they plunderSB 5.14.2
vilumpanti plunderSB 5.26.27
vimuhyanti become stunnedSB 10.46.5
vinańkṣyanti they will become ruinedSB 12.2.9
vinaśyanti will be vanquishedSB 6.16.38
vincinvanti are searchingSB 10.29.20
vindanti enjoysSB 1.18.42
vindanti moves progressivelySB 2.4.16
vindanti attainSB 2.4.17
vindanti sufferSB 4.13.43
vindanti obtainSB 5.18.22
vindanti undergoSB 6.2.29
vindanti knowSB 9.9.46
vindanti acquireSB 10.43.33
vindanti obtainSB 10.72.4
vindanti they achieveSB 11.20.37
vindanti achieveSB 11.26.29
vindanti obtainCC Madhya 22.20
vinipatanti fall downSB 5.18.15
vipaśyanti can see onlySB 9.8.22
viramanti ceaseSB 7.9.49
viśanti enterBG 8.11
viśanti fall downBG 9.21
viśanti are enteringBG 11.21
viśanti are enteringBG 11.26-27
viśanti are enteringBG 11.28
viśanti enterBG 11.29
viśanti are enteringBG 11.29
viśanti enters intoSB 3.5.47
viśanti they enterSB 5.26.37
viśanti enterSB 10.40.10
viśanti they enterSB 11.5.18
viśanti they enterSB 12.3.5
viśanti they enterBs 5.51
viśasanti killSB 5.26.25
viśasanti killSB 5.26.25
viṣīdanti become frustratedSB 11.29.2
na vismaranti persons do not forgetSB 10.14.44
vismayanti becoming too boldSB 10.88.11
visrapsyanti will spreadSB 4.1.31
visṛjanti can give upSB 6.9.39
visṛjanti discardSB 10.60.38
visṛjanti give upSB 11.22.35-36
vitaranti performSB 3.15.24
vitaranti distributingSB 4.21.36
vitṛpyanti satisfiedSB 1.11.25
vitudanti gives painSB 4.6.47
viyanti deterioratesSB 1.16.26-30
viyanti they are separatedSB 11.17.53
viyanti they disappearSB 11.29.15
vrajanti go awaySB 1.18.22
vrajanti do go backSB 2.2.37
vrajanti approachSB 3.15.23
vrajanti goSB 3.15.25
vrajanti goSB 3.32.20
vrajanti are goingSB 4.3.8
vrajanti goSB 4.11.5
vrajanti reachSB 4.12.36
vrajanti approachSB 5.13.15
vrajanti passSB 8.15.22
vrajanti walkSB 8.15.22
vrajanti goCC Madhya 24.88
vṛkṣāḥ phalanti different varieties of trees bear fruitCC Madhya 24.300
vṛtti-manti possessing the functionsBs 5.32
vyabhicaranti do not become successfulSB 4.18.5
vyapadiśanti people callSB 5.4.9
vyapadiśanti they celebrateSB 5.7.3
vyapadiśanti they designateSB 5.17.11
vyathanti are disturbedBG 14.2
vyathanti distressedSB 1.18.50
vyathayanti are distressingBG 2.15
vyuttiṣṭhanti are rising upSB 11.6.34
yacchanti offerSB 6.14.20
yacchanti they giveSB 11.28.5
yacchanti bestowSB 12.12.62
yajanti they worshipBG 9.23
yajanti duly performSB 1.17.33
yajanti worshipSB 3.6.34
yajanti they worshipSB 3.32.17
yajanti worshipSB 4.21.36
yajanti worshipSB 4.24.62
yajanti worshipSB 8.20.11
yajanti perform sacrificeSB 10.40.4
yajanti they worshipSB 10.40.6
yajanti worshipSB 10.40.7
yajanti worshipSB 10.40.9
yajanti they worshipSB 11.5.8
yajanti they worshipSB 11.5.22
yajanti they worshipSB 11.5.25
yajanti they worshipSB 11.5.28
yajanti they worshipSB 11.5.32
yajanti worshipSB 12.8.42
yajanti they worshipCC Adi 3.52
yajanti worshipCC Madhya 6.103
yajanti they worshipCC Madhya 11.100
yajanti worshipCC Madhya 20.173
yajanti they worshipCC Madhya 20.342
yajanti they worshipCC Antya 20.10
yakṣyanti they will offer sacrificeSB 12.3.43
yakṣyanti na they do not worshipSB 12.3.44
yama-antikam to the abode of Lord YamarājaSB 6.2.21
yanti appreciateSB 10.14.28
yāsyanti would attainSB 2.7.34-35
yāsyanti could understand or achieveSB 9.23.25
yāsyanti they will goSB 10.85.50
yāsyanti will goSB 10.85.51
kṣayam yāsyanti they will become ruinedSB 12.1.41
yāsyanti they will goSB 12.2.8
yāsyanti they will goSB 12.2.32
yāsyanti they goSB 12.4.7
yatanti endeavorBG 7.29
yatanti endeavorSB 10.87.33
yātayanti cause painSB 5.26.32
yāvanti as manySB 5.26.14
yāvanti whateverSB 10.41.4
yāvanti for as manySB 10.47.55
pari ye caranti who worshipSB 10.87.27
yojayanti joinCC Antya 1.186
yuñjanti they utilizeSB 11.5.12
yuñjanti engageSB 11.28.29
yuñjanti they engageSB 11.28.41
     DCS with thanks   
Results for anti72 results
     
antideva noun (masculine) name of an ancient sage
Frequency rank 26401/72933
antika adjective lasting till (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reaching to (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
reaching to the end of (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
until (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 8921/72933
antika adjective near (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26400/72933
antika noun (neuter) proximity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vicinity (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 1751/72933
antima adjective final (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
last (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
ultimate (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11898/72933
antināra noun (masculine) name of a son of Auceyu
Frequency rank 26402/72933
antisūtra noun (neuter)
Frequency rank 43472/72933
atyantika adjective too close (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 42315/72933
adantika adjective without teeth
Frequency rank 31631/72933
anantika adjective
Frequency rank 31732/72933
anātyantika adjective intermittent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not final (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
not perpetual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
recurrent (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 31801/72933
anicchantika adjective
Frequency rank 42943/72933
anicchantikatā noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 42944/72933
avanti noun (masculine) name of a country and its in habitants (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kārtavīrya Arjuna
Frequency rank 9770/72933
avanti noun (feminine) the language of the Avantis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the modern Oujein (one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindūs to die at which secures eternal happiness) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 32639/72933
avantinagarī noun (feminine) Oujein (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
the city of the Avantis (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26699/72933
avantipa noun (masculine) a king
Frequency rank 45160/72933
avantipurī noun (feminine) Oujein (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 45161/72933
avantivardhana noun (masculine) name of a son of Pālaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 14698/72933
avantisundarī noun (feminine) name of a woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 13996/72933
avantisundarīpariṇaya noun (masculine) name of Daśakumāracarita 1.5
Frequency rank 45162/72933
avantisoma noun (masculine) sour gruel (prepared from the fermentation of rice-water) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 23218/72933
ātyantika adjective continual (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
endless (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
entire (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
infinite (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
uninterrupted (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
universal (as the world's destruction etc.) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 6661/72933
ānantika adjective
Frequency rank 46408/72933
āvantika adjective belonging to or coming from Avanti (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 46694/72933
icchantika adjective one who is destitute of Buddha nature
Frequency rank 15536/72933
kākaṇanti noun (feminine) Abrus precatorius Linn. (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19137/72933
kākadanti noun (feminine) Name einer Pflanze
Frequency rank 48964/72933
gajadanti noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 50953/72933
gāyanti noun (feminine) name of a cave in the Himālaya (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51272/72933
gucchadanti noun (feminine) Musa sapientum (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 51343/72933
jayanti noun (feminine) turmeric
Frequency rank 19327/72933
jīvantika noun (masculine neuter) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 35198/72933
jīvanti noun (feminine) jīvapriyā (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of pot-herb (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a parasitical plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Cocculus cordifolius (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Leptadenia reticulata Wight et Arn. (Surapāla (1988), 361)
Frequency rank 19349/72933
tanti noun (masculine) a weaver (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Nandana
Frequency rank 53272/72933
tanti noun (feminine) a cord (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
line (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
string (esp. a long line to which a series of calves are fastened by smaller cords) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28156/72933
tantipāla noun (masculine) a name assumed by Sahadeva at Virāṭa's court (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a son of Kanavaka (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 28157/72933
trāyanti noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 35498/72933
dantin adjective tusked (Gaṇeśa) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54198/72933
dantin noun (masculine) a mountain (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
an elephant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 4467/72933
danti noun (feminine) Croton polyandrum (yielding a pungent oil) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19418/72933
danti noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 35587/72933
dantinībīja noun (neuter) Croton Jamalgota
Frequency rank 54227/72933
dantimada noun (masculine) the juice flowing from a rutting elephant's temples (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 54228/72933
digdantin noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 35648/72933
dauḥṣanti noun (masculine) patr. from Duh-shanta (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12997/72933
dravanti noun (feminine) a kind of plant
Frequency rank 35894/72933
naḍanti noun (feminine) name of a river (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 55631/72933
pratidantin noun (masculine)
Frequency rank 58772/72933
pūruṣadanti noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 59729/72933
bāhudantin noun (masculine) name of Indra (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60214/72933
bhadradanti noun (feminine) a species of Croton (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 60536/72933
bhramanti noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 61020/72933
madayanti noun (feminine) Arabian jasmine (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Jasminum sambac Ait. name of a woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 15982/72933
mahāpuruṣadanti noun (feminine) name of a plant
Frequency rank 29606/72933
rantideva noun (masculine) a dog (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a king of the lunar race (son of Saṃkṛti) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a lexicographer (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a teacher of Yoga (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of Viṣṇu (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 11763/72933
ramayanti noun (feminine) name of a dancing girl (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 63397/72933
rudanti noun (feminine) name of a species of small succulent plant (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 19948/72933
vanti noun (feminine)
Frequency rank 64613/72933
vājidanti noun (feminine) vāsā Gendarussa Vulgaris
Frequency rank 65048/72933
vāsantika adjective relating to spring (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
vernal (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 25352/72933
vaijayanti noun (feminine) a flag (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
a kind of pearl necklace (in Prākṛt) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
banner (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Premna Spinosa (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
Sesbania Aegyptiaca (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 18490/72933
śītadanti noun (feminine) Tiaridium Indicum
Frequency rank 67754/72933
sīmantin adjective parted (as hair) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
wearing the hair parted (as a pregnant woman) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 70666/72933
sīmanti noun (feminine) a woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
name of a woman (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 12284/72933
sumanti noun (masculine) name of a son of Janamejaya
Frequency rank 71041/72933
saimantika noun (neuter) red lead (so called because used to make a mark along hair-parting) (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
sindūra
Frequency rank 71455/72933
sthūladanti noun (feminine) a kind of animal
Frequency rank 71811/72933
svarṇajīvanti noun (feminine) Hoya Viridiflora (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 41314/72933
hanti noun (feminine) the root or verb han (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26011/72933
hasanti noun (feminine) a portable fire-vessel (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))
small fireplace (Monier-Williams, Sir M. (1988))

Frequency rank 26020/72933
haimantika adjective
Frequency rank 16333/72933
Ayurvedic Medical
Dictionary
     Dr. Potturu with thanks
     
     Purchase Kindle edition

agada

free drom disease; antidote; agadatantra toxicology

aindri

Plant bitter melon, Memordica charantia.

ajagallika

1. goat’s cheek; 2. seborrhic eruptions over skin; an infantile disease.

ajalambana

antimony; a chemical element with symmetalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite.bol Sb (Latin: stibium). A lustrous gray

ajeyaghrita

invincible ghee, used as antidote in several poisons conditions.

anāgatāvekṣaṅa

one of tantrayukti; anticipation, prospective reference.

añjana

eye salves, galena; 1. the act of applying an ointment or pigment; embellishing; black pigment or collyrium applied to the eyelashes or the rim of the eyelid; 2. stibnite (black antimony); 3. fine semisolids of drugs to be applied with an instrument (netra śalāka)

atideśa

one of tantrayuktis, extended application; substitution; substantiating by future event

atidīrgha

gigantism; excess growth.

avanti

a geographical region of ancient India corresponding to Malwa region of north India.

āvāpa

1. addition of herbs to smelted metals; 2. ingredients which are added latter to the recipe in small quantities.

āyurvedasamgraha

a text on human medicine written by Siddhanti Subrahmanyasastry in the 19th Century

bālātisāra

infantile diarrhoea.

brahmdanti

Go to svarṇakṣīri

bṛhatdanti

Go to dravanti

cyavanaprāśa

rejuvenating and anti-aeging preparation with the main ingredient of myrobalan, invented by sage Cyavana. It contains 48 ingredients and indicated in debility, gout, respir diseases, loss of appetite et Century

danti

1. Plant wild croton, Baliospermum montanum, syn. Croton polyandrus.

dravanti

Plant purging nut, dried seeds of Jatropha glandulifera.

godanti

selanite, gypsum; godantibhasma ash of gypsum.

jātakarma

a Hindu ceremony to welcome the newborn into the world, by stimulating senses by ghee, honey et Century and chanting oracles.

jayanti

Plant common sesban, Egyptian rattle pod; leaves of Sesbania sesban.

jīvanīya

vivifying; herbs that help survive; jīvanīyapañcamūla śatāvari, jīvanti, jīvaka, ṛṣabhaka, vīra.

jīvanti

Plant jeevanti, Leptadenia reticulata.

kanḍūghna

anti-pruriti Century

kāravelli,kāravellika

Plant bitter gourd, Momordica charantia, Cyclopteris floribunda.

kāsaghna

anti-cough, anti-tussive.

keśaranjanā

Go to bhṛngarāja, madayanti.

kṛtamāla

1. spotted antilope; 2. Plant golden shower tree or Indian laburnum tree, Cassia fistula.

kuṭaja

1. born in pitcher; 2. Plant coral swirl, Wrighte antidysenterica; Holorrhena antidysentirecia.

madayanti

Plant henna, dried leaves of Lawsonia inermis.

malla

black antimony or stibnite.

mukūlaka

Go to danti, lākṣāvkṣa

nāgadanti

Plant Indian heliotrope, scorpion weed, Indian turnsole, Heliotropium indicum.

nāraṅga

Plant Citrus aurantium, C. reticulate; orange.

navaratna

nine precious stones, diamond or adamantine (vajra), pearl (mauktika), ruby (māṇikya), sapphire (nilam), emerald (marakatam), garnet (gomedikam), ruby (padmarāgam), cat’s eye, beryl (vaiḍhūrya), coral (pravāla).

nepāla

Go to danti

pañcāmṛta

equal quantities of (cow’s) milk, curd, ghee & honey, sugar.

pāranti

Plant jungle-flame ixora, Ixora coccinea.

parimāṇa

amount, quantity, magnitude, measurement in weight or volume.

poṭagala

Plant elephant grass, Typha elephantina.

pradeśa

1. region, country, 2. one of tantrayuktis, determination of a statement to be made; substantiating by similar past event.

prativiṣa

antidote.

rāśi

volume, quantity, collection, mass rāśipuruṣa aggregation of ingredients making the human body.

romāntika

measles or rubeola (not to be confused with rubella).

rudanti,rudantika

Go to sañjīvani

sauvīra

1. antimony; 2. rice gruel; 3. bigger variety of jujube fruit.

sauvīrāṇjana

a collyrium, kind of antimony or lotion or wash for eyes.

slīpada

elephantiasis or lymphatic filariasis.

ṣotha

inflammation, edema ṣothahara anti-inflammatory.

śrotonjana

antimony sulphide, ingredient of collyrium.

śukla

1. white of the eye, sclera and conjunctiva; 2. light, pure; 3. Plant common spurge, Euphorbia antiquorum.

śukrala

prurient or lascivious; food or medicine that increases the quantity and quality of semen.

sumaśana

eating in right quantity at right time.

takra

buttermilk, liquid obtained by adding equal quantity of water to curd and decanting by churning; takrakūrcika inspissated buttermilk.

tarkāri

Plant agnimantha , Premna spinosa, jayanti, Sesbania aegiptiaca; Clerodendron phlomidis.

tuṣāmbu

sour rice or barley gruel, decanted liquid obtained from a mixture of equal quantity of crushed barley and warm water kept overnight.

upacitrā

Go to danti.

vaidyacintāmaṇi

a compendium of ayurveda written by Indrakanti Vallabhacarya of 17th Century in Āndhradeśa.

vajradanti

Plant porcupine flower, Barleria prionitis.

vajrakaṇṭaka

Plant triangular spurge, Euphorbia antiquorum.

vanajayanti

Go to utkaṭa

viṣaghna

anti-poison, anti-dote to poison.

     Wordnet Search "anti" has 221 results.
     

anti

upasthita, vidyamāna, vartamāna, abhīmukha, pratyakṣa, pārimukhika, upasthāyin, sannihita, aparokṣa, sammukha, sammukhin, sannidhistha, abhimukhastha, antika   

yaḥ samīpe tiṣṭhati vā sākṣāt vartamānaḥ।

adya kakṣāyāṃ daśachātrāḥ upasthitāḥ santi।

anti

kaṇaḥ, binduḥ, kṣodaḥ, vipluṭ, vipruṭ, pṛṣat, pṛṣataḥ, pṛṣanti, lavaḥ, leśaḥ, stokaḥ, gaḍaḥ, kaṇikā, śīkaraḥ, sphāṭakaḥ, puṣvā   

niṣyandamāna-jalādi-dravapadārthānāṃ golikāsamaḥ laghuḥ aṃśaḥ।

jalasya kaṇaiḥ ghaṭaḥ pūritaḥ।

anti

samīpam, samīpataḥ, sannidhau, nikaṭe, antikam, upānte, abhitaḥ, ārāt, āsanne, sannikṛṣṭam, nikaṣā, adūre, dūrāt, adūrataḥ   

svalpe antare।

śyāmasya gṛhasya samīpam eva ekaḥ vidyālayaḥ asti।

anti

ambukaṇaḥ, udabinduḥ, udastokaḥ, udakabinduḥ, jalabinduḥ, pṛṣantiḥ, pṛṣataḥ, vāribinduḥ, vārileśaḥ, śīkarakaṇaḥ, śīkaraḥ, abbinduḥ   

jalasya binduḥ।

padmapatrasthaḥ ambukaṇaḥ sūryaprakāśe mauktikasadṛśaḥ dṛśyate।

anti

dhvajaḥ, patākā, dhvajapaṭaḥ, dhvajāṃśukaḥ, ketanam, ketuḥ, ketuvasanaḥ, vaijayantikā, vaijayantī, jayantaḥ, kadalī, kadalikā, ucchalaḥ   

daṇḍasya ādhāreṇa samutthitā nānāvarṇīyā viśiṣṭavarṇīyā vā paṭṭikā yayā kasyāpi sattā ko'pi utsavaḥ saṅketaḥ vā sūcyate।

bhāratadeśasya dhvajaḥ cakrāṅkitaḥ asti।

anti

culliḥ, aśmantam, uddhanam, adhiśrayaṇī, antikā, asamantam, uṣmānam, uddhāram, āndikā, uddhāni, aṅgāriṇī, aṅgāraguptiḥ, agnikuṇḍam   

mṛd-loha-iṣṭikādibhiḥ nirmitaṃ pākārtham agnipātram।

bhojanottapanārthaṃ mātā culliṃ prajvālayati।

anti

antarpradeśīya, antarprāntīya, antarpradeśastarīya, antarrājyīya, antarrājyika   

kasyacana rājyasya pradeśasya vā antaḥ jāyamānam athavā tat sambandhi।

yathāsamayaṃ rājyeṣu antarpradeśīyānāṃ spardhānām āyojanam āvaśyakam।

anti

praśāmaka, śāntikara, śāmaka, śamaka   

yaḥ śāmayati।

eṣaḥ praśāmakaḥ agniḥ।

anti

śāntiḥ, viśrāmaḥ, nivṛttiḥ, viśrāntiḥ, śamaḥ, upaśamaḥ, praśāntiḥ, nirvṛttiḥ, sukhaḥ, saukhyam, svasthatā, svāsthyam, samādhānam, nirudvegaḥ   

krodhaduḥkhādīnāṃ cittavṛttīnāṃ nirodhena manasaḥ śamanam।

śāntena manasā yogaḥ kartavyaḥ।

anti

mālā, mālikā, hāraḥ, kaṇṭhamālā, sūtram, uraḥsūtram, uraḥsūtrikā, graivam, graiveyam, graiyakam, kaṇṭhabhūṣā, kaṇṭhalatā, lambanam, pralambikā, pralambaḥ, taralaḥ, lalanti   

alaṅkāraviśeṣaḥ galadeśadhāraṇārthaṃ puṣpādibhiḥ śobhitaṃ vartulākāram ābhūṣaṇam।

tasyāḥ kaṇṭhe mālā śobhate।

anti

vaijayantīmālā   

mālāprakāraḥ yasyāṃ pañca varṇīyāni puṣpāṇi santi।

śyāmena priyatamāyāḥ rādhāyāḥ kaṇṭhe vaijayantīmālā sthāpitā।

anti

nistejas, mandaprabha, hatatejas, mandacchāya, hatakānti, nyūnakānti, nyūnaprabha, malinaprabha, mlānatejas, mlānakānti   

yasmād tejāḥ nirgatam।

cintāyāḥ tasya mukhaṃ nistejaḥ abhavat।

anti

tejomaṇḍita, tejapūrṇa, kāntimāna, jājvalyamāna, dedīpyamāna, prakāśamāna, divya   

tejasā maṇḍitam।

sādhūnāṃ lalāṭaḥ tejomaṇḍitaḥ asti।

anti

nityatā, avirāma, aviratiḥ, sthāyitva, dhrauvyam, aviśrāntiḥ   

gatiśīlasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

nityatā jīvanasya mūlamantram asti।

anti

prāṇāntaka, prāṇaghātaka, mārātmaka, vyāpādaka, ātyayika, prāṇāntika, jīvāntaka, prāṇahārin, prāṇāpahārin, mṛtyujanaka, nidhanakārin, viṣatulya, saviṣa, kālakalpa, prāṇanāśaka, marmāntika, prāṇahāraka   

yaḥ prāṇān harati antaṃ karoti vā।

tena prāṇāntakaṃ viṣaṃ pītvā svajīvanasya antaṃ kṛtam।

anti

kāmadevaḥ, kāmaḥ, madanaḥ, manmathaḥ, māraḥ, pradyumnaḥ, mīnaketanaḥ, kandarpaḥ, darpakaḥ, anaṅgaḥ, pañcaśaraḥ, smaraḥ, śambarāriḥ, manasijaḥ, kusumeṣuḥ, ananyajaḥ, ratināthaḥ, puṣpadhanvā, ratipatiḥ, makaradhvajaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, brahmasūḥ, viśvaketuḥ, kāmadaḥ, kāntaḥ, kāntimān, kāmagaḥ, kāmācāraḥ, kāmī, kāmukaḥ, kāmavarjanaḥ, rāmaḥ, ramaḥ, ramaṇaḥ, ratināthaḥ, ratipriyaḥ, rātrināthaḥ, ramākāntaḥ, ramamāṇaḥ, niśācaraḥ, nandakaḥ, nandanaḥ, nandī, nandayitā, ratisakhaḥ, mahādhanuḥ, bhrāmaṇaḥ, bhramaṇaḥ, bhramamāṇaḥ, bhrāntaḥ, bhrāmakaḥ, bhṛṅgaḥ, bhrāntacāraḥ, bhramāvahaḥ, mohanaḥ, mohakaḥ, mohaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ, bhṛṅganāyakaḥ, gāyanaḥ, gītijaḥ, nartakaḥ, khelakaḥ, unmattonmattakaḥ, vilāsaḥ, lobhavardhanaḥ, sundaraḥ, vilāsakodaṇḍaḥ   

kāmasya devatā।

kāmadevena śivasya krodhāgniḥ dṛṣṭaḥ।

anti

prakāśaḥ, dyutiḥ, dīptiḥ, tejaḥ, pradīpaḥ, jyotiḥ, jyotiḥ, prabhā, ābhā, chaviḥ, ālokaḥ, ruciḥ, ruc, kāntiḥ, chaṭā, nibhā, bhā, bhāḥ, chāyā, tviṣā, tviṣ, śociḥ, śobhā, varcaḥ, mahaḥ, dyotaḥ, dūśānam, marīciḥ, jhallikā   

sā śaktiḥ tattvaṃ vā yayā anyāni vastūni dṛggocarāṇi bhavanti।

sūryasya āgamanena diśaḥ prakāśeṇa kāsyanti।

anti

antima, carama, antya   

ante bhavaḥ।

grāmasya antimāyāṃ sīmāyāṃ mandiraṃ asti।

anti

viṣṇuḥ, nārāyaṇaḥ, kṛṣṇaḥ, vaikuṇṭhaḥ, viṣṭaraśravāḥ, dāmodaraḥ, hṛṣīkeśaḥ, keśavaḥ, mādhavaḥ, svabhūḥ, daityāriḥ, puṇḍarīkākṣaḥ, govindaḥ, garuḍadhvajaḥ, pītāmbaraḥ, acyutaḥ, śārṅgī, viṣvaksenaḥ, janārdanaḥ, upendraḥ, indrāvarajaḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ, caturbhujaḥ, padmanābhaḥ, madhuripuḥ, vāsudevaḥ, trivikramaḥ, daivakīnandanaḥ, śauriḥ, śrīpatiḥ, puruṣottamaḥ, vanamālī, balidhvaṃsī, kaṃsārātiḥ, adhokṣajaḥ, viśvambharaḥ, kaiṭabhajit, vidhuḥ, śrīvatsalāñachanaḥ, purāṇapuruṣaḥ, vṛṣṇiḥ, śatadhāmā, gadāgrajaḥ, ekaśṛṅgaḥ, jagannāthaḥ, viśvarūpaḥ, sanātanaḥ, mukundaḥ, rāhubhedī, vāmanaḥ, śivakīrtanaḥ, śrīnivāsaḥ, ajaḥ, vāsuḥ, śrīhariḥ, kaṃsāriḥ, nṛhariḥ, vibhuḥ, madhujit, madhusūdanaḥ, kāntaḥ, puruṣaḥ, śrīgarbhaḥ, śrīkaraḥ, śrīmān, śrīdharaḥ, śrīniketanaḥ, śrīkāntaḥ, śrīśaḥ, prabhuḥ, jagadīśaḥ, gadādharaḥ, ajitaḥ, jitāmitraḥ, ṛtadhāmā, śaśabinduḥ, punarvasuḥ, ādidevaḥ, śrīvarāhaḥ, sahasravadanaḥ, tripāt, ūrdhvadevaḥ, gṛdhnuḥ, hariḥ, yādavaḥ, cāṇūrasūdanaḥ, sadāyogī, dhruvaḥ, hemaśaṅkhaḥ, śatāvarttī, kālanemiripuḥ, somasindhuḥ, viriñciḥ, dharaṇīdharaḥ, bahumūrddhā, vardhamānaḥ, śatānandaḥ, vṛṣāntakaḥ, rantidevaḥ, vṛṣākapiḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, dāśārhaḥ, abdhiśayanaḥ, indrānujaḥ, jalaśayaḥ, yajñapuruṣaḥ, tārkṣadhvajaḥ, ṣaḍbinduḥ, padmeśaḥ, mārjaḥ, jinaḥ, kumodakaḥ, jahnuḥ, vasuḥ, śatāvartaḥ, muñjakeśī, babhruḥ, vedhāḥ, prasniśṛṅgaḥ, ātmabhūḥ, suvarṇabinduḥ, śrīvatsaḥ, gadābhṛt, śārṅgabhṛt, cakrabhṛt, śrīvatsabhṛt, śaṅkhabhṛt, jalaśāyī, muramardanaḥ, lakṣmīpatiḥ, murāriḥ, amṛtaḥ, ariṣṭanemaḥ, kapiḥ, keśaḥ, jagadīśaḥ, janārdanaḥ, jinaḥ, jiṣṇuḥ, vikramaḥ, śarvaḥ   

devatāviśeṣaḥ hindudharmānusāraṃ jagataḥ pālanakartā।

ekādaśastathā tvaṣṭā dvādaśo viṣṇurucyate jaghanyajastu sarveṣāmādityānāṃ guṇādhikaḥ।

anti

matsaraḥ, mātsaryam, matsaratā, īrṣyā, asūyā, spardhā, sāpatnyam, sāpatnabhāvaḥ, dṛṣṭivakratā, akṣāntiḥ   

parotkarṣāsahiṣṇutā।

mama utkarṣaṃ dṛṣṭvā tasya manasi matsaro jātaḥ।

anti

tejomayaḥ, tejomayī, tejomayam, suprabhaḥ, suprabhā, suprabham, tejiṣṭhaḥ, tejiṣṭham, tejiṣṭhā, tejīyān, tejīyasī, tejīyaḥ, atitaijasaḥ, atitaijasī, atitaijasam, atiśobhanaḥ, atiśobhānā, atiśobhanam, atidīptimān, atidīptimat, atidīptimatī, atikāntimān, atitejasvī, atitejasvinī, atikāntimatī, atikāntamat, atiprabhāvān, mahātejāḥ, mahātejaḥ, mahāprabhaḥ, mahāprabhā, mahāprabham, ujjvalaḥ, ujjvalā, ujjvalam, śobhamānaḥ, śobhamānam, śobhamānā, śubhraḥ, śubhrā, śubhram, bhāsvān, bhāsantaḥ, bhāsantā, bhāsantam, bhāsantaḥ, bhānumān, bhāsuraḥ, bhāsurā, bhāsuram   

ābhāyuktaḥ।

tasya kumārasya tejomayaṃ mukhaṃ dṛṣṭvā saḥ uccakulajātaḥ iti vicārya ācāryaḥ taṃ śiṣyatvena svīkṛtavān।

anti

parvataḥ, mahīdhraḥ, śikharī, kṣmābhṛt, abāryaḥ, dharaḥ, adriḥ, gotraḥ, giriḥ, grāvā, acalaḥ, śailaḥ, śiloccayaḥ, sthāvaraḥ, sānumān, pṛthuśekharaḥ, dharaṇīkīlakaḥ, kuṭṭāraḥ, jīmūtaḥdhātubhṛt, bhūdharaḥ, sthiraḥ, kulīraḥ, kaṭakī, śṛṅgī, nirjharī, agaḥ, nagaḥ, dantī, dharaṇīdhraḥ, bhūbhṛt, kṣitibhṛt, avanīdharaḥ, kudharaḥ, dharādharaḥ, prasthavān, vṛkṣavān   

bhūmeḥ atyunnatabhāgaḥ ।

kṛṣṇā himālayanāmnaḥ parvatasya śikhare gatā ।

anti

tejasvin, ojasvin, kāntimat   

yasmin tejaḥ asti।

mahātmanā kathitaṃ yad tava putraḥ tejasvī bhavati।

anti

praśānta, śānta, sthiracitta, sthira, upaśānta, dhīraśānta, sūrata, viprasanna, śāntimat   

yasya citta sthiram asti।

praśāntaḥ vyaktiḥ vipattibhyaḥ na bibheti।

anti

kṣamā, kṣāntiḥ, titikṣā   

saḥ cittavṛttiviśeṣaḥ yaḥ anyaiḥ janaiḥ dattāṃ pīḍāṃ sahate tathā ca tāṃ pratihartuṃ na icchati daṇḍayituṃ vā।

vīrāṇām ābhūṣaṇaṃ kṣamā।

anti

kiṃvadantī   

prāmāṇyena vinā jane prasṛtā mithyā vārtā।

kiṃvadanteḥ prāmāṇyaṃ parīkṣaṇīyam।

anti

strī, nārī, narī, mānuṣī, manuṣī, mānavī, lalanā, lalitā, ramaṇī, rāmā, vanitā, priyā, mahilā, yoṣā, yoṣitā, yoṣit, yoṣīt, vadhūḥ, bharaṇyā, mahelā, mahelikā, māninī, vāmā, aṅganā, abalā, kāminī, janiḥ, janī, joṣā, joṣitā, joṣit, dhanikā, parigṛhyā, pramadā, pratīpadarśinī, vilāsinī, sindūratilakā, sīmantinī, subhrūḥ, śarvarī   

manuṣyajātīyānāṃ strī-puṃrūpīyayoḥ prabhedadvayayoḥ prathamā yā prajananakṣamā asti।

adhunā vividheṣu kṣetreṣu strīṇām ādhipatyam vartate।

anti

antimayātrā   

sā yātrā yasyāṃ mṛtasya śavaṃ śmaśāne antimasaṃskārārthe nīyate।

madara teresā mahodayāyāḥ antimayātrāyāṃ naike janāḥ āsana।

anti

gajaḥ, hastī, karī, dantī, dvipaḥ, vāraṇaḥ, mātaṅgaḥ, mataṅgaḥ, kuñjaraḥ, nāgaḥ, dviradaḥ, ibhaḥ, radī, dvipāyī, anekapaḥ, viṣāṇī, kareṇuḥ, lambakarṇaḥ, padmī, śuṇḍālaḥ, karṇikī, dantāvalaḥ, stamberamaḥ, dīrghavaktraḥ, drumāriḥ, dīrghamārutaḥ, vilomajihvaḥ, śakvā, pīluḥ, māmṛgaḥ, mataṅgajaḥ, ṣaṣṭhihāyanaḥ   

paśuviśeṣaḥ- saḥ paśuḥ yaḥ viśālaḥ sthūlaḥ śuṇḍāyuktaḥ ca।

gajāya ikṣuḥ rocate।

anti

ābhā, tejaḥ, kāntiḥ, dīptiḥ   

kānteḥ śobhā।

tasya ābhā mukhopari dṛśyate।

anti

viśrāmaḥ, viśrāntiḥ, viśramaḥ   

udyogāt nivṛttiḥ।

śramādanantaraṃ viśrāmaḥ āvaśyakaḥ।

anti

aśāntiḥ   

vipattyām utpannaṃ bhayam।

yadā sphoṭaḥ jātaḥ tadā janeṣu aśāntiḥ āgatā।

anti

dyumat, dyutikar, dyutimat, dyotana, dyoti, dyotamāna, ujvala, kāntimat, kiraṇamaya, utprabha, ullasa, ullasita, prakāśavat, prakāśaka, prakāśamāna, prakāśat, prakāśin, citra, tejasvat, tejasvin, tejomaya, taijasa, añjimat, atiśukra, abhirucira, abhivirājita, abhiśobhita, abhīṣumat, amanda, avabhāsita, avabhāsin, ābhāsvara, ārocana, ābhāsura, iddha, utprabha, udīrṇadīdhiti, uddyota, uddyotita, kanakatālābha, kanakaprabha, kanala, kāśī, kāśīṣṇu, ketu, taijasa, dīdi, dīdivi, dīpta, dīptimat, dyotamāna, dhauta, punāna, prakhya, prabhāvat, bṛhajjyotis, bhāskara, bhāsura, bhāsvara, bhāsvat, bhāsayat, rukmābha, rucita, rucira, rucya, ruśat, roca, rocana, rocamāna, rociṣṇu, varcasvin, vidyotamāna, virukmat, vicakṣaṇa, virājamāna, śuklabhāsvara, śundhyu, śubhāna, śubhra, śubhri, śumbhamāna, śobha, śobhamāna, sutāra, suteja, sudīpta, sudyotman, supraketa, suprabha, suruk, suvibhāta, sphurat, hiraṇyanirṇij, hiraṇyanirṇig   

yasmin dīptiḥ asti athavā yasya varṇaḥ ābhāyuktaḥ asti।

prācyadeśāt āgatena tena dūtena tat dyumat ratnaṃ rājasabhāyāṃ rājñe samarpitam।

anti

śivā, haritakī, abhayā, avyathā, pathyā, vayaḥsthā, pūtanā, amṛtā, haimavatī, cetakī, śreyasī, sudhā, kāyasthā, kanyā, rasāyanaphalā, vijayā, jayā, cetanakī, rohiṇī, prapathyā, jīvapriyā, jīvanikā, bhiṣgavarā, bhiṣakpriyā, jīvanti, prāṇadā, jīvyā, devī, divyā   

haritakīvṛkṣasya phalaṃ yad haritapītavarṇīyam asti।

śuṣkakāse śivā atīva upayuktā asti।

anti

durgā, umā, kātyāyanī, gaurī, brahmāṇī, kālī, haimavatī, īśvarā, śivā, bhavānī, rudrāṇī, sarvāṇī, sarvamaṅgalā, aparṇā, pārvatī, mṛḍānī, līlāvatī, caṇaḍikā, ambikā, śāradā, caṇḍī, caṇḍā, caṇḍanāyikā, girijā, maṅgalā, nārāyaṇī, mahāmāyā, vaiṣṇavī, maheśvarī, koṭṭavī, ṣaṣṭhī, mādhavī, naganandinī, jayantī, bhārgavī, rambhā, siṃharathā, satī, bhrāmarī, dakṣakanyā, mahiṣamardinī, herambajananī, sāvitrī, kṛṣṇapiṅgalā, vṛṣākapāyī, lambā, himaśailajā, kārttikeyaprasūḥ, ādyā, nityā, vidyā, śubhahkarī, sāttvikī, rājasī, tāmasī, bhīmā, nandanandinī, mahāmāyī, śūladharā, sunandā, śumyabhaghātinī, hrī, parvatarājatanayā, himālayasutā, maheśvaravanitā, satyā, bhagavatī, īśānā, sanātanī, mahākālī, śivānī, haravallabhā, ugracaṇḍā, cāmuṇḍā, vidhātrī, ānandā, mahāmātrā, mahāmudrā, mākarī, bhaumī, kalyāṇī, kṛṣṇā, mānadātrī, madālasā, māninī, cārvaṅgī, vāṇī, īśā, valeśī, bhramarī, bhūṣyā, phālgunī, yatī, brahmamayī, bhāvinī, devī, acintā, trinetrā, triśūlā, carcikā, tīvrā, nandinī, nandā, dharitriṇī, mātṛkā, cidānandasvarūpiṇī, manasvinī, mahādevī, nidrārūpā, bhavānikā, tārā, nīlasarasvatī, kālikā, ugratārā, kāmeśvarī, sundarī, bhairavī, rājarājeśvarī, bhuvaneśī, tvaritā, mahālakṣmī, rājīvalocanī, dhanadā, vāgīśvarī, tripurā, jvālmukhī, vagalāmukhī, siddhavidyā, annapūrṇā, viśālākṣī, subhagā, saguṇā, nirguṇā, dhavalā, gītiḥ, gītavādyapriyā, aṭṭālavāsinī, aṭṭahāsinī, ghorā, premā, vaṭeśvarī, kīrtidā, buddhidā, avīrā, paṇḍitālayavāsinī, maṇḍitā, saṃvatsarā, kṛṣṇarūpā, balipriyā, tumulā, kāminī, kāmarūpā, puṇyadā, viṣṇucakradharā, pañcamā, vṛndāvanasvarūpiṇī, ayodhyārupiṇī, māyāvatī, jīmūtavasanā, jagannāthasvarūpiṇī, kṛttivasanā, triyāmā, jamalārjunī, yāminī, yaśodā, yādavī, jagatī, kṛṣṇajāyā, satyabhāmā, subhadrikā, lakṣmaṇā, digambarī, pṛthukā, tīkṣṇā, ācārā, akrūrā, jāhnavī, gaṇḍakī, dhyeyā, jṛmbhaṇī, mohinī, vikārā, akṣaravāsinī, aṃśakā, patrikā, pavitrikā, tulasī, atulā, jānakī, vandyā, kāmanā, nārasiṃhī, girīśā, sādhvī, kalyāṇī, kamalā, kāntā, śāntā, kulā, vedamātā, karmadā, sandhyā, tripurasundarī, rāseśī, dakṣayajñavināśinī, anantā, dharmeśvarī, cakreśvarī, khañjanā, vidagdhā, kuñjikā, citrā, sulekhā, caturbhujā, rākā, prajñā, ṛdbhidā, tāpinī, tapā, sumantrā, dūtī, aśanī, karālā, kālakī, kuṣmāṇḍī, kaiṭabhā, kaiṭabhī, kṣatriyā, kṣamā, kṣemā, caṇḍālikā, jayantī, bheruṇḍā   

sā devī yayā naike daityāḥ hatāḥ tathā ca yā ādiśaktiḥ asti iti manyate।

navarātrotsave sthāne sthāne durgāyāḥ pratiṣṭhāpanā kriyate।

anti

nadī, sarit, taraṅgiṇī, śaivalinī, taṭinī, dhunī, srotasvatī, dvīpavatī, sravantī, nimnagā, āpagā, srotasvinī, srotovahā, sāgaragāminī, apagā, nirjhariṇī, sarasvatī, samudragā, kūlaṅkaṣā, kūlavatī, śaivālinī, samudrakāntā, sāgaragā, rodhovatī, vāhinī   

jalasya saḥ pravāhaḥ yaḥ parvatāt ārabhya viśiṣṭamārgeṇa sāgaraṃ prati gacchati।

parvatapradeśe pāṣāṇasikatādiṣu nadī mārgam ākramati ।/ pāṇineḥ na nadī gaṅgā yamunā na nadī sthalī।

anti

kadalī, tṛṇasārā, gucchaphalā, vāraṇavuṣā, rambhā, mocā, kāṣṭhīlā, aṃśumatphalā, vāravuṣā, suphalā, sukumārā, sakṛtphalā, hastiviṣāṇī, gucchadantikā, niḥsārā, rājeṣṭā, bālakapriyā, ūrustambhā, bhānuphalā, vanalakṣmīḥ, kadalakaḥ, mocakaḥ, rocakaḥ, locakaḥ, vāravṛṣā, vāraṇavallabhā   

phalaviśeṣaḥ tat phalam yad gurutaram madhuram tathā ca puṣṭam।

saḥ kadalīm atti।

anti

kadalī, tṛṇasārā, gucchaphalā, vāraṇavuṣā, rambhā, mocā, kāṣṭhīlā, aṃśumatphalā, vāravuṣā, suphalā, sukumārā, sakṛtphalā, hastiviṣāṇī, gucchadantikā, niḥsārā, rājeṣṭā, bālakapriyā, ūrustambhā, bhānuphalā, vanalakṣmīḥ, kadalakaḥ, mocakaḥ, rocakaḥ, locakaḥ, vāravṛṣā, vāraṇavallabhā   

vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ-saḥ vṛkṣaḥ yasya parṇāni dīrghāṇi tathā ca phalaṃ gurutaraṃ madhuraṃ puṣṭam asti।

tasya prāṅgaṇe kadalī asti।

anti

krāntiḥ   

sthityāḥ svarūpe jātaṃ parivartanam।

bhāratavāsibhiḥ āṅglaśāsanasya viruddhaṃ krāntiḥ kṛtā।

anti

aśāntipūrṇa   

yaḥ śāntipūrṇaḥ nāsti।

kaśmīraḥ aśāntipūrṇaḥ bhāgaḥ asti।

anti

vārtā, vṛtāntaḥ, samācāraḥ, sandeśaḥ, sandiṣṭaḥ, savādaḥ, vṛttam, vartamānam, pravṛttiḥ, kiṃvadantī, udantaḥ, udantakaḥ, lokavādaḥ, lokapravādaḥ, janavādaḥ, janaśrutiḥ, vācikam, sūcanā   

ghaṭanānāṃ vṛttāntaḥ yaḥ ākāśavāṇīdūradarśanāditaḥ prāptaḥ।

pūrvaṃ bhavantaḥ hindībhāṣāyāṃ viśvasya vārtāḥ aśruṇvan।

anti

nīravatā, niḥstabdhatā, śāntiḥ, śāntatā, nīravatvam   

dhvanihīnā avasthā bhāvo vā।

tamomayī niśā nīravatayā yuktā āsīt।

anti

bhrāntiḥ, bhramaḥ   

mithyājñānam।

bhavantaṃ militvā mama bhrāntiḥ apagatā। / śritāsi candanabhrāntyā durvipākaṃ viṣadrumam।

anti

vasantakālīna, vāsantika   

vasantasambandhī।

vasantakālīnaḥ vāyuguṇaḥ vilobhanīyaḥ asti।

anti

ghaṇṭikā   

tad laghūpakaraṇaṃ yasmāt dhvaniḥ utpadyate।

ghaṇṭikāyāḥ dhvaniṃ śrutvā tena dvāraṃ udghāṭitam।

anti

ātapaḥ, gharmaḥ, iddhaḥ, ghṛṇaḥ, ghraṃsaḥ, jhallikā, dyota, tapanadyutiḥ, paṭoṭajam, sūryakāntiḥ, sūryatejaḥ, sūryālokaḥ   

sūryasya kiraṇānāṃ vistāraḥ yena janāḥ auṣmyaṃ tathā ca prakāśam anubhavanti।

śātartau ātapaṃ sukhakārakaṃ bhavati।

anti

krāntikārī   

yaḥ krāntiṃ karoti apekṣate vā।

bhāratamātuḥ svātantryārthe naike krāntikāriṇaḥ mṛtyudaṇḍaṃ svyakarot।

anti

śobhā, saundaryam, kāntiḥ, dīptiḥ, ramaṇīyatā, chavi, chaṭā, saundarya, sauṃdarya, kāṃti, kānti, dīpti, ramaṇīyatā, bahāra, sundaratā, indirā   

śobhanasya avasthā bhāvo vā।

sūryāstakāle ākāśasya śobhā vardhate।

anti

jayantī   

vijayādaśamyāṃ brāhmaṇena āśīrvādarūpeṇa dattaḥ aṅkuraḥ।

navarātrau jayantīṃ kavace sthāpayitvā bālakasya kaṇṭhe nibaddhā।

anti

bhāṣā, bhāṣaṇam, vāk, vāṇī, vācā, goḥ, girā, uktiḥ, vākśaktiḥ, vadantiḥ, nigadaḥ, nigādaḥ, vyāhāraḥ, vyāhṛtiḥ, vacanam, vādaḥ, tāpaḥ, abhilāpaḥ, lapitam, lapanam, bhaṇitiḥ, bhāratī, sarasvatī, rādhanā, kāsūḥ   

mukhanirgataḥ sārthakaḥ dhvanisamūhaḥ।

bhāṣā samparkasya mādhyamam ।

anti

jayantī, jayanī, śaraṇī   

devādhipateḥ indrasya kanyā।

jayantī tathā ca jayantaḥ sahodarau āstām।

anti

haridrā, harit, suvarṇā, kāñcanī, pītā, gaurī, svarṇavarṇā, kāverī, umā, śivā, dīrgharāgā, haladdī, pauñjā, pītavālukā, hemanāśā, rañjanī, bhaṅgavāsā, gharṣiṇī, pītikā, rajanī, mehaghnī, bahulā, varṇinī, rātrināmikā, niśāhvā, niśā, śarvarī, varavarṇinī, varṇadātā, maṅgalapradā, hemarāgiṇī, gharṣaṇī, janeṣṭā, kṛmaghnī, lasā, yāminī, varāṅgī, varā, varṇadātrī, pavitrā, haritā, viṣaghnī, piṅgā, maṅgalyā, maṅgalā, lakṣmīḥ, bhadrā, śiphā, śobhā, śobhanā, subhagāhvayā, śyāmā, jayanti   

oṣadhiviśeṣaḥ asya pītavarṇīyāni mūlāni pākādiṣu vyañjanatvena upayujyante raktaśuddhikaratvāt te bheṣaje tathā ca dehavarṇavidhāyitvāt ca prasādhakeṣu api upayujyante।

samaye akṛtena siṃcanena haridrā śuṣkā jātā। / haridrā kapha-pittāstraśotha-kaṇḍuvraṇāpahā।

anti

vīratā, pauruṣam, pauruṣyam, balavīryam, vikramaḥ, vikrāntiḥ, vīratvam   

vīrasya bhāvaḥ avasthā vā।

rājñeḥ lakṣmeḥ vīratā khyātā eva।

anti

dvādaśa, sūrya, māsa, rāśi, saṃkrānti, guhabāhu, sārikoṣṭha, guhanetra, rājamaṇḍala   

dvyādhikā daśa।

naukāyāṃ dvādaśāḥ puruṣāḥ santi।

anti

krāntivādī   

yaḥ krānteḥ samarthakaḥ asti।

krāntivādī krāntidvārā eva samājasya parivartanam icchati।

anti

prāntīya, prādeśika   

prāntasambandhī।

prāntīyāṃ pratiyogitāyām asyāḥ pāṭhaśālāyāḥ viṃśatiḥ chātrāḥ santi।

anti

bhūtasaṃcāraḥ, bhūtasañcāraḥ, bhūtakrāntiḥ, bhūtavikriyā, bhūtābhiṣaṅgaḥ, bhūtāveśaḥ, bhūtopasargaḥ, piśācabādhā, grahaṇam, abhigharṣaṇam, abhidharṣaṇam, avatāraṇam, āveśanam, grahāgamaḥ   

āyurvedānusāreṇa rogaviśeṣaḥ yatra bhūtapiśāccādibhiḥ bādhanaṃ bhavati।

bhūtasañcāram apākartuṃ śyāmaḥ bhūtavaidyam āhūtavān।

anti

vṛścikālī, vṛścipatrī, viṣaghnī, nāgadantikā, sarpadaṃśaṣṭrā, amarā, kālī, uṣṭradhūsarapucchikā, viṣāṇī, netrarogahā, uṣṭrikā, aliparṇī, dakṣiṇāvartakī, kālikā, āgamāvartā, devalāṅgūlikā, karabhī, bhūrīdugdhā, karkaśā, svarṇadā, yugmaphalā, kṣīraviṣāṇikā, bhāsurapuṣpā   

kṣupaviśeṣaḥ, yasya tīkṣṇapatrāṇāṃ daṃśaḥ vṛścikavat dāhakaḥ asti (āyurvede asya hṛdraktaśuddhikārīkatvaṃ raktapittavibandhārocakāpahatvam ityādi guṇāḥ proktāḥ);

atra vṛścikālī samudbhūtā/

vṛścikālī viṣaghnī tu kāsamārutanāśinī [rājavallabhaḥ]

anti

vāsantī, mādhavikā, mādhavīlatā, mādhavī, candravallī, puṇḍrakaḥ, atimuktaḥ, atimuktakaḥ, sugandhā, bhramarotsavaḥ, bhṛṅgapriyā, bhadralatā, vasantīdūtī, latāmādhavī, bhūmīmaṇḍapabhūṣaṇā.   

sugandhitapuṣpaiḥ yuktā ekā latā।

tasya puṣpavāṭikāyāṃ vāsantīm vardhate।

anti

gajadantaḥ, nāgadantaḥ, karidantaḥ, hastidantaḥ, dantidantaḥ, kuñjaḥ   

gajamukhasya dvayoḥ bhāgayoḥ nirgatāḥ dantākārāḥ śvetavarṇīyāḥ avayavāḥ yaiḥ bahūnāṃ vastūnāṃ nirmāṇaṃ bhavati।

gajadantasya corāḥ ārakṣakena baddhāḥ।

anti

kalāyaḥ, satīnaḥ, sitīlakaḥ, khaṇḍikaḥ, hareṇuḥ, tripuṭaḥ, ativartulaḥ, muṇḍacaṇakaḥ, śamanaḥ, nīlakaḥ, kaṇṭī, satīlaḥ   

dhānya-viśeṣaḥ, madhuraḥ vātalaḥ haritaḥ vartulākāraḥ śamīdhānyaḥ (āyurvede asya vātarucipuṣṭayāmadoṣakāritvam- pittadāhakaphanāśitvam-śītatvādayaḥ guṇāḥ proktāḥ);

kalāyāḥ madhuraḥ santi।

anti

grīvāghaṇṭā, ghaṇṭikā   

kāṃsyādidhātubhiḥ vinirmitaḥ vādyaviśeṣaḥ, paśūnāṃ grīvāyāṃ baddhyamānā ghaṇṭā।

gauḥ grīvāghaṇṭā ghaṇ ghaṇ iti dhvanati।

anti

saṃśayaḥ, saṃśītiḥ, sandehaḥ, saṃdehaḥ, śaṅkā, vitarkaḥ, āśaṅkā, vikalpaḥ, bhrāntiḥ, vibhramaḥ, dvaidhībhāvaḥ, anupanyāsaḥ, vicikitsā, dvāparaḥ   

ekadharmmikaviruddhabhāvābhāvaprakārakaṃ jñānam।

rāmasya vacane mama saṃśayaḥ asti।

anti

śāntipriya   

yasmai śāntiḥ rocate।

śāntipriyaḥ puruṣaḥ kalahaḥ parihartavyaḥ iti manyate।

anti

saṅkramaṇam, saṅkrāntiḥ   

sūryasya rāśyāntarapraveśaḥ।

saṅkramaṇasya samayaḥ niścitaḥ bhavati।

anti

haridrā, harit, suvarṇā, kāñcanī, pītā, gaurī, svarṇavarṇā, kāverī, umā, śivā, dīrgharāgā, haladdī, pauñjā, pītavālukā, hemanāśā, rañjanī, bhaṅgavāsā, gharṣiṇī, pītikā, rajanī, mehaghnī, bahulā, varṇinī, rātrināmikā, niśāhvā, niśā, śarvarī, varavarṇinī, varṇadātā, maṅgalapradā, hemarāgiṇī, gharṣaṇī, janeṣṭā, kṛmaghnī, lasā, yāminī, varāṅgī, varā, varṇadātrī, pavitrā, haritā, viṣaghnī, piṅgā, maṅgalyā, maṅgalā, lakṣmīḥ, bhadrā, śiphā, śobhā, śobhanā, subhagāhvayā, śyāmā, jayanti   

oṣadhimūlaviśeṣaḥ। haridrā nāma oṣadheḥ pītavarṇīyāni mūlāni ye janaiḥ pākādiṣu vyañjanatvena upayujyante। raktaśuddhikaratvāt te bheṣaje tathā ca dehavarṇavidhāyitvāt ca prasādhakeṣu upayujyante।

haridrāyāḥ lepena tvakśuddhiḥ bhavati।

anti

kaṅkatikā, keśamārjanī, dantī   

laghuḥ kaṅkataḥ।

gītā kaṅkatikayā keśān vijaṭīkaroti।

anti

klāntiḥ, śrāntiḥ, klamaḥ, āyāsaḥ, pariśramaḥ, tandrā, pariśrāntiḥ, glāniḥ, parikleśaḥ, avasādaḥ, klamathaḥ, liḥ, kaṣṭam   

śrāntasya avasthā।

kṛṣakaḥ vṛkṣasya chāyāyāṃ klāntim apanayati।

anti

kiṃvadantī, janapravādaḥ, pravādaḥ, janaśrutiḥ, upaśrutiḥ, upakarṇikā, pravādaḥ, janapravādaḥ, nirvādaḥ, lokavādaḥ, śrutiḥ   

lokeṣu vartamānā ayathārthā vārtā।

kadācit kiṃvadantī janānāṃ manasi bhayam utpādayati।

anti

makarasaṅkrāntiḥ   

sūryasya makararāśyāṃ praveśasya kriyā।

makarasaṅkrāntau janāḥ kṛśaram atti tathā ca dānaṃ yacchanti।

anti

karmakaratā, pariśrāntiḥ   

karmakarasya kāryam।

cikhurī karmakāritāṃ kṛtvā svakuṭumbaṃ poṣayati।

anti

vāsantikasasyam   

vasante lūyamānaṃ dhānyam।

godhūmādīni vāsantikasasyāni santi।

anti

vidūṣakaḥ, vaihāsikaḥ, prahāsī, cāṭuvaṭuḥ, vāsantikaḥ, kelikilaḥ   

nāṭakādīṣu vartamānaṃ nāyakasya mitraṃ yaḥ janān hāsayati।

vidūṣakasya praveśena raṅgamañcasya śobhāṃ vardhate।

anti

saiddhāntika   

siddhāntasambandhī।

saiddhāntikāt matabhedāt agre gatvā aśokarameśayoḥ madhye gāḍhā mitratā asti।

anti

haritakrāntiḥ   

sā sthitiḥ yadā deśe sasyānām utpannam adhikaṃ jātam।

haritakrānteḥ kāraṇāt eva idānīṃtane kāle deśe paryāptam annaṃ vartate।

anti

krāntivalayaḥ, krāntivalayam, krāntimaṇḍalam, krāntivṛttam ayanavṛttam   

karkamakararekhayoḥ vartamānaḥ pṛthivyāḥ bhāgaḥ।

krāntivalayasya pradeśeṣu adhikā uṣṇatā bhavati।

anti

kiṃvadantī, janaśrutiḥ, lokakathā   

tādṛśaḥ lokavādaḥ yasya satyāsatyaviṣaye kimapi pramāṇaṃ nāsti।

asya mandirasya viṣaye naikāḥ kiṃvadantyaḥ prasiddhāḥ santi।

anti

khadiraḥ, gāyatrī, bālatanayaḥ, dantadhāvanaḥ, tiktasāraḥ, kaṇṭakīdrumaḥ, bālapatraḥ, khadyapatrī, kṣitikṣamaḥ, suśalyaḥ, vakrakaṇṭaḥ, yajñāṅgaḥ, jihvāśalyaḥ, kaṇṭī, sāradrumaḥ, kuṣṭhāriḥ, bahusāraḥ, medhyaḥ, bālaputraḥ, raktasāraḥ, karkaṭī, jihvaśalyaḥ, kuṣṭhahṛt, bālapatrakam, yūpadrumaḥ, kṣamā   

varvūrajātīyaḥ vṛkṣaḥ।

khadirāt arkaḥ niṣkāsayanti।

anti

arṇavapotaḥ, samudrayānam, kaṇṭhālaḥ, jalayānam, tarantī, nāvaḥ, naukā, nau, pariplavaḥ, potram, bohitthaḥ, bohittham, maṅginī, rokam, vārbaṭaḥ, vārvaṭaḥ   

yantracālitaṃ tat yānaṃ yad samudraṃ gacchati।

hyaḥ asmābhiḥ bhāratadeśasya nausenāyāḥ virāṭa iti arṇavapotaḥ dṛṣṭaḥ।

anti

saṅkrāntiḥ   

rāśyāntarasaṃyogānukūlavyapāraḥ;

saṅkrāntiṃ yasya kurvanti tasya kleśobhijāyate

[śa ka]

anti

vaijayantī   

puṣpaprakāraḥ yaḥ sugandhitaḥ asti।

mālā vaijayantyaḥ mālāṃ nirmāti।

anti

aṭalāṇṭikamahāsāgaraḥ   

paścimadiśi uttara-amerikā tathā ca dakṣiṇa-amerikā pūrvadiśi yūropamahādvīpaṃ tathā ca āphrikāmahādvīpaṃ yena vibhajyate saḥ mahāsāgaraḥ।

aṭalāṇṭikamahāsāgaraḥ jagati dvitīyaḥ viśālaḥ mahāsāgaraḥ asti।

anti

romāntikā   

rogaviśeṣaḥ- sparśajanyarogaḥ yasmin tvaci laghugaṇḍāḥ prādurbhavanti।

romāntikayā pīḍitānāṃ kṛte nirmalasthānam āvaśyakam।

anti

jayā, jayantī, tarkārī, nādeyī, vaijayantikā, balī, moṭā, haritā, vijayā, sūkṣmamūlā, vikrāntā, aparājitā   

ekā oṣadhī yasyāḥ puṣpāṇi sundarāṇi bhavanti।

mālī upavaneṣu vaijayantikāṃ sthāpayanti।

anti

lāvaṇyam, ramyatā, kāntiḥ   

atīva sundaratā।

rājaputryāḥ lāvaṇyena sarve mūḍhāyante।

anti

saśānti, śāntipūrvakam   

śāntyā saha।

bhavantaḥ sarve saśānti śruṇvantu।

anti

śāntidāyaka, śāntidāyin   

yena śāntiḥ anubhūyate।

svāminaḥ śāntidāyakaṃ pravacanaṃ śrutvā manaḥ santuṣṭaṃ jātam।

anti

araṇī, śrīparṇam, agnimanthaḥ, kaṇikā, gaṇikārikā, jayā, araṇiḥ, tejomanthaḥ, havirmanthaḥ, jyotiṣkaḥ, pāvakaḥ, vahnimanthaḥ, mathanaḥ, agnimathanaḥ, tarkārī, vaijayantikā, araṇīketuḥ, śrīparṇī, karṇikā, nādeyī, vijayā, anantā, nadījā   

himālayeṣu vartamānaḥ vṛkṣaviśeṣaḥ yasya khādyaṃ phalaṃ bhavati evaṃ tasya bījamapi upayogāya vartate।

araṇī tu auṣadhavṛkṣaḥ bhavati।

anti

vāsakaḥ, vaidyamātā, siṃhī, vāśikā, vṛṣaḥ, aṭarūṣaḥ, siṃhāsyaḥ, vāsikā, vājidantakaḥ, vāśā, vṛśaḥ, aṭaruṣaḥ, vāśakaḥ, vāsā, vāsaḥ, vājī, vaidyasiṃhī, mātṛsiṃhau, vāsakā, siṃhaparṇī, siṃhikā, bhiṣaṅmātā, vasādanī, siṃhamukhī, kaṇṭhīravī, śitakarṇī, vājidantī, nāsā, pañcamukhī, siṃhapatrī, mṛgendrāṇī   

auṣadhīyakṣupaḥ yaḥ catuṣpādam ārabhya aṣṭapādaparyantaṃ vistṛtaḥ bhavati evaṃ śvetapuṣpāṇi ca bhavanti।

vāsakasya phalaṃ pādonacaturaṅkulaṃ unnataṃ romāvṛtaṃ ca bhavati evaṃ pratyekasmin phale bījacatuṣṭayaṃ ca bhavati।

anti

raṭantī   

māghamāsasya kṛṣṇapakṣaikādaśī।

raṭantīṃ puṇyatithiṃ manyante।

anti

sāmantī   

rāgiṇīviśeṣaḥ।

saḥ sāmantīṃ gāyati।

anti

sāmantīya   

sāmantasambandhī।

janāḥ sāmantīyasya ādeśasya bahiṣkāraṃ kurvanti।

anti

jayajayavantī   

sampūrṇajāteḥ ekā saṃkarā rāgiṇī।

jayajayavantī varṣāyāṃ gīyate।

anti

bāk